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Case Studies of Two Florida Architects' Residential Passive Design Strategies and Recommendations for Today's Developers

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022214/00001

Material Information

Title: Case Studies of Two Florida Architects' Residential Passive Design Strategies and Recommendations for Today's Developers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With green design and sustainability becoming the focus of design and construction, it is easy to overlook basic low-impact passive design strategies and focus on the latest features of green design. Often adding features to non-climatic responsive design does not improve performance. One must understand basic concepts of good climatic-responsive design, before successful, low environmental impact building can occur. Historically, regional vernacular architecture that was developed over time was the tool for designers and contractors to learn environmentally responsive design. It is almost impossible to discuss the notion of vernacular architecture without looking at climate, one of the most important influences that dictate materials, joinery and the design and construction of buildings that can provide adequate indoor thermal comfort without relying on mechanical systems. This study looks at the work of two famous Florida architects who designed houses in two coastal regions of Florida before mechanical systems were widely used in residential design and construction. Their houses have been praised for years for their integration with the environment and their quality of craft. Both architects understood the climate, the local materials available, and the basic strategies required to successfully build without mechanical systems. Their ability to design and build successfully environmentally responsive houses over 50 years ago deserve a closer look to examine what strategies used in the residential construction designs that may have be applicable in today's context. The environmental responsiveness of residential construction has steadily declined with the increased use of indoor mechanical systems to create thermal comfort in indoor environments. Before mechanical cooling was introduced, people lived a productive life in south and central Florida. Many authors have speculated that one of the biggest factors that influenced the fall of passively conditioned homes was in the invention of the air-conditioner. This study looks at the drawings, images, and materials of six homes by two architects to study the passive design strategies that were used in south and central Florida before the intervention of mechanical systems. It makes recommendations for passive design strategies that can be used today to improve the environmental performance of residential buildings. Most of these strategies have been used throughout history, but tend to be neglected as a key part of the design process today. By re-examining a tool that has already proven itself to be useful, perhaps personal, economical, and environmental gains can be achieved.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022214:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022214/00001

Material Information

Title: Case Studies of Two Florida Architects' Residential Passive Design Strategies and Recommendations for Today's Developers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With green design and sustainability becoming the focus of design and construction, it is easy to overlook basic low-impact passive design strategies and focus on the latest features of green design. Often adding features to non-climatic responsive design does not improve performance. One must understand basic concepts of good climatic-responsive design, before successful, low environmental impact building can occur. Historically, regional vernacular architecture that was developed over time was the tool for designers and contractors to learn environmentally responsive design. It is almost impossible to discuss the notion of vernacular architecture without looking at climate, one of the most important influences that dictate materials, joinery and the design and construction of buildings that can provide adequate indoor thermal comfort without relying on mechanical systems. This study looks at the work of two famous Florida architects who designed houses in two coastal regions of Florida before mechanical systems were widely used in residential design and construction. Their houses have been praised for years for their integration with the environment and their quality of craft. Both architects understood the climate, the local materials available, and the basic strategies required to successfully build without mechanical systems. Their ability to design and build successfully environmentally responsive houses over 50 years ago deserve a closer look to examine what strategies used in the residential construction designs that may have be applicable in today's context. The environmental responsiveness of residential construction has steadily declined with the increased use of indoor mechanical systems to create thermal comfort in indoor environments. Before mechanical cooling was introduced, people lived a productive life in south and central Florida. Many authors have speculated that one of the biggest factors that influenced the fall of passively conditioned homes was in the invention of the air-conditioner. This study looks at the drawings, images, and materials of six homes by two architects to study the passive design strategies that were used in south and central Florida before the intervention of mechanical systems. It makes recommendations for passive design strategies that can be used today to improve the environmental performance of residential buildings. Most of these strategies have been used throughout history, but tend to be neglected as a key part of the design process today. By re-examining a tool that has already proven itself to be useful, perhaps personal, economical, and environmental gains can be achieved.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022214:00001


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CASE STUDIES OF TWO FLORIDA ARCHITECTS RESIDENTIAL PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TODAYS DEVELOPERS By DERECK LUCCA WINNING A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Dereck Lucca Winning 2

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To Alfred Browning Parker, the master architect. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my family and Marie for their conti nual support and for always believing in me, my committee chair Dr. Olbina, and Dr. Ries, who was the guidi ng voice behind this work. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................12 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................13 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .15 Statement of Purpose ..............................................................................................................15 Objective of the Study ............................................................................................................15 Scope and Limitations ............................................................................................................16 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................17 Vernacular Architecture ..........................................................................................................17 Culture .............................................................................................................................18 Climate ............................................................................................................................18 Climate Responsive Design ....................................................................................................19 Suns Angle .....................................................................................................................20 Solar Gain ........................................................................................................................22 Shading ............................................................................................................................23 Passive Cooling ...............................................................................................................25 Thermal Comfort ....................................................................................................................26 Personal: Involuntary .......................................................................................................27 Environmental .................................................................................................................28 Time of Use and Location ...............................................................................................29 Thermal Preference or Thermal Comfort ........................................................................30 The Intervention of Mechanical Systems ...............................................................................30 The Four Essential Functions of Modern Air Conditioning ............................................32 The Beginning Stages 1904 to 1929................................................................................33 Vaudeville & Mass Production .......................................................................................34 Consequences of Creating a Necessity............................................................................35 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................3 9 Case Studies ............................................................................................................................43 4 CASE STUDIES................................................................................................................. ....45 Historical Precedents ..............................................................................................................45 South Florida: Alfred Browning Parker .................................................................................46 5

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Case Study 1: Royal Road Residence .............................................................................46 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................47 Shading .....................................................................................................................49 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................51 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................52 Case Study 2: Mass Residence ........................................................................................54 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................55 Shading .....................................................................................................................56 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................57 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................58 Case Study 3: Gables Estates ..........................................................................................60 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................61 Shading .....................................................................................................................63 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................64 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................65 Central Florida: Paul Rudolph ................................................................................................66 Case Study 4: Cocoon House ..........................................................................................67 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................68 Shading .....................................................................................................................69 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................69 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................69 Case Study 5: Leavengood Residence .............................................................................70 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................71 Shading .....................................................................................................................71 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................72 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................72 Case Study 6: Umbrella House ........................................................................................73 Site/Orientation ........................................................................................................74 Shading .....................................................................................................................76 Cooling/Ventilation ..................................................................................................76 Daylighting ...............................................................................................................78 5 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................80 Recommendations for Todays Builders ................................................................................83 Site ...................................................................................................................................83 Orientation .......................................................................................................................84 Shading ............................................................................................................................84 Passive Cooling ...............................................................................................................85 Daylighting ......................................................................................................................85 6 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................... ....86 APPENDIX A CASE STUDIES CHECK LISTS..........................................................................................88 6

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LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................112 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................113 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table P age Table 3-1. Site/Orientation ...........................................................................................................40 Table 3-1. Shading .......................................................................................................................41 Table 3-3. Cooling/Ventilation ....................................................................................................42 Table 3-4. Daylighting .................................................................................................................43 Table 5-1. Recommended Overhang Lengths .............................................................................82 8

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Figure 2-1. Sun angle ....................................................................................................................21 Figure 2-2. Sun paths. ....................................................................................................................22 Figure 2-3. Heat transfer through materials ..................................................................................23 Figure 2-4. Solar angles with alternative shading devices. ...........................................................24 Figure 2-5. Number of window airconditioners sold between 19451956. .................................35 Figure 4-1. Royal Road Residence southeastern faade. ..............................................................47 Figure 4-2. Cross section looking northeast .................................................................................47 Figure 4-3. Air flow diagram of Royal Road ................................................................................48 Figure 4-4. Southeastern faade ....................................................................................................49 Figure 4-5. Large overhangs .........................................................................................................50 Figure 4-6. Overhangs showing solar angle ..................................................................................50 Figure 4-7. Cross Sectio n through persiana door ..........................................................................51 Figure 4-9. Main floor plan ...........................................................................................................52 Figure 4-10. Cross section ............................................................................................................52 Figure 4-11. Concrete roof surface ...............................................................................................52 Figure 4-12. Interior of Royal Road ..............................................................................................53 Figure 4-13. Inside dining area .....................................................................................................53 Figure 4-14. Roof terrace and studio on Royal Road ....................................................................54 Figure 4-15. North elevation .........................................................................................................55 Figure 4-16. Elevated main living space .......................................................................................55 Figure 4-17. Southwestern faade .................................................................................................56 Figure 4-18. Southeastern faade ..................................................................................................57 Figure 4-19. Solar angles for three different seasons ....................................................................57 9

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Figure 4-20. Cross section looking north. ......................................................................................58 Figure 4-21. Operable skylight detail...........................................................................................58 Figure 4-22. Second floor looking north .......................................................................................59 Figure 4-23. Sanding on elevated living space .............................................................................60 Figure 4-24. Plans of three levels of main house ..........................................................................61 Figure 4-25. Aerial of site looking north ......................................................................................62 Figure 4-26. Plan of ground floor .................................................................................................63 Figure 4-27. Southeastern faade with heavy overhangs ..............................................................64 Figure 4-28. Inside liv ing room looking south .............................................................................65 Figure 4-29. Connection of pool to house....................................................................................66 Figure 4-30. Perspective of southwestern faade in context .........................................................67 Figure 4-31. Southeastern corner .................................................................................................68 Figure 4-32. Looking north ...........................................................................................................69 Figure 4-33. Looking west ............................................................................................................70 Figure 4-34. Perspective drawing .................................................................................................71 Figure 4-35. Plan ...........................................................................................................................71 Figure 4-36. Exterior perspective .................................................................................................72 Figure 4-37. Leave ngood interior photos......................................................................................73 Figure 4-38. Elevation of western faade .....................................................................................74 Figure 4-39. Floor plan top ...........................................................................................................74 Figure 4-40. Wind flow pattern ....................................................................................................75 Figure 4-41. Aerial of site .............................................................................................................75 Figure 4-42. Section ......................................................................................................................76 Figure 4-43. Wind flow pattern ....................................................................................................77 Figure 4-44. Longitudinal Section ................................................................................................77 10

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Figure 4-45. Umbrella shading device ..........................................................................................78 Figure 4-46. Interior looking south ...............................................................................................78 Figure 4-47. Front faade of house ................................................................................................79 Figure 5-1. Example of roof overhang ..........................................................................................82 11

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS HVAC Heating Ventila tion and Air-Conditioning LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design USGBC United States Green Building Council 12

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master of Scie nce in Building Construction CASE STUDIES OF TWO FLORIDA ARCHITECTS RESIDENTIAL PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TODAYS DEVELOPERS By Dereck Lucca Winning May 2008 Chair: Svetlana Olbina Cochair: Robert Ries Major: Building Construction With green design and sustainability becomi ng the focus of design and construction, it is easy to overlook basic low-impact passive design strategies and fo cus on the latest features of green design. Often adding features to nonclimatic responsive design does not improve performance. One must understand basic conc epts of good climatic-responsive design, before successful, low environmental impact building ca n occur. Historically, regional vernacular architecture that was developed over time was th e tool for designers and contractors to learn environmentally responsive design. It is almost impossible to discuss the notion of vernacular architecture without looking at climate, one of the most impor tant influences that dictate materials, joinery and the design and construction of buildings th at can provide adequate indoor thermal comfort, without relyi ng on mechanical systems. This study looks at the work of two famous Florida architects who designed houses in two coastal regions of Florida before mechanical syst ems were widely used in residential design and construction. Their houses have been praised for years for their integratio n with the environment and their quality of craft. Both architects unders tood the climate, the loca l materials available, and the basic strategies required to successfully build without mechanical systems. Their ability 13

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to design and build successfully environmentally responsive houses over 50 years ago deserves a closer look to examine what strategies used in the residential constructi on designs that may have been applicable in todays context. The environmental responsiveness of resident ial construction has steadily declined with the increased use of indoor mechanical syst ems to create thermal comfort in indoor environments. Before mechanical cooling was introduced, people lived a productive life in south and central Florida. Many authors have speculated that one of the biggest factors that influenced the fall of passively conditioned homes was in th e invention of the air-conditioner. This study looks at the drawings, images, a nd materials of six homes by two architects to study the passive design strategies that were used in south and central Florida before the intervention of mechanical systems. It makes recommendations for passive design strategies that can be used today to improve the environmental performan ce of residential buildi ngs. Most of these strategies have been used throughout history, but te nd to be neglected as a key part of the design process today. By re-examining a tool that ha s already proven itself to be useful, perhaps personal, economical, and environmen tal gains can be achieved. 14

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Statement of Purpose The importance of understanding the local enviro nment of a building site by designers and builders seems to have been removed from th e basic construction process. Proven passive design strategies that have been practiced and perfected for thousands of years seem to have become less important in residential constructi on. Many of todays architects have forgotten what it means to consider the local conditions of the environment, materials, and climate during the design and construction processes. Design ha s become either part of a mass production for economical gain or personal self-expression with no connection to site or local conditions. As transportation and communication capabilities have expanded many professions have grown accustomed to working from a distance, making decisions that impact both individuals and communities without having an in-depth level of knowledge about the local context. Examining the traditional ar chitecture of a place, one woul d often find that the climate and environment were driving forces for the design. With the introduc tion of mechanical conditioning systems, designers and developers have become re liant on artificially created environments, without considering passive stra tegies related to the buildings geographical location. Todays ability to create the ideal condition of comfor t 24/7 allows a structure to be designed with the assistance of mechanical heatin g and cooling that no long er considers site as an important factor. Objective of the Study Sustainability and green archit ecture have recently become the important concepts within the construction community. Hist orically local designers and bu ilders understood the vernacular architecture of their region, incl uding their environment and the palette of materials they had to 15

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work with. Their familiarity with the local e nvironmental conditions allowed them to create homes that embraced the landscape and have with stood the tests of time. This research will explore the importance of experienced local ar chitects in creating sustainable homes. The objectives of this study are: 1) Analyze passive design strategies that were implemented prior to the use of mechanical systems for thermal comfort in residential buildings. 2) Determine what passive design strategi es could be implemented from the beginning design phases in order to creat e more sustainable homes and give recommendations to future developers. Scope and Limitations This research focuses on four basic passive de sign strategies in residential construction used in the coastal regions of south and central Florida before the inte rvention of mechanical cooling. It examines site/ori entation, shading, cooling/ventilat ion, and daylighting. Two wellknown residential architects from the state of Florid a were chosen and the four passive strategies in three houses from each were analyzed. The st rategies were organized and used to create recommendations to developers for future residential construction. Due to the age and location of the hous es, the study was performed through the examination of drawings, photographs, and intervie ws with one of the ar chitects and two of the current home owners. 16

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Vernacular Architecture All architects are born into architectural environments th at condition their notions of beauty and bodily comfort and social propriety. Before they have been burdened with knowledge about architecture, their eyes have seen, finge rs touched from their minds inquired into the wholeness of their scenes. They have begun collecti ng scraps of experience without regard to the segregation of facts by logical cl ass. Released from the hug of pleasure and nurture, they have toppled into space, learning to dw ell, to feel at home. Those first acts of occupation deposit a core of connection in th e memory (Glassie 2000). The very term vernacular itself pre-dates th e days of Greek and Roman architecture to time when it was defined as the moment when young children learn from their surroundings, and begin to mimic the singular words and s ounds surrounding them (Alighieri 1981). Human instinct provides a natu ral trigger for one to become observa nt of their surroundings at a very early age, from the sound of our mothers voice to the specific scent of a familiar blanket. We use the five senses to learn and understand what it means to adapt and survive. For the duration of this research the te rm vernacular will be used to discuss the relationship between buildings a nd environment, specifically th e use of mechanical heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems for providing thermal comfort in residential construction. Every geographical location has its climatic conditions that influence how things are built, usually indigenous to a specific time or place. Th e joinery and technology used to build a shelter are highly influenced by an enorm ous variety of factors covering everything from social, traditional and environmental influences to the materials at hand and their ability to withstand degradation as well as periodic natural stresses. As each new element adds to the 17

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complexity of the local built environment and the sp ecificity to its place, it creates a template or model for what works and what is locally acceptable. Culture Typically, vernacular architecture is driven by local traditions and the culture of the people occupying those buildings. Thei r techniques have evolved over many generations and, rather than specific measures or geometrical patterns, it fulfills the needs of how the occupants interact, prepare food, and the size of the family. At tim es the vernacular language derives from religious beliefs or communal organizations, which can greatly influence th e appearance and design of the structures and how individua l units are organized and structured as a community. Climate Throughout history local builders have unders tood how to naturally condition their structures. Their efforts are ra rely done through paper architectur e, or the creation of an idea solely on a two dimensional surface. They ha ve practiced and have a solid understanding, through trial and error, of what works in their environment and what does not. Generations of builders had limited options, forcing them to understand how to design and construct homes using passive conditioning strategi es and readily available materi als, resulting in homes that were thermally comfortable and environmentally friendly. It is almost impossible to discuss the notion of vernacular architecture without looking at the climate. One of the most important influenc es that determine the methods used is the macroclimate of the area where the construction site will be located. The local climate highly influences the materials used, th e joinery, the orientation of the structure, and the location, size type and number of openings. When intense ra infall creates high humidity the possibilities for rotting and mildew need to be considered in the materials selec tion. The same holds true when 18

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the immediate climate is cold. For example, a house designed for northern Wisconsin is likely to have different thermal mass and form than one constructed for the Florida Everglades. Each locale contains its own unique clima tic conditions and demands a certain type of structure to cope with what it o ffers, that is, stilts used for loca tions with potenti al for flooding or monsoon seasons and pitched roofs for large amounts of water runoff. As the climate fluctuates between the seasons the buildings must be able to respond. In some cases the occupants may build their structures for a specific season and then alter them as they prepare for next season. For example, in a tropical climate the building may open in the summer months to ventilate, with screening to prevent unwan ted insects from entering. Climate Responsive Design For centuries people have been building structur es to create a place wh ere one can feel safe and comfortable. Historically the notion of sh elter meant mankinds attempt to achieve as high a level of comfort as possible while being protected from the elements. Shelter maximized results in a specific climate, including everything from the buildings orientati on to the placement of openings for ventilation, to the materials used in construction. From the vegetation surrounding a building to the materials used in its constructio n and how the two react w ith one another can be the difference between an unwanted structure and a home. The building and environment contain a complex matrix of elements that dete rmine the comfort level inside of a building. Some of the basic concepts of natural climate c ontrol and consideration of the local environment have been used for centuries, but also forgo tten over the years for a variety of reasons. When the climate in a specific location becomes unsuitable it is human nature to seek shelter or move. Before any type of mechan ical intervention was introduced natural space conditioning was used for personal comfort. Adaptation, through acclimation to the local climate is also a factor. 19

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Solar Radiation One would find the importance of the sun in rega rds to life and growth in the oldest written human records. Historically the sun was praised and worshipped for its ability to create light and warmth, making it a highly influen tial factor in design strategies. The Romans use of glass to trap heat from escaping through large openings is an example of utilizing solar energy for thermal comfort (Lechner 1991). Glass allows shor t-wave radiation to en ter the structure where it can be absorbed by the thermal mass (floors, walls, furniture) in the building. However, it also blocks long-wave radiation which may result in overheating in loca tions with warmer climates. Independent of the Romans, Native American s developed adobe dwellings oriented to fully access the sun, collecting and storing heat to use at night. In the 20th century, a chasm developed between the built and natural world. In recent history it seems that the enormous potential of the sun and orientation of buildings and communities to advantageously use solar energy has been disregarded. W ithin the last 100 years humanity has benefited from the use of non-renewable energy; but it is also clear that the status quo will be difficult to maintain with or without considering equitable distribution of resources globally. Suns Angle As the earth rotates around the sun it spins on its own northsouth ax is. The tilt of the axis, which causes the seasons, is the reason behind the continuously changing angles of incident solar radiation on an annual basis, a change of 23.5 degrees (Lechner 1991). Depending upon the geographical locatio n of the site, the seasons and the solar radiation are dictated by this tilt. If the location is in the northe rn or southern hemisphere the seasonal highs and lows of solar radiation times of the year are reversed. As the sun rises and sets on a daily schedule it follows a specific path. The altitude angle is the vertical angle that the suns rays follow be fore they hit the earth. There are three factors 20

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that determine this angle: geographic location, time of year, and time of day. As the angle increases towards 90 degrees, the amount of so lar radiation incident on the earths surface increases. The lower the altitude the more atmo sphere incident solar radiation must pass through before hitting the earths surface (Figure 2-1). A lower altitude also increases the surface incident area reducing the amount of heat per un it area (Figure 2-1). For example, in Florida during the summer the altitude angle is close to 90 degrees, increasing the intensity of solar radiation per unit area, while at the same time, th e duration of daylight in Alaska is greater. Figure 2-1. Sun angle in reference to altitude and ground surface. (Lechner 1991) 21

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It is important to understand the solar path of a geographic location and how it changes with the seasons. The solar winter path in the no rthern hemisphere is drastically lower than that of the equator, which also reduces the amount of heat per unit area. The halfway points between the summer and winter months is known as the equinox, when the solar angle is halfway between the low of winter and the high of su mmer (Figure 2-2). With todays computer technology and 3-dimensional renderi ng programs it is much faster and easier to determine the solar angles of a specific location than previous methods used through hand calculations and the use of physical models. Figure 2-2. Sun diagram showing di fferent sun angles for four tim es of the year. (Lechner 1991) Solar Gain In a hot and humid climate such as Florid a, incident solar radiation can unacceptably increase the temperature of surf aces. The greater the conductivity and lower the reflectivity of 22

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the surface, the greater the transmission of heat into the interior space. All openings in south facing facades that are not shaded or adequate ly insulated create an ideal opportunity for unwanted solar gain. Conditions on the east and western facades can be even more extreme due to the suns angle creating longer periods of direct intensity. The denser the materials, such as concrete floors, walls, and heavy furniture that are in direct path of unfiltered sunlight, the greater the absorption of heat during the day and the greater the release at night (Figure 2-3). Solar gain can also happen indirectly by conduction through the envel ope. This is the process of a material absorbing solar radiation and then tr ansferring it through the ma terial, to the cooler interior surface of the material. Thermal c onduction to the interior can be reduced through numerous methods such as installi ng materials with a high R-value, using a ventilated interstitial air space, using reflectiv e roofing material or tiles, and shading. The more one can prevent solar gain to interior spaces in Florida, the cooler the space remains and the less likely one will be in need of mechanical cooling. Figure 2-3. Heat transfer through materials retaining heat during da ytime and releasing at night. (Lechner 1991) Shading One of the most important pass ive design strategies in hot climates is shading. From wellrecognized architecture of the ancient Greeks and Romans to the vernacular of the Florida cracker house, civilizations have understood the importance of shading devices throughout 23

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history. Many shading devices become gatheri ng spaces, especially shading for large openings that create the need for columns. Palladios por ticos as well as vernacul ar porches are gathering spaces that are well ventilated, and protected from the summer sun. Reducing the walls to columns provide the best location during the hot summer conditions. In hot and humid climates shading is highly important, whether it be through the use of vegetation, large roof overhangs, or an altern ative screening device. Solar loads consist primarily of three components: direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation (Lechner 1991). Direct radiation refers to the heat gain received as a direct re sult of exposed surface to the sun. Diffuse radiation, which happens often in hot and humid c limates, is when the atmosphere traps the heat due to absorption and reflectivity of the moisture in the air. The third component is from reflected radiation, which is from surrounding buildi ngs or surfaces that reflect or redirect the suns heat into the building. The positioning of the shading devices is crit ical, not only to filter or deflect the sunlight, but also not preven ting ambient light and ventilating breezes from entering the space. There are a variety of sh ading devices and techniques depending upon the geographic location and building s orientation (Figure 2-4). Figure 2-4. Solar angles with alternative shading devices. (Lechner 1991) 24

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In hot and humid climates closer to the equa tor, horizontal shading devices are preferred on the south facing facades due to the suns angl e. Often times a well designed roof overhang can provide adequate shading from the high summer sun, while allowing some of the lower winter sun to penetrate the inte rior. Depending upon the suns angle, the latitude of the site, and windows height, the width of the overhang can be determined. The possibility of extending the length of the shading device works better in hotter climates where the angle of the sun is less, than latitudes further north. In latitudes closer to the equator the easte rn and western facades receive intense morning and late afternoon sun, which work better with alternative vertical shading devices. Adjusting the height of the windows and vertical sh ading devices on these facades can help to control solar gain from the lower solar altitude angle of the rising and setting sun. There are numerous shading devices that have been created as louvers installed within the windows or interior spaces, simple to complex overhangs, a separate entity from the structure attached to the wall later or devi sed as a separate shell, or the full use of natural vegetation with its seasonal changes to provide shading on a structure during the peak summer months. Passive Cooling Passive cooling strategies ha ve been used around the globe by the indigenous people throughout history in order to crea te a comfortable interior envir onment. Through generations of trial and error, numerous techniques have been te sted and retested to de velop shelter that is climatically comfortable and safe for the occupa nts. For the majority of geographic locations passive design is used primarily to save on heat ing costs by using the suns heat to warm the interior spaces to a comfortable level. In hot and humid climates the biggest issue is cooling, ventilation, and dehumidification of the spaces to maintain an indoor comfort. There are a series of components one must address when consid ering cooling a space through passive design. Avoiding heat gain, is the first step. Avoidance can be accomplis hed through the use of adequate 25

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shading, proper orientation, mate rial use and color, surrounding vegetation, insulation, daylight, and control of interi or heat sources. Once heat avoidance has been addressed as much as possible the next step is to address ventilation of the interior spaces. Ventilati on cools through evaporative processes, but the velocity of the wind and the amount of humidity in the air can be a problem. If the relative humidity is high, moisture can be absorbed into certain interior materials including carpet and furniture, which can make it more difficult to co ol. Once wind velocity passes a certain point interior conditions can become extreme or annoying creating uncomfortable conditions. Thermal Comfort If one were to think of a home as a living organism that needs to breathe, needs daylight, and routine care and feeding then it is easier to understand what is needed for a good home to be integrated with its environment. As the indoor conditions, such as, temperature, humidity, airspeed, and volume of the home fluctuate with its environment, the body regulates itself in order to maintain a constant temperature. The human body is similar to a machine that continuously runs, demanding fluid and energy to be able to maintain a constant internal temperature in spite of the fluctuating characterist ics of the immediate ambient environment. Depending upon the temperature of the surrounding e nvironment, the body au tomatically adjusts its internal heating and cooling devices in an attempt to maintain a relatively constant body te mperature. It is the point at which the body is unable to heat or cool itsel f fast enough when external steps are taken, in effect opening or closing of a wi ndow, or putting on a jacket or gloves. Two of the principal requirements for a ny building are to crea te a physically, and structurally safe environment for its occupants. From the moment the de sign process begins, the comfort of the future occupants should be cons idered. To fulfill this requirement, one must understand what makes a person physically comfor table and how design decisions impact or 26

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influence comfort. In order for a designer to fu lly understand how comfort can be affected, they need to have an understanding of therm al comfort and how it can be achieved. Thermal comfort can be divided into two groups that of the indivi dual and that of the environment. Characteristics of the individual in clude clothing and activity, which have a direct influence on the bodys internal heat-exchange de vices and how well they work to maintain a constant internal temperature. The second group is defined by the environment and consists of four specific parts including air temperature, ai r velocity, relative humidity, and mean radiant temperature. Each of these environmental elem ents creates a condition that the body adjusts to in an attempt to reach or maintain thermal comf ort. Designers and builders have a responsibility to work within thermal comfort paramete rs when constructing any environment. Personal: Involuntary There are two basic groups of internal mechanisms in the human body that work involuntarily to control core body te mperature. The first of these two groups can be divided into three parts. The three involunt ary heat loss mechanisms are: conduction, convection, and (longwave) radiation (Heerwagen 2004). These three continuously operate as long as the bodys internal temperature is different from that of the surrounding envi ronment. For example conduction is noticeable when warmer skin t ouches cooler surfaces. Convection becomes apparent when the body is exposed to high air velocity, such as a cold and windy day. An example of radiative exchange is between the body and an open freezer door, or a high temperature element such as a fireplace or radiator In all three, the body will involuntarily react to the change in the environmenta l conditions (Heerwagen 2004). The second involuntary group is perspirati on. Perspiration, or sweating, is the bodys natural way to cool itself. When the activity be ing performed causes the heart rate to increase it increases blood flow, which increases internal temper ature. In an attempt to maintain a constant 27

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temperature the body secretes water through sweat gl ands to surface of the skin, and as the water evaporates it creates a natural cooling system fo r the skins surface. This function works in a range of ambient conditions, with the exception of when the rela tive humidity is too high or too low. When ambient relative humidity is too low although the body attempts to produce enough sweat to cool it down, but the sweat glands production rate is unable to maintain with the rate of sweat evaporating. On the opposite end of the sp ectrum, when ambient relative humidity is too high, perspiration is not productive because of reduced evaporation from the surface of the skin. As we eat and digest food our bodies atte mpt to break down the nutrients gained and rebuild the muscle lost, and in doing so create an increase in the bodys temperature. Metabolic heat production combined with ambient e nvironmental conditions; require the body to continuously balance the bodys temp erature. All of these involunt ary exchanges are influenced by the physical activity the pers on is involved in, in effect, sleeping, eating, running, thinking; the amount of insulation or permeability of clothing, and the surrounding environmental conditions. Once the activities for a space are de fined, the designers can begin to determine the environmental parameters that would result in an acceptable comfort level. Environmental Given an understanding of the involuntary m echanisms that determine heat loss or gain, environmental conditions can be defined by three characteristics: air temperature, relative humidity, and air movement. The temperatur e of the air and surrounding surfaces, in effect, radiation, in relation to the temperature of the skin determin es which direction the transfer of heat will occur. If the environment is cooler than that of the body, then the body will work to regain the heat lost to the environment in an effo rt to maintain a constant temperature. On the contrary, when the surrounding temperature of th e environment is greater than that of the body, the body attempts to cool itself in response to th e heat gained from the ambient environment. 28

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Once this process has begun it is often difficult to maintain thermal comfort. When the temperature of a space increases or decreases at a slow rate, the body has time to adjust and can allow the person to feel comfortable; a rapid ch ange in temperature can create discomfort. Relative humidity refers to the amount of water in the air compared to the maximum amount of water the air can hold at that temper ature when air contains the maximum amount of water, it is called saturated, a nd is at 100% relative humidity. Cold air has a lower capacity for moisture, while warm air has a higher capacity of water. Depending upon the relative humidity, the perspiration rate can be adjusted to control heat exchange. Perspiration creates evaporation to cool the body. Once the relative humidity reaches 100%, evaporation becomes unproductive in the cooling pro cess (Heerwagen 2004). The final environmental condition that can determine thermal comfort is the volume and velocity of air upon the body. C onvective heat exchange, descri bed above, increases as the speed and volume of air moving across the skin increases, which also increases the rate of evaporation. As long as the veloc ity of the air is not too high and the temperature of the air is not too low, this process can be one of the most useful tools used for cooling in hot climates. Time of Use and Location With the personal attire and activities consider ed for the space and th eir relationship to the natural environmental conditions, it is important to determine the time in which the structure or space will be used. Time not only refers to the moment in the day, night that occupancy occurs, but also to how long the space will be occupied; for example, a lobby or stairwell, and the time of year. A space not designed for gathering but more for passing through does not need as much effort in cooling or heating relative to a space th at would be used for longer-term occupancy. Many factors are considered when determining th e amount of cooling and heating required for a space, including the number of people using the space. The ambient environmental conditions 29

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and length of time in the environment can influence a persons thermal conditioning. Depending upon the occupants acclimated environment, th e body reacts differently compared to another body that may be acclimated to different condit ions. Acclimation affects personal thermal comfort. Thermal Preference or Thermal Comfort As technology has evolved over the last 50 year s, it could be argued that thermal comfort has risen. Some would argue that characteristics of thermal preference have narrowed, while thermal comfort has remained the same. Regard less of place, people become acclimated to ambient environmental conditions and their bodies ad just to or develop a to lerance for a specific climate. Some refer to this acclimation period as blood thinning or blo od thickening; it is a result of the bodys internal devices adapti ng to the new ambient conditions. Depending upon the individual, the period of acclimatization can take from several years up to a decade (Heerwagen 2004). When external conditions are stable it is easier for the bodys regulating ability to adjust; whereas more drastic change s initiate a rapid respons e by the body and create thermal discomfort. The Intervention of Mechanical Systems Since mechanical devices have been installe d in buildings to help control environmental conditions people have become accustomed to a narrower range of conditions. Due to the ability to control indoor environments, la nd that previously might have been unsuitable for development because of the environment became less so. Befo re the 1940s, cities such as Phoenix, Austin, Las Vegas, and Miami had significantly lower popul ations. One of the f actors that discouraged development by people who were not acclimated to the hot and humid conditions in these cities was the lack of adequate indoor cooling. Before air conditioning occupants were physically and 30

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culturally acclimated to the climate. With technological intervention cooling homes and work places became the norm and a new mentality for development began to occur. For different people, the thought of opening th e windows might result in one imagining the scent of freshly cut grass, the crispness of autumn air, the sound of auto mobile chatter, or the introduction of unwanted noise pollution. The si mple act of opening or closing a window was nearly eliminated from buildings due to the invention of mechanized heating and cooling systems. In an attempt to create the perfect environment that relied solely on mechanical cooling, air-conditioning engineers pushed for the separati on between the indoors and the outdoors. Originally, mechanical intervention was for heating during the cold winter months, but never intended to isolate the building from the outside world (Cooper 1998). Up until the invention of the air-condi tioner, buildings were still permeable and able to breathe, allowing for human interaction with the external environment. Large paper and tobacco manufacturers seeki ng to increase production rates led them to explore methods to reduce waste. Closing windows would begin to reduce the amount of humidity in the air, resulting in less waste. Reducing waste wa s an important factor for preconditioning air for large manufacturers. When conditioning was introduced in to public buildings, permanently closing windows became an endless debate. The debate continues in two directions; designers and engine ers that favor complete integration of the system with the building and typical users who favor flexibil ity found in large office buildings and movie theaters today. Flexibility and responsiveness may be better exemplified by the residential window unit. Each system had its pros and cons and has continuously pulled manufacturers in opposite directions. While integrated mechanical systems use the building and its designed spaces, they require a separation between the ex ternal environment and the interior often 31

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eliminating the option of fresh air. The wi ndow units mobile design permits freedom, but remains disconnected from the building, therefore continuously pumping cold air, regardless of the current use of the space. One of the biggest problems had been how to cool without creating added humidity. Increasing airflow across a space had been resolved for decades with various fans and mechanical solutions. Being able to remove or add moisture in the air meant the difference between thermal comfort and discomfort. If the air entering a building has low moisture and is then heated lowering relative humidity further, it may result in uncomfortable humidity levels for people and materials. The opposite holds true as well. When the relative humidity of the incoming air is high and it is not dehumidified, it can surpass the comfort level for occupants and cause involuntary cooling (sweating) and result in mold growth and warping of materials. The Four Essential Functions of Modern Air Conditioning The first air conditioners provided moisture to the air through mechan ized devices, but as more was learned on how to dehumidify the air in order to create a constant temperature and humidity the term conditioned air evolved. By the late 19 th century, Wolff had developed what he called the four essential functions of modern air-conditioning: temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and air distribution (Cooper 1998). Providing only mois ture to the air or heat had been attempted, but combining all four functions into one changed the perception of interior spaces. Stuart Cramer shifted the focus from providing moisture to providing conditioned air. His new method was simply conditioning the air before re-circulating it back through the factories. (Cooper 1998). His new system was placed on the external walls of the structures to bring in fresh air and eventually replaced th e operable windows on many factories and public buildings. One advantage of the system was the increase in control of the environment, which 32

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affected the product, the machinery, the comfort of the employees and th erefore, their production rate. Cramers new design went beyond adding wa ter to outside air when heating it to providing both humidification and ventilation in the same process. Because this new system mixed fresh air with re-circulate d indoor air, it was located at an outside wall. Many would eventually be placed in existing window openings forcing them to remain closed. Arguing that controlling the humidity was better for the produ cts by creating a controlled environment, Cramer advocated permanently closing all windo ws. By 1906, Cramer had developed a closedwindow strategy for factories in order to control humidity wh ile providing fresh air through mechanical ventilation (Cooper 1998). Although his original intent was to encourage the manufacturers to produce better product, mechanical conditioning also allowed an unprecedented move in geographic location. Being able to produce an artificial cl imate was a new phenomenon to site specific manufacturers. Up until this point the fluctuatio n in seasons created factory climates that could be difficult to work in with cold winters and hot and humid summers. Mechanical conditioning broadened the possibilities for factory locations and reduced advantages held by certain locations (Cooper 1998). The Beginning Stages 1904 to 1929 Air-conditioning equipment manufacturers and design engineers realized the economical opportunities from the installa tion of mechanical conditioning once operable windows were sealed. Public school systems began demandi ng windows to increase healthy living, but many schools were designed so that the systems used re quired prescribed operations. By eliminating direct radiation heating in th e classrooms, engineers attempted to maintain reliance on the plenum system. (Cooper 1998) Forcing the us ers to keep the systems running by removing 33

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radiant heating encouraged the use of vent ilating systems throughout the winter months, allowing the users to adapt to ven tilated air that continued into the summer months with cooling. Eventually the continual use of ventilating syst ems influenced building design decisions because the operable windows came to be seen as wasted co sts, resulting in their elimination from many public projects. As operable windows headed toward obsolescence, the argument between the effects of wind velocity and humidity levels on thermal comfort continued. Analysis showed that humidity was more of a problem than wind velocity. The skin effects report by Dr. Leonard Hill placed a majority of the emphasis on temperature, humidit y, and circulation, which directly correlated to mechanical conditioning. These same factors, reflected in the Comfor t Chart, became highly important to both the ventilation community a nd the air-conditioning specialists (Cooper 1998). The Comfort Chart became the determent factor in defining thermal comfort, which in turn directly influenced how one creates the i deal indoor environment, making previous geographical constraints irrelevant (Cooper 1998). Vaudeville & Mass Production With the motion-picture becoming a common so urce for entertainment, the government set regulations on how theaters needed to be ventilate d. Due to the closed and dark nature of the theater, the public accepted closed curtains ove r windows. Without daylight the public also began to accept mechanical ventilation. The movies caught on quickly in America, and in summer the theater became known for its perfect environment. The theaters physical costs to construct were minimal compared to other form s of entertainment. In 1911 in Chicago alone there were 86 theaters and by 1914 there were 618, a 700% increase in three years (Cooper 1998). 34

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The cost of mechanical conditioning was too high to be commonly used in residential construction. Prior to 1928 the cost of resident ial air-conditioners exceed ed that of an average home (Cooper 1998). The introduction of the refriger ator at a broad scale was the first instance of a cooling device as an applia nce. Cooling with an appliance severed ties between the building and the mechanical system. The new appliances were more affordable than central air, which attracted large manufacturers that were able to produce large volumes. Engineers who developed and had controlled the air-conditioning world began to lose influence. Consequences of Creating a Necessity After World War II production of the window air-conditioning unit increased dramatically, along with an increase in demand for and construction of new homes (Figure 7-1). 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1945194619501956 YearNo. of Units Sold Number of Window Air Conditioners Sold Figure 2-5. Number of window air-conditioners sold between 19451956. (Cooper 1998) Carrier Corporation had been the leader in developing mechanical conditioning technology and by 1945 was anticipating entering the residen tial market. The level of thermal comfort appropriate for a residence had not been determin ed. Carrier, favored co ntrolling humidity over wind velocity. In 1950, Carrier studied an average home. The results showed that the average home only deviated + or 3.5 F from a comfortable indoor temperature (Cooper 1998). The 35

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study caused the company to decrease the size of their residential units by half, which significantly reduced their costs and ther efore increased the potential market. Carrier Corporation was the leader in the mechanical conditioning market primarily because it had patented the designs for effici ent residential air-conditioning. In 1945 the US governments Anti-Trust Division ordered that th e Carrier company research and patents would be dedicated to the public, th erefore dissolving what they considered a monopoly. The AntiTrust Division proclaimed that competition and mass production must collaborate for the first time to make air-conditioning affordable for ev eryone. The small decision was a monumental gain that benefited home owners across the c ountry ending a three-ye ar tussle between the government and the air-conditioning industry (C ooper 1998). With decades of research now available to every engineer and manufacturing company many companies entered the mechanical conditioning market, which resulted in lower costs and increased sales. E ngineers realized that a window unit would not perform to the best of its ability until it was designed for the space. The mechanical engineering community strongly encouraged central ve ntilating systems. Due to the high costs of retrofitting older homes with ductwor k and needed refrigeration lines, they turned their focus to new residences. In 1935 architect-builder Wave rly Taylor adapted designs fr om General Electrics New American homes competition to build sevent y-three houses, twenty of which included the ductwork and plumbing for a central air-conditioning system, but not the expensive compressor. By building ductwork into the structure the probl em of retrofitting the systems into the house was solved. The roughed in duc twork eased their future deci sions and retrofit costs (Cooper 1998). A large percentage of the costs were the purchasing of the compressors, which left out of the final construction, transferring the expense an d option to install it to the home owner. 36

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In the 1940s, Arts and Architecture Mag azine held a competition in residential architecture, that called for inexpensive and e fficient housing to satisfy the needs of the post World War II housing demand. Due to their small scale, the Case Study Houses demonstrated the importance of the connection to the outside. In response to the highly published Case Study Houses, tract home developers used concepts of the houses to sell their ho mes. By placing large spans of sliding glass doors they created a direct connection to the outside. What seemed to be a design strategy that was inspired by an iconic image was perfect for solar gain. This was combined with uninsulated low mass framing with drywall interior finish nailed into a slab-ongrade and the removal or shortening of roof overhangs. While these techniques cut cost and time for construction, they exacerbated solar gain and heat transfer to the interior. Numerous techniques, such as dimensioned lumber, readily available fact ory made windows and doors, and prefabricated wall units were used to speed up the construction process. Due to the focus on speed and readily available materials quality and insulation of materials was overlooked, resulting in the need for mechanical cooling. The confluence of Post-World War II pentup housing demanded the introduction of 30year mortgages, as a result the Federal Housi ng Association (FHA) was created, which led to a significant increase in the resi dential construction market. The highly published Case Study Houses influenced developers design decisions in an attempt to appeal to potential buyers. Using an unproven precedent, such as the Case Study Houses, allowed for increased glazed area, speed of construction, and reducti on or elimination of adequate insulation, which improved costs and construction time, but lacked many basic stra tegies, such as proper or ientation resulting in required mechanical conditioning. The air-conditioning industry grew when a developer attempted to cut back on costs to increase personal economic gain s. At a time when housing 37

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demand was greater than good design, many bad design and constr uction decisions were made which eventually became acceptable as industry standards. 38

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Sustainability and green archit ecture have recently become important concepts in the construction community. Historically local bu ilders understood the vernac ular architecture of their region, including the environment and materials before designing. Their familiarity with the local environmental conditions enabled them to create homes that embraced the landscape and have withstood the tests of time. This rese arch will explore the importance of experienced local architects in creating sustainable homes. The objectives of this study are: 1) Analyze passive design strategies that were implemented prior to the use of mechanical systems for thermal comfort in residential buildings. 2) Determine what passive design strategi es could be implemented from the beginning design phases in order to creat e more sustainable homes and give recommendations to future developers. This research developed a checklist fo r passive design strategies implemented on residential projects. The checklist will be us ed to compare and analyze the passive design strategies of architects in Florida before the widespread use of mechan ical conditioning systems for thermal comfort. Six residences, designe d by two Florida architects, namely Alfred Browning Parker and Paul Rudolph, have been chosen. While Parker used high mass materials such as stone and concrete, Rudol ph worked with lightweight materi als and often raised the floor above the ground, allowing the lands cape to pass beneath. Both ar chitects are renowned for their passive design strategies and cons ideration for the environment in which they build. Parker and Rudolph began practicing in the 1940s, before mechanical conditioning systems became common in homes. 39

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Six case studies, consisting of three houses from each architect, were designed and built without mechanical conditioning. The houses will be analyzed by identifying the passive design strategies used at the time of their construction. The study used site visits, drawings, photographs, and historical records in the analys is. Table 3-1 through 34 show the passive design strategies analyzed. The tables of passi ve strategies were deve loped through literature review and case study analysis. Passive design strategies of the past will be compared to what are considered sustainable strategies, used today according to the United States Green Building Councils (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED Residential 2008) for homes. After the comparison, recommendations for todays developers are derived based on the results. Table 3-1. Site and Orientation Ta ble for Passive Design Strategies Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed 2 Infill 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) 3a Cardinal Directions Considered 3b Natural Breezes 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design 4 Solar Angle Considered 5 Materials 5a Insulated 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces 5c Reflective 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun Note: Each house was analyzed on an indivi dual basis using ta bles 3-1 through 3-4. 40

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Table 3-2. Shading Table for Passive Design Strategies. Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South 1b East 1c West 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade 4.2 Orientation of Devices 4.2.a Solar 4.2.b Breezes 4.2.c Views 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) 4.3.b Louvers 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade 4.3.d Light Shelf 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes 5.c Incorporated into Design 41

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Table 3-3. Cooling and Ventilation Tabl e for Passive Design Strategies. Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation Building on Site Roof Pitch Openings 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials Insulation on The rmal Masses Lightweight/Breathable 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated 3.3 Orientation of Openings 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors 3.3.b Interior Doors 3.3.c Intake Vents 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows 3.3.e Operable Windows 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney 3.7.b Operable Clerestory 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior 3.8.c Open Plan 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Natu ral Air Flow 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperatur e of Incoming Breezes 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades 42

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Table 3-4. Daylighting Table for Passive Design Strategies. Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls 3.c Skylights 3.d Clerestories 3.e Other Aperture(s) 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring 4.b Light Shelf 4.c Louvers/Blinds 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills 4.e Baffles 4.f Canopy 4.g Other Source(s) 5 Open Plan 6 Minimal Interior Partitions 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) Case Studies Six houses from two architects were chosen for the case study. The first architect was Alfred Browning Parker from south Florida. Case study one was the 1950 Royal Road Residence built in Coconut Grove, Florida. Case study two was the 1956 Mass Residence built in Coconut Grove, Florida. Case study thr ee was 1960 Gables Estates built in Coral Gables, Florida. The second architect chosen was Paul Rudolph of Sarasota, Florida and three houses from his collection were chosen. Case study 4 was the 1948 Cocoon House built in Siesta Key, Sarasota, Florida. Case study 5 was the 1951 Leavengood Residence built in St. Petersburg, Florida. Case study 6 was the 1953 Umbrella House built in Lido Shores, Sarasota, Florida. Each house was analyzed through drawings, images and historical records. The checklists 43

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created in Table 3-1 through 3-4 were used to re view the passive design strategies. Detailed results are in Appendix A. 44

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CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDIES OF PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES PRIOR TO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS The majority of Alfred Browning Parkers body of work is located in or near the city of Coconut Grove, Florida. Parker began practicing architecture in Coconut Grove in 1945 and still continues today from his home in Gainesville, Fl orida. He not only practiced architecture in south Florida, but he was raised there as well, making him aware of the surroundings and the climatic conditions. Most of Parkers work was built with high mass, heavy foundations and large overhangs that felt as if they emerged from their sites. Two of th e three Parker case study projects are occupied by homeow ners that have been interviewed and both admit to admiring their homes. The third Parker case study, the Ma ss Residence, was demolished in the 1980s by a young architect who was asked to design an addition to the house, but wanted to build in a different style. The house that replaced the Ma ss Residence has since been demolished as well. Paul Rudolph, who was born in Kentucky and attended graduate school at Harvard Graduate School of Design learni ng first hand from modernists, such as Walter Gropius. He practiced in Sarasota, Florida in 1941 and ag ain from 1947-1958. Most of Rudolphs residential projects are built of light timber frames. Unlike Parkers houses that are firmly grounded in the site, Rudolphs work often allows the ground plan e to pass uninterrupted beneath an elevated floor. His work resembles local vernacular build ings found along the Florida coast, that were small in scale with light exposed structures and open floor plan s. Rudolphs designs used the site to capture views of the surroundings while mediating between interiors and exteriors. Historical Precedents Before the intervention of mechanical systems thermal comfort was addressed through design that considered the site, environment, local materials, and climatic conditions. Due to periods of intense heat and high humidity, considering the climate and the site allowed for some 45

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level of passive cooling, while the occupants thermal comfort levels remained relatively consistent for the majority of the year. Since the tool of measure at the tim e was relative to what one was used to, it makes it difficult to be spec ific with numbers, but th e idea of people living their daily lives in an environment that can be brutal with the elements and being productive is the backbone of this cas e study investigation. South Florida: Alf red Browning Parker Alfred Browning Parker was born in Boston, Massachusetts, bu t shortly after his birth his family moved to Coconut Grove, Florida, a tropical climate, where he developed an appreciation for ocean breezes and scenic vistas. Thr oughout his childhood he drew the surrounding landscapes, which together with a love for nature led him to a car eer in architecture. Parker graduated from the University of Florida in 1938, and he was highly influenced by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright s poke of organic architecture and the importance of embracing the environment. Through numerous publications Park er was able to study the work of Wright and develop his own understanding of architecture and the environmen t. When Parker graduated from college he returned to south Florida and ope ned his architectural practice. In his lifetime, Parker designed over 6,400 struct ures, winning numerous awards. The Modern Architecture movement, which was the leading paradigm at this time, highly influenced many young designers. One of the key differences between Parker and a typical work in The Modernist Style is that a Modern ist building focused more on the artifact being independent of the site, location, and climate, Parkers considered the local climatic conditions and used local materials, resulting in a contex tual relationship between site and building. Case Study 1: Royal Road Residence The Royal Road Residence in Coconut Grove, Florida was designed in 1950 for Parkers family. The design concept is similar to Le Corbusiers 1914 Mais on Domino House, which 46

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removed load bearing partitions and placed the lo ad of the floor slabs on slender steel columns (Fig 4-1 & 4-2). Parker built the house over a period of three years with loca l resources that were readily available or recycled from other struct ures. It was one of the first uses of high deformation steel in residential construc tion in the state of Florida. Figure 4-1. Royal Road Residence Southeaste rn Faade. A) Shows large overhangs, B) Louvered persiana doors, C) Elevated pl anter along veranda, D) High tree canopy. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-2. Cross section looking northeast s howing elevated living space with heavy floor slabs. The Biscayne Bay is to the right of image. (Drawing reproduced by Dereck Winning) Site/Orientation Site and orientation dictated the design and layout of this house. The site was a quarter mile from the town center of Coconut Grove. It wa s originally five parcel s located at the end of Royal Road, which ended at Biscayne Bay. The first parcel was located along the shore of the bay and each additional parcel was adjacent to the previous one, moving away from the water. 47

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The first three parcels were beneath the 1946 flood line. Parker petitioned for the five plots to be joined, which was accepted by the authorities. The hous e is located at the top of parcel five. The site slopes slightly down hill towards the bay (Fig ure 4-3). The house form is rectangular, with the long side facing Biscayne Bay. The walls on the shorter sides of the house are 12 inches thick, and are made from la yers of local coral rock. Figure 4-3. Air flow diagram of Royal Road site using trees to funnel br eeze off of Biscayne Bay up slope and into house (Drawing by Marie Vogler) 48

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Figure 4-4. Southeastern faade showing the tree canopy and long overhangs shading the house. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Shading The house was located on the site to take a dvantage of existing trees that shaded the structure, while allowing breezes to funnel beneath. All glazing was shaded from direct solar gain by louvered doors or overhangs. Four types of shading devices were used. Extending the floor slabs past the southeastern faade create d large overhangs (Figure 4-10). Openings on the southeastern faade contained pers iana doors (a type of door cove red with operable louvers used in Cuba) made of mahogany, a st able wood (Figure 4-12). The louvered doors allowed breezes to pass through. The third shadi ng device was the massive carport roof. The roof protected the northwestern faade from direct solar gain, while allowing breezes to pass beneath (Figure 4-10). Between the house and the bay the vegetation cr eated a high tree canopy that allowed breezes from Biscayne Bay to move up the slope and through the house. 49

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Figure 4-5. Large overhangs block southern sun. A) Planters around veranda assist in cooling the breeze with relief on bottom to allow br eeze to pass beneath as well as over top B) heavy shading of site from tree canopy. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-6. Section through southeastern faade showing shading from overhangs and solar angle for different seasons. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) 50

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Figure 4-7. Cross Section through persiana door a nd splayed sill plate that helps with drainage of rain water away from building while creating reflective light shelf on sunny days. (Drawing by Dereck Winning) Cooling/Ventilation Placing the main living space on the upper level helped to cool the occupied spaces, by capturing the breezes passing over the site. By using larger openings on the bay side and clerestories on the opposite side, Parker intended to induce airflo w through the house to cool the spaces, which he calls a venturi effect. The ma in roof consisted of a six inch thick concrete slab, which would typically create a large high mass area for heat gain. However, the slab is finished with a reflective glazed white ceramic tile. The operable louvers on the persiana doors allowed the breezes to pass freely through. On the interior side, the doors were screened during the majority of the year, but had interchangeable glass panels for cooler weather if needed. 51

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Figure 4-9. Main floor plan showing ope n spaces allowing natural ventilation of interior spaces and vegetation. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) Figure 4-10. Cross section looking northeast showing wind patterns off of Biscayne Bay through the louvered persiana doors and conti nuing through the cler estory windows. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) Figure 4-11. Concrete roof surface containing glazed ceramic tile that allows sunlight to be reflected, reducing heat gai n. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) Daylighting The openness of the plans main living spaces allows for daylight to penetrate across the space. The use of concrete for flooring surface al lows for the reflected da ylight to illuminate 52

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further into the interior. Designing the southeast faade to be filled with persiana doors allows for ambient light to flood the space while blocking any direct solar gain. On the southwest faade the clerestory windows are protected from direct solar gain by the overhang, but allow for ambient light to enter the kitchen and dining space. Beneath the roof of the carport the southwest wall has numerous windows that allow for ambient light to enter, but prot ect the interiors from the intense Florida sun. Figure 4-12. Interior of Royal Road Residence showing the open plan, operable louvered doors opening interior spaces to the exterior ve randa, and shading provided by the large overhang. (Photograph from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-13. Inside dining area l ooking southeast toward elevated living space. Ambient light reflects off of floor and ceiling to project da ylight into interior spaces. (Photograph from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) 53

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Figure 4-14. Roof terrace and stud io on Royal Road Residence. Reflective tiled surface reduces solar heat gain, large overhangs on studi o space creates shading, and large operable windows help to ventilate. (Photogra ph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Case Study 2: Mass Residence Parker designed the Mass Residence in 1956 fo r a client and developer that Parker often collaborated with. The design evolved from a 30/60/90 triangle, and visually appeared to emerge from the site. The structural steel frame is cl ad in wood. The second story floor plate and the heavy chimney provided lateral stab ility. The lower level of the s outhern end was built of layers of coral rock. The first floor plan of the house was a large rectangl e with stone floors and contained relatively open spaces. The short side of the triangle, the back of the house, opened to the sea through numerous operable doors and a floor slab that continued outward, while the long side of the triangle, the front of house, was clos ed off for privacy, with the exception of a series of bands of cler estory windows. 54

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Figure 4-15. North elevation with pool looking toward bay. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-16. Elevated main living space made of coral stone with minimal interior partitions, including the rise on th e stairs removed in order to re duce natural ventilation process. (Photograph taken from Alfred Br owning Parker Collection) Site/Orientation The house was rectangular in plan with the long si de facing the water. The entire water front faade had operable louvered doors that allowed the space to open. Th is created a direct physical connection to the environment and al lowed for breezes to enter uninterrupted, ventilating the interior. Extending the second floor slab over the doors, created an overhang to 55

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shade the sun and due to the backward tilt of the f aade, the overhangs also helped to divert roof storm water runoff away from the openings. Figure 4-17. Southwestern faade showing size of overhangs and heavy lower wall used to maintain cooler indoor temperatures. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Shading Two shading devices were used on the southern faade. The first was the extension of the second story floor slab. The second was a large overhang adde d above the second story, which shaded the second story doors and windows. Ben eath both sets of overhangs were continuous openings with persiana doors. The operable louvers on the doors bloc ked the direct sun the overhangs missed, while allowing ambient light to pass through. 56

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Figure 4-18. Southeastern faade showing large overhangs, skylight in peak of gabled roof and operable persiana doors. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-19. Cross section looking northeast showing solar angles for three different seasons and operable skylight at peak of gabled roof. (Drawing reproduced by Dereck Winning) Cooling/Ventilation The cooling of the structure was achieved th rough various methods. The large overhangs directed breezes into the house, with a series of high clerestory windows on the opposite side for exhaust. The opening area of the clerestory windows is smaller than the persiana doors, increasing the velocity of the air. The main liv ing space on the first floor was elevated three feet in an attempt to place the occupants in the middl e of the cross ventilating wind patterns. The open plan and lack of interior partitions allowed for an uninterrupted natu ral ventilation process. 57

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On the eastern and western facades the heavy layering of the coral stone prevented direct solar gain. The sloped facades were covered with a reflectiv e metal roof that helped to deter some of the direct heat gain. At the peak of the gabl ed roof a row of operabl e windows allowed daylight to penetrate into the space, but al so allowed warm interior air to escape. The clerestory faced the water, and together with the larger windows, created what Parker called the venturi effect (larger openings for breeze to enter and smaller openings fo r breeze to exit forced velocity to increase). Figure 4-20. Cross section looking north. (D rawing taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Figure 4-21. Operable Skylight Detail at Peak of Roof. (Drawing repr oduced by Marie Vogler) Daylighting The minimal use of interior partitions helped to lighten the space using natural daylight. On the southeastern facing doors Parker used operable louvered pe rsiana doors to deflect direct 58

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solar gain. On the northwestern and southeaste rn faade a series of horizontal clerestory windows was placed just beneath the overhangs, a llowing ambient light to penetrate into the interior. By reducing the glazing on the southeastern faade to a series of horizontal strips of glass placed just beneath the overhangs helped to protect from the dir ect intense light, while permitting ambient light to enter. Soft natural wood colors of the interior and persiana doors helped to reduce glare. The strategic placement of windows on mu ltiple walls also allowed light to penetrate from different angles, reducing both glare and the need for alternative methods of lighting during daylight hours. Las tly the skylight placed at the pe ak of the gabled roof created a continuous source of daylight through the open spaces (Figure 4-22). Figure 4-22. Second floor looking north showing daylight filtering downward. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browni ng Parker Collection) 59

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Figure 4-23. Standing on elevated first fl oor living space looking south towards bay. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Case Study 3: Gables Estates Gables Estates, in Coral Gables, Florid a was designed in 1960 and construction was completed in 1964 in Coral Gables, Florida. Th e house consists of three components organized around a heavily landscaped arrival courtyard th at opens to the bay. The house is a large rectangular bar raised one story above grade. The first floors void centr al space allows tidal surges to pass through the house, in an attempt to prevent damage. The primary stone used for the structure is a locally quarried coral rock. The square columns of the house were rotated 45 degrees to deflect water around the column during a storm surge (Figure 4-24). 60

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Figure 4-24. Plans of three levels of main house, (a) third floor (b) sec ond floor (c) first floor (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Site/Orientation The site was a new housing development designe d for one to two story houses. Parker convinced the housing committee that his design would utilize both th e site and breezes, by building higher than the permitted two stories. He positioned the long si de of the rectangular house towards the water to captu re the breezes, while placing th e pool and garage/guestroom directly behind the house. With the three elem ents organized around an arrival court he then opened the court up to the bay by placing the ma in living spaces of the house one story above grade, creating both a visual and physical connec tion between the courtyar d and the water. 61

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Figure 4-25. Aerial view of the site looki ng north. (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) 62

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Figure 4-26. Plan of ground floor, swimming pool, and garage/guest house, notice open breezeway connecting courtyard to bay (P hotograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Shading Three main strategies were used to shade the st ructure. First, large roof overhangs and the second story floor slab provide d shade and created a protected outdoor veranda space. The second strategy was the installati on of persiana doors. Second, the southeastern faade had persiana doors. The third strategy was the use of a courtyard filled with vegetation to create a cooling effect on the breezes and the faade. 63

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Figure 4-27. Southeastern faade with heavy overhangs created by floor slabs and roof (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Cooling/Ventilation Raising the main living space, or living level, one story above grade allowed the prevailing breezes to ventilate and cool the interior, through the louvered pers iana doors, on both the second story southeast and southwestern facades. Cross breezes were directed into the interstitial space between the second story and the roof, and exit on the opposite side. This ventilated and removed heat from solar gain on the roof before it could be transmitted to the second story living space. The western faade cons isted of a heavy wall with small vertical windows at the bottom and operable clerestory windows at the top. The massive wall prevented most solar gain while the small windows allowed breezes that ente red through large openings facing the bay to increase velocity before exiting. The design of the house, swimming pool and garage created a U-shaped space where people and cars entered. Th e central courtyard was filled with vegetation to help with cooling and reduce so lar gain. At the eastern end of the courtyard the void beneath the house allowed breezes off of the bay to cool the floor slab, continuing through the courtyard and ventilate that space. 64

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Daylighting The entire southeastern faade was covered with persiana doors, which had louvers that were adjustable for daylighting. The use of the doors and the large overhangs reduced the direct solar gain into the interior. Natural colored wood on th e interior floor and walls permitted daylight to enter, but reduced the intensity th rough absorption. In the central stairwell a skylight allowed the light to penetrate the space below reducing the need for alternative lighting during the daytime hours. Figure 4-28. Inside living room looking south, with persiana doors open for maximum daylight penetration into the interior. (Photogr aph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) 65

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Figure 4-29. Connection of pool to house, noti ce skylight at top of house on north side of chimney and heavy linear band on roof, which is overhang for clerestories (Photograph taken from Alfred Browning Parker Collection) Central Florida: Paul Rudolph Paul Marvin Rudolph was born October 23, 1918 in Kentucky. He attended Harvard Graduate School of Design while simultaneously wo rking for a Florida arch itect and contractor named Ralph Twitchell. According to Twitchell Rudolph had a knack for artistic ability and awareness of the environment, and understand ing of local materials (Domin & King 2002). Upon discharge from the Navy, Rudolph joined for ces with Twitchell in the town of Sarasota, Florida where they designed a series of ho mes and public buildings, eventually providing Rudolph with enough knowledge to become a regi stered architect. Twitchell and Rudolph created a brief, but productive partnership. Afte r a few years Rudolph broke off and formed his own office in Sarasota, Florida. 66

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Case Study 4: Cocoon House The Cocoon House is a small single level hous e built on piles along a small inlet to the bay. Its floor slab was elevated 24 inches above the ground to allow it to be above the flood line, while cantilevering sligh tly over the water. The main stru cture was built of wood, with steel straps wrapped over the top of the walls. The sag of the steel straps created the form for the roof. The roof consisted of flexible insulation boards covered with a flexible vinyl compound developed by the U.S. military encasing ship co mponents. The exterior walls are jalousies, encouraging cross ventilation, similar to the Florida vernacular. Figure 4-30. Perspective of southwestern f aade in context, bottom louvered walls supporting steel straps used to form roof (Domin & King 2002) 67

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Figure 4-31. Floor plan showing cantil ever over water. (D omin & King 2002) Site/Orientation Elevating and cantilevering th e house slightly over the water was appropriate, given the location of the site along an in let. Locating the h ouse along the water meant that the facades would need shading devices due to the limited vegetation. Using the side of the water to create an entrance and exterior gatheri ng space provided an alternative integration to the site, which encouraged alternative methods of transportation. Figure 4-32. Southeastern corner looking in and left is aerial perspective of eastern faade in context. (Photograph taken from Al fred Browning Parker Collection) 68

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Shading With minimal natural foliage, shading and ventilation were especi ally important. The curved roof extends beyond the south faade wall, protecting it from direct sunlight. On both the east and west facades the walls were shaded w ith operable louvers that could be adjusted depending upon the time of day or year. Cooling/Ventilation The relatively small size allowed the interior spaces to be cooled by cross ventilation. With both the east and west walls completely lo uvered, the sun was blocked, but breezes were allowed to pass through. The lack of interior pa rtitions meant that breezes passed through the space unobstructed. The cantilevere d space above the water is located on the east side of the house, allowing for the breezes off of the water to cool the space and th e afternoon shadows of the house to assist in the cooling efforts. Figure 4-33. Looking north. Notice large overha ng on southern end, louvered jalousies on both eastern and western facades. (Domin & King 2002) Daylighting Natural light was able to ente r the space due to the louvers, and enhanced by reflecting off of the water. Minimal interior partitions allowed ambient light from either side to penetrate 69

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across the space, reducing need fo r alternative light sources duri ng day time hours. Because of the narrow plan, dark colors were used in an attempt to absorb some of the reflective light, reducing glare. Figure 4-33. Looking west. Late afternoon sun light filtering through louvers able to penetrate across space due to minimal interior partitions. (Domin & King 2002) Case Study 5: Leavengood Residence The Leavengood Residence, designed as a long narrow rectangular mass, is lifted one level above the ground with an open void placed off center. All of the materials were local from the Tampa area in Florida, with the exception of the block, which came from Archer, Florida. The cypress used for the north and south ends was rough cut and completely enclosed the ends with selective openings at the end of the hallways. 70

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Figure 4-34. Perspective drawing looki ng east by Paul Rudolph. (Domin & King 2002) Site/Orientation The house is oriented along the water, with the narrow facades facing north and south. Elevating the main living spaces one level above grade permits breezes to pass beneath. The lower portion of the house, used as a gathering sp ace, is shaded by the elevated living spaces and enclosed around the perimeter with a light screening material. A two story screened open space located just off center of the western faade, is covered with trellis and filled with vegetation. The houses orientation places the lo ng facades east and west and the courtyard space assists in deterring the afternoon sun from the main living spaces. Figure 4-35. Plan. Left is plan of second floor and right is plan of ground floor with site. (Domin & King 2002) Shading The southern faade was local cypress with minimal openings, reducing heat gain. The walls were designed with a void space that c ontained both vegetation and trellis work that provided shading. Both the eastern and wester n facades had operable louvers that could be adjusted with the time of day or year, to re duce the solar gain while maintaining a view out towards the bay. On the ground floor a small sc reened gathering and ea ting area opening to the 71

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west was shaded by the elevated floor and walls for most of the day. Th e open courtyard area in the western faade is filled with vegetation, whic h assists in the cooling process in the main living spaces. Figure 4-36. Exterior perspective. Top draw ing of western faade showing space beneath and courtyard, bottom drawing looking at nor theastern corner. (Domin & King 2002) Cooling/Ventilation As in the other examples, raising the main living space enhanced natural ventilation. Rudolph repeated the process of elevating the ma in living spaces and narrowed houses plan in an attempt to reduce the amount of cooling neede d. The void near the so uthern end allowed for the western winds to penetrate the structure. Lifting the main liv ing area with little obstruction below helped to cool the floor slab. The louvers, made of loca lly grown cypress, covered the windows on both, the east and western facades, allow the breezes to pass through the house to ventilate and cool th e interior spaces. Daylighting The narrow plan allowed for ambient light to pe netrate across the interior space reflecting off of the concrete floor. The courtyard comb ined with few interior partitions meant that 72

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daylight filtered by trellis work and louvered win dows could penetrate furthe r into the interior. Using screen for the walls on the lower level and pushing the walls back four feet allowed daylight to reflect off of the concrete floor across the space with minimal interruption. Figure 4-37. Main elevated living space looki ng over dining area and into courtyard. (Domin & King 2002) Case Study 6: Umbrella House Paul Rudolph designed the Umbrella house in 1953. The name was derived from the large shading structure extending from the house across the pool, and providing a shaded area around the pool and entry. The structure consisted of a thin wooden framework built from standard lumber, covered with small horizontal slats of pre-cu t tomato stakes. Although the house is a simple box within an umbrella, the orie ntation and lightweight material show a site conscientious designers ability to adapt and orient for the site. 73

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Figure 4-38. Elevation of western faade showing umbrella and house. (Domin & King 2002) Figure 4-39. First floor plan showing pool and umbrella structure. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) Site/Orientation The house was oriented with the large umbrella structure angled slightly southeast/northwest, with the house to the northwest of the umbrella. Positioning the house this way considered the path of the sun throughout th e year. It also opened the long side of the structure to the water in an effort to capture cross breezes. Trees were placed on both sides of the structure. With the back or northwestern si de of the site also near water it allowed for breezes that may be blowing in the southeastern direction to be pu lled through the house as well. 74

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Figure 4-40. Wind flow patter n. (Drawing by Dereck Winning) Figure 4-41. Aerial of site from Google Earth 2008. 75

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Shading The umbrella shading device creates a delicate balance of shade from the intense Florida sun while softly filtering light. Operable louvers allow for more shading to reduce solar gain, while permitting breezes to pass through and keeping the views to the bay open to the occupants. The house is oriented with the northeast corner facing north, allowing the umbrella to filter the direct sunlight from the faade. Figure 4-42. Section showing umbr ella as separation structure fr om the house and its ability to shade the structure while filtering light. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) Cooling/Ventilation In an attempt to promote bette r cross ventilation the main floor slab was raised two feet above grade on the northwest portion of the living room. To increa se the amount of air flow the southeastern and northwestern facades consisted of operable jalousie windows, while the north and south elevations consisted of wooden vert ical siding with small protected portions of operable louvered windows set just off center to assist in the cooling pr ocess. The two story design allowed for better views and access to the breeze, and th e double height seventeen feet 76

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tall living space assisted the cooling effect by al lowing the warmer air to rise. On the second floor the second bedroom has a sliding series of pa nels that allow it to co nnect back to the main space for air flow and ventilation. Figure 4-43. Wind flow pattern of first floor and site. (Drawing by Dereck Winning) Figure 4-44. Longitudinal Section showing cross ventilation of house and exterior pool area, in the direction of prevailing breezes. (Drawing by Marie Vogler) 77

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Figure 4-45. Umbrella shading device looking northwest. (Domin & King 2002) Daylighting Along the top of the umbrella st ructure Rudolph used small horizon tal slats to create a type of filtering device that diffuses the intense Florid a sun, but allows the filtered light to pass in through the jalousie windows. By repeating a small wooden slat multiple times with spaces in between it provides and adequate filter for the sun. The narrow plan and large openings allow diffused light to penetrate across the space, reduc ing the need for alternative lighting during the daylight hours. Figure 4-46. Interior looking south, space floode d with ambient light. (Domin & King, 2002) 78

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Figure 4-47. Front faade of house l ooking northwest. (Domin & King, 2002) 79

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CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATIONS OF PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR TODAYS BUILDERS Todays developers typically use proven syst ems that are economically affordable when constructing homes. The removal of extras, referring to overhangs, operable louvers or anything that would allow one to cut initial costs, has decreased the value of houses while increasing maintenance costs. Using the case st udy analyses as a tool for measure of proven passive design strategies in the coastal regions of south and cent ral Florida this chapter lists recommendations for todays developers. The case studies show a series alternatives used to achieve thermal comfort through passive design. The strategies an alyzed are a set of strategies that could be relevant for the designer and the builder today. LEED Certifica tion for Residential (2008) contains few points for passive design strategy, with a majority of the points earned through active design strategies. Although it seems as if passive stra tegies should be common sense to both the designer and the builder, they have fallen by the wayside. Both passive and active methods of design should be considered when building, but for the purpose of th is study only passive stra tegies were analyzed and these recommendations therefore re late only to the passive design strategies identified in this work. Building with only a few replicated designs means that house designs could be a mirror image of one across the street. It is likely that the orientation of one or both house would be suboptimal. Although the six houses analyzed in th e case studies were unique and different from each other, they all contained similar strategies relativ e to orientation. A developer could use a series of pre-designed houses for a specific re gion or latitude and depending upon the orientation of a specific site, the developer could use a pre-designed system to insure that the house is oriented properly for the site. Site specific homes often refer to custom homes, which are 80

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expensive and unattainable for the majority of potential home owne rs. The garage could be used to orient the home with the street while the home itself adjusts to the site and solar orientation. Orientating the house can reduce the costs of maintenance and cooling over time. Due to Floridas intense heat shading of a buildings openings and facades is important to prevent unwanted solar gain. Horizontal ove rhangs are important on the south, east, and west facades, in addition vertical shading should al so be considered on the eastern and western facades. The suns paths have been previous ly described, but the following chart is the recommended length of an overhang when the distan ce from the window sill to the soffit is 4 feet 2 inches for south and central Florida. Solvi ng the shading problems solely through the use of overhangs is almost impossible due to the drastic size needed in some loca tions. If the overhang becomes too large then the height of the window can be adjusted, which will in turn, shorten the overhang and costs. These recommendations are ma inly for south facing facades. Lastly, due to the suns changing angle it is recommended to carry the overhang past the edge of the window to block the direct sun as it changes its position with the time of day. Due to the importance of shading in a hot and humid climate such as Florida a simple equation has been given to determine the length n eeded for the overhang in relation to the height of the window and the altitude angle (Figure 5-1). 81

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Figure 5-1. Example of roof overhang needed fo r 28 latitude, Orlando, Florida. (Taken from Fairley, P.W. Concepts in Passive Design #1 Roof Overhangs. FSEC-DN-1. FL Solar Energy Center, Univ. Central FL. Cocoa, FL.) Table 5-1. Recommended overhang lengths for south facing facades in south and central Florida. Dec. 21 12:00pm Spring/Fall March/Sept 12:00pm June 21 12:00pm Recommended Length of Overhang for Oct 5 Mar 7 Latitude Location Angle Angle Angle Length in Feet 25 Keys 41.5 52.5 88.5 4 ft 2 in 26 Miami 40.5 54.0 87.5 4 ft 0 in 27 Sarasota 39.5 55.5 86.5 3 ft 9 in 28 Orlando 38.5 57.0 85.5 3 ft 6 in 29 Gainesville 37.5 58.5 84.5 3 ft 4 in 82

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Recommendations for Todays Builders Residential Standards set by LEED 2008 Re sidential does not place emphasis on the design portion of the construction process. Designi ng better buildings is the beginning step for savings, both in terms of expenses and the envi ronment. Reducing expenses on utility cost decreases the continuous relian ce on utility companies to run mechanical cooling systems, especially during peak summer hours. Using loca l climatic conditions to assist in the design process has the potential to produce a be tter building and better communities. Visiting the site and studying cl imatic conditions including wind and solar angles is critical to the site analysis and for build ing a home using passive design strategies. Choosing a site that has either been previously developed or near current developments decreases the need for new utilities and infrastructure. Using the site and lo cal climate as a tool to help determine where and how to incorporate passive design strategies will insure that they are specific to the location and work with the local conditions. The following is a list of passive design stra tegies and recommendations of how they could possibly benefit both the builder and the environment. For each strategy considered there are numerous benefits gained by reducing the co sts of cooling the space through mechanical systems. Site If possible to choose a site then possibilities of better passive strategies increase. If the site is already chosen then analyzing it and using the data in the design process can provide better passive design results. Incorporate existing vegetation in the design when possible. Studying the site and the surroundi ng buildings or context allo ws one to determine where the best location for the building would be and what could influence the design. Is a neighboring structure blocking the cross breezes ? If so could the main living space be raised a floor in an attempt to capture the br eezes, while creating a sh aded space below? What materials is the builder considering and how do they react to the local climatic conditions? 83

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What is the suns path at different times of the year (summer, spring/fall, winter) in relation to the site and the building being propos ed and how will it affect excessive shading or heating of the structure? Allowing for the exterior spaces to be used as an extension of the interior can allow one to become more acclimated to ex terior conditions resulting in fewer times the air-conditioner is turned on. In order to be used during summer months in Florida this space typically needs screening from insects. Using existing shade trees can reduce cooling co sts, especially during the intense summer months. Planting landscape to help cool the facades, bu t not blocking the bre ezes in critical in the design process. Using indigenous plants can reduce the amount of watering and care needed to maintain. Orientation Where is north on the site? Understanding the importance of a buildings orientation can be one of the most critical decisions for a developer. Once the solar so lstice and wind patterns are determined the design can adapt to not only reduce costs wh ile constructing by cooling and shading the workers, but drastically reduce the maintenance costs over the life time of the building. If the orientation is considered for an entire neighborhood breezes woul d be allowed to pass through, heat islands could be reduced, and ove rall comfort could increase while reducing costs. If comfort increases for the home owners then the potential for sales to increase is possible. Shading Are existing tree canopies able to be used? Can landscape be incorporated into the design to help with seasonal cooling? When the leaves are on the trees do they shade the structure? If relying solely on an overhang to protect the glazing or faade, how long must it be in order to prevent solar gain? Use a porch when possible as an overhang on s outh and western facades for shading and to create exterior space. Measure overhangs with solar angle to be sure they are adequate. Are eastern and western facades shaded enough for the solar angles or do they need alternative shading? One of the most important parts of a home in Fl orida is the roof. Its ability to deflect or reduce thermal gain through solar radiation is cr ucial for reducing the need to ventilate the interior space. Allowing for ventilation through holes in the soffi t or vents at the gabled ends of the house can help to reduce heat collected in the inte rstitial space between the roof deck and the ceiling or in the attic on gabled roofs. 84

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Passive Cooling The main environmental benefits of passive cooling are reducing the amount of energy spent or wasted to run mechanical equipment. Can the design be multiple stories and if so can the main living spaces be elevated? How can the exterior openings be positioned to direct breezes through the structure? Can internal partitions be either minimal or designed in a method that aligns them with exterior openings in an effort to direct the breezes through the spaces? Are the materials being used able to be shad ed or insulated to protect from heat gain? Could the roof be sloped toward the water in an effort to divert the breezes through the house? Daylighting Using day light to light the interior spaces can save on electricity costs. By strategically placing cleresto ries and window louvers to defl ect or filter the sunlight, the majority of the days sunlight can be adequately used. Placing interior partitions pe rpendicular to openings allows for the reflective light to reduce glare and pull the light further into the space. Lighter colors, especially white can help with deeper penetr ation of daylight into the interior spaces. Linear plans that have a shorte r width help with daylighting from both sides and reduce the need for alternative lighting. 85

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CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Todays builders should study local climatic c onditions and building traditions and draw inspiration from the vernacular buildings that are naturally conditioned. Many of these structures based on the work of generations of ho me builders that learned from repeated cycles of trial and error. Al though these solutions meet needs, they should become a tool for learning fundamental principles and not rep licating. Older structures were built to meet the need of their time with a material or method that may no longer be widely used or available. Using the vernacular as a guide to better unde rstand the climate, a developer can build new structures that embrace the environment, creating the vernacula r tradition, and provide a new way to think about passive design strategies. In the last 70 years the reliance on mechanical systems has created a universal design mentality. Regardless of the site the building can be designed re ducing construction costs. Each part of the system has become itemized and not t hought of as an integral part of the building. Buildings can be replicated across the globe w ith the same exact clim ate conditions and look exactly the same. Without proper knowledge of the site and local climatic conditions there will continue to be a disconnect between the structure and its site, which can incr ease operating costs for owners. The strategies developed in this research are a set of basic direc tions that should be considered by the designer and the builder throughout the construc tion process. The strate gies relate to local climatic conditions, materials, site, and constr uction techniques with the goal of optimum climatic performance throughout the life time of the building. Theref ore orientation and materials are important strategies in tropical climates; in effect buildings should be positioned so that they receive the cooling breezes in summer. Although the designer and builder must make

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critical decisions about fenestration and materials in regards to site, the user must also understand this strategy and use the building skin to make the most of summer breezes. Understanding the local climatic conditions alon g with local material s and how they react to the local climate are two of the most important aspects when considering the implementation of passively design strategies in a building. In hot climates th e skin, roof, and glazing always need to be considered in relati on to the site and orie ntation. Before they can be considered our mentalities about building must also change. Con tinuing in the current path will result in the continuing reliance on mechanical conditioning and the continual neglect of basic passive design strategies.

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APPENDIX A PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES CHEC K LISTS FOR CASE STUDIES Case Study 1: Royal Road Residence Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design X 4 Solar Angle Considered X 5 Materials 5a Insulated X walls 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces 5c Reflective X roof tiles 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation Building on Site X Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on The rmal Masses X Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X louvers on doors 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X clerestory 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X no attic 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Na tural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperat ure of Incoming Breezes X 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X 3.e Other Aperture(s) X persiana doors 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X carport roof 4.c Louvers/Blinds X 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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Case Study 2: Mass Residence Passive Design St rategy Check List (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X new site 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design X 4 Solar Angle Considered X 5 Materials 5a Insulated X 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces X 5c Reflective X 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design St rategy Check List (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X

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Passive Design St rategy Check List (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation X Building on Site X facing water Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on The rmal Masses X Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Na tural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperat ure of Incoming Breezes X 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X

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Passive Design St rategy Check List (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X 3.e Other Aperture(s) X 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X 4.c Louvers/Blinds X 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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Case Study 3: Gables Estates Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X new development 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design X 4 Solar Angle Considered X 5 Materials 5a Insulated X 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces X 5c Reflective X 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation X Building on Site X Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on The rmal Masses X Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X no attic, but roof ventilated 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Na tural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperat ure of Incoming Breezes X 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X

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Passive Design Strategies Check List (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X 3.e Other Aperture(s) X 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X 4.c Louvers/Blinds X 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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Case Study 4: Cocoon House Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design X 4 Solar Angle Considered X 5 Materials 5a Insulated X 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces X 5c Reflective X 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation X Building on Site X Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on T hermal Masses X no thermal mass Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling X 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Na tural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperature of Incoming Breezes X uses water 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X 3.e Other Aperture(s) X 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X 4.c Louvers/Blinds X 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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Case Study 5: Leavengood Residence Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Considered in Design X 4 Solar Angle Considered X 5 Materials 5a Insulated X 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces X 5c Reflective X 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetation Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X in courtyard

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation X Building on Site X Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials X Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on The rmal Masses X Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Na tural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperat ure of Incoming Breezes X 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X on south facade

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Passive Design Strategies Checklist (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X 3.e Other Aperture(s) X courtyard 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X 4.c Louvers/Blinds X 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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Case Study 6: Umbrella House Passive Design Strategy Checklist (Part I) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Site/Orientation 1 Previously Developed X 2 Infill X new development 3 Orientation (placement of building on site) X 3a Cardinal Directions Considered X 3b Natural Breezes X 3c Neighboring Buildings/Structures X 3d Existing Trees or Vegetation Consi dered in Design X empty site 4 Solar Angle Considered 5 Materials 5a Insulated X 5b Non-Conductive Surfaces X 5c Reflective X 6 Exterior Spaces 6.a Exterior Spaces Integrated into Design X 6.b Located or Shaded from Direct Sun X

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Passive Design Strategy Checklist (Part II) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Shading 1 Adequate Shading of Facades/Glazing 1a South X 1b East X 1c West X 2 Overhang/Extrusions Measured with Solar Angle X 3 Roof 2.1.a Adequate Overhangs X 2.1.b Shaded (skin, trees, neighboring structures) X 4 Shading Devices (location, number, size) X 4.1 Separate Skin/Faade X 4.2 Orientation of Devices X 4.2.a Solar X 4.2.b Breezes X 4.2.c Views X 4.3 Operable as Opposed to Fixed X 4.3.a Shutters (operable: swinging & pivoting louvers) X 4.3.b Louvers X entire height 4.3.c Blinds/Roller Shade X 4.3.d Light Shelf X 4.3.e Seasonal (trees, temporary devices) X 5 Vegetation 5.a Existing Trees or Vegetat ion Used for Shading of Seasonal Heat Gains X 5.b Low Growing Plants Shade Faade/Cool Breezes X 5.c Incorporated into Design X

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Passive Design Strategy Checklist (Part III) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Cooling 1 Orientation Building on Site X Roof Pitch X Openings X 2 Materials Heat Conductive Materials X Insulation on Thermal Masses X Lightweight/Breathable X 3 Ventilation 3.1 Natural Breezes of Site Considered with Air Flow Diagram X 3.2 Main Living Spaces Elevated X 3.3 Orientation of Openings X 3.3.a Exterior Windows & Doors X 3.3.b Interior Doors X 3.3.c Intake Vents X 3.3.d Exhaust Vents/Windows X 3.3.e Operable Windows X 3.4 Overhangs/Louvers Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.5 Adequate Ventilation of Attic Space X 3.6 Roof or Walls Designed to Capture/Funnel Breezes X 3.6.a vented (intake vents, exhaust vents, heat chimney, operable clearstory) X 3.6.b 3.7 Thermal Cooling 3.7.a Heat Chimney X 3.7.b Operable Clerestory X 3.8 Interior Partitions 3.8.a Flexible X 3.8.b Design to Capture/Funnel Breezes Through Interior X 3.8.c Open Plan X 3.9 Vegetation 3.9.a Not in Path of Natural Air Flow X 3.9.b Assists in Cooling Temperature of Incoming Breezes X 3.9.c Assists in Funneling Breezes Into or Through Structure X 3.9.d Use of Trees with High Canopies X 4 Glazing 4.a Reflective X 4.b Sized for Solar Angle on Exposed Facades X

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Passive Design Strategy Checklist (Part IV) # Category Sub-Category Y N Maybe? Explain Daylighting 1 Openings Facing North X 2 Direct Sun Shaded but Not Daylight X 3 Windows 3.a Windows on Multiple Walls (reducing glare) X 3.b Windows Adjacent to Interior Walls X 3.c Skylights X 3.d Clerestories X high louvered windows 3.e Other Aperture(s) X louvers all around 4 Reflected/Filtered Lighting 4.a Reflected Flooring X 4.b Light Shelf X 4.c Louvers/Blinds X louvers on all facades w/ shding on N/ S 4.d Splayed/Rounded Sills X 4.e Baffles X 4.f Canopy X large canopy 4.g Other Source(s) X 5 Open Plan X 6 Minimal Interior Partitions X 7 Elongated Plan (Allowing Light to Filter Across Interior Spaces) X

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LIST OF REFERENCES Bay, Joo-Hwa. and Lay Ong, Boon. (2006). Tropical Sustainable Architecture, Social and Environmental Dimensions. Archit ectural Press. Burlington, MA. Cooper, Gail. (1998). Air-Conditioning America, Engineers and the Cont rolled Environment, 1900-1960. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD. Domin, Christopher and King Joseph. (2002). Paul Rudol ph, The Florida Houses. Princeton Architectural Press. New York, NY. Donaldson, Barry. Nagengast, Bernard. (1994) H eat & Cold, Mastering the Great Indoors. The American Society of Heating, Refrigera ting and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atlanta, GA. Edwards, Brian. (1999).Sust ainable Architecture: 2 nd Edition, European Directives and Building Design. Architectural Press. Boston, MA. Farmer, John. ed. Richardson, Kenneth. (1996) Green Shift, Towards a Green Sensibility in Architecture. Butterworth-H einemann. Burlington, MA. Herbert, Gilbert. (1984). The Dream of the F actory-Made House. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Hochstim, Jan. (2005). Florida Modern, Residential Architecture 19451970. Rizzolii. New York, NY. Lechner, Norbert. (1991). Heating, Cooling, Lighting: De sign Methods for Architects John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. Parker, Alfred, Browning. (1965). You and Architecture, A Practical Guide to the Best in Building. Dial Press. New York, NY. Reisley, Roland. Timpane, John. (2001). Usonia New York, Building a Community with Frank Lloyd Wright. Princeton Architectural Press. New York, NY. Rudd, J, William. (2002). The Organic, Nature, People and Design, An Essay on Values, Meaning and Attitudes In Art, Design and Especially Architecture. College House Enterprises, LLC. Knoxville, TN. Salmon, Cleveland. (1999). Architectural Design for Tropical Regions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. Toy, Maggie. ed. (1997). The Architecture of Ecology London, UK. Weaving, Andrew. (2006). Sarasota Modern. Rizzoli. New York, NY. Wright, Frank Lloyd. (1954). The Natural House. Horizon Press. New York, NY.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dereck is a PhD student at the University of Florida School of Architecture. After receiving his Bachelor of Arts in urban studies from Virginia Commonwealth University in 2002 he has pursued a dual-masters in architecture an d building construction fr om the University of Florida. He completed his Mast er of Architecture in 2006 and is currently completing his second master degree at the Rinker School of Building Construction, while concurrently enrolled in PhD course work. His research focuses on the life work of sout h Florida architect Alfred Browning Parker and sustainable construction. With an emphasis on site, Dereck strives to weave a connection between the designer and the maker to improve both craft and sustainability of the built environment.