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A 3D Canine Hybrid Phantom for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Dosimetry

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022253/00001

Material Information

Title: A 3D Canine Hybrid Phantom for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Dosimetry
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: canine, dosimetry, radionuclide
Nuclear and Radiological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Nuclear Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Animal models have long been used in pre-clinical studies to assess the response and toxicity levels of new therapies. The recent completion of the dog genome, the large population of canines available, and the histological and biochemical similarities of cancer between dogs and humans make them an excellent model for radiopharmaceutical research. Unfortunately, the dosimetry tools currently available are only based on stylized human anatomy. Researchers have been forced to estimate the doses imparted to the dog?s organs using phantoms that mathematically represent the human anatomy. This thesis presents the first reference canine anatomical model and the dosimetry values obtained for it. The specific absorbed values calculated for the anatomically realistic canine phantom can now be used by researchers to accurately assess the absorbed dose to the organs in dogs undergoing radiopharmaceutical treatment. Furthermore, an S value calculator software is also presented. This code provides the research community with a tool that can take the specific absorbed fraction data and compute the S values needed for dosimetry calculations. This keeps researchers from having to perform the long and tedious calculation manually. This code was benchmarked using the dose fraction values presented in OLINDA to verify its accuracy. Finally, a reference bone mass table is also presented. This table contains the masses of cortical bone, trabecular bone, active bone marrow and inactive bone marrow by skeletal site for the dog model. This data is the first of its kind and it is the first step in developing a skeletal model for microskeletal dosimetry to complete the applications of the reference canine phantom here presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Bolch, Wesley E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022253:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022253/00001

Material Information

Title: A 3D Canine Hybrid Phantom for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Dosimetry
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: canine, dosimetry, radionuclide
Nuclear and Radiological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Nuclear Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Animal models have long been used in pre-clinical studies to assess the response and toxicity levels of new therapies. The recent completion of the dog genome, the large population of canines available, and the histological and biochemical similarities of cancer between dogs and humans make them an excellent model for radiopharmaceutical research. Unfortunately, the dosimetry tools currently available are only based on stylized human anatomy. Researchers have been forced to estimate the doses imparted to the dog?s organs using phantoms that mathematically represent the human anatomy. This thesis presents the first reference canine anatomical model and the dosimetry values obtained for it. The specific absorbed values calculated for the anatomically realistic canine phantom can now be used by researchers to accurately assess the absorbed dose to the organs in dogs undergoing radiopharmaceutical treatment. Furthermore, an S value calculator software is also presented. This code provides the research community with a tool that can take the specific absorbed fraction data and compute the S values needed for dosimetry calculations. This keeps researchers from having to perform the long and tedious calculation manually. This code was benchmarked using the dose fraction values presented in OLINDA to verify its accuracy. Finally, a reference bone mass table is also presented. This table contains the masses of cortical bone, trabecular bone, active bone marrow and inactive bone marrow by skeletal site for the dog model. This data is the first of its kind and it is the first step in developing a skeletal model for microskeletal dosimetry to complete the applications of the reference canine phantom here presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Bolch, Wesley E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022253:00001


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A 3D CANINE HYBRID PHANTOM FOR RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL THERAPY DOSIMETRY By LAURA PADILLA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2008 Laura Padilla 2

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To my Mom, my Da d and my Brother. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Wesley Bolch and Dr Rowan Milner for presenting me with the opportunity to work on this project, and for guidi ng me and helping me choose not only a thesis, but also a career path. I would also like to thank Dr. Choonsik Lee for sharing his knowledge with me, and for taking time to help me figure out whatever problems I came across during the development of the canine phantom. I also want to take this opportunity to thank Mrs. Deanna Hasenauer Pafundi for her encouragement and s upport. Without her mentoring and friendship, I would not have been able to accomplish this. Lastly, and most importantly, I would like to thank my parents and my brother for being a constant source of inspiration and motivation. They have always believed in me and encouraged me to pursue all my goals and dreams, and it is thanks to them that I find myself here today. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 1 A CANINE ANATOMICAL PHANTOM FOR PRECLINICAL DOSIMETRY IN INTERNAL EMITTER THERAPY.......................................................................................13 Introduction .............................................................................................................................13 Materials and Methods ...........................................................................................................14 Animal Selection .............................................................................................................14 CT Imaging ......................................................................................................................14 Polygon-Mesh Model ......................................................................................................15 NURBS Model ................................................................................................................16 Voxel Model and Radiation Transport Simulations ........................................................18 Database of Electron and Phot on Specific Absorbed Fractions ......................................18 Results .....................................................................................................................................20 Discussion ...............................................................................................................................21 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................24 2 THE S VALUE CALCULATOR SOFTWARE....................................................................36 Introduction .............................................................................................................................36 Methods and Materials ...........................................................................................................37 Results and Conclusions .........................................................................................................38 3 DETAILED SKELETAL MASS TAB LE FOR UF CANINE MODEL...............................42 Introduction .............................................................................................................................42 Methods and Materials ...........................................................................................................43 Cortical Bone ...................................................................................................................43 Trabecular Bone ..............................................................................................................45 Teeth ................................................................................................................................46 Active and Inactive Marrow ............................................................................................46 Results .....................................................................................................................................47 Discussion ...............................................................................................................................48 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................49 4 CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................................. ..56 5

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APPENDIX A PHOTON TABLES................................................................................................................ 57 B ELECTRON TABLES...........................................................................................................78 C THE S VALUE CALCULATOR RESULTS.........................................................................99 D THE S VALUE CALCULATOR PROGRAM SOURCE CODE.......................................104 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................108 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................111 6

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1. Phantom organ masses............................................................................................................33 1-2. Absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions for photon sources in the liver ..............34 1-3. Absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions for electron sources in the liver ............35 2-1. The S value calculator softwa re benchmarking against OLINDA/EXM ...............................41 3-1. Cortical and spongiosa volume fractions from ex-vivo segmentation ...................................50 3-2. Detailed skeletal bone mass tabl e for the canine anatomical phantom. .................................51 3-3. Cortical and spongiosa volume fractions of the long bones...................................................52 3-4. Results of the study of scaling fact ors for miscellaneous bone tissues ..................................53 3-5. Marrow and bone volume fractions from MicroCT data .......................................................53 3-6. Miscellaneous tissue mass values in each skeletal site ...........................................................54 3-7. Comparison of the homogenous and detailed bone masses ...................................................55 A-1. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom .............................................................................................................................58 A-2. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Left) .......................59 A-3. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Right) .............................................60 A-4. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Right) .....................61 A-5. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Liver .............................................................62 A-6. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Liver .....................................63 A-7. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Lung (Left) .................................................64 A-8. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Lung (Left) ..........................65 A-9. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Lung (Right) ................................................66 A-10. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Lung (Right) ......................67 A-11. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) ......................68 7

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A-12. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) ..................................................................................................................................69 A-13. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Skeleton .....................................................70 A-14. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Skeleton .............................71 A-15. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Spleen ........................................................72 A-16. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg1) for Photon Sources in the Spleen ...............................73 A-17. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Thyroid ......................................................74 A-18. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Thyroid ..............................75 A-19. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sour ces in the Urinary Bladder Content ...........................76 A-20. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Urinary Bladder Content ...77 B-1. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. ............................................................................................................................79 B-2. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Kidney (Left) .....................80 B-3. Absorbed Fractions for Electro n Sources in the Kidney (Right) ...........................................81 B-4. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Kidney (Right) ...................82 B-5. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Liver ...........................................................83 B-6. Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Liver .................................................84 B-7. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Lung (Left) ................................................85 B-8. Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Lung (Left) .......................................86 B-9. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Lung (Right) ..............................................87 B-10. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Lung (Right) ....................88 B-11. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sour ces in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) ....................89 B-12. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in th e Residual Soft Tissues (RST) ..................................................................................................................................90 B-13. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Skeleton ...................................................91 B-14. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Skeleton ...........................92 8

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B-15. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Spleen ......................................................93 B-16. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Spleen ..............................94 B-17. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Thyroid.................................................... 95 B-18. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Thyroid ............................96 B-19. Absorbed Fractions for Electron S ources in the Urinary Bladder Content .........................97 B-20. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Urinary Bladder Content ...............................................................................................................................98 C-1. S values for Sm-153 ...............................................................................................................99 C-2. S values for Re-186..............................................................................................................100 C-3. S values for Re-188..............................................................................................................102 9

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Creation of a polygon-mesh mode l of the canine lungs within 3D DoctorTM........................25 1-2. Creation of a NURBS surface m odel of the canine lungs within RhinocerosTM....................25 1-3. Construction of a NURBS-pipe model of the canine small intestine and colon. ...................26 1-4. Rib cage reconstruction. .........................................................................................................26 1-5. Original bladder versus redu ced bladder in the canine phantom. ...........................................27 1-6. Canine model construction after each major step. ..................................................................28 1-7. Comparison of organ masses in the UF can ine phantom and the ORNL 5-year and 10year phantom ......................................................................................................................29 1-8. Comparison of Specific absorbed fractions for photon sources in the three phantoms .......30 1-9. Anatomical comparisons between the UF canine model and the ORNL 10-year stylized phantom. .............................................................................................................................31 1-10. Organ self-irradiation by elec trons in the UF canine phantom. ...........................................32 2-1. Required user inputs for th e S value calculator software. ......................................................40 3-1. Long bone subdivisions ..........................................................................................................50 10

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science A 3D CANINE HYBRID PHANTOM FOR RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL THERAPY DOSIMETRY By Laura Padilla May 2008 Chair: Wesley E. Bolch Major: Nuclear Engineering Sciences Animal models have long been used in pr e-clinical studies to assess the response and toxicity levels of new therapies. The recen t completion of the dog genome, the large population of canines available, and the hi stological and biochemical simila rities of cancer between dogs and humans make them an excellent model for radiopharmaceutical research. Unfortunately, the dosimetry tools currently available are only base d on stylized human anatomy. Researchers have been forced to estimate the doses impart ed to the dogs organs using phantoms that mathematically represent the human anatomy. Th is thesis presents the first reference canine anatomical model and the dosimetry values obtained for it. The specific absorbed values calculated for the anatomically realistic canine phantom can now be used by researchers to accurately assess the absorbed dose to the organs in dogs undergoing radiopharmaceutical treatment. Furthermore, an S value calculator so ftware is also presented. This code provides the research community with a tool that can take th e specific absorbed fraction data and compute the S values needed for dosimetry calculations. This keeps researchers from having to perform the long and tedious calculation manually. This code was benchmarked using the dose fraction values presented in OLINDA to verify its accurac y. Finally, a reference bone mass table is also presented. This table contains the masses of cortical bone, trab ecular bone, active bone marrow 11

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and inactive bone marrow by skeletal site for the dog m odel. This data is the first of its kind and it is the first step in developing a skeletal model for microskeletal dosimetry to complete the applications of the reference canine phantom here presented. 12

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CHAPTER 1 CANINE ANATOMICAL PHANTOM FOR PR ECLINICAL DOSIMETRY IN INTERNAL EMITTER THERAPY Introduction With the recent completion of the canine ge nome project (1,2) and the recognition of the similarities between canine cancers and human ca ncers (3), it is now clear that dogs are an effective model for preclinical development of novel antineoplastic agents (4). Rodents and larger animals such as non-human primates have been used in cancer research for many years. Although the availability and short lifespan of mice and rats make them a useful investigative tool for new drugs, the results ob tained from these studies must be extrapolated to humans with possibly large uncertainties. In radiopharmaceuti cal research, the much smaller anatomical dimensions in the rodent in comparison to human subjects can result in vastly different patterns of energy deposition among tissues of interest (5-8). As a result, dosimetry estimates and doseresponse relationships are complicated and not eas ily extrapolated to humans (9). On the other hand, research performed with non-human primates can be more fruitful, but it is hardly the best option due to the limited availabi lity and cost of these animals. Accordingly, cancer research using canine subjects is ideal as there is a th e large population available [approximately 4 million dogs are diagnosed with cancer each year in the U.S. (3)] and many histological and biochemical similarities exist between canin e and human diseases (10,11). Nevertheless, before radiopharmaceutical canin e studies can reach their full potential, computational and dosimetry tools must be ava ilable for researchers to fully utilize canine models of human disease. At present, no canine do simetry model exists to evaluate the radiation doses during preclinical studies. Veterinary doctors and researchers accordi ngly have had to rely on human dosimetry software such as MIR DOSE v3.1 (12) and OLINDA/EXM v1.0 (13) to perform their calculations (14-17). While current efforts are underway to update the OLINDA 13

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code to include voxel-based anatomic phantom dos imetry (18), present versions of both these codes utilized human stylized ph antoms from the Oak Ridge Nati onal Laboratory (ORNL) series (19). Our objective was thus to create a realistic anatomic phantom of a average dog and use that model to establish an extensive database of photon and electron dosimetry for subsequent canine-based preclinical studies in molecular ra diotherapy. The resulting University of Florida (UF) hybrid canine phantom uses non-uniform ra tional B-spline (NURBS ) surfaces to model internal organ structure and outer body dimensions, thus taking advantage of both the scalability of existing stylized dosimetry phantoms and the anatomic realism offered in more modern image-based voxel phantoms. These techniques are similar to those used in the NURBS-based Cardiac Torso (or NCAT) phantom used in nuc lear medicine imaging studies (20-23). Materials and Methods Animal Selection Our study was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and was performed in accordance with the Institute for Lab Animal Research Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. A 24 kg, 3-year-old female hound-cross dog was selected based upon her size and bred, but deemed to be representative of a broad range of canine subjects, and thus offering the external and inte rnal anatomy necessary to establish an initial reference canine phantom. Before enrollment, the dog was certified to be disease-free and not on any medications. Furthermore, this dog represents a phenotype that is commonly used as a model for human disease including va rious forms of bone cancer ( 4 ). CT Imaging Anesthesia was induced intravenously using propofol infusion (120 mg) and maintained using 1-2% isoflurane. The dog was scanned in a prone position using a Philips Tomoscan-M 14

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multi-slice CT scanner. The X-ra y tube was set at 120 kVp and 10 mA. The field of view was 35 cm x 35 cm and image reconstruction was pe rformed a grid of 512 x 512 pixels. The slice thickness was set at 2 mm. The scan was performed in 3 overlapping sections: (1) head and neck, (2) thorax and abdomen, and (3) pelvis and tail. At the start of the study, the dog was given 200 mL Iohexol (300mg/ml) for contrast enhancement a nd this was repeated with each scan section. On completion of the CT study, the dog was euth anized (20 ml Beuthana sia-D Special, ScheringPlough Animal Health Corp, USA) and the comp lete skeleton was harvested. The individual bones were cleaned using an atraumatic technique (e.g., the bones were placed in a beetle box where the insects were permitted to clean excess soft tissues on the exterior bone surfaces) and preserved for later ex-vivo CT and in-vitro microCT studies of the skeletal architecture at both a macroscopic and microscopic level. Polygon-Mesh Model A total of 29 tissues and 19 skeletal sites were selected for model construction of the canine anatomic phantom. As shown in Table 11, these organs were based primarily on those listed in ICRP Publication 89 (24) for hu man radiological protec tion dosimetry. All nonsegmented regions of the body such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, major bloods vessels, lymphatic tissues, and connective tissues were denoted as residual soft tissues (RST) and assigned as a single tissue region. Following CT scanning, the resultant images were imported to 3D-DoctorTM (Able Software Corp., Lexington, MA), a 3D modeling and image processing software for tomography data, where organs of interest were segmented semi-automatically within each axial CT image. Tissue regions were tagged with organ identifier s for later use in radiation transport modeling and 3D image visualization. The individual orga n contours were subsequently joined in the 15

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assembly of a polygon-mesh model of each indivi dual organ, as well as the outer body contour of the animal. An example of this process for the canine lungs is demonstrated in Figure 1-1. Some smaller organs within the CT image we re difficult to visualize owing to low image contrast. These include the pituitary gland, thym us, adrenal glands, and ovaries. These organs were inserted manually within the phantom base d on an anatomical text reference (25) and by concurrence with our veterina ry oncologist (R Milner). The NURBS Model After its construction in 3 D-Doctor TM organ-specific polygon-mesh models were imported to a second software program (Rhinoceros TM ) used to fit NURBS surfaces to each polygon representation of the phantoms tissues and organs. To manipulate poly gon anatomic models independently and effectively, Wavefront Object files were generated from 3D-Doctor TM in 5 different groups: (1) the exteri or body contour, (2) the alimenta ry system, (3) the respiratory system, (4) other soft-tissue organs, and (5) the skeleton. Each group of organs were then imported as different layers within Rhinoceros TM In this manner, each layer could be turned on or off with objects within other layers being unaffected. Smooth NURBS surfaces were created from these polygon mesh models on an organ-by-o rgan basis. First, several contours were obtained from the polygon mesh model as need ed, and NURBS surfaces were fit to these contours using tools within the software. NURBS su rfaces were generated for all internal organs and tissues. Figure 1-2 shows this process for the canine lung s. The single exception, however, was the skeleton whose complex 3D structure was best persevered within the polygon-mesh model of 3 D-Doctor TM The small intestine and colon were difficult to visualize within the CT images, again owing to low image contrast, as well as their comple x anatomic geometry. Consequently, these organ structures were created as follows. First, th e outer boundaries of the canine gut were traced 16

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within the CT images using 3D-Doctor TM Next, the CT images were used to define a central trace of the colon lumen, after which a NURBS pipe model was c onstructed to define the colon wall. A similar approach was employed for the sm all intestine with the sm all intestinal length and wall thickness matched to values indicated as representative based on canine anatomical references ( 25). The creation of the intestinal and co lon model of the UF canine phantom is demonstrated in Figure 1-3. Several walled organs were al so modeled directly within Rhinoceros TM These included the esophagus, heart, stomach, gall bladder, and urinar y bladder. Visualization of the esophagus was possible in only some of the axial CT slices and thus, as with the gut model, a NURBS pipe structure was employed that gave a representative thickness and length of the esophagus that was both consistent with the CT imag es and anatomical references ( 25). In the format of their pol ygon-mesh model, the ribs app eared stair-stepped due to the limited slice-thickness of the organ CT image set and their 3D orientation relative to the slice plane. Consequently, the entire ribs cage was remodeled using NURBS surfaces. As shown in Figure 1-4, costal cartilage that was not fully represented in the polygon-mesh model was manually included in the NURBS version of th e skeletal site. Following model completion, it was seen that the urinary bladder of the subject was overly full due to th e injection of contrast agent at the time of CT imaging. The ur inary bladder was thus modified in Rhinoceros TM to reduce the organ to a more standard size as show n in the right panel of Figure 1-5. A side-byside comparison of the polygon-mesh version an d the NURBS surface vers ion of the UF canine phantom are shown in Figures 1-6B and 1-6C, respectively, with a su rface rendering of the original CT image set shown in Figure 1-6A. 17

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Voxel Model and Radiation Transport Simulations Internal dosimetry calculations were performed using the EGSn rc radiation transport code ( 26) which required a voxelized ve rsion of the canine phantom. To prepare the phantom for voxelization, the finalized NURBS-based phantom was exported as a group of polygon-mesh objects with each organ assigned a relative level of importance required to resolve organ overlap issues during the voxelization process. Model voxelization was accomplished via an in-house MATLAB TM code Voxelizer (27) The resulting voxel version of the UF canine phantom is shown in Figure 1-6D. The final voxel resolution of the pha ntom was set at 2 x 2 x 2 mm 3 based primarily on the need to properly represent the epidermis/dermis of the animal as a single voxel layer in the final model. Four tissue media were used fo r the radiation transport calculations: air, soft tissue, skeleton (homogeneous mixture of bone and ma rrow), and lung (homogeneous mixture of soft tissue and air). As no comprehensive reference va lues exist for tissues and organs within the adult dog, the elemental composition and mass densit ies of these materials were taken as those used in ORNL/TM-8381 for the styli zed ORNL human phantom series ( 19). Photon and electron source energies from 10 keV to 4 MeV were also chosen for radiat ion transport simulation at an energy grid equivalent to that used in OR NL/TM-8381. Particle hist ories were set at 10 8 per source organ at energies below 100 keV and 10 7 particles at energies above 100 keV. Database of Electron and Photon Specific Absorbed Fractions For all tissues and organs, the radiation transp ort results were used to calculate absorbed fractions ( ) and specific absorbed fractions ( ) for this canine phantom. Appendix A gives absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fract ions for 36 photon source tissues and 30 target tissues. Appendix B lists values of absorbed fr action and specific absorbed fraction for these same tissues for electron sources. Both appendi ces are available in PDF format online at 18

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http://jnm.snmjournals.org. MS Excel versions of the appendices are avai lable via email request to the corresponding author. The dosimetry database includes the explicit consideration of paired organ (e.g., left and right lungs are independently considered as both source and target tissues) and the consideration of wall uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in the alimentary tract organs (e.g., small intestine and colon wall). Graphical inspection was perfor med of the specific absorbed fraction as a function of photon energy for all possible source and target tissue combinations (36 source regions x 30 target tissues or 1080 plots as shown in Appendix A). When the target tis sue was found to be far from the source region (e.g., brain irradiated by a liver source) and/or was small in total volume (e.g., thyroid), coefficients of variation on the ab sorbed fraction increasingly exceeded 30-50% at low photon energies (10 to 20 keV), and at some point zero photon energy deposition events were recorded. In these cases, extrapolations based on log-log regressi on fits of low-energy photon values were performed using SigmaPlot version 10 to provide a complete and continuous energy-dependent data set. Column 3 of Table 1-2 di splays the energy below which extrapolated data were generated. In some cases, the statistical imprecisi on was noted at higher photons energies. In these cases, the reciproc ity theorem was invoked whereby values of (target source) (D direct Mont e Carlo) were approximated by corresponding values of (sourcetarget) (C converse Monte Carlo). In some cases, surrogate organs (denoted by S) were assigned (e.g., brain for the pituitary gland) In a manner similar to that implemented in ORNL/TM-3831 for the human stylized phantoms ( 19), values of specific absorbed fraction below than 10 -10 kg -1 were set to zero. While these technique s are approximate in nature, they are applied only for very low-energy photons in case s where the specific absorbed fraction is orders of magnitude lower than correspond ing values for organ self-dose. 19

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For the electron sources in Table 1-3 and Appendix B, values of and are tabulated for the source tissue, and various adjacent tissues which receive bremsstrahlung photon irradiation and, at high energies, direct el ectron irradiation from emissions in the target tissue. As bremsstrahlung absorbed fractions ar e subject to increasingly higher statistic errors as one moves further and further from the source tissue, an e ffective cutoff was applied whereby no values of were recorded if that value did not exceed 10 -4 kg -1 at a source electron energy of 100 keV. With this rule in place, electron and bremsstra hlung contributions were still characterized for some 13 different tissues in the vicinity of the liver as shown in Table 1-3. Values of and for electron sources in the liver were set to zero for all other target tissues. Results In Table 1-1, we list the final organ volumes and organ masses as they appear in the voxelversion of the UF canine phantom (Figure 1-6D). Tissues are listed by organ system, and the standardized ORNL/TM-8381 tissue densities assumed are noted as well. Residual soft tissues (e.g., tissues and organs not segm ented) are given within the Additional Tissues category and include separable fat, muscle, major blood vesse ls, lymphatic nodes, and connective tissue. The recorded total body mass of the animal as 24 kg at the time of CT scanning. The total body mass of the voxel version of the canine phantom as 26.0 kg, and with the re moval of all interior fluids of walled organs, the total body tissue ma ss of the animal model came to 24.5 kg. The skeletal tissues in the present canine pha ntom are homogeneous and thus we cannot at present report mass values for cortical bone, trabecular bone, and red and yellow bone marrow. A more detailed skeletal model (including the trabecular and marrow cavity microstructure) for this phantom is currently in progress using both ex-vivo CT and s pongiosa microCT imaging. Consequently, the absorbed dose to homogene ous skeleton was tabulated for both internal 20

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photon and electron sources. As new data on the skeletal microstructure and corresponding electron dosimetry become available, it will the be possible to replace values of homogeneous skeletal absorbed dose with values explicitly detailing energy deposition to the canine active bone marrow and skeletal endosteum. Before establishing the current phantom, the 10-year-old stylized human phantom of the MIRDOSE program was used as an approximate model for assessing internal organ doses in preclinical canine studies of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The selection of this particular human-like phantom was base d on consideration of not only total body mass, but also individual organ sizes and torso length. The total body mass of the ORNL 10-year human phantom is 33.2 kg (1.3 times heavier than the UF canine phantom), while the total body mass of the ORNL 5-year human phantom is 19.8 kg (80% of the mass of the UF canine phantom). To further explore th e appropriateness of the 5-year versus 10-year ORNL phantoms as surrogate canine phantoms, we show individua l organ masses for all three phantoms in Figure 1-7. Five of the organs within the UF canine pha ntom are significantly smaller than either ORNL human phantom: adrenal glands, brain, gall bladde r wall, pancreas, and thyroid. The colon wall and skin are noted to be appreciably more ma ssive than their ORNL organ models. Total body mass, as well as rest-of-body mass, of the UF can ine phantom are intermed iate to the two ORNL human phantoms, while the total skeleton mass in more closely approximated by the 5-year human phantom. Discussion Of importance to photon cross-fire are not only the mass of the source and target organs, but their 3D shapes, locations, and positions wh ich can vary considerably between image-based anatomic models such as the UF canine phantom, and the stylized anatomic models such as the ORNL human phantoms. In Figures 1-8A to 18D, we compare selected values of specific 21

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absorbed fractions to various target tissues fo r photon sources localized in the skeleton, liver, spleen, and kidneys, respectively, within each of the three phantoms: UF canine, ORNL 5-yearold, and ORNL 10-year-old. While the total body ma ss of the UF canine phantom is intermediate to that of the ORNL 5-year and 10-year phantoms, the skeletal mass is very close to that in the ORNL 5-year phantom. Values of (lungs skeleton) are shown to be intermediate to values given by the two human stylized phantoms, while values of (small intestine wall skeleton) of Figure 1-8A are shown to cons iderably lower in the UF canin e phantom. Data of Figure 1-8B for photon sources in the liver indicate substan tially higher values of absorbed dose per photon emission to the lungs and stomach wall of the UF canine phantom than indicated from transport simulations in the ORNL phantoms. For photon sources in the spleen (Figure 1-8C), cross-dose to the kidneys within the UF canine phantom is shown to be much lower than seen in either the ORNL 5-year or 10-year phantoms. In contrast, both ORNL phantoms demonstrate much lower values of (liver spleen) across all photon energies than indicated by the internal organ anat omy of the UF canine phantom. In Figure 1-8D, photon sources are locali zed in both kidneys, and organ cross-dose to the small intestine wall and liver are explor ed as a function of photon energy and phantom anatomy. For values of (small intestine wall kidneys), higher values are seen in the UF canine phantom at energies below 100 keV, above which their values are best approximated by the smaller 5-year ORNL phantom. Cross-organ i rradiation of the liver by photon sources in the spleen are shown to be substantially lower in the UF canine phantom than in either ORNL phantom. Differences in photon cross-fire may be attribut ed to a number of parameters such as the masses of the source and target organs, as well as their shapes, positions, and orientation with 22

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respective to one another in a given anatomic phantom. For example, consider the large discrepancies in (lungs liver) and (stomach liver) between the ORNL phantoms and the UF canine phantom (Figure 1-8B). Mass differences between the liver and lungs in the 10-year ORNL phantom are very similar to those in the UF canine phantom (F igure 1-4), and thus differences in photon cross-fire dos e must be attributed to issu es of 3D spatial orientation between organ pairs. Side-by-side views of th e torso internal organ anatomy of the ORNL 10year stylized human phantom (left) and UF NU RBS-based canine phantom (right) are shown in both anterior and posterior views within Figure 19. In these figures, we see that a large portion of the superior surface of the live r in the canine phantom is in di rect contact with the inferior surfaces of the left and right lungs (Figures 1-9B and 1-9D). Similarly, a sizable portion of the inferior surface of the canine li ver is in direct contact with the later reaches of the canine stomach (Figure 1-9B). In contra st, Figures 1-9A and 1-9C show that virtually no direct organto-organ contact is maintained in the more fi xed and rigid organ modeling of the ORNL human 10-year phantom. Consequently, pho tons at all energies have more tissue attenuation and scatter in the stylized phantom, in comparison to that of the more realistic dog anatomy. We have additionally made calculations of electron transport in the voxelized UF canine phantom across the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV. Representative values of the absorbed fraction for electron self-irradiation are shown in Figure 1-10 i ndicating that for smaller and smaller organs, and higher and higher electr on energies, assumption of full energy absorption become increasingly unrealistic in the canine organ anatomy. Departures from full energy absorption become significant at approximately 300 to 400 keV in larger organs such as the liver, spleen, and kidneys, and at much lower energies (~100 keV) in smaller organs such as the thyroid and pituitary gland. 23

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Conclusion The use of canine models, particularly in s pontaneously occurring malignancies such as osteosarcoma, for preclinical tes ting of antineoplastic agents o ffers significant advantages over current murine models. However, development of canine-specific technol ogy is critical to the optimization of these studies. The UF canine dosimet ry phantom presented in this article aims to solve possible problems that could stem from using current human-based dosimetry models during radiopharmaceutical research. Future studie s will further define the masses and skeletal site distribution of cortical bone, trabecular bone, and red and yellow bone marrow in this same canine subject based upon ex-vivo CT and spongiosa microCT image analysis. Finally, the techniques employed namely NURBS surface m odeling can be extended to the both the construction of other dog breeds and animal sizes, and can be used to alter body shape and restof-body mass to more explicitly model individua l animals in a pre-clinical dosimetry study. These same techniques are currently being used to also expand the availability of human phantoms for internal dose assessment (18,28). 24

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Figure 1-1. Creation of a polygon-mesh model of the canin e lungs within 3D Doctor TM Figure 1-2. Creation of a NURBS surface model of the canine lungs within Rhinoceros TM 25

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Figure 1-3. Construction of a NURBS-pipe model of the cani ne small intestine and colon. Figure 1-4. The rib cages as seen in its pol ygon-mesh model (A) and its NURBS surface model (B). 26

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Figure 1-5. Original bladder versus re duced bladder in the canine phantom. 27

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Figure 1-6. Visual comparison of different ve rsions of the UF hybrid canine phantom: (A) surface rendering of the original CT im age set, (B) polygon-mesh model of 3DDoctorTM, (C) NURBS surface model of Rh inocerosTM, and (D) voxel-based model from the MATLABTM code Voxelizer. 28

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29 Figure 1-7. Graphical comparison of i ndividual organ masses in the UF canine phantom, the ORNL 5-year human phantom, and the ORNL 10-year human phantom.

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30 Figure 1-8. Specific absorbed fractions to va rious target tissues in the UF canine, OR NL 5-year, and ORNL 10-year phantoms for photon sources in (A) the skeleton, (B) liver, (C) spleen, and (D) kidneys.

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Figure 1-9. Anatomical comparisons between the UF canine model and the ORNL 10-year stylized phantom in (A and B) the anterior view, and (C and D) the posterior view. 31

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Figure 1-10. Selected values of electron absorbed fraction for organ sel f-irradiation in the UF canine phantom. 32

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Table 1-1. Segmented organs and their volumes and masses within the hybrid-voxel UF canine model. Or g an S y stem Densit y Or g an VolumeOr g an MassOr g an S y stem Densit y Or g an VolumeOr g an Mass (g / cm3)( c m3) (g) (g / cm3)( c m3) (g) Respirator y S y stem Skeletal S y stem Trachea wall 1.04 37.51 39.01Cranium 1.40 174.20 243.88 Lun g ( Left ) 0.296 630.81 186.72Mandible 1.40 82.11 114.96 Lun g ( Ri g ht ) 0.296 1119.54 331.38Sca p ulae 1.40 99.50 139.29 Totals: 1787.86 557.11 Sternum 1.40 12.90 18.07 A limentar y S y stem Ribs 1.40 113.77 159.28 Salivar y g lands 1.04 30.36 31.57Coastal cartila g e 1.40 37.95 53.13 Eso p ha g us wall 1.04 11.11 11.56Vertebrae ( cervical ) 1.40 118.80 166.32 Stomach wall 1.04 66.02 68.66Vertebrae ( thoracic ) 1.40 129.84 181.78 Stomach contents 1.04 316.24 328.89Vertebrae ( lumbar ) 1.40 129.15 180.81 Small Intestine wall 1.04 176.78 183.85Sacrum 1.40 24.69 34.56 Small Intestine contents 1.04 494.64 514.43Vertebrae ( caudal ) 1.40 26.82 37.55 Colon wall 1.04 180.26 187.47Os Coxae 1.40 105.19 147.27 Colon contents 1.04 296.79 308.66Femur u pp er half 1.40 80.56 112.78 Liver 1.04 680.58 707.80Femur lower half 1.40 82.40 115.36 Gall Bladder wall 1.04 1.01 1.05Tibiae 1.40 112.44 157.42 Gall Bladder contents 1.04 5.98 6.22Fibulae 1.40 8.46 11.85 Pancreas 1.04 1.83 1.91Hind p aw bones 1.40 53.29 74.60 Totals: 2261.612352.07 Humerus upper half 1.40 72.22 101.11 Circulator y S y stem Humerus lower half 1.40 73.02 102.22 Heart wall 1.04 170.97 177.81Radii 1.40 62.81 87.93 Heart content 1.04 236.85 246.32Ulnae 1.40 53.66 75.13 Totals: 407.82 424.13 Front paw bones 1.40 97.79 136.91 Uro g enital S y stem Totals: 1751.582452.2 2 Kidne y ( Left ) 1.04 98.05 101.97 A dditional Tissues Kidne y ( Ri g ht ) 1.04 96.92 100.80Air p assa g es 0.0012 64.78 0.08 Urinar y Bladder wall 1.04 30.09 31.29Adrenal Gland ( Left ) 1.04 0.18 0.19 Urinar y Bladder contents 1.04 97.54 101.44Adrenal Gland ( Ri g ht ) 1.04 0.11 0.12 Ovar y ( Left ) 1.04 1.384 1.44Brain 1.04 82.83 86.15 Ovar y ( Ri g ht ) 1.04 0.59 0.62E y es 1.04 9.36 9.73 Uterus 1.04 3.976 4.14Pituitar y g land 1.04 0.016 0.02 Totals: 328.54 341.69 Spinal cord 1.04 18.104 18.83 Inte g umentar y S y stem S p leen 1.04 362.37 376.86 Skin 1.04 2000.042080.04Th y mus 1.04 0.76 0.79 Th y roid 1.04 0.94 0.98 Residual Soft Tissues ( RST ) 1.0416679.9017347.09 Totals: 17219.3517840.84 Total Bod y Tissues ( k g) 24.5 Total Bod y Mass ( k g) 26.0 33

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Table 1-2. Absorbed fractions and specific absorb ed fractions for photon sources in the liver of the UF 2 4-kg canine phantom. 187.47 D1.74E-035.21E-031.05E-021.89E-021.88E-021.34E-021.21E-021.19E-021 .12E-021.04E-029.84E-038.21E-03 Esophaguall 11.56 D1.26E-036.03E-031.10E-021.70E-021.57E-021.09E-029.98E-039.86E-039 .45E-038.68E-038.21E-036.78E-03 Eyes 9.73 D (E200) 0005.00E-103.00E-076.00E-062.18E-057.34E-051.42E-041.80E-042.18E-042.45E-04 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05 D5.06E-017.68E-018.34E-016.05E-012.81E-011.60E-011.57E-011.58E-011 .48E-011.34E-011.20E-019.19E-02 Heart Wall 177.81 D1.41E-038.83E-032.50E-024.8424.13E-022.66E-022.44E-022.41E-022 .24E-022.07E-021.93E-021.58E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97 D (E20)6.00E-094.10E-062.21E-044.32 31.06E-029.61E-038.69E-038.58E-038.24E-037.75E-037.37E-036.35E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80 D6.91E-032.49E-024.92E-026.45E4.54E-022.90E-022.71E-022.69E-022 .52E-022.33E-022.19E-021.78E-02 Liver 707.80 D1.33E+001.17E+009.46E-015 .59E-012.45E-011.41E-011.42E-011.45E-011.33E-011 .19E-011.07E-017.66E-02 Lung (L) 186.72 D3.31E-031.70E-023.92E-025.76E-024.26E-022.59E-022.31E-022.24E-022 .05E-021.90E-021.76E-021.45E-02 Lung (R) 331.38 D2.19E-026.93E-021.13E-011.19E-017.04E-024.01E-023.69E-023.62E-023 .33E-023.06E-022.83E-022.28E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 D (E20)2.50E-101.00E-076.91E-067.37E -043.33E-034.04E-033.86E-034.22E-034.20E-033.94E-033.73E-033.56E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62 D (E20)3.00E-092.10E-061.21E-043.32E -039.27E-037.36E-037.47E-037.93E-037.60E-037.68E-037.26E-035.76E-03 Pancreas 1.91 D (E15)4.80E-077.89E-041.77E-027.80E -028.10E-025.23E-024.55E-024.35E-024.00E-023.67E-023.39E-022.71E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02 S (Brain) 001.00E-101.00E-077.00E-063.19E-057.12E-051.49E-042.37E-042.94E-043.31E-043.68E-04 Residual Soft Tissues 17347.09 D2.31E-035.79E-039.16E-031.18E-029.64E-036.80E-036.54E-036.71E-036 .44E-036.05E-035.70E-034.75E-03 Salivary Glands 31.57 D (E50) 002.60E-091.40E-064.18E-051.18E-041.72E-042.99E-043.92E-044.65E-045.03E-045.16E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneous) 2452.22 D8.78E-044.04E-031.05E-022.06E-021.88E-028.69E-035.27E-034.44E-034 .16E-033.89E-033.68E-033.12E-03 Skin 2080.04 D2.43E-057.75E-042.80E-035.80E-035.42E-034.12E-034.26E-034.66E-034 .54E-034.26E-034.00E-033.31E-03 Small Intestine Wall 183.85 D2.72E-071.54E-041.82E-031.08E-021.66E-021.31E-021.19E-021.19E-021 .13E-021.07E-021.01E-028.49E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83 D (E20)3.00E-092.10E-061.21E-043.53E -038.21E-037.65E-037.39E-037.36E-036.88E-036.52E-036.14E-035.13E-03 Spleen 376.86 D8.66E-032.68E-024.71E-026.16E-024.73E-023.08E-022.84E-022.80E-022 .62E-022.42E-022.26E-021.84E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66 D1.71E-025.43E-021.01E-011.35E-019.57E-025.86E-025.36E-025.26E-024 .83E-024.47E-024.12E-023.33E-02 Thymus 0.79 C (E20)1.10E-097.00E-073.86E-051.80E -035.49E-035.09E-034.58E-034.91E-034.71E-034.38E-034.04E-033.50E-03 Thyroid 0.98 C (E50) 03.70E-103.90E-081.11E-052.04E-044.09E-045.14E-047.44E-048.98E-049.52E-049.58E-049.05E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01 D (E15)2.80E-092.31E-062.19E-042.57E -034.70E-034.03E-033.76E-033.82E-033.80E-033.60E-033.42E-032.90E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29 D (E30) 03.00E-092.50E-074.99E-055.23E-048.32E-049.43E-041.20E-031.42E-031.47E-031.50E-031.43E-03 Uterus 4.14 D (E30)1.00E-103.70E-082.50E-063.50E -042.11E-032.42E-032.46E-032.72E-032.84E-032.74E-032.99E-032.52E-03 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.02E-023.84E-023.13E -021.93E-021.21E-021.14E-021.15E-021.08E-029.97E-039.23E-037.31E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Ener Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E20)5.20E-112.94E-083.47E-072.07E-063.86E-062.97E-062.64E-062.52E-062.36E-062.03E-062.01E-061.47E-06 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E20)8.05E-072.90E-065.73E-067.51E-065.29E-063.38E-063.15E-063.14E-062.93E-062.72E-062.55E-062.08E-06 Brain 86.15D (E100) 008.61E-128.61E-096.03E-072.75E-066 .13E-061.28E-052.04E-052 .54E-052.85E-053.17E-05 Colon Wall 187.47 D3.26E-049.76E-041.97E-033.54E-033.53E-032.52E-032.28E-032.23E-032.10E-031.96E-031.84E-031.54E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56 D1.45E-056.97E-051.27E-041.96E-041.82E-041.26E-041.15E-041.14E-041.09E-041.00E-049.48E-057.83E-05 Eyes 9.73D (E200) 0004.87E-122.92E-095.84E-082.12E-077.15E-071.38E-061.75E-062.12E-062.38E-06 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05 D5.30E-048.05E-048.75E-046.34E-042.95E-041.68E-041.65E-041.66E-041.55E-041.40E-041.26E-049.63E-05 Heart Wall 177.81 D2.52E-041.57E-034.44E-038.60E-037.34E-034.73E-034.34E-034.28E-033.98E-033.68E-033.44E-032.81E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E20)6.12E-104.18E-072.25E-054.40E-041.08E-039.80E-048.86E-048.75E-048.40E-047.90E-047.51E-046.48E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80 D6.97E-042.51E-034.96E-036.50E-034.58E-032.92E-032.73E-032.71E-032.54E-032.35E-032.20E-031.80E-03 Liver 707.80 D9.42E-018.29E-016.70E-013.96E-011.74E-011.00E-011.01E-011.03E-019.38E-028.39E-027.54E-025.42E-02 Lung (L) 186.72 D6.18E-043.17E-037.32E-031.08E-027.95E-034.84E-034.32E-034.19E-033.82E-033.54E-033.29E-032.70E-03 Lung (R) 331.38 D7.25E-032.29E-023.75E-023.96E-022.33E-021.33E-021.22E-021.20E-021.10E-021.01E-029.39E-037.56E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)3.60E-131.44E-109.94E-091.06E-064.80E-065.81E-065.56E-066.07E-066.04E-065.66E-065.36E-065.13E-06 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)1.85E-121.29E-097.46E-082.04E-065.71E-064.53E-064.60E-064.88E-064.68E-064.73E-064.47E-063.54E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E15)9.15E-101.50E-063.37E-051.49E-041.54E-049.96E-058.67E-058.29E-057.61E-056.99E-056.46E-055.17E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain) 001.66E-151.66E-121.16E-105.31E-101.18E-092.48E-093.95E-094.90E-095.51E-096.12E-09 Residual Soft Tissues 17347.09 D4.00E-021.00E-011.59E-012.05E-011.67E-011.18E-011.13E-011.16E-011.12E-011.05E-019.90E-028.23E-02 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50) 008.21E-114.42E-081 .32E-063.71E-065.44E-069.43E-061 .24E-051.47E-051.59E-051.63E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneous) 2452.22 D2.15E-039.92E-032.58E-025.06E-024.60E-022.13E-021.29E-021.09E-021.02E-029.55E-039.04E-037.65E-03 Skin 2080.04 D5.06E-051.61E-035.82E-031.21E-021.13E-028.58E-038.85E-039.70E-039.44E-038.85E-038.31E-036.88E-03 Small Intestine Wall 183.85 D5.00E-082.83E-053.34E-041.98E-033.06E-032.40E-032.20E-032.18E-032.09E-031.96E-031.85E-031.56E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)5.65E-113.95E-082.28E-066 .64E-051.54E-041.44E-041.39E-041.39E-041.30E-041 .23E-041.16E-049.65E-05 Spleen 376.86 D3.26E-031.01E-021.78E-022.32E-021.78E-021.16E-021.07E-021.06E-029.86E-039.13E-038.51E-036.94E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66 D1.17E-033.73E-036.91E-039.27E-036.57E-034.03E-033.68E-033.61E-033.32E-033.07E-032.83E-032.29E-03 Thymus 0.79C (E20)8.69E-135.53E-103.05E-081.43E-064.34E-064.03E-063.62E-063.88E-063.72E-063.46E-063.20E-062.77E-06 Thyroid 0.98C (E50) 03.63E-133.83E-111.09E-082.00E-074.02E-075.04E-077.30E-078.82E-079.35E-079.40E-078.89E-07 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E15)1.09E-108.99E-088.52E-061 .00E-041.83E-041.57E-041.47E-041.49E-041.48E-041 .41E-041.33E-041.13E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D (E30) 09.39E-117.82E-091.56E-061.64E-052.60E-052.95E-053.74E-054.45E-054.58E-054.69E-054.46E-05 Uterus 4.14D (E30)4.14E-131.53E-101.03E-081.45E-068.73E-061.00E-051.02E-051.13E-051.17E-051.13E-051.24E-051.04E-05 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 9.98E-019.86E-019.43E-017.68E -014.74E-012.96E-012.80E-012.83E-012.65E-012.45E-012.27E-011.79E-01 Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19 D (E20)2.72E-071.54E-041.82E-031.08E -022.01E-021.55E-021.38E-021.32E-021.23E-021.06E-021.05E-027.71E-03 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12 D (E20)6.91E-032.49E-024.92E-026.45E -024.54E-022.90E-022.71E-022.69E-022.52E-022.33E-022.19E-021.78E-02 Brain 86.15 D (E100)001.00E-101.00E-077.00E-063.19E-057.12E -051.49E-042.37E-042.94E-043.31E-043.68E-04 Colon Wal l s W E-0 E -0 -02 gy Indicated ( in keV ) S Surro g ate Or g an Assi g nedAbsorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom 34

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Table 1-3. Absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions for electron sources in the liver of the UF 24-kg canine phantom. Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E1000 Extrapolated below 1000 keV, E500 Extrapolated below 500 ke Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12000000000000 Brain 86.15000000000000 Colon Wall 187.47 D 2.03E-075.06E-079.74E-072.13E-065.13E-061.55E-054.88E-051.56E-043.24E-044.82E-046.37E-041.25E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56 E1000 2.39E-097.97E-091.65E-083.97E-081.23E-073.71E-079.76E-073.52E-068.75E-062.13E-054.50E-051.11E-04 Eyes 9.73000000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05 D 6.26E-071.29E-062.28E-064.77E-061.12E-053.62E-051.09E-043.53E-046.04E-047.04E-047.52E-049.31E-04 Heart Wall 177.81 D 5.33E-081.78E-073.69E-078.86E-072.75E-068.29E-062.18E-057.86E-051.96E-043.90E-046.32E-042.06E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80 D 5.04E-071.01E-061.71E-063.47E-061.00E-052.88E-058.44E-052.96E-046.45E-041.02E-031.46E-033.26E-03 Liver 707.80 D 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.92E-019.72E-019.41E-019.11E-018.82E-017.71E-01 Lung (L) 186.72 D 4.04E-079.38E-071.68E-063.19E-068.83E-062.63E-057.07E-052.12E-045.00E-049.13E-041.42E-034.10E-03 Lung (R) 331.38 D 5.60E-061.11E-052.08E-054.17E-051.04E-043.34E-049.61E-043.00E-036.61E-031.06E-021.47E-023.00E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 E1000 2.39E-104.82E-108.42E-101.79E-095.01E-091.65E-084.53E-081.53E-073.33E-075.21E-077.13E-071.48E-06 Pituitary Gland 0.02000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues 17347.09 D 3.25E-056.90E-051.15E-042.38E-045.96E-041.90E-035.72E-031.97E-024.04E-025.92E-027.69E-021.35E-01 Salivary Glands 31.57000000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous) 2452.22 D 1.25E-062.51E-064.39E-069.32E-062.61E-058.58E-052.36E-047.99E-041.74E-032.72E-033.72E-037.71E-03 Skin 2080.04000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85000000000000 Spinal Cord 18.83000000000000 Spleen 376.86 D 2.80E-066.03E-069.30E-061.79E-054.66E-051.46E-044.47E-041.50E-033.13E-034.75E-036.51E-031.33E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66 D 8.24E-071.89E-063.11E-066.60E-061.64E-054.97E-051.48E-045.21E-041.12E-031.71E-032.37E-034.92E-03 Thymus 0.79000000000000 Thyroid 0.98000000000000 Tracheal Wall 39.01000000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29000000000000 Uterus 4.14000000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.96E-019.94E-019.91E-019.73E-01 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 000000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D 1.08E-062.70E-065.19E-061.13E-052.74E-058.28E-052.60E-048.33E-041.73E-032.57E-033.40E-036.68E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56E1000 2.07E-076.90E-071.43E-063.44E-061.07E-053.21E-058.44E-053.05E-047.57E-041.84E-033.89E-039.58E-03 Eyes 9.73 000000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D 5.97E-041.23E-032.17E-034.55E-031.07E-023.45E-021.04E-013.37E-015.76E-016.72E-017.17E-018.88E-01 Heart Wall 177.81D 3.00E-071.00E-062.07E-064.98E-061.55E-054.66E-051.22E-044.42E-041.10E-032.19E-033.56E-031.16E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80D 5.00E-069.99E-061.70E-053.44E-059.92E-052.85E-048.37E-042.93E-036.40E-031.01E-021.45E-023.23E-02 Liver 707.80D 1.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.40E+001.37E+001.33E+001.29E+001.25E+001.09E+00 Lung (L) 186.72D 2.16E-065.03E-069.00E-061.71E-054.73E-051.41E-043.78E-041.14E-032.68E-034.89E-037.62E-032.19E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D 1.69E-053.34E-056.27E-051.26E-043.13E-041.01E-032.90E-039.04E-032.00E-023.20E-024.45E-029.06E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91E1000 1.26E-072.53E-074.42E-079.38E-072.63E-068.64E-062.38E-058.04E-051.75E-042.73E-043.74E-047.77E-04 Pituitary Gland 0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues 17347.09D 1.88E-063.98E-066.61E-061.37E-053.43E-051.10E-043.30E-041.13E-032.33E-033.42E-034.43E-037.76E-03 Salivary Glands 31.57 000000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous) 2452.22D 5.09E-071.02E-061.79E-063.80E-061.07E-053.50E-059.63E-053.26E-047.08E-041.11E-031.52E-033.15E-03 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord 18.83 000000000000 Spleen 376.86D 7.44E-061.60E-052.47E-054.76E-051.24E-043.86E-041.19E-033.98E-038.31E-031.26E-021.73E-023.53E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D 1.20E-052.76E-054.53E-059.61E-052.38E-047.24E-042.15E-037.59E-031.63E-022.50E-023.46E-027.17E-02 Thymus 0.79 000000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall 39.01 000000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29 000000000000 Uterus 4.14 000000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-024.04E-023.96E02 V Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Electron Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom 35

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CHAPTER 2 THE S VALUE C ALCULATOR SOFTWARE Introduction The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Do se Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine) schema is the current standard procedure when performing dosimetry calculations.(12,13) This method requires knowledge of the decay scheme of the radionuclide in use, the absorbed fraction (energy absorbed in th e target organ per unit energy released from the source organ) of the source to ta rget organ combination, the targ et organ mass and the number of decays in the source organ (residence time). It is obvious that the accuracy of the dose is dependant on the exactness of the values used for its calculation. Obtaining accurate masses and AF s has been the focus of this thesis until this point. While the data presented thus far is inva luable, there is also an overwhelming amount of it. Therefore, if it is not presented to research ers in a simple, concise and time-efficient manner for their use, its accuracy gets demeaned by its impr acticality. It is for this reason that an S value calculator was created. This software utilizes the AF and organ masses obtained in the earlier chapter and uses them to calculate the S value for each source-to-target organ combination for a given radionuclide. The S value represents the mean absorbed dose to the target region pe r decay in the source region for a given radiation particle type. This quantity allows the user to obtain the dose to a target organ from a specific source organ by simply multiplying the S value for that source-target combination by the number of decays in the sour ce and adding it over all the sources. Although the S values for only 3 different radionuclides are presented here, the calculation can be performed for any radionuclide by simply r eading its decay scheme into the code. 36

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Methods and Materials The S value calculator software was written using MATLAB The code was developed based on Equations 2-1 and 2-2. S Value=0.1602* ( (r r) )/m =1.602e-1* ( *(r r)) (2-1) = E *Y (2-2) Where E is the energy of the decay particle in MeV, Y is the yield of the decay in particles per decay, (r r) is the absorbed fraction for source organ j to target organ k for particle i, m is the mass of the target organ in g and (rkrj)I is the specific absorbed fraction. The constant is simply a conversion fact or from MeV/(g*Bq-s) to mGy/(MBq-s). The software calculates the S value for the photon decays and the beta particle decays separately and adds them at the end. The specific absorbed fraction data is read into the code through two different tables: one for photons and one for electrons. These tables correspond to the database of electron and photon specific absorb ed fractions generated in Chapter 1. Since the command to read in MS Excel tables in MATLABTM is format sensitive, the code was adapted to read in the tables as presented in Appendices A a nd B. If the format of th ese tables is modified, the code should be adapted to reflect those changes. The decay scheme information used in the calculations was obtained from the Radiological Toolbox v.1.0.0 software.(29) This program provides th e user with the decay scheme of the selected radionuclide based on the ICRP38 publication. (29,30) The S value calculator is written to utilize the decay scheme as is from the export tool in the radiol ogical toolbox software; therefore, no formatting is needed. Once the decay scheme for beta particles and that for photons is read into the program, the code performs its calculation and writes out the results on an MS Excel file. The name of that file can be specified by the user. TM i i k j i k i i k j i i i i i i k j i k 37

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Since the specific absorbed fra different energies, linear interp gies lower than 0.01 MeV were assumed to be deposited locally. The verification of this softwa re w 10-ye e e was bench e calculated for Re-186, Re-188 and Sm153. T es ile names are required. ctions are only given at 12 olation was performed in between those en ergies to match the decay energy when needed. (12,13) Decay particles with ener as performed by calculating the S values for the ORNL ar-old phantom with Sm-153 as the radionu clide. These results were compared to th values given in OLINDA/EXM v1.0for the same phantom and radionuclide. Results and Conclusions In order to verify the accuracy of the S values given by the software, the cod marked against the OLINDA package. Th e SAF values for the 10-year-old ORNL phantom and the decay scheme for Sm-153 were read into the program. The S values for the brain as a source were calculated as a sample of the results provided by the code. The results obtained are shown in Table 21. This table also shows the OLINDA values as well as the percent difference between the two. All the values are wi thin 2.6% of each other. This confirms the accuracy of the S values calculated with the new software. Once the software results were verified, S values wer hese radionuclides were chosen because they are currently being used or studied to be used as bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Appendix C shows the results. To obtain S Valu for a different radionuclide, the us er would simply have to export the decay scheme of interest from Rad Toolbox software into an MS Excel file for each particle type (different files for electrons and photons are required) indicate the name of the files in the code, indicate the desired name for the results file, and run the code. Appendix D provides source code for the software and Figure 2-1 indicates where the input and output f 38

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The S value calculator provides researchers with the n ecessary information to accur estimate the organ doses in their canine subjects. While this code is not as extensive as OLINDA, it is a useful tool that will e liminate the need to make dosimetry calculations in dogs using stylized ately representations of the human anatom y. A complete dosimetri c package using the dog phant om will be developed as part of future work. 39

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Figure 2-1. Required user inputs for proper S va lue calculator function (Blue boxphoton decay file, orange boxelectron decay f ile, pink boxoutput file name). 40

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Table 2-1. Results of the benchmarking of the S value calculator software against OLINDA/EXM. S Values (mGy/MBq-s) OLINDA Calculated % difference Adrenals 7.84E-10 7.64E-10 -2.57% Brain 3.34E-05 3.31E-05 -0.81% Breasts 1.55E-09 1.55E-09 -0.25% Gallbladder Wall 2.35E-10 2.34E-10 -0.53% LLI Wall 2.63E-11 2.64E-11 0.42% Small Intestine 6.94E-11 6.93E-11 -0.07% ULI Wall 8.03E-11 7.99E-11 -0.46% Kidneys 3.32E-10 3.33E-10 0.32% Liver 7.72E-10 7.89E-10 2.22% Lungs 6.40E-09 6.43E-09 0.45% Muscle 2.15E-08 2.19E-08 1.71% Ovaries 3.15E-11 3.14E-11 -0.27% Pancreas 5.46E-10 5.48E-10 0.29% Red Marrow 9.99E-08 9.94E-08 -0.54% Skin 3.55E-08 3.58E-08 0.82% Spleen 1.13E-09 1.12E-09 -0.86% Testes 5.43E-12 5.41E-12 -0.30% Thymus 7.76E-09 7.65E-09 -1.40% Thyroid 7.03E-08 7.01E-08 -0.34% Urinary Bladder Wall 1.49E-11 1.49E-11 0.13% Uterus 2.84E-11 2.86E-11 0.70% 41

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CHAPTER 3 DETAILED SK ELETAL MASS TAB LE FOR UF CANINE MODEL Int rate skeletal dosssential g the effe and possible side effects of bone-seeking radeuticals art of future work, a comprehensive detailed skeletal model wilcted to he anatomphantom presented in t chapter. This wesearch nly accurulate doses to organs, but to obtain information oreceive ferent sub of bone (such as ae marrow). This n will p iled insigheffects of the t ne regions atumors ealthy areever, before these cns can begin, a th dy on th, and th erefore the masses, of the different bone tissues needs to be performed. s estimatinss of the cortical b e, and inac w for all b in the skeleton. mogeneous bone mgiven i In order these values, the one volume of each site in the phantom was multiplied by a homogeneous bone density of 1.4 g/cc as given in ICRU44.(37) These values can be used as an approximation to the actual bone site masses but they do not allow for deta iled dosimetry calculations. Since the same homogeneous bone density is used for all skelet al sites, the differences in spongiosa volume fractions (fraction of total bone site volume that is spongios a) and bone volume fractions (fraction of spongiosa volume that is trabecular bone) from site to site are ignored. The difference in cellularity in every site (fracti on of the volume of active marrow to total marrow volume in the bone site) is also overlooked in homogene ous bone mass calculations. roduction A ccu imetry is e in assessin ctiven ess iopharmac Therefor e, as p l be constru complete t ical dog he previo us ill allow r ers to not o ately ca lc n the dose d by the dif regions ctive bon informatio rovid e deta t on the reatment in bo ffected by as well as h as. How alculatio orough stu e volumes Th is entail g the ma one, the trabecular bon nd active a tiv e marro one site s Ho asses are n Table 1-1 to obtain b 42

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Detailed skeletal dosimetry requires s of cortical and trabecular bone masses as well as active and inactive marrow masses. (32-35) This section describes how these were calculated. The total bone site volumes used in the follo wing calculations are those presented in Table 1-1. When necessary, human data was used in the calculations due to the lack of canine specific values. This will be indicated as the methods are described. Cortical Bone The fraction of cortical bone volume to total bone volume in a given bone site is represented by the CBVF (Cortical Bone Volume Fraction). This value was obtained based on ex-vivo bone scans. In-vivo scans should not be used to calculat e this fraction because the bone resolution is poorer due to the so ft tissue around it and the bigg er window used for the in-vivo scan. A total of 14 bone sites were scanned ex-vi vo (see Table 3-1). These sites were chosen to be representative of the whole skeleton. The scan s were segmented using the 3D-Doctor software to obtain cortical, spongiosa and teeth volumes wh en appropriate. The ratio of each sub region to the total bone site volume was taken to obtai n CBVF, SVF (Spongiosa Volume Fraction) and TeVF (Teeth Volume Fraction). Th e total cortical bone mass for every bone site listed in the master bone mass table (Table 3-2) was calculated using Equation 3-1. CBt,i=CBVFi*BVi*MB (3-1) Where CBt,i is the total cortical bone mass for site i, BVi is the bone volume for site i and MB is the density of mineral bone as given in ICRU46.(31) Due to the limited number of samples scanned, some assumptions were made to obtain the cortical bone masses of the remaining sites. In th e case of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, the CBVFs obtained from C3 and L1 were used for a ll cervical vertebrae and all lumbar vertebrae accurate value Methods and Materials 43

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respe umerus and femur were divided into prox imal, shaft and distal regions for the bone mass calculations. The CBVF for each one of the 3 regions was acquired using 3D-DoctorTM. Figur F (3-2) i,r is the bone volume of either the distal shaft or proximal regions (r) of the hume er halves F y the miscellaneous tissue tissue o calculated using Equation 3-3. ctively. The CBVF of the thor acic vertebrae was assumed to be an average of the C3 and the L1 values. The CBVF of the sternum was approximated by the ribcage value. The h e 3-1 shows the subdivisi ons of the long bones in 3D-Doctor TM The bone volume for each region was calculated using Equation 3-2. BV i,r =(BV uh,i +BV lh,i )*RV Where BV rus or femur (i), BV uh,i and BV lh,i are the bone volumes of the upper and low respectively, and RVF is the fraction of the re gion volume to the total bone volume. The RV values were obtained from 3D-Doctor TM Table 3-3 shows the RVF, CBVF and SVF for the different regions of the long bones. The cortical bone masses calcu lated above include miscella neous tissues. Miscellaneous tissues are defined as the blood vessels and perios teum in the bone. In order to obtain the true cortical bone mass, the miscellaneous tissues ha ve to be subtracted. The total mass of these tissues in humans is given in ICRP 89.(24) The miscellaneous tissue mass in the dog was approximated by scaling the adult male miscella neous tissue mass by the ratio of the total bod weights. This scaling factor proved to be the most accurate when scaling s from adult males to other ages (see Table 3-4) After scaling the adult male miscellaneous mass by body weight, the miscellaneous tissue mass in the dog phantom was determined t be 71g. The miscellaneous tissue mass in each bone site was MT c,i =m total MT *(BV i /BV t )*(CBV i /BV i ) (3-3) 44

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Where MT c,i is the miscellaneous bon e tissue mass in the corti cal bone of site i, m total MT is the total miscellaneous bone tissue in the skeleton, BV i, BVt is the total s ined by analyzing the microCT images of 10 bone sites using gate es 3-5) volum i is the bone volume of site keleton volume, and CBV i is the cortical bone volume in site i. Finally, the net cortical bone mass in each site (CB i ) is given by Equation 3-4. CB i =CB t,i MT c,I (3-4) Trabecular Bone In order to calculate the trabecular bone mass in a bone site, the Spongiosa Volume Fraction (SVF) and the Bone Volume Fraction (BVF ) are needed. SVF is the fraction of the total bone volume that is spongiosa, while the BVF is the fraction of the spongiosa volume that is bone. The SVFs were obtained by segmentation of the ex-vivo scans using 3D-Doctor (see Table 3-1). All the approximations used when assign ing CBVF to unsampled bones were used when assigning SVF. The BVFs were obta the BIDUserInterface software (see Table 3-5). The BVF of L-2 was used as a surrogate for th e mandible, scapulae, sternum, the ribs and the caudal vertebrae. (19, 34) The BVF of the distal humerus was used as a surrogate for the radius and ulna, and the front paw bones. The BVF of the distal femur was used as a surro for the tibia and fibula and the hind paw bones. The BVF of C-4 was assigned to all the cervical vertebrae and that of L-2 was a ssigned to all lumbar vertebrae. The average of the BVF valu between T-5 and T-13 was taken and a ssigned to all thoracic vertebrae. The total trabecular bone mass wa s obtained using Equation 3-5. TB t,i =SVF i *BV i *BVF i mb ( Where TB t,i is the total trabecular bone mass in site i, and SVF i *BV i is the spongiosa e in site i. 45

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The miscellaneous tissues in trabecular bone also have to be subtracted in order to reach the net trabecular bone mass. Equation 3-6 shows how these were calculated. MT t,i =m total MT *(BV i /BV t )*(TBV i /BV i ) (3-6) d TBVi is the to e net trabecular bone mass (TBi) is given by Equation 3-7 (3-7) 3-8) re, the CFs for the 40year-o 9. mAM,t, i=SVi*MVFi*CFi*AM (3-9) Where MT t,i is the miscellaneous tissues mass in the trabecular bone of site i, an tal trabecu lar bone volume in site i. Therefore, th TB i =TB t,i MT t,i Teeth The teeth masses (Te i ) in the mandible and cranium were estimated based on the TeVF shown in Table 3-1. The density of teeth wa s approximated as the density of dentine ( dentine = 3 g/cc).(24) Equation (3-8) show s the calculation performed to obtain the teeth masses. Te i = TeVF i *BV i dentine ( Active and Inactive Marrow To calculate the mass of activ e and inactive marrow in a bone site, the Marrow Volume Fraction (MVF), the Cellularity Factor (C F) and the spongiosa volume are needed. The spongiosa volumes are calculated as shown in the previous section. The MVF is the fraction of spongiosa volume that is marrow. This value was obtained using the BIDUserInterface software. The same approximations that were made when assigning BVF apply for the bone sites that do not explicitly have a MVF. There are no reference cellula rity factors for the adult dog, therefo ld human published in ICRP 70 are used instead. (36) The total active bone marrow mass (m AM,t,i ) for site i was calculated using Equation 346

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Where AM is the density of active bone marrow as given in ICRU46.(37) The total inactive bone marrow mass (m IM,t,i ) for site I was calculated us ing Equation 3-10. was performed using Equations 3-11 and 3-12. (3-11) Vi/BVi) (3-12) here MTAM,i is the miscellaneous tissues mass in the active marrow of site i, AMVi is the active re calcued using Equations 3-13 and 3 mAM,i = mAM,t,i MTAM,i (3-13) 4) e also shown as a remi nder of the use of surrogates for certain bone sites ( issues in the cortical bone, trabec m IM,t,i =SV i *MVF i *(1-CF i )* IM (3-10) Where IM is the density of inactive bone marrow as given in ICRU46. (37) The miscellaneous tissues correction MT AM,i =m total MT *(BV i /BV t )*(AMV i /BV i ) MT IM,i =m total MT *(BV i /BV t )*(IM W marrow volume in site i, MT IM,i is the miscellaneous tissues mass in the inactive marrow of site i, IMV i is the inactive marrow volume in site i. Finally, the net active and inactive marrow masses (m AM,i ,m IM,i respectively) we lat -14 m IM,i = m IM,t,i MT IM,i (3-1 Results Table 3-2 shows the masses obtained for the di fferent skeletal sites. The mineral bone mass is broken down into cortical and trabecular ma sses, while the marrow mass is subdivided into active and inactive bone marro w. The different cellularity factors assigned to each bone site are listed. The BVF and MVF ar values in italic indicate th at a surrogate is being used). Table 3-6 shows the break down of the mis cellaneous t ular bone, and active and inactive marrow for each bone site. 47

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Table 3-7 summarizes the bone masses cal culated based on the methodolog y described above perce previo homo and c enous bone approximation is acceptable when s bone mass of a specific site. Since each bone has a different CBVF es. The value obtained the ho % off from the actu mass of the bone as seen for the cranium in Table 3-6. incl usion. Therefore, the cortical bone g over pproximation cannot be improved. and it compares them to the homogeneous bone mass values listed in Table 1-1. The ntage differences between the two sets are also listed. Discussion The masses obtained in this section differ from the homogenous bone masses in the us chapter. This was expected as the homogenous bone masses are based on a genous bone density value that does not take into account the differences in CBVF, BVF ellularity from bone site to bone site. It should be noted that the difference between the total homogeneous skeleton mass and the total de tailed skeleton mass is 16.09%. Although this discrepancy is not negligible, it indicates that the homog looking at the skeleton as a whole. Howe ver, one should not rely on the homogenou density to obtain an accurate value for the BVF and cellularity, its equivalent homogene ous density vari with mogeneous density given by ICRU44 (31) can be up to almost 40 al It is also important to note that the miscellaneous bone tissu e corrections applied throughout the calculations have an inherent flaw. Miscellaneous bone tissues include blood vessels and periosteum.(24) The periosteum is a layer of dense fibrous ti ssue that covers the outside surface of the bone. This layer only a ffects the mass of cortical bone. Neither the trabecular bone, nor the marrow masses are influenced by its masses are being under corrected, while th e trabecular and marrow masses are bein corrected. Due to the lack of available informa tion at this time, this a 48

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Conclusions Accurate mass values when performing dosim etry calculations are imperative to obtai reliable results. The skeletal masses presented in this section n will be extremely valuable in assessing the dose received by the differen skeleton dur ing radiopharmaceutical treatm of t ar eas of the ents. Although the accuracy of the masse s calculated could be improved by utilizing canine specific cellularity values, and scanning ev ery skeletal site to eliminate the use surrogate BVFs, the data provided in this thesis are unique and extremely useful since there are no reference canine skeletal mass tables published to date. 49

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A B Figure 3-1. Long bone subdivision s. Proxima (red), shaft (yel low), and distal (green) subdivisions used for the long bones during detailed skeletal mass calculations. (a) Femur, (b) Humerus. Table 3-1. Cortical and spongiosa volume fractions (expressed in percentage values) obtained from segmentation of ex-vivo scans in 3D-DoctorTM. Bone Site Cortical Spongiosa Teeth C3 74.24% 25.76% ---Cranium 76.94% 13.06% 10.00% Femur 33.11% 66.89% ---Humerus 34.16% 65.84% ---L1 40.70% 59.30% ---Mandible 56.57% 27.23% 16.21% Pawbone 64.13% 35.87% ---Pelvis 47.76% 52.24% ---Radius Ulna 54.97% 45.03% ---Rib 72.32% 27.68% ---RibCage 69.88% 30.12% ---Scapula 63.31% 36.69% ---Tailbone (Caudal Vertebra) 74.79% 25.21% ---Tibia Fib 50.95% 49.05% ---. 50

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Table 3-2. Detailed skeletal bone mass ta ble for the canine anatomical phantom. 51

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Table 3-2. Continued. Table 3-3. Cortical and spongiosa volume fractions of the three sub-regions of the long bones. VF (%) Bone Site % Total Bone Cortical Spongiosa Femur Proximal 26.07% 32.69% 67.31% Shaft 34.19% 46.84% 53.16% distal 39.75% 21.61% 78.39% Total femur Humerus Proximal 39.81% 18.73% 81.27% Shaft 37.99% 47.88% 52.12% distal 22.20% 37.32% 62.68% 52

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Table 3-4. Results of the study on the accuracy of different scaling factors for miscellaneous bone tissues. Table 3-5. MVF and BVF of 10 bone sites obtained from the analysis of the microCT images using BIDUserInterface software. VF (%) Sample Marrow Bone 1 Proximal Femur 60.13 39.87 2 Distal Femur 69.57 30.43 3 Proximal Humerus 74.89 25.11 4 Distal Humerus 51.61 48.39 5 Cranium (Parietal) 34.76 65.24 6 Pelvis 73.6 26.4 7 C-4 60.91 39.09 8 T-5 24.19 75.81 9 T-13 26.59 73.41 10 L2 74.04 25.96 53

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Table 3-6. Breakdown of the miscellaneous tissu e masses assigned to th e regions of each bon site. e 54

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T able 3-7. Comparison of the homogenous bone masse s to the detailed bone masses calculated in Bone Mass (g) this chapter. Skeletal Site HomogenousCalculated % difference Cranium 243.88 339.36 39.15% Mandible 114.96 153.89 33.86% Scapulae 139.29 161.95 16.27% Sternum 18.07 21.64 19.76% Ribs 159.28 192.54 20.88% Vertebrae (Cervical) 166.32 206.21 23.98% Vertebrae (Thoracic) 181.78 206.51 13.61% Vertebrae (Lumbar) 180.81 191.15 5.72% Pelvis 181.78 198.11 8.98% Vertebrae (Caudal) 37.55 45.85 22.11% Femur Proximal 59.32 63.69 7.37% Shaft 77.57 76.35 -1.57% Distal 91.26 88.97 -2.51% Tibia-Fibula 169.27 188.21 11.19% Paw Bones Hind paw bones 74.60 87.60 17.42% Front paw bones 136.91 166.58 21.67% Humerus Proximal 91.50 75.96 -16.98% Shaft 69.13 76.57 10.76% Distal 42.70 50.79 18.94% Radius-Ulna 163.06 193.14 18.45% Total 2399.03 2785.07 16.09% 55

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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS The canine model can be an ou ring pre-clin ials of new radiopharmaceutical therapies for can o phantom construc thesis is step ing reath the caninespecific technology necessary to fully exploit the potential of such studies. The extensive photon and electron specd fraction ses assem researchers a set o values t al low them more accurate calculations during the course of their studies Furtherm ulator software developed in Chapter 2 uses th etry data obtained in Chapter 1 and calculates the S values for a specific radionuply reading in its d ecay scheme. This allows the user to take full advantage of the new specific absorbed fraction data without having to directly manipulate the extensive dataset. The S value calculatware outputs the results onto an MS Excel sheet that, along with re n be easily utilized to obtain or anlthough this code is not nearly as ex tres such researchers the opf performlculati on data o mical phantom that was construcecifically re eir cabjectshe development of a more comprehensive dosimy pacd on a canes is part of future Lastly, the bone mass table constructed in Ch apter 3 compiles a set of detailed skeletal masses for the canine phantom of Chapter 1. These masses are necessary to accurately assess the dose received by the different areas of the bone during internal emitter therapy These values will be used in the future for the development of a canine-specific micro skeletal dosimetry model to complete the anatomical phantom presented in Chapter 1. tstanding t ool du i cal tr cer, if the appr pria te dosim etry tools are available. The ted for this the firs t providin se rchers wi ific absorbe databa bled in Chapter 1, finally offer f dosimetry hat will to perform ore, the S value calc e extens ive dosim clide by sim tor sof sidence times, ca g doses. A tensive as dosime y packag as OLINDA/EXM (13), it gives portunity o ing ca s using fr m an anato ted to sp present th nine su H owever, t etr kage base series of in phantom work. 56

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APPENDIX A P ction values ; HOTON TABLES This appendix contains the photon absorbed fr action and specific abso rbed fra for the main organs of interest in radionuclide therapy. Since the amount of data generated by the canine phantom dosimetry calculations was too va st to be contained in this file, only the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions for certain organs are listed in this appendix. The tables containing the values for the re st of the organs can be found online at http://jnm.snmjournals.org. The tables are list ed as Appendix A for the article titled Canine Anatomic Phantom for Preclinical Dosimetry in Internal Emitter Therapy (J Nucl Med 2008 49:446). The organs omitted from this appendix are the left and right adrenal glands, the brain, the colon wall and conten t, the esophageal wall, the ey es, the gall bladder wall and content, the heart wall and conten t, the left and right ovaries, the pancreas, the pituitary gland, the salivary glands, the skin, the small intestine wall and contents, the spinal cord, the stomach wall and contents, the thymus, the tracheal wa ll, the urinary bladde r wall and the uterus. 57

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Table. A-1. Absorbed Fractions for Photo Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D2.53E-051.68E-042.60E-042.17E-041.03E-045.65E-055.43E-055.46E-054.96E-054.61E-054.39E-053.24E-05 -06 -05 Colon Wall 187.47D1.15E-036.90E-031.60E-022.43E-021.78E-021.09E-029.89E-039.57E-038.79E-038.06E-037.49E-036.06E-03 06E-05 .06E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E20)1.05E-133.77E-108.39E-082.10E-064.96E-065.38E-065.40E-065.43E-065.12E-065.49E-064.58E-064.55E-06 3 .51E-035.25E-034.47E-03 10E-031.05E-039.00E-04 .56E-031.49E-031.29E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D4.54E-054.79E-048.76E-048.47E-044.41E-042.46E-042.39E-042.35E-042.15E-041.96E-041.84E-041.46E-04 E-06 E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0001.66E-143.33E-128.82E-112.71E-106.80E-101.39E-091.80E-092.20E-092.82E-09 -0 1 -06 Skeleton (Homogeneou n Sources in the Photon Energy (MeV) Target Org an 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E15)2.91E-104.97E-076.83E-062.06E-051.65E-051.00E-059.06E-068.21E-066.72E-066.17E-066.14E-065.15E Brain 86.15D (E50)0008.61E-111.72E-084.57E-071.41E-063.52E-067.18E-069.32E-061.14E-051.46E Esophagus Wall11.56D (E15)01.50E-116.31E-092.61E-061.80E-052.16E-052.18E-052.30E-052.42E-052.38E-052.27E-052. Eyes 9.73D (E100) 00001.56E-109.47E-094.93E-081.68E-073.70E-075.70E-076.91E-071 Heart Wall 177.81D (E15)02.31E-109.71E-084.02E-052.78E-043.58E-043.60E-044.04E-044.30E-044.28E-044.21E-043.78E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D9.34E-017.98E-016.05E-013.06E-011.14E-016.42E-026.66E-026.89E-026.21E-025.46E-024.83E-023.23E-02 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E15)6.05E-102.99E-062.82E-042.85E-034.24E-033.09E-032.70E-032.55E-032.34E-032.17E-032.03E-031.68E-0 Liver 707.80D (E15)2.62E-101.27E-061.57E-043.04E-037.50E-036.80E-036.13E-036.07E-035.81E-035 Lung (L) 186.72D (E15)4.01E-111.50E-073.00E-056.96E-041.51E-031.28E-031.17E-031.19E-031.16E-031. Lung (R) 331.38D (E15)4.64E-111.62E-073.77E-058.80E-042.05E-031.83E-031.68E-031.68E-031.64E-031 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)4.31E-132.03E-094.82E-071.07E-051.98E-051.51E-051.28E-051.28E-051.19E-051.12E-051.05E-058.19 Pancreas 1.91D (E30)1.23E-125.68E-091.45E-063.98E-056.69E-055.23E-054.33E-054.08E-053.68E-053.43E-053.15E-052.66 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.79E-021.58E-012.65E-013.43E-012.66E-011.80E-011.70E-011.70E-011.61E-011.51E-011.42E-011.17E Salivary Glands 31.57C (E50)0002.37E-104.74E-085.49E-071.28E-062.57E-064.23E-065.19E-065.85E-067.62E s 2452.22D1.10E-058.06E-045.79E-032.77E-024.10E-022.28E-021.38E-021.14E-021.06E-029.96E-039.45E-038.09E-03 E-03 E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)3.77E-121.21E-083.75E-069.21E-052.21E-042.03E-041.97E-041.96E-041.85E-041.71E-041.60E-041.38E-04 21.29E-02 39.55E-04 Skin 2080.04D8.39E-052.22E-036.81E-031.29E-021.23E-029.44E-039.56E-031.03E-021.00E-029.42E-038.81E-037.35 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.51E-041.50E-034.43E-031.02E-021.02E-026.83E-036.04E-035.77E-035.33E-034.91E-034.58E-033.74 Spleen 376.86D6.31E-032.24E-024.34E-025.45E-023.60E-022.19E-022.04E-022.02E-021.86E-021.72E-021.59E-0 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E15)4.94E-082.17E-053.67E-041.81E-032.36E-031.73E-031.51E-031.44E-031.33E-031.23E-031.16E-0 Th y mus 0.79C ( E30 ) 001.58E-111.65E-082.51E-074.51E-075.04E-076.35E-077.15E-077.66E-077.88EThyroid 0.98D (E50)0009.82E-119.82E-096.04E-081.01E-071.80E-072.69E-073.25E-073.62E-073.84E Tracheal Wal 077.70E-07 -07 l 39.01D (E30)007.80E-108.17E-071.24E-052.22E-052.50E-053.03E-053.45E-053.58E-053.60E-053.49E Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)3.13E-129.39E-092.69E-061.11E-042.92E-042.70E-042.52E-042.57E-042.51E-042.42E-042.27E-041.93E Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.91E-019.48E-017.90E-015.17E-013.32E-013.10E-013.11E-012.90E-012.68E-012.48E-011.98E-05 -04 Uterus 4.14D (E15)1.82E-076.89E-063.91E-051.15E-041.30E-049.60E-058.54E-058.17E-057.86E-057.23E-056.77E-055.50E-05 01 58

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Table A-2. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg Can ine Phantom. 04 Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D1.32E-018.79E-011.36E+001.13E+005.40E-012.95E-012.84E-012.85E-012.59E-012.41E-012.29E-011.69E-01 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E15)2.50E-064.27E-035.86E-021.77E-011.42E-018.59E-027.78E-027.05E-025.77E-025.30E-025.27E-024.42E-02 Brain 86.15D (E50)0001.00E-092.00E-075.30E-061.63E-054.09E-058.33E-051.08E-041.32E-041.70E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D6.12E-033.68E-028.53E-021.30E-019.50E-025.82E-025.28E-025.10E-024.69E-024.30E-023.99E-023.23E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E15)01.30E-095.46E-072.26E-041.56E-031.87E-031.89E-031.99E-032.09E-032.06E-031.97E-031.79E-03 Eyes 9.73D (E100) 00001.60E-089.73E-075.06E-061.72E-053.81E-055.86E-057.10E-051.09EGall Bladder Wall1.05D (E20)1.00E-103.60E-078.00E-052.00E-034.73E-035.13E-035.15E-035.18E-034.89E-035.23E-034.37E-034.34E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D (E15)01.30E-095.46E-072.26E-041.56E-032.01E-032.03E-032.27E-032.42E-032.41E-032.37E-032.13E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D9.16E+007.83E+005.93E+003.00E+001.12E+006.30E-016.53E-016.76E-016.09E-015.36E-014.74E-013.17E-01 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E15)6.00E-092.97E-052.80E-032.83E-024.21E-023.07E-022.68E-022.53E-022.33E-022.15E-022.02E-021.66E-02 Liver 707.80D (E15)3.70E-101.79E-062.22E-044.30E-031.06E-029.61E-038.67E-038.57E-038.21E-037.79E-037.42E-036.31E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D (E15)2.15E-108.01E-071.60E-043.73E-038.07E-036.85E-036.28E-036.37E-036.22E-035.91E-035.63E-034.82E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D (E15)1.40E-104.90E-071.14E-042.66E-036.18E-035.53E-035.05E-035.08E-034.95E-034.70E-034.49E-033.88E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D3.16E-023.33E-016.09E-015.88E-013.06E-011.71E-011.66E-011.63E-011.50E-011.36E-011.28E-011.02E-01 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)7.00E-103.30E-067.83E-041.74E-023.21E-022.46E-022.08E-022.08E-021.93E-021.82E-021.71E-021.33E-02 Pancreas 1.91D (E30)6.44E-102.98E-067.60E-042.09E-023.51E-022.74E-022.27E-022.14E-021.93E-021.80E-021.65E-021.40E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0001.00E-092.00E-075.30E-061.63E-054.09E-058.33E-051.08E-041.32E-041.70E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D3.34E-039.08E-031.53E-021.98E-021.53E-021.04E-029.78E-039.83E-039.30E-038.70E-038.16E-036.74E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57C (E50)0007.50E-091.50E-061.74E-054.06E-058.13E-051.34E-041.64E-041.85E-042.41E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D4.47E-063.29E-042.36E-031.13E-021.67E-029.30E-035.64E-034.63E-034.32E-034.06E-033.86E-033.30E-03 Skin 2080.04D4.03E-051.07E-033.27E-036.19E-035.93E-034.54E-034.60E-034.95E-034.81E-034.53E-034.24E-033.53E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D8.20E-048.16E-032.41E-025.56E-025.55E-023.72E-023.29E-023.14E-022.90E-022.67E-022.49E-022.04E-02 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)2.00E-106.40E-071.99E-044.89E-031.17E-021.08E-021.05E-021.04E-029.82E-039.06E-038.51E-037.34E-03 Spleen 376.86D1.67E-025.95E-021.15E-011.45E-019.56E-025.82E-025.42E-025.36E-024.95E-024.55E-024.23E-023.41E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E15)7.20E-073.17E-045.35E-032.63E-023.44E-022.51E-022.20E-022.10E-021.94E-021.79E-021.68E-021.39E-02 Thymus 0.79C (E30)002.00E-082.09E-053.18E-045.70E-046.37E-048.03E-049.04E-049.69E-049.98E-049.75E-04 Thyroid 0.98D (E50)0001.00E-071.00E-056.15E-051.03E-041.83E-042.74E-043.31E-043.68E-043.91E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E30)002.00E-082.09E-053.18E-045.70E-046.40E-047.78E-048.85E-049.17E-049.24E-048.94E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)1.00E-103.00E-078.61E-053.54E-039.33E-038.63E-038.06E-038.22E-038.03E-037.73E-037.24E-036.18E -03 Uterus 4.14D (E15)4.40E-051.67E-039.46E-032.78E-023.15E-022.32E-022.07E-021.98E-021.90E-021.75E-021.64E-021.33E-02 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.04E-023.86E-023.22E-022.11E-021.35E-021.26E-021.27E-021.18E-021.09E-021.01E-028.06E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 59

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Table A-3. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E15)1.53E-101.51E-074.36E-062.11E-052.04E-051.24E-051.17E-051.07E-059.81E-069.03E-068.36E-066.89E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D9.00E-081.36E-054.92E-056.81E-053.69E-052.19E-052.03E-051.97E-051.75E-051.56E-051.46E-051.23E-05 Brain 86.15D (100)0002.84E-106.89E-086.47E-071.81E-064.39E-068.64E-061.17E-051.34E-051.62E-05 Colon Wall 187.47D5.34E-044.53E-031.08E-021.55E-021.13E-027.09E-036.47E-036.30E-035.81E-035.36E-034.98E-034.05E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E20)1.50E-129.25E-106.93E-086.86E-062.50E-052.72E-052.68E-052.89E-052.92E-052.84E-052.63E-052.25E-05 Eyes 9.73D (100)0009.73E-136.33E-101.56E-088.07E-082.55E-076.35E-078.77E-079.77E-071.30E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E30)8.49E-136.35E-104.23E-082.10E-065.97E-067.00E-066.84E-067.03E-066.74E-066.42E-066.67E-065.42E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D (E20)2.31E-111.42E-081.07E-061.05E-043.85E-044.30E-044.25E-044.58E-044.71E-044.60E-044.51E-043.99E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D E(15)2.55E-093.27E-062.86E-042.90E-034.33E-033.15E-032.76E-032.59E-032.38E-032.21E-032.05E-031.70E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D9.32E-017.94E-015.98E-013.00E-011.11E-016.25E-026.52E-026.79E-026.12E-025.38E-024.76E-023.18E-02 Liver 707.80D5.03E-031.80E-023.54E-024.63E-023.24E-022.07E-021.94E-021.93E-021.80E-021.66E-021.55E-021.27E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D (E15)1.59E-091.95E-061.05E-049.10E-041.56E-031.30E-031.19E-031.19E-031.13E-031.07E-031.01E-038.56E-04 Lung (R) 331.38D2.19E-063.90E-042.36E-036.33E-036.10E-034.11E-033.74E-033.69E-033.46E-033.21E-033.02E-032.53E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)8.64E-121.01E-089.82E-072.14E-053.96E-053.15E-052.88E-052.71E-052.46E-052.40E-052.18E-051.86E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D3.30E-052.62E-044.24E-043.68E-041.78E-041.03E-041.01E-041.01E-049.53E-058.70E-058.14E-056.28E-05 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)2.48E-112.86E-082.88E-064.47E-057.57E-055.59E-054.81E-054.45E-054.07E-053.81E-053.53E-052.98E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0005.49E-141.33E-111.25E-103.49E-108.47E-101.67E-092.26E-092.60E-093.14E-09 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.74E-021.54E-012.54E-013.14E-012.39E-011.64E-011.57E-011.60E-011.52E-011.43E-011.34E-011.11E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (D50)003.16E-122.21E-091.64E-076.46E-071.41E-062.70E-064.86E-066.07E-067.11E-068.33E-06 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D3.66E-031.20E-022.66E-025.62E-025.75E-022.76E-021.70E-021.44E-021.34E-021.25E-021.18E-029.94E-03 Skin 2080.04D1.02E-035.40E-031.19E-021.71E-021.36E-021.00E-021.04E-021.12E-021.09E-021.01E-029.48E-037.83E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D3.04E-063.40E-041.97E-036.53E-037.33E-035.10E-034.59E-034.44E-034.12E-033.82E-033.58E-032.96E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)6.40E-117.91E-087.15E-061.78E-043.20E-042.80E-042.76E-042.73E-042.58E-042.40E-042.26E-041.86E-04 Spleen 376.86D (E15)1.58E-081.95E-055.65E-044.08E-036.71E-035.44E-034.93E-034.81E-034.55E-034.28E-034.03E-033.36E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E20)4.12E-104.81E-074.69E-059.76E-041.68E-031.32E-031.17E-031.11E-031.04E-039.68E-049.15E-047.63E-04 Th y mus 0.79D ( E30 ) 03.24E-123.02E-105.84E-084.48E-076.35E-077.01E-078.58E-079.51E-079.62E-079.70E-078.86E-07 Thyroid 0.98D (D50)09.82E-141.57E-111.77E-092.45E-086.68E-081.34E-072.34E-073.08E-073.47E-073.80E-073.69E-07 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D (E30)03.67E-103.90E-084.68E-063.30E-053.77E-054.26E-055.04E-055.26E-055.29E-055.05E-054.45E-05 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)1.60E-119.56E-096.98E-074.34E-051.51E-041.63E-041.56E-041.67E-041.69E-041.64E-041.56E-041.37E -04 Uterus 4.14D3.01E-067.77E-051.86E-042.47E-041.80E-041.18E-041.11E-041.08E-041.04E-049.66E-058.95E-057.45E-05 Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.89E-019.43E-017.73E-014.93E-013.13E-012.95E-012.98E-012.79E-012.58E-012.39E-011.90E-01 60

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Table A-4. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Photon Sources in the Kidney (Right) of the UF 26-kg C anine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E15)8.00E-077.88E-042.28E-021.10E-011.07E-016.47E-026.11E-025.61E-025.12E-024.72E-024.37E-023.60E-02 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D7.72E-041.17E-014.22E-015.84E-013.17E-011.88E-011.74E-011.69E-011.50E-011.34E-011.25E-011.05E-01 Brain 86.15D (100)0003.30E-098.00E-077.51E-062.10E-055.09E-051.00E-041.36E-041.56E-041.89E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D2.85E-032.42E-025.76E-028.28E-026.03E-023.78E-023.45E-023.36E-023.10E-022.86E-022.66E-022.16E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E20)1.30E-108.00E-086.00E-065.93E-042.17E-032.35E-032.32E-032.50E-032.52E-032.46E-032.27E-031.95E-03 Eyes 9.73D (100)0001.00E-106.50E-081.60E-068.29E-062.61E-056.52E-059.01E-051.00E-041.34E-04 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E30)8.10E-106.06E-074.03E-052.00E-035.70E-036.68E-036.52E-036.70E-036.43E-036.13E-036.36E-035.17E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D (E20)1.30E-108.00E-086.00E-065.93E-042.17E-032.42E-032.39E-032.58E-032.65E-032.59E-032.54E-032.25E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D E(15)2.50E-083.20E-052.81E-032.84E-024.25E-023.09E-022.70E-022.54E-022.33E-022.16E-022.01E-021.67E-02 Kidney (R) 100.80D9.25E+007.88E+005.94E+002.98E+001.10E+006.20E-016.47E-016.73E-016.07E-015.34E-014.72E-013.15E-01 Liver 707.80D7.10E-032.54E-024.99E-026.55E-024.58E-022.92E-022.73E-022.72E-022.54E-022.35E-022.20E-021.79E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D (E15)8.50E-091.05E-055.60E-044.87E-038.35E-036.95E-036.40E-036.38E-036.07E-035.73E-035.39E-034.58E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D6.60E-061.18E-037.12E-031.91E-021.84E-021.24E-021.13E-021.11E-021.04E-029.68E-039.12E-037.63E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)6.00E-097.00E-066.82E-041.49E-022.75E-022.19E-022.00E-021.88E-021.71E-021.67E-021.52E-021.29E-02 Ovary (R) 0.62D5.35E-024.26E-016.89E-015.98E-012.89E-011.67E-011.64E-011.64E-011.55E-011.41E-011.32E-011.02E-01 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)1.30E-081.50E-051.51E-032.35E-023.97E-022.93E-022.52E-022.34E-022.14E-022.00E-021.85E-021.56E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0003.30E-098.00E-077.51E-062.10E-055.09E-051.00E-041.36E-041.56E-041.89E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D3.31E-038.90E-031.46E-021.81E-021.38E-029.43E-039.04E-039.22E-038.77E-038.22E-037.72E-036.38E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (D50)001.00E-106.99E-085.20E-062.05E-054.46E-058.57E-051.54E-041.92E-042.25E-042.64E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D1.49E-034.88E-031.08E-022.29E-022.35E-021.13E-026.93E-035.89E-035.47E-035.11E-034.81E-034.05E-03 Skin 2080.04D4.92E-042.60E-035.74E-038.22E-036.53E-034.82E-034.98E-035.39E-035.22E-034.88E-034.56E-033.76E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.65E-051.85E-031.07E-023.55E-023.99E-022.77E-022.50E-022.41E-022.24E-022.08E-021.95E-021.61E-02 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)3.40E-094.20E-063.80E-049.46E-031.70E-021.49E-021.47E-021.45E-021.37E-021.28E-021.20E-029.88E-03 Spleen 376.86D (E15)4.20E-085.17E-051.50E-031.08E-021.78E-021.44E-021.31E-021.28E-021.21E-021.14E-021.07E-028.92E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E20)6.00E-097.00E-066.82E-041.42E-022.45E-021.93E-021.70E-021.62E-021.52E-021.41E-021.33E-021.11E-02 Thymus 0.79D (E30)04.10E-093.82E-077.38E-055.66E-048.04E-048.87E-041.09E-031.20E-031.22E-031.23E-031.12E-03 Thyroid 0.98D (D50)01.00E-101.60E-081.80E-062.50E-056.80E-051.37E-042.39E-043.14E-043.54E-043.87E-043.76E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E30)09.40E-091.00E-061.20E-048.47E-049.67E-041.09E-031.29E-031.35E-031.35E-031.29E-031.14E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)5.10E-103.06E-072.23E-051.39E-034.82E-035.22E-034.99E-035.34E-035.42E-035.25E-034.99E-034.38E -03 Uterus 4.14D7.27E-041.88E-024.49E-025.96E-024.34E-022.86E-022.69E-022.62E-022.52E-022.34E-022.17E-021.80E-02 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.03E-023.84E-023.15E-022.01E-021.28E-021.20E-021.21E-021.14E-021.05E-029.74E-037.74E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 61

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Table A-5. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)5.20E-112.94E-083.47E-072.07E-063.86E-062.97E-062.64E-062.52E-062.36E-062.03E-062.01E-061.47E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)8.05E-072.90E-065.73E-067.51E-065.29E-063.38E-063.15E-063.14E-062.93E-062.72E-062.55E-062.08E-06 Brain 86.15D (E100)008.61E-128.61E-096.03E-072.75E-066.13E-061.28E-052.04E-052.54E-052.85E-053.17E-05 Colon Wall 187.47D3.26E-049.76E-041.97E-033.54E-033.53E-032.52E-032.28E-032.23E-032.10E-031.96E-031.84E-031.54E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.45E-056.97E-051.27E-041.96E-041.82E-041.26E-041.15E-041.14E-041.09E-041.00E-049.48E-057.83E-05 Eyes 9.73D (E200)0004.87E-122.92E-095.84E-082.12E-077.15E-071.38E-061.75E-062.12E-062.38E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D5.30E-048.05E-048.75E-046.34E-042.95E-041.68E-041.65E-041.66E-041.55E-041.40E-041.26E-049.63E-05 Heart Wall 177.81D2.52E-041.57E-034.44E-038.60E-037.34E-034.73E-034.34E-034.28E-033.98E-033.68E-033.44E-032.81E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E20)6.12E-104.18E-072.25E-054.40E-041.08E-039.80E-048.86E-048.75E-048.40E-047.90E-047.51E-046.48E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D6.97E-042.51E-034.96E-036.50E-034.58E-032.92E-032.73E-032.71E-032.54E-032.35E-032.20E-031.80E-03 Liver 707.80D9.42E-018.29E-016.70E-013.96E-011.74E-011.00E-011.01E-011.03E-019.38E-028.39E-027.54E-025.42E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D6.18E-043.17E-037.32E-031.08E-027.95E-034.84E-034.32E-034.19E-033.82E-033.54E-033.29E-032.70E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D7.25E-032.29E-023.75E-023.96E-022.33E-021.33E-021.22E-021.20E-021.10E-021.01E-029.39E-037.56E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)3.60E-131.44E-109.94E-091.06E-064.80E-065.81E-065.56E-066.07E-066.04E-065.66E-065.36E-065.13E-06 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)1.85E-121.29E-097.46E-082.04E-065.71E-064.53E-064.60E-064.88E-064.68E-064.73E-064.47E-063.54E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E15)9.15E-101.50E-063.37E-051.49E-041.54E-049.96E-058.67E-058.29E-057.61E-056.99E-056.46E-055.17E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)001.66E-151.66E-121.16E-105.31E-101.18E-092.48E-093.95E-094.90E-095.51E-096.12E-09 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D4.00E-021.00E-011.59E-012.05E-011.67E-011.18E-011.13E-011.16E-011.12E-011.05E-019.90E-028.23E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)008.21E-114.42E-081.32E-063.71E-065.44E-069.43E-061.24E-051.47E-051.59E-051.63E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D2.15E-039.92E-032.58E-025.06E-024.60E-022.13E-021.29E-021.09E-021.02E-029.55E-039.04E-037.65E-03 Skin 2080.04D5.06E-051.61E-035.82E-031.21E-021.13E-028.58E-038.85E-039.70E-039.44E-038.85E-038.31E-036.88E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D5.00E-082.83E-053.34E-041.98E-033.06E-032.40E-032.20E-032.18E-032.09E-031.96E-031.85E-031.56E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)5.65E-113.95E-082.28E-066.64E-051.54E-041.44E-041.39E-041.39E-041.30E-041.23E-041.16E-049.65E-05 Spleen 376.86D3.26E-031.01E-021.78E-022.32E-021.78E-021.16E-021.07E-021.06E-029.86E-039.13E-038.51E-036.94E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.17E-033.73E-036.91E-039.27E-036.57E-034.03E-033.68E-033.61E-033.32E-033.07E-032.83E-032.29E-03 Th y mus 0.79C ( E20 ) 8.69E-135.53E-103.05E-081.43E-064.34E-064.03E-063.62E-063.88E-063.72E-063.46E-063.20E-062.77E-06 Thyroid 0.98C (E50)03.63E-133.83E-111.09E-082.00E-074.02E-075.04E-077.30E-078.82E-079.35E-079.40E-078.89E-07 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D (E15)1.09E-108.99E-088.52E-061.00E-041.83E-041.57E-041.47E-041.49E-041.48E-041.41E-041.33E-041.13E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E30)09.39E-117.82E-091.56E-061.64E-052.60E-052.95E-053.74E-054.45E-054.58E-054.69E-054.46E-05 Uterus 4.14D (E30)4.14E-131.53E-101.03E-081.45E-068.73E-061.00E-051.02E-051.13E-051.17E-051.13E-051.24E-051.04E-05 Total Body Tissues24542.06 9.98E-019.86E-019.43E-017.68E-014.74E-012.96E-012.80E-012.83E-012.65E-012.45E-012.27E-011.79E-01 62

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Table A-6. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Photon Sources in the Liver of the UF Canine Pha 26-kg ntom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)2.72E-071.54E-041.82E-031.08E-022.01E-021.55E-021.38E-021.32E-021.23E-021.06E-021.05E-027.71E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)6.91E-032.49E-024.92E-026.45E-024.54E-022.90E-022.71E-022.69E-022.52E-022.33E-022.19E-021.78E-02 Brain 86.15D (E100)001.00E-101.00E-077.00E-063.19E-057.12E-051.49E-042.37E-042.94E-043.31E-043.68E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D1.74E-035.21E-031.05E-021.89E-021.88E-021.34E-021.21E-021.19E-021.12E-021.04E-029.84E-038.21E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.26E-036.03E-031.10E-021.70E-021.57E-021.09E-029.98E-039.86E-039.45E-038.68E-038.21E-036.78E-03 Eyes 9.73D (E200)0005.00E-103.00E-076.00E-062.18E-057.34E-051.42E-041.80E-042.18E-042.45E-04 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D5.06E-017.68E-018.34E-016.05E-012.81E-011.60E-011.57E-011.58E-011.48E-011.34E-011.20E-019.19E-02 Heart Wall 177.81D1.41E-038.83E-032.50E-024.84E-024.13E-022.66E-022.44E-022.41E-022.24E-022.07E-021.93E-021.58E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E20)6.00E-094.10E-062.21E-044.32E-031.06E-029.61E-038.69E-038.58E-038.24E-037.75E-037.37E-036.35E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D6.91E-032.49E-024.92E-026.45E-024.54E-022.90E-022.71E-022.69E-022.52E-022.33E-022.19E-021.78E-02 Liver 707.80D1.33E+001.17E+009.46E-015.59E-012.45E-011.41E-011.42E-011.45E-011.33E-011.19E-011.07E-017.66E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D3.31E-031.70E-023.92E-025.76E-024.26E-022.59E-022.31E-022.24E-022.05E-021.90E-021.76E-021.45E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D2.19E-026.93E-021.13E-011.19E-017.04E-024.01E-023.69E-023.62E-023.33E-023.06E-022.83E-022.28E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)2.50E-101.00E-076.91E-067.37E-043.33E-034.04E-033.86E-034.22E-034.20E-033.94E-033.73E-033.56E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)3.00E-092.10E-061.21E-043.32E-039.27E-037.36E-037.47E-037.93E-037.60E-037.68E-037.26E-035.76E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E15)4.80E-077.89E-041.77E-027.80E-028.10E-025.23E-024.55E-024.35E-024.00E-023.67E-023.39E-022.71E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)001.00E-101.00E-077.00E-063.19E-057.12E-051.49E-042.37E-042.94E-043.31E-043.68E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.31E-035.79E-039.16E-031.18E-029.64E-036.80E-036.54E-036.71E-036.44E-036.05E-035.70E-034.75E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)002.60E-091.40E-064.18E-051.18E-041.72E-042.99E-043.92E-044.65E-045.03E-045.16E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D8.78E-044.04E-031.05E-022.06E-021.88E-028.69E-035.27E-034.44E-034.16E-033.89E-033.68E-033.12E-03 Skin 2080.04D2.43E-057.75E-042.80E-035.80E-035.42E-034.12E-034.26E-034.66E-034.54E-034.26E-034.00E-033.31E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D2.72E-071.54E-041.82E-031.08E-021.66E-021.31E-021.19E-021.19E-021.13E-021.07E-021.01E-028.49E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)3.00E-092.10E-061.21E-043.53E-038.21E-037.65E-037.39E-037.36E-036.88E-036.52E-036.14E-035.13E-03 Spleen 376.86D8.66E-032.68E-024.71E-026.16E-024.73E-023.08E-022.84E-022.80E-022.62E-022.42E-022.26E-021.84E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.71E-025.43E-021.01E-011.35E-019.57E-025.86E-025.36E-025.26E-024.83E-024.47E-024.12E-023.33E-02 Thymus 0.79C (E20)1.10E-097.00E-073.86E-051.80E-035.49E-035.09E-034.58E-034.91E-034.71E-034.38E-034.04E-033.50E-03 Thyroid 0.98C (E50)03.70E-103.90E-081.11E-052.04E-044.09E-045.14E-047.44E-048.98E-049.52E-049.58E-049.05E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E15)2.80E-092.31E-062.19E-042.57E-034.70E-034.03E-033.76E-033.82E-033.80E-033.60E-033.42E-032.90E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E30)03.00E-092.50E-074.99E-055.23E-048.32E-049.43E-041.20E-031.42E-031.47E-031.50E-031.43E-03 T Uterus 4.14D (E30)1.00E-103.70E-082.50E-063.50E-042.11E-032.42E-032.46E-032.72E-032.84E-032.74E-032.99E-032.52E-03 otal Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.02E-023.84E-023.13E-021.93E-021.21E-021.14E-021.15E-021.08E-029.97E-039.23E-037.31E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 63

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Table A-7. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Source s in the Lung (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19C (E20)05.11E-112.49E-087.37E-071.74E-061.50E-061.34E-061.32E-061.26E-061.19E-061.13E-069.65E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12C (E20)2.10E-141.76E-103.74E-087.90E-071.46E-061.17E-061.03E-069.86E-079.21E-078.66E-078.14E-076.89E-07 Brain 86.15D (E50)0006.89E-092.86E-061.19E-051.81E-052.97E-054.15E-054.67E-055.04E-055.27E-05 Colon Wall 187.47D (E15)4.69E-115.91E-075.45E-055.87E-041.10E-039.32E-048.56E-048.68E-048.44E-048.04E-047.72E-046.61E-04 Esophagus Wall11.56D8.54E-042.20E-032.82E-032.11E-031.01E-035.89E-045.71E-045.72E-045.26E-044.77E-044.34E-043.34E-04 Eyes 9.73D (E100)0005.84E-122.43E-084.12E-079.73E-071.75E-062.73E-063.19E-063.73E-064.30E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)1.05E-129.00E-091.21E-061.49E-052.20E-051.59E-051.44E-051.45E-051.30E-051.23E-051.20E-059.29E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D4.23E-031.90E-022.82E-022.62E-021.47E-028.73E-038.34E-038.33E-037.71E-037.05E-036.54E-035.11E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D08.16E-096.12E-063.14E-047.69E-046.79E-046.37E-046.50E-046.31E-046.06E-045.73E-044.87E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D08.06E-096.05E-063.10E-047.85E-046.72E-046.37E-046.38E-046.09E-045.76E-045.35E-044.52E-04 Liver 707.80D2.09E-031.08E-022.49E-023.68E-022.78E-021.78E-021.63E-021.58E-021.45E-021.34E-021.24E-021.01E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D8.37E-015.89E-013.71E-011.57E-015.37E-022.90E-022.97E-023.02E-022.61E-022.19E-021.85E-021.07E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D5.22E-032.04E-023.42E-023.40E-021.95E-021.12E-021.04E-021.01E-029.19E-038.40E-037.73E-036.19E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44C (E20)02.02E-122.88E-097.39E-073.23E-063.67E-063.68E-064.18E-064.33E-064.22E-064.18E-063.73E-06 Ovary (R) 0.62C (E20)08.62E-131.23E-092.83E-071.27E-061.47E-061.48E-061.67E-061.73E-061.72E-061.65E-061.48E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)7.62E-138.38E-091.16E-062.02E-053.40E-052.72E-052.41E-052.32E-052.12E-051.98E-051.94E-051.47E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0001.33E-125.53E-102.30E-093.50E-095.74E-098.01E-099.03E-099.73E-091.02E-08 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.30E-012.68E-013.31E-013.14E-012.13E-011.46E-011.43E-011.47E-011.39E-011.29E-011.21E-019.73E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)003.16E-111.26E-076.21E-061.20E-051.50E-052.19E-052.62E-052.99E-053.07E-052.88E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D1.87E-026.63E-021.12E-011.32E-018.71E-023.49E-022.20E-021.92E-021.77E-021.63E-021.52E-021.22E-02 Skin 2080.04D4.55E-052.70E-039.21E-031.58E-021.27E-029.39E-039.87E-031.08E-021.04E-029.67E-039.01E-037.40E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D09.19E-096.80E-062.73E-047.94E-047.71E-047.37E-047.73E-047.73E-047.51E-047.23E-046.25E-04 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)1.13E-083.25E-065.89E-053.24E-044.10E-043.32E-043.28E-043.25E-042.98E-042.77E-042.58E-042.12E-04 Spleen 376.86D2.34E-041.45E-035.55E-031.34E-021.20E-027.98E-037.45E-037.38E-036.87E-036.37E-035.91E-034.85E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D9.39E-043.77E-035.60E-035.71E-033.63E-032.26E-032.10E-032.06E-031.88E-031.74E-031.60E-031.27E-03 Th y mus 0.79D3.81E-045.54E-044.39E-042.14E-048.22E-054.68E-054.89E-055.17E-054.62E-054.13E-053.68E-052.23E-05 Thyroid 0.98D E(30)02.95E-136.87E-102.48E-071.39E-061.56E-061.66E-061.92E-062.29E-062.17E-062.00E-061.94E-06 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D2.37E-064.17E-041.40E-031.85E-031.20E-037.62E-047.24E-047.16E-046.61E-046.10E-045.67E-044.65E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E50)003.13E-111.25E-076.16E-061.23E-051.43E-052.04E-052.61E-052.83E-052.79E-052.86E-05 Uterus 4.14D (E30)003.31E-102.89E-072.64E-063.98E-064.59E-065.67E-066.20E-066.72E-066.40E-065.75E-06 Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.85E-019.28E-017.40E-014.50E-012.72E-012.54E-012.55E-012.38E-012.19E-012.02E-011.58E-01 64

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-1 Table A-8. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg ) for Photon Sources in the Lung (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19C (E20)02.67E-071.30E-043.85E-039.10E-037.86E-037.01E-036.88E-036.61E-036.23E-035.92E-035.04E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12C (E20)1.80E-101.51E-063.21E-046.79E-031.26E-021.01E-028.82E-038.47E-037.90E-037.44E-036.99E-035.91E-03 Brain 86.15D (E50)0008.00E-083.32E-051.38E-042.10E-043.45E-044.81E-045.43E-045.85E-046.12E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D (E15)2.50E-103.15E-062.91E-043.13E-035.84E-034.97E-034.57E-034.63E-034.50E-034.29E-034.12E-033.53E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D7.39E-021.90E-012.44E-011.82E-018.74E-025.10E-024.95E-024.95E-024.55E-024.13E-023.75E-022.89E-02 Eyes 9.73D (E100)0006.00E-102.50E-064.24E-051.00E-041.80E-042.80E-043.28E-043.83E-044.42E-04 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)1.00E-098.59E-061.16E-031.42E-022.10E-021.52E-021.37E-021.38E-021.24E-021.17E-021.14E-028.86E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D2.38E-021.07E-011.59E-011.47E-018.25E-024.91E-024.69E-024.69E-024.34E-023.96E-023.68E-022.87E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97D08.00E-086.00E-053.08E-037.54E-036.66E-036.25E-036.37E-036.19E-035.94E-035.62E-034.77E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D08.00E-086.00E-053.08E-037.79E-036.67E-036.32E-036.33E-036.04E-035.71E-035.31E-034.48E-03 Liver 707.80D2.96E-031.52E-023.52E-025.20E-023.93E-022.51E-022.30E-022.24E-022.05E-021.89E-021.76E-021.42E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D4.48E+003.15E+001.99E+008.40E-012.88E-011.55E-011.59E-011.62E-011.40E-011.17E-019.90E-025.72E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D1.58E-026.14E-021.03E-011.02E-015.89E-023.39E-023.12E-023.04E-022.77E-022.54E-022.33E-021.87E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44C (E20)01.40E-092.00E-065.14E-042.25E-032.55E-032.56E-032.90E-033.00E-032.93E-032.90E-032.59E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62C (E20)01.40E-092.00E-064.60E-042.06E-032.39E-032.41E-032.71E-032.81E-032.79E-032.69E-032.40E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)4.00E-104.40E-066.11E-041.06E-021.78E-021.43E-021.27E-021.22E-021.11E-021.04E-021.02E-027.71E-03 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0008.00E-083.32E-051.38E-042.10E-043.45E-044.81E-045.43E-045.85E-046.12E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D7.51E-031.55E-021.91E-021.81E-021.23E-028.40E-038.25E-038.47E-038.01E-037.46E-036.97E-035.61E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)001.00E-094.00E-061.97E-043.81E-044.76E-046.94E-048.29E-049.48E-049.73E-049.12E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D7.64E-032.70E-024.58E-025.38E-023.55E-021.42E-028.96E-037.83E-037.22E-036.66E-036.20E-034.97E-03 Skin 2080.04D2.19E-051.30E-034.43E-037.59E-036.13E-034.51E-034.75E-035.19E-034.99E-034.65E-034.33E-033.56E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D05.00E-083.70E-051.49E-034.32E-034.19E-034.01E-034.20E-034.21E-034.09E-033.93E-033.40E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)6.00E-071.72E-043.13E-031.72E-022.18E-021.76E-021.74E-021.72E-021.58E-021.47E-021.37E-021.13E-02 Spleen 376.86D6.22E-043.86E-031.47E-023.54E-023.18E-022.12E-021.98E-021.96E-021.82E-021.69E-021.57E-021.29E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.37E-025.48E-028.16E-028.31E-025.28E-023.29E-023.06E-022.99E-022.74E-022.53E-022.33E-021.85E-02 Thymus 0.79D4.82E-017.02E-015.56E-012.70E-011.04E-015.92E-026.18E-026.54E-025.85E-025.22E-024.66E-022.82E-02 Thyroid 0.98D E(30)03.00E-107.00E-072.53E-041.41E-031.59E-031.69E-031.95E-032.33E-032.21E-032.04E-031.98E-03 Tracheal Wall 39.01D6.07E-051.07E-023.60E-024.75E-023.08E-021.95E-021.86E-021.84E-021.69E-021.56E-021.45E-021.19E-02 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E50)001.00E-094.00E-061.97E-043.94E-044.57E-046.53E-048.34E-049.03E-048.92E-049.13E-04 Uterus 4.14D (E30)008.00E-087.00E-056.39E-049.62E-041.11E-031.37E-031.50E-031.63E-031.55E-031.39E-03 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.01E-023.78E-023.02E-021.83E-021.11E-021.03E-021.04E-029.70E-038.91E-038.22E-036.46E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 65

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Table A-9. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Source s in the Lung (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)1.30E-113.06E-099.38E-081.11E-062.17E-061.37E-061.40E-061.30E-061.19E-061.32E-061.17E-069.66E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)5.36E-111.43E-083.08E-071.64E-062.09E-061.52E-061.37E-061.30E-061.39E-069.37E-071.26E-068.34E-07 Brain 86.15D (E30)003.19E-101.35E-075.00E-061.27E-051.89E-053.11E-054.23E-054.78E-055.03E-055.22E-05 Colon Wall 187.47D3.00E-081.94E-052.01E-049.16E-041.30E-031.04E-039.49E-049.49E-049.13E-048.64E-048.22E-047.05E-04 Esophagus Wall11.56D9.65E-054.17E-048.03E-049.17E-045.64E-043.41E-043.22E-043.12E-042.88E-042.65E-042.45E-041.98E-04 Eyes 9.73C (E50)001.95E-121.07E-091.49E-076.02E-079.73E-071.71E-062.49E-062.98E-063.26E-063.69E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D1.20E-071.29E-055.36E-059.53E-056.74E-054.05E-053.86E-053.71E-053.42E-053.18E-052.95E-052.32E-05 Heart Wall 177.81D5.90E-031.95E-022.76E-022.51E-021.40E-028.27E-037.93E-037.93E-037.33E-036.71E-036.20E-034.82E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E15)1.02E-093.77E-071.32E-052.42E-045.92E-045.48E-045.13E-045.19E-045.03E-044.83E-044.58E-043.89E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D7.30E-071.06E-046.49E-041.74E-031.70E-031.20E-031.13E-031.12E-031.05E-039.81E-049.10E-047.61E-04 Liver 707.80D1.39E-024.39E-027.17E-027.59E-024.58E-022.76E-022.60E-022.56E-022.36E-022.16E-022.00E-021.58E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D2.90E-031.14E-021.93E-021.91E-021.10E-026.33E-035.82E-035.66E-035.17E-034.73E-034.37E-033.48E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D8.67E-016.46E-014.28E-011.91E-016.79E-023.67E-023.72E-023.77E-023.30E-022.81E-022.41E-021.46E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44C (E30)1.87E-126.41E-103.60E-089.48E-072.97E-063.45E-063.38E-063.77E-063.87E-063.78E-063.70E-063.31E-06 Ovary (R) 0.62C (E30)3.39E-121.11E-094.93E-088.66E-072.32E-062.21E-062.16E-062.36E-062.40E-062.33E-062.23E-061.97E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)1.23E-093.45E-077.62E-063.80E-055.27E-053.73E-053.25E-053.19E-052.93E-052.72E-052.49E-052.12E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)006.16E-142.61E-119.66E-102.45E-093.65E-096.01E-098.17E-099.23E-099.71E-091.01E-08 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D9.76E-022.15E-012.85E-012.86E-011.99E-011.36E-011.34E-011.37E-011.30E-011.21E-011.13E-019.16E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E20)04.10E-114.10E-096.23E-077.16E-061.33E-051.64E-052.25E-052.76E-052.92E-053.03E-052.84E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D1.13E-024.68E-028.68E-021.12E-017.77E-023.18E-021.99E-021.73E-021.59E-021.47E-021.37E-021.12E-02 Skin 2080.04D5.98E-053.12E-031.05E-021.69E-021.30E-029.46E-039.95E-031.08E-021.04E-029.71E-039.05E-037.40E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D (E20)1.84E-096.80E-072.39E-054.02E-049.71E-048.98E-048.50E-048.89E-048.86E-048.45E-048.13E-047.00 E-04 Spinal Cord 18.83D1.00E-082.81E-065.75E-053.16E-044.01E-043.19E-043.15E-043.14E-042.91E-042.67E-042.48E-042.02E-04 Spleen 376.86D (E15)9.04E-082.08E-055.01E-043.55E-035.24E-034.03E-033.70E-033.68E-033.47E-033.24E-033.06E-032.54E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.51E-062.41E-041.11E-032.65E-032.42E-031.60E-031.44E-031.38E-031.28E-031.18E-031.10E-039.02E-04 Th y mus 0.79D1.36E-043.14E-042.94E-041.62E-046.89E-053.92E-054.02E-054.05E-053.80E-053.42E-053.05E-052.01E-05 Thyroid 0.98C (E30)1.77E-137.66E-114.42E-092.95E-071.28E-061.49E-061.59E-061.91E-062.04E-062.04E-061.98E-061.78E-06 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D8.79E-042.50E-033.17E-032.60E-031.41E-038.64E-048.30E-048.18E-047.62E-046.97E-046.38E-044.90E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E30)04.07E-114.07E-096.18E-077.09E-061.32E-051.63E-052.23E-052.73E-052.89E-053.00E-052.81E-05 Uterus 4.14C (E30)4.14E-131.78E-101.09E-089.10E-074.32E-065.28E-065.49E-066.52E-067.09E-067.18E-067.07E-066.52E-06 Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.90E-019.35E-017.39E-014.43E-012.68E-012.51E-012.52E-012.35E-012.15E-011.99E-011.56E-01 66

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T able A-10. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Lung (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. rget Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)6.80E-081.60E-054.90E-045.80E-031.13E-027.18E-037.34E-036.80E-036.24E-036.90E-036.10E-035.05E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)4.60E-071.23E-042.65E-031.41E-021.80E-021.31E-021.17E-021.11E-021.19E-028.05E-031.08E-027.16E-03 Brain 86.15D (E30)003.70E-091.57E-065.80E-051.47E-042.19E-043.61E-044.91E-045.55E-045.84E-046.06E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D1.60E-071.03E-041.07E-034.89E-036.92E-035.55E-035.06E-035.06E-034.87E-034.61E-034.38E-033.76E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D8.35E-033.61E-026.95E-027.94E-024.88E-022.95E-022.79E-022.70E-022.49E-022.30E-022.12E-021.71E-02 Eyes 9.73C (E50)002.00E-101.10E-071.53E-056.19E-051.00E-041.76E-042.55E-043.06E-043.35E-043.80E-04 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D1.14E-041.23E-025.11E-029.09E-026.43E-023.86E-023.69E-023.54E-023.26E-023.04E-022.82E-022.22E-02 Heart Wall 177.81D3.32E-021.10E-011.55E-011.41E-017.86E-024.65E-024.46E-024.46E-024.12E-023.77E-023.49E-022.71E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E15)1.00E-083.70E-061.30E-042.38E-035.81E-035.37E-035.03E-035.09E-034.93E-034.74E-034.50E-033.82E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D7.25E-061.05E-036.44E-031.73E-021.69E-021.20E-021.12E-021.11E-021.04E-029.73E-039.03E-037.54E-03 Liver 707.80D1.96E-026.20E-021.01E-011.07E-016.47E-023.89E-023.67E-023.62E-023.33E-023.05E-022.82E-022.23E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D1.56E-026.13E-021.03E-011.02E-015.89E-023.39E-023.12E-023.03E-022.77E-022.53E-022.34E-021.86E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D2.62E+001.95E+001.29E+005.76E-012.05E-011.11E-011.12E-011.14E-019.95E-028.48E-027.28E-024.42E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44C (E30)1.30E-094.45E-072.50E-056.59E-042.06E-032.40E-032.35E-032.62E-032.69E-032.63E-032.57E-032.30E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62C (E30)5.50E-091.80E-068.00E-051.41E-033.77E-033.59E-033.51E-033.83E-033.90E-033.78E-033.62E-033.20E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)6.44E-071.81E-044.00E-032.00E-022.76E-021.96E-021.71E-021.68E-021.54E-021.43E-021.30E-021.11E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)003.70E-091.57E-065.80E-051.47E-042.19E-043.61E-044.91E-045.55E-045.84E-046.06E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.63E-031.24E-021.64E-021.65E-021.14E-027.86E-037.70E-037.89E-037.48E-036.97E-036.52E-035.28E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E20)01.30E-091.30E-071.97E-052.27E-044.22E-045.21E-047.14E-048.73E-049.25E-049.59E-048.99E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou Photon Energy (MeV) Ta s 2452.22D4.61E-031.91E-023.54E-024.55E-023.17E-021.30E-028.11E-037.05E-036.50E-036.01E-035.60E-034.55E-03 Skin 2080.04D2.88E-051.50E-035.04E-038.14E-036.26E-034.55E-034.78E-035.21E-035.02E-034.67E-034.35E-033.56E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D (E20)1.00E-083.70E-061.30E-042.18E-035.28E-034.89E-034.62E-034.84E-034.82E-034.59E-034.42E-033.81 E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D5.31E-071.49E-043.05E-031.68E-022.13E-021.70E-021.67E-021.67E-021.55E-021.42E-021.32E-021.07E-02 Spleen 376.86D (E15)2.40E-075.51E-051.33E-039.41E-031.39E-021.07E-029.81E-039.77E-039.21E-038.60E-038.12E-036.75E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D2.20E-053.51E-031.62E-023.86E-023.53E-022.33E-022.10E-022.01E-021.86E-021.72E-021.60E-021.31E-02 Thymus 0.79D1.72E-013.98E-013.72E-012.05E-018.72E-024.96E-025.08E-025.13E-024.80E-024.33E-023.86E-022.55E-02 Thyroid 0.98C (E30)1.80E-107.80E-084.50E-063.00E-041.30E-031.51E-031.62E-031.94E-032.08E-032.08E-032.02E-031.82E-03 Tracheal Wall 39.01D2.25E-026.41E-028.13E-026.66E-023.62E-022.22E-022.13E-022.10E-021.95E-021.79E-021.63E-021.26E-02 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E30)01.30E-091.30E-071.97E-052.27E-044.22E-045.21E-047.14E-048.73E-049.25E-049.59E-048.99E-04 Uterus 4.14C (E30)1.00E-104.30E-082.64E-062.20E-041.04E-031.28E-031.33E-031.58E-031.72E-031.74E-031.71E-031.58E-03 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.03E-023.81E-023.01E-021.80E-021.09E-021.02E-021.03E-029.57E-038.78E-038.11E-036.36E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 67

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Table A-11. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Source s in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D4.75E-067.06E-068.05E-066.38E-063.93E-062.73E-062.46E-062.57E-062.33E-062.18E-061.99E-061.50E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D3.38E-064.99E-065.15E-064.20E-062.46E-061.53E-061.52E-061.53E-061.47E-061.37E-061.27E-061.00E-06 Brain 86.15D (E15)5.43E-052.12E-044.53E-049.52E-048.83E-046.55E-046.53E-046.69E-046.43E-046.06E-045.62E-044.67E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D1.61E-033.23E-034.17E-034.40E-033.19E-032.14E-032.01E-032.03E-031.91E-031.77E-031.66E-031.35E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.63E-043.00E-043.47E-043.29E-042.17E-041.45E-041.40E-041.42E-041.31E-041.25E-041.16E-049.27E-05 Eyes 9.73D9.52E-052.09E-042.46E-041.90E-041.02E-046.77E-056.86E-057.37E-057.09E-056.49E-056.24E-054.95E-05 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D4.00E-071.75E-064.73E-068.79E-068.96E-066.21E-065.82E-066.00E-065.94E-065.75E-065.13E-064.18E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D7.61E-041.63E-032.26E-032.60E-031.96E-031.35E-031.30E-031.34E-031.28E-031.19E-031.12E-039.26E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D3.56E-049.41E-041.58E-032.03E-031.59E-031.08E-031.01E-031.01E-039.51E-048.86E-048.33E-046.87E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D3.40E-049.11E-041.48E-031.84E-031.40E-039.58E-049.16E-049.32E-048.94E-048.30E-047.82E-046.40E-04 Liver 707.80D1.64E-034.10E-036.49E-038.42E-036.94E-034.88E-034.67E-034.77E-034.57E-034.31E-034.06E-033.37E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D1.57E-033.23E-034.00E-033.78E-032.51E-031.63E-031.56E-031.58E-031.49E-031.39E-031.31E-031.07E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D2.08E-034.60E-036.07E-036.11E-034.16E-032.71E-032.58E-032.62E-032.48E-032.31E-032.18E-031.79E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D1.97E-054.26E-055.23E-054.83E-053.04E-051.89E-051.88E-051.89E-051.81E-051.69E-051.57E-051.24E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D1.05E-051.87E-052.09E-051.62E-059.97E-067.05E-066.80E-067.06E-066.69E-066.46E-065.53E-064.41E-06 Pancreas 1.91D2.37E-053.77E-053.90E-053.77E-052.79E-051.89E-051.75E-051.75E-051.69E-051.57E-051.49E-051.11E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E50)3.33E-088.32E-081.33E-072.16E-072.40E-071.60E-071.53E-071.58E-071.48E-071.39E-071.30E-071.05E-07 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D9.33E-018.27E-017.02E-014.88E-012.77E-011.84E-011.85E-011.93E-011.82E-011.67E-011.55E-011.21E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D2.14E-044.88E-046.63E-046.10E-043.58E-042.31E-042.37E-042.56E-042.41E-042.25E-042.10E-041.74E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D2.23E-025.73E-029.43E-021.28E-019.49E-023.95E-022.54E-022.29E-022.13E-021.98E-021.85E-021.51E-02 Skin 2080.04D2.27E-023.51E-023.63E-022.82E-021.65E-021.15E-021.23E-021.35E-021.29E-021.19E-021.10E-028.66E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D2.38E-033.66E-034.16E-033.92E-032.66E-031.76E-031.69E-031.74E-031.64E-031.54E-031.43E-031.16E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D2.22E-042.56E-042.90E-043.05E-042.92E-042.27E-042.25E-042.31E-042.19E-042.04E-041.87E-041.55E-04 Spleen 376.86D1.03E-032.59E-034.05E-034.92E-033.84E-032.70E-032.61E-032.68E-032.59E-032.44E-032.30E-031.92E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D7.08E-041.01E-031.09E-031.10E-038.30E-045.75E-045.45E-045.50E-045.22E-044.93E-044.56E-043.75E-04 Th y mus 0.79D9.96E-061.70E-052.04E-052.19E-051.25E-057.99E-068.35E-068.29E-068.08E-066.99E-067.26E-065.30E-06 Thyroid 0.98D1.75E-053.09E-053.75E-052.91E-051.69E-051.12E-051.15E-051.15E-051.09E-051.02E-059.17E-067.73E-06 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D5.01E-041.04E-031.27E-031.17E-037.51E-044.97E-044.85E-044.90E-044.59E-044.29E-043.95E-043.20E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D3.98E-046.66E-047.99E-048.22E-045.84E-043.89E-043.76E-043.80E-043.59E-043.35E-043.09E-042.51E-04 Uterus 4.14D1.04E-041.70E-041.83E-041.56E-049.86E-056.46E-056.22E-056.25E-055.80E-055.25E-055.10E-054.05E-05 Total Body Tissues24542.06 9.93E-019.49E-018.72E-016.88E-014.21E-012.57E-012.44E-012.51E-012.37E-012.18E-012.02E-011.60E-01 68

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able A-12. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Residual Soft Tissues T (RST) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D2.48E-023.69E-024.21E-023.33E-022.05E-021.43E-021.28E-021.34E-021.22E-021.14E-021.04E-027.83E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D2.91E-024.28E-024.42E-023.61E-022.11E-021.31E-021.30E-021.31E-021.26E-021.17E-021.09E-028.62E-03 Brain 86.15D (E15)6.30E-042.46E-035.26E-031.11E-021.03E-027.60E-037.58E-037.77E-037.47E-037.03E-036.53E-035.42E-03 Colon Wall 187.47D8.57E-031.72E-022.22E-022.34E-021.70E-021.14E-021.07E-021.08E-021.02E-029.47E-038.85E-037.19E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.41E-022.59E-023.00E-022.85E-021.87E-021.26E-021.21E-021.23E-021.14E-021.08E-021.00E-028.03E-03 Eyes 9.73D9.78E-032.15E-022.53E-021.95E-021.05E-026.95E-037.05E-037.57E-037.28E-036.67E-036.41E-035.08E-03 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D3.81E-041.67E-034.51E-038.39E-038.55E-035.92E-035.55E-035.72E-035.66E-035.48E-034.90E-033.99E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D4.28E-039.14E-031.27E-021.46E-021.10E-027.58E-037.32E-037.52E-037.18E-036.71E-036.30E-035.21E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D3.49E-039.23E-031.55E-022.00E-021.55E-021.06E-029.90E-039.91E-039.33E-038.69E-038.17E-036.74E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D3.37E-039.04E-031.47E-021.83E-021.39E-029.50E-039.08E-039.24E-038.87E-038.24E-037.76E-036.35E-03 Liver 707.80D2.32E-035.79E-039.17E-031.19E-029.80E-036.90E-036.59E-036.74E-036.46E-036.08E-035.73E-034.76E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D8.39E-031.73E-022.14E-022.03E-021.34E-028.73E-038.34E-038.48E-038.00E-037.44E-036.99E-035.71E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D6.28E-031.39E-021.83E-021.85E-021.26E-028.18E-037.78E-037.91E-037.48E-036.98E-036.57E-035.41E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D1.37E-022.96E-023.63E-023.36E-022.11E-021.31E-021.30E-021.31E-021.26E-021.17E-021.09E-028.62E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62D1.71E-023.04E-023.40E-022.63E-021.62E-021.14E-021.10E-021.15E-021.09E-021.05E-028.99E-037.16E-03 Pancreas 1.91D1.25E-021.98E-022.05E-021.98E-021.47E-029.89E-039.20E-039.18E-038.88E-038.24E-037.82E-035.80E-03 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E50)2.00E-035.00E-038.00E-031.30E-021.44E-029.60E-039.22E-039.47E-038.91E-038.37E-037.79E-036.31E-03 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.38E-024.77E-024.04E-022.81E-021.60E-021.06E-021.07E-021.11E-021.05E-029.65E-038.92E-037.00E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D6.78E-031.55E-022.10E-021.93E-021.13E-027.32E-037.50E-038.10E-037.62E-037.14E-036.66E-035.51E-03 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D9.10E-032.34E-023.85E-025.22E-023.87E-021.61E-021.04E-029.32E-038.68E-038.07E-037.53E-036.14E-03 Skin 2080.04D1.09E-021.69E-021.75E-021.36E-027.95E-035.54E-035.92E-036.49E-036.22E-035.72E-035.28E-034.16E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.29E-021.99E-022.26E-022.13E-021.44E-029.60E-039.22E-039.47E-038.91E-038.37E-037.79E-036.31E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D1.18E-021.36E-021.54E-021.62E-021.55E-021.21E-021.19E-021.23E-021.16E-021.08E-029.94E-038.23E-03 Spleen 376.86D2.74E-036.88E-031.08E-021.31E-021.02E-027.16E-036.91E-037.12E-036.87E-036.47E-036.11E-035.09E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.03E-021.47E-021.59E-021.60E-021.21E-028.38E-037.94E-038.00E-037.61E-037.17E-036.64E-035.46E-03 Thymus 0.79D1.26E-022.15E-022.58E-022.77E-021.59E-021.01E-021.06E-021.05E-021.02E-028.84E-039.19E-036.70E-03 Thyroid 0.98D1.79E-023.14E-023.82E-022.97E-021.72E-021.15E-021.17E-021.17E-021.11E-021.04E-029.34E-037.87E-03 Tracheal Wall 39.01D1.29E-022.68E-023.27E-023.01E-021.93E-021.27E-021.24E-021.25E-021.18E-021.10E-021.01E-028.19E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D1.27E-022.13E-022.55E-022.63E-021.87E-021.24E-021.20E-021.21E-021.15E-021.07E-029.89E-038.03E-03 Uterus 4.14D2.52E-024.10E-024.42E-023.77E-022.38E-021.56E-021.51E-021.51E-021.40E-021.27E-021.23E-029.79E-03 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.04E-023.87E-023.55E-022.80E-021.72E-021.05E-029.95E-031.02E-029.64E-038.90E-038.24E-036.52E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 69

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. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sour ces i Table A-13 n the Skeleton of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)003.90E-085.98E-078.76E-071.01E-069.59E-079.73E-079.20E-071.06E-067.39E-075.80E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)5.01E-114.08E-095.39E-083.95E-075.98E-075.59E-075.69E-075.86E-075.67E-075.22E-075.53E-074.23E-07 Brain 86.15D6.59E-041.85E-033.12E-033.66E-032.49E-031.70E-031.72E-031.76E-031.65E-031.53E-031.41E-031.12E-03 Colon Wall 187.47D1.79E-059.98E-053.52E-041.01E-031.37E-031.13E-031.08E-031.09E-031.04E-039.75E-049.21E-047.74E-04 Esophagus Wall11.56D5.80E-071.83E-057.38E-051.63E-041.63E-041.22E-041.18E-041.16E-041.12E-041.03E-049.84E-057.99E-05 Eyes 9.73D3.84E-065.01E-051.30E-041.97E-041.52E-041.06E-041.07E-041.12E-041.08E-049.98E-059.25E-057.57E-05 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)1.05E-091.69E-071.33E-064.31E-065.16E-063.90E-063.59E-064.04E-063.92E-063.59E-063.34E-062.86E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D4.28E-052.95E-047.95E-041.44E-031.38E-031.03E-039.89E-041.01E-039.59E-049.04E-048.62E-047.22E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.51E-079.40E-066.60E-053.27E-045.46E-044.84E-044.57E-044.63E-044.48E-044.25E-044.05E-043.44E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D4.53E-051.37E-042.91E-046.30E-047.43E-045.97E-045.78E-045.90E-045.58E-045.28E-045.00E-044.18E-04 Liver 707.80D1.83E-047.89E-041.98E-033.95E-034.11E-033.17E-033.05E-033.13E-033.01E-032.85E-032.68E-032.28E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D4.71E-041.56E-032.54E-032.97E-032.20E-031.50E-031.45E-031.47E-031.38E-031.29E-031.21E-039.86E-04 Lung (R) 331.38D5.07E-041.95E-033.48E-034.48E-033.51E-032.42E-032.31E-032.34E-032.20E-032.05E-031.92E-031.58E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)9.20E-108.35E-081.03E-068.19E-061.12E-059.09E-068.68E-069.31E-068.47E-068.18E-067.86E-066.61E-06 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)2.65E-102.15E-082.85E-072.09E-063.16E-062.96E-063.00E-063.10E-063.00E-062.76E-062.92E-062.24E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)1.33E-101.05E-082.23E-072.92E-066.37E-066.34E-065.98E-066.34E-065.79E-065.71E-065.43E-064.50E-06 Pituitary Gland 0.02D3.90E-076.71E-078.44E-078.44E-076.46E-074.61E-073.92E-073.98E-073.58E-073.58E-073.50E-072.52E-07 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D4.69E-021.11E-011.77E-012.42E-012.06E-011.54E-011.56E-011.62E-011.54E-011.44E-011.35E-011.09E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D5.00E-088.50E-066.42E-052.31E-042.77E-042.17E-042.20E-042.29E-042.26E-042.07E-042.01E-041.65E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D9.49E-018.66E-017.54E-015.25E-012.47E-018.70E-026.22E-025.97E-025.38E-024.76E-024.24E-022.98E-02 Skin 2080.04D1.46E-036.25E-031.19E-021.70E-021.41E-021.10E-021.18E-021.30E-021.24E-021.15E-021.07E-028.65E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.05E-053.26E-058.36E-052.83E-045.49E-045.30E-045.14E-045.44E-045.42E-045.24E-044.96E-044.31E-04 Spinal Cord 18.83D3.20E-049.21E-041.22E-031.10E-036.59E-044.66E-044.87E-045.02E-044.70E-044.35E-043.97E-043.02E-04 Spleen 376.86D1.92E-046.89E-041.41E-032.27E-032.19E-031.71E-031.68E-031.76E-031.71E-031.61E-031.52E-031.28E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.20E-071.34E-058.34E-052.68E-043.57E-042.93E-042.77E-042.81E-042.71E-042.55E-042.48E-042.08E-04 Th y mus 0.79D9.00E-081.91E-065.32E-068.22E-066.82E-065.39E-065.50E-065.56E-065.40E-064.92E-064.49E-063.49E-06 Thyroid 0.98D (E15)4.22E-093.09E-072.62E-069.69E-061.10E-058.58E-068.29E-068.68E-068.18E-067.47E-067.48E-066.12E-06 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D6.90E-074.87E-052.22E-045.09E-045.31E-044.02E-043.89E-043.90E-043.69E-043.41E-043.18E-042.63E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D2.00E-081.81E-062.24E-051.62E-042.77E-042.31E-042.18E-042.16E-042.07E-041.93E-041.85E-041.53E-04 Uterus 4.14D (E15)3.39E-082.37E-061.39E-053.99E-055.16E-054.19E-053.85E-053.76E-053.59E-053.27E-053.18E-052.65E-05 Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.92E-019.59E-018.07E-014.89E-012.68E-012.45E-012.51E-012.36E-012.17E-012.01E-011.59E-01 70

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T able A-14. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Skeleton of the UF 26rget Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)002.04E-043.13E-034.58E-035.28E-035.01E-035.09E-034.81E-035.52E-033.86E-033.03E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E20)4.30E-073.50E-054.63E-043.39E-035.14E-034.80E-034.88E-035.03E-034.87E-034.48E-034.75E-033.63E-03 Brain 86.15D7.65E-032.15E-023.63E-024.24E-022.89E-021.98E-022.00E-022.05E-021.92E-021.77E-021.64E-021.30E-02 Colon Wall 187.47D9.52E-055.32E-041.88E-035.36E-037.30E-036.05E-035.77E-035.80E-035.53E-035.20E-034.91E-034.13E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D5.02E-051.58E-036.39E-031.41E-021.41E-021.06E-021.02E-021.00E-029.73E-038.93E-038.51E-036.91E-03 Eyes 9.73D3.94E-045.15E-031.33E-022.02E-021.56E-021.09E-021.10E-021.16E-021.11E-021.03E-029.50E-037.77E-03 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)1.00E-061.61E-041.27E-034.11E-034.92E-033.72E-033.43E-033.86E-033.74E-033.42E-033.19E-032.73E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D2.41E-041.66E-034.47E-038.11E-037.78E-035.79E-035.56E-035.68E-035.39E-035.08E-034.85E-034.06E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.48E-069.22E-056.47E-043.20E-035.36E-034.74E-034.48E-034.54E-034.39E-034.17E-033.97E-033.38E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D4.50E-041.36E-032.89E-036.25E-037.37E-035.92E-035.74E-035.85E-035.54E-035.23E-034.96E-034.14E-03 Liver 707.80D2.59E-041.11E-032.80E-035.58E-035.80E-034.48E-034.31E-034.42E-034.25E-034.02E-033.79E-033.22E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D2.52E-038.33E-031.36E-021.59E-021.18E-028.05E-037.75E-037.87E-037.41E-036.89E-036.46E-035.28E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D1.53E-035.89E-031.05E-021.35E-021.06E-027.30E-036.96E-037.07E-036.63E-036.19E-035.80E-034.76E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)6.39E-075.80E-057.15E-045.69E-037.78E-036.31E-036.03E-036.47E-035.88E-035.68E-035.46E-034.59E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)4.30E-073.50E-054.63E-043.39E-035.14E-034.80E-034.88E-035.03E-034.87E-034.48E-034.75E-033.63E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E20)7.00E-085.50E-061.17E-041.54E-033.34E-033.33E-033.14E-033.33E-033.04E-033.00E-032.85E-032.36E-03 Pituitary Gland 0.02D2.34E-024.03E-025.07E-025.07E-023.88E-022.77E-022.36E-022.39E-022.15E-022.15E-022.10E-021.51E-02 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.70E-036.42E-031.02E-021.39E-021.19E-028.89E-038.97E-039.34E-038.89E-038.29E-037.76E-036.29E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D1.58E-062.69E-042.03E-037.31E-038.79E-036.88E-036.95E-037.26E-037.14E-036.55E-036.36E-035.23E-03 Skeleton (Homogeneou kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Ta s 2452.22D3.87E-013.53E-013.08E-012.14E-011.01E-013.55E-022.54E-022.43E-022.20E-021.94E-021.73E-021.22E-02 Skin 2080.04D7.03E-043.00E-035.72E-038.17E-036.76E-035.27E-035.69E-036.25E-035.98E-035.55E-035.16E-034.16E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D5.71E-051.77E-044.55E-041.54E-032.99E-032.88E-032.80E-032.96E-032.95E-032.85E-032.70E-032.35E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D1.70E-024.89E-026.48E-025.82E-023.50E-022.47E-022.58E-022.67E-022.49E-022.31E-022.11E-021.61E-02 Spleen 376.86D5.08E-041.83E-033.75E-036.03E-035.82E-034.53E-034.46E-034.66E-034.53E-034.29E-034.02E-033.40E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.75E-061.95E-041.21E-033.90E-035.21E-034.26E-034.03E-034.09E-033.94E-033.71E-033.61E-033.03E-03 Thymus 0.79D1.14E-042.42E-036.73E-031.04E-028.63E-036.82E-036.96E-037.04E-036.83E-036.22E-035.68E-034.42E-03 Thyroid 0.98D (E15)4.30E-063.15E-042.67E-039.87E-031.13E-028.74E-038.45E-038.85E-038.33E-037.61E-037.61E-036.24E-03 Tracheal Wall 39.01D1.77E-051.25E-035.70E-031.30E-021.36E-021.03E-029.97E-031.00E-029.45E-038.74E-038.15E-036.75E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D6.39E-075.80E-057.15E-045.16E-038.85E-037.38E-036.98E-036.91E-036.61E-036.15E-035.91E-034.89E-03 Uterus 4.14D (E15)8.20E-065.73E-043.37E-039.64E-031.25E-021.01E-029.32E-039.08E-038.68E-037.92E-037.68E-036.42E-03 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.04E-023.91E-023.29E-021.99E-021.09E-021.00E-021.02E-029.61E-038.85E-038.20E-036.47E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 71

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Table A-15. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sour ces in the Spleen of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E15)9.57E-105.50E-074.83E-061.29E-051.22E-058.01E-067.35E-067.27E-066.36E-065.36E-065.42E-064.43E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E15)1.51E-107.99E-081.38E-065.18E-065.79E-064.13E-063.50E-063.13E-062.91E-062.70E-062.71E-062.04E-06 Brain 86.15D (E50)0001.21E-093.90E-071.83E-063.09E-066.90E-061.28E-051.74E-051.85E-052.23E-05 Colon Wall 187.47D3.90E-071.95E-041.55E-035.24E-035.70E-033.94E-033.53E-033.43E-033.19E-032.97E-032.78E-032.30E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E15)2.40E-101.49E-076.99E-065.69E-058.58E-056.67E-056.19E-056.35E-056.09E-055.68E-055.36E-054.64E-05 Eyes 9.73D (E100)0009.73E-137.79E-102.09E-087.30E-082.73E-076.89E-071.11E-061.41E-061.77E-06 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)2.52E-091.31E-061.05E-053.05E-053.15E-052.14E-051.98E-051.94E-051.80E-051.63E-051.62E-051.31E-05 Heart Wall 177.81D (E15)2.31E-091.51E-061.12E-041.16E-031.98E-031.60E-031.48E-031.51E-031.46E-031.38E-031.31E-031.11E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.67E-035.98E-031.16E-021.47E-029.74E-035.93E-035.51E-035.42E-035.01E-034.63E-034.28E-033.47E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E20)3.33E-092.41E-061.42E-041.09E-031.79E-031.45E-031.32E-031.29E-031.22E-031.15E-031.09E-039.01E-04 Liver 707.80D6.15E-031.89E-023.34E-024.37E-023.35E-022.18E-022.02E-021.99E-021.86E-021.72E-021.61E-021.31E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D1.29E-048.02E-043.06E-037.32E-036.44E-034.09E-033.72E-033.67E-033.40E-033.15E-032.93E-032.44E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D (E15)2.82E-081.94E-054.86E-043.44E-035.00E-033.69E-033.29E-033.23E-033.05E-032.86E-032.70E-032.28E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E15)6.48E-114.99E-082.67E-062.02E-053.03E-052.19E-052.06E-051.98E-051.88E-051.80E-051.76E-051.39E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)1.54E-129.24E-106.77E-081.44E-064.34E-064.23E-064.15E-064.35E-064.18E-063.98E-063.50E-063.04E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E15)3.43E-102.56E-079.63E-067.29E-059.60E-056.69E-055.78E-055.47E-055.02E-054.55E-054.43E-053.50E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0002.33E-137.54E-113.54E-105.97E-101.33E-092.47E-093.36E-093.58E-094.30E-09 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D4.67E-021.19E-011.86E-012.25E-011.75E-011.23E-011.19E-011.23E-011.19E-011.12E-011.05E-018.78E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)006.31E-122.02E-081.01E-062.46E-063.30E-065.68E-068.09E-069.47E-061.13E-051.19E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D4.02E-031.61E-023.44E-025.49E-024.59E-022.11E-021.32E-021.15E-021.08E-021.02E-029.65E-038.11E-03 Skin 2080.04D6.29E-052.54E-038.47E-031.47E-021.23E-029.16E-039.54E-031.05E-021.02E-029.55E-038.96E-037.42E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D2.07E-048.96E-042.24E-034.75E-035.05E-033.62E-033.31E-033.26E-033.06E-032.85E-032.68E-032.22E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)9.79E-116.97E-084.00E-066.70E-051.49E-041.45E-041.41E-041.47E-041.43E-041.31E-041.22E-041.05E-04 Spleen 376.86D9.35E-018.06E-016.25E-013.40E-011.38E-017.89E-028.07E-028.31E-027.54E-026.69E-025.97E-024.16E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D4.12E-039.60E-031.33E-021.32E-028.09E-034.85E-034.54E-034.49E-034.14E-033.78E-033.51E-032.77E-03 Th y mus 0.79D ( E20 ) 7.90E-143.16E-112.22E-093.07E-071.40E-061.58E-061.61E-061.83E-061.93E-061.91E-061.87E-061.66E-06 Thyroid 0.98D (E50)02.45E-132.75E-117.85E-091.20E-072.23E-072.84E-074.14E-074.83E-075.58E-075.89E-075.87E-07 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D (E20)3.90E-129.75E-107.41E-081.05E-056.04E-056.60E-056.76E-057.65E-057.80E-057.59E-057.31E-056.73E-05 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)3.44E-121.25E-098.80E-081.21E-055.56E-056.26E-056.36E-057.25E-057.65E-057.56E-057.39E-056.57E -05 Uterus 4.14D (E20)4.96E-122.27E-091.72E-075.99E-061.68E-051.68E-051.80E-051.77E-051.92E-051.68E-051.78E-051.53E-05 Total Body Tissues24542.06 9.99E-019.80E-019.20E-017.30E-014.49E-012.84E-012.70E-012.75E-012.59E-012.39E-012.22E-011.76E-01 72

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Table A-16. Specific Absorbed Frac tions (kg-1) for Photon Sources in the Spleen of the UF kg Canine 26Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E15)5.00E-062.87E-032.52E-026.75E-026.35E-024.19E-023.84E-023.80E-023.32E-022.80E-022.83E-022.32E-02 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D (E15)1.30E-066.86E-041.19E-024.45E-024.97E-023.55E-023.00E-022.69E-022.50E-022.32E-022.33E-021.75E-02 Brain 86.15D (E50)0001.40E-084.53E-062.13E-053.59E-058.01E-051.49E-042.02E-042.15E-042.59E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D2.08E-061.04E-038.29E-032.79E-023.04E-022.10E-021.88E-021.83E-021.70E-021.59E-021.48E-021.23E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E15)2.08E-081.29E-056.05E-044.92E-037.42E-035.77E-035.36E-035.49E-035.27E-034.91E-034.64E-034.01E-03 Eyes 9.73D (E100)0001.00E-108.00E-082.15E-067.50E-062.80E-057.08E-051.14E-041.45E-041.82E-04 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E15)2.40E-061.25E-039.99E-032.91E-023.01E-022.04E-021.89E-021.85E-021.72E-021.55E-021.55E-021.25E-02 Heart Wall 177.81D (E15)1.30E-088.52E-066.28E-046.53E-031.11E-028.98E-038.32E-038.47E-038.19E-037.77E-037.37E-036.22E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.64E-025.87E-021.14E-011.44E-019.55E-025.82E-025.40E-025.32E-024.92E-024.54E-024.20E-023.40E-02 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E20)3.30E-082.39E-051.40E-031.09E-021.78E-021.44E-021.31E-021.28E-021.21E-021.14E-021.08E-028.94E-03 Liver 707.80D8.68E-032.68E-024.72E-026.18E-024.74E-023.08E-022.85E-022.81E-022.62E-022.43E-022.27E-021.85E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D6.92E-044.29E-031.64E-023.92E-023.45E-022.19E-021.99E-021.96E-021.82E-021.69E-021.57E-021.31E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D (E15)8.50E-085.84E-051.47E-031.04E-021.51E-021.11E-029.93E-039.76E-039.20E-038.62E-038.15E-036.88E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E15)4.50E-083.47E-051.86E-031.40E-022.10E-021.52E-021.43E-021.37E-021.31E-021.25E-021.22E-029.69E-03 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)2.50E-091.50E-061.10E-042.34E-037.04E-036.87E-036.75E-037.06E-036.78E-036.46E-035.69E-034.94E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E15)1.80E-071.34E-045.06E-033.83E-025.04E-023.51E-023.04E-022.87E-022.63E-022.39E-022.33E-021.84E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)0001.40E-084.53E-062.13E-053.59E-058.01E-051.49E-042.02E-042.15E-042.59E-04 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.69E-036.85E-031.07E-021.30E-021.01E-027.09E-036.88E-037.12E-036.84E-036.45E-036.08E-035.06E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E50)002.00E-106.40E-073.19E-057.81E-051.04E-041.80E-042.56E-043.00E-043.59E-043.78E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D1.64E-036.56E-031.40E-022.24E-021.87E-028.62E-035.40E-034.69E-034.42E-034.15E-033.94E-033.31E-03 Skin 2080.04D3.02E-051.22E-034.07E-037.08E-035.92E-034.40E-034.59E-035.05E-034.91E-034.59E-034.31E-033.57E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.13E-034.87E-031.22E-022.58E-022.75E-021.97E-021.80E-021.77E-021.67E-021.55E-021.46E-021.21E-02 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)5.20E-093.70E-062.12E-043.56E-037.93E-037.69E-037.50E-037.79E-037.57E-036.95E-036.46E-035.57E-03 Spleen 376.86D2.48E+002.14E+001.66E+009.02E-013.66E-012.09E-012.14E-012.21E-012.00E-011.78E-011.59E-011.10E-01 Stomach Wall 68.66D6.00E-021.40E-011.93E-011.93E-011.18E-017.06E-026.61E-026.53E-026.03E-025.51E-025.11E-024.03E-02 Thymus 0.79D (E20)1.00E-104.00E-082.81E-063.88E-041.78E-032.00E-032.03E-032.32E-032.44E-032.41E-032.36E-032.10E-03 Thyroid 0.98D (E50)02.50E-102.80E-088.00E-061.23E-042.27E-042.90E-044.21E-044.92E-045.68E-046.00E-045.98E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E20)1.00E-102.50E-081.90E-062.68E-041.55E-031.69E-031.73E-031.96E-032.00E-031.94E-031.87E-031.73E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E20)1.10E-104.00E-082.81E-063.88E-041.78E-032.00E-032.03E-032.32E-032.44E-032.41E-032.36E-032.10E -03 Uterus 4.14D (E20)1.20E-095.50E-074.16E-051.45E-034.06E-034.06E-034.36E-034.29E-034.64E-034.06E-034.31E-033.69E-03 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-023.99E-023.75E-022.97E-021.83E-021.16E-021.10E-021.12E-021.05E-029.74E-039.03E-037.16E-03 N ote: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 73

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Table A-17. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Sour ces in the Thyroid of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 S (Kidney L)003.83E-131.60E-104.29E-091.18E-081.97E-083.70E-085.63E-086.71E-087.05E-087.11E-08 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 S (Kidney R)006.29E-131.86E-103.89E-091.02E-081.69E-082.89E-084.21E-084.77E-085.11E-085.07E-08 Brain 86.15D01.00E-084.30E-062.93E-041.18E-031.25E-031.27E-031.34E-031.31E-031.24E-031.17E-031.00E-03 Colon Wall 187.47D (E30)003.75E-101.40E-074.13E-061.02E-051.58E-052.86E-054.27E-055.13E-055.53E-056.00E-05 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.82E-022.63E-022.00E-029.22E-033.23E-031.85E-031.98E-032.12E-031.96E-031.77E-031.56E-039.28E-04 Eyes 9.73D (E50)04.87E-121.95E-099.73E-071.27E-052.97E-053.50E-054.44E-054.82E-054.91E-054.77E-054.13E-05 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E50)01.68E-126.29E-106.29E-083.87E-076.08E-077.38E-079.85E-071.16E-061.14E-061.13E-061.11E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D08.82E-085.28E-061.04E-042.93E-043.25E-043.58E-044.32E-044.59E-044.50E-044.45E-043.86E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E30)002.04E-108.55E-082.28E-066.27E-061.05E-051.97E-053.00E-053.58E-053.76E-053.99E-05 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E30)005.44E-101.61E-073.37E-068.82E-061.46E-052.50E-053.65E-054.13E-054.42E-054.39E-05 Liver 707.80D (E20)05.66E-102.30E-072.77E-051.79E-042.90E-043.64E-045.26E-046.36E-046.74E-046.78E-046.41E-04 Lung (L) 186.72D01.60E-071.21E-051.34E-042.88E-043.00E-043.20E-043.87E-044.09E-044.03E-043.95E-043.52E-04 Lung (R) 331.38D01.79E-071.78E-052.10E-044.86E-045.01E-045.36E-046.44E-046.88E-046.90E-046.69E-046.02E-04 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E100)0001.58E-114.32E-092.30E-084.75E-081.15E-072.13E-072.69E-073.21E-073.80E-07 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E100)0006.77E-121.85E-099.85E-092.03E-084.93E-089.09E-081.15E-071.37E-071.62E-07 Pancreas 1.91S (Spleen)005.91E-111.35E-081.86E-073.77E-075.11E-078.40E-071.10E-061.22E-061.26E-061.23E-06 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)01.93E-128.31E-105.65E-082.27E-072.41E-072.45E-072.59E-072.52E-072.40E-072.27E-071.94E-07 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D3.05E-015.47E-016.35E-015.25E-013.00E-011.93E-011.94E-012.02E-011.91E-011.77E-011.65E-011.32E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E15)1.39E-108.15E-064.03E-041.95E-031.77E-031.16E-031.15E-031.21E-031.14E-031.05E-039.90E-048.11E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D5.40E-072.18E-032.35E-028.41E-028.77E-023.97E-022.46E-022.15E-022.01E-021.87E-021.76E-021.48E-02 Skin 2080.04D7.88E-056.48E-032.00E-022.85E-021.95E-021.32E-021.37E-021.47E-021.40E-021.30E-021.21E-029.82E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D (E30)003.68E-101.54E-074.00E-061.07E-051.64E-053.16E-054.68E-055.69E-056.01E-056.55E-05 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)1.88E-109.09E-076.22E-054.42E-045.40E-044.14E-044.05E-044.06E-043.78E-043.56E-043.27E-042.70E-04 Spleen 376.86D (E30)001.17E-082.68E-063.67E-057.45E-051.01E-041.66E-042.18E-042.42E-042.50E-042.44E-04 Stomach Wall 68.66D004.26E-098.61E-071.02E-051.90E-052.50E-053.79E-054.77E-055.04E-055.26E-055.03E-05 Th y mus 0.79D ( E20 ) 07.90E-101.26E-072.61E-065.49E-064.85E-064.67E-064.98E-065.22E-065.15E-064.77E-064.46E-06 Thyroid 0.98D5.67E-012.65E-011.29E-014.19E-021.22E-027.33E-038.29E-038.48E-036.34E-034.45E-033.23E-031.32E-03 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D1.09E-011.43E-011.06E-014.79E-021.65E-029.39E-039.96E-031.05E-029.72E-038.71E-037.59E-034.55E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E100)0005.32E-123.88E-098.32E-083.19E-071.07E-062.17E-062.93E-063.36E-064.62E-06 Uterus 4.14D (E100)0006.20E-122.98E-093.14E-088.89E-082.45E-074.90E-076.76E-078.43E-079.15E-07 Total Body Tissues24542.06 1.00E+009.90E-019.34E-017.40E-014.44E-012.69E-012.57E-012.65E-012.49E-012.29E-012.12E-011.68E-01 74

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Table A-18. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Photon Sources in the Thyroid of the UF kg Canine 26Phantom. Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 S (Kidney L)002.00E-098.38E-072.24E-056.15E-051.03E-041.93E-042.94E-043.51E-043.68E-043.71E-04 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 S (Kidney R)005.40E-091.60E-063.34E-058.75E-051.45E-042.48E-043.62E-044.10E-044.39E-044.35E-04 Brain 86.15D01.16E-075.00E-053.40E-031.37E-021.45E-021.47E-021.56E-021.52E-021.44E-021.36E-021.16E-02 Colon Wall 187.47D (E30)002.00E-097.45E-072.20E-055.45E-058.43E-051.52E-042.28E-042.73E-042.95E-043.20E-04 Esophagus Wall11.56D1.57E+002.27E+001.73E+007.98E-012.79E-011.60E-011.72E-011.83E-011.70E-011.53E-011.35E-018.03E-02 Eyes 9.73D (E50)05.00E-102.00E-071.00E-041.30E-033.06E-033.60E-034.57E-034.95E-035.05E-034.90E-034.25E-03 Gall Bladder Wall1.05D (E50)01.60E-096.00E-076.00E-053.70E-045.80E-047.04E-049.40E-041.11E-031.09E-031.08E-031.06E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D04.96E-072.97E-055.86E-041.65E-031.83E-032.01E-032.43E-032.58E-032.53E-032.50E-032.17E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E30)002.00E-098.38E-072.24E-056.15E-051.03E-041.93E-042.94E-043.51E-043.68E-043.91E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E30)005.40E-091.60E-063.34E-058.75E-051.45E-042.48E-043.62E-044.10E-044.39E-044.35E-04 Liver 707.80D (E20)08.00E-103.25E-073.91E-052.54E-044.09E-045.14E-047.44E-048.98E-049.52E-049.58E-049.05E-04 Lung (L) 186.72D08.55E-076.47E-057.19E-041.54E-031.61E-031.71E-032.07E-032.19E-032.16E-032.11E-031.89E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D05.40E-075.37E-056.35E-041.47E-031.51E-031.62E-031.94E-032.08E-032.08E-032.02E-031.82E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E100)0001.10E-083.00E-061.60E-053.30E-058.00E-051.48E-041.87E-042.23E-042.64E-04 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E100)0001.10E-083.00E-061.60E-053.30E-058.00E-051.48E-041.87E-042.23E-042.64E-04 Pancreas 1.91S (Spleen)003.10E-087.10E-069.75E-051.98E-042.68E-044.41E-045.79E-046.41E-046.62E-046.47E-04 Pituitary Gland 0.02S (Brain)01.16E-075.00E-053.40E-031.37E-021.45E-021.47E-021.56E-021.52E-021.44E-021.36E-021.16E-02 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.76E-023.15E-023.66E-023.03E-021.73E-021.11E-021.12E-021.16E-021.10E-021.02E-029.51E-037.58E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E15)4.40E-092.58E-041.28E-026.18E-025.61E-023.69E-023.65E-023.82E-023.61E-023.34E-023.14E-022.57E-02 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D2.20E-078.89E-049.59E-033.43E-023.58E-021.62E-021.00E-028.78E-038.19E-037.62E-037.18E-036.02E-03 Skin 2080.04D3.79E-053.11E-039.63E-031.37E-029.36E-036.34E-036.58E-037.08E-036.75E-036.23E-035.79E-034.72E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D (E30)002.00E-098.38E-072.18E-055.84E-058.94E-051.72E-042.55E-043.09E-043.27E-043.56E-04 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E15)1.00E-084.83E-053.31E-032.35E-022.87E-022.20E-022.15E-022.16E-022.01E-021.89E-021.74E-021.43E-02 Spleen 376.86D (E30)003.10E-087.10E-069.75E-051.98E-042.68E-044.41E-045.79E-046.41E-046.62E-046.47E-04 Stomach Wall 68.66D006.20E-081.25E-051.49E-042.77E-043.64E-045.52E-046.94E-047.35E-047.66E-047.32E-04 Thymus 0.79D (E20)01.00E-061.60E-043.30E-036.94E-036.13E-035.91E-036.30E-036.61E-036.52E-036.03E-035.64E-03 Thyroid 0.98D5.78E+022.70E+021.31E+024.27E+011.25E+017.46E+008.45E+008.64E+006.45E+004.54E+003.29E+001.35E+00 Tracheal Wall 39.01D2.79E+003.67E+002.72E+001.23E+004.24E-012.41E-012.55E-012.69E-012.49E-012.23E-011.95E-011.17E-01 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D (E100)0001.70E-101.24E-072.66E-061.02E-053.41E-056.93E-059.38E-051.07E-041.48E-04 Uterus 4.14D (E100)0001.50E-097.20E-077.60E-062.15E-055.92E-051.18E-041.64E-042.04E-042.21E-04 Total Body Tissues24542.06 4.07E-024.03E-023.81E-023.02E-021.81E-021.10E-021.05E-021.08E-021.01E-029.34E-038.65E-036.83E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 75

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Table A-19. Absorbed Fractions for Photon Source s in the Urinary Bladde r Content of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom 06 07 09 Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)3.83E-132.24E-101.00E-085.92E-071.73E-061.71E-061.67E-061.46E-061.49E-061.50E-061.49E-061.23E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D8.85E-143.68E-112.01E-091.66E-076.13E-076.39E-076.24E-076.63E-076.68E-076.38E-076.20E-075.42E-07 Brain 86.15D (E100) 00007.58E-111.21E-081.14E-076.67E-071.68E-062.66E-063.79E-065.93EColon Wall 187.47D3.69E-043.39E-039.40E-031.48E-021.07E-026.70E-036.23E-036.14E-035.70E-035.28E-034.92E-034.03E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E30)001.96E-111.08E-084.78E-071.36E-061.91E-063.21E-064.43E-064.85E-065.14E-065.10E-06 Eyes 9.73D (E200) 000005.55E-111.82E-093.08E-081.04E-071.62E-072.42E-073.84EGall Bladder Wall1.05D (E30)01.89E-131.99E-118.81E-092.59E-075.65E-076.93E-078.78E-071.16E-061.13E-061.26E-061.32E-06 Heart Wall 177.81D (E30)006.05E-102.68E-071.03E-052.67E-053.64E-056.05E-058.36E-059.76E-051.00E-041.07E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E20)3.47E-101.73E-078.37E-063.76E-041.03E-039.45E-048.82E-048.94E-048.68E-048.23E-047.84E-046.71E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E20)7.66E-113.19E-081.74E-061.44E-045.31E-045.53E-045.40E-045.74E-045.78E-045.52E-045.37E-044.69E-04 Liver 707.80D (E 20)06.65E-105.42E-082.13E-053.87E-046.25E-047.10E-049.00E-041.05E-031.10E-031.10E-031.05E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D (E30)01.18E-108.22E-092.29E-063.87E-057.58E-059.14E-051.29E-041.61E-041.72E-041.79E-041.78E-04 Lung (R) 331.38D (E20)02.65E-101.96E-086.02E-068.44E-051.51E-041.79E-042.46E-042.96E-043.19E-043.25E-043.19E-04 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)1.44E-104.89E-081.99E-062.73E-054.46E-053.36E-052.96E-052.90E-052.81E-052.51E-052.45E-051.98E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)6.16E-122.46E-091.18E-074.54E-061.00E-058.51E-067.76E-067.76E-067.43E-067.19E-066.64E-065.84E-06 Pancreas 1.91D (E30)04.00E-112.21E-093.62E-073.37E-064.58E-065.07E-065.21E-065.27E-065.30E-065.53E-064.35E-06 Pituitary Gland0.02S (Brain)00001.46E-142.33E-122.21E-111.29E-103.24E-105.14E-107.32E-101.14EResidual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.03E-021.34E-012.73E-013.80E-012.98E-012.03E-011.93E-011.96E-011.85E-011.73E-011.62E-011.34E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E100)0003.16E-121.17E-093.73E-081.58E-074.05E-078.38E-071.27E-061.67E-062.82E-06 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D1.60E-071.31E-044.41E-034.00E-026.47E-023.47E-022.06E-021.67E-021.53E-021.43E-021.35E-021.14E-02 Skin 2080.04D1.32E-037.28E-031.51E-021.94E-021.46E-021.05E-021.08E-021.16E-021.11E-021.03E-029.64E-037.91E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D1.40E-076.17E-055.94E-042.42E-032.97E-032.22E-032.08E-032.11E-032.03E-031.91E-031.81E-031.53E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)5.65E-122.45E-091.30E-071.31E-055.31E-056.02E-056.16E-056.40E-056.27E-055.91E-055.65E-054.93E-05 Spleen 376.86D (E20)07.91E-094.37E-077.16E-056.66E-049.05E-041.00E-031.03E-031.04E-031.05E-031.09E-038.61E-04 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E30)03.02E-102.47E-085.69E-066.76E-051.01E-041.09E-041.30E-041.43E-041.46E-041.46E-041.36E-04 Th y mus 0.79C ( E50 ) 001.11E-134.74E-117.71E-093.35E-086.11E-089.83E-081.58E-071.96E-072.23E-072.45E-07 Thyroid 0.98C (E100)0001.87E-124.03E-104.54E-091.39E-083.54E-086.81E-089.21E-081.05E-071.45E-07 Tracheal Wal l 39.01D (E50)005.46E-122.34E-093.47E-071.78E-062.80E-065.32E-067.70E-068.96E-061.04E-051.11E-05 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D6.00E-028.62E-028.00E-024.75E-021.92E-021.08E-021.10E-021.14E-021.05E-029.51E-038.60E-036.10E-03 Uterus 4.14D9.39E-071.77E-047.51E-041.15E-037.18E-044.21E-043.89E-043.84E-043.48E-043.19E-042.95E-042.41E-04 Total Body Tissues24542.06 8.19E-022.31E-013.83E-015.06E-014.14E-012.72E-012.48E-012.48E-012.34E-012.19E-012.05E-011.69E-01 76

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Table A-20. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Photon Sources in the Urinary Bladder Content of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. 05 05 05 Photon Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19D (E20)2.00E-091.17E-065.23E-053.10E-039.04E-038.96E-038.74E-037.65E-037.78E-037.85E-037.76E-036.42E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12D7.60E-103.16E-071.72E-051.42E-035.27E-035.49E-035.35E-035.69E-035.74E-035.48E-035.32E-034.65E-03 Brain 86.15D (E100) 00008.80E-101.40E-071.33E-067.74E-061.95E-053.09E-054.40E-056.88EColon Wall 187.47D1.97E-031.81E-025.01E-027.89E-025.69E-023.57E-023.32E-023.27E-023.04E-022.82E-022.62E-022.15E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56D (E30)001.70E-099.31E-074.14E-051.18E-041.65E-042.78E-043.84E-044.20E-044.45E-044.41E-04 Eyes 9.73D (E200) 000005.70E-091.87E-073.17E-061.06E-051.67E-052.49E-053.94EGall Bladder Wall1.05D (E30)01.80E-101.90E-088.40E-062.47E-045.39E-046.61E-048.37E-041.11E-031.08E-031.21E-031.26E-03 Heart Wall 177.81D (E30)003.40E-091.51E-065.80E-051.50E-042.05E-043.40E-044.70E-045.49E-045.64E-046.01E-04 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E20)3.40E-091.70E-068.21E-053.69E-031.01E-029.27E-038.65E-038.77E-038.51E-038.07E-037.69E-036.58E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D (E20)7.60E-103.16E-071.72E-051.42E-035.27E-035.49E-035.35E-035.69E-035.74E-035.48E-035.32E-034.65E-03 Liver 707.80D (E 20)09.40E-107.66E-083.01E-055.46E-048.83E-041.00E-031.27E-031.48E-031.55E-031.55E-031.48E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D (E30)06.30E-104.40E-081.22E-052.07E-044.06E-044.89E-046.91E-048.61E-049.23E-049.56E-049.51E-04 Lung (R) 331.38D (E20)08.00E-105.93E-081.82E-052.55E-044.55E-045.41E-047.42E-048.94E-049.63E-049.81E-049.62E-04 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E20)1.00E-073.40E-051.38E-031.89E-023.10E-022.33E-022.05E-022.01E-021.95E-021.74E-021.70E-021.38E-02 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E20)1.00E-084.00E-061.92E-047.37E-031.63E-021.38E-021.26E-021.26E-021.21E-021.17E-021.08E-029.48E-03 Pancreas 1.91D (E30)02.10E-081.16E-061.90E-041.77E-032.40E-032.66E-032.74E-032.77E-032.78E-032.90E-032.28E-03 Pituitary Gland0.02S (Brain)00008.80E-101.40E-071.33E-067.74E-061.95E-053.09E-054.40E-056.88EResidual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.17E-037.71E-031.57E-022.19E-021.72E-021.17E-021.11E-021.13E-021.07E-029.95E-039.34E-037.71E-0 3 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E100)0001.00E-103.70E-081.18E-065.02E-061.28E-052.65E-054.02E-055.30E-058.93E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneou s 2452.22D6.52E-085.33E-051.80E-031.63E-022.64E-021.41E-028.40E-036.82E-036.25E-035.83E-035.50E-034.64E-03 Skin 2080.04D6.33E-043.50E-037.26E-039.34E-037.00E-035.05E-035.17E-035.57E-035.35E-034.97E-034.64E-033.80E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85D7.62E-073.35E-043.23E-031.32E-021.61E-021.21E-021.13E-021.15E-021.10E-021.04E-029.85E-038.32E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D (E20)3.00E-101.30E-076.89E-066.94E-042.82E-033.20E-033.27E-033.40E-033.33E-033.14E-033.00E-032.62E-03 Spleen 376.86D (E20)02.10E-081.16E-061.90E-041.77E-032.40E-032.66E-032.74E-032.77E-032.78E-032.90E-032.28E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E30)04.40E-093.60E-078.29E-059.84E-041.47E-031.59E-031.89E-032.08E-032.12E-032.13E-031.98E-03 Thymus 0.79C (E50)001.40E-106.00E-089.75E-064.24E-057.73E-051.24E-042.00E-042.49E-042.82E-043.10E-04 Thyroid 0.98C (E100)0001.90E-094.10E-074.62E-061.42E-053.61E-056.93E-059.38E-051.07E-041.48E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E50)001.40E-106.00E-088.90E-064.56E-057.19E-051.36E-041.97E-042.30E-042.67E-042.85E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29D1.92E+002.75E+002.56E+001.52E+006.13E-013.45E-013.52E-013.64E-013.37E-013.04E-012.75E-011.95E-01 Uterus 4.14D2.27E-044.29E-021.82E-012.77E-011.74E-011.02E-019.41E-029.28E-028.42E-027.72E-027.13E-025.82E-02 Total Body Tissues24542.06 3.34E-039.41E-031.56E-022.06E-021.69E-021.11E-021.01E-021.01E-029.55E-038.91E-038.36E-036.88E-03 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 77

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APPENDIX B ELECTRON TAB LES This appendix contains the electron absorbed fraction and specific ab sorbed fraction values for the main organs of interest in radionuclide therapy. Since the amount of data generated by the canine phantom dosimetry calculations was too va st to be contained in this file, only the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions for certain organs are listed in this appendix. The tables containing the values for the re st of the organs can be found online at http://jnm.snmjournals.org. The tables are list ed as Appendix B for the article titled Canine Anatomic Phantom for Preclinical Dosimetry in Internal Emitter Therapy (J Nucl Med 2008; 49:446). The organs omitted from this appendix are the left and right adrenal glands, the brain, the colon wall and conten t, the esophageal wall, the ey es, the gall bladder wall and content, the heart wall and conten t, the left and right ovaries, the pancreas, the pituitary gland, the salivary glands, the skin, the small intestine wall and contents, the spinal cord, the stomach wall and contents, the thymus, the tracheal wa ll, the urinary bladde r wall and the uterus. 78

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Table B-1. Absorbed Fractions for Electr e Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E500)6.32E-101.25E-091.96E-094.53E-091.10E-083.37E-081.02E-073.55E-075.69E-063.81E-059.16E-052.64E-04 0 0 9.46E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56 000000000000 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.91E-019.68E-019.34E-019.00E-018.66E-017.32E-01 000 000 000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 70E-04 0 0 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 E-0 1 0 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 9E-03 0 92E-02 Stomach Wall68.66 000000000000 00 00 00 0 0 E-01 on Sources in th Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 00000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47E5003.80E-077.98E-071.45E-062.98E-068.20E-062.52E-056.83E-052.58E-047.47E-041.79E-033.16E-03 Eyes 9.73 000000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 000000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E500)1.20E-092.38E-093.74E-098.64E-092.10E-086.41E-081.95E-076.76E-077.12E-064.87E-051.51E-047. Ovary (R) 0.62 00000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D4.69E-059.68E-051.64E-043.39E-048.48E-042.71E-038.08E-032.79E-025.72E-028.51E-021.12E-012.05 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E500)2.80E-085.78E-089.80E-082.03E-075.07E-071.62E-064.82E-061.67E-057.23E-052.54E-045.38E-042.0 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D4.91E-069.71E-061.52E-053.52E-058.55E-052.61E-047.94E-042.75E-035.85E-039.19E-031.29E-022. Thymus 0.79 0000000000 Thyroid 0.98 0000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 0000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.97E-019.95E-019.78 79

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Table B-2. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Kidney (Left) of the UF 26-kg C anine Phantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E500)3.31E-066.54E-061.03E-052.37E-055.76E-051.76E-045.35E-041.85E-032.97E-021.99E-014.79E-011.38E+00 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D (E500)2.03E-064.26E-067.72E-061.59E-054.38E-051.35E-043.64E-041.37E-033.98E-039.53E-031.69E-025.05E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L) 101.97D9.81E+009.81E+009.81E+009.80E+009.80E+009.78E+009.72E+009.49E+009.16E+008.83E+008.49E+007.17E+00 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E500)8.37E-071.66E-062.60E-066.00E-061.46E-054.45E-051.35E-044.69E-044.95E-033.38E-021.05E-015.35E-01 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.71E-065.58E-069.46E-061.96E-054.89E-051.56E-044.66E-041.61E-033.30E-034.91E-036.48E-031.18E-0 2 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E500)1.53E-073.14E-075.33E-071.10E-062.76E-068.80E-062.62E-059.06E-053.93E-041.38E-032.92E-031.1 4E-02 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D1.30E-052.58E-054.04E-059.34E-052.27E-046.93E-042.11E-037.31E-031.55E-022.44E-023.42E-027.74E-02 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-023.98E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 80

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Table B-3. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sour ces in the Kidney (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)4.58E-111.16E-101.70E-103.69E-109.54E-103.05E-098.92E-093.04E-086.36E-089.27E-082.33E-079.87E-06 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D (E500)9.26E-081.98E-073.40E-077.07E-071.74E-065.60E-061.66E-055.72E-052.60E-048.04E-041.67E-036.35E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.90E-019.67E-019.32E-018.97E-018.62E-017.27E-01 Liver 707.80D3.15E-066.91E-061.22E-052.60E-056.63E-052.12E-046.18E-042.17E-034.68E-037.42E-031.04E-022.35E-02 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62D5.64E-101.43E-092.09E-094.55E-091.17E-083.75E-081.10E-074.36E-075.32E-064.02E-051.18E-044.29E-04 Pancreas 1.91D1.45E-103.22E-105.37E-101.04E-092.54E-098.18E-092.32E-088.14E-082.03E-072.50E-073.06E-075.56E-07 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D4.50E-059.59E-051.65E-043.43E-048.46E-042.72E-038.07E-032.78E-025.69E-028.47E-021.12E-012.06E-0 1 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D2.25E-065.68E-068.33E-061.81E-054.68E-051.49E-044.38E-041.49E-033.12E-034.55E-035.66E-038.05E-0 3 Skin 2080.04D5.62E-071.25E-062.08E-064.02E-069.83E-063.17E-058.99E-053.15E-047.87E-041.55E-032.54E-037.75E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14D3.14E-106.99E-101.16E-092.25E-095.51E-091.78E-085.03E-081.77E-074.41E-078.65E-072.27E-061.25E-04 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.97E-019.95E-019.79E-01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 81

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Table B-4. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Kidney (Right) of UF 26-kg Canine P the hantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)3.93E-079.94E-071.46E-063.17E-068.19E-062.61E-057.66E-052.61E-045.46E-047.96E-042.00E-038.47E-0 2 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D (E500)4.94E-071.05E-061.82E-063.77E-069.28E-062.99E-058.86E-053.05E-041.39E-034.29E-038.92E-033.38E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80D9.92E+009.92E+009.92E+009.92E+009.91E+009.89E+009.83E+009.60E+009.25E+008.90E+008.56E+007.21E+00 Liver 707.80D4.46E-069.77E-061.73E-053.67E-059.36E-053.00E-048.73E-043.06E-036.62E-031.05E-021.48E-023.32E-02 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62D9.17E-072.32E-063.40E-067.39E-061.91E-056.09E-051.79E-047.09E-048.64E-036.52E-021.92E-016.96E-01 Pancreas 1.91D7.60E-081.69E-072.82E-075.44E-071.33E-064.29E-061.22E-054.27E-051.07E-041.31E-041.61E-042.92E-04 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.59E-065.53E-069.53E-061.98E-054.87E-051.57E-044.65E-041.60E-033.28E-034.88E-036.45E-031.19E-0 2 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D9.17E-072.32E-063.40E-067.39E-061.91E-056.09E-051.79E-046.09E-041.27E-031.85E-032.31E-033.28E-0 3 Skin 2080.04D2.70E-076.00E-071.00E-061.93E-064.73E-061.52E-054.32E-051.52E-043.78E-047.43E-041.22E-033.72E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14D7.60E-081.69E-072.82E-075.44E-071.33E-064.29E-061.22E-054.27E-051.07E-042.09E-045.50E-043.02E-02 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-023.99E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 82

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Table B-5. Absorbed Fractions for Electron S ources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D2.03E-075.06E-079.74E-072.13E-065.13E-061.55E-054.88E-051.56E-043.24E-044.82E-046.37E-041.25E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)2.39E-097.97E-091.65E-083.97E-081.23E-073.71E-079.76E-073.52E-068.75E-062.13E-054.50E-051.11E-04 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D6.26E-071.29E-062.28E-064.77E-061.12E-053.62E-051.09E-043.53E-046.04E-047.04E-047.52E-049.31E-04 Heart Wall 177.81D5.33E-081.78E-073.69E-078.86E-072.75E-068.29E-062.18E-057.86E-051.96E-043.90E-046.32E-042.06E-03 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80D5.04E-071.01E-061.71E-063.47E-061.00E-052.88E-058.44E-052.96E-046.45E-041.02E-031.46E-033.26E-03 Liver 707.80D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.92E-019.72E-019.41E-019.11E-018.82E-017.71E-01 Lung (L) 186.72D4.04E-079.38E-071.68E-063.19E-068.83E-062.63E-057.07E-052.12E-045.00E-049.13E-041.42E-034.10E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D5.60E-061.11E-052.08E-054.17E-051.04E-043.34E-049.61E-043.00E-036.61E-031.06E-021.47E-023.00E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)2.39E-104.82E-108.42E-101.79E-095.01E-091.65E-084.53E-081.53E-073.33E-075.21E-077.13E-071.48E-06 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D3.25E-056.90E-051.15E-042.38E-045.96E-041.90E-035.72E-031.97E-024.04E-025.92E-027.69E-021.35E-0 1 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D1.25E-062.51E-064.39E-069.32E-062.61E-058.58E-052.36E-047.99E-041.74E-032.72E-033.72E-037.71E-0 3 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D2.80E-066.03E-069.30E-061.79E-054.66E-051.46E-044.47E-041.50E-033.13E-034.75E-036.51E-031.33E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D8.24E-071.89E-063.11E-066.60E-061.64E-054.97E-051.48E-045.21E-041.12E-031.71E-032.37E-034.92E-03 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.96E-019.94E-019.91E-019.73E-01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 83

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Table B-6. Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Liver of the UF 26-kg Ca Phantom. nine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D1.08E-062.70E-065.19E-061.13E-052.74E-058.28E-052.60E-048.33E-041.73E-032.57E-033.40E-036.68E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)2.07E-076.90E-071.43E-063.44E-061.07E-053.21E-058.44E-053.05E-047.57E-041.84E-033.89E-039.58E-03 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D5.97E-041.23E-032.17E-034.55E-031.07E-023.45E-021.04E-013.37E-015.76E-016.72E-017.17E-018.88E-01 Heart Wall 177.81D3.00E-071.00E-062.07E-064.98E-061.55E-054.66E-051.22E-044.42E-041.10E-032.19E-033.56E-031.16E-02 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R) 100.80D5.00E-069.99E-061.70E-053.44E-059.92E-052.85E-048.37E-042.93E-036.40E-031.01E-021.45E-023.23E-02 Liver 707.80D1.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.41E+001.40E+001.37E+001.33E+001.29E+001.25E+001.09E+00 Lung (L) 186.72D2.16E-065.03E-069.00E-061.71E-054.73E-051.41E-043.78E-041.14E-032.68E-034.89E-037.62E-032.19E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D1.69E-053.34E-056.27E-051.26E-043.13E-041.01E-032.90E-039.04E-032.00E-023.20E-024.45E-029.06E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)1.26E-072.53E-074.42E-079.38E-072.63E-068.64E-062.38E-058.04E-051.75E-042.73E-043.74E-047.77E-04 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.88E-063.98E-066.61E-061.37E-053.43E-051.10E-043.30E-041.13E-032.33E-033.42E-034.43E-037.76E-0 3 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D5.09E-071.02E-061.79E-063.80E-061.07E-053.50E-059.63E-053.26E-047.08E-041.11E-031.52E-033.15E-0 3 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D7.44E-061.60E-052.47E-054.76E-051.24E-043.86E-041.19E-033.98E-038.31E-031.26E-021.73E-023.53E-02 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.20E-052.76E-054.53E-059.61E-052.38E-047.24E-042.15E-037.59E-031.63E-022.50E-023.46E-027.17E-02 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-024.04E-023.96E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 84

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Table B-7. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Lung (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47D (E1000)000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D7.85E-071.60E-063.17E-065.86E-061.62E-055.44E-051.51E-044.90E-049.65E-041.35E-031.67E-033.41E-03 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall 177.81D1.18E-062.41E-064.18E-068.58E-062.27E-056.75E-051.95E-047.68E-042.93E-037.43E-031.30E-023.05E-02 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D1.46E-063.41E-065.48E-061.17E-053.02E-059.47E-052.68E-048.21E-041.93E-033.43E-035.29E-031.51E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D1.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.99E-019.97E-019.91E-019.73E-019.15E-018.21E-017.32E-016.54E-014.32E-01 Lung (R) 331.38D4.02E-068.81E-061.56E-053.25E-058.13E-052.48E-046.98E-042.05E-034.87E-038.24E-031.21E-022.89E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.39E-042.86E-044.72E-049.87E-042.41E-037.70E-032.26E-027.17E-021.48E-012.14E-012.66E-013.92E-0 1 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D1.26E-052.61E-054.21E-059.27E-052.27E-047.16E-042.10E-037.13E-031.67E-022.75E-023.76E-025.87E-0 2 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D2.27E-074.15E-076.57E-071.55E-063.93E-061.31E-053.31E-051.00E-042.41E-044.19E-045.93E-041.69E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.73E-073.98E-077.21E-071.43E-063.70E-061.25E-053.62E-051.60E-046.85E-041.72E-032.90E-035.81E-03 Thymus 0.79D2.79E-077.78E-071.52E-063.16E-067.11E-062.00E-055.96E-051.96E-044.34E-046.59E-047.61E-046.21E-04 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.96E-019.94E-019.69E-01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85

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Table B-8. Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Lung (Left) of the UF 26-kg Canine Pha ntom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D6.79E-051.38E-042.75E-045.07E-041.41E-034.71E-031.30E-024.24E-028.35E-021.17E-011.45E-012.95E-01 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall 177.81D6.63E-061.36E-052.35E-054.82E-051.28E-043.79E-041.10E-034.32E-031.65E-024.18E-027.32E-021.71E-01 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D2.07E-064.82E-067.74E-061.65E-054.27E-051.34E-043.79E-041.16E-032.72E-034.85E-037.47E-032.14E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D5.35E+005.35E+005.35E+005.35E+005.34E+005.31E+005.21E+004.90E+004.40E+003.92E+003.50E+002.31E+00 Lung (R) 331.38D1.21E-052.66E-054.71E-059.80E-052.45E-047.48E-042.11E-036.17E-031.47E-022.49E-023.65E-028.72E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D7.99E-061.65E-052.72E-055.69E-051.39E-044.44E-041.30E-034.13E-038.54E-031.23E-021.54E-022.26E-0 2 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D5.12E-061.06E-051.72E-053.78E-059.25E-052.92E-048.58E-042.91E-036.81E-031.12E-021.53E-022.39E-0 2 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D6.04E-071.10E-061.74E-064.11E-061.04E-053.47E-058.78E-052.66E-046.38E-041.11E-031.57E-034.48E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D2.52E-065.80E-061.05E-052.08E-055.39E-051.82E-045.27E-042.33E-039.97E-032.50E-024.22E-028.46E-02 Thymus 0.79D3.53E-049.84E-041.92E-034.00E-039.00E-032.54E-027.55E-022.48E-015.50E-018.33E-019.63E-017.85E-01 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-023.95E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 86

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Table B-9. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Lung (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canin Phantom e 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)8.04E-081.57E-073.06E-075.88E-071.42E-064.44E-061.21E-053.67E-058.75E-051.47E-042.17E-046.44E-04 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)1.00E-102.07E-103.40E-107.16E-101.80E-095.74E-091.64E-085.52E-081.35E-072.92E-079.43E-079.71E-0 6 Heart Wall 177.81D3.57E-068.51E-061.38E-053.09E-057.25E-052.32E-046.81E-042.28E-035.52E-039.82E-031.47E-022.99E-02 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D1.26E-052.50E-054.33E-059.21E-052.21E-047.18E-042.05E-036.48E-031.41E-022.25E-023.11E-026.21E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D2.49E-064.87E-069.49E-061.82E-054.41E-051.38E-043.76E-041.14E-032.72E-034.57E-036.72E-031.62E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.93E-019.79E-019.32E-018.55E-017.81E-017.13E-015.04E-01 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.02E-042.10E-043.57E-047.22E-041.76E-035.66E-031.66E-025.30E-021.10E-011.60E-012.03E-013.16E-0 1 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D7.05E-061.46E-052.40E-055.05E-051.27E-044.05E-041.15E-033.90E-039.50E-031.63E-022.34E-024.19E-0 2 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79D6.46E-081.44E-072.33E-075.39E-071.21E-065.05E-061.36E-054.92E-051.30E-042.47E-043.49E-044.53E-04 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall 39.01 D 5.65E-079.48E-071.78E-064.11E-069.74E-063.12E-059.24E-053.30E-048.29E-041.52E-032.22E-033.63E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.96E-019.95E-019.75E-01 87

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Table B-10. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Lung (Right) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 terus 4.14 000000000000 tal Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-023.97E-02 ote: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)6.95E-061.36E-052.65E-055.09E-051.23E-043.84E-041.05E-033.17E-037.57E-031.28E-021.88E-025.57E-02 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)9.54E-081.97E-073.25E-076.83E-071.71E-065.47E-061.56E-055.27E-051.28E-042.79E-049.00E-049.26E-0 3 Heart Wall 177.81D2.01E-054.79E-057.73E-051.74E-044.08E-041.31E-033.83E-031.28E-023.10E-025.53E-028.28E-021.68E-01 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D1.78E-053.53E-056.12E-051.30E-043.12E-041.01E-032.89E-039.16E-031.99E-023.18E-024.40E-028.78E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D1.34E-052.61E-055.08E-059.77E-052.36E-047.38E-042.02E-036.10E-031.45E-022.45E-023.60E-028.70E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D3.02E+003.02E+003.02E+003.01E+003.01E+003.00E+002.95E+002.81E+002.58E+002.36E+002.15E+001.52E+00 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.86E-061.21E-052.06E-054.16E-051.02E-043.26E-049.58E-043.05E-036.35E-039.24E-031.17E-021.82E-0 2 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D2.88E-065.95E-069.79E-062.06E-055.17E-051.65E-044.71E-041.59E-033.87E-036.67E-039.52E-031.71E-0 2 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79D8.18E-051.82E-042.95E-046.82E-041.53E-036.39E-031.73E-026.22E-021.64E-013.13E-014.41E-015.73E-01 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall 39.01D1.45E-052.43E-054.57E-051.05E-042.50E-048.00E-042.37E-038.45E-032.13E-023.90E-025.68E-029.30E-02 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 U To N 88

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Table B-11. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E1000)1.79E-095.95E-091.14E-082.94E-089.33E-082.81E-077.80E-072.72E-065.43E-067.08E-068.17E-069.74E-0 6 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)1.25E-094.14E-097.90E-092.05E-086.49E-081.95E-075.43E-071.89E-063.78E-064.92E-065.68E-066.77E-06 Brain 86.15D (E1000)1.04E-071.67E-073.26E-076.47E-071.80E-065.52E-061.65E-055.70E-051.16E-041.69E-042.21E-043.87E-04 Colon Wall 187.47D1.44E-062.92E-064.52E-069.52E-062.31E-057.66E-052.31E-048.15E-041.67E-032.42E-032.98E-034.01E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)5.71E-081.90E-073.62E-079.37E-072.97E-068.95E-062.48E-058.67E-051.73E-042.25E-042.60E-043.10E-04 Eyes 9.73D5.73E-081.53E-073.31E-076.04E-071.22E-064.17E-061.36E-054.56E-059.48E-051.39E-041.75E-042.91E-04 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)5.24E-108.38E-101.64E-093.26E-099.04E-092.78E-088.31E-082.87E-075.86E-078.51E-071.11E-061.95E-0 6 Heart Wall 177.81D6.58E-071.51E-062.29E-064.85E-061.18E-053.53E-051.14E-043.93E-047.93E-041.12E-031.44E-032.13E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D3.22E-076.18E-071.07E-062.18E-065.04E-061.62E-055.01E-051.70E-043.48E-045.12E-046.70E-041.21E-03 Kidney (R) 100.80D3.27E-075.79E-078.68E-072.11E-065.16E-061.61E-054.83E-051.70E-043.38E-045.09E-046.70E-041.21E-03 Liver 707.80D1.49E-062.38E-064.65E-069.26E-062.57E-057.90E-052.36E-048.15E-041.67E-032.42E-033.17E-035.54E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D1.30E-063.12E-064.69E-069.77E-062.46E-058.67E-052.45E-047.73E-041.60E-032.32E-032.90E-034.33E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D1.78E-064.12E-066.55E-061.33E-053.38E-051.05E-043.14E-041.01E-032.11E-033.09E-033.95E-036.24E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E1000)6.85E-092.27E-084.34E-081.12E-073.57E-071.07E-062.98E-061.04E-052.08E-052.70E-053.12E-053.72E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E1000)3.72E-091.23E-082.36E-086.10E-081.93E-075.82E-071.62E-065.64E-061.13E-051.47E-051.69E-052.02E-05 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)9.42E-093.12E-085.97E-081.54E-074.90E-071.47E-064.10E-061.43E-052.85E-053.72E-054.29E-055.11E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E1000)2.01E-113.22E-116.29E-111.25E-103.47E-101.07E-093.19E-091.10E-082.25E-083.27E-084.28E-087.48E-08 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.91E-019.68E-019.33E-019.03E-018.75E-017.88E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)1.71E-073.54E-076.19E-071.26E-063.12E-061.00E-053.01E-051.05E-042.17E-043.10E-043.85E-045.66E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D1.59E-053.30E-055.77E-051.18E-042.91E-049.34E-042.81E-039.79E-032.03E-022.89E-023.59E-025.28E-0 2 Skin 2080.04D2.21E-054.40E-057.51E-051.54E-043.76E-041.23E-033.74E-031.29E-022.54E-023.22E-023.58E-023.98E-02 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E1000)8.94E-072.97E-065.66E-061.47E-054.65E-051.40E-043.89E-041.36E-032.71E-033.53E-034.07E-034. 85E-03 Spinal Cord 18.83D2.62E-074.90E-078.43E-071.61E-064.17E-061.44E-054.36E-051.50E-042.66E-043.12E-043.21E-043.23E-04 Spleen 376.86D6.44E-071.47E-062.78E-066.03E-061.46E-055.00E-051.53E-045.07E-041.04E-031.53E-031.96E-033.51E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D7.28E-071.58E-062.73E-065.46E-061.40E-054.47E-051.35E-044.45E-048.21E-049.98E-041.06E-031.11E-03 Thymus 0.79D (E1000)3.49E-091.16E-082.21E-085.72E-081.81E-075.46E-071.52E-065.29E-061.06E-051.38E-051.59E-051.89E-05 Thyroid 0.98D (E1000)6.45E-092.14E-084.08E-081.06E-073.35E-071.01E-062.80E-069.79E-061.95E-052.54E-052.94E-053.50E-05 Tracheal Wall 39.01 D 3.63E-079.30E-071.38E-062.67E-066.62E-062.19E-056.91E-052.40E-045.17E-047.58E-049.70E-041.34E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D (E1000)1.53E-075.08E-079.69E-072.51E-067.96E-062.40E-056.66E-052.32E-044.63E-046.04E-046.97E-048.3 1E-04 Uterus 4.14D3.72E-081.23E-072.36E-076.10E-071.94E-065.83E-061.62E-055.65E-051.13E-041.47E-041.70E-042.02E-04 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.94E-019.85E-019.73E-019.19E-01 89

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Table B-12. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Residual Soft Tissues (RST) of the UF 26-kg Canin e Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E1000)9.38E-063.11E-055.94E-051.54E-044.88E-041.47E-034.08E-031.42E-022.84E-023.70E-024.27E-025.09E-0 2 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)1.07E-053.55E-056.79E-051.76E-045.57E-041.68E-034.66E-031.63E-023.24E-024.23E-024.88E-025.82E-02 Brain 86.15D (E1000)1.21E-061.93E-063.78E-067.51E-062.09E-056.41E-051.92E-046.62E-041.35E-031.97E-032.57E-034.50E-03 Colon Wall 187.47D7.65E-061.56E-052.41E-055.08E-051.23E-044.09E-041.23E-034.35E-038.93E-031.29E-021.59E-022.14E-02 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)4.95E-061.64E-053.13E-058.11E-052.57E-047.74E-042.15E-037.50E-031.50E-021.95E-022.25E-022.68E-02 Eyes 9.73D5.89E-061.57E-053.40E-056.20E-051.25E-044.28E-041.40E-034.69E-039.74E-031.42E-021.80E-022.99E-02 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)5.00E-077.99E-071.56E-063.11E-068.62E-062.65E-057.92E-052.74E-045.59E-048.12E-041.06E-031.86E-0 3 Heart Wall 177.81D3.70E-068.50E-061.29E-052.73E-056.65E-051.99E-046.39E-042.21E-034.46E-036.28E-038.08E-031.20E-02 Kidney (L) 101.97D3.16E-066.06E-061.05E-052.13E-054.95E-051.59E-044.92E-041.66E-033.41E-035.02E-036.57E-031.19E-02 Kidney (R) 100.80D3.24E-065.75E-068.61E-062.09E-055.12E-051.60E-044.79E-041.69E-033.35E-035.05E-036.65E-031.20E-02 Liver 707.80D2.11E-063.36E-066.58E-061.31E-053.63E-051.12E-043.34E-041.15E-032.35E-033.42E-034.47E-037.82E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D6.97E-061.67E-052.51E-055.23E-051.32E-044.64E-041.31E-034.14E-038.59E-031.24E-021.55E-022.32E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D5.36E-061.24E-051.98E-054.02E-051.02E-043.17E-049.47E-043.04E-036.38E-039.32E-031.19E-021.88E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E1000)4.76E-061.58E-053.02E-057.81E-052.48E-047.45E-042.07E-037.22E-031.44E-021.88E-022.17E-022.58E-02 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E1000)6.04E-062.00E-053.83E-059.90E-053.14E-049.45E-042.63E-039.16E-031.83E-022.38E-022.75E-023.28E-02 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)4.95E-061.64E-053.13E-058.11E-052.57E-047.74E-042.15E-037.50E-031.50E-021.95E-022.25E-022.68E-02 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E1000)1.21E-061.93E-063.78E-067.51E-062.09E-056.41E-051.92E-046.62E-041.35E-031.97E-032.57E-034.50E-03 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D5.76E-025.76E-025.76E-025.76E-025.76E-025.75E-025.71E-025.58E-025.38E-025.20E-025.04E-024.54E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)5.41E-061.12E-051.96E-053.99E-059.90E-053.17E-049.53E-043.33E-036.89E-039.82E-031.22E-021.79E-02 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D6.50E-061.35E-052.35E-054.79E-051.19E-043.81E-041.14E-033.99E-038.26E-031.18E-021.46E-022.15E-0 2 Skin 2080.04D1.06E-052.11E-053.61E-057.42E-051.81E-045.92E-041.80E-036.21E-031.22E-021.55E-021.72E-021.91E-02 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E1000)4.86E-061.61E-053.08E-057.97E-052.53E-047.61E-042.12E-037.38E-031.47E-021.92E-022.22E-022. 64E-02 Spinal Cord 18.83D1.39E-052.60E-054.48E-058.57E-052.22E-047.63E-042.32E-037.96E-031.41E-021.65E-021.71E-021.72E-02 Spleen 376.86D1.71E-063.90E-067.37E-061.60E-053.89E-051.33E-044.05E-041.34E-032.77E-034.05E-035.19E-039.31E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D1.06E-052.29E-053.97E-057.94E-052.04E-046.51E-041.97E-036.47E-031.20E-021.45E-021.54E-021.62E-02 Thymus 0.79D (E1000)4.41E-061.46E-052.79E-057.23E-052.29E-046.91E-041.92E-036.69E-031.34E-021.74E-022.01E-022.39E-02 Thyroid 0.98D (E1000)6.57E-062.18E-054.16E-051.08E-043.42E-041.03E-032.86E-039.97E-031.99E-022.59E-022.99E-023.57E-02 Tracheal Wall 39.01D9.31E-062.38E-053.54E-056.85E-051.70E-045.62E-041.77E-036.16E-031.33E-021.94E-022.49E-023.42E-02 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D (E1000)4.89E-061.62E-053.10E-058.02E-052.54E-047.66E-042.13E-037.42E-031.48E-021.93E-022.23E-022.6 5E-02 Uterus 4.14D9.00E-062.98E-055.70E-051.48E-044.68E-041.41E-033.91E-031.37E-022.73E-023.55E-024.10E-024.89E-02 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.05E-024.01E-023.96E-023.74E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 90

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Table B-13. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sour ces in the Skeleton of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E1000)6.64E-121.29E-112.31E-114.42E-111.18E-104.09E-101.11E-094.07E-099.48E-091.29E-081.54E-082.37E-0 8 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)4.52E-128.80E-121.57E-113.00E-118.06E-112.78E-107.57E-102.77E-096.45E-098.81E-091.05E-081.61E-08 Brain 86.15D1.49E-063.13E-065.04E-061.12E-052.74E-059.18E-052.63E-049.42E-042.01E-033.09E-034.10E-036.72E-03 Colon Wall 187.47D (E1000)3.43E-086.68E-081.19E-072.28E-076.12E-072.11E-065.75E-062.11E-054.91E-058.33E-051.30E-044.06E-04 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)8.30E-101.62E-092.89E-095.52E-091.48E-085.11E-081.39E-075.09E-071.19E-062.86E-066.73E-064.57E-05 Eyes 9.73D (E1000)2.51E-094.90E-098.75E-091.67E-084.49E-081.55E-074.22E-071.54E-063.60E-061.44E-053.76E-051.87E-04 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)1.99E-113.87E-116.92E-111.32E-103.55E-101.22E-093.33E-091.22E-082.84E-085.77E-081.26E-073.64E-0 7 Heart Wall 177.81D7.49E-081.46E-072.61E-074.98E-071.34E-064.61E-061.26E-054.59E-051.07E-041.90E-042.96E-041.01E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E1000)1.22E-092.38E-094.25E-098.13E-092.18E-087.53E-082.05E-077.50E-071.75E-062.86E-064.10E-063.21E-05 Kidney (R) 100.80D8.59E-081.81E-073.23E-076.64E-071.70E-065.97E-061.81E-056.07E-051.33E-041.94E-042.48E-043.50E-04 Liver 707.80D3.15E-076.30E-071.09E-062.48E-066.65E-062.39E-056.89E-052.34E-045.22E-048.02E-041.12E-032.35E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D9.31E-071.97E-063.46E-066.61E-061.65E-055.70E-051.70E-045.71E-041.34E-032.23E-033.04E-034.81E-03 Lung (R) 331.38D9.85E-071.89E-063.45E-066.65E-061.67E-055.01E-051.59E-045.44E-041.33E-032.32E-033.32E-036.05E-03 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E1000)3.45E-116.71E-111.20E-102.29E-106.14E-102.12E-095.77E-092.11E-084.92E-086.72E-088.00E-081.23E-07 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E1000)6.71E-121.31E-112.34E-114.46E-111.20E-104.13E-101.13E-094.12E-099.58E-091.31E-081.56E-082.40E-08 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)1.48E-112.88E-115.14E-119.83E-112.64E-109.10E-102.48E-099.07E-092.11E-082.88E-083.43E-085.28E-08 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E1000)4.80E-101.01E-091.62E-093.60E-098.81E-092.96E-088.47E-083.03E-076.48E-079.96E-071.32E-062.16E-06 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.20E-042.46E-044.18E-048.52E-042.10E-036.81E-032.06E-027.25E-021.50E-012.13E-012.65E-013.89E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)5.66E-101.10E-091.97E-093.76E-091.01E-083.48E-089.48E-083.47E-078.07E-071.44E-061.69E-061.74E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.93E-019.78E-019.22E-018.36E-017.63E-016.98E-015.18E-0 1 Skin 2080.04D2.37E-064.28E-067.07E-061.47E-053.71E-051.18E-043.55E-041.33E-033.55E-037.11E-031.13E-022.46E-02 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E1000)2.37E-084.61E-088.24E-081.57E-074.22E-071.46E-063.97E-061.45E-053.38E-054.62E-055.50E-058. 46E-05 Spinal Cord 18.83D4.34E-078.58E-071.40E-062.94E-067.76E-062.36E-057.63E-052.96E-048.81E-041.76E-032.65E-034.01E-03 Spleen 376.86D2.78E-078.19E-071.43E-063.20E-066.69E-062.42E-057.03E-052.42E-045.34E-048.47E-041.17E-032.07E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E1000)8.23E-101.60E-092.87E-095.47E-091.47E-085.07E-081.38E-075.05E-071.18E-062.20E-063.02E-063.29E-05 Thymus 0.79D (E1000)1.62E-113.15E-115.62E-111.07E-102.88E-109.95E-102.71E-099.91E-092.30E-081.96E-071.23E-068.88E-06 Thyroid 0.98D (E1000)2.00E-113.89E-116.95E-111.33E-103.56E-101.23E-093.35E-091.23E-082.85E-085.01E-089.33E-082.22E-07 Tracheal Wall 39.01 D (E1000) 1.14E-092.21E-093.96E-097.56E-092.03E-087.00E-081.91E-076.97E-071.62E-062.75E-065.22E-061.30E-04 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D (E1000)6.26E-101.22E-092.18E-094.16E-091.12E-083.85E-081.05E-073.84E-078.94E-071.32E-061.98E-066.8 5E-06 Uterus 4.14D (E1000)1.20E-102.35E-104.19E-108.01E-102.15E-097.42E-092.02E-087.39E-081.63E-072.91E-075.38E-073.25E-06 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.95E-019.91E-019.60E-01 91

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Table B-14. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Skeleton of the UF 26-kg Can ine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E1000)3.47E-086.76E-081.21E-072.31E-076.19E-072.14E-065.82E-062.13E-054.96E-056.77E-058.06E-051.24E-0 4 Adrenal Gland (R) 0.12D (E1000)3.88E-087.55E-081.35E-072.58E-076.92E-072.39E-066.50E-062.38E-055.54E-057.56E-059.01E-051.39E-04 Brain 86.15D1.73E-053.63E-055.85E-051.30E-043.18E-041.07E-033.05E-031.09E-022.34E-023.59E-024.76E-027.80E-02 Colon Wall 187.47D (E1000)1.83E-073.57E-076.37E-071.22E-063.27E-061.13E-053.07E-051.12E-042.62E-044.44E-046.95E-042.17E-03 Esophagus Wall 11.56D (E1000)7.19E-081.40E-072.50E-074.78E-071.28E-064.42E-061.20E-054.41E-051.03E-042.48E-045.83E-043.96E-03 Eyes 9.73D (E1000)2.58E-075.03E-078.99E-071.72E-064.61E-061.59E-054.33E-051.58E-043.70E-041.48E-033.86E-031.92E-02 Gall Bladder Wall 1.05D (E1000)1.90E-083.69E-086.60E-081.26E-073.38E-071.17E-063.18E-061.16E-052.71E-055.50E-051.20E-043.47E-0 4 Heart Wall 177.81D4.21E-078.20E-071.47E-062.80E-067.51E-062.59E-057.06E-052.58E-046.02E-041.07E-031.66E-035.70E-03 Kidney (L) 101.97D (E1000)1.20E-082.33E-084.17E-087.97E-082.14E-077.38E-072.01E-067.35E-061.71E-052.81E-054.02E-053.15E-04 Kidney (R) 100.80D8.52E-071.80E-063.20E-066.58E-061.69E-055.93E-051.79E-046.03E-041.32E-031.92E-032.46E-033.47E-03 Liver 707.80D4.46E-078.90E-071.54E-063.50E-069.39E-063.38E-059.73E-053.30E-047.38E-041.13E-031.58E-033.32E-03 Lung (L) 186.72D4.99E-061.06E-051.85E-053.54E-058.86E-053.05E-049.10E-043.06E-037.20E-031.20E-021.63E-022.58E-02 Lung (R) 331.38D2.97E-065.71E-061.04E-052.01E-055.04E-051.51E-044.79E-041.64E-034.01E-036.99E-031.00E-021.83E-02 Ovary (L) 1.44D (E1000)2.39E-084.66E-088.33E-081.59E-074.27E-071.47E-064.01E-061.47E-053.42E-054.67E-055.56E-058.55E-05 Ovary (R) 0.62D (E1000)1.09E-082.12E-083.79E-087.25E-081.94E-076.71E-071.83E-066.69E-061.56E-052.13E-052.53E-053.90E-05 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)7.76E-091.51E-082.70E-085.16E-081.38E-074.78E-071.30E-064.76E-061.11E-051.51E-051.80E-052.77E-05 Pituitary Gland 0.02D (E1000)2.89E-056.05E-059.74E-052.16E-045.29E-041.78E-035.09E-031.82E-023.90E-025.98E-027.94E-021.30E-01 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D6.89E-061.42E-052.41E-054.91E-051.21E-043.93E-041.19E-034.18E-038.67E-031.23E-021.53E-022.25E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)1.79E-083.49E-086.23E-081.19E-073.19E-071.10E-063.00E-061.10E-052.56E-054.57E-055.37E-055.50E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D4.08E-014.08E-014.08E-014.07E-014.07E-014.05E-013.99E-013.76E-013.41E-013.11E-012.85E-012.11E-0 1 Skin 2080.04D1.14E-062.06E-063.40E-067.05E-061.78E-055.67E-051.70E-046.38E-041.70E-033.42E-035.45E-031.18E-02 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D (E1000)1.29E-072.51E-074.48E-078.56E-072.30E-067.93E-062.16E-057.90E-051.84E-042.51E-042.99E-044. 60E-04 Spinal Cord 18.83D2.31E-054.56E-057.44E-051.56E-044.12E-041.25E-034.05E-031.57E-024.68E-029.37E-021.41E-012.13E-01 Spleen 376.86D7.37E-072.17E-063.81E-068.50E-061.78E-056.41E-051.86E-046.43E-041.42E-032.25E-033.12E-035.49E-03 Stomach Wall 68.66D (E1000)1.20E-082.33E-084.17E-087.97E-082.14E-077.38E-072.01E-067.35E-061.71E-053.20E-054.39E-054.80E-04 Thymus 0.79D (E1000)2.04E-083.98E-087.11E-081.36E-073.65E-071.26E-063.43E-061.25E-052.92E-052.48E-041.56E-031.12E-02 Thyroid 0.98D (E1000)2.03E-083.96E-087.08E-081.35E-073.63E-071.25E-063.41E-061.25E-052.91E-055.10E-059.50E-052.26E-04 Tracheal Wall 39.01D (E1000)2.91E-085.67E-081.01E-071.94E-075.20E-071.79E-064.88E-061.79E-054.16E-057.05E-051.34E-043.34E-03 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D (E1000)2.00E-083.89E-086.96E-081.33E-073.57E-071.23E-063.35E-061.23E-052.86E-054.22E-056.32E-052.1 9E-04 Uterus 4.14D (E1000)2.91E-085.67E-081.01E-071.94E-075.20E-071.79E-064.88E-061.79E-053.95E-057.05E-051.30E-047.87E-04 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-024.04E-023.91E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 92

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Table B-15. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sour ces in the Spleen of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E500)5.60E-111.17E-101.96E-104.38E-101.09E-093.48E-091.02E-083.46E-087.67E-081.24E-071.70E-073.02E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.12E-062.11E-064.18E-069.30E-062.10E-056.73E-052.11E-047.35E-041.55E-032.44E-033.43E-037.73E-03 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D4.76E-061.00E-051.59E-053.45E-058.49E-052.75E-048.20E-042.82E-035.87E-039.02E-031.23E-022.50E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D (E500)8.18E-081.71E-072.87E-076.41E-071.60E-065.08E-061.49E-055.06E-051.21E-042.02E-042.96E-048.41E-04 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)1.30E-102.71E-104.55E-101.02E-092.54E-098.06E-092.36E-088.04E-081.78E-072.87E-073.94E-077.00E-07 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D3.89E-058.17E-051.34E-042.86E-046.91E-042.24E-036.68E-032.31E-024.70E-026.87E-028.96E-021.61E-0 1 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D2.35E-064.91E-068.25E-061.84E-054.60E-051.46E-044.27E-041.46E-033.22E-035.20E-037.14E-031.27E-0 2 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D1.29E-072.94E-075.15E-071.21E-062.84E-068.87E-062.75E-058.67E-051.95E-043.15E-044.68E-041.18E-03 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.91E-019.69E-019.35E-019.02E-018.69E-017.42E-01 Stomach Wall 68.66D2.95E-066.12E-061.13E-052.27E-055.40E-051.75E-045.41E-041.91E-034.12E-036.25E-037.98E-031.24E-02 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.97E-019.95E-019.91E-019.63E-01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 93

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Table B-16. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Spleen of the UF kg Canine 26Phantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 terus 4.14 000000000000 tal Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.05E-024.04E-023.92E-02 ote: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L) 0.19D (E500)2.92E-076.11E-071.03E-062.29E-065.72E-061.82E-055.31E-051.81E-044.01E-046.47E-048.88E-041.58E-03 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L) 101.97D1.10E-052.07E-054.10E-059.12E-052.06E-046.60E-042.06E-037.21E-031.52E-022.40E-023.36E-027.58E-02 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80D6.72E-061.42E-052.24E-054.88E-051.20E-043.89E-041.16E-033.99E-038.30E-031.27E-021.73E-023.53E-02 Lung (L) 186.72D (E500)4.38E-079.15E-071.54E-063.43E-068.57E-062.72E-057.95E-052.71E-046.46E-041.08E-031.58E-034.50E-03 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91D (E1000)6.81E-081.42E-072.39E-075.34E-071.33E-064.23E-061.24E-054.22E-059.33E-051.51E-042.07E-043.68E-04 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.24E-064.71E-067.72E-061.65E-053.99E-051.29E-043.85E-041.33E-032.71E-033.96E-035.16E-039.27E-0 3 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22D9.59E-072.00E-063.36E-067.51E-061.88E-055.96E-051.74E-045.94E-041.31E-032.12E-032.91E-035.18E-0 3 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall 183.85D7.01E-071.60E-062.80E-066.57E-061.54E-054.82E-051.49E-044.71E-041.06E-031.71E-032.55E-036.40E-03 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86D2.65E+002.65E+002.65E+002.65E+002.65E+002.65E+002.63E+002.57E+002.48E+002.39E+002.31E+001.97E+00 Stomach Wall 68.66D4.30E-058.91E-051.64E-043.30E-047.86E-042.56E-037.88E-032.78E-026.00E-029.10E-021.16E-011.81E-01 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 U To N 94

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Table B-17. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sour ces in the Thyroid of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D8.63E-061.71E-052.97E-056.06E-051.48E-044.83E-041.53E-036.63E-031.94E-023.15E-023.64E-022.61E-02 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D2.86E-045.94E-049.98E-042.06E-035.03E-031.63E-024.93E-021.71E-013.37E-014.35E-015.03E-016.75E-0 1 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)3.29E-096.84E-091.15E-082.37E-085.80E-081.88E-075.68E-071.98E-064.74E-066.72E-068.01E-061.65E-05 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98D1.00E+009.99E-019.99E-019.97E-019.93E-019.78E-019.34E-017.66E-015.21E-013.60E-012.66E-011.31E-01 Tracheal Wall 39.01 D 8.67E-051.83E-043.05E-046.23E-041.52E-034.95E-031.52E-025.51E-021.20E-011.70E-011.89E-011.44E-01 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 1.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+001.00E+009.99E-019.98E-019.96E-019.95E-019.77E-01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 95

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Table B-18. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in th e Thyroid of the UF kg Canine 26Phantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall187.47 000000000000 Esophagus Wall 11.56D7.47E-041.48E-032.57E-035.24E-031.28E-024.18E-021.32E-015.74E-011.68E+002.73E+003.15E+002.26E+00 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D1.65E-053.42E-055.75E-051.19E-042.90E-049.40E-042.84E-039.88E-031.94E-022.51E-022.90E-023.89E-0 2 Salivary Glands 31.57D (E1000)1.04E-072.17E-073.64E-077.51E-071.84E-065.95E-061.80E-056.26E-051.50E-042.13E-042.54E-045.24E-04 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Skin 2080.04 000000000000 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98D1.02E+031.02E+031.02E+031.02E+031.01E+039.96E+029.51E+027.80E+025.31E+023.67E+022.71E+021.33E+02 Tracheal Wall 39.01D2.22E-034.68E-037.81E-031.60E-023.91E-021.27E-013.89E-011.41E+003.08E+004.35E+004.84E+003.70E+00 Urinary Bladder Wall31.29 00000000000 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 4.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.07E-024.06E-024.06E-024.05E-023.98E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 96

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Table B-19. Absorbed Fractions for Electron Sources in the Urinary Bladder Content of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D (E500)5.50E-081.17E-071.94E-073.97E-079.68E-073.16E-069.51E-063.29E-051.82E-045.98E-041.18E-034.33E-03 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D (E500)2.29E-064.88E-068.08E-061.65E-054.03E-051.32E-043.96E-041.37E-031.01E-023.39E-026.45E-02 1.93E-01 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Skin 2080.04D (E500)2.11E-074.50E-077.45E-071.53E-063.72E-061.22E-053.65E-051.27E-049.15E-042.13E-033.56E-039.52E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D5.98E-051.27E-042.11E-044.32E-041.05E-033.44E-031.03E-023.58E-026.86E-028.45E-029.23E-029.69E-02 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 6.24E-051.33E-042.20E-044.50E-041.10E-033.59E-031.08E-023.74E-027.98E-021.21E-011.62E-013.04E-01 97

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Table B-20. Specific Absorbed Fractions (kg -1 ) for Electron Sources in the Urinary Bladder Content of the UF 26-kg Canine Phantom. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electron Energy (MeV) Target Organ 0.010.0150.020.030.050.10.20.511.524 Mass (g)Method Adrenal Gland (L)0.19 000000000000 Adrenal Gland (R)0.12 000000000000 Brain 86.15 00000000000 Colon Wall 187.47D (E500)2.94E-076.25E-071.04E-062.12E-065.16E-061.69E-055.07E-051.76E-049.71E-043.19E-036.29E-032.31E-02 Esophagus Wall11.56 00000000000 Eyes 9.73 00000000000 Gall Bladder Wall1.05 00000000000 Heart Wall177.81 000000000000 Kidney (L)101.97 000000000000 Kidney (R)100.80 000000000000 Liver 707.80 000000000000 Lung (L) 186.72 000000000000 Lung (R) 331.38 000000000000 Ovary (L) 1.44 000000000000 Ovary (R) 0.62 000000000000 Pancreas 1.91 00000000000 Pituitary Gland0.02 000000000000 Residual Soft Tissues17347.09D (E500)1.32E-072.81E-074.66E-079.54E-072.32E-067.59E-062.28E-057.91E-055.83E-041.95E-033.72E-03 1.11E-02 Salivary Glands31.57 00000000000 Skeleton (Homogeneous)2452.22 000000000000 Skin 2080.04D (E500)1.02E-072.17E-073.58E-077.34E-071.79E-065.84E-061.76E-056.10E-054.40E-041.03E-031.71E-034.58E-03 Small Intestine Wall183.85 000000000000 Spinal Cord18.83 00000000000 Spleen 376.86 000000000000 Stomach Wall68.66 00000000000 Thymus 0.79 00000000000 Thyroid 0.98 000000000000 Tracheal Wall39.01 00000000000 Urinary Bladder Wall 31.29D1.91E-034.07E-036.74E-031.38E-023.36E-021.10E-013.30E-011.15E+002.19E+002.70E+002.95E+003.10E+00 Uterus 4.14 00000000000 Total Body Tissues 24542.06 2.54E-065.42E-068.96E-061.84E-054.47E-051.46E-044.39E-041.52E-033.25E-034.93E-036.58E-031.24E-02 Note: D Direct Monte Carlo, C Converse Monte Carlo, E Extrapolated Values Below Energy Indicated (in keV), S Surrogate Organ Assigned 98

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APPENDIX C THE S VALUE CALCULA TOR RESULTS Table C-1. S values for Sm-153 Target \ SourceAdrenal (L)Adrenal (R)BrainColon WColon CE soph WEyesGall Blad WGall Blad CHeart WHeart CKidney (L) Adrenal Gland (L)0.214333384.3425E-063.6E-118.7E-079.501E-071.51E-081.2E-116.5433E-085.3878E-081.9E-081.9E-084.945E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)5.0318E-060.342840436.5E-111.1E-061.17E-061.999E-081.9E-118.9754E-089.3804E-082.6E-082.6E-081.148E-06 Brain 6.0577E-115.864E-110.000513.5E-114.209E-112.088E-089E-073.8707E-102.9401E-101E-09 3.765E-11 Colon Wall 8.6285E-071.1221E-061.7E-110.000234.409E-061.412E-088.8E-126.5488E-086.1889E-081.6E-081.6E-088.073E-07 Esophagus Wall1.6317E-082.78E-082.2E-081.5E-081.881E-080.00352974.5E-099.3072E-088.8557E-087.4E-075.1E-071.496E-08 Eyes 2.1892E-112.6385E-119.1E-076.8E-121.302E-114.213E-090.004351.2065E-101.086E-103E-10 9.19E-12 Gall Bladder Wall6.5433E-088.9754E-084.7E-107E-088.229E-088.88E-081.5E-100.035246830.000459913.2E-073.4E-074.443E-08 Heart Wall 1.9417E-082.6368E-081.3E-091.6E-082.026E-087.668E-074.9E-103.3547E-073.3305E-070.000244.6E-061.572E-08 Kidney (L) 4.5025E-061.0926E-063.6E-118.1E-078.498E-071.51E-081.2E-114.1806E-083.9435E-081.6E-081.6E-080.0004284 Kidney (R) 8.9026E-072.8309E-066.5E-115.1E-075.442E-071.999E-081.9E-115.5207E-085.2845E-082E-082E-083.303E-07 Liver 1.5752E-073.524E-074.5E-101.7E-071.952E-071.283E-077.6E-117.2708E-063.3953E-063.3E-073.4E-078.891E-08 Lung (L) 7.4472E-081.0093E-071.1E-095.1E-086.363E-081.43E-063.7E-101.7334E-071.6625E-078.4E-076.8E-076.606E-08 Lung (R) 8.1932E-081.5753E-071.1E-096.1E-087.41E-085.128E-073.7E-105.8622E-075.7717E-079.3E-076.6E-075.174E-08 Ovary (L) 9.2412E-074.0684E-071.7E-115.8E-075.982E-074.213E-093.1E-121.6994E-081.4576E-085.7E-09 2.731E-06 Ovary (R) 5.5488E-077.1228E-072.1E-114.8E-074.904E-076.414E-091.9E-122.4854E-082.1355E-086.6E-09 2.518E-07 Pancreas 4.9036E-076.8148E-071.5E-108.3E-079.465E-075. 321E-084.7E-115.6644E-075.4629E-077.8E-087.9E-082.808E-07 Pituitary Gland6.0577E-115.864E-116.2E-053.5E-114.209E-112.088E-086.2E-073.8707E-102.9401E-101E-09 3.765E-11 Residual Soft Tissues3.5015E-074.0732E-079.8E-082E-071.2 98E-072.61E-071.6E-076.6285E-086.4894E-081.2E-078.1E-081.528E-07 Salivary Glands1.2733E-101.9996E-103.8E-078.2E-111.154E-106.594E-089.9E-081.1026E-097.8775E-104E-09 1.128E-10 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 1.2302E-071.4495E-078.4E-071.6E-071.202E-073.216E-073.7E-071.0686E-071.0743E-071.8E-071.6E-071.154E-07 Skin 3.7273E-083.6849E-085.3E-084.9E-084.725E-085.013E-086.5E-084.8798E-084.9637E-085.2E-084.8E-085.139E-08 Small Intestine Wall6.3997E-074.4032E-073.5E-118.7E-077.291E-071.191E-081.1E-119.8337E-089.3804E-081.8E-081.9E-084.479E-07 Spinal Cord 1.2296E-071.495E-076.5E-084.8E-085.351E-083.113E-076.8E-094.1845E-084.084E-087.9E-086.8E-089.959E-08 Spleen 5.2378E-073.8011E-071.5E-102.4E-072.884E-075.562E-084.7E-112.3103E-072.152E-078.9E-088.9E-089.136E-07 Stomach Wall 3.3525E-074.1985E-071.9E-105.6E-075.941E-071.267E-074.7E-117.0359E-076.4239E-071.2E-071.2E-072.756E-07 Thymus 4.1728E-097.1732E-094.8E-094.1E-094.913E-097.143E-071.9E-096.0845E-085.6556E-085.6E-074.8E-074.055E-09 Thyroid 3.031E-107.4694E-101.3E-072.7E-103.025E-102.267E-052.4E-083.1287E-093.0928E-091.4E-081.3E-083.857E-10 Tracheal Wall 3.3925E-099.3252E-093.8E-084E-094.913E-091.78E-058.3E-094.5378E-084.5349E-088.4E-073E-074.051E-09 U U rinary Bladder Wall7.2396E-084.661E-083.5E-126.7E-073.835E-077.062E-101.9E-123.1287E-093.0928E-096.1E-10 7.892E-08 terus 2.5441E-072.0391E-077.4E-124.5E-073.951E-072.089E-093.1E-128.4455E-097.7981E-092.2E-09 2.591E-07 Total Body Tissues1.9541E-061.9519E-061.9E-061.9E-061.668E-071.941E-061.9E-061.796E-061.967E-071.9E-061.4E-071.934E-06 T arget \ SourceKidney (R)LiverLung (L)Lung (R)Ovary (L)Ovary (R ) PancreasPituitary GlandResidual STSalivary GlandsSkeletonSkin Adrenal Gland (L)8.30244E-071.6E-077.4E-088.1E-081E-065.6E-074.9E-07 3.78253E-071.11359E-104.7E-084.3E-08 Adre Bra nal Gland (R)2.84061E-063.9E-071E-071.4E-074.2E-077E-076.6E-07 4.05945E-071.53823E-104.6E-083.7E-08 in 5.30686E-112.2E-108.8E-101E-09 2.8E-119.3E-116.54329E-059.69072E-083.78186E-074E-075.4E-08 Colon Wall 5.1093E-071.7E-074.9E-085.7E-085.9E-075E-078.3E-07 2.04691E-071.10001E-106.4E-085.1E-08 sophagus Wall1.98697E-081.3E-071.4E-064.7E-07 6.3E-095.8E-08 2.66727E-076.57705E-081.2E-075.2E-08 yes 1.49111E-114.9E-112.7E-104E-10 5.3E-123.3E-116.40352E-071.62616E-079.74666E-081.4E-076.7E-08 Wall5.54835E-087.4E-061.6E-075.4E-071.7E-083.1E-086.1E-07 7.34657E-081.04289E-094.1E-084.9E-08 Heart Wall 2.02372E-083.4E-077.9E-078.7E-07 6.6E-097.6E-08 1.25292E-074.90831E-097E-085.4E-08 Kidney (L) 3.32904E-078.9E-086.2E-084.9E-083.4E-062.6E-072.8E-07 1.55657E-071.11359E-104.6E-085.4E-08 (R) 0.0004329884.3E-076.3E-081.4E-072.3E-073.9E-062.9E-07 1.42256E-071.53823E-107.1E-086.2E-08 iver 4.32668E-076.2E-053.5E-077E-073.4E-087.4E-086.3E-07 9.96409E-081.04289E-095.4E-081.6E-08 Lung (L) 6.91313E-083.7E-070.000236E-072.1E-082E-081.6E-07 1.77138E-073.41866E-091.4E-071.1E-07 ung (R) 1.50575E-077.4E-076.1E-070.000131.9E-083.3E-082E-07 1.52338E-073.85731E-091.1E-071.1E-07 y (L) 2.20321E-073.2E-082.1E-082E-080.029263.2E-078.7E-08 2.81198E-074.11398E-116.6E-085.6E-08 Ovary (R) 2.67632E-067.2E-082E-083.3E-083.3E-070.065271.2E-07 2.72136E-071.10001E-104.6E-088.6E-08 ancreas 3.09199E-076.4E-071.4E-072.2E-078.8E-081.3E-070.02145 2.26939E-075.9081E-103E-083.7E-08 ituitary Gland 5.30686E-112.2E-108.8E-101E-09 2.8E-119.3E-112.2237328441.22965E-075.22037E-075.8E-075.4E-08 Residual Soft Tissues1.40487E-079.8E-081.7E-071.4E-072.4E-072.7E-072E-079.24388E-082.59884E-061.48284E-071.6E-071.6E-07 Salivary Glands1.40949E-107.9E-102.7E-093E-09 5.8E-113.6E-105.22259E-071.47039E-070.0013518967.4E-081.6E-07 Skeleton (Homogeneous E E Gall Bladder Kidney L L Ovar P P ) 1.71785E-071.4E-073E-072.5E-071.7E-071.3E-077.6E-081.42246E-063.32813E-071.94172E-071.8E-051.7E-07 Skin 5.98552E-084.7E-085.4E-085.6E-086E-088E-083.4E-084.95154E-081.59583E-071.57161E-076.9E-082E-05 Small Intestine Wall3.19875E-071.4E-073.7E-084.5E-083.5E-075.2E-078E-07 2.25604E-071.25084E-102.8E-086.2E-08 Spinal Cord 1.44276E-077E-081.9E-071.8E-071.6E-079.1E-085.1E-085.22348E-082.42705E-075.23127E-085.3E-074E-08 Spleen 1.45938E-074.5E-072.7E-071.1E-071.7E-076.4E-084E-07 1.07128E-074.66126E-105.9E-085.5E-08 Stomach Wall 1.96298E-079E-074.9E-072.9E-077.1E-087.4E-081.7E-05 1.95267E-075.9081E-104.4E-084.3E-08 Thymus 6.13007E-094.6E-084.5E-061.7E-06 2.5E-091.5E-08 2.33346E-071.75893E-087.8E-086.9E-08 Thyroid 4.81093E-102.9E-091.3E-081.2E-08 3.2E-101.5E-091.35199E-072.91369E-074.53048E-079.5E-088.3E-08 Tracheal Wall 7.92499E-093.9E-082.7E-074.4E-07 2.5E-091.5E-084.21221E-082.53754E-071.24638E-071.2E-076.5E-08 Urinary Bladder Wall4.41929E-086.1E-092.7E-093E-092.3E-071.2E-071.6E-08 2.61377E-071.92977E-117.4E-089.6E-08 Uterus 3.72948E-072E-087.2E-091E-081.1E-050.000244.3E-08 3.94802E-074.61217E-111.1E-075.2E-08 Total Body Tissues1.92589E-061.9E-061.9E-061.9E-061.9E-061.9E-061.9E-06 1.8992E-061.87861E-061.9E-061.8E-06 99

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Target \ SourceSmall Intest W Small Intest C Spinal CordSplee nStomach WStomach C ThymusThyroidTracheal Wal l Bladder W Bladder CUterus Adrenal Gland (L)6.61888E-076.19 239E-098.1923E-087.902E-082.7E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)4.21699E-074.2 563E-094.397E-084.704E-082.08E-07 Brain 1.17584E-112.27851 68E-082.8275E-122.527E-124.85E-12 879E-082.4E-075.529E-073.531E-073.9E-093.8E-103.9944E-096.6988E-074.825E-074.62E-07 2728E-076E-081.48E-071.421E-077E-079.5E-061.794E-057.0884E-107.871E-102.25E-09 095E-091.8E-112.764E-112.328E-119.6E-102.1E-088.3074E-099.475E-137.635E-131.99E-12 Gall Bladder Wall1.03819E-071.07098E-074.4738E-082.4E-077.795E-076.641E-075.7E-084.4E-094.3802E-083.9996E-093.682E-098.68E-09 Heart Wall 1.84578E-081.84251E-088.5341E-089.1E-081.242E-071.212E-075.5E-071.6E-087.7566E-079.5964E-101.017E-092.47E-09 Kidney (L) 4.49054E-074.1652E-071.088E-079.1E-072.693E-072.793E-074.1E-094.3E-104.2239E-097.9674E-088.474E-082.62E-07 Kidney (R) 3.18643E-073.00543E-071.5376E-071.5E-071.929E-071.851E-076.1E-096.1E-108.1563E-094.397E-084.704E-083.92E-07 Liver 1.03452E-081.35771E-077.6078E-084.5E-079.069E-077.22E-074.6E-083.1E-093.8018E-086.127E-096.446E-092.07E-08 Lung (L) 8.39823E-083.82768E-082.062E-072.8E-075.174E-074.629E-074E-061.4E-082.8125E-072.9035E-092.855E-097.83E-09 Lung (R) 2.88963E-074.73902E-081.9949E-071.2E-073.058E-072.923E-072E-061.3E-084.6013E-072.9035E-093.266E-091.03E-08 Ovary (L) 3.36922E-073.10593E-071.6893E-071.6E-076.855E-087.095E-087.3E-101.1E-101.3347E-092.3183E-072.445E-072.45E-05 Ovary (R) 5.08553E-074.39569E-071.0334E-076.1E-087.404E-086.773E-087.3E-101.1E-102.4826E-091.2304E-071.329E-070.000187 Pancreas 8.01233E-078.18318E-075.7783E-083.9E-071.601E-052.848E-061.5E-081.4E-091.5058E-081.5917E-081.84E-084.62E-08 Pituitary Gland1.17584E-112.27851E-115.2235E-081.4E-101.587E-10 4.8E-091.2E-073.8168E-082.8275E-122.527E-124.85E-12 Residual Soft Tissues2.35119E-071.34487E-072.4404E-071.1E-071.926E-079.433E-082.3E-072.9E-072.4881E-072.6233E-071.481E-073.92 E-07 Salivary Glands5.61676E-111.16731E-105.4491E-085.3E-105.054E-102.595E-101.8E-084.6E-071.2705E-077.7953E-129.348E-121.76E-11 Skeleton (Homogeneous 709E-071.2296E-075.2E-073.264E-073.243E-074.1E-094.3E-104.2 642E-071.495E-074E-074.25E-074.27E-076.1E-096.1E-108.1 E-116.6552E-081.4E-101.587E-107.255E-114.8E-091.2E-073.81 Colon Wall 8.65409E-075.60115E-075.2 Esophagus Wall1.26833E-081.25744E-083. Eyes 5.52263E-126.92812E-126.5 ) 6.70871E-086.29211E-081.0935E-061.4E-071.143E-071.087E-072.2E-072.4E-073.0503E-071.8584E-071.768E-072.71E-07 Skin 6.00197E-085.3934E-083.9942E-085.2E-084.053E-083.842E-086.7E-088.3E-086.3309E-089.4407E-086.299E-084.99E-08 Small Intestine Wall0.000215865.01133E-063.8575E-082.3E-074.31E-073.363E-074.1E-094E-103.8028E-091.2797E-071.322E-072.64E-07 Spinal Cord 3.49184E-083.23094E-080.002171457E-087.474E-087.265E-081E-072.4E-072.9349E-072.4323E-082.648E-089.74E-08 Spleen 2.31155E-072.06586E-077.3943E-080.000121.372E-069.567E-071.7E-081.4E-091.4057E-081.3428E-081.84E-083.67E-08 Stomach Wall 4.35405E-073.8479E-078.234E-081.4E-060.00057747.94E-062.4E-082E-092.3351E-081.0208E-081.095E-082.84E-08 Thymus 7.31475E-094.53931E-091.127E-071.7E-082.218E-082.005E-080.051535.8E-087.5644E-072.7688E-102.752E-106.72E-10 Thyroid 2.77094E-104.99794E-102.6572E-071.6E-091.921E-091.266E-095.9E-080.040741.9569E-053.0809E-113.356E-116.5E-11 Tracheal Wall 3.39713E-093.18609E-093.0949E-071.4E-082.393E-082.324E-087.4E-072.3E-050.001064582.7688E-102.897E-109.53E-10 Urinary Bladder Wall1.26354E-071.22468E-072.6386E-081.7E-081.024E-081.003E-086.7E-112.2E-112.7631E-100.001269912.137E-051.44E -06 Uterus 2.63276E-072.30195E-071.0114E-073.6E-082.704E-082.751E-081.8E-105.5E-118.3349E-101.3903E-061.483E-060.009619 Total Body Tissues1.81487E-061.60266E-071.9623E-061.9E-061.833E-061.544E-071.9E-061.9E-061.9292E-061.8385E-061.61E-071.95E-06 Table C-2. S values for Re-186 Target \ SourceAdrenal (L)Adrenal (R)BrainColon WColon CEsoph WEyesGall Blad Gall Blad Heart WHeart CKidney (L) Adrenal Gland (L)0.2515503181.03418E-062.3E-112.4E-072.6E-075.7E-099.4E-122.4E-082E-087.6E-09 1.18231E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)1.18312E-060.3911075184E-112.7E-073E-077.3E-091.4E-113.2E-083.2E-081E-08 3.0808E-07 Brain 3.69687E-113.5262E-110.000632.5E-112.4E-118.2E-092.6E-071.9E-101.7E-105.3E-10 2.53098E-11 Colon Wall 2.34472E-072.83016E-071.2E-110.000276.9E-065E-096.7E-122.2E-082.1E-086.2E-09 2.55073E-07 Esophagus Wall6.39077E-091.00119E-088.5E-095.4E-096.6E-090.004241.9E-093E-082.9E-082.1E-071.4E-075.84659E-09 Eyes 1.49666E-111.82442E-112.6E-075.8E-128.5E-121.9E-090.005397E-117.2E-111.8E-10 7.1253E-12 Gall Bladder Wall2.40435E-083.21289E-082.4E-102.4E-082.8E-082.9E-089.2E-110.038120.001059.4E-081E-071.62987E-08 Heart Wall 7.60501E-091.00326E-086.3E-106.2E-097.6E-092.7E-072.7E-109.7E-089.7E-080.00035E-066.21189E-09 Kidney (L) 1.05134E-063.01445E-072.3E-112.5E-072.3E-075.7E-099.4E-121.6E-081.5E-086.3E-09 0.000532333 Kidney (R) 2.52818E-076.94704E-074E-111.4E-071.5E-077.3E-091.4E-112E-082E-087.6E-09 1.03389E-07 Liver 5.15785E-081.0279E-072.3E-107.5E-087.3E-084.5E-085E-111.2E-053E-069.4E-089.6E-083.08835E-08 Lung (L) 2.54772E-083.31305E-085E-101.7E-082.1E-081.6E-062E-105.4E-085.2E-083.3E-071.7E-072.24735E-08 Lung (R) 2.71841E-084.73659E-085.2E-101.9E-082.3E-082.6E-072E-101.5E-071.5E-076.3E-071.7E-071.78966E-08 Ovary (L) 2.64409E-071.24222E-071.2E-111.6E-071.7E-071.9E-092.5E-127.1E-095.9E-092.4E-09 6.5891E-07 Ovary (R) 1.67208E-072.07807E-071.4E-111.3E-071.3E-072.7E-091.4E-129.8E-098.5E-092.8E-09 8.1282E-08 Pancreas 1.51853E-072.04576E-078E-112.1E-072.4E071.8E-083.2E-111.7E-071.6E-072.7E-08 8.97479E-08 Pituitary Gland 3.69687E-113.5262E-110.000132.5E-112 .4E-118.2E-092E-071.9E-101.7E-105.3E-10 2.53098E-11 Residual Soft Tissues4.66076E-076.1321E-075.2E-081.9E-0 73.7E-082.9E-071.8E-072E-081.9E-081E-072.4E-089.18458E-08 Salivary Glands7.69637E-111.09402E-101.3E-075.2E-116 .1E-112.1E-083.7E-085.2E-104.3E-101.8E-09 6.83596E-11 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 3.50945E-083.98905E-084.8E-074.5E-083.3E-087.7E-088E-082.7E-082.7E-085E-084E-083.19901E-08 Skin 1.27869E-081.26537E-081.8E-081.5E-081.5E-081.6E-081.8E-081.5E-081.5E-081.5E-081.5E-081.56742E-08 Small Intestine Wall1.82912E-071.34285E-072.2E-118.5E-073.6E-074.5E-098.3E-123.3E-083.2E-087.1E-09 1.31917E-07 Spinal Cord 4.33006E-085.19272E-082.1E-081.8E-082E-081E-072.9E-091.6E-081.5E-082.8E-08 3.51628E-08 Spleen 1.49827E-071.14713E-078.2E-117.2E-088.6E-081.8E-083.2E-116.9E-086.5E-082.9E-083E-084.62027E-07 Stomach Wall 1.04118E-071.28614E-071.1E-106.1E-074.7E073.6E-083.2E-111.9E-071.8E-074E-084.1E-088.48244E-08 Thymus 2.03055E-092.78014E-092.1E-091.7E-092E-091.9E-079.5E-102.1E-082E-081.5E-071.3E-071.73494E-09 Thyroid 1.83174E-103.67419E-104.7E-081.4E-101.6E-105.1E-051E-081.4E-091.5E-095.9E-09 2.04953E-10 Tracheal Wall 1.65085E-093.61418E-091.5E-081.6E-092E093.8E-053.5E-091.5E-081.5E-081.1E-068.4E-081.73592E-09 Urinary Bladder Wall2.60735E-081.74565E-082.7E-125.7E-0 71.2E-073.5E-101.4E-121.4E-091.5E-093.5E-10 2.78557E-08 Uterus 8.04042E-086.5257E-085.7E-121.3E-071.1E-07 9.7E-102.5E-123.6E-093.3E-091.1E-09 7.8409E-08 Total Body Tissues2.29924E-062.29876E-062.3E-062.2E-069.4E-082.3E-062.3E-062E-061.5E-072.2E-066.5E-082.29342E-06 100

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Target \ SourceKidney (R)LiverLung (L)Lung (R)Ovary (L)Ovary (R ) PancreasPituitary GlandResidual STSalivary GlandsSkeletonSkin Adrenal Gland (L)2.3427E-075.2E-082.5E-082.6E-082.8E-071.7E-071.5E-07 5.38712E-076.06107E-111.7E-081.4E-08 Adrenal Gland (R)6.92618E-071E-073.3E-084.4E-081.3E-072E-072E-07 6.07335E-078.46098E-111.7E-081.3E-08 Brain 3.38881E-111.3E-104.5E-104.9E-10 1.6E-115.7E-110.0001375314.91645E-081.28971E-074.4E-071.8E-08 Colon Wall 1.45284E-077.5E-081.6E-081.8E-081.7E-071.3E-072.1E-07 1.89297E-075.82248E-112.4E-081.6E-08 Esophagus Wall7.44515E-094.8E-081.7E-062.2E-07 2.6E-091.9E-08 3.02667E-072.05925E-083.8E-081.6E-08 Eyes 1.17137E-113.3E-111.6E-102.1E-10 3.7E-122.4E-112.02239E-071.87739E-073.61606E-084.4E-081.9E-08 Gall Bladder Wall2.07565E-081.2E-055.2E-081.4E-0 7 1.1E-081.8E-07 3.00489E-084.7179E-101.3E-081.5E-08 Heart Wall 7.6232E-091.1E-073.3E-076.2E-07 2.8E-092.7E-08 1.02809E-071.9435E-092.9E-081.6E-08 Kidney (L) 1.04241E-073.1E-082.2E-081.7E-081.6E-068.4E-089E-08 9.46137E-086.06107E-111.6E-081.6E-08 Kidney (R) 0.000538152E-072.2E-084.1E-087.5E-082.9E-069.4E-08 9.13717E-088.46098E-114.1E-082.3E-08 Liver 2.09407E-077.7E-051.3E-074.6E-07 2.5E-081.8E-07 6.37535E-084.7179E-102.7E-084.5E-09 Lung (L) 2.29192E-081.3E-070.000283.4E-07 7.5E-095E-08 1.77077E-071.37138E-091.3E-073.1E-08 Lung (R) 4.3217E-084.7E-073.5E-070.00016 1.2E-086.5E-08 1.35687E-071.49026E-098.2E-083.2E-08 Ovary (L) 7.28214E-081.2E-088E-097.5E-090.036321E-073.1E-08 2.96548E-072.4394E-112.2E-081.7E-08 Ovary (R) 6.46843E-072.5E-087.5E-091.2E-081E-07 0.077294.3E-08 3.55366E-075.82248E-111.6E-082.3E-08 Pancreas 9.96508E-081.9E-074.7E-086.7E-08 4.5E-080.0258 2.92839E-072.75848E-101.1E-081.3E-08 Pituitary Gland 3.38881E-111.3E-104.5E-104.9E-10 1.6E-115.7E-112.4044644835.68617E-081.77797E-077.2E-071.8E-08 Residual Soft Tissues8.83582E-086.3E-081.8E-071.4E-072E073.3E-072.4E-072.92057E-083.15236E-061.44369E-071.7E-072.3E-07 Salivary Glands7.98915E-113.8E-101.2E-091.3E-09 3.2E-111.9E-10 1.4108E-070.001680352.4E-088.9E-08 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 6.2072E-084.3E-081.6E-071.1E-074.4E-083.4E-082.3E-081.58745E-062.00069E-074.82896E-082.2E-055.8E-08 Skin 2.2109E-081.4E-081.6E-081.6E-081.8E-082.1E-081.2E-08 2.34482E-078.78895E-084E-082.3E-05 Small Intestine Wall9.54381E-084.4E-081.3E-081.6E-081E-071.4E-072.1E-07 2.8805E-076.66353E-111.2E-082.8E-08 Spinal Cord 4.93043E-082.5E-086E-085.8E-085.2E-083.2E-081.9E-081.78977E-083.15982E-071.84112E-086.2E-071.4E-08 Spleen 4.77329E-082.5E-078.4E-083.6E-085.3E-082.3E-081.2E-07 7.18236E-082.21901E-103.8E-081.6E-08 Stomach Wall 6.37645E-084.7E-071.9E-078.1E-08 2.7E-083.5E-05 2.55013E-072.75848E-101.4E-081.4E-08 Thymus 2.5151E-091.6E-088.9E-062.3E-06 1.1E-096.1E-09 2.67385E-076.35753E-092.4E-082E-08 Thyroid 2.55468E-101.3E-095.1E-094.8E-09 1.6E-107.4E-10 3.8421E-071.33491E-073E-082.3E-08 Tracheal Wall 3.15624E-091.3E-087E-083.7E-07 1.1E-095.7E-09 2.57496E-073.78105E-083.6E-081.9E-08 Urinary Bladder Wall1.63951E-082.6E-091.2E-091.3E-097 .3E-084.2E-086.3E-09 2.99491E-071.2251E-112.5E-089.5E-08 Uterus 1.02541E-077.7E-093E-094E-092.2E-050.000571.6E-08 5.25629E-072.69567E-113.4E-081.6E-08 Total Body Tissues2.29091E-062.3E-062.3E-062.3E-062.3E-062.3E-062.3E-062.29377E-062.28174E-062.27678E-062.3E-062.1E-06 Target \ SourceSmall Intest W Small Intest C S pinal CordSpleenStomach WStomach CThymusThyroidTracheal Wal l Bladder WBladder CUterus Adrenal Gland (L)1.88253E-071.80011E-074.3301E-081.5E-071.017E-071.007E-071.7E-092.14E-101.75623E-092.932E-082.873E-088.5E-08 Adrenal Gland (R)1.30179E-071.31594E-075.1927E-081.2E-071.278E-071.295E-072.5E-093.03E-103.14804E-091.628E-081.747E-086.5E-08 Brain 1.07296E-111.79074E-112.1483E-087.4E-118.949E-114.746E-112.2E-094.64E-081.46992E-082.263E-122.006E-123.7E-12 Colon Wall 8.5082E-071.69209E-071.9141E-087.2E-085.93E-071.022E-071.6E-091.84E-101.59495E-095.613E-071.339E-071.3E-07 Esophagus Wall4.76213E-09 1.0558E-071.9E-084.506E-083.976E-081.8E-071.95E-053.8148E-053.438E-103.766E-109.8E-10 Eyes 5.03495E-126.23045E-122.8024E-091.2E-111.953E-111.754E-115.4E-109.18E-093.44394E-097.743E-135.17E-131.7E-12 Gall Bladder Wall3.4792E-083.61052E-081.6575E-087.1E-082.103E-071.83E-072E-081.85E-091.46731E-081.746E-091.658E-093.5E-09 Heart Wall 7.11135E-097.10428E-092.9984E-083E-084.017E-083.979E-081.4E-075.96E-099.91937E-074.525E-104.782E-101.1E-09 Kidney (L) 1.35141E-071.24173E-073.7584E-084.6E-078.309E-088.704E-081.7E-092.14E-101.75623E-092.808E-082.995E-087.9E-08 Kidney (R) 9.51277E-089.1035E-085.1404E-084.8E-086.271E-086.1E-082.5E-093.03E-103.14804E-091.628E-081.747E-081.1E-07 Liver 3.68107E-094.40179E-082.6352E-082.5E-074.747E-071.997E-071.6E-081.32E-091.28652E-082.584E-092.739E-097.8E-09 Lung (L) 2.90985E-081.3696E-086.3931E-088.7E-081.987E-071.22E-077.4E-065.26E-097.11747E-081.29E-091.259E-093.2E-09 Lung (R) 9.3242E-081.64714E-086.1863E-083.8E-088.465E-088.264E-083E-064.96E-093.77915E-071.29E-091.418E-094E-09 Ovary (L) 1.01101E-079.45244E-085.4757E-085.2E-082.481E-082.592E-084.1E-106.13E-116.76459E-107.409E-087.818E-085.5E-05 Ovary (R) 1.4238E-071.26033E-073.5449E-082.2E-082.651E-082.493E-084.1E-106.13E-111.11682E-094.157E-084.525E-080.00045 Pancreas 2.12381E-072.19415E-072.1592E-081.2E-073.339E-058.237E-076.1E-096.42E-105.6168E-096.484E-097.536E-091.7E-08 Pituitary Gland1.07296E-111.79074E-111.7898E-087.4E-118.949E-11 2.2E-094.64E-081.46992E-082.263E-122.006E-123.7E-12 Residual Soft Tissues3.10438E-077.18115E-083.0947E-077.1E-082.545E-072.883E-082.6E-073.81E-072.50984E-073.049E-074.384E-085.3 E-07 Salivary Glands4.36552E-117.21177E-111.8883E-082.5E-102.484E-101.527E-106.4E-091.34E-073.83571E-085.566E-127.035E-121.2E-11 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 2.20563E-081.85104E-086.8154E-075.3E-082.975E-082.917E-085E-086.05E-087.27949E-085.087E-084.911E-086.8E-08 Skin 2.74184E-081.69103E-081.3897E-081.5E-081.304E-081.263E-081.9E-082.28E-081.87783E-089.657E-081.988E-081.6E-08 Small Intestine Wall0.0002496348.68667E-061.4337E-088.4E-082. 861E-079.833E-081.7E-091.96E-101.57332E-093.929E-084.107E-087.6E -08 Spinal Cord 1.32073E-081.244E-080.002616862.5E-082.657E-082.615E-083.7E-087.52E-089.47839E-089.272E-091.012E-083.3E-08 Spleen 8.41582E-086.43309E-082.5897E-080.000141.195E-062.566E-076.3E-096.42E-105.30476E-095.448E-097.536E-091.4E-08 Stomach Wall 2.86503E-071.67954E-072.8761E-081.2E-060.00067011.371E-059.1E-098.93E-108.35726E-094.257E-094.531E-091.1E-08 Thymus 3.11936E-091.89295E-093.8869E-086.3E-098.592E-098.076E-090.061962.02E-081.9615E-071.486E-101.482E-103.4E-10 Thyroid 1.64994E-102.75498E-108.272E-087.2E-108.793E-106.538E-102.1E-080.0484.09381E-051.902E-112.214E-114.2E-11 Tracheal Wall 1.5169E-091.39827E-099.9665E-085.4E-098.545E-098.335E-091.9E-074.91E-050.0013013831.486E-101.492E-104.3E-10 Urinary Bladder Wall3.88955E-083.80625E-089.8439E-096.3E-094.205E-094.192E-095E-111.54E-111.52751E-100.00147764.076E-053.6E-0 7 Uterus 7.60974E-086.83291E-083.3953E-081.3E-081.056E-081.07E-081.2E-103.51E-114.48862E-103.528E-073.715E-070.01127 Total Body Tissues2.10528E-061.24505E-072.2994E-062.3E-062.104E-067.703E-082.3E-062.28E-062.2881E-062.118E-069.139E-082.3E-06 101

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Table C-3. S values for Re-188 Target \ SourceAdrenal (L)Adrenal (R)BrainColon WColon CE soph WEyesGall Blad WGall Blad CHeart WHeart CKidney (L) Adrenal Gland (L)0.43605222.46682E-063.76E-105.5E-075.9895E-071.7E-082E-106.332E-085.626E-082.3E-084.74634E-06 Adrenal Gland (R)2.8125E-060.6216083124.92E-106.4E-076.8133E-072.1E-082.7E-108.3329E-088.4293E-082.9E-08 6.7814E-07 Brain 3.7413E-104.72687E-100.0013723.2E-103.4036E-1 02.7E-086.7E-071.5484E-091.553E-093.5E-093.83235E-10 Colon Wall 5.4461E-076.75078E-072.42E-100.000523.8015E-051.4E-081.6E-105.8313E-085.5912E-081.9E-088.30129E-07 Esophagus Wall1.9658E-082.75519E-082.71E-081.5E-081.8711E-080.007788.3E-097.473E-087.3511E-088E-073.4E-071.79305E-08 Eyes 2.1855E-103.27866E-106.68E-071.4E-101.9348E-108.4E-090.011277.9954E-107.9791E-101.6E-091.71574E-10 Gall Bladder Wall6.3391E-088.33291E-081.5E-096.1E-087.1774E-087.2E-088.8E-100.04950010.004951432.2E-072.4E-074.66117E-08 Heart Wall 2.3393E-082.89466E-083.66E-091.9E-082.2677E-081.2E-061.8E-092.3168E-072.3078E-070.000622.6E-052.00224E-08 Kidney (L) 2.6481E-066.97042E-073.76E-108.3E-075.4688E-071.7E-082E-104.4879E-084.3086E-082E-080.001169851 Kidney (R) 5.873E-071.65387E-064.92E-104.3E-073.5869E-072.1E-082.7E-105.7375E-085.5458E-082.3E-082.44031E-07 Liver 1.2627E-072.42715E-071.44E-092.7E-072.3416E-071.5E-076.5E-105.8266E-051.6582E-052.4E-072.3E-078.01952E-08 Lung (L) 6.4939E-088.0923E-082.88E-094.3E-085.317E-088.2E-061.4E-091.2722E-071.2308E-071.8E-064.1E-075.91176E-08 Lung (R) 6.7591E-081.11378E-072.97E-094.8E-085.7832E-081E-061.4E-093.5746E-073.5459E-073.2E-064E-074.72631E-08 Ovary (L) 6.1262E-072.93119E-072.42E-104E-074.0574E-078.4E-098.9E-112.3218E-081.9988E-089.5E-091.88276E-06 Ovary (R) 3.9428E-074.89078E-072.78E-103.2E-073.2858E-079.8E-095.5E-113.076E-082.8779E-081.1E-081.96767E-07 Pancreas 3.4952E-074.68452E-076.35E-105.3E-075.7766E-074.6E-084.7E-103.9069E-073.7621E-077E-082.08208E-07 Pituitary Gland3.7413E-104.72687E-100.0006473.2E-103.4036E-102.7E-085E-071.5484E-091.553E-093.5E-093.83235E-10 Residual Soft Tissues2.5104E-063.14427E-062.02E-079.4E-079.509E-081.5E-069.4E-075.172E-085.0915E-084.8E-076.1E-084.01642E-07 Salivary Glands7.7468E-109.80406E-103.49E-075.2E-105.66 8E-105.8E-081.1E-072.973E-092.8605E-097.6E-096.86839E-10 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 6.0746E-086.79994E-082.24E-069.5E-085.8042E-081.4E-071.5E-074.5755E-084.5733E-081.2E-077.3E-085.62476E-08 Skin 3.6284E-083.60906E-085.07E-084.2E-084.1093E-084.3E-085.3E-084.1585E-084.2088E-084.3E-084.1E-084.37092E-08 Small Intestine Wall4.289E-073.15204E-073.43E-104E-061.4515E-061.4E-081.9E-108.7364E-088.4293E-082.2E-08 3.3337E-07 Spinal Cord 1.1343E-071.3644E-075.87E-085E-085.515E-082.6E-071.1E-084.4112E-084.3432E-087.7E-089.46091E-08 Spleen 3.5684E-072.75159E-076.55E-101.7E-072.0514E-074.8E-084.7E-101.6734E-071.584E-077.7E-087.8E-081.94942E-06 Stomach Wall2.4127E-073.02207E-078.38E-102.9E-062.2657E-068.8E-084.7E-104.6169E-074.2763E-079.9E-081E-072.01604E-07 Thymus 9.0594E-098.95302E-099.23E-096.1E-096.7452E-094.5E-075.2E-095.2032E-085.3495E-083.4E-073.1E-076.77069E-09 Thyroid 1.8437E-092.11362E-091.38E-071E-091.075E-090.000273.8E-086.5867E-097.4256E-092.1E-081.52995E-09 Tracheal Wall 7.3653E-091.16389E-084.59E-085.6E-096.7452E-090.000221.4E-083.9981E-084.0256E-086E-062.2E-076.63722E-09 Urinary Bladder Wall7.0704E-084.98309E-088.18E-112.6E-063.6446E-072E-095.5E-116.5867E-097.4256E-092.6E-097.54991E-08 Uterus 1.9149E-071.58379E-071.58E-103.1E-072.6311E-074.5E-098.9E-111.2991E-081.2404E-084.9E-091.90383E-07 Total Body Tissues5.2102E-065.2087E-065.18E-064.7E-063.9976E-075.2E-065.2E-063.8525E-067.4655E-074.9E-062.6E-075.19812E-06 Target \ SourceKidney (R)LiverLung (L)Lung (R)Ovary (L)Ovary (R)PancreasPituitary Glan d Residual STSalivary Gland s SkeletonSkin Adrenal Gland (L)5.42361E-071.3E-076.5E-086.5E-086.3E-073.8E-073.5E-07 2.817E-066.43058E-105.07E-083.89E-08 Adrenal Gland (R)1.63641E-062.5E-078.1E-081.1E-073 E-074.7E-074.5E-07 3.201E-068.37839E-104.99E-083.618E-08 Brain 4.72551E-101.2E-092.8E-092.9E-09 2.8E-106.5E-100.0006360491.978E-073.50245E-072.36E-065.19E-08 Colon Wall 4.28657E-072.7E-074.3E-084.7E-084E073.3E-075.4E-07 9.409E-075.3965E-107.7E-084.343E-08 Esophagus Wall2.21918E-081.6E-078.4E-069.4E-07 9.6E-094.8E-08 1.534E-065.79582E-081.03E-074.465E-08 Eyes 2.74744E-106.4E-101.5E-091.5E-09 1.3E-104E-105.23248E-079.808E-071.11577E-071.37E-075.463E-08 Gall Bladder Wall5.9949E-085.9E-051.3E-073.5E-07 3.1E-084.2E-07 1.058E-072.57781E-093.65E-084.158E-08 Heart Wall 2.29995E-083.2E-071.8E-063.2E-06 1.1E-087E-08 4.908E-077.95272E-091.07E-074.463E-08 Kidney (L) 2.45596E-078E-085.8E-084.7E-088.1E-06 2E-072.1E-07 4.136E-076.43058E-104.32E-084.565E-08 Kidney (R) 0.0011816028.4E-075.8E-081E-071.8E-071.8E-052.2E-07 4.039E-078.37839E-101.75E-078.217E-08 Liver 8.68069E-070.000174.6E-072.2E-06 6.9E-084.3E-07 2.838E-072.57781E-091.08E-071.237E-08 Lung (L) 5.9213E-084.6E-070.000581.6E-06 2.4E-081.2E-07 8.85E-075.82308E-097.25E-078.376E-08 Lung (R) 1.0498E-072.2E-061.6E-060.00034 3.4E-081.6E-07 6.698E-076.0547E-094.25E-079.027E-08 Ovary (L) 1.78866E-073.7E-082.5E-082.3E-080.074442.5E-078.2E-08 1.49E-062.58749E-106.01E-084.731E-08 Ovary (R) 2.14068E-067E-082.4E-083.4E-082.5E-070.134911.1E-07 1.84E-065.3965E-104.63E-086.186E-08 Pancreas 2.3794E-074.4E-071.2E-071.6E-07 1.1E-070.04744 1.508E-061.76316E-093.04E-083.618E-08 Pituitary Gland 4.72551E-101.2E-092.8E-092.9E-09 2.8E-106.5E-102.9930105322.14E-074.71472E-073.85E-065.19E-08 Residual Soft Tissues3.93569E-072.8E-078.8E-076.7E-071.1E-061.7E-061.3E-068.38173E-086.936E-067.24801E-078.97E-071.228E-06 Salivary Glands7.73603E-102.4E-095.6E-095.9E-09 3.6E-101.2E-09 7.181E-070.0035715466.74E-084.95E-07 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 1.89895E-071.2E-077.1E-074.3E-077.6E-086.1E-084E-088.65168E-068.844E-078.4867E-084.49E-052.124E-07 Skin 8.10923E-084.1E-084.5E-084.5E-084.8E-085.8E-083.4E-08 1.22E-064.83223E-072.03E-074.147E-05 Small Intestine Wall2.29303E-071.1E-073.8E-084.4E-082 .5E-073.6E-075.1E-07 1.485E-066.35746E-104.33E-081.237E-07 Spinal Cord 1.32284E-076.7E-081.6E-071.5E-071.4E-078.8E-085.4E-085.07264E-081.499E-065.34746E-084.25E-064.201E-08 Spleen 1.2024E-071E-062.4E-079.1E-081.3E-076.3E-082.9E-07 3.255E-071.53818E-091.73E-074.539E-08 Stomach Wall 1.55142E-072E-061.1E-061.9E-07 7.2E-080.00019 1.236E-061.76316E-093.91E-083.89E-08 Thymus 9.19753E-094.4E-085.1E-051.5E-05 4.8E-091.9E-08 1.364E-062.11175E-086.62E-085.484E-08 Thyroid 1.83541E-096E-091.7E-081.7E-08 1.1E-093.6E-09 1.995E-063.531E-078.18E-086.265E-08 Tracheal Wall 1.08557E-083.5E-081.7E-072.1E-06 4.8E-091.7E-08 1.347E-061.04179E-079.53E-086.094E-08 Urinary Bladder Wall4.7946E-081E-085.5E-095.9E-091.8 E-071.1E-072.1E-08 1.518E-061.77503E-106.66E-084.908E-07 Uterus 2.57772E-072.4E-081.1E-081.4E-080.000130.002964.5E-08 2.726E-063.39528E-108.9E-084.452E-08 Total Body Tissues5.19269E-065.2E-065.2E-065.2E-065.2E-065.2E-065.1E-065.19086E-065.161E-065.15852E-065.17E-064.41E-06 102

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Target \ SourceSmall Intest W Small Intest CS Adrenal Gland (L)4.25206E-074.17152E-07 pinal CordSpleenStomach WStomach CThymusThyroidTracheal WallBladder WBladder CUterus 1.1343E-073.9E-072.37E-072.379E-076.9E-091.61E-096.62553E-097.283E-087.585E-082E-07 Adrenal Gland (R)3.18092E-073.06142E-071.3644E-072.7E-072.89E-072.843E-079.2E-092.04E-091.07352E-084.765E-085.098E-081.6E-07 Brain 3.14829E-103.29763E-105.9721E-087.4E-108.88E-108.175E-101E-081.37E-074.67746E-088.493E-118.435E-111.1E-10 Colon Wall 3.99348E-065.39194E-075.0939E-081.7E-072.932E-062.981E-075.9E-091.28E-095.56002E-092.627E-063.825E-073E-07 Esophagus Wall1.48743E-08 2.732E-075E-082.805E-079.702E-084.5E-070.0001460.0002205212.099E-092.26E-094.3E-09 Eyes 1.88294E-101.8403E-101.0866E-083.1E-103.934E-104.749E-104.1E-093.71E-081.43487E-084.865E-114.25E-116.9E-11 Gall Bladder Wall9.07199E-089.41376E-084.4656E-081.7E-075.118E-074.346E-075.4E-087.72E-093.80686E-087.153E-097.305E-091.3E-08 Heart Wall 2.26149E-082.26765E-087.8377E-087.8E-081.001E-079.926E-083.4E-072.05E-085.42417E-062.675E-092.811E-095.1E-09 Kidney (L) 3.49354E-072.96703E-079.6769E-081.9E-061.977E-072.059E-076.9E-091.61E-096.62553E-097.574E-088.061E-081.9E-07 Kidney (R) 2.29069E-072.19589E-071.3287E-071.2E-071.533E-071.49E-079.2E-092.04E-091.07352E-084.765E-085.098E-082.6E-07 Liver 1.01865E-081.11847E-076.823E-081E-062.036E-064.995E-074.3E-086.03E-093.44652E-081.023E-081.078E-082.4E-08 Lung (L) 7.88087E-083.79745E-081.5943E-072.4E-071.066E-062.938E-074.4E-051.76E-081.68933E-075.815E-095.749E-091.1E-08 Lung (R) 2.37298E-074.46538E-081.5445E-079.2E-081.953E-071.899E-071.9E-051.66E-082.13193E-065.815E-096.171E-091.4E-08 Ovary (L) 2.45842E-072.29095E-071.3837E-071.3E-076.705E-086.998E-083.2E-097.13E-103.17971E-091.819E-071.92E-070.00028 Ovary (R) 3.45443E-073.04566E-079.1586E-086.3E-087.067E-086.944E-083.2E-097.13E-104.64662E-091.106E-071.174E-070.00236 Pancreas 5.05501E-075.20723E-075.6988E-082.9E-070.00017495.253E-061.9E-083.55E-091.66613E-082.12E-082.417E-084.7E-08 Pituitary Gland3.14829E-103.29763E-105.0726E-087.4E-108.88E-10 1E-081.37E-074.67746E-088.493E-118.435E-111.1E-10 Residual Soft Tissues1.51748E-063.27462E-071.5093E-063.2E-071.238E-069.652E-081.3E-061.96E-061.3219E-061.507E-061.474E-072.7E -06 Salivary Glands6.40491E-106.40399E-105.3587E-081.5E-091.656E-091.477E-092.1E-083.57E-071.05189E-071.294E-101.26E-102.1E-10 Skeleton (Homogeneous ) 5.228E-083.46553E-084.0937E-061.8E-075.092E-084.996E-088.3E-081.04E-071.21432E-078.68E-088.405E-081.1E-07 Skin 1.19617E-075.17542E-084.1073E-084.4E-083.723E-083.609E-085.3E-086.21E-086.08733E-085.066E-078.192E-084.3E-08 Small Intestine Wall0.0004160534.41602E-053.9916E-082.6E-071.355E-062.543E-076.9E-091.41E-095.94626E-091.019E-071.06E-071.8E07 Spinal Cord 3.89444E-083.7273E-080.004845377E-087.252E-087.102E-089.8E-081.96E-072.44714E-072.741E-083.005E-088.9E-08 Spleen 2.63363E-071.65398E-077.0053E-080.000326.119E-067.018E-072E-083.55E-091.66028E-081.892E-082.417E-084E-08 Stomach Wall 1.34111E-066.51486E-077.4557E-086.2E-060.00111577.024E-052.6E-084.46E-092.33086E-081.545E-081.619E-083.2E-08 Thymus 9.78185E-097.58064E-099.988E-082E-082.65E-082.497E-080.112575.76E-084.83851E-071.126E-091.103E-092E-09 Thyroid 1.50961E-091.80069E-092.1354E-073.4E-094.45E-094.127E-096.1E-080.0812620.0002464913.153E-103.268E-105.1E-10 Tracheal Wall 6.04845E-095.91161E-092.5718E-071.7E-082.388E-082.334E-084.8E-070.0002870.0025463811.126E-091.105E-092.2E-09 Urinary Bladder Wall1.0105E-079.91519E-082.7956E-082E-081.517E-081.538E-089.5E-103.1E-109.8249E-100.00246450.0002148.8E-07 Uterus 1.83116E-071.66228E-078.7581E-084E-083.235E-083.236E-081.6E-095.53E-102.41106E-098.515E-078.704E-070.01883 Total Body Tissues4.24989E-065.85287E-075.2063E-065.2E-064.217E-063.097E-075.2E-065.18E-065.18448E-064.281E-063.977E-075.2E-06 103

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A PPENDIX D THE S VALUE CALCULATOR PROGRAM SOURCE CODE %~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ S-Value Calculation~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ %SValue=sum over all dk energies (delta*SAF) %Delta=DkEnergy*Yield % % PHOTONS %********Read in Decay Scheme for Radionuclide %Dk Scheme obtained from the Rad toolbox program %Input photon decay scheme file name here in the parenthesis below DkSchmP=xlsread('Sm-153 Decay Scheme'); %%%Col 1= radiation type, Col 2= Intensity, Col 3= Energy %%%Deletion of Column 1 (Radiation type) %Therefore DkSchmP(i,1) is intensity and DkSchmP(i,2) is Energy DkSchmP(:,1) = []; [rowDkP colDkP]=size(DkSchmP); % %********Construction of the Delta Value matrix (Dk energy,delta) %figure out the first Dk energy greater than 0.01 MeV for i=1:rowDkP; if (DkSchmP(i,2)>0.01) minDkE=DkSchmP(i,2); rowMinDkE=i; break end end %Calculation of Delta values under 0.01 MeV for i=1:rowMinDkE; DeltaPld(i,1)=DkSchmP(i,2); DeltaPld(i,2)=DkSchmP(i,1)*DkSchmP(i,2); end %Calculation of Delta Values for i=rowMinDkE:rowDkP; DeltaP(i-(rowMinDkE-1),1)=DkSchmP(i,2); DeltaP(i-(rowMinDkE-1),2)=DkSchmP(i,1)*DkSchmP(i,2); end % %********Read in SAF values %%%Number of sheets in the file, and their name (1 sheet per organ) [type, sheets] = xlsfinfo('Appendix A Photon Tables Excel'); OrgN=numel(sheets); %%%Read in target organ names [test1 TO]=xlsread('Appendix A Photon Tables Excel','A38:O70'); TO(1:2,:)=[]; TO(:,2:3)=[]; %Read in the SAF values for all the organs (row, column, Source organ) %%% First row = Photon energy %%% The name of the source organ is not shown, %%% to see the equivalency between the k dimension of the matrix and the source %%% organ name look at the 'sheets' matrix for k=1:OrgN; 104

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SAFP(:,:,k)=xlsread('Appendix A Photon Tables Excel',k); end SAFP(1:35,:,:)=[]; FP(2,:,:)=[]; size(SAFP) gorithm + SValue calculation P(1,v,w)Values =1:(rowSAFP-1); (1,f,g); dumld); =1:OrgN; ); in the parenthesis below ns'); SA SAFP(:,1:2,:)=[]; SAFP(:,:,1) SAFP(31,12,2) owSAFP colSAFP OrgN]= [r %*************Interpolation Al for u=1:rowDkP-(rowMinDkE-1); DkPE=DeltaP(u,1); for w=1:OrgN; for v=2:colSAFP; if(SAFP(1,v-1,w)0.01 MeV %pho r g fo for f=1:(rowSAFP-1); for e=1:(rowDkP-(rowMinDkE-1)); SvalPdum(e)=DeltaP(e,2)*SAFPDk(e,f,g); end SvalP(f,g)=sum(SvalPdum if (SvalP(f,g)<0); alP(f,g)=0; Sv end end end % ELECTRONS %********Read in Decay Scheme for Radionuclide %Dk Scheme obtained from the Rad toolbox program %Input electron decay scheme file name here d('Sm-153 Decay Scheme_electro DkSchmE=xlsrea 105

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%%%Col 1= radiation type, Col 2= Intensity, Col 3= Energy %%%De letion of Column 1 (Radiation type) ,1) is intensity and DkSchmP(i,2) is Energy ; e(DkSchmE); uction of the Delta Value matrix (Dk energy,delta) ater than 0.01 MeV (i,2); i; chmE(i,2); mE(i,1)*DkSchmE(i,2); of Delta Values DkEe:rowDkE; eltaE(i-(rowMinDkEe-1),1)=DkSchmE(i,2); DeltaE(i-(rowMinDkEe-1),2)=DkSchmE(i,1)*DkSchmE(i,2); n SAF values file, and their name (1 sheet per organ) ('Appendix B Electron Tables Excel') ) s el','A38:O70'); ; SAF values for all the organs (row, column, Source organ) row = Photon energy he name of the source organ is not shown, between the k dimension of the matrix and the 'sheets' matrix Excel',k); 2,2) AFE colSAFE OrgNE]=size(SAFE); calculation %Therefore DkSchmP(i DkSchmE(:,1) = [] [rowDkE colDkE]=siz % %********Constr %figure out the first Dk energy gre for i=1:rowDkE; if (DkSchmE(i,2)>0.01) minDkEe=DkSchmE rowMinDkEe= break end end %Calculation of Delta values under 0.01 MeV for i=1:rowMinDkEe; DeltaEld(i,1)=DkS DeltaEld(i,2)=DkSch end %Calculation Min for i=row D end % %********Read i %%%Number of sheets in the [type, sheets] = xlsfinfo OrgNE=numel(sheets %%%Read in target organ name [test1e TOe]=xlsread('Appendix B Electron Tables Exc TOe(1:2,:)=[] TOe(:,2:3)=[]; %Read in the %%% First %%% T %%% to see the equivalency source %%% organ name look at the for k=1:OrgNE; SAFE(:,:,k)=xlsread('Appendix B Electron Tables end SAFE(1:35,:,:)=[]; SAFE(2,:,:)=[]; SAFE(:,1:2,:)=[]; SAFE(:,:,1) SAFE(31,1 [rowS %*************Interpolation Algo rithm + SValue for u=1:rowDkE-(rowMinDkEe-1); DkPEe=DeltaE(u,1); for w=1:OrgNE; for v=2:colSAFE; 106

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if(SAFE(1,v-1,w)0. for for f=1:(rowSAFE-1); for e=1:(rowDkE-(rowMinDkEe-1)); SvalEdum(e)=DeltaE(e,2)*SAFEDk(e,f,g); end SvalE(f,g)=sum(SvalEdum if (SvalE(f,g)<0); Sval end end end %*****************Calculation of total S-Values for g=1:OrgNE; for f Sval(f,g)=(SvalE(f,g)+ SvalEld(f SvalP(f,g)+SvalP end end %************Export %Indicate output %The name in the se %Export Targe xlswrite('Total %Export source organ names xlswrite('Total S-Values ld (UFDOG)', sheets,'Sm153','B1') %Export Svalues xlswrite('Total S-V 107

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS et al. Genome sequence, comparative ype st ructure of the domestic dog. Nature. 2005;438:803-819. analysis and haplot case TJ 2. Starkey MP, S s has Mellersh CS, Murphy S. Dogs really are man's best friend--canine applications in veterinary and human medicine! Brief Funct Genomic ic. 2005;4:112-128. ors of companion animals as 1-792. K, Vail D et al. The dog as a cancer model. Nat Biotechnol. g cross-organ beta l). 1994;73:951-957. Boden R, Begent RH. A mouse model for articl e dose from (131)Iand (90)Y-labeled ethod for d ealing with heterogeneity in kidney and t Res. 2001;156:28-35. n of parameters influencing S values in Emm ons MA. Voxel-based mouse and rat models J Nucl Med. 2006;47:655-659. Council on Radiation Protection and Mesurements. Extrapolation of radiationced cancer risks from nonhuman experimental systems. Bethesda, MD: National Report No. 150. ation for canine inherited erson D. Companion animal medici ne in the age of medical genetics. J Vet Inten ent in ion personal Nucl Med. genomic teom Pro 3. Vail DM, MacEwen EG. Spontaneously occu rring tum n cancer. Cancer Invest. 2000;18:78 models for huma 4. Khanna C, Lindblad-Toh 2006;24:1065-1066. 5. Hui TE, Fisher DR, Kuhn JA A mouse model for calcu latin m yttrium-90-labeled immunoconjugates. Cancer (Supp et al. doses fro A, Green AJ, Pedley RB, Boxer GM 6. Flynn A ulating the absorbed beta-p calc immunoconjugates, including a m tumor. R adia 7. Hindorf C, Ljungberg M, Strand SE. Evaluatio mouse dosimetry. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:1960-1965. 8. Stabin MG, Peterson TE, Holburn GE for internal dose calculations tional 9. Na indu Council on Radiation Protection an d Mesurements; 2005 10. Sargan DR. IDID: inherite d diseases in dogs : web-based inform disease genetics. Mamm Genome. 2004;15:503-506. Patt 11. Med. 2000;14:1-9. 12. Stabin MG. MIRDOSE: personal computer software for internal dose assessm nuclear medicine. J Nucl Me d. 1996;37:538-546. 13. Stabin MG, Sparks RB, Crowe E. OL INDA/EXM: the second-generat are for internal dose assessment in nuclear medicine. J computer softw 2005;46:1023-1027. 108

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14. Desrosiers MF, Avila MJ, S arks NJ. Experimental validation of radiopharmaceutical absorbed dose to mineralized bone tissue. Appl Radiat Isot. 5. Milner RJ, Dormehl IC, Louw WKA, Chaparro F, Kilian E. The biodistribution, r J P ra py in animal models [Abstract]. Eur J Nucl Med. 1998;25:1167. 17. C, Louw WKA, Kilia n E. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and bone localization of variously sized mo lecular radiolabeled polymin-MP in normal 19. 8381/Volumes I-VII. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 1987. 20. dynamic NURBS-based cardiactorso (NCAT) phantom. Dissertation. Biomedical E ngineering. Chapel Hill, NC: 1. Segars WP, Lalush DS, Tsui BM. Modeli ng respiratory mechanics in teh MCAT and 22. phantom. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 1999;46:503-506. 23. tory gating in myocardial SPECT using the new 4D NCAT phantom. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2002;49:675-679. 24. ission on Radiological Protection. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. Oxford, United 02. 26. e condensed history Mont e Carlo simulation of electron transport. I. EGSnrc, the new EGS4 version. Med Phys. 2000;27:485-498. chauer DA, Cour sey BM, P 1993;44:459-463. 1 pharmacokinetics, bone localiza tion, and therapeutic effect of Rhenium-188-HEDP in normal dogs and dogs with osteosarcoma of the appendicular skeleton [Abstract]. Eu Nucl Med. 1998;25:1109. 16.Louw WKA, Dormehl IC, Milner RJ et al. Biodistribution of radiolabeled ploymin-M of different molecular sizes as a selective bone seeker for the Milner RJ, Dormehl I dogs and dogs with osteosarcoma of th e appendicular skeleton [Abstract]. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999;26:1120. 18.Stabin M. Nuclear medicine dosimetry. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:R187-202. Cristy M, Eckerman KF. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources. ORNL/TMSegars WP. Development and application of the new University of North Carolina; 2001. 2 spline-based MCAT phantom. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2001;48:89-97. Segars WP, Lalush DS, Tsui BMW. A r ealistic spline-based dynamic heart Segars WP, Tsui BM. Study of the efficacy of respira International Comm Kingdom; Pergamon Press: International Co mmission on Radiological Protection; 20 Publication 89. 25. Miller ME. Anatomy of the Dog. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company;1993. Kawrakow I. Accurat 109

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Lee C, Lodwick D, Hasenauer D, Williams JL, Lee C, Bolch WE. Hybrid computati phantoms of the ma 27. onal le and female newborn patient: whole-body models. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:3309-3333. 28. l 77): 0. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radionuclide Transformations: 31. sion on Radi ation Units and measurements. Photon, electron, proton, and neutron interaction data for body tissues. Bethesda, MD: International 3. Bouchet LG, Jokisch DW, Bolch WE. A th ree-dimensional transport model for 4. Bouchet LG, Bolch WE, Howell RW, Rao DV. S values for radionuclides localized 5. Bolch WE, Patton PW, Rajon DA, Shah AP, J okisch DW, Inglis BA. Considerations of cl n Oxford, United Kingdom; Pergamon Press: Internati onal Commission on Radiol ogical Protection; 37. try and measurement. Bethesda, MD: International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements; 1989. Report 44. Lee C, Lee C, Lodwick D, Bolch WE. NURBS-based 3D anthropometric computationa phantoms for radiation dosimetry applications. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2007;(doi:10.1093/rpd/cm2 29. Eckerman KF, Sjoreen AL. Radiological toolbox users manual ORNL/TM-2004/27R1. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2006. 3 Energy and Intensity of Emissions Oxford, United Kingdom; Pergamon Press: International Commission on Radiologi cal Protection; 1983. Publication 38. International Commis Commission on Radiation Units and measurements; 1992. Report 46. 32. Watchman CJ, Hasenauer D, Bolch WE. Derivati on of site-specific skeletal masses within the current ICRP age series. Phys. Med. Biol. 2007; 52:3133-3150 3 determining absorbed fractions of ener gy for electrons with in trabecular bone. J Nucl Med 1999;40:1947-1966. 3 within the skeleton. J Nucl Med. 2000; 41:189-212. 3 marrow cellularity in 3-dimensional dosimetri c models of the trab ecular skeleton. J Nu Med. 2002;43:97-108. 36. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radi ological protection: the skeleton. Publicatio 1995. Publication 70. International Commission on Radi ation Units and measurements. Tissue substitutes in radiation dosime 110

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH L r 000. She graduated from Charles W. Flanagan High School in 2002, and entered the University of Flor summa cum laude ith her Bachelor of Science in nuclear engineering in December 2006. Upon graduation, she will co r doctoral degree. aura Padilla grew up in Spain until she moved to south Florida with her family in the yea 2 ida as a freshman in nuclear engineering that August. She graduated w ntinue her studies in medical physics and work toward he 111