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Inventio Pindarica

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022193/00001

Material Information

Title: Inventio Pindarica The Altered Myths of Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2, and Isthmian 8
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ancient, games, greek, isthmian, literature, lyric, mythology, ode, olympian, pindar, poetry, pythian, unity
Classics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Classical Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines alterations made to mythological stories in four of Pindar's odes: Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2, and Isthmian 8. In each, Pindar presents his reader with a new version of a well-known tale from Greek mythology, yet remains silent about his source by employing such expressions as 'they say that . . .' or 'it is said that . . . .' These changes provide a view into Pindar's editorial mind, and identifying and analyzing them is crucial to illustrating an aspect of each ode's unity. In the case of Olympian 7, the myth about the apportionment of the earth among the immortals is changed in that Pindar has Helios absent from the casting of the lots. It is my view that, given the ode's focus on giving objects of great value, Pindar has made this change in order to emphasize the glory of Rhodes, his patron's homeland. In Pythian 1, Pindar alters the story concerning Tuphos, the final threat to Zeus' new reign. Pindar, differing from the tradition he inherits from earlier literature, describes how Tuphos was imprisoned beneath Aitna, yet still rages and sends lava and fire rushing out of the mountain. Since this mountain is the source of the name of Hieron's new colony, I see in this change an admonition to Hieron's son, Deinomenes, whom the former had just placed in charge of that new colony called Aitna, to persevere through adversity in order to establish peace and harmony in a kingdom. In Pythian 2, Pindar inverts the myth of Ixion. In the Homeric tradition he inherits, it is Zeus who seduces the wife of Ixion. Pindar makes Ixion, who had been granted a residence on Olympos, the transgressor. I think that this change is intended to demonstrate to Hieron how important it is for a ruler to be cautious when selecting advisors. In Isthmian 8, Pindar relates the myth about Thetis' marriage to Peleus. In his version, contrary to the previous tradition, he describes a quarrel between Zeus and Poseidon over who gets to marry the Nereid. Elsewhere he refers to the united Greek effort to expel the Persians and to Akhilleus' martial accomplishments in the effort against Troy. In all three of these elements, there is an outside threat which is vanquished by the banding together of previously divided Greek elements. Zeus and Poseidon set aside their quarrel in order to avoid the disastrous fate portended by the shadowy figure of Thetis' son, who is destined to be greater than his father. In reference to the Persian invasion, we see the banding together in the face of potential destruction of city-states that had not been previously unified. Finally, in the story of Akhilleus, one sees the success of the joint Greek effort to restore Helen to the Greek world.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Young, David C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022193:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022193/00001

Material Information

Title: Inventio Pindarica The Altered Myths of Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2, and Isthmian 8
Physical Description: 1 online resource (47 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ancient, games, greek, isthmian, literature, lyric, mythology, ode, olympian, pindar, poetry, pythian, unity
Classics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Classical Studies thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis examines alterations made to mythological stories in four of Pindar's odes: Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2, and Isthmian 8. In each, Pindar presents his reader with a new version of a well-known tale from Greek mythology, yet remains silent about his source by employing such expressions as 'they say that . . .' or 'it is said that . . . .' These changes provide a view into Pindar's editorial mind, and identifying and analyzing them is crucial to illustrating an aspect of each ode's unity. In the case of Olympian 7, the myth about the apportionment of the earth among the immortals is changed in that Pindar has Helios absent from the casting of the lots. It is my view that, given the ode's focus on giving objects of great value, Pindar has made this change in order to emphasize the glory of Rhodes, his patron's homeland. In Pythian 1, Pindar alters the story concerning Tuphos, the final threat to Zeus' new reign. Pindar, differing from the tradition he inherits from earlier literature, describes how Tuphos was imprisoned beneath Aitna, yet still rages and sends lava and fire rushing out of the mountain. Since this mountain is the source of the name of Hieron's new colony, I see in this change an admonition to Hieron's son, Deinomenes, whom the former had just placed in charge of that new colony called Aitna, to persevere through adversity in order to establish peace and harmony in a kingdom. In Pythian 2, Pindar inverts the myth of Ixion. In the Homeric tradition he inherits, it is Zeus who seduces the wife of Ixion. Pindar makes Ixion, who had been granted a residence on Olympos, the transgressor. I think that this change is intended to demonstrate to Hieron how important it is for a ruler to be cautious when selecting advisors. In Isthmian 8, Pindar relates the myth about Thetis' marriage to Peleus. In his version, contrary to the previous tradition, he describes a quarrel between Zeus and Poseidon over who gets to marry the Nereid. Elsewhere he refers to the united Greek effort to expel the Persians and to Akhilleus' martial accomplishments in the effort against Troy. In all three of these elements, there is an outside threat which is vanquished by the banding together of previously divided Greek elements. Zeus and Poseidon set aside their quarrel in order to avoid the disastrous fate portended by the shadowy figure of Thetis' son, who is destined to be greater than his father. In reference to the Persian invasion, we see the banding together in the face of potential destruction of city-states that had not been previously unified. Finally, in the story of Akhilleus, one sees the success of the joint Greek effort to restore Helen to the Greek world.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Young, David C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022193:00001


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INVENTIO PINDARICA:
THE ALTERED MYTHS OF OLYMPIAN 7, PYTHIAN 1, PYTHIAN 2, AND ISTHMIAN 8


















By

JAY S. ARNS


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Jay S. Arns


































MHTPI KAI HATPI









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my committee chair, Professor David C. Young, for his generosity and his

patience. He has greatly influenced my conception of what a scholar ought to be. I

thank also my readers, Dr. Robert S. Wagman and Dr. Konstantinos Kapparis, for their

valuable comments.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...... ......................... ............4

ABSTRACT ...................................... ................ ................. 6

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION.............................................. ................8

2 OLYM PIAN 7 ......... .............. .............. ................ .................13

3 P Y TH IA N 1.....................................................................................21

4 P Y TH IA N 2................................................................. ................ 26

5 ISTH M IA N 8............................................................... ... .............. 34

6 CONCLUSION............................................... ................42

R EFE R E N C E L IST ................................................................... .............. 44

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............... ...... ................. ................ .........47









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

INVENTIO PINDARICA:
THE ALTERED MYTHS OF OLYMPIAN 7, PYTHIAN 1, PYTHIAN 2, AND ISTHMIAN 8

By

Jay S. Arns

May 2008

Chair: Professor David C. Young
Major: Classical Studies

This thesis examines alterations made to mythological stories in four of Pindar's

odes: Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2, and Isthmian 8. In each, Pindar presents his

reader with a new version of a well-known tale from Greek mythology, yet remains

silent about his source by employing such expressions as "they say that ." or "it is said

that ... ." These changes provide a view into Pindar's editorial mind, and identifying

and analyzing them is crucial to illustrating an aspect of each ode's unity.

In the case of Olympian 7, the myth about the apportionment of the earth among

the immortals is changed in that Pindar has Helios absent from the casting of the lots. It

is my view that, given the ode's focus on giving objects of great value, Pindar has made

this change in order to emphasize the glory of Rhodes, his patron's homeland. In

Pythian 1, Pindar alters the story concerning Tuphos, the final threat to Zeus' new reign.

Pindar, differing from the tradition he inherits from earlier literature, describes how









Tuphos was imprisoned beneath Aitna, yet still rages and sends lava and fire rushing

out of the mountain. Since this mountain is the source of the name of Hieron's new

colony, I see in this change an admonition to Hieron's son, Deinomenes, whom the

former had just placed in charge of that new colony called Aitna, to persevere through

adversity in order to establish peace and harmony in a kingdom. In Pythian 2, Pindar

inverts the myth of Ixion. In the Homeric tradition he inherits, it is Zeus who seduces

the wife of Ixion. Pindar makes Ixion, who had been granted a residence on Olympos,

the transgressor. I think that this change is intended to demonstrate to Hieron how

important it is for a ruler to be cautious when selecting advisors.

In Isthmian 8, Pindar relates the myth about Thetis' marriage to Peleus. In his

version, contrary to the previous tradition, he describes a quarrel between Zeus and

Poseidon over who gets to marry the Nereid. Elsewhere he refers to the united Greek

effort to expel the Persians and to Akhilleus' martial accomplishments in the effort

against Troy. In all three of these elements, there is an outside threat which is

vanquished by the banding together of previously divided Greek elements. Zeus and

Poseidon set aside their quarrel in order to avoid the disastrous fate portended by the

shadowy figure of Thetis' son, who is destined to be greater than his father. In reference

to the Persian invasion, we see the banding together in the face of potential destruction of

city-states that had not been previously unified. Finally, in the story of Akhilleus, one

sees the success of the joint Greek effort to restore Helen to the Greek world.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The 1960s were a revolutionary time; not least of all for Pindaric scholarship. The

impetus for this scholarly revolution in Pindaric studies came from the publication of

Elroy Bundy's Studia Pindarica. The significance of this study cannot be overstated.' In

this work, Bundy called for the study of Pindar's odes in terms of the genre's

conventions. He declares from the outset: "It is, indeed, to this question of convention, in

matters small and large, that scholarship must now address itself if it is to add in any

significant way to our knowledge of Greek choral poetry."2 Here he calls for an

essentially structuralist approach to Pindar's poetry. In his view, it had become the duty

of scholars to establish what makes an epinikion an epinikion, as opposed to something

else. He wanted to set aside the tiresome attempts at biography and the expressions of

unity made out of an ignorance of the genre. His intention was to establish the structural

components common to the odes, and then to analyze them literarily from that

standpoint.

Soon afterward, support for Bundy's arguments came from an Austrian, Erich

Thummer, and an American, D. C. Young, both of whom were later classed among the

Bundyites.3 Thummer not only strongly endorsed Bundy's view in Pindar: Die





1 See, for example, Pfeijffer 14 where he divides Pindaric scholarship into pre- and post-Bundy.
2Bundy 1
3 Lloyd-Jones 116-117









isthmischen Gedichte, he also recognized the argument of Studia Pindarica as a break from

traditional Pindaric scholarship:

In entschiedener Abkehr von der Pindarerklirung, die auf den fragwirdigen
biographischen Nachrichten der Scholien und den oft nicht weniger fragwiirdigen
biographisch-historischen Kombinationen moderner Interpreten aufbaut, versucht
Bundy, den Inhalt und Aufbrau der Epinikien durch vergleichende
Gegeniiberstellung analoger Aussagen und Motive zu verstehen.4

In his "Pindaric Criticism," Young focused on what he identified as the chief concern of

most of Pindaric scholarship: namely, the problem of discerning unity in the individual

poems.5 In this study, he rejects the position held by Boeckh and Dissen that the unity of

a Pindaric ode can be expressed in a short, easy-to-digest statement of the poem's

primary theme (the Grundgedanke).6 He argues, on the contrary, that the passages of a

unified ode "are not bound together by a single thought, but are bound together to make

a single thought, which is the ode."7

In this study, I seek to demonstrate a rather ignored aspect of the unifying

elements (not full unity in Young's sense)8 in four odes: Olympian 7, Pythian 1, Pythian 2,

and Isthmian 8. Common to these four odes is the fact that in each Pindar has altered a

mythological story while remaining silent about the source of the new version,

employing expressions such as 4avwT, "they say." This led me to suspect that the novel

versions he offers are created in order to further his purpose, which is to amplify the


4 Thummer 10
5 Young (1970) 2
6 Young (1970) 2-11
7 Young (1970) 35
8 Young (1970) 6









praise he gives to his patron or to deliver some sort of instruction or advice. These

changes, then, provide a view into the editorial mind of Pindar, and allow the reader to

see what was important to him when he was composing these odes. In the case of

Olympian 7, the myth about the apportionment of the earth among the immortals is

changed in that Pindar has Helios absent from the casting of the lots. It is my view that,

given the ode's focus on giving objects of great value, Pindar has made this change in

order to emphasize the glory of Rhodes, his patron's homeland. The two prior instances

of giving in this poem contain a superior bestowing a desirable object on an inferior. In

the first, a father-in-law gives a golden chalice to his son-in-law. In the second, Athena

gives superior skill to the Heliadai, despite the fact that they neglected to make proper

sacrifices to her. In the Helios/Rhodes story, however, Helios' tardiness results in his

taking Rhodes, even though Zeus was about to recast the lots for him. This climactic

scene confers special glory on Rhodes, since Helios would rather have that island for

himself than risk his fortunes in the casting of lots.

In Pythian 1, Pindar alters the story concerning Tuphos. Pindar, differing from the

tradition he inherits from earlier literature, describes how Tuphos was imprisoned

beneath Aitna, yet still rages and sends lava and fire rushing out of the mountain. Since

this mountain is the source of the name of Hieron's new colony, I see in this change an

admonition to Hieron's son, Deinomenes, whom the former had just placed in charge of

that new colony called Aitna, to persevere through adversity in order to establish peace









and harmony in a kingdom. Tuphos was the final threat to the harmonious order Zeus

strove to establish. The other myth mentioned in the poem is the story of Philoktetes,

who, although injured, was responsible for the eventual fall of Troy. Adding depth to

this situation is the scholiast's comment that Hieron himself had to be carried into battle

on a litter due to a "stone-sickness." In this context, one may see Pindar pointing to Zeus

(in his battle with Tuphos), Philoktetes, and Hieron as exempla for the young

Deinomenes.

In Pythian 2, Pindar inverts the myth of Ixion. In the Homeric tradition he inherits,

it is Zeus who seduces the wife of Ixion. Pindar makes Ixion, who had been granted a

residence on Olympos, the transgressor. I think that this change is intended to

demonstrate to Hieron how important it is for a ruler to be cautious when selecting

advisors. This theme is furthered by Pindar's presentation of a comparison between an

ape who is praised by children as "beautiful" and Rhadamanthus. In this comparison,

Pindar is exhorting Hieron to be like the wise Rhadamanthus, who has an honest opinion

of himself, and not like the ape, who allows himself to be deceived by fawning flatterers.

In Isthmian 8, Pindar relates the myth about Thetis' marriage to Peleus. In his

version, contrary to the previous tradition, he describes a quarrel between Zeus and

Poseidon over who gets to marry the Nereid. Elsewhere he refers to the united Greek

effort to expel the Persians and to Akhilleus' martial accomplishments in the effort

against Troy. In all three of these elements, there is an outside threat which is









vanquished by the banding together of previously divided Greek elements. Zeus and

Poseidon set aside their quarrel in order to avoid the disastrous fate portended by the

shadowy figure of Thetis' son, who is destined to be greater than his father. In reference

to the Persian invasion, we see the banding together in the face of potential destruction of

city-states that had not been previously unified. Finally, in the story of Akhilleus, one

sees the success of the joint Greek effort to restore Helen to the Greek world.

In the chapters that follow, I present these arguments in fuller form. Although

what I have described cannot be considered "unity" according to Young's specifications,

I see in these odes a unifying factor derived from an analysis of the changes Pindar

makes to the myths he presents.









CHAPTER 2
OLYMPIAN 7

Olympian 7, written to commemorate the 464 B.C. boxing victory of Diagoras of

Rhodes, has attracted much scholarly attention. Many have attempted to describe its

unity. Norwood, for example, assigns to this ode the image of the rose, saying, "Here

glows the most obvious, and the most delightful, symbol to be discovered in his work,

giving richness and unity to the whole sequence of myths."' Few would disagree with

the observation that the rose dominates the imagery of this poem. The rose by itself

cannot, however, fully explain the ode's unity. As Young observes concerning the

poem's opening simile:

The frequent quest for the relationship of the simile to the remainder of the poem
remains unclear. Because of the elaborate nature of the simile, those who attempt
to assess its relevance ought to examine the significance of the cup in the wedding
ceremony as well as any possible adumbrations, in the proem, of subsequent
themes.2

The significance of the cup, as well as that of the act of giving, contributes to what I

believe to be the main unifying theme of this poem. Lawall has noted the importance of

giving,3 but does not meet Young's requirement of establishing a context for the opening

simile. The change Pindar makes to the myth concerning the apportionment of the earth,

along with Helios' choosing of Rhodes, contributes much to the unity of this ode.





1 Norwood 141
2 Young (1968) 69
3 Lawall, G. 1961. "The cup, the rose, and the winds in Pindar's Seventh Olympian." RFIC 39: 33-47.

13









The vexed nature of the opening simile has been treated time and again by

numerous commentators. A recent study by Retter4 establishes the two main readings of

the troublesome phrase, "acwvEtc; ir6 XELtQ6o; Acbv" (1). The first of these readings,

favored by Young,5 insists that andr can only mean "from" in this context, leading to the

translation "having taken (the cup) from a wealthy hand," in which case it becomes

unclear whose hand it is, since one would not likely take something from his own hand.

No serious critic of this poem would deny Young's position that the hand belongs to

someone else.6 The meaning of avE ti&, then becomes "munificent," referring to the

abundance of the wine poured, not the financial wealth of the individual.7 The second

reading, favored by Verdenius,8 is more lax in its treatment of the preposition, allowing

the translation, "having taken (the cup) in/with his wealthy hand." This obviously

presupposes that the hand belongs to the father-in-law. Regardless of one's position on

how this phrase ought to be translated, all can agree that the cup is handed over

(bio(QrCTai) to the son-in-law. What is significant about this scene to the present

argument is that an authority figure has given an object of desire to a recipient. This





4 Retter, A. 2002. Das Prooimion von Pindars Siebter Olympischer Ode: Versuch einer intergrierenden Lbisung von
Bezugsproblemen. Innsbruck.
5 Young (1968) 69-75
6 Young adduces a convincing parallel from Sophokles. Having expressed shame at how few gifts she has
bestowed on her father's grave (Elektra 450 ff.), Elektra hopes someday to give more lavishly (a&cveciTQaL;
XQcOi [457]). As Young concludes, the expression "is not so much concerned with an increase in Electra's
finances as with an increase in the magnitude of her giving" (1968) 72 n. 4.
7 Young (1968) 72
8 Verdenius 42-43









episode speaks to the concept of giving in the poem as a whole, since, as will become

clear, the types of exchange are not uniform.

Pindar continues the ode by briefly making his giving of the poem to Diagoras

parallel to the father-in-law's gift at the feast, and then moving to praise of the victor, his

family, and his homeland. He announces that he will provide a true account from the

origin of the story; namely, the founder, Tlapolemos. Before he begins this narrative,

however, he delivers the following gnomic statement:

dcqij b' civOcbrrcv 4daoxcv ntraa ciaut
6ivaQiO9rlTO Ic KQavTa'" TOUTO b' C)'OXavov UQLV,
6 tL v0v v i a TEAvUT8 4)OQTaTOV xvbQi TUXELV. (24-26)

Countless faults hang around the minds of men; and it is impossible to discover
what now and in the end is best to happen to a man.

I join Young not only in placing this passage structurally as prefatory (it is clearly meant

to inform what follows), but also in resisting other commentators' attempts to identify

this statement as a justification of the murder of Likumnios.9 This is a general statement

about the unknowability of an event's consequences.

Following this gnome are two instances in which mortals err, but, instead of

complete failure, they receive divine blessings. Tlapolemos, after committing murder,

could hardly expect to be rewarded. However, after consulting the oracle, he is sent on a

mission of foundation. Similarly, although the Heliadai fail in their task to make suitable

sacrifices to Athena, they are nevertheless unexpectedly rewarded with superior abilities


9 Young (1968) 81









in craftsmanship and with great fame. The significance of the preceding gnome becomes

clear. It is not possible to determine how a situation will be resolved until that resolution

has already come to pass. The significance of these stories in the principal theme of

giving in this poem is, once again, that a superior figure has bestowed something

valuable upon a recipient of lesser rank.

Pindar next focuses on the myth concerning the divine apportionment of the earth.

He begins this section with the following passage:

4avwi b' ivOQcbrTcov 7TaAatai
Qcrt;, o7Trn), 6T X06va baMTovTO ZEOC; Tr Kai 0 O6vaTOL,
4)avwQiv v 7TAxyt 'Pobov Jtv 7T'ovTicW,
ApAvuQoi; b' v P[vOumLv vacov KEKQOc)Oat.
r7TrOVTO; b' OUTL; vbiE~Ev AdXoc 'AEAiovu
Kai 06c1 tiv XcoQac; cKAiQcOTov AimTOv,
ayv6v E6v. (54-60)

The ancient reports of men say that, when Zeus and the other immortals were
dividing the land, Rhodes had not yet appeared in the expanse of the sea, and the
island was hidden in the salty depths. And, since Helios was absent, no one
marked out a portion for him, and they left him with no portion of land, although
he was a holy god.

The operative term in this passage is "TraAata't OL c&;." These anonymous ancient

reports allow Pindar to invent his new version of the myth without concerning himself or

the audience with the precise source, while at the same time adding an air of authority.

The new element of this story is that Helios was not present for the casting of lots to

determine which immortals received which portion of the earth. The extant literary









sources for this myth prior to Pindar make no mention of Helios' absence during the

apportionment. In the Iliad, for example, Poseidon states:

TQE i; yaQ T' iK KQcvov ElEniv cib&A4oi, o; TKETO 'PEa,
ZE~O Kaid Eyz(, TQLTaTOc b' A'brl); EvQOLtL(v (vrocawv.
TQLXOc b 1rVTva bbCaoCaUT, (KacTOC; b' tOQ9 TL tfl";
irot iLycbv Aaxov ioATiv aAa vatip^v aiEl
7TaAAopvcov, ATibqr b' AaXE C(6I ov ErQOVTwa,
ZE~iU b' EAaX' oUavOv E~UUv iv aiLQtL Kcai vE)ArtLoLv.
yala b' rtL Evvi1 7TvCOv 1KaL pKatKQ6; "OAvkTnoT;
Tn Oa Kai L o0 TL ALO6; piopatL )QEcuv, cAA KTAcqAo;
KcailKQcaTEQ; 7Tg Q ic(v paEVET( TQLTarTTqL rvi [pOQirt. (15.187-195)

For we three are brothers from Kronos, we whom Rhea bore: Zeus and I, and the
third is Hades ruling over those below. And all things are divided in three ways,
and each has taken a share of honor: indeed, I was allotted the fate always to dwell
in the gray sea, and Hades won the murky darkness, and Zeus won the broad sky
among the air and the clouds: and the earth and lofty Olympos were yet the
common possession of all of us. So, consequently, I will in no way live beneath
the will of Zeus, but, although he is stronger, let him remain at ease in his third
portion.

No mention is made of any of the other immortals or of a casting of lots, let alone to

Helios' being absent during such a casting. There is, however, a possible textual

parallel between Pindar's use of the phrase "bt ... 'TOXa" (75) and the Homeric use of

"TQLX0a" (15.189). If both Rhodes and the earth are similarly divided within the

context of this situation, then Pindar may be suggesting parallelism between Rhodes

and the entire earth-quite high praise indeed for the victor's homeland.

The brief treatment of this idea in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter reinforces the

notion that the apportionment only took place among the three brothers:









aAAa OEd KcaTarUavE piyav yOov- oUbC TL ciF XQi
0p1j a cn,; 7rArlov XLOV Xv 6Aov oV TOiL acELKc
yap[og6c; v aOavaTotO; 7ioAvuor 1avTaQ A'ibwvEc;,
aOTOKlcacyvqTOC; Kai 6p6CaTroQoc;- apc i bi TL^pV
MAAXEav cc Ti r 7TQcTa btiaTQLxa bac7it6O; T9OXrq. (82-86)

But, goddess, put an end to this great lamentation: nor in any way is it necessary
to hold onto ceaseless anger like this: indeed, many-ruling Aidoneus is no unfit
husband among the immortals, since he is your own brother, born from the same
source: and as for honor, he enjoys a share just as he did when the threefold
division first was made.

The final literary treatment of this event prior to Pindar's time comes from Hesiod's

Theogony:

aOVTQ 7Trri Oa r7Tvov paKlcaQE; Eoi E ETAE (xav,
TLTvEacrct bi tLatov cTiKQLVaVTO p[iL,
5b Qa TOT' OTQUVVOV PaclAEUvEv rbb xv6a7U7ELv
Fail; )QabptoouvyrvcLv 'OApuitLov Ev0Qonaa Zflv
aiav6arcov 6 bi TolCTLv i, bLb coCaTo TLd aC;. (881-885)

But when the blessed gods had finished their toil and had settled by force their
struggle for honors with the Titans, then indeed they urged wide-seeing Olympian
Zeus, by the shrewdness of Gaia, to reign and to rule over the immortals: and he
divided their honors among them well.

The difference between the Hesiodic version and the two Homeric accounts is twofold.

First, this version introduces the idea that Zeus is chosen by universal consent to rule

over the rest of the gods, and that it is he who divides the honors. In the previous two

versions, the apportionment was decided by lot, not by Zeus. Second, in the Hesiodic

story, all the gods receive some portion of the honor, not just the three brothers (Zeus,

Poseidon, and Hades) as in the other two. Pindar's version, therefore, is the first to

incorporate the element of an absent Helios.









The significance of the sun god's absence is revealed in the passage immediately

following the announcement of Helios' missing out on the apportionment. Pindar

informs the reader that Zeus was about to recast the lots so that Helios could receive one,

but the sun god would not allow it. Instead, he says that he sees an island rising from

the depths of the sea at that precise moment, an island rioA0poco ov avOQc06r oitc KIca

Eij)Qova pflAoLg, "bountiful for men and favorable for flocks" (63). He would rather

have this island than stand the hazard of a recasting. Lakhesis is brought in to swear an

oath that this island, Rhodes, would from that time forward belong to Helios. The

significance of this episode within the framework of giving is its reciprocity. Whereas in

the other sections of this poem, an object is bestowed upon someone by a superior; in this

case, Helios chooses and (with Zeus' blessing) takes Rhodes. Adding to the peculiar

nature of exchange present in this myth is the fact that the superior, Zeus, was preparing

to accommodate the lesser god, but Helios did not permit him (viv OUOK ef'ia v [61]). The

inversion of the theme is striking. It is my contention that Pindar, by means of this

inversion, provides Rhodes, the home of his patron, with a touching tribute. Diagoras'

homeland is thereby exalted above all others. Contrary to the other recipients in the ode,

Helios not only knows the value of what he will receive, but he also actively acquires it.

The poem then concludes by completing the Ringkomposition noted by Illig and

othersO1 with a return to the story of Tlapolemos, as well as further praise for Diagoras



10 Illig 58-59; Finley (1955) 71; Fehr 131









and his family. The final sentence has been variously interpreted. Lawall and others

(Boeckh, for example) consider the imagery of the shifting winds troublesome, as though

ill fortune were brewing." I incline toward the position of Kirkwood who comments,

"The variability of fortune stresses the greatness of such moments of human glory as

those won by the victor's prowess."12 This view falls into line nicely with the previous

gnomic statement that one cannot know what is best until the consequences have shown

themselves.

We have seen that the major recurrent theme of giving is established in the

opening simile, continued in the stories of Tlapolemos and the Heliadai, and finally

inverted to the benefit of the patron and his homeland. The change Pindar made to the

myth of the divine apportionment of the earth can now be seen as essential to his

program. He required that Helios arrive late so that he could actively choose Rhodes for

himself. This alteration allowed Pindar to highlight Rhodes as something valuable,

thereby glorifying his patron more highly.















11 In this, he reverts to the stance taken by much of 19th-century scholarship.
12 Kirkwood 109









CHAPTER 3
PYTHIAN 1

Pythian 1, written for Hieron's' 470 B.C. victory in the chariot race, is an ode where

unity seems primafacie to be fairly obvious. The lyre appears at the beginning and at the

end, leading Norwood to view it as the dominant image.2 As Skulsky notes, however,

"the lyre is not, in point of fact, a unifying element, for it does not make the poem 'one."'3

It does not, in other words, run through all the sections of the poem. It merely encircles

them. I believe that the unifying element of this ode is the idea of a monarch overcoming

adversity to establish peace. A compressed version of this unifying theme occurs in the

altered version Pindar offers of the story about Tuphos, the terrifying monster who

represents the last real threat to the new regime established by Zeus.

Pindar begins this ode with a lengthy description of the soothing effects that result

from a lyre's music. It calms not only Zeus' eagle, but also mighty Ares. He soon turns,

however, to those creatures whom Zeus does not love, who are terrified by the sound of

the lyre. From here, Pindar launches into a unique description of the monster Tuphos'

causing Mt. Aitna to belch flames.4 Although the battle with Tuphos is not mentioned






1 Diodorus Siculus informs us at 11.49 that Hieron had founded Aitna with a combination of settlers from
the Peloponnesus and from Syracuse. He then changed the name from Katana to Aitna. It is therefore not
as unusual as it may first appear to refer to Diagoras, ruler of Syracuse, as a citizen of Aitna.
2 Norwood 102
3 Skulsky 8
4 On Pindar's original account of Tuphos' imprisonment beneath Mt. Aitna, see Duchemin, J. 1972. "Le
captif de l'Etna: Typh6e 'frbre' de Prom6th6e." Studi class, in on. di Q. Cataudella (I): 149-172.

21









explicitly, it is nevertheless evoked by the discussion of the monster's being confined

beneath the mountain. Pindar says of him:

Tuvcjxdg KaTovTaK'c avo C- TV rOTE
KLAlKLov OQpiEv r7oAU(vvv ov UOV VTov: vOv y Ei pv
Tai 0' 7TTQ Kpacx; aAtQfKt; 6X0at
ULKEAAa T' aOUToO T7TL(E oUT-Qva AaXVvEaVT- KXiV b' o Oavia UUVXEL,
vtl46Eg' Al'(va, 7TavErg; Xt6Lvog; 6ELag; TL8Iva. (16-20)

Tuphos the hundred-headed, whom the famous Kilikian cave once reared; now,
however, the sea-fencing cliffs above Kume as well as Sicily weigh upon his
shaggy chest, and a skyward column constrains him, snowy Aitna, nurse of biting
snow for the whole year.

We see here that Tuphos has been imprisoned underneath Mt. Aitna. Although Pindar

represents Zeus as the confident and supreme ruler, the Olympian victory over Tuphos

was not a guarantee. Along these lines, Pindar provides the following image in reference

to Aitna:

ToC; QEQUyovTaL piv arhAaTOU TuQO6; iayvoTaTaL
1K pvUXacv rTayai,- TOTapoi b' AiotaCLV pvv rTQOX0OVTL 06ov KairTvov
a'iOwv'. cAA' v 6OQ)vatcLv r7TtQa;
)oivtcrca KuALvbo[piva 4)A6 ~c; P3aOalav 4)QEtL TOVTOU rTiAra o-rv raTaryc).
IKLvo b' Aa(CUTOLo o IKOUvoi,; 7TTi6v
bELvoTarTOUv; av airUEt. (21-26)

From whose depths belch forth holiest springs of unapproachable fire; during the
days, rivers of lava pour forth a blazing stream of smoke, but in times of darkness
a rolling red flame carries rocks into the deep expanse of the sea with a crash.
That monster sends up most terrible springs of Hephaistos' fire.

That Tuphos still rages in his volcano prison is significant to the dominant theme of a

monarch persevering through difficulty to establish order. The lava and rocks spewed

forth out of the mountain serve as reminders of the great difficulty Zeus had to rid the









world of disorder. Zeus, the ruler of the universe, established a cosmic peace only after

he bested Tuphos. The battle with the Titans was a significant struggle for Zeus, but his

victory there did not bring about the peace foregrounded by Pindar.

After this description of Mt. Aitna, Pindar finally introduces his patron. He adds

to his praise of Hieron many wishes for the well-being of the newly founded city that

bears the same name as the mountain sitting atop the monster Tuphos. That the new

colony and Tuphos' mountain prison share the same name reinforces the connection

between the leaders, Zeus and Hieron, who must be on guard against the threat of chaos.

He concludes this section with the hope that he might not be overzealous in his attempts

to praise Hieron, thereby misfiring with his "javelin."5

In the next section, Pindar relates the story of Philoktetes-the famed Greek

bowman left behind on Lemnos, but eventually retrieved in the following way:

vvv yE pOV Tv cOlAoKTlTao biKav rj7TCOV
oFTQaTE~Ul0q. cv b' Xv6ayKlx. VLV 4fAov
Kca TIC; i~(v pEyaAOhvoQ OcravEv. 4)axvi bi AcvO6 Ev AK EL TLQ6OpVOV
Tua[3x(70ovTaC; iA9lv
igQoaC; avtLiouv ; HoiavTOC; uviv Tor6Tav-
6; HYlQttoto 7ToAtv 7TQCr7EV, TERAEUTaCTV TE 7TOvovU Aavaol;,
6(OEVL 6 ev XQ(oi PaivoCv, cIAA(i pOLQitov qv. (50-55)

Just now indeed, following the manner of Philoktetes, he has gone on campaign;
and even one being proud fawned upon him with necessity as a friend. And they
say that the godlike heroes came to retrieve from Lemnos the archer, the son of



5 For a full discussion of the interpretation of this passage, see Ellsworth, J. D. 1973. "Pindar's Pythian 1.44:
aycovo c paAEv Eco, a New Suggestion." AIPh 94.3: 293-296. Ellsworth here concludes that Pindar is
expressing the idea that "praise must be neither excessive nor defective, but entirely appropriate to the
occasion" (296).









Poias, who was distressed by his wound; he who destroyed Priam's city and
ended the Danaans' toils, walking with infirm flesh, but it was fated.

The significance to the primary theme of persevering through adversity to rid one's

kingdom of disorder is clear. Philoktetes is bitten by a snake and suffers greatly, yet he

nevertheless arrives at Troy and ends the siege and the war. In that sense, he is the figure

who dispels the discord. The significance may be taken further from a comment on line

46 made by the scholiast:

KapTrov (do TCOv cuvEXvoCv TO v TOI TEQva ic TOUo voon ptaTOC; Trc AitovuQia;.
qcrlc yaQ rTov KCai 6 AQiUTOTAoikA; iv T'] T'CrV FEAcucov ToA1TEL~qi [T6v FEAcova]
QbiC)Q vo VO aTlri T6v P[ov TErAUTr1Uao T6v TOU TQIcOvoC; cibAEAO, aUTOv bi T6O
TiQCOva, iv T] T'CLv vuOQaXOUG OLV 7ToALTEli, bvuovUiav bvcbUvTUXGla.6

It is said that Hieron suffered from a stone-sickness. For even Aristotle says
somewhere in The Constitution of Gela that Hieron's brother met his fate with a
dropsy sickness, and that Hieron himself, in the land of Syracuse, suffered from
difficult urination.

The scholiast further comments that Hieron had to be carried into battle on a litter due

to this same sickness. Regardless of whether this ailment was kidney stones or some

other distress of the urinary tract, the parallel is almost explicit: Hieron has persevered

through hardship just like the other paradigms in the poem. Perhaps he did this to

vanquish disorder. The battles fought by Hieron and his army, on the other hand, could

very well have been pure conquest, but it seems fitting that those ambitions would be

sidestepped in a poem of praise. Hieron himself, then, is set parallel to Zeus and

Philoktetes in terms of success through hardship in the attainment of peace.


6 Drachmann 89a









Then Pindar seems to leave his praise of Hieron and turn his attention to his son,

Deinomenes, for whom the former had established the city of Aitna. Pindar asks the

Muse to stand beside Hieron's son, since a father's victory is no alien joy (X6aQpta OUK

cAAoiTQov vu~a)oQia r CrTQOC [59]). The rest of the poem seems to be a long list meant

to demonstrate to Deinomenes how to be a good ruler. Pindar asks Zeus to be present,

saying:

ovv TO TiV KV ayrlTTQ avAv1Q,
Uic4 T' iur7tTAA6ovo;, b5iaov yQaiocov TQ6 rTOi ourv)Ovov i; ACovUXiav. (69-70

For with you a man who is a ruler and instructs his son can, honoring his people,
lead them into harmonious peace.

This passage is instructive. It demonstrates the concern for establishing peace, as well as

making reference to the specific efforts of Hieron for his son, Deinomenes. The poet is

admonishing the young man to lead his people to peace by following the example of his

father, Hieron, who did so even though he had to struggle through personal adversity

and physical pain.

The concluding reference to the lyre rounds out the poem, bringing to mind the

lyre mentioned at the beginning. This is not, however, the unifying element of the ode.

The mythological exempla of Zeus, Tuphos, and Philoktetes, as well as the real-life

example of Hieron, bring an element of unity to this ode. Pindar suggests to the young

Deinomenes that a defining characteristic of a good ruler is the desire to establish order

out of chaos.









CHAPTER 4
PYTHIAN 2

Pythian 2, written for a chariot victory won by Hieron of Syracuse,' has remained

"full of mysteries"2 up to the present day. There have been many claims to discern its

unity. Norwood, for example, announces that the unity of this ode may be derived from

its dominant image, the measuring-line, which to him suggests "ordinance, regulation."3

His subsequent attempts to demonstrate this theme in the rest of the poem, however, are

unconvincing. Hubbard puts forth an argument that seems far preferable. He believes

that "Hieron is being admonished against poor judgment in selecting his advisors and

companions."4 Although Hubbard limits himself in his argument to lines 72 and 73 (the

famous discussion of the ape and Rhadamanthus), I believe that this theme extends

throughout the entire poem. A unifying element of this ode, then, comes from the

formative idea that a person of power must be cautious in choosing his company.

Pindar begins this ode with lavish praise for both Syracuse and Hieron. In lines

15-17, however, he pauses from his praise of Hieron to mention Kinuras, who might have

been, as Bowra suggests, "a contemporary of Agamemnon, and yet he was still

remembered in Pindar's time. He had passed into song and earned that immortality



1 The venue and date of this ode's corresponding victory are debated. I incline toward Young's conclusion,
namely that this was composed for the victory at Olympia in 468. For a full discussion of all contingent
circumstances, see Young, D. C. 1983. "Pindar Pythians 2 and 3: Inscriptional 7~o'r and the 'Poetic Epistle,'"
HSCP 87: 31-48.
2 Bowra (1937) 1
3 Norwood 189
4 Hubbard 74









which on Pindar's view is given by song."5 Is Pindar suggesting that Kinuras' prudence

resulted in his immortality through song? We cannot be certain. What is certain, though,

is that Kinuras was a celebrated, divinely attended ruler (16-17). From the outset, Pindar

provides a paradigm for Hieron to emulate.

The ode then focuses on the story of Ixion. Pindar gives an altered version of this

myth, which he begins by saying:

OCLv b' t)Titalt v'Iiova 4)avTi xTaura [3POTOC;
AEyELv Ev rTTEQOEVTL TQOXc
ravTCA KUALvb56pEvov:
Tov EjQgyTav xy&avali; apoi3gal; ~i7OLxopnvov; TiLVEoGai. (21-24)

They say that by the commands of the gods Ixion, rolling in every direction on the
winged wheel, says the following things to mortals: approaching your benefactor,
repay him with sweet recompenses.

He then describes the cause of this punishment. Ixion, having been given a dwelling

among the immortals on Olympos, becomes madly enamored of Hera and attempts to

seduce her. Zeus fashions a likeness of his queen out of a cloud, which becomes the

repository of Ixion's passion. This bizarre union is followed by both the birth of

Kentauros and the binding of Ixion to the wheel.6






s Bowra (1937) 6
6 Most commentators from Gildersleeve (260) to Race ([2002] 235 n. 2) identify this TTzEQ6EVTL TQOXC with
the Ivy, a love-charm consisting of a four-spoke wheel adorned with the carcass of a bird. Pindar's
comment at lines 40-41 confirms this view. This same image may be seen in Theocritus' second Idyll, in
which a woman tries to reclaim her lover by means of both this object and the repetition of the phrase
"lvy, AKE TO TVOV pov Ttov ~iDaOL bi ov vbQa." The use of the iuy to punish Ixion, then, constitutes
symbolic retribution, since it was love (or the reasonable approximation, lust) that produced his crime.

27









The operative term in this passage is "( avTi," since the only extant literary source

for the myth of Ixion differs markedly from what one sees in Pindar's version. We learn

in the Iliad (14.317) that it was Zeus who seduced Ixion's wife-the precise opposite of

what Pindar writes. It is my contention that Pindar alters this myth in order to fit his

dominant theme of caution in choosing one's company. This depends on a unique view

of Hieron's relationship to Pindar's version of the myth of Ixion. Oates, expressing the

opinion of a great many commentators, believes that Pindar is saying that Hieron is "a

great man, a companion of the gods if not practically their equal; he can be or become

either like Ixion or like Cinyras."7 Nowhere else in the poem, however, is Hieron made

analogous to a social inferior. He is at the start likened to Kinuras, and toward the end

Pindar invites a comparison with Rhadamanthus. Why, then, would his model in the

Ixion myth not be Zeus himself? Within the context of admonishing Hieron to be

cautious of the company he keeps, Pindar provides him with an example of ill company

causing trouble for the ultimate monarch. Even Zeus, he seems to indicate, although

omnipotent and omniscient, must be wary of those he has around him. It is tempting to

read Ixion as a negative exemplum for Hieron. It seems natural that Pindar would

advise his patron to be grateful for all the gifts he possesses, and gratitude is at the

forefront of the gnome Ixion speaks from the wheel. This dictum, however, is later

referred to as a 7ToAvKOLvov xyy&EAav, a "message common to all" (42). Ixion's advice,


Gates 380









then, may be applicable to Hieron, but only inasmuch as it is aimed at everyone. The

message meant specifically for Hieron, however, seems to be that those in power must be

careful in choosing their entourage, since even the Lord of Olympos fell victim to foul

company. In its full context, this myth as Pindar relates it becomes, for Hieron, a

cautionary tale from the perspective of Zeus, not Ixion.

Pindar begins the next section of his poem by acknowledging the god's ability to

accomplish whatever he desires and to reward or punish mortals. Following as it does

the story of Ixion, one may reasonably construe it as a summation of that myth. It also

serves, however, as a transition into the next portion of the ode. After mentioning the

god's power, Pindar states that he must avoid becoming a censurer like Arkhilokhos,

presumably because he has just finished describing the deplorable actions of Ixion. The

line following his self-warning has attracted much attention:

TO 7TAoUTvLv b oiFbv TVXq 7'6 TOTOU Coia (a; QLCTov. (56)

To have wealth with a share of destiny is the best object of wisdom.

Many different interpretations have been offered. Gerber, for example, is most satisfied

by the explanation that "a man is deemed sophos, or to have reached the pinnacle of

sophia, if he has ploutos (wealth, success) along with the aid of some power beyond man

(potmos, daim6n)."8 Oates's observation, though, fits best in the context of this argument:

Whether we translate "To be wealthy with the circumstance of wisdom which fate
gives is best," or, "To be wealthy with the circumstances that fate gives is the best


8 Gerber 107









of wisdom," the general idea of the line in the poem seems clear: To accept your
wealth as your TvXr but to use it with coo ia is best.9

Ultimately what matters in this passage is Pindar's exhortation to Hieron to be

responsible with the power he righteously possesses-a sentiment close to the more

modern notion of noblesse oblige. Exactly how one may do this, however, is not directly

addressed at this point in the poem. Rather, Pindar now launches into a lengthy,

extravagant encomium. He declares, for example:

E Ib TIC;
)bq rl ca:(ETCTo Trc i Ka rr7T Q L T Ahyt
TEQOv TLV' av' 'EAAbCa Tcyv 7rQOt6E yEVo-UaL UrTQTE OV,
Xavvq riQanribt nraAatpovEl KIEVE. (58-61)

If anyone at this time claims that any other previous Greek [i.e., beside Hieron] is
superior in terms of wealth and honor, with an empty mind he wrestles in vain.

This is indeed some of the highest praise Pindar offers anywhere. He has placed Hieron

at the pinnacle of wealth and honor-the precise condition he has mentioned as

requiring wisdom and discretion, particularly in terms of those he keeps in his court.

The poet goes on to praise Hieron's martial skill, as well as his povAai r7TQ~[3E3TQaL, or

"rather mature counsels" (65). He ends this encomiastic explosion with a single word:

"XaiqE" (67). Race believes this word to be a separation marker for the poem, since

Pindar draws a distinction between To6bE pAoc (67-68) and the KacnT6QEtov (69) which

apparently has not yet arrived.10


9 Oates 381
10 Race (2002) 239 n. 1









At this juncture, Pindar delivers one of his more famous gnomes, whose meaning

has been variously interpreted:

yivot', oo; caac'i tpa6cbv. (72)

Become such as you are, having learned what you are.

The significance of the statement at this point in the poem may be explained by

examining what immediately precedes and follows it. Preceding this advice is the lavish

praise mentioned previously; following it is the description of the ape and the children.

The nature of the praise is clarified by what follows:

IcaA6o; TO Turi(v taQi nTa1iaiv, alEi
caAoc;. 6 b 'Pab6 xaavvc; &E tUr TrayEv, 6T1L 4)QvcOv
AaXx KcaQ7Tv [d5jarmTov, oOVb' Cit raTacT vOua6v TQ7TTMa vbo9v,
ola itpuqivcv naAdipati i7TET' aLE P9OT'C. (72-75)

The ape is indeed beautiful to children, always beautiful. But Rhadamanthus has
fared well, because he was allotted the blameless fruit of judgment, and does not
delight in his soul in deceits, such as always follow a mortal through the cunning
of slanderers.

Interpretations of this passage abound. Boeckh, for example, makes the foolery of the

children parallel (but contrasted) to the wise judgment of Rhadamanthus.12 This,

however, presents a problem, since there is no parallel left for Hieron except the ape.

After decrying the scholiasts' position that the ape represents Bakkhulides, Bowra

comments that "it is really possible that they are right and that Pindar is hinting at


11 There are those who wish to make the participle refer to the praise itself, as in Gildersleeve's "Show
thyself who thou art, for I have taught it thee" (264); while others interpret it as forward-looking, as in
Nisetich's "Listen, and become what you are" (165). Here, I concur with Race, who translates, "Become
such as you are, having learned what that is" ([2002] 239).
12 Boeckh 448-449









Bacchylides,"13 although he admits "no good reason has been found why the title of Ape

should fit Bacchylides more than anyone else."14 Race takes this position as well,

although for a different reason. He sees no possible reference to Bakkhulides or any

other political friction, since "alluding to such matters in a public ode on a ceremonial

occasion would be in remarkably bad taste and would offend the very patron one was

praising."15 Woodbury sees Rhadamanthus as parallel to the ape.16 Within the context of

admonishing Hieron to mind his company, this final position seems most likely. Pindar

is advising Hieron to be like the wise judge, Rhadamanthus, not the ape who is easily

charmed by the fawning praise of insincere hangers-on. The ape is not beautiful, but the

children have deceived the gullible creature into believing he is. This is not what a great

man ought to do. He ought to surround himself with people who give him honest (if

occasionally somewhat critical) opinions.17 He should, in Delphic fashion, know himself.

This is the relevance of the gnomic statement at line 72. The position taken up by

Wilamowitz18 and Burton, both of whom construe the participle, "xa6cbvv," as prefatory,

is that the phrase introduces the story that follows. As Burton notes, "The encomium is



13 Bowra (1937) 9
14 Bowra (1937) 9
15 Race (1986) 64
16 Woodbury 16
17 One may compare Shakespeare's Sonnet 130, in which the poet describes his lady's faults against the
backdrop of the lifeless, obnoxiously superlative descriptions usually employed in the sonnet form. After
listing these shortcomings, Shakespeare concludes the poem with the couplet "And yet, by heaven, I think
my love as rare / As any she belied with false compare." Pindar seems to suggest something similar to
Hieron; namely, that it is better to have an honest man tell you what you might not want to hear than to be
deceived by false praise.
18 Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 290: "Die archaische Parataxe macht es nur fir uns undeutlich."

32









thus strongly didactic. The poet holds up to Hieron a mirror in which he may look and

know himself, urging him to be what he is, one of the dvbQc; XyaXoL."19 Hieron must

discern which of the two figures in the following story (i.e., Rhadamanthus or the ape) he

is meant to be, and then become the same.

In the final section of the ode, Pindar indicates to Hieron that he is the type of

person the tyrant wants to have around. He showed in his glowing encomium that he is

capable, just like the flatterers, to praise Hieron in the highest degrees. He tempered that

praise, however, with the demonstration that someone in charge ought to seek out wise,

honest counselors. As Lloyd-Jones observes, the conclusion of the poem

is fully understandable if we suppose that Pindar is dilating on a common theme
of encomiastic poetry, that of the duty of men, and particularly poets, to give great
men proper credit for their benefits to others and to abstain from envy.20

Pindar has so far admonished Hieron to surround himself with good company, and in

the ode's conclusion demonstrates that he himself is such company.

Crucial to the themes of this poem is the change Pindar made to the myth of Ixion.

He transposed the roles of Zeus and Ixion in order to highlight the danger a monarch

faces when selecting his advisors, counselors, and retinue. The idea that a monarch must

exercise caution in choosing his entourage informs most of the ode, thereby bestowing

unity and structure on one of Pindar's most difficult poems.


19 Burton 121
20 Lloyd-Jones 125









CHAPTER 5
ISTHMIAN 8

Isthmian 8, composed for Kleandros the Aiginetan's victory in the pankration in

478 B.C., has engendered relatively few studies on the question of unity. Norwood

identifies the dominant image of this ode as the "Broken Chain, a bond that is loosed,"'

which he also associates with the loosening of Thetis' undergarments. Closest to my own

position is that taken up by Bury: "Pindar has made deliverance the note of this epinician

hymn."2 I believe this theme of deliverance has an additional aspect in this poem,

derived from analyzing the way in which Pindar has altered the myth about the

marriage of Thetis, which is the notion of cooperation. This poem concerns itself with

deliverance through cooperation. That is not to say that we should see in the Theban

poet's work an anxiety to make amends for Thebes' siding with Persia at the Battle of

Plataia. Many commentators have assumed Pindar's shame at this fact. Bowra, for

example, states: "Pindar is conscious that the name of Thebes may not be welcome in

Aegina, but he deliberately goes out of his way to recall legendary ties between the two

places."3 What Bowra means by "goes out of his way" is unclear, but it is more

cautious to think that the poet knows better than anyone else what way the poem ought

to take. The view that Pindar is ashamed at the beginning of this ode was soon

supplanted,4 and is no longer the dominant scholarly opinion.


1 Norwood 146
2 Bury 133
3 Bowra 114









The poem begins with Pindar exhorting the young men to go announce

Kleandros' victory at his father's house. Many have incorrectly taken this exhortation to

be addressed to only one of those young men present at the celebration. Bowra's

translation, for example, says, "Let one of you go to the glittering doorway / Of his father

Telesarchos,"5 which Race repeats.6 Nisetich likewise mistranslates it as "let someone

go."7 Farnell seems at first to translate it correctly as "Go, ye young men," then errs by

adding "one of you."8 The problematic nature of translating this passage is due to the

word "TIC;" in the first line. This indefinite pronoun causes the translator to think that

Pindar means only one person. Campbell notes, however, that this word is used in a

military sense to indicate "vigorous appeals to troops,"9 and he adduces a convincing

number of textual parallels (e.g., Iliad 2.382, 17.227-8; Turtaios 8.21, 8.29; Herodotos 6.9.3).

Given the ode's later focus on the martial achievements of Akhilleus and Nikokles, this

seems the most accurate interpretation.

Those who believe that Pindar felt some shame that his homeland had sided with

the enemy usually cite the following comment:

TOc Kca Ey(o, Kcair7TEQ aXv)Evo
QvuO6v, a[To0al X1Uo oav IaAcratu
Molcav. (5-6)



4 See Ruck, C. 1968. "Marginalia Pindarica." Hermes 96: 661-674.
5 Bowra (1969) 51
6 Race (2002) 205
7 Nisetich 325
8 Farnell (v. 1) 282
9 Campbell 164









And I, though grieving in my heart, am asked to invoke the golden Muse.

It is not necessary, however, to see in Pindar's "grieving heart" any shame at the

medizing of Thebes. It may be argued that asking for permission from the muse

indicates this shame, but, although the translation of this passage seems to be

straightforward, there has been some debate. Wilamowitz read ai[Eopat as middle with

an active sense, and declares on that basis that this ode was composed voluntarily, not

requested by the victor.10 Farnell, however, disagrees, arguing that it should be read as

passive, since an active translation would be similar to "saying 'I pray to pray.' One

invokes a deity, without first praying to be allowed to do so."11 Farnell's explanation

seems the most sensible, and it does not require shame on Pindar's part. Whether or not

this ode was delivered gratis, however, is ultimately irrelevant to a literary study.

From here the poet delivers the famous statement concerning the burden that had

recently been lifted from Greece:

7avaIaxMvo voi b' ~UrTQKT(cv XcaXcnv
yAvuKv TL baujo)acr6tiOa xai t eri 7t6Ovov,
i7TtbI] T6Ov 07T5Q K ucaAoc;
T6v TavTaAou AiOov 7Taq& TCL TQ; EIv dttii O6E;,
aToApaTOv 'EAAAbt [a6X0ov. (7-11)

Having ceased from incurable evils, let us sing something sweet after toil, since
some god has turned from over our heads the rock of Tantalos, an unbearable
labor for Hellas.


10 Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 197
11 Farnell (v. 2) 377









This rock is parallel to the Persian invasion of 480 B.C.,12 which was thwarted through the

cooperation of the Greek city-states. Pindar goes on to mention the close relationship

Thebes and Aigina ought to have, since their eponymous nymphs were twin daughters

of Asopos. This allows him to move seamlessly into a description of the Aiakidai, since

Aiakos sprang from the union of Aigina and Zeus. Pindar here emphasizes not only the

formerly close relationship of the two cities, but also the divine union of Aigina with

Zeus.

The next section of this ode narrates the story of the marriage of Thetis. Pindar

alters this story in an important way. He says:

ZEiO; 6T' qtx)[i OTtLOC; &yAaoC; T' Qtioav Fnortbc&v ycyrtWc,
cAoXov EEVtib' O6A(ov ~KacTEQOG
aiv EtEav: Q(c; yo9 XEv. (27-29)

When Zeus and glorious Poseidon quarreled over marriage to Thetis, each
wishing her to be his own beautiful wife; for love held them.

None of the extant literary sources for this myth of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage prior to

Pindar suggests that the two gods had been quarreling over union with Thetis. The Iliad,

for example, treats the matter thus:

&Akovg' OvAvnurov bi Ala AiLat, 6i rTOTE bi TL
) TTt arvqnoac; KQac5(iv At6L; h cai c Qyc p.
iroAAaKLc yaQ aGo TraTQc; vi tEv pEy6iQotv axKovra
EXOpEVTrg; 6T' rU)qcOa KcEAaLvE)i KQovicovt




12 Carey, C. 1981. A Commentary on Five Odes of Pindar. New York. 185-90; Lefkowitz, M. R. 1980.
"Autobiographical Fiction in Pindar." HSCP 84: 31-35; Day, J. 1991. "The Poet's Elpis and the Opening of
Isthmian 8." TAPA 121: 47-61.









OL) v dcaavaTotoCL dLKica AoiLyv d6cvvaL,
67T7UTTE piv ~uvbfroatL OAuj mot io EAov dAAoi. (1.394-399)

Having gone to Olympos, entreat Zeus, if ever you have gladdened his heart by
word or deed. For many times I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father
that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of
Kronos, when the other immortals wished to put him in bonds.

The reader receives only a reference to Thetis' intercession on behalf of Zeus when the

rest of the Olympians were poised to depose him. No mention is made of the marriage

to Peleus. The Hesiodic version does not ignore the marriage, but the reader is denied

any substantive treatment. The Theogony says only:

nrhqA~L b~ bjrqOlra Oai OLGt; aoyuooTiEa
yEivaT' AXLAAfa QirqvoQoa 9UpoAOVTa. (1006-1007)

And the silver-footed goddess Thetis, overpowered by Peleus, bore man-breaking,
lion-hearted Akhilleus.

This version implies that Thetis was not a willing participant in the coupling with Peleus,

since she is "overpowered" by him. Unfortunately Hesiod is silent on the reasons Thetis

might have had for not wanting the marriage, so not much more can be made of this

account. The final literary treatment of this event prior to Pindar's time comes from the

Kupria (fr. 2 Allen), in which the marriage is mentioned, but there is no treatment of the

circumstances that led to the union. This aspect of Pindar's story must therefore be

original with him and crucial to the principal theme of deliverance through cooperation,

since, as Finley notes, "to say that Zeus and Poseidon quarreled is to discover half-

causally among the gods themselves the mood of rancor and disagreement that had









parted closely related Greek cities."13 That is to say, the quarrel between the two

Olympians can be seen as analogous to the infighting previously so prevalent among the

Greeks themselves. The banding together in the face of adversity results, then, from the

announcement of a prophecy by Themis that Thetis is destined to bear a son greater than

his father. This revelation would be chilling enough for the two brothers, but she adds

that this son will be one

;c KEQUavvo) TE KQEic ov cAAo P[Aoc
b5c(iL XuQi TQL6bovTO; T' yatp alcKETov, Zqvi TE pt[ouyopnvav
r At6o; nTaoQ' abA4EoiLoLv. (34-35a)

who would wield in his hand another weapon stronger than the thunderbolt and
the tireless trident, if she joins with Zeus or Zeus' brothers.

Zeus and Poseidon, faced with the threat of annihilation, cease their quarrel. They take

Themis' advice to marry Thetis off to a mortal so that this son can do them no harm.

They choose Aiakos' son Peleus, who is said to be the most pious man ever produced by

the plain of Iolkos. The disparate Greek city-states, when faced with potential ruin at the

hands of Xerxes and his army, also banded together and expelled the Persians from

Greece. This was the first time that such cooperation had been achieved. The first

attempt by the Persians to invade Greece in 490 B.C. had met with resistance and had

been repelled; however, it was a primarily Athenian affair, the Spartans declining to send

any help.


13 Finley (1958) 129









What follows this divine council concerning Thetis' marriage is a treatment of

Akhilleus, not a story of an unknown being stronger than both Zeus and Poseidon.

Pindar here lists numerous of Akhilleus' accomplishments, but the most important to the

overall theme of deliverance through cooperation is the following:

yrUQjCoc T' ATQE*ICTbacL vO6Tov,
'EAvav T' &AuoaTro, Tqooac;
Ivac; ~lTacxOv boQi. (51-53)

For the Atreidai he bridged a return home, and he freed Helen, cutting Troy's
sinews with his spear.

Akhilleus hardly seems the likely candidate for the theme of cooperation. He is

notoriously selfish and concerned with personal glory. Pindar here emphasizes,

however, that Akhilleus "bridged a return home" and that he "freed Helen." These are

both indicative of the restoration of the Greek way of life. The Trojans in a sense attacked

Greece when Paris abducted Helen. They transgressed and thereby set the Greek world

in disorder. The disparate elements of Greek society then banded together and launched

an attack on Troy. Despite the fact that Akhilleus is concerned mainly with personal

glory and gives many indications that he does not care one way or the other if Menelaos

ever gets his wife back, he nevertheless aids the effort to that end. He is, in fact, the most

important factor in that effort. Demonstrative of this is the fact that, once it becomes

clear that Akhilleus is going to rejoin the fight, Zeus lifts the ban on divine participation

in the war (Iliad 20.23-27), since he is confident that Troy will not stand long once the son

of Peleus has rejoined the Greek army. Akhilleus and the rest of the Greek force









launched against Troy are, therefore, analogous to the coming together of Zeus and

Poseidon to contravene the threat of the prophesied son.

Pindar ends his ode with a reference to Kleandros' cousin, the deceased boxer

Nikokles who, like Akhilleus, had died in battle fighting for Greece, noting that the

patron of this poem has lived up to his cousin's fame.

We have seen that the concept of deliverance through cooperation runs through

the entire poem. It is first taken up in reference to the expulsion of the Persians by a

unified Greek force. It extends to the narrative of Zeus and Poseidon putting aside their

quarrel to address the shadowy threat of Thetis' son. It ends with the mention of

Akhilleus, himself derived from an Aiakid (a fact that binds this section of the poem to

Aigina), and his accomplishments in the most famous of Greek joint efforts, the siege and

destruction of Troy, and thus the restoration of the Greek way of life which had been

disturbed by forces from Asia Minor.









CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

These four odes are set apart from the rest of the corpus in that each of them

presents a myth in a form altered from the tradition Pindar inherits. It is my contention

that the specific changes in these myths hold a clue to identifying a common, unifying

theme throughout the entire poem. In Olympian 7, we have seen that Helios' absence

from the apportionment allows Pindar to manipulate his overall theme of giving in order

to praise Rhodes more highly. In Pythian 1, Zeus' struggle with and eventual defeat of

Tuphos is emphasized, along with the suffering of Philoktetes at Troy, to demonstrate to

the young ruler Deinomenes that persevering through adversity with the goal of

establishing a peaceful existence for his people must be of paramount importance. In

Pythian 2, it seems at first that Pindar is admonishing Hieron to be grateful for the gifts he

has received. Upon closer examination, however, I believe that Pindar alters the myth of

Ixion in an attempt to demonstrate to Hieron that he must be cautious of the company he

keeps, since even Zeus suffered (albeit very little) at the hands of an ungrateful, scheming

guest. The presence of the ape/Rhadamanthus tableau bears this out as well, since

Hieron is clearly meant to emulate Rhadamanthus and not the gullible ape that is

susceptible to the empty praise of foolish children. Finally, in Isthmian 8, Pindar creates

the quarrel between Zeus and Poseidon to demonstrate the desirability of banding

together to thwart a common outside threat. The Theban poet draws parallels between

this mythological dispute and the previously disparate Greek city-states. By referencing









these two stories, along with the fact that his own city and the city of the victor ought to

be close (since their eponymous nymphs were twin sisters), Pindar seeks to stress unity

in the face of destruction.

By examining the precise alterations made to the mythological stories presented in

these poems, I hope to have demonstrated that the changes themselves provide the

means for establishing unifying factors in the seemingly random elements presented in

the odes under consideration. It is my sincere belief that these changes provide a

window into the editorial and creative process employed by Pindar in the composition of

his epinikia.









LIST OF REFERENCES

Boeckh, A. 1811. Pindari opera quae supersunt (vol. 1). Leipzig.

Bowra, C. M. 1937. "Pindar, Pythian II." HSCP 48: 1-28.

--. 1964. Pindar. Oxford.

-1969. The Odes of Pindar. London.

Bundy, E. 1962. Studia Pindarica. Berkeley.

Burton, R. W. B. 1962. Pindar's Pythian Odes: Essays in Interpretation. Oxford.

Bury, J. B. 1965. Pindar: Isthmian Odes. Amsterdam.

Campbell, D. 1967. Greek Lyric Poetry: A Selection of Early Greek Lyric, Elegiac and
Iambic Poetry. New York.

Carey, C. 1981. A Commentary on Five Odes of Pindar. New York.

Day, J. 1991. "The Poet's Elpis and the Opening of Isthmian 8." TAPA 121: 47-61.

Drachmann, A. B., ed. 1903. Scholia Vetera in Pindari Carmina. Stuttgart.

Duchemin, J. 1972. "Le captif de l'Etna: Typhee 'frere' de Prom6th6e." Studi class, in
on. di Q. Cataudella I: 149-172.

Ellsworth, J. D. 1973. "Pindar's Pythian 1.44: xaycvoc; PaAE-v 4cio, a New
Suggestion." AJPh 94.3: 293-296.

Farnell, L. 1930. The Works of Pindar (vols. 1 and 2). London.

Fehr, K. 1936. Die Mythen bei Pindar. Zirich.

Finley, J. H. 1955. Pindar and Aeschylus. Cambridge.

--. 1958. "Pindar and the Persian Invasion." HSCP 63: 121-132.

Gerber, D. E. 1960. "Pindar, Pythian 2.56." TAPA 91: 100-108.









Gildersleeve, B. 1885. Olympian and Pythian Odes of Pindar. New York.

Hubbard, T. 1990. "Hieron and the Ape in Pindar, Pythian 2.72-73." TAPA 120:
73-83.

Illig, L. 1932. Zur Form der pindarischen Erziihlung. Berlin.

Kirkwood, G. 1982. Selections from Pindar: Edited with an Introduction and Commentary.
Chico.

Lawall, G. 1961. "The cup, the rose, and the winds in Pindar's Seventh Olympian." RFIC
39: 33-47.

Lefkowitz, M. R. 1980. "Autobiographical Fiction in Pindar." HSCP 84: 31-35

Lloyd-Jones, H. 1973. "Modern Interpretation of Pindar: The Second Pythian and
Seventh Nemean Odes." JHS 93: 109-137.

Nisetich, F. 1980. Pindar's Victory Songs. Baltimore.

Norwood, G. 1945. Pindar. Berkeley.

Oates, J. 1963. "Pindar's Second Pythian Ode." AJPh 84.4: 377-389.

Pfeijffer, I. 1999. Three Aeginetan Odes of Pindar: A Commentary on Nemean V, Nemean
III, and Pythian VIII. Mnemosyne Suppl. #197. Boston.

Race, W. 1986. Pindar. Boston.

--. 2002. Pindar (vols. 1 and 2). Cambridge.

Retter, A. 2002. Das Prooimion von Pindars Siebter Olympischer Ode: Versuch einer
intergrierenden Lisung von Bezugsproblemen. Innsbruck.

Ruck, C. 1968. "Marginalia Pindarica." Hermes 96: 661-674.

Skulsky, S. D. 1975. "HOAAON IEIPATA LTNTANTYAIE: Language and Meaning in
Pythian 1." CP 70.1: 8-31.

Thummer, E. 1968. Pindar: Die isthmischen Gedichte. Heidelberg.









Verdenius, W. J. 1987. Commentaries on Pindar (vol. 1). Mnemosyne Suppl. #97. Leiden.

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. von. 1922. Pindaros. Berlin.

Woodbury, L. 1945. "The Epilogue of Pindar's Second Pythian." TAPA 76: 11-30.

Young, D. C. 1968. Three Odes of Pindar: A Literary Study of Pythian 11, Pythian 3, and
Olympian 7. Leiden.

--. 1970. "Pindaric Criticism." Pindaros und Bakchylides (Calder and Stern, eds.).
Darmstadt.

-1983. "Pindar Pythians 2 and 3: Inscriptional rTOT and the 'Poetic Epistle."' HSCP 87:
31-48.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jay S. Arns was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1982. He attended St. William

Elementary School from 1989 to 1997, after which he attended Archbishop Elder High

School from 1997 to 2001. He completed the H.A.B. program in classics and philosophy

(with minors in English and French) at Xavier University between 2001 and 2005. During

his undergraduate work, he spent time as a student at both the College International de

Cannes and the Universit6 de Paris-IV (Sorbonne). Upon completion of his M.A., he will

return to Ohio to teach Latin, Greek, and mythology at the high-school level.





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