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Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of Leaders in Florida Agriculture

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022201/00001

Material Information

Title: Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of Leaders in Florida Agriculture
Physical Description: 1 online resource (76 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural, agriculture, emotional, intelligence, leadership, style, transactional, transformational
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style among the alumni (n=56) of the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources (WLIANR). The participants completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Bar-On EQi. The MLQ measured the preferred leadership styles utilized by the alumni including transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles. The Bar-On EQi measured the levels of emotional intelligence of the alumni. The dependent variables in this study were the leadership styles, the leadership style scales, total emotional intelligence, and the emotional intelligence scales. The independent variables were gender, age, and education. Participants in this study reported the use of transformational leadership more than transactional or passive/avoidant leadership. The females in this study reported using transformational leadership slightly more than the males. Participants reported emotional intelligence levels comparable to the national norms. The males reported higher levels than the females. Additionally, the younger participants reported slightly higher levels of emotional intelligence than older age groups. There was little to no relationship found between leadership style and emotional intelligence within this sample of WLIANR alumni.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Myers, Brian E.
Local: Co-adviser: Carter, Hannah Sewell.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022201:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022201/00001

Material Information

Title: Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of Leaders in Florida Agriculture
Physical Description: 1 online resource (76 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural, agriculture, emotional, intelligence, leadership, style, transactional, transformational
Agricultural Education and Communication -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Agricultural Education and Communication thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style among the alumni (n=56) of the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources (WLIANR). The participants completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Bar-On EQi. The MLQ measured the preferred leadership styles utilized by the alumni including transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles. The Bar-On EQi measured the levels of emotional intelligence of the alumni. The dependent variables in this study were the leadership styles, the leadership style scales, total emotional intelligence, and the emotional intelligence scales. The independent variables were gender, age, and education. Participants in this study reported the use of transformational leadership more than transactional or passive/avoidant leadership. The females in this study reported using transformational leadership slightly more than the males. Participants reported emotional intelligence levels comparable to the national norms. The males reported higher levels than the females. Additionally, the younger participants reported slightly higher levels of emotional intelligence than older age groups. There was little to no relationship found between leadership style and emotional intelligence within this sample of WLIANR alumni.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Myers, Brian E.
Local: Co-adviser: Carter, Hannah Sewell.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022201:00001


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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE
OF LEADERS IN FLORIDA AGRICULTURE





















By

LARA ROCHELLE STRICKLAND


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Lara Rochelle Strickland
































To my Poppy and Granny, Bob and LaVada Wainscott, for their constant love and support.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My study would not have been possible without the unconditional guidance, support and

motivation provided by several individuals over the past two years of my life. They deserve

much more than a simple acknowledgment.

I would like to thank my supervisory committee (Dr. Brian Myers and Dr. Hannah Carter)

for their continuous guidance and support. A special thanks goes to Dr. Myers for helping guide

my research project even though it was outside his specialty of Agricultural Education. His

support and constant guidance helped me to stay focused and finish on time. Dr. Carter provided

me with motivation and kind words of encouragement when they were needed most. Without the

support I received from both of my committee members, I never would have made it this far.

I would also like to thank my Granny and Poppy for continually supporting me in all I

have taken on throughout my life. Their love and pride in everything I do have motivated me to

set my goals and standards high to continue to make them proud.

I thank my Mom and little sister, Becca, for understanding that even though we may be on

opposite ends of the U. S. we are still close in each others' hearts. Their support and sacrifices in

continuing my education are greatly appreciated.

Marlene von Stein, Audrey Vail, Brian Estevez, Elio Chiarelli, Brian Sapp, and Brian and

Susan Schwartz for helping me through all of the trials and tribulations we have encountered

over the past two years. While I expected to meet new friends, I never imagined how important

these friendships would be in the success of my thesis and graduation. They have shown me how

to be successful and have a great time doing it.

Finally, a huge thank you goes to the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and

Natural Resources Alumni Association for their support and help in making this research

possible.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IS T O F T A B L E S .................................................................................7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .9

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... ............................................................ 10

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ............... ................. ........... .................. .............. 11

Introduction to the Study .................. ............................ .. ....... .. ................ 11
P rob lem Statem ent .................................................................................................... .... 13
Purpose and Objectives of the Study ................................................... ... ............ 14
Significance of the Study ....................................................... .......... ........ ...... 14
D definition of T erm s ...... .... ................................ ...................... ........ .. .. ............. 14
Lim stations of the Study .................................... ... .. ......... ....... ..... 15
S u m m ary ................... ...................1...................6..........

2 REV IEW OF TH E LITERA TU RE .......................................................................... ....... 17

L leadership ................... ............................................... ................ 17
Transform national Leadership Theory ............................................................................. 21
Em optional Intelligence ............................................................................... 24
Demographics of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style ........................................28
Gender .........................................28
A g e ........................................................................... 3 0
Education........................ .. ........... ...... .................. 30
Interaction between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style .....................................31
S u m m a ry ................... ............................................................... ................3 4

3 METHODOLOGY .............................. ...................... ........35

R e se a rc h D e sig n .....................................................................................................................3 6
P o p u latio n ................... ...................3...................6..........
P ro c e d u re .............. .... ...............................................................3 7
Instrumentation .................. ........................................38
M ultifactor Leadership Questionnaire ................................................................... 38
B ar-O n E Q i ................................................................................ 3 9
D ata A n aly sis ................................................................................................. ...............3 9
S u m m ary ................... ...................4...................1..........









4 R E S U L T S ................................................................................ 4 2

Objective 1: To Describe the Leadership Styles among the WLIANR Alumni.................43
Leadership Style and G ender............... ............................... .................. ............... 44
L leadership Style and A ge........................................................................ ..................46
L leadership Style and E education ....................... ................... .......................... ... 47
Objective 2: To Describe the Current Levels of Emotional Intelligence of the WLIANR
Alum ni ......................... ................ .................................... 48
Em optional Intelligence and Gender.................................................................... 49
Em otional Intelligence and A ge ............................................. ............................. 50
Emotional Intelligence and Education................. ........................51
Objective 3: To Identify the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and
Leadership Style of the WLIANR Alumni ..............................................53
Summary ......... .................. .................................. ......... 54

5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................56

S u m m ary o f F in d in g s ........................................ ................................ ........ ................. .. 5 7
O bjectiv e 1 .............................................................5 7
O b j e c tiv e 2 ................................................................................................................. 5 8
O b j e c tiv e 3 ................................................................................................................. 5 9
C conclusions ................................................. 60
D iscu ssion s and Im plication s ........................................................................................... 6 1
R e co m m en d atio n s............................................................................................................. 6 3
Recommendations for Practice....................................... ......... 63
Recomm endations for Future Research............................................... 65

APPENDIX

SURVEY COMPLETION REQUESTS .......... .............................. 67

P re -S u rv ey E m a il .......................................................................................................6 7
Initial C contact E m ail ............................................................................... 68
F follow -u p C contact E m ail .................................................................................................. 69
Final Follow -up C contact Em ail ............................................................70

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ....................................................................................................7 1

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ................................................................................................... 76












6









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Emotional intelligence competencies and subscales............................... ............... 26

2-2 Em otional intelligence assessm ents ...................................................... ............... 28

2-3 Linkage between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (Leban &
Z u lau f, 2 0 0 4 ) ............................................................................3 2

3-1 Emotional Intelligence T-test for Significant Differences Between Early and Late
R respondents. (n=56) .......................... ...... ..................... .... ..................40

3-2 Leadership Style T-test for Significant Differences Between Early and Late
R respondents. (n=56) .......................... ...... ..................... .... ..................40

4-1 Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Gender. (n=133)..............43

4-2 Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Age. (n=133) ..................43

4-3 Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Education. (n=133) ..........43

4-4 Leadership Style Scale Scores. (n=56) ........................................ ......................... 44

4-5 Total Leadership Style Scores. (n=56) ........................................ ......................... 44

4-6 Total Leadership Style Scores by Gender. (n=56).................................. ............... 45

4-7 Leadership Scale Scores by Gender. (n=56).................................. ........................ 45

4-8 Total Leadership Style Scores by Age. (n=56)..... ......... ............... ............................ 47

4-9 Total Leadership Style Scores by Education. (n=56) ...................... ................. ........... 48

4-10 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores. (n=56)..................................49

4-11 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores by Gender. (n=56).....................49

4-12 Total Emotional Intelligence Scores by Age. (n=56) ............................................ 50

4-13 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Age. (n=56)................................... ..................51

4-14 Total Emotional Intelligence Scores by Education. (n=56).........................................52

4-15 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Education. (n=56).........................................52

4-16 Magnitudes for Interpreting Correlations (Davis, 1971). .............................................53









4-17 Pearson Correlations between Independent Variables. (n=56).............................55









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 Model of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style...........33









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP STYLE
OF LEADERS IN FLORIDA AGRICULTURE

By

Lara Rochelle Strickland

May 2008

Chair: Brian Myers
Major: Agricultural Education and Communication

The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership style among the alumni (n=56) of the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for

Agriculture and Natural Resources (WLIANR).

The participants completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Bar-

On EQi. The MLQ measured the preferred leadership styles utilized by the alumni including

transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles. The Bar-On EQi

measured the levels of emotional intelligence of the alumni. The dependent variables in this

study were the leadership styles, the leadership style scales, total emotional intelligence, and the

emotional intelligence scales. The independent variables were gender, age, and education.

Participants in this study reported the use of transformational leadership more than

transactional or passive/avoidant leadership. The females in this study reported using

transformational leadership slightly more than the males. Participants reported emotional

intelligence levels comparable to the national norms. The males reported higher levels than the

females. Additionally, the younger participants reported slightly higher levels of emotional

intelligence than older age groups. There was little to no relationship found between leadership

style and emotional intelligence within this sample of WLIANR alumni.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Study

Emotional intelligence involves how an individual manages his or her emotions, as well as

his or her relationships with others. This concept of emotional intelligence is the basis for

personal qualities such as self-confidence, self-motivation, perseverance, and knowledge of

personal strengths and weaknesses (Chemiss & Adler, 2000). However, the current studies of

emotional intelligence have been focused toward corporations and smaller businesses with little

focus on the agricultural industry's influential leaders at the state level (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.).

This study utilized survey research to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership style of leaders in Florida agriculture, specifically those who have completed the

Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources (WLIANR).

With the importance of developing and maintaining relationships with others, individuals

have been asked to increase their ability to understand and manage their own emotions as well as

the emotions of others and the relationships found within organizations (Cherniss & Adler,

2000). An increase in leadership skills and abilities is becoming more important compared to the

technical skills previously sought out by organizations (Cherniss & Adler, 2000; Goleman,

1998). Emotional intelligence and leadership style are two components of these social skills

needed for an individual to become an effective leader (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

Emotional intelligence is briefly defined by Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) as

"how leaders handle themselves and their relationships" (p. 6). Emotional intelligence further

encompasses clusters of different leadership competencies such as self-awareness, self-

regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills (Goleman, 1998). Boyatzis, Chemiss, and Elias

(2000) also stated that an individual can change his or her personal level of emotional









intelligence over a period of time. Research focusing on the importance of emotional intelligence

for organizations is becoming increasingly important within organizations such as Johnson &

Johnson Company (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.). Furthermore, organizations are becoming

increasingly interested not only in the level of emotional intelligence of employees, but also the

leadership styles used by the employees (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006).

Leadership style is the behavior pattern in which an individual leads others. There are

many different types of leadership styles which have been categorized by previous researchers.

Some of the most recent research on leadership style emphasizes the transformational leadership

styles founded in Burs's (1978) work which include laissez-faire, transactional, and

transformational leadership (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

As a step to begin creating leaders within agriculture, many states have created adult

leadership programs specifically for individuals that are heavily involved in a specific state's

agriculture sector. These leadership programs have been designed to expand the knowledge of

adult leaders in agricultural and natural resources positions by engaging them in study and

experiences (Carter & Rudd, 2000). These programs assume the skills, knowledge, and attitudes

of a leader can be learned (Bolton, 1991). The Florida Leadership Program for Agriculture and

Natural Resources, now known as the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and

Natural Resources, was implemented on October 1, 1991 to assist leaders in Florida agriculture

develop skills to achieve their leadership potential (Carter & Rudd, 2000). As of this writing, the

program has completed six classes with approximately 170 alumni members. In regard to

emotional intelligence of leaders in Florida agriculture, specifically the WLIANR alumni, the

literature review found limited research in this specific area or on the relationship between

emotional intelligence and leadership style.









Problem Statement

The problem addressed by this study was the lack of knowledge surrounding the

relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style in leaders of Florida agriculture,

specifically the WLIANR alumni. There has been little or no research on the emotional

intelligence of leaders in agriculturally related organizations. Previous studies were developed to

evaluate the abilities of leaders in other business, organizational, and industry settings and how

those leaders' emotional intelligence capabilities affect their leadership style (Barbuto &

Burbach, 2006; Moore, 2003; Weinberger, 2004). Several studies have begun to explore the

relationship between leadership style specifically transformational leadership in some studies -

and emotional intelligence, yet there is still a gap in the knowledge base between these two

leadership components, specifically within Florida agriculture (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006; Leban

& Zulauf, 2004). The need for effective leadership in agriculture was originally identified by the

Kellogg Foundation to increase the abilities of individuals involved in agriculture to better

handle complex issues which may concern the industry and society as a whole (Howell, Weir, &

Cook, 1982).

Barbuto and Burbach (2006) specifically focused on the relationship between emotional

intelligence and transformational leadership of elected public officials. They further suggested

that additional research is needed to ascertain the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership. However, this research should be focused on a private sector organization so the

findings can be more generalized (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006). Moore (2003) also recommended

further research to determine the relationship between leader characteristics and leadership style

and skills. Weinberger (2004) further stated that the amount of research on emotional

intelligence is limited, and research that examines the relationship between emotional









intelligence and leadership is even more limited. All of these studies suggested there is a need for

further research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style.

Purpose and Objectives of the Study

The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership style among the alumni of the WLIANR.

The following research objectives were used to guide this investigation:

1. Describe the leadership styles among of WLIANR alumni.

2. Describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni.

3. Identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR
alumni.

Significance of the Study

This study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style

used by the alumni of the WLIANR. Determining this relationship helped further the

understanding of the importance of emotional intelligence as a dimension of effective leadership.

The research findings can also guide future leadership development programming for the

WLIANR or other agricultural organizations in Florida. The study created awareness for the

importance of maintaining relationships and developing leadership in the agricultural industry.

Furthermore, this research explained the current leadership styles used by the WLIANR alumni

and how their emotional intelligence levels helped them be successful in their organizations so

future leaders will be able to learn from their leadership styles and emotional intelligence

capabilities. Finally, this study contributed to the limited amount of research on emotional

intelligence.

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms were defined:









1. Emotional intelligence The composite set of capabilities which can be observed when a
person demonstrates the competencies that constitute self-awareness, self-management,
social awareness, and social skills at appropriate times and ways in sufficient frequency to be
effective in the situation (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 1999). In this study, emotional
intelligence will be measured by the Bar-On EQ-i.

2. Leader An individual that uses different styles and skills in a group or team to direct the
group or team through a process in order to reach a common goal (Northouse, 2004).

3. Leadership A process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a
common goal (Northouse, 2004).

4. Leadership style The behavior of an individual who attempts to influence others by using
both directive and supportive behaviors (Northouse, 2004). In this study, leadership style will
be measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Bass and Avolio
(2000).

5. Transformational leadership A leadership style which focuses on the process whereby an
individual stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the
process, develop their own leadership capacity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004).

6. Transactional leadership A leadership style which focuses on the exchanges of one thing for
another that occur between leaders and their followers (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse,
2004).

7. Laissez-faire leadership A leadership style whereby the leader is avoidant or has an absence
of leadership and is inactive (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004).

8. Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources An adult leadership
program designed to develop leadership capabilities of individuals between the ages of 25
and 45 years old involved in the Florida agricultural industry who will become increasingly
involved in policy formation processes in Florida's agriculture, natural resources, and rural
communities.

Limitations of the Study

Several limitations affect the generalizability of this specific study. The study used the

alumni from the WLIANR, therefore the findings are limited in generalizability to other

organizations since this program is specialized in its structure and function. A second limitation

is regarding the method of measuring emotional intelligence and leadership style. Self-reported

assessments can be biased and can have an effect on determining the true relationship of

emotional intelligence and leadership style of the leaders (Kobe, Reiter-Palmon, & Rickers,









2001). Another limitation was that the researcher did not collect data on previous leadership

experiences which could have influenced the leadership styles and/or emotional intelligence

levels.

There are several basic assumptions which must be stated with this study. The researcher

assumed that participants answered any assessments and questionnaires truthfully. The

researcher also assumed the participants had an understanding of leadership styles and some

understanding of the constructs of emotional intelligence, such as interpersonal and intrapersonal

skills, since they have participated in the WLIANR program. Seminars include topics on

leadership style and other aspects of leadership, while other seminars require participants to

utilize and improve their interpersonal skills.

Summary

Chapter 1 provided the background and significance of the problem, as well as the purpose

of the study. This study identified the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership

style among the alumni of the WLIANR. The study also investigated the influence of

demographics on the level of emotional intelligence and leadership style utilized by the

WLIANR alumni.

This research addressed the following specific objectives:

1. Describe the leadership styles of the WLIANR alumni.

2. Describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni.

3. Identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR
alumni.

Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical framework and the conceptual framework for the study.

Research on emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and adult leadership programs in

agriculture, as well as the WLIANR will be discussed.









CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership style of the alumni of the WLIANR. The objectives of this study were to describe

the leadership styles, levels of emotional intelligence, and the relationship between these levels

of emotional intelligence and leadership styles of the alumni of the WLIANR.

This chapter presents a review of the literature concerned with leadership, emotional

intelligence and leadership style. The chapter focuses on leadership development programs,

emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and the effect of demographic variables on emotional

intelligence and leadership style and presents the relevant theoretical and conceptual

frameworks. The chapter is divided into the following major sections: leadership, emotional

intelligence, and the interaction between emotional intelligence and leadership style.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the most studied, yet least understood subjects (Bennis & Nanus,

1985). There are many definitions for the term leadership with little consensus on a

definite/specific definition among the experts. According to Bass (1990), "there are almost as

many different definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the

concept" (p. 11). However, even without one specific definition, leadership remains an important

topic of discussion in all disciplines and fields of studies.

The following examples demonstrate the various definitions of leadership that have been

developed over the years. Bass (1990) defined leadership as "an interaction between two or more

members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the

perceptions and expectations of the members" (p. 19). Kouzes and Posner (2002) stated that

leadership is "a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow"









(p. 20). Leadership is also defined as a "social influence process shared among all members of a

group" (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2006). Northouse (2004) defined leadership as "a process

whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal" (p. 3).

Studies have shown that leadership has a profound influence on an organization (Bass,

1990). Leaders can make a difference in whether an organization is successful or fails. Research

shows the skills of leadership can be learned (Adair, 1984). Taylor (1962) felt that coaching

people who demonstrate leadership qualities will help them to reach their leadership potential.

Therefore, organizations, businesses, and many industries focus on the development of

leadership abilities in their employees in order to develop leaders that will lead the organization

to success.

Leadership development programs in agriculture and natural resources are developed to

increase the level of awareness for leaders involved in these industries by engaging them in study

and experiences. The first documented agricultural leadership development program began in

1965 at Michigan State University's College of Agriculture when the Kellogg Foundation

provided a grant to start the program (Howell et al., 1982). Other programs were then developed

in California and Pennsylvania. Each of these programs were developed separately yet consisted

of workshops and travel seminars which focused on the social, economic, cultural, and political

dimensions of public problems and how the public policies are developed. Furthermore, these

programs also focused on developing individuals' communication skills, problem-solving skills,

and increasing their knowledge of governmental processes (Howell et al., 1982).

Currently, there are 30 programs in the U. S., with three more emerging, and six

international programs in Australia, U.K. Scotland, U.K. Nuffield, Canada, Ontario, and New

Brunswick (Abington-Cooper, 2005). More than half of these programs in place were initiated









without support from the Kellogg Foundation (Abington-Cooper, 2005). The total support

garnered by 28 reporting U.S. agriculture/rural leadership programs in 2001 was more than $111

million. The most typical financial support comes from corporate grants, alumni donations,

university grants, state appropriations, and foundation grants. By 2001, there were more than

7,500 alumni of these programs in the U. S. (Foster, 2001). The common experiences of the U.S.

programs include seminars throughout the home state of the program, a national trip to

Washington, D.C. and another location within the U.S., as well as an international trip to another

country.

These agricultural leadership programs were originally developed for farmers and persons

employed in occupations and professions related to agriculture. The programs were developed

because it was felt that these individuals had the technical knowledge, but often lacked the

background in the social sciences and humanities to deal with issues related to the agriculture

and natural resources industries effectively (Howell et al., 1982). Program characteristics which

were determined to be important included "1) an educational program design with 'intensive'

and 'extensive' dimensions that emphasized the analysis of public issues, 2) participants who had

leadership potential and a concern for agricultural and/or public affairs, and 3) staff and involved

institutions that had a strong commitment to the attainment of program goals" (Howell et al.,

1982, p. 51).

Although the W.K. Kellogg Foundation no longer fully sponsors state agriculture

leadership development programs, the Foundation still has basic assumptions about leadership in

the 21st century:

* "Leadership must be vision driven and value-based;
* Leadership must be transforming-focused on new ways of being;
* Leadership will be more about the individual's contribution to collective action;









* Collective leadership can only be expressed through vision, values, and purposes and
confidence in others as leaders;
* Leadership is relational and contextual;
* Leaders must be more attentive to global implications of local decisions, and vise versa;
* Leaders in the 21st century will not change society as much as be changed by society"
(Foster, 2001, p. 2).


The Florida Leadership Program for Agriculture and Natural Resources began on October

1, 1991 (Carter & Rudd, 2000). The program later became the WLIANR. The target audience for

this program includes individuals that have shown leadership potential involved in industries

related to private sector Florida agriculture and natural resources. The selection process for

participants includes three phases: nomination, application, and interview. From this process, up

to 30 individuals are chosen to participate in the program. After the selection process, the

participants attend 11 seminars over a 22-month period. The first year of the program focuses on

local and state agriculture and natural resource issues. The second year focuses on national and

international issues. Each of these seminars incorporates the objectives of the program. The

program developed six objectives:

* To prepare potential leaders to assume greater leadership responsibilities in their
organizations, industries, and communities.

* To assemble individual networks composed of class members, alumni, and program
resources for the purpose of developing future industry, organizational, civic and political
leaders.

* To create strategic alliances and build strong linkages within and across Florida's agriculture
and natural resources sectors.

* To analyze complex issues facing individuals interested in areas related to agriculture,
natural resources and Florida's communities.

* To apply inner-personal skills so as to develop a better understanding of people-themselves,
fellow citizens and their environment as to more effectively work with individuals from
diverse backgrounds.









*To create an understanding of social, economic and political systems in which people
function and how to work within these systems to effectively bring about change (Carter,
2007).
Transformational Leadership Theory

The Transformational Leadership Theory is often related to charismatic leadership which

is reflected in the leader's personal characteristics such as being dominant, self-confident, and

having a strong sense of his or her own moral values (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Jones, 2006;

Northouse, 2004). However, charisma is only a portion of transformational leadership as

transformational leaders do more in order to achieve superior results (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

Transformational leadership behaviors are concerned with "emotions, values, ethics, standards,

and long-term goals" which allow the leader to influence his or her followers more effectively

(Northouse, 2004, p. 169). These behaviors involve four components: 1) idealized influence

[attributed and behavioral], 2) inspirational motivation, 3) intellectual stimulation, and 4)

individualized consideration (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

1. Idealized influence "Attributed: the social charisma of the leader, focusing of whether or
not the leader is perceived as competent, self-confident, and committed to higher-order ideals
and ethics. Behavioral: the actions of the leader related to values, beliefs, and mission"
(Jones, 2006, p. 35).

2. Inspirational motivation "leader's behaviors, including articulating appealing visions,
focusing followers' efforts, and modeling appropriate behaviors to energize followers"
(Jones, 2006, p. 36).

3. Intellectual stimulation "behaviors exhibited by the leader that assist the followers to view
problems and issues they face from a new perspective" (Jones, 2006, p. 36).

4. Individualized consideration "the ability of the leader to be supportive and to show concern
for his or her followers' needs and well-being. Giving encouragement and compliments to
improve the followers' self-confidence falls into this component" (Jones, 2006, p. 36).

5. Transformational leadership focuses on the process whereby an individual stimulates and
inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own
leadership capacity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004).









Avolio, Waldman, and Yammarino (1991) developed a model of transformational

leadership which identified four characteristics to stimulate and engage followers. These

transformational leadership characteristics include:

1. Individual consideration gives personal attention to others, making each individual feel
uniquely valued.

2. Intellectual stimulation actively encourages a new look at old methods, stimulates
creativity, encourages others to look at problems and issues in a new way.

3. Inspirational motivation increases optimism and enthusiasm, communicates high
expectations, and points out possibilities not previously considered.

4. Idealized influence provides vision and a sense of purpose; elicits respect, trust, and
confidence from followers.

Transformational leaders engage followers by using at least one or more of the previous four

characteristics in their leadership techniques. The transformational leader seeks to engage the

follower and manage by inspiration (Abington-Cooper, 2005).

Transformational leadership is a leadership style that focuses on the process whereby an

individual stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the

process, develop their own leadership capacity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). In

organizational settings, the transformational leadership style has been found to be most effective

and to promote greater organizational performance compared to the transactional leadership style

(Lowe & Kroeck, 1996). Furthermore, transformational leadership has been found to be more

emotion-based than transactional leadership (Yammarino & Dubinsky, 1994).

Tichy and DeVanna (1986) provide a different definition of transformational by stating

that "transformation is about change, innovation, and entrepreneurship" (p. viii). Yukl (1989)

describes transformational leadership as a process of micro-level and macro-level influence. At

the micro-level, the transformational leader takes charge of the social systems and reforms the









organization. While at the macro-level, the leader focuses on the personalities in the organization

to facilitate change at an interpersonal level (Yukl, 1989). Barker (1994) suggests that

transformational leaders are interested in collective results, not maximum benefit for individual

gain which is based on interaction and influence, not directive power acts.

Transactional leadership is a leadership style that focuses on the exchanges of one thing for

another that occur between leaders and their followers (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004).

The factors of transactional leadership are contingent reward and management-by-exception.

This type of leadership occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower with

constructive and corrective transactions, depending on the performance of the follower (Avolio

& Bass, 2004). Leaders utilizing the transactional leadership style use rewards that are material,

such as a bonus, or makes corrective transactions by rearranging followers to fit the situation

(Bass & Riggio, 2006). While transactional leadership is immature and unrefined, it is still a

foundation to build on to become transformational (Bass & Riggio, 2006).

Laissez-faire leadership (also referred to as passive/avoidant leadership) is a leadership

style whereby the leader is avoidant or has an absence of leadership and is inactive (Bass &

Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). Opposite from transactional leadership, laissez-faire does not

utilize a transaction of any kind. The leader does not make decisions, actions are delayed,

responsibilities are often ignored and authority is unused (Bass & Riggio, 2006). The leader

using this style takes a hands-off approach by disregarding any responsibilities to followers.

The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Avolio and Bass (2004)

has evolved over the past 25 years and measures individual leadership styles as being

transformational, transactional, passive/avoidant, and outcomes of leadership. This assessment

has been utilized among various populations including the "military, government, education,









manufacturing, high technology, church, correctional, hospital, and volunteer organizations"

(Avolio & Bass, 2004). The transformational leadership style includes the subscales of idealized

attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and

individualized consideration. The transactional leadership style includes contingent reward and

management-by-exception (active), while the passive/avoidant style includes management-by-

exception (passive) and laissez-faire. Contingent reward clarifies expectations and offers

recognition when goals are achieved. When using management-by-exception (active) the leader

specifies the standards for compliance, as well as what is considered dissatisfactory performance,

and may also punish followers for not meeting these standards. Management-by-exception

(passive) is similar to laissez-faire in that leaders fail to take action until problems become

serious. Leaders will take on the belief of "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." The outcomes of

leadership include extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction (Avolio & Bass, 2004).

Transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership styles have been well-

researched and developed over the past 25 years. Many researchers have determined that

behaviors related to the transformational leadership style are the most desirable, while the

passive/avoidant leadership behaviors are the least desirable (Avolio & Bass, 2004). However,

all of these leadership styles are important in the development of an individual to reach his or her

full potential as a leader.

Emotional Intelligence

The study of emotional intelligence is a more recent concept which is defined as a

composite set of capabilities which can be observed when a person demonstrates the

competencies that constitute self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skills

at appropriate times and ways in sufficient frequency to be effective in the situation (Boyatzis et

al., 1999). Each of these competencies further addresses and evaluates different leadership









competencies more in depth (Boyatzis et al., 1999). Goleman (1995) defines emotional

intelligence as "abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of

frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratification; to regulate one's moods and keep distress

from swamping the ability to think; to empathize and to hope" (p. 34). Boyatzis et al. (2000) and

Goleman (1995) also stated that an individual can change his or her level of emotional

intelligence by learning and improving the crucial emotional competencies over a period of time.

Emotional intelligence has recently been said to be a critical component for leaders to be

effective in their organizations (Cherniss & Adler, 2000).

Emotional intelligence consists of five competencies each with a set of subscales. These

competencies include: 1) intrapersonal, 2) interpersonal, 3) adaptability, 4) stress management,

and 5) general mood (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003).

1. Intrapersonal A scale that assesses the inner self.

2. Interpersonal A scale that assesses the characteristics of being responsible and dependable
with social skills.

3. Adaptability A sign of how well individuals are able to cope with environmental demands
and pressures.

4. Stress management A sign of how an individual deals with stress.

5. General mood An indicator of an individual's ability to enjoy life.

The different competencies incorporate leadership characteristics such as emotional

awareness, self-confidence, self-control, innovativeness, commitment, and empathy. These

characteristics have been found to be important in an individual's leadership ability (Goleman,

1998). Each of these subscales represents a small portion of the overall emotional intelligence of

an individual. Table 2-1 demonstrates the competencies and the corresponding subscales used by

Bar-On (2004). Bar-On (2004) defines the subscales as follows:









Table 2-1. Emotional intelligence competencies and subscales.
Intrapersonal Interpersonal Adaptability Stress Management General Mood
Self-regard Empathy Reality testing Stress tolerance Happiness
Emotional self- Social Flexibility Impulse control Optimism
awareness responsibility Problem solving
Assertiveness Interpersonal
Independence relationship
Self-actualization

1. Self-regard is the ability to respect and accept oneself as basically good.

2. Emotional self-awareness is the ability to recognize one's feelings.

3. Assertiveness is the ability to express feelings, beliefs, and thoughts and defend one's rights
in a nondestructive manner.

4. Independence is the ability to be self-directed and self-controlled in one's thinking and
actions and to be free of emotional dependency.

5. Self-actualization pertains to the ability to realize one's potential capacities.

6. Empathy is the ability to be aware of, to understand, and to appreciate the feelings of others.

7. Social responsibility is the ability to demonstrate oneself as a cooperative, contributing, and
constructive member of one's social group.

8. Interpersonal relationship skill involves the ability to establish and maintain mutually
satisfying relationships that are characterized by intimacy and by giving and receiving
affection.

9. Reality testing is the ability to assess the correspondence between what is experienced and
what objectively exists.

10. Flexibility is the ability to adjust one's emotions, thoughts, and behavior to changing
situations and conditions.

11. Problem solving aptitude is the ability to identify and define problems as well as to generate
and implement potentially effective solutions.

12. Stress tolerance is the ability to withstand adverse events and stressful situations without
'falling apart' by actively and positively coping with stress.

13. Impulse control is the ability to resist or delay an impulse, drive, or temptation to act.

14. Optimism is the ability to look at the brighter side of life and to maintain a positive attitude
even in the face of adversity.









15. Happiness is the ability to feel satisfied with one's life, to enjoy oneself and others, and to
have fun (p. 15-18).

There are multiple assessments that can be used to measure emotional intelligence. Each of

these has assessments has developed different areas of emotional intelligence to be measured.

These areas are all consistent in the concepts, but use different terminology when describing the

components of emotional intelligence. Due to the differences, several of the assessments are

discussed. Table 2-2 further illustrates these assessments and the components of each.

For this study the Bar-on EQ-i was utilized as this assessment is one of the longer-lived

and most widely used instruments (Brown et al., 2005). Another assessment is the Swinburne

University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT) which scores emotional intelligence on five

factors: emotional recognition and expression, emotions direct cognition, understanding of

emotions external, emotional management, and emotional control (Gardner & Stough, 2005).

The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Ability Test (MSCEIT) is another

assessment which measures emotional intelligence on the following subscales: self-awareness,

emotional resilience, motivation, interpersonal sensitivity, influence, decisiveness, and

conscientiousness and integrity (Leban & Zulauf, 2004). The Hay's Emotional Competency

Inventory (ECI) measures emotional intelligence using self-awareness, self-management, social

awareness, and social skills as the four subscales (Watkin, 2000). Additionally, the Trait Meta-

Mood Scale measures emotional intelligence with three factors, attention to feelings, clarity of

feelings, and mood repair (Downey, Papageorgiou, & Stough, 2006). Finally, the assessment

developed by Carson and Carson (1998) utilizes the following subscales: empathetic response,

mood regulation interpersonal skills, internal motivation, and self-awareness. The following

table illustrates the multiple assessments as well as the subscales used by each (Table 2-2).










Table 2-2. Emotional intelligence assessments.
Bar-On EQi Hay's ECI SUEIT TMMS MSCEIT Carson et al.
Intrapersonal Self- Emotional Attention Perceiving Empathetic
awareness recognition & to feelings emotions response
Interpersonal expression
Self- Clarity of Facilitating Mood regulation
Adaptability management Understanding feelings thought
emotions Interpersonal
Stress Social- external Mood Understanding skills
Competencies management awareness repair emotions
Measured Emotions direct Internal
General mood Social skills cognition Managing motivation
emotions
Emotional Self-awarenss
management

Emotional
control

Demographics of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style

When discussing leaders and leadership, it is important to discuss the influence of the

demographics on the study. Numerous studies have been conducted in the field of leadership

which address the influence of demographics on leadership style, emotional intelligence and the

relationship between these two variables. The independent variables involved in this study

include gender, age, and education.

Gender

Research on gender differences in emotional intelligence has been limited. While Goleman

(1995) considered males and females to each have their own strengths and weaknesses for

emotional intelligence capacities, other studies have indicated that women score higher on

measures of emotional intelligence than men (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Mayer & Geher,

1996). Mandell and Pherwani (2003) also found the emotional intelligence levels of female

managers and supervisors of mid-sized to large organizations in the northeastern section of the

U. S. were higher then those of the male managers and supervisors. In the study conducted by

Cavallo and Brienza (n. d.), women received higher peer ratings than men in the emotional

competencies consisting of emotional self-awareness, conscientiousness, developing others,









service orientation, and communication. In the supervisor ratings, women received higher ratings

in the areas of adaptability and service orientation, but in the direct report ratings men received

higher ratings in the competency which measured them as a change catalyst (Cavallo & Brienza

(n. d.).

However, even though there are differences between males and females, researchers show

that the overall emotional intelligence scores do not differ. Only when looking at specific

competencies will there be significant differences in the scores (Cavallo & Brienza, n. d.). This is

supported by research utilizing Bar-On's (2004) inventory where no differences were found in

the overall emotional intelligence. However, when focusing on specific components there were

small differences. Females show stronger interpersonal skills, while males have a higher

intrapersonal capacity, are more adaptable, and score higher in stress management. Females are

also more aware of their emotions, demonstrate more empathy, and score higher interpersonally

and socially (Bar-On, 2004).

Several studies have been conducted to determine if male or female leaders are more

transformational in their leadership style. Bass and Riggio (2006) state that there is anecdotal,

research, and meta-analytic evidence that show women have a higher tendency to use a more

transformational leadership style in the leadership positions they hold. Again, Mandell and

Pherwani (2003) found the transformational leadership scores of females to be slightly higher

than those of the males. Mandell and Pherwani's (2003) research is supported by other studies

that found females more likely to use transformational leadership than males and that males are

more likely to use transactional leadership as their preferred leadership style (Druskat, 1994;

Eagly & Johnson, 1990; Rosener, 1990). Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt, and van Engen (2003) also

found that female leaders utilize transformational behaviors more than male leaders and also









exhibited contingent reward behaviors, a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders

used other aspects of transactional leadership such as active and passive management by

exception (Eagly et al., 2003).

Age

Studies have been conducted to determine the influence of age on the individual's level of

emotional intelligence. These studies have shown that older individuals show higher levels of

emotional intelligence because the different competencies can be developed over time, changed

throughout life, and improved through training and development programs (Gardner & Stough,

2002). Bar-On (2004) also found differences in emotional intelligence based on age in a

population of 3,831 North Americans. While the differences were small, individuals in the 30 to

39 years of age, 40 to 49 years of age, and 50 or over years of age scored higher levels of

emotional intelligence than those individuals under 20 years of age and 20 to 29 years of age.

These results are consistent throughout the subscales of the Bar-On EQ-i (Bar-On, 2004).

Research has also been conducted on the relationship between age and leadership style in

many organizations. Holder (1990) found that age was not significantly related to the preferred

leadership style of Extension faculty and middle managers. This is also supported by Haynes

(1997) who determined that age did not affect participants in his study.

Education

Educational background is a variable which has received considerably less attention than

other demographic variables within both emotional intelligence and leadership style literature.

Higher levels of education have been shown to be associated with greater critical thinking ability

and open-mindedness (Rothert, 1969). There is little research in the area of education and

emotional intelligence or leadership style.









Interaction between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style

Research studies have been conducted on the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership styles within many organizations, industries, and businesses. However, there is no

research on the relationship within the field of agriculture, specifically within Florida agriculture

and the WLIANR. Among the research that has been conducted, there has been a positive

relationship between many of the components of emotional intelligence and leadership style

while other components have shown either a negative or no relationship at all (Gardner &

Stough, 2002).

Bass and Riggio (2006) show emotional intelligence is closely correlated to

transformational leadership in various studies. Ashforth and Humphrey (1995) suggest that these

two leadership qualities are correlates as transformational leadership is a process of evoking and

managing the emotions of followers which is similar to the concepts behind emotional

intelligence. Mandell and Pherwani (2003) found a significant relationship between emotional

intelligence and transformational leadership style when assessing mangers and supervisors of

mid-sized to large organizations. This study further states that the transformational leadership

style of managers could be predicted from their emotional intelligence scores which is important

for effective leadership (Goleman, 1998; Mandell & Pherwani, 2003).

Barling, Slater, and Kelloway (2000) found emotional intelligence to be positively

associated with three aspects of transformational leadership. These include idealized influence,

inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration. Barling et al. (2000) also found

management-by-exception and laissez-faire management were not associated with emotional

intelligence. Gardner and Stough (2001) also found the five components of emotional

intelligence to positively correlate with all of the components of transformational leadership.

Table 2-3 presents the linkage between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership as









described by Leban and Zulauf (2004). Figure 2-1 presents the model used to represent the

relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style.

Table 2-3. Linkage between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (Leban &
Zulauf, 2004).
Emotional Intelligence factors Transformational Leadership factors
(Dulewicz & Higgs, 1999) (Alimo-Metcalfe, 1999)
Self-awareness Individual consideration
Emotional resilience Decisive, achieving, determined
Motivation Involves other in values
Interpersonal sensitivity Networks
Influence Change management
Decisiveness Accessible
Conscientiousness and integrity Intellectual versatility (integrity/openness)










Leadership Styles


Emotional Intelligence


Transformational

Idealized attributes
Idealized behaviors
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized
consideration



Transactional

Contingent reward
Management-by-exception
(active)



Passive/Avoidant

Management-by-exception
(passive)
Laissez-faire


Intrapersonal




Interpersonal




Adaptability




Stress Management




General Mood


Figure 2-1. Model of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style.


Indepzendent
Variables
Age
Gender
Education









Summary

Chapter 2 discussed the research on emotional intelligence, leadership styles, adult

leadership programs in agriculture, as well as the WLIANR. This chapter also addressed the

theoretical framework and the conceptual framework for the study.

Chapter 3 will describe the methodology used to answer to the research questions. Chapter

3 will also address the research design, population, instrumentation development, data collection,

and analysis.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Chapter 1 described the importance of leadership in agriculture and natural resources and

provided the background for studying emotional intelligence and leadership style of leaders in

Florida agriculture. Chapter 1 also explained the significance of the study and identified its

purpose. The chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assumptions and

limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 presented a review of the literature concerned with leadership, emotional

intelligence and leadership style. The chapter focused on leadership development programs,

emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and the effect of demographic variables on emotional

intelligence and leadership style and presents the relevant theoretical and conceptual

frameworks. The literature contains a limited amount of research on the relationship between

leadership style and emotional intelligence, thus further establishing the need for additional

research.

This chapter describes the methodology used to answer the research questions presented in

the study. This chapter will also address the research design, population, instrumentation

development, data collection, and analysis.

The following research objectives were addressed:

1. Describe the leadership styles of the WLIANR alumni.

2. Describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni.

3. Identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR
alumni.

The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the relationship between emotional

intelligence and leadership style of the alumni of the WLIANR. The dependent variables in this









study were emotional intelligence levels and leadership style. The independent variables in this

study were gender, age, and education.

Research Design

This study utilized census survey research (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006). The

survey instruments were developed by previous researchers and have been utilized in many

studies (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006; Brown, Bryant, & Reilly, 2006). Census survey research is a

method of gathering data by asking a series of questions to the entire population being studied

(Ary et al., 2006). According to Ary et al. (2006) a census study of intangibles such as success,

motivation, achievement, leadership, and other psychological related assessments can be used.

The validity of the questionnaires has been established through previous research. The

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire has been validated more than ten times since its initial use

by leadership experts (Bass & Avolio, 2000). However, according to Ary et al. (2006) a study

will produce more valid responses if the individuals participating in the study have an interest in

the topic and/or are informed about it. To address this issue, the assessments were approved by

the Program Director of the WLIANR, as well as the research study being approved by the

Board of Directors of the WLIANR Alumni Association. Another threat to validity was non-

response (Ary et al., 2006). While most of the alumni had working e-mail addresses, many of

them do not use the e-mail address or do not have the technical skills to use the e-mail address.

Population

The population of this study consisted of all alumni members of the WLIANR since the

inception of the leadership program. All attempts were made to obtain e-mail addresses from all

of the alumni members. For the purpose of this study, the alumni members with a working e-mail

address were defined as graduates of the WLIANR (N=133). In order to participate in the

WLIANR, individuals were required to meet certain criteria. This included being a citizen of the









U. S. as well as a resident of the State of Florida for one year prior to the application deadline.

The participants were required to earn a substantial percentage of his/her income from the private

sector of Florida's agriculture, natural resources, and/or related areas. Participants were also

required to be between the ages of 25 and 45. Finally, the participants were required to

demonstrate strong leadership potential.

Procedure

Prior to the collection of data, a proposal to conduct the study was submitted to the

University of Florida Institution Review Board (IRB) for non-medical projects (IRB-02). The

proposal was approved (Protocol #2007-U-532). A copy of the informed consent form that was

sent to the participants was submitted to the IRB along with the proposal. The informed consent

form described the study, the voluntary nature of participation, and informed participants of any

potential risks and/or benefits associated with participating in the study.

Once approval to conduct this study was granted by the IRB, data was collected by the

researcher starting November 2007. Contact information for the alumni members was obtained

from the WLIANR Alumni Association directory. A personalized e-mail letter was sent to each

alumni member on November 26, 2007 (See Appendix A). The purpose of the letter was to

inform the participant that two web-based survey instruments would be sent to them via e-mail

and their participation was greatly appreciated. This was the pre-notice letter that should be sent

before sending the instruments according to Dillman (2000). The second contact was made on

December 3, 2007, seven days after the pre-notice letter was mailed (See Appendix A). During

this second contact with the alumni members, the web-based surveys were sent to the

participants via electronic mail. On December 11, 2007 the third contact was sent out to only

those included in the population that had not yet responded (See Appendix A). A one week

window is suggested by expert survey researchers (Dillman, 2000). Due to the holidays, an









additional contact was made on January 2, 2008 (See Appendix A). On January 10, 2008 the

fifth contact was sent out only to the non-responding participants by way of e-mail (See

Appendix A). The electronic survey was closed on January 18, 2008. Once the responding data

was collected, it was then analyzed by the researcher.

Instrumentation

Two questionnaires were used to collect data for this study. The Bar-On EQi was used to

measure the emotional intelligence levels of the WLIANR alumni members developed by

Reuven Bar-On (2004). The second instrument was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire

(MLQ) designed by Bass and Avolio (1995). The MLQ was used to determine the degree to

which each alumni member uses transformational, transactional, and/or laissez-faire leadership

styles. Both the Bar-On EQi and MLQ have had their reliability and validity established through

previous research (Avolio & Bass, 2004; Bar-On, 2004). The demographic variables were

obtained when the participants applied to participate in the WLIANR; therefore the demographic

data was available through the program director.

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire

The MLQ is based on the Full Range Leadership Model developed by Bass and Avolio

(2004). The survey consists of 45 items that measure a full range of leadership behaviors and

takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. The MLQ measures leadership behaviors used to

determine leadership styles, ranging from transformational leadership, transactional leadership,

and/or passive/avoidant leadership (Jones, 2006). The MLQ was used to determine which

leadership style is demonstrated by each of the alumni members of the WLIANR. The MLQ was

purchased for use from an organization entitled Mind Garden. Participants selected a number

rating for his or her self-perceived leadership behavior by responding on a Likert scale ranging









from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently, if not always). The reliability of the MLQ, as reported by

Bass and Avolio (2000) for each leadership factor, ranges from 0.74 to 0.91.

Bar-On EQi

The Bar-On EQi is based on the research of Reuven Bar-On (Bar-On, 2004). This survey

consists of 125 items that measure the total emotional intelligence as well as the subscales of

emotional intelligence which include: interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management,

adaptability, and general mood. The Bar-On EQi was used to determine the current levels of

emotional intelligence demonstrated by each of the alumni members of the WLIANR.

Participants selected a number rating for his or her self-perceived behaviors by responding on a

Likert scale ranging from 1 (very seldom true or not true of me) to 5 (very often true of me or

true of me). The validity of the results was tested based on the inconsistency index score

provided by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) in the scored data set. MHS is the organization in

which the assessment was purchased. The reliability of the Bar-On EQi was examined by using

the Cronbach alpha which scored an average of 0.76 for all of the subscales (Bar-On, 2004).

Data Analysis

Data was analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 for Windows statistical package. Nonresponse

should be considered and addressed in survey-based research studies because the potential for

nonresponse error exists in all survey research (Dillman, 2000). Based on Dillman's

recommendation to always address nonresponse error, a comparison of early to late respondents

was utilized. Lindner, Murphy, and Briers (2001) recommended late respondents "be defined

operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents" (p. 242). This study defined early

respondents (n=28) as the first 50% who responded to each survey and late respondents (n=28)

as the latter 50% of respondents to each survey. Early respondents were compared to late

respondents on the basis of the key variables of interest, including total emotional intelligence









scores, emotional intelligence scale scores, and transformational, transactional, and

passive/avoidant leadership style scores.

With respect to the main variables measured in this study, there were no significant

differences between early and late respondents as demonstrated by an independent samples t-test

for each instrument (Table 3-1 and Table 3-2).

Table 3-1. Emotional Intelligence T-test for Significant Differences Between Early and Late
Respondents. (n=56)
Early Respondents Late Respondents
Key Variable M SD M SD t Value Sig.
Total Emotional Intelligence 101.86 12.12 99.36 9.81 0.85 0.400
Intrapersonal 105.25 12.30 99.93 10.99 1.71 0.094
Interpersonal 101.04 12.81 96.36 8.54 1.61 0.114
Stress Management 98.18 14.81 101.68 11.31 -0.99 0.325
Adaptability 100.14 11.87 98.86 11.86 0.41 0.687
General Mood 103.00 13.99 101.82 7.80 0.39 0.699

Table 3-2. Leadership Style T-test for Significant Differences Between Early and Late
Respondents. (n=56)
Early Respondents Late Respondents
Key Variable M SD M SD t Value Sig.
Transformational leadership 2.95 0.53 3.06 0.42 -0.82 0.414
Transactional leadership 2.10 0.44 2.28 0.52 -1.36 0.179
Passive/avoidant leadership 0.98 0.50 0.78 0.42 1.63 0.110

Prior to any inferential analysis, variables were described using descriptive statistics.

Inferential statistics were then used to gain a better understanding of the data. A one-way

analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the relationships between the independent

variables and dependent variables (emotional intelligence and leadership style). This is a

collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the variance is

partitioned into components due to the different explanatory variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997).

Finally, Pearson Correlation was used to measure possible associations among the dependent

variables as well as strength and relationship between the variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997).









Summary

This chapter described the method that was used to examine the emotional intelligence and

leadership style of leaders in Florida agriculture. Chapter 3 also discussed the research design,

population, instrumentation, procedures, and data collection and analysis. The design of this

research was a census population survey study. The dependent variables in this study were

emotional intelligence and leadership style. The independent variables in this study were gender,

age, and education. The reliability and validity of this study were addressed. Finally, a summary

and description of the analysis was discussed.

Chapter 4 will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and the results

received from the two questionnaires.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Chapter 1 described the importance of leadership in agriculture and natural resources and

provided the background for studying emotional intelligence and leadership style of leaders in

Florida agriculture. Chapter 1 also explained the significance of the study and identified its

purpose. The chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assumptions and

limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that guided

this study. Chapter 2 focused specifically on research related to leadership, leadership programs

in agriculture and natural resources, leadership styles, emotional intelligence, and other variables

related to the study. The literature contains a limited amount of research on the relationship

between leadership style and emotional intelligence, thus further establishing the need for

additional research.

Chapter 3 described the research methodology utilized to accomplish the objectives of the

study. Specifically, chapter 3 described the research design, population, procedure,

instrumentation, and data analysis procedures.

This chapter presents the findings of the study, beginning with a description of the

population and the findings for each of the objectives.

The population of this study consisted of the 133 alumni of the WLIANR. At the

conclusion of the data collection procedures via the e-mail instruments outlined in Chapter 3, 56

(42.1%) graduates responded to the survey. The gender of the respondents was 71.4% (n=40)

male and 28.6% (n=16) female (Table 4-1). The average age of the respondents was 43, with the

youngest respondent of 29 and the oldest of 59. In the age category of 28 to 37 years, there were

13 respondents (n=13). There were 26 respondents (n=26) in the 38 to 47 years category, 15









respondents (n=15) in the 48 to 57 years category, and two respondents (n=2) in the 58 years and

older category (See Table 4-2). In regard to the respondents' educational background, 17.9%

(n=10) had some college, 60.7% (n=34) had a bachelors degree, 1.8% (n=l) had some graduate

school, and 19.6% (n=l 1) had a graduate degree (Table 4-3).

Table 4-1. Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Gender. (N=133)
Gender Number of WLIANR Number of Respondents from
Graduates WLIANR Graduates
Male 99 40
Female 34 16
Total 133 56

Table 4-2. Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Age. (N=133)
Age Number of WLIANR Number of Respondents from
Graduates WLIANR Graduates
28 to 37 years 28 13
38 to 47 years 55 26
48 to 57 years 41 15
58 years and older 9 2
Total 133 56

Table 4-3. Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Education. (N=133)
Education Number of WLIANR Number of Respondents from
Graduates WLIANR Graduates
High school 3 0
Some college 18 10
Bachelors degree 84 34
Some graduate 2 1
Graduate degree 26 11
Total 133 56

Objective 1: To Describe the Leadership Styles among the WLIANR Alumni

The leadership styles of the WLIANR alumni were determined using the MLQ Scoring

Key. The nine leadership scales as well as the transformational, transactional, and/or

passive/avoidant leadership style scores are presented in Table 4-4 and Table 4-5. Leadership

scale scores have a range possibility of 0 to 4. Of the nine scale scores, inspirational motivation









received the highest mean score (M=3.11, SD=0.60), and laissez-faire scale scores received the

lowest mean score (M=0.63, SD=0.46).

The leadership style scores had a range of 0 to 4. The range of scale scores for the

respondents for transformational leadership style was 1.95 to 3.95. Transactional leadership style

scores ranged from 1.12 to 3.25. The passive/avoidant leadership style scores ranged from 0.12

to 2.00. Transformational leadership scores reported by the respondents were the highest of the

leadership style scores (M=3.00, SD=0.48), while passive/avoidant was reported as having the

lowest score (M=0.88, SD=0.47). Table 4-4 presents the scores for each of the nine leadership

scales. Table 4-5 presents the three leadership style scores: transformational, transactional, and

passive/avoidant.

Table 4-4. Leadership Style Scale Scores. (n=56)
n M SD Min Max
Leadership Scale Scores
Idealized Influence (Attributed) 56 3.04 0.58 1.00 4.00
Idealized Influence (Behavior) 56 2.95 0.65 1.67 4.00
Inspirational Motivation 56 3.11 0.60 1.50 4.00
Intellectual Stimulation 56 2.90 0.58 1.75 4.00
Individual Consideration 56 3.01 0.58 1.25 4.00
Contingent Reward 56 2.86 0.56 1.50 3.75
Management-by-Exception (Active) 56 1.52 0.73 0.00 4.00
Management-by-Exception (Passive) 56 1.13 0.65 0.00 2.50
Laissez-faire 56 0.63 0.46 0.00 2.00

Table 4-5. Total Leadership Style Scores. (n=56)
n M SD Min Max
Leadership Style Scores
Transformational Leadership Style 56 3.00 0.48 1.95 3.95
Transactional Leadership Style 56 2.19 0.48 1.12 3.25
Passive/Avoidant Leadership Style 56 0.88 0.47 0.12 2.00

Leadership Style and Gender

There were fewer female respondents (n=16) than there were male (n=40). Table 4-6

shows the leadership style scores by gender. No significant correlations were found between









leadership style and gender. Leadership style scores had a possible range of 0 to 4. Females

scored higher in the transformational leadership style, while males scored higher in the

transactional leadership style. Males and females scored the same in the passive/avoidant

leadership style. Table 4-7 presents the mean leadership scale scores by gender.

Table 4-6. Total Leadership Style Scores by Gender. (n=56)
Construct Gender n M SD
MLQ-Transformational Female 16 3.05 0.53
Male 40 2.99 0.47
MLQ-Transactional Female 16 2.09 0.34
Male 40 2.23 0.53
MLQ-Passive/Avoidant Female 16 0.88 0.56
Male 40 0.88 0.43

There were no significant differences between men and women in any of the leadership

scale scores.

Table 4-7. Leadership Scale Scores by Gender. (n=56)
Construct Gender n M SD
Idealized Influence (Attributed) Female 16 3.07 0.60
Male 40 3.03 0.57
Idealized Influence (Behavior) Female 16 2.97 0.58
Male 40 2.94 0.68
Inspirational Motivation Female 16 3.23 0.64
Male 40 3.06 0.59
Intellectual Stimulation Female 16 2.83 0.65
Male 40 2.93 0.56
Individualized Consideration Female 16 3.13 0.53
Male 40 2.97 0.60
Contingent Reward Female 16 2.90 0.60
Male 40 2.85 0.55
Management-by-Exception (Active) Female 16 1.28 0.55
Male 40 1.62 0.78
Management-by-Exception (Passive) Female 16 1.06 0.77
Male 40 1.15 0.60
Laissez-faire Female 16 0.69 0.49
Male 40 0.60 0.45









Leadership Style and Age

When examining the respondents by age, most of the respondents were in the 38 to 47

years category (n=26). There were 15 respondents in the 48 to 57 years category, 13 respondents

in the 28 to 37 years category, and only two respondents in the 58 years and older category. The

38 to 47 years category had a transformational leadership style mean score of 2.97 (SD=0.50), a

transactional leadership style mean score of 2.16 (SD=0.50), and a passive/avoidant leadership

style score of 0.84 (SD=0.48). The 48 to 57 years category had a transformational leadership

style mean score of 3.11 (SD=0.55), a transactional leadership style mean score of 2.23

(SD=.49), and a passive/avoidant leadership style mean score of 0.83 (SD=0.41). The 28 to 37

years category had a transformational leadership style mean score of 2.93 (SD=0.38), a

transactional leadership style mean score of 2.22 (SD=0.49), and a passive/avoidant leadership

style score of 0.99 (SD=0.55). The 58 years and older category had a transformational leadership

style mean score of 3.10 (SD=0.57), a transactional leadership style mean score of 2.19

(SD=0.44), and a passive/avoidant leadership style mean score of 0.94 (SD=0.09). Table 4-8

shows the leadership style mean scores by age.









Table 4-8. Total Leadership Style Scores by Age. (n=56)
Construct Age n M SD
MLQ-Transformational
28 to 37 years 13 2.93 0.38
38 to 47 years 26 2.97 0.50
48 to 57 years 15 3.11 0.55
58 years and older 2 3.10 0.57
MLQ-Transactional
28 to 37 years 13 2.22 0.49
38 to 47 years 26 2.16 0.50
48 to 57 years 15 2.23 0.49
58 years and older 2 2.19 0.44
MLQ-Passive/Avoidant
28 to 37 years 13 0.99 0.55
38 to 47 years 26 0.84 0.48
48 to 57 years 15 0.83 0.41
58 years and older 2 0.94 0.09

Leadership Style and Education

Most of the respondents held a bachelors degree (n=34). There were 11 respondents with a

graduate degree (n= 1) and ten respondents with some college (n=10). Only one respondent had

some graduate coursework (n=l). There were no respondents in the high school category. The

mean of the transformational leadership style in the bachelors degree category was 3.03

(SD=0.49), the transactional leadership style had a mean of 2.15 (SD=0.48), while the

passive/avoidant leadership style had a mean of 0.89 (SD=0.48). Respondents in the graduate

degree category (n=l 1) had a transformational leadership style mean of 2.90 (SD=0.48), a

transactional leadership style mean of 2.22 (SD=0.56), and a passive/avoidant leadership style

mean of 0.90 (SD=0.46). The respondents in the some college category (n=10) had a

transformational leadership style mean of 3.05 (SD=0.51), a transactional leadership style mean

of 2.25 (SD=0.45), and passive/avoidant leadership style mean of 0.84 (SD=0.49). The some

graduate category had a transformational mean score of 2.70 (SD=n/a), a transactional leadership

style mean of 2.50 (SD=n/a), and a passive/avoidant leadership style mean of 0.75 (SD=n/a) (See









Table 4-9). When examining the leadership style scores by education, no significant differences

were found.

Table 4-9. Total Leadership Style Scores by Education. (n=56)
Construct Education n M SD
MLQ-Transformational
High school 0 -- --
Some college 10 3.05 0.51
Bachelors 34 3.03 0.49
Some graduate 1 2.70 --
Graduate 11 2.90 0.48
MLQ-Transactional
High school 0 -- --
Some college 10 2.25 0.45
Bachelors 34 2.15 0.48
Some graduate 1 2.50 --
Graduate 11 2.22 0.56
MLQ-Passive/Avoidant
High school 0 -- --
Some college 10 0.84 0.49
Bachelors 34 0.89 0.48
Some graduate 1 0.75 --
Graduate 11 0.90 0.46

Objective 2: To Describe the Current Levels of Emotional Intelligence of the WLIANR
Alumni

The emotional intelligence levels of the WLIANR alumni were determined using the Bar-

On EQi Scoring Key. The total emotional intelligence levels as well as the five emotional

intelligence scales, intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general

mood are presented in Table 4-10. Emotional intelligence scale scores have a range possibility of

0 to 150. Of the five scale scores, general mood received the highest mean score (M=102.41,

SD=12.12), and interpersonal received the lowest mean score (M=98.70, SD= 1.04).

The range of scale scores for the respondents for intrapersonal was 77 to 127. Interpersonal

scores ranged from 79 to 125. The range of scale scores for stress management was 62 to 128.

Adaptability scores ranged from 69 to 129, while general mood scores ranged from 72 to 124.









The total emotional intelligence scores ranged from 76 to 127 with a mean score of 100.61

(SD=10.99). Table 4-10 presents the scores for each of the five emotional intelligence scores as

well as the total emotional intelligence scores.

Table 4-10. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores. (n=56)
n M SD Min Max
Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores
Intrapersonal 56 102.59 11.87 77 127
Interpersonal 56 98.70 11.04 79 125
Stress Management 56 99.93 13.17 62 128
Adaptability 56 99.50 11.77 69 129
General Mood 56 102.41 11.24 72 124
Total Emotional Intelligence Score 56 100.61 10.99 76 127

Emotional Intelligence and Gender

In regard to emotional intelligence and gender, there were no significant differences found

between the total emotional intelligence and gender. The males scored higher in the

intrapersonal, interpersonal, and general mood scales. The total emotional intelligence score of

males (M=100.82, SD=11.31) was slightly higher than the females (M=100.06, SD=10.50). Table

4-11 presents the mean emotional intelligence scores and scale scores by gender.

Table 4-11. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores by Gender. (n=56)
Construct Gender n M SD
Total Emotional Intelligence Female 16 100.60 10.50
Male 40 100.82 11.31
Intrapersonal Female 16 101.69 11.61
Male 40 102.95 12.10
Interpersonal Female 16 94.81 8.53
Male 40 100.25 11.63
Stress Management Female 16 103.75 12.21
Male 40 98.40 13.38
Adaptability Female 16 101.00 9.24
Male 40 98.90 12.70
General Mood Female 16 99.44 13.05
Male 40 103.60 10.38









Emotional Intelligence and Age

The age categories were 28 to 37 years (n=13), 38 to 47 years (n=26), 48 to 57 years

(n=15), and 58 years and older (n=2). The total emotional intelligence scores were highest in the

28 to 37 years of age category (M=104.85, SD=8.03) and lowest in the 58 years and older

category (M=92.50, SD=0.70). The 38 to 47 years category had a total emotional intelligence

mean score of 101.00 (SD=12.49) and the 48 to 57 years had a total emotional intelligence mean

score of 97.33 (SD=10.18). In regards to the emotional intelligence score scales, there were no

significant differences between the age categories. The 28 to 37 years (n=13) scored the highest

in all of the scales (intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, and general mood) except stress

management. The 58 years and older (n=2) scored the lowest in all categories except general

mood. Table 4-12 shows the mean emotional intelligence scores by age. Table 4-13 presents the

emotional intelligence scale scores by age. There were no significant differences between total

emotional intelligence scores and age and emotional intelligence scale scores and age.

Table 4-12. Total Emotional Intelligence Scores by Age. (n=56)
Construct Age n M SD
Total Emotional Intelligence Scores
28 to 37 years 13 104.85 8.03
38 to 47 years 26 101.00 12.49
48 to 57 years 15 97.33 10.18
58 years and older 2 92.50 0.71









Table 4-13. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Age. (n=56)
Construct Age n M SD
Intrapersonal
28 to 37 years 13 107.92 8.48
38 to 47 years 26 101.92 13.87
48 to 57 years 15 100.00 10.37
58 years and older 2 96.00 1.41
Interpersonal
28 to 37 years 13 102.54 10.85
38 to 47 years 26 98.54 12.76
48 to 57 years 15 96.53 7.27
58 years and older 2 92.00 11.31
Stress Management
28 to 37 years 13 100.00 9.93
38 to 47 years 26 101.92 13.84
48 to 57 years 15 97.13 15.29
58 years and older 2 94.50 4.95
Adaptability
28 to 37 years 13 102.62 9.39
38 to 47 years 26 100.81 11.43
48 to 57 years 15 96.40 13.12
58 years and older 2 85.50 13.44
General Mood
28 to 37 years 13 107.77 7.33
38 to 47 years 26 102.15 12.56
48 to 57 years 15 98.27 11.05
58 years and older 2 102.00 4.24

Emotional Intelligence and Education

The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in the some graduate coursework

category was 122.00 (SD=n/a). The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in the graduate

degree category was 100.91 (SD= 1.34). The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in

the bachelor's degree category was 100.88 (SD=10.50). The mean of the total emotional

intelligence score in the some college category was 97.20 (SD= 1.30). Table 4-14 and Table 4-

15 present the mean total emotional intelligence scores and the emotional intelligence scale

scores by education. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence and

education.









Table 4-14. Total Emotional Intelligence Scores by Education. (n=56)
Construct Education n M SD
Total Emotional Intelligence Score
High school 0 -
Some college 10 97.20 11.30
Bachelors 34 100.88 10.50
Some graduate 1 122.00 --
Graduate 11 100.91 11.34

Table 4-15. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Education. (n=56)
Construct Education n M SD
Intrapersonal


Interpersonal






Stress Management






Adaptability






General Mood


High school
Some college
Bachelors
Some graduate
Graduate

High school
Some college
Bachelors
Some graduate
Graduate

High school
Some college
Bachelors
Some graduate
Graduate

High school
Some college
Bachelors
Some graduate
Graduate

High school
Some college
Bachelors
Some graduate
Graduate


102.50
102.24
127.00
101.55


98.80
98.00
125.00
98.36


88.50
101.47
120.00
103.73


93.90
100.68
102.00
100.73


104.20
101.56
124.00
101.45


11.65
11.80

11.48


13.06
10.10

10.44


14.26
11.86

10.59


12.26
11.08

13.54


10.68
11.31

10.81









Objective 3: To Identify the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership
Style of the WLIANR Alumni

In order to further describe the independent variables in this study, analyses were

conducted to identify correlations that may have existed between variables. The magnitudes of

the correlations are presented and discussed using the correlation magnitudes suggested by

Miller (1994). Pearson r was used for all of the analyses. Correlation coefficients between 0.01

and 0.09 are considered negligible, correlations between 0.10 and 0.29 are considered low,

correlations between 0.30 and 0.49 are considered moderate, correlations between 0.50 and 0.69

are considered substantial, correlations between 0.70 and 0.99 are considered very high, and a

correlation coefficient of 1.00 is considered perfect. Table 4-16 presents the describing

magnitudes for interpreting correlations.

Table 4-16. Magnitudes for Interpreting Correlations (Davis, 1971).
R Description
1.0 Perfect
0.70 0.99 Very High
0.50 0.69 Substantial
0.30 0.49 Moderate
0.10 0.29 Low
0.01 -0.09 Negligible

As presented in Table 4-17 a negative moderate correlation was found between

management-by-exception (passive) and stress management (r=-0.35). Negative low correlations

were found between total emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style (r=-0.19)

and passive/avoidant leadership style (r=-0.15). A negative negligible correlation was found

between total emotional intelligence and transactional leadership style (r=-0.05). As seen in

Table 4-17, a number of low and negligible correlations were found among the leadership styles,

leadership style scales, total emotional intelligence, and emotional intelligence scales.









Summary

This chapter presented the findings of the study. Findings were organized and presented by

the following objectives:

1. Describe the leadership styles among of WLIANR alumni.

2. Describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni.

3. Identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR
alumni.

Chapter 5 will summarize the study and discusses the conclusions, implications and

recommendations.









Table 4-17. Pearson Correlations between Independent Variables. (n=56)
Variable Total Emotional Intrapersonal Interpersonal Stress Adaptability Gene
Intelligence Management
Transformational -0.19 -0.13 -0.02 -0.14 -0.23
Transactional -0.05 -0.04 -0.07 -0.10 -0.02
Passive/Avoidant -0.15 -0.18 0.09 -0.28 -0.10
IIA -0.18 -0.17 -0.05 -0.12 -0.19
IIB -0.14 -0.10 -0.02 -0.14 -0.09
IM -0.18 -0.12 -0.04 -0.14 -0.25
IS -0.06 0.01 0.06 -0.07 -0.17
IC -0.20 -0.16 -0.06 -0.09 -0.22
CR -0.10 -0.08 0.04 -0.12 -0.06
MBEA 0.02 0.01 0.06 -0.04 0.02
MBEP -0.26 -0.28 0.01 -0.35 -0.18
LF 0.05 0.02 0.17 -0.08 0.05
Note. IIA=Idealized Influence (Attributed), IIB=Idealized Influence (Behavior), IM=Inspirational Motivation, IS=Intellectual
Stimulation, IC=Individualized Consideration, CR=Contingent Reward, MBEA=Management-by-Exception (Active),
MBEP=Management-by-Exception (Passive), LF=Laissez-faire


ral Mood

-0.28
-0.05
-0.01
-0.21
-0.29
-0.24
-0.10
-0.28
-0.17
0.07
-0.10
0.13









CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter summarizes the study and discusses the conclusions, implications and

recommendations that have been drawn from the study. The first section of this chapter provides

an overview of the study, including the purpose and specific objectives, methodologies and

findings. The remainder of the chapter discusses the conclusions from the findings, implications

of the findings, and recommendations for future research.

The problem that was addressed by this study was the lack of knowledge surrounding the

relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style in leaders of Florida agriculture,

specifically the WLIANR alumni. In regard to emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and the

relationship between the two, the review of literature showed a clear void in research in this area

of leadership in Florida agriculture.

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence

and leadership style of the alumni of the WLIANR. This study also described the population of

the WLIANR alumni in terms of gender, age, education levels, emotional intelligence scores,

and leadership style. The following research objectives were used to guide this study: 1) describe

the leadership styles among the WLIANR alumni, 2) describe the current levels of emotional

intelligence of the WLIANR alumni and 3) identify the relationship between emotional

intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni.

This study utilized the census survey research design, which asks a series of questions to

the entire population being studied. The survey instruments were the Multifactor Leadership

Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Bar-On EQi. The MLQ assessed the leadership styles of the

alumni, while the Bar-On EQi assessed the emotional intelligence of the alumni. The

demographics were obtained through the director of the program.









In this study, the population was defined as all alumni members of the WLIANR since the

inception of the leadership program (N=133). Responses were obtained from 56 of the 133

alumni members, for an overall response rate of 42.1%.

Summary of Findings

Objective 1

Objective one sought to assess the leadership styles of the WLIANR alumni. The

demographics were used to describe differences in leadership styles of the respondents. Forty

(71.4%) of the respondents were male and sixteen (28.6%) of the respondents were female. In

terms of age, 23.2% (n=13) of the respondents were between 28 and 37 years of age, 46.4%

(n=26) were between 38 and 47 years of age, 26.8% (n=15) were between 48 and 57 years of

age, and 3.6% (n=2) were over the age of 58 years. In regard to education, 34 (60.7%) of the

respondents had a bachelors degree. Eleven (19.6%) of the respondents had a graduate degree,

ten (17.9%) of the respondents had some college, and one (1.8%) of the respondents had some

graduate coursework.

The overall leadership style scores of the respondents were high in transformational

leadership style (M=3.00, SD=0.48) and low in passive/avoidant leadership style (M=0.88,

SD=0.47). The leadership style scale scores were similar as the transformational leadership style

scale scores were higher than those of the transactional leadership style scales and

passive/avoidant leadership style scale scores.

In regard to gender differences, the females scored slightly higher in transformational

leadership than males. The males scored slightly higher in transactional leadership, and both

males and females scored the same in the passive/avoidant leadership style. The females scored

slightly higher in idealized influence (attributed and behavior), inspirational motivation and

individualized consideration, while the males scored slightly higher in intellectual stimulation.









However, there were no significant differences found between the overall transformational

leadership style scores by gender or between the transformational leadership style scale scores by

gender. In the transactional leadership style scale scores, the females scored slightly higher in

contingent reward and males scored slightly higher in management-by-exception (active). For

the passive/avoidant leadership style scale scores, the males scored slightly higher in

management-by-exception (passive) and females scored slightly higher in laissez-faire. There

were no significant differences found between males and females in the transactional leadership

style and the passive/avoidant leadership style.

There were also no significant differences when analyzing the leadership style scores and

leadership style scale scores by age. In the transformational leadership style, the 58 years and

older category scored the highest and the 28 to 37 years category scored the lowest. The 48 to 57

years category scored the highest in the transactional leadership style scores and the 38 to 47

years category scored the lowest. The passive/avoidant leadership style scores were similar. The

28 to 27 years category scored the highest and the 48 to 57 years category scored the lowest. In

regard to age and leadership styles, there were no significant differences. The leadership styles

by education also showed no significant differences. The some college category scored the

highest in the transformational leadership style, while the some graduate category scored the

lowest. In regard to the transactional leadership style scores, the some graduate category scored

the highest and the bachelors' degree category scored the lowest. Finally, in the passive/avoidant

leadership style scores, the graduate degree category scored the highest and the some graduate

category scored the lowest.

Objective 2

Objective two sought to describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the

WLIANR alumni. The demographics were also used to describe the differences in emotional









intelligence levels of the respondents. The total emotional intelligence mean scores were 100.61

(SD=10.99). In regards to the emotional intelligence scale scores, the respondents scored highest

in the intrapersonal scale and lowest in the interpersonal scale.

There were no significant differences found between emotional intelligence and gender.

The total emotional intelligence mean scores were slightly higher for the males than females.

The males scored slightly higher in the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and general mood emotional

intelligence scale scores. The females scored slightly higher in stress management and

adaptability. In regards to age, the total emotional intelligence mean scores were slightly higher

in the 28 to 37 years category, while the 58 years and older category scored the lowest. The 28 to

37 years category also scored the highest in the following emotional intelligence scale scores:

intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, and general mood. The 38 to 47 years category scored

the highest in stress management. The 58 years and older category scored the lowest in all of the

emotional intelligence scale scores except general mood. The lowest score for general mood was

reported by the 48 to 57 years category.

In regard to education, the highest total emotional intelligence score was reported by the

some graduate category, while the lowest scores were reported by the some college category.

The some graduate category also scored the highest in all of the emotional intelligence scale

scores. The graduate degree category scored the lowest in the intrapersonal scale and general

mood scale, the bachelors degree category scored the lowest in the interpersonal scale, and the

some college category scored the lowest in the stress management scale and the adaptability

scale.

Objective 3

Objective three sought to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and

leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. Low, negative relationships were found between total









emotional intelligence scores and the transformational and passive/avoidant leadership styles. No

relationship was found between total emotional intelligence scores and the transactional

leadership style.

In regard to the scales of both emotional intelligence and leadership style, a correlational

analysis found a moderate correlation between management-by-exception (passive) and stress

management. All other correlations were low, positive or negative, or negligible, positive or

negative.

Conclusions

The following conclusions were drawn based upon the findings of the study:

* This sample of WLIANR alumni mirrors the national norms from 2004 concerning the
preferred leadership styles as measured by the MLQ. The transformational leadership style
and transactional leadership style means were comparable to the national norms described by
Avolio and Bass (2004). The mean national norms for transformational, transactional and
passive/avoidant respectively are M=3.02, M=2.285, and M=0.84. The mean scores of the
WLIANR alumni were M=3.00, M=2.19, and M=0.88 respectively.

* Females in this sample utilize desirable leadership characteristics and behaviors slightly more
than males. However, the males do use desirable leadership characteristics as well. The
females' mean score for transformational leadership was 0.06 higher than the males, while
the males' mean score for transactional leadership was 0.14 higher than the females.

* In this sample, all age groups and education levels utilize the transformational leadership
style behaviors more than the transactional leadership style. Alumni in this sample also use
the transactional leadership style more than the passive/avoidant leadership style.

* This sample of WLIANR alumni mirrors the national norms concerning the levels of
emotional intelligence as measured by the Bar-On EQi. The total emotional intelligence
means were comparable to the national norms as 99.9% of the scores will fall between 55
and 145 (+/-3 standard deviations from the mean) and most score a total mean score of 100
(Bar-On, 2004). The WLIANR total emotional intelligence scores all fell in the 55 to 145
range with a total emotional intelligence mean score of 100.61.

* In this sample of alumni, the males scored higher in total emotional intelligence than females.

* The younger age groups scored higher than the older age groups in the total emotional
intelligence means.









* This sample of WLIANR alumni showed little relationship between the emotional
intelligence means and leadership style means.

Discussions and Implications

This research shows that alumni of the WLIANR have comparable preferred leadership

styles as measured by the MLQ. Much like the national norms, the females had a tendency to

report higher levels of transformational leadership style behaviors than males. However, the

differences were minimal within this sample of alumni. Both males and females reported using

passive/avoidant leadership style behaviors, but only used them occasionally compared to the

transformational leadership style or transactional leadership style. One question posed by the

researcher is if participating in a leadership program, such as the WLIANR, helps to increase the

use of transformational leadership style behaviors? The W.K. Kellogg Foundation made the

assumption that "leadership is relational" (Foster, 2001, p. 2). If this is true, then what are

programs like the WLIANR doing to help increase the knowledge base for participants in regards

to leadership, leadership styles, and utilizing the transformational leadership styles?

The females in this sample utilize transformational leadership style behaviors more than

males. This was expected because of the research by Mandell and Pherwani (2003) which

showed females were more likely to use transformational leadership style, while males had a

tendency to utilize more transactional leadership style behaviors. Additionally, the females

reported using contingent reward which was also supported by the research of Eagley et al.

(2003). The alumni in this sample showed no differences in leadership style based on the age or

education level of the respondents. Age has not been shown to be related to the preferred

leadership style (Holder, 1990). The relationship between education and leadership style has

received little research previously, but shows to have no significant relationship on the leadership

style of this sample of alumni.









This research also shows that this sample of WLIANR alumni has comparable levels of

emotional intelligence as measured by the Bar-On EQi. All of the respondents reported total

emotional intelligence mean scores which fell into the national norms as described by Bar-On

(2004). However, the national norms for gender differences were different for this sample. The

national norm is for females to demonstrate higher levels of emotional intelligence on more

scales than males (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.), but in this sample of alumni, the males reported

slightly higher emotional intelligence levels in a majority of the scales compared to the females.

Another interesting finding is that the younger age groups scored higher than the older age

groups in the total emotional intelligence means. Many studies have shown that older individuals

will score higher because many of the competencies can be developed over time, changed

throughout life, or improved through training and development programs (Gardner & Stough,

2002). Therefore, the expected result would be for the older age groups to score higher than the

younger age groups.

Finally, this research details the lack of relationship between emotional intelligence and

leadership style in the WLIANR alumni. There was no significant relationship between the total

emotional intelligence and leadership style and little to no relationship between the different

emotional intelligence scales and leadership style scales. This is interesting due to the research

conducted by Bass and Riggio (2006), which showed a close relationship between emotional

intelligence and transformational leadership. These findings were not expected because the

alumni of the WLIANR are considered to be leaders within Florida agriculture, therefore it was

expected that there would be a strong correlation between the emotional intelligence levels and

transformational leadership style. This is supported by the research of Goleman (1998) and

Mandell and Pherwani (2003) which state that both of these leadership qualities are predictors









for effective leadership. When analyzing specific scales of emotional intelligence and leadership

style, the results in this research study are different from those of previous research studies.

Barling et al. (2000) found a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and three of

the transformational leadership style scales, while this research showed low, negative

relationships among most of the correlations.

Recommendations

Recommendations for future research and practice are provided as a result of assessing the

leadership style and levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni.

Recommendations for Practice

Based on the results of this study, there are several recommendations for the WLIANR and

other agricultural leadership programs. While this study was focused on leaders in Florida

agriculture, these recommendations could be applied to other leadership programs of similar

function and structure. The WLIANR is encouraged to utilize the emotional intelligence and

leadership style concepts to continue broadening the leadership development knowledge base for

participants of the program.

The emotional intelligence assessment is recommended to be used in the first seminar of

the program to assess the levels of emotional intelligence upon entering the program. Participants

should then be assessed again upon graduation from the program because some of the scales can

be developed over time (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Furthermore, a follow-up assessment should

to be utilized approximately five and/or ten years after graduation from the WLIANR. Other

leadership programs can implement this into the curriculum of the program as well. Curriculum

development is recommended to help participants fully understand the importance of emotional

intelligence and interpretation of the scores.









However, while the implementation of the assessments is desirable, it may also be

unfeasible for the WLIANR as well as other leadership programs due to time constraints.

Therefore, curriculum should be developed around the subscales of emotional intelligence. This

would include activities and programming which requires participants to practice skills and

behaviors of each subscale. The interpersonal subscale can be incorporated into programming

where participants interact with each other as well as speakers, presenters, and other individuals

at social events throughout the program. The adaptability subscale can be incorporated into

programming by having participants analyze current issues at the local, state, national and

international level. This will allow participants to practice critical thinking as well as problem

solving. This can also be incorporated into the international seminar because most participants

will not be within their comfort zone and must adapt to the culture and language barriers. Other

subscales can be incorporated into the program through various activities and programming.

The leadership style assessment is also recommended for the WLIANR to implement into

the curriculum of the program when participants begin the program. By learning the preferred

leadership styles of the participants, participants and directors will gain more understanding of

the different leadership styles. Leaders are more likely to use the preferred transformational

leadership style behaviors once gaining more knowledge of the three leadership styles,

transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant. Once implementing the transformational

leadership style, participants will be more effective leaders within communities, states, and the

nation which will help to achieve the goals of the WLIANR.

The WLIANR should also develop curriculum to increase the understanding of each

participants' results as well as the application of the leadership styles. Curriculum should be

developed around the three leadership styles as well as the subscales of each, specifically









transformational and transactional leadership. Intellectual stimulation can be addressed by

having speakers present issues that go against the norms of the group. This can allow participants

to view problems and issues from a new perspective. Idealized influence attributed can be

incorporated into the program by having participants participate in presentations, introductions of

speakers, and open-discussions in order to build the confidence and higher-order ideals of the

participants.

Recommendations for Future Research

Although this study specifically focused on the alumni of the WLIANR, research in other

agriculture leadership programs and organizations is essential to further assess the levels of

emotional intelligence and leadership style used by the leaders within agriculture throughout the

nation. By comparing the levels of emotional intelligence and leadership style of different

populations, researchers could further determine the need for implementing these leadership

concepts into the programs and organizations. Researchers could also assess if the differences in

the structure and focus of the programs is related to the results of the emotional intelligence

levels and leadership style.

Additionally, other emotional intelligence assessments should be used to determine which

assessment would be best for adult leadership programs in agriculture. One respondent of this

study reported that "125 questions were excessive" and that many of the questions "were

redundant." Other respondents reported that the MLQ was confusing, therefore other leadership

style assessments should be used as well. However, one respondent said, "Interesting survey

questions!" and felt the surveys were easy to complete due to the online delivery of both surveys.

Another recommendation includes assessing other programs and organizations within

agriculture that are focused on different populations, issues, or areas to further build the research

within emotional intelligence, leadership style, and the relationship between the two. Using









different populations such as high school, college, or public sector populations would broaden

the understanding of these leadership concepts. Different forms are available to use depending on

the age demographic of the population. More research should be completed to test the

effectiveness of leadership programs in regard to leadership development, specifically emotional

intelligence and leadership styles. By assessing various leadership programs and organizations in

agriculture, researchers will be able to understand the effectiveness of the leadership programs

and organizations more thoroughly.










APPENDIX A
SURVEY COMPLETION REQUESTS

Pre-Survey Email

Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni:

I am greatly enjoying my work as WLI's new Program Coordinator and I'm extremely excited to be
conducting my Master's research within the WLI Alumni Association as the results will be of great
benefit to both Alumni and the agricultural leadership discipline.

As you know from the WLI newsletter, my thesis research project is "The Relationship between
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of Leaders in Florida Agriculture." The time has finally
come for me to send you my two surveys. In the next week, you will be receiving two emails. One will be
from my personal email, rotel20@ufl.edu. The other will be from an organization called Mind Garden
entitled "Invite from Mind Garden." Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions regarding
either survey. I have sent this email to both your personal and work email addresses if you have listed
both in the Alumni Directory. If you could please respond to me, letting me know which email would
work best for you in receiving the surveys I will make sure you only receive emails from me once in the
future.

Your participation is greatly appreciated and completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not
participating. If you choose to participate, you will answer items on two confidential assessments that
will take about 10-15 minutes each to complete. You can stop any time without penalty and you do not
have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. All answers are confidential to the extent
provided by law. There are no known risks or other direct benefits associated with this study. If you'd
like to learn more about this project, please contact me at 408 Rolfs Hall, Gainesville campus, 352-392-
1038, rotel20@ufl.edu or Dr. Hannah Carter, G037 McCarty D, Gainesville campus, 352-392-1038,
hscarter@ufl.edu. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, please contact the
UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250, 352-392-0433.

Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is greatly appreciated. You
are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use
of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full
report on your leadership style as well as your level of emotional intelligence once my research is
completed in the spring.

Thank you,

RocheUe' StrLcklcada

Program Coordinator
Wedgworth Leadership Institute
for Agriculture and Natural Resources
UF/IFAS
PO Box 110126
Gainesville, FL 32611-0126
Phone: 352-392-1038
Fax: 352-392-0589
Email: rotel20Wufl.edu










Initial Contact Email


Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni:

As you know from the WLI newsletter, my thesis research project is "The Relationship between
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of Leaders in Florida Agriculture." Below you will find the
link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code and password you will need.
The other survey was sent out today as well from an organization called Mind Garden entitled "Invite
from Mind Garden." Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions regarding either survey.

Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is greatly appreciated. You
are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use
of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full
report on your leadership style as well as your level of emotional intelligence once my research is
completed in the spring.

Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com

Code: 7510-001-067

Password: leadership

Thank you,
Rochelle


RocheUe' StrLicldactd
Program Coordinator
Wedgworth Leadership Institute
for Agriculture and Natural Resources
UF/IFAS
PO Box 110126
Gainesville, FL 32611-0126
Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244
Fax: 352-392-0589
Email: rotel20@ufl.edu










Follow-up Contact Email


Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni:

Thank you to all of you who have already completed one, if not both, of my surveys for my thesis
research! I truly appreciate your help. Several of you have also passed along your thoughts and opinions
about the surveys, which I enjoy reading. Feel free to provide me with any feedback you wish. I don't
want to continue to bombard you with emails, but it is part of the process of research that I have to
provide you with a replacement survey.

Below you will find the link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code
and password you will need. The other survey will be resent today as well from an organization called
Mind Garden entitled "Invite from Mind Garden." Please feel free to contact me if you have any
questions regarding either survey.

Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is greatly appreciated. You
are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use
of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full
report on your leadership style as well as your level of emotional intelligence once my research is
completed in the spring.

Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com

Code: 7510-001-067

Password: leadership

Thank you,
Rochelle


RocheUe' StrLicldactd
Program Coordinator
Wedgworth Leadership Institute
for Agriculture and Natural Resources
UF/IFAS
PO Box 110126
Gainesville, FL 32611-0126
Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244
Fax: 352-392-0589
Email: rotel20@ufl.edu
http://wlianr.ifas.ufl.edu










Final Follow-up Contact Email


Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni:

Thank you to all of you who have already completed one, if not both, of my surveys for my thesis
research! I truly appreciate your help. Several of you have also passed along your thoughts and opinions
about the surveys, which I enjoy reading. Feel free to provide me with any feedback you wish.

I am now on week 5 of my data collection process and the surveys will be closing soon. If you have
not had a chance to complete them, the information for the Emotional Intelligence survey is below. I will
also resend the survey for Leadership Style assessment.

Below you will find the link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code
and password you will need. The other survey will be resent as well from an organization called Mind
Garden entitled "Invite from Mind Garden." Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions
regarding either survey.

Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is greatly appreciated. You
are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use
of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full
report on your leadership style as well as your level of emotional intelligence once my research is
completed in the spring.

Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com

Code: 7510-001-067

Password: leadership

Thank you,
Rochelle


RocheUe' StrLicldactd
Program Coordinator
Wedgworth Leadership Institute
for Agriculture and Natural Resources
UF/IFAS
PO Box 110126
Gainesville, FL 32611-0126
Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244
Fax: 352-392-0589
Email: rotel20@ufl.edu
http://wlianr.ifas.ufl.edu









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Lara Rochelle Strickland was born in Dublin, Texas in 1983. She was raised in

Stephenville, Texas with her mom and younger sister. She graduated from Stephenville High

School in May 2002. Miss Strickland earned her undergraduate degree from Texas A&M

University in College Station, Texas in August 2006. Her degree was in agriculture leadership

and development.

In August 2006, Miss Strickland entered the graduate program in the Department of

Agricultural Education and Communication at the University of Florida where she specialized in

agricultural leadership. During her time in the graduate program at the University of Florida she

served as a graduate teaching assistant where she assisted in the direction of three different

agricultural courses. She also served as the Program Coordinator for the Wedgworth Leadership

Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources where she was able to travel throughout Florida.





PAGE 1

1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LE ADERSHIP STYLE OF LEADERS IN FLORIDA AGRICULTURE By LARA ROCHELLE STRICKLAND A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Lara Rochelle Strickland

PAGE 3

3 To my Poppy and Granny, Bob and LaVada Wainsc ott, for their constant love and support.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My study would not have been possible w ithout the unconditional guidance, support and motivation provided by several indi viduals over the past two year s of m y life. They deserve much more than a simple acknowledgment. I would like to thank my supervisory committ ee (Dr. Brian Myers and Dr. Hannah Carter) for their continuous guid ance and support. A special thanks go es to Dr. Myers for helping guide my research project even though it was outside his specialty of Agricultural Education. His support and constant guidance helped me to stay focused and finish on time. Dr. Carter provided me with motivation and kind words of encouragement when they were needed most. Without the support I received from both of my committee me mbers, I never would have made it this far. I would also like to thank my Granny and Poppy for continually s upporting me in all I have taken on throughout my life. Their love and pride in everything I do have motivated me to set my goals and standards high to continue to make them proud. I thank my Mom and little sister, Becca, for understanding that even though we may be on opposite ends of the U. S. we are still close in each others hearts. Their support and sacrifices in continuing my education ar e greatly appreciated. Marlene von Stein, Audrey Vail, Brian Estevez, Elio Chiarelli, Bria n Sapp, and Brian and Susan Schwartz for helping me through all of the trials and tribulations we have encountered over the past two years. While I expected to me et new friends, I never imagined how important these friendships would be in th e success of my thesis and gra duation. They have shown me how to be successful and have a great time doing it. Finally, a huge thank you goes to the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources Alumni Association for thei r support and help in making this research possible.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................9ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................11Introduction to the Study........................................................................................................11Problem Statement.............................................................................................................. ....13Purpose and Objectives of the Study...................................................................................... 14Significance of the Study........................................................................................................14Definition of Terms................................................................................................................14Limitations of the Study....................................................................................................... ..15Summary.................................................................................................................................162 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................................................ 17Leadership..................................................................................................................... ..........17Transformational Leadership Theory..................................................................................... 21Emotional Intelligence......................................................................................................... ...24Demographics of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style............................................ 28Gender.............................................................................................................................28Age..................................................................................................................................30Education.........................................................................................................................30Interaction between Emotional Inte lligence and Leadership Style........................................ 31Summary.................................................................................................................................343 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 35Research Design.....................................................................................................................36Population..................................................................................................................... ..........36Procedure................................................................................................................................37Instrumentation................................................................................................................ .......38Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire............................................................................. 38Bar-On EQi......................................................................................................................39Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................39Summary.................................................................................................................................41

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6 4 RESULTS...............................................................................................................................42Objective 1: To Describe the Leader ship Styles among the WLIANR Alumni..................... 43Leadership Style and Gender........................................................................................... 44Leadership Style and Age................................................................................................ 46Leadership Style and Education...................................................................................... 47Objective 2: To Describe the Current Levels of Emotional Intelligence of the WLIANR Alumni......................................................................................................................... .......48Emotional Intelligence and Gender................................................................................. 49Emotional Intelligence and Age...................................................................................... 50Emotional Intelligence and Education............................................................................. 51Objective 3: To Identify the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of the WLIANR Alumni......................................................................... 53Summary.................................................................................................................................545 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................... 56Summary of Findings............................................................................................................ .57Objective 1.......................................................................................................................57Objective 2.......................................................................................................................58Objective 3.......................................................................................................................59Conclusions.............................................................................................................................60Discussions and Implications................................................................................................. 61Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...63Recommendations for Practice........................................................................................ 63Recommendations for Future Research...........................................................................65APPENDIX SURVEY COMPLETION REQUESTS........................................................................................67Pre-Survey Email............................................................................................................... .....67Initial Contact Email.......................................................................................................... .....68Follow-up Contact Email........................................................................................................ 69Final Follow-up Contact Email.............................................................................................. 70LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................71BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................76

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Emotional intelligence competencies and subscales.......................................................... 262-2 Emotional intelligence assessments................................................................................... 282-3 Linkage between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (Leban & Zulauf, 2004)......................................................................................................................323-1 Emotional Intelligence T-test for Signi ficant Differences Between Early and Late Respondents. ( n=56)..........................................................................................................403-2 Leadership Style T-test for Significant Differences Between Early and Late Respondents. ( n=56)..........................................................................................................404-1 Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Gender. ( n=133)...............434-2 Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Age. ( n=133)....................434-3 Number of WLIANR Graduates an d Survey Respondents by Education. (n=133).......... 434-4 Leadership Style Scale Scores. (n=56)..............................................................................444-5 Total Leadership Style Scores. ( n =56).............................................................................. 444-6 Total Leadership Style Scores by Gender. ( n=56)............................................................. 454-7 Leadership Scale Scores by Gender. ( n=56)......................................................................454-8 Total Leadership Style Scores by Age. ( n=56)..................................................................474-9 Total Leadership Style Scores by Education. ( n=56)........................................................ 484-10 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores. ( n =56)......................................... 494-11 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores by Gender. ( n=56)....................... 494-12 Total Emotional Intelligence Scores by Age. ( n=56)........................................................504-13 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Age. ( n=56)........................................................514-14 Total Emotional Intellig ence Scores by Education. ( n=56)...............................................524-15 Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Education. (n=56)...............................................524-16 Magnitudes for Interpreti ng Correlations (Davis, 1971)................................................... 53

PAGE 8

8 4-17 Pearson Correlations betw een Independent Variables. ( n=56) .......................................... 55

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Model of the Relationship between Emoti onal Intelligence and Leadership Style. .......... 33

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LE ADERSHP STYLE OF LEADERS IN FLORIDA AGRICULTURE By Lara Rochelle Strickland May 2008 Chair: Brian Myers Major: Agricultural Edu cation and Communication The purpose of the study was to identify th e relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style among the alumni ( n=56) of the Wedgworth L eadership Institute for Agriculture and Natura l Resources (WLIANR). The participants completed th e Multifactor Leadership Qu estionnaire (MLQ) and the BarOn EQi. The MLQ measured the preferred leader ship styles utilized by the alumni including transformational, transactional, and passive /avoidant leadership styles. The Bar-On EQi measured the levels of emotional intelligence of the alumni. The dependent variables in this study were the leadership styles, the leadership style scales, tota l emotional intelligence, and the emotional intelligence scales. The independent variables were gender, age, and education. Participants in this study reported the use of transformational leadership more than transactional or passive/avoida nt leadership. The females in this study reported using transformational leadership slightly more than the males. Participants reported emotional intelligence levels comparable to the national nor ms. The males reported higher levels than the females. Additionally, the younger participants re ported slightly higher levels of emotional intelligence than older age groups. There was little to no relationship found between leadership style and emotional intelligence within this sample of WLIANR alumni.

PAGE 11

11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Study Em otional intelligence involves how an individu al manages his or her emotions, as well as his or her relationships with others. This concept of emotional intelligence is the basis for personal qualities such as self-confidence, self-motivati on, perseverance, and knowledge of personal strengths and weaknesses (Cherniss & Ad ler, 2000). However, the current studies of emotional intelligence have been focused toward corporations and smaller businesses with little focus on the agricultural industrys influential leaders at the state level (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.). This study utilized survey research to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of leaders in Florida agricu lture, specifically those who have completed the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agri culture and Natural Resources (WLIANR). With the importance of developing and maintain ing relationships with others, individuals have been asked to increase their ability to und erstand and manage their own emotions as well as the emotions of others and the relationships found within organizations (Cherniss & Adler, 2000). An increase in leadership skills and abilit ies is becoming more impo rtant compared to the technical skills previously sought out by organizations (Che rniss & Adler, 2000; Goleman, 1998). Emotional intelligence and leadership styl e are two components of these social skills needed for an individual to become an effective leader (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Emotional intelligence is briefly define d by Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee (2002) as how leaders handle themselves and their relationships (p. 6). Emotional intelligence further encompasses clusters of different leadership competencies such as self-awareness, selfregulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills (Goleman, 1998). Boyatzis, Cherniss, and Elias (2000) also stated that an i ndividual can change his or he r personal level of emotional

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12 intelligence over a period of time. Research focu sing on the importance of emotional intelligence for organizations is becoming increasingly importa nt within organizations such as Johnson & Johnson Company (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.). Furthermore, organizations are becoming increasingly interested not only in the level of emotional intelligence of employees, but also the leadership styles used by the employees (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006). Leadership style is the behavi or pattern in which an individual leads others. There are many different types of leadership styles which have been categorized by previous researchers. Some of the most recent research on leadership style emphasizes the transformational leadership styles founded in Burnss (1978) work which include laissez-faire, transactional, and transformational leadersh ip (Bass & Riggio, 2006). As a step to begin creating leaders within agriculture, many states have created adult leadership programs specifically fo r individuals that are heavily involved in a specific states agriculture sector. These leadership programs ha ve been designed to expand the knowledge of adult leaders in agricultural and natural re sources positions by engaging them in study and experiences (Carter & Rudd, 2000). These programs assume the skills, kn owledge, and attitudes of a leader can be learned (Bolton, 1991). The Florida Leadership Program for Agriculture and Natural Resources, now known as the Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources, was implemented on October 1, 1991 to assist leaders in Florida agriculture develop skills to achieve their leadership poten tial (Carter & Rudd, 2000). As of this writing, the program has completed six classes with approx imately 170 alumni members. In regard to emotional intelligence of leaders in Florida ag riculture, specifically the WLIANR alumni, the literature review found limited re search in this specific area or on the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style.

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13 Problem Statement The problem addressed by this study wa s the lack of knowledge surrounding the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadersh ip style in leaders of Florida agriculture, specifically the WLIANR alumni. There has be en little or no research on the emotional intelligence of leaders in agriculturally related or ganizations. Previous studies were developed to evaluate the abilities of leaders in other business, organizatio nal, and industry settings and how those leaders emotional intelligence capabilitie s affect their leadership style (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006; Moore, 2003; Weinberger, 2004). Several studies have begun to explore the relationship between leadership st yle specifically transformational leadership in some studies and emotional intelligence, yet there is still a gap in the know ledge base between these two leadership components, specifically within Fl orida agriculture (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006; Leban & Zulauf, 2004). The need for effective leadership in agriculture was originally identified by the Kellogg Foundation to increase the abilities of individuals involve d in agriculture to better handle complex issues which may concern the indus try and society as a whole (Howell, Weir, & Cook, 1982). Barbuto and Burbach (2006) specifically focu sed on the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of el ected public officials. They further suggested that additional research is needed to ascerta in the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership. However, this research should be focused on a private sector organization so the findings can be more generalized (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006). Moore (2003) also recommended further research to determine the relationship betw een leader characteristics and leadership style and skills. Weinberger (2004) further stated that the amount of research on emotional intelligence is limited, and research that examines the relationship between emotional

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14 intelligence and leadership is even more limited. A ll of these studies suggested there is a need for further research on the relationship between em otional intelligence and leadership style. Purpose and Objectives of the Study The purpose of the study was to identify th e re lationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style among the alumni of the WLIANR. The following research objectives were used to guide this investigation: 1. Describe the leadership styl es among of WLIANR alumni. 2. Describe the current levels of emoti onal intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. 3. Identify the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. Significance of the Study This study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style used by the alum ni of the WLIANR. Determining this relationship helped further the understanding of the importa nce of emotional intellig ence as a dimension of effective leadership. The research findings can also guide future leadership developmen t programming for the WLIANR or other agricultural or ganizations in Florida. The study created awareness for the importance of maintaining relati onships and developing leadership in the agricultural industry. Furthermore, this research explained the current leadership styles used by the WLIANR alumni and how their emotional intelligence levels helped them be successful in their organizations so future leaders will be able to learn from thei r leadership styles and emotional intelligence capabilities. Finally, this study contributed to the limited amo unt of research on emotional intelligence. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study, the following term s were defined:

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15 1. Emotional intelligence The composite set of capabilities which can be observed when a person demonstrates the competencies that c onstitute self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skil ls at appropriate time s and ways in sufficient frequency to be effective in the situation (Boyatzis, Gole man, & Rhee, 1999). In this study, emotional intelligence will be measured by the Bar-On EQ-i. 2. Leader An individual that us es different styles and skills in a group or team to direct the group or team through a process in order to reach a common goal (Northouse, 2004). 3. Leadership A process whereby an individual influences a gr oup of individuals to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2004). 4. Leadership style The behavior of an individual who attempts to influence others by using both directive and supportive behaviors (Northou se, 2004). In this study, leadership style will be measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire developed by Bass and Avolio (2000). 5. Transformational leadership A leadership st yle which focuses on the process whereby an individual stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership cap acity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). 6. Transactional leadership A leadership style which focuses on the exchanges of one thing for another that occur between l eaders and their followers (Ba ss & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). 7. Laissez-faire leadership A lead ership style whereby the leader is avoidant or has an absence of leadership and is inactive (Bass & Riggi o, 2006; Northouse, 2004). 8. Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources An adult leadership program designed to develop leadership capabil ities of individuals between the ages of 25 and 45 years old involved in the Florida agricu ltural industry who will become increasingly involved in policy formation pro cesses in Floridas agriculture natural resources, and rural communities. Limitations of the Study Several lim itations affect the generalizabilit y of this specific study. The study used the alumni from the WLIANR, therefore the findings are limited in generalizability to other organizations since this program is specialized in its structure and function. A second limitation is regarding the method of measuring emotional intelligence and leadership style. Self-reported assessments can be biased and can have an e ffect on determining the true relationship of emotional intelligence and lead ership style of the leaders (Kobe, Reiter-Palmon, & Rickers,

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16 2001). Another limitation was that the researcher did not collect data on previous leadership experiences which could have influenced the le adership styles and/or emotional intelligence levels. There are several basic assumptions which must be stated with this study. The researcher assumed that participants answered any a ssessments and questionna ires truthfully. The researcher also assumed the participants had an understanding of leadership styles and some understanding of the constructs of emotional intelligence, such as interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, since they have participated in th e WLIANR program. Seminars include topics on leadership style and other aspects of leadershi p, while other seminars require participants to utilize and improve their interpersonal skills. Summary Chapter 1 provided the background and significan ce of the problem as well as the purpose of the study. This study identifie d the relationship between emoti onal intelligence and leadership style among the alumni of the WLIANR. The study also investigated the influence of demographics on the level of emotional intel ligence and leadership style utilized by the WLIANR alumni. This research addressed the following specific objectives: 1. Describe the leadership styl es of the WLIANR alumni. 2. Describe the current levels of emoti onal intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. 3. Identify the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical framewor k and the conceptual framework for the study. Research on emotional intelligence, leadersh ip styles, and adult leadership programs in agriculture, as well as the WLIANR will be discussed.

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17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to identify th e r elationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the alum ni of the WLIANR. The objectives of this study were to describe the leadership styles, levels of emotional intel ligence, and the relationship between these levels of emotional intelligence and leadership styles of the alumni of the WLIANR. This chapter presents a review of the liter ature concerned with leadership, emotional intelligence and leadership style. The chapter focuses on leadership development programs, emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and th e effect of demographi c variables on emotional intelligence and leadership style and presents the relevant theoretical and conceptual frameworks. The chapter is divided into the following major sections: leadership, emotional intelligence, and the interaction between emotional intelligence and leadership style. Leadership Leadership is one of the most studied, ye t least understood subjects (Bennis & Nanus, 1985). There are m any definitions for the term leadership with little consensus on a definite/specific definition among the experts. According to Bass (1990), there are almost as many different definitions of lead ership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept (p. 11). However, even without one spec ific definition, leadership remains an important topic of discussion in all discip lines and fields of studies. The following examples demonstrate the various definitions of leadership that have been developed over the years. Bass (1990) defined lead ership as an interactio n between two or more members of a group that often involves a structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members (p. 19). Kouzes and Posner (2002) stated that leadership is a relationship betw een those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow

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18 (p. 20). Leadership is also defi ned as a social influence proce ss shared among all members of a group (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2006). Northouse (2004) defined leadership as a process whereby an individual influen ces a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (p. 3). Studies have shown that leadership has a profound influence on an organization (Bass, 1990). Leaders can make a difference in whether an organization is successf ul or fails. Research shows the skills of leadership can be learned (Adair, 1984). Ta ylor (1962) felt that coaching people who demonstrate leadership qualities will he lp them to reach their leadership potential. Therefore, organizations, businesses, and many industries focus on the development of leadership abilities in their employees in order to develop leaders that wi ll lead the organization to success. Leadership development programs in agricultu re and natural resources are developed to increase the level of awareness for leaders involved in these i ndustries by engaging them in study and experiences. The first documented agricultura l leadership development program began in 1965 at Michigan State Universitys College of Agriculture when the Kellogg Foundation provided a grant to start the program (Howell et al., 1982). Other programs were then developed in California and Pennsylvania. Each of these pr ograms were developed separately yet consisted of workshops and travel seminars which focuse d on the social, economic, cultural, and political dimensions of public problems and how the public policies are develope d. Furthermore, these programs also focused on developing individual s communication skills, problem-solving skills, and increasing their knowledge of governmental processes (Howell et al., 1982). Currently, there are 30 programs in the U. S., with three more emerging, and six international programs in Australia, U.K. Sc otland, U.K. Nuffield, Ca nada, Ontario, and New Brunswick (Abington-Cooper, 2005). More than half of these programs in place were initiated

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19 without support from the Kellogg Foundati on (Abington-Cooper, 2005) The total support garnered by 28 reporting U.S. agriculture/rural leadership programs in 2001 was more than $111 million. The most typical financial support come s from corporate grants, alumni donations, university grants, state appropriations, and foundation grants. By 2001, there were more than 7,500 alumni of these programs in the U. S. (Fos ter, 2001). The common experiences of the U.S. programs include seminars throughout the home state of the program, a national trip to Washington, D.C. and another locatio n within the U.S., as well as an international trip to another country. These agricultural leadership programs were originally developed for farmers and persons employed in occupations and professions relate d to agriculture. The programs were developed because it was felt that these individuals had the technical knowledge, but often lacked the background in the social sciences and humanities to deal with issues rela ted to the agriculture and natural resources industries effectively (H owell et al., 1982). Program characteristics which were determined to be importa nt included ) an educational program design with intensive and extensive dimensions that emphasized the an alysis of public issues, 2) participants who had leadership potential and a concern for agricultural and/or public affairs, and 3) staff and involved institutions that had a strong commitment to th e attainment of program goals (Howell et al., 1982, p. 51). Although the W.K. Kellogg Foundation no longe r fully sponsors state agriculture leadership development programs, the Foundation s till has basic assumptions about leadership in the 21st century: Leadership must be vision driven and value-based; Leadership must be transformingf ocused on new ways of being; Leadership will be more about the indivi duals contribution to collective action;

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20 Collective leadership can only be expresse d through vision, values, and purposes and confidence in others as leaders; Leadership is relational and contextual; Leaders must be more attentive to global imp lications of local deci sions, and vise versa; Leaders in the 21st century will not change society as much as be changed by society (Foster, 2001, p. 2). The Florida Leadership Program for Agriculture and Natural Resources began on October 1, 1991 (Carter & Rudd, 2000). The program later b ecame the WLIANR. The target audience for this program includes individuals that have show n leadership potential involved in industries related to private sector Florida agriculture a nd natural resources. The selection process for participants includes three phases: nomination, application, and interview. From this process, up to 30 individuals are chosen to participate in the program. After the selection process, the participants attend 11 seminars over a 22-month period. The first year of the program focuses on local and state agriculture and natural resource issues. The second year focuses on national and international issues. Each of these seminars in corporates the objectiv es of the program. The program developed six objectives: To prepare potential leaders to assume gr eater leadership responsibilities in their organizations, industries, and communities. To assemble individual networks composed of class members, alumni, and program resources for the purpose of developing future industry, organizational, civic and political leaders. To create strategic alliances and build strong li nkages within and acro ss Floridas agriculture and natural resources sectors. To analyze complex issues facing individuals interested in areas related to agriculture, natural resources and Floridas communities. To apply inner-personal skills so as to deve lop a better understanding of peoplethemselves, fellow citizens and their environment as to mo re effectively work with individuals from diverse backgrounds.

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21 To create an understanding of social, econom ic and political systems in which people function and how to work within these systems to effectively bring about change (Carter, 2007). Transformational Leadership Theory The Transform ational Leadership Theory is of ten related to charismatic leadership which is reflected in the leaders personal characterist ics such as being dominant, self-confident, and having a strong sense of his or her own mora l values (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Jones, 2006; Northouse, 2004). However, charisma is only a portion of transformational leadership as transformational leaders do more in order to achieve superior results (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Transformational leadership behaviors are concer ned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals which allow the leader to in fluence his or her followers more effectively (Northouse, 2004, p. 169). These beha viors involve four components: 1) idealized influence [attributed and behavioral], 2) inspirationa l motivation, 3) intellectual stimulation, and 4) individualized considera tion (Bass & Riggio, 2006). 1. Idealized influence Attributed: the social ch arisma of the leader, focusing of whether or not the leader is perceived as competent, self-confident, and committed to higher-order ideals and ethics. Behavioral: the acti ons of the leader related to values, beliefs, and mission (Jones, 2006, p. 35). 2. Inspirational motivation leaders behavior s, including articulati ng appealing visions, focusing followers efforts, and modeling ap propriate behaviors to energize followers (Jones, 2006, p. 36). 3. Intellectual stimulation behavio rs exhibited by the leader that assist the followers to view problems and issues they face from a new perspective (Jones, 2006, p. 36). 4. Individualized consideration t he ability of the leader to be supportive and to show concern for his or her followers needs and well-bei ng. Giving encouragement and compliments to improve the followers self-confidence falls into this component (Jones, 2006, p. 36). 5. Transformational leadership focuses on the pr ocess whereby an individual stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004).

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22 Avolio, Waldman, and Yammarino (1991) developed a model of transformational leadership which identified four characteristic s to stimulate and enga ge followers. These transformational leadership characteristics include: 1. Individual consideration gives personal atte ntion to others, making each individual feel uniquely valued. 2. Intellectual stimulation ac tively encourages a new look at old methods, stimulates creativity, encourages others to look at problems and issues in a new way. 3. Inspirational motivation increases optimism and enthusiasm, communicates high expectations, and points out possibi lities not previously considered. 4. Idealized influence provides vision and a sense of purpose; elicits respect, trust, and confidence from followers. Transformational leaders engage fo llowers by using at least one or more of the previous four characteristics in their leadersh ip techniques. The transformationa l leader seeks to engage the follower and manage by inspiration (Abington-Cooper, 2005). Transformational leadership is a leadership style that focuses on the process whereby an individual stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). In organizational settings, the transformational leadership style has been found to be most effective and to promote greater organizational performance compared to the transactional leadership style (Lowe & Kroeck, 1996). Furthermore, transformati onal leadership has been found to be more emotion-based than transactional l eadership (Yammari no & Dubinsky, 1994). Tichy and DeVanna (1986) provi de a different definition of transformational by stating that transformation is about change, innovation, and entrepreneurship (p viii). Yukl (1989) describes transformational leadersh ip as a process of micro-level and macro-level influence. At the micro-level, the transformational leader take s charge of the social systems and reforms the

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23 organization. While at the macro-level, the leader focuses on the personalities in the organization to facilitate change at an interpersonal level (Yukl, 1989) Barker (1994) suggests that transformational leaders are interested in collec tive results, not maximum benefit for individual gain which is based on interaction and influence, not directive power acts. Transactional leadership is a l eadership style that focuses on the exchanges of one thing for another that occur between lead ers and their followers (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). The factors of transac tional leadership are co ntingent reward and management-by-exception. This type of leadership occurs when the l eader rewards or disciplines the follower with constructive and corrective transactions, depending on the perfor mance of the follower (Avolio & Bass, 2004). Leaders util izing the transactional leadership style use rewards that are material, such as a bonus, or makes corrective transacti ons by rearranging followers to fit the situation (Bass & Riggio, 2006). While transa ctional leadership is immature and unrefined, it is still a foundation to build on to become transformational (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Laissez-faire leadership (also referred to as passive/avoidant leadership) is a leadership style whereby the leader is avoidant or has an absence of leadership a nd is inactive (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Northouse, 2004). Opposite from tran sactional leadership, laissez-faire does not utilize a transaction of any kind. The leader does not make decisions, actions are delayed, responsibilities are often ignored and author ity is unused (Bass & Riggio, 2006). The leader using this style takes a hands-off approach by disregarding any responsib ilities to followers. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Avolio and Bass (2004) has evolved over the past 25 years and measur es individual leadership styles as being transformational, transactional, passive/avoida nt, and outcomes of leadership. This assessment has been utilized among various populations including the military, government, education,

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24 manufacturing, high technology, chur ch, correctional, hospital, and volunteer organizations (Avolio & Bass, 2004). The transformational leadersh ip style includes the subscales of idealized attributes, idealized behavior s, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. The transactional leadership style in cludes contingent reward and management-by-exception (active), while the pa ssive/avoidant style includes management-byexception (passive) and laissez-fa ire. Contingent reward clarif ies expectations and offers recognition when goals are achieved. When usi ng management-by-exception (active) the leader specifies the standards for compliance, as well as what is considered dissatisfactory performance, and may also punish followers for not meeti ng these standards. Management-by-exception (passive) is similar to laissez-faire in that leaders fail to take action until problems become serious. Leaders will take on the belief of I f it aint broke, dont fix it. The outcomes of leadership include extra effort, effectiven ess, and satisfaction (Avolio & Bass, 2004). Transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadersh ip styles have been wellresearched and developed over the past 25 year s. Many researchers have determined that behaviors related to the transf ormational leadership style are the most desirable, while the passive/avoidant leadership behaviors are the least desirable (Avolio & Bass, 2004). However, all of these leadership styles are important in th e development of an indivi dual to reach his or her full potential as a leader. Emotional Intelligence The study of em otional intelligence is a more recent concept which is defined as a composite set of capabilities which can be observed when a person demonstrates the competencies that constitute self-awareness, self-m anagement, social awareness, and social skills at appropriate times and ways in sufficient frequency to be effective in th e situation (Boyatzis et al., 1999). Each of these competencies further addresses and evaluates different leadership

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25 competencies more in depth (Boyatzis et al., 1999). Goleman (1995) defines emotional intelligence as abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratification; to regul ate ones moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathi ze and to hope (p. 34). Boyatzis et al. (2000) and Goleman (1995) also stated that an individua l can change his or her level of emotional intelligence by learning and improving the crucial emotional competencies over a period of time. Emotional intelligence has recently been said to be a critical compone nt for leaders to be effective in their organizati ons (Cherniss & Adler, 2000). Emotional intelligence consists of five compet encies each with a set of subscales. These competencies include: 1) intraper sonal, 2) interpersonal, 3) adap tability, 4) stress management, and 5) general mood (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). 1. Intrapersonal A scale that assesses the inner self. 2. Interpersonal A scale that a ssesses the characteristics of be ing responsible and dependable with social skills. 3. Adaptability A sign of how we ll individuals are able to cope with environmental demands and pressures. 4. Stress management A sign of how an individual deals with stress. 5. General mood An indicator of an individuals ability to enjoy life. The different competencies incorporate lead ership characteristics such as emotional awareness, self-confidence, se lf-control, innovativeness, co mmitment, and empathy. These characteristics have been found to be important in an individuals leadership ability (Goleman, 1998). Each of these subscales represents a sma ll portion of the overall em otional intelligence of an individual. Table 2-1 demonstrates the compet encies and the corresponding subscales used by Bar-On (2004). Bar-On (2004) defines the subscales as follows:

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26 Table 2-1. Emotional intelligence competencies and subscales. Intrapersonal Interpersonal Adaptability Stress Management General Mood Self-regard Emotional selfawareness Assertiveness Independence Self-actualization Empathy Social responsibility Interpersonal relationship Reality testing Flexibility Problem solving Stress tolerance Impulse control Happiness Optimism 1. Self-regard is the ability to resp ect and accept oneself as basically good. 2. Emotional self-awareness is the ab ility to recognize ones feelings. 3. Assertiveness is the ab ility to express feeli ngs, beliefs, and thoughts and defend ones rights in a nondestructive manner. 4. Independence is the ability to be self-direc ted and self-controlled in ones thinking and actions and to be free of emotional dependency. 5. Self-actualization pertains to the abilit y to realize ones pot ential capacities. 6. Empathy is the ability to be aware of, to unders tand, and to appreciate th e feelings of others. 7. Social responsibility is the ability to demons trate oneself as a cooperative, contributing, and constructive member of ones social group. 8. Interpersonal relationship skill involves the ab ility to establish and maintain mutually satisfying relationships that are characterized by intimacy and by giving and receiving affection. 9. Reality testing is the ability to assess the correspondence between what is experienced and what objectively exists. 10. Flexibility is the ability to adjust ones emotions, thoughts, and behavior to changing situations and conditions. 11. Problem solving aptitude is the ability to iden tify and define problems as well as to generate and implement potentially effective solutions. 12. Stress tolerance is the ability to withstand a dverse events and stressful situations without falling apart by actively and positively coping with stress. 13. Impulse control is the ability to resist or delay an impulse drive, or temptation to act. 14. Optimism is the ability to look at the brighter si de of life and to maintain a positive attitude even in the face of adversity.

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27 15. Happiness is the ability to feel satisfied with ones life, to enjoy oneself and others, and to have fun (p. 15-18). There are multiple assessments that can be used to measure emotional intelligence. Each of these has assessments has developed different ar eas of emotional intelligence to be measured. These areas are all consistent in the concepts, but use different terminology when describing the components of emotional intelligence. Due to th e differences, several of the assessments are discussed. Table 2-2 further illustrates these assessments and the components of each. For this study the Bar-on EQ-i was utilized as this assessment is one of the longer-lived and most widely used instruments (Brown et al., 2005). Another assessment is the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT ) which scores emotional intelligence on five factors: emotional recognition and expression, emotions direct cognition, understanding of emotions external, emotional management, a nd emotional control (G ardner & Stough, 2005). The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intellig ence Ability Test (MSCEIT) is another assessment which measures emotional intelligence on the following subscales: self-awareness, emotional resilience, motivation, interpersona l sensitivity, influence, decisiveness, and conscientiousness and integrity (Leban & Zulauf, 2004). The Hays Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI) measures emotional intelligence us ing self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skills as the four subscales (Watkin, 2000). Add itionally, the Trait MetaMood Scale measures emotional intelligence with three f actors, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, and mood repair (Downey, Papageor giou, & Stough, 2006). Finally, the assessment developed by Carson and Carson (1 998) utilizes the following subscales: empathetic response, mood regulation interper sonal skills, internal motivation, and self-awareness. The following table illustrates the multiple assessments as well as the subscales used by each (Table 2-2).

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28 Table 2-2. Emotional intelligence assessments. Bar-On EQi Hays ECI SUEIT TMMS MSCEIT Carson et al. Competencies Measured Intrapersonal Interpersonal Adaptability Stress management General mood Selfawareness Selfmanagement Socialawareness Social skills Emotional recognition & expression Understanding emotions external Emotions direct cognition Emotional management Emotional control Attention to feelings Clarity of feelings Mood repair Perceiving emotions Facilitating thought Understanding emotions Managing emotions Empathetic response Mood regulation Interpersonal skills Internal motivation Self-awarenss Demographics of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style When discussing leaders and l ead ership, it is important to discuss the influence of the demographics on the study. Numer ous studies have been conducte d in the field of leadership which address the influence of demographics on l eadership style, emotional intelligence and the relationship between these two variables. The independent variables in volved in this study include gender, age, and education. Gender Research on gender differences in emotiona l intelligence ha s been limited. While Goleman (1995) considered males and females to each have their own strengths and weaknesses for emotional intelligence capacities, other studie s have indicated that women score higher on measures of emotional intellig ence than men (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Mayer & Geher, 1996). Mandell and Pherwani (2003) also found th e emotional intelligen ce levels of female managers and supervisors of mid-sized to large organizations in the north eastern section of the U. S. were higher then those of the male mana gers and supervisors. In the study conducted by Cavallo and Brienza (n. d.), wome n received higher peer ratings than men in the emotional competencies consisting of emotional self-awa reness, conscientiousne ss, developing others,

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29 service orientation, and communication. In the supervisor rati ngs, women received higher ratings in the areas of adaptability and service orientatio n, but in the direct report ratings men received higher ratings in the competency which measured them as a change catalyst (Cavallo & Brienza (n. d.). However, even though there are differences be tween males and females, researchers show that the overall emotional intelligence scores do not differ. Only when looking at specific competencies will there be significant differences in the scores (Cavallo & Brienza, n. d.). This is supported by research utilizing Bar-Ons (2004) inventory where no diffe rences were found in the overall emotional intelligence. However, wh en focusing on specific components there were small differences. Females show stronger interp ersonal skills, while males have a higher intrapersonal capacity, are more adaptable, and sc ore higher in stress management. Females are also more aware of their emotions, demonstrat e more empathy, and scor e higher interpersonally and socially (Bar-On, 2004). Several studies have been conducted to determ ine if male or female leaders are more transformational in their leadership style. Bass and Riggio (2006) state th at there is anecdotal, research, and meta-analytic evidence that show women have a higher tendency to use a more transformational leadership style in the leadership positions they hold. Again, Mandell and Pherwani (2003) found the transfor mational leadership scores of females to be slightly higher than those of the males. Mandell and Pherwanis (2003) research is s upported by other studies that found females more likely to use transformati onal leadership than males and that males are more likely to use transactional leadership as their preferred leadership style (Druskat, 1994; Eagly & Johnson, 1990; Rosener, 1990). Eagly, J ohannesen-Schmidt, and van Engen (2003) also found that female leaders utilize transformationa l behaviors more than male leaders and also

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30 exhibited contingent reward behaviors, a compon ent of transactional leadership. Male leaders used other aspects of transact ional leadership such as act ive and passive management by exception (Eagly et al., 2003). Age Studies have been conducted to determ ine the influence of age on the individuals level of emotional intelligence. These stud ies have shown that older indi viduals show higher levels of emotional intelligence because the different co mpetencies can be developed over time, changed throughout life, and improved through traini ng and development programs (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Bar-On (2004) also found differences in emotional intelligence based on age in a population of 3,831 North Americans. While the differe nces were small, individuals in the 30 to 39 years of age, 40 to 49 years of age, and 50 or over years of age scored higher levels of emotional intelligence than thos e individuals under 20 years of age and 20 to 29 years of age. These results are consistent throughout the subscales of the Bar-On EQ-i (Bar-On, 2004). Research has also been conducte d on the relationship between age and leadership style in many organizations. Holder (1990) found that age was not significantly related to the preferred leadership style of Extension faculty and mi ddle managers. This is also supported by Haynes (1997) who determined that age did not affect participants in his study. Education Educational background is a variable which has received considerably less attention than other dem ographic variables within both emotiona l intelligence and leadership style literature. Higher levels of education have been shown to be associated with greater critical thinking ability and open-mindedness (Rothert, 1969). There is li ttle research in the area of education and emotional intelligence or leadership style.

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31 Interaction between Emotional In telligence a nd Leadership Style Research studies have been conducted on the relationship between em otional intelligence and leadership styles within many organizations, industries, and businesses. However, there is no research on the relationship within the field of ag riculture, specifically within Florida agriculture and the WLIANR. Among the research that ha s been conducted, there has been a positive relationship between many of the components of emotional intelligence and leadership style while other components have shown either a negative or no relationship at all (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Bass and Riggio (2006) show emotional in telligence is closel y correlated to transformational leadership in va rious studies. Ashforth and Hum phrey (1995) suggest that these two leadership qualities are correlates as transformational leader ship is a process of evoking and managing the emotions of followers which is similar to the concepts behind emotional intelligence. Mandell and Pherwani (2003) found a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style when assessing mangers and supervisors of mid-sized to large organizations. This study furthe r states that the transformational leadership style of managers could be predicted from their emotional intelligence scores which is important for effective leadership (Golema n, 1998; Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). Barling, Slater, and Kelloway (2000) found emotional intelligence to be positively associated with three aspects of transformationa l leadership. These include idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and i ndividualized consideration. Ba rling et al. (2000) also found management-by-exception and laissez-faire mana gement were not associated with emotional intelligence. Gardner and Stough (2001) also found the five components of emotional intelligence to positively correlate with all of the components of transformational leadership. Table 2-3 presents the linkage between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership as

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32 described by Leban and Zulauf (2004). Figure 2-1 presents the model used to represent the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style. Table 2-3. Linkage between emotional intelligen ce and transformational leadership (Leban & Zulauf, 2004). Emotional Intelligence factors (Dulewicz & Higgs, 1999) Transformational Leadership factors (Alimo-Metcalfe, 1999) Self-awareness Emotional resilience Motivation Interpersonal sensitivity Influence Decisiveness Conscientiousness and integrity Individual consideration Decisive, achieving, determined Involves other in values Networks Change management Accessible Intellectual versatility (integrity/openness)

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33 Figure 2-1. Model of the Relationship between Em otional Intelligence and Leadership Style. Leadership Styles Transformational Idealized attributes Idealized behaviors Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional Contingent reward Management-by-exception (active) Passive/Avoidant Management-by-exception (passive) Laissez-faire Emotional Intelligence Intrapersonal Interpersonal Adaptability Stress Management General Mood Independent Variables Age Gender Education

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34 Summary Chapter 2 discussed the research on emotiona l in telligence, leadership styles, adult leadership programs in agriculture, as well as the WLIANR. This chapter also addressed the theoretical framework and the conceptual framework for the study. Chapter 3 will describe the methodology used to answer to the research questions. Chapter 3 will also address the research design, population, instrumentation development, data collection, and analysis.

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35 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Chapter 1 described the importance of leadersh ip in agriculture and natural resources and provided the background for studying em otional inte lligence and leadership style of leaders in Florida agriculture. Chapter 1 also explained th e significance of the study and identified its purpose. The chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assumptions and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 presented a review of the literature concerned with leadership, emotional intelligence and leadership style. The chapter focused on leadership development programs, emotional intelligence, leadership styles, and th e effect of demographi c variables on emotional intelligence and leadership style and presents the relevant theoretical and conceptual frameworks. The literature contains a limited am ount of research on the relationship between leadership style and emotional intelligence, t hus further establishing the need for additional research. This chapter describes the methodology used to answer the research questions presented in the study. This chapter will also address th e research design, population, instrumentation development, data collection, and analysis. The following research objectives were addressed: 1. Describe the leadership styl es of the WLIANR alumni. 2. Describe the current levels of emoti onal intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. 3. Identify the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. The purpose of this quantitativ e study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the alumni of the WLIANR. The dependent variables in this

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36 study were emotional intelligence le vels and leadership style. The independent variables in this study were gender, age, and education. Research Design This study utilized census survey research (Ary, Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorensen, 2006). The survey instrum ents were developed by previous researchers and have been utilized in many studies (Barbuto & Burbach, 2006; Brown, Bryant, & Reilly, 2006). Census survey research is a method of gathering data by asking a series of que stions to the entire population being studied (Ary et al., 2006). According to Ary et al. (2006) a census study of intangibles such as success, motivation, achievement, leadership, and other ps ychological related assessments can be used. The validity of the questionnaires has been established through pr evious research. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire has been validated more than ten times since its initial use by leadership experts (Bass & Avolio, 2000). Ho wever, according to Ar y et al. (2006) a study will produce more valid responses if the individuals participating in the study have an interest in the topic and/or are informed about it. To addr ess this issue, the assessments were approved by the Program Director of the WLIANR, as well as the research study being approved by the Board of Directors of the WLIANR Alumni Association. Anot her threat to validity was nonresponse (Ary et al., 2006). While most of the alumni had working e-mail addresses, many of them do not use the e-mail address or do not have the technical skills to use the e-mail address. Population The population of this study consisted of all alum ni members of the WLIANR since the inception of the leadership program All attempts were made to obtain e-mail addresses from all of the alumni members. For the purpose of this study, the alumni members with a working e-mail address were defined as graduates of the WLIANR ( N =133). In order to participate in the WLIANR, individuals were required to meet certain criteria. This included being a citizen of the

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37 U. S. as well as a resident of the State of Flor ida for one year prior to the application deadline. The participants were required to earn a substantial percentage of his/her income from the private sector of Floridas agriculture, natural resources, and/or related areas. Participants were also required to be between the ages of 25 and 45. Finally, the participants were required to demonstrate strong leadership potential. Procedure Prior to the colle ction of data, a proposal to conduct the study was submitted to the University of Florida Institution Review Board (IRB) for non-medical projects (IRB-02). The proposal was approved (Protocol #2007-U-532). A c opy of the informed consent form that was sent to the participants was submitted to the IRB along with the proposal. The informed consent form described the study, the voluntary nature of participation, and informed participants of any potential risks and/or benefits associ ated with participating in the study. Once approval to conduct this study was granted by the IRB, data was collected by the researcher starting November 2007. Contact info rmation for the alumni members was obtained from the WLIANR Alumni Association directory. A personalized email letter was sent to each alumni member on November 26, 2007 (See Appendi x A). The purpose of the letter was to inform the participant that two web-based survey instruments would be sent to them via e-mail and their participation was greatly appreciated. This was the pre-not ice letter that should be sent before sending the instruments according to Di llman (2000). The second contact was made on December 3, 2007, seven days after the pre-notic e letter was mailed (See Appendix A). During this second contact with the alumni members, the web-based surveys were sent to the participants via electroni c mail. On December 11, 2007 the third contact was sent out to only those included in the populat ion that had not yet responded (See Appendix A). A one week window is suggested by expert survey researchers (Dillman, 2000). Due to the holidays, an

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38 additional contact was made on January 2, 2008 (See Appendix A). On January 10, 2008 the fifth contact was sent out onl y to the non-respondi ng participants by way of e-mail (See Appendix A). The electronic survey was closed on January 18, 2008. Once the responding data was collected, it was then analyzed by the researcher. Instrumentation Two questionnaires were used to collect data for this study. T he Bar-On EQi was used to measure the emotional intelligence levels of the WLIANR alumni members developed by Reuven Bar-On (2004). The second instrument wa s the Multifactor Lead ership Questionnaire (MLQ) designed by Bass and Avolio (1995). The MLQ was used to determine the degree to which each alumni member uses transformational, transactional, and/or la issez-faire leadership styles. Both the Bar-On EQi and MLQ have had th eir reliability and validity established through previous research (Avolio & Bass, 2004; Bar-On, 2004). The demographic variables were obtained when the participants applied to participate in the WLIANR; therefore the demographic data was available throug h the program director. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire The MLQ is based on the Full Range Leader ship Model develope d by Bass and Avolio (2004). The survey consists of 45 item s that m easure a full range of leadership behaviors and takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. The MLQ measures leadership behaviors used to determine leadership styles, ranging from transf ormational leadership, transactional leadership, and/or passive/avoidant lead ership (Jones, 2006). The MLQ was used to determine which leadership style is demonstrated by each of the alumni members of the WLIANR. The MLQ was purchased for use from an organization entitled Mind Garden. Participan ts selected a number rating for his or her self-perceived leadership behavior by responding on a Likert scale ranging

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39 from 0 (not at all) to 4 (frequently, if not al ways). The reliability of the MLQ, as reported by Bass and Avolio (2000) for each leadership factor, ranges from 0.74 to 0.91. Bar-On EQi The Bar-On EQi is based on the research of Reuven Bar-On (Bar-On, 2004). This survey consists of 125 item s that measure the total emo tional intelligence as we ll as the subscales of emotional intelligence which include: interp ersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. The Bar-On EQi wa s used to determine the current levels of emotional intelligence demonstrated by each of the alumni memb ers of the WLIANR. Participants selected a number rating for his or her self-perceived be haviors by responding on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very se ldom true or not true of me) to 5 (very often true of me or true of me). The validity of the results was tested based on the inconsistency index score provided by Multi-Health Systems (MHS) in the sc ored data set. MHS is the organization in which the assessment was purchased. The reliabil ity of the Bar-On EQi was examined by using the Cronbach alpha which scored an average of 0.76 for all of the s ubscales (Bar-On, 2004). Data Analysis Data was analyzed using the SPSS 16.0 for W i ndows statistical p ackage. Nonresponse should be considered and addresse d in survey-based research st udies because th e potential for nonresponse error exists in all survey research (Dillman, 2000). Based on Dillmans recommendation to always address nonresponse erro r, a comparison of early to late respondents was utilized. Lindner, Murphy, a nd Briers (2001) recommended late respondents be defined operationally and arbitrarily as the later 50% of respondents (p. 242). This study defined early respondents (n=28) as the first 50% who responde d to each survey and late respondents (n=28) as the latter 50% of respondents to each survey. Early respon dents were compared to late respondents on the basis of the ke y variables of interest, including total emotional intelligence

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40 scores, emotional intelligence scale scores, and transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant leadership style scores. With respect to the main variables measur ed in this study, there were no significant differences between early and late respondents as demonstrated by an independent samples t-test for each instrument (Table 3-1 and Table 3-2). Table 3-1. Emotional Intelligence T-test for Si gnificant Differences Between Early and Late Respondents. ( n=56) Early Respondents Late Respondents Key Variable M SD M SD t Value Sig. Total Emotional Intelligence 101.8612.1299.369.810.85 0.400 Intrapersonal 105.2512.3099.9310.991.71 0.094 Interpersonal 101.0412.8196.368.541.61 0.114 Stress Management 98.1814.81101.6811.31-0.99 0.325 Adaptability 100.1411.8798.8611.860.41 0.687 General Mood 103.0013.99101.827.800.39 0.699 Table 3-2. Leadership Style T-test for Signi ficant Differences Between Early and Late Respondents. ( n=56) Early RespondentsLate Respondents Key Variable M SD M SD t Value Sig. Transformational leadership 2.950.533.060.42-0.82 0.414 Transactional leadership 2.100.442.280.52-1.36 0.179 Passive/avoidant leadership 0.980.500.780.421.63 0.110 Prior to any inferential analysis, variables were described using descriptive statistics. Inferential statistics were then used to gain a be tter understanding of the data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to asse ss the relationships between the independent variables and dependent variable s (emotional intelligence and leadership style). This is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedur es, in which the variance is partitioned into components due to the different explanatory variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). Finally, Pearson Correlation was used to meas ure possible associations among the dependent variables as well as strength and relationshi p between the variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997).

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41 Summary This chapter described the m ethod that was used to examine the emotional intelligence and leadership style of leaders in Florida agriculture. Chapter 3 also discussed the research design, population, instrumentation, procedures, and data collection and analysis. The design of this research was a census populati on survey study. The dependent va riables in this study were emotional intelligence and leader ship style. The independent vari ables in this study were gender, age, and education. The reliabil ity and validity of this study we re addressed. Finally, a summary and description of the analysis was discussed. Chapter 4 will provide specific information on data analysis procedures and the results received from the two questionnaires.

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42 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 1 described the importance of leadersh ip in agriculture and natural resources and provided the background for studying em otional inte lligence and leadership style of leaders in Florida agriculture. Chapter 1 also explained th e significance of the study and identified its purpose. The chapter concluded by defining key terms and stating the assumptions and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 presented a discussion of the theore tical and conceptual frameworks that guided this study. Chapter 2 focused specifically on resear ch related to leadersh ip, leadership programs in agriculture and natural resources, leadership st yles, emotional intelligence, and other variables related to the study. The literat ure contains a limited amount of research on the relationship between leadership style and emotional intellig ence, thus further establishing the need for additional research. Chapter 3 described the research methodology ut ilized to accomplish th e objectives of the study. Specifically, chapter 3 described the research design, population, procedure, instrumentation, and data analysis procedures. This chapter presents the findings of the study, beginning with a description of the population and the findings for each of the objectives. The population of this study consisted of the 133 alumni of the WLIANR. At the conclusion of the data collection procedures vi a the e-mail instruments outlined in Chapter 3, 56 (42.1%) graduates responded to the surve y. The gender of the respondents was 71.4% ( n=40) male and 28.6% ( n=16) female (Table 4-1). The average age of the responde nts was 43, with the youngest respondent of 29 and the oldest of 59. In the age category of 28 to 37 years, there were 13 respondents ( n=13). There were 26 respondents ( n=26) in the 38 to 47 years category, 15

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43 respondents ( n=15) in the 48 to 57 years ca tegory, and two respondents ( n=2) in the 58 years and older category (See Table 4-2). In regard to the respondents edu cational background, 17.9% ( n=10) had some college, 60.7% ( n=34) had a bachelors degree, 1.8% ( n=1) had some graduate school, and 19.6% ( n=11) had a graduate degree (Table 4-3). Table 4-1. Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Gender. ( N =133) Gender Number of WLIANR Graduates Number of Respondents from WLIANR Graduates Male 99 40 Female 34 16 Total 133 56 Table 4-2. Number of WLIANR Graduate s and Survey Respondents by Age. (N =133) Age Number of WLIANR Graduates Number of Respondents from WLIANR Graduates 28 to 37 years 28 13 38 to 47 years 55 26 48 to 57 years 41 15 58 years and older 9 2 Total 133 56 Table 4-3. Number of WLIANR Graduates and Survey Respondents by Education. ( N =133) Education Number of WLIANR Graduates Number of Respondents from WLIANR Graduates High school 3 0 Some college 18 10 Bachelors degree 84 34 Some graduate 2 1 Graduate degree 26 11 Total 133 56 Objective 1: To Describe the Leaders hip Styles among the WLIANR Alumni The leaders hip styles of the WLIANR alum ni were determined using the MLQ Scoring Key. The nine leadership scales as well as the transformational, transactional, and/or passive/avoidant leadership style scores are pr esented in Table 4-4 and Table 4-5. Leadership scale scores have a range possibili ty of 0 to 4. Of the nine scal e scores, inspirational motivation

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44 received the highest mean score ( M =3.11, SD =0.60), and laissez-faire scale scores received the lowest mean score ( M =0.63, SD =0.46). The leadership style scores had a range of 0 to 4. The range of scale scores for the respondents for transformational leadership styl e was 1.95 to 3.95. Transactional leadership style scores ranged from 1.12 to 3.25. Th e passive/avoidant leadership style scores ranged from 0.12 to 2.00. Transformational leadership scores reported by the responde nts were the highest of the leadership style scores ( M =3.00, SD =0.48), while passive/avoidant was reported as having the lowest score ( M =0.88, SD =0.47). Table 4-4 presents the scores for each of the nine leadership scales. Table 4-5 presents the three leadership st yle scores: transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant. Table 4-4. Leadership Style Scale Scores. (n=56) nMSD Min Max Leadership Scale Scores Idealized Influence (Attributed) 563.040.581.00 4.00 Idealized Influence (Behavior) 562.950.651.67 4.00 Inspirational Motivation 563.110.601.50 4.00 Intellectual Stimulation 562.900.581.75 4.00 Individual Consideration 563.010.581.25 4.00 Contingent Reward 562.860.561.50 3.75 Management-by-Exception (Active) 561.520.730.00 4.00 Management-by-Exception (Passive)561.130.650.00 2.50 Laissez-faire 560.630.460.00 2.00 Table 4-5. Total Leadership Style Scores. ( n=56) nMSD Min Max Leadership Style Scores Transformational Leadership Style 563.000.481.95 3.95 Transactional Leadership Style 562.190.481.12 3.25 Passive/Avoidant Leadership Style 560.880.470.12 2.00 Leadership Style and Gender There were f ewer female respondents (n=16) than there were male ( n=40). Table 4-6 shows the leadership style scores by gender. No significant correlations were found between

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45 leadership style and gender. Leadership style scores had a possible range of 0 to 4. Females scored higher in the transfor mational leadership style, while males scored higher in the transactional leadership style. Males and females scored the same in the passive/avoidant leadership style. Table 4-7 presents the mean leadership scale scores by gender. Table 4-6. Total Leadership Style Scores by Gender. ( n=56) Construct Gender nM SD MLQ-Transformational Female 16 3.05 0.53 Male 40 2.99 0.47 MLQ-Transactional Female 16 2.09 0.34 Male 40 2.23 0.53 MLQ-Passive/Avoidant Female 16 0.88 0.56 Male 40 0.88 0.43 There were no significant diffe rences between men and women in any of the leadership scale scores. Table 4-7. Leadership Scale Scores by Gender. ( n =56) Construct Gender nM S D Idealized Influence (Attributed) Female 163.07 0.60 Male 403.03 0.57 Idealized Influence (Behavior) Female 162.97 0.58 Male 402.94 0.68 Inspirational Motivation Female 163.23 0.64 Male 403.06 0.59 Intellectual Stimulation Female 162.83 0.65 Male 402.93 0.56 Individualized Consideration Female 163.13 0.53 Male 402.97 0.60 Contingent Reward Female 162.90 0.60 Male 402.85 0.55 Management-by-Exception (Active) Female 161.28 0.55 Male 401.62 0.78 Management-by-Exception (Passive) Female 161.06 0.77 Male 401.15 0.60 Laissez-faire Female 160.69 0.49 Male 400.60 0.45

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46 Leadership Style and Age When exa mining the respondents by age, most of the respondents were in the 38 to 47 years category ( n=26). There were 15 respondents in th e 48 to 57 years category, 13 respondents in the 28 to 37 years category, and only two re spondents in the 58 years and older category. The 38 to 47 years category had a transformationa l leadership style mean score of 2.97 (SD =0.50), a transactional leadership style mean score of 2.16 ( SD =0.50), and a passive/avoidant leadership style score of 0.84 ( SD =0.48). The 48 to 57 years category had a transformational leadership style mean score of 3.11 (SD =0.55), a transactional leadersh ip style mean score of 2.23 ( SD =.49), and a passive/avoidant leadership style mean score of 0.83 ( SD =0.41). The 28 to 37 years category had a transformational leadership style mean score of 2.93 (SD =0.38), a transactional leadership style mean score of 2.22 ( SD =0.49), and a passive/avoidant leadership style score of 0.99 ( SD =0.55). The 58 years and older category had a transformational leadership style mean score of 3.10 (SD =0.57), a transactional leadersh ip style mean score of 2.19 ( SD =0.44), and a passive/avoidant leader ship style mean score of 0.94 (SD =0.09). Table 4-8 shows the leadership style mean scores by age.

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47 Table 4-8. Total Leadership Style Scores by Age. ( n=56) Construct Age nM S D MLQ-Transformational 28 to 37 years 13 2.93 0.38 38 to 47 years 26 2.97 0.50 48 to 57 years 15 3.11 0.55 58 years and older 2 3.10 0.57 MLQ-Transactional 28 to 37 years 13 2.22 0.49 38 to 47 years 26 2.16 0.50 48 to 57 years 15 2.23 0.49 58 years and older 2 2.19 0.44 MLQ-Passive/Avoidant 28 to 37 years 13 0.99 0.55 38 to 47 years 26 0.84 0.48 48 to 57 years 15 0.83 0.41 58 years and older 2 0.94 0.09 Leadership Style and Education Most of the respondents he ld a bachelors degree ( n=34). There were 11 respondents w ith a graduate degree ( n=11) and ten respondents with some college ( n=10). Only one respondent had some graduate coursework ( n=1). There were no respondents in the high school category. The mean of the transformational leadership st yle in the bachelors degree category was 3.03 ( SD =0.49), the transactional leadersh ip style had a mean of 2.15 ( SD =0.48), while the passive/avoidant leadership style had a mean of 0.89 ( SD =0.48). Respondents in the graduate degree category ( n=11) had a transformational lead ership style mean of 2.90 ( SD =0.48), a transactional leadership style mean of 2.22 (SD =0.56), and a passive/avoidant leadership style mean of 0.90 ( SD =0.46). The respondents in the some college category ( n=10) had a transformational leadership style mean of 3.05 ( SD =0.51), a transactional leadership style mean of 2.25 ( SD =0.45), and passive/avoidant lead ership style mean of 0.84 ( SD =0.49). The some graduate category had a transformational mean score of 2.70 ( SD =n/a), a transactional leadership style mean of 2.50 ( SD =n/a), and a passive/avoidant le adership style mean of 0.75 ( SD =n/a) (See

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48 Table 4-9). When examining the leadership styl e scores by education, no significant differences were found. Table 4-9. Total Leadership Style Scores by Education. (n=56) Construct Education nM S D MLQ-Transformational High school 0 --Some college 103.05 0.51 Bachelors 343.03 0.49 Some graduate 12.70 -Graduate 112.90 0.48 MLQ-Transactional High school 0 --Some college 102.25 0.45 Bachelors 342.15 0.48 Some graduate 12.50 -Graduate 112.22 0.56 MLQ-Passive/Avoidant High school 0 --Some college 100.84 0.49 Bachelors 340.89 0.48 Some graduate 10.75 -Graduate 110.90 0.46 Objective 2: To Describe the Current Levels of Emotional Intelligence of the WL IANR Alumni The emotional intelligence levels of the WLIA NR alumni were determined using the BarOn EQi Scoring Key. The total emotional intell igence levels as well as the five emotional intelligence scales, intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood are presented in Table 4-10. Em otional intelligence scale scores have a range possibility of 0 to 150. Of the five scale scores, genera l mood received the highest mean score ( M =102.41, SD =12.12), and interpersonal received the lowest mean score ( M =98.70, SD =11.04). The range of scale scores for the respondents for intrapersonal was 77 to 127. Interpersonal scores ranged from 79 to 125. The range of scale scores for stress management was 62 to 128. Adaptability scores ranged from 69 to 129, wh ile general mood scores ranged from 72 to 124.

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49 The total emotional intelligence scores range d from 76 to 127 with a mean score of 100.61 ( SD =10.99). Table 4-10 presents the scores for each of the five emotional intelligence scores as well as the total emotional intelligence scores. Table 4-10. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores. ( n =56) nMSD Min Max Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores Intrapersonal 56102.5911.8777 127 Interpersonal 5698.7011.0479 125 Stress Management 5699.9313.1762 128 Adaptability 5699.5011.7769 129 General Mood 56102.4111.2472 124 Total Emotional Intelligence Score 56100.6110.9976 127 Emotional Intelligence and Gender In regard to em otional intelligence and gender, there were no significant differences found between the total emotional intelligence a nd gender. The males scored higher in the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and general mood s cales. The total emotional intelligence score of males ( M =100.82, SD =11.31) was slightly higher than the females ( M =100.06, SD =10.50). Table 4-11 presents the mean emotional intellig ence scores and scale scores by gender. Table 4-11. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores and Total Scores by Gender. ( n=56) Construct Gender nM S D Total Emotional Intelligence Female 16100.60 10.50 Male 40100.82 11.31 Intrapersonal Female 16101.69 11.61 Male 40102.95 12.10 Interpersonal Female 1694.81 8.53 Male 40100.25 11.63 Stress Management Female 16103.75 12.21 Male 4098.40 13.38 Adaptability Female 16101.00 9.24 Male 4098.90 12.70 General Mood Female 1699.44 13.05 Male 40103.60 10.38

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50 Emotional Intelligence and Age The age categories were 28 to 37 years (n=13), 38 to 47 years (n=26), 48 to 57 years ( n=15), and 58 years and older ( n =2). The total emotional intelligence scores were highest in the 28 to 37 years of age category (M =104.85, SD =8.03) and lowest in the 58 years and older category ( M =92.50, SD =0.70). The 38 to 47 years category had a total emotional intelligence mean score of 101.00 ( SD =12.49) and the 48 to 57 years had a total emotional in telligence mean score of 97.33 ( SD =10.18). In regards to the emotional in telligence score scales, there were no significant differences between the age categories. The 28 to 37 years ( n =13) scored the highest in all of the scales (intrapers onal, interpersonal, adaptabilit y, and general mood) except stress management. The 58 years and older ( n=2) scored the lowest in all categories except general mood. Table 4-12 shows the mean emotional intelli gence scores by age. Table 4-13 presents the emotional intelligence scale scores by age. Th ere were no significant differences between total emotional intelligence scores and age and em otional intelligence scale scores and age. Table 4-12. Total Emotional In telligence Scores by Age. ( n=56) Construct Age nM SD Total Emotional Intelligence Scores 28 to 37 years 13104.85 8.03 38 to 47 years 26101.00 12.49 48 to 57 years 1597.33 10.18 58 years and older292.50 0.71

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51 Table 4-13. Emotional Intelligen ce Scale Scores by Age. ( n=56) Construct Age nM S D Intrapersonal 28 to 37 years 13107.92 8.48 38 to 47 years 26101.92 13.87 48 to 57 years 15100.00 10.37 58 years and older 2 96.00 1.41 Interpersonal 28 to 37 years 13102.54 10.85 38 to 47 years 26 98.54 12.76 48 to 57 years 15 96.53 7.27 58 years and older 2 92.00 11.31 Stress Management 28 to 37 years 13100.00 9.93 38 to 47 years 26101.92 13.84 48 to 57 years 15 97.13 15.29 58 years and older 2 94.50 4.95 Adaptability 28 to 37 years 13102.62 9.39 38 to 47 years 26100.81 11.43 48 to 57 years 15 96.40 13.12 58 years and older 2 85.50 13.44 General Mood 28 to 37 years 13107.77 7.33 38 to 47 years 26102.15 12.56 48 to 57 years 15 98.27 11.05 58 years and older 2102.00 4.24 Emotional Intelligence and Education The m ean of the total emotional intelligence score in the some graduate coursework category was 122.00 (SD =n/a). The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in the graduate degree category was 100.91 ( SD =11.34). The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in the bachelors degree category was 100.88 ( SD =10.50). The mean of the total emotional intelligence score in the some college category was 97.20 ( SD =11.30). Table 4-14 and Table 415 present the mean total emotional intelligen ce scores and the emotional intelligence scale scores by education. There were no significant di fferences between emotional intelligence and education.

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52 Table 4-14. Total Emotional Inte lligence Scores by Education. ( n=56) Construct Education nM S D Total Emotional Intelligence Score High school 0 --Some college 1097.20 11.30 Bachelors 34100.88 10.50 Some graduate 1122.00 -Graduate 11100.91 11.34 Table 4-15. Emotional Intelligence Scale Scores by Education. ( n=56) Construct Education nM S D Intrapersonal High school 0 --Some college 10 102.50 11.65 Bachelors 34 102.24 11.80 Some graduate 1 127.00 -Graduate 11 101.55 11.48 Interpersonal High school 0 --Some college 10 98.80 13.06 Bachelors 34 98.00 10.10 Some graduate 1 125.00 -Graduate 11 98.36 10.44 Stress Management High school 0 --Some college 10 88.50 14.26 Bachelors 34 101.47 11.86 Some graduate 1 120.00 -Graduate 11 103.73 10.59 Adaptability High school 0 --Some college 10 93.90 12.26 Bachelors 34 100.68 11.08 Some graduate 1 102.00 -Graduate 11 100.73 13.54 General Mood High school 0 --Some college 10 104.20 10.68 Bachelors 34 101.56 11.31 Some graduate 1 124.00 -Graduate 11 101.45 10.81

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53 Objective 3: To Identify the Relationship betw een Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of the WLIANR Alumni In order to further describe the independe nt variables in this study, analyses were conducted to identify correlations that may have existed between variables. The magnitudes of the correlations are presented and discussed using the correlation magnitudes suggested by Miller (1994). Pearson r was us ed for all of the analyses. Correlation coefficients between 0.01 and 0.09 are considered negligible, correlati ons between 0.10 and 0.29 are considered low, correlations between 0.30 and 0.49 are considered moderate, co rrelations between 0.50 and 0.69 are considered substantial, correlations be tween 0.70 and 0.99 are consid ered very high, and a correlation coefficient of 1.00 is considered pe rfect. Table 4-16 presents the describing magnitudes for interpreting correlations. Table 4-16. Magnitudes for Interp reting Correlations (Davis, 1971). R Description 1.0 Perfect 0.70 0.99 Very High 0.50 0.69 Substantial 0.30 0.49 Moderate 0.10 0.29 Low 0.01 0.09 Negligible As presented in Table 4-17 a negative moderate correlation was found between management-by-exception (passive) and stress management ( r =-0.35). Negative low correlations were found between total emoti onal intelligence and transformational leadership style ( r =-0.19) and passive/avoidant leadership style ( r =-0.15). A negative negligible correlation was found between total emotional intelligence and transactional leadership style ( r =-0.05). As seen in Table 4-17, a number of low and ne gligible correlations were found among the leadership styles, leadership style scales, total emotional inte lligence, and emotional intelligence scales.

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54 Summary This chapter presented the findings of the study. F indings were organized and presented by the following objectives: 1. Describe the leadership styl es among of WLIANR alumni. 2. Describe the current levels of emoti onal intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. 3. Identify the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. Chapter 5 will summarize the study and disc usses the conclusions, implications and recommendations.

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55Table 4-17. Pearson Correlations be tween Independent Variables. ( n=56) Variable Total Emotional Intelligence IntrapersonalInterpersonalStress Management AdaptabilityGeneral Mood Transformational -0.19 -0.13 -0.02 -0.14 -0.23 -0.28 Transactional -0.05 -0.04 -0.07 -0.10 -0.02 -0.05 Passive/Avoidant -0.15 -0.18 0.09 -0.28 -0.10 -0.01 IIA -0.18 -0.17 -0.05 -0.12 -0.19 -0.21 IIB -0.14 -0.10 -0.02 -0.14 -0.09 -0.29 IM -0.18 -0.12 -0.04 -0.14 -0.25 -0.24 IS -0.06 0.01 0.06 -0.07 -0.17 -0.10 IC -0.20 -0.16 -0.06 -0.09 -0.22 -0.28 CR -0.10 -0.08 0.04 -0.12 -0.06 -0.17 MBEA 0.02 0.01 0.06 -0.04 0.02 0.07 MBEP -0.26 -0.28 0.01 -0.35 -0.18 -0.10 LF 0.05 0.02 0.17 -0.08 0.05 0.13 Note IIA=Idealized Influence (Attributed), IIB=Idealized Influence (Behavior), IM=I nspirational Motivati on, IS=Intellectual Stimulation, IC=Individualized Cons ideration, CR=Contingent Reward, MBEA =Management-by-Exception (Active), MBEP=Management-by-Exception (Passive), LF=Laissez-faire

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56 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RE COMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the study and discu sses the conclusions, implications and recommendations that have been drawn from the study. The first section of this chapter provides an overview of the study, including the purpose and specific objectives, methodologies and findings. The remainder of the chapter discusses the conclusions from the findings, implications of the findings, and recommendations for future research. The problem that was addressed by this st udy was the lack of knowledge surrounding the relationship between emotional inte lligence and leadership style in leaders of Florida agriculture, specifically the WLIANR alumni. In regard to em otional intelligence, leadership styles, and the relationship between the two, the review of literature showed a clear void in research in this area of leadership in Florida agriculture. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style of the alum ni of the WLIANR. This study al so described the population of the WLIANR alumni in terms of gender, age, education levels, emotiona l intelligence scores, and leadership style. The following research objectives were used to guide this study: 1) describe the leadership styles among the WLIANR alumni, 2) describe the current levels of emotional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni and 3) identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership st yle of the WLIANR alumni. This study utilized the census survey research design, which as ks a series of questions to the entire population being studied. The survey instruments were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and the Bar-On EQi. The ML Q assessed the leadership styles of the alumni, while the Bar-On EQi assessed the emotional intelligence of the alumni. The demographics were obtained through the director of the program.

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57 In this study, the population was defined as al l alumni members of the WLIANR since the inception of the leadership program ( N =133). Responses were obtained from 56 of the 133 alumni members, for an overall response rate of 42.1%. Summary of Findings Objective 1 Objective one sought to assess the leadersh ip styles of the WLIANR alum ni. The demographics were used to desc ribe differences in leadership styles of the re spondents. Forty (71.4%) of the respondents were male and sixteen (28.6%) of the respondents were female. In terms of age, 23.2% ( n=13) of the respondents were betw een 28 and 37 years of age, 46.4% ( n=26) were between 38 and 47 years of age, 26.8% ( n=15) were between 48 and 57 years of age, and 3.6% (n=2) were over the age of 58 years. In regard to education, 34 (60.7%) of the respondents had a bachelors degree. Eleven (19.6 %) of the respondents had a graduate degree, ten (17.9%) of the respondents had some college and one (1.8%) of the respondents had some graduate coursework. The overall leadership style scores of the respondents were high in transformational leadership style (M =3.00, SD =0.48) and low in passive/avoi dant leadership style ( M =0.88, SD =0.47). The leadership style scale scores were si milar as the transformational leadership style scale scores were higher than those of the transactional leadership style scales and passive/avoidant leadership style scale scores. In regard to gender differences, the females scored slightly higher in transformational leadership than males. The males scored sligh tly higher in transacti onal leadership, and both males and females scored the same in the passive/ avoidant leadership style. The females scored slightly higher in idealized in fluence (attributed and behavio r), inspirational motivation and individualized consideration, while the males sc ored slightly higher in intellectual stimulation.

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58 However, there were no significant differences found between the overall transformational leadership style scores by gender or between the transformational leadership style scale scores by gender. In the transactional leadership style scal e scores, the females scored slightly higher in contingent reward and males scored slightly higher in management-by-exception (active). For the passive/avoidant leadership style scale scores, the males scored slightly higher in management-by-exception (passive) and females sc ored slightly higher in laissez-faire. There were no significant differences found between male s and females in the tr ansactional leadership style and the passive/avoid ant leadership style. There were also no significant differences when analyzing the leadership style scores and leadership style scale scores by age. In the transformational leadership style, the 58 years and older category scored the highest and the 28 to 37 years category scored the lowest. The 48 to 57 years category scored the highest in the transactional leadership style scores and the 38 to 47 years category scored the lowest The passive/avoidant leadership style scores were similar. The 28 to 27 years category scored the highest and the 48 to 57 years ca tegory scored the lowest. In regard to age and leadership styles, there were no significant differences. The leadership styles by education also showed no significant differe nces. The some college category scored the highest in the transformational leadership style, while the some graduate category scored the lowest. In regard to the transactional leadership style scores, the some graduate category scored the highest and the bachelors de gree category scored the lowest. Finally, in the passive/avoidant leadership style scores, the graduate degree cate gory scored the highest and the some graduate category scored the lowest. Objective 2 Objective two sought to describe the curren t levels of em otional intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. The demographics were also us ed to describe the differences in emotional

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59 intelligence levels of the respondents. The tota l emotional intelligence mean scores were 100.61 ( SD =10.99). In regards to the emotional intelligen ce scale scores, the res pondents scored highest in the intrapersonal scale and lowe st in the interpersonal scale. There were no significant di fferences found between emoti onal intelligence and gender. The total emotional intelligence mean scores were slightly higher for the males than females. The males scored slightly higher in the intrapers onal, interpersonal, and general mood emotional intelligence scale scores. The females scored slightly higher in stress management and adaptability. In regards to age, the total emotiona l intelligence mean scores were slightly higher in the 28 to 37 years category, while the 58 years and older category scored the lowest. The 28 to 37 years category also scored th e highest in the following emotional intelligence scale scores: intrapersonal, interpersonal, ad aptability, and general mood. The 38 to 47 years category scored the highest in stress management. The 58 years and older category scored the lowest in all of the emotional intelligence scale sc ores except general mood. The lowe st score for general mood was reported by the 48 to 57 years category. In regard to education, the highest total emotional intelligence score was reported by the some graduate category, while the lowest scores were reported by the some college category. The some graduate category also scored the highest in all of the emotional intelligence scale scores. The graduate degree cate gory scored the lowest in the intrapersonal scale and general mood scale, the bachelors degree cat egory scored the lowest in th e interpersonal scale, and the some college category scored the lowest in the stress management scale and the adaptability scale. Objective 3 Objective three sought to identify the rela tionship between emoti onal intelligence and leadership style of the WLIANR alumni. Low, negative relationships were found between total

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60 emotional intelligence scores and the transformati onal and passive/avoidant leadership styles. No relationship was found between to tal emotional intelligence sc ores and the transactional leadership style. In regard to the scales of both emotional inte lligence and leadership style, a correlational analysis found a moderate correlation between management-by-exception (passive) and stress management. All other correlations were low, positive or negative, or negligible, positive or negative. Conclusions The following conclusions were drawn based upon the findings of the study: This sam ple of WLIANR alumni mirrors the national norms from 2004 concerning the preferred leadership styles as measured by th e MLQ. The transformational leadership style and transactional leadership style means were comparable to the national norms described by Avolio and Bass (2004). The mean national norms for transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant respectively are M =3.02, M =2.285, and M =0.84. The mean scores of the WLIANR alumni were M =3.00, M =2.19, and M =0.88 respectively. Females in this sample utilize desirable leadership characteristics and behaviors slightly more than males. However, the males do use desira ble leadership characteristics as well. The females mean score for transformational lead ership was 0.06 higher than the males, while the males mean score for tr ansactional leadersh ip was 0.14 higher than the females. In this sample, all age groups and education levels utilize th e transformational leadership style behaviors more than the transactional leadership style. Alumni in this sample also use the transactional leadership style more th an the passive/avoidant leadership style. This sample of WLIANR alumni mirrors th e national norms concer ning the levels of emotional intelligence as measured by the Bar-On EQi. The total emotional intelligence means were comparable to the national norms as 99.9% of the scores will fall between 55 and 145 (+/-3 standard deviations from the m ean) and most score a total mean score of 100 (Bar-On, 2004). The WLIANR total emotional in telligence scores all fell in the 55 to 145 range with a total emotional intelligence mean score of 100.61. In this sample of alumni, the males scored higher in total emotional intelligence than females. The younger age groups scored higher than the older age groups in the total emotional intelligence means.

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61 This sample of WLIANR alumni showed little relationship between the emotional intelligence means and leadership style means. Discussions and Implications This research shows that alum ni of the WL IANR have comparable preferred leadership styles as measured by the MLQ. Much like the national norms, the females had a tendency to report higher levels of transformational leadership style behavi ors than males. However, the differences were minimal within this sample of alumni. Both males and females reported using passive/avoidant leadership style behaviors, but only used them occasionally compared to the transformational leadership style or transacti onal leadership style. One question posed by the researcher is if participating in a leadership program, such as the WLIANR, helps to increase the use of transformational leader ship style behaviors? The W.K. Kellogg Foundation made the assumption that leadership is re lational (Foster, 2001, p. 2). If this is true, then what are programs like the WLIANR doing to help increase th e knowledge base for part icipants in regards to leadership, leadership st yles, and utilizing the transf ormational leadership styles? The females in this sample utilize transforma tional leadership style behaviors more than males. This was expected because of the re search by Mandell and Pherwani (2003) which showed females were more likely to use transformational leadership style, while males had a tendency to utilize more transactional leadersh ip style behaviors. Additionally, the females reported using contingent reward which was also supported by the research of Eagley et al. (2003). The alumni in this sample showed no diffe rences in leadership style based on the age or education level of the respondents. Age has not been shown to be related to the preferred leadership style (Holder, 1990). The relationshi p between education and leadership style has received little research previously, but shows to have no significant relationship on the leadership style of this sample of alumni.

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62 This research also shows that this sample of WLIANR alumni has comparable levels of emotional intelligence as measured by the Bar-O n EQi. All of the res pondents reported total emotional intelligence mean scores which fell into the national norms as described by Bar-On (2004). However, the national norms for gender diffe rences were different for this sample. The national norm is for females to demonstrate higher levels of emotional intelligence on more scales than males (Cavallo & Brienza, n.d.), but in this sample of alumni, the males reported slightly higher emotional intelligence levels in a majority of the scales compared to the females. Another interesting finding is that the younger age groups scored higher than the older age groups in the total emotional inte lligence means. Many studies have shown that older individuals will score higher because many of the competencies can be developed over time, changed throughout life, or improved through training and development programs (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Therefore, the expected result would be for the older age groups to score higher than the younger age groups. Finally, this research details the lack of relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style in the WLIANR alumni. There was no significant relationship between the total emotional intelligence and leadership style and little to no relationshi p between the different emotional intelligence scales and leadership style scales. This is interesting due to the research conducted by Bass and Riggio (2006), which show ed a close relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. These findings were not expected because the alumni of the WLIANR ar e considered to be leaders within Fl orida agriculture, therefore it was expected that there would be a strong correlation between the emotional intelligence levels and transformational leadership styl e. This is supported by the research of Goleman (1998) and Mandell and Pherwani (2003) which state that both of these leader ship qualities are predictors

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63 for effective leadership. When analyzing specific scales of emotional intelligence and leadership style, the results in this research study are different from those of previous research studies. Barling et al. (2000) found a positive relationshi p between emotional intelligence and three of the transformational leadership style scales, while this research showed low, negative relationships among most of the correlations. Recommendations Recommendations for future research and prac tice are provided as a result of assessing the leadership style and levels of e moti onal intelligence of the WLIANR alumni. Recommendations for Practice Based on the results of this study, there are several recomm endations for the WLIANR and other agricultural leadership programs. While this study was focused on leaders in Florida agriculture, these recommendations could be app lied to other leadership programs of similar function and structure. The WLIANR is encourag ed to utilize the emotional intelligence and leadership style concepts to continue broadeni ng the leadership development knowledge base for participants of the program. The emotional intelligence assessment is recomm ended to be used in the first seminar of the program to assess the levels of emotional intelligence upon entering the program. Participants should then be assessed again upon graduation from the program because some of the scales can be developed over time (Gardner & Stough, 2002). Furthermore, a follow-up assessment should to be utilized approximately five and/or ten years after graduation fr om the WLIANR. Other leadership programs can implement this into th e curriculum of the program as well. Curriculum development is recommended to help participants fully understand the importance of emotional intelligence and interpretation of the scores.

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64 However, while the implementation of the a ssessments is desirable, it may also be unfeasible for the WLIANR as well as other leadership programs due to time constraints. Therefore, curriculum should be developed around the subscales of emoti onal intelligence. This would include activities and programming which re quires participants to practice skills and behaviors of each subscale. The interpersonal subscale can be incorporated into programming where participants interact with each other as we ll as speakers, presente rs, and other individuals at social events throughout the program. The ad aptability subscale can be incorporated into programming by having participants analyze current issues at th e local, state, national and international level. This will allow participants to practice critical thinking as well as problem solving. This can also be incorporated into the international seminar because most participants will not be within their comfort zone and must adapt to the culture and language barriers. Other subscales can be incorporated into the pr ogram through various activities and programming. The leadership style assessment is also reco mmended for the WLIANR to implement into the curriculum of the program when participan ts begin the program. By learning the preferred leadership styles of the participants, participants and directors will ga in more understanding of the different leadership styles. Leaders are more likely to use the pr eferred transformational leadership style behaviors once gaining more knowledge of the three leadership styles, transformational, transactional, and passive/avoidant. Once implementing the transformational leadership style, participants will be more e ffective leaders within communities, states, and the nation which will help to achieve the goals of the WLIANR. The WLIANR should also develop curriculu m to increase the understanding of each participants results as well as the application of the leadership styles. Curriculum should be developed around the three leadership styles as well as the subscales of each, specifically

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65 transformational and transactional leadershi p. Intellectual stimulation can be addressed by having speakers present issues that go against the norms of the group. This can allow participants to view problems and issues from a new perspe ctive. Idealized influence attributed can be incorporated into the program by having participants participate in presentations, introductions of speakers, and open-discussions in order to build the confidence and higher-order ideals of the participants. Recommendations for Future Research Although this study specifically focused on the alum ni of the WLIANR, research in other agriculture leadership programs a nd organizations is essential to further assess the levels of emotional intelligence and leader ship style used by the leaders within agriculture throughout the nation. By comparing the levels of emotional in telligence and leadership style of different populations, researchers could further determine the need for implementing these leadership concepts into the programs and organizations. Res earchers could also assess if the differences in the structure and focus of the programs is related to the results of the emotional intelligence levels and leadership style. Additionally, other emotional in telligence assessments should be used to determine which assessment would be best for adult leadership programs in agriculture. One respondent of this study reported that questions were exce ssive and that many of the questions were redundant. Other respondents repo rted that the MLQ was confusi ng, therefore other leadership style assessments should be used as well. Howe ver, one respondent said, Interesting survey questions! and felt the surveys were easy to comp lete due to the online delivery of both surveys. Another recommendation incl udes assessing other programs and organizations within agriculture that are focused on di fferent populations, issues, or areas to further build the research within emotional intelligence, leadership styl e, and the relationship between the two. Using

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66 different populations such as high school, college, or public s ector populations would broaden the understanding of these leadersh ip concepts. Different forms ar e available to use depending on the age demographic of the population. More re search should be completed to test the effectiveness of leadership programs in regard to leadership development, specifically emotional intelligence and leadership styles. By assessing va rious leadership programs and organizations in agriculture, researchers will be able to understand the effectiveness of the leadership programs and organizations more thoroughly.

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67 APPENDIX A SURVEY COMPLETION REQUESTS Pre-Survey Email Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni: I am greatly enjoying my work as WLIs new Progr am Coordinator and Im extremely excited to be conducting my Masters research within the WLI Alumni Association as the results will be of great benefit to both Alumni and the agricultural leadership discipline. As you know from the WLI newsletter, my thesis research project is The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of Leaders in Florida Agriculture. The time has finally come for me to send you my two surveys. In the ne xt week, you will be receiving two emails. One will be from my personal email, rotel20@ufl.edu The other will be from an organization called Mind Garden entitled Invite from Mind Garden Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions regarding either survey. I have sent this email to both your personal and work email a ddresses if you have listed both in the Alumni Directory. If you could please respond to me, letting me know which email would work best for you in receiving the surveys I will make sure you only receive emails from me once in the future. Your participation is greatly appreciated and co mpletely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. If you choose to participate, you w ill answer items on two confidential assessments that will take about 10-15 minutes each to complete. You can stop any time without penalty and you do not have to answer any question you do not wish to an swer. All answers are confidential to the extent provided by law. There are no known risks or other di rect benefits associated with this study. If youd like to learn more about this project, please contact me at 408 Rolfs Hall, Gainesville campus, 352-3921038, rotel20@ufl.edu or Dr. Hannah Carter, G 037 McCarty D, Gainesville campus, 352-392-1038, hscarter@ufl.edu. If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, please contact the UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250, 352-392-0433. Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is gr eatly appreciated. You are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full report on your leadership style as well as your leve l of emotional intelligence once my research is completed in the spring. Thank you, Rochelle Strickland Program Coordinator Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources UF/IFAS PO Box 110126 Gainesville, FL 32611-0126 Phone: 352-392-1038 Fax: 352-392-0589 Email: rotel20@ufl.edu

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68 Initial Contact Email Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni: As you know from the WLI newsletter, my thesis research project is The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of Leader s in Florida Agriculture. Below you will find the link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code and password you will need. The other survey was sent out today as well from an organization called Mind Garden entitled Invite from Mind Garden Please feel free to contact me if you ha ve any questions regarding either survey. Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is gr eatly appreciated. You are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full report on your leadership style as well as your leve l of emotional intelligence once my research is completed in the spring. Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com Code: 7510-001-067 Password: leadership Thank you, Rochelle Rochelle Strickland Program Coordinator Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources UF/IFAS PO Box 110126 Gainesville, FL 32611-0126 Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244 Fax: 352-392-0589 Email: rotel20@ufl.edu

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69 Follow-up Contact Email Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni: Thank you to all of you who have already complete d one, if not both, of my surveys for my thesis research! I truly appreciate your help. Several of you have also passed along your thoughts and opinions about the surveys, which I enjoy reading. Feel free to provide me with any feedback you wish. I dont want to continue to bombard you with emails, but it is part of the process of research that I have to provide you with a replacement survey. Below you will find the link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code and password you will need. The other survey will be resent today as well from an organization called Mind Garden entitled Invite from Mind Garden Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions regarding either survey. Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is gr eatly appreciated. You are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full report on your leadership style as well as your leve l of emotional intelligence once my research is completed in the spring. Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com Code: 7510-001-067 Password: leadership Thank you, Rochelle Rochelle Strickland Program Coordinator Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources UF/IFAS PO Box 110126 Gainesville, FL 32611-0126 Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244 Fax: 352-392-0589 Email: rotel20@ufl.edu http://wlianr.ifas.ufl.edu

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70 Final Follow-up Contact Email Dear Wedgworth Leadership Institute Alumni: Thank you to all of you who have already complete d one, if not both, of my surveys for my thesis research! I truly appreciate your help. Several of you have also passed along your thoughts and opinions about the surveys, which I enjoy reading. Feel free to provide me with any feedback you wish. I am now on week 5 of my data collection process and the surveys will be closing soon. If you have not had a chance to complete them, the information fo r the Emotional Intelligence survey is below. I will also resend the survey for Leadership Style assessment. Below you will find the link for the Emotional Intelligence survey assessment, along with the code and password you will need. The other survey will be resent as well from an organization called Mind Garden entitled Invite from Mind Garden Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions regarding either survey. Once again, your participation in completing the following assessments is gr eatly appreciated. You are helping to develop a better understanding of these two leadership concepts as well as the possible use of these concepts in future Wedgworth Leadership Institute programs. You will be able to receive a full report on your leadership style as well as your leve l of emotional intelligence once my research is completed in the spring. Link to Emotional Intelligence Survey: www.mhsassessments.com Code: 7510-001-067 Password: leadership Thank you, Rochelle Rochelle Strickland Program Coordinator Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources UF/IFAS PO Box 110126 Gainesville, FL 32611-0126 Phone: 352-392-0502 ext. 244 Fax: 352-392-0589 Email: rotel20@ufl.edu http://wlianr.ifas.ufl.edu

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71 LIST OF REFERENCES Abington-Cooper, M. (2005). An eva luation of the LSU Agricultural Centers agricultural leadership development program, 1988-2004 Doctoral Dissertat ion, Louisiana State University, 2005. Adair, J. (1984). The skills of leadership. New York, NY: Nichols Publishing. Agresti, A., & Finlay, B. (1997). Statistical methods for the social sciences (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Alimo-Metcalfe, B. (1999). Developments on l eadership research. Paper presented at BPS Annual Occupational Psychology Conference, Blackpool. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education. (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1995). Emotion in the workplace: A reappraisal. Human Relations, 48 (2), 97-125. Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (2004). Mutlifactor leadership questionnaire: Manual and sampler set. (3rd ed.) Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden. Avolio, B. J., Waldman, D. A., & Yammarino, F. J. (1991). Leading in the 1990s: The four Is of transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15 (4), 9-16. Barbuto, Jr., J. E., & Burbach, M. E. (2006). The emotional intelligence of transformational leaders: A field study of elected officials. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146 (1), 51-64. Barker, R. A. (1994). The rethinking of leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies, 1 (2), 46-54. Barling, J., Slater, F., & Kello way, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 21(3), 157-161. Bar-On, R. (2004). Emotional quotient inventory: A measure of emotional intelligence technical manual. Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdills handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). MLQ: Multifactor questionnaire: Third edition manual and sampler set. Redwood, CA: Mind Garden. Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategi es for taking charge. New York: Harper and Row Publications, INC.

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72 Bolton, E. B. (1991). Developing local leaders: Results of a structured learning experience. Journal of Community Development, 22 119-143. Boyatzis, R. E., Cherniss, C., & Elias, M. (Eds.). (2000, August 9). Developing emotional intelligence. Developments in Emotional Intelligence San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (1999, December 8). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: In sights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). [Electronic Version]. Brown, F. W., Bryant, S. E., & Reilly, M. D. (2006). Does emotional in telligence-as measured by the EQI-influence transformational lead ership and/or desirable outcomes? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27 (5), 330-351. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership New York: Harper & Row. Carson, K. D., & Carson, P. P. (1998, Spring) Career commitment, competencies, and citizenship. Journal of Career Assessment, (6) 2, 195-208. Carter, H. S. (2007) Wedgworth leadership institute fo r agriculture and natural resources [Brochure]. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Carter, H. S., & Rudd, R. D. (2000). Evaluation of the Florida leadership program for agriculture and natural resources. Journal of Southern Agricultu ral Education Research, 50 (1), 193199. Cavallo, K., & Brienza, D. (n.d.) Emotional competencies and leadership excellence at Johnson & Johnson: The emotional inte lligence and leadership study. Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Retrieved September 11, 2006, from www.eiconsortium.org. Cherniss, C., & Adler, M. (2000). Promoting emotional inte lligence in organizations Alexandria, VA: American Societ y for Training and Development. Davis, J. A. (1971). Elementary survey analysis. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Dillman, D. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. Downey, L. A., Papageorgiou, V., & Stough, C. (2006). Examining the relationship between leadership, emotional intelligence and in tuition in senior female managers. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 27(4), 250-264. Druskat, V. U. (1994). Gender and leadership style: Transformati onal and transactional leadership in the Roman Catholic Church. Leadership Quarterly, 5 (2), 99-119.

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73 Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing men and women. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 569-591. Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. (1990). Gender a nd leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233-256. Foster, R. (2001, October). Leadership for leaders in agriculture. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Interna tional Association of Programs for Agriculture Leaders, San Luis Abispo, CA. Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23(1/2), 68-78. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Goleman, D. (1998a). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 1 93-104. Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with emotional intelligence New York, NY: Bantam Books. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Re alizing the power of emotional intelligence Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Haynes, B. R. (1997). Factors affecting supervisory and management competencies of participants in Extension assessment centers Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus. Holder, S. L. (1990). Leadership style and leadership be havior preferences of cooperative Extension faculty. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Howell, R. E., Weir, I. L., & Cook, A. K. (1982). Development of rural leadership: Problems, procedures, and insights. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. R. (2006). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, Inc. Jones, D. W. W. (2006). Leadership in colleges of agricultural and life sciences: An examination of leadership skills, leadership styles, and problem solving styles of academic program leaders. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 2006. Kobe, L. M., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Rickers, J. D. (2001). Self-reported lead ership experiences in relation to inventor ied social and emotional intelligence. Current Psychology, 20 (2), 154163. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The l eadership challenge. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.

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74 Leban, W., & Zulauf, C. (2004). Linking emotiona l intelligence abilitie s and transformational leadership styles. The Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 25 (7), 554-564. Lindner, J. R., Murphy, T. H., & Briers, G. E. (2001). The hand ling of nonresponse in agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 42 (4), 43-53. Lowe, K. B., & Kroeck, K. G. (1996). Effec tiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385-426. Mandell, B., & Pherwani, S. (2003). Relatio nship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style: A gender comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17(3), 387-404. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets standards for traditional intelligence. Intelligence, 27 267-298. Mayer, J. D., & Geher, G. (1996). Emotional intelligence and the iden tification of emotion. Intelligence, 22 89-113. Miller, L. E. (1994). Correlati ons: Description or inference? Journal of Agricultural Education, 35(1), 5-7. Moore, L. L. (2003). Leadership in the cooperative extension system: An examination of leadership styles and skills of state directors and administrators. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 2003. Northouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership: Theory and practice (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Rosener, J. B. (1990). Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review, 68 (6), 119-125. Rothert, L. F. (1969). An analysis of changes in critical thinking ability, open-mindedness, and farm policy opinions of participants in the Kellogg Farmer Study Program. Doctoral Dissertation, Michigan State University, 1969. Taylor, J. (1962). How to select and develop leaders. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Tichy, N. M., & DeVanna, M. A. (1986, July). The transf ormational leader. Training and Development Journal, 40 (7), 26. Watkin, C. (2000). Developing emotional intelligence. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(2), 89-92. Wedgworth Leadership Institute [WLI] Directory. (2007). Directory of program graduates. University of Florida: Gainesville, FL. Weinberger, L. A. (2004). An examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style. University of Minnesota.

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75 Yammarino, F. J., & Dubinsky, A. J. (1994). Transf ormational leadership th eory: Using levels of analysis to determine boundary conditions. Personnel Psychology, 47 787-811. Yukl, G. A. (1989). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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76 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lara Rochelle Strickland was born in Dublin, Texas in 1983. She was raised in Stephenville, Texas with her m om and younger si ster. She graduated from Stephenville High School in May 2002. Miss Strickland earned her undergraduate degree from Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas in August 2006. Her degree was in agriculture leadership and development. In August 2006, Miss Strickland entered the graduate program in the Department of Agricultural Education and Commun ication at the University of Fl orida where she specialized in agricultural leadership. During her time in the graduate program at the University of Florida she served as a graduate teaching assistant where sh e assisted in the direc tion of three different agricultural courses. She also served as the Pr ogram Coordinator for th e Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and Natural Resources wh ere she was able to tr avel throughout Florida.