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Using Geographic Information Systems and Socioeconomic Indicators to Bolster Post-World War II Neighborhoods as Initial ...

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022237/00001

Material Information

Title: Using Geographic Information Systems and Socioeconomic Indicators to Bolster Post-World War II Neighborhoods as Initial Candidates for Historic Preservation in Jacksonville, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: historic, housing, indicators, jacksonville, neighborhoods, planning, postwar, preservation, socioeconomic
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The neighborhoods built during 1945-1960, typically in suburban locations, consisted of modest modern homes and reflected the middle class's ability to afford the 'American Dream.' These early post-World War II suburbs are now becoming part of the inner-ring of metropolitan areas. Preserving these neighborhoods prevents decline and further urban sprawl and supports revitalization and improvements. The post-war neighborhoods are already socially established, have infrastructure such as roads and schools and are closer to city centers than the more recently built suburbs and neighborhoods. In accordance with the National Register of Historic Places' (National Register) requirements, homes in these early post-war neighborhoods are now at least 50 years old and eligible for listing. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and socioeconomic indicators such as poverty rate, percentage of college graduates, per capita income and tenure and median home values to locate the likely candidates among these modern suburbs for further historic preservation analysis in Jacksonville, Florida. This methodology is based on the assertion that the neighborhoods with the most potential to be preserved will have more desirable ranges of socioeconomic indicators. This study identifies three neighborhoods as potential candidates for historic preservation: Lake Lucina, Glynlea Park and San Jose Forest. All three neighborhoods had low amounts of families below the poverty level, low amounts of public assistance received and unemployment rates. Each neighborhood ranked in the middle range of family per capita income as compared to the metropolitan area. Bachelor?s degrees for adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied housing all received mixed ratings through the neighborhood analysis. The combination of the desirable mix of socioeconomic indicators creates a receptive environment for historic preservation to take place, supported by residents who have the means to maintain their homes. Using GIS as part of the preservation process to identify neighborhoods that deserve additional analysis and consideration for protection, this study then recommends the use of neighborhood conservation districts to preserve these suburbs. A neighborhood conservation district offers greater flexibility because this planning designation includes fewer restrictions than those associated with traditional local historic districts. This greater flexibility better accommodates these early post-war homes, which contained unfinished rooms and were designed to allow additions. The use of GIS in historic preservation studies provides another level of analysis and adds the input of the planner in the process. A planner studies long-term plans and how they impact a community. GIS is a spatial tool that can measure the social and economic attributes of a neighborhood, mapping patterns, impacts and trends in geographic areas. Due to the large number of post-war suburbs, GIS can assist in narrowing down potential candidates for neighborhood conservation districts and can create a method for evaluating areas based on their social and economic attributes in support of their inherent physical characteristics and historical significance.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022237:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022237/00001

Material Information

Title: Using Geographic Information Systems and Socioeconomic Indicators to Bolster Post-World War II Neighborhoods as Initial Candidates for Historic Preservation in Jacksonville, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: historic, housing, indicators, jacksonville, neighborhoods, planning, postwar, preservation, socioeconomic
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The neighborhoods built during 1945-1960, typically in suburban locations, consisted of modest modern homes and reflected the middle class's ability to afford the 'American Dream.' These early post-World War II suburbs are now becoming part of the inner-ring of metropolitan areas. Preserving these neighborhoods prevents decline and further urban sprawl and supports revitalization and improvements. The post-war neighborhoods are already socially established, have infrastructure such as roads and schools and are closer to city centers than the more recently built suburbs and neighborhoods. In accordance with the National Register of Historic Places' (National Register) requirements, homes in these early post-war neighborhoods are now at least 50 years old and eligible for listing. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and socioeconomic indicators such as poverty rate, percentage of college graduates, per capita income and tenure and median home values to locate the likely candidates among these modern suburbs for further historic preservation analysis in Jacksonville, Florida. This methodology is based on the assertion that the neighborhoods with the most potential to be preserved will have more desirable ranges of socioeconomic indicators. This study identifies three neighborhoods as potential candidates for historic preservation: Lake Lucina, Glynlea Park and San Jose Forest. All three neighborhoods had low amounts of families below the poverty level, low amounts of public assistance received and unemployment rates. Each neighborhood ranked in the middle range of family per capita income as compared to the metropolitan area. Bachelor?s degrees for adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied housing all received mixed ratings through the neighborhood analysis. The combination of the desirable mix of socioeconomic indicators creates a receptive environment for historic preservation to take place, supported by residents who have the means to maintain their homes. Using GIS as part of the preservation process to identify neighborhoods that deserve additional analysis and consideration for protection, this study then recommends the use of neighborhood conservation districts to preserve these suburbs. A neighborhood conservation district offers greater flexibility because this planning designation includes fewer restrictions than those associated with traditional local historic districts. This greater flexibility better accommodates these early post-war homes, which contained unfinished rooms and were designed to allow additions. The use of GIS in historic preservation studies provides another level of analysis and adds the input of the planner in the process. A planner studies long-term plans and how they impact a community. GIS is a spatial tool that can measure the social and economic attributes of a neighborhood, mapping patterns, impacts and trends in geographic areas. Due to the large number of post-war suburbs, GIS can assist in narrowing down potential candidates for neighborhood conservation districts and can create a method for evaluating areas based on their social and economic attributes in support of their inherent physical characteristics and historical significance.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022237:00001


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cef313cf05b107b249e1b31f09b157f4
1fdafa4e6eb321d6c29b2e8bc71702ff6da71751







USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SOCIOECONOMIC
INDICATORS TO BOLSTER POST-WORLD WAR II NEIGHBORHOODS AS INITIAL
CANDIDATES FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA





















By

LAUREN KATHERINE SIMMONS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008





































O 2008 Lauren Katherine Simmons


































To my grandparents. Thank you for 26 years of unconditional love.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I would like to acknowledge the hard work of my supervisory committee during this

process. Dr. Kristin Larsen, my chair, spent countless hours reviewing drafts and listening to my

concerns during 'thesis group.' I have her to thank for encouraging my topic research and

always pushing me to improve my writing. I would like to thank my committee members,

Stanley Latimer and Roy Graham, for their invaluable contributions to this research. Stanley

was integral in coming up with the methodology for this study and the GIS work. Roy

contributed his historic preservation expertise, particularly that of architecture from the recent

past. I would also like to recognize Richard Shieldhouse, founding member of the Florida

Chapter of DOCOMOMO, and Joel McEachin, Historic Preservation Planner for the City of

Jacksonville, for sharing their expertise about the Jacksonville case study.

Next, I would like to thank my family and close friends for their patience while completing

this thesis and master' s degree. I especially thank Dad, Mom, and Sharon. Their words of

encouragement and support meant a lot and I could have never gotten through all this without all

of them. I thank my sisters, Sarah and Christine; and my always "little" brother, Michael. I

thank you all for the late night hot tub chats, video game marathons, and shopping expeditions. It

was nice to have a stress-free place to come home to, on the weekends. Finally, I would like to

thank my biggest fan, Jeffrey Sturman, for all he has meant to me.

I thank my fellow classmates and the thesis "support" group for answering questions and

being there. In particular, I thank Allison Abbott for making some of my sentences more

eloquent and late nights at the library more enj oyable. I would like to acknowledge Teresa

Russin and Jenny Wheelock for inspiring me to write this. I knew if they could finish a thesis, I

could too. I thank my boss, Gene Boles for his flexibility and understanding. Finally, I would









like to thank the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, including the students, faculty and

staff for two years I will never forget.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................. ...............8......._.....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............9.....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 10...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............12.......... ......


About the Jacksonville Case Study ................. ...............14........... ...
Post-World War II Housing Boom ................. ...............16........... ...
Why Preserve the Inner Ring? ................ ...............16.......... ....

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............20................


Government Role in Historic Preservation............... ..............2
Federal Govemnment ................. ...............20.......... .....
State Govemnment ................. ...............23.......... .....
Local Govemnment ................. ........... .... .... .. ...... ..........2
Historic Preservation in Comprehensive Planning in Florida ................ ................ ...27
The Planner' s Role ........._................ _..... ... ... ...._._ ... ...._ ...._ ._ ..............28

Importance of Preservation of Post-World War II Neighborhoods ................. ................ ..28
Location................ ...............3

Uniqueness .............. ...............3 1....
Pow er .................. .......... ...............3.. 1....
Benefits of Historic Preservation ................. ...............32................
Economic ................. ...............32.................

Quality of Life.................... .............. ....... ... ... ...... .........3
Why Preserve the Post-War Automobile Suburb s? ................ ...............34........... ..
Levittown: The Beginnings of the Automobile Suburb .............. ...............36....
Saving the Suburbs .............. ...............38....


3 METHODOLOGY .............. ...............43....


Geographic Information Systems .............. ...............43....
Explanation of the Model ................. ...............44.......... ....
Identifying the Indicators............... ...............4
Explanation of the Data ................ ...............47................
Field Work ................. ...............50.................












4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS .............. ...............53....


The Study Area .................. ...............53........... ....
The Socioeconomic Indicators .............. ...............54....

Neighborhood Selection Analysis .............. ...............55....
About the Selected Neighborhoods .............. ...............56....
Lake Lucina ................. ...............56.................

Glynlea Park ........._ ........_. ...............56....
San Jose Forest .................. .... .. ..............5
Assessments of All Neighborhoods. ................ ....................... ....___.......57
Recommendations............... ............5


5 CONCLUSION............... ...............8


Universal Applicability............... .............8
Policy Implications .............. ... ...... ..............8
Recommendations for Future Research ........._._... ...... ...............85..


APPENDIX


NEIGBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPH S............... ..............8


Curb and Gutter .............. ...............9 1....
Hom e Uniform ity .............. .. ................ ... .. ... .............9
Neighborhood Wide Distinctive Architectural Features .............. ...............96....
Signs of Gentrification and Maj or Remodeling of Homes ........................... ...............99
Maintained Homes ................. ...............101................
Finished Garages .............. ...............105....


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............107................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............111......... ......










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Comparision of Different Types of Districts. ........... ..... ._ ............. .......4

3-1 List of Indicators Used and the Ideal Rating System ....._____ ... .......... ...............51

4-1 List of Census Tracts used for Study. ............. ...............62.....

4-2 Jacksonville Planning Districts in Initial Study Area. ............. ...............64.....

4-3 Results of Raster Calculator ................. ...............64........... ...

4-4 Results of Raster Calculator for Selected Neighborhoods ................. .......................64

4-5 Visual Characteristics of Neighborhoods. See Appendix A for photographs. ................65











LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1.1 Historic Districts in Jacksonville, Florida............... ...............19

3-1 GIS Flowchart. ............ ..... ._ ...............52...

4-1 Development Patterns in Duval County. ............. ...............66.....

4-2 Density of Census Tracts with Post-World War II housing. ............. .....................6

4-3 Planning Districts in Jacksonville. ................. ....._._ ....._._ ...........6

4-4 Bachelor' s Degree' s for Adults Age 25 and up ..........._..._ ........... ....._._..........69

4-5 Median Value of Homes ....._._ ................ .........._._.......7


4-6 Owner-Occupied Housing. ............. ...............71.....

4-7 Per Capita Income of Families............... ...............7

4-8 Amount of Families Below Poverty Level. ............. ...............73.....

4-9 Public Assistance Received. ............. ...............74.....


4-10 Unemployment Rates. ................. ...............75..............

4-11 Results of Raster Calculation by Census Block Group. ................ ......_.. .........._..76

4-12 Lake Lucina Neighborhood. ............. ...............77.....

4-13 Glynlea Park Neighborhood. ............. ...............78.....

4-14 San Jose Forest Neighborhood ................. ...............79........... ...

4-15 Lake Lucina Typical Home. ............. ...............80.....

4-16 Glynlea Park Typical Home............... ...............80..

4-17 San Jose Forest Typical Home ................. ...............81...............









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning

USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SOCIOECONOMIC
INDICATORS TO IDENTIFY POST-WORLD WAR II NEIGHBORHOODS AS INITIAL
CANDIDATES FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA

By

Lauren Katherine Simmons

May, 2008

Chair: Kristin Larsen
Major: Urban and Regional Planning

The neighborhoods built during 1945-1960, typically in suburban locations, consisted of

modest modern homes and reflected the middle class's ability to afford the "American Dream."

These early post-World War II suburbs are now becoming part of the inner-ring of metropolitan

areas. Preserving these neighborhoods prevents decline and further urban sprawl and supports

revitalization and improvements. The post-war neighborhoods are already socially established,

have infrastructure such as roads and schools and are closer to city centers than the more recently

built suburbs and neighborhoods. In accordance with the National Register of Historic Places'

(National Register) requirements, homes in these early post-war neighborhoods are now at least

50 years old and eligible for listing. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

and socioeconomic indicators such as poverty rate, percentage of college graduates, per capital

income and tenure and median home values to locate the likely candidates among these modern

suburbs for further historic preservation analysis in Jacksonville, Florida. This methodology is

based on the assertion that the neighborhoods with the most potential to be preserved will have

more desirable ranges of socioeconomic indicators. This study identifies three neighborhoods as

potential candidates for historic preservation: Lake Lucina, Glynlea Park and San Jose Forest.









All three neighborhoods had low amounts of families below the poverty level, low amounts of

public assistance received and unemployment rates. Each neighborhood ranked in the middle

range of family per capital income as compared to the metropolitan area. Bachelor' s degrees for

adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied housing all received mixed

ratings through the neighborhood analysis. The combination of the desirable mix of

socioeconomic indicators creates a receptive environment for historic preservation to take place,

supported by residents who have the means to maintain their homes. Using GIS as part of the

preservation process to identify neighborhoods that deserve additional analysis and consideration

for protection, this study then recommends the use of neighborhood conservation districts to

preserve these suburbs. A neighborhood conservation district offers greater flexibility because

this planning designation includes fewer restrictions than those associated with traditional local

historic districts. This greater flexibility better accommodates these early post-war homes, which

contained unfinished rooms and were designed to allow additions. The use of GIS in historic

preservation studies provides another level of analysis and adds the input of the planner in the

process. A planner studies long-term plans and how they impact a community. GIS is a spatial

tool that can measure the social and economic attributes of a neighborhood, mapping patterns,

impacts and trends in geographic areas. Due to the large number of post-war suburbs, GIS can

assist in narrowing down potential candidates for neighborhood conservation districts and can

create a method for evaluating areas based on their social and economic attributes in support of

their inherent physical characteristics and historical significance.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Cities generally have policies that address downtown redevelopment and policies that

address new development in the outer rings of the metropolitan area, but that do not address

existing development in between. "The once vibrant neighborhoods (are now) located within the

inner ring suburbs of metropolitan areas and are declining because they have long been subjected

to a policy blind spot" (Puentes and Orfield, as quoted in Lee and Leigh, 2007 p. 160). The

current problems of social and physical inequity associated with the inner city will permeate into

the inner ring suburbs as a result of this policy blind spot. The post-war suburbs within the inner

ring now have older housing, aging infrastructure and face the problems of traffic congestion and

diminishing quality of life (Puentes and Orfield, as cited in Lee and Leigh, 2007 p. 160).

Several tools target the revitalization of declining neighborhoods and areas including,

redevelopment programs, federal tax credits, tax increment financing, design guidelines and

other initiatives spearheaded by community redevelopment agencies. Historic preservation has

been used as a community stabilizer by planners, but it takes dedicated residents to support the

enactment and enforcement of neighborhood guidelines and ordinances. The neighborhoods

built during the post-World War II housing boom are now within the range for historic

preservation efforts as defined by the National Register's strong suggestion that the structure be

at least 50 years old. This study hypothesizes that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and

socioeconomic indicators will locate the best post-World War II neighborhoods as initial

candidates for more intensive survey and inventory and, if indicated, historic preservation. By

using this methodology to locate these neighborhoods, historic preservation planning tools can

be implemented to prevent decline. "To be successful, the new participatory approaches to

neighborhood revitalization must be based on information about the social and economic









conditions of these small areas and their inhabitants" (Sawicki and Flynn 1996, p. 166). GIS

maps neighborhood-level social and economic data and provides visual analysis tools to policy

makers that are not otherwise available. Neighborhoods that have the most potential to be

preserved will have more desirable ranges of socioeconomic indicators because they are stable

with residents that have the means to maintain their homes.

GIS offers a means to assess whole neighborhoods while also providing spatial analysis

down to the individual parcel level. Property appraisers use GIS mapping for data collection, to

assess property owners and to track relevant tax-related data. Historic preservation, particularly

of districts, can benefit from the use of GIS. The ability to map socioeconomic data, thus

presenting social, cultural and even historic information spatially, can reveal critical relationships

that define the district and suggest means to better safeguard the area. Socioeconomic statistics

are predominantly tracked and collected by the United States Census. In this study,

socioeconomic data is used to identify the most socially and economically stable neighborhoods.

Historic preservation is more likely to be supported, sustained and promoted by a neighborhood

that is more socially and economically stable, no matter what the home values.

The post-World War II neighborhoods were uniquely designed, were mass produced, had

simple architecture and depended on the automobile for transportation. These neighborhoods

were so successful and popular that they have been expanded further out of the metropolitan area

creating the outer ring suburbs. The inner rings of many cities, particularly cities established in

the 20th century, are now composed of neighborhoods built during the post-World War II era.

Few policies and programs address the decline of these neighborhoods, therefore the residents

who can are moving to the outer ring suburbs. Several terms have been used to refer to the inner

ring suburbs including: older suburbs, first suburbs, first-tier suburbs post-war suburbs and post-









World War II suburbs (Lee and Leigh, 2007). City officials have adopted different terminologies

when referring to these first suburbs in order to fit into their individual development models,

though many of the issues of decline within the inner rings areas are universal.

About the Jacksonville Case Study

This study uses Duval County, Florida as the metropolitan area in which to test this

hypothesis. Jacksonville's large naval stations spurred a significant amount of development

during the period of 1945-1960, particularly for new housing. Growth in the insurance industry

also brought companies and professionals into the area seeking homes. The City of Jacksonville,

which consolidated its government with Duval County in 1967, now has a population of almost

800,000.

The City of Jacksonville currently has four historic districts listed on the National

Register, a local register and many historic landmarks scattered throughout its 885 square miles.

The historic districts are Riverside (established in 1985), Avondale (established in 1989),

Springfield (established in 1987) and Old Ortega (established in 2004), all of which are

predominantly residential. The Riverside district has a set of design guidelines that must be met

if an owner is proposing changes that require a certificate of appropriateness. Its strong public

participation distinguishes this district as its board has been in place for nearly thirty years, being

established prior to the district' s listing on the National Register. The Avondale area, adj acent to

the Riverside district, uses the same design guidelines. The Springfield historic district, near

downtown Jacksonville, boasts large renovated homes that are the product of buyer assistance

programs funded by the City. Springfield has its own set of design guidelines and review board

for certificates of appropriateness. Though recognized by the National Register, Old Ortega is

not locally designated, so the City of Jacksonville does not have any policies or design guidelines










that address the district or a designated board. However a non-profit association actively

represents the area.

Non-profit groups are engaged in historic preservation throughout Jacksonville, some are

neighborhood based and others represent the distinctive areas within the City. One of the more

notable private historic preservation efforts is in the San Marco neighborhood; the San Marco

Preservation Society, awards plaques to historically restored and maintained homes. The San

Marco Preservation Society represents the area and was integral in the formulation and passage

of the San Marco Historic Overlay Zoning District.

Jacksonville now has the potential for more historic districts because a large portion of

the city was built during the early post-World War II boom. Several non profit neighborhood

organizations in the Jacksonville metropolitan area, like Old Arlington Inc., Murray Hill

Preservation Association and the Ortega Preservation Society, sponsor historic preservation

efforts targeting neighborhoods with housing built during the post-World War II era. In general

the Duval County/Jacksonville government has weak central control of historic preservation

initiatives; however, because of active resident participation in these neighborhood associations

and non profits, community support is strong.

Duval County's Historic Preservation Element of their Comprehensive Plan does not

mention the recent past, in fact it specifically mentions only housing built before 1940 to be

identified in a proposed survey program. "This comprehensive survey program (Objective 1.2)

will be completed in increments, concentrating on those areas of high site probability as



SDuval County and Jacksonville's consolidated government does not politically recognize the suburban areas that
surround the downtown like Arlington, Westside and Mandarin; however, there is recognition of these areas
geographically by the general community and by businesses. Some of the different suburban areas were in existence
before the governments consolidated in 1967. These 'areas' function like a suburb would in a large metropolitan
area, but are under the auspices of the consolidated government.









identified by the U. S. Census Bureau for pre -1940 housing units" (Historic Preservation

Element, 2000, p. 8).

Post-World War II Housing Boom

After World War II, returning veterans faced a severe housing shortage. The automobile,

new highway construction, generous loan guidelines and inexpensive construction methods

fueled the post-war suburban boom. The smaller and simpler homes were constructed on large

enough lots to enable expansion if the family outgrew the original house. A critical shortage of

low-cost housing for returning veterans, long term mortgages, an increase in automobile

ownership, highway construction and an influx of growing families supported development of

the modern suburb (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 7).

Why Preserve the Inner Ring?

The inner ring suburbs are in danger of becoming an extension of the inner-city. Instead

of focusing on new development, cities could be developing policies to preserve what already

exists, thus supporting smart-growth and sustainability initiatives. Cities should be promoting

the preservation of existing neighborhoods to stop their decline, improve residents' quality of

life, and help the environment by supporting sustainable development.

Sustainability and environmental concerns related to global warming are general reasons

for preservation of historic neighborhoods. Recently, the "green" lifestyle has come into vogue

with a focus on safeguarding resources. When translating this idea to housing, the concept is to

not build a larger home than needed because it takes more energy to heat and cool a larger home.

"Despite the shrinking household sizes in the United States, the average size of a single family

houses more than doubled from 983 square feet in 1950 to 2,349 square feet in 2004 (National

Home Builders Association as quoted in Lee and Leigh, 2007, p. 149). Larger homes require

more resources in construction and occupy more precious land, infringing upon open space and









natural resources. The inner ring consists of smaller homes that are already built in a suburban

setting. Planners could support the "green" movement by identifying and encouraging the

preservation the post-World War II neighborhoods (Hayden, 2003).

The inner ring suburbs have several positive attributes that make them a desirable historic

preservation project for a community. These suburbs have existing infrastructure such as schools

and roads already within their boundaries and committed public services like fire and police

already within and servicing the neighborhood. When new neighborhoods are built, these

services must be extended to meet the demands of new residents and pay for them through

developer fees or impact fees which are added to the price of the land and homes. Duval County

does not have a residential impact fee which lessens the cost of building new developments.

Remodeling or repairing an existing home is less expensive than building a new home and it uses

less land and material resources. Due to their location, living in the inner ring suburbs may mean

shorter commuting times as opposed to newer suburbs on the fringe.

The inner ring suburbs that contain housing from the post-war era are a worthy cause for

historic preservationists and planners because without policies and protections they are

vulnerable to decline or to demolition and redevelopment as a result of gentrifieation. This study

applies socioeconomic indicators and GIS to identify the best post-war neighborhoods as

candidates for historic preservation in Jacksonville, Florida. Due to the extent of eligible post-

war suburbs and the community's fledging commitment to historic preservation, particularly of

the modern era, Jacksonville represents a particularly appropriate case study.

The next chapter, the literature review, examines the government's role in historic

preservation, from the federal to the local levels and planning-related preservation policies and

techniques. The second part of the literature review analyzes the importance and benefits of










neighborhood preservation and outlines the history and development patterns associated with the

post-war suburban housing boom including Levittown, the first best-known modern suburb from

this era. Finally, the literature review explores the National Park Service's guidelines on historic

preservation of suburban neighborhoods.

Chapter Three, the study's methodology, discusses the selection of the study's area, the

use of GIS for analyzing the socioeconomic indicators and the post-selection visual survey of the

selected neighborhoods. The basis of the model for the study and the selected socioeconomic

indicators are explained in detail as is the data used in the study, including Duval County

Property Appraiser data, U. S. Census data and the Florida Department of Revenue's tax roll data.

Chapter Four identifies the neighborhoods selected using the socioeconomic indicator

analysis. Next these neighborhoods are examined though a visual survey. The analysis section

of that chapter makes recommendations for historic preservation policy initiatives based on the

socioeconomic indicators and visual surveys of the selected neighborhoods.

The conclusion of this study, Chapter Five, discusses the universal applicability of the

study's methodology, findings and analysis and the policy implications of historic preservation

efforts in the study area. The chapter also makes recommendations for future research on GIS-

related techniques for studies of historic preservation candidacy and potential opportunities to

expand and apply this study's methods and Eindings.










































-- 10 I San Marco Overlay Didtrict
Zoning Overlay
-- O Sprinqfield Hidtoric Didtric
National Register Hidtoric Didtridt
-- O Riverside Hidtoric Didtridt
National Register Historic District
-- O Avondale Hidtoric Didtridt
National Regiser Historic District
-- O Old Orteqa Hidtoric Didtrict


Figure 1.1 Historic Districts in Jacksonville, Florida

Source: Google Earth, San Marco Zoning Overlay Ordinance and the National Register of
Historic Places (2008).









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Historic preservation of neighborhoods has its roots in Charleston, South Carolina where

the first historic district zoning ordinance was passed in 193 1. The goal of the Charleston

ordinance was to preserve the area as a whole, and for the first time, historic preservationists

focused on the larger context of a place, a tout ensemble. A tout ensemble is the idea that the

character of an area is defined by the sum of its parts, rather than the individual buildings or

homes (Cofresi and Radtke, 2003).

The literature is organized into several sections that address the regulations, policies,

guidelines, architecture, benefits and history of the historic neighborhood, particularly those

found in the post-war suburbs. First, historic neighborhoods are discussed in regard to their

governing regulations, including an analysis of historic preservation laws and policies. The

federal, state and local governments' roles in historic preservation, including comprehensive

planning, neighborhood conservation districts and overlay zoning techniques are explored. The

economic benefits and increased quality of life that historic district designation provides is

discussed. Next, the history of the post-war suburb, including cultural landscapes, Levittown,

and the distinctive residential architecture associated with this era is examined. The final part of

this chapter looks at the current studies related to using socioeconomic indicators and GIS for

analysis and discusses the current National Park Service Guidelines for conducting a local survey

and nominating a suburb to the National Register of Historic Places (National Register).

Government Role in Historic Preservation

Federal Government

The federal government' s recognition of historic preservation began in 1906 with the

Antiquities Act, which gave the President the power to protect prehistoric sites by declaring them









national monuments. In 1916, the National Park Service was established. The U.S. federal

government' s current involvement in historic preservation is a result of the National Historic

Preservation Act of 1966 as amended. The Act called for the National Register to be created and

included districts as eligible for designation. The criteria to preserve a district are the same as

individual properties, landmarks and buildings. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)

guidelines are the eligible district must be over 50 years old and must reflect "significance in

American history, architecture, archeology, engineering and culture and possess integrity of

location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association" (36 Code of Federal

Regulations (CFR) @ 60.4).2 An additional criteria specifically applies to neighborhoods "that

embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction ...or that

represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual

distinction" (36 CFR @ 60.4). Thus, historic neighborhoods may be composed of several homes

that are built in similar styles and that together are significant.

Collaboration between historic preservationists, architects, planners and policy-makers is

essential to the preservation process. The preservation process, as identified by Stipe (2003) has

five steps;

Setting standards or criteria that define what is worth preserving,
Undertaking a survey to locate and describe resources to be saved,
Evaluating the resources discovered against the standards established in step one,
Giving those that qualify "official status" in some way, and
Following up with protection measures. (p. 29)

This sequence of the steps remains the same whether the process is for one building or an entire

neighborhood (Stipe, 2003 p. 29). The standards for preservation of post-war neighborhoods are


SIn recent years, the National Register has been much less rigorous regarding the 50-year rule. "As one deputy
SHPO [State Historic Preservation Officer] stated the fifty-year threshold is less important than justifying listings in
terms of meaning and period of significance" (Lyon and Brook, 2003, p. 88 & 90).









defined by the National Park Service and should be present in a local historic preservation plan.

Architects are specifically involved in steps two and three which document and evaluate the

neighborhood's historical and architectural significance. Policy-makers, or elected officials,

have the ability to give "official status", which approves the evaluation of the neighborhood' s

significance. Historic Preservationists and Planners are involved throughout the process because

they are advocates for the community when it comes to historic preservation and land use issues,

therefore they should be the ones to study and consider the application of historic preservation

policies to neighborhoods.

Older neighborhoods often need financial assistance so that revitalization proj ects, such as

large-scale improvements to infrastructure and landscaping or public facilities can be conducted.

Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), administered by the Department of Housing

and Urban Development (HIUD), supports these kinds of large projects. For instance, CDBG can

assist entire neighborhoods with loan amounts of up to $7,000,000 in non-entitlement areas and

up to $35,000,000 in an entitlement area (24 CFR @ 570.705). To be designated an entitlement

area, a city or urban county must have 50,000 residents or more. The federal government

designates a certain amount of CDBG funds to the states to distribute to local governments with

the general requirement that 70% of the funds must target moderate to low income households in

non-entitlement areas (having less than 50,000 residents) and must target development activities

that benefit the public such as infrastructure improvement or public services.

Federal Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credits are available for income-producing structures

that contribute to National Register Historic Districts. Buildings within National Register

Historic Districts, must contribute to the historic significance of a district; their location, design,

setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association must add to the district's sense of time










and place and historical development (36 CFR @ 67.5). Buildings not on the National Register or

in a registered historic districts, but built before 1936 can receive a 10% rehabilitation tax credit,

and buildings on the National Register or in registered historic districts that are rehabilitated to

the Secretary of the Interior' s Standards can receive a 20% rehabilitation tax credit.

Unfortunately these tax credits are not yet available for properties exclusively used as private

residences. Federally available tax credits can be used for homes renovated into professional

offices, neighborhood retail, or bed and breakfasts. Since many historic neighborhoods are

located proximate to the historic central business district, commercial redevelopment of certain

homes, especially those on perimeter and well-traveled roads can benefit from this program.

In Pennsylvania Central Transportation Company versus New York City, the Supreme

Court of the United States ruled that historic preservation is a valid public purpose. The case

upheld the New York City Landmark law that designated properties as historic and legitimized

local government as a preservation regulatory agency (Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. New York City,

438 U.S. 104 (U.S. 1978)). Penn Central concluded that as long a property owner still has a

reasonable use of the property, denying permits to alter the buildings did not constitute a taking.

State Government

The states provide input on a number of federal historic preservation initiatives and

administer their own historic preservation programs and funding through the State Historic

Preservation Officer (SHPO). In all states, in order to be approved for the National Register, the

SHPO must certify the property or district first as historic. The states' historic preservation laws

and policies complement or reiterate the federal ones in order to streamline processes and

simplify the rules.

The state oversight of historic preservation on the local level benefits neighborhoods,

particularly in those cities and counties without historic preservation programs, because the state









becomes an additional resource for communities to utilize. The state provides additional sources

of funding through rehabilitation grants that can benefit neighborhoods. The Florida Master

Site File that inventories all historic properties located within the state, including historic

districts, is maintained by the state. The state' s oversight of historic preservation funding and

programs is essential to the local government's ablility to promote historic preservation

practices.

Local Government

In Florida, local governments can use the Certified Local Government (CLG) program,

which gives them more autonomy when administering a historic preservation program or

ordinances. Certification allows local government to have more enforcement authority and more

autonomy in making decisions on historic resources. A CLG adopts a historic preservation

ordinance, which establishes a local historic preservation board to develop and oversee the

functions of a local historic preservation program. In Florida, the CLG designates a government

eligible to apply for special grants to enable the historic preservation process, to fund surveys of

historic properties, to nominate properties or districts to the National Register, to create

educational material, and to draft local historic preservation plans. A local historic preservation

ordinance must promote a valid public purpose, cannot deprive an owner of all reasonable

economic use of his property, must provide for a fair hearing process and comply with relevant

state law (Beaumont, 1992). An ordinance will explain how the nomination process works in

that community and the criteria that needs to be met.

A local register is kept in many cities and counties to keep track of locally significant

historic properties and districts that may not meet National Register standards. Local registers

are preferred in situations where the local government is not a Certified Local Government or

may be kept in conjunction with the National Register site listings. Local registers contain










historic records, surveys and site files to aid in managing locally preserved property. These

registers are particularly useful tool for neighborhood preservation because the local government

can decide if the area is architecturally, culturally or historically significant and can make all the

rules to govern these sites including providing grants and technical assistance. The preservation

process which identifies buildings, sites and districts for designation can utilize and update these

local resources.

In accordance with the local ordinance, typically a historic preservation board makes

decisions about permits for and changes to historic buildings and districts and grants certificates

of appropriateness for any renovations or remodels. Members on those boards can include

historians, architects, planners, engineers and other professionals that have a stake in

preservation. Residents of historic neighborhoods may also be appointed to the boards and thus

can influence preservation efforts in the community.

Historic districts and neighborhood conservation districts are two techniques that can be

used to preserve neighborhoods. A comparison of the districts can be found in table 2-1.

Historic districts are generally composed of different land and building uses and can include

historic neighborhoods. Historic districts vary in size and intensity; therefore, the local

government has opportunities to promote and support the districts in the manner compatible with

the district's character. For example, cities may promote their historic districts to tourists for

shopping, cultural events and tours. Positive promotion of the district can bring more local

prominence to the neighborhood and makes it a more desirable location for the preservation

process, to take place. Historic districts are often governed by local historic preservation

ordinances and the districts on the National Register have to comply with the Secretary of the

Interior' s standards.










Neighborhood conservation districts differ from historic districts in that they have fewer

regulations (Cofresi and Radtke, 2003). Neighborhood conservation districts are tailored to the

needs of the particular neighborhood and are generally less strict than those in historic districts.

Often areas considered for neighborhood conservation districts may not be 50 years old or in a

period identified by the Secretary of the Interior' s Standards, but need some protections until

they are eligible. Neighborhood residents may not want their homes to become part of a historic

district but may want to safeguard the distinctive characteristics and features that make their

community desirable. Neighborhood conservation districts could be a more desirable choice for

a neighborhood from the post-World War era because the homes were intentionally built to be

modified.

Overlay zoning districts are a significant planning tool used in historic preservation. Both

conservation districts and historic preservation district guidelines and regulations are established

using this tool. Conservation districts do not freeze neighborhoods in time; they are enacted to

protect a neighborhood's distinctive qualities. In a study to implement this type of district in

Massachusetts, the authors candidly state:

While many of these areas (neighborhoods) would meet the criteria established by the
National Park Service and State Historic Preservation Office for designation, many
preservation commissions, let alone the general public, would not view them in this light.
Post World War II housing developments are the most obvious example of this bias--
perhaps because many in the Baby Boom generation grew up in them! Yet such
neighborhoods have the potential for becoming valued historic districts if their key
attributes can be maintained and intrusions that would destroy their integrity can be
avoided. (Larson Fisher Associates, 2005, p.3)

A relatively new tool in neighborhood preservation, neighborhood conservation districts are a

particularly relevant designation for neighborhoods built in the post WWII suburban boom.

In an historic preservation overlay district, the zoning is maintained but additional

regulations are required that keep the historic character of an area. Overlays are ideal in areas









were there are variously zoned parcels and in mixed or multi-use areas. An overlay ordinance

can include design standards, setback requirements, additional development standards, a review

board and historic preservation protections. A historic preservation overlay district is presently

being used in this study's subj ect city, Jacksonville, Florida in the San Marco neighborhood.

Historic Preservation in Comprehensive Planning in Florida

The Growth Management Act of 1985 in Florida required local governments to have a

comprehensive plan in place with mandatory elements such as future land use, housing and

intergovernmental coordination. An optional element for communities with populations under

50,000, the historic preservation element sets out plans and programs for structures or lands

having "historical, archaeological, architectural, scenic, or similar significance" (Fl. Statutes,

163.3177(7)(i)). Inclusion of the historic preservation element further validates program

implementation.

In 1991, the Snyder v. Brevard Board of County Commissioner 's case challenged the

strength of Florida' s Comprehensive Plan Act. In the case, the Board of County Commissioners

denied the rezoning of a parcel without giving a reason. The court found that rezoning consistent

with the Comprehensive Plan; a more restrictive zoning classification was not necessary to

protect the health, safety, morals and welfare and that denial without reasons supported by facts

was arbitrary and unreasonable (Board of County Commissioners v. Snyder, 627 So. 2d 469

(Fla. 1993)). The case concluded that if a rezoning complies with the comprehensive plan then

the commission must support it, unless the commission made findings to justify denying the

rezoning. Comprehensive plan amendments are quasi-judicial legislative decisions, not policy-

impl ementing-j udi ci al deci si ons. In light of the Snyder ruling, historic preservation efforts can

be further reinforced by the addition of a historic preservation element to the comprehensive plan

since any decisions by the commissioners or councils must abide by the approved plan.









The Planner's Role

Planners play an integral role in historic preservation because of their expertise in

community and land development. Historic preservation efforts in districts or neighborhoods

must have community support by residents and policy-makers. Planners become involved in the

historic preservation of neighborhoods and districts because of a need for uniform policies and

design standards that are agreeable to residents and politicians. Physical design and

environmental sustainability can also require the policy expertise of planners because of their

broad base of knowledge regarding the built and urban environment.

The development of design standards serves two purposes for neighborhoods. The

planner sees design standards as a way to provide uniformity throughout the neighborhood and to

further the sense of place and identity. Design standards provide rules for a neighborhood to

follow and can be legislated through a historic preservation ordinance.

Historic development patterns have influenced several current planning techniques, tools

and neighborhood designs that are used in new developments and redevelopment efforts. New

Urbanism, Traditional Neighborhood Design, Transit Oriented Design, Mixed-Use development,

and the general concepts of walkability within neighborhoods have all been inspired by now

historic neighborhoods (Rypkema, 2002).

Importance of Preservation of Post-World War II Neighborhoods

Why do we want to save these relics of suburbia, the beginning of sprawl and the early

post-war automobile-based neighborhoods, these modest ranch-style houses? If revitalized and

maintained through historic preservation planning tools, these neighborhoods provide a home in

an established neighborhood that may be more affordable than a similar home located on the

fringe. The process of historic preservation could potentially stabilize or revitalize those










neighborhoods if the neighborhood is experiencing decline or maintain and the existing character

to protect against gentrification.

Along with the preservation of cultural history, a revitalized, vibrant and healthy

neighborhood is the ultimate goal of historic preservation efforts. If a neighborhood is healthy,

people will invest time, energy, and money to maintain and improve the area (Schubert, 2000).

In order to revitalize neighborhoods, a framework for intervention includes:

The condition of a neighborhood is the sum of past and current choices. The work of
neighborhood revitalization is to influence future choices.

Neighborhoods compete with other neighborhoods in a region for public resources,
private investment and households

The health of a neighborhood is determined, in part, by the degree of confidence
neighbors and others have in the future of the neighborhood.

The process of change what people mean when they talk about the neighborhood
getting better or worse is set, in part, by how residents "read" who is moving in and
who is moving out.

Social disinvestment in a neighborhood precedes financial disinvestment. (Schubert,
2000 pp. 37-38)

Historic preservation and neighborhood revitalization are not mutually exclusive ideas

though preservation techniques are not the only way to revitalize neighborhoods. Since the

neighborhoods from the early post World War II era are now over 50 years old, historic

preservation should be considered as a revitalization method. Historic neighborhoods provide

homes for families from every financial strata, but particularly for those in need of affordable

housing (Rypkema, 2002).

Historic neighborhoods evoke a sense of nostalgia that is hard to recreate, a sense of place,

a psychological attachment to our past. They cannot be recreated, only preserved. The design,

architecture, meaning and layout of older neighborhoods are unique to the era in which the

neighborhood was created. The location, uniqueness, support, power and heritage that the post









World War II developments possess is worth preserving because these neighborhoods are an

integral part of our cities.


* Location: other community residents may also work near or within the historic
neighborhood or commute to nearby areas because historic neighborhoods tend to be
located in inner ring areas of cities;

* Uniqueness:the neighborhood's unique characteristics distinguish it from other
neighborhoods in the community;

* Power: neighborhoods house many residents as opposed to a single historic site that may
only house a few people, thus lending these places more political power;

Location

Historic neighborhoods tend to be located in urbanized areas, near or in the inner-ring

areas of cities. Their locations have become woven into the fabric of the city proximate to other

neighborhoods, businesses, churches and community establishments. These neighborhoods are

desirably located near j obs, schools and places people go on a daily basis and can be reached by

alternate forms of transportation such as mass-transit, bicycle or on foot since they are close to

those destinations. The inner ring neighborhoods are located in an environment with established

roads, schools and public services and are a central location for commuting rather than the newly

built developments in the outer rings. Historic neighborhoods are more likely to be closer to have

places of employment within five miles, to have an elementary school within one mile, to have

shopping within one mile, to have public transit available as opposed to newer developments

(Rypkema, 2002). Having community amenities and places of work close by is something that

newer developments lack or must create with new construction. Housing in older neighborhoods

is also more likely to be affordable than in newer developments (Rypkema, 2002).










Uniqueness

Many historic preservation programs target preservation of a community's aesthetic

features, especially valued architectural details that distinguish the development. An example

could be small the hexagonal sidewalk tiles in one St. Petersburg neighborhood or as large as an

entire landscape like the tree canopies of Coconut Grove. Preserving these neighborhood

features creates a sense of identity.

A sense of place characterizes these areas setting them apart from other residential areas..

Experiencing distinctive visual patterns in architecture (roof lines, porches), hardscape (benches,

signs) and softscape (trees, shrubbery) lets us know we are in a certain place (Carmona, et, al,

2003). The historic neighborhood reflects a certain era and often contains architectural styles or

other features that cannot be found other neighborhoods because they have their own uniqueness.

Like single sites, neighborhoods reflect a significant and distinct social or visual sense to the

community .

Power

The roles of non profit organizations and grassroots efforts are key in historic

preservation intitatives (Cofresi and Radtke, 2003). Further, because neighborhoods contain

more people than a single site, they have more political power. Older neighborhoods tend to

have more long-time residents, and the neighbors are more likely to know each other, both

factors in securing political power. Neighborhoods are a "space of dependence", meaning they

are "localized social relations upon which we depend on for the realization of essential

interests...they define place-specifiic conditions" (Cox, as quoted in Martin, 2004 p. 592-593).

Political power within "spaces of dependence" is easily identifiable because the struggle to gain

political power within a space can define the conflict or effort (Martin, 2004). Neighborhood










residents desire to control their own land use and activities; therefore, historic preservation can

become an important tool if it can be championed by those who have political power.

Their location, uniqueness and power distinguish historic neighborhoods. The federal

government provides the framework in which historic preservation can take place; the state

government supports the federal role, and local governments provide implementation tools for

neighborhood preservation. The Supreme Count' s decision in Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. New

York City, 438 U.S. 104 (U.S. 1978) validated historic preservation as a public purpose.

Florida's Growth Management requirements provide local governments with a way to plan for

historic preservation. Local governments can use traditional historic districts, design standards

and alternative preservation programs like neighborhood design review or neighborhood

conservation districts to protect these areas. However, undertaking neighborhood preservation at

the local level to maintain the sense of place is an essential goal of the preservationists and local

government planners alike. Historic neighborhoods often contain the qualities that developers

are trying to create in new subdivisions with diverse yet compatible design throughout,

community amenities, social activities and other visual aspects that distinguish the place.

Benefits of Historic Preservation

Two recent studies focus on historic preservation in Florida, evaluating its impact on the

state. Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florid'a examines how historic preservation

affects the state's economy, focusing on jobs, income, wealth and taxes. Contributions of

Historic Preservation to the Quality of Life in Florid'a addresses the public goods, the normative

and qualitative aspects and specific cultural values that comprise historic preservation.

Economic

Efforts to revitalize historic neighborhoods benefit the local economy. A 2002 study by

the University of Florida and Rutgers University found historic preservation in Florida had an









annual economic impact of $1.6 billion dollars (Listokin, et al). Jobs, income, tax revenue and

an overall increase in Gross Domestic Product (state and federal) can be attributed to historic

rehabilitation efforts (Listokin, et al, 2002). Heritage tourism, historical museums and

downtown "main street" revitalizations have also positively benefited the local, state and federal

economy because of the investments in local history (Listokin, et al, 2002).

Property values can increase when historic preservation efforts are take place in historic

districts. Increasing property values generally mean more state and local government revenues.

The researchers also used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to compare appraisals on

properties within historic districts to ones in a similar neighborhood in the same city, finding that

assessed values increased at a higher rate in historic districts (Listokin, et al, 2002). Spatial

analysis using GIS allows a means to compare current conditions in historic districts such as

property values.

Quality of Life

Historic preservation has proven to contribute positively to the residents' quality of life.

In a 2006 study conducted at the University of Florida, indicators were analyzed for their ability

to measure the quality of life that historic preservation contributes to communities. Describing

the amount, type and condition of historic resources gauges historic preservation' s contribution

to the community's quality of life (Phillips, 2006). The cultural and aesthetic values of historic

preservation are becoming more important in considering historic designation (Larsen, 2006a).

Two of the methods in the study that are utilized to identify candidate neighborhoods for historic

preservation are locating economically distressed neighborhoods by measuring median income in

the neighborhood to determine if it is lower than median community income and analyzing

property value trends with local appraisal data. Identifying the amount of neighborhood









involvement and measuring housing costs versus income levels can also determine potential

areas for historic preservation.

Both studies highlight the economic and social benefits of historic preservation in

Florida, but neither study addresses how to locate potential sites or areas as candidates for

historic preservation. Historic preservationists face an emerging problem in the field;

neighborhoods from the post-World War II boom are becoming eligible for the National

Register. Minimal research from the planning perspective has focused on how to determine

whether a suburban neighborhood from this era is a candidate for historic preservation.

Why Preserve the Post-War Automobile Suburbs?

The typical automobile suburban development has been criticized by scholars over the

years because it caused "sprawl" with poor design and connectivity. "The costs of suburban

sprawl are all around us-they're visible in the creeping deterioration of once proud

neighborhoods, the increasing alienation of large segments of society, a constantly rising crime

rate and widespread environmental degradation" (Katz 1994, as quoted in Fainstein 2003, p.

182). The development of the suburbs detracted resources from the central city, causing the

deterioration of the urban core. Suburbs from the post World-War II Era have been one of the

most condemned American landscapes because of their uniformity and monotony (Ames, 1999).

The suburban development pattern receives criticism for aesthetic reasons including the

uninteresting architecture, monotonous streets and neighborhoods that lack unique

character stics.

Dolores Hayden (2003) wrote that "suburbs of the post-World War II era were shaped by

legislative processes reflecting the power of real estate, banking and construction sectors, and the

relative weakness of the planning and design professions" (p. 151). Hayden is alluding to the

perception that the suburbs were poorly planned and designed because other forces were










influencing the form of the neighborhoods. Suburbs were criticized for encouraging social

conformity among suburban families; the social norm became suburban life (Hayden, 2003).

Some scholars argue that the suburban neighborhood is a cultural landscape and should be

preserved. Suburban America is a cultural landscape because there is beauty and order in the

exterior environment (Alanen and Melnick, 2000). "America' s automobile culture also creates

its own landscape, whether it be at freeway intersections, the highway-oriented strips that mark

entry to most towns and cities, or the shopping malls...that are part of most new subdivision

developments on the suburban fringe" (Alanen and Melnick, 2000, p. 5).

Modern suburbs are becoming eligible for the National Register and can be considered for

preservation efforts. It has long been the perception that structures must be at least 50 years old

to be considered for a National Register nomination because of the guidelines listed in the

National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (NHPA). Some preservationists argue that the

so-called 50-year rule is not a rule. Jeanne Lambin, Historic Preservation Professor at the

Savannah College of Art and Design, recently gave speech which made a case for the

preservation of the recent past and the age of the structure, at least 50 years or not is a guideline,

not a rule.

The post-World War II landscape deserves to be preserved because it "is the landscape of

the American Dream, the single family house on its own lot sited within the large-scale, self-

contained subdivision with curvilinear street pattern" (Ames, 1995 as quoted in Ames, 1999, p.

222). These suburbs should be evaluated as historic resources (Ames, 1999). The suburbs of the

late 1940's and the 1950's were the first to be featured on television to a wide audience in shows

such as Leave it to Beaver, Ozzie and' Harriet and Father Knows Best. Dolores Hayden (2003)

dubbed these the "sitcom suburbs" (p. 128). The suburban life, sold on TV, became the ideal










culture in America. To achieve "a more sustainable and more equitable place, older suburbs have

to be saved rather than abandoned on the way to new proj ects" (Hayden, 2003 p. 13 5)

Levittown: The Beginnings of the Automobile Suburb

The outward growth of cities created residential suburbs and neighborhoods. The National

Park Service defines neighborhoods built between 1945 and 1960 in the historical context of the

Post-World War II and Early Freeway Suburbs (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 1). The best

known post-World War II suburb in the country is Levittown. Peter Hall described Levittown,

Long Island, the first prominent post-war suburb as "monotonous and vapid" (2002, p. 321).

Building first on Long Island, New York, then again in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the

Levitts' streamlined home construction practices in order to build massive numbers of homes in

a short amount of time. The typical Levittown home was inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright' s

Usonian model that was a prototype home for his Broadacre City3 (Samon, 2003). Wright' s

Usonian home was "in direct contrast to the traditional, formal, symmetric house that had

columns, pediments, and dark, boxlike rooms" (Samon, 2003, p.15). The one-story, flat-roofed

Usonian had strong horizontal lines and was designed in an L-shape and placed in the corner of

the lot to maximize the expanse of green (Samon, 2003). There were minimal windows in the

front, but large windows and French doors in the back of the home to place the emphasis on the

backyard.

The Levitt' s borrowed the ideas of Frank Lloyd Wright to build their homes (Samon, 2003

and Rybczynski, 2006). Alfred Levitt visited the construction of one of Lloyd' s Usonian homes

in Great Neck, NY, and noted the modular method of wood construction, the elimination of the


SBroadacre City was shaped through Wright's particular vision of a solution to the problems of the city by
combining the rural and urban development patterns into one concept. "The Broadacre City was a low-density,
continuous urban area which centralized city functions could be decentralized along linear transportation and
communications systems" (Zellner, 1998 p. 72).









basement and attic and the carport in place of the garage (Rybczynski, 2006). Wright used other

cost saving measures like heating under the floor, making the kitchen a small work area,

combining the living and dining rooms into one space, using polished concrete floors and

exposed wood walls and ceilings to save money on construction costs (Rybczynski, 2006).

Levitt took Wright' s ideas of using modern materials and laying out the home on a two foot grid

in order to mass produce homes in Levittown (Rybczynski, 2006). The homes had unfinished

features like attics and carports in order to cut down on cost; this arrangement encouraged

families to renovate and remodel the home when they had the money or more children and

needed more rooms. Levittown had schools, parks and stores all within its boundaries, which

was an innovation in neighborhood design at the time, a planned community.

The ranch home became the most common home built in the post-World War II housing

boom, also called the Rancher, the Rambler or the California Rambler because the home

originated from the Southwest with the expansive available open space. Situated on large lots,

the ranch home with an ample backyard was designed to foster a healthy, informal, outdoor-

oriented family life (Hunter, 1999). The picture window was one of the most noted features of

the ranch home from this era. The first 'picture window' was in the Levittown model the

Levittowner had an 8-foot kitchen window facing the street (Rybczynski, 2006). The window

was not for looking out, but to be a display of the family life within the home, a place to put the

Christmas tree or the Halloween decorations. The window could be seen from the street, and the

ideal suburban family could be seen by neighbors from the street. The homes from Levittown

eventually became what is known as ranch style with the modern appearance, low roof, and

horizontal lines on lots with room from expansion. The ranch's floor plan was open making it









seem larger than it was in reality (Hunter 1999). By 1950, the ranch accounted for 9 out of 10

new homes in America (Rybczynski, 2006).

Suburbia was welcome. Children could play in the yard, not in a busy urban street. Your
house was full of new and modern conveniences such as intercoms to communicate
between rooms, percolators for coffee, televisions having a place of honor. In many ways
the ranch house enabled the growing middle class to take pleasure in the modern world.
(Alter as quoted in Samon, 2003, p. 22)

Saving the Suburbs

In their 2007 study, Leigh and Lee analyzed the patterns of growth and development of

four cities that were in different regions for decline of structures built during the time period of

1950-1969. In the study, four U. S. metropolitan areas were studied to show the vulnerability of

the inner ring suburbs to socioeconomic decline. The results were that Atlanta, the fastest growth

city, is experiencing a higher rate of inner ring suburb decline, compared to Portland,

Philadelphia or Cleveland which had slower patterns of growth. Atlanta had the least amount of

positive socioeconomic indicators in the study in comparison to the other cities in the study.

In 2002, the National Park Service and Linda Flint McClelland with the assistance of

David L. Ames from the University of Delaware published Historic Residential Suburbs:

Guidelines for Evaluation and Documentation for the National Register of Historic Places.

Ames expanded on his 1999 chapter in Changing Suburbs: Foundation Form and Function and

formulated historic preservation guidelines for suburbs.

The National Park Service guidelines outline a history of the ranch house as it evolved

into the modern home, "The distinction between the Ranch and contemporary house became

blurred as each type made use of transparent walls, privacy screens of design concrete blocks,

innovations in open space planning, and the interplay of interior and exterior space," (Ames and

McClelland, 2002, p. 68). The modern home progressed from the ranch homes of the post-

World War II housing boom and the suburban movement of Americans out of the central city.









The curvilinear streets became the standard for new residential subdivisions, reinforced by the

design guidelines strongly recommended for Federal Housing Administration (FHA)-backed

mortgages in the late 1940's (Ames and McClelland, 2002).

The curvilinear subdivision layout was further institutionalized as the building industry
came to support national regulations that would standardize local building practices and
reduce unexpected development costs. In 1947 the ULI (Urban Land Institute) published
its first edition of the Community Builder' s Handbook. Providing detailed instructions for
community development based on the curvilinear subdivision and neighborhood unit
approach, it became a basic reference for the community development industry...In 1950
the NAHB (National Association of Home Builders), the primary trade organization for the
industry, published the Home Builders' Manual for Land Development. Thus, by the late
1940s, the concept of neighborhood planning had become institutionalized in American
planning practice. This form of development, in seamless repetition, would create the post-
World War II suburban landscape. (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 99-100)

The post-war suburb is a product of inexpensive development techniques and implementation of

recommended FHA neighborhood design guidelines. The typical modern suburban home is

single-family and in a semi-rural environment. Several factors influenced the evolution of the

modern suburban house:

-The lowering of construction costs, accomplished with the invention of the balloon-frame
method of construction in the 1830s and successive stages of standardization, mass
production, and prefabrication.

-The translation of the suburban ideal into the form of an individual dwelling usually on its
own lot in a safe, healthy, and parklike setting.

-The design of an efficient floor plan believed to support and reinforce the ideal family.

The evolution of the American home reflects changing concepts of family life and the ideal
suburban landscape. From 1838 to 1960, the design of the single-family, detached
suburban home in a landscaped setting evolved in several broad stages from picturesque
country villas to sprawling ranch houses on spacious suburban lots. (Ames and
McClelland, 2002, p. 100)

The homes built during 1945-1960 were typically in suburban locations, were modern

modest homes and enabled the middle class to afford the "American Dream." The housing

development trends known as modern suburbia initiated during this era have continued to the










present day. Now the original suburbs have other suburbs and neighborhoods built beyond them,

and the original suburbs are becoming part of the inner-ring of metropolitan areas. These homes

are now eligible for the National Register and are worthy of preservation because they mark an

era when popular suburbanization began and exhibit a distinctive architectural style despite the

large number that exist. Modern suburbia is a cultural landscape in America. Preserving these

neighborhoods prevents decline, gentrification and further urban sprawl. These neighborhoods

are already socially established, have infrastructure such as roads and schools and are closer to

city centers than the suburbs and neighborhoods being built currently. A method to locate the

best examples of modern suburbia from 1945-1960 for the purpose of historic preservation

would identify and assist in the preservation of the domestic cultivation of the American Dream.










Table 2-1. Comparision of Different Types of Districts.


National Register
Historic District

To preserve districts,
sites, buildings, structures
and objects of national
significance in American
history, architecture,
archeology, engineering
and culture. This
designation is a privilege
and carries no regulations
unless financial
incentives are requested
or federal funds are used.


Property value
enhancement,
neighborhood
revitalization, pride of
ownership, preservation
of unique character;
follows Secretary of
Interior's Standards for
compatible new and infill
construction;
opportunities for federal
and state incentives.


State Historic
Preservation Office
(SHPO) and National
Park Service when
financial incentives are
requested or federal or
state funds are used.

None, except when
financial incentives are
requested or federal or
state funds are used.



Protected only when
financial incentives
requested or federal or
state funds used.


Local Historic District


To preserve a building's or
area' s significant historic
character and fabric
through architectural
criteria and special zoning
provisions; to protect
structures that contribute to
the architectural and
cultural heritage; to ensure
that new construction,
additions or alterations are
appropriate with the scale,
character and architecture.

Property value
enhancement,
neighborhood
revitalization, pride of
ownership, preservation of
unique character, design
review, avoidance of
demolition of significant
historic architecture,
guidance for compatible
new and infill construction,
opportunity for federal,
state and local incentives.

Local historic preservation
board; possibly staff for
minor projects.





Demolition, rehabilitation,
restoration, alteration of
exterior and interior public
areas and new construction.



May be prohibited if
appropriate .


Conservation District


To preserve the distinctive
atmosphere, character and/or
features of a neighborhood.
Depending on the intent,
regulations may address the
preservation of scale,
volumetric relationships,
additions that clearly
characterize building type,
historic architecture or other
aspects.



Property value enhancement,
neighborhood revitalization,
pride of ownership, design
review, avoidance of
demolition of significant
historic architecture,
neighborhood based design
guidelines, preservation of
unique character, guidance
for compatible new and infill
construction, opportunity for
local incentives.


Staff or local design review
board.






Alteration of exterior and new
construction; possibly
demolition depending on
intent of district. Tailored to
the needs of the particular
neighborhood.

Total or partial demolition
may be prohibited depending
on intent of district.


Purpose














Benefits


Design Review
Authority






Regulated
Activity





Demolition of
Historically
Significant
Buildings &
Features










Table 2-1. Comparision of Different Types of Districts. Continued.


National Register
Historic District

U.S. Secretary of the
Interior's Standards for
rehabilitation mandatory
when financial incentives
requested or federal or
state funds are used.

Mandatory and most
stringent.


Yes, if criteria is met.



Yes, if criteria is met.



Yes, if criteria is met.


Conservation District


Local guidelines are
adopted. Tailored to the
needs of the particular
neighborhood.



More lenient depending
on intent of district.


Design
Guidelines





Stringency of
Design
Guidelines
20% Federal
Income Tax
Credit
10% Federal
Income Tax
Credit


Local Historic District


Local guidelines may be
adopted and U.S.
Secretary of the Interior's
Standards for
rehabilitation as
applicable .
Less stringent but
thorough.


No, unless federally
registered and certified.


Yes, if criteria is met.



No, unless federally
registered and certified.


Yes, if criteria is met.


Federal Income
Tax Charitable
Deduction for
Facade Easement
Donation

Zoning
Incentives

Florida Building
Code
Interpretations






Life Safety Code
Interpretations


Not applicable.


Possible, depending on the
specific district.
Consideration of
alternative materials and
methods by the Building
Official in accordance
with the Secretary of
Interior' s Guidelines to
achieve equivalency with
requirements .
Same as above.


Yes, depending on intent.


Consideration of
alternative materials and
methods by the Building
Official in accordance
with the Secretary of
Interior' s Guidelines to
achieve equivalency with
requirements .
Same as above.


Source: Paul Costanzo, Principal Planner, Memo to City of Ft. Lauderdale Beach
Redevelopment Advisory Board Members Regarding June 21, 2004 NBRA & SLA Area
Overlay, Historic & Conservation District Overview and Work Parameters, pp. 1-3,
http:.//ci.ftlaud.fl .us/beach/masterplan/beach~mp/062 104BRABItemlllMemoExhsOverlayDi stric
ts.pdf.









CHAPTER 3
IVETHODOLOGY

Historic preservationists have traditionally and currently rely on architectural methods for

determining eligibility of buildings and structures. Socioeconomic factors and tax roll data in

combination with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to examine land use

patterns of post World War II suburbs for historic preservation purposes. This study uses GIS to

determine potential candidates for historic preservation efforts in Duval County/Jacksonville,

Florida. It focuses on residential development from 1945 to 1960 because development from

this era is now eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and preservationists are

increasingly focusing on the modern era.

The benefit of using Duval County is that there is only one large city, Jacksonville, and

four much smaller cities within the county boundaries. The Jacksonville metropolitan area

extends beyond Duval County; however the City of Jacksonville is by far the largest city due to

the consolidation between the City and Duval County governments in 1967. The census tracts

within Duval County have had the same governing body since that time. Duval County

experienced a significant increase in population after World War II, more than doubling the

population from 210,143 in 1940 to 455,411 in 1960 (U.S. Census, 1990). Further, Duval

County is home to a maj or Navy base and a Naval Air Station, so the post-World War II housing

boom was supplemented with the growth of the military industrial complex. Thus the area lends

itself to this type of study due to the significant amount of development that occurred during the

study period.

Geographic Information Systems

Using GIS as a spatial analysis tool enhances this study because determining the

development pattern and location of these neighborhoods allows them to be identified and









historically preserved. Using GIS, information from the property appraiser's parcel data, such as

year of construction is overlaid on the census tracts. All the census tracts in Jacksonville are

calculated for density of homes built from 1945 to 1960 using a spatial j oin4 and the Hield

calculator' in GIS. The first steps of the methodology are shown in a flow chart, Eigure 3-1. In

order to establish density of each tract, GIS analysis requires vector data at the neighborhood and

parcel levels. The census tracts with the highest density are then selected to be part of the study

area. The socioeconomic data was collected at the census block group level and used to analyze

the study area. The socioeconomic indicators are mapped using raster data and then reclassified

into equal intervals so that the data appear as values from one to ten. Next, the analysis is

performed using the raster calculator,6 which weighs each indicator equally to come up with the

best candidates for historic preservation as defined in this study. The raster calculation will place

a value on each census block group, and with seven socioeconomic indicators, the lowest value

possible will be seven and the highest will be seventy.

Explanation of the Model

The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, considers properties that are

a minimum of 50 years old to be eligible for the National Register. The study will focus on

neighborhoods built from 1945 to 1960 because these homes are either now eligible for the

National Register or will be by 2010. The fifteen-year period provides enough time for

individual neighborhood construction and development and coincides with the housing boom in

the post-World War II automobile suburbs. The research method for determining the eligible

SA spatial join takes two or more GIS layers and their tables and joins them together based on their shared
geography and creates a new layer (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).
SA field calculator is a tool used to calculate values in GIS layer's data tables (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).

SRaster calculator is a tool for performing calculations of raster layers (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).










neighborhoods uses GIS with the data from the 2000 census and 2006 tax rolls. The model is

based on a 2007 study by Sugie Lee and Nancey Green Leigh, Intramet~r~rtropolitrtrtrtant Spatial

Differentiation and Decline of Inner-Ring Suburbs, where four U. S. metropolitan areas were

studied to show the vulnerability of the inner ring suburbs to socioeconomic decline. Lee and

Leigh's study mapped socioeconomic indicators within census tracts to confirm whether or not

the inner ring suburbs of the metropolitan areas were in decline. Socioeconomic indicators are

important to neighborhood revitalization and preservation because of the local government

responsibilities to citizen welfare.

Interest in neighborhood-scale indicators is the shift of responsibilities for social and
economic welfare from the federal to the state and local levels, and the simultaneous
emphasis on public-private partnerships and neighborhood empowerment These
approaches are the latest attempt to forge new alliances for small-area improvement.
(Wallis as quoted in Sawicki and Flynn, 1996 p. 166)

This study will also use GIS to map socioeconomic indicators within census tracts, but will

take the approach a step further in identifying neighborhoods within those census tracts. Further,

this study uses the indicators to measure positive attributes to establish the neighborhood's

efficacy for historic preservation instead of negative characteristics. Socioeconomic indicators

can be mapped spatially to show the distribution of social and economic conditions. Lee and

Leigh' s study defined the inner ring suburbs as those built between 1950 and 1969; however, for

historic preservation purposes, this study will only look at housing built right after the end of

World War II to 1960.

The best candidates for historic preservation are identified by comparing the

socioeconomic statuses of each census tract and further by comparing the socioeconomic statuses

of the individual census blocks within each census tract. The census blocks generally identify

the neighborhoods and development patterns of Jacksonville during the time period of the study.

Census tracts that contain a maj ority of housing built or that contain sizable housing









developments built during 1945-1960 were identified using GIS. Using socioeconomic data from

the 2000 Census, each census tract is then ranked against each other to select the initial study

area. Once the tracts with the highest percentage of post-war housing are identified, data from

the census blocks within those tracts is collected and used in the analysis with raster layers. The

raster surface after calculation will indicate the potential candidates for historic preservation

because those neighborhoods possess the more stable socioeconomic traits to support it. The

goal is to identify three potential post World War II era neighborhoods that would be good

candidates for historic preservation efforts because their socioeconomic status indicates a

receptive community environment where early initiatives to safeguard structures and

neighborhoods built during this era can begin to build momentum. Historic preservation tax

credits are only available for income-producing producing, therefore, homeowners with the

means to maintain their homes are more likely to be receptive to historic preservation efforts

because they can afford to do so.

Identifying the Indicators

The socioeconomic indicators selected for this study are many of the same indicators used

in Lee and Leigh's study that document decline of the inner ring suburbs. In this study, their

positive measurements are used to determine stability and viability for historic designation as

modern suburban developments. The socioeconomic variables used by Lee and Leigh and by

this study are: the rate of poverty, amount of public assistance, rate of unemployment, percentage

of college graduates and per capital income and the housing variables used are owner-occupied

housing and median home values. The goal of using these socioeconomic indicators is to

identify the inner-ring neighborhoods that have not experienced as much, if any, decline

comparable to other neighborhoods built in the same era.









The indicators used to measure decline of a neighborhood include the rate of poverty,

unemployment and the amount of public assistance. The rate of poverty is measured by

percentage of individuals below the poverty line according to the 2000 Census. The rate of

unemployment is calculated as a percentage per census block group. The higher the

unemployment rates of a census block, the less desirable the area is as a candidate for historic

preservation. The amount of public assistance indicates how residents supplement their monthly

incomes through social security, welfare and other forms of government money. A

disproportionate amount of public assistance would indicate a neighborhood in decline.

The amount of bachelor' s degrees and owner-occupied housing are more positive

indicators, where a higher amount of each means a neighborhood is a better candidate for historic

preservation. The amount of bachelor's degrees in the population aged 25 and up indicates well-

educated residents who are likely to have stable jobs. Owner-occupied housing indicates stable

residential populations within a neighborhood.

The other indicators being used that are numeric in value are median per capital income and

median housing value. The census block groups are compared with their median values and the

higher they are, the better candidate the neighborhood is for historic preservation. The median

per capital income indicates the level of income per person within the census block group, and a

higher median per capital income means a more stable neighborhood. Once the tracts are selected

using the criteria in Table 3-1, the individual neighborhoods are examined using census block

group data. The goal is to select at least three potential neighborhoods for historic preservation.

Explanation of the Data

The study utilizes data from several sources including the United States Census Bureau,

the Duval County Property Appraiser and the Florida Department of Revenue 12D8 Tax Rolls

for Duval County. The United States Census decennially collects data by census tract and the










census blocks within those tracts. The data available from the Census is broken up into census

tracts and further into blocks and spatially distributes socio-economic data over the tracts and

blocks. The Duval County Property Appraiser' s office provided 2007 parcel data and the 2006

Florida Department of Revenue 12D8 Certified Tax Roll data. Using these sources of data, GIS

will be used to determine the best post-World War II neighborhoods as candidates for historic

preservation.

The latest United States Census data from 2000 provides the socioeconomic factors that

are the indicators for the model. Census data that is seven years older than the parcel and tax roll

data is not ideal, but it is the most current data available. The Census data breaks down the

socioeconomic indicators by tract and block group, so the data is ideal for a neighborhood scale

assessment. The indicators provided by the Census data for census block group are median

home values, median per capital income, and rate of poverty, level of bachelor' s degrees, public

assistance levels and unemployment.

The Duval County parcel data provided by the property appraiser provides exact parcel

information that is essential for performing GIS functions and can assist in visually identifying

neighborhoods. The GIS functions used with the parcel data in order to identify candidates for

historic preservation are joins, relates and the analysis tools were intersects, 7 clips, s spatial joins

and unions.9 Figure 3-1's flow chart illustrates the GIS portion of the methodology. The parcel





4 An intersect is a layering tool that when applied preserves features or portions of features that fall within areas
common to all layers (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008, n.p.).

5 A clip is a tool that takes geographic features from one layer that are entirely within a boundary defined from
another feature (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).

6 A union is a tool that takes two or more layers and joins them together then retains and extracts into a new GIS
layer" (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).









data provided the year built data and shows then neighborhood development patterns and

provides visual assistance on the maps.

The data provided by the Department of Revenue 12D8 Certified Tax Rolls include

information on the year a structure was built. The year built is vital to the analysis because it

indicates development patterns within the census tracts. By knowing the development patterns,

the census tracts with the most development during the post-World War II development period of

1945-1960 are identified and can be broken down further into neighborhood and census blocks.

The tax roll also provides more specific data on values of homes, land values, vacancy rates and

owner-occupied status of homes. The tax roll data is used once census data is applied to the

more specific census tracts, blocks and neighborhoods.

The Census data, being about seven years older than the parcel data, does limit the study

because the data does not exactly reflect current socioeconomic conditions in Duval County.

However, the 2000 Census data is the latest socio-economic data available that can be

manipulated with GIS and accommodate analysis at the neighborhood level. Widely used by

urban planners (Pamuk, 2006), the Census is the most comprehensive source of data on people

and their communities in the United States (Myers 1992; Peters and MacDonald 2004 as cited in

Pamuk, 2006). More recent general statistics are available for all of Duval County and

Jacksonville from the Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BEBR), but for the purposes

of this study, the data would not be specific enough to determine potential historic districts.

Census tracts contain about 4,000 people; block groups include about 1,000 people; and

individual blocks contain about 400 people. Since the study is evaluating established

neighborhoods that have been in existence for at least 50 years, using slightly older

socioeconomic data does not limit or devalue the outcome of the study. The neighborhoods have









not likely had a maj or population shift during this period and the infrastructure has remained in

place. The 2000 Census also provides a detailed socioeconomic snapshot of the area in general

and more specific level when including the census tracts and blocks.

The model methodology used in Lee and Leigh's (2007) study also examined minority

population, age of population, vacant housing proportion and overcrowding housing proportion

as indicators. This study does not use the race or ages of the population since these factors are

deemed as a minimal on the initial selection of a neighborhood's for further local historic survey,

though subsequent analysis should include race and ethnicity to understand the community in its

historical and current context. Vacant housing data is not utilized because the author believes

that vacant housing rates are somewhat impermanent, more so than other indicators used in the

study. Housing overcrowding is not incorporated into this study because the data was not

compatible with the rest of the data, thus making it difficult to layer in GIS. The housing

overcrowding data was measured based on rooms in the individual dwelling unit to number of

people living there and was only listed as a ratio per unit.

Field Work

The Einal part of the methodology involved visiting the selected neighborhoods. A visual

survey can indicate the degree to which the early post-war neighborhoods have remained intact

and thus reinforce the neighborhood stability findings based on the socioeconomic data. A

windshield survey of the selected neighborhoods and photograph documentation is used to

record the condition of the development. The visual survey also identifies visual similarities and

differences within neighborhoods and between neighborhoods. Some potential visuals to

analyze are the homes, streets, sidewalks, architecture and landscaping for condition, demolition,

and new construction.










In the next chapter, the findings show how this process locates post World War II-built

neighborhoods as candidates for historic preservation efforts. The socioeconomic indicators

determine the most stable neighborhoods within the census tracts compared to each other and to

Duval County as a whole. The selected neighborhoods are within the tracts that had the most

favorable socioeconomic indicator levels.


Table 3-1. List of Indicators Used and the Ideal Rating System.
Indicator Ideal Indicator Range
Rate of Poverty Lower to Higher
Unemployment Lower to Higher
Amount of Public Assistance Lower to Higher
Bachelor's Degrees in Population 25 years old and Up Higher to Lower
Owner-Occupied Housing Higher to Lower
Median Per Capita Income Higher to Lower
Median Housing Value Higher to Lower






























Add Field to
Spatial Join


Use Field Calculator
to determine density
of housing built
between 1945 and
1960 in census tracts


Socioeconomic indicators
mapped on Study Area by
census block groups


Socioeconomic indicators
converted to raster layers




Raster layers are
reclassified in equal
intervals from 1 to 10, 1
least desirable and 10 being
most desirable





Raster Calculator used to
add all the socioeconomic
raster layers to come up
with a score for each census
block group


Neighborhoods selected
from result of Raster
Calculation


Study Area
determined


Figure 3-1. GIS Flowchart.










CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

This thesis focuses on the use of census and property appraiser data to indicate which

neighborhoods are most suitable for historic preservation based on their socioeconomic

character. The following chapter will report the findings for each indicator separately and then

with the use of GIS, the values are calculated with raster data, to reveal the best neighborhood

candidates. Policy recommendations are made in the analysis portion that would assist

Jacksonville in implementing a program that would preserve neighborhoods from the post World

War II era.

The Study Area

By analyzing the development patterns of Jacksonville, the inner ring suburbs are evident

according to the map in Figure 4-1. The map reveals that the first rings of suburbs were built

around the downtown and on the east side of the St. Johns River and on towards the beach. On

Figure 4-1, the black parcels indicate the current parcels where buildings constructed between

1945 and 1960 exist. The red parcels signify development prior to the end of World War II and

the green parcels represents development after the time period targeted by this study.

A density calculation comparing the area of each census tract with the summary of the area

of all the parcels built between 1945 and 1960 within that census tract is calculated and

illustrated in Figure 4-2. The darker the census tract, the more concentrated is the post-World

War II housing in that tract. The study uses the darker colored tracts as the study area for the

socioeconomic indicator analysis. Table 4-1 lists the census tracts selected for the study, the

general location according to Duval County Planning Districtslo and each one' s density of post-


SDuval County is divided into six Planning Districts, illustrated in Figure 4-3. This is the government's only
recognition of geographic areas or suburbs located in Jacksonville. Each Planning District is assigned to a different
team within the Planning and Development Department.










World War II development. The density comparison identifies 55 census tracts that are located

within the inner rings of the Jacksonville metropolitan area and that contain a significant amount

of development from the post-World War II boom. Table 4-1 shows that census tracts from each

Planning District were chosen, and illustrates that post-war neighborhoods were built in several

areas of town. Figure 4-3 is a map of the Planning Districts in Jacksonville. One exception to

location in the inner ring areas is the census tract located in Jacksonville Beach where a high

density of post-World War II development exists. The amount of census tracts within each

Planning District selected for the study area is shown in Table 4-2. The Northwest and the

Greater Arlington/Beaches Planning Districts contain the most census tracts that qualify for this

study .

The Socioeconomic Indicators

After selecting the census tracts for the analysis, the socioeconomic indicators were

mapped by census block group. The census block group (about 1000 people) is the smallest area

the census data was broken down into. The results of the socioeconomic indicators are

illustrated in Figures 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9 and 4-10. As shown on each map, the darker

colors indicate the higher amount or rate of the socioeconomic indicator (see the explanatory

caption below each map). The same tracts consistently have the more favorable rates for each of

the indicators, especially tracts located in the Greater Arlington/Beaches and Southeast Planning

Di stri cts.

The reclassification method used with the raster data of the socioeconomic indicators was

uniform for each indicator. The drawback to this method is that not all values (1-10) are

represented by a census block group. For example, Figure 4-4 is missing 8 as a value on the

legend because none of the census block groups had a calculated value of 8 when the values









were reclassified for the purpose of this study. ArcGIS software automatically omits the non-

represented values in the legend, even though the value was calculated for the reclassification.

Neighborhood Selection Analysis

After calculating the value of each socioeconomic indicator which ranged from Ito 10,

the values were added together in each census block group using a raster calculator in GIS. The

results of this calculation for each census block groups are in Figure 4-13; the lowest value

possible was 7 and the highest was 70. The areas in pink on the map indicate the highest scoring

census block groups and light blue indicates the lowest scoring block groups. The findings in this

particular analysis yielded a minimum of 11 and a maximum of 62 in value with three block

groups standing out with the highest scores that contained significant neighborhood development

patterns form the early post-World War II era. Table 4-3 shows the census tracts that contained

the highest scoring block groups. Figures 4-14, 4-15 and 4-16 are the neighborhoods selected by

the raster calculation.

As indicated in Table 4-4, the selected neighborhoods scored 53 out of 70 possible points.

Two census block groups scored higher (62 and 57), but were not selected as potential candidates

for historic preservation. They are adjacent to one of the selected neighborhoods within the same

census block, but they did not contain intact neighborhoods and development patterns associated

with post-World War II developments like curvilinear streets. These neighborhoods were not

intact, meaning they did not contain continuous development patterns from this era. Further

significant demolition had occurred to the original post-war homes. The density score identified

the study area by census tract, and then the socioeconomic indicators were applied at the census

block group level, which split up the tract in two to eight different block groups depending on the

population within the census tract.









Site visits to each of the selected neighborhoods provided visual information for

additional analysis. The condition of the neighborhoods selected by the study was noted and

photographs were taken to represent the categories in Table 4-5. Photographs of the site visit to

the selected neighborhoods are located in Appendix A. Some observations could not be

photographed such as the lack of "For Sale" signs throughout all of these neighborhoods.

About the Selected Neighborhoods

Lake Lucina

Compared to the other neighborhoods, Lake Lucina contains the fewest renovated and

maintained homes. According to the property appraiser' s records, most of the homes in the

neighborhood were about 1200-1300 square feet when the homes were first built. Figure 4-15

illustrates a typical floor plan from a home within the Lake Lucina neighborhood and the home

has a base of 1247 square feet; unfinished areas, garage and storage room; and additions built in

later years. Table 4-5 illustrates the visual assessment of the neighborhood in comparison with

the other selected neighborhoods.

Table 4-4 shows that Lake Lucina's highest ranking socioeconomic factors were

bachelor' s degrees for adults aged 25 and up, owner occupied housing, amount of families below

poverty level, public assistance received and unemployment rate. Lake Lucina did not rank as

high with median value of home and per capital income of families.

Glynlea Park

Glynlea Park contains the smallest sized homes compared to the other neighborhoods.

According to the property appraiser' s records, most of the homes in the neighborhood were

about 900-1000 square feet when the homes were first built. Large additions were common in

Glynlea Park and so were detached garages on the long and narrow lots. Figure 4-16 illustrates a

typical floor plan from a home within the Glynlea Park neighborhood; the home has a base of










957 square feet, an unfinished garage and storage room and additions built in later years. Table

4-5 illustrates the visual assessment of the neighborhood in comparison with the other selected

neighborhoods.

In Glynlea Park the socioeconomic factors that were the highly ranked were owner

occupied housing, amount of families below poverty level, public assistance received and

unemployment. Glynlea Park fell more in the middle with median value of homes, bachelor' s

degrees for adults aged 25 and up and per capital income of families.

San Jose Forest

San Jose Forest contains the largest of the homes compared to the other neighborhoods.

According to the property appraiser' s records, most of the homes in the neighborhood were

about 1900-2000 square feet when the homes were first built. Figure 4-17 illustrates a typical

floor plan from a home within the San Jose Forest neighborhood; the home has a base of 1978

square feet and finished enclosed porches and garages. Table 4-5 illustrates the visual

assessment of the neighborhood in comparison with the other selected neighborhoods.

The socioeconomic factors that were highly ranked in San Jose Forest were amount of

families below poverty level, public assistance received and unemployment rates. Bachelor' s

degrees for adults aged 25 and up and median home values were in the middle to high range for

the neighborhood. San Jose Forest was the lowest ranking selected neighborhood for owner

occupied housing.

Assessments of All Neighborhoods

One striking feature common across all the neighborhoods was ornamental front porch

railings and columns. Picture windows were also common in many of the homes throughout the

neighborhoods. San Jose Forest had the more architecturally elaborate homes, while Glynlea









Park' s and Lake Lucina' s were the less elaborate. More signs of additions to the homes were

visible in Glynlea Park, and Lake Lucina' s homes had the least amount of visible additions.

All three neighborhoods ranked high with few of families below the poverty level and low

public assistance and unemployment rates compared to other census block groups in the study.

Per capital income of families is an indicator that each neighborhood ranked in the middle range.

Bachelor' s degrees for adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied

housing all received mixed ratings between the neighborhoods.

Recommendations

There was visible decline due to neglect and lack of maintenance in Lake Lucina and

Glynlea Park and obvious gentrification occurring in San Jose Forest and on occasion in Glynlea

Park. Post-World War II developments face the danger of becoming an extension of the inner

city because of lack of guiding policies to preserve their character. Over fifty other census tracts

contain significant amounts of housing from the 1945-1960 time period that could be in more

danger than the study's selected neighborhoods. Lower socioeconomic indicators in those

census tracts means there is a greater chance of decline in those neighborhoods. Starting the

historic recognition of the post-war neighborhoods in those that can support a preservation effort

can serve as a model to other neighborhoods from this period.

Currently in Jacksonville, preservation of post-war housing is limited to areas already

adj acent to or within established historic districts and those neighborhoods with residents

actively involved in associations. Generally, post-war housing is not considered historic

compared to other designated historic districts in Jacksonville. The periods of significance for

each historic district are:

* Springfield 1875-1949;
* Riverside 1850-1949;










* Avondale 1900-1949;
* Old Ortega 1900-1974.


While many of these periods of significance end or cover the post-war era, the styles listed for

each district on the National Register form do not mention the post-war era home as defined by

this study.

Identifying these post-war neighborhoods is just one step in the local preservation process.

First, local officials must establish, preferably in the Historic Preservation Element, what criteria

define early post-war neighborhoods as significant. Following identification of these

neighborhoods using GIS and socioeconomic data, historical and architectural documentation of

these selected neighborhoods should be conducted. Once these studies are complete, they can be

evaluated against the criteria in the Historic Preservation Element. For neighborhoods that

qualify, effective protection measures, such local historic overlay or conservation districts should

be established.

Jacksonville has only four National Register historic districts and a locally recognized

historic district in the San Marco neighborhood that has its own zoning overlay district as shown

in Figure 1-1. The neighborhoods selected for this study would potentially be most successfully

preserved under a neighborhood conservation district. This designation typically imposes fewer

restrictions than a traditional historic district, allowing greater flexibility to accommodate work

on unfinished rooms and additions consistent with the design of the homes.

The Jacksonville Code of Ordinances does not currently address neighborhood

conservation districts and only uses zoning overlays in the designated historic areas like San

Marco, which contains older housing units than those in this study. A zoning overlay, as

discussed in Chapter Two, maintains the underlying zoning of a parcel but adds additional









development regulations or design guidelines. Riverside, Avondale and Springfield all have

adopted design standards and a historic preservation neighborhood board to issue Certifieates of

Appropriateness.

An ordinance implementing a neighborhood conservation district for any of the three

neighborhoods should include provisions that promote neighborhood identity and participation.

San Jose Forest and Glynlea Park have neighborhood associations, but Lake Lucina does not

have a specific organization. Active neighborhood associations are essential to the conservation

process in these developments because without support from the residents, the effort is likely to

be unsuccessful. Lake Lucina does fall under the auspices of Old Arlington, a historic

preservation advocacy group based in that area of Jacksonville, and either forming their own

organization or j oining with the larger effort by Old Arlington could achieve the same goal of

neighborhood conservation designation. The San Marco Preservation Society is an example of a

successful group whose efforts have preserved a district not listed on the National Register of

Historic Places. The Society has plaques that members can purchase for their homes if they meet

certain design criteria and is an advocate for preservation in the area. They supported the zoning

overlay district passed four years ago and provide the political support for its implementation. A

similar program could be successful in San Jose Forest, Glynlea Park or Lake Lucina. Much like

Jacksonville' s S an Marco neighb orhood, a community-l ed effort for neighb orhood-specific

preservation policies proved to be most successful because the residents wanted to preserve their

neighborhood. Promoting neighborhood identity aids in the formation of neighborhood-based

advocacy groups and is essential to implementing a neighborhood conservation district because it

supports the preservation effort and gets residents involved.









Like other historic districts in Jacksonville, a local board composed of residents from the

neighborhood would be ideal to oversee the neighborhood conservation district. The locally-

appointed or elected board would review certificates of appropriateness for any additions or

exterior renovations within the neighborhood. The neighborhood conservation district ordinance

has a set of design guidelines that address architecture, landscaping and hardscaping. Design

guidelines assist in keeping the character of the neighborhood intact by imposing standards for

additions and exterior renovations and do not allow the architectural character of the

neighborhood to be degraded with inconsistent modifications. Landscaping requirements and

hardscaping requirements such as trees and fences visually reinforce the homes' distinctive

architectural elements. A neighborhood conservation district policy would work to preserve the

selected neighborhoods and prevent decline and eventual decay.

Jacksonville's Historic Preservation Element implicitly excludes housing from the post-

war era. The first step in implementing any district guidelines for the selected neighborhood

would be updating the Historic Preservation Element to include the years 1945 to 1960 in the

survey program identified in Policy 1.2.1. Recommended language is: The Planning and

Development Department shall continue its comprehensive survey program scheduled to be

completed by 2010. The survey program will continue to follow and be compatible with the

Florida Master Site File. This comprehensive survey program will be completed in increments,

concentrating on those areas of high site probability as identified by the U.S. Census Bureau for

pre -1960 housing units.

The Historic Preservation Element also mentions raising public awareness of historic

preservation and historic resources in Jacksonville. Currently residents do not perceived their

homes as historic because they are inconsistent with the styles and settlement patterns in










designated historic districts like in Springfield and Riverside. The periods of significance began

in the 1800's, so they are not going to have the same architectural characteristics. A public

relations campaign to address the perception and an effort to form neighborhood-based

associations and organizations to promote preservation would greatly aid in any attempt to start

implementation of policy. Further, the Historic Preservation Element, or a related planning

document, could outline the criteria associated with suburban residential development of this era,

thus clarifying what is it that makes these neighborhoods historically distinctive.

The benefit of starting to historically preserve the neighborhoods that are the best example

of communities from the post-World War II era through a planning tool such as a neighborhood

conservation district is the positive influence they provide for surrounding neighborhoods from

the same era to preserve their own unique character. The quality of life improves within the

"inner ring" and decline is curbed both through the historic preservation process and

conservation district designation.

Table 4-1. List of Census Tracts used for Study.
Census Tract Density of Post Official Planning District in Duval County
World War II
Housing per Acre
Tract 1 0.15 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 2 0.31 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 6 0.08 Planning District 3-Southeast
Tract 11 0.05 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 12 0.03 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 14 0.17 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 15 0.08 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 20 0.04 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 25 0.08 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 26 0.16 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 27.01 0.19 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 27.02 0.10 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 28.01 0.17 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 28.02 0.16 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 29.01 0.09 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 29.02 0.03 Planning District 1-Urban Core
Tract 103.03 0.05 Planning District 6- North










Table 4-1. Continued
Census Tract Density of Post Official Planning District in Duval County
World War II
Housing per Acre
Tract 108 0.11 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 109 0.08 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 110 0.03 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 111 0.06 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 112 0.06 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 113 0.15 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 114 0.13 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 115 0.16 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 116 0.32 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 118 0.17 Planning District 5-Northwest
Tract 120 0.16 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 122 0.36 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 123 0.26 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 124 0.04 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 125 0.00 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 126.02 0.01 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 127.01 0.10 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 128 0.07 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 129 0.02 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 134.01 0.11 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 134.02 0.00 Planning District 4-Southwest
Tract 141.01 0.18 City of Jacksonville Beach*
Tract 143.11 0.03 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 145 0.05 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 148 0.09 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 149.01 0.34 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 150.02 0.21 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 151.00 0.22 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 152 0.26 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 153 0.30 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 154 0.31 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 155 0.24 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 156 0.17 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 157 0.31 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 158.01 0.10 Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches
Tract 162 0.17 Planning District 3-Southeast
Tract 165 0.05 Planning District 3-Southeast
*Census tract lies within the City of Jacksonville Beach and is not part of the consolidated
government.










Table 4-2. Jacksonville Planning Districts in Initial Study Area.
Planning District Location Amount of Census
Tracts included in
Study
Planning District 1 Urban Core 8
Planning District 2 Greater Arlington/Beaches 13
Planning District 3 Southeast 3
Planning District 4 Southwest 11
Planning District 5 Northwest 17
Planning District 6 North 2


Table 4-3. Results of Raster Calculator.
Indicated Block Group's Location Neighborhood within Census Tract
Census Tract
149.01 Greater Arlington/Beaches Lake Lucina
158.01 Greater Arlington/Beaches Glynlea Park
165.00 Southeast San Jose Forest



Table 4-4. Results of Raster Calculator for Selected Neighborhoods.
Lake Lucina Glynlea Park San Jose Forest
Bachelor's Degrees for 9 6 7
Adults Age 25 and Up
Median Value of 4 4 8
Homes
Owner Occupied 8 9 4
Housing
Per Capita Income of 4 4 6
Families
Amount of Families 9 10 10
Below Poverty Level
Public Assistance 10 10 10
Received
Unemployment Rate 9 10 10

Totals 53 53 53









































Signs of Gentrification
and Maj or Remodeling
of Homes






Maintained Homes



Maintained Yards





Finished Garages


Table 4-5. Visual Characteristics of Neighborhoods. See Appendix A for photographs.
Lake Lucina Glynlea Park San Jose Forest


Yes Yes Yes


Curvilinear Street
Pattern
Sidewalks Present
throughout
Curb and Gutter
throughout
Entrance Sign-
Neighborhood Identity



Home umiformity





Neighborhood-wide
Distinctive
Architectural Features


Yes

Yes

No

Same models of home
throughout, many were
painted brick and
concrete block, painted
in different colors

Ornamental porch
railings and columns,
large front windows





No, homes did have
additions, but there
were not visually
noticeable with a few
exceptions




Somewhat, there were
homes that were
obviously vacant or ill-
maintained

Somewhat, there were
yards that were not
being maintained

Finished Garages were
moderately distributed
throughout the
neighborhood, mostly
1-car


Yes

No

No

Same models of
homes throughout,
painted wood, brick
and concrete block
painted in different
colors
Ornamental porch
railings and
columns,
ornamental wood
work on front of
homes, large front
windows
Yes, homes located
on the West side of
the neighborhood
adj acent to the
Creek were
obviously renovated
and in one instance
a modem home and
driveway was seen
Somewhat, there
were homes that
were obviously
vacant or ill-
maintained
Somewhat, there
were yards that were
not being
maintained
Finished Garages
were moderately
distributed
throughout the
neighborhood,
mostly 1-car


No

Yes

Yes

Homes varied more,
but similar models
painted in different
colors were visible


Ornamental porch
railings and columns,
red brick facades,
strong horizontal roof
lines, large front
windows

Yes, some homes
looked like renovations
and additions had been
added over the years,
but many of the homes
still architecturally
reflected the post-
World War II era

All of the homes were
well-maintained




All of the yards were
well maintained


All finished garages,
some 2-car and mostly
1-car




















































0 2.5 5 10 15 20


Duval County Development Patterns


Legend
No Value Listed
SPre-1 945 Development
SDevelo pment 1 945-1 960
Post 1960 Development


Figure 4-1. Development Patterns in Duval County.
(Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, Display by Year
Results)

























































O 1.5 3 6 9


Legend
Density
density_ca
S0.00 O 02 units per acre
S0.03 O 07 units per acre
S0.08 O 11 units per acre
0.12 O 26 units per acre
S0.27 0.60 units per acre
Built_1945-1960


12


Figure 4-2. Density of Census Tracts with Post-World War II housing.

(Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, Florida Geographic
Data Library-Census Tracts; Spatial Join and Calculation of Density by Acre)







































Figure 4-3. Planning Districts in Jacksonville. (Source: City of Jacksonville Geographic
Information Systems-Jax GIS, 2008-http://map s.coj.net/j axgi s/)















































O 1 5 3 6 9 12

Legend

1 2 3 4 5 B 7 9 10

Figure 4-4. Bachelor's Degree' s for Adults Age 25 and up.

The darker the blue color, the higher the concentration of bachelor' s degrees for residents
over 25 years in age within the census block group. In this instance, the darker color
indicates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data
Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Bachelor' s
Degree for Adults Age 25 and up; Raster Reclassification Results)





















































I I I IYllleS


O 1 5 3


9 12


Figure 4-5. Median Value of Homes.

The darker the red color, the higher the median home values are within the census block
group. In this instance, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of the indicator.
(Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and
Hydrology, U. S. Census Bureau-Median Value of Homes; Raster Reclassification Results)




















































I I I MlleS


0 1.5 3


9 12


Figure 4-6. Owner-Occupied Housing.


The darker the pink color, the higher the amount of owner-occupied housing is within the
census block group. In this instance, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of
the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary,
and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Owner-Occupied Housing; Raster Reclassification
Results)





















































Miles


12


O 15 3


Figure 4-7. Per Capita Income of Families.

The darker the burgundy color, the higher the amount of per capital income is within the
census block group. In this instance, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of
the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary,
and Hydrology, U. S. Census Bureau-Per Capita Income of Families; Raster
Reclassification Results)



















































O 1.5 3 6 9 12

Legend

1 2 3 4 5 B 7 B 9 10


Figure 4-8. Amount of Families Below Poverty Level.

The darker the green color, the higher the amount of families below the poverty level is
within the census block group. In this instance, the lighter color indicates a more favorable
level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County
Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Amount of Families Below Poverty Level;
Raster Reclassification Results)


































O 1.5 3 6 9 12


a


Figure 4-9. Public Assistance Received.
The darker the green color, the higher the amount of families receiving public assistance is
within the census block group. In this instance, the lighter color indicates a more favorable
level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County
Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Public Assistance Received; Raster
Reclassification Results)
















































0 15 3 B 9 12

Legend
VALUE

1 2 3 4 5 B 7 8 9 10


Figure 4-10. Unemployment Rates.

The darker the gray color, the higher the amount of unemployment is within the census
block group. In this instance, the lighter color indicates a more favorable level of the
indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary,
and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Unemployment Rates; Raster Reclassification
Results)












































Value

1High B2
ILow 11



Figure 4-1 1. Results of Raster Calculation by Census Block Group.

The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within the census block group
and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts,
County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic
Indicators; Raster Calculation Results)











































0 375 750 1,500 2,250 3,000

Legend
SBuilt_1945-1960
Cal cul ation
Value


I High 62L 1



Figure 4-12. Lake Lucina Neighborhood.

The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within the census block group
and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts
and County Boundary, Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, U.S.
Census Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation Results)












































O B25 1,250 2,500 3,750 5,000

Legend
SBullt_1945-1960
Cal cul ation
Value


I High 62L 1



Figure 4-13. Glynlea Park Neighborhood.

The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within the census block group
and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts,
County Boundary, and Hydrology, Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by
Parcel, U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation
Results)











































0 850 1,700 3,400 5,100 6,800

Legend
Built_1945-1960
Cal culation
Value


I High 62L 1



Figure 4-14. San Jose Forest Neighborhood.

The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within the census block group
and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts,
County Boundary, and Hydrology, Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by
Parcel U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation
Results)




























Figure 4-15. Lake Lucina typical home-3211 Hollyberry Lane.

This home was built in 1959, had a base square footage of 1247 square feet (BAS). There
are two additions (ADT) that equal 468 square feet an unfinished storage room (UST) of
104 square feet and two Einished porches at 56 square feet. The total square footage is now
1875. (Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Website-
http://www. coj .net/Departments/Property+Apprai ser/default. htm)


Figure 4-16. Glynlea Park typical home-719 Glynlea Rd.

This home was built in 1952, had a base square footage of 957 square feet (BAS). There is
one addition (ADT) that equal 468 square feet, an unfinished storage room (UST) of 60
square feet, a finished garage (FGR) at 216 square feet, an unfinished carport (UCP) at 84
square feet and two finished porches (FOP) at 76 square feet. The total square footage is
now 1749. (Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Website-
http://www. coj .net/Departments/Property+Apprai ser/default. htm)


5US11 BAS

14 14
' F GR 4 1 ,

L 1g











2. 1 3~ 1
13 ADT !4


BAS


Figure 4-17. San Jose Forest Typical Home-7034 Catalonia Avenue.

This home was built in 1958, had a base square footage of 2320 square feet (BAS). There
is one addition (ADT) that equals 546 square feet a finished garage (FGR) of of 546 square
feet and a finished porch (FOP) at 40 square feet. The total square footage is now 3452.
(Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Website-
http://www. coj .net/Departments/Property+Apprai ser/default. htm)









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

This study identified several socioeconomic indicators and, using those, applied GIS to

locate neighborhoods dating from the post-World War II housing boom in Jacksonville, Florida

as candidates for historic preservation. Three neighborhoods, (Glynlea Park, Lake Lucina and

San Jose Forest) were identified using this methodology. Their potential for being preserved

using a neighborhood conservation district designation was then discussed.

This study hypothesizes that socioeconomic indicators are fundamental in identifying

neighborhoods for preservation because the social and economic status of a community is vital

for successful historic preservation efforts. The typical post-World War II neighborhood was

uniquely designed to accommodate reliance on the automobile and reflected mass production

construction techniques that incorporated simple architectural features. The large number of

neighborhoods with these characteristics could make identifying the potential candidates hard

since many of them look the same. GIS offers the technology to identify and prioritize these

areas for further preservation analysis and, provided the preservation process confirms their

significance based on early post-war criteria, for protection using planning tools such as

conservation districts.

These significant neighborhoods can be preserved based on their distinctive set of defining

characteristics, including low cost homes with efficient floor plans on large lots sitting along

curvilinear streets. These homes, once the extent of growth of Jacksonville, are now located in

the inner rings of the city. They are in ideal locations because they are closer to the central

business district than more recent suburbs and already have services and infrastructure to support

the residents.









In order to realize the goal of preserving early post-war neighborhoods, the following is

recommended: update the Historic Preservation Element of the Comprehensive Plan including

criteria for evaluation of these neighborhoods; initiate a preservation process that uses the GIS

tools and socioeconomic demographic data to confirm which neighborhoods should be protected;

and implement a neighborhood conservation district to protect these areas. In addition, a public

relations campaign is necessary to promote the historic significance of the post-war home.

Jacksonville has many neighborhoods from the post-war era and by preserving these

developments, the city can ensure protection of these historic resources in the selected

neighborhoods and set an example for other neighborhoods that wish to follow the established

model .

The iconic era following World War II in America was first seen on television in shows

such as Leave it to Beaver, and the suburban life was sold to the general public. Dolores Hayden

coined the term, the "sitcom suburbs" to describe these post-war neighborhoods. Preservation of

these neighborhoods, a part of our communities and to a larger extent, American history, is

important because saving these suburbs makes "a more sustainable and more equitable place"

(Hayden, 2003, p. 135).

Universal Applicability

By using GIS to assess neighborhoods for historic preservation potential, planners have a

technical tool to use in the preservation of inner ring suburbs. While historic preservationists are

still arguing about the significance of the post-World War II neighborhoods, planners can be

applying district standards in order to preserve them, avoiding decline or gentrifieation. The use

of GIS in the historic preservation process has been limited because of the reliance on design to

determine applicability of preservation efforts in these post-war neighborhoods. The National

Park Service still requires an architectural survey, but the social and cultural attributes cannot be









determined by design or architectural assessment alone. GIS determines the density of post-war

housing within census blocks in the study area. Thus only the significant and intact

neighborhoods are selected based on the GIS's analytical abilities. Further, GIS provides the

calculations to substantiate the selection of the neighborhood.

The data used to determine eligibility of neighborhoods for historic preservation is

available for any city or county since most of it is based on the U.S. Census. Property appraiser

data is not consistent between local governments; this is especially true of data that can be easily

used in the GIS software such as parcel data and tax records. Some counties do not have an

advanced GIS system in place in conjunction with the Property Appraiser's office or County

Government to maintain and visualize property records.

The socioeconomic indicators could be modified if a community thought one was not

important or an important one was excluded from the study. The socioeconomic indicators could

also be weighted if one indicator was more important to a community than another. The basic

concept of the analysis is the same, but the difference between the indicators allows a community

to analyze the historic housing stock from a socioeconomic and geographic standpoint. For

example, if the presence of a certain minority population group is important to the neighborhood,

like a historically black community, than the race demographics would be an additional indicator

used in the analysis.

Policy Implications

There has been no government-sponsored effort to historically preserve the housing from

the post-World War II boom in Jacksonville; none of the four registered districts contain

contributing structures from this era. The remaining preservation efforts are headed by non-

profit neighborhood organizations. The non-profits have had some success, like the San Marco

Preservation Society that secured a zoning overlay to protect the character of their neighborhood









without first requiring recognition as a historic district by the City of Jacksonville or placement

on the National Register. Non-profit organizations are beneficial for organizing neighborhood

groups and efforts for preservation, such as designation on a local register or the National

Register, but the lack of funding for these groups and the fact they may or may not be supported

by the local government can hinder their efforts.

Jacksonville has an abundance of neighborhoods built from 1945-1960, so initiating efforts

to preserve their character is important for protection. Using GIS distinguishes one

neighborhood from another, with the ability to map characteristics that are not visible to the eye.

This study also used a visual assessment a windshield survey to determine the general

condition of the neighborhood, but the sites were identified by mapping a combination of the

socioeconomic indicators. The combination of the GIS analysis and the windshield survey help

to strengthen and bolster the case for historic preservation of these neighborhoods.

Nationwide not many neighborhoods from this era have been preserved, and the use of

neighborhood conservation districts is a fairly new practice. Historic preservation in the context

of neighborhoods from 1945-1960 has been previously dismissed by historians because it

represents the "recent past." Calling these neighborhoods "histori"mybescal


unacceptable in regards of a term for preservation, but a designation such as a neighborhood

conservation district may be more acceptable in the case of a public relations campaign.

Recommendations for Future Research

The idea of applying GIS to the Hield of historic preservation is fairly new, and many

opportunities exist to expand on this study. If Jacksonville were to apply the results of this study

as part of a broader preservation process to further evaluate and confirm the significance of these

particular neighborhoods by adopting conservation districts to protect them, then a study of the

economic benefits of doing so would augment the results outlined in the Economic Impacts of









Historic Preservation in Florida. Implementing a preservation policy in the selected

neighborhoods affects the adj acent neighborhoods and their preservation efforts since historic

preservation is proven to positively affect the quality of life and preservation activities convey

economic benefits.

Applying the methodologies in this study to another city, using other socioeconomic

indicators or using updated or new data is recommended. GIS allows geographical and statistical

modification so that by changing one factor, the calculation and results differ or can have a

different meaning. Performing this same study on another city, perhaps one that is located in

another region of the country, would probably yield different results. In fact, Lee and Leigh

(2007) found the four cities they examined, which were in different regions, showed different

growth patterns. Jacksonville most closely resembles Atlanta, which Lee and Leigh (2007) call a

fast-growing city, unlike Portland, Philadelphia or Cleveland, which have slower growth patterns

comparatively. Many cities in the South have experienced rapid growth more recently than other

regions, so this study could hold a different value if performed on a city from another region or

one that experienced rapid growth in an earlier period than the South. This study and Lee and

Leigh's study used 2000 Census data, which is almost out of date.

By employing updated data from the next census (2010), the socioeconomic indicators

may be further analyzed and compared. When the U.S. Census Bureau issues 2010 data,

performing the same study could vary this study's outcome or give more concrete evidence to

bolster these selected neighborhoods as candidates for historic preservation. By 2010, the full

range of the study's years for housing 1945-1960 will be at least 50 years old, and all units will

be eligible for the National Register.









The same study could be used to look at different socioeconomic indicators or could

incorporate other factors. The model that Lee and Leigh (2007) adopted uses minority

population, age of population, vacant housing proportion and overcrowding housing proportion

as indicators. Those indicators were not used because they did not contribute to the

neighborhood's ability to support historic preservation efforts; however, that does not preclude

another study from using GIS methods to apply those indicators in addition to those used in this

study. The inclusion of race or ethnicity in another study would acknowledge the cultural

attributes of a neighborhood, incorporating the area' s heritage as additional evaluative material

for the overall preservation process. The history of these neighborhoods was not explored due to

this study's focus on identifying areas for further study. Clearly understanding local history

would also contribute to assessing neighborhood significance.

The indicators were not weighted in this study and were treated equally in the calculation

of the selected neighborhoods. By weighting the indicators in a subsequent study, more or less

emphasis could be placed on a certain indicator. In this study, there were intervals of data

unrepresented in four out of the seven socioeconomic indicators. Weighting could also place

more importance on a certain indicators. Further, additional indicators such as school location

and transportation networks could enhance this type of study.

By implementing a historic preservation policy in one neighborhood, adj acent

neighborhoods are sure to benefit. Measuring the social or economic benefits that historic

preservation has on nearby neighborhoods could also be explored. GIS is also a useful tool in

analyzing adj acent neighborhoods because it identifies the spatial relationships and

socioeconomic spillovers. This study did not measure any of the indicators over time, and a

similar study doing could provide results measuring the long-term stability potential of a










neighborhood. GIS could also be used to identify patterns of gentrification and determine the

loss of historic properties, which is essential because two census block groups, which rated

higher than the selected ones, were not recommended for this study because an insufficient

density of early post-war homes existed. GIS can measure the success of any implemented

preservation techniques such as a neighborhood conservation district or zoning overlay district.

A review of how effectively the San Marco historic zoning overlay has preserved the character

of the structures and the social fabric using GIS after some time has passed since the

implementation would support this study because it would show success or failure of citizen-led

initiatives in historic areas not located on the National Register of Historic Places.

Assessing historic neighborhoods with GIS assists the community in making decisions on

preservation and the best technique to go about maintaining neighborhood character. Generally,

employing GIS for socioeconomic research provides a spatial explanation of the data and the

visual assistance and results can add more perspective and angles of analysis. The use of GIS in

historic preservation studies provides another level of analysis and accommodates the planner' s

input in the process. A planner studies long-term plans and how they impact a community, and

GIS is a useful tool to aid in that analysis. This study positively contributes to the goal of

planners using GIS and the historic preservation process as tools to preserve post-war inner ring

neighborhoods.












APPENDIX
NEIGHBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS

Note: The photographs show one or two examples illustrating category from Table 4-5, please
note that several of the photographs were interchangeable between the categories and illustrate
more than one characteristic.


Figure A-1. Sidewalk in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


I;PI~J~:~Ea~-i~Elif~


Figure A-2. Sidewalk in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.





































Figure A-3. Lack of sidewalk in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.


rEli
'i Icr ..
....n
I ,, r ~.nrl. .-' 'I
a~~
.
a;i 'r I+. n
~i~ ~i 'n ..
I
'~F 1*3" ~


of the very few sidewalks in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.


Figure A-4. One


~f~;~4~

'


I
i










Curb and Gutter


Figure A-5. Typical Curb and Gutter in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


Figure A-6. Lack of Curb and Gutter in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.
















;*Ut.:.~


TIVpSR~ :
*"' .'


~:I~~~.~T;T~1~`-~e~4~a~g~~c~'~i~~ B ,.

-'$

2~
''t


igp~
~L'+.


Figure A-7. Typical Curb and Gutter in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.












































"1


I


Home Uniformity


Figure A-8. Typical home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


















Figure A-9. Typical home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.





















































Figure A-10. Typical home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


'r.
-' ""


Figure A-11. Typical home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


























































L-



r~r.


2ar-5'
i

~ 1\ ~L~ p. r
s


Figure A-12. Typical home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.


Figure A-13. Typical home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.























































Figure A-15. Large Front Windows typical in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


Neighborhood Wide Distinctive Architectural Features


Figure A-14. Ornamental Porch in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.

























Figure A-16. Decorative Exterior in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


Figure A-17. Large Front Windows typical in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


r;
u .r






















9r~-, 115
_=;r~AIIC~_~,*ISYli ~Z~.
~T~mrr~--- -- --- -- ---...,,
--- .----------,~~,
CY)e~lWllwuu*w~l~lr~Yr*~cr~
~~~b~l~F&3~a~

Figure A-18. Ornamental Porch in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.


Figure A-19. Strong horizontal lines in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.









Signs of Gentrification and Major Remodeling of Homes


y
~rl
CL~T.I ,-.--
-"


Figure A-20. Visible Addition in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


.,J































Figure A-21. Visibly newer home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


Figure A-22. Visibly different property entrance in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.





































~a~r~


Figure A-23. Visibly more modern and updated home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.





Maintained Homes


C-C


Figure A-24. Well-kept home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


IC*~ ..































Figure A-25. Well-kept home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


Figure A-26. Well-kept home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.













Maintained Yards


Figure A-27. Well-manicured yard in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


Figure A-28. Typical yard in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.


~7~;C':~F'~Q"
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r.
a ;Ir
kr~






























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Figure A-29. Well-kept yard in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.
















































104









Finished Garages


Figure A-30. Example of a carport in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.


Figure A-31. Example of one car garage in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.





Figure A-32. Example of two car garage in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.









































106


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ill;n


.C










LIST OF REFERENCES


Alanen, A. J. & Melnick, R. Z. (2000). Editors. Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America. (pp.
1-9). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ames, D. L. (1999). Understanding Suburbs as Historic Landscapes through Preservation. In
Harris, R. & Larkham, P. J. (Eds). Changing Suburbs: Foundation Form and Function.
(pp. 222-238). New York: Routledge.

Ames, D. L., & McClelland, L. F. (2002). Historic Residential Suburbs: Guidelines for
Evaluation and Documentation for the National Register of Historic Places. (pp. 7-9, 24-
26, 65-66, 74-76 & 97-107). National Register Bulletin. September 2002. Washington,
DC: National Park Service. Retrieved November 2, 2007 from:
http://www.nps .gov/hi story/nr/publications/bulletins/suburb s/index.htm.

Beaumont, C. E. (1992). A Citizen 's Guide to Protecting Historic Places: Local Preservation
Ordinances. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation.

Board of County Commissioners v. Snyder, 627 So. 2d 469 (Fla. 1993). Retrieved November 2,
2007, from LexisNexis.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

No one can say, "You must not run faster than this, or jump higher than that." The human
spirit is indomitable. (Sir Roger Bannister, The first man to break the four minute mile
in 1954)

Lauren Simmons is an idealistic urban-planner type who grew up in Jacksonville, Florida,

the oldest of four siblings. After high school, she attended the University of Central Florida and

received a Bachelor of Arts in political science. Lauren worked for two years in a central Florida

planning department before returning to school to pursue a master' s degree in urban and regional

planning at the University of Florida and a Certificate in Historic Preservation. During school,

Lauren held a graduate assistantship with the Center for Building Better Communities, under

Gene Boles, and was a collegiate representative of the Florida Chapter of the American Planning

Association for the University of Florida. Her interests in planning include historic preservation,

comprehensive planning, Geographic Information Systems, urban design, and growth

management. Outside of school, Lauren enjoys running, intellectual activities, the beach, and

spending time with family and friends. Her life goals include a successful career in planning,

running a marathon, and owning a historic home.





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1 USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATI ON SYSTEMS AND SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS TO BOLSTER POST-WORLD WAR II NEIGHBORHOODS AS INITIAL CANDIDATES FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA By LAUREN KATHERINE SIMMONS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URB AN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Lauren Katherine Simmons

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3 To my grandparents. Thank you fo r 26 years of unconditional love.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I would like to acknowledge the hard work of my supervisory com mittee during this process. Dr. Kristin Larsen, my chair, spent c ountless hours reviewing drafts and listening to my concerns during thesis group. I have her to thank for encouraging my topic research and always pushing me to improve my writing. I would like to thank my committee members, Stanley Latimer and Roy Graham, for their invaluab le contributions to this research. Stanley was integral in coming up with the methodol ogy for this study and the GIS work. Roy contributed his histor ic preservation expertise, particularly that of ar chitecture from the recent past. I would also like to recognize Richar d Shieldhouse, founding member of the Florida Chapter of DOCOMOMO, and Joel McEachin, Historic Preservation Pla nner for the City of Jacksonville, for sharing their expert ise about the Jacksonville case study. Next, I would like to thank my family and close friends for their patience while completing this thesis and masters degr ee. I especially th ank Dad, Mom, and Sharon. Their words of encouragement and support meant a lot and I could have never gotten through all this without all of them. I thank my sisters, Sarah and Christin e; and my always littl e brother, Michael. I thank you all for the late night hot tub chats, video game marathons, and shopping expeditions. It was nice to have a stress-free place to come ho me to, on the weekends. Finally, I would like to thank my biggest fan, Jeffrey Sturman, for all he has meant to me. I thank my fellow classmates and the thesis support group for answering questions and being there. In particular, I thank Allison Abbott for making some of my sentences more eloquent and late nights at the library more enjoyable. I wo uld like to acknowledge Teresa Russin and Jenny Wheelock for inspiring me to write th is. I knew if they could finish a thesis, I could too. I thank my boss, Ge ne Boles for his flexibility a nd understanding. Finally, I would

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5 like to thank the Department of Urban and Regiona l Planning, including th e students, faculty and staff for two years I will never forget.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................12 About the Jacksonville Case Study......................................................................................... 14 Post-World War II Housing Boom......................................................................................... 16 Why Preserve the Inner Ring?................................................................................................ 16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................20 Government Role in Historic Preservation............................................................................. 20 Federal Government........................................................................................................20 State Government............................................................................................................ 23 Local Government...........................................................................................................24 Historic Preservation in Comprehensive Planning in Florida......................................... 27 The Planners Role .......................................................................................................... 28 Importance of Preservation of Post-World War II Neighborhoods ........................................ 28 Location...........................................................................................................................30 Uniqueness......................................................................................................................31 Power...............................................................................................................................31 Benefits of Historic Preservation............................................................................................32 Economic.........................................................................................................................32 Quality of Life.................................................................................................................33 Why Preserve the Post-War Automobile Suburbs?................................................................ 34 Levittown: The Beginnings of the Automobile Suburb......................................................... 36 Saving the Suburbs............................................................................................................. ....38 3 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 43 Geographic Information Systems........................................................................................... 43 Explanation of the Model....................................................................................................... 44 Identifying the Indicators........................................................................................................46 Explanation of the Data........................................................................................................ ..47 Field Work..................................................................................................................... .........50

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7 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS............................................................................................... 53 The Study Area.......................................................................................................................53 The Socioeconomic Indicators............................................................................................... 54 Neighborhood Selection Analysis..........................................................................................55 About the Selected Neighborhoods........................................................................................56 Lake Lucina.....................................................................................................................56 Glynlea Park....................................................................................................................56 San Jose Forest................................................................................................................57 Assessments of All Neighborhoods................................................................................. 57 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...58 5 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... ..82 Universal Applicability........................................................................................................ ...83 Policy Implications.................................................................................................................84 Recommendations for Future Research..................................................................................85 APPENDIX NEIGBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS............................................................................................89 Curb and Gutter......................................................................................................................91 Home Uniformity................................................................................................................ ....93 Neighborhood Wide Distinctiv e Architectural Features........................................................ 96 Signs of Gentrification and Major Remodeling of Hom es..................................................... 99 Maintained Homes............................................................................................................... .101 Finished Garages..................................................................................................................105 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................107 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................111

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Comparision of Different Types of Districts..................................................................... 41 3-1 List of Indicators Used and the Ideal Rating System......................................................... 51 4-1 List of Census Tracts used for Study. ................................................................................62 4-2 Jacksonville Planning Districts in Initial Study Area........................................................ 64 4-3 Results of Raster Calculator............................................................................................... 64 4-4 Results of Raster Calculat or for Selected Neighborhoods.................................................64 4-5 Visual Characteristics of Neighborho ods. See Appendix A for photographs................. 65

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1.1 Historic Districts in Jacksonville, Florida..........................................................................19 3-1 GIS Flowchart.............................................................................................................. ......52 4-1 Development Patter ns in Duval County............................................................................ 66 4-2 Density of Census Tracts with Post-World War II housing. ............................................. 67 4-3 Planning Districts in Jacksonville...................................................................................... 68 4-4 Bachelors Degrees for Adults Age 25 and up................................................................. 69 4-5 Median Value of Homes....................................................................................................70 4-6 Owner-Occupied Housing................................................................................................. 71 4-7 Per Capita Income of Families........................................................................................... 72 4-8 Amount of Families Below Poverty Level........................................................................ 73 4-9 Public Assistance Received...............................................................................................74 4-10 Unemployment Rates....................................................................................................... ..75 4-11 Results of Raster Calcul ation by Census Block Group.....................................................76 4-12 Lake Lucina Neighborhood...............................................................................................77 4-13 Glynlea Park Neighborhood..............................................................................................78 4-14 San Jose Forest Neighborhood...........................................................................................79 4-15 Lake Lucina Typical Home...............................................................................................80 4-16 Glynlea Park Typical Home...............................................................................................80 4-17 San Jose Forest Typical Home........................................................................................... 81

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATI ON SYSTEMS AND SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS TO IDENTIFY POST-WORLD WAR II NEIGHBORHOODS AS INITIAL CANDIDATES FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA By Lauren Katherine Simmons May, 2008 Chair: Kristin Larsen Major: Urban and Regional Planning The neighborhoods built during 1945-1960, typically in suburba n locations, consisted of modest modern homes and reflected the middle classs ability to afford the American Dream. These early post-World War II suburbs are now b ecoming part of the inne r-ring of metropolitan areas. Preserving these neighborhoo ds prevents decline and furt her urban sprawl and supports revitalization and improvements. The post-war neighborhoods are already socially established, have infrastructure such as roads and schools and ar e closer to city centers than the more recently built suburbs and neighborhoods. In accordance with the National Register of Historic Places (National Register) requirements homes in these early post-war neighborhoods are now at least 50 years old and eligible for listing. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and socioeconomic indicators such as poverty rate, percentage of college graduates, per capita income and tenure and median home values to locate the likely candidates among these modern suburbs for further historic preservation analysis in Jacksonville, Florida. This methodology is based on the assertion that the neighborhoods with the most potential to be preserved will have more desirable ranges of socio economic indicators. This study id entifies three neighborhoods as potential candidates for historic preservation: Lake Lucina, Glynlea Park and San Jose Forest.

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11 All three neighborhoods had low amounts of families below the poverty level, low amounts of public assistance received and unemployment ra tes. Each neighborhood ranked in the middle range of family per capita income as compared to the metropolitan area. Bachelors degrees for adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied housi ng all received mixed ratings through the neighborhood analysis. The combination of the desirable mix of socioeconomic indicators creates a receptive envir onment for historic preservation to take place, supported by residents who have the means to main tain their homes. Using GIS as part of the preservation process to identify neighborhoods that deserve additional anal ysis and consideration for protection, this study then recommends th e use of neighborhood conservation districts to preserve these suburbs. A nei ghborhood conservation district offe rs greater flexibility because this planning designation includes fewer restrictions than those a ssociated with traditional local historic districts. This greater flexibility be tter accommodates these earl y post-war homes, which contained unfinished rooms and were designed to allow additions. The use of GIS in historic preservation studies provides anot her level of analysis and adds the input of the planner in the process. A planner studies long -term plans and how they impact a community. GIS is a spatial tool that can measure the social and economic attributes of a neighborhood, mapping patterns, impacts and trends in geographic areas. Due to the large number of post-war suburbs, GIS can assist in narrowing down potential candidates for neighborhood conservation districts and can create a method for evaluating areas based on thei r social and economic a ttributes in support of their inherent physical characteristics and historic al significance.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cities gener ally have policies that address downtown redevelopment and policies that address new development in the outer rings of the metropolitan area, but that do not address existing development in between. The once vibr ant neighborhoods (are now ) located within the inner ring suburbs of metropolitan areas and are declining because they have long been subjected to a policy blind spot" (Puentes and Orfield, as quoted in Lee and Leigh, 2007 p. 160). The current problems of social and phys ical inequity associated with the inner city wi ll permeate into the inner ring suburbs as a result of this policy blind spot. The post-war suburbs within the inner ring now have older housing, aging infrastructure and face the problems of traffic congestion and diminishing quality of life (Puentes and Orfi eld, as cited in Lee and Leigh, 2007 p. 160). Several tools target the rev italization of declining nei ghborhoods and areas including, redevelopment programs, federa l tax credits, tax increment financing, design guidelines and other initiatives spearheaded by community redeve lopment agencies. Historic preservation has been used as a community stabi lizer by planners, but it takes de dicated resident s to support the enactment and enforcement of neighborhood gui delines and ordinances. The neighborhoods built during the post-World War II housing boom are now within the range for historic preservation efforts as defined by the National Registers strong s uggestion that the structure be at least 50 years old. This study hypothesizes that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and socioeconomic indicators will locate the best post-World War II neighborhoods as initial candidates for more intensive survey and inventor y and, if indicated, historic preservation. By using this methodology to locate these neighborh oods, historic preservation planning tools can be implemented to prevent decline. To be su ccessful, the new participatory approaches to neighborhood revitalization must be based on information about the social and economic

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13 conditions of these small areas and their i nhabitants (Sawicki and Flynn 1996, p. 166). GIS maps neighborhood-level social and economic data and provides visual anal ysis tools to policy makers that are not otherwise available. Nei ghborhoods that have the mo st potential to be preserved will have more desirable ranges of soci oeconomic indicators because they are stable with residents that have the means to maintain their homes. GIS offers a means to assess whole neighbor hoods while also providing spatial analysis down to the individual parcel le vel. Property appraisers use GI S mapping for data collection, to assess property owners and to track relevant tax-re lated data. Historic pr eservation, particularly of districts, can benefit from the use of GIS. The ability to map socioeconomic data, thus presenting social, cultural and even historic inform ation spatially, can reveal critical relationships that define the district and sugge st means to better safeguard the area. Socioeconomic statistics are predominantly tracked and collected by the United States Census. In this study, socioeconomic data is used to identify the mo st socially and economically stable neighborhoods. Historic preservation is more likely to be supported, sustained and promoted by a neighborhood that is more socially and economically stable, no matter what the home values. The post-World War II neighborhoods were uni quely designed, were mass produced, had simple architecture and depended on the autom obile for transportation. These neighborhoods were so successful and popular th at they have been expanded furt her out of the metropolitan area creating the outer ring suburbs. The inner rings of many cities, particularly cities established in the 20th century, are now composed of neighborhoods built during the post-W orld War II era. Few policies and programs address the decline of these neighborhoods, therefore the residents who can are moving to the outer ri ng suburbs. Several terms have b een used to refer to the inner ring suburbs including: older suburbs, first subur bs, first-tier suburbs post-war suburbs and post-

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14 World War II suburbs (Lee and Leigh, 2007). City o fficials have adopted di fferent terminologies when referring to these first subur bs in order to fit into thei r individual development models, though many of the issues of decline within the inner rings areas are universal. About the Jacksonville Case Study This study uses Duval County, Florida as th e metropolitan area in wh ich to test this hypothesis. Jacksonvilles large naval stations spurred a signi ficant am ount of development during the period of 1945-1960, particularly for ne w housing. Growth in the insurance industry also brought companies and professi onals into the area seeking home s. The City of Jacksonville, which consolidated its government with Duva l County in 1967, now has a population of almost 800,000. The City of Jacksonville curre ntly has four historic dist ricts listed on the National Register, a local register and ma ny historic landmarks scattered th roughout its 885 square miles. The historic districts are Riverside (establish ed in 1985), Avondale (e stablished in 1989), Springfield (established in 1987) and Old Ortega (establishe d in 2004), all of which are predominantly residential. The Riverside district has a set of design guide lines that must be met if an owner is proposing changes that require a ce rtificate of appropriatene ss. Its strong public participation distinguishes this district as its boar d has been in place for ne arly thirty years, being established prior to the district s listing on the National Register. The Avondale area, adjacent to the Riverside district, uses the same design guide lines. The Springfield historic district, near downtown Jacksonville, boasts large renovated homes that are the product of buyer assistance programs funded by the City. Springfield has its own set of design guidelines and review board for certificates of appropriateness. Though recogn ized by the National Regi ster, Old Ortega is not locally designated, so the City of Jacksonvill e does not have any policies or design guidelines

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15 that address the district or a designated boa rd. However a non-profit association actively represents the area. Non-profit groups are engaged in historic preservation throug hout Jacksonville, some are neighborhood based and others represent th e distinctive areas within the City.1 One of the more notable private historic preser vation efforts is in the San Marco neighborhood; the San Marco Preservation Society, awards plaques to historically restored and maintained homes. The San Marco Preservation Society represents the area a nd was integral in the formulation and passage of the San Marco Historic Overlay Zoning District. Jacksonville now has the potential for more hi storic districts because a large portion of the city was built during the early post-Worl d War II boom. Several non profit neighborhood organizations in the Jacksonville metropolit an area, like Old Arlington Inc., Murray Hill Preservation Association and the Ortega Preser vation Society, sponsor historic preservation efforts targeting neighborhoods w ith housing built during the post-Wo rld War II era. In general the Duval County/Jacksonville government has weak central cont rol of historic preservation initiatives; however, because of active resident participation in thes e neighborhood associations and non profits, community support is strong. Duval Countys Historic Preservation Elemen t of their Comprehensive Plan does not mention the recent past, in fact it specifically mentions only housing built before 1940 to be identified in a proposed survey program. Thi s comprehensive survey program (Objective 1.2) will be completed in increments, concentrating on those areas of high site probability as 1 Duval County and Jacksonvilles consolidated government does not politically recognize the suburban areas that surround the downtown like Arlington, Westside and Ma ndarin; however, there is recognition of these areas geographically by the general community and by businesses. Some of the different suburban areas were in existence before the governments consolidated in 1967. These ar eas function like a suburb would in a large metropolitan area, but are under the auspices of the consolidated government.

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16 identified by the U.S. Census Bureau for pre -1940 housing units (Historic Preservation Element, 2000, p. 8). Post-World War II Housing Boom After Wo rld War II, returning veterans faced a severe housin g shortage. The automobile, new highway construction, generous loan guide lines and inexpensive construction methods fueled the post-war suburban boom. The smaller and simpler homes were constructed on large enough lots to enable expansion if the family outgrew the original house. A critical shortage of low-cost housing for returning veterans, long term mortgages, an increase in automobile ownership, highway construction and an influx of growing families supported development of the modern suburb (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 7). Why Preserve the Inner Ring? The inner ring suburbs are in danger of beco ming an extension of the inner-city. Instead of focusing on new developm ent, cities could be developing policies to preserve what already exists, thus supporting smart-grow th and sustainability initiativ es. Cities should be promoting the preservation of existing neighborhoods to stop their decline, improve residents quality of life, and help the environment by supporting sustainable development. Sustainability and environmental concerns related to global warming are general reasons for preservation of historic neighborhoods. Recen tly, the green lifestyle has come into vogue with a focus on safeguarding resources. When tr anslating this idea to hou sing, the concept is to not build a larger home than needed because it takes more energy to heat and cool a larger home. Despite the shrinking household sizes in the United States, the average size of a single family houses more than doubled from 983 square feet in 1950 to 2,349 square feet in 2004 (National Home Builders Association as quoted in Lee an d Leigh, 2007, p. 149). Larger homes require more resources in construction and occupy more precious land, infringing upon open space and

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17 natural resources. The i nner ring consists of sma ller homes that are already built in a suburban setting. Planners could suppor t the green movement by id entifying and encouraging the preservation the post-World War II neighborhoods (Hayden, 2003). The inner ring suburbs have several positive attr ibutes that make them a desirable historic preservation project for a commun ity. These suburbs have existing infrastructure such as schools and roads already within their boundaries and co mmitted public services like fire and police already within and servicing the neighborhood. When new neighborhoods are built, these services must be extended to meet the dema nds of new residents and pay for them through developer fees or impact fees which are added to the price of the land and homes. Duval County does not have a residential impact fee which le ssens the cost of building new developments. Remodeling or repairing an existing home is less expensive than building a new home and it uses less land and material resources. Due to their location, living in the inner ring suburbs may mean shorter commuting times as opposed to newer suburbs on the fringe. The inner ring suburbs that contain housing from the post-war era are a worthy cause for historic preservationists and planners because without polic ies and protections they are vulnerable to decline or to demolition and redevel opment as a result of gentrification. This study applies socioeconomic indicators and GIS to identify the best post-war neighborhoods as candidates for historic preservation in Jacksonville, Florida. Due to the extent of eligible postwar suburbs and the communitys fledging commitmen t to historic preserva tion, particularly of the modern era, Jacksonville represents a particularly appropriate case study. The next chapter, the literature review, ex amines the governments role in historic preservation, from the federal to the local leve ls and planning-related preservation policies and techniques. The second part of the literature review analyzes the importance and benefits of

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18 neighborhood preservation and outlines the history and development patterns associated with the post-war suburban housing boom including Levittown, the first best-known modern suburb from this era. Finally, the literature review explores the National Park Services guidelines on historic preservation of suburban neighborhoods. Chapter Three, the studys methodology, discusse s the selection of the studys area, the use of GIS for analyzing the socioeconomic indicat ors and the post-selection visual survey of the selected neighborhoods. The basis of the model for the study and the selected socioeconomic indicators are explained in deta il as is the data used in the study, including Duval County Property Appraiser data, U.S. Census data and the Florida Department of Revenues tax roll data. Chapter Four identifies the neighborhoods sele cted using the socioeconomic indicator analysis. Next these neighborhoods are examined though a visual survey. The analysis section of that chapter makes recommendations for hist oric preservation policy initiatives based on the socioeconomic indicators and visual surv eys of the selected neighborhoods. The conclusion of this study, Chapter Five, discusses the universal applicability of the studys methodology, findings and anal ysis and the policy implicati ons of historic preservation efforts in the study area. The chapter also make s recommendations for future research on GISrelated techniques for studies of historic preservation candidacy and potential opportunities to expand and apply this studys methods and findings.

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19 Figure 1.1 Historic Districts in Jacksonville, Florida Source: Google Earth, San Marco Zoning Overla y Ordinance and the National Register of Historic Places (2008).

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20 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Historic preservation of neighborhoods has it s roots in Charleston, South Carolina where the first historic district zoning ordinance was passed in 1931. The goal of the Charleston ordinance was to preserve the area as a whole, and fo r the first time, historic preservationists focused on the larger context of a place, a tout ensemble. A tout ensemble is the idea that the character of an area is defined by the sum of its parts, rather than the individual buildings or homes (Cofresi and Radtke, 2003). The literature is organized into several sections that address the regulations, policies, guidelines, architecture, benefits and history of the hist oric neighborhood, particularly those found in the post-war suburbs. Fi rst, historic neighbor hoods are discussed in regard to their governing regulations, including an analysis of historic preserva tion laws and policies. The federal, state and local governments roles in historic preservation, including comprehensive planning, neighborhood conservation di stricts and overlay zoning tech niques are explored. The economic benefits and increased quality of life that historic di strict designation provides is discussed. Next, the history of the post-war suburb, including cultural landscapes, Levittown, and the distinctive residential archit ecture associated with this era is examined. The final part of this chapter looks at the current studies related to using soci oeconomic indicators and GIS for analysis and discusses the curren t National Park Service Guidelin es for conducting a local survey and nominating a suburb to the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). Government Role in Historic Preservation Federal Government The federal governments recognition of histor ic preservation began in 1906 with the Antiquities Act, which gave the Pr esident the powe r to protect prehistoric sites by declaring them

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21 national monuments. In 1916, the National Park Service was established. The U.S. federal governments current involvement in historic pres ervation is a result of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as amended. The Act calle d for the National Regist er to be created and included districts as eligible for designation. The criteria to preserve a di strict are the same as individual properties, landmark s and buildings. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) guidelines are the eligible distri ct must be over 50 years old a nd must reflect significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engi neering and culture a nd possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association (36 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 60.4).2 An additional criteria specifically applies to neighborhoods that embody the distinctive characteri stics of a type, period, or method of construction or that represent a significant and distinguishable en tity whose components may lack individual distinction (36 CFR 60.4). Thus, historic neighborhoods may be composed of several homes that are built in similar styles a nd that together ar e significant. Collaboration between historic pr eservationists, architects, pl anners and policy-makers is essential to the preservation process. The preservation process, as iden tified by Stipe (2003) has five steps; Setting standards or criteria that define what is worth preserving, Undertaking a survey to locate and describe resources to be saved, Evaluating the resources discovered against the standards established in step one, Giving those that qualify offici al status in some way, and Following up with protection measures. (p. 29) This sequence of the steps remains the same whethe r the process is for one building or an entire neighborhood (Stipe, 2003 p. 29). The standards for preservation of post-war neighborhoods are 1 In recent years, the National Regist er has been much less rigorous rega rding the 50-year rule. As one deputy SHPO [State Historic Preservation Officer ] stated the fifty-year threshold is less important than justifying listings in terms of meaning and period of significance (Lyon and Brook, 2003, p. 88 & 90).

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22 defined by the National Park Servi ce and should be present in a loca l historic preservation plan. Architects are specifically involved in steps two and three which docum ent and evaluate the neighborhoods historical and archit ectural significance. Policy-m akers, or elected officials, have the ability to give official status, which approves the evalua tion of the neighborhoods significance. Historic Preserva tionists and Planners are involve d throughout the process because they are advocates for the community when it come s to historic preservation and land use issues, therefore they should be the ones to study and consider the applic ation of historic preservation policies to neighborhoods. Older neighborhoods often need financial assistan ce so that revitalization projects, such as large-scale improvements to infrastructure and la ndscaping or public facilities can be conducted. Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), supports these kinds of large projects. Fo r instance, CDBG can assist entire neighborhoods with loan amount s of up to $7,000,000 in non-entitlement areas and up to $35,000,000 in an entitlement area (24 CFR 570.705). To be designated an entitlement area, a city or urban county must have 50,000 residents or more. The federal government designates a certain amount of CDBG funds to the states to distri bute to local governments with the general requirement that 70% of the funds must target moderate to low income households in non-entitlement areas (having less than 50,000 residents) and must target development activities that benefit the public such as infrastruc ture improvement or public services. Federal Historic Rehabilitati on Tax Credits are available fo r income-producing structures that contribute to National Register Historic Distri cts. Buildings with in National Register Historic Districts, must contri bute to the historic significance of a district; thei r location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and associ ation must add to the district's sense of time

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23 and place and historical developm ent (36 CFR 67.5). Buildings not on the National Register or in a registered historic districts, but built befo re 1936 can receive a 10% rehabilitation tax credit, and buildings on the National Register or in registered historic dist ricts that are rehabilitated to the Secretary of the Interior s Standards can receive a 20% rehabilitation tax credit. Unfortunately these tax credits are not yet availa ble for properties exclus ively used as private residences. Federally availabl e tax credits can be used for homes renovated into professional offices, neighborhood retail, or bed and breakfasts. Since many historic neighborhoods are located proximate to the historic central business district, commercial redevelopment of certain homes, especially those on perime ter and well-traveled roads can benefit from this program. In Pennsylvania Central Transportation Company versus New York City, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that historic preser vation is a valid public purpose. The case upheld the New York City Landmark law that desi gnated properties as historic and legitimized local government as a preservation regulatory agency ( Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. New York City 438 U.S. 104 ( U.S. 1978)). Penn Central concluded that as long a property owner still has a reasonable use of the property, denying permits to alter the buildings did not constitute a taking. State Government The states provide input on a number of fede ral historic preservation initiatives and adm inister their own historic preservation programs and fund ing through the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO). In all states, in or der to be approved for the National Register, the SHPO must certify the property or district first as historic. The states historic preservation laws and policies complement or reiterate the federa l ones in order to streamline processes and simplify the rules. The state oversight of hist oric preservation on the loca l level benefits neighborhoods, particularly in those cities a nd counties without historic preservation programs, because the state

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24 becomes an additional resource for communities to utilize. The state provides additional sources of funding through rehabilitation grants that can benefit neig hbhorhoods. The Florida Master Site File that inventories all historic propert ies located within the state, including historic districts, is maintained by the state. The stat es oversight of historic preservation funding and programs is essential to the local government s ablility to promote historic preservation practices. Local Government In Florida, local governments can use the Certif ied Local Government (CLG) program, which gives them more autonomy when admini stering a historic pr eservation program or ordinances. Certification allows local government to have more enforcement authority and more autonomy in making decisions on historic resources. A CLG adopts a historic preservation ordinance, which establishes a local historic preservation bo ard to develop and oversee the functions of a local historic preservation program. In Florida, the CLG designates a government eligible to apply for special grants to enable the historic preservation proce ss, to fund surveys of historic properties, to nominate properties or districts to the National Register, to create educational material, and to draft local historic preservation plans. A local histor ic preservation ordinance must promote a valid public purpose, cannot deprive an owne r of all reasonable economic use of his property, must provide for a fair hearing process and comply with relevant state law (Beaumont, 1992). An ordinance will explain how the nomination process works in that community and the criteria that needs to be met. A local register is kept in many cities and counties to keep track of locally significant historic properties and districts that may not meet National Register standards. Local registers are preferred in situations where the local gover nment is not a Certified Local Government or may be kept in conjunction with the National Regi ster site listings. Local registers contain

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25 historic records, surveys and site files to aid in managing locally preserved property. These registers are particularly usef ul tool for neighborhood preservati on because the local government can decide if the area is architecturally, culturall y or historically signifi cant and can make all the rules to govern these sites incl uding providing grants and technical assistance. The preservation process which identifies buildings, sites and dist ricts for designation can u tilize and update these local resources. In accordance with the local ordinance, typically a historic preservation board makes decisions about permits for and changes to historic buildings and districts and grants certificates of appropriateness for any renovations or remodels. Members on those boards can include historians, architects, planners engineers and other professi onals that have a stake in preservation. Residents of hist oric neighborhoods may also be a ppointed to the boards and thus can influence preservation efforts in the community. Historic districts and neighborhood conservation districts are tw o techniques that can be used to preserve neighborhoods. A comparison of the districts can be found in table 2-1. Historic districts are generally composed of different land and buildi ng uses and can include historic neighborhoods. Historic districts vary in size and in tensity; therefore, the local government has opportunities to promote and support the districts in the ma nner compatible with the districts character. For example, cities ma y promote their historic districts to tourists for shopping, cultural events and tours. Positive prom otion of the district can bring more local prominence to the neighborhood and makes it a mo re desirable location for the preservation process, to take place. Hist oric districts are often governed by local historic preservation ordinances and the districts on th e National Register have to comp ly with the Secretary of the Interiors standards.

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26 Neighborhood conservation districts differ from historic district s in that they have fewer regulations (Cofresi and Radtke 2003). Neighborhood conservation districts are tailored to the needs of the particular neighborhood a nd are generally less strict than those in historic districts. Often areas considered for neighborhood conservati on districts may not be 50 years old or in a period identified by the Secretary of the Interio rs Standards, but need some protections until they are eligible. Neighborhood residents may not wa nt their homes to become part of a historic district but may want to safeguard the distinctive characteri stics and features that make their community desirable. Neighborhood conservation districts could be a more desirable choice for a neighborhood from the post-World War era because the homes were intentionally built to be modified. Overlay zoning districts are a si gnificant planning tool used in historic preservation. Both conservation districts and historic preservation district guidelines and regulations are established using this tool. Conservation districts do not fr eeze neighborhoods in time; they are enacted to protect a neighborhoods distinctive qualities. In a study to implement this type of district in Massachusetts, the authors candidly state: While many of these areas (neighborhoods) w ould meet the criteria established by the National Park Service and State Historic Preservation Office for designation, many preservation commissions, let alone the general public, would not view them in this light. Post World War II housing developments are the most obvious example of this bias perhaps because many in the Baby Boom generation grew up in them! Yet such neighborhoods have the potential for becoming valued historic districts if their key attributes can be maintained and intrusions that would destroy their integrity can be avoided. (Larson Fisher Associates, 2005, p.3) A relatively new tool in ne ighborhood preservation, neighborhood conservation districts are a particularly relevant designation for neighborhoods built in the post WWII suburban boom. In an historic preservation overlay district, the zoning is maintained but additional regulations are required that keep the historic character of an area. Overlays are ideal in areas

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27 were there are variously zoned parcels and in mixed or multi-use areas. An overlay ordinance can include design standards, setback requirement s, additional developmen t standards, a review board and historic preservation pr otections. A historic preservation overlay district is presently being used in this studys subject city, Jacksonville, Florida in the San Marco neighborhood. Historic Preservation in Compreh ensive Planning in Florida The Growth Manageme nt Act of 1985 in Flor ida required local governments to have a comprehensive plan in place with mandatory elements such as future land use, housing and intergovernmental coordination. An optional element for communities with populations under 50,000, the historic preservation element sets out plans and programs for structures or lands having historical, archaeological, architectural, scenic, or similar significance (Fl. Statutes, 163.3177(7)(i)). Inclusion of the historic preservation element further validates program implementation. In 1991, the Snyder v. Brevard Board of County Commissioners case challenged the strength of Floridas Comprehensive Plan Act. In the case, the Board of County Commissioners denied the rezoning of a parcel without giving a reason. The court found that rezoning consistent with the Comprehensive Plan; a more restric tive zoning classification was not necessary to protect the health, safety, morals and welfare and that denial without reasons supported by facts was arbitrary and unreasonable ( Board of County Commissioners v. Snyder, 627 So. 2d 469 (Fla. 1993 ) ). The case concluded that if a rezoning complies with the comprehensive plan then the commission must support it, unless the commission made findings to justify denying the rezoning. Comprehensive plan amendments are quasi-judicial legislativ e decisions, not policyimplementing-judicial decisions. In light of the Snyder ruling, historic preservation efforts can be further reinforced by the addition of a historic preservation el ement to the comprehensive plan since any decisions by the commissioners or c ouncils must abide by the approved plan.

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28 The Planners Role Planners pl ay an integral role in histor ic preservation because of their expertise in community and land development. Historic preservation efforts in districts or neighborhoods must have community support by re sidents and policy-makers. Planners become involved in the historic preservation of neighborhoods and district s because of a need for uniform policies and design standards that are agreeable to residents and politicians. Physical design and environmental sustainability can also require the policy expertise of planners because of their broad base of knowledge regarding the built and urban environment. The development of design standards se rves two purposes for neighborhoods. The planner sees design standards as a way to pr ovide uniformity throughout the neighborhood and to further the sense of place and identity. Design standards prov ide rules for a neighborhood to follow and can be legislated through a historic preservation ordinance. Historic development patterns have influenced several current pla nning techniques, tools and neighborhood designs that are used in new developments and redevelopment efforts. New Urbanism, Traditional Neighborhood Design, Trans it Oriented Design, Mixed-Use development, and the general concepts of wa lkability within neighborhoods have all been inspired by now historic neighborhoods (Rypkema, 2002). Importance of Preservation of Post-World War II Neighborhoods Why do we want to save these relics of suburbia, the beginning of sprawl and the early post-war automobile-based neighborhoods, these mode st ranch-style houses? If revitalized and maintained through historic preservation planning tools, these neighborhoo ds provide a home in an established neighborhood that may be more affordable than a similar home located on the fringe. The process of historic preservation could potentially stabilize or revitalize those

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29 neighborhoods if the neighborhood is experiencing d ecline or maintain and the existing character to protect against gentrification. Along with the preservation of cultural hi story, a revitalized, vibrant and healthy neighborhood is the ulimate goal of historic preservation efforts. If a neighborhood is healthy, people will invest time, energy, and money to maintain and impr ove the area (Schubert, 2000). In order to revitalize neighborhoods, a fr amework for intervention includes: The condition of a neighborhood is the sum of past and current choices. The work of neighborhood revitalization is to influence future choices. Neighborhoods compete with other neighborhoods in a region for public resources, private investment and households The health of a neighborhood is determine d, in part, by the degree of confidence neighbors and others have in the future of the neighborhood. The process of change what people mean when they talk about the neighborhood getting better or worse is set, in part by how residents read who is moving in and who is moving out. Social disinvestment in a neighborhood precedes financial disinvestment. (Schubert, 2000 pp. 37-38) Historic preservation and neighborhood revita lization are not mutua lly exclusive ideas though preservation techniques ar e not the only way to rev italize neighborhoods. Since the neighborhoods from the early post World War II era are now over 50 years old, historic preservation should be considered as a revi talization method. Historic neighborhoods provide homes for families from every financial strata, but particularly for those in need of affordable housing (Rypkema, 2002). Historic neighborhoods evoke a sense of nostalgia that is hard to recreate, a sense of place, a psychological attachment to our past. They cannot be recreated, only preserved. The design, architecture, meaning and layout of older neighborhoods are unique to the era in which the neighborhood was created. The location, uniqueness, support, power and heritage that the post

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30 World War II developments possess is worth preserving because these neighborhoods are an integral part of our cities. Location: other community residents may al so work near or within the historic neighborhood or commute to nearby areas b ecause historic neighborhoods tend to be located in inner ring areas of cities; Uniqueness:the neighborhoods unique char acteristics distinguish it from other neighborhoods in the community; Power: neighborhoods house many residents as o pposed to a single historic site that may only house a few people, thus lending these places more political power; Location Historic neighborhoods tend to be located in urbanized areas, near or in the inner-ring areas of cities. Their locations have become woven into the fabric of the city proxim ate to other neighborhoods, businesses, churches and commun ity establishments. These neighborhoods are desirably located near jobs, schools and places people go on a daily basis and can be reached by alternate forms of transportation such as mass-tran sit, bicycle or on foot since they are close to those destinations. The inner ring neighborhoods are located in an environment w ith established roads, schools and public services and are a central location for commuting rather than the newly built developments in the outer rings. Historic ne ighborhoods are more likely to be closer to have places of employment within five miles, to have an elementary school within one mile, to have shopping within one mile, to have public trans it available as opposed to newer developments (Rypkema, 2002). Having community amenities and places of work close by is something that newer developments lack or must create with new construction. Housing in older neighborhoods is also more likely to be affordable th an in newer developments (Rypkema, 2002).

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31 Uniqueness Many historic preservation programs target preservation of a communitys aesthetic features, especially valued architectural details that distinguish the development. An example could be small the hexagonal sidewalk tiles in on e St. Petersburg neighbor hood or as large as an entire landscape like the tree canopies of Coconut Grove Preserving these neighborhood features creates a sense of identity. A sense of place characterizes these areas settin g them apart from other residential areas.. Experiencing distinctive visual patterns in arch itecture (roof lines, porche s), hardscape (benches, signs) and softscape (trees, shrubbery) lets us kn ow we are in a certain place (Carmona, et, al, 2003). The historic neighborhood reflects a certain era and often contains ar chtectural styles or other features that cannot be found other neighbo rhoods because they have their own uniqueness. Like single sites, neighborhoods re flect a significant and distinct social or visual sense to the community. Power The roles of non profit orga nizations and grassroots e fforts are key in historic preservation intitatives (Cofre si and Radtke, 2003). Furthe r, because neighbhorhoods contain more people than a single site, they have mo re political power. Older neighborhoods tend to have more long-time residents, and the neighbor s are more likely to know each other, both factors in securing political power. Neighborhoods are a space of dependence, meaning they are localized social relations upon which we depend on for the rea lization of essential intereststhey define place-specifiic conditi ons (Cox, as quoted in Martin, 2004 p. 592-593). Political power within spaces of dependence is easily identifiable because the struggle to gain political power within a space can define the conflict or effort (Martin, 2004). Neighborhood

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32 residents desire to control thei r own land use and activities; ther efore, historic preservation can become an important tool if it can be cham pioned by those who have political power. Their location, uniqueness and power distingu ish historic neighborhoods. The federal government provides the framework in which hist oric preservation can ta ke place; the state government supports the federal role, and local governments provide implementation tools for neighborhood preservation. The Supreme Counts decision in Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. New York City, 438 U.S. 104 ( U.S. 1978 ) validated historic preservati on as a public purpose. Floridas Growth Management requirem ents provide local governments with a way to plan for historic preservation. Local governments can use tr aditional historic districts, design standards and alternative preservation programs like neighborhood design review or neighborhood conservation districts to protec t these areas. However, undertak ing neighborhood preservation at the local level to maintain the sense of place is an essential goal of the preservationists and local government planners alike. Hist oric neighborhoods often contain the qualities that developers are trying to create in new subdivisions with diverse yet compatible design throughout, community amenities, social activities and other vi sual aspects that distinguish the place. Benefits of Historic Preservation Two recent studies focus on histor ic preservation in Florida, evaluating its impact on the state. Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida examines how historic preservation affects the states economy, focusing on jobs, income, wealth and taxes. Contributions of Historic Preservation to the Quality of Life in Florida addresses the public goods, the normative and qualitative aspects and specific cultural valu es that comprise hi storic preservation. Economic Efforts to revitalize histor ic neighborhoods benefit the local economy. A 2002 study by the University of Florida and Rutgers University found historic preservation in Florida had an

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33 annual economic impact of $1.6 billion dollars (List okin, et al). Jobs, income, tax revenue and an overall increase in Gross Domestic Product (state and federal) can be a ttributed to historic rehabilitation efforts (Listokin, et al, 2002). Heritage tour ism, historical museums and downtown main street revitalizations have also positively benefited the local, state and federal economy because of the investments in loca l history (Listokin, et al, 2002). Property values can increase when historic pr eservation efforts are take place in historic districts. Increasing property values generally mean more stat e and local government revenues. The researchers also used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to compare appraisals on properties within historic distri cts to ones in a similar neighborhood in the same city, finding that assessed values increased at a higher rate in hi storic districts (Listoki n, et al, 2002). Spatial analysis using GIS allows a means to compare current conditions in histor ic districts such as property values. Quality of Life Historic preservation ha s proven to contribute positively to the residents quality of life. In a 2006 study conducted at the University of Florid a, indicators were analyzed for their ability to measure the quality of life that historic pres ervation contributes to communities. Describing the amount, type and condition of historic resour ces gauges historic preservations contribution to the communitys quality of lif e (Phillips, 2006). The cultural a nd aesthetic values of historic preservation are becoming more important in co nsidering historic designation (Larsen, 2006a). Two of the methods in the study th at are utilized to identify ca ndidate neighborhoods for historic preservation are locating economi cally distressed neighborhoods by measuring median income in the neighborhood to determine if it is lower than median co mmunity income and analyzing property value trends with local appraisa l data. Identifying the amount of neighborhood

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34 involvement and measuring housing costs versus income levels can also determine potential areas for historic preservation. Both studies highlight the economic and soci al benefits of hist oric preservation in Florida, but neither study addr esses how to locate potential si tes or areas as candidates for historic preservation. Histor ic preservationists face an emerging problem in the field; neighborhoods from the post-World War II boom are becoming eligible for the National Register. Minimal research from the planning perspective has focused on how to determine whether a suburban neighborhood from this era is a candidate for historic preservation. Why Preserve the Post-War Automobile Suburbs? The typical automobile suburban development has been criticized by scholars over the years because it caused sprawl with poor desi gn and connectivity. The costs of suburban sprawl are all around us-theyre visible in the creeping deterioration of once proud neighborhoods, the increasing aliena tion of large segm ents of soci ety, a constantly rising crime rate and widespread environmental degrada tion (Katz 1994, as quoted in Fainstein 2003, p. 182). The development of the suburbs detracte d resources from the central city, causing the deterioration of the urban core. Suburbs from the post World-War II Era have been one of the most condemned American landscapes because of their uniformity and monotony (Ames, 1999). The suburban development patter n receives criticism for aesth etic reasons including the uninteresting architecture, monotonous st reets and neighborhoods that lack unique characteristics. Dolores Hayden (2003) wrote that suburbs of the post-World War II era were shaped by legislative processes reflecting th e power of real estate, banking a nd construction sectors, and the relative weakness of the planning and design professions (p. 151). Hayden is alluding to the perception that the suburbs were poorly planned and designed because other forces were

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35 influencing the form of the neighborhoods. Suburbs were criticized for encouraging social conformity among suburban families; the social norm became suburban life (Hayden, 2003). Some scholars argue that the suburban neighborhood is a cultural landscape and should be preserved. Suburban America is a cultural landscap e because there is beauty and order in the exterior environment (Alanen and Melnick, 2000). Americas automobile culture also creates its own landscape, whether it be at freeway inte rsections, the highway-orien ted strips that mark entry to most towns and cities, or the shoppi ng mallsthat are part of most new subdivision developments on the suburban fringe (Alanen and Melnick, 2000, p. 5). Modern suburbs are becoming eligible for the National Register and can be considered for preservation efforts. It has l ong been the perception that structures must be at least 50 years old to be considered for a National Register nomin ation because of the guidelines listed in the National Historic Preservation Ac t, as amended (NHPA). Some preservationists argue that the so-called 50-year rule is not a rule. Jeanne Lambin, Historic Preservation Professor at the Savannah College of Art and Design, recently gave speech which made a case for the preservation of the recent past and the age of the structure, at least 50 year s or not is a guideline, not a rule. The post-World War II landscape deserves to be preserved because it is the landscape of the American Dream, the single family house on its own lot sited within the large-scale, selfcontained subdivision with curvilinear street pattern (Ames, 1995 as quoted in Ames, 1999, p. 222). These suburbs should be evaluated as hist oric resources (Ames, 1999). The suburbs of the late 1940s and the 1950s were the first to be f eatured on television to a wide audience in shows such as Leave it to Beaver, Ozzie and Harriet and Father Knows Best Dolores Hayden (2003) dubbed these the sitcom suburbs (p. 128). The suburban life, sold on TV, became the ideal

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36 culture in America. To achieve "a more sustaina ble and more equitable place, older suburbs have to be saved rather than abandoned on th e way to new projects" (Hayden, 2003 p. 135) Levittown: The Beginnings of the Automobile Suburb The outward growth of cities created residential suburbs and neighborhoods. The National Park Service defines neighborhoods built b etween 1945 and 1960 in the historical context of the Post-World War II and Early Freeway Suburbs (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 1). The best known post-World War II suburb in the country is Levittown. Peter Hall described Levittown, Long Island, the first prominent post-war s uburb as monotonous and vapid (2002, p. 321). Building first on Long Island, New York, then ag ain in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the Levitts streamlined home construction practices in order to build massive numbers of homes in a short amount of time. The typical Levittown home was inspired by Frank Lloyd Wrights Usonian model that was a protot ype home for his Broadacre City3 (Samon, 2003). Wrights Usonian home was in direct contrast to the traditional, formal, symmetric house that had columns, pediments, and dark, boxlike rooms (Samon, 2003, p.15). The one-story, flat-roofed Usonian had strong horizontal lines and was designed in an L-shape and placed in the corner of the lot to maximize the expanse of green (Sam on, 2003). There were minimal windows in the front, but large windows and French doors in the back of the home to place the emphasis on the backyard. The Levitts borrowed the ideas of Frank Lloyd Wright to build their homes (Samon, 2003 and Rybczynski, 2006). Alfred Levitt visited th e construction of one of Lloyds Usonian homes in Great Neck, NY, and noted the modular method of wood construction, th e elimination of the 2 Broadacre City was shaped through Wright's particular vision of a solution to the problems of the city by combining the rural and urban development patterns into one concept. The Broadacre City was a low-density, continuous urban area which centralized city functions could be decentralized along linear transportation and communications systems (Zellner, 1998 p. 72).

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37 basement and attic and the carport in place of th e garage (Rybczynski, 2006). Wright used other cost saving measures like heating under the fl oor, making the kitchen a small work area, combining the living and dining rooms into one space, using polished concrete floors and exposed wood walls and ceilings to save mone y on construction costs (Rybczynski, 2006). Levitt took Wrights ideas of using modern materi als and laying out the ho me on a two foot grid in order to mass produce homes in Levittown (Rybczynski, 2006). The homes had unfinished features like attics and carports in order to cut down on cos t; this arrangement encouraged families to renovate and remodel the home when they had the money or more children and needed more rooms. Levittown had schools, parks and stores all within its boundaries, which was an innovation in neighborhood design at the time, a planned community. The ranch home became the most common home built in the post-World War II housing boom, also called the Rancher, the Rambler or the California Rambler because the home originated from the Southwest with the expansive available open space. Situated on large lots, the ranch home with an ample backyard was de signed to foster a healthy, informal, outdoororiented family life (Hunter, 1999). The picture window was one of the most noted features of the ranch home from this era. The first p icture window was in th e Levittown model the Levittowner had an 8-foot kitchen window facing th e street (Rybczynski, 2006). The window was not for looking out, but to be a display of the family life within the ho me, a place to put the Christmas tree or the Halloween decorations. The window could be seen from the street, and the ideal suburban family could be seen by neighbors from the street. The homes from Levittown eventually became what is known as ranch style with the modern appearance, low roof, and horizontal lines on lots with room from expans ion. The ranchs floor plan was open making it

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38 seem larger than it was in reality (Hunter 1999) By 1950, the ranch accounted for 9 out of 10 new homes in America (Rybczynski, 2006). Suburbia was welcome. Children could play in the yard, not in a busy urban street. Your house was full of new and modern convenien ces such as intercoms to communicate between rooms, percolators for coffee, televisions having a place of honor. In many ways the ranch house enabled the growing middle class to take pleasure in the modern world. (Alter as quoted in Samon, 2003, p. 22) Saving the Suburbs In their 2007 study, Leigh and Lee analyzed th e patterns of growth and development of four cities that were in different regions for d ecline of structu res built during the time period of 1950-1969. In the study, four U.S. metropolitan areas were studied to show the vulnerability of the inner ring suburbs to socioec onomic decline. The results were th at Atlanta, the fastest growth city, is experiencing a higher rate of inne r ring suburb decline, compared to Portland, Philadelphia or Cleveland which ha d slower patterns of growth. Atlanta had the least amount of positive socioeconomic indicators in the study in co mparison to the other cities in the study. In 2002, the National Park Service and Linda Flint McClelland with the assistance of David L. Ames from the University of Delaware published Historic Residential Suburbs: Guidelines for Evaluation and Documentation fo r the National Register of Historic Places Ames expanded on his 1999 chapter in Changing Suburbs: Foundation Form and Function and formulated historic preserva tion guidelines for suburbs. The National Park Service guidelines outline a history of the ranch house as it evolved into the modern home, The distinction between the Ranch and contemporary house became blurred as each type made use of transparent walls, privacy screens of design concrete blocks, innovations in open space planning, and the interplay of interior and exterior space, (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 68). The modern home pr ogressed from the ranch homes of the postWorld War II housing boom and the suburban moveme nt of Americans out of the central city.

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39 The curvilinear streets became the standard for new residential subdivisions, reinforced by the design guidelines strongly recommended for Federal Housing Administration (FHA)-backed mortgages in the late 1940s (Ames and McClelland, 2002). The curvilinear subdivision layout was further institutionalized as the building industry came to support national regulations that woul d standardize local bui lding practices and reduce unexpected development costs. In 1947 the ULI (Urban Land Institute) published its first edition of the Comm unity Builders Handbook. Providi ng detailed instructions for community development based on the curv ilinear subdivision and neighborhood unit approach, it became a basic reference for the community development industry...In 1950 the NAHB (National Association of Home Build ers), the primary trade organization for the industry, published the Home Builders Manual for Land Development. Thus, by the late 1940s, the concept of neighborhood planning had become institutionalized in American planning practice. This form of development, in seamless repetition, would create the postWorld War II suburban landscape. (A mes and McClelland, 2002, p. 99-100) The post-war suburb is a product of inexpensive development techniques and implementation of recommended FHA neighborhood design guidelines. The typical modern suburban home is single-family and in a semi-rural environment. Several factors influenced the evolution of the modern suburban house: -The lowering of construction costs, accomplishe d with the invention of the balloon-frame method of construction in the 1830s and su ccessive stages of standardization, mass production, and prefabrication. -The translation of the suburban ideal into th e form of an individual dwelling usually on its own lot in a safe, healthy, and parklike setting. -The design of an efficient floor plan belie ved to support and reinforce the ideal family. The evolution of the American home reflects changing concepts of family life and the ideal suburban landscape. From 1838 to 1960, the design of the single-family, detached suburban home in a landscaped setting evolve d in several broad stages from picturesque country villas to sprawling ranch hous es on spacious suburban lots. (Ames and McClelland, 2002, p. 100) The homes built during 1945-1960 were typically in suburban locations, were modern modest homes and enabled the middle class to afford the American Dream. The housing development trends known as modern suburbia in itiated during this era have continued to the

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40 present day. Now the original suburbs have other suburbs and neighborhoods built beyond them, and the original suburbs are becoming part of th e inner-ring of metropolitan areas. These homes are now eligible for the National Register and ar e worthy of preservation because they mark an era when popular suburbanization began and exhibit a distinctive architectural style despite the large number that exist. Modern suburbia is a cultural landscape in America. Preserving these neighborhoods prevents decline, gentrification and further urba n sprawl. These neighborhoods are already socially established, have infrastructu re such as roads and schools and are closer to city centers than the suburbs and neighborhoods being built currently. A method to locate the best examples of modern suburbia from 19451960 for the purpose of historic preservation would identify and assist in the preservation of the domestic cultivation of the American Dream.

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41 Table 2-1. Comparision of Di fferent Types of Districts. National Register Historic District Local Historic District Conservation District Purpose To preserve districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects of national significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering and culture. This designation is a privilege and carries no regulations unless financial incentives are requested or federal funds are used. To preserve a buildings or areas significant historic character and fabric through architectural criteria and special zoning provisions; to protect structures that contribute to the architectural and cultural heritage; to ensure that new construction, additions or alterations are appropriate with the scale, character and architecture. To preserve the distinctive atmosphere, character and/or features of a neighborhood. Depending on the intent, regulations may address the preservation of scale, volumetric relationships, additions that clearly characterize building type, historic architecture or other aspects. Benefits Property value enhancement, neighborhood revitalization, pride of ownership, preservation of unique character; follows Secretary of Interiors Standards for compatible new and infill construction; opportunities for federal and state incentives. Property value enhancement, neighborhood revitalization, pride of ownership, preservation of unique character, design review, avoidance of demolition of significant historic architecture, guidance for compatible new and infill construction, opportunity for federal, state and local incentives. Property value enhancement, neighborhood revitalization, pride of ownership, design review, avoidance of demolition of significant historic architecture, neighborhood based design guidelines, preservation of unique character, guidance for compatible new and infill construction, opportunity for local incentives. Design Review Authority State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and National Park Service when financial incentives are requested or federal or state funds are used. Local historic preservation board; possibly staff for minor projects. Staff or local design review board. Regulated Activity None, except when financial incentives are requested or federal or state funds are used. Demolition, rehabilitation, restoration, alteration of exterior and interior public areas and new construction. Alteration of exterior and new construction; possibly demolition depending on intent of district. Tailored to the needs of the particular neighborhood. Demolition of Historically Significant Buildings & Features Protected only when financial incentives requested or federal or state funds used. May be prohibited if appropriate. Total or partial demolition may be prohibited depending on intent of district.

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42 Table 2-1. Comparision of Differen t Types of Districts. Continued. National Register Historic District Local Historic District Conservation District Design Guidelines U.S. Secretary of the Interiors Standards for rehabilitation mandatory when financial incentives requested or federal or state funds are used. Local guidelines may be adopted and U.S. Secretary of the Interiors Standards for rehabilitation as applicable. Local guidelines are adopted. Tailored to the needs of the particular neighborhood. Stringency of Design Guidelines Mandatory and most stringent. Less stringent but thorough. More lenient depending on intent of district. 20% Federal Income Tax Credit Yes, if criteria is met. No, unless federally registered and certified. No. 10% Federal Income Tax Credit Yes, if criteria is met. Yes, if criteria is met. Yes, if criteria is met. Federal Income Tax Charitable Deduction for Faade Easement Donation Yes, if criteria is met. No, unless federally registered and certified. No. Zoning Incentives Not applicable. Possible, depending on the specific district. Yes, depending on intent. Florida Building Code Interpretations Consideration of alternative materials and methods by the Building Official in accordance with the Secretary of Interiors Guidelines to achieve equivalency with requirements. Consideration of alternative materials and methods by the Building Official in accordance with the Secretary of Interiors Guidelines to achieve equivalency with requirements. No. Life Safety Code Interpretations Same as above. Same as above. No. Source: Paul Costanzo, Principal Planner, Memo to City of Ft. Lauderdale Beach Redevelopment Advisory Board Members Re garding June 21, 2004 NBRA & SLA Area Overlay, Historic & Conservation District Overview and Work Parameters, pp. 1-3, http://ci.ftlaud.fl.us /beach/masterplan/beach_m p/062104BRA BItemIIIMemoExhsOverlayDistric ts.pdf.

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43 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Historic preservationists have traditionally and currently rely on architectural m ethods for determining eligibility of buildi ngs and structures. Socioeconomic factors and tax roll data in combination with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to examine land use patterns of post World War II suburbs for historic preservation purposes. This study uses GIS to determine potential candidates for historic pr eservation efforts in Duval County/Jacksonville, Florida. It focuses on residential development from 1945 to 1960 because development from this era is now eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and preservationists are increasingly focusing on the modern era. The benefit of using Duval County is that th ere is only one large city, Jacksonville, and four much smaller cities within the count y boundaries. The Jacksonville metropolitan area extends beyond Duval County; however the City of Jacksonville is by far the largest city due to the consolidation between the City and Duval County governments in 1967. The census tracts within Duval County have had the same governing body since that time. Duval County experienced a significant incr ease in population after World War II, more than doubling the population from 210,143 in 1940 to 455,411 in 1960 (U.S. Census, 1990). Further, Duval County is home to a major Navy base and a Na val Air Station, so the post-World War II housing boom was supplemented with the growth of the m ilitary industrial complex. Thus the area lends itself to this type of study due to the significant amount of deve lopment that occurred during the study period. Geographic Information Systems Using GIS as a spatial anal ysis tool enhances this study because determining the development pattern and location of these nei ghborhoods allows them to be identified and

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44 historically preserved. Using GIS, information from the property appraisers parcel data, such as year of construction is overlaid on the census tracts. All the census tracts in Jacksonville are calculated for density of homes built from 1945 to 1960 using a spatial join4 and the field calculator5 in GIS. The first steps of the methodology ar e shown in a flow chart, figure 3-1. In order to establish density of each tract, GIS analysis requires v ector data at the neighborhood and parcel levels. The census tracts with the highest density are then selected to be part of the study area. The socioeconomic data was collected at the census block group level and used to analyze the study area. The socioeconomic indicators are mapped using raster data and then reclassified into equal intervals so that the data appear as values from one to ten. Next, the analysis is performed using the raster calculator,6 which weighs each indicator equally to come up with the best candidates for historic preservation as defined in this study. The rast er calculation will place a value on each census block group, and with seven socioeconomic indicato rs, the lowest value possible will be seven and the highest will be seventy. Explanation of the Model The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as am ended, considers properties that are a minimum of 50 years old to be eligible for the National Register. The study will focus on neighborhoods built from 1945 to 1960 because these homes are either now eligible for the National Register or will be by 2010. Th e fifteen-year period provides enough time for individual neighborhood construction and develo pment and coincides with the housing boom in the post-World War II automobile suburbs. The research method for determining the eligible 1 A spatial join takes two or more GIS layers and their tables and joins them together based on their shared geography and creates a new layer (E SRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.). 2 A field calculator is a tool used to calculate values in GIS layers data tables (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.). 3 Raster calculator is a tool for pe rforming calculations of raster layers (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).

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45 neighborhoods uses GIS with the data from th e 2000 census and 2006 tax ro lls. The model is based on a 2007 study by Sugie L ee and Nancey Green Leigh, Intrametropolitan Spatial Differentiation and Decline of Inner-Ring Suburbs where four U.S. metropolitan areas were studied to show the vulnerability of the inner ring suburbs to socioeconomic decline. Lee and Leighs study mapped socioeconomic indicators within census tracts to confirm whether or not the inner ring suburbs of the metropolitan areas we re in decline. Socio economic indicators are important to neighborhood revitalization and pr eservation because of the local government responsibilities to citizen welfare. Interest in neighborhood-scale indicators is th e shift of responsibil ities for social and economic welfare from the federal to the st ate and local levels, and the simultaneous emphasis on public-private partnerships and neighborhood empowerment These approaches are the latest attempt to forge new alliances for small-area improvement. (Wallis as quoted in Sawicki and Flynn, 1996 p. 166) This study will also use GIS to map socioecono mic indicators within census tracts, but will take the approach a step furthe r in identifying neighbor hoods within those census tracts. Further, this study uses the indicators to measure posi tive attributes to esta blish the neighborhoods efficacy for historic preservation instead of nega tive characteristics. Socioeconomic indicators can be mapped spatially to show the distribut ion of social and economic conditions. Lee and Leighs study defined the inner ring suburbs as those built be tween 1950 and 1969; however, for historic preservation purposes, this study will only look at housing built ri ght after the end of World War II to 1960. The best candidates for historic pres ervation are identified by comparing the socioeconomic statuses of each census tract and further by comparing the socioeconomic statuses of the individual census blocks within each census tract. The census bloc ks generally identify the neighborhoods and development patterns of J acksonville during the time period of the study. Census tracts that contain a majority of housing built or that contain sizable housing

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46 developments built during 1945-1960 were identified using GIS. Using socioeconomic data from the 2000 Census, each census tract is then ranked against each other to select the initial study area. Once the tracts with the highest percentage of post-war housing are identified, data from the census blocks within those tracts is collected a nd used in the analysis with raster layers. The raster surface after calculation will indicate th e potential candidates for historic preservation because those neighborhoods possess the more stab le socioeconomic traits to support it. The goal is to identify three poten tial post World War II era neighborhoods that would be good candidates for historic preserva tion efforts because their socioeconomic status indicates a receptive community environment where early initiatives to safeguard structures and neighborhoods built during this era can begin to build momentum. Historic preservation tax credits are only available for income-produci ng producing, therefore, homeowners with the means to maintain their homes are more likely to be receptive to historic preservation efforts because they can afford to do so. Identifying the Indicators The socioeconomic indicators sel ected for this study are m any of the same indicators used in Lee and Leighs study that document decline of the inner ring suburbs. In this study, their positive measurements are used to determine stability and viability for historic designation as modern suburban developments. The socioecono mic variables used by Lee and Leigh and by this study are: the rate of poverty, amount of public assistance, rate of une mployment, percentage of college graduates and per cap ita income and the housing vari ables used are owner-occupied housing and median home values. The goal of using these socioeconomic indicators is to identify the inner-ring neighborhoods that have not experienced as much, if any, decline comparable to other neighborhoods built in the same era.

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47 The indicators used to measure decline of a neighborhood include th e rate of poverty, unemployment and the amount of public assistance. The rate of pove rty is measured by percentage of individuals belo w the poverty line according to the 2000 Census. The rate of unemployment is calculated as a percenta ge per census block group. The higher the unemployment rates of a census bl ock, the less desirable the area is as a candidate for historic preservation. The amount of public assistance indicates how re sidents supplement their monthly incomes through social security, welfare and other forms of government money. A disproportionate amount of public assistance would indicate a neighborhood in decline. The amount of bachelors degrees and owner-occupied housing are more positive indicators, where a higher amount of each means a neighborhood is a better candidate for historic preservation. The amount of bachelors degrees in the population aged 25 and up indicates welleducated residents who are likely to have stable jobs. Owner-o ccupied housing indicates stable residential populations within a neighborhood. The other indicators being used that are numeric in value are median per capita income and median housing value. The census block groups are compared with their median values and the higher they are, the better candi date the neighborhood is for hist oric preservation. The median per capita income indicat es the level of income per person within the census block group, and a higher median per capita income means a more stab le neighborhood. Once th e tracts are selected using the criteria in Table 3-1, the individual neighborhoods ar e examined using census block group data. The goal is to select at least three poten tial neighborhoods for historic preservation. Explanation of the Data The study utilizes data from several sources in cluding the United States Ce nsus Bureau, the Duval County Property Appraiser and the Fl orida Department of Revenue 12D8 Tax Rolls for Duval County. The United States Census dece nnially collects data by census tract and the

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48 census blocks within those tracts. The data av ailable from the Census is broken up into census tracts and further into blocks and spatially distributes socioeconomic data over the tracts and blocks. The Duval County Prope rty Appraisers office provide d 2007 parcel data and the 2006 Florida Department of Revenue 12D8 Certified Tax Roll data. Using these sources of data, GIS will be used to determine the best post-Worl d War II neighborhoods as can didates for historic preservation. The latest United States Census data from 2000 provides the socioeconomic factors that are the indicators for the model. Census data that is seven years older than the parcel and tax roll data is not ideal, but it is the most current data available. The Census data breaks down the socioeconomic indicators by tract and block group, so the data is ideal for a neighborhood scale assessment. The indicators provided by the Ce nsus data for census block group are median home values, median per capita income, and rate of poverty, level of bachelors degrees, public assistance levels and unemployment. The Duval County parcel data provided by th e property appraiser provides exact parcel information that is essential for performing GIS functions and can assist in visually identifying neighborhoods. The GIS functions used with the pa rcel data in order to identify candidates for historic preservation are joins, relates and the analysis tools were intersects,7 clips,8 spatial joins and unions.9 Figure 3-1s flow chart illustrates the GIS portion of the methodology. The parcel 4 An intersect is a layering tool that when applied preserve s features or portions of features that fall within areas common to all layers (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008, n.p.). 5 A clip is a tool that takes geographic features from one layer that are entirely within a boundary defined from another feature (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.). 6 A union is a tool that takes two or more layers and jo ins them together then retains and extracts into a new GIS layer (ESRI GIS Dictionary 2008 n.p.).

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49 data provided the year built data and show s then neighborhood development patterns and provides visual assistance on the maps. The data provided by the Department of Revenue 12D8 Certified Tax Rolls include information on the year a structure was built. The year built is vital to the analysis because it indicates development patterns within the census tracts. By knowing the development patterns, the census tracts with the most development dur ing the post-World War II development period of 1945-1960 are identified and can be broken down further into neighborhood and census blocks. The tax roll also provides more specific data on values of homes, land values, vacancy rates and owner-occupied status of homes. The tax roll data is used once census data is applied to the more specific census tracts blocks and neighborhoods. The Census data, being about seven years olde r than the parcel data, does limit the study because the data does not exactly reflect curre nt socioeconomic conditions in Duval County. However, the 2000 Census data is the latest socio-economic data available that can be manipulated with GIS and accommodate analysis at the neighborhood level. Widely used by urban planners (Pamuk, 2006), the Census is the most comprehensive source of data on people and their communities in the United States (Mye rs 1992; Peters and MacDonald 2004 as cited in Pamuk, 2006). More recent general statistics are available for all of Duval County and Jacksonville from the Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BEBR), but for the purposes of this study, the data would not be specific e nough to determine potential historic districts. Census tracts contain about 4,000 people; bl ock groups include a bout 1,000 people; and individual blocks contain about 400 people. Since the st udy is evaluating established neighborhoods that have been in existence fo r at least 50 years, using slightly older socioeconomic data does not limit or devalue th e outcome of the study. The neighborhoods have

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50 not likely had a major population shift during this period and the infrastructure has remained in place. The 2000 Census also provides a detailed socioeconomic snapshot of the area in general and more specific level when includi ng the census tracts and blocks. The model methodology used in Lee and Leigh s (2007) study also examined minority population, age of population, vacant housing pr oportion and overcrowding housing proportion as indicators. This study does not use the race or ages of the population since these factors are deemed as a minimal on the initial selection of a neighborhoods for further local historic survey, though subsequent analysis should include race and ethnicity to understand the community in its historical and current context. Vacant housing da ta is not utilized because the author believes that vacant housing rates are somewhat impermanen t, more so than other indicators used in the study. Housing overcrowding is not incorporated into this study because the data was not compatible with the rest of th e data, thus making it difficult to layer in GIS. The housing overcrowding data was measured based on rooms in the individual dwelling unit to number of people living there and was onl y listed as a ratio per unit. Field Work The final part of the methodology involved vi siting the selected neighborhoods. A visual survey can indicate the degree to which the ea rly post-war neighborhoods have rem ained intact and thus reinforce the neighborhood stability findings based on the socioeconomic data. A windshield survey of the selected neighborhoods and photograph documentation is used to record the condition of the development. The visu al survey also identifies visual similarities and differences within neighbor hoods and between neighborhoods. Some potential visuals to analyze are the homes, streets, sidewalks, arch itecture and landscaping for condition, demolition, and new construction.

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51 In the next chapter, the findings show how this process locates post World War II-built neighborhoods as candidates for hi storic preservation efforts. The socioeconomic indicators determine the most stable neighborhoods within the census tracts compared to each other and to Duval County as a whole. The selected neighbo rhoods are within the tracts that had the most favorable socioeconomic indicator levels. Table 3-1. List of Indicators Used and the Ideal Rating System. Indicator Ideal Indicator Range Rate of Poverty Lower to Higher Unemployment Lower to Higher Amount of Public Assistance Lower to Higher Bachelors Degrees in Population 25 years old and Up Higher to Lower Owner-Occupied Housing Higher to Lower Median Per Capita Income Higher to Lower Median Housing Value Higher to Lower

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52 Figure 3-1. GIS Flowchart. Spatial Join of Duval County Parcel layer and Census Tract layer GIS Add Field to Spatial Join Use Field Calculator to determine density of housing built between 1945 and 1960 in census tracts Study Area determined Socioeconomic indicators mapped on Study Area by census block groups Socioeconomic indicators converted to raster layers Raster layers are reclassified in equal intervals from 1 to 10, 1 least desirable and 10 being most desirable Raster Calculator used to add all the socioeconomic raster layers to come up with a score for each census block group Neighborhoods selected from result of Raster Calculation

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53 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS This thesis focuses on the use of census and property appraiser data to indicate which neighborhoods are most suitable for historic preservation based on their socioeconom ic character. The following chapter will report the findings for each indicator separately and then with the use of GIS, the values are calculated with raster data, to re veal the best neighborhood candidates. Policy recommendations are made in the analysis portion that would assist Jacksonville in implementing a program that w ould preserve neighborhoods from the post World War II era. The Study Area By analyzing the development patterns of Jacksonville, the inner ring sub urbs are evident according to the map in Figure 4-1. The map reveals that the first rings of suburbs were built around the downtown and on the east side of the St. Johns River and on towards the beach. On Figure 4-1, the black parcels indi cate the current parcels where buildings constructed between 1945 and 1960 exist. The red parcels signify deve lopment prior to the end of World War II and the green parcels represents development afte r the time period targeted by this study. A density calculation comparing the area of each census tract with the summary of the area of all the parcels built between 1945 and 1960 within that census tract is calculated and illustrated in Figure 4-2. The darker the census tract, the more concentrated is the post-World War II housing in that tract. The study uses th e darker colored tracts as the study area for the socioeconomic indicator analysis Table 4-1 lists the census tr acts selected for the study, the general location according to Duval County Planning Districts10 and each ones density of post1 Duval County is divided into six Planning Districts, illustrated in Figure 4-3. This is the governments only recognition of geographic areas or suburbs located in Jacksonville. Each Planning District is assigned to a different team within the Planning and Development Department.

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54 World War II development. The density comparis on identifies 55 census tracts that are located within the inner rings of the Jacksonville metropolitan area and that contain a significant amount of development from the post-World War II boom. Table 4-1 shows that census tracts from each Planning District were chosen, and illustrates that post-war ne ighborhoods were built in several areas of town. Figure 4-3 is a map of the Planning Districts in Jacksonville. One exception to location in the inner ring areas is the census tract located in Jacksonville Beach where a high density of post-World War II development exists The amount of census tracts within each Planning District selected for the study area is shown in Table 4-2. The Northwest and the Greater Arlington/Beaches Planning Districts contain the most census tracts that qualify for this study. The Socioeconomic Indicators After selecting the census tracts for the an alysis, the socioeconomi c indicators were mapped by census block group. The census block gr oup (about 1000 people) is the smallest area the census data was broken down into. The results of the socioec onomic indicators are illustrated in Figures 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 49 and 4-10. As shown on each map, the darker colors indicate the higher amount or rate of the socioeconomic indicator (see the explanatory caption below each map). The same tracts consistent ly have the more favorable rates for each of the indicators, especially tracts located in th e Greater Arlington/Beaches and Southeast Planning Districts. The reclassification method used with the rast er data of the socio economic indicators was uniform for each indicator. The drawback to th is method is that not all values (1-10) are represented by a census block group. For example, Figure 4-4 is missing 8 as a value on the legend because none of the census block groups ha d a calculated value of 8 when the values

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55 were reclassified for the purpose of this study. ArcGIS software automatically omits the nonrepresented values in the legend, even though the va lue was calculated for the reclassification. Neighborhood Selection Analysis After calculating the value of each socioec onomic ind icator which ranged from 1to 10, the values were added together in each census block group using a ra ster calculator in GIS. The results of this calculation for each census block groups are in Figure 4-13; the lowest value possible was 7 and the highest was 70. The areas in pink on the map indicate the highest scoring census block groups and light blue indicates the lowest scoring block groups. The findings in this particular analysis yielded a minimum of 11 a nd a maximum of 62 in value with three block groups standing out with the highest scores that contained significant neighborhood development patterns form the early post-World War II era. Ta ble 4-3 shows the census tracts that contained the highest scoring block groups. Figures 414, 4-15 and 4-16 are the neighborhoods selected by the raster calculation. As indicated in Table 4-4, the selected neighborhoods scored 53 out of 70 possible points. Two census block groups scored higher (62 and 57) but were not selected as potential candidates for historic preservation. They are adjacent to one of the selected neighborhoods within the same census block, but they did not contain intact neighborhoods and development patterns associated with post-World War II developm ents like curvilinear streets. These neighborhoods were not intact, meaning they did not contain continuous development patt erns from this era. Further significant demolition had occurred to the original post-war homes. The density score identified the study area by census tract, and then the soci oeconomic indicators were applied at the census block group level, which split up th e tract in two to eight differe nt block groups depending on the population within the census tract.

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56 Site visits to each of the selected ne ighborhoods provided visual information for additional analysis. The condition of the ne ighborhoods selected by the study was noted and photographs were taken to represen t the categories in Table 4-5. P hotographs of the site visit to the selected neighborhoods are located in Appendix A. Some observations could not be photographed such as the lack of For Sale signs throughout all of these neighborhoods. About the Selected Neighborhoods Lake Lucina Compared to the other neighborhoods, Lake Lucina contains the fewest renovated and ma intained homes. According to the property appraisers records, most of the homes in the neighborhood were about 1200-1300 squa re feet when the homes were first built. Figure 4-15 illustrates a typical floor plan from a home within the Lake Lucina neighborhood and the home has a base of 1247 square feet; unfinished areas, garage and storage room; and additions built in later years. Table 4-5 illustrat es the visual assessment of th e neighborhood in comparison with the other selected neighborhoods. Table 4-4 shows that Lake Lucinas highe st ranking socioeconomic factors were bachelors degrees for adults aged 25 and up, owner occupied housing, amount of families below poverty level, public assistance r eceived and unemployment rate. Lake Lucina did not rank as high with median value of home and per capita income of families. Glynlea Park Glynlea Park contains the smallest sized homes com pared to the other neighborhoods. According to the property appraisers records, most of the homes in the neighborhood were about 900-1000 square feet when the homes were first built. Large a dditions were common in Glynlea Park and so were detached garages on th e long and narrow lots. Figure 4-16 illustrates a typical floor plan from a home within the Glynlea Park neighb orhood; the home has a base of

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57 957 square feet, an unfinished garage and storage r oom and additions built in later years. Table 4-5 illustrates the visual asse ssment of the neighborhood in comp arison with the other selected neighborhoods. In Glynlea Park the socioeconomic factors that were the highly ranked were owner occupied housing, amount of families below pove rty level, public assistance received and unemployment. Glynlea Park fell more in the mi ddle with median value of homes, bachelors degrees for adults aged 25 and up and per capita income of families. San Jose Forest San Jose Forest contains the largest of th e homes comp ared to the other neighborhoods. According to the property appraisers records, most of the homes in the neighborhood were about 1900-2000 square feet when the homes were first built. Figure 4-17 illustrates a typical floor plan from a home within the San Jose Fo rest neighborhood; the ho me has a base of 1978 square feet and finished encl osed porches and garages. Ta ble 4-5 illustrates the visual assessment of the neighborhood in comparis on with the other selected neighborhoods. The socioeconomic factors that were highly ranked in San Jose Forest were amount of families below poverty level, public assistance re ceived and unemployment rates. Bachelors degrees for adults aged 25 and up and median home values were in the middle to high range for the neighborhood. San Jose Forest was the lowest ranking selected neighborhood for owner occupied housing. Assessments of All Neighborhoods One striking feature common across all the neighborhoods was ornam ental front porch railings and columns. Picture windows were also common in many of the homes throughout the neighborhoods. San Jose Forest had the more architecturally elaborate homes, while Glynlea

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58 Parks and Lake Lucinas were the less elaborate. More signs of additions to the homes were visible in Glynlea Park, and Lake Lucinas homes had the least amount of visible additions. All three neighborhoods ranked high with few of families below the poverty level and low public assistance and unemployment rates compar ed to other census block groups in the study. Per capita income of families is an indicator that each neighborhood ranked in the middle range. Bachelors degrees for adults aged 25 and up, median value of homes and owner occupied housing all received mixed ratings between the neighborhoods. Recommendations There was visible decline due to neglect and lack of maintenance in Lake Lucina and Glynlea Park and obvious gentrification occurring in San Jose Forest and on occasion in Glynlea Park. Post-World W ar II developments face the danger of becoming an extension of the inner city because of lack of guiding policies to preserve their character. Over fifty other census tracts contain significant amounts of housing from the 1945-1960 time period that could be in more danger than the studys selected neighborhoods. Lower socioeconomic indicators in those census tracts means there is a greater chance of decline in t hose neighborhoods. Starting the historic recognition of the post-war neighborhoods in those that can support a preservation effort can serve as a model to other neighborhoods from this period. Currently in Jacksonville, preservation of post-war housing is limited to areas already adjacent to or within established historic districts and those nei ghborhoods with residents actively involved in associations. Generall y, post-war housing is not considered historic compared to other designated historic districts in Jacksonville. The periods of significance for each historic district are: Springfield 1875-1949; Riverside 1850-1949;

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59 Avondale 1900-1949; Old Ortega 1900-1974. While many of these periods of significance end or cover the post-war era, the styles listed for each district on the National Register form do not mention the post-war era home as defined by this study. Identifying these post-war neighborhoods is just one step in the local preservation process. First, local officials must establish, preferably in the Historic Preservatio n Element, what criteria define early post-war neighbor hoods as significant. Following identification of these neighborhoods using GIS and socioeconomic data, historical and architect ural documentation of these selected neighborhoods should be conducted. Once these studies are complete, they can be evaluated against the criteria in the Historic Preservation Element. For neighborhoods that qualify, effective protection measures, such local hi storic overlay or cons ervation districts should be established. Jacksonville has only four National Register historic districts and a locally recognized historic district in the San Ma rco neighborhood that has its own z oning overlay district as shown in Figure 1-1. The neighborhoods selected for this study would potentially be most successfully preserved under a neighborhood conservation distri ct. This designation typically imposes fewer restrictions than a traditional historic district, allowing greater flexibility to accommodate work on unfinished rooms and additions consiste nt with the design of the homes. The Jacksonville Code of Ordinances does not currently address neighborhood conservation districts and only us es zoning overlays in the designa ted historic areas like San Marco, which contains older housing units than those in this study. A zoning overlay, as discussed in Chapter Two, maintains the underl ying zoning of a parcel but adds additional

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60 development regulations or design guidelines. Riverside, Avondale and Springfield all have adopted design standards and a historic preserva tion neighborhood board to issue Certificates of Appropriateness. An ordinance implementing a neighborhood cons ervation district for any of the three neighborhoods should include provisions that promote neighborhood identity and participation. San Jose Forest and Glynlea Park have neighbor hood associations, but Lake Lucina does not have a specific organization. Active neighborhood associations ar e essential to the conservation process in these developments because without suppor t from the residents, the effort is likely to be unsuccessful. Lake Lucina does fall under the auspices of Old Arlington, a historic preservation advocacy group based in that area of Jacksonville, and either forming their own organization or joining with the larger effort by Old Arlington could ach ieve the same goal of neighborhood conservation designation. The San Marc o Preservation Society is an example of a successful group whose efforts have preserved a district not listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Society has plaques that me mbers can purchase for their homes if they meet certain design criteria and is an advocate for pr eservation in the area. They supported the zoning overlay district passed four y ears ago and provide the political support for its implementation. A similar program could be successful in San Jose Forest, Glynlea Pa rk or Lake Lucina. Much like Jacksonvilles San Marco neighborhood, a comm unity-led effort for neighborhood-specific preservation policies proved to be most successful because the residents wanted to preserve their neighborhood. Promoting neighborhood identity ai ds in the formation of neighborhood-based advocacy groups and is essential to implementi ng a neighborhood conservation district because it supports the preservation effort and gets residents involved.

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61 Like other historic districts in Jacksonville, a local board co mposed of residents from the neighborhood would be ideal to oversee the ne ighborhood conservation di strict. The locallyappointed or elected board would review certificates of appropriateness for any additions or exterior renovations within the neighborhood. The neighborhood c onservation distri ct ordinance has a set of design guidelines th at address architecture, lands caping and hardscaping. Design guidelines assist in keeping th e character of the ne ighborhood intact by imposing standards for additions and exterior renovati ons and do not allow the arch itectural character of the neighborhood to be degraded with inconsistent modifications. Landscaping requirements and hardscaping requirements such as trees and fenc es visually reinforce the homes distinctive architectural elements. A neighborhood conservati on district policy would work to preserve the selected neighborhoods and prevent decline and eventual decay. Jacksonvilles Historic Preservation Elemen t implicitly excludes housing from the postwar era. The first step in implementing any di strict guidelines for the selected neighborhood would be updating the Historic Preservation Element to include the years 1945 to 1960 in the survey program identified in Policy 1.2.1. Recommended language is: The Planning and Development Department shall continue its comprehensive survey progr am scheduled to be completed by 2010. The survey program will continue to follow and be compatible with the Florida Master Site File. This comprehensive su rvey program will be completed in increments, concentrating on those areas of high site probability as identified by the U.S. Census Bureau for pre -1960 housing units. The Historic Preservation Element also men tions raising public awareness of historic preservation and historic resour ces in Jacksonville. Currently residents do not perceived their homes as historic because they are inconsistent with the styles and settlement patterns in

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62 designated historic districts like in Springfield and Riverside. The periods of significance began in the 1800s, so they are not going to have th e same architectural characteristics. A public relations campaign to addre ss the perception and an effort to form neighborhood-based associations and organizations to promote preservation would greatly aid in any attempt to start implementation of policy. Further, the Histor ic Preservation Element, or a related planning document, could outline the criteri a associated with suburban reside ntial development of this era, thus clarifying what is it that makes these neighborhoods historically distinctive. The benefit of starting to hist orically preserve the neighborhoo ds that are the best example of communities from the post-World War II era through a planning tool such as a neighborhood conservation district is the pos itive influence they provide for surrounding neighborhoods from the same era to preserve their own unique char acter. The quality of life improves within the inner ring and decline is curbed both th rough the historic preservation process and conservation district designation. Table 4-1. List of Census Tracts used for Study. Census Tract Density of Post World War II Housing per Acre Official Planning District in Duval County Tract 1 0.15Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 2 0.31Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 6 0.08Planning District 3-Southeast Tract 11 0.05Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 12 0.03Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 14 0.17Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 15 0.08Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 20 0.04Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 25 0.08Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 26 0.16Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 27.01 0.19Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 27.02 0.10Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 28.01 0.17Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 28.02 0.16Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 29.01 0.09Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 29.02 0.03Planning District 1-Urban Core Tract 103.03 0.05Planning District 6North

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63 Table 4-1. Continued Census Tract Density of Post World War II Housing per Acre Official Planning District in Duval County Tract 108 0.11Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 109 0.08Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 110 0.03Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 111 0.06Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 112 0.06Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 113 0.15Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 114 0.13Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 115 0.16Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 116 0.32Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 118 0.17Planning District 5-Northwest Tract 120 0.16Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 122 0.36Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 123 0.26Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 124 0.04Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 125 0.00Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 126.02 0.01Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 127.01 0.10Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 128 0.07Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 129 0.02Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 134.01 0.11Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 134.02 0.00Planning District 4-Southwest Tract 141.01 0.18City of Jacksonville Beach* Tract 143.11 0.03Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 145 0.05Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 148 0.09Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 149.01 0.34Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 150.02 0.21Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 151.00 0.22Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 152 0.26Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 153 0.30Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 154 0.31Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 155 0.24Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 156 0.17Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 157 0.31Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 158.01 0.10Planning District 2-Greater Arlington/Beaches Tract 162 0.17Planning District 3-Southeast Tract 165 0.05Planning District 3-Southeast *Census tract lies within the City of Jacksonville Beach and is not part of the consolidated government.

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64 Table 4-2. Jacksonville Planning Di stricts in Initial Study Area. Planning District Location Amount of Census Tracts included in Study Planning District 1 Urban Core 8 Planning District 2 Greater Arlington/Beaches 13 Planning District 3 Southeast 3 Planning District 4 Southwest 11 Planning District 5 Northwest 17 Planning District 6 North 2 Table 4-3. Results of Raster Calculator. Indicated Block Groups Census Tract Location Neighborhood within Census Tract 149.01 Greater Arlington/Beaches Lake Lucina 158.01 Greater Arlington/Beaches Glynlea Park 165.00 Southeast San Jose Forest Table 4-4. Results of Raster Calc ulator for Selected Neighborhoods. Lake Lucina Glynlea Park San Jose Forest Bachelors Degrees for Adults Age 25 and Up 9 6 7 Median Value of Homes 4 4 8 Owner Occupied Housing 8 9 4 Per Capita Income of Families 4 4 6 Amount of Families Below Poverty Level 9 10 10 Public Assistance Received 10 10 10 Unemployment Rate 9 10 10 Totals 53 53 53

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65 Table 4-5. Visual Characteristics of Nei ghborhoods. See Appendix A for photographs. Lake Lucina Glynlea Park San Jose Forest Curvilinear Street Pattern Yes Yes Yes Sidewalks Present throughout Yes Yes No Curb and Gutter throughout Yes No Yes Entrance SignNeighborhood Identity No No Yes Home uniformity Same models of home throughout, many were painted brick and concrete block, painted in different colors Same models of homes throughout, painted wood, brick and concrete block painted in different colors Homes varied more, but similar models painted in different colors were visible Neighborhood-wide Distinctive Architectural Features Ornamental porch railings and columns, large front windows Ornamental porch railings and columns, ornamental wood work on front of homes, large front windows Ornamental porch railings and columns, red brick facades, strong horizontal roof lines, large front windows Signs of Gentrification and Major Remodeling of Homes No, homes did have additions, but there were not visually noticeable with a few exceptions Yes, homes located on the West side of the neighborhood adjacent to the Creek were obviously renovated and in one instance a modern home and driveway was seen Yes, some homes looked like renovations and additions had been added over the years, but many of the homes still architecturally reflected the postWorld War II era Maintained Homes Somewhat, there were homes that were obviously vacant or illmaintained Somewhat, there were homes that were obviously vacant or illmaintained All of the homes were well-maintained Maintained Yards Somewhat, there were yards that were not being maintained Somewhat, there were yards that were not being maintained All of the yards were well maintained Finished Garages Finished Garages were moderately distributed throughout the neighborhood, mostly 1-car Finished Garages were moderately distributed throughout the neighborhood, mostly 1-car All finished garages, some 2-car and mostly 1-car

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66 Figure 4-1. Development Patt erns in Duval County. (Source: Duval County Propert y Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, Display by Year Results)

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67 Figure 4-2. Density of Census Tracts with Post-World War II housing. (Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts; Spatial Join and Calculation of Density by Acre)

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68 Figure 4-3. Planning Districts in Jacksonville. (Source: City of Jacksonville Geographic Information Systems-Jax GIS, 2008-http://maps.coj.net/jaxgis/)

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69 Figure 4-4. Bachelors Degree s for Adults Age 25 and up. The darker the blue color, the higher the con centration of bachelors degrees for residents over 25 years in age within the census block group. In this instan ce, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of the i ndicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, Count y Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Bachelors Degree for Adults Age 25 and up; Raster Reclassification Results)

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70 Figure 4-5. Median Value of Homes. The darker the red color, the higher the medi an home values are within the census block group. In this instance, the darker color indica tes a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Libr ary-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Median Value of Homes; Raster Reclassification Results)

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71 Figure 4-6. Owner-Occupied Housing. The darker the pink color, the higher the am ount of owner-occupied housing is within the census block group. In this instance, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Da ta Library-Census Tr acts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Owner-Occupied Housing; Raster Reclassification Results)

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72 Figure 4-7. Per Capita Income of Families. The darker the burgundy color, the higher the amount of per ca pita income is within the census block group. In this instance, the darker color indicates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geographic Da ta Library-Census Tr acts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Per Capita Income of Families; Raster Reclassification Results)

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73 Figure 4-8. Amount of Families Below Poverty Level. The darker the green color, the higher the am ount of families below the poverty level is within the census block group. In this instance, the lighter color indi cates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geogr aphic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau -Amount of Families Below Poverty Level; Raster Reclassification Results)

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74 Figure 4-9. Public Assistance Received. The darker the green color, the higher the amount of families receiving public assistance is within the census block group. In this instance, the lighter color indi cates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florida Geogr aphic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bur eau-Public Assistance Received; Raster Reclassification Results)

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75 Figure 4-10. Unemployment Rates. The darker the gray color, the higher the amount of unemployment is within the census block group. In this instance, the lighter color in dicates a more favorable level of the indicator. (Source: Florid a Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Census Bureau-Unemployment Rates; Raster Reclassification Results)

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76 Figure 4-11. Results of Raster Ca lculation by Census Block Group. The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within th e census block group and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, U.S. Cens us Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation Results)

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77 Figure 4-12. Lake Lucina Neighborhood. The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within th e census block group and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts and County Boundary, Duval County Property A ppraiser Year Built by Parcel, U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Socioeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation Results)

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78 Figure 4-13. Glynlea Park Neighborhood. The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within th e census block group and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, Duval Count y Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel, U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Soci oeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation Results)

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79 Figure 4-14. San Jose Forest Neighborhood. The pink color indicates the highest calculated point values within th e census block group and the light blue is the lowest. (Source: Florida Geographic Data Library-Census Tracts, County Boundary, and Hydrology, Duval Count y Property Appraiser Year Built by Parcel U.S. Census Bureau-Calculated Soci oeconomic Indicators; Raster Calculation Results) San Jose Forest

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80 Figure 4-15. Lake Lucina typi cal home-3211 Hollyberry Lane. This home was built in 1959, had a base square footage of 1247 square feet (BAS). There are two additions (ADT) that equal 468 square feet an unfinished storage room (UST) of 104 square feet and two finished porches at 56 s quare feet. The total square footage is now 1875. (Source: Duval County Pr operty Appraiser Websitehttp://www.coj.net/Departments/Property+Appraiser/default.htm) Figure 4-16. Glynlea Park typical home-719 Glynlea Rd. This home was built in 1952, had a base square f ootage of 957 square feet (BAS). There is one addition (ADT) that equal 468 square feet an unfinished storag e room (UST) of 60 square feet, a finished garage (FGR) at 216 s quare feet, an unfinish ed carport (UCP) at 84 square feet and two finished por ches (FOP) at 76 square feet. The total square footage is now 1749. (Source: Duval County Property Appraiser Websitehttp://www.coj.net/Departments/Property+Appraiser/default.htm)

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81 Figure 4-17. San Jose Forest Typi cal Home-7034 Catalonia Avenue. This home was built in 1958, had a base square footage of 2320 square feet (BAS). There is one addition (ADT) that equals 546 square f eet a finished garage (FGR) of of 546 square feet and a finished porch (FOP) at 40 square feet. The total squa re footage is now 3452. (Source: Duval County Prope rty Appraiser Websitehttp://www.coj.net/Departments/Property+Appraiser/default.htm)

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82 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION This study identified several so cioeconomic indicators and, us ing those, applied GIS to locate neighborhoods dating from the post-W orld War II housing boom in Jacksonville, Florida as candidates for historic preservation. Th ree neighborhoods, (Glynlea Park, Lake Lucina and San Jose Forest) were identified using this methodology. Their potential for being preserved using a neighborhood conservation district designation was then discussed. This study hypothesizes that socioeconomic indicators are fundamental in identifying neighborhoods for preservation becau se the social and economic status of a community is vital for successful historic preservation efforts. The typical post-World War II neighborhood was uniquely designed to accommodate reliance on the automobile and reflected mass production construction techniques that incorporated simple architectural features. The large number of neighborhoods with these charac teristics could make identifying the potential candidates hard since many of them look the same. GIS offers the technology to identif y and prioritize these areas for further preservation analysis and, provided the preservation process confirms their significance based on early post-wa r criteria, for protection usi ng planning tools such as conservation districts. These significant neighborhoods can be preserved based on thei r distinctive set of defining characteristics, including low cost homes with efficient floor plans on large lots sitting along curvilinear streets. These homes, once the extent of growth of Jacksonville, are now located in the inner rings of the city. They are in ideal locations because they are closer to the central business district than more recent suburbs and alr eady have services and infrastructure to support the residents.

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83 In order to realize the goal of preserving early post-war neighborhoods, the following is recommended: update the Historic Preservation Element of the Comprehensive Plan including criteria for evaluation of these neighborhoods; initiate a preservation process that uses the GIS tools and socioeconomic demographic data to confirm which neighborhoods should be protected; and implement a neighborhood conservation district to protect these areas. In addition, a public relations campaign is necessary to promote the historic signif icance of the post-war home. Jacksonville has many neighborhoods from th e post-war era and by preserving these developments, the city can ensure protection of these historic resources in the selected neighborhoods and set an example for other neig hborhoods that wish to follow the established model. The iconic era following World War II in Amer ica was first seen on television in shows such as Leave it to Beaver and the suburban life was sold to the general public. Dolores Hayden coined the term, the sitcom suburbs to descri be these post-war neighbo rhoods. Preservation of these neighborhoods, a part of our communities a nd to a larger extent, American history, is important because saving these suburbs makes "a more sustainable and more equitable place (Hayden, 2003, p. 135). Universal Applicability By using GIS to assess neighborhoods for historic preservation potenti al, planners have a technical tool to use in the pres ervation of inner ring suburbs. Wh ile historic preservationists are still arguing about the signifi cance of the post-Wo rld War II neighborhoods, planners can be applying district standards in or der to preserve them, avoiding d ecline or gentrification. The use of GIS in the historic preservation process has been limited because of the reliance on design to determine applicability of preservation efforts in these post-war neighborhoods. The National Park Service still requires an architectural survey but the social and cultural attributes cannot be

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84 determined by design or architectural assessment alone. GIS determines the density of post-war housing within census blocks in the study area Thus only the significant and intact neighborhoods are selected based on the GISs analytical abilities. Further, GIS provides the calculations to substantiate the selection of the neighborhood. The data used to determine eligibility of neighborhoods for historic preservation is available for any city or county since most of it is based on the U.S. Census. Property appraiser data is not consistent between local governments; this is especially true of data that can be easily used in the GIS software such as parcel data and tax records. Some counties do not have an advanced GIS system in place in conjunction wi th the Property Appraisers office or County Government to maintain and vi sualize property records. The socioeconomic indicators could be modi fied if a community thought one was not important or an important one was excluded from the study. The socioeconomic indicators could also be weighted if one indicat or was more important to a community than another. The basic concept of the analysis is the same, but the diffe rence between the indicators allows a community to analyze the historic housing stock from a socioeconomic and geographic standpoint. For example, if the presence of a certain minority population group is important to the neighborhood, like a historically black community, than the race demographics would be an additional indicator used in the analysis. Policy Implications There has been no government-sponsored effort to historically preserve the housing from the post-World War II boom in Jacksonville; none of the four register ed districts contain contributing structures from this era. The remaining preservation efforts are headed by nonprofit neighborhood organizations. The non-profits have had some success, like the San Marco Preservation Society that secure d a zoning overlay to protect th e character of their neighborhood

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85 without first requiring recognition as a historic district by the C ity of Jacksonville or placement on the National Register. Nonprofit organizations are benefi cial for organizing neighborhood groups and efforts for preservation, such as designation on a local regist er or the National Register, but the lack of funding for these groups and the fact they may or may not be supported by the local government can hinder their efforts. Jacksonville has an abundance of neighbor hoods built from 1945-1960, so initiating efforts to preserve their character is important for protection. Using GIS distinguishes one neighborhood from another, with the ability to map ch aracteristics that are not visible to the eye. This study also used a visual assessment a wi ndshield survey to determine the general condition of the neighborhood, but the sites were identified by mapping a combination of the socioeconomic indicators. The combination of th e GIS analysis and the windshield survey help to strengthen and bolster the case for hist oric preservation of these neighborhoods. Nationwide not many neighborhoods from this er a have been preserved, and the use of neighborhood conservation districts is a fairly new practice. Histor ic preservation in the context of neighborhoods from 1945-1960 has been previ ously dismissed by historians because it represents the recen t past. Calling these neighbor hoods historic may be socially unacceptable in regards of a term for preservation, but a designation such as a neighborhood conservation district may be more acceptable in the case of a public relations campaign. Recommendations for Future Research The idea of applying GIS to the field of hist oric preservation is fairly new, and ma ny opportunities exist to expand on this study. If Jacksonville were to apply the results of this study as part of a broader preservation process to furt her evaluate and confirm the significance of these particular neighborhoods by adopting conservation dist ricts to protect them, then a study of the economic benefits of doing so would a ugment the results outlined in the Economic Impacts of

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86 Historic Preservation in Florida Implementing a preservati on policy in the selected neighborhoods affects the adjacent neighborhoods a nd their preservation e fforts since historic preservation is proven to positively affect the quality of life and preservation activities convey economic benefits. Applying the methodologies in this study to another city, using other socioeconomic indicators or using updated or new data is reco mmended. GIS allows geographical and statistical modification so that by changing one factor, the calculation and results differ or can have a different meaning. Performing this same study on another city, perhaps one that is located in another region of the country, w ould probably yield different resu lts. In fact, Lee and Leigh (2007) found the four cities they examined, which were in different regions, showed different growth patterns. Jacksonville most closely rese mbles Atlanta, which Lee and Leigh (2007) call a fast-growing city, unlike Portland, Philadelphia or Cleveland, which have slower growth patterns comparatively. Many cities in the South have ex perienced rapid growth mo re recently than other regions, so this study could hold a different value if performed on a city from another region or one that experienced rapid grow th in an earlier period than th e South. This study and Lee and Leighs study used 2000 Census data, which is almost out of date. By employing updated data from the next census (2010), the socioeconomic indicators may be further analyzed and compared. When the U.S. Census Bureau issues 2010 data, performing the same study could vary this studys outcome or give more concrete evidence to bolster these selected neighborhoods as candidates for historic preservation. By 2010, the full range of the studys years for housing 1945-1960 will be at least 50 years old, and all units will be eligible for the National Register.

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87 The same study could be used to look at different socioeconomi c indicators or could incorporate other factors. The model that Lee and Leigh (2007) adopted uses minority population, age of population, vacant housing pr oportion and overcrowding housing proportion as indicators. Those indicator s were not used because they did not contribute to the neighborhoods ability to support hi storic preservation efforts; how ever, that does not preclude another study from using GIS methods to apply those indicators in addition to those used in this study. The inclusion of race or ethnicity in another study would acknowledge the cultural attributes of a neighborhood, incorporating the ar eas heritage as additi onal evaluative material for the overall preservation process. The histor y of these neighborhoods was not explored due to this studys focus on identifying areas for furt her study. Clearly understanding local history would also contribute to a ssessing neighborhood significance. The indicators were not weight ed in this study and were treat ed equally in the calculation of the selected neighborhoods. By weighting the indicators in a subsequent study, more or less emphasis could be placed on a certain indicator. In this study, there were intervals of data unrepresented in four out of the seven socioec onomic indicators. Weighting could also place more importance on a certain indicators. Furthe r, additional indicators such as school location and transportation networks could enhance this type of study. By implementing a historic preservation policy in one neighborhood, adjacent neighborhoods are sure to benefit. Measuring the social or ec onomic benefits that historic preservation has on nearby neighborhoods could also be explored. GIS is also a useful tool in analyzing adjacent neighborhoods because it identifies the spatia l relationships and socioeconomic spillovers. This study did not m easure any of the indicators over time, and a similar study doing could provide results measur ing the long-term stability potential of a

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88 neighborhood. GIS could also be used to identif y patterns of gentrification and determine the loss of historic properties, which is essential because two census block groups, which rated higher than the selected ones, were not reco mmended for this study because an insufficient density of early post-war homes existed. GI S can measure the success of any implemented preservation techniques such as a neighborhood conservation district or zoning overlay district. A review of how effectively the San Marco hist oric zoning overlay has preserved the character of the structures and the social fabric us ing GIS after some time has passed since the implementation would support this study because it would show success or failure of citizen-led initiatives in historic areas not located on the National Register of Historic Places. Assessing historic neighborhoods with GIS a ssists the community in making decisions on preservation and the best technique to go about maintaining neighborhood character. Generally, employing GIS for socioeconomic research provides a spatial explanation of the data and the visual assistance and results can a dd more perspective and angles of analysis. The use of GIS in historic preservation studies provides another level of analysis and accommodates the planners input in the process. A planne r studies long-term plans and how they impact a community, and GIS is a useful tool to aid in that analysis. This study positively contributes to the goal of planners using GIS and the histor ic preservation process as tools to preserve post-war inner ring neighborhoods.

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89 APPENDIX NEIGHBORHOOD PHOTOGRAPHS Note: The photographs show one or two exam ples illustrating category from Table 4-5, please note that several of the photographs were interc hangeable between the categories and illustrate more than one characteristic. Figure A-1. Sidewalk in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-2. Sidewalk in Gl ynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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90 Figure A-3. Lack of sidewalk in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author. Figure A-4. One of the very few sidewalk s in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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91 Curb and Gutter Figure A-5. Typical Curb and Gutter in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-6. Lack of Curb and Gutte r in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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92 Figure A-7. Typical Curb and Gutter in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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93 Home Uniformity Figure A-8. Typical home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-9. Typical home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.

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94 Figure A-10. Typical home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author. Figure A-11. Typical home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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95 Figure A-12. Typical home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author. Figure A-13. Typical home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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96 Neighborhood Wide Distinctiv e Architectural Features Figure A-14. Ornamental Porch in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-15. Large Front Windows typical in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.

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97 Figure A-16. Decorative Exterior in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author. Figure A-17. Large Front Windows typica l in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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98 Figure A-18. Ornamental Porch in Sa n Jose Forest. Photo by Author. Figure A-19. Strong horizont al lines in San Jose Fo rest. Photo by Author.

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99 Signs of Gentrification a nd Major Remodeling of Homes Figure A-20. Visible Addition in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.

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100 Figure A-21. Visibly newer home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author. Figure A-22. Visibly different property entrance in Glynl ea Park. Photo by Author.

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101 Figure A-23. Visibly more modern and updated home in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author. Maintained Homes Figure A-24. Well-kept home in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author.

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102 Figure A-25. Well-kept home in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author. Figure A-26. Well-kept home in Sa n Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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103 Maintained Yards Figure A-27. Well-manicured yard in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-28. Typical yard in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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104 Figure A-29. Well-kept yard in Sa n Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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105 Finished Garages Figure A-30. Example of a carport in Lake Lucina. Photo by Author. Figure A-31. Example of one car gara ge in Glynlea Park. Photo by Author.

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106 Figure A-32. Example of two car garage in San Jose Forest. Photo by Author.

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107 LIST OF REFERENCES Alanen, A. J. & Melnick, R. Z. (2000). Editors. Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America (pp. 1-9). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Am es, D. L. (1999). Understanding Suburbs as Historic Landscapes through Preservation. In Harris, R. & Larkham, P. J. (Eds). Changing Suburbs: Foundation Form and Function (pp. 222-238). New York: Routledge. Ames, D. L., & McClelland, L. F. (2002). Historic Residential Suburbs: Guidelines for Evaluation and Documentation for the Na tional Register of Historic Places (pp. 7-9, 2426, 65-66, 74-76 & 97-107). National Register Bulletin. September 2002. Washington, DC: National Park Service. Re trieved November 2, 2007 from: http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/publications/bulletins/suburbs/index.htm. Beaumont, C. E. (1992). A Citizens Guide to Protecting Historic Places: Local Preservation Ordinances. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation. Board of County Commissioners v. Snyder, 627 So. 2d 469 (Fla. 1993). Retrieved November 2, 2007, from LexisNexis. Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tindell, S. (2003). Public Places, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design Burlington, MA: Arch itectural Press. Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 24, Section 570.705 and Chapter 36, Sections 60.4 and 67.5. Retrieved October 24, 2007, from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr/retrieve.html Cofresi, L. & Radtke, R. (2003). Local Government Programs. In Stipe, R. E., (Ed). A Richer Heritage (pp. 117-156). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Costanzo, P., Principal Planner. (2004). Memo to City of Ft. Lauderdale Beach Redevelopment Advisory Board Members Regarding J une 21, 2004 NBRA & SLA Area Overlay, Historic & Conservation District Overview and Work Parameters, pp. 1-3, http://ci.ftlaud.fl.us/beac h/masterplan/beach_mp/062104 BRABItem IIIMemoExhsOverla yDistricts.pdf. Duval County Property Appraisers Website. (2008). Property Sear ch. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from, http://www.coj.net/Departments/Property+Appraiser/default.htm. ESRI. (2008). GIS Dictionary. Retrieved March 3, 2008, from http://support.esri.com/index.cfm? f a=knowledgebase.gisDictionary.gateway. Fainstein, S. S. (2003). New Dir ections in Planning Theory. In Readings in Planning Theory (2nd ed). (pp. 181-183.) Campbell, S & Fainstein, S. (Eds).Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

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108 Florida Statutes. (2004). 163.3177(7)(i). Retrieved October 24, 2007, from http://www.flsenate.gov/Statutes/index.cfm ?App_m ode=Display_Statute&Search_String =&URL=Ch0163/SEC3177.HTM&Title=->2004->Ch0163>Section%203177#0163.3177. Hall, P. (2002). Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellect ual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc. Hayden, D. (2003). Building Suburbia. New York: Pantheon Books. Hunter, C. (1999). Ranches, Rowhouses and Railroad Flats. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. Historic Preservation Element, Jacks onville Comprehensive Plan. (2000). EAR Report Retrieved February 29, 2008, from: http://www.coj.net/NR/rdonlyres/ev3gbbpr3lzuypw5wo7ywcwrt4ftyqutora7t6q6i26tut3a 5cs2ysusibo3olzqd4ypllpk2woznanfzpuhgedfrff/COMP+PLANHISTORIC +PRESERVATION-%5blast+updated+May+2000%5d+March+0906+ready+for+upload+%28ned+council+na.pdf. Jacksonville Department of Housing and Ne ighborhoods. (2008). Retrieved February 29, 2008 from: http://www.coj.net/Departments/Housi ng+and+Neighborhoods/Community+Developme nt/CPACs/def ault.htm. Jacksonville Geographic Information Systems. JaxGIS. (2008). Map made February 8, 2008, from: http://maps.coj.net/jaxgis/ Jacksonville Regulatory Boards and Commissions. (2008). Histor ic Preservation in D owntown Jacksonville. Retrieved February 28, 2008 from: http://www.coj.net/Departme nts/Regulatory+Boards+and+ Commissions/Historic+Preser vation+Commission/Historic+Preserva tion+in+Downtown+Jacksonville.htm. Lam bin, J. (2008). Recent Past-Preserving Modern Architecture Presentation during the Historic Preservation Lecture Series at the Harn Museum January 2008. University of Florida. Larsen, K. (2006a). Cultural and Aesthetic Values Relevant to Historic Pr eservation in Florida. In Contributions of Historic Preservati on to the Quality of Life in Florida (pp. vii, viii). McLendon, T. (Ed). Tallahasse: Florida Department of State. Larsen, K. (2006b). Tools for Providing Affordable Housing in Floridas Historic Residential Neighborhoods. In Contributions of Historic Preserva tion to the Quality of Life in Florida (pp. 1-3) McLendon, T. (Ed). Tallahassee: Flor ida Department of State.

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109 Larson Fisher Associates. (2005). Neighborhood Conservation Distri ct Study for the Town of Brookline. (p. 3) Brookline, Massachuse tts. Retrieved October 24, 2007, from: http://www.townofbrooklinemass.com/Planning/PDFs/NCDStudy.pdf. Lea, D. (2003). Americas Preservation Ethos. In Stipe, R. E., (Ed). A Richer Heritage (p. 7). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Pr ess. Lee, S. & Leigh, N.G. (2007). Intrametropolita n Spatial Differentiation and Decline of InnerSuburbs: A Comparison of Four U.S. Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Planning Education and Research 27, 146-164. Listokin, D., Lahr, M.L, McLendon, T., & Klein, J. (2002). Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation in Florida. (pp. 5-15 & 81 -105). Florida Department of State. Lyon, E. A. & Brook, D. L. S. (2003). The States : The Backbone of Preservation. In Stipe, R. E., (Ed). A Richer Heritage (pp 81-116). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Martin, D. (2004). Reconstructing Urban Politic s: Neighborhood Activism in Land-Use Change. Urban Affairs Review, 39, 589-612. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from: http://uar.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/39/5/589. McLendon, T., Klein, J., Larsen, K., Phillips, R., Willumson, G., and Confer, J. (2006 ). Contribution of Historic Preservation to the Quality of Life in Florida Florida Department of State. Nation Register of Historic Places, Duval C ounty. (2008). Retrieved February 25, 2008, from: http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/FL/Duval/districts.html. Old Arington Inc. (2008). Retrieved February 1, 2008, from: http://www.oldarlington.org/home.php. Pam uk, A. (2006). Map ping Global Cities: GIS Methods in Urban Analysis (pp 15-66) Redlands, CA: ESRI Press. Phillips, R. (2006). Indicators Framework for Gauging Quality of Life Impacts of Historic Preservation in Floridas Communties. In Contribution of Historic Preservation to the Quality of Life in Florida (pp. 11-12). McLendon, T. (Ed). Fl orida Department of State. Preservation Guidelines for Riverside-Avonda le. (2007). Retrieved November 27, 2007, from: http://www.coj.net/Departme nts/Regulatory+Boards+and+ Commissions/Historic+Preser vation+Commission/Preservation+Guidel ines+for+Avondale+Riverside+.htm. Reichl, A. (1997). Histor ic Preservation a nd Progrowth Politics in U.S. Cities. Urban Affairs Review, 32, 516-517. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://uar.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/513.

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110 Riverside Avondale Preservation. (2007). Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://riversideavondale.com Sawicki, D. S. & Flynn, P. (1996). Neighborhood indicators: A re view of the literature and an assessment of conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(2), 165-183. Retrieved March 2, 2008, from: http://search.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl .edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=9604010 760&site=ehost-live Samon, K. A. (2003). Ranch House Style (pp. 14-22). New York: Clarkson Potter/Publishers. San Marco Overlay District Ordinance. (2008). Retrieved February 28, 2008, from: http://www.sanmarcopreservationsociety.com/zoning.htm Stipe, R. E., (Ed). (2003). A Richer Heritage (pp 25-116). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. United States Census Bureau. (2000). Geogr aphic Data Search. D uval County. Retrieved Decem ber 16, 2007, from: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DT GeoSearchByListServlet?ds_name=DEC_2000_S F1_U&_lang=en&_ts=224936258399 Zellner, P. (1998). The Big City is no Longer Modern. Daidalos Berlin Architectual Journal 69/70, 68-75. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from http://content.epnet.com/pdf10/pdf/ 1998/bgf/01dec98/3977098.pdf?T=P&P=AN&K=397 7098&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7Y4xN vgOLCmr lCep7BSsa64SrGWxWXS&Co ntentCustomer=dGJyMPGut1C1qbNJuePfgeyx%2BEu3q64A&D=aph

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH No one can say, You must not run faster than this, or jump higher th an that. The human spirit is indomitable. (Sir Roger Bannister The first man to break the four minute mile in 1954) Lauren Simmons is an idealistic urban-planne r type who grew up in Jacksonville, Florida, the oldest of four siblings. After high school, she attended the University of Central Florida and received a Bachelor of Arts in po litical science. Lauren worked for two years in a central Florida planning department before return ing to school to pursue a masters degree in urban and regional planning at the University of Florida and a Cert ificate in Historic Pr eservation. During school, Lauren held a graduate assist antship with the Center for Building Better Communities, under Gene Boles, and was a collegiate representative of the Florida Chapter of the American Planning Association for the University of Florida. Her interests in planning incl ude historic preservation, comprehensive planning, Geographic Inform ation Systems, urban design, and growth management. Outside of school, Lauren enjoys running, intellectual activities, the beach, and spending time with family and friends. Her lif e goals include a successf ul career in planning, running a marathon, and owning a historic home.