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Korean Award-Winning Television Commercials

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022210/00001

Material Information

Title: Korean Award-Winning Television Commercials Executional Factors and Cultural Values from 1994 to 2006
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising, award, executional, furse, hall, hofstede, korea, korean, stewart
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research is conducted to investigate the characteristics of Korean television commercials. Since Korean television commercials are reflecting its cultural values, Hofstede and Hall?s cultural typologies were also measured. By adopting content analysis of Stewart and Furse?s framework, this research examined the winners of Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006. With total 141 of sample, a characteristic of typical Korean award-winning commercial were offered. In terms of executional characteristics: Commercial winners use blind-lead in or humorous closing as a commercial structure to create mood or image of the brand rather than announcing the product's feature. Commercial winners use positive and emotional approach to create and enhance the brand image. Commercial winners reflect our ordinary Korean life by using realistic visuals rather than surrealistic and graphic displays. People in commercials would be ordinary people who are not extremely beautiful or ugly. Winning commercials use visual and spoken tagline in Korean and in an unobtrusive manner rather than using striking display. In visual taglines, type font would be an official font rather than a designed or handwritten font. Winning commercials often present classic or western-style music without lyrics as a back ground. In terms of cultural values: Winning commercials use equally individualistic and collectivistic values. Winning commercials use equally high power distance and low power distance values. High uncertainty avoidance values are more frequently used in winning commercials. Winning commercial messages are more frequently in high context. Moreover, several notable insights were found by the test result of coded variables: Commercial using collectivistic appeals are more likely to be emotional. Commercial with high uncertainty avoidance appeals are more likely to present scenic beauty. Low uncertainty avoidance appeal using commercials more frequently present surrealistic visuals. Commercial with high context messages are more frequently to be emotional. Recent commercials are more likely to present music but less likely to present unusual sound effects. Domestic agencies are more likely to present graphic display and surrealistic visuals in commercials than international agencies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022210:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022210/00001

Material Information

Title: Korean Award-Winning Television Commercials Executional Factors and Cultural Values from 1994 to 2006
Physical Description: 1 online resource (97 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertising, award, executional, furse, hall, hofstede, korea, korean, stewart
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research is conducted to investigate the characteristics of Korean television commercials. Since Korean television commercials are reflecting its cultural values, Hofstede and Hall?s cultural typologies were also measured. By adopting content analysis of Stewart and Furse?s framework, this research examined the winners of Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006. With total 141 of sample, a characteristic of typical Korean award-winning commercial were offered. In terms of executional characteristics: Commercial winners use blind-lead in or humorous closing as a commercial structure to create mood or image of the brand rather than announcing the product's feature. Commercial winners use positive and emotional approach to create and enhance the brand image. Commercial winners reflect our ordinary Korean life by using realistic visuals rather than surrealistic and graphic displays. People in commercials would be ordinary people who are not extremely beautiful or ugly. Winning commercials use visual and spoken tagline in Korean and in an unobtrusive manner rather than using striking display. In visual taglines, type font would be an official font rather than a designed or handwritten font. Winning commercials often present classic or western-style music without lyrics as a back ground. In terms of cultural values: Winning commercials use equally individualistic and collectivistic values. Winning commercials use equally high power distance and low power distance values. High uncertainty avoidance values are more frequently used in winning commercials. Winning commercial messages are more frequently in high context. Moreover, several notable insights were found by the test result of coded variables: Commercial using collectivistic appeals are more likely to be emotional. Commercial with high uncertainty avoidance appeals are more likely to present scenic beauty. Low uncertainty avoidance appeal using commercials more frequently present surrealistic visuals. Commercial with high context messages are more frequently to be emotional. Recent commercials are more likely to present music but less likely to present unusual sound effects. Domestic agencies are more likely to present graphic display and surrealistic visuals in commercials than international agencies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-05-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022210:00001


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1 KOREAN AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS: EXECUTIONAL FACTORS AND CULT URAL VALUES FROM 1994 TO 2006 By EUN SOO RHEE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Eun Soo Rhee

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3 In loving memory of EJ Rhee and Juhyun Yoon

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is an accomplishment of all who helped me directly and indi rectly. Especially, it is dedicated to my beloved mother Juhyun Yoon and sister EJ Rhee, who was my best consultant, teacher and friend throughout my life. Although th ey cannot celebrate my accomplishment with me, I can realize they will be smiling at me from the heaven. I am also thankful for my father, Gwang-ju Rhee for his eternal love and support. Since he stood behind me and gave me the strength to stand by my own, I could endure the grievous tim e of my life. I extend my sincere gratitude to my advisor a nd chair, Dr. Marilyn Roberts, who gave me tremendous guidance and support. She encouraged me with her words, her eyes, and her hugs. I was fortunate to have her as my mentor. I also want to express my thanks to my wonderful committee members, Dr. Chang-Hoan Cho and Dr. Jorge Villegas, for thei r invaluable advice and encouragement. Although I first assumed that graduate schools are not fun, my adorable friends in UF proved the assumption to be wrong. I would like to express my tha nks to my classmates. I would never forget those wonderful moments with th em. Especially, I apprec iate Korean gators, Mihyun, Yeuseung, Wan, Hyunji, Minji, Hyunmin, Seonmi, Sooyeon and all other sisters and brothers, for helping me to go through all of those hard tasks. I would also like to express my special gratit ude to people who blessed and prayed for me. My brother Yorgos, Mr. and Mrs. Sofianatos, Dr. Wa yne Griffin, and Catherines family are always in my thoughts and prayers. Last but not least, I thank my husband, Wan, fo r his care and love. It was my dream come true to have him as my husband and to study t ogether. I believe that we could successfully go through anything as long as we are together.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......10LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................11ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ .....14Purpose and Importance of Study...........................................................................................15Outline........................................................................................................................ ............162. LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................................................................18Korean Media Market Overview............................................................................................18Korean Advertising Industry..................................................................................................18Advertising Effectiveness...................................................................................................... .19Cultural Values in Advertising...............................................................................................21Former Studies of Korean Advertising...................................................................................24Research Question.............................................................................................................. ....263. METHODOLOGY....................................................................................................................30Content Analysis Design........................................................................................................30Units of Analysis and Sample Frame.....................................................................................31Coding Procedure and Intercoder Reliability.........................................................................31Coding Categories and Operational Definition......................................................................32Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........334. FINDINGS....................................................................................................................... ..........39Description of the Sample......................................................................................................39Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....41Additional Significant Insights...............................................................................................49Awarded Years................................................................................................................49Agency Origins................................................................................................................50Commercial Approach.....................................................................................................50Music and Lyrics.............................................................................................................51Music Genre....................................................................................................................52

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6 Unusual Sound Effect......................................................................................................525. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS.....................................................................................71Discussion..................................................................................................................... ..........71Korean Award-winning Commer cials Characteristics...................................................71Comparison with Parks (2004) Study............................................................................73Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........74Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........75Suggestion for Future Research..............................................................................................76 APPENDIX A. THESIS CODING SHEET.......................................................................................................78B. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS.............................................................................................85LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..92BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................96

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1. Operationalizations of Cultural Dimensions (Cho et al, 1999, pp. 65)..................................282-2. LATS Categorization (Park, 2004, pp. 35).............................................................................293-1. Pollays 42 Advertising Appeals (A lberts-Miller and Gelb, 1996, pp 59-61).......................343-2. Relationships of Appeals to Hofstede s Typology (Alberts-Miller and Gelb, 1996, pp 62)............................................................................................................................ ..........363-3. Intercoder Reliabi lity (Holstis Method)................................................................................374-1. Sample description........................................................................................................ .........534-2. Agency Name............................................................................................................... ..........544-3. Agency Origin............................................................................................................. ...........544-4. Award Level............................................................................................................... ............554-5. Spot Time................................................................................................................. ..............554-6. Color..................................................................................................................... ..................554-7. Category.................................................................................................................. ................564-8. Brand Origin.............................................................................................................. .............564-9. Commercial Structure...................................................................................................... .......574-10. Commercial Format........................................................................................................ ......574-11. Executional Characteristics.............................................................................................. ....584-12. Executional Characteristics: Visual......................................................................................584-13. Executional Elements: Visual Tagline.................................................................................584-14. Executional Elements: Auditory...........................................................................................594-15. Dominant Language Usage in Spoke Tagline......................................................................594-16. Executional Elements: Music.............................................................................................. .594-17. Music Style.............................................................................................................. .............59

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8 4-18. Music Style.............................................................................................................. .............594-19. Cross Tabulation: Award level & Memorable rhymes.........................................................604-20. Cross Tabulation: Award level & Agency origin.................................................................604-21. Cross Tabulation: Awa rd level & Context...........................................................................604-22. Cultural Values.......................................................................................................... ...........614-23. Cultural Typologies...................................................................................................... ........624-24. Paired Sample t-test..................................................................................................... .........624-25. Cross Tabulation: Individu alism & Commercial approach..................................................624-26. Cross Tabulation: Individu alism & Unusual sound effect...................................................634-27. Cross Tabulation: Uncertainty avoidance & Scenic beauty.................................................634-28. Cross Tabulation: Uncertainty avoidance & Surrealistic visuals.........................................634-29. Cross Tabulation: Contex t & Commercial Approach..........................................................644-30. Cross Tabulation: Awa rded year & Music...........................................................................644-31. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Unusual sound effect...................................................644-32. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Agency origin..............................................................654-33. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Individualism...............................................................654-34. Cross Tabulation: Awarded y ear & Uncertainty avoidance.................................................654-35. Cross Tabulation: Agency origin & Graphic display...........................................................664-36. Cross Tabulation: Agency or igin & Surrealistic visuals......................................................664-37. Cross Tabulation: Commercial approach & Graphic displays.............................................664-38. Cross Tabulation: Commer cial approach & Music..............................................................674-39. Cross Tabulation: Commer cial approach & Lyrics..............................................................674-40. Cross Tabulation: Commerci al approach & Affiliation.......................................................674-41. Cross Tabulation: Mu sic & Scenic beauty...........................................................................684-42. Cross Tabulation: Musi c & Unusual sound effect................................................................68

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9 4-43. Cross Tabulation: Lyrics & Beautiful character...................................................................684-44. Cross Tabulation: Lyri cs & Graphic display........................................................................694-45. Cross Tabulation: Ge nre & Graphic display........................................................................694-46. Cross Tabulation: Genre & Lyrics........................................................................................694-47. Cross Tabulation: Beautiful Ch aracter & Unusual sound effect..........................................704-48. Cross Tabulation: Scenic beauty & Unusual sound effect...................................................70

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 5-1. Expected Values and Observed Values: Individualism & Context........................................775-2. Expected Values and Observed Values : Power distance & Uncertainty avoidance.............77

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11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS KOBACO Korean Broadcast Advertising Corporation KFAA Korea Federation of Advertising Association LATS LG AD Advertisement Test System

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising KOREAN AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS: EXECUTIONAL FACTORS AND CULTURAL VALUES FROM 1994 TO 2006 By Eun Soo Rhee May 2008 Chair: Marilyn S. Roberts Major: Advertising This research is conducted to investigat e the characteristics of Korean television commercials. Since Korean television commercials are reflecting its cultural values, Hofstede and Halls cultural typologies were also measured. By adopting c ontent analysis of Stewart and Furses framework, this research examined the winners of Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006. With total 141 of sample, a characterist ic of typical Korean award-winning commercial were offered. In terms of executional characteristics: Commercial winners use blind-l ead in or humorous closing as a commercial structure to create mood or image of the brand rath er than announcing th e products feature. Commercial winners use positive and emotional approach to create and enhance the brand image. Commercial winners reflect our ordinary Korean life by using realistic visuals rather than surrealistic and graphic displays. People in commercials would be ordinary pe ople who are not extremely beautiful or ugly. Winning commercials use visual and spoken ta gline in Korean and in an unobtrusive manner rather than using striking display.

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13 In visual taglines, type font would be an official font rather than a designed or handwritten font. Winning commercials often presen t classic or western-style music without lyrics as a back ground. In terms of cultural values: Winning commercials use equally indivi dualistic and collectivistic values. Winning commercials use equally high power distance and low power distance values. High uncertainty avoidance values are more frequently used in winning commercials. Winning commercial messages are more frequently in high context. Moreover, several notable insights were f ound by the test result of coded variables: Commercial using collectivistic appeal s are more likely to be emotional. Commercial with high uncertainty avoidance ap peals are more likely to present scenic beauty. Low uncertainty avoidance appeal using commercials more frequently present surrealistic visuals. Commercial with high context messages ar e more frequently to be emotional. Recent commercials are more likely to presen t music but less likely to present unusual sound effects. Domestic agencies are more likely to presen t graphic display and su rrealistic visuals in commercials than international agencies.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Advertising is considered a major channe l of communication be tween marketers and their publics (Stewart, Furse, and Kozak, 1983), re flecting unique cultura l characteristics and cultural values of a count ry (An, 2007). It is possible to concl ude that advertising is not only a study of the abstract, but also an aspect of the real world (Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996), which includes cultural values at its core. Analyzing and understanding the overall culture take account of cultural values of an intra-personal world, the individuals mind, and an extra-personal world, cultural symbols and artifacts (Si ngh, 2004). To this extent, advertis ing can also be a palette to examine the hidden cultural values of a particular country. The Korean advertising industry is expandi ng due to the competition between domestic and foreign advertising agencies. According to the publication of Korean Broadcast Advertising Corporation (KOBACO), Korean Advertising (2007), the growing markets of cable TV and satellite broadcasting also affect the increase in television advertising ex penditure in Korea. As well as the growth of the advertising market in Korea, its culture is evolving simultaneously. Koreas modernization, economic development, a nd the influence of global marketing have thrust Korean consumers forward, exposing them to a new set of modern-western values. The study of Han & Shavitt (2005), which examined Kor ean advertising and tre nds, shows that those values reflected in advertising are in favor of mo re westernized advertising appeals as the culture changes. As cultural values in a society change over ti me, the advertising cont ent is sensitive and subjective to changes in cultural values (Tse, Belk & Zhou, 1989). Based on various researchers studies, cultural values are changing in East and Southeast Asia rapidly. Commercials appear to be embracing Western symbolism (Cho et al., 1999) For marketers to attract Korean consumers

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15 through advertising, it is crucial to follow the ch anging cultural environm ent and to incorporate cultural elements into their messages. It is ne cessary for both domestic and foreign advertising agencies to help navigate Koreas complex culture However, most of the prior studies of Korean advertising focus on its executional factors solely fo r domestic marketing goals. It is rare to find studies of Korean advertising examining th e cultural aspects and executional factors simultaneously. This study will examine the executional el ements and cultural values embedded in television commercials awarded by Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006. By conducting a content analysis of Korean award-winning commercials on the basis of advertising effectiveness, Hall (1973) and Hofstedes (1983) cultural typology, this study will provide insights into the evolving Korean culture as well as identifying the major trends of the last twelve years of Korean advertising execu tions and creative strategies. Purpose and Importance of Study Research on cultural values reflected in a dvertising is an issu e in the debate over standardization or localization of international advertising am ong different countries (Mueller, 1987, 1992). Understanding cultural values are often regarded as a necessity in conducting international advertising strate gies (Keegan, 1996). Advertising that successfully tailors the cultural values to th e advertising messages generally produce favorability among consumers (Zhang and Gelb, 1996). Since the Korean marke ting and cultural environment is evolving, marketers and advertising agencies operating in Korea need to be well informed about Korean culture. Along with rapid GNP growth, the Korean consumers power of consumption is increasing, making a popular test market for multinational mark eters (Han & Shavitt, 2005). Since the early 1990s, when the Korean gove rnment opened the advertising market,

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16 multinational advertising agencies enthusiastically entered the market. Currently, eight out of the top ten advertising agencies operating in Korea are multinational agencies (Han & Shavitt, 2005). In advertising expenditure, Korea is second largest in Asia, foll owing Japan. (Taylor, Wilson and Miracle, 2001). Thus, understanding the culture and executional factors of advertising is momentous for marketers a nd advertising agencies. This study will examine executional charact eristics by analyzing 141 Korean awardwinning TV commercials from 1994 to 2006. As Ernst (1980) mentioned, award-winning commercials are representative of an influential segment of trend setting commercials for the following year and are highly creative and well con centrated. Thus, the unit of analysis in this study also will be previous winners from the Korea Advertising Award. It is the major and only general advertising award in Korea that includes the whole sc ope of advertising media: TV, print, internet and outdoor a dvertisements. Started in 1994, the award is provided by the Korea Federation of Advertising Asso ciation (KFAA). By implementi ng the model of Stewart and Furses (1986) study of effective television ad vertising, this study will reveal the cultural significance along with key execu tional factors appeals used in Korean advertising. Outline Chapter 2 elaborates on the Korean advert ising industry and the Korean Advertising Awards. It also will review the two concep tual frameworks of this study, advertising effectiveness, Hofstedes cultural typologies and Halls concept of context. Brief summaries of former studies of advertising executional factor s, cultural values in advertising, and Korean award-winning advertising al so will be included. Chapter 3 details the unit of analysis, sample frame and coding categories used to analyze Korean award-winning TV commercials. With content analysis, the sample will be analyzed using acceptable standards.

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17 Chapter 4 elaborates the results of the study. Finally, in Chapter 5, discussions and limitations will be included with su ggestions for future research.

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18 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Korean Media Market Overview From the early 1990s, new types of broad casting were introduced to the Korean television broadcasting market. Cable TV, digita l satellite broadcasting, and digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) started their services and at tracted the attention of Korean advertisers. During the digital shift, the Korean broadcasting market reorganized its st ructure and regulations. In 2001, the advertising market opened to foreig n marketers. According to the Advertising Yearbook (2006) of Cheil Communication, Korean te levision advertising sales accounted for 89 percent of total advertising sales in 2 005, with 2.149 trillion Won (KRW) (KOBACO, 2007). The ratings of terrestrial TV and cable TV increased steadily from 43.3 (2001) to 47.0 (2003) percent. Although the audience ra tings decreased in 2005, the rati ng is resting at 44.0 percent (KOBACO, 2007). Still, television remains an important media for advertisers to disseminate their marketing messages. Korean Advertising Industry Starting from 1967 when the first advertis ing agency, Hapdong Advertising, came to the market, the Korean advertising industry had been successfully evolving. According to the KOBACO Korean Advertising Facts and Insi ghts (2007), Cheil Communications was established in 1973. It is currently the leading agency in the Kor ean advertising industry. In 1975, Hapdong Advertising acquired Manbosa Advertising and changed their name to Oricom in 1979. During the 1970s and 1980s, these two agencies, Cheil Communications and Oricom, lead the growth of the Korean advertising industry. In 1981, Korea Broadcast Advertising Co rporation (KOBACO) was founded and changed the landscape of Korean advertising. KOBACO refined regulation of the advertising

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19 agency industry. In 1990, foreign advertising ag encies first entered th e Korean advertising market, and Korean domestic agencies started to create joint ventures with foreign agencies. These changes in the Korean advertising market resulted in the sudden increase of foreign advertising agencies from 7 to 260 in 2006 (KOBACO, 2007). There are numerous advertising award competitions in Korea. The largest is the Korea Advertising Award, which was st arted in 1994. Provided by the Kore a Federation of Advertising Association (KFAA), the award wi nners are selected by advertisi ng professionals. It is the only advertising award in Korea that incorporates a wi de range of adverting media channels including television, newspaper, radio, magazine, internet and outdoor media. Along with the development of the new media, the Korean Advertising Awa rd incorporated new media categories. They organize the committee annually based recommendati ons by professionals in advertising industry. Besides the Korean Advertising Award, there ar e several consumers choice awards along with newspaper awards. Advertising Effectiveness This study is conducted using three concep tual topics; advertising effectiveness Hofstedes cultural typology and Halls concept of cultural context. One a pproach to identify the advertising effectiveness is examining the executional elemen ts (McEwen & Leavitt, 1976). Studies about advertising execu tional characteristics were conducted in various ways. In the study by Stanton and Burke (1999), they used the term executional elements as meaning how advertising message is presented. They conducte d the study to find out wh ether the executional elements are effective in 15 second commerci als or 30 second commercials. By using two measurements of effectiveness, recall and persua sion, they found that in 15 second advertising, a number of on-screen characters are the most effective element for persuasion and nutrition/ health is the most effective element for recall. But for 30 second advertisements, actor playing

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20 ordinary persons was regarded as an effective executional element and nutrition/health as the most effective element. Laskey, Fox and Crask (1994) focused on ex ecutional style rather than executional elements (factors). The research assessed the e ffectiveness of a small number of executional factors rather than looking into all of the indi vidual factors. To see the relationship between executional styles, they used the framewor k of Shimps (1976) typology of television commercial executional styles, dividing the styles in to four categories; In dividual oriented, Story oriented, Product oriented, and Technique orient ed. The results suggest that executional style does have an effect on television commercials in terms of recall and key-message comprehension. Stewart and Furses study (1986) establishe d the impact of executional variables on television advertising performance and examined how those variables could affect advertising effectiveness. The development of an executiona l coding system is described in detail. It explains 155 unique executional items in 11 categories such as: Information content, Brand/product identification, Setting, Visual/audi tory device, Promise/ appeals/ propositions, Tone/atmosphere, Comparison, Music and danci ng, Structure and format, Characters, Timing and counting measures. A sample of 1059 commerci als for 356 brands was analyzed to examine the relationships between particular executional variables and each of the performance measures. They suggested that a variety of executional de vices may enhance recall and comprehension with the application of humor, auditory memory devi ces, brand sign-off, front end impact, amount of time devoted to the product within the commerci al, the use of a brand differentiating message, information concerning convenience in use, and pr oduct benefits. They also revealed that the influence of executional elements differs due to the measure of effectiveness examined.

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21 Cultural Values in Advertising Culture can be defined as "collective mental programming" that di stinguishes countries (Hofstede 1983, p. 76) and can be easily conv eyed by the advertising messages (Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996). Since consumers are raised in a particular cu lture and habituated to their cultural value system, percepti on process, and beliefs (Pae k, 2005), understanding cultural differences among international consumers is cons idered necessary for successful international advertising (de Mooij, 1998). Advertising messages that are congruent with the local culture are found to be more persuasive than others (G regory and Munch, 1997; Han and Shavitt, 1994; Hong, Muderrisoghi and Zinkhan, 1987; Taylor et al, 1997). The following section will discuss Hofstedes cultural typologies that will be imported as a conc eptual framework of this study. Hofstede (1983) defined the typologies of cultural dimensions. His data collection instrument was established by a multinational team and divided the culture based on four cultural dimensions: individualism/ collectivism, po wer distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/feminity. These four dimenstions we re developed in early 1990s, and later he expanded to include a fifth di mension of long term versus short term orientation. The individualism /collectivism dimension refers to whether the individual is an active agent or dependent of the group. In individualistic culture s such as United Stat es and Australia, the connection between individuals are relatively low and each individual are expected to take care of themselves. They tend to rely on fact ual information in decision making process and seldom seek group consensus (Gudykunst et al., 1985) In collectivistic cultures such as most Asian countries, the social ties are tighter than in individual istic cultures (Hofstede, 1991). Power distance refers to the societys way of dealing with power which is established through the values of superiors or subordinate s. It includes the acceptance to unequal power distribution among people or to what end does the people see au thority as a central fact of the

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22 society (Gudykunst et al., 1996). High power dist ance countries tend to be related to individualistic cultures (Hofsted e, 1991). For instance, high power distance countries, like Korea, are disposed to clear directions and hierarch ies of the society. Thos e people with power are accepted as opinion leaders (Albers-Miller and Gelb, 1996). In low power distance countries such as United States, on the other hand, indi viduals are more likely to credit the factual evidence and a particular course of action. Uncertainty avoidance refers to whether pe ople feel frightened by unknown situations. It includes the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations (Hofstede, 1991:113). In low uncertainty avoidance cult ures, such as United States and Jamaica, they are more comfortable and tole rant with uncertain situ ations. High uncertainty avoidance cultures such as Korea and Japan, howe ver, tend to feel that company rules should not be broken even if the employees think it is the companys best in terest (Hofstede, 1991). According to the study of Zandpour and his coll eagues (1994), countries that are high in uncertainty avoidance are disposed to rely on a trustworthy source to provide reasoning and information. Masculinity and feminity indi cates the dominant pattern of sex roles underlying in the cultures (Hofstede, 1991). Masculin e culture emphasizes the degr ee to which traditional male values are important to society such as attrac tiveness, dominance, assertiveness, performance, ambition, and materialism. This ki nd of culture regards big and fast as beautiful (Hofstede, 1980). Femine culture, on the other hand, is the opposite of masculinity and emphasizes the relationship between people and quality of life. Long term orientation and short term orientat ion was added to the dimensions in 1987 to classify Eastern cultures in mo re effective way. Long-term orientation cultures, such as Korea,

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23 concerns the demands of what one does (Hofstede 1991; Hofstede a nd Bond 1988). It refers to the Confucian idea to respect unequ al status of individuals, while short-term orientation cultures, such as US, concerns more on person al beliefs such as right or wrong. Several cross-cultural studi es were conducted on the basis of Hofstedes cultural typologies (Cheng and Schweitzer, 1996; Mart enson, 1987; Mueller, 1987; Weinberger and Harian, 1989). Among these dimensions, individu alism/ collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance were most frequently used in cross-cultural studie s of Western and Eastern cultures. Since those dimensions show the differe nce between Western and Eastern cultures, this study will also focus on individua lism/ collectivism, power distan ce, and uncertainty avoidance. There are several previous studies that meas ure the cultural dimensions in advertising. Pollay (1983) developed a list of 42 common advertising appeals: effective, durable, convenient, ornamental, cheap, dear, distinct ive, popular, traditional, modern, natural, technological, wisdom, magic, productivity, relaxation, enjoyment, matu rity, youth, safety, tamed, morality, modesty, humility, plain, frail, adventure, untamed, fr eedom, casual, vain, sexuality, independence, security, status, affiliation, nurturance, succorance, family, community, healthy, and neat. By using these advertising appeals, Alberts-Miller and Gelb (2001) matched those with Hofstedes four cultural dimensions, excluding long-term / short-term orientation. They examined advertisements from Taiwan, India, France, Mexi co and United States. Six coders related each appeal to a single cultural dime nsion. Among 42 appeals, 12 were el iminated due to the lack of agreement. Those appeals eliminated were: tr aditional, modern, tec hnological, relaxation, wisdom, enjoyment, freedom, maturity, morality sexuality, healthy and neat. Testing by the Pearson correlation coefficient, the study discovere d that all 30 appeals are related to four cultural dimensions. Independence, distinctiv e, and self-respect, popular, affiliation, family,

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24 succorance, and community appeals have relati onship with individualism/ collectivism. For power distance, it can be measured by the usag e of ornamental, vai n, dear, status, cheap, humility, nurturance, and plain appeal matter. Uncer tainty avoidance is related to safety, tamed, durable, adventure, untamed, magic, youth, and casual. Masculinity/feminity is related to effective, convenient, productivity, natu ral, frail and modest appeals. Hall (1973) also classified Eastern and Western cultural differences by introducing the contextuality of communication dividing cultures into high-c ontext cultures and low-context cultures. High-context cultures, using communication style with ab stract, implicit and indirect messages already shared by the people, and repres ent mostly Eastern cultures. In low-context cultures, they use straightforward, direct and explicit messages which contain detailed background information. Most Western cultures show these kinds of message styles (Hall & Hall 1990, pp. 6). Former studies of contextuality in advertising found that advertisements in lowcontext cultures tend to be more informativ e (Lin, 1993), using more hard-sell approaches (Mueller, 1987, 1992), and more confrontational app eals (Cutler and Javalgi, 1992, Miracle et al., 1992) than high-context culture advertising. Mi racle (1987) examined Japanese television commercials and found that they try to make frie nds with the audience, tr y to prove that their feelings are understood, try to prove that the advertiser is nice, a nd in general, try to generate purchase because the buyer is familiar with the fi rm and trusts it. Since Korea is adjacent to Japan and shares many common cultural values, it is expected that these findings will also be reflected in Korean television commercials in the current study. Former Studies of Korean Advertising Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, and Kropp (1999) c onducted a cross-cultu ral examination of Korea and United States televi sion advertising. Among various cu ltural dimensions proposed by

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25 numerous researchers, this study used individualism/collectivism, time orientation, relationship with nature and contextuality. The operat ionalizations are shown in the Table 2-1. In the results of the content analysis of 253 U.S. and 235 Korean television commercials, U.S. commercials executed i ndividualism more than Korean commercials. There were no significant findings for collectiv ism. Korean commercials tend to associate youth with the product more often than U.S. commercials. Al so, U.S. commercials frequently used product features and utilitarian needs for products than Korean commercials. And both cultures demonstrated strong present-time orientation in the commercials. Finally, Korean commercials were more high-context, while U.S. commercial s are low-context commercials. Some of the findings, such as no significant difference in colle ctivism, are contrary to the expectation of Hofstedes study. Cho et al. (1999), concludes that Korea may be moving away from the traditional culture in the process of adapting to the west. Another study of award-wi nning television commercials was conducted by Park (2004). The study provided a content analysis of Kor ea Advertising Award winners from 1999 to 2003. He measured the TV commercials executional elem ents such as commercial structure, format, setting, approach, appeal, materi al, value and visuals. The variables of music element, sound effect, and celebrity/ model type were exclude d in this study. The c oding was conducted based on the LG-AD Advertisement Test System (LATS) to measure eight categories of executional variables (Table 2-2): Commercial format, co mmercial structure, appeal type, commercial approach, appeal values, commercial appeal visual devices, and commercial setting. The studies showed that Korean award wi nning TV commercials te nd to use slice of life and comedy and satire as the dominant commercial structure. Emotional and positive approaches also are frequently used. But it showed that effective Korean advertising still relies

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26 on traditional Korean values such as family and hometown oriented culture. The overall result was that executional elements used in Korean ad vertisements are not cha nging. It also had shown that advertising typologies and me ssage strategies remain the same when compared to those of the past. But this study examined only executi onal elements and excluded measuring cultural values. Research Question In Parks (2004) content an alysis of Korea Advertising Award winners, he tested the winners between 1999 and 2003, and excluded winne rs from 1994 to 1998. It also excluded the variables of cultural va lues, back ground music and sound effects. In th e current study, awardwinners from 1994 to 2006 will be used as units of analysis. The study will be guided by the following research questions: RQ 1 : Which executional elements are most commonly used in Korean award winning advertising? (1994 2006) Korean Advertising Award gives six awar ds: Grand prix, Gold, Silver, Bronze, Excellence, and Special prize. In order to examine which executional elements were frequently used in higher prize of Korean Advertising Awa rd, the next research question is developed as: RQ 2: What are the differences in executional elements among the various award levels? Hofstedes (2001) cultural dimensions a nd Halls (1976) contextuality showed that Western cultures, represented by the US, the UK and Germany, have characteristics of low power distance, individualism, low uncertainty avoidance, and low-context culture. Meanwhile, the Eastern cultures, represented by Korea, China and Japan, tend to have characteristics of high power distance, high uncertainty avoidance, collectivistic and hi gh in contextuality. Based on the study of Cho et al. (1999) and Han and Shavitt (2005), however, the expect ed cultural values of

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27 Korea seem to be changing due to the rapi d economic development and westernized youth culture. To explore whether the cultural values are remaining the same as Hofstedes study, the following research question and hypotheses were developed. RQ 3: What cultural values are dominantly manifested in Korean Awardwinning TV commercials? H1: Korean award-winning televisi on commercials tend to use collectivistic values more frequently than individualistic values. H2: Korean award-winning television commercials tend to use high power distance values more frequently than low power distance values. H3: Korean award-winning television commercials tend to use high uncertainty avoidance values more frequently than low uncertainty avoidance values. H4: Korean award-winning television commercials tend to use highcontext values more frequently than low-context values.

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28 Table 2-1. Operationalizations of Cultu ral Dimensions (Cho et al, 1999, pp. 65) Collectivism Appeals about the integrity of or belonging to family or social group Emphasis on conformity or harmony Reflection of interdependent relationships with others Emphasis on the achievements of the family or social group Emphasis on the benefits to families or group members Individualism Appeals about the individuality or independence of the audience Emphasis on uniqueness or originality Reflections of self relian ce, hedonism, or competition Emphasis on self fulfillment, self de velopment, or self realization Emphasis on the benefits to an individual consumer Past Orientation Emphasis on being classic, hi storical, old, or antique Appeals concerning mans accumulated experience or knowledge Present Orientation Emphasis on the contemporary or now Ignoring what happened in the past and what will happen in the future Future Orientation Emphasis on the future or being progressive Appeals about the creativity of youth Manipulation of Nature Emphasis on mans superiority over nature Reflections of mans technical achievements Oneness with Nature Emphasis on the goodness and beauty of nature Reflections of the interaction a nd affinity of man and nature Subjugation to Nature Emphasis on natures superiority over man Reflections of mans fatalism; being at the mercy of nature Low Context Emphasis on product features and characteristics Explicit mention of competitive products Use of comparative appeals Addressing the consumers practical functional, or utilitarian need for the product Use of numbers or graphics High Context Emphasis on emotion and mood Use of metaphors or aesthetic expressions Associating a product with a particul ar situation or type of person or lifestyle Addressing affective or subjec tive impressions of intangible aspects of a product

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29 Table 2-2. LATS Categorization (Park, 2004, pp. 35) Category Operational Definitions Commercial Format Announcement, testimonial lifestyle, demonstration, comparative, image, symbolize, humor and exaggeration Commercial Structure Product central, mode l central, image central, story central Appeal Type Fun, comedy, serious, sensitiv e, active, horror & threat, shock, sexual Commercial Approach Rational, emotional Appeal Values Common values, Ko rean values, Western values Commercial Appeals Functional, Emotion/ ex perience, Social/ Symbolic, Social/ Moral Visual Devices Live pictures, Animation, Co mputer Graphic, Live + Animation, Live + Computer Graphic Commercial Setting Indoor, Outdoor, Set, Live, Domestic, Foreign Country

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30 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content Analysis Design This study is conducted using quantitative c ontent analysis, which Riffe and Freitag (1998) defined as systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication, which have been assigned numeric values according to valid measurement rules, and the analysis of relationship involving those valu es using statistical methods, in order to describe the communication, draw inferences about its mean ing, or infer from the communication to its context, both of production and consumption (pp .20). Numerous researchers found that content analysis is an effective measurement of th e communication content since it is objective, systematic, quantitative, and a generalizable me thod. It is frequently adopted in the study of consumer behavior, marketing and advertising res earch fields. As a study of the message itself, not regarding consumer and a udiences (Kassarjian, 1977), content analysis will examine the executional factors and cultural values of Kor ean award-winning advertising. Among the studies of content analysis, Stewart and Furses c odebook (1986, pp. 131 -143) is used for the coding framework in this study to examine the sele cted executional elements of the data. To measure cultural values depicted in advertising, this study will use the method of Albers-Miller and Gelb (2001). As they divided Pollays (1983) 42 advertising appeals (Table 31) into the four dimensions of Hofstedes cu ltural typologies (Table 3-2), appeals will be examined to determine the cultural values depicted in Korean award-winning advertising. Coding for Halls (1989) contextuality will be similar to assessing Hofstedes cultural dimension. Based on the study of Cho et al. (1 999), commercial messages that show product features, utilitarian needs, us e of numbers are coded as lowcontext. Using emotion and mood, use of metaphor, aesthetic expressi ons are coded as high-context.

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31 Units of Analysis and Sample Frame The unit of analysis in this study is the individual advertisemen t awarded by the Korea Advertising Award from its beginning in 1994 to 2006. Among various award-winning advertising, only television commercials were anal yzed in this study. Based on the winners lists of Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006, 141 from 180 of a possible total sample were analyzed in this study. The sample was retrieved from the webpage of www.ADIC.com operated by Korean Federation of Adver tising Association (KFAA). Coding Procedure and Intercoder Reliability Coding is conducted by the primary research er and a trained native Korean graduate student who is also a fluent E nglish speaker. As Alden, Hoyer, a nd Lee (1993) revealed in their study, using a bilingual coder is effective in te rms of enhancing the judgment validity based upon his/her extentive understanding of two di fferent culture. Bili ngual coders coded the Korean commercials on an English language based coding sheet. To prevent the biases generated by the gender difference, one female coder, th e primary researcher, and one male student conducted the coding procedure. The coder was trained by the instruction of the code book provided by researcher. Among various intercod er reliability methods this study adopted Holstis (1969) method. Reliability = 2M / N1 + N2 M = the number of agreements between coders N= total number of decisions made by each coder The second coder conducted coding on 29 of 141 commercials, which is 20% of the sample, coding in a separate room without pr imary researcher attending. By implementing Holstis method, the intercoder re liability of this study ranged from 0.45 to 1.0 and the overall intercoder reliability was 0.88 (Table 3-3).

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32 Coding Categories and Operational Definition Sixty-five variables are used for this study. The variables are categorized into 8 sections: 1) commercial structure, 2) co mmercial format, 3) commercial a pproach, 4) commercial setting, 5) visual devices, 6) auditory devices, 7) music elements and 8) cultural values. Other coding variables include year, product ca tegory, brand origin and agen cy origin. The variables for measuring the characteristics of TV commercials are based on the study of Stewart and Furse (1983), Gagnard & Morris (1988), Stewart & Koslow (1989), and Frazer, Sheehan & Patti (2002), but to measure Korean cultural traits, so me variables are modified by the researcher. Operational definitions of these sections are shown as below: Commercial Structure : It is contained with one variable about their dominant structures such as front-end impact, surprise or suspense in the mi ddle, surprise or susp ense at the end, unusual setting or situation, humorous closing, and blind lead-in. Commercial Format : One variable is sectioned as this category to find out which format was used in the commercials. Commercial Approach : Two variables are in this section to find out whether the commercial is approaching it as rational or emotional or bot h, and whether it is appealing with positive approach or negative approach or both. Commercial Setting : One variable asking about its dominan t setting such as outdoor, indoor or computer graphic animated setting. Visual Devices : Ten variables are in this section to find out the presence or absence of beautiful/ugly characters, scenic beauty, graphic display, surrealistic visuals, substantive supers, visual tagline, and visual memo ry device. And language used in commercial also was used as a variable to find out which language was shown in the commercial excluding the brand name which is most likely to be dominant in Korean client.

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33 Auditory Devices : Four variables are used to define a uditory devices. Presence or absence of memorable rhymes, slogan, mnemonic devices, unus ual sound effects, and spoken tagline were used as a variable. And dominant language that was spoken in the commercial was also used as a variable and to reflect the common trend of Ko rean language, increasing proportion of English in language usage, and to find out how often English is used in Korean a dvertising, the choice was given not only Korean and English but also using it both. Music Element : Five variables are used to measure music element usage in commercials. Since using music in a commercial is popular in Korean culture, this section is consisting of specific variables such as whether it is containing lyri cs or not, or used as only a background music or jingle, and its origin. Cultural Values : Thirty variables are used to measure dominant cultural value reflected in commercials. Six variables are measured in basis of Hofstedes cultural typology. Among the cultural dimensions, this study will examine only three of them; individualism/collectivism, risk avoidance, and power distance. It will be measured by Albers-M iller and Gelbs method which are measuring cultural dimensions by the advertis ing appeals. For measuring Edward T. Halls (1984) dimension of high context and low context culture, this study will adopt Cho et als (1999) study as mentioned above. Data Analysis Data analysis was entered and conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 15.0 and Microsoft Excel. Chi-square frequencies, and ttests were used to explore the research questions and to test hypotheses.

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34 Table 3-1. Pollays 42 Advertising Appeal s (Alberts-Miller an d Gelb, 1996, pp 59-61) Appeal Description Effective Feasible, workable, useful, pragma tic, appropriate, functional, consistent, efficient, helpful, comfortable (clothes ), tasty (food), strength, longevity of effect Durable Long-lasting, permanent, stable enduring, strong, powerful, hearty, tough Convenient Handy, time-saving, quick, eas y, suitable, accessible, versatile Ornamental Beautiful, decorative, ornate, adorned, embellished, detailed, designed, styled Cheap Economical, inexpensive, bargain, cut-rate, penny-pin ching, discounted, at cost, undervalued, a good value Dear Expensive, rich, valuable, highly rega rded, costly, extravagant, exorbitant, luxurious, priceless Distinctive Rare, unique, unusual, scarce, infreque nt, exclusive, tasteful elegant, subtle, Esoteric, hand-crafted Popular Commonplace, customary, well-known, c onventional, regular, usual, ordinary, normal, standard, typical, uni versal, general, everyday Traditional Classic, historic al, antique, legendary, time-honor ed, long-standing, venerable, nostalgic Modern Contemporary, modern, new, improv ed, progressive, advanced introducing, Announcing Natural References to the elements, an imals, vegetables, minerals, farming, unadulterated, purity (of product) organic, grown, nutritious Technological Engineered, fabricated, formulat ed, manufactured, constructed, processed, resulting from science, invention, di scovery, research, containing secret ingredients Wisdom Knowledge, education, awareness, intelligence, curiosity, satisfaction, comprehension, sagacity, expe rtise, judgment, experience Magic Miracles, magic, mysticism, myster y, witchcraft, wizardry, superstitions, occult sciences, mythic characters, to mesmer ize, astonish, bewitch, fill with wonder Productivity References to achievement, accomplishment, ambition, success, careers, self-development, being skilled, accomplis hed, proficient, pulling your weight, contributing, doing your share Relaxation Rest, retire, retreat, loaf, contentment, be at ea se, be laid-back, vacations, Holiday, to observe Enjoyment To have fun, laugh, be happy, celebrate to enjoy games, parties, feasts and festivities, to participate Maturity Being adult, grown-up, middle-aged, senior, elderly, having associated insight, wisdom, mellowness, adjustment, referenc es to aging, death, retirement, or age-related disabilities or compensations Youth Being young or rejuvenated, children, kids, immature, underdeveloped, junior, adolescent Safety Security (from external threat), carefulness, caution, stability, absence of hazar ds, potential injury, or other risks, guarantees, warrantie s, manufacturers Reassurances Tamed Docile, civilized, restrained, obedient, complaint, faithful, reliable, responsible, domesticated, sacrificing, self-denying

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35 Table 3-1. Continued Morality Humane, just, fair, honest, ethical, reputable, principled, religious, devoted, Spiritual Modesty Being modest, nave, demure, innocen t, inhibited, bashful, reserved, timid, coy, virtuous, pure, shy, virginal Humility Unaffected, unassuming, unobtrusive, patient, fate-accepting, resigned, meek, Plain-folk, down-to-earth Plain Unaffected, natural, prosaic, homespun, simple, artless, unpretentious Frail Delicate, frail, dainty, sensitive, tender, susceptible, vulnerable, soft, genteel Adventure Boldness, daring, bravery, courage, seeking adventure, th rill, or excitement Untamed Primitive, untamed, fierce, course, rowdy, ribald, obscene, voracious, gluttonou s, frenzied, uncontrolled, unreliable, corrupt, obscene, deceitful, savage Freedom Spontaneous, carefree, abandoned, indul gent, at liberty, uninhibited, passionate Casual Unkempt, disheveled, messy, diso rdered, untidy, rugge d, rumpled, sloppy, casual, irregular, noncompulsive, imperfect Vain Having a socially desirable appearan ce, being beautiful, pretty, handsome, being fashionable, well-groomed, tailored, graceful, glamorous Sexuality Erotic relations: holding hands, kissing, embracing between lovers, dating, romance, intense sensuality, feeling sexua l, erotic behavior, lust, earthiness, indecency, attractiveness of clearly sexual nature Independence Self-sufficiency, self-reliance, autonomy, unattached, to do-it-yourself, to do Your own thing, original, unconvent ional, singular, nonconformist Security Confident, secure, possessing dign ity, self-worth, self-e steem, self-respect, peace of mind Status Envy, social status or competitiven ess, conceit, boasting, prestige, power, dominance, exhibitionism, pride in owne rship, wealth (including the sudden wealth of prizes), trend-setting, to seek compliments Affiliation To be accepted, liked by peers, collea gues and community at large, to associate or gather with, to be social, to joi n, unite, or otherwise bond in friendship, fellowship, companionship, cooperation, r eciprocity, to conform to social customs, have manners social gra ces and decorum, tact and finesse Nurturance To give gifts, especially symp athy, help love, charity, support, comfort, protection, nursing, consolation, or othe rwise care for the weak, disabled, inexperienced, tired, young, elderly, etc. Succorance To receive expressions of love (all expressions except sexuality), gratitude, pats on the back, to feel deserving Family Nurturance within the family, havi ng a home, being at home, family privacy, companionship of siblings, kinship, getting married Community Relating to communit y, state, national publics, pub lic spiritedness, group unity, national identity, society, patriotism, civic and comm unity organizations or other than social organization Healthy Fitness, vim, vigor, vitality, strength, heartiness, to be activ e, athletic, robust, peppy, free from disease, illness, infection, or addiction Neat Orderly, neat, precise, tidy, clean, sp otless, unsoiled, sweet-smelling, bright, free from dirt, refuse, pests, verm in, stains and smells, sanitary

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36 Table 3-2. Relationships of Appeals to Hofs tedes Typology (Alberts-Miller and Gelb, 1996, pp 62) Individualism Collectivism High Power Distance Low Power Distance High Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainty Avoidance Independence Popular OrnamentalCheap Safety Adventure Distinctive Affiliation Vain Humility Tamed Untamed Self-respect Family Dear NurturanceDurable Magic Succorance Status Plain Youth Community Casual

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37 Table 3-3. Intercoder Relia bility (Holstis Method) Variable Intercoder Reliability Agency Name 1.00 Brand Name 1.00 Award Level 1.00 Spot Time 1.00 Color 1.00 Year 1.00 Category 1.00 Brand Origin 1.00 Ad Agency Origin 1.00 Commercial Structure 0.45 Commercial Format 0.48 Commercial Approach 0.79 Commercial Approach 2 0.86 Commercial Setting 0.79 Beautiful Character 0.93 Ugly Character 1.00 Scenic Beauty 0.90 Graphic Display 0.97 Surrealistic Visuals 0.83 Substantive Supers 0.97 Visual Tagline 1.00 Visual Memory Device 0.90 Dominant language usage in visual tagline 0.90 Font used in visual tagline 0.97 Memorable rhymes/slogans/mnemonic device 0.76 Unusual sound effect 0.86 spoken tagline 1.00 Principal language of spoken tagline 1.00 Music 0.93 Lyrics 0.97 Music style 0.76 Music Style 2 0.97 Independence 0.69 Distinctive 0.76 Self-respect 0.83 Popular 0.72

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38 Table 3-3. Continued Affiliation 0.79 Family 0.83 Succorance 0.76 Community 0.90 Ornamental 0.90 Vain 0.83 Dear 0.90 Status 0.86 Cheap 1.00 Humility 1.00 Nurturance 0.83 Plain 0.86 Safety 0.90 Tamed 0.93 Durable 0.79 Adventure 0.76 Untamed 0.83 Magic 0.79 Youth 0.79 Casual 0.90 Product Features 0.83 Utilitarian Needs 0.97 Use of numbers 0.90 Emotion and mood 0.83 Use of metaphor 0.79 Aesthetic expression 0.79 Overall 0.88

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39 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS By implementing content analysis, a total 141 television advertis ements awarded the Korean Advertising Award were coded. A tota l of 65 variables were measured in eight categories. The findings implicate the executiona l characteristics and the cultural values of Korean award-winning television commercials. The descriptive st atistics of the sample are reported in this chapter and variables with accepta ble size are subjected for statistical tests. To statistically test cross tabulations, some variab les are recoded where n ecessary to increase cell sizes. Description of the Sample Table 4-1 provides a list of the sample by awarded year. Between four to eighteen commercials are awarded yearly. However, due to the difficulty of sample retrieval, few sample awarded from 1994 to 2000 are not included in the study. The samples of 2003 (12.8%) and 2002 (12.1%) constitute the larg est portion of a total sample while 1998 and 1999 (2.8%) were equally ranked as the fewest. Thirty-one advertising agencies were aw arded during the Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006 (Table 4-2). Cheil communica tions, which is the largest and the only domestic agency ranked in the top ten in the Korean advertis ing market, was awarded 34 times (24.1%). It is not surprising resu lt since Cheil ranked highest in advertising expenditure annually among advertising agencies. Launched in 1999 in Ko rea, the second largest agency in terms of expenditure, TBWA received 16 prizes (11.4% ) through 2006. Wellcomm, a Korean domestic advertising agency which later affiliated with Publicis in 1999, was awarded 15 times (10.6%) throughout the years. LG AD, which is LGs inhome agency, was also aw arded 12 times (8.5%), followed by Daehong (9 times, 6.4%).

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40 Among award-winning advertising agencies, 63% were purely domestic in terms of agency origin (Table 4-3). For the domestic agen cies that affiliated with foreign companies from 1994 to 2006, those constituted 23.4% of the agencies The proportion of world-wide advertising agencies having a Korean branch agency was 13.5% of the total sample. Table 4-4 summarizes the award level of the sa mple. More than half of the sample was awarded the Excellence prize (56%) since it aw ards multiple advertisements annually. They awards the best commercials within product catego ries and advertising media. It is followed by Bronze (14.2%) prize. The award event generally grants one advertisement per year for the Grand prix, Gold, Silver, and Bronz e prizes. Annually, the Excellen ce prize is awarded to six or more commercials and two or more for a Special prize. But the portions of the prizes were subject to change during the period of 1994 to 2006. In terms of spot time (Table 4-5), the majority of the sample were 30 second commercials (74.5%). Twenty-two percent of the sample was 15 or 20 second, and 60 second spots constituted 3.6% of the total sample. Excl uding 2.8% of those with monotone commercials, 97.2% of the sample were in full color (Table 46). Of those that used monotone, all used an emotional appeal to create a mood or image. Table 4-7 summarizes the produc t categories represented the sample. Electronics, health care product, and mobile communication services we re the categories that were most frequently awarded (9.2% each) throughout the years. This resu lt consisted of one or two dominant brands in each category: Samsung for electronics, Baccu s energy drink for health care product and SK Telecom and LG Telecom in the mobile commun ication service category. The reason for those dominant brands receiving awards continuous ly is because the campaign concepts have

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41 maintained consistently for several years. As listed above, most award winners are for commercials of domestic brands, which consiste d of 87.9% of the total sample (Table 4-8). Research Questions Research Question 1: Which executional el ements are most commonly used in Korean award-winning advertising? (1994 2006) The results of the coding procedure indicate the frequencies of executional elements used in award-winning advertising. Tabl e 4-9 displays the commercial structure used in the sample. Blind lead-in (23.4%) was the most commonly used throughout the total sample. Most of the advertising in blind lead-in stru ctures generates the image of th e brand as teaser advertising by showing the brand name at the end. Along with humorous closing ( 15.6%) and surprise or suspense at closing (14.9%), Ko rean award-winning adve rtising appears to c ontain impact at the end. Table 4-10 provides a list of frequencies of commercial format Commercials using creation of mood or image as the dominant elemen t (21.3%) was the most frequently used format among the sample. It is followed by slice of life (19.9%) and comedy or satire (14.2%). Notably, the commercial formats such as announcement, problem and solution, and demonstration of results of using products were the least among the categories. It could be assumed that Korean award-winning advertisements do not contain st raight-forward messages to audiences. For commercial approach, two variable s were coded: emotional/rational and positive/negative. Most commercials favored using emotional (78.7%) and positive approach (87.2%) than rational (21.3%) and negative (5.7%) appro ach (Table 4-11). Negative approach, noticeably, were found only in public service an nouncement commercials and none were used in product commercials. Along with negative appro ach, public service announcement commercials also used emotional appeal to generate the appr ehension of the situation. For example, one public

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42 service announcement to prevent forest fire ca mpaign showed the damaged forest and injured wild animals by forest fire along with the tagline th at explains how long it will take to recover. Table 4-11 also indicates th e setting present in award-wi nning television commercial. Indoor settings (32.6%) were more frequently observed than usi ng outdoor settings (29.8%), but there were no great differences between thos e two frequencies. Tw enty-three percent of commercials used both indoor and outdoor setting, and 8.5% of those used no setting but rather showing a blank white backdrop. To measure the visual devices used in the commercial, presence of beautiful characters, ugly characters, scenic beauty, graphic display, su rrealistic visuals, substantive supers, visual tagline and visual memory device were examined (Table 4-12). The usage of beautiful character was commonly absent (75.2%), and only one-fourth of commercial de picted beautiful characters such as movie stars. An ugly character, on the ot her hand, was rarely used (3.5%) and was absent (96.5%) within the sample. Scenic beauty wa s mostly absent (78.7%) among the sample. Graphic display and surrealistic visuals were mos tly absent in the same level (77.3%) and only 22.7% reflected those in their commercials. It wa s rare (93.6%) to find substantive supers in the sample commercials, but they mostly include th e visual tagline (94.3%) as shown in Table 4-20. Korean award-winning commercials rarely use visual memory device and only 19.1% of them were present in the commercials. Among the commercials that use a visual ta gline, the dominant language and typography were measured (Table 4-13). Only 1.4% of visu al taglines used English dominantly and 93.6% were written in Korean. The commercial using English in their written tagline was usually showing a short sentence such as slogan or few words to express the brand. Those written

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43 taglines are mainly using typographies that are officially licensed (85.8%). However, 10.6% of visual taglines were written in handwriting to maximize the aest hetic aspect of the typography. In the category of auditory devices, pr esence or absence of three variables was measured: memorable rhymes, unusual sound effect, a nd spoken tagline (Table 4-14). In terms of memorable rhymes used in commercial, it wa s commonly absent (85.8%) throughout the sample. Unusual sound effects were det ected in 26.2% of the sample and most of the commercials (90.1%) contained a spoken tagline. Among th e spoken taglines, Korean was the dominant language (86.5%) used throughout the sample, a nd only one ad (0.7%) was spoken only in English. Moreover, 5 out of 141 ads (3.5%) were spoken in both English and Korean (Table 415). Table 4-16 shows the presence of music and lyrics. Commercials with music elements were present in 80.1% throughout twelve year sample. Meanwhile, only 30.5% of commercials contained lyrics as a musical element. Among the music genre, western pop was dominant (29.1%) followed by classical musi c (21.3%). Korean style music, including both traditional and modern style, comprised only 16.3% of the sample (Table 4-17). Music elements were present commonly as background music (70.2%) that did not affect the story of the commercial and only 10% used a jingle (Table 4-18). Research Question 2: What are the differences of executional elements among award level? In order to answer the research question 2, the award levels were recoded into two categories: high and low. Grand prix, Gold, Silver, and Bronze levels are regarded as a high level, thus recoded into high, and Excellence and Specia l level were recoded into low. In terms of award level of high and low, seve ral variables were detected to be related to each other with

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44 statistically significant chi-square values. Variab le sets that failed to meet the minimum cell values were eliminated whether they were statistically significant. Memorable rhymes/slogans/mnemonic devices are related to the award level. As summarized in Table 4-19, commercials awarded low level prizes use this auditory device more frequently (18.5%) than those of high level pri zes (6.1%). Chi-square analysis comparing these two variables exhibited statistical ly significant dependence results ( = 4.01, p < .05). In terms of agency origin (T able 4-20), after recoding purely domestic as domestic and others as international, it was also related to the award level and was statistically significant ( = 6.718, p < .05). Domestic agencies are awarded frequently higher prizes (77.6%) than those of internationa l agencies (55.4%). In other wo rd, international agencies are awarded more frequently in lower prizes (44.5% ) than those of domestic agencies (22.4%). Finally, award level and contex t level (Table 4-21) are related to each other with a statistical significant chi-square value ( = 6.107, p < .05). Commercial s using high context are equally awarded in both level (High = 46.9% Low=47.8%). However, commercials in low context are more frequently awarded low level pr izes (22.8%) than high level prizes (8.2%). For commercials in neutral context, it is more freque ntly awarded in high level prizes (44.9%) than low level prizes (29.3%). Research Question 3: What cultural values are dominantly manifested in Korean Awardwinning TV commercials? To measure the cultural values, a total 30 appeals were examined and computed into new variables (Table 4-22) which represent th e average score of individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and cont extuality. For the commercials that depicted independence, 34.8% of the sample contained th e values of original, autonomy, and self-

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45 sufficiency. Distinctive appeals were present in 44% of the commercial s which contained rare, unique, and exclusive values were found mainly in snack commercials expressing exquisite taste. As shown in Table 4-22, less than half of the commercials contained se lf-respect (36.2%) and popular appeals (37.6%). Those usin g self-respect values express the values of security and possessing dignity within the commercials, while popul ar appeal values expr ess regular, ordinary and typical aspects. The expression of affiliation appeal in comme rcial was present in 46.1% and more than half did not show the appeal. Family value was not dominant for the Korean award-winning commercials sample. Only 31.9% of the commercials show family value by embodying the values of being at home or nurtu rance within the family. Values of receiving the expressions of love or feeling deserving explai n the succorance appeal was presen t in only 25.5% of the sample. Community appeals, which embodies all that re lated to the community and organizations, are shown in 31.2% of the sample. Commercials that express beautiful and embellished values are categorized into ornamental appeal and were found only in 15.6% throughout the sample. Vain appeal, showing pretty, fashionable and glamorous values, was pr esent only in 19.1% of commercials while dear appeal, expressing expensive, rich and extrav agant values was presen t in only 9.2% of the sample. Status appeal that embodies envy and boasting values were usually absent and only 14.9% could be found throughout the commercials. Va in, dear and status appeals were mostly used in high-end product commercials. One good ex ample is a commercial of luxury sedan just showing the luxurious and stylish design of the car. It also show s that the owner of the car is deserved to be envied by others Beauty products also show th ese three appeals together in a combination.

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46 Cheap appeal was rarely present in the samp le as 97.2% of the commercials did not use this appeal. Humility and nurturance appeal, in addition, were respectively absent in 93.6% and 80.1% of the sample. Plain appeals, embodying natural and artle ss values, and safety appeals, combining carefulness and stability, were found in 29.9% and 35.5% of the commercials. Tamed appeal that expresses docile and reli able aspects in commercial was la rgely absent (77 .3%) throughout the commercials. Durable appeals, showing long lasti ng characteristics such as cultural traditions, were present in 32.6% of the sample commercials. As shown in the Table 4-22, 28.4% of commerci als were detected in using an adventure appeal and 22% in untamed appeal. These two ap peals are commonly present jointly in sports good commercials. Expressing the ch aracteristics of mi racles and superstitions, magic appeal was present in 13.5% of the sample commercials. Youth appeal are more frequently found in the sample than any other appeals by 31.2%, and it is mostly used in children and adolescent targeted brands. Casual appeal s, expressing messy and sloppy values, were largely absent (91.5%) among the sample commercials. Almost half (46.1%) of the sample commer cials contained message of product feature but in terms of utilitarian needs, only 19.1% of the sample was found. Also, the use of numbers in commercial was found only 12.1% of the sample Numbers were present in commercials that commonly introduce the product wit hout any detailed information. Expression of emotion and mood were largel y present in the sample (79.4%) along with use of metaphor present in 51.8% in the commerci als. Aesthetic expressions, however, was only detected in 20.6% of the sample. It can be a ssumed that sample commercials largely depend on emotional expressions to create the mood.

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47 Table 4-23 presents each cultural value calcula ted as an average score. The average of individualism ( .38) and collec tivism ( .34) show no significant difference. Between high and low power distance, the indeces were exactly sa me ( .15) while high uncertainty avoidance ( .3) slightly exceeded the low uncertainty avoidance ( .21). In terms of contextuality, high context communication ( .51) was twice as high than th at of low context communication ( .26). Hypothesis1: Korean award-winning television commerc ials tend to use collectivistic values more frequently than individualistic values. Hypothesis2: Korean award-winning television co mmercials tend to use high power distance values more frequently th an low power distance values. Hypothesis3: Korean award-winning television commercials tend to use high uncertainty avoidance values more frequently than low uncertainty avoidance values. Hypothesis4: Korean award-winning television commerc ials tend to use high-context values more frequently than low-context values. Table 4-24 shows the test results of four hypotheses. By running paired-sample t-test, each hypothesis was tested to see whether they were statistically significant. Regarding Hypothesis1, individualism (0.38) and colle ctivism (0.34), and Hypothesis2, high power distance (0.15) and low power distance (0.15 ), a significant result was not detected. Thus, this study failed to reject the null of Hypothesis1 and Hypothesis2. However, the test statistic was statistically significant regarding high uncertainty avoidan ce and low uncertainty avoidance (t = 2.21, p < .05). High uncertainty avoidance was used more frequently (0.30) than low uncertainty avoidance value. Moreover, the pair of low and hi gh context was statistically significant with t = -5.7 (p < .05). High context were more frequently found (0.51) than low context values (0.26) in the sample. In conclusion, the null of Hypothesis3 and Hypothesis4 can be rejected. And it can be

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48 said that the mean difference exists betw een high and low uncertainty avoidance and contextuality. Several tests of cultural values and executiona l variables detected statistical significance. By testing the individualistic index with commercial appr oach, and unusual sound effect, statistically significant test scores were detect ed. Table 4-25 illustrated the relationship between individualistic index with commercial approach ( = 12.774, p < .05). Emotional commercials are more likely to use collectivistic appeals ( 97.4%) than individualistic appeals (77.3%). It present in commercials approaching emotiona lly by using the appeals such as family, organization, friends or nation. In terms of unusual sound effects, shown in Table 4-26, commercials that use unusual sound effects are like ly to use individualistic values (22.7%) than collectivistic values (12.8%). On the other hand, commercials w ithout unusual sound effect are slightly more likely to use collectivistic valu es (87.2%) than individu alistic values (77.3%) Table 4-27 and 4-28 displays the relationship between uncertainty avoidance and scenic beauty and surrealistic visuals respectively. Scen ic beauty and uncertainty avoidance are related ( = 9.316, p < .05) and it can be seen that commerci als where scenic beauty is more frequently present in commercials with high uncertainty avoidance (31.6%). On the other hand, commercials that are absent of scenic beauty are more likely to use low uncertainty avoidance value (100%) than high uncertainty value ( 68.4%). In terms of su rrealistic visuals ( = 9.135, p < .05), commercials displaying those are more li kely to be found in commercials with low uncertainty avoidance value (40.0%) than high uncertainty avoidance value (7.9%). Table 4-29 summarizes the signifiacnt rela tionship between commer cial approach and contextuality ( = 54.099, p < .05). Commercials using a rational approach are frequently related to those where high cont extuality (72.0%). Emotional approach commercials are more

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49 likely to be present in commercials with high contextuality (98.5%), compared to low contextuality (28.0%). Additional Significant Insights Awarded Years Some executional factor variables are related to other variables. In terms of awarded year, it was recoded into three categ ories: 1994-1998, 1999-2002, and 2003-2006. Regarding awarded year and music elements together, a st atistically significant value was detected ( = 9.761, p < .05). As summarized in Table 4-30, musi c elements are frequently being used in commercials these days than the past. The fre quency of music element was 66.7% in the sample of 1994-1998 but it increased to 80% in 1999-2002 and 92.2% in 2003-2006. Use of unusual sound effect was also hi ghly related to the awarded years ( = 14.301, p < .05). Table 4-31 illustrates the cross tabulati on of two variables and suggests that unusual sound effect usage are decrea sing annually. Only 15.7% of commercials use unusual sound effects in 2003-2006 data while 46.7% was found in 1994-1998 data. Table 4-32 states the cross tabulation result of awarded years and agency origin. The variables were also highl y related to each other ( = 38.687, p < .05) with showing the significant difference of agency origin be fore and after 1999. Since 1999, a number of big agencies affiliated with foreign companies and in ternational agencies launched their businesses in the Korean market. Before 1999, no internat ional agency had been awarded a Korean Advertising Award. However, during 1999-2002, 55.6% of the award-winning commercials were produced by international ag encies while domestic agencies received 44.4% of the awards. Also in 2003-2006 data, more than half ( 52.9%) of award winners were generated by international agencies.

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50 In terms of cultural values and awarded y ears, individualism and uncertainty avoidance level were associated. Table 4-33 illustrates the result of individualism/collectivism and awarded years. By recoding the individualis m/collectivism index into three levels of low (collectivistic), neutral (using both), and high (individualistic), it was highl y related to awarded years ( = 13.989, p < .05). In terms of frequencies of using i ndividualistic values (hi gh) in commercials, it is gradually increasing from 17.8% (1994-1998) to 39.2% (2003-2006). The same result was also seen in frequencies of using collecti vistic values (low ) in commercials. As shown in Table 4-34, uncertainty avoidan ce was also highly related to awarded years ( = 14.498, p < .05). Recoded into thr ee levels of high, neutral, a nd low, the frequency of low uncertainty avoidance used in commercials ar e gradually increasing from 6.7% in 1994-1998 to 25.5% in 2003-2006. Agency Origins Regarding agency origins, domestic and intern ational, it was associated with graphic display and surrealistic visuals. Table 4-35 shows the relationshi p between agency origin and graphic display ( = 4.0, p < .05). Domestic agencies us e graphic display more frequently (28.1%) than international agencies (13.5%). The relationship between surrealistic visuals and awarded years are displayed in Table 4-36 ( = 5.845, p < .05). Regardless of agency origin, award-winning commercials normally do not contai n surrealistic visuals. Within the usage of surrealistic visual, however, domes tic agencies (29.2%) use the exec utional factor slightly more than international agencies (11.5%). Commercial Approach Commercial approaches are rela ted to several variables: grap hic displays, music, lyrics and affiliation appeals. Table 4-37 illustrates th e relationship between commercial approach with

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51 graphic displays ( = 4.24, p < .05). Commercials that contai n graphic displays are more likely to be rational (36.7%) than emo tional (18.9%). In other words, commercials without graphic displays are mostly approached emotionally (81.1%). The relationship between commercial approach and music and lyrics are shown in Table 4-38 and 439, respectively. Music is highly related to commercial approach ( = 4.01, p < .05) than lyrics ( = 5.296, p < .05). Commercials with music are more likely to be emotional (86.5%) th an rational (56.7%). Oppositely, commercials using no music tend to be more rational (43.3%) than emotional (13.5%). In terms of lyrics, commercial that c ontains music with lyrics are more frequently detected to be emotional (35.1%) than rational (13.3 %). The appeal of affili ation was also highly related to the commercial approach (Table 4-40, = 16.465, p < .05). Commercials with rational appeals are more frequently absent in affiliation appeals (86.7 %) than in commercials present with affiliation appeals (13.3%). Music and Lyrics Presence of music and lyrics in commercials are associated with other variables. Table 4-41 represents the relationship between music and scenic beauty in commercial. Those two variables are related ( = 6.539, p < .05) and show that commercials with scenic beauty are mostly present in commercials with music (25.7%). In terms of unusual sound effects ( = 7.356, p < .05), as illustrated in Table 4-42, comm ercials with unusual sound effects usually do not contain music (46.4%). In commercials without unusual sound effects, however, the frequency of music in commercial is 78.8%. For ex ample, in commercial for F-killer, a brand of mosquito repellant, no music is present in the commercial but unusual sound effects are present. On the other hand, a commercial for Samsung Elect ronics contains its famous theme song that does not use unusual sound effects.

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52 Lyrics are not used frequently when there is beautiful character present in a commercial. As displayed in Table 4-43, commercials containi ng music with lyrics frequently do not display beautiful characters (62.80%). In commercials with graphic displays (Table 4-44), it is detected that those commercials are less likely to have lyrics (27.6%). Music Genre To examine the associations of music genre with other variables, it was recoded to a new variable containing three music styles: Korean (b oth modern and traditional), Western (including classics), and others (tone or simple melodies). Among variables, graphic display was related to the music genre ( = 6.601, p < .05). Illustrated in Tabl e 4-45, commercials without graphic display are more likely to contain Wester n music (85.9%) than Korean music (73.9%). Regarding relationship betw een genre and lyrics ( = 54.099, p < .05), Table 4-46 shows that lyrics are more likely to be found in Kor ean music (52.2%) than Western music (38.0%). Unusual Sound Effect Regarding unusual sound effect, beautiful char acter and scenic beauty was shown to be related. As shown in Table 4-47 ( = 4.544, p < .05), commercials with unusual sound effect are most likely to display a beautiful characte r (40%) and without unusual sound effect, it is more likely to not use beautiful character (78.3 %). Table 4-48 illustrates the relationship between unusual sound effect and scenic beauty ( = 5.193, p < .05). Commercials without unusual sound effect are frequently dete cted in commercials showing scenic beauty (90%), while commercials without scenic beauty are more likely to use unusual sound effect (30.6%).

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53 Table 4-1. Sample description Count % 1994 7 5.0 1995 8 5.7 1996 11 7.8 1997 15 10.6 1998 4 2.8 1999 4 2.8 2000 6 4.3 2001 17 12.1 2002 18 12.8 2003 13 9.2 2004 13 9.2 2005 12 8.5 2006 13 9.2 Total 141 100.0

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54 Table 4-2. Agency Name Count % Ace 1 0.7 Adventure 1 0.7 Badacomm 1 0.7 BBDO 3 2.1 Cheil 34 24.1 Cheil Bozel 3 2.1 Chunchu 1 0.7 Daebang 1 0.7 Daehong 9 6.4 Dentsu 1 0.7 Gerson 1 0.7 Hakuhodo Cheil 3 2.1 JWT 2 1.4 Komaco 3 2.1 Korad 3 2.1 Kricomm 1 0.7 Kumgang 5 3.6 Lee&ddb 4 2.8 LG ad 12 8.5 Manbosa 1 0.7 Mate 1 0.7 MBC Adcom 5 3.6 N4 1 0.7 Ogilvy 1 0.7 Oricom 7 5.0 Sunyeon 1 0.7 TBWA 16 11.4 Vision Korea 1 0.7 Welcomm 15 10.6 WhiteBA 1 0.7 Will 2 1.4 Total 141 100.0 Table 4-3. Agency Origin Count % Domestic Agency Affiliated with Foreign Corporation 3323.4 Purely Domestic 8963.1 Purely International (Korean Branch) 1913.5 Total 141100.0

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55 Table 4-4. Award Level Award Count% Grand prix 117.8 Gold 107.1 Silver 85.7 High Level Prize Bronze 2014.2 Excellence 7956.0 Low Level Prize Special 139.2 Total 141100.0 Table 4-5. Spot Time Count % ~20 31 22.0 30 105 74.5 60 5 3.6 Total 141 100.0 Table 4-6. Color Count % All color 137 97.2 Black and White 4 2.8 Total 141 100.0

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56 Table 4-7. Category Count % Automobile 107.1 Beverages (Including alc oholic beverages) 96.4 Campaign (Company/ Organization) 117.8 Construction 10.7 Cosmetic and Beauty Product 53.6 Education 10.7 Electronics (general) 139.2 Energy 21.4 Fashion, Apparel, and Accessories 75.0 Financial Services 32.1 Food (general) 107.1 Furniture 10.7 Health Care Product 139.2 Household Durable Product 64.3 Insurance 53.6 Internet Portal Site 75.0 Media and Broadcasting Service (TV, Newspaper, Magazine) 10.7 Mobile Communication Services 139.2 Music Instruments 10.7 Portable Electronic Device 64.3 Public Service Announcement 75.0 Retail 10.7 Service 10.7 Snack 53.6 Transportation 10.7 Other 10.7 Total 141100.0 Table 4-8. Brand Origin Count % America 96.4 Domestic 12487.9 Europe 10.7 Other 75.0 Total 141100.0

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57 Table 4-9. Commercial Structure Count % Blind lead-in 3323.4 Calm 2014.2 Comparison 10.7 Front-end Impact 85.7 Humorous closing 2215.6 Message in the middle 149.9 Surprise or suspense at closing 2114.9 Surprise or suspense in the middle 21.4 Teaser 10.7 Unusual setting or situation 149.9 Other 53.6 Total 141100.0 Table 4-10. Commercial Format Count % Animation/ cartoon/ rotoscope 42.8 Announcement 32.1 Comedy or satire 2014.2 Commercial written as serious drama 107.1 Continuity of action 53.5 Creation of mood or image as dominant element 3021.3 Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 53.5 Demonstration of results of using product 32.1 Endorsement by celebrity or authority 53.5 Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 85.7 New wave (product graphics) 42.8 Other 32.1 Photographic stills 32.1 Problem and solution (before after presentation) 21.4 Slice of life 2819.9 Vignette 85.7 Total 141100.0

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58 Table 4-11. Executional Characteristics Descriptive Statistics Total Count % Count% Emotional 11178.7 Commercial Approach Rational 3021.3 141 100 Negative 85.7 Positive 12387.2 Commercial Approach Using both 107.1 141 100 Computer animated settings 85.7 Indoors 4632.6 no setting 128.5 Outdoors 4229.8 Commercial Setting Using both 3323.4 141 100 Table 4-12. Executional Char acteristics: Visual Presence Absence Total Count % Count% Count% Beautiful Character 3524.810675.2141100 Ugly Character 53.513696.5141100 Scenic Beauty 3021.311178.7141100 Graphic Display 3222.710977.3141100 Surrealistic Visuals 3222.710977.3141100 Substantive Supers 96.413293.6141100 Visual Tagline 13394.385.7141100 Visual Memory Device 2719.111480.9141100 Table 4-13. Executional Elem ents: Visual Tagline Count% Dominant Language Usage in Visual Tagline English 21.4 Korean 13293.6 Using both 10.7 Not applicable 64.3 Total 141100 Typography Used in Visual Tagline Hand-written font 1510.6 Official Font 12185.8 Not applicable 53.5 Total 141100

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59 Table 4-14. Executional Elements: Auditory Presence Absence Total Count % Count% Count% Memorable Rhymes 2014.212185.8141100 Unusual Sound Effect 3726.210473.8141100 Spoken Tagline 12790.1149.9141100 Table 4-15. Dominant Language Usage in Spoke Tagline Count % English 10.7 Korean 12286.5 Using both 53.5 Not applicable 139.2 Total 141100.0 Table 4-16. Executional Elements: Music Presence Absence Total Count % Count% Count% Music 113 80.12819.9141100 Lyric 43 30.59869.5141100 Table 4-17. Music Style Count % Classic 3021.3 Modern Korean Style 128.5 Traditional Korean Style 117.8 Western Style 4129.1 Not Applicable 2819.9 Other 1913.5 Total 141100.0 Table 4-18. Music Style Count % Back ground music 9970.2 Back ground music with Jingle 117.8 Jingle 42.8 Not applicable 2719.1 Total 141100.0

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60 Table 4-19. Cross Tabulation: Award level & Memorable rhymes Memorable rhymes/slogans/mnemonic device Total Absence Presence Award High Count 46349 % 93.9%6.1%100.0% Low Count 751792 % 81.5%18.5%100.0% Total Count 12120141 % 85.8%14.2%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 4.01 (p < .05) Table 4-20. Cross Tabulation: Awa rd level & Agency origin Agency Total DomesticInternational Award High Count 381149 % 77.6%22.4%100.0% Low Count 514192 % 55.4%44.5%100.0% Total Count 8952141 % 63.1%36.9%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 6.718 (p < .05) Table 4-21. Cross Tabulation: Award level & Context Context Total High Neutral Low Award High Count23224 49 % 46.9%44.9%8.2% 100.0% Low Count442721 92 % 47.8%29.3%22.8% 100.0% Total Count674925 141 % 47.5%34.8%17.7% 100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 6.107 (p < .05)

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61 Table 4-22. Cultural Values Presence Absence Total Count % Count% Count% Independence 49 34.89265.2141100 Distinctive 62 447956141100 Self-respect 51 36.29063.8141100 Popular 53 37.68862.4141100 Affiliation 65 46.17653.9141100 Family 45 31.99668.1141100 Succorance 36 25.510574.5141100 Community 44 31.29768.8141100 Ornamental 22 15.611984.4141100 Vain 27 19.111480.9141100 Dear 13 9.212890.8141100 Status 21 14.912085.1141100 Cheap 4 2.813797.2141100 Humility 9 6.413293.6141100 Nurturance 28 19.911380.1141100 Plain 42 29.89970.2141100 Safety 50 35.59164.5141100 Tamed 32 22.710977.3141100 Durable 46 32.69567.4141100 Adventure 40 28.410171.6141100 Untamed 31 2211078141100 Magic 19 13.512286.5141100 Youth 44 31.29768.8141100 Casual 12 8.512991.5141100 Product Features 65 46.17653.9141100 Utilitarian Needs 27 19.111480.9141100 Use of Numbers 17 12.112487.9141100 Emotion and Mood 112 79.42920.6141100 Use of Metaphor 73 51.86848.2141100 Aesthetic Expression 29 20.611279.4141100

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62 Table 4-23. Cultural Typologies Mean S.D. Individualism 0.38 0.43 Collectivism 0.34 0.28 High Power Distance 0.15 0.27 Low Power Distance 0.15 0.20 High Uncertainty Avoidance 0.30 0.35 Low Uncertainty Avoidance 0.21 0.28 High Context 0.51 0.30 Low Context 0.26 0.29 Table 4-24. Paired Sample t-test MeanS.D.S.E Mean t Df Individualism Collectivism 0.04 0.58 0.05 0.78 140.00 Low Power Distance High Power Distance 0.00 0.38 0.03 0.00 140.00 Low Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance* -0.10 0.51 0.04 -2.21 140.00 Low Context High Context* -0.25 0.52 0.04 -5.70 140.00 *p < .05 Table 4-25. Cross Tabulation: Indi vidualism & Commercial approach Commercial Approach Total Emotional Rational Individualism Low Count 38139 % 97.4%2.6%100.0% Neutral Count 391958 % 67.2%32.8%100.0% High Count 341044 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% Total Count 11130141 % 78.7%21.3%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 12.774 (p < .05)

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63 Table 4-26. Cross Tabulation: Indi vidualism & Unusual sound effect Unusual sound effect Total Absence Presence Individualism Low Count 34539 % 87.2%12.8%100.0% Neutral Count 362258 % 62.1%37.9%100.0% High Count 341044 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% Total Count 10437141 % 73.8%26.2%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 8.005 (p < .05) Table 4-27. Cross Tabulation: Uncerta inty avoidance & Scenic beauty Scenic Beauty Total Absence Presence Uncertainty Avoidance Low Count 250 25 % 100.0%0.0% 100.0% Neutral Count 6018 78 % 76.9%23.1% 100.0% High Count 2612 38 % 68.4%31.6% 100.0% Total Count 11130 141 % 78.7%21.3% 100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 9.316 (p < .05) Table 4-28. Cross Tabulation: Uncertain ty avoidance & Surrealistic visuals Surrealistic Visuals Total Absence Presence Uncertainty Avoidance Low Count 1510 25 % 60.0%40.0% 100.0% Neutral Count 5919 78 % 75.6%24.4% 100.0% High Count 353 38 % 92.1%7.9% 100.0% Total Count 10932 141 % 77.3%22.7% 100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 9.135 (p < .05)

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64 Table 4-29. Cross Tabulation: C ontext & Commercial Approach Commercial Approach Total Emotional Rational Context High Count 661 67 % 98.5%1.5% 100.0% Neutral Count 3811 49 % 77.6%22.4% 100.0% Low Count 718 25 % 28.0%72.0% 100.0% Total Count 11130 141 % 78.7%21.3% 100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 54.099 (p < .05) Table 4-30. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Music Music Total Absence Presence Year 1994-1998 Count 153045 % 33.3%66.7%100.0% 1999-2002 Count 93645 % 20.0%80.0%100.0% 2003-2006 Count 44751 % 7.8%92.2%100.0% Total Count 28113141 % 19.9%80.1%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 9.761 (p < .05) Table 4-31. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Unusual sound effect Unusual sound effect Total Absence Presence Year 1994-1998 Count 242145 % 53.6%46.7%100.0% 1999-2002 Count 37845 % 82.2%17.8%100.0% 2003-2006 Count 43851 % 84.3%15.7%100.0% Total Count 10437141 % 73.8%26.2%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 14.301 (p < .05)

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65 Table 4-32. Cross Tabulation: Awa rded year & Agency origin Agency Origin Total Domestic International or Affiliation Year 1994-1998 Count 450 45 % 100.0%0.0% 100.0% 1999-2002 Count 2025 45 % 44.4%55.6% 100.0% 2003-2006 Count 2427 51 % 47.1%52.9% 100.0% Total Count 8952 141 % 63.1%36.9% 100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 38.687 (p < .05) Table 4-33. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Individualism Individualism Total Low Neutral High Year 1994-1998 Count 928 8 45 % 20.0%62.2% 17.8% 100.0% 1999-2002 Count 1217 16 45 % 26.7%37.8% 35.6% 100.0% 2003-2006 Count 1813 20 51 % 35.3%25.5% 39.2% 100.0% Total Count 3958 44 141 % 27.7%41.1% 31.2% 100.0% 2 (4, N = 141) = 13.989 (p < .05) Table 4-34. Cross Tabulation: Awarded year & Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty Avoidance Total Low Neutral High Year 1994-1998 Count 3281445 % 6.7%62.2%31.1%100.0% 1999-2002 Count 930645 % 20.0%66.7%13.3%100.0% 2003-2006 Count 13201851 % 25.5%39.21%35.3%100.0% Total Count 257838141 % 17.7%55.3%27.0%100.0% 2 (4, N = 141) = 14.498 (p < .05)

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66 Table 4-35. Cross Tabulation: Agen cy origin & Graphic display Graphic Display Total Absence Presence Agency Domestic Count 642589 % 71.9%28.1%100.0% International Count 45752 % 86.5%13.5%100.0% Total Count 10932141 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 4.003 (p < .05) Table 4-36. Cross Tabulation: Agency origin & Surrealistic visuals Surrealistic Visuals Total Absence Presence Agency Domestic Count 632689 % 70.8%29.2%100.0% International Count 46652 % 88.5%11.5%100.0% Total Count 10932141 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 5.845 (p < .05) Table 4-37. Cross Tabulation: Commerci al approach & Graphic displays Graphic Displays Total Absence Presence Commercial Approach EmotionalCount9021111 % 81.1%18.9%100.0% Rational Count191130 % 63.3%36.7%100.0% Total Count10932141 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 4.24 (p < .05)

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67 Table 4-38. Cross Tabulation: Co mmercial approach & Music Music Total Absence Presence Commercial Approach EmotionalCount1596111 % 13.5%86.5%100.0% Rational Count131730 % 43.3%56.7%100.0% Total Count28113141 % 19.9%80.1%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 11.196 (p < .05) Table 4-39. Cross Tabulation: Co mmercial approach & Lyrics Lyrics Total Absence Presence Commercial Approach EmotionalCount7239111 % 64.9%35.1%100.0% Rational Count26430 % 86.7%13.3%100.0% Total Count9843141 % 69.5%30.5%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 5.296 (p < .05) Table 4-40. Cross Tabulation: Comm ercial approach & Affiliation Affiliation Total Absence Presence Commercial Approach EmotionalCount5061111 % 45.0%55.0%100.0% Rational Count26430 % 86.7%13.3%100.0% Total Count7665141 % 53.9%46.1%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 16.465 (p < .05)

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68 Table 4-41. Cross Tabulation: Music & Scenic beauty Scenic Beauty Total Absence Presence Music Absence Count 27128 % 96.4%3.6%100.0% Presence Count 8429113 % 74.3%25.7%100.0% Total Count 11130141 % 78.7%21.3%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 6.539 (p < .05) Table 4-42. Cross Tabulation: Music & Unusual sound effect Unusual sound effect Total Absence Presence Music Absence Count 1513 28 % 53.60%46.40% 100.00% Presence Count 8924 113 % 78.80%21.20% 100.00% Total Count 10437 141 % 73.80%26.20% 100.00% 2 (1, N = 141) = 7.356 (p < .05) Table 4-43. Cross Tabulation: Ly rics & Beautiful character Beautiful Character Total Absence Presence Lyrics Absence Count 7919 98 % 13.33%19.40% 100.00% Presence Count 2716 43 % 62.80%37.20% 100.00% Total Count 10635 141 % 75.20%24.80% 100.00% 2 (1, N = 141) = 5.087 (p < .05)

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69 Table 4-44. Cross Tabulation: Lyrics & Graphic display Graphic Display Total Absence Presence Lyrics Absence Count 7127 98 % 72.40%27.60% 100.00% Presence Count 385 43 % 88.40%11.60% 100.00% Total Count 10932 141 % 77.30%22.70% 100.00% 2 (1, N = 141) = 4.319 (p < .05) Table 4-45. Cross Tabulation: Genre & Graphic display Graphic Display Total Absence Presence Genre Not Applicable Count311647 % 66.0%34.0%100.0% Korean Count17623 % 73.9%26.1%100.0% Western Count611071 % 85.9%14.1%100.0% Total Count10932141 % 77.3%22.7%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 6.601 (p < .05) Table 4-46. Cross Tabulation: Genre & Lyrics Lyrics Total Absence Presence Genre Not Applicable Count43447 % 91.5%85.1%100.0% Korean Count111223 % 47.8%52.2%100.0% Western Count442771 % 62.0%38.0%100.0% Total Count9843141 % 69.5%30.5%100.0% 2 (2, N = 141) = 17.718 (p < .05)

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70 Table 4-47. Cross Tabulation: Beautifu l Character & Unusual sound effect Unusual sound effect Total Absence Presence Beautiful Character Absence Count8323106 % 78.3%21.7%100.0% Presence Count211435 % 60.0%40.0%100.0% Total Count10437141 % 73.8%26.2%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 4.554 (p < .05) Table 4-48. Cross Tabulation: Scenic beauty & Unusual sound effect Unusual sound effect Total Absence Presence Scenic Beauty Absence Count7734111 % 69.4%30.6%100.0% Presence Count27330 % 90.0%10.0%100.0% Total Count10437141 % 73.8%26.2%100.0% 2 (1, N = 141) = 5.193 (p < .05)

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71 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Discussion This study evaluated Korean award-winni ng television commercials from 1994 to 2006. A total 141 sample commercials we re subjected to content analys is to examine the executional elements and cultural values. The Korean Advertising Award sample from the 1st to 13thcompetitions was divided and coded into eight categories by adapting the coding framework of Stewart and Furses (1986) st udy. Among the sample, more than half of the commercials were produced by domestic agencies, especially Ch eil Communications. Base d on the difficulty of sample retrieval, only four commercials from 1998 and 1999 were analyzed while those from 2002 represented eighteen commercials. Award-wi nners were mostly 30 second in length with color. Among 26 product categories, commercials for electronics, health care product, and mobile communication services were frequently found in the sample. Korean Award-winning Commercials Characteristics Based on the findings from previous chapter, a characteristic of typical Korean awardwinning commercial were offered. In te rms of executional characteristics: Commercial winners use blind-l ead in or humorous closing as a commercial structure to create mood or image of the brand rath er than announcing th e products feature. Commercial winners use positive and emotional approach to create and enhance the brand image. Commercial winners reflect our ordinary Korean life by using realistic visuals rather than surrealistic and graphic displays. People in commercials would be ordinary pe ople who are not extremely beautiful or ugly.

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72 Winning commercials use visual and spoken ta gline in Korean and in an unobtrusive manner rather than using striking display. In visual taglines, type font would be an official font rather than a designed or handwritten font. Winning commercials often presen t classic or western-style music without lyrics as a back ground. In terms of cultural values: Winning commercials use equally indivi dualistic and collectivistic values. Winning commercials use equally high power distance and low power distance values. High uncertainty avoidance values are more frequently used in winning commercials. Winning commercial messages are more frequently in high context. An SK Telecom commercial awarded a Bronze pr ize in 2006 is a good exam ple of a typical Korean television commercial. It shows a s hort story about little boy bringing a flower contained in a box to his grandmother. The boy is brought to tears when his grandmother opens the box and sees the flower that is already withered. Then th e grandmother pats her little grandsons back and smiles. While the story goes on, the Beatles Let it be is played on a flute as a background music. The commercial setting were both indoors (grandmothers house) and outdoors (flower garden). Until the end of the commerc ial, it never gives any hint of the product. But at the end of the ad, it show s a visual tagline that defines th e brand idea along with the brand name. All is expressed in Korean in calm tone. Moreover, several notable insights were f ound by the test result of coded variables: Commercial using collectivistic appeal s are more likely to be emotional.

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73 Commercial with high uncertainty avoidance ap peals are more likely to present scenic beauty. Low uncertainty avoidance appeals used commercials are more frequently present surrealistic visuals. Commercials with high context messages ar e more frequently to be emotional. Recent commercials are more likely to presen t music but less likely to present unusual sound effects. Domestic agencies are more likely to presen t graphic display and su rrealistic visuals in commercials than international agencies. Comparison with Parks (2004) Study As summarized in Chapter 2, Park (2004) content analyzed the Korean Advertising Award winners from 1999 to 2003. Comparing Parks study to the current one, the key executional elements are similar to each other. Parks study reported slice of life as a dominant commercial structure while curre nt study found that blind lead -in occurred the most often. However, slice of life was also frequently found in current study. In terms of commercial format, comedy and satire was applied the most in both studies along with creatio n of mood or image as a dominant element. Both studies agreed on commer cial approaches to be emotional and positive. In terms of the music element that Parks study did not measure, it was shown that music elements were frequently found in commercial s as a background music applying classical or western-style. The key executional characteristics findings were similar to each other. However, Parks study reported those characteristics are not changing, but rather remaining the same regardless of the time flow. However, the current studys results more change is occurring than Park previously reported. In term s of the appeal types, Park c oncluded that Korean commercials are greatly using traditional Kor ean values such as collectivistic and high power distance values.

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74 It conflicts with the finding of current study that the frequency of Korean commercials using individualistic and collec tivistic values did not sh ow large differences. Po wer distance also found to be no different in terms of frequency betw een high and low power di stance values used in commercial. These differences in findings coul d have occurred due to the difference in the sample time frame. Park analyzed commercia ls from 1999 to 2003, and current study analyzed ads from 1994 to 2006. It could be implied that the overall executio nal characteristics of Korean television commercials were now moving sign ificantly as time passes by. Meanwhile, by analyzing the sample categorized into current sa mple years, the current findings suggest that some of those executional fact ors are partially changing. Conclusion The current study summarized the executional characteristics of Ko rean award-winning television commercials. Cultural values reflected in the sample were also examined by hypothesis testing. Two out of four hypotheses were supported by the test statistics. It was found that Korean commercials are more likely usi ng high uncertainty avoida nce rather than low uncertainty avoidance value as Hofstedes suggested (Hypothesis3). In terms of contextuality, the same result of Halls study was f ound that Korean commercials are expressed more likely in high context (Hypothesis4). Hypothesis1 was not statistically significan t but in terms of the awarded year, it was found partially signif icant that from 1999 individualistic values started to exceed the collectivistic values presence in commercials. It suggests that Korean cultural shift from collectivistic to individualistic is reflected through the awardwinning commercials (Figure 5-1). Hypothesis2 was also found not to be statistically significant. However, by examining the frequencies, the frequencies of high power distance and low power distance used in commercials were almost equal to each other. It could be understood that high power distance values are not shown to be more frequently used in commerc ials than low power di stance (Figure 5-2).

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75 In conclusion, it could be addr essed that the given Hofstede s cultural typologies, which regarded the cultural characteristics of Korea, ma y not reflect the exact cu ltural characteristics of current Korea. Rather, those cultural values ar e blending together, not showing one cultural value as dominant over another. Moreover, this can be al so regarded as a gradua l shift of the current Korean culture from traditional to western as suggested in former literatures (Cho et al., 1999; Han & Shavitt, 2005). To succeed in Korean market, not only adver tising agencies but global brands should be well informed about the characteristics of Korean television commercial executional characteristics and cultural values. They also should realize that Korean cultural values are shifting gradually as the time passe s. Especially, in using individuali stic or collectivistic appeals in commercials, there should be careful consid eration while the effectiveness varies among the product categories or the target markets. Limitations As with all studies, current study had severa l limitations. One limitation for this study is the sample size. Because of the difficulty in re trieving the total populati on from the website, the present discussion is based only on 141 samples out of 180 which may not be representative sample of Korean Advertising Award population of commercials. The conc lusions of this study should be regarded as preliminary. Implementing content analysis method can be another limitation. The current study implemented Stewart & Furses content analysis framework. It is analyzed in limited categories and operational definitions (Wimmer & Domini ck, 2003). To test the same concept of commercials, applying similar categories are comm on throughout different researchers. However, more updated framework will be needed.

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76 Another limitation is the use of Hofstedes typology. It is based on the study conducted about 30 years ago for an empirical purpose rath er than theoretical one. Also this typology was developed by the Western researchers hence ma king it oriented to Western thinking (AlbertsMiller and Gelb, 1996). This also appears as an issue by adap ting Alberts-Miler and Gelbs method of measuring cultural values in commercials. Finally, there is a limitation that the sample was drawn from only one particular awardwinner. Only examining the award-winners from Korean Advertising Award, the discussion of this study could not be truly re present all award-winning Korean commercials rather representing only the Korean Advertising Award winners. Suggestion for Future Research In responding to the limitations of this study presented above, future research would need to examine the executional characteristics and cult ural values with more representative sample. Not only including all award-winners of Korean Advertising Award, it could include other advertising awards that awarded by different judges or consumers. Moreover, it could expand the study of examining the differences betw een awarded and un-awarded commercials. Cross-cultural studies could be suggested. By re-categorizing the current studys coded data, it could be compared with other countries data to measure the difference. In measuring the cultural values, using not only Hofstede and Ha lls typology but also additional models of culture such as Schwartz (1992) is also suggested. By implem enting a diversity of cultural models, further studies could also measure whether cultural values reflect in Korean advertising are reflecting its realistic culture or idealistic culture.

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77 Figure 5-1. Expected Values and Observed Values: Individualism & Context Figure 5-2. Expected Values and Observed Va lues: Power distance & Uncertainty avoidance Collectivistic High Context Culture Low Context Culture Individualistic Expected Observed High Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainty Avoidance Expected Observed High Power Distance Low Power Distance

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78 APPENDIX A THESIS CODING SHEET V1 Coder __________ V2 TV Commercial ID # ________ V3 Agency Name ________________ V4 Brand __________________ V5 Award Level 1. Grand prix 2. Excellence 3. Gold 4. Silver 5. Bronze 6. Special V6 Spot Time 1. less than :20 2. :30 3. :60 V7 Color 1. All color 2. Black and White 3. Mixed V8 Year 1. 1994 2.1995 3. 1996 4. 1997 5. 1998 6. 1999 7. 2000 8. 2001 9. 2002 10. 2003 11. 2004 12. 2005 13. 2006 V9 Category (Korea Advertising Award) 1. Electronics (General) 2. Portable Electronic Device 3. Food (General) 4. Snack 5. Service 6. Automobile 7. Cosmetic and Beauty Product 8. Household Durable Product 9. Financial Services 10. Beverages (Alcoholic) 11. Beverages (Non-Alcoholic) 12. Retail 13. Construction 14. Insurance 15. Health Care Product 16. Entertainment & Recreation 17. Energy 18. Fashion, Apparel, and Accessories 19. Internet Services 20. Furniture 21. Public Service Announcement 22. Campaign (Company/ Organization) 23. Education 24. Transportation 25. Media and Broadcasting Service (TV, Newspaper, Magazine) 26. Traditional Media Appliance (Film, Cas sette) 27. Music Instruments 28. Mobile Communication Services 29. Internet Portal Site 30. Other V10 Brand Origin 1. Domestic 2. Asia/ Pacific Rim 3. America 4. Europe 5. Other V11 Winning AD Agency Origin 1. Purely Domestic 2. Domestic Agency Affiliated with Foreign Corporation 3. Purely International (Korean Branch)

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79 A. Commercial Structure (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; St ewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V12 What is the dominant commercial structure? 1. Front-end impact 2. Surprise or suspense in the middle 3. Surprise or suspense at closing 4. Unusual setting or situation 5. Humorous closing 6. Blind lead-in 7. Message in the middle 8. Teaser 9. Comparison 10. Other B. Commercial Format (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stew art & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V13 What is the dominant format of the commercial? 1. Vignette 2. Continuity of action 3. Slice of life 4. Testimonial by product user 5. Endorsement by celebrity or authority 6. Announcement 7. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 8. Demonstration of results of using product 9. Comedy or satire 10. Animation/cartoon/rotoscope 11. Photographic stills 12. Creation of mood or image as dominant element 13. Commercial written as serious drama 14. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element 15. Problem and solution (before/after presentation) 16. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) 17. Camera involves audience in situation 18. New wave (product graphics) 19. Other C. Commercial Approach (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; St ewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V14 What is the dominant commercial approach? 1. Rational 2. Emotional 3. Using both V15 What is the dominant commercial approach? 1. Positive 2. Negative 3. Using both D. Commercial Setting (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stew art & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V16 Where is the dominant commercial setting? 1. Indoors 2. Outdoors 4. Computer Animated Settings 5. Other

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80 3. Using Both 6. No setting E. Visual Devices (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V17 Presence or absence of beautiful characters 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V18 Presence or absence of ugly characters 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V19 Presence or absence of scenic beauty 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V20 Presence or absence of graphic display 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V21 Presence or absence of surrealistic visuals 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V22 Presence or absence of substantive supers 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V23 Presence or absence of visual tagline 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V24 Presence or absence of visual memory device 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V25 Dominant Language Usage in Visual Tagline

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81 1. Korean 2. Korean with English 3. English 4. Others 5. Not Applicable V26 Font Used in Visual Tagline 1. Official Korean Font 2. Hand-written Font 3. Others F. Auditory Device (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Mo rris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V27 Presence or absence of memorable rhymes, slogans or mnemonic devices 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V28 Presence or absence of unusual sound effects 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V29 Presence or absence of a spoken tagline 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V30 Principal Language of Spoken Tagline 1. Korean 2. Korean with English 3. English 4. Others 5. Not Applicable G. Music Element (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Mo rris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) V31 Presence or absence of music in commercials 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V32 Presence or Absence of Lyrics 1. Presence

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82 2. Absence 3. Can not code V33 Presence or absence of music as a major element 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V34 Music style in commercial 1. Traditional Korean Style 2. Westernized Korean 3. Western Pop 4. Not applicable 5. Other V35 Music style in commercial 1. Back ground music 2. Used as a jingle 3. Rhythm with no tone 4. Not applicable 5. Other H. Cultural Value (Albers-Miller and Gelb, 1996) V36 Independence 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V37 Distinctive 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V38 Self-respect 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V39 Popular 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V40 Affiliation 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V41 Family 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code 42 Succorance 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V43 Community 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V44 Ornamental 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code

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83 V45 Vain 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V46 Dear 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V47 Status 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V48 Cheap 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V49 Humility 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V50 Nurturance 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V51 Plain 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V52 Safety 1. Presence 2. Absence V53 Tamed 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V54 Durable 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V55 Adventure 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V56 Untamed 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V57 Magic 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V58 Youth 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V59 Casual 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V60 Product features 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V61 Utilitarian needs 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V62 Use of numbers 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code

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84 V63 Emotion and mood 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V64 Use of metaphor 1. Presence 2. Absence 3. Can not code V65 Aesthetic expression 1. Presence 2. Absence Can not code

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85 APPENDIX B OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Coding Categories and Operational Definitions A. Commercial Structure (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; St ewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) What is the dominant commercial structure? Front-end impact : The first 10 seconds of the commer cial creates suspense, questions, surprise, drama, or something th at otherwise gains attention. Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial : Something surprising, dramatic, or suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial. Surprise or suspense at closing : Commercial ends with a surprise, and unexpected event, suspense, or drama. Unusual setting or situation : Product is in setting not normally associated with product purchase or use. Humorous closing : Commercial ends with a joke pun, witticism, or slapstick. Blind lead-in : No identification of product until the end of the commercial Message in the middle : Music and/or action at the star t and close of commercial with announcer copy in the middle for example, Green Giant commercials. Teaser : No identification of product throughout the commercial. Comparison : Commercials comparing the product with competitor. B. Commercial Format (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stew art & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) What is the dominant commercia l format of the commercial? Vignettes : a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline but several independent storie s (which may convey the same message). Has no continuity of action Continuity of action: Commercial has a single stor yline throughout with an obvious beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character, or i ssue ties the whole commercial together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single individual, slice of life, or any other fo rmat that involves continuity of action.

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86 Slice of life : Interplay between two or more people that portray a conceivable real-life situation. There is c ontinuity of action. Testimonial by product user : One or more individuals recoun t his or her satisfaction with the product advertised or the results of usi ng the product advertised for example, Bill Cosby for Jello Pudding, Henry Fonda for Life Savers. Endorsement by celebrity or authority : One or more individua ls (or organizations) advocate or recommend the produc t but does not claim personal use of satisfaction for example, Karl Malden for American Express. Announcement: Commercials format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales announcement. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy : A demonstration of the product in use for example, a man shaving in a commercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup, no pantylines in pantyhose commercial. A demons tration of the use of the product, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration, as in the case of dipping chalk into a beaker of fluor ide to demonstrate how fluoride is to be absorbed by teeth. Demonstration of results of using the product : Demonstration of the outcome of using the product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair. Comedy or satire : The commercial is written as a co medy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor or an element of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny. Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope : The entire commercial or some substantial part of the commercial is animated; for example, th e Green Giant opening is always a cartoon followed by real life in middle or the Keebler El ves. A rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the screen at the sa me time for example, the Trix rabbit. Photographic stills : The use of photographic stills in pa rt of the commercials. These may be product shots, settings, or models. Creation of mood or image as a dominant element : An attempt to create a desire for the product, without offering a speci fic product claim, by appealing to the viewers emotional/ sensory involvement. The primary thrust of th e commercial is the creation of feeling or mood. Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. Fantasy, exaggeration, or surreali sm as a dominant element : The use of animation or other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on the part of the viewer.

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87 Problem and solution (before / after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product eliminat es or reduces the prob lem, for example, ring around the collar. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (questions and answers) is primary vehicle in the commercial. Camera involves audience in situation : Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates participation in commercial. New wave (product graphics): Use of posterlike visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in Diet Pepsi. C. Commercial Approach (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; St ewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) Rational or Emotional Rational approach : A fairly straightforward presenta tion of the products attributes and claims. Emotional approach : An emotional appeal does not appeal to reason but to feelings. Positive or Negative Positive approach : Message is containing any positive message. Negative approach : Message is containing any negative message. D. Commercial Setting (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stew art & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) Indoor : Is the commercial setting, or a signific ant part of it, indoors or in other human made structures (for example, a kitche n, garage, office, stadium, airplain)? Outdoors : Is the commercial setting, or a signif icant part of it, outdoors (mountain, rivers, backyard, garden, or other natural setting)? Do not include unnatural environments such as stadium or home driveway. Computer Animated Settings : Is commercial sett ing, or a significant part of it, computer animated? Other : Not indoor nor outdoor

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88 No setting : These is no particular setting for the commercial; setting is neutral, neither indoor nor outdoors. E. Visual Devices (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) Scenic beauty : Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty (mountains, flowing streams) at some poing? Beauty of characters : Does the commercials present on e or more strikingly beautiful people? Ugliness of characters : Does the commercials use graphic di splays or charts as part of its presentation? Such graphic may be computer generated. Surrealistic visuals : Does the commercial present unreal visuals, distorted visuals, fantastic scenes like a watch floating through outer space? Substantive supers : A superscript (words on the sc reen) used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message for example, % stronger, out of 4 doctors recommended. Visual tagline : A visually presented statement of new information at the end of the commercial; for example, the screen shows the name of participating dealers or another product that was not the focus of the commercia l shown. Corporate logos or slogans do not qualify. Use of visual memory device : Any devices shown that rein forces product benefit, the product name, or the message delivered by the commercial for example, the time release capsules bouncing in the air, the word Jello spelled out with Jello Gelatin. Dominant language usage in visual tagline : Language used dominantly in the visual tagline. (variable added by author) Font used in visual tagline : Typography used dominantly in visual tagline. (variable added by author) F. Auditory Device (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) Memorable rhymes, slogans, or mnemonic devices : Nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics may be incorporated in lyrics of a song, but must also stand alone, apart from music.

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89 Unusual sound effects : Out of place, unusual, or bizarre use of sound for example, the sound of a jackhammer as someone eats a pretzel. Spoken tagline : A statement at the end of the commer cial that presents new information usually unrelated to the principal focus of the commercial for example, And try new lime flavor too. Principal language of spoken tagline : Language that used dominantly throughout the commercial in terms of spoken tagl ine. (variable added by author) G. Music Element (Stewart & Furse 1986; Gagnard & Morris 1988; Stewart & Koslow 1989; Frazer, Bartel & Patti 2002) Music : Is music present in th e commercial in any form? Lyrics : Is lyrics present in the commercial in any form? (variable added by author) Music as a major element : Do the lyrics or the focus of the music used in the commercial carry a product message? Music Style : What is the music genre (variable added by author) Music Style: How did the music used in the commercial? (variable added by author) H. Cultural Value (Alberts-Miller & Gelb, 1996) Are these appeals present or absent in the commercial? Independence: Self-sufficiency, self-reliance, autonomy, unattached, to do-ityourself, to do your own thing, orig inal, unconventional, singular, nonconformist Distinctive: Rare, unique, unusual, scarce, in frequent, exclusive, tasteful, elegant, subtle, esoteric, hand-crafted Security: Confident, secure, possessing dignit y, self-worth, self-esteem, selfrespect, peace of mind Popular: Commonplace, customary, well-k nown, conventional, regular, usual, ordinary, normal, standard typical, universal, general, everyday Affiliation: To be accepted, liked by peers, colleagues and community at large, to associate or gather with, to be social, to join, unite, or otherwise bond in friendship, fellowship, companionship, cooperation, reciprocity, to conform to social customs, have manners social graces and decorum, tact and finesse

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90 Family: Nurturance within the family, having a home, being at home, family privacy, companionship of siblings, kinship, getting married Succorance: To receive expressions of love (a ll expressions except sexuality), gratitude, pats on the back, to feel deserving Community: Relating to community, state, national publics, public spiritedness, group unity, national identity, so ciety, patriotism, civic and community organizations or ot her than social organization Ornamental: Beautiful, decorative, ornate, adorned, embellished, detailed, designed, styled Vain: Having a socially desirable appearance, being beautiful, pretty, handsome, being fashionable, we ll-groomed, tailored, graceful, glamorous Dear: Expensive, rich, valuable, highly regarded, costly, extravagant, exorbitant, luxurious, priceless Status: Envy, social status or competitiveness, conceit, boasting, prestige, power, dominance, exhibitionism, pride in ownership, wealth (including the sudden wealth of pr izes), trend-se tting, to seek compliments Cheap: Economical, inexpensive, barg ain, cut-rate, penny-pinching, discounted, at cost, undervalued, a good value Humility: Unaffected, unassuming, unobtrusive, patient, fate-accepting, resigned, meek, plain-folk, down-to-earth Nurturance: To give gifts, especially symp athy, help love, charity, support, comfort, protection, nursing, consola tion, or otherwise care for the weak, disabled, inexperience d, tired, young, elderly, etc. Plain: Unaffected, natural, prosaic, homespun, simple, artless, unpretentious Safety: Security (from external threat), carefulness, caution, stability, absence of hazards, potential inju ry, or other risks, guarantees, warranties, manufacturers reassurances Tamed: Docile, civilized, restrained, obedient, complaint, faithful, reliable, responsible, domesticated, sacrificing, self-denying Durable: Long-lasting, permanent, stable, enduring, strong, powerful, hearty, tough Adventure: Boldness, daring, bravery, courage, seeking adventure, thrill, or excitement Untamed: Primitive, untamed, fierce, course, rowdy, ribald, obscene, voracious, gluttonous, frenzied, uncont rolled, unreliable, corrupt, obscene, deceitful, savage Magic: Miracles, magic, mysticism, mystery, witchcraft, wizardry, superstitions, occult sciences, mythic characters, to mesmerize, astonish, bewitch, fill with wonder Youth: Being young or rejuvenated, children, kids, immature, underdeveloped, junior, adolescent

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91 Casual: Unkempt, disheveled, messy, disordered, untidy, rugged, rumpled, sloppy, casual, irregular, non-compulsive, imperfect Product features : Does the commercial present product features at some point? Utilitarian needs : Does the commercial present u tilitarian needs at some point? Use of numbers : Does the commercial present any numbers? Emotion and mood : Does the commercial present any emotion or mood? Use of metaphor : Does the commercial present any use of metaphor at some point? Aesthetic expression : Does the commercial present aest hetic expression at some point?

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92 LIST OF REFERENCES Alden, D. L., Hoyer, W. D., & Lee, C. (1993). Identifying global and culture-specific dimensions of humor in advertising: A multinational analysis. Journal of Marketing 7, 64-74. An, D. (2007). Advertising visual s in global brands' local website s: a six-country comparison. International Journal of Advertising 26, 303-332 Albers-Miller, N. D., & Gelb, B. D. (1996). Busi ness advertising appeals as a mirror of cultural dimensions: A study of eleven countries. Journal of Advertising 15(4), 57 70. Cheng, H., & Schweitzer, J. C. (1996). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and US television commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 36, 27-45 Cho, B., Kwon, B., Gentry, J.W., Jun, S., & Kropp, F. (1999). Cultural values reflected in theme and execution: A comparative study of U.S. and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising 28, 59-73 Cutler, B. D., Javalgi, R,G, & Erramilli, M. K. (1992). The visual components of print advertising: A five country cross-cultural analysis. Europian Journal of Marketing 26, 720 de Mooij, M. K. (1998). Global Marketing and Advertising : Understanding Cultural Paradoxes Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ernst, S.B. (1980). A feature anal ysis of Clio award winning Ads. Journalism Quarterly 57, 321-324. Frazer, C. F., Sheehan, K. B., & Patti, C. H. (2002). Advertising strategy and effective advertising: Comparing the USA and Australia. Journal of Marketing Communications 8, 149-164. Gagnard, A. (1989). Elements of timing and re petition in award winning TV commercials. Journalism Quarterly 66, 965-969. Gagnard, A., & Morris, J. R. (1988). CLIO commercials from 19751985: Analysis of 151 executional variables. Journalism Quarterly 64, 859-865 Gudykunst, W. B., Matsumoto, Y., Tin-Toomey, S., Nishida, T., Kim, K. S. & Seyman, S. (1996). The influence of cultural individuali sm-collectivism, se lf construals, and individual values on communica tion styles across cultures. Human Communication Research 22, 510-543. Gudykunst, W. B., Ting-Toomey, S., & Steward, L. (1985). Communication, Culture, and Organizational Process. Beverley Hills, CA, Sage Publications. Hall, Edward T. (1989). Beyond Culture New York: Anchor Books.

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93 Han, S. & Shavitt, S. (2005). Westernization of cultural values in Ko rean advertising: A longitudinal content analysis of magazines from 1968-1998. Advances in Consumer Research 32, 249-250. Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational pract ices and theories. Journal of International Business Study 14, 75-89 Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four di mensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. International Studies of Management and Organization 13, 4674 Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Structure of the Mind. New York: McGrawHill Book Company. Hofstede, G, & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Conf ucius connection: From cultural roots to economical growth. Organizational Dynamics 16, 4-21 Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content an alysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research 4, 8-18. Keegan, W.J. (1996). Global Marketing Management Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Korean Broadcast Advertis ing Corporation. (2007). Korean Advertising: Facts and Insights. Seoul: Publication Team of Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation Seoul: KOBACO Laskey, H., Fox, R., Crask, M. (1994), Investigati ng the impact of executional style on television commercial effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research 38, 7-15. Lin, C. A. (1993). Cultural differences in messa ge strategies: A comparison between American and Japanese TVcommercials Journal of Advertising Research 33, 40-48. Martenson, R. (1987). Advertising strategies and information cont ent in American and Swedish advertising: A comparative content anal ysis in cross-cult ural copy research. International Journal of Advertising 6, 133-144. McEwen, W.J., & Leavitt, C. (1976). A way to describe TV commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 16, 35-42. Miracle, G.E. (1987). Feel-Do-Learn: An Alternative Se quence Underlying Japanese Consumer Reseponse to Television Commercials. The Pr oceedings of the 1987 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina.

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94 Miracle G.E. (1992). Achieving reliable and valid results to support export advertising. Wergeforschung & Praxis 4, 134-141. Moon, Y. S., & Franke, G. R. (2000). Cultural influences on agency practitioners ethical perception: A comparis on of Korea and the US Journal of Advertsing 29, 51-65 Mueller, B. (1987). Reflection of culture: An analysis of Japa nese and American advertising appeals. Journal of Advertising Research 27, 51-59. Mueller, B. (1992). Standardiza tion vs specialization: An exam ination of Westernization in Japanese advertising. Journal of Advertising Research, 32, 15-24. Paek, H.J. (2005). Understanding celebrity endo rsers in cross-cultural contexts: A content analysis of South Korean and US newspaper advertising. Asian Journal of Communication 15, 133-153. Park, Y. J. (2004). Creative Assessment of Korea Aw ard-Winning Commercials: Korean Award-winning adver tising content analysis from 1999-2003. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Korea. Riffee, D., & Freitag. A. (1998). Analyzing Media Messages: Using Quantitative Content Analysis in Research. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Shimp, T. (1976). Methods of commercial pr esentation employed by national television advertisers. Journal of Advertising 5, 30-36 Singh, N. (2004). From cultural models to cultural categories: A framework for cultural analysis. The Journal of American Academy of Business, 5, 95-101. Stanton, J., & Burke, J (1999), Comparative e ffectiveness of executi onal element in TV advertising; 15 versus 30 second commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 38, 714. Stewart, D. W., & Furse, D. H. (1986). Effective Television Adver tising: a Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Stewawt, D. W., Furse, D. H., & Kozak, R. P (1983). A guide to commercial copytesting services. Current Issues & Research in Advertising 6, 1-43. Stewart, D. W., & Koslow, S. (1989). Executiona l factors and advertising effectiveness: A replication. Journal of Advertising 18, 21-32. Taylor, C. R., Wilson, R. D., & Miracle, G. E. (1994). The impact of brand differentiating messages on the effectivene ss of Korean advertising. Journal of International Marketing 2, 31-52.

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95 Tse, B. K., Belk, R. W., & Zhou, N. (1989). Be coming a consumer society: A longitudinal and cross-cultural content analysis of print ads of Hong Kong, The Peoples Republic of China, and Taiwan. Journal of Consumer Research 15, 457-472. Weinberger, M. G., & Harian E. S. (1989). Humo r in U.S. versus U.K. TV commercials: A Comparison Journal of Advertising 18, 39-44. Wimmer. R. R., & Dominick, J. R. (2003). Mass Media Research: An Introduction Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Zandpour, F., Campos, V., Catalano, J., Chang, C ., Cho, Y.D., Hoobyar, R., Jiang, S., Lin, M., Madrid, S., Sceideler, H., & Osborn, S.T. ( 1994). Global reach and local touch: Achieving cultural fitness in TV advertising, Journal of Advertising Research 34, 35-63. Zhang, Y., & Gelb, B., (1996), Matching advertis ing appeals to culture; The influence of products use conditions. Journal of Advertising 25, 29-46.

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96 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Born in Seoul, Korea, Eun Soo Rhee grew up in both Korea and the United States. Since she was mesmerized by the advertising in her high school years, she decided to study advertising. Graduating from Hanyang University in 2005, wher e she got B.A. of Ar t in Advertising, she worked for Korea Banking Institute. The need to quench the unsolved academic curiosities drove her to study at University of Florida and she is receiving the Master of Advertising degree in May, 2008. She is looking forward to continuing on her doctoral studies at the University of Florida.

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KOREAN AWARD-WINNING TELEVISION COMMERCIALS: EXECUTIONAL FACTORS AND CULTURAL VALUES FROM 1994 TO 2006 Eun Soo Rhee 352-359-9416 Department of Advertising Supervisory chair: Marilyn Roberts Master of Advertising May, 2008 This research is conducted to investigat e the characteristics of Korean television commercials. Since Korean television commercials are reflecting its cultural values, Hofstede and Halls cultural typologies were also measured. By adopting c ontent analysis of Stewart and Furses framework, this research examined the winners of Korean Advertising Award from 1994 to 2006.