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Computed Image Backscatter Radiography

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022182/00001

Material Information

Title: Computed Image Backscatter Radiography Proof of Principle and Initial Development
Physical Description: 1 online resource (79 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Nuclear and Radiological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Nuclear Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Computed Image Backscatter Radiography (CIBR) is a single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing the penetrating power of x-ray radiation to image subsurface features. CIBR can be used for a variety of applications including non-destructive examination, medical imaging, military and security purposes. CIBR is a new method developed to improve upon and speed up the images created from existing x-ray backscatter technology at the University of Florida. Current backscatter technology at the University of Florida primarily uses Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD) to generate images, and is used, although not exclusively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Lockheed Martin Corporation to test space shuttle parts for air worthiness. CIBR will continue to build upon this foundation and improve these University of Florida designed systems for use in industry and government.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Dugan, Edward T.
Local: Co-adviser: Baciak, James.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022182:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022182/00001

Material Information

Title: Computed Image Backscatter Radiography Proof of Principle and Initial Development
Physical Description: 1 online resource (79 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Nuclear and Radiological Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Nuclear Engineering Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Computed Image Backscatter Radiography (CIBR) is a single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing the penetrating power of x-ray radiation to image subsurface features. CIBR can be used for a variety of applications including non-destructive examination, medical imaging, military and security purposes. CIBR is a new method developed to improve upon and speed up the images created from existing x-ray backscatter technology at the University of Florida. Current backscatter technology at the University of Florida primarily uses Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD) to generate images, and is used, although not exclusively, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Lockheed Martin Corporation to test space shuttle parts for air worthiness. CIBR will continue to build upon this foundation and improve these University of Florida designed systems for use in industry and government.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Dugan, Edward T.
Local: Co-adviser: Baciak, James.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2008-11-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022182:00001


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COMPUTED IMAGE BACKSC ATTER RADIOGRAPHY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE AND INITIAL DEVELOPMENT By CHRISTOPHER LLOYD MENG A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Christopher Lloyd Meng 2

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To all those who never had this opportunity. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thank you to my advisor, Dr. Edward Dugan, for his invaluable gui dance and insight. Thank you also to Dr. Alan Jacobs for his inspir ation and ideas; he will be missed. Thank you to Dr. James Baciak for his input and advice. Thanks to my family for putting up with me. Thanks to my research group for all their input, discus sion, and ideas: Dr. Daniel Shedlock and Nissia Sabri. Thank you to the US Army for providing me with this opportunity to uniquely serve our nation. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .13 Compton Backscatter Imaging ...............................................................................................13 Radiography by Selective Detection ......................................................................................14 Computed Image Backscatter Radiography ...........................................................................16 2 PRIOR ART AND LI TERATURE REVIEW........................................................................22 US Patents ...............................................................................................................................22 US Patent Applications ...........................................................................................................26 International Patents ...............................................................................................................30 Journals and Publications .......................................................................................................30 3 INITIAL PROOF OF CONCEPT..........................................................................................35 Existing System Fan Beam Approximation ...........................................................................35 Fan Slit Aperture in Existing RSD System .............................................................................41 4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................................45 Aperture Mechanical Design ..................................................................................................45 X-Ray Generator Yoke and Mount Assembly ........................................................................48 Rotational Table Design .........................................................................................................50 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.............................................................................................53 Compact Scanning System .....................................................................................................53 Large Angle Increments .........................................................................................................54 Small Angle Increments .........................................................................................................56 System Improvements ............................................................................................................67 6 FUTURE WORK.................................................................................................................. ..71 Image Reconstruction .............................................................................................................71 Detector Improvements ..........................................................................................................72 Mechanical Design .................................................................................................................74 5

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System Scanning Familiarization ...........................................................................................76 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................79 6

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 5-1. Comparison of image acquisition time based on count rate. .................................................63 7

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. Compton Backscatter Imaging techniques A) Highly Collimated. B) Uncollimated. .......13 1-2. Rastering technique for RSD. ................................................................................................14 1-3. RSD collimated and uncollimated detector with detection collimation plane. .....................15 1-4. CIBR rotational collection technique example. Arrows show direction of scan. This is the first three of eight scans for a 45 degree scan increment. ............................................17 1-5. Example of filtered back-projection object a nd single line raw data. A) Scan target. B) Normalized data line profile for scan da ta. C) Image from normalized raw data. ...........19 1-6. Example of back-projection image overlay. The first scan at 0 degr ees is then overlaid with the second scan at 30 degrees. The pr ocess is completed with all 360 degrees worth of scans overlaid. .....................................................................................................20 1-7. Example of a resulting image from back-projection of ce ntered dime on nylon. .................20 1-8. Normalized filtered back-projection image reconstruction of a dime centered on nylon. ....21 3-1. YXLON.TU 100-D02 x-ray tube ut ilized in RSD compact prototype. .................................35 3-2. Compact RSD scanning system setup. ..................................................................................36 3-3. Diagram of pencil beam to fan beam raster-scanning technique. ..........................................37 3-4. Initial scanning target. ...........................................................................................................37 3-5. Raw detector images for initial proof of co ncept scan. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. ............................................................................................38 3-6. Reconstructed images for in itial proof of concept scan. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. ............................................................................................39 3-7. Off centered dime scan. A) Raw detector image. B) Reconstructed image. .......................40 3-8. Geometric representation of usable area (black box) from scan reconstruction. ..................41 3-9. Initial fan beam aperture for use in existing yoke system. ....................................................41 3-10. Geometric representation for fan beam width. ....................................................................42 3-11. Fan beam illumination at 52.5 cm from 1.5 x 10 mm aperture. ..........................................43 3-12. Raw data detector images for detector 1 for fan beam reconstruction. A) Position 1. B) Position 3. C) Position 6. D) Position 9. .....................................................................44 8

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3-13. Reconstructed image from 30 degree fan beam of off-center dime on nylon. ....................44 4-1. Fan beam aperture desi gned for compact Yxlon system. ......................................................46 4-2. Fan beam illumination at 6 cm from compact Yxlon fan beam aperture. .............................46 4-3. Mechanical design of fan beam aperture for Yxlon MXR-160/22 x-ray generator. A) Technical drawing. B) Actual aperture. ............................................................................47 4-4. Fan beam illumination from machin ed aperture for YXLON MXR-160/22 x-ray generator. A) 5 cm from beam face. B) 10.5 cm from beam face. .................................47 4-5. Existing YXLON MXR-160/22 x-ray genera tor yoke and mount assembly. A) Side view. B) View of beam collim ator tube and detector placement. ....................................48 4-6. Mounting system design and completed parts. A) Design drawing. B) Machined parts assembled. C) System mounted with YSO detectors. D) Front view of system. ............49 4-7. Rotational turntable desi gn. A) System with controller. B) Side view of motor. ...............51 4-8. Timing belt pulley rotational turntable desi gn. A) Isometric view. B) Side view..............52 5-1. Detector setup for compact system scanning. .......................................................................53 5-2. Raw detector images for large angle increm ents. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. .................................................................................................54 5-3. Reconstructed image from the summation of all detector data for 36 degree increments of centered dime and off-center washer on nylon. .............................................................55 5-4. Raw detector data images for centered dime scan. A) Det ector 1. B) De tector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. .................................................................................................55 5-5. Reconstructed image from the summation of all detector data for 36 degree increments for centered dime on nylon. ...............................................................................................56 5-6. Reconstructed image from the summation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for centered dime on nylon. ...............................................................................................57 5-7. Reconstructed images from the summation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for centered dime and off-center nut on nylon. A) Grayscale normalized image. B) Color image. .......................................................................................................................58 5-8. Reconstructed image from the summation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for 180 degree scan of centered dime and off-center nut on nylon. ..................................59 5-9. Lead SXI on nylon scanning target. ......................................................................................60 9

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5-10. Reconstructed images from the summation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for SXI letters on nylon. A) Grayscale normalized image. B) Color image. .................................................................................................................................61 5-11. Orientation correction for SXI scan image. .........................................................................61 5-12. 1 mm resolution CIBR image compared with 1 mm resolution RSD image. A) CIBR reconstructed image. B) RSD pencil beam image. ...........................................................62 5-13. Reconstructed images for 10 degree incr ements for SXI letters on nylon under 3.5 cm of foam. A) Detector 1. B) Detect or 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. ......................64 5-14. Comparison of image subtraction to image summation for 3.5 cm thick foam overlay. A) Surface subtracted from collimated images. B) All detectors summed. ....................65 5-15. Reconstructed images for 10 degree increm ents for SXI letters on nylon under 5 cm of foam. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4............................66 5-16. Image resulting from uncollimated detector images subtracted from collimated detectors for 5 cm thick foam overlay. ..............................................................................67 5-17. Reconstructed image for SXI letters on nylon through aluminum filter at 50 kVp and 4 mAs. ................................................................................................................................68 5-18. Comparison of SXI images at identical set tings with aluminum filter and without. A) Aluminum filter. B) No filter. ..........................................................................................69 5-19. Summation image of SXI on nylon w ith aluminum filter at 30kVp and 5mAs. .................70 6-1. Illustration of inverse Ra don projection and image acquisition. ...........................................71 6-2. CIBR two detector arrangement illustration. .........................................................................73 6-3. Illustration of new mechanical designs fo r CIBR. A) Sweeping fan beam. B) Rotating aperture collimator. ............................................................................................................75 10

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Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science COMPUTED IMAGE BACKSC ATTER RADIOGRAPHY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE AND INITIAL DEVELOPMENT By Christopher Lloyd Meng May 2008 Chair: Edward T. Dugan Major: Nuclear Engineering Sciences Computed Image Backscatter Radiography (CIB R) is a single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing the penetrating power of x-ray radiation to image subsurface features. CIBR can be used for a variety of a pplications including non-destructive examination, medical imaging, military and security purposes. CIBR is a new method developed to improve upon and speed up the acquisition of the images created from existing x-ray backscatter technology at the University of Florida. Curre nt backscatter technology at the University of Florida primarily uses Radiography by Selectiv e Detection (RSD) to generate images. RSD uses pencil beam Compton backscatter im aging that falls between highly collimated and uncollimated methods. Single and multiple scatte rs from the pencil x-ray beam are collected in detectors collimated for the plane at the depth desired. Im ages are created by discretely collecting data over an area. RSD has the bene fit of being faster than highly collimated techniques and better subsurface re solution than uncollimated methods. CIBR differs from RSD primarily in the me thod of image acquisition. CIBR uses a fan beam aperture rather than a pencil beam. CIBR also gathers discrete da ta over the desired area, but uses rotational motion to gather the data as opposed to strictly Cartesian movement. Dependent upon scan area size, the amount of s canning movement can be significantly less than 11

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for RSD, resulting in a much faster image acquisition time. The larger fan-beam aperture generates more photons to be collecte d, also increasing scanning speed. Current research has generated the proof-of-principle for the CIBR method. Tests have shown the ability to generate subsurface, high-complexity images utilizing high-contrast objects at speeds greater than current RSD scanning capabilities. These images have been generated utilizing image reconstruction methods designed for computed tomography (CT) systems, which do not correlate directly to the CIBR method of scanning. As image reconstruction methods are developed and improved, image generation time is expected to continue to decrease. Future work and designs will lay the genera l template for the continuation of work for CIBR. Continued research and development will continue to improve image quality, acquisition time, and overall quality of CIBR images. W ith the increase in speed, Compton backscatter imaging will become a more desirable choice for non-destructive testing. 12

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Compton Backscatter Imaging Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) is a sing le-sided non-destructive examination (NDE) method utilizing backscatter radiation from a radi ation source. The source and the detectors are on the same side of the target, allowing the nonintrusive examination from a single side. The unique properties of penetrati ng radiation and radiation-materi al interactions make CBI a valuable imaging technique. The difference in absorption and scattering cross section of the target materials creates differences in backsca tter photon field intensity, cr eating contrast within the reconstructed images. CBI constitutes a large field of study, from hi ghly collimated to uncollimated techniques. The difference in collimation can help determ ine visible penetration, acquisition speed, and image quality. Uncollimated techniques are dominated by first scatter components, and penetration is generally limited to one mean fr ee path. Highly collimated techniques can image at depth, but due to the limiting collimation th ey are generally dominated by single scatter photons from the voxel of interest, resulting in high contrast and possi bly three dimensional images but extremely long acquisition times. Here at the University of Florida, we have concentrated on Radiography by Selective Dete ction (RSD), which falls between highly collimated and uncollimated techniques. 1 A B Figure 1-1. Compton Backscatter Imaging techniques. A) Highly Collimated. B) Uncollimated. 13

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Radiography by Selective Detection Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD) is a Compton Backscatter Imaging (CBI) technique that uses ba ckscatter radiation from an X-ray source to perform single-sided nondestructive examination (NDE). RSD uses a pe ncil beam and falls in to a category between uncollimated and highly collimated techniques. RS D is unique because it collimates to a plane, not a particular point. This allows it to use single and multiple scatter photons, providing much better subsurface resolution than uncollimated techniques and being orders of magnitude faster than highly collimated techniques. RSD gathers data by utilizing a rastering tech nique with a pencil beam source. As the pencil beam passes over the voxel of interest, the detectors gather data from that voxel. The beam moves in a continuous motion, rastering back and forth until the entire target area has been covered. The difference in material and atom ic properties of the target determines the backscatter. Differences in absorption and scat tering cross sections of the target create the differences in data collected by the detectors, eff ectively creating the contrast of the image. The rastering technique can be s een in Figure 1-2 below. Figure 1-2. Rasteri ng technique for RSD 14

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The rastering technique above creates a data table from which the image can be reconstructed. The data table simply contains the counted number of the photons from each voxel. The table size is based upon the pixel size and scan size. For example, with a 2 mm pixel size (square) and a scan size of 30 x 30 cm, the re sulting data table would be a 150 x 150 matrix. The resulting image would have 150 x 150 pixels or 22,500 pixels total, each representing 2 mm on the target. A simple plotting function, such as imagesc from Matlab may be used to create the image from this data. RSD uses collimators to limit the scatter acquis ition to a depth at or below the collimation plane. It does this by blocking the near scat ter from the detectors, only allowing those photons from the collimation plane or below to enter. However, it differs from highly collimated techniques because the collimators are larger a nd arent limiting the detector window to only a small voxel of interest. This plane collimation is what allows RSD to have better subsurface image quality than uncollimated techniques whil e maintaining speeds above those for highly collimated techniques. This may be seen in Figure 1-3 below. Collimation Plane Figure 1-3. RSD collimated and uncollimated de tector with detection collimation plane Although use of a collimation plane increases the speed of acquisition from highly collimated techniques, speed is still a limiting f actor for RSD. With the low efficiency of backscattered radiation coupled w ith the efficiency of the detect ors, it takes a significant amount 15

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of time to image. Computed Image Backscatter Radiography (CIBR) was conceived in an effort to reduce the acquisition time for RSD. Computed Image Backscatter Radiography Computed Image Backscatter Radiography is a single-sided x-ray source non-destructive examination technique. CIBR diff ers from RSD in three significan t ways: it uses a fan beam xray source instead of a pencil beam, uses a rota tional motion instead of a rastering technique, and requires specific reconstruction techniques. A fan beam source instead of a pencil beam s ource creates differences in data acquisition, required power (current and/or voltage), and qua ntity of backscattered radiation. The basic principle from RSD remains the same: the differing absorption and scattering cross-section of the target will cause differing amounts of radiation to be backscattered to the detectors, creating image contrast. However, instead of creati ng the image voxel by voxel, CIBR must scan and then reconstruct the image from the scanned data. The fan beam prevents the acquisition of data by a rastering technique, and instead requires a rotational motion. The fan beam must be as wide as the target area of interest. The fan beam sweeps from one side to the other in a direct line as the target remains still. The target must then be rotated in relation to the fan beam, and another sweep taken. Th is continues in constant, even increments until all 360 degrees have been cove red. The size of the angle increments will determine image reconstruction quality as well as acquisition time. One example of the CIBR rotational collection t echnique may be seen below in Figure 1-4. The data acquisition method shown below is only one of several diffe rent possibilities for CIBR. The only required constants are the fan beam and the rotational motion. The method of rotation can be changed. The x-ray source may be rotated instead of the target. A rotating fan beam aperture may be used instead of rotating th e entire generator or th e target. Instead of 16

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moving the generator across the table for the scan, the generator could simply be pivoted, creating a sweep. The table itself could be moved in relation to the generator. The possibilities are many and varied. The important thing to unde rstand is that even t hough the data acquisition may differ, the basic principle of the scan and rotation remains the same. x-ray generator Fan Beam Path Fan Beam Target Figure 1-4. Example of CIBR rotational collection t echnique. Arrows show direction of scan. This is the first three of eight sc ans for a 45 degree scan increment. The fan beam uses orders of magnitude more photons than pencil beam techniques. This can result in an increase in scan speed and reducti on in image acquisition time. It can also allow for a reduction in power (primarily current). W ith the correct image reconstruction techniques, the higher number of photons c ould result in higher backscat ter, which can lead to higher contrast. For example, if we compare a 1 mm square RSD pencil beam aperture to a 30.5 x 0.5 mm fan beam aperture, the fan beam aperture is 15.25 times larger. The larger aperture results in the release of more photons, proporti onate to the aperture size. This larger release of photons directly correlates to a larger number of backscattered photon s. With an increase in the number of backscattered photons, the current of the xray tube may be lowered and the image scanning speed may be increased. CIBR requires a different type of image rec onstruction technique than RSD. RSD image acquisition techniques gather the data in a voxe l by voxel method, creating the image as the scan is continuing to run. The next voxel does not affect the previous voxel re construction. The only 17

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thing that can change is the relative contrast. CIBR, however, cannot be reconstructed until the scan is complete. The reconstructi on requires all the scan data. The data table created by CIBR also differs fr om RSD. CIBR acquires count rate data in a row by row method. Each row represents a specific angle, rather than a physical location on the target. For example, lets assume a target scan size of 30 x 30 cm with an angle increment of 10 degrees and a pixel size of 2 mm. The resulting image data table would be a 150 x 36 table. The first row would consist of the count rate data fo r each 2 mm of the 30 cm sweep at 0 degrees. The second row would be the same, but rotated 10 degrees. The second row would be rotated another 10 degrees for a total of 20 degrees from the start, and so on until all 360 degrees have been taken. The image may then be reconstructed from this data. Currently, CIBR uses filtered back-projection to reconstruct the imag e. Filtered backprojection was designed for use in tomogra phy, most notably Computed Tomography (CT) systems, which also utilize a similar rotationa l method of data acquisition for transmission images. This method allows the creation of imag es for CIBR, but does not take into account all the data and therefore some image quality is lost. Design of a CIBR specific reconstruction technique is essential to improving image qualit y, and will be discussed further in Chapter 6. Filtered back-project functions based upon a fan beam and rotational method concept. Each sweeping scan creates a data line that corresponds to a cert ain angle increment. Within each data line, differences in contrast will de note object placement somewhere along the length of the fan beam. For example, we can examin e the data from one scan across a surface dime centered on nylon in Figure 1-5. We can see the or iginal scan target, the data line profile, and the image from just this scan. The nylon is an excellent scatte rer whereas the dime is a good absorber. The difference in these two material properties create a significant contrast difference, as can be seen in Figure 118

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5(B & C). Because of this, in the normalized images we can see a marked difference as the fan beam scans across the dime. This scan is continued for each angle increment. In this case, it was scanned 12 times at an increment of 30 degrees each time. A B C Dime Figure 1-5. Example of filtered back-projection object and single line raw data. A) Scan target. B) Normalized data line profile for scan data. C) Image from normalized raw data. At the completion of the entire scan (a ll 360 degrees), each image is fundamentally overlaid, allowing for the back-projection image cons truction. As each individual scan is placed over each the others at their respec tive angles, areas of overlap i ndicate Cartesian coordinates for target objects. These areas of overlap are the ke y to being able to rec onstruct the basically one dimensional data into a two dimensional image. A visual example of this process may be seen in Figure 1-6. We can see from Figure 1-6 that when the data is overlaid the images all intersect at the center where the dime was located. Thus, the back-p rojection is able to locate the location of the 19

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dime by the intersection of all the lines from the scan data. The resulting image from the backprojection may be seen in Figure 1-7. Figure 1-6. Example of back-projection image ove rlay. The first scan at 0 degrees is then overlaid with the second scan at 30 degrees The process is completed with all 360 degrees worth of scans overlaid. Dime Shadow Effect Figure 1-7. Example of a resu lting image from back-project ion of centered dime on nylon From this image we can see the inherent problem with back-projection: the shadow effect. The shadow effect is a result of the overlay of the different angle images. Because of this shadow effect, most back-project ion is filtered, which reduces but does not completely eliminate the shadow effect. Filtered back-projection is th erefore used to reconstruct images in CT, and currently CIBR. The resulting filtered back-projec tion used for the actual scans from Figure 1-5 may be seen in Figure 1-8 below. Comparing the actual reconstruction, using the inverse Radon transform in Matlab, to the image in Figure 17 we can see that the filtered back-projection reduces the shadow effect, but does not completely eliminate it. 20

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Shadow Effect Dime Figure 1-8. Normalized filtered back-projecti on image reconstruction of a dime centered on nylon 21

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CHAPTER 2 PRIOR ART AND LITERATURE REVIEW A prior art search and literature review was c onducted for this thesis and the University of Florida Disclosure of Invention #12688. Using the key words fan beam x-ray tomography, xray backscatter imaging, x-ray backscatter radiography, Compton backscatter imaging, lateral migration radiography, and radiography by selectiv e detection in online search engines and databases of uspto.gov, ep.espacenet.com, IEEE, P ubMed, UF library, Hoovers, Google patents, Google Scholar, and a general Google searc h, 24 relevant entries were found. US Patents Patent number 7203276, titled X-ray scatter image recons truction by balancing of discrepancies between detector re sponses, and apparatus therefore, consists of a new single sided non-destructive examination method and the related equipment necessary to generate an image of an object by using intersec ting fan or cone beams of radia tion and collimated detectors. By using multiple beams that all intersect at the point of interest in the target object and measuring the Compton-scattered radiation from th e beams, they are able to assemble an image of the target object. Unique to their method is the use of corrected attenuation coefficients along the beam path. They are able to produce these corrected coeffi cients by measuring a first ratio of detector measurements for the beams in each pair and compar ing this with a calculated second ratio. By balancing the discrepancies between these ratios using their forw ard-inverse numerical analysis algorithm, they produce the correc ted attenuation coefficients. 2 The imaging technique in this patent is ba sed upon using pairs of converging sources to illuminate a single voxel along the axis of a dete ctor. The detected signals for a given voxel come from the intersection of the two beams. CIBR uses a single fan beam source with multiple beam exposures taken at different angles instead of pairs of converging sources. 22

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The algorithm in this patent focuses on solv ing the non-linear inverse problem of the image reconstruction by consider ing the scattering term as the problem pre-determined parameter (source angle-voxel-detector fixed, wher eas it is changing in the CIBR) and solving for the exponential attenuation. The CIBR recons truction procedure uses mainly the scattering angle information and the detect ors are more highly collimated. Patent number 7162005, titled Radiation sources and compac t radiation scanning systems consists of a new method of x-ray generation and scanning systems. X-rays are created by colliding high energy electrons with a target materi al, then shielding around the target so that the created radiation can only exit in the direction desired. The source of the electrons is not specified, and can anything including a linear accelerator. The shielding lies primarily transverse to the electron path. The shield ing can create a wide or narrow angle beam, and can be used for large or more compact scans. Additionally, multiple shielding slots can be formed, allowing for simultaneous scanning. This entire invent ion pertains to transmission scanning systems. 3 This invention is a description of a new type of slot collimator for x-ray tubes to increase the efficiency of using a single x-ray device to perform multiple scans simultaneously. This is not a backscatter imaging system like CIBR. The f an beam collimation is in the target and the return path to the detectors and does not originate at the source, as in CIBR. Patent number 7103137, titled Radiation scanning of objects for contraband consists of a method and equipment setup for scanning items such as cargo containers for contraband. Multiple beams of radiation transverse to each ot her scan through the target object. They are collected by detectors placed opposite each beam. As the radiation passes through the target object, transmission and computed tomography im ages may be reconstructed based upon the multiple beams. This system is not limited to pe ncil beam radiation, but may also use fan beams. The reconstructed images are then examined for contraband. 4 23

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This invention uses a combination of multiple x-ray sources and detectors. The system uses a combination of transmission radiography and partial CT imagi ng to detect potential threats in large items such as car go containers and trucks. It is simply a large scale partial axis CT device that couples the use of transmission and CT radiography for rapid identification of contraband. CIBR differs from this technique in that it is a back scatter technique; this invention is not a backscatter technique. Patent number 7072440, titled Tomographic scanning X-ray inspection system using transmitted and Compton scattered radiation consists of an x-ray in spection device that uses backscattered radiation to detect weapons, narcotics, expl osives, or any other contraband. Utilizing a pencil beam of x-ray radiation, scattere d radiation is detected employing fast optically adiabatic scintillators for improved efficiency and image resolution. The system can switch between counting and integration modes for improved image quality. 5 This is a pencil beam technique, and not a fan beam technique like CIBR. Patent number 6879657, titled Computed tomography system with integrated scatter detectors consists of the refinement of comput ed tomography images by utilizing a scatter component. An x-ray generator is used to create the x-ray field. Since some photons are scattered from this generated fi eld as it passes through the target object, detectors are added to capture the scattered radiation. These detectors create a scatter signal, which is then used to augment the transmission signal and generate an image. 6 This invention uses scatter radiation to enha nce conventional (transmission) CT. CIBR is a backscatter only technique. CIBR does not use any transmission data to develop the image, whereas this invention uses both transmission and backscatter. The backscatter is used as an enhancement to the transmission image rather than as a replacement. 24

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Patent number 6876719, titled X-ray CT apparatus consists of a c onventional x-ray CT machine that uses multiple x-ray sources and multiple detectors to create an image. The timing of the irradiation of the target ob ject is shifted by using the diffe rent x-ray sources. The detectors capture each shift, capturing the projection and sc attered field. The system performs scatter correction based upon the projection data and known scatter correction data. 7 This invention embodies using scatter ra diation to correct for known artifacts in conventional CT; this is not a backsc atter imaging technique like CIBR. Patent number 6269142, titled Interrupted-fan-beam imaging, consists of a method for creating a backscatter image from conventional line scanning systems. This system uses the backscatter from the transmission image to create an independent backscatte r image. It uses a mathematical relation to relate the signal-tonoise ratio with the sp atial resolution in the backscattered image. Using this relation in conjunction with typical known operating values for x-ray scanning systems allows for the determinat ion of the performance le vel of the backscatter system. 8 While this technique uses a fan beam and b ackscatter radiation, they are not used in conjunction. The fan beam is used for linear transmission scanning whereas the interrupted fan beam backscatter technique is the inverse techni que of pencil beam scanning and is, therefore, not a fan beam scanning technique like CIBR. CIBR uses a fan beam for backscatter computed imaging. Patent number 6151381, titled Gated transmission and scatter detection for x-ray imaging, describes an inspection device that uses temporal ly gated sources of radiation to determine the contents of an enclosure. The device has two sources; the first source produces an intermittent burst of radiation. The second source produces a beam that operates during the inactive period of the first source. The two sources may have different energy spectrums. Along with the two 25

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sources are two detectors, the fi rst gathering transmission data while the second gathers scatter data. The scatter detector may be gated for non-detection during the pulsing of the transmission beam. The combination of the transmission and scatter data allow the image reconstruction and the identification of the target object contents. 9 This technique describes a gate d technique with separate, diffe rent intermittent sources to detect transmission information from one sour ce and backscatter information from another source. The combination of information from th ese detectors determines the contents of an enclosure. It does not resemble CIBR fan beam backscatter imaging moda lity because it does not utilize a single, fan beam source. US Patent Applications Patent application number 2007280408, titled Scanning slot cone-beam computed tomography and scanning focus spot cone-beam computed tomography details a method of imaging an object using multiple x-ray fan beam s. The radiation passes through the target object, with each beam creating its own set of data The multitude beams and associated data are then used to reconstruct the im age of the target object. A three-dimensional cone-beam CT image, digital tomosynthesis, or a Megavoltage image may be reconstructed from the imaging data. 10 Although dealing with fan beam radiography, this patent relates to detecting transmission x-rays only, whereas CIBR is a backscatter technique. Patent application number 2007230657, titled Apparatus and method for controlling start and stop operations of a comput ed tomography imaging system details an apparatus and method for scanning an object with a helic al CT scanner. A CT scanner, utilizing a fan beam source of x-rays and a detector array on the opposite side of the target object to collect the transmission radiation, rotates the source ar ound the object as the object is moved by a conveyor through the 26

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machine. It also determines if the object has be en stationary for one rotation of the x-ray source, and if so, discards the redundant data. It also c onsists of a failsafe mechanism to turn off the xray source if the object has not moved for a certain period of time. After acquisition of all data, the machine reconstructs the image. 11 This patent, like the previous one, refers to transmission radiography, not backscatter. It relates to an apparatus in which an x-ray source projects a fan beam of x-rays toward a detector array on an opposite side of a gantry of the CT scanner, and does not account for backscatter radiation. Patent application number 2007172026, titled Fan-beam coherent-scatter computer tomography measures transmission and scatter tomogra phy in a CSCT machine. Utilizing a fan beam of radiation and a 2D detector, the acquisition of the sca tter component improves the image gained from the transmission component by m easuring blurred scatte r functions (unless a monochromatic source of radiation is used). The use of an energy re solving 1D or 2D detector is proposed, which should provide good spectral resolution. This will allow for the use of a polychromatic primary beam. Also, only one en ergy resolving detector-line is required to achieve the full spectrum. This invention has application in the medical field as well as material analysis. 12 For this invention, the source and detector are on opposite side s with respect to the scan target. The scattered radiation detected deviat es only by a small angle from the incident direction; this is coherent scatter and not backscatter. Patent application number 20070153976, titled Permanent magnet type motor and x-ray computed tomography apparatus, details a magnetic sensor in a CT system. A permanent magnet type motor consists of a main rotor body rotating around a stationa ry member with an outer periphery face of the main rotor body arrang ed such that the north and south poles of 27

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multiple magnets alternate. A stator core is arra nged at the outer or inner periphery of the rotor with winding storage sections with stator windings stored in these sections. A sensor is affixed to the stationary member so as to be proximal to the magnets. The sensor detects the position of the magnets, along with a detection target memb er that detects magnetic resistance change formed on the rotor main body and a rotational position detector. 13 This invention relates to magnetic sensors and electro -mechanics and the rotation mechanism in an X-ray computed tomography appara tus. This is not relate d to backscatter x-ray radiography, and subsequently CIBR. Patent application number 20070081624, titled X-ray computed tomographic apparatus details an x-ray CT device. It consists of an x-ray tube, a detector, a supporting member that rotates the tube and detector around a rotational axis, a nd a reconstructing unit to reconstruct the image from the detected x-rays. This machine al so has the capability to create an image from an asymmetric field of view of the object when the object is not directly scanned along a centerline axis, or with an imaging center line perpendicular to the rotational axis. It will also display the reconstructed image and any relevant data. 14 This relates to an x-ray CT apparatus that detects transmission x-rays, not backscatter like CIBR. Patent application number 20060182217, titled Method and imaging system for imaging the spatial distribution of an x-ray fluorescence marker describes a method of generating metabolic images of a target area in a body by ir radiating an x-ray fluorescence marker in that area and detecting the resulting x-ray fluorescence with a fluorescence detector. By using a fan beam radiation source, the scanning of a whole body slice can be completed in one step. The fluorescence image can be measured directly with a count detector setup or can be reconstructed with CT procedures. Also, a morphological im age can be generated by simultaneous recording of x-ray transmission through the target object. 15 28

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This invention relates to the use of an x -ray fluorescence marker in a region and the detection of the resulting x-ray fluorescence with a fluorescence detect or. A different photon interaction process (fluor escence) is used versus the Compt on scattering process used in CIBR. Fluorescence detection is based upon small angle transmission scatter and not Compton backscatter. Patent application number 20060133565, titled Computed tomography system details a new CT system. This invention only requires ro tational scans for image reconstruction, enabling the imaging of a multitude of testing objects si multaneously without increasing the volume of noise or scale of the system. This allows hi gh-quality tomographic images to be efficiently reconstructed without increas ing the size of the scale. 16 This relates to traditional computed tomography and transmission imaging, not a backscatter system like CIBR. Patent application number 20020031202, titled X-ray scatter and transmission system with coded beams details a system and method for inspec ting an object with transmitted and/or scattered penetrating radiation us ing either a fan beam or multip le pencil beams while retaining resolution comparable to that achievable using a single pencil beam. They provide for spatial resolution of transmitted radiation using a fan beam or multiple pencil beams and a nonsegmented detector. 17 This invention relates to transmission radi ography. The detectors and the source are on opposite sides with respect to the scanne d object, unlike backscatter radiography. Patent application number 20010038680, titled X-ray phase-contrast medical microimaging methods, describes a new way to create x-ra ys. X-ray photons derived from a microscopic solid-density plasma that is produ ced by optically focusing a high power laser beam upon a high atomic number target, may be used for phase-contrast medical microimaging and also for absorptive microradiogr aphy. X-rays derived from th is microscopic solid-density 29

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plasma are utilized as object illumination sources that are microscopic in at least one direction (so that ultrathin slicebeams and fan-beams ar e allowed, as are linear arrays of numerous clustered parallel microbeams). This invention requires the use of collimating optical devices of prior art. 18 This patent relates to a novel x-ray sour ce in which a high power laser beam and a microscopic solid density plasma are used to create x-ray photons. The invention is used for medical microimaging and also for absorptive microradiography. Contrast x-ray imaging is employed in which x-ray point-sources are pr oduced which are linearly arrayed and aligned directly opposite a linear array of detector pixels. This is tr ansmission imaging and is not related to a backscatter scanning technique. International Patents Patent number WO2007109227, titled Slit-slat collimation describes collimator and collimation techniques. Specifically, the inventio n is directed to a collimator and method for collimation wherein the collimat or combines the resolution and sensitivity properties of pinhole Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging with the 2D completesampling properties of fan-beam collimators. 19 This invention applies to fan collimation techniques on the detectors, wh ereas CIBR applies to fan beam source emission. They use a fan detector collimator, whereas CIBR uses a fan be am source. This inve ntion also applies to transmission gamma ray spectroscopy, whereas CIBR is a backscatter x-ray technique. Journals and Publications In 2007, Hupe and Ankerhold described the in creasing need to understand dose and dose rate from x-ray sources. After the security relate d occurrences in the past few years, there is an increasing need for airport security and borde r controls. In the combat against terror and smuggling, x-rays are used for the screening of persons and vehicles. The exposure of humans to 30

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ionizing radiation raises the question of justification. To solv e this question, reliable and traceable dose values are needed. A research pr oject of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservati on and Nuclear Safety was initiat ed to measure the ambient dose equivalent and the personal dose equivalent fo r typical types of pers onnel and vehicle x-ray scanners, for both the transmission and/or backsc atter method. The measuring quantities used for these investigations are discussed and the measur ing instruments presented as well as describing the experimental set-up. For the personnel x-ray scanners investig ated the obtained dose values are in the range from 0.07 to 6 microSv. These values are compared to the dose values of the natural environmental radiation and some exposures in the field of medicine. 20 This publication describes dose rates from x-ray sources, not ne w methods for acquiring b ackscatter x-ray images. In 2006, Joseph Callerame discussed various ba ckscatter imaging tec hniques as well as their capabilities. X-ray imag ing techniques based on Compton backscatter permit inspection and screening of sea contai ners, a wide variety of vehicles, lugg age, and even people. In contrast to more commonly used transmission images, backscatter imaging involves positioning both source and detection apparatus on only one side of a target object. This presents the user with inspection opportunities in situations that may be extremel y difficult, if not impossible, for transmission systems that require access by the detector subsystem to the opposing side of the target. The backscatter image is somewhat akin to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering are discusse d, along with wide-ranging exampl es of how systems based on these principles are used to perform inspecti ons for both security a pplications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Potentia l applications in the area of nondestructive evaluation are consid ered. Differences in the type of information displayed by transmission and backscatter images are highli ghted, and tradeoffs betw een backscatter image 31

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quality and interpretability, scan speed, effec tive penetration, and x-ray tube voltage are discussed. The method used in scanning the target object results in an extremely low radiation dose, a result that significantly broadens the application spectrum for this imaging technique. 21 This article details methods and materials for pencil beam scanning. It does not address fan beam scanning such as CIBR. In 2005, Feng, Yao, Hou, and Jin described the grow ing of a detector material and crystal. A ZnO layer was grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a sa pphire substrate. The elastic strain of the material is discus sed, as well as its be aring on the crystal. 22 This publication is not about a backscatter technique; it describes growi ng materials and crystals. In 2004, Khettabi Hussein, and Jama detaile d a method to create a 3D x-ray imaging system. The rotational process associated with tomographic systems is eliminated by relying on measuring the intensity of Compton scattered radi ation in two directions mutually perpendicular to an incident beam that rectilinearly scans the object. These measurements, along with transmission measurements obtained from one-s ide exposure of the object are utilized to reconstruct 3-D images of thr ee physical parameters: two atte nuation coefficients corresponding to the incident and scattered energies, and the electron-density in each voxel. This paper addresses the theoretical and physical aspects asso ciated with the image reconstruction process, and presents examples of images rec onstructed from experimental results. 23 In this publication, the x-ray imaging system uses a pencil beam instead of a fan beam source and it depends upon transmission and side-scatte r and not backscatter. In 1999, Carl Carlsson reviewed di fferent principles used in x-ray CT. It starts with transmission CT, discussing the pr os and cons of different geomet rical solutions, single ray, fanbeam and cone-beam. Transmission CT measures the spatial distribution of the linear attenuation coefficient, The contributions of differe nt interaction processes to have also been 32

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used for CT. Fluorescence CT is based on measurements of the contribution, c Z Z / from an element Z with concentration c Z to the linear attenuation coeffici ent. Diffraction CT measures the differential coherent cross section d ( ) coh =d Compton CT the incoherent scatter cross section The usefulness of these modalities is illustrated. CT methods based on secondary photons have a competitor in selected volum e tomography. These two tomography methods are compared. A proposal to perform Compton profile tomography is also discussed, as is the promising method of phase-contrast x-ray CT. 24 This article details transmission primarily, not backscatter. However, the one se ction on scatter x-ray is only using pencil beam scatter, not fan beam. In 1981, Philippe Defranould detailed acoustical transmission tomography imaging. By measuring integrals along rectilinear rays (proje ctions) of a characteri stic parameter of an acoustic medium (velocity or absorption), the rec onstruction of an image of this parameter can be accomplished. A differential method for tim e-of-flight and attenuation measurement of acoustic pulses traveling from one transmitting arra y element to one or several receiving array elements (piezoelectric transducer arrays with 24 independent elements operating a center frequency of 3.5 MHz) was used. This method su ppresses the effect of deviation (phase and amplitude) from one array element to anot her and shows an accuracy of about 10 -6 Fan-beam projection measurements were performed by operating one transmitter element and the 24 receiver elements, which can be simultaneou sly processed. Polyurethane samples were manufactured to show a small shift in velocity compared to that of the propagation medium chosen to be water. Measured data were in good agreement with theoretical simulations. It was shown that a cylindrical rod with a 2.5-mm diam eter and a 1 percent velocity shift can be detected with this measurement method. This tr ansducer array apparatu s would be applied to 33

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female breast pathology. 25 This article details acoustical tr ansmission methods, not backscatter xray methods. 34

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CHAPTER 3 INITIAL PROOF OF CONCEPT Existing System Fan Beam Approximation The RSD compact prototype was utilized to do preliminary experiments to determine the feasibility of experiment success and the continuation of design. The RSD compact prototype uses the YXLON.TU 100-D02 x-ray tube (Figure 3-1) with a maximum output of 100kVp. Figure 3-1. YXLON.TU 100-D02 x-ray tube utilized in RSD compact prototype The compact system may be seen in Figure 3-2 and consisted of the above x-ray tube mounted in a chassis secured to a fixed table. The chassis system moved in both lateral and horizontal directions powered by pulse motors controlled by the LabView control program. Three 1 diameter by thick round YSO crystal detectors an d one 1 x 2 by thick rectangular YSO crystal de tector were mounted around the apertu re of the x-ray tube, with guide tracks allowing lateral movement A photomultiplier tube (PMT) was coupled with each YSO crystal, and in turn attached to a preamplifier and detector electronics box. A high voltage and 12 volt power distribution box powered the detect ors. For the initia l proof of concept experiments, the illumination collimation beam a nd illumination aperture were used to create the pencil beam. 35

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HV & 12V Distribution Box Preamp Box PMT 1 DIA YSO detector 1 x 2 YSO detector Figure 3-2. Compact RSD s canning system setup In order to model the fan beam utilizing a pe ncil beam, point-by-point scans were taken of the subject area and then the entire subject ar ea was rotated. Point-by-point scans were again taken of the subject area, and then rotated. This was continued until all 360 degrees of scans had been taken. A rotation of 30 degrees, resulting in 12 scans, was decided upon as the necessary angle increment. The end result was a number of scans (12) of the subject area at different angles. Then, each vertical row (y-axis) in each scan data set was summed to correlate to a fan beam. The IRADON function was used to re construct the image from the summed data throughout the 360-degree range. Its important to keep the scan size the same for each scan, so that it most accurately represents the fan beam scan. The method can be seen in Figure 3-3. 36

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Figure 3-3. Diagram of pencil beam to fan beam raster-s canning technique The initial experiment utilized a nylon bl ock with a centered dime (Figure 3-4). Nylon was chosen due to its high scattering propert ies, and the dime was chosen based upon the absorbing properties of the metals in its com position. These two objects should provide a very high contrast between scattering and absorp tion. A surface scan in creases the scatter to absorption ratio, making the image more visi ble and likely to be reconstructed. Figure 3-4. Initial scanning target 37

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An area of 9 cm by 9 cm was scanned, usi ng a 2 mm beam aperture and a 2 mm square pixel size. 60kVp and 45mA were chosen as x-ray tube settings based upon the medium penetrating power and large number of photons emitte d for collection. A distance of 3 from the target was used with no collimation. Twelve scans were taken, each at 30-degree increments. Examples of each detector image may be seen in Figure 3-5 for the first scan, or zerodegrees. These images are the standard RSD raster scanning images. The black area in the center represents the dime, and the black areas around the edges are wher e the scan dropped off the edge of the nylon. A B C D Figure 3-5. Raw detector images for initial proof of concept scan. A) Detect or 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. Each image corresponds to a tabulated data set where each place in the table represents one pixel on the image. With a 2 mm pixel size, each image results in a 45 x 45 table. In order to 38

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approximate the fan beam, Matlab was used to sum each vertical row, which left us with a 45x1 table. Each angle increment and each detect or was summed in this way. Combining the 12 different tables into one 45x12 table and using the IR ADON function, a new image was constructed. These images may be seen in Figure 3-6 below. A B C D Figure 3-6. Reconstructed images fo r initial proof of concept scan. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. We can see from the above reconstructed images that the dime is vi sible in the center of the image. We can also see the ghosting, or ar tifacting, resulting in this reconstruction method. Close examination shows the pattern corresponds di rectly with each angle increment and is an inherent problem with filtered b ack projection. Lastly, we can see that each detector image closely mirrors the other three detectors. Th e only difference in each image is the slight difference in placement of the detector around the beam, causing a slight geometric offset. However, this difference is minimal and can actu ally be removed by summation of the images. From here on, only one detector or an image sum will be examined. 39

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The next step was to see if the image could be reconstructed with an object not in the geometric center. I used the same target as in Figure 3-4 with the dime off-centered by 2 cm (red circle). The scan was set up the same as the pr evious scan, with 12 angles and each line of the data set summed to approximate a fan beam. A comparison of the rastering pencil beam with the reconstructed image may be seen below in Figure 3-7. A B Figure 3-7. Off centered dime scan. A) Raw detector image. B) Reconstructed image. We can notice several things from this scan. First, the image rec onstruction clearly shows the dime off-center, but with the ghosting from the back filter projection as we discussed earlier. Secondly, the units seem off between the two scans. This is a function of the pixel size. I was scanning using 2 mm pixels, which leads to 80 mm total in the raw data image (3-7A). The image reconstruction doesnt realize this and coun ts each pixel as one, leading to half as many pixels. However, that would lead us to expect a scan size of 40 for the reconstructed image (37B). We only see an image size of 28. This is because of the geometric constraints from the reconstruction method. Due to the round nature of the scan area, only about 70% of the scan data is usable because of the fan overlap. This can be better seen in Figure 3-8. Even though the scan size starts as the back gray box, by the ti me the object is rotated and the fan beams overlap, the usable area (black box) that has overlap from all scans is approximately 70% of the original image size. 40

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Figure 3-8. Geometric representation of usable area (black box) from scan reconstruction Fan Slit Aperture in Existing RSD System With the success of the approximation method, it was time to try the concept with a fan beam aperture. Using the existing yoke and illu mination beam collimator tube, I inserted a 1.5 x 10 mm aperture (Figure 3-9). This aperture yielded a small fan beam, size dependent upon distance from beam opening. Figure 3-9. Initial fan beam apertu re for use in existing yoke system The width of the fan beam at distance (W) ma y be found geometrically. It is a function of the length of the collimator tube (L), width of the aperture (D), and the distance from the aperture to the object (H). A representation may be seen in Figure 3-10 below. 41

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D W H L Figure 3-10. Geometric repres entation for fan beam width From this representation, we can derive the following relationships: L D 22 tan )(22 tan LH W Solving in terms of D, W, H, and L, we get: L D LW H Eq. (3-1) The desired fan beam width is the width of th e object being scanned. However, due to the geometric limitations of the collimator tube, I was unable to have the width as wide as the entire scan object. Since the target was primarily homogenous nylon except for the dime, I ensured the fan beam width would be wide enough to at least cover the dime on each sweep. I verified the fan beam size by exposing Polaro id Type 57 high speed film. By exposing the film for 5 seconds at 60 kvp, 10 mAs, with a 1.0 mm Focal Spot at a distance of 52.5 cm, my fan beam illumination area measured 19 x 58 mm (Figure 3-11). 42

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Thickness Width Figure 3-11. Fan beam illumination at 52.5 cm from 1.5 x 10 mm aperture The calculated value for the width of the fan beam from Eq. 3-1 was 8cm. The difference is a result of the lead lining the collimation tube, which effectively limits the fan beam width more than the fan beam aperture. The collim ation tube had a 6mm diameter, limiting the fan beam width D to 6mm rather than the fan aperture width of 10mm, resulting in the 58mm width as seen in Figure 3-11. By using the collimation tube diameter of 6mm, the expected value for the fan beam width becomes 58.5mm. This differ ence can be visually se en in Figure 3-11 by the rounded edges of the fan beam, rather than the sq uare, straight edges we would expect from the aperture. Using the same target in Figure 3-4 except with an off center dime (2 cm from center, in red circle) and the above fan beam aperture, a scan was taken utiliz ing the new fan beam rotational method. Only one sweep was made in each direction, with the ta rget manually rotated 30 degrees in between each sweep. For the full 360 degrees rotation, 12 sweeps were made. Utilizing the compact Yxlon system as descri bed above with settings of 60 kvp, 10.65 mAs, 1.0 mm focal spot, 2 mm pixel size, and a scan length of 80 mm, I generated 12 i ndividual data sets. Each data set consisted of one 1 x 40 array. Exam ining the raw detector images for detector 1 at 43

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position 1, 3, 6, and 9 in Figure 312 below, we can see where the fan beam intercepted the dime at different places along the scan dependent upon the angle it was scanning. This is expected, and should allow for image reconstruction. A B C D Figure 3-12. Raw data detector images for dete ctor 1 for fan beam reconstruction. A) Position 1. B) Position 3. C) Position 6. D) Position 9. Combining these into one 12 x 40 array, I was able to use the Matlab IRADON transform to generate the image in Figure 3-13 below. Figure 3-13. Reconstructed image from 30 degree fan beam of off-center dime on nylon We can see the dime as the dark image on the bottom of the image. However, it is not the round shape we expect. This could be a function of several things, mo st likely the size of the fan beam aperture. As we can see from Figure 3-11, not only is the fan beam rather narrow in width, but it is also extremely thick (19 mm). With a pixel size of 2 mm, the fan beam is approximately 10 times the size of the pixel were trying to illu minate. Although this image illustrates the fact that the reconstruction method works for the fa n beam, it must be developed and refined. 44

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CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CIBR requires a modification to the existing RSD system to work. The fan beam aperture and rotational system needed to be designed, built, and tested in order to ve rify the concept. Two systems were examined, one utilizing the compact YXLON.TU 100-D02 x-ray generator, and the second utilizing the YXLON MXR-160/22 x-ray gene rator. A fan beam aperture was able to be fitted directly onto the compact tube whereas an entirely new yoke and mounting system was necessary for the larger YXLON system. Aperture Mechanical Design The first part of the mechanical design of the fan beam system was the fan beam aperture. The primary design criteria for the aperture were the width and thickness of the fan beam at distance. Ideally, the thickness of the beam should only be one pixel (1-2 mm). The width should be large enough to be able to cover the entire area without necessitating an extremely large standoff distance, but will be limited by the x-ray tube design and primarily by the beam opening and size of the tube. The compact YXLON tube (as seen in Figure 3-1) was utilized for the primary part of the experiment. The illumination beam collimator tube and assembly was removed and a fan beam aperture was designed to fit in it s place. Utilizing 0.07 inch thic kness lead (due to its excellent shielding properties and abundance) I cut an approximately 2 inch circle and drilled 4 screw holes to mount in the beam opening of the t ube. I then punched out a 1.2 x approximately 0.02 inch slit for the fan beam. This fan beam ap erture was designed and used on the compact YXLON system with a maximum energy of 100 kV p. With the lower peak energy, the 0.07 inch thickness of lead should be more than enough to shield the material from the beam except for the aperture slit. This aperture may be seen in Figure 4-1 below. 45

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Figure 4-1. Fan beam aperture de signed for compact Yxlon system I tested this aperture by exposing Polaroid Type 57 high speed film at 60 kVp, 10.65mAs, 1.0 mm FOC for 0.02 min at a distance of 6 cm. Geometric calculations from Eq 3-1 show that I should expect a beam width of 8 cm. As s een in Figure 4-2 below, the beam size was approximately 3 x 80 mm. This is a significant imp rovement over the fan beam aperture used in the proof of concept (Figure 3-11). 3 mm 80 mm Figure 4-2. Fan beam illumination at 6 cm from compact Yxlon fan beam aperture I also designed and had machined a fan beam aperture for the Yxlon MXR-160/22 x-ray generator. This x-ray tube a nd setup could run up to 8 detector s and have a peak power of 160 kVp. Although all experiments were completed usi ng the compact system and aperture seen in Figure 4-1, this second fan beam aperture and x-ra y tube may be used for future work. This 46

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aperture was designed with a 1.25 x 0.04 inch slit. The technical drawi ng and picture of the machined part may be seen in Figure 4-3 below. A B Figure 4-3. Mechanical design of fan beam ap erture for Yxlon MXR-160/22 x-ray generator. A) Technical drawing. B) Actual aperture. I tested this aperture at 55 kVp, 10 mAs and 1 mm FOC at two di fferent distances on Polaroid Type 57 high speed film. Tested at 5 cm from beam face, the beam width was 6.4 cm x 5 mm. At 10.5 cm from beam f ace, the beam width was approximately 9.2 cm x 5 mm. These may be seen below in Figure 4-4. 9.2 cm A B 5 mm 5 mm 6.4 cm Figure 4-4. Fan beam illumination from mach ined aperture for YXLON MXR-160/22 x-ray generator. A) 5 cm from beam face. B) 10.5 cm from beam face. 47

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X-Ray Generator Yoke and Mount Assembly The existing system for the YXLON MXR160/22 x-ray generator would not support the fan beam aperture necessary for CIBR due to th e long beam collimation tube (Figure 4-5). In order to utilize this x-ray generator, a new yoke and mount assembly was designed. The design criteria for this assembly were the ability to mount the fan beam aperture, ability to adjust detector placement, ease of reaching v ital components, and reduction in weight. A B Figure 4-5. Existing YXLON MXR160/22 x-ray generator yoke and mount assembly. A) Side view. B) View of beam collim ator tube and detector placement. The fan beam aperture needed to be placed dire ctly on the output of the x-ray generator in order to achieve the required dispersion for the be am. This required a removal of the entire beam collimation tube and detector assembly on the above system. The new design lowered the tube and raised the detectors so that the detector face could be equal with the beam face. This allowed the use of the fan beam aperture for CIBR or a short beam collimation tube (1.5 inches) for RSD. Although the detectors would be furt her dispersed from the beam origination, the reduction in beam collimation would increase beam efficiency, offsetting the losses due to the reduction in solid angle. The new design also featured removable and in terchangeable detector mounting studs. By adjusting the position of these studs, detectors can be placed at different angles and distances 48

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from the beam as well as different heights above or below the beam. This also allows for the addition of more detectors or different types of detectors should they be desired. The new design placed the 12V and HV distri bution boxes within easy reach of the side with a top oriented placement, allowing for them to be opened without having to remove them from the assembly. It also incorporated an ea sy to remove side panel in order to facilitate reaching the voltage distribution boxes. Lastly, the new design was machined out of 1/ 4 and 3/8 inch aluminum. This allowed a reduction in weight without sacrific ing strength and stabili ty. This also reduces wear and tear on the translation system while aiding in the smooth transition of direction on the scanning table. The design drawings and photographs of the completed system may be seen in Figure 4-6 below. A B C D Figure 4-6. Mounting system design and complete d parts. A) Design drawing. B) Machined parts assembled. C) System mounted with YS O detectors. D) Fr ont view of system. 49

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Rotational Table Design The ability to take images at differing yet equal angle increments around a rotational axis required the development of a rotational table. Several options were available to solve this problem, with varying methods of obtaining the da ta. The object itself could be rotated in between linear scans. The x-ray generator could be rotated in between linear translation. The beam could be swept across the area as opposed to linear translation. The fan beam collimation could be rotated in between linear translation or sweeps. All of these ideas are sufficient and plausible for gathering the data necessary for CIBR. I decided upon a rotational table that rotated th e object after each linear sweep by the beam head. There are several inherent advantages to this design, primar ily being the ease of installation with a minimu m of changing of configuration. The scanning system would still need to be used for RSD pencil beam scanning, requiri ng the ability to switch back and forth between scanning methods. By replacing the beam tube co llimator assembly with the fan beam aperture and utilizing the rotating table in stead of the y-axis controller of the sca nning system, I could easily switch between systems. I was also able to control the rotation of th e table and movement of the x-ray generator head assembly from the existing LabView soft ware controller without having to make any modifications. By adjusting the step size, I coul d control the angle increm ents of the rotation. A simple adjustment of the pixel size allowed me to keep the linear step size the same. This also makes image reconstruction simpler. While I am using a built in function in Matlab, the IRADON function is not designed for this type of data collection and can be improved upon greatly. By keeping a constant di stance from the object as opposed to sweeping the beam, the geometric configurat ion is remains constant. This allows for the use of constant attenuation factors and reduces the computing necessary to reconstruct the image. 50

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I was able to use the same motor and contro ller type as the translational table. This allowed for simple plug and play from the y-ax is controller of the table into the rotational controller without having to modify the LabV iew controller code. As mentioned above, by changing and controlling settings in the controller program, I could control the rotating table with no modifications to the program code. The initial system design consisted of a Supe rior Electric SLO-SYN Stepping Motor Type KMT093F10 secured to a table with the shaft upwards. It was c ontrolled by a Superior Electric SLO-SYN SS2000D6 Motor Drive. Th e table top, consisting of al uminum with a lead cover, was attached to the motor shaft. Figure 4-7 shows this configuration. A B Figure 4-7. Rotational turntable design. A) System with controller. B) Side view of motor. While this design worked well and was used for the experiments in Chapter 5, a few mechanical problems were encountered. Due to the motor stepper size and the software configuration, I was limited to approximately 10 de grees as the smallest angle increment I could implement. Also, due to the platform weight and the torque generate d from the rotation, the motors tended to strip out, which could lead to excessive vibration or even inability to accurately control the motion of the table. Due to these flaws, I redesigned the rotati onal table. Keeping the same motor and controller setup, I used ti ming belt pulleys to cause a step down from the motor to the turntable. 51

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Using off the shelf parts, I was able to achieve a 3 to 1 reduction in pulley sizes. This will reduce the torque exerted on the motor shaft by a factor of 3, which should prevent motor burnout. It also allows the implementation of sm aller angle increments by a factor of 3, down to approximately 3 degree increments. I chose timing belt pulleys because of their availability and precision. Unlike gears, timing belt pulleys are fairly common and cheap and dont require special manufacture. Unlike regular pulleys, timing belts and pul leys have teeth, which reduce the play in the system. They provided a compromise between the price and availability of pulleys with the precision of gears. A B Figure 4-8. Timing belt pulley rota tional turntable design. A) Isom etric view. B) Side view. 52

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CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Compact Scanning System With the completion of the fan beam aperture and the rotational turn-table, the system was ready for scanning. All initial te sts were performed with the compact YXLON system as seen in Figure 3-2 with the fan beam aperture as seen in Figure 4-1 and the turnta ble as seen in Figure 47. The detectors were arranged as seen in Figu re 5-1 below, with three 1 round YSO crystals and one 1 x 2 rectangular detector. Figure 5-1. Detector setup for compact system scanning The first problem I encountered was the ove r-saturation of the YSO detectors. YSO detectors should be able to handle a count rate of up to 2 million counts per second. At any setting above 1-2 mAs, the detectors were saturating, resulting in massive pul se pileup. This was leading to an inability to discriminate anything within the images. This pulse pileup was caused by the increased amount of source radiation due to the fan beam aperture. Before we had a collimated beam tube so we could have (depending upon aperture) around a 1 mm square or round aperture. Comparing the 1 mm square aperture to the fan beam aperture, with a width of 10 cm and thickness of 3 mm, the amount of radiation has 53

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increased 300 times, or 30,000%. This significant increase in radiation co upled with a surface scan that is reflecting more radiati on leads to the higher count rate. To combat this count rate problem, we can eith er increase the speed of the scan or decrease the number of photons being emitted (lower the curre nt). The table speed was increased to the table limit of 0.1 sec/mm. Since the detectors we re still saturated, I was forced to reduce the current to 1 mAs, giving me a large count rate on the order of 650,000 counts per second (cps). Large Angle Increments The first trial target was a rectangular pi ece of nylon measuring 6 x 7.25 x 1 with a dime centered and a small washer offset by 2 cm The scan size was 10 x 10 cm, with a beam aperture to target distance of 8 cm, providing us with an approximately 10 cm fan beam width. The system was set to take 36 degree turns, giving us 10 rotations for the full 360 degrees of the image. The voltage was set at 30 kVp with a cu rrent of 1 mAs and a pixel size of 1 mm. The pixel dwell time was 0.1 sec/pixel. The 1 mm FO C spot was used with no collimation since it was a surface scan. The images were reconstructed by importing the raw detector data into Matlab, and applying the IRADON function. Figure 5-2 shows the raw detector images as gathered by Labview. Figure 5-3 shows the reconstructed image. A B Vertical Line Diagonal Line C D Figure 5-2. Raw detector images fo r large angle increments. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. 54

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Each horizontal line represents one sweep of the scanning system in the x-direction at a different angle increment. The two dark lines intersecting represent th e two different objects on the target. The mostly centered vertical line is the centered dime whereas the diagonal thinner line is the off-center washer. Dime Ghosting Figure 5-3. Reconstructed image from the summ ation of all detector data for 36 degree increments of centered dime and off-center washer on nylon. The dime shows up approximately centere d in the reconstruction with ghosting surrounding it. The ghosting is most likely a result of the back-filter projec tion technique of the IRADON function. However, we ca nnot see the off-center washer in the reconstruction. For a comparison image, the off-center washer was rem oved and the scan was repeated with the same parameters. The raw data images may be seen in Figure 5-4 and the reconstructed image may be seen in Figure 5-5 below. A B Vertical Line C D Figure 5-4. Raw detector da ta images for centered dime scan. A) Detector 1. B) Detector 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. 55

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We can see that the dime was indeed the mostly vertical dark line in the center, and the diagonal line has mostly disappeared from Figure 5-4. Figure 5-5. Reconstructed image from the summ ation of all detector data for 36 degree increments for centered dime on nylon This image looks remarkably similar to th e image in Figure 5-4, even though the raw detector data is obviously differe nt. The centered dime with th e ghosting is readily apparent, along with the artifacting lines from the reconstruction. Small Angle Increments The next step is to increase the number of a ngle increments and comp are these images with the above images. By decreasing the angle, we re increasing the number of increments and collecting more data. The larger the data set, the be tter we expect the reconstruction method to perform and the sharper the image. The more an gle increments, the more consistent we expect the ghosting. The amount of ghosting is still in question, but it is appa rent that it is a result of the reconstruction method and will ne ver truly disappear until a CIBR specific reconstruction method is developed. However, it should be minimized or at least be more consistent, allowing us to more accurately identify the target object. I took the system to its limit of 10 degree increments and performed a full 360 degree scan on the centered dime target with a pixel size of 0.28 mm. I kept all other settings the same. The reconstructed im age may be seen in Figure 5-6 below. 56

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Dime Ghosting Figure 5-6. Reconstructed image from the summ ation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for centered dime on nylon The image is much more homogenous, clearly show ing the dime in the center. The dime is easily picked out due to the large contrast diffe rence with the surroundin g material. However, we still see a significant amount of ghosting or shadow effect. The increase in the number of angle increments has produced a much more homogenous ghost effect, but it is still quite visible and affects the quality of the image. We can see that the increase in the number of angle increments has clarified the image considerably, making the dime a recognizable object. We can conclude from this that increasing the number of angle increments will increase the clarity of the scan. The next step was to perform a scan of a mo re complex object. I kept the centered dime and added an off-center nut to the rectangular ny lon target. The scan should show both objects. I kept all other settings the same as for the a bove scan, only changing the target. The result can be seen in Figure 5-7 below. For reconstructed images, grayscale images ar e normally the easiest to discern differences within the image. However, sometimes color ha s advantages, and images can be reconstructed in either mode. Although the grayscale image be low shows the same image as the color image, the color reconstruction in this case more vividly enhances th e contrast difference. 57

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A B Figure 5-7. Reconstructed images from the su mmation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for centered dime and off-center nut on nylon. A) Grayscale normalized image. B) Color image. We can see in these images that the ghosting is not as obtrusive as on the previous scans. It is still there, but is significantly smaller. Also, the size of the dime makes sense in relation to the size of the scan, whereas it was much smaller in the previous s can. This was probably due to the lack of data and complexity in the previous scan with just the di me on nylon. With both the dime and nut, more reference points are provided and the reconstruction me thod is able to better discern between the competing contrasts. The exciting part about the images in Figure 5-7 is that not only are the dime and nut visible, but you can also see the hole in the center of the nut. Although the ghosting is still visible, we can still see not only the object, but the geometry of th e object as well. This implies that the system can scan more complex objects and be able to differentiate between more complex geometries. This is significant because the image reconstruction method I am using is not designed for this type of scanning, and da ta is being lost using this method. Thus, by developing and using a CIBRspecific reconstruction method, we should be able to greatly increase the resolution, contrast, a nd image quality of the scans. A 180 degree scan should gather all the same data as a 360 degree scan. The second 180 degrees should be an inverse repetition of the first 180 degrees. By inverting and flipping the 58

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data from the first 180 degree scan, we should be able to have a full 360 degrees of scan data. There should be no new data to gain from the second 180 degrees; weve al ready scanned it, just from the opposite direction. The image reco nstruction method, the IRADON function, requires a full 360 degrees of scanning rotation data. By on ly having to scan 180 degrees, we can cut our scanning time in half. In order to test this theory, I performed a scan of the same di me and nut as in Figure 5-7, at 10 degree increments, but only for 180 degrees. The reconstructed image may be seen in Figure 5-8 below. Figure 5-8. Reconstructed image from the summ ation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for 180 degree scan of cent ered dime and off-center nut on nylon Examination of this image shows us that the dime and nut reconstruction are not symmetrical, but are weighted to th e side of the scan. It appears that we only get half the data, even when we invert the matrix and make it a comp lete 360 degree data set w ith 36 sets of scans. So, even though it logically makes sense that we should only need 180 degrees worth of data, we actually need 360 degrees. This could be because a significant portion of the reconstruction process is the use of the ghosting or shadow effect. With only 180 degrees worth of data, were only getting the ghosting 59

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from one side, so when the image is reconstructed, that side is more heavily weighted. The symmetry must also be a function of the scan di rection. Isolating the fr ont and rear detectors should equalize the ghosting effect s, but it does not. Thus we get the asymmetric image that we see in Figure 5-8. The next step was to test a more complex geom etry in a surface scan. I replaced the dime and nut with lead letters spelli ng out SXI on the nylon block. The high contrast between the lead absorber and the nylon scatterer should provide high contrast for the image reconstruction, and the letters should provide a difficult geometry to r econstruct. This target can be seen below in Figure 5-9. Figure 5-9. Lead SXI on nylon scanning target The x-ray settings remained the same with a s can size of 10 x 10 cm, with a beam aperture to target distance of 8 cm, providing us with an approximately 10 cm fan beam width. The system was set to take 10 degree turns, givi ng us 36 rotations for th e full 360 degrees of the image. The voltage was set at 30 kVp with a cu rrent of 1 mAs and a pixel size of 0.28 mm. The pixel dwell time was 0.1 sec/pixel. The 1 mm FO C spot was used with no collimation since it was a surface scan. The r econstructed images may be seen in Figure 5-10 below. 60

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A B Figure 5-10. Reconstructed images from the summation of all detector data for 10 degree increments for SXI letters on nylon. A) Grayscale normalized image. B) Color image. We can see from these images that the letter s are very visible and easily discerned. The system can handle complex geometries, even using the IRADON reconstruction method. We can notice, though, that the process of reconstruc ting the image causes it to be a mirror image of the actual target. This is easil y fixed by inverting the data afte r reconstruction, and the corrected image can be seen below in Figure 5-11. Figure 5-11. Orientation co rrection for SXI scan image These images were taken at 0.28 mm pixel size. I increased the pixel size to 1 mm to test whether we could still recognize the letters, and compared it to a pencil beam RSD scan at similar settings. The images may be seen in Figure 5-12 below. 61

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A B Figure 5-12. 1 mm resolution CIBR image compared w ith 1 mm resolution RSD image. A) CIBR reconstructed image. B) RSD pencil beam image. These images show that CIBR can take comple x geometric scans of high contrast surface objects and resolve them using the IRADON function to create recognizable images. With the creation of CIBR specific reconstruction methods, the image quality should continue to improve until it is comparable with the RSD pencil beam scan quality. The primary point is that even without specific reconstruction methods, CIBR can create recognizable images. CIBR is able to increase the speed of scanning. Unfortunately, it is no t possible to keep all things equal. RSD will not scan at the low pow er that CIBR can because it cannot gather enough counts to generate an image. The above RSD imag e had to be created with a current setting an order of magnitude higher than the setting for the CIBR image (10 mAs). The count rate can be adjusted in three ways: adjusting the pixel size, dwell time per pixel, or by increasing power (current and/or voltage) of the generator. Ho wever, even with the current at the maximum setting, the count rate for RSD is still so low that we can barely cr eate images. If we want to keep pixel size the same, this leaves adjusting the dwell time to create equality. To create the images in Figure 5-12, CIBR had a maximum count rate of about 650,000 counts per second (cps) per pixel, whereas RSD had a maximum c ount rate of about 7000 cps per pixel. With these settings, CIBR still had a sp eed factor increase of 0.16. If we wanted to increase the RSD to have the same count rate as CIBR, it would increase the acquisition time by 62

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833 minutes 40 seconds, yielding a sp eed factor increase of 106.4 for CIBR. However, since this count rate is higher than necessa ry, we can compare them at a desirable count rate, such as 200,000 cps per pixel. At this c ount rate, CIBR will have a speed factor increase of 32. While these high count rates may not seem necessary given the images above in Figure 5-11, they will become more necessary, generally, as we pe rform subsurface scans. Although there are exceptions where good quality subsurface scans can be obtained with count rates of the order of 10,000 cps, ordinarily we desire the higher count rates. Table 5-1. Comparison of image ac quisition time based on count rate Count Rate (cps) Time (sec) Count Rate (cps) Time (sec) Count Rate (cps) Time (sec) RSD 7000 545 200,000 15,570 650,000 50,020 CIBR 650,000 470 650,000 470 650,000 470 Speed Factor Increase for CIBR 0.16 32 106.4 CIBR has so far proven that it can resolve surface scans of complex images and has the possibility for huge image acquisition time gains over RSD. The remaining problem lies with subsurface scanning capability. The usefulness of x -ray technology lies not in surface scans, but in subsurface scans. The next experiment was to perform a subs urface scan through 3.5 cm of low density foam. Keeping the scanning settings consistent with a scan size of 10 x 10 cm, with a beam aperture to target distance of 8 cm, provides us with an approximately 10 cm fan beam width. The system was set to take 10 degree turns, giving us 36 rotations for the full 360 degrees of the image. The voltage was set at 30 kVp with a cu rrent of 1 mAs and a pixel size of 1 mm. The pixel dwell time was 0.1 sec/pixel. The 1 mm FOC spot was used with 2.3 cm collimation on 63

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detector 1, 2 cm collimation on detector 2, and no collimation on detectors 3 and 4. The raw data reconstructed images may be seen below in Figure 5-13. A B C D Figure 5-13. Reconstructed images for 10 degr ee increments for SXI letters on nylon under 3.5 cm of foam. A) Detector 1. B) Detect or 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. We see that the SXI can barely be made out, a nd it is significantly reduced in quality from the surface scan results in Figure 5-12. There is a slight difference between detectors 1 and 2 with collimation and detectors 3 and 4 with no collimation, but it is difficult to tell with the naked eye. However, by applying lessons learned from RSD, we can subtract the no collimation images from detectors 3 and 4 from the collimated images from detectors 1 and 2 to give us a resultant image free from the su rface scatter through th e foam. The image resulting from this image subtraction compared to the summation imag e of all the detectors may be seen below in Figure 5-14. 64

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A B Figure 5-14. Comparison of image subtraction to image summation for 3.5 cm thick foam overlay. A) Surface subtracted from coll imated images. B) All detectors summed. Although we can still see the SX I in the summation image, it is overshadowed by the large X in the center of the image. This X must be an artifact resulting fr om the scatter through the foam and the image reconstruction technique using the IRADON function. However, the subtracted image clearly shows the SXI wit hout any of the muddying from the foam. I repeated the experiment with the same settings but increased the foam depth to 5 cm. I also used slightly higher density foam that s hould be even more difficult to scan through. With the current set so low (1 mAs), it is questionable whether there will be enough scattered photons from depth to reconstruct the image I desire rather than from the surface scatter. The low voltage setting (30 kVp) is also a limiting factor on pe netration. CIBR has prove n its ability to scan through some material but more investigation is needed. The findings will illustrate the difference from having a much larger amount of p hotons from the fan beam versus the effects of low energy and current. The raw data images fr om this scan may be seen in Figure 5-15, and appear remarkably similar to the images in Fi gure 5-13. The primary difference is that the ghosting seen around the center in the shape of an X is more pronounced in these scans. From our experience on the earlier foam, we want to subtract the uncollimated images from the collimated images, which leave us the image seen in Figure 5-16. Once again, we can clearly see the SXI on the target. Thus, we can conclude that with the aid of collimation, CIBR 65

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can effectively create subsurface images. Partne red with the possible increases in speed and reduction in power and current, CIBR can be devel oped into the next gene ration of backscatter xray scanning. A B C D Figure 5-15. Reconstructed images for 10 degr ee increments for SXI letters on nylon under 5 cm of foam. A) Detector 1. B) Detect or 2. C) Detector 3. D) Detector 4. The effect of the surface subtra ction on the image quality is a re sult of the large amount of scatter generated in the foam covering. The scattering properties of the low density foam combined with the huge number of photons bein g emitted by the fan beam combine to create a muddying effect in the raw images. However, by subtracting the surface and foam effects out when the detectors are collimated to the correct di stance to the letters allows the target of the scan, the SXI letters, to stand out. Thus, we can see that by controlling the collimation, CIBR can be an effective subsurface scanning technique. 66

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Figure 5-16. Image resulting from uncollimated de tector images subtracted from collimated detectors for 5 cm thick foam overlay System Improvements CIBR has proven to be able to scan at equivalent resolutions as RSD, cr eate subsurface images, and has the possibility to signi ficantly reduce scanning time. Ho wever, the limiting factor to date is the limitation on power (voltage and current). By increasing the voltage and/or current, the detectors become flooded and the images ar e unrecognizable. While the low voltage and/or current can be a blessing by reducing the requir ements on the x-ray tube, they can also be a limitation when scanning through higher density and thicker objects. The lo wer current can be a significant advantage over RSD, reducing the requirements on the x-ray tube, but the voltage is limited primarily by the type of material being scanned. A higher voltage will be needed to penetrate certain objects, such as aluminum or ir on, regardless of the type of system being used. Specific ways to improve the system will be discussed in more depth in Chapter 6. In an effort to counteract this limitation on pow er (voltage and/or current), I created scans using the 2 mm aluminum filter built into the YXLON x-ray generator. The idea is that the aluminum filter will absorb the lower energy x-rays, only allowing the higher energy x-rays to pass through and create an image. This will eff ectively limit the x-rays escaping the tube to the higher energy x-rays that have a higher chance of being back-scattered to the detectors while at the same time reducing the total am ount of scatter so that we are not flooding the detectors. 67

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The first scan with the aluminum filter in place was a surface scan of the SXI letters on nylon performed at 50 kVp and 4 mAs. All other settings remained the same with a scan size of 10 x 10 cm, and a beam aperture to target distan ce of 8 cm, providing us with an approximately 10 cm fan beam width. The system was set to take 10 degree turns, giving us 36 rotations for the full 360 degrees of the image. The pixel dwell time was 0.1 sec/pixel with a pixel size of 1 mm. The 1 mm FOC spot was used with no collimation on the detectors. The resulting image from a summation of all detectors may be seen below in Figure 5-17. Figure 5-17. Reconstructed image for SXI letters on nylon through aluminum filter at 50 kVp and 4 mAs Examination of the image above shows that we can discern nothing. We cannot see the SXI or any other distinguishing feature. This is probably a function of th e detectors still being flooded despite the aluminum filter. For the next scan, I dropped the power to 30 kVp and 1 mAs and left the rest of the settings the same. The image will provide us with a co mparison to the images without the aluminum filter, and give us a starting point for analysis. The resulting image from a summation of the detectors compared to the image without the aluminum filter from Figure 5-12 may be seen in Figure 5-18. 68

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A B Figure 5-18. Comparison of SXI images at identi cal settings with alumin um filter and without. A) Aluminum filter. B) No filter. We can see that although the SXI is visible in the filter image, it is as muddy as the unprocessed foam images and significantly worse in quality that the imag e without the filter. This filtered image is better than the image fr om 50 kVp and 4 mAs (Figure 5-17). Even with the aluminum filter in place, the detectors were probably still being flooded causing the poorer image in Figure 5-17. Thus, with the reduction in voltage and current, we get a better image. The next scan was performed at 30 kVp with 5 mAs with all other settings remaining the same. By keeping the voltage constant and increasing the current, we should have an increase in the number of photons escaping the filter. This should help improve the image quality from Figure 5-18 by providing more photons and hence a higher contrast. The resulting image may be seen in Figure 5-19 below. We can see from this image that the SXI is barely visible, and is still significantly muddied. Therefore, we can conclude that the aluminum filter does not act in the manner that we were hoping and filter out the lower ener gy photons. Instead, it seems to reduce image quality. The use of the aluminum filter will not enhance image quality for CIBR. 69

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Figure 5-19. Summation image of SXI on nyl on with aluminum filter at 30kVp and 5mAs 70

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CHAPTER 6 FUTURE WORK Image Reconstruction CIBR needs its own specific image reconstruction algorithm. While for all current work the inverse Radon transform has been sufficient to create images, data is being lost due to this reconstruction method. The inverse Radon tran sform is primarily used to reconstruct transmission tomography images. CIBR has its own unique set of variables that differentiate it from transmission. The inverse Radon transform is based on the Radon transform, and was designed around a parallel-beam geometry transmission system. For use in x-ray tomography, the parallel beams are transmitted through the target object and collected on the opposite side. Based upon the attenuation of the target object, a linear profile will be created fo r that projection. The object (or machine) is then rotated a set angle increment, and another transmission image is taken. The image is reconstructed based on all 360 degrees of transmission projections. This method is shown in Figure 6-1 below. Figure 6-1. Inverse Radon pr ojection and image acquisition 71

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In the illustration above, for each parallel beam there is a similar detector. The resulting projection data is based upon the attenuation of the beam as it pa sses through the target object, and is the Radon transform. By taking a ll the Radon transform da ta from each angle we can reconstruct the target utilizi ng the inverse Radon transform. This is the method that has been used to reconstruct CIBR images to date. There are several noted differences between this method of parallel beam tomography image acquisition and the fan beam backscatter CIBR acquisition. To begin, the fan beam is inherently different from the parallel beam because it incorporates anot her set of angles into the equation, the spread of the fan from the point source through the aperture to the fina l fan size on the target, to the scattered fan size. The difference between the transmission and backscatter is also significant. With transmission the attenuation of the object is linear. However, with backscatter, the attenuation must be accounted for not only on the entrance path but also for the exit path. Add to this attenuation consider ation the geometric considerations based upon the fan beam instead of a parallel beam and you can begin to see the i nherent difficulties in CIBR reconstruction. Detector Improvements The current CIBR system was built out of an existing RSD system with many common components. Because of this, the detector setup was limited to the setup as seen in Figure 5-1. While this setup may be ideal for RSD, it is less than ideal for CIBR. By using these four separated detectors, the amount of da ta that can be collected is limited. The ideal setup for CIBR would be two long, th in detectors mounted right in front of and behind the fan beam. The detectors should be as wi de as the desired fan size on the target. This allows for the maximum solid angle for all photons from all areas of the target object to be collected in the detectors, which will provide for the maximum possible data to be collected about the target. This detector arra ngement is shown in Figure 6-2 below. 72

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Figure 6-2. CIBR two detector arrangement illustration Along with changing the design and setup of th e detectors, changing detector types should also be examined. As stated in Chapter 3, YSO detectors were primarily used in the proof of concept of CIBR. The YSO are preferred over NaI because of their shorter time constant, resulting in a higher allowed c ount rate before pulse pileup. However, even the YSO were becoming oversaturated at even negligible volta ges and currents, result ing in the huge reduction in both as stated in Chapter 3. This problem w ould only be amplified with NaI detectors. While the reduction in voltage and current is an advant age of CIBR, it could become a limiting factor as deeper subsurface scans are taken. Without the ability to run at sli ghtly higher voltages and currents, CIBR scans will become dominated by surface effects unable to be subtracted out with collimation. There are two ways to solve this problem. The use of current mode instead of pulse mode in the detectors will allow for hi gher count rates because pulse p ileup will not cause as large a problem. In pulse mode, which is the current setup, each individual photon that generates a detector effect is counted as a pulse. Before the detector can count the next pulse, the current pulse must effectively die away. The pulse height does not matter, as each pulse is individually counted. In current mode, indi vidual pulses are not counted. Instead, the area under the pulse, the integral, is instead counted. This reduces the problem of pulse pileup because each 73

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additional pulse will simply add to the area under the curve, allowing for the continued inclusion of these pulses without losing data or having to wait on the previous pulse to die. The second way to solve this problem is to chan ge detector types. Pl astic detectors have a lower efficiency than YSO and NaI, allowing them to work in higher radiation fields, such as the fan beam field created by CIBR. The second advant age to plastic detectors is the ability to create them in the shape desired for CIBR. Long, thin de tectors as seen in Figu re 6-2 are not possible with all detector crystals. Plastic, on the othe r hand, can be designed to a desired shape, making it ideal for use in CIBR. Collimation is an important, fundamental as pect of CIBR. As seen in Chapter 5, collimation is the defining factor for the ability to scan at depth. Collimation will have to be examined, based upon the detector setup chose n. Depending upon whether or not the ideal, long thin detectors are used or the current four de tector setup, collimation will change based upon the beam influence. Because the beam is no longer a point beam, but coming from a line instead, the geometric setup for the collimation may be able to be optimized for CIBR. Mechanical Design As stated above, the current CIBR system was designed using existing RSD components and systems. However, to truly optimize CIBR, a redesign of the mechanical system would be beneficial. The current system has target size limitations base d upon the ability to rotate the target. Also, there are speed limitations base d upon the table motors and controllers. Optimally, the least amount of required tabl e movement would utilize a sweeping motion with the x-ray tube. The ro tational motion could be achieved either through a rotating collimator, or by rotating the entire x-ray head. Any combination thereof could be a significant improvement over the current system because it w ould allow for larger scan targets and would also limit the amount of mechanical movement. New x-ray mounts and yokes would need to be 74

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designed, as well as upgrading the motors, contro llers, and controlling so ftware. The sweeping motion concept and the rotating beam collimator are shown in Figure 6-3. A B Figure 6-3. New mechanical desi gns for CIBR. A) Sweeping fan beam. B) Rotating aperture collimator. By combining the two concepts in the above illustration, motion could be limited purely to the x-ray generator. The generato r could sweep the width of the ta rget, the aperture could rotate the set angle, and then the generator could sweep back. This process could be repeated until all 360 degrees of scans are taken, at which time the image could be reconstructed. This would remove most of the limitations on the target size, allowing for larger targets. However, this method would add more geometric restraints on the reconstruction algorithm based upon the differing fan beam sizes due to the different distances from the target object. At the apex of the sweeps, the fan beam will be wider than at the ce nter because of the increased distance from the target. This extra geometry effect and increa sed amount of attenuation th rough air would need to be corrected for in the reconstruction algorithm, although this effect s hould be relatively small compared to other factors. However, by continuing to use the current translational motion, the use of just the rotating aperture collimator would eliminate the need to rotate the target, providing many of the advantages of the above mentioned modification but without having to 75

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account for the geometric and attenuation correct ion factors. There are many possibilities for mechanical improvements, tempered only by time, money, and reconstruction correction ability. Integral in improving the mechanical design is Labview software improvements. The current RSD labview software is sufficient to control the method used to date to perform CIBR ; any changes in the mechanical design would n ecessitate a change in the Labview software. Ideally, the ability to control the movement of the beam and to reconstruct the image upon completion of the scan would be integral in the program. The ability to use only 180 degrees worth of data to create an image would gain an additional factor of two increase in speed. Theore tically there is no reason that this cannot be performed since the second 180 degrees of data s hould be the inverse of the original data. However, in application this ability has not been demonstrated to work. This problem will probably have to be solved as a combination of mechanical and controlling software design and image reconstruction technique. System Scanning Familiarization Similar to RSD, CIBR will require scanning to familiarize the user with all the intricacies of creating a quality image. Continued scanni ng of more complex, less contrasting objects at varying depths and through varying materials at di fferent settings will show the true capabilities of CIBR. Only through practic al application will CIBR become better understood and scanning capabilities increased. 76

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LIST OF REFERENCES 1. D. Shedlock, X-Ray backscatter imaging for radiography by selective detection and snapshot: evolution, development, and optimi zation, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Florida, Gainesville (2007) 2. P.J. Arsenault and E. Hussein, X-ray s catter image reconstruction by balancing of discrepancies between detector re sponses, and apparatus therefore, United States Patent 7,203,276 (2007) 3. P. Bjorkholm, Radiation sources and compact radiation scanning systems, United States Patent 7,162,005 (2007) 4. E.J. Seppi, M. Marc, and J. Ford, Radiation scanning of objects for contraband, United States Patent 7,103,137 (2006) 5. A.W. Mario and S.D. Kravis, Tomographi c scanning X-ray inspection system using transmitted and Compton scattered radiation, United States Patent 7,072,440 (2006) 6. D.M. Hoffman, Computed tomography system with integrated scatter detectors, United States Patent 6,879,657 (2005) 7. M. Ozaki, X-ray CT apparatus, United States Patent 6,876,719 (2005) 8. S.W. Smith, Interrupted-fan-beam imaging, United States Patent 6,269,142 (2001) 9. L. Grodzins and R.D. Swift, Gated transmi ssion and scatter detection for x-ray imaging, United States Patent 6,151,381 (2000) 10. Z. Tiezhi, Scanning slot cone-beam computed tomography and scanning focus spot conebeam computed tomography, United States Patent Application 2007280408 (2007) 11. G. Walter, Apparatus and met hod for controlling start and st op operations of a computed tomography imaging system, United States Patent Application 2007230657 (2007) 12. G. Harding and J. Schlomka, Fan-beam coherent-scatter computer tomography, United States Patent Application 2007172026 (2007) 13. A. Yokoyama, M. Kuroda, T. Nakayama, S. Komi nato, T. Harada, and Y. Saito, Permanent magnet type motor and x-ray computed tomography apparatus, United States Patent Application 20070153976 (2007) 14. T. Nabatame, X-ray computed tomographic apparatus, United States Patent Application 20070081624 (2007) 15. G. Harding, J. Schlomka, and G. Martens, Method and imaging system for imaging the spatial distribution of an x-ray fluorescence marker, United States Patent Application 20060182217 (2006) 77

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16. K. Satoh and H. Takagi, Computed tomography system, United States Patent Application 20060133565 (2006) 17. J. Callerame, W. Adams, and L. Grodzins, X -ray scatter and transmission system with coded beams, United States Patent Application 20020031202 (2002) 18. C.J. Davidson, X-ray phase-contrast medical micro-imaging methods, United States Patent Application 20010038680 (2001) 19. S. Metzler, R. Accorsi, and R.M. Lewitt, Slit-slat collimation, European Patent WO2007109227 (2007) 20. O. Hupe and U. Ankerhold, X-ray security s canners for personnel and vehicle control: dose quantities and dose values, European Journal of Radiology 63(2) p. 237-241 (2007) 21. J. Callerame, X-ray backscatter im aging: Photography through barriers, Powder Diffraction 21(2) p. 132-135 (2006) 22. Z. Feng, S. Yao, L. Hou, and R. Jin, Depth dependent elastic strain in ZnO epilayer: combined Rutherford backscattering/channeling and X-ray diffraction, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research 220 (2) p. 246-252 (2005) 23. F.E. Khettabi, E.M.A. Hussein, and H.A. Ja ma, A nonrotating multiparameter 3-D X-ray imaging system-Part I: modeling and reconstruction, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 51 p. 641-647 (2004) 24. C.A. Carlsson, Imaging modalities in x-ray computerized tomography and in selected volume tomography, Physics Medical Biology 44 p. R23-R56 (1999) 25. P. Defranould, Acoustical fan-beam measurements by transducer arrays for tomography reconstruction, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics 28 p. 418-424 (1981) 78

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Christopher Meng was born and raised in Oreg on, Missouri. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point with a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering and a commission as a second lieutena nt in the US Army in 2000. He received a Master of Science in engineering management from the University of Missouri-Rolla in 2005. He joined the scatter x-ray imaging group at th e University of Florida in 2006 and began work on a Master of Science in nuclear engineering. 79