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Urban Block Networks

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022180/00001

Material Information

Title: Urban Block Networks Conceptualizing Chicago's Urban Landscape Based on Interpretations of Italo Calvino's & #34;Invisible Cities & #34; and Hieronymus Bosch's Triptych the & #34;Garden of Earthly Delights & #34;
Physical Description: 1 online resource (63 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, bosch, calvino, chicago, urban
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.Arch.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: My study explored current ideas of urban planning in Chicago interrelated among the art forms of literature, painting, and architecture. Urban development in Chicago was examined through several metaphoric relationships, identified in 'Invisible Cities' and 'The Garden of Earthly Delights.' Italo Calvino (Italian writer of the twentieth century) casts the passionate human experience as protagonist in Marco Polo's tales of 'imagined' cities to Kublai Khan. At the same time, he proposes these disparate cities a singular yet diverse place. The painted panels of Hieronymus Bosch (an Early Netherlandish painter of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) illustrate an idealized Garden of Eden ultimately altered by the passions of man. These ideas charge the exploration of Chicago as a city of memory, a city of desire, and a city of trade, while simultaneously generating ideas on the poetic potential of urban development in conjunction with economic networks. As Alvar Aalto wrote, 'the most difficult problems do not occur in the search for the form for present-day living, but rather in the attempt to create forms which are based on real human values.' My study shows that the elastic connections between individualism and collectivism are often lost in the order of contemporary urban planning. My study reevaluated modes of organizing urban space and proposes conceptual block networks that take into account the current development aspirations established in 'Chicago Metropolis 2020.' Using my analysis of Chicago in relation to architecture, consumerism and lifestyle trends, I interpret and criticize its 'Invisible Cities.' I also incorporated Bosch's painting as a visual illustration of the Judeo-Christian idealized 'Paradise' juxtaposed to the waning contemporary Utopian ideology of the cityscape of Chicago, with a focus on progress and the collective human experience.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Macleod, Robert M.
Local: Co-adviser: Bitz, Diana H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022180:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022180/00001

Material Information

Title: Urban Block Networks Conceptualizing Chicago's Urban Landscape Based on Interpretations of Italo Calvino's & #34;Invisible Cities & #34; and Hieronymus Bosch's Triptych the & #34;Garden of Earthly Delights & #34;
Physical Description: 1 online resource (63 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: architecture, bosch, calvino, chicago, urban
Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.Arch.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: My study explored current ideas of urban planning in Chicago interrelated among the art forms of literature, painting, and architecture. Urban development in Chicago was examined through several metaphoric relationships, identified in 'Invisible Cities' and 'The Garden of Earthly Delights.' Italo Calvino (Italian writer of the twentieth century) casts the passionate human experience as protagonist in Marco Polo's tales of 'imagined' cities to Kublai Khan. At the same time, he proposes these disparate cities a singular yet diverse place. The painted panels of Hieronymus Bosch (an Early Netherlandish painter of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) illustrate an idealized Garden of Eden ultimately altered by the passions of man. These ideas charge the exploration of Chicago as a city of memory, a city of desire, and a city of trade, while simultaneously generating ideas on the poetic potential of urban development in conjunction with economic networks. As Alvar Aalto wrote, 'the most difficult problems do not occur in the search for the form for present-day living, but rather in the attempt to create forms which are based on real human values.' My study shows that the elastic connections between individualism and collectivism are often lost in the order of contemporary urban planning. My study reevaluated modes of organizing urban space and proposes conceptual block networks that take into account the current development aspirations established in 'Chicago Metropolis 2020.' Using my analysis of Chicago in relation to architecture, consumerism and lifestyle trends, I interpret and criticize its 'Invisible Cities.' I also incorporated Bosch's painting as a visual illustration of the Judeo-Christian idealized 'Paradise' juxtaposed to the waning contemporary Utopian ideology of the cityscape of Chicago, with a focus on progress and the collective human experience.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Macleod, Robert M.
Local: Co-adviser: Bitz, Diana H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022180:00001


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URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS: CONCEPTUALIZING CHICAGO'S URBAN LANDSCAPE
BASED ON INTERPRETATIONS OF ITALO CALVINO'S "INVISIBLE CITIES" AND
HIERONYMUS BOSCH'S TRIPTYCH "THE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS"




















By

ALEXANDRO ANGELBELLO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Alexandro Angelbello


































To the city that inspired the American Dream for my Cuban family.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Professors Robert MacLeod and Diana Bitz, Mark Cogburn, Richard McDorman,

Zoka Zola Architecture and Urban Design, Jeffrey Hughes, Becky Hudson, and my family.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

LIST OF FIGURES ................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .7

ABSTRAC T ...................................................................

CHAPTER

1 PROGRAMMATIC DICTATES EXTRACTED FROM INVISIBLE CITIES ..................10

S o cial Id en titie s ........................................................................... 10
C onn section s an d N etw ork s ....................................................................... ........................ 1
O obsolescence of Place ............................. .. ........................ .......... ... ....................12

2 METAPHORIC ICONOGRAPHY IN THE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS ..........15

A lchem y and P paradise R eborn ..................................................................... ..................... 15
L ife C y cles............... ............. ............... ................................................ 16
P paradise through P rogress............ .... ................................................................ ........ .. ... 18

3 PERSPECTIVE DRAW ING ......................................................... ..... ..........21

A rt B ecom es Science .................................................. ............. ............ .. 21
Im agination and V isual P perception .............................................................. .....................22

4 COMMUNICATING UTOPIAN IDEALS................. ............ ...................25

M egastructures: Pre-V ietnam H eroics......... ................. ............................... ............... 25
Paul Rudolph, 1918 to 1997 ............. ........... ............................ ............... 26
R aim und A braham 1933 ..................................................................... ...................27
Postm odernism : Re-Infuse Social M meaning ........................................ ....................... 28
Stev en H oll, 194 7 ................................................... ................ 2 8
G aetano Pesce, 1939 .................................... ..... .......... .............. .. 29

5 THE CONTEMPORARY PARADIGM ............................ .......... ....... ........ 33

Consumerism and Commodified Architecture ............. ................................. ...............33
P lugging into a N etw ork ....................................................................... ..................34
B rand L lifestyles ........................................................................ 35
Superstar Architects .................................... .. .......... .. ............36
From Placem ent to Choreography .......................................................... ............... 39
Staging C ity B locks ............................ .............. ................. .... ....... 39
Suburbs Plugging into the City .............................................................................. 40
L esson s from L as V egas ....................................................................... ..................4 1









6 CHICAGO'S SHIFTING ASPIRATIONS ........................................ ........................ 45

C hicago M etropolis 2020 P lan ....................................................................... ..................45
Transportation-O oriented D design ..............................................................................46
Housing and Land Use............................ .................. ........... 46
Economic Wellbeing ................................... .. .......... ............ ... 47

7 CONCEPT URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS ............................................................. 49

B lo ck A rch itectu re ............... .. ...................................................................... .......... .. .. ..4 9
Segregating the Automobiles from Consumers ....................................... ...............52
L ight-R ail T ransit Sy stem ............. .............................................................. .......... ....... 54

8 CON CLU SION .......... ................................................ .. ................ ....59

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................................... ...................6 1

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .......................................................................... .. .......................63




































6









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 Original interpretations of social identities: A) Chloe. B) Eutropia..............................13

1-2 Original interpretations of social identities: A) Ersilia. B) Euphemia.............................14

1-3 Original interpretations of social identity: Esmeralda ..................................................14

2-1 Bosch's triptych recto panels ........................................................................ 20

2-2 Bosch's verso panels illustrating the creation of the world.............................................20

3-1 Perspective projection and its analogues ..................................... ........... ........ ....... 24

4-1 Century tower lower Manhattan expressway ............................................ ...............31

4-2 Continuous building ............... ................. ........... .......... .............3.. 31

4-3 G ym nasium bridges .......................... ...................... ... .... ........ ........ 32

4-4 Church of Solitude ..................................... ................. ........... .. ............. 32

5-1 Calatrava's Chicago spire project ...................................... .. ................................ 44

5-2 M andalay tram to the Las Vegas strip ........................................ .......................... 44

7-1 Chicago at Randolph St. between Michigan Ave. and Lakeshore Dr ............................55

7-2 Branded Chicago........... .... ........ ...................... ......56

7-3 Urban block m odel ............... ................. ........... ................. .......... 56

7-4 Pedestrian, light-rail and vehicular networks................................ ....................... 57

7-5 B lock netw ork aerial perspective.......................................................................... .... 58









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture

URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS: CONCEPTUALIZING CHICAGO'S URBAN LANDSCAPE
BASED ON INTERPRETATIONS OF ITALO CALVINO'S "INVISIBLE CITIES" AND
HIERONYMUS BOSCH'S TRIPTYCH "THE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS"

By

Alexandro Angelbello
May 2008

Chair: Robert MacLeod
Cochair: Diana Bitz
Major: Architecture

My study explored current ideas of urban planning in Chicago interrelated among the art

forms of literature, painting, and architecture. Urban development in Chicago was examined

through several metaphoric relationships, identified in Invisible Cities and The Garden of Earthly

Delights. Italo Calvino (Italian writer of the twentieth century) casts the passionate human

experience as protagonist in Marco Polo's tales of "imagined" cities to Kublai Khan. At the

same time, he proposes these disparate cities a singular yet diverse place. The painted panels of

Hieronymus Bosch (an Early Netherlandish painter of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries)

illustrate an idealized Garden of Eden ultimately altered by the passions of man. These ideas

charge the exploration of Chicago as a city of memory, a city of desire, and a city of trade, while

simultaneously generating ideas on the poetic potential of urban development in conjunction

with economic networks.

As Alvar Aalto wrote, "[t]he most difficult problems do not occur in the search for the

form for present-day living, but rather in the attempt to create forms which are based on real

human values." My study shows that the elastic connections between individualism and

collectivism are often lost in the order of contemporary urban planning.









My study reevaluated modes of organizing urban space and proposes conceptual block

networks that take into account the current development aspirations established in Chicago

Metropolis 2020. Using my analysis of Chicago in relation to architecture, consumerism and

lifestyle trends, I interpret and criticize its 'Invisible Cities.' I also incorporated Bosch's painting

as a visual illustration of the Judeo-Christian idealized 'Paradise' juxtaposed to the waning

contemporary Utopian ideology of the cityscape of Chicago, with a focus on progress and the

collective human experience.









CHAPTER 1
PROGRAMMATIC DICTATES EXTRACTED FROM INVISIBLE CITIES

Social Identities

Italo Calvino's Invisible Cities consists of 55 small chapters. In each chapter Marco Polo

describes to Kublai Khan, the emperor of China, the cities he has visited through his travels.

Structurally the accounts of the cities are presented in 11 "thematic groups" according to one

dominant line or quality of description, and also in 9 larger divisions, 5 accounts in every

division (excluding the first and the last chapters, which have 10 accounts each). Every chapter is

framed with dialogues between Khan and Marco that reveal the metaphoric relationships of the

cities to the reader. I chose to concentrate on a closer examination of the five different accounts

referred to in the text as the "Tradings Cities," because of Chicago's reputation as a center of

trade and symbol of progress in the United States.

To begin, Platonic philosophy suggests that a city must be the reflection of the stories told

about it. In Trading Cities 2, Calvino writes about the city of Chloe, where "the people who

move through the streets are all strangers." To suggest that a city's inhabitants are isolated and

have no interconnecting exchanges is to bring into question the existence of city. If a city were

to exist without any connections, the very act of refraining from social interactions would create

a vulnerability that could render the city susceptible to any salacious forces. Chloe (see Figure

1-1A) is a city that is unaware of itself and has no stories to give it an identity. In The City of

Words, Alberto Manguel states that "stories can feed our consciousness, which can lead to the

faculty of knowing if not 'who' we are at least 'that' we are, an essential awareness that develops

through confrontation with another's voice. If there are no social interactions then there are no

experiential qualities that provide context for a city to establish any identity. It is my position


1 A. Manguel, The City of Words (Toronto, Anansi Press, 2007), p. 10.









that Calvino would find it presumptuous to assume that once a city establishes an identity,

whether social or economic, the inhabitants could adapt and change that identity under varying

quantitative conditions. In Trading Cities 3, he introduces the city of Eutropia, which

continually rotates identities "but always remains the same." The movement of Eutropia is

compared to the shifting movement of pieces on a chessboard, and the reader must assume that

this is a game in which the inhabitants of Eutropia are participants who cannot escape their own

rejected societal identity (see Figure 1-1B). We hold fast to a social identity that we believe

lends us a name and a face, but equally fast we move from one definition of society to another,

altering again and again that presumed identity.2 I resolve that there is no merit in assimilating

different social identities if the results produce the same tired social networks held within

idealized constructions; these are the negative proliferative cycles that spawn homogenous cities.

Connections and Networks

Ersilia in Trading Cities 4 poses the inverse paradigms of Chloe or Eutropia. Calvino

writes that "traveling in the territory of Ersilia, you come upon the ruins of the abandoned cities,

without the walls which do not last,... spiderwebs of intricate relationships seeking a form." The

complex networks of social and economic interactions that constitute Ersilia (see Figure 1-2A)

are stronger than the forms which contain them. The forms of a city will work to maximize the

potential of our complex webs through social or economic means or they will be abandoned for

newer models. Economic life permits us to develop cultures and a multitude of connections, and

in The Nature of Economies Jane Jacobs poses that the development of such networks is the most

meaningful contribution of economic life.3



2 A. Manguel, op. cit., p.144.

3 J. Jacobs, The Nature of Economies (New York, Vintage Books, 2000), p. 147.









If our networks are pulling the chains of the economic machine, then it is also important to

find the joy in the rhythm of the machine. In Trading Cities 1, Calvino describes the city of

Euphemia, "where the merchants of seven nations gather at every solstice and equinox." These

merchants arrive at Euphemia for trade, and simultaneously develop an evening cultural

exchange, "sharing tales of wolves, sisters, treasures...," unifying merchants from different

nations along their travels for financial gain. The merchant exchanges often amount to the

sharing of second hand experiences of the world. The gaining of second hand knowledge was

described by Alberto Manguel as a form of learning without action and fulfillment without

accomplishment.4 This type of exchange contributes to the emergence of a collective symbolic

experience that can be connected to a consumer lifestyle, generating another type of economic

connection. The interactions of the merchants exchanging goods, serve to connect them to a

specific lifestyle, thereby giving Euphemia (see Figure 1-2B) a distinct social identity.

Economies generate an intersecting grid of networks which rely on diversity of interactions to

serve several different purposes simultaneously.5

Obsolescence of Place

Ersilia was previously described as a "... spiderweb of intricate relationships seeking a

form." These relationships are viewed as functions of economies and technologies, which have

become both the internal and external skeleton of our societies, allowed for by our laws and

customs, and paradoxically the source of our laws and customs.6 The ongoing conflict between

what a city looks like and what a city is illustrates this paradox.




4 A. Manguel, op. cit., p. 18.

5 J. Jacobs, op. cit., p. 119.
6 A. Manguel, op. cit., p. 118.









In Trading Cities 5, Calvino describes Esmeralda as a system of canals and streets that

intersect each other through a network of routes that follow an "up-and-down course of steps,

landings, cambered bridges, and hanging streets." Esmeralda operates on many different

networks and as a result the city's inhabitants must navigate among the various routes these

systems generate. The various user routes generate more opportunities for diverse interactions.

When Calvino states that "the most fixed and calm lives in Esmeralda are spent without any

repetition," he qualifies developing cities in conjunction with established networks as a means of

invigorating other social networks (see Figure 1-3). To prescribe methods as solutions

automatically blocks development of better methods.7 Ersilia, inadequately accommodating its

vast networks, became a wasteland of obsolete structures that were not as efficient as

Esmeralda's structural forms that developed in conjunction with its own distinct web of

networks.














Figure 1-1. Original interpretations of social identities: A) Chloe. B) Eutropia. (Source:
illustrated by A. Angelbello).









SJ. Jacobs, op. cit., p. 37.
















--o 8 r ;A


P.A t W 1I


Figure 1-2. Original interpretations of social identities: A) Ersilia. B) Euphemia. (Source:
illustrated by A. Angelbello).


Figure 1-3. Original interpretations of social identity: Esmeralda. (Source: illustrated by A.
Angelbello).









CHAPTER 2
METAPHORIC ICONOGRAPHY IN THE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS

Alchemy and Paradise Reborn

The Garden ofEarthly Delights, Hieronymus Bosch's best known work (see Figure 2-1), is

unique among Renaissance panel paintings.1 When opened, the triptych reveals three scenes that,

at first glimpse, present a straightforward Biblical account. Adam and Eve appear in the left

panel, their many children in the center panel, and a monstrous scene of hellfire and damnation

in the right panel. However, upon closer inspection, things are not as they should be.

As in many of Bosch's other paintings, the process of alchemy2 provides a sub-theme that

juxtaposes the triptych's Biblical program while also explaining its odd configuration.

Alchemical imagery provides a way of accepting the co-existence of Biblical, heavenly, human,

salacious, millennial and aphorismic imagery in the Garden ofEarthly Delights. By the fifteenth

century, the philosophical side of alchemy had reached a summit of intricacy, most notably in its

visual metaphors. A religious quest by scholars preoccupied with cure-all remedies, the ancient

search for an elixir of life reached a climax at this time. The conclusive goal of alchemy was

eagerly desirous-to discover a way to return the world and its inhabitants to a new Garden of

Eden, where aging, sickness and death became circumstances that solely plagued the past. This

is one market demand that continues to manifest itself within contemporary social and economic

networks, illustrated by billion dollar revenues from cosmetic, beauty, and health and fitness

marketing.




1 Its daring combination of religious imagery, eroticism, and alchemical motifs stand out among contemporary
works of the same genre.
2 An early form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and
concerned principally with discovering methods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with finding a universal
solvent and an elixir of life.









Alchemists during Bosch's time believed that the first step in every distillation cycle was

built upon the ashes of a previous cycle; thus, the first step in a process was also the last. Within

this system, every ending was a beginning and every beginning contained an end, in imitation of

the rhythm of nature and the Biblical rise, fall and renewal of the world itself, described in the

legend of Noah and predicted in the Revelation.3 The path of creation, multiplication and

destruction in the interior panels is superseded and obliterated by the final cleansing, or

"redemption," of the chemist's materials.4

Early chemists viewed their research as a Christian duty because their work was

considered a means of bringing them nearer to God. Bosch's era witnessed a revival of

alchemical philosophy, which emphasized the redemptive power of the work. Thus, the central

panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights suggests a future Eden, where there is no illness, sin or

other imperfection-the result of the alchemist's success, made possible with God's help. It can

be read as the focal point of the triptych: a reminder of Paradise regained, the reward that awaits

all devout Christian men and women after Christ's second coming. Alchemy's eschatological

relevance5 was important to Bosch and his educated patrons, who feared the coming

Apocalypse.6

Life Cycles

Hieronymus Bosch's triptych is organized into a two panel verso,7 opening to a three panel

recto.8 Once open, the interior panels must be read from left to right. Thus, the left recto


3 L. Dixon, Bosch (London, Phaidon Press, 2003), p. 271.
4 By proper imitation of God's creation of the world and its inhabitants, devout chemists intended to save the human
race from obliteration and guide it to an age of grace and renewal (L. Dixon, op. cit., p. 276).
5 A system of doctrines that promise an earthly paradise achieved through science.
6 L. Dixon, op.cit., p. 278.

7 The 'verso' refers to the backside of the triptych.









represents the last three days of Creation, while the center represents the Fountain of Life. Real

and fantastic animals, the latter drawn from bestiaries that go back to Alexandrian9 prototypes,

fill the scene.10 In the foreground, God introduces Eve to Adam, who has awakened from her

slumber, after which Adam proceeds to inspect the companion created out of his rib.11

The theme of the center panel, while unique among the works of Bosch, is not unknown in

medieval painting or literature. Representations of love gardens used as settings for lovers and

lovemaking are part of the prevailing imagery. Eroticism and even the representations of the

sexual act are not uncommon in paintings, engravings, and book illuminations of the period.

However, it is the interpretation of the scene's representation that is of primary importance.

Bosch's construction of Paradise as a love garden is noteworthy. He places a pool of maidens in

the center of a large park, around which a large circle of riders revolve counterclockwise. The

foreground is filled with nude men and women, peacefully frolicking and enjoying the presence

of birds, plants, and other companions. 12 Erotic connotations abound in plants and fruits, as well

as in metaphors of the sexual organs. The upper portion of the panel is inhabited by

phantasmagorical forms of fountains and pavilions around a lake extended backwards towards

the horizon, while figures with fragile wings take to flight. Here Bosch is presenting a type of

utopian paradise ingrained in religious ecstasy, human interconnectedness and experiential

organic spaces, existing without man-made constructs of hierarchy, organization or government.



8 The rectoo' refers to the front of the triptych.

9 That is, Ancient Egyptian.
10 E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998), p.131.

1 God, appearing Christ-like, is blessing the first couple in the words of Gen. 1:28, "Be fruitful and multiply," (E.
Larsen,, op.cit., p. 133).
12 The author compares the scene to the Golden Age described by Hesiod "when men and beasts dwelt in peace
together," or, in a more modern vein, to a global love (L. Dixon, op. cit., pp. 239 240).









The right recto depicts Bosch's vision of hell, a place of contrast between civilization and

damnation. In the middle of the last panel we find the so-called Tree Man.13 The torso is egg-

shaped, and the lower part of the body consists of rotting tree trunks. Bosch has taken up in this

panel the metamorphosis of man into beast, which is a well-known medieval tradition for

depicting deserved punishment of vices and depravities.14 On the verso of the triptych (see

Figure 2-2), Bosch painted in grisaille15 the Creation of the world, enclosed in a crystal globe16

and seen as of the third day of Genesis. The presentation of the panels in sequential order

illustrates the destiny of man from creation to self-destruction, but Bosch's use of alchemical

imagery and the physical act of opening and closing the verso panels to reveal the recto are

suggestive of a life cycle and the sequence of changing states that, upon completion, produces a

final state identical to the original one.

Paradise through Progress

One can construct an analogous Boschian paradigm where architectural imagery presents a

metaphoric program, informed by collective human experiences and civilizations under the guise

of utopian ideology. Architecture does not have the freedom that other art forms have because it

is a means to an end, and only the beginning stage in the process of building. In Synopsis,

Painting, Architecture, Sculpture Alvar Aalto17 states that "although we know that poor man can

hardly be saved, whatever we attempt to do, the main duty of the architect is to humanize the age



13 The 'Tree Man' is a form seen in Bosch's previous sketch work (L. Dixon, ibid.).
14 One might be led to suspect that this hell panel was executed as a kind of self-flagellation for having enjoyed too
much the invention and execution of a paradise that cannot be (E. Larsen,, op.cit., p. 133).
15 A style of monochromatic painting in shades of gray, used especially for the representation of relief sculpture.

16Medieval symbolic alchemical imagery

17 Twentieth century Finnish architect and designer, sometimes referred to as the Father of Modernism. His work
includes architecture, furniture and glassware.









of machines. That must however be done without disregarding form."18 If one considers The

Garden of Earthly Delights and its depictions of the Judeo-Christian notions of paradise,

creation, sin, and hell, which are themselves an illustration of a process and cycle of humanity,

then architecture must negotiate between idealized utopias, like the "Paradise" depicted in

Bosch's central panel, and the impediments of contemporary civilizations. For every

architectural utopia there is an antipode that is rooted in our own human nature. I subscribe to

the idea that "a city is the form of its inhabitant's passions and all the events which they

experience or imagine are the imagery of their passions."19
































18 A. Aalto, Synopsis, Flo,,rI ,. Architecture, Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980), p. 20.

19 A. Alto, Ibid.

























Figure 2-1. Bosch's triptych recto panels. Source: E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark,
1998), p. 103.


Figure 2-2. Bosch's verso panels illustrating the creation of the world. Source: E. Larsen, Bosch
(New York, Smithmark, 1998), p. 132.









CHAPTER 3
PERSPECTIVE DRAWING

Art Becomes Science

According to Robin Evans, Erwin Panofsky's original writing in Perspective as Symbolic

Form is considered one of the beginnings of a new form of interpretation of perspective.1

Panofsky draws on a large pool of knowledge that ranges from the history of art to theology,

science, and philosophy. He defines and arranges a characterization of ancient Western cultures

and their representations. In regard to perspective, Panofsky believes in an articulation of

intention joining the civil/societal, cerebral, and mechanical practices of a culture into balanced

and continuous wholes, although the continual design of each historical era or culture is

dissimilar. He believes that each gives rise to an altered but abundant perception of the world.

Panofsky categorizes these spatial field systems, drawing parallels to their harmony with the

different conventions of knowledge, faith, and interchange that distinguished the cultures in

which they emerge.

Major achievements regarding perspective portrayal elevated art to a "science"; the

subjective visual impression was indeed so far rationalized that this very impression could itself

become the foundation for a solidly grounded and yet, in an entirely modern sense, "infinite"

experiential world.2 Projective geometry, limited in geometric accuracy, succeeds in bringing

the pure ideas of geometry to mind. Therefore, since there is no such thing as a perfect

materialized triangle, the essence not only of architectural geometry but of architecture in general




1 R. Evans, The Projective Cast (London, MIT Press, 1995), p. 126.
2 One could compare the function of Renaissance perspective with that of critical philosophy, and the function of
Greco-Roman perspective with that of skepticism. The result was a translation of psychophysiologcal space into
mathematical space; in other words, an objectification of the subjective: E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form.
(New York, Zone Books, 1997), p. 66.









is not in the concrete object but in the cerebral design.3 The architect actively constructs his or

her own perception of the world and, thereby actively participates in the fabrication of the world.

The allure of perspective drawing is due to the communication of experiential qualities that

externalize, or appear to externalize, an aspect of perception as if the viewer were seeing the

thought itself. The imagination continues to exist but not in its traditional location. Imagination

is not held within the mind, but is potentially active in all the areas of transition from persons to

objects or pictures. It operates, in other words, in the same zone as projection and its

metaphors.4

Diverse cultures have distinct symbolic methods of staging the world in pictorial images,

and each method can communicate to the vigilant observer a foundation of intelligence about the

mentality of its people or time period. Before referring to several noted utopian perspective

drawings from modem and post-modem architectural history, it is important to establish how

these perspective drawings are infused with such metaphoric relationships by categorizing the

functions that are involved in staging them.

Imagination and Visual Perception

There are several ways of understanding space and several ways of translating between the

varied concepts. There are not an infinite number of combinations, but in The Projective Cast,

Robin Evans relates several of these combinations to each other, often extending beyond their

respective definitions.

The two broadest routes from Euclidean5 space seem to lead in the opposite directions,

toward palpable experience and toward abstract mathematics. Of particular interest to Evans is


3 R. Evans, op. cit., p. 354.
4 R. Evans, op. cit., p. 363.
5 Euclidean geometry describes physical space.









the way in which projection has been used as a connecting thread between these extremes. He

defines the different fields of projective transmission that concern architecture (see Figure 3-1).

In the figure, ten fields of projection are shown joining five types of targets. Four of the

targets are almost always thought of as pictures or picture like. The one exception is the

designed object. Evans attempts to portray the extent of projection and its metaphors, so the

diagram treats varieties of real and imaginary spaces as if they were all the same. The part

behind the dotted line cutting (2), (6), and (7) represents the observer, or someone who is

looking.6

The following is a brief itemization of the transitive spaces numbered in Figure 3-1, that

correspond to the sequence I will be exploring:

Perspectival space (6) is three-dimensional, consisting of a two-dimensional graphic

drawing with a third dimension imagined within the picture. The reverse relationship would

make the observer the manipulator/creator of the picture and this is the case when setting up a

perspective drawing. Two further targets are the perception (9) and imagination (10) belonging

to the observer and the two further projective spaces behind them.

Imagination (10) and visual perception (9) are shown as pictures, because that is how they

are normally described. They are not pictures, but the very fact that both are thought of in that

way is very significant.7









6 The status of these lines as they pass across the border into consciousness is not clear.

7 R. Evans, op. cit., p. 370.































Figure 3-1. Perspective projection and its analogues. Source: R. Evans, The Projective Cast
(London, MIT Press, 1995), p. 367.









CHAPTER 4
COMMUNICATING UTOPIAN IDEALS

Megastructures: Pre-Vietnam Heroics

Panofsky believed "when work on certain artistic problems has advanced so far that further

work in the same direction, proceeding from the same premises, appears unlikely to bear fruit,

the result is often a great recoil, or perhaps better, a reversal of direction."1

Considering the current political climate, the costly and lengthy war in the Middle East, the

false promises of progress, and the recycling of older models of urbanism, many parallels can be

drawn between contemporary architecture and the pre and post-Vietnam War era models.

Utopian drawings of the twentieth century emerged as a reaction to the charged cultural,

political, and technological climates in the 1960s and 1970s. Throughout this era,

megastructures, the final provocation of the heroic vision of pre-war modernism, acquiesced to

the first inklings of postmodernism's roots.

These megastructures originated in reaction to the architecture of the 1950s and, most

importantly, to the modernist overhaul of urban post-war Europe. The 1960s ushered in a

younger generation of architects who were generally dissatisfied with modernism's functionalist

criteria and drained social idioms. These architects widened the generational gap by taking cues

from pop culture, comic books, the Beatles, and the radical politics of the 1960s as

accoutrements to revolutionize culture and improve the state of the world. The global and often

disconnected, nomadic projects that resulted from their movement surpassed the scale of prewar

architecture, and marshaled in the megastructure campaign.

The urban redevelopment schemes of the 1950's favored the disseverance of the urban

landscape into transportation, work, living, and recreation. The pioneering megastructures


1 E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (New York, Zone Books, 1997), p. 47.









intended to reintegrate these four functional networks back into the city. Leading architects at

the time, Paul Rudolph and Raimund Abraham, believed that the compartmentalization of these

networks had divested the city of its vitality; hence, the complex relationships that energize a city

would be best served by restoring emphasis to the connections between the house, street, district,

and city instead. Forty years later, modern urbanism is still challenged by strikingly similar

paradigms (i.e., the compartmentalization described above). The selected architectural works of

Rudolph and Abraham succeed mostly as visual translations of verbal metaphors and puns drawn

from contemporaneous cultural sources, a Boschian allegory of abstract cultural ideas presented

by events in narrative pictorial forms.

Paul Rudolph, 1918 to 1997

In the late 1960s, Paul Rudolph proposed a Y-shaped corridor as a response to

contemporary discussions about constructing an expressway running across lower Manhattan.

The expressway would have served as a link from New Jersey to Brooklyn, Queens, and Long

Island via the Holland Tunnel and the Manhattan and Williamsburg bridges. His design (see

Figure 4-1) operated around the city's infrastructure at the time, leaving it intact, and suggested a

new approach to city building emphasizing transportation networks as a means of connecting

rather than dividing communities. He proposed placing multilevel, pedestrian plazas; people

movers; and parking both above and below existing bridge and rail systems; at key intervals

along the interrelated transportation corridors, thereby forming hubs. High-rise residential

buildings would step back from these hubs, providing light, air, and views for their residents.

The resulting megastructure would generate urban space by joining the new building types with

corridors at points of entry into the complex.









Raimund Abraham, 1933

Raimund Abraham's Continuous Building project, consisting of a fluctuating mechanical

system, serves as a metaphorical exploration of New York City. In this drawing (see Figure 4-

2), the future growth of the city is ominously represented by a hexagonal tubular system that

extends ad infinitum in different directions. The nature of the system is speculative but its

nightmarish, contextually-disconnected representation reflects an invasive megastructure that is

far removed from Rudolph's more optimistic vision of the future.

The center panel of Bosch's triptych and Rudolph's drawing can both be interpreted as

embracing a utopian view of human social organization. Although Bosch's work predates

Rudolph's proposed megastructure by more than five centuries, the two share the ideal of a

harmonious, integrated, densely connected society. On the other hand, Abraham's drawing

suggests that such a society, when taken to its logical extreme, is more nightmare than utopia.

The same holds true of the right panel of Bosch's triptych. Whereas Bosch extrapolates such a

state to an inevitable Apocalypse, Abraham sees the end result as the extreme mechanization of

humanity. Both extremes are equally ruinous.

Bosch's triptych, as a whole, illustrates the Judeo-Christian notion that man, because of

original sin, cannot be saved. Rudolph counters with the proposal that man can indeed be saved

by his own design, or more broadly that mankind can save itself by imposing structure and

interconnection on its nature (i.e., that human nature can be overcome). Abraham appears to

reject this notion, suggesting that although humankind may be able to impose structure on itself,

even to the extreme, such structure will not result in mankind's salvation, but rather in its

conversion into an over-mechanized social automaton.









Postmodernism: Re-Infuse Social Meaning

At the beginning of the 1970s, the megastructure movement failed to produce anything

more substantial than idealized architectural drawings. The post-war optimism of the movement

seemed irrelevant to a society dealing with the escalating Vietnam War and the political

uprisings of the late 1960s. The megastructure lacked the allure of innovation; therefore, its

demise heralded the emergence of a new avant-garde movement: postmodernism.2 Divorcing

their pre-Vietnam War technocratic utopias, architects such as Steven Holl and Gaetano Pesce

began searching for fresh ideas and diverse references to reinfuse their designs with meaning.

Steven Holl, 1947

Steven Holl's Gymnasium Bridge project had altruistic aspirations of relating four

intersecting and overlapping bridges, each of which contained usable space while doubling as a

passageway. The bridges were proposed so as to cover the area between New York's

impoverished South Bronx neighborhoods and the parkland of Randall's Island. Holl's project

(see Figure 4-3) was one of six projects commissioned by the Wave Hill Center with the

intention of fostering economic development. Holl's scheme sought to take advantage of an

economic system in which community members would generate income through employment

opportunities, servicing organized recreational activities housed in the bridges. These

recreational activities, such as boxing, basketball, rowing, and ice skating, would attract visitors

and customers to the area, which would allow the unemployed and poor back into the city's

economic system. Holl envisioned the municipal funding of the Gymnasium Bridge as a

connecting point for transportation and economic networks.





2 V. Lampugnani, Visionary Architecture of the 20th Century (London, Thames-Hudson, 1982), pp. 14 16.









Gaetano Pesce, 1939

Gaetano Pesce's observations and experiences in New York in the 1970s inspired him to

design the Church of Solitude (see Figure 4-4). During this time, Pesce observed the people of

New York living together haphazardly in disorderly haste. His project proposed a below-grade

sanctuary from the chaos of urbanism by providing a serene place for introspection and

contemplation buried under an unoccupied lot among the towers of the city. The church

included small individual chambers allotted for further escape from New York's corporate and

institutional culture. Pesce explored the possibilities of excavated landscapes as a way to

capitalize on the hidden potential that these overlooked spaces provide for people's future needs.

Whether the ideal of an interconnected society is found held together in one large

complex-as in Rudolph's proposed megastructure-or joined together by infrastructure and

economy-as in Holl's proposed bridges-the two drawings share the ideal of a harmonious,

interconnected society similarly depicted in the center panel of Bosch's triptych. On the other

hand, Pesce's drawing suggests that dystopias, such as Abraham's social robot and the looming

Apocalypse in the right panel of Bosch's triptych, can only be escaped by urban withdrawal,

solitude, and introspective transcendence. In proposing this sanctuary, Pesce embraced the

Eastern philosophy that life is full of suffering caused by urbanism as the embodiment of desire,

and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the

endless sequence of life to which one is otherwise subject.

Pesce's sanctuary proposal rejects the Judeo-Christian philosophy outlined by Bosch's

triptych, and subscribes to a more Buddhist philosophy, signaling a shift in thinking from social

collectivism and salvation to the individual experience and transcendence. This shift is most

significant to the current paradigm facing architecture and the urban landscape. Since

architecture cannot actualize mankind's salvation, what can it do for the individual? Like Pesce,









many post-modernist architects felt that the truly transcendent architectural solutions to urban

dilemmas could only be found on the intellectual fringes of pop culture, isolated from corporate

America. This anti-corporate sentiment was echoed in their projects, many of which proposed

funding of their social projects with local tax dollars and municipal funds. The new paradigm

facing those architects who wish to realize their innovative urban ideas in the twenty-first

century will require a shift in thinking from the isolated periphery of culture to the center of

consumer and economic models. Until then, innovative design ideas that have potential to be

catalysts for urban renewal may never eclipse conceptualism.





























Figure 4-1. Century tower lower Manhattan expressway, New York, New York. Project, 1967
72, (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/)


Figure 4-2. Continuous building, 1965. (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/)


~
*r*-























Figure 4-3. Gymnasium bridges, New York, New York. Project, 1977. (Source:
http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/)


Figure 4-4. Church of Solitude, New York, New York. Project, 1974-77. (Source:
http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/)









CHAPTER 5
THE CONTEMPORARY PARADIGM

Consumerism and Commodified Architecture

With the escalation of the "War on Terror" and the lack of effective political opposition,

the postwar capitalist economy is selling optimism as consumerism. The iPod has been co-opted

as a catalyst to enhance the perceived value of its user by endowing him or her with a particular

identity and by triggering a particular brand experience.1 Thus, the architect of today must

confront hypocrisy and contradiction at every turn: the architectural branding of healthy and fit

lifestyles, and the mass marketing of environmentally conscious, or "green" Utopian spaces

coexist uncomfortably amongst an increasingly obese populace who drive gas-guzzling tanks to

the local fast food "drive-through." The prevailing socio-architectural paradigm has left the

architect no choice but to "produce" architecture for a culture that has been commodified.2

I will draw from the poetic works of Bosch and Calvino to propose an architectural

solution for urban development in Chicago which acknowledges and embraces the imperfect

realities of modern human experiences and interconnectivity. The current Utopian architectural

paradigm3 will be exposed for what it is: a misguided and failed attempt to assuage society's

excesses and overindulgences with spatial constructs that provide only an illusion of progress

and transcendence.4

In Trading Cities 3, Calvino suggests that Eutropia "repeats its life, identical, shifting up

and down on its empty chessboard." Examined closely, the name Eutropia may have hidden


1 A. Kilingmann, Brandscapes (London, MIT Press, 2007), pp. 6 -8.
2 Culture becomes a product instead of a behavior or belief.

3 Prefabricated "sustainable" lifestyle packages for an "enlightened" population.
4 Sustainable" McMansions" and green luxury office towers illustrate architectural practices supporting and
perpetuating those illusions.









implications by the author's combination of "utopia," a visionary system of social perfection and

"tropia," a deviation of an eye from the normal position with respect to the line of vision when

the eyes are open. Combining these two words to form the name Eutropia could suggest the city

is itself a manifestation of an incorrectly perceived utopian vision. Adopting a different utopian

ideal does not alter the inhabitants' qualitative interactions that paradoxically give a city its true

quantitative or social identity. Because of deeply embedded social and economic relationships,

the true identity of a city cannot be retrofitted to subscribe to any architectural ideal.

Plugging into a Network

Considering Bosch's Garden ofEarthly Delights, the human experience is presented

against a Biblical narrative with moralistic overtones. Even in the absence of gods, our unique

planet Earth and its sky are present as a ground for our full, embodied experience, one through

which we may now be capable of questioning the hegemony of abstract constructs. In view of

this realization, we are called to transform our own individual, often arrogant, relationship to the

world and explore the qualitative relationships that define our social identity. Contemporary

economic models5 have proliferated because they propose a means for an individual to purchase

an identity that the consumer feels represents the social elite, leaving out huge segments of the

population based on income and differing beliefs. Individualism does not contribute to the

emergence of collective symbolic capital; instead, we must plug into the diverse networks that

give us a unified identity and that benefit the communal realm of the city.

In his Invisible Cities, Calvino established that the meaningful qualities that distinguish the

unified identity of a trade city are the social interactions generated by participation in a city's

economic networks. It has been established that these economic networks must be diverse to


5 The Chicago School of economics considers value to be subjective, varying from person to person and for the
same person at different times, and thus reject the theory of value brought on by labor.









allow for the continual renewal of developments that serve to improve interconnectedness.6

Stemming from increased digital reliance, the contemporary analogy for being an active member

of the social economy is characterized by the act of 'plugging into' a larger concept marketplace.

Over five centuries after Heironymos Bosch painted The Garden ofEarthly Delights with

alchemical metaphors, key words like "green" and "sustainability" are used by corporate

networks to capitalize on a new movement that has transcended architectural design and urban

planning, to infiltrate a vast array of consumer markets, promising the elixir of life, or renewal of

earth, and hence consumer alchemy. Marketing strategies have successfully yet unaccountably

bestowed consumerism the power to demonstrate social and ecological responsibility, which

often substitutes the essence of these interconnected relationships with increased revenue and

lifestyle branding. Examples of this phenomenon can be found in catch phrases like "Go Green"

and "Live Green".

Brand Lifestyles

In Brandscapes, Anna Klingmann attempts to inspire architects to build an open-ended,

relationship-oriented culture that fosters creative questioning of the status quo. Architecture,

informed by market and place, encompasses a larger social and cultural context through

connectivity. She believes that for architecture to become a viable catalyst for corporations in

today's global marketplace, it must aid in developing a specific personality that gives the

company character and prominence; create a public interface; advocate a flexible and open

organizational structure that allows for multilateral connections, both internally and externally;

and fit the company's interests to the cultural, social, financial, and ecological goals of a specific





6 See J. Jacobs, op. cit., p. 147.









region.7 This commodified approach to architecture may benefit many markets, but adopting its

principles requires architects to willingly abandon their elitist seats upon the fringes of popular

culture and work within the mainstream to actualize any of their ideas. Whether branded

architecture goes beyond the green-light excuse for architects to sell out is debatable, but the

push for innovative design will necessitate innovative ways of obtaining capital.

Chicago has its own brand, with its history and economy closely tied to its proximity to

Lake Michigan and the prevailing winds. As Chicago tries to move away from its industrial,

steel and railway past to a global market based on intellectual capital and knowledge economy, it

maintains its identity as a major port and the commercial, financial, industrial, and cultural center

of the Midwest. Upscale shopping along Chicago's Magnificent Mile, thousands of restaurants,

and the city's rich architectural history (developed since the 1893 World Columbian Exposition

and the inception of the steel-framed skyscraper era) continue to generate revenue for the city's

economy. These intersecting networks give Chicago its identity, but the cultural, social,

financial, and ecological goals of the city are changing, and thus offering up the future of urban

development for new branding strategies more in tune with consumer-driven markets.

Superstar Architects

The Chicago Planning Commission unanimously approved the final iteration of Santiago

Calatrava's 3-million-square-foot Chicago Spire (see Figure 5-1). Designed for a 2.2-acre

lakefront site, the one hundred fifty storey, seven-sided glass tower twists like a drill-bit to 2,000

feet, making it the tallest building in North America. Although impressive, the significance of

this development project is tied to its close proximity to Frank Gehry's Millennium Park's





7 Klingmann, op. cit., p. 270.









Pritzker Pavilion. It is also just around the corer from the project of Renzo Piano, who has been

commissioned to design the Art Institute of Chicago's new building expansion across the street.

These major architectural gestures, created by signature architects, are just a sample of

newer development tactics that will undoubtedly begin to have greater implications. Continual

development of superstar architectural interventions will change the urban landscape of Chicago

beginning with the blocks on which they are built. If this continues to become a trend, then

Chicago blocks will begin to lose their identities to the large isolated structures that may or may

not relate to their surroundings. I believe that current trends in brand architecture will lead to an

icon-based association with city blocks, similar to the paradigm exhibited by hotel casinos along

the Las Vegas Strip.

It is conceivable that each of the most economically-valuable blocks in Chicago will be

sponsored by an architectural gesture designed by a superstar architect; this would make

accessible for consumers his or her own branded "style" of architecture. At this point, the once

valid rationale of protecting architecture from the ravages of the marketplace has lost its

relevance.8 Therefore, what is considered respectable architecture is no longer defined with

regard to its social value, but much like commodities, is founded on its popular appeal. The blur

between highbrow and lowbrow architecture is legitimized by the idea that shopping has become

the defining activity of public life. Consequently, architects may unapologetically rationalize

participating in brand lifestyle marketing that kneels to corporate strategy.9 Brand architecture

should not be used as a way for architects to obfuscate real problems with extraneous design




8 Klingmann, op cit., p. 125.
9 The most important driving force behind Chicago's increased support for strong city-wide branding is the
accelerating pace of globalization.









(although the allure to do so undoubtedly exists). 10 Rather, as in the case of most consumer

markets, different brands with varying intentions appeal to different markets.

Prada was one of the first companies to commission architects with prominent names, like

Rem Koolhass and Herzog & de Meuron, in an attempt to reinvent its customers' retail

experience. For example, the company's new epicenter in New York City, designed by Rem

Koolhaas, offers an architectural design that enhances the diversification of the shopping

experience by infusing its commercial function with a series of trendy experiential themes,

including a "clinic" (a space for personal care and service), an "archive" (an inventory of past

and present collections), a "trading floor"(new commercial applications), a "library" (zones of

information allocated to the progress of the fashion house), and a "street" (a public space for

varied activities, seemingly free from retail pressures).11 While presenting an individual brand

experience for Prada, the store's design also serves as a place where people are invited to interact

with inventive displays or simply to experience the social ambience of space.12 Combining a

brand product campaign and brand architect solution yielded a privately-funded public space that

facilitates social and economic exchanges.

Privately Owned Public Spaces (POPS) are not new concepts in urban development.

Chicago's James R. Thompson Center (formerly known as the State of Illinois Center), designed

by architect Helmut Jahn is an example of a successful, seemingly public atrium space that is not

open and accessible to all, nor is it necessarily publically owned. This and other similar projects


10 Attitude branding, commonly used by companies like Nike and Apple, is the choice to represent a feeling, which
is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all.

1 Klingmann, ibid.
12 Brand extension is a strategy where an existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified
products; for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances, shoes and
accessories, home decor, hotels, etc. The progression of brand extension into areas of architecture and the public
realm is socially significant to urban development.









in Chicago13 were funded in part through density incentives, city programs that allow developers

to increase the size of a given project, or transfer development rights to another site, in exchange

for community benefits.14 Most POPS in cities like Chicago and New York arose from zoning

resolutions which allowed developers to construct taller structures with additional building floors

if a public space was provided inside or in front of the building.15 The successes of the POPS in

Chicago have set the stage for new means of funding programs that will help endure growth.

Instead of trading added building height for community benefits, the city could require

developers to include minimal requirements for public amenities, from schools to grocery stores.

If this were allowed, then Chicago's zoning department could allow a density bonus for

expansion of amenities instead of allowing for more public spaces and preservation initiatives. If

density and amenity bonuses will lead to more private sector funding of public amenities, then it

is feasible to anticipate privately owned, on-site public extensions within block development

projects.16

From Placement to Choreography

Staging City Blocks

Realizing that brand names can add increased revenue to their projects, real estate

developers are increasingly hiring star architects to raise the market value of their residential and

commercial towers. This new design consciousness will undoubtedly infiltrate suburban


13 Density incentives awarded to developers that incorporate rooftop garden projects to mitigate urban heat island
effect, which is a process whereby highly urbanized areas with hard surfaces tend to be degrees hotter than green
areas
14 Chicago currently offers several different density incentive options. Developers can choose from a menu of bonus
options, ranging from child-care centers and rural land protection to public art and public transportation
improvements.
15 K. Miller, Designs on the Public (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2007), p. 71.

16 An urban block would contain one development project that accounted for residences, infrastructure, and
amenities servicing that block.









developments, as private investors will utilize their increased significance as a strategic

marketing tool for the production of symbolic capital. The symbolic capital attaches partially to

the fame of the architect and partially to consumers' rising desires to live near an exclusively-

designed development. As a result, Chicago may find itself the beneficiary of a dynamic surge

of profit-driven "designer buildings" that directly engage the desires of specific lifestyle groups

who seek staged "designer city blocks."

Suburbs Plugging into the City

Architects and designers have condemned suburban sprawl for several decades,

proclaiming its various detrimental effects on society and ecology. Yet the nationwide public at

large continues to view the phenomenon favorably.17 Market research confirms that consumer

choices greatly outweigh the tendencies of most planners and architects to subscribe to

sustainable higher-density developments, greater social diversity, mixed use, a diversity of

design, and close proximity to mass transportation and services. Consequently, developers of

residential projects have rejected many of those ideas, underscoring the enormous divide

between consumer values and the ideals pursued by architects.

The suburbs have surrendered the idea of public spaces to vehicles, wider roads, manicured

landscaping and bigger parking lots. The proliferation of this paradigm has lead many of us to

discover that the sanitized suburban enclaves where we sought privacy, safety, exclusivity, and

prestige have proved to be shallow and empty substitutes for the intimate human connections our

past generations once enjoyed. The American suburb is the land of private wealth and public

impoverishment. 18


17 In the United States, there ia a preference towards lower-density development for increased privacy and status,
less noise, better schools, less crime, and a generally slower lifestyle than the city.
18 D. Nozzi, Road to Ruin: An Introduction to Sprawl and How to Cure It (London, Praeger, 2003), p. xix.









Developers have long benefited from the promises of privacy, exclusivity and prestige

associated with suburban lifestyles. Inevitably, corporate brands have begun operating in

symbiotic partnerships with these developers, each providing fuel for the other. By joining

strategic marketing with the staging of experiences, the Disney suburban development projects

have exhibited huge financial gains. Moreover, they have exerted a substantial influence on the

design of many inner-city revitalizations, in which the perception of public space is increasingly

associated with carefully-staged surroundings commanded by profit-oriented production of

culture, history, and tradition. The seamless progression between staged experiences and urban

reality is best illustrated in Celebration, built by the Disney Corporation in Florida as a

prototypical 'brand city.' For the residents of Celebration, Disney has achieved the ultimate goal

of lifestyle branding where the brand becomes life itself. 19

Architects can no longer operate along disconnected utopian ideals (megastructures) of

social possibilities (postmodernism). They must begin with today's realities, operating within

existing cultural, societal, and economic networks alongside Chicago's consumer economy. The

interdisciplinary approach to design must be encouraged to restore the vital relationships

between architecture's economic and public dimensions, among Chicago's civic representation,

urban development, and aesthetic experimentation.

Lessons from Las Vegas

Las Vegas, a city governed entirely by consumerism and the production of profit, provides

a compelling case for the potential of coordinating branding techniques and pedestrian mobility

with block architecture. While the design of casino hotel architecture in Las Vegas aims at the

creation of spaces joined with transit systems that can be exploited to maximize profit, the



19 Klingmann, op. cit., p.77.









primary strategies used there to elicit consumer experiences can also be applied as a set of

conditions across genre and type, by expanding the reaches of architecture beyond built form to

include dynamics of use, behavior of people, and a more adaptable ground-up approach, which

seeks to reevaluate current modes of organizing city blocks.

Architectural experience in Las Vegas is a product of the qualitative addition of drama,

diversity, and detail.20 Casino architecture provokes drama through the juxtaposition of different

scales, programs, signs, and events; the manipulation of volumes; the expressiveness of iconic

forms; and the exploitation of virtual and material effects. The staging of atmospheres through

visual imagery, symbolic motifs, and material articulation define the necessary criteria of event

spaces that guarantee an active interaction among people and programs. Casinos create variety

through hybridized impressions, utilizing strategically-selected settings and symbolic signals that

cause new behavioral reactions to take place within the principal programs of dining, gaming,

entertainment, and shopping. Experiential spaces are therefore strategic contrivances used to

elicit particular moods and emotional reactions among the guests. Nevertheless, an authentic

hybrid in casino architecture is created by diversifying and cross-programming with a

combination of backdrops, which are often strategically designed to work in association with the

programs, but more frequently exist completely removed from functional considerations. By

loosening the constraints of programmatic sequences, the architectural design can abide by a

more subjective method of social allure. In addition, each staged environment is carefully

detailed to elicit an impression of authenticity that is alluring to the guest and grants plausibility

to the appearance of the constructed drama.




20 Klingmann, op. cit., p. 217.









The major tactic used by the casino hotel to ensure participation in these spaces is removal

of the automobile from the equation, thereby orchestrating pedestrian transit around the allure of

consumer experiences. In addition to stacked parking in back lots, casino hotels in Las Vegas

have established no cost, privatized tram and monorail networks between development blocks to

remove automotive dependence for transportation between participating properties. By plugging

into these transit networks, each casino hotel ensures increased exposure and movement of

people through their property's massive consumer experiential spaces. The tram connecting the

Mandalay Bay, Luxor, and Excalibur property-blocks (see Figure 5-2) serves as an example of

how the accessible and efficient transport of consumers can transcend location limitations and

maximize economic exchanges.

The individual successes of all three of these properties-each located adjacent to, but not

on, the popular Las Vegas Strip-are connected to their link to the private transit network.

Differentiating casino hotel identities within the adjacent blocks allowed for co-development

connections that further expanded by diversifying transport networks. Each property continued

its self-refueling through consumer experiences, and ensured its stability through self-correction,

joined with the unpredicted self-organization of consumer networks. 21 The urban mainstream

will be found where post-modernist principles, armed with the lessons of consumer markets,

interconnect with corporate branded megastructures to realize responsible urban renewal efforts

that offer insights into the complex set of conditions that constitute a city.









21 J. Jacobs, op. cit., p. 145

































Figure 5-1. Calatrava's Chicago spire project. Source: E. De Losier, 'Calatrava's Chicago Spire
Wins Approval', (New York, Architectural Record, April 2007).


Figure 5-2. Mandalay tram to the Las Vegas strip. (Source: photograph by A. Angelbello taken
from tram window).









CHAPTER 6
CHICAGO'S SHIFTING ASPIRATIONS

Chicago Metropolis 2020 Plan

Chicago Metropolis 2020 is a plan that positions Chicago for the unprecedented challenges

of the next century.1 It is a visionary strategy that calls on Chicago to increase innovation in the

fields of business, technology, and urban reform. The plan was prepared and sponsored by the

Commercial Club of Chicago and written by Elmer W. Johnson as a challenge to those

metropolitan groups that prefer development to remain the way it is.2 The strategies set forth in

the plan aim to repair the city and to continue doing what Jane Jacobs says all healthy cities do.

"A metropolitan economy, if it is working well," Jacobs writes, "is constantly transforming many

poor people into middle-class people. Cities don't lure the middle class, they create it."3

The Metropolis Plan sees the entire Chicago region as an interconnected system and

presages a return to the symbiotic relationship between city and suburb that existed in the age of

the electric streetcar. At the end of the nineteenth century, mass transit promoted,

simultaneously, the growth of the central city and of the suburbs, and pulled them together into

one network. But with the proliferation of the automobile, urban transportation corridors became

escape ways from the city. And the linear logic of the railroad suburbs-village-like places

situated along the tracks at decent intervals, with natural greenbelts between them-was broken,

giving rise to the formless "spread city."



1 Improving social and economic conditions for all people and promoting sustainable development.
2 Uneven development has been apparent in Chicago for many years. Chicago has recently been riding an
economic boom, occurring after the long decline of basic industrial employment that struck numerous Chicago
neighborhoods at the end of the 1970s. Guided by this boom, development projects have crept into most
neighborhoods, but the slow investment of money coming into many low-income communities has been surpassed
by the inundation of money into Chicago's center and lakeshore neighborhoods.

3 H. Husock, 'Jane Jacobs: New York's indispensable urban iconoclast', (New York, City Journal, April 2006).









Although the Metropolis Plan addresses reforms in many areas, including healthcare and

education, I will focus on the three major components that directly influenced the scope of my

investigation: economic wellbeing, land uses and housing, and transportation-oriented design

(TOD),

Transportation-Oriented Design

The Metropolis Plan divides transportation into three different networks that must be

developed simultaneously: personal mobility within the region; freight transportation to, from,

and within the region; and air and rail transport of people to and from the region.

The first goal is to organize more compact growth at the regional level, so that the city may

become transit supportive. To ensure this support, commerce, housing, jobs, parks, and civic

uses will be oriented within walking distances of transit stops. A network of pedestrian-friendly

streets will allow for safe travel between local destinations. The plan focuses on restructuring

neighborhoods to provide a mix of housing types and housing densities, at different costs in the

same community. Future developments and urban renewal projects will have to focus on public

spaces along transit corridors within existing neighborhoods. These conscious changes will

operate with the collaborative goals of preserving sensitive habitats outside the reaches of the

city and protecting them from new developments while ensuring high quality open spaces within

the city.

Housing and Land Use

The Metropolis Plan addresses sprawl and the associated consequences of high

infrastructure costs, loss of open spaces, and geographic disconnection between housing and

jobs. The plan is concerned with residential segregation by income and race, hyper-concentrated

poor minorities, and the special housing needs of the elderly and people with disabilities.









The Metropolis Plan proposes to encourage the private sector to develop renewal efforts

within the existing infrastructure of older communities, and discourage them from constructing

new developments that necessitate high-cost extensions of the public infrastructure. The renewal

of existing communities provides a more diverse choice of housing opportunities throughout the

region and will enable many people to live in proximity to their work if they so choose, thereby

reducing congestion and harm to the environment. Residents will be able to remain in their

home communities through each of their life stages (if they so choose) thanks to ampler housing

options, and no citizen will be denied housing opportunities due to ethnicity or race. Central city

and suburbs will compete, not for tax dollars, but for recognition for excellence in community

design and livability.

Economic Wellbeing

The plan focuses primarily on the local property tax and secondarily on the state and local

sales taxes, which give rise to most of the fiscal disparities among the different parts of the

region and create the most serious hurdles in the way of achieving the plan's economic and

social goals. The guiding strategies for promoting economic development and growth must

change to reflect the emerging economic international order.4 Past economic strategies that

attempted to address both poverty and urban development at the same time have been largely

unsuccessful. The Metropolis Plan counters this failure by distinguishing them as two separate

issues. Understanding this distinction is central to addressing Chicago's problems and

identifying solutions.



4 The number of independent states worldwide currently exceeds 185. At the end of World War II, governments
were the main players on the global scene. Today, the growing influence of organizations of civil society and of
multinational corporations has created a much more intricate global marketplace.
5 E. W. Johnson, (C i .. ., Metropolis 2020 (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 79.









The economic model proposed in the plan focuses on wealth creation through an energized

private sector, the integration of the central city with the regional economy, the enlistment of the

private sector to promote economic development, and a governmental focus on improving the

environment for business. As the Metropolis Plan outlines goals that will help Chicago shift

from its industrial and railway past towards a new dynamic and diverse identity, the plan sets the

foundation for urban thinkers to envision Chicago's urban renewal beyond the conversion of

abandoned rail-yards into high-rise luxury condominiums and office towers.

My recommendation for urban block networks in Chicago will incorporate the goals of the

Metropolis Plan into my interpretation of the Chicago urban model of brand marketing, thereby

allowing me to outline an architectural connection among current private sector development

trends, transportation needs, residential diversity, consumerism, and economic development.









CHAPTER 7
CONCEPT URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS

Block Architecture

The contradictions that arise between people's beliefs and their everyday experiences are

resolved by the invention of apologues and myths. One example considered in my study was

Italo Calvino's Invisible Cities, which infused narratives of trading cities with universal

metaphoric relationships regarding a city's identity, economy, and progress. Hieronymus

Bosch's Garden ofEarthly Delights sought to address the disconnection between Judeo-

Christian doctrines and the nature of man by staging a masterful allegory for civilization and the

ominous Apocalypse. Tumultuous political and social climates in the twentieth century rallied

confidence in progress and renewal which in turn generated new architectural themes that were

adopted by modernist architects, only to be contradicted by post-modem responses to the social

failures of those same paradigms, neither of which produced any tangible architectural solutions.

Similarly, contemporary societal beliefs and experiences contradict each other openly in the

branded advertising and real-estate economies; the most impressive architectural sites therefore

embody fiction that embraces a mix of reality, fantasy, and prefabricated desire. Today,

commercial environments, such as the Prada store in New York City, Disney's Celebration

suburban development in Florida, and casino hotels in Las Vegas constitute places where people

connect with core cultural ideas that define their individual lifestyles. It must be acknowledged

that the potential power of the mass-media to define culture and lifestyle identities by using

architecture as an instrument, irrespective of the messages they transmit, is significant and

something that should be considered in the context of urban development.1 Many of the density

and transportation goals for Chicago outlined in the Metropolis Plan can be actualized by


' Klingmann, op. cit., p. 223.









working intuitively within the scope of current brand lifestyle marketing and new development

projects.

Using the principles set forth in the Metropolis Plan, I propose to capitalize off of the

private sector's increasing practice of enlisting superstar architects to create icon architecture that

will inevitably change the nature of the city blocks of Chicago. If Chicago's real-estate market

demonstrates a propensity for this kind of architecture, then I further propose allowing lifestyle

co-development opportunities, or block developments conceptually similar to the Disney

Corporation's aforementioned suburban 'brand city,' in direct association with the icons. The

highly commercialized Las Vegas Strip demonstrates the economic success of uniting drama,

diversity, and detail. My proposal for Chicago's urban development will work within a similar

paradigm by investing in architectural icons to create the drama, allowing the residential and

commercial co-developments within the block to create the diversity, and brand marketing and

lifestyle identity to establish the details that distinguish each block. These mixed-use, mixed

density co-developments will form symbiotic relationships with the superstar architectural

gestures, whose developers in turn will provide funds for light rail transit systems and elevated

pedestrian pathways that maximize transit between the surrounding development blocks. This

interdependent relationship between blocks should increase pedestrian traffic through the blocks

and engage economic exchange opportunities within the co-development networks.

The use of inter-property private transit networks has proved successful in the commercial

environments of Las Vegas casino hotels as a viable catalyst for interconnectedness and

increased revenue; consequently, its public implementation in an increasingly-commercialized

urban context of Chicago should also increase economic gains and interrelated social benefits to

those private developments that choose to participate in the transit network. These private sector









icon developers will also provide for elevated pedestrian street systems traversing and

connecting the proposed blocks. This system will infuse the pedestrian scale into their monolithic

constructions while retaining and enhancing storefront commercial exchanges at new points of

entrance along raised pathways.

Actualizing urban block networks in Chicago's city center poses many challenges. There

are already pre-existing, compellingly problematic areas in the city center that are below the

elevated train system.2 Because of this, my proposal for new, expansive pedestrian and transit

networks built above the ground level of the city streets has the potential to generate additional

problems for Chicago. The fact of the matter is that innovative and beautiful design solutions

already exist for such areas, but the funds required to realize those solutions are unavailable.3

Moreover, the increased taxes and governmental spending needed to execute such projects can

result in political suicide for most elected officials. Under my proposal for block developments,

the private sector will provide the capital for these innovative solutions because doing so will

add to their development's marketing brand appeal through architectural identity and detail.

Chicago's presently neglected sites will be the future locations, under urban block networks, for

the poetic and intuitive architectural, social-interventions that post-modern architects like Pesce

and Holl envisioned but lacked the funds to actualize. If the entire infrastructure of a block is

accounted for within a development project, then the engineers and architects overseeing the

bock's development will have greater control and increased funds to respond to design problems

2 Streets that run under the Chicago Transit Authority's elevated trains are dark, dirty and gloomy. Spaces under the
"El" are mostly devoted to traffic, thereby eliminating any other function for the spaces under the elevated line.

3 Storage and parking have been important usages of spaces below elevated trains, but are only a fraction of the
many possible solutions for these areas that serve to reduce urban fragmentation and promote efficient usages of
space in the city center. Tokyo's JR Yamanote rail line has a variety of typologies for these lower spaces which
offer alternative choices for general use. One example of this typology is the Eki Biru large-scale development
projects which use the spaces as hubs for service and commercial activities along the rail line. These neglected
spaces below elevated trains should be accounted for in Chicago's design, zoning and planning as much as other
more prominent aspects of the city.









with intuitive and poetic design solutions, as opposed to the generic state mandates that

conventionally resolve the problem or ignore the matter altogether.

My proposal sets forth the following goals, which will define the mission of block

architectural development:

* Each block will consist of a large-scale development (office building, residential tower,
etc.) that forms symbiotic relationships with co-development webs (apartments, terraced
single family homes, commercial retail spaces) unique to that block design.

* Private sector capital will develop block communities and transit systems while
maintaining and promoting their brand identity and lifestyle.

* Development and co-development webs are contained within each block.

* Floor area ratios (FAR) will be between 2.0 to 3.0 to promote higher density development
of blocks.

* Each block will maintain housing-type diversity throughout the design block, encouraging
numerous and intricate co-development relationships.

* Each block will maintain its own identity and provide a unique experiential quality for the
community web.

Segregating the Automobiles from Consumers

The pedestrian streets integral to the success of the proposed urban block will form the

secondary network that connects the block developments. These pedestrian streets will be

elevated and released from automotive reliance, encouraging light rail transit, bicycling, and

walking. As a result, all automotive networks and related services will be segregated from the

lower levels of the blocks. Although there may be opposition to the abandonment of the

traditional street design by segregating the vehicle from the pedestrian4, I believe that the

removal of the automobile will provide new opportunities for architects to design quality

4 Defenders of the traditional street believe that the interactions among the people who live and work on a particular
street can reduce crime, encourage the exchange of ideas, and generally make the world a better place. My counter
argument is that a street can do all those things, but with the increase in automobile dependence, traveling speeds
and travel lanes, the streets have been transformed into roads. A street is characterized by the degree and quality of
street life it facilitates, whereas a road serves primarily as a through passage for automobiles.










exchange spaces that promote consumerism and social interaction above grade, along pedestrian

pathways that are engineered to promote sustainable infrastructural design. Combined, these

efforts will set the stage for multiple and diverse interactions throughout the urban block

networks.

An additional issue confronting my proposal is that of cold-weather conditions and the

effects of Chicago's climate on store-front retail and commercial opportunities along the

expansive pedestrian pathways.5 Today, Chicago's Magnificent Mile6 caters primarily to

tourists and the affluent by integrating a mixture of upscale department stores, restaurants, luxury

retailers, residential and commercial buildings, financial services companies, and hotels. Since

the walkable yet narrow sidewalk stretches of the Magnificent Mile have proven successful and

popular through varying yearly weather conditions, similar successes are likely to be achieved

with elevated pedestrian streets that integrate retail and commercial networks above grade.

There are currently a number of intuitive, sustainable infrastructural solutions that account for

wind, snow, and rainfall7 which are more efficiently incorporated when considering an entire

block system rather than one individual building or lot. Chicago's cold winters have been the

catalysts for the design of enclosed malls within high-rise buildings and atrium spaces,8 and with

the shift I am proposing, there will be more opportunities for architects to continue designing

5 Shopping, restaurants and recreation are social activities that transcend the limits of cold weather.
6 The Magnificent Mile is the portion of Michigan Avenue extending from the Chicago River to Oak Street. It is
located one block east of nightlife of Rush Street, and serves as the main thoroughfare between Chicago's Loop
business district and its Gold Coast.

7 Chicago Department of Transportation (CDOT) began the Green Alley Program as a pilot in 2006. The Green
Alleys incorporate permeable pavement either asphalt, concrete or pavers that allow rainwater to flow through
the surface into the ground below. Some alleys include a filtration basin below the pavement that collects water,
then allows it to seep into the ground. These permeable pavements not only help address the issue of rainwater
collecting in alleys but also help recharge the underground water table. CDOT also recently completed a pilot test
of sidewalks made of 100 percent recycled tire rubber. These and other infrastructure solutions can enhance the
viability of the proposed urban block networks.

8 An example is C.F. Murphy and Helmut Jahn's design for the James R. Thompson Center government building.









innovative atria and malls along new elevated pedestrian pathways to encourage consumer

exchanges. Although there are both problems and benefits inherent in segregating the

automobile from pedestrians, my overall intention is to free Chicago from its automobile

dependence and to provide diverse consumer opportunities to all classes of citizens within safe,

walkable traveling distances. Chicago's social interconnectedness will benefit from block

development projects that provide open elevated promenades rather than corralling pedestrian

traffic along narrow sidewalks at the ground level.

My proposal lays out the following goals, which will define the mission of pedestrian

street networks:

* Blocks traverse reasonable walking distances (0.25 1 mile).9

* Blocks are designed to liberate and elevate pedestrian traffic pathways several stories
above vehicular traffic.

* Pedestrian streets are open, human-scaled, and people-oriented.

* Bicycle corridors will be provided along pedestrian pathways joining the blocks.

* Retail storefronts are pulled up to and face the pedestrian street, so that the buildings lend
their vitality to the pathway and make walking interesting and pleasant.

* Vehicular infrastructure and related services (parking, delivery, gasoline, auto servicing,
warehouses) operate at the lower levels of the block development.

Light-Rail Transit System

The final stage of the proposal includes the following goals, which will define the mission

of the light-rail transit system (LRT):

* Transit networks will operate along pedestrian streets, with all commercial, housing, and
civic uses within walking distance of LRT stops along the block.

* The individual segments of the system will be subsidized by private sector large-scale
developments) within the block.

9 Currently, the standard block in Chicago is about 260 feet by 900 feet, or slightly over five acres. In some U.S.
cities, standard blocks are as wide as 1/8 mile (660 feet), or 10 acres if square.









* The system will expand within self-operable segments, plugging different block
developments into one network as they are constructed.

* The LRT will servicel5-20 dwelling units per acre.

* The transit lines will run along the elevated pedestrian streets for easy use.

Making mass transit a much more attractive option while simultaneously increasing the

costs of driving will provide commuters incentives and options for changing their habits rooted

in auto-dependence. This should in turn result in the block networking system gradually

revealing itself as a more viable concept of development in Chicago. I propose to harness

private sector funds in connection with urban development projects to establish a light rail transit

system that can be augmented as needed1 and dictated by the growth of different block

networks. A light rail transit system (in addition to pedestrian pathways) will require

subsidization from private sector block developers who wish to maximize pedestrian traffic

through their blocks. Such a system will also provide numerous opportunities for promoting

brand identities and new economic exchange possibilities to Chicago's commuting citizens.

Figures 7-1 to 7-5 illustrate proposed block networks in Chicago.












Figure 7-1. Chicago at Randolph St. between Michigan Ave. and Lakeshore Dr. A) actual
appearance of street in 2008, B) conceptualization of street incorporating block
network systems. (Source: photograph and alterations by A. Angelbello)




10 Each development project serves as a link in the transit rail chain that forms the network.






























Figure 7-2. Branded Chicago. Vision of urban block branded networks along Wacker Drive,
Chicago River and Marina City Towers. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello).


Figure 7-3. Urban block model. Depiction of an urban block with a light-rail link and pedestrian
street along the Chicago River. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello).










































Figure 7-4. Pedestrian, light-rail and vehicular networks. Proposal of urban block network
components incorporated with the "El" train. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello).







































Figure 7-5. Block network aerial perspective. Vision of urban block network system
encompassing higher density residences, pedestrian streets, lower automobile
circulation, and light rail transit system links. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello).









CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSION

We live in a time of objectively incomplete truth, in which repressive economic, political,

and pseudo-religious values have intruded on and in some respects supplanted the strong urban

values of the past. We should not readily abandon art and architecture as effective tools for the

deconstruction and criticism of technology run amok and the prevalence of hegemonic

institutions. The written words of Invisible Cities, the images of Bosch's triptych, and post-

modern and megastructure perspective drawings are illustrated by their representations of society

which have meanings beyond notions directly conveyed by narrative or a painted and drawn

scene.1 Yet we must accept that formalism is a double-edged sword: any sort of formalism,

however sophisticated and despite its good intentions, when wielded unwisely can serve to

exacerbate the more barbaric aspects of our nature. Instead of designing a democracy for creative

and responsible individuals "beyond good and evil," we may end up crafting branded cages for

violently territorial animals living in private, fenced-in suburban "communities" or urban

"theme-parks."2

In my conceptual proposal for urban block networks in Chicago, I have conceded that Man

cannot be saved,3 and that the age of machines cannot be stopped; therefore, architects must

connect man and machines in ways that embrace the realities of the different markets that

constitute Chicago while exposing and then rejecting the hypocrisy of our idealized visions of

the future that have proved to be disconnected from contemporary urban economies. In


1 Erwin Panofsky was first to look at art and perspective drawings not as isolated incidents, but as the products of a
historical environment.

2 A. Perez-Gomez, Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge (Cambridge, MIT Press, 2000), p. 388.

3 Alvar Aalto states that "although we know that poor man can hardly be saved, whatever we attempt to do, the main
duty of the architect is to humanize the age of machines. That must however be done without disregarding form,"
A. Aalto, Synopsis, Fo,,,wr1.. Architecture, Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980), p. 20.









contravention of this hypocrisy, and as an alternative to the conspiracy between architectural

Utopia and the flaws of twenty-first century urban development, my architectural investigation

accepts the limitations and imperfections of humankind, criticized in Invisible Cities and The

Garden of Earthly Delights, as fundamentally intrinsic yet potentially valuable aspects of the

human experience that can be harnessed to establish the architectural potential and limits of

urban renewal.









LIST OF REFERENCES

A. Aalto, Synopsis, Painting, Architecture, Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980).

J. Almada, 'Greenlight for Pilot at Former U.S. Steel Site', (Chicago, Chicago Tribune, October
14, 2007), p. 4.

J. Berger, The Sense of Sight (New York, Vintage International, 1985).

I. Calvino, Invisible Cities (New York, Harcourt Inc., 1972).

T. Corfman, and A. Gallun, 'Mega-Plan for Vacant Site in South Loop', (Chicago, Chicago
Business, June 24, 2007).

G. De Chirico, The Memoirs of Giorgio de Chirico (London, Da Capo Press, 1994).

E. De Losier, 'Calatrava's Chicago Spire Wins Approval', (New York, Architectural Record,
April 2007).

L. Dixon, Bosch (London, Phaidon Press, 2003).

R. Evans, The Projective Cast (London, MIT Press, 1995).

H. Husock, 'Jane Jacobs: New York's indispensable urban iconoclast', (New York, City Journal,
April 2006).

J. Jacobs, The Nature of Economies (New York, Vintage Books, 2000).

E. W. Johnson, Chicago Metropolis 2020 (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2001).

A. Klingmann, Brandscapes (London, MIT Press, 2007).

H. Klotz, The History ofPost Modern Architecture (London, MIT Press, 1984).

V. Lampugnani, Visionary Architecture of the 20th Century (London, Thames-Hudson, 1982).

E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998).

J. Malnar, Make No Little Plans: Designing the Chicago Lakefront (Chicago, University of
Illinois, 2003).

A. Manguel, The City of Words (Toronto, Anansi Press, 2007).

A. Manguel, Reading Pictures (New York, Random House, 2000).

K. Miller, Designs on the Public (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2007).

D. Nozzi, Road to Ruin: An Introduction to Sprawl and How to Cure It (London, Praeger, 2003).









E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (New York, Zone Books, 1997).

E. Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1983).

T. Riley, The Changing of the Avant-Garde (New York, Museum of Modern Art, 2003).

V. Scully, American Architecture and Urbanism (New York, Holt and Co., 1988).

M. Sorkin, Exquisite Corpse (New York, Verso, 1991).

P. Zumthor, Atmospheres (Berlin, Birkhauser, 2006).

P. Zumthor, Thinking Architecture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 2006).

P. Zumthor, and S. Hauser, Therme Vals (Zurich, Scheidegger & Spiess, 2007).









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Alexandro Angelbello received his bachelor's degree in studio art at Florida State

University, in Tallahassee, Florida in 1998. From 1999 to 2004 he pursued various endeavors in

painting, mixed-media, and digital arts. Since 2004 he has been working toward completing a

master's degree in architecture at the University of Florida.





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URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS: CONCEPTUAL IZING CHICAGOS URBAN LANDSCAPE BASED ON INTERPRETATIONS OF ITAL O CALVINOS INVI SIBLE CITIES AND HIERONYMUS BOSCHS TRIPTYCH T HE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS By ALEXANDRO ANGELBELLO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Alexandro Angelbello 2

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To the city that inspired the American Dream for my Cuban family. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Professors Robert MacLeod and Di ana Bitz, Mark Cogburn, Richard McDorman, Zoka Zola Architecture and Urban Design, Je ffrey Hughes, Becky Hudson, and my family. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................7ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... ...............8 CHAPTER 1 PROGRAMMATIC DICTATES EXTRAC TED FROM INVISIBLE CITIES ....................10Social Identities ............................................................................................................. .........10Connections and Networks .....................................................................................................11Obsolescence of Place ............................................................................................................122 METAPHORIC ICONOGRAPHY IN TH E GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS ..........15Alchemy and Paradise Reborn ................................................................................................15Life Cycles ..............................................................................................................................16Paradise through Progress ..................................................................................................... ..183 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING ..................................................................................................21Art Becomes Science ..............................................................................................................21Imagination and Visual Perception .........................................................................................224 COMMUNICATING UTOPIAN IDEALS ............................................................................25Megastructures: Pre-Vietnam Heroics ....................................................................................25Paul Rudolph, 1918 to 1997 ..........................................................................................26Raimund Abraham, 1933 ..............................................................................................27Postmodernism: Re-Infuse Social Meaning ...........................................................................28Steven Holl, 1947 ..........................................................................................................28Gaetano Pesce, 1939 .....................................................................................................295 THE CONTEMPORARY PARADIGM ................................................................................33Consumerism and Commodified Architecture .......................................................................33Plugging into a Network ...............................................................................................34Brand Lifestyles ............................................................................................................35Superstar Architects ......................................................................................................36From Placement to Choreography ..........................................................................................39Staging City Blocks ......................................................................................................39Suburbs Plugging in to the City .....................................................................................40Lessons from Las Vegas ...............................................................................................41 5

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6 CHICAGOS SHIFTING ASPIRATIONS ............................................................................45Chicago Metropolis 2020 Plan ...............................................................................................45Transportation-Oriented Design .............................................................................................46Housing and Land Use ............................................................................................................46Economic Wellbeing ............................................................................................................ ..477 CONCEPT URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS .........................................................................49Block Architecture ..................................................................................................................49Segregating the Automobiles from Consumers ......................................................................52Light-Rail Transit System ..................................................................................................... ..548 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................. .....59LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................61BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................63 6

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Original interpretations of social identities: A) Chloe. B) Eutropia ..................................131-2 Original interpretations of social identities: A) Ersilia. B) Euphemia ...............................141-3 Original interpretations of social identity: Esmeralda .......................................................142-1 Boschs triptych recto panels .............................................................................................202-2 Boschs verso panels illustra ting the creation of the world ...............................................203-1 Perspective projecti on and its analogues ...........................................................................244-1 Century tower lower Manhattan expressway .....................................................................314-2 Continuous building ....................................................................................................... ....314-3 Gymnasium bridges ......................................................................................................... ..324-4 Church of Solitude ........................................................................................................ .....325-1 Calatravas Chicago spire project ......................................................................................445-2 Mandalay tram to the Las Vegas strip ...............................................................................447-1 Chicago at Randolph St. between Mi chigan Ave. and Lakeshore Dr ...............................557-2 Branded Chicago ........................................................................................................... .....567-3 Urban block model ......................................................................................................... ....567-4 Pedestrian, light-rail and vehicular networks .....................................................................577-5 Block network aerial perspective .......................................................................................58 7

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS: CONCEPTUAL IZING CHICAGOS URBAN LANDSCAPE BASED ON INTERPRETATIONS OF ITAL O CALVINOS INVI SIBLE CITIES AND HIERONYMUS BOSCHS TRIPTYCH T HE GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS By Alexandro Angelbello May 2008 Chair: Robert MacLeod Cochair: Diana Bitz Major: Architecture My study explored current idea s of urban planning in Chicago interrelated among the art forms of literature, painting, and architecture. Urban development in Chicago was examined through several metaphoric relationships, identified in Invisible Cities and The Garden of Earthly Delights. Italo Calvino (Italian writer of the tw entieth century) casts the passionate human experience as protagonist in Marco Polos tales of imagined cities to Kublai Khan. At the same time, he proposes these disparate cities a singul ar yet diverse place. The painted panels of Hieronymus Bosch (an Early Netherlandish painte r of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) illustrate an idealized Garden of Eden ultimat ely altered by the passions of man. These ideas charge the exploration of Chicago as a city of memo ry, a city of desire, and a city of trade, while simultaneously generating ideas on the poetic po tential of urban development in conjunction with economic networks. As Alvar Aalto wrote, [t]he most difficult problems do not occur in the search for the form for present-day living, but ra ther in the attempt to create forms which are based on real human values. My study shows that the elastic connections between individualism and collectivism are often lost in the order of cont emporary urban planning. 8

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My study reevaluated modes of organizing urban space and proposes conceptual block networks that take into account the current development aspirations established in Chicago Metropolis 2020 Using my analysis of Chicago in re lation to architecture, consumerism and lifestyle trends, I interpret and criticize its Invisi ble Cities. I also incorporated Boschs painting as a visual illustration of the Judeo-Christian idealized Paradise juxtaposed to the waning contemporary Utopian ideology of the cityscape of Chicago, w ith a focus on progress and the collective human experience. 9

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CHAPTER 1 PROGRAMMATIC DICTATES EXTRACTED FROM INVISIBLE CITIES Social Identities Italo Calvinos Invisible Cities consists of 55 small chapters In each chapter Marco Polo describes to Kublai Khan, the emperor of China, the cities he has visited through his travels. Structurally the accounts of th e cities are presented in 11 "t hematic groups" according to one dominant line or quality of de scription, and also in 9 larger divisions, 5 accounts in every division (excluding the first and the last chapte rs, which have 10 accounts each). Every chapter is framed with dialogues between Khan and Marco th at reveal the metaphoric relationships of the cities to the reader. I chose to concentrate on a closer examination of the five different accounts referred to in the text as the Tradings Cities, because of Chicagos reputation as a center of trade and symbol of progress in the United States. To begin, Platonic philosophy suggests that a city must be the reflection of the stories told about it. In Trading Cities 2, Ca lvino writes about the city of Chloe, where the people who move through the streets are all st rangers. To suggest that a city s inhabitants are isolated and have no interconnecting exchanges is to bring into question the existe nce of city. If a city were to exist without any connections, the very act of refraining from social interactions would create a vulnerability that could render th e city susceptible to any salacious forces. Chloe (see Figure 1-1A) is a city that is unaware of itself and has no stories to give it an identity. In The City of Words, Alberto Manguel states that stories can f eed our consciousness, which can lead to the faculty of knowing if not who we are at least that we are, an essential awareness that develops through confrontation with anothers voice.1 If there are no social in teractions then there are no experiential qualities that provide context for a city to establish any identity. It is my position 1 A. Manguel, The City of Words (Toronto, Anansi Press, 2007), p. 10. 10

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that Calvino would find it presumptuous to assu me that once a city establishes an identity, whether social or economic, the inhabitants coul d adapt and change that identity under varying quantitative conditions. In Trading Cities 3, he introduces the city of Eutropia, which continually rotates identities but always remain s the same. The movement of Eutropia is compared to the shifting movement of pieces on a chessboard, and the reader must assume that this is a game in which the inhabitants of Eutr opia are participants who cannot escape their own rejected societal identity (see Fi gure 1-1B). We hold fast to a social identity that we believe lends us a name and a face, but equally fast we move from one definition of society to another, altering again and again th at presumed identity.2 I resolve that there is no merit in assimilating different social identities if the results produce the same tired social networks held within idealized constructi ons; these are the negative proliferative cycles that spawn homogenous cities. Connections and Networks Ersilia in Trading Cities 4 poses the invers e paradigms of Chloe or Eutropia. Calvino writes that traveling in the territory of Ersilia, you come upon the ruins of the abandoned cities, without the walls which do not last ,spiderwebs of intricate relationships seeking a form. The complex networks of social and economic interactions that constitute Ersilia (see Figure 1-2A) are stronger than the forms which contain them. The forms of a city will work to maximize the potential of our complex webs through social or economic means or they will be abandoned for newer models. Economic life permits us to develop cultures and a multitude of connections, and in The Nature of Economies Jane Jacobs poses that the developm ent of such networks is the most meaningful contribution of economic life.3 2 A. Manguel, op. cit. p.144. 3 J. Jacobs, The Nature of Economies (New York, Vintage Books, 2000), p. 147. 11

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If our networks are pulling the chains of the eco nomic machine, then it is also important to find the joy in the rhythm of the machine. In Trading Cities 1, Calvino describes the city of Euphemia, where the merchants of seven nations gather at every solstice and equinox. These merchants arrive at Euphemia for trade, a nd simultaneously develop an evening cultural exchange, sharing tales of wolv es, sisters, treasures, unify ing merchants from different nations along their travels for financial gain. The merchant exchanges often amount to the sharing of second hand experiences of the wo rld. The gaining of second hand knowledge was described by Alberto Manguel as a form of learning without action and fulfillment without accomplishment.4 This type of exchange contributes to the emergence of a collective symbolic experience that can be connected to a consumer lifestyle, generating another type of economic connection. The interactions of the merchants exchanging goods, serve to connect them to a specific lifestyle, thereby giving Euphemia (see Figure 1-2B) a distinct social identity. Economies generate an intersecting grid of networ ks which rely on diversity of interactions to serve several different purposes simultaneously.5 Obsolescence of Place Ersilia was previously descri bed as a spiderweb of intricate relationships seeking a form. These relationships are viewed as f unctions of economies and technologies, which have become both the internal and external skeleton of our societies, allowed for by our laws and customs, and paradoxically the s ource of our laws and customs.6 The ongoing conflict between what a city looks like and what a c ity is illustrates this paradox. 4 A. Manguel, op. cit. p. 18. 5 J. Jacobs, op. cit. p. 119. 6 A. Manguel, op. cit ., p. 118. 12

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In Trading Cities 5, Calvino describes Esmeralda as a system of canals and streets that intersect each other through a network of routes that follow an up-and-down course of steps, landings, cambered bridges, and hanging streets. Esmeralda operates on many different networks and as a result the ci tys inhabitants must navigate among the various routes these systems generate. The various user routes generate more opportunities for diverse interactions. When Calvino states that the most fixed and calm lives in Esmeralda are spent without any repetition, he qualifies developing cities in conjunction with estab lished networks as a means of invigorating other social networks (see Figure 1-3). To prescribe methods as solutions automatically blocks development of better methods.7 Ersilia, inadequately accommodating its vast networks, became a wasteland of obsolete structures that were not as efficient as Esmeraldas structural forms that developed in conjunction with its own distinct web of networks. A B Figure 1-1. Original interpreta tions of social identities: A) Chloe. B) Eutropia. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello). 7 J. Jacobs, op. cit ., p. 37. 13

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14 A B Figure 1-2. Original interpre tations of social identities: A) Ersilia. B) Euphemia. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello). Figure 1-3. Original interpretations of social identity: Esmeralda. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello).

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CHAPTER 2 METAPHORIC ICONOGRAPHY IN TH E GARDEN OF EARTHLY DELIGHTS Alchemy and Paradise Reborn The Garden of Earthly Delights Hieronymus Boschs best known work (see Figure 2-1), is unique among Renaissance panel paintings.1 When opened, the triptych reveals three scenes that, at first glimpse, present a stra ightforward Biblical account. Ad am and Eve appear in the left panel, their many children in the center panel, and a monstrous scene of hellfire and damnation in the right panel. Howeve r, upon closer inspection, things are not as they should be. As in many of Boschs other pain tings, the process of alchemy2 provides a sub-theme that juxtaposes the triptychs Biblical program while also explaining its odd configuration. Alchemical imagery provides a way of accepting th e co-existence of Biblical, heavenly, human, salacious, millennial and aphorismic imagery in the Garden of Earthly Delights By the fifteenth century, the philosophical side of alchemy had r eached a summit of intricac y, most notably in its visual metaphors. A religious quest by scholars preoccupied with cure-all remedies, the ancient search for an elixir of life reached a climax at this time. The conclusive goal of alchemy was eagerly desirousto discover a way to return the world and its inhabitants to a new Garden of Eden, where aging, sickness and death became circumstances that solely plagued the past. This is one market demand that continues to manifest itself within contempor ary social and economic networks, illustrated by billion dollar revenues from cosmetic, beauty, and health and fitness marketing. 1 Its daring combination of religious imagery, eroticism, and alchemical motifs stand out among contemporary works of the same genre. 2 An early form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and concerned principally with discovering methods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with finding a universal solvent and an elixir of life. 15

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Alchemists during Boschs time believed that th e first step in every distillation cycle was built upon the ashes of a previous cycl e; thus, the first step in a pro cess was also the last. Within this system, every ending was a beginning and every beginning contained an end, in imitation of the rhythm of nature and the Bibl ical rise, fall and renewal of th e world itself, described in the legend of Noah and predicted in the Revelation.3 The path of crea tion, multiplication and destruction in the interior pa nels is superseded and obliter ated by the final cleansing, or redemption, of the chemists materials.4 Early chemists viewed their research as a Christian duty because their work was considered a means of bringing them nearer to God. Boschs era w itnessed a revival of alchemical philosophy, which emphasized the redemptive power of the work. Thus, the central panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights suggests a future Eden, where there is no illness, sin or other imperfectionthe result of the alchemists su ccess, made possible with Gods help. It can be read as the focal point of the triptych: a reminder of Paradise regained, the reward that awaits all devout Christian men and women after Chri sts second coming. Alchemys eschatological relevance5 was important to Bosch and his educ ated patrons, who feared the coming Apocalypse.6 Life Cycles Hieronymus Boschs triptych is or ganized into a two panel verso,7 opening to a three panel recto.8 Once open, the interior panels must be read from left to right. Thus, the left recto 3 L. Dixon, Bosch (London, Phaidon Press, 2003), p. 271. 4 By proper imitation of Gods creation of the world and its inhabitants, devout chemists intended to save the human race from obliteration and guid e it to an age of grace and renewal (L. Dixon, op. cit ., p. 276). 5 A system of doctrines that promise an earthly paradise achieved through science. 6 L. Dixon, op.cit. p. 278. 7 The verso refers to the backside of the triptych. 16

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represents the last three days of Creation, while the center represen ts the Fountain of Life. Real and fantastic animals, the latter drawn from bestiaries that go back to Alexandrian9 prototypes, fill the scene.10 In the foreground, God introduces Eve to Adam, who has awakened from her slumber, after which Adam proceeds to inspect the companion created out of his rib.11 The theme of the center panel, while unique among the works of Bosch, is not unknown in medieval painting or literature. Representations of love gardens used as settings for lovers and lovemaking are part of the prevailing imagery. Eroticism and even the representations of the sexual act are not uncommon in paintings, engravings, and book illuminations of the period. However, it is the interpretation of the scene's representation that is of primary importance. Boschs construction of Paradise as a love garden is noteworthy. He places a pool of maidens in the center of a large park, around wh ich a large circle of riders revolve counterclockwise. The foreground is filled with nude men and women, p eacefully frolicking and enjoying the presence of birds, plants, and other companions.12 Erotic connotations abound in plants and fruits, as well as in metaphors of the sexual organs. Th e upper portion of the pa nel is inhabited by phantasmagorical forms of fountains and pavilions around a lake extended backwards towards the horizon, while figures with fragile wings take to flight. Here Bosch is presenting a type of utopian paradise ingrained in religious ecstasy, human inte rconnectedness and experiential organic spaces, existing without man-made constructs of hi erarchy, organization or government. 8 The recto refers to the front of the triptych. 9 That is, Ancient Egyptian. 10 E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998), p.131. 11 God, appearing Christ-like, is blessing the first couple in the words of Gen. 1:28, Be fruitful and multiply, (E. Larsen,, op.cit. p. 133). 12 The author compares the scene to the Golden Age described by Hesiod when men and beasts dwelt in peace together, or, in a more modern vein, to a global love (L. Dixon, op. cit. pp. 239 240). 17

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The right recto depicts Bosch's vision of hell, a place of contrast be tween civilization and damnation. In the middle of the last panel we find the so-called Tree Man.13 The torso is eggshaped, and the lower part of the body consists of rotting tree trunks. Bosch has taken up in this panel the metamorphosis of man into beast, wh ich is a well-known medieval tradition for depicting deserved punishment of vices and depravities.14 On the verso of the triptych (see Figure 2-2), Bosch painted in grisaille15 the Creation of the world, enclosed in a crystal globe16 and seen as of the third day of Genesis. Th e presentation of the pane ls in sequential order illustrates the destiny of man from creation to self-destruction, but Boschs use of alchemical imagery and the physical act of opening and closi ng the verso panels to reveal the recto are suggestive of a life cycle and the sequence of changing states that, upon completion, produces a final state identical to the original one. Paradise through Progress One can construct an analogous Boschian paradi gm where architectural imagery presents a metaphoric program, informed by collective human experiences and civilizations under the guise of utopian ideology. Architecture does not have the freedom that other art forms have because it is a means to an end, and only the beginning stage in the process of building. In Synopsis, Painting, Architecture, Sculpture Alvar Aalto17 states that although we know that poor man can hardly be saved, whatever we at tempt to do, the main duty of the architect is to humanize the age 13 The Tree Man is a form seen in Bo schs previous sketch work (L. Dixon, ibid. ). 14 One might be led to suspect that this hell panel was execu ted as a kind of self-flage llation for having enjoyed too much the invention and execution of a paradise that cannot be (E. Larsen,, op.cit. p. 133). 15 A style of monochromatic painting in shades of gray, used especially for the representation of relief sculpture. 16Medieval symbolic alchemical imagery 17 Twentieth century Finnish architect and designer, sometime s referred to as the Father of Modernism. His work includes architecture, furniture and glassware. 18

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of machines. That must however be done without disregarding form.18 If one considers The Garden of Earthly Delights and its depictions of the Jude o-Christian notions of paradise, creation, sin, and hell, which are themselves an illustration of a process and cycle of humanity, then architecture must negotiate between ideal ized utopias, like the Paradise depicted in Boschs central panel, and the impediments of contemporary civilizations. For every architectural utopia there is an antipode that is rooted in our own human nature. I subscribe to the idea that a city is the form of its inha bitants passions and all the events which they experience or imagine are th e imagery of their passions.19 18 A. Aalto, Synopsis, Painting, Architecture Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980), p. 20. 19 A. Alto, Ibid. 19

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20 Figure 2-1. Boschs triptych re cto panels. Source: E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998), p. 103. Figure 2-2. Boschs verso panels illustrating the creation of the world. Source: E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998), p. 132.

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CHAPTER 3 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING Art Becomes Science According to Robin Evans, Erwin Panofskys original writing in Perspective as Symbolic Form is considered one of the beginnings of a new form of interpretation of perspective.1 Panofsky draws on a large pool of knowledge that ranges from the history of art to theology, science, and philosophy. He defines and arrange s a characterization of ancient Western cultures and their representations. In regard to perspective, Panofsky believes in an articulation of intention joining the civil/societal, cerebral, and mechanical practices of a culture into balanced and continuous wholes, although the continual de sign of each historical era or culture is dissimilar. He believes that each gives rise to an altered but abundant perception of the world. Panofsky categorizes these spatial field systems, drawing parallels to their harmony with the different conventions of knowledge, faith, and inte rchange that distinguis hed the cultures in which they emerge. Major achievements regarding perspective por trayal elevated art to a science; the subjective visual impression was indeed so far ra tionalized that this very impression could itself become the foundation for a solidly grounded and yet, in an entirely modern sense, infinite experiential world.2 Projective geometry, limited in ge ometric accuracy, succeeds in bringing the pure ideas of geometry to mind. Therefore, since there is no such thing as a perfect materialized triangle, the essence not only of architectural geometry but of architecture in general 1 R. Evans, The Projective Cast (London, MIT Press, 1995), p. 126. 2 One could compare the function of Renaissance perspectiv e with that of critical philosophy, and the function of Greco-Roman perspective with that of skepticism. The re sult was a translation of ps ychophysiolog cal space into mathematical space; in other words, an objectification of the subjective: E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (New York, Zone Books, 1997), p. 66. 21

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is not in the concrete object but in the cerebral design.3 The architect activel y constructs his or her own perception of the world and, thereby actively participates in the fabrication of the world. The allure of perspective draw ing is due to the communication of experiential qualities that externalize, or appear to externalize, an aspect of perception as if the viewer were seeing the thought itself. The imagination continues to exist but not in its traditiona l location. Imagination is not held within the mind, but is potentially active in all the areas of transi tion from persons to objects or pictures. It operates, in other words, in the same zone as projection and its metaphors.4 Diverse cultures have distinct symbolic met hods of staging the world in pictorial images, and each method can communicate to the vigilant observer a foundation of intelligence about the mentality of its people or time period. Before referring to several noted utopian perspective drawings from modern and post-modern architect ural history, it is impor tant to establish how these perspective drawings are infused with such metaphoric re lationships by categorizing the functions that are involved in staging them. Imagination and Visual Perception There are several ways of understanding space an d several ways of translating between the varied concepts. There are not an in finite number of combinations, but in The Projective Cast Robin Evans relates several of these combinati ons to each other, often extending beyond their respective definitions. The two broadest routes from Euclidean5 space seem to lead in the opposite directions, toward palpable experience and toward abstract math ematics. Of particular interest to Evans is 3 R. Evans, op. cit., p. 354. 4 R. Evans, op. cit. p. 363. 5 Euclidean geometry desc ribes physical space. 22

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the way in which projection has been used as a connecting thread between these extremes. He defines the different fields of projective transmission that concer n architecture (see Figure 3-1). In the figure, ten fields of projection are shown joining five types of targets. Four of the targets are almost always thought of as pictures or picture li ke. The one exception is the designed object. Evans attempts to portray the extent of projection a nd its metaphors, so the diagram treats varieties of real and imaginary sp aces as if they were all the same. The part behind the dotted line cutting (2), (6), and (7) represents the observer, or someone who is looking.6 The following is a brief itemization of the transitive spaces numbered in Figure 3-1, that correspond to the sequence I will be exploring: Perspectival space (6) is three-dimensional, consisting of a two-dimensional graphic drawing with a third dimension imagined within the picture. The reverse relationship would make the observer the manipulator/creator of the picture and this is the case when setting up a perspective drawing. Two furthe r targets are the perception (9) and imagination (10) belonging to the observer and the two further projective spaces behind them. Imagination (10) and visual perception (9) are shown as pictures, beca use that is how they are normally described. They are not pictures, but the very fact that both are thought of in that way is very significant.7 6 The status of these lines as they pass acro ss the border into consci ousness is not clear. 7 R. Evans, op. cit. p. 370. 23

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24 Figure 3-1. Perspective projection and its analogues. Source: R. Evans, The Projective Cast (London, MIT Press, 1995), p. 367.

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CHAPTER 4 COMMUNICATING UTOPIAN IDEALS Megastructures: Pre-Vietnam Heroics Panofsky believed when work on certain artistic problems has a dvanced so far that further work in the same direction, proceeding from the same premises, appears unlikely to bear fruit, the result is often a great recoil, or perhaps better, a reversal of direction.1 Considering the current political climate, the costly and lengthy war in the Middle East, the false promises of progress, and the recycling of older models of urbanism, many parallels can be drawn between contemporary architecture and the pre and post-Vietn am War era models. Utopian drawings of the twentieth century em erged as a reaction to the charged cultural, political, and technological climates in the 1960s and 1970s. Throughout this era, megastructures, the final provocation of the hero ic vision of pre-war modernism, acquiesced to the first inklings of postmodernisms roots. These megastructures originated in reacti on to the architecture of the 1950s and, most importantly, to the modernist overhaul of ur ban post-war Europe. The 1960s ushered in a younger generation of architects who were generally dissatisfied with mo dernisms functionalist criteria and drained social idioms. These arch itects widened the genera tional gap by taking cues from pop culture, comic books, the Beatles, and the radical politics of the 1960s as accoutrements to revolutionize culture and improve the state of the world. The global and often disconnected, nomadic projects that resulted from their movement surpassed the scale of prewar architecture, and marshaled in the megastructure campaign. The urban redevelopment schemes of the 1950 s favored the disseverance of the urban landscape into transportation, wo rk, living, and recreation. Th e pioneering megastructures 1 E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (New York, Zone Books, 1997), p. 47. 25

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intended to reintegrate these four functional networks back into the city. Leading architects at the time, Paul Rudolph and Raimund Abraham, be lieved that the compartmentalization of these networks had divested the city of its vitality; hen ce, the complex relationships that energize a city would be best served by restoring emphasis to the connections betw een the house, street, district, and city instead. Forty years later, modern ur banism is still challenged by strikingly similar paradigms (i.e., the compartmentalization described above). The selected architectural works of Rudolph and Abraham succeed mostly as visual tran slations of verbal metaphors and puns drawn from contemporaneous cultural sources, a Boschian allegory of abstract cultural ideas presented by events in narrative pictorial forms. Paul Rudolph, 1918 to 1997 In the late 1960s, Paul Rudolph proposed a Y-shaped corridor as a response to contemporary discussions about constructing an expressway running across lower Manhattan. The expressway would have served as a link from New Jersey to Brooklyn, Queens, and Long Island via the Holland Tunnel and the Manhattan and Williamsburg bridges. His design (see Figure 4-1) operated around the citys infrastructure at the time, leaving it intact, and suggested a new approach to city building emphasizing tran sportation networks as a means of connecting rather than dividing communities. He proposed placing multilevel, pedestrian plazas; people movers; and parking both above and below existi ng bridge and rail systems; at key intervals along the interrelated transporta tion corridors, thereby forming hubs. High-rise residential buildings would step back from these hubs, provid ing light, air, and views for their residents. The resulting megastructure would generate ur ban space by joining the new building types with corridors at points of entry into the complex. 26

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Raimund Abraham, 1933 Raimund Abraham's Continuous Building project, consisting of a fluctuating mechanical system, serves as a metaphorical exploration of New York City. In this drawing (see Figure 42), the future growth of the city is ominously represented by a hexagonal tubular system that extends ad infinitum in different directions. The nature of the system is speculative but its nightmarish, contextually-disconnected representati on reflects an invasive megastructure that is far removed from Rudolphs more optimistic vision of the future. The center panel of Bosch's triptych and R udolph's drawing can both be interpreted as embracing a utopian view of human social organization. A lthough Bosch's work predates Rudolph's proposed megastructure by more than five centuries, the two share the ideal of a harmonious, integrated, densely connected so ciety. On the other hand, Abraham's drawing suggests that such a society, when taken to its lo gical extreme, is more nightmare than utopia. The same holds true of the right panel of Bosc h's triptych. Whereas Bosch extrapolates such a state to an inevitable Apocalypse, Abraham sees the end result as the extreme mechanization of humanity. Both extremes are equally ruinous. Bosch's triptych, as a whole, illustrates th e Judeo-Christian notion that man, because of original sin, cannot be saved. R udolph counters with the proposal that man can indeed be saved by his own design, or more broadly that manki nd can save itself by imposing structure and interconnection on its nature (i.e., that human na ture can be overcome). Abraham appears to reject this notion, suggesting that although humankind may be able to impose structure on itself, even to the extreme, such structure will not result in mankind's salva tion, but rather in its conversion into an over-mechan ized social automaton. 27

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Postmodernism: Re-Infuse Social Meaning At the beginning of the 1970s, the megastru cture movement failed to produce anything more substantial than idealized architectural drawings. The postwar optimism of the movement seemed irrelevant to a society dealing with the escalading Vietna m War and the political uprisings of the late 1960s. The megastructure lacked the allure of innovation; therefore, its demise heralded the emergence of a new avant-garde movement: postmodernism.2 Divorcing their pre-Vietnam War technocratic utopias, architects such as St even Holl and Gaetano Pesce began searching for fresh ideas a nd diverse references to reinfuse their designs with meaning. Steven Holl, 1947 Steven Holls Gymnasium Bridge project ha d altruistic aspirations of relating four intersecting and overlapping bridge s, each of which contained usab le space while doubling as a passageway. The bridges were proposed so as to cover the area between New Yorks impoverished South Bronx neighborhoods and the pa rkland of Randalls Island. Holls project (see Figure 4-3) was one of six projects commissioned by the Wave Hill Center with the intention of fostering economic development. Holls scheme sought to take advantage of an economic system in which community members would generate income through employment opportunities, servicing organize d recreational activi ties housed in the bridges. These recreational activities, su ch as boxing, basketball, rowing, and ice skating, would attract visitors and customers to the area, which would allow the unemployed and poor b ack into the city's economic system. Holl envisioned the munici pal funding of the Gymnasium Bridge as a connecting point for transpor tation and economic networks. 2 V. Lampugnani, Visionary Architecture of the 20th Century (London, Thames-Hudson, 1982), pp. 14 16. 28

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Gaetano Pesce, 1939 Gaetano Pesces observations and experiences in New York in the 1970s inspired him to design the Church of Solitude (see Figure 4-4). During this time, Pesce observed the people of New York living together haphazardly in disorder ly haste. His project proposed a below-grade sanctuary from the chaos of urbanism by pr oviding a serene place for introspection and contemplation buried under an unoccupied lot among the towers of the city. The church included small individual chambe rs allotted for further escape from New Yorks corporate and institutional culture. Pesce e xplored the possibilities of excavated landscapes as a way to capitalize on the hidden potential that these overlooked spaces provi de for peoples future needs. Whether the ideal of an interconnected soci ety is found held together in one large complexas in Rudolph's proposed megastructure or joined together by infrastructure and economyas in Holls proposed bridgesthe two drawings share the ideal of a harmonious, interconnected society similarly depicted in the ce nter panel of Boschs triptych. On the other hand, Pesce's drawing suggests that dystopias, such as Abrahams social robot and the looming Apocalypse in the right panel of Bosch's trip tych, can only be escaped by urban withdrawal, solitude, and introspective transcendence. In proposing this sanctuary, Pesce embraced the Eastern philosophy that life is full of suffering ca used by urbanism as the embodiment of desire, and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of life to which one is otherwise subject. Pesces sanctuary proposal rejects the Judeo-Christian philosophy outlined by Boschs triptych, and subscribes to a more Buddhist phi losophy, signaling a shift in thinking from social collectivism and salvation to the individual experi ence and transcendence. This shift is most significant to the current paradigm facing arch itecture and the urba n landscape. Since architecture cannot actualize manki nds salvation, what can it do for the individual? Like Pesce, 29

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many post-modernist architects felt that the truly transcendent architectur al solutions to urban dilemmas could only be found on the intellectual fringes of pop culture, isolated from corporate America. This anti-corporate sentiment was echoed in their projects, many of which proposed funding of their social projects with local tax dollars and muni cipal funds. The new paradigm facing those architects who wish to realize their innovative urba n ideas in the twenty-first century will require a shift in thinking from the isolated periphery of culture to the center of consumer and economic models. Until then, innova tive design ideas that have potential to be catalysts for urban renewal may never eclipse conceptualism. 30

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Figure 4-1. Century tower lower Manhattan e xpressway, New York, New York. Project, 1967 72, (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/) Figure 4-2. Continuous building, 1965. (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/) 31

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32 Figure 4-3. Gymnasium br idges, New York, New Yo rk. Project, 1977. (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/) Figure 4-4. Church of Solitude, New Yo rk, New York. Project, 1974-77. (Source: http://moma.org/exhibitions/2002/gilman/)

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CHAPTER 5 THE CONTEMPORARY PARADIGM Consumerism and Commodified Architecture With the escalation of the War on Terror and the lack of eff ective political opposition, the postwar capitalist economy is selling optimism as consumerism. The iPod has been co-opted as a catalyst to enhance the perceived value of its user by endowing him or her with a particular identity and by triggering a particular brand experience.1 Thus, the architect of today must confront hypocrisy and contradictio n at every turn: the architectur al branding of healthy and fit lifestyles, and the mass marketing of environm entally conscious, or green Utopian spaces coexist uncomfortably amongst an increasingly obese populace who drive gas-guzzling tanks to the local fast food drive-through. The prevailin g socio-architectural paradigm has left the architect no choice but to produce architecture for a culture that has been commodified.2 I will draw from the poetic works of Bosch and Calvino to propose an architectural solution for urban development in Chicago wh ich acknowledges and embraces the imperfect realities of modern human expe riences and interconnectivity. Th e current Utopian architectural paradigm3 will be exposed for what it is: a misguide d and failed attempt to assuage societys excesses and overindulgences with spatial constructs that provide only an illusion of progress and transcendence.4 In Trading Cities 3, Calvino suggests that Eutr opia repeats its life, identical, shifting up and down on its empty chessboard. Examined closely, the name Eutropia may have hidden 1 A. Kilingmann, Brandscapes (London, MIT Press, 2007), pp. 6 -8. 2 Culture becomes a product instead of a behavior or belief. 3 Prefabricated "sustainable" lifestyle p ackages for an enlightened population. 4 Sustainable McMansions and green luxury office towers illustrate architectural practices supporting and perpetuating those illusions. 33

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implications by the authors comb ination of utopia, a visionary system of social perfection and tropia, a deviation of an eye from the normal position with respect to the line of vision when the eyes are open. Combining these two words to form the name Eutropia could suggest the city is itself a manifestation of an incorrectly perceived utopian vi sion. Adopting a different utopian ideal does not alter the inhabitants qualitative interactions that paradoxically give a city its true quantitative or social identity. Because of deeply embedded so cial and economic relationships, the true identity of a city ca nnot be retrofitted to subscrib e to any architectural ideal. Plugging into a Network Considering Boschs Garden of Earthly Delights the human experience is presented against a Biblical narrative with moralistic overtones. Even in the absence of gods, our unique planet Earth and its sky are present as a ground for our full, embodied experience, one through which we may now be capable of questioning the he gemony of abstract constructs. In view of this realization, we are called to transform our own individual, of ten arrogant, relationship to the world and explore the qualitative relationships that define our social identity. Contemporary economic models5 have proliferated because they propos e a means for an individual to purchase an identity that the consumer feels represents the social elite, leaving out huge segments of the population based on income and differing beliefs. Individualism does not contribute to the emergence of collective symbolic capital; instead, we must plug into the diverse networks that give us a unified identity and that benefit the communal realm of the city. In his Invisible Cities, Calvino established that the meaningf ul qualities that distinguish the unified identity of a trade city are the social in teractions generated by participation in a citys economic networks. It has been established that these economic networks must be diverse to 5 The Chicago School of economics considers value to be subjective, varying from person to person and for the same person at different times, and thus reject the theory of value brought on by labor. 34

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allow for the continual renewal of developmen ts that serve to improve interconnectedness.6 Stemming from increased digital reliance, the co ntemporary analogy for being an active member of the social economy is characteri zed by the act of pluggi ng into a larger c oncept marketplace. Over five centuries after Heironymos Bosch painted The Garden of Earthly Delights with alchemical metaphors, key words like green and sustainability are used by corporate networks to capitalize on a new movement that has transcended architectural design and urban planning, to infiltrate a vast array of consumer markets, promising th e elixir of life, or renewal of earth, and hence consumer alchemy. Marketing strategies have success fully yet unaccountably bestowed consumerism the power to demonstrat e social and ecologica l responsibility, which often substitutes the essence of these interconnected relationshi ps with increased revenue and lifestyle branding. Examples of this phenomenon can be found in catch phrases like Go Green and Live Green. Brand Lifestyles In Brandscapes Anna Klingmann attempts to inspire architects to build an open-ended, relationship-oriented culture that fosters creat ive questioning of the st atus quo. Architecture, informed by market and place, encompasses a larger social and cultural context through connectivity. She believes that for architecture to become a viable catalyst for corporations in todays global marketplace, it must aid in de veloping a specific personality that gives the company character and prominence; create a public interface; advocat e a flexible and open organizational structure that allows for multilate ral connections, both internally and externally; and fit the companys interests to the cultural, social, financial, and ecological goals of a specific 6 See J. Jacobs, op. cit. p. 147. 35

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region.7 This commodified approach to architectur e may benefit many markets, but adopting its principles requires architects to willingly abandon their elitist seats upon the fringes of popular culture and work within the mainstream to actualize any of their ideas. Whether branded architecture goes beyond the green-light excuse fo r architects to sell out is debatable, but the push for innovative design will necessitate i nnovative ways of obtaining capital. Chicago has its own brand, with its history a nd economy closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan and the prevailing winds. As Chi cago tries to move away from its industrial, steel and railway past to a global market based on intellectual capital and knowledge economy, it maintains its identity as a major port and the commercial, financial, industrial, and cultural center of the Midwest. Upscale shopping along Chicago s Magnificent Mile, thousands of restaurants, and the citys rich architectural history (d eveloped since the 1893 World Columbian Exposition and the inception of the steel-fram ed skyscraper era) continue to generate revenue for the citys economy. These intersecting networks give Chic ago its identity, but the cultural, social, financial, and ecological goals of the city are changing, and thus offering up the future of urban development for new branding strategies more in tune with consumer-driven markets. Superstar Architects The Chicago Planning Commissi on unanimously approved the final iteration of Santiago Calatravas 3-million-square-foot Chicago Spir e (see Figure 5-1). Designed for a 2.2-acre lakefront site, the one hundred fi fty storey, seven-sided glass tower twists like a drill-bit to 2,000 feet, making it the tallest building in North Amer ica. Although impressive, the significance of this development project is tied to its close proximity to Frank Gehrys Millennium Parks 7 Klingmann, op. cit. p. 270. 36

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Pritzker Pavilion. It is also just around the corner from the proj ect of Renzo Piano, who has been commissioned to design the Art In stitute of Chicago's new building expansion across the street. These major architectural gestures, created by signature architects, are just a sample of newer development tactics that will undoubtedly be gin to have greater implications. Continual development of superstar architectural interventions will change the urban landscape of Chicago beginning with the blocks on which they are built. If this continues to become a trend, then Chicago blocks will begin to lose their identities to the large isolated structures that may or may not relate to their surroundings. I believe that current trends in brand architecture will lead to an icon-based association with city blocks, similar to the paradigm exhibited by hotel casinos along the Las Vegas Strip. It is conceivable that each of the most ec onomically-valuable blocks in Chicago will be sponsored by an architectural gesture designed by a supersta r architect; this would make accessible for consumers his or her own branded sty le of architecture. At this point, the once valid rationale of protecting ar chitecture from the ravages of the marketplace has lost its relevance.8 Therefore, what is considered respec table architecture is no longer defined with regard to its social value, but much like commod ities, is founded on its popular appeal. The blur between highbrow and lowbrow architecture is le gitimized by the idea that shopping has become the defining activity of public life. Consequently, architects may unapologetica lly rationalize participating in brand lifestyle marketing that kneels to corporate strategy.9 Brand architecture should not be used as a way for architects to obfuscate real problems with extraneous design 8 Klingmann, op cit. p. 125. 9 The most important driving force behind Chicagos increased support for strong city-wide branding is the accelerating pace of globalization. 37

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(although the allure to do so undoubtedly exists).10 Rather, as in the case of most consumer markets, different brands with varying in tentions appeal to different markets. Prada was one of the first companies to commission architects with prominent names, like Rem Koolhass and Herzog & de Meuron, in an attempt to reinvent its customers' retail experience. For example, the company's new epicenter in New York City, designed by Rem Koolhaas, offers an architectural design that enhances the diversification of the shopping experience by infusing its commercial function with a series of trendy experiential themes, including a clinic (a space for personal care and service), an archive (an inventory of past and present collections), a tra ding floor(new commercial applica tions), a libra ry (zones of information allocated to the progress of the fa shion house), and a street (a public space for varied activities, seemingly free from retail pressures).11 While presenting an individual brand experience for Prada, the store's design also serves as a place where people are invited to interact with inventive displays or simply to experience the social ambience of space.12 Combining a brand product campaign and brand architect solu tion yielded a privately-funded public space that facilitates social and economic exchanges. Privately Owned Public Spaces (POPS) are not new concepts in urban development. Chicagos James R. Thompson Center (formerly known as the State of Illinois Center), designed by architect Helmut Jahn is an example of a succe ssful, seemingly public atri um space that is not open and accessible to all, nor is it necessarily publica lly owned. This and other similar projects 10 Attitude branding, commonly used by companies like Nike and Apple, is the choice to represent a feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the produc t or consumption of the product at all. 11 Klingmann, ibid 12 Brand extension is a strategy where an existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products; for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances, shoes and accessories, home decor, hotels, etc. The progression of brand extension into areas of architecture and the public realm is socially significant to urban development. 38

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in Chicago13 were funded in part through density incentive s, city programs that allow developers to increase the size of a given proj ect, or transfer development righ ts to another site, in exchange for community benefits.14 Most POPS in cities like Chicago and New York arose from zoning resolutions which allowed developers to construc t taller structures with additional building floors if a public space was provided inside or in front of the building.15 The successes of the POPS in Chicago have set the stage for new means of funding programs that will help endure growth. Instead of trading added building height for community benefits, th e city could require developers to include minimal requirements for pub lic amenities, from schools to grocery stores. If this were allowed, then Chicagos zoni ng department could allow a density bonus for expansion of amenities instead of allowing for more public spaces and preservation initiatives. If density and amenity bonuses will lead to more priv ate sector funding of pub lic amenities, then it is feasible to anticipate privately owned, on-site public extensions w ithin block development projects.16 From Placement to Choreography Staging City Blocks Realizing that brand names can add increase d revenue to their projects, real estate developers are increasingly hiring st ar architects to raise the market value of their residential and commercial towers. This new design consciousness will undoubtedly infiltrate suburban 13 Density incentives awarded to developers that incorporate rooftop garden projects to mitigate urban heat island effect, which is a process whereby highly urbanized areas with hard surfaces tend to be degrees hotter than green areas 14 Chicago currently offers several different density incen tive options. Developers can choose from a menu of bonus options, ranging from child-care cent ers and rural land protection to public art and public transportation improvements. 15 K. Miller, Designs on the Public (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2007), p. 71. 16 An urban block would cont ain one development project that accounted for reside nces, infrastructure, and amenities servicing that block. 39

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developments, as private investors will utilize their increased signifi cance as a strategic marketing tool for the production of symbolic capita l. The symbolic capital attaches partially to the fame of the architect and partially to consum ers rising desires to li ve near an exclusivelydesigned development. As a result, Chicago ma y find itself the beneficiary of a dynamic surge of profit-driven designer buildings that directly engage the desires of specific lifestyle groups who seek staged designer city blocks. Suburbs Plugging into the City Architects and designers have condemned suburban sprawl for several decades, proclaiming its various detrimental effects on so ciety and ecology. Yet th e nationwide public at large continues to view the phenomenon favorably.17 Market research confirms that consumer choices greatly outweigh the tend encies of most planners and architects to subscribe to sustainable higher-density developments, greater social diversity, mixed use, a diversity of design, and close proximity to mass transportation and services. Consequently, developers of residential projects have rejected many of those ideas, unde rscoring the enormous divide between consumer values and th e ideals pursued by architects. The suburbs have surrendered the idea of public spaces to vehicles, wider roads, manicured landscaping and bigger parking lots. The proliferation of this para digm has lead many of us to discover that the sanitized suburban enclaves wh ere we sought privacy, safety, exclusivity, and prestige have proved to be shallow and empty substitutes for the intimate human connections our past generations once enjoyed. The American su burb is the land of private wealth and public impoverishment.18 17 In the United States, there ia a pref erence towards lower-density developm ent for increased privacy and status, less noise, better schools, less crime, and a generally slower lifestyle than the city. 18 D. Nozzi, Road to Ruin: An Introduction to Sprawl and How to Cure It (London, Praeger, 2003), p. xix. 40

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Developers have long benefited from the prom ises of privacy, exclusivity and prestige associated with suburban lifestyles. Inevita bly, corporate brands have begun operating in symbiotic partnerships with these developers, e ach providing fuel for the other. By joining strategic marketing with the staging of experiences, the Di sney suburban development projects have exhibited huge financial gain s. Moreover, they have exerte d a substantial influence on the design of many inner-city revitalizations, in wh ich the perception of public space is increasingly associated with carefully-staged surroundings commanded by profit-or iented production of culture, history, and tradition. The seamless progression between staged experiences and urban reality is best illustrated in Celebration, bu ilt by the Disney Corporation in Florida as a prototypical brand city. For the residents of Celebration, Disn ey has achieved the ultimate goal of lifestyle branding where the brand becomes life itself.19 Architects can no longer operate along disconne cted utopian ideals (megastructures) of social possibilities (postmodernism). They must begin with todays realit ies, operating within existing cultural, societal, and economic networ ks alongside Chicagos consumer economy. The interdisciplinary approach to design must be encouraged to restore the vital relationships between architectures economic and public dime nsions, among Chicagos civic representation, urban development, and aes thetic experimentation. Lessons from Las Vegas Las Vegas, a city governed entirely by cons umerism and the production of profit, provides a compelling case for the potential of coordinating branding techniques and pedestrian mobility with block architecture. While the design of casino hotel architecture in Las Vegas aims at the creation of spaces joined with transit systems that can be e xploited to maximize profit, the 19 Klingmann, op. cit. p.77. 41

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primary strategies used there to elicit consumer experiences can also be applied as a set of conditions across genre and type, by expanding th e reaches of architecture beyond built form to include dynamics of use, behavior of people, and a more adaptable ground-up approach, which seeks to reevaluate current mode s of organizing city blocks. Architectural experience in Las Vegas is a pr oduct of the qualitative addition of drama, diversity, and detail.20 Casino architecture pr ovokes drama through the juxtaposition of different scales, programs, signs, and events; the manipulat ion of volumes; the expressiveness of iconic forms; and the exploitation of virtual and materi al effects. The staging of atmospheres through visual imagery, symbolic motifs, and material arti culation define the necessary criteria of event spaces that guarantee an active interaction am ong people and programs. Casinos create variety through hybridized impressions, utilizing strategically -selected settings and symbolic signals that cause new behavioral reactions to take place within the principal programs of dining, gaming, entertainment, and shopping. Experiential spaces are therefore strategic contrivances used to elicit particular moods and emotional reactions among the guests. Nevertheless, an authentic hybrid in casino architecture is created by diversifying a nd cross-programming with a combination of backdrops, which are often strategical ly designed to work in association with the programs, but more frequently exist completely removed from functional considerations. By loosening the constraints of programmatic sequences, the arch itectural design can abide by a more subjective method of social allure. In addition, each staged environment is carefully detailed to elicit an impression of authenticity that is alluring to the guest and grants plausibility to the appearance of the constructed drama. 20 Klingmann, op. cit. p. 217. 42

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The major tactic used by the casino hotel to en sure participation in these spaces is removal of the automobile from the equation, thereby orch estrating pedestrian tran sit around the allure of consumer experiences. In addition to stacked pa rking in back lots, casino hotels in Las Vegas have established no cost, privatized tram and mo norail networks between development blocks to remove automotive dependence for transportation between participating pr operties. By plugging into these transit networks, each casino hotel ensures increased exposure and movement of people through their propertys massive consumer experiential spaces. The tram connecting the Mandalay Bay, Luxor, and Excalibur property-blocks (see Figure 5-2) serves as an example of how the accessible and efficient transport of consumers can tr anscend location limitations and maximize economic exchanges. The individual successes of all three of thes e propertieseach located adjacent to, but not on, the popular Las Vegas Stripare connected to their link to the private transit network. Differentiating casino hotel identities within th e adjacent blocks allowed for co-development connections that further expanded by diversifying tran sport networks. Each property continued its self-refueling through consumer experiences, and ensured its stability through self-correction, joined with the unpredicted self-org anization of consumer networks. 21 The urban mainstream will be found where post-modernist principles, armed with the lessons of consumer markets, interconnect with corporate brande d megastructures to realize re sponsible urban renewal efforts that offer insights into the complex se t of conditions that constitute a city. 21 J. Jacobs, op. cit. p. 145 43

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44 Figure 5-1. Calatravas Chicago sp ire project. Source: E. De Losi er, Calatravas Chicago Spire Wins Approval, (New York, Architectural Record April 2007). Figure 5-2. Mandalay tram to the Las Vegas st rip. (Source: photograph by A. Angelbello taken from tram window).

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CHAPTER 6 CHICAGOS SHIFTING ASPIRATIONS Chicago Metropolis 2020 Plan Chicago Metropolis 2020 is a plan that positions Chi cago for the unprecedented challenges of the next century.1 It is a visionary stra tegy that calls on Chicago to increase innovation in the fields of business, technology, and urban reform The plan was prepared and sponsored by the Commercial Club of Chicago and written by Elmer W. Johnson as a challenge to those metropolitan groups that prefer deve lopment to remain the way it is.2 The strategies set forth in the plan aim to repair the city a nd to continue doing what Jane Ja cobs says all healthy cities do. A metropolitan economy, if it is wo rking well, Jacobs writes, i s constantly transforming many poor people into middle-class people. Cities don t lure the middle class, they create it.3 The Metropolis Plan sees th e entire Chicago region as an interconnected system and presages a return to the symbiotic relationship be tween city and suburb that existed in the age of the electric streetcar. At the end of the nineteenth century, mass transit promoted, simultaneously, the growth of the central city a nd of the suburbs, and pulled them together into one network. But with the proliferation of the automobile, urban transportation corridors became escape ways from the city. And the linear l ogic of the railroad suburbsvillage-like places situated along the tracks at decent intervals, with natural greenbelts between themwas broken, giving rise to the formless spread city. 1 Improving social and economic conditions for all people and promoting sustainable development. 2 Uneven development has been apparent in Chicago for many years. Chicago has recently been riding an economic boom, occurring after the long decline of basic industrial employ ment that struck numerous Chicago neighborhoods at the end of the 1970s. Guided by this boom, development projects have crept into most neighborhoods, but the slow investment of money coming into many low-income communities has been surpassed by the inundation of money into Chicago's center and lakeshore neighborhoods. 3 H. Husock, Jane Jacobs: New Yorks indispensable urban iconoclast, (New York, City Journal, April 2006). 45

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Although the Metropolis Plan addresses reform s in many areas, incl uding healthcare and education, I will focus on the three major component s that directly influe nced the scope of my investigation: economic wellbeing, land uses an d housing, and transportation-oriented design (TOD), Transportation-Oriented Design The Metropolis Plan divides transportation in to three different networks that must be developed simultaneously: personal mobility within the region; freight transportation to, from, and within the region; and ai r and rail transport of people to and from the region. The first goal is to organize more compact growth at the regional level, so that the city may become transit supportive. To ensure this support, commerce, housing, jobs, parks, and civic uses will be oriented within walking distances of transit stops. A network of pedestrian-friendly streets will allow for safe travel between local destinations. The plan focuses on restructuring neighborhoods to provide a mix of housing types and housing densitie s, at different costs in the same community. Future developments and urba n renewal projects will have to focus on public spaces along transit corridors within existi ng neighborhoods. These conscious changes will operate with the collaborative goals of preservi ng sensitive habitats outside the reaches of the city and protecting them from new developments while ensuring high qual ity open spaces within the city. Housing and Land Use The Metropolis Plan addresses sprawl a nd the associated consequences of high infrastructure costs, loss of open spaces, a nd geographic disconnection between housing and jobs. The plan is concerned with residential segregation by income and race, hyper-concentrated poor minorities, and the special housing needs of the elderly and people w ith disabilities. 46

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The Metropolis Plan proposes to encourage the private sector to develop renewal efforts within the existing infrastructure of older co mmunities, and discourage them from constructing new developments that necessitate high-cost extens ions of the public infrastructure. The renewal of existing communities provides a more divers e choice of housing opportunities throughout the region and will enable many people to live in proximity to their work if they so choose, thereby reducing congestion and harm to the environment. Residents will be able to remain in their home communities through each of their life stages (if they so choose) thanks to ampler housing options, and no citizen will be denied housing opport unities due to ethnicity or race. Central city and suburbs will compete, not for tax dollars, but for recognition for excellence in community design and livability. Economic Wellbeing The plan focuses primarily on the local propert y tax and secondarily on the state and local sales taxes, which give rise to most of the fi scal disparities among the different parts of the region and create the most serious hurdles in the way of achieving the plans economic and social goals. The guiding strategies for promoting economic development and growth must change to reflect the emerging economic international order.4 Past economic strategies that attempted to address both poverty and urban deve lopment at the same time have been largely unsuccessful. The Metropolis Plan counters this failure by disti nguishing them as two separate issues. Understanding this distinction is central to addressing Chicagos problems and identifying solutions.5 4 The number of independent states worldwide currently exceeds 185. At the end of World War II, governments were the main players on the global scene. Today, the growing influence of organizations of civil society and of multinational corporations has created a much more intricate global marketplace. 5 E. W. Johnson, Chicago Metropolis 2020 (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2001), p. 79. 47

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48 The economic model proposed in the plan focu ses on wealth creation through an energized private sector, the integration of the central city with the region al economy, the enlistment of the private sector to promote economic developmen t, and a governmental focus on improving the environment for business. As the Metropolis Plan outlines goals that will help Chicago shift from its industrial and railway past towards a ne w dynamic and diverse identity, the plan sets the foundation for urban thinkers to envision Chic agos urban renewal be yond the conversion of abandoned rail-yards into high-rise l uxury condominiums and office towers. My recommendation for urban bloc k networks in Chicago will incorporate the goals of the Metropolis Plan into my interpretation of the Chicago urban model of brand marketing, thereby allowing me to outline an architectural conne ction among current private sector development trends, transportation needs, re sidential diversity, consumerism, and economic development.

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CHAPTER 7 CONCEPT URBAN BLOCK NETWORKS Block Architecture The contradictions that arise between peoples beliefs and their everyday experiences are resolved by the invention of a pologues and myths. One example considered in my study was Italo Calvinos Invisible Cities which infused narratives of trading cities w ith universal metaphoric relationships regarding a citys identity, economy, and progress. Hieronymus Boschs Garden of Earthly Delights sought to address the disconnection between JudeoChristian doctrines and the nature of man by stag ing a masterful allegory for civilization and the ominous Apocalypse. Tumultuous political and soci al climates in the tw entieth century rallied confidence in progress and renewal which in turn generated new architectural themes that were adopted by modernist architects, on ly to be contradicted by post-modern responses to the social failures of those same paradigms, neither of wh ich produced any tangible architectural solutions. Similarly, contemporary societal beliefs and e xperiences contradict each other openly in the branded advertising and real-estat e economies; the most impressive architectural sites therefore embody fiction that embraces a mix of reality, fantasy, and prefabricated desire. Today, commercial environments, such as the Prada st ore in New York City, Disneys Celebration suburban development in Florida, and casino hotels in Las Vegas constitute places where people connect with core cultural ideas that define thei r individual lifestyles. It must be acknowledged that the potential power of the mass-media to de fine culture and lifesty le identities by using architecture as an instrument, irrespective of the messages they transmit, is significant and something that should be considered in the context of urban development.1 Many of the density and transportation goals for Chicago outlined in the Metropolis Plan can be actualized by 1 Klingmann, op. cit. p. 223. 49

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working intuitively within the scope of current brand lifestyle marketing and new development projects. Using the principles set forth in the Metropo lis Plan, I propose to capitalize off of the private sectors increasing practice of enlisting su perstar architects to create icon architecture that will inevitably change the nature of the city bloc ks of Chicago. If Chicagos real-estate market demonstrates a propensity for this kind of architect ure, then I further prop ose allowing lifestyle co-development opportunities, or block developm ents conceptually similar to the Disney Corporations aforementioned suburba n brand city, in direct asso ciation with the icons. The highly commercialized Las Vegas Strip demonstrates the economic success of uniting drama, diversity, and detail. My proposal for Chicago s urban development will work within a similar paradigm by investing in archit ectural icons to create the drama, allowing the residential and commercial co-developments within the block to create the diversity, and brand marketing and lifestyle identity to establish th e details that distinguish each block. These mixed-use, mixed density co-developments will form symbiotic relationships with the superstar architectural gestures, whose developers in turn will provide funds for light rail transit systems and elevated pedestrian pathways that maximize transit betw een the surrounding development blocks. This interdependent relationship between blocks should increase pedest rian traffic through the blocks and engage economic exchange opportunities within the co-development networks. The use of inter-property priv ate transit networks has proved successful in the commercial environments of Las Vegas casino hotels as a viable catalyst fo r interconnectedness and increased revenue; consequently, its public impl ementation in an increasingly-commercialized urban context of Chicago should also increase econom ic gains and interrelated social benefits to those private developments that choose to particip ate in the transit networ k. These private sector 50

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icon developers will also provide for elevat ed pedestrian street systems traversing and connecting the proposed blocks. This system will in fuse the pedestrian scal e into their monolithic constructions while retaining and enhancing stor efront commercial exchanges at new points of entrance along raised pathways. Actualizing urban block networ ks in Chicagos city center poses many challenges. There are already pre-existing, compe llingly problematic areas in the city center that are below the elevated train system.2 Because of this, my proposal for new, expansive pedestrian and transit networks built above the ground level of the city streets has the pot ential to generate additional problems for Chicago. The fact of the matter is that innovative and beautiful design solutions already exist for such areas, but the funds re quired to realize those solutions are unavailable.3 Moreover, the increased taxes and governmental spending needed to execute such projects can result in political suicide for most elected officials. Under my proposal for block developments, the private sector will provide the capital for these innovative solutions because doing so will add to their developments marketing brand app eal through architectural identity and detail. Chicagos presently neglected sites will be the future locations, under urban block networks, for the poetic and intuitive architectur al, social-interventions that post-modern architects like Pesce and Holl envisioned but lacked the f unds to actualize. If the entire infrastructure of a block is accounted for within a development project, th en the engineers and architects overseeing the bocks development will have greater control and increased funds to respond to design problems 2 Streets that run under the Chicago Transit Authority's elev ated trains are dark, dirty and gloomy. Spaces under the El are mostly devoted to traffic, thereby eliminating any other function for the spaces under the elevated line. 3 Storage and parking have been important usages of spaces below elevated trains, but are only a fraction of the many possible solutions for these areas that serve to reduce urban fragmentation and promote efficient usages of space in the city center. Tokyos JR Yamanote rail line ha s a variety of typologies for these lower spaces which offer alternative choices for general use. One example of this typology is the Eki Biru large-scale development projects which use the spaces as hubs for service and commercial activities along the rail line. These neglected spaces below elevated trains should be accounted for in Chicagos design, z oning and planning as much as other more prominent aspects of the city. 51

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with intuitive and poe tic design solutions, as opposed to the generic state mandates that conventionally resolve the problem or ignore the matter altogether. My proposal sets forth the following goals which will define the mission of block architectural development: Each block will consist of a large-scale development (offi ce building, residential tower, etc.) that forms symbiotic relationships with co-development webs (apartments, terraced single family homes, commercial retail spaces) unique to that block design. Private sector capital will develop bloc k communities and transit systems while maintaining and promoting their brand identity and lifestyle. Development and co-development webs are contained within each block. Floor area ratios (FAR) will be between 2.0 to 3.0 to promote higher density development of blocks. Each block will maintain housing-type dive rsity throughout the design block, encouraging numerous and intricate co-d evelopment relationships. Each block will maintain its own identity and provide a unique experiential quality for the community web. Segregating the Automobiles from Consumers The pedestrian streets integr al to the success of the propos ed urban block will form the secondary network that connects the block deve lopments. These pedestrian streets will be elevated and released from automotive reliance, encouraging light rail transit, bicycling, and walking. As a result, all automotive networks an d related services will be segregated from the lower levels of the blocks. Although there may be opposition to the abandonment of the traditional street design by segregating the vehicle from the pedestrian4, I believe that the removal of the automobile will provide new opportunities for architec ts to design quality 4 Defenders of the traditional street believe that the interactions among the people who live and work on a particular street can reduce crime, encourage the exchange of ideas, and generally make the world a better place. My counter argument is that a street can do all those things, but w ith the increase in automobile dependence, traveling speeds and travel lanes, the streets have been transformed into roads. A street is characterized by the degree and quality of street life it facilitates, whereas a road serves primarily as a through passage for automobiles. 52

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exchange spaces that promote consumerism and social interaction above grade, along pedestrian pathways that are engineered to promote sustai nable infrastructural design. Combined, these efforts will set the stage for multiple and di verse interactions throughout the urban block networks. An additional issue confronting my proposal is that of cold-weather conditions and the effects of Chicagos climate on store-front retail and commercial opportunities along the expansive pedestrian pathways.5 Today, Chicagos Magnificent Mile6 caters primarily to tourists and the affluent by integr ating a mixture of upscale departme nt stores, restaurants, retailers, residential and commercial buildings, fina ncial services companies, and hotels. Since the walkable yet narrow sidewalk stretches of the Magnificent Mile have proven successful and popular through varying yearly weather conditions, similar successes are likely to be achieved with elevated pedestrian street s that integrate retail and comme rcial networks above grade. There are currently a number of intuitive, sustai nable infrastructural solutions that account for wind, snow, and rainfall luxury 7 which are more efficiently incorpor ated when considering an entire block system rather than one i ndividual building or lot. Chica gos cold winters have been the catalysts for the design of enclosed malls wi thin high-rise buildings and atrium spaces,8 and with the shift I am proposing, there will be more oppo rtunities for architects to continue designing 5 Shopping, restaurants and recreation are social activ ities that transcend the limits of cold weather. 6 The Magnificent Mile is the portion of Michigan Avenue extending from the Chicago Ri ver to Oak Street. It is located one block east of nightlife of Rush Street, and serves as the main thoroughfare between Chicago's Loop business district and its Gold Coast. 7 Chicago Department of Transportation (CDOT) began the Green Alley Program as a pilot in 2006. The Green Alleys incorporate permeable pavement either asphalt, conc rete or pavers that allow rainwater to flow through the surface into the gro und below. Some alleys include a filtration ba sin below the pavement that collects water, then allows it to seep into the ground. These permeable pavements not only help address the issue of rainwater collecting in alleys but also help recharge the underground water table. CDOT also rece ntly completed a pilot test of sidewalks made of 100 percent recycled tire rubber. These and other infrastructure solutions can enhance the viability of the proposed urban block networks. 8 An example is C.F. Murphy and Helmut Jahns design for the James R. Thompson Center government building. 53

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innovative atria and malls along new elevated pe destrian pathways to encourage consumer exchanges. Although there are both problems a nd benefits inherent in segregating the automobile from pedestrians, my overall intention is to free Chicago from its automobile dependence and to provide diverse consumer opport unities to all classes of citizens within safe, walkable traveling distances. Chicagos soci al interconnectedness will benefit from block development projects that provide open elevated promenades rather than corralling pedestrian traffic along narrow sidewalk s at the ground level. My proposal lays out the following goals, wh ich will define the mission of pedestrian street networks: Blocks traverse reasonable walk ing distances (0.25 1 mile).9 Blocks are designed to liberate and elevate pedestrian traffic pathways several stories above vehicular traffic. Pedestrian streets are open, hu man-scaled, and people-oriented. Bicycle corridors will be provided along pe destrian pathways joining the blocks. Retail storefronts are pulled up to and face the pe destrian street, so that the buildings lend their vitality to the pathway and ma ke walking interesting and pleasant. Vehicular infrastructure and related services (parking, delive ry, gasoline, au to servicing, warehouses) operate at the lower le vels of the block development. Light-Rail Transit System The final stage of the proposal includes the following goals, which will define the mission of the light-rail transit system (LRT): Transit networks will operate along pedestrian streets, with all commercial, housing, and civic uses within walking dist ance of LRT stops along the block. The individual segments of the system will be subsidized by private sector large-scale development(s) within the block. 9 Currently, the standard block in Chicago is about 260 feet by 900 feet, or slightly over five acres. In some U.S. cities, standard blocks are as wide as 1/8 mile (660 feet), or 10 acres if square. 54

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The system will expand within self-ope rable segments, plugging different block developments into one networ k as they are constructed. The LRT will service15-20 dwelling units per acre. The transit lines will run along the elevat ed pedestrian streets for easy use. Making mass transit a much more attractive option while simultaneously increasing the costs of driving will provide commuters incentives and options for changing their habits rooted in auto-dependence. This shoul d in turn result in the bloc k networking system gradually revealing itself as a more viable concept of development in Chicago. I propose to harness private sector funds in connection with urban development projects to establish a light rail transit system that can be augmented as needed10 and dictated by the grow th of different block networks. A light rail transit system (in a ddition to pedestrian pathways) will require subsidization from private sector block devel opers who wish to maximize pedestrian traffic through their blocks. Such a system will also provide numerous opportunities for promoting brand identities and new economic exchange pos sibilities to Chicago s commuting citizens. Figures 7-1 to 7-5 illustrate pr oposed block networks in Chicago. A B Figure 7-1. Chicago at Randolph St. between Michigan Ave. and Lakeshore Dr. A) actual appearance of street in 2 008, B) conceptualization of street incorporating block network systems. (Source: photograph and alterations by A. Angelbello) 10 Each development project serves as a link in the transit rail chain that forms the network. 55

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Figure 7-2. Branded Chicago. Vi sion of urban block branded networks along Wacker Drive, Chicago River and Marina City Towers. (Source: illustrated by A. Angelbello). Figure 7-3. Urban block model. Depiction of an urban block with a light-rail link and pedestrian street along the Chicago River. (Sour ce: illustrated by A. Angelbello). 56

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Figure 7-4. Pedestrian, light-rail and vehicular networks. Proposal of urban block network components incorporated with the El trai n. (Source: illustrate d by A. Angelbello). 57

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58 Figure 7-5. Block network aerial perspective. Vision of urban block network system encompassing higher density residences, pe destrian streets, lower automobile circulation, and light rail tran sit system links. (Source: il lustrated by A. Angelbello).

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CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION We live in a time of objectively incomplete trut h, in which repressive economic, political, and pseudo-religious values have intruded on and in some respects suppla nted the strong urban values of the past. We should not readily aband on art and architecture as effective tools for the deconstruction and criticism of technology run amok and the prevalence of hegemonic institutions. The written words of Invisible Cities the images of Boschs triptych, and postmodern and megastructure perspective drawings ar e illustrated by their repr esentations of society which have meanings beyond notions directly conveyed by narrative or a painted and drawn scene.1 Yet we must accept that formalism is a double-edged sword: any sort of formalism, however sophisticated and desp ite its good intentions, when wi elded unwisely can serve to exacerbate the more barbaric aspects of our natu re. Instead of designing a democracy for creative and responsible individuals beyond good and evil, we may end up crafting branded cages for violently territorial animals li ving in private, fenced-in s uburban communities or urban theme-parks.2 In my conceptual proposal for urban block netw orks in Chicago, I have conceded that Man cannot be saved,3 and that the age of machines cannot be stopped; therefore, architects must connect man and machines in ways that embrace the realities of the different markets that constitute Chicago while exposing and then rejec ting the hypocrisy of ou r idealized visions of the future that have proved to be disconnected from contemporary urban economies. In 1 Erwin Panofsky was first to look at art and perspective drawings not as isolated incidents, but as the products of a historical environment. 2 A. Perez-Gomez, Architectural Representation and the Perspective Hinge (Cambridge, MIT Press, 2000), p. 388. 3 Alvar Aalto states that although we know that poor man can hardly be saved, whatever we attempt to do, the main duty of the architect is to humanize the age of machines. That must however be done without disregarding form, A. Aalto, Synopsis, Painting, Architecture Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980), p. 20. 59

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60 contravention of this hypocrisy, and as an altern ative to the conspiracy between architectural Utopia and the flaws of twenty-fir st century urban development, my architectural investigation accepts the limitations and imperfec tions of humankind, criticized in Invisible Cities and The Garden of Earthly Delights as fundamentally intrinsic yet po tentially valuable aspects of the human experience that can be harnessed to esta blish the architectural po tential and limits of urban renewal.

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LIST OF REFERENCES A. Aalto, Synopsis, Painting, Architecture, Sculpture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 1980). J. Almada, Greenlight for Pilot at Former U.S. Steel Site, (Chicago, Chicago Tribune, October 14, 2007), p. 4. J. Berger, The Sense of Sight (New York, Vintage International, 1985). I. Calvino, Invisible Cities (New York, Harcourt Inc., 1972). T. Corfman, and A. Gallun, Mega-Plan fo r Vacant Site in South Loop, (Chicago, Chicago Business, June 24, 2007). G. De Chirico, The Memoirs of Giorgio de Chirico (London, Da Capo Press, 1994). E. De Losier, Calatravas Chica go Spire Wins Approval, (New York, Architectural Record April 2007). L. Dixon, Bosch (London, Phaidon Press, 2003). R. Evans, The Projective Cast (London, MIT Press, 1995). H. Husock, Jane Jacobs: New Yorks indi spensable urban iconoc last, (New York, City Journal April 2006). J. Jacobs, The Nature of Economies (New York, Vintage Books, 2000). E. W. Johnson, Chicago Metropolis 2020 (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 2001). A. Klingmann, Brandscapes (London, MIT Press, 2007). H. Klotz, The History of Post Modern Architecture (London, MIT Press, 1984). V. Lampugnani, Visionary Architecture of the 20th Century (London, Thames-Hudson, 1982). E. Larsen, Bosch (New York, Smithmark, 1998). J. Malnar, Make No Little Plans: Designing the Chicago Lakefront (Chicago, University of Illinois, 2003). A. Manguel, The City of Words (Toronto, Anansi Press, 2007). A. Manguel, Reading Pictures (New York, Random House, 2000). K. Miller, Designs on the Public (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2007). D. Nozzi, Road to Ruin: An Introduction to Sprawl and How to Cure It (London, Praeger, 2003). 61

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62 E. Panofsky, Perspective as Symbolic Form (New York, Zone Books, 1997). E. Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1983). T. Riley, The Changing of the Avant-Garde (New York, Museum of Modern Art, 2003). V. Scully, American Architecture and Urbanism (New York, Holt and Co., 1988). M. Sorkin, Exquisite Corpse (New York, Verso, 1991). P. Zumthor, Atmospheres (Berlin, Birkhauser, 2006). P. Zumthor, Thinking Architecture (Berlin, Birkhauser, 2006). P. Zumthor, and S. Hauser, Therme Vals (Zurich, Scheidegger & Spiess, 2007).

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Alexandro Angelbello received his bachelors degree in studio art at Florida State University, in Tallahassee, Florida in 1998. Fr om 1999 to 2004 he pursued various endeavors in painting, mixed-media, and digital arts. Since 2004 he has been working toward completing a masters degree in architecture at the University of Florida.


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