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Accessory Dwelling Units as Affordable Housing and Smart Growth

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022166/00001

Material Information

Title: Accessory Dwelling Units as Affordable Housing and Smart Growth Case Studies of Winter Park and Orlando, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: accessory, dwelling
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: After World War II, several factors including the automobile, the Interstate Highway Act of 1956, cheap land, the GI Bill, and homeownership tax benefits contributed to suburbanization and a significant change in American neighborhood designs. Families moved from historic traditional neighborhoods that included accessory dwelling units (ADUs) to low density suburbs composed of strictly single-family detached residential units. Many cities with existing ADUs, including Winter Park, Florida, adopted zoning codes that restricted ADU rentals within single-family neighborhoods. New urbanist neighborhoods embrace the ADU as an alternative to the single-family home. How might the traditional ADU address planning issues such as sprawl, lack of sufficient affordable housing and housing for the elderly, and contribute to the supply of housing in built-out areas? While the ADU provides several benefits, many concerns are also associated with this housing alternative. Residents who oppose ADUs are concerned about parking issues, excessive traffic, reduced privacy, introduction of renters in ownership neighborhoods, loss of single-family neighborhood characteristics, and lowered housing values. Recently, some states and municipalities changed existing ordinances and created legislation that legalizes the construction of ADU rentals in an effort to solve housing issues. Several of the new ADU ordinances provide model frameworks for communities considering permitting ADUs. This study's methodology uses census data and local planning documents to establish the need for additional housing units within the City of Winter Park. The City of Santa Cruz, California's ADU program and Orlando's Traditional City Code provide a model for crafting an ADU ordinance for the City of Winter Park. An ADU survey and interviews with local officials provided information about existing ADU characteristics and the community's acceptance of ADUs. Some Winter Park residents oppose ADUs because of the negative impacts associated with higher densities; however, the City could benefit from providing additional affordable units for workers, the elderly, and one-person households. The Santa Cruz and Orlando models are excellent frameworks for the Winter Park ADU ordinance and program. Winter Park needs ADU design guidelines with prototypes that maintain the existing single-family neighborhood characteristics. An ADU ordinance within Winter Park will require an extensive community outreach program and public workshops that address resident's concerns including parking issues, privacy, and noise. The outreach program should create marketing tools that educate residents about the benefits of providing ADUs within communities lacking sufficient developable land and affordable housing opportunities. A well-designed ADU ordinance can remove existing regulatory barriers that prohibit ADUs and provide a planning tool that helps solve housing issues within Winter Park.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.
Local: Co-adviser: Schneider, Richard H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022166:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022166/00001

Material Information

Title: Accessory Dwelling Units as Affordable Housing and Smart Growth Case Studies of Winter Park and Orlando, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (111 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: accessory, dwelling
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: After World War II, several factors including the automobile, the Interstate Highway Act of 1956, cheap land, the GI Bill, and homeownership tax benefits contributed to suburbanization and a significant change in American neighborhood designs. Families moved from historic traditional neighborhoods that included accessory dwelling units (ADUs) to low density suburbs composed of strictly single-family detached residential units. Many cities with existing ADUs, including Winter Park, Florida, adopted zoning codes that restricted ADU rentals within single-family neighborhoods. New urbanist neighborhoods embrace the ADU as an alternative to the single-family home. How might the traditional ADU address planning issues such as sprawl, lack of sufficient affordable housing and housing for the elderly, and contribute to the supply of housing in built-out areas? While the ADU provides several benefits, many concerns are also associated with this housing alternative. Residents who oppose ADUs are concerned about parking issues, excessive traffic, reduced privacy, introduction of renters in ownership neighborhoods, loss of single-family neighborhood characteristics, and lowered housing values. Recently, some states and municipalities changed existing ordinances and created legislation that legalizes the construction of ADU rentals in an effort to solve housing issues. Several of the new ADU ordinances provide model frameworks for communities considering permitting ADUs. This study's methodology uses census data and local planning documents to establish the need for additional housing units within the City of Winter Park. The City of Santa Cruz, California's ADU program and Orlando's Traditional City Code provide a model for crafting an ADU ordinance for the City of Winter Park. An ADU survey and interviews with local officials provided information about existing ADU characteristics and the community's acceptance of ADUs. Some Winter Park residents oppose ADUs because of the negative impacts associated with higher densities; however, the City could benefit from providing additional affordable units for workers, the elderly, and one-person households. The Santa Cruz and Orlando models are excellent frameworks for the Winter Park ADU ordinance and program. Winter Park needs ADU design guidelines with prototypes that maintain the existing single-family neighborhood characteristics. An ADU ordinance within Winter Park will require an extensive community outreach program and public workshops that address resident's concerns including parking issues, privacy, and noise. The outreach program should create marketing tools that educate residents about the benefits of providing ADUs within communities lacking sufficient developable land and affordable housing opportunities. A well-designed ADU ordinance can remove existing regulatory barriers that prohibit ADUs and provide a planning tool that helps solve housing issues within Winter Park.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Larsen, Kristin E.
Local: Co-adviser: Schneider, Richard H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022166:00001


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1 ACCESSORYDWELLINGUNITSASAFFORDABLEHOUSINGANDSMARTGROWTH: CASESTUDIESOFWINTERPARKANDORLANDO,FLORIDA By PATRICIATHERESETYRE ATHESISPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOL OFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENT OFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOF MASTEROFARTSINURBANANDREGIONALPLANNING UNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA 2008

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2 2008PatriciaThereseTyre

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3 Tomyfamily

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First,Iwanttothankmythesiscommitteechair,Dr.KristinLarsen,forhertime, commitment,andguidance.IalsowanttothankDr.Larsenforsharingherexpertiseandpassion forhousingandforinspiringmyinterestinhousingpolicyandplanningduringmyfirstyearat theUniversityofFlorida.Next,Iwanttothankmycommitteemembers,Dr.RichardSchneider andDr.JayStein,fortheirexpertiseandinput,whichhelpedmetodevelopmythesisfurther.I thankallofmycommitteemembersfortheirtime,questions,andguidance. Inaddition,Iwanttothankallofthepeoplewhoparticipatedinmythesisinterviews.I thanktheCityofSantaCruzHousingDirector,theCityofWinterParkPlanningDirector,and theCityofOrlandoChiefPlannerfortakingtimeoutoftheirbusyschedulestosharetheir knowledgeaboutaccessorydwellingunits. Finally,Ithankmyfamilyfortheirencouragementandsupportthroughoutmyeducation, especiallythisproject.Iwanttothankmymom,mysister,andmyhusbandforlisteningto storiesaboutaccessorydwellingunits,offeringtohelpinanywaypossible,andaccompanying meonthesisfieldworktrips.Itrulycouldnothavecompletedthisthesiswithouteachperson mentionedabove.

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5 TABLEOFCONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LISTOFTABLES...........................................................................................................................7 LISTOFFIGURES.........................................................................................................................8 LISTOFABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 1ANALTERNATIVEHOUSINGUNIT................................................................................13 2THEADUSOLUTION..........................................................................................................18 TheAccessoryDwellingUnit................................................................................................18 ADUBenefits.........................................................................................................................20 CommunityConcerns.............................................................................................................23 WorkforceHousingandtheAccessoryDwellingUnit..........................................................26 SmartGrowthandtheAccessoryDwellingUnit...................................................................27 ADUOrdinances....................................................................................................................28 TheModelADUProgram:SantaCruz,California................................................................31 CentralFloridasPopulationGrowthandHousingCrisis......................................................33 3MEASURINGADUNEEDSANDADAPTABILITY.........................................................35 4CASESTUDIES:ORLANDOANDWINTERPARK.........................................................43 TheTraditionalCity:Orlando................................................................................................43 TheCityofCultureandHeritage:WinterPark......................................................................46 AffordabilityProfiles..............................................................................................................52 Rent-to-IncomeRatio......................................................................................................53 AffordabilityGap............................................................................................................54 AccessoryDwellingUnitSurvey...........................................................................................54 OrlandoSurveyResults...................................................................................................55 WinterParkSurveyResults.............................................................................................56 TheSantaCruzModel............................................................................................................57 SantaCruzADUProgram...............................................................................................58 SantaCruzNeighborhoodContexts................................................................................60 AnalysisofFindings...............................................................................................................61 5APPLYINGTHEADUMODEL...........................................................................................92

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6 CommunityConcerns.............................................................................................................94 WinterParkADUBenefits.....................................................................................................96 ADUOrdinanceComponents.................................................................................................97 OpportunitiesforFutureResearch..........................................................................................99 APPENDIX ORLANDOANDWINTERPARKADUSURVEYS...............................................................103 LISTOFREFERENCES.............................................................................................................107 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH.......................................................................................................111

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7 LISTOFTABLES Table page 4-1Affordabilityprofile..........................................................................................................64 4-2ComparisonofADUregulations......................................................................................65 5-1WinterParkADUordinancerecommendations.............................................................101

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8 LISTOFFIGURES Figure page 3-1SantaCruzNeighborhoodContexts...................................................................................42 4-1TheCityofOrlandosTraditionalCityoverlaydistrict....................................................69 4-2CityofOrlando1925SanbornMap...................................................................................70 4-3WinterParkcommunityreinvestmentarea........................................................................71 4-4HannibalSquare1927SanbornMap.................................................................................72 4-5HannibalSquare.................................................................................................................73 4-6HannibalSquarechurch.....................................................................................................73 4-7HannibalSquaredemolition..............................................................................................74 4-8HannibalSquareredevelopment........................................................................................74 4-9NewlyconstructedHannibalSquaresingle-familyhomes................................................75 4-10NewlyconstructedHannibalSquarebuildings..................................................................75 4-11NewlyconstructedHannibalSquareoffices......................................................................76 4-12CollegeQuarter1927SanbornMap..................................................................................77 4-13CollegeQuarterdetachedADUincorporatingsimilardesigncharacteristicsfromthe mainhouse.........................................................................................................................78 4-14CollegeQuarterADUbehindmainhouse.........................................................................78 4-15CollegeQuarterADUoncornerlot...................................................................................79 4-16CollegeQuarterADUwithseparatedriveway..................................................................79 4-17CollegeQuarterdetachedtwo-storyADUandone-storymainhouse..............................80 4-18SeriesofphotosillustratingCollegeQuartermainhouseandADUoncornerlotwith similararchitecturalcharacteristics....................................................................................81 4-19SeriesofphotosillustratingCollegeQuartermainhouseanddetachedADUwithan additionalparkingspaceprovidedinfrontyard................................................................82 4-20OrlandoprimaryuseofADUs...........................................................................................83

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9 4-21OrlandoADUsurveyresponsesforthequestionAreADUsasatisfactorysolution topopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing..................................................................83 4-22WinterParkprimaryuseofADUs.....................................................................................84 4-23WinterParkADUsurveyresponsesforthequestionAreADUsasatisfactory solutiontopopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing....................................................84 4-24AerialimageoftheCollegeQuarterneighborhood...........................................................85 4-25AerialimageoftheSevillaneighborhood.........................................................................86 4-26AerialimageoftheHannibalSquareneighborhood..........................................................87 4-27AerialimageoftheWaterbridgeneighborhood................................................................87 4-28AerialimageoftheWindsongneighborhood....................................................................88 4-29AerialimageoftheBrookshireHeightsneighborhood.....................................................88 4-30AerialimageofWinterParkwaterfrontestates.................................................................89 4-31SantaCruzdetachedADUprototype.................................................................................90 4-32SantaCruzattachedADUPrototype.................................................................................91

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10 LISTOFABBREVIATIONS AARPAmericanAssociationofRetiredPeople ADUAccessorydwellingunit APAAmericanPlanningAssociation CRACommunityreinvestmentarea DCADepartmentofCommunityAffairs ECHOElderlycottagehousingopportunity HUDU.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment TNDTraditionalneighborhooddesign VAVeteransAdministration

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11 AbstractofThesisPresentedtotheGraduateSchool oftheUniversityofFloridainPartialFulfillmentofthe RequirementsfortheDegreeofMasterofArtsinUrbanandRegionalPlanning ACCESSORYDWELLINGUNITSASAFFORDABLEHOUSINGANDSMARTGROWTH: CASESTUDIESOFWINTERPARKANDORLANDO,FLORIDA By PatriciaTyre May2008 Chair:KristinLarsen Cochair:RichardSchneider Major:UrbanandRegionalPlanning AfterWorldWarII,severalfactorsincludingtheautomobile,theInterstateHighwayAct of1956,cheapland,theGIBill,andhomeownershiptaxbenefitscontributedtosuburbanization andasignificantchangeinAmericanneighborhooddesigns.Familiesmovedfromhistoric traditionalneighborhoodsthatincludedaccessorydwellingunits(ADUs)tolowdensitysuburbs composedofstrictlysingle-familydetachedresidentialunits.ManycitieswithexistingADUs, includingWinterPark,Florida,adoptedzoningcodesthatrestrictedADUrentalswithinsinglefamilyneighborhoods.NewurbanistneighborhoodsembracetheADUasanalternativetothe single-familyhome.HowmightthetraditionalADUaddressplanningissuessuchassprawl, lackofsufficientaffordablehousingandhousingfortheelderly,andcontributetothesupplyof housinginbuilt-outareas? WhiletheADUprovidesseveralbenefits,manyconcernsarealsoassociatedwiththis housingalternative.ResidentswhoopposeADUsareconcernedaboutparkingissues,excessive traffic,reducedprivacy,introductionofrentersinownershipneighborhoods,lossofsinglefamilyneighborhoodcharacteristics,andloweredhousingvalues.Recently,somestatesand municipalitieschangedexistingordinancesandcreatedlegislationthatlegalizestheconstruction

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12 ofADUrentalsinanefforttosolvehousingissues.SeveralofthenewADUordinancesprovide modelframeworksforcommunitiesconsideringpermittingADUs. Thisstudysmethodologyusescensusdataandlocalplanningdocumentstoestablishthe needforadditionalhousingunitswithintheCityofWinterPark.TheCityofSantaCruz, CaliforniasADUprogramandOrlandosTraditionalCityCodeprovideamodelforcraftingan ADUordinancefortheCityofWinterPark.AnADUsurveyandinterviewswithlocalofficials providedinformationaboutexistingADUcharacteristicsandthecommunitysacceptanceof ADUs.SomeWinterParkresidentsopposeADUsbecauseofthenegativeimpactsassociated withhigherdensities;however,theCitycouldbenefitfromprovidingadditionalaffordableunits forworkers,theelderly,andone-personhouseholds. TheSantaCruzandOrlandomodelsareexcellentframeworksfortheWinterParkADU ordinanceandprogram.WinterParkneedsADUdesignguidelineswithprototypesthat maintaintheexistingsingle-familyneighborhoodcharacteristics.AnADUordinancewithin WinterParkwillrequireanextensivecommunityoutreachprogramandpublicworkshopsthat addressresidentsconcernsincludingparkingissues,privacy,andnoise.Theoutreachprogram shouldcreatemarketingtoolsthateducateresidentsaboutthebenefitsofprovidingADUswithin communitieslackingsufficientdevelopablelandandaffordablehousingopportunities.AwelldesignedADUordinancecanremoveexistingregulatorybarriersthatprohibitADUsand provideaplanningtoolthathelpssolvehousingissueswithinWinterPark.

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13 CHAPTER1 ANALTERNATIVEHOUSINGUNIT Theneedforinnovativeaffordablehousingsolutionsisgrowing.Low-incomefamilies belowpovertylevelorevenbelow50percentofthemedianincomecannotspendmorethan30 percentoftheirincomeonhousingwithoutconsiderablecostburden(Downs,2004).Currently, 33millionhouseholdssufferfromcostburden(APA,2006).In2005,theaverageworker needed$15.78perhourtoaffordrentforatwo-bedroomapartment(APA,2006).Atthetime, $15.78wasmorethanthreetimestheminimumwageof$5.15perhour(APA,2006).Rental pricescontinuetoriseandleavemanyAmericanfamilieswithoutdecentaffordablehousing. Communitieswithavarietyofhousingchoicesthatprovideoptionsforpeopleofallagesand incomelevelsofferanaffordablehousingsolutionworthexploring. Inrecentyears,somestateandlocalgovernmentsexaminedwaystoaffordablyaddress populationgrowthandhousingissueswithinexistingcommunities.Severalstatesconducted housingstudiesandconcludedthataccessorydwellingunits(ADUs)havethepotentialto provideasufficientnumberofaffordablerentalunits.AnADUprovidesahigherdensity alternativetothepopulardetachedsingle-familydwellingunit.AnADUisdefinedasan attachedordetachedresidentialunitwhichprovidescompleteindependentlivingfacilitiesfor oneormorepersons,includingprovisionsforliving,sleeping,eating,cooking,andsanitationon thesameparcelasasingle-familyhome(SunnyvalePlanningDepartment,2003,n.p.).ADUs includerenovatedgarages,renovatedbasements,attachedsheds,backyardcottages,andelderly cottagehousingopportunities(ECHO)(MRSC,1995).OthertermsusedforanADUare accessoryapartment,guestapartment,in-lawapartment,grannyflat,familyapartment,and secondaryunit(CommonwealthofMassachusetts,2007).

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14 ADUsincreasedinpopularityafterWorldWarIwhenwealthierhomeownersbuilt secondaryunitsforautomobilegaragesandchaufferlivingfacilities(Jackson,1985).Insome historicneighborhoods,carriagehousesbehindthemainhomeprovidedaffordablehousingfor workers(SantaCruz,2003a,p.4).TheADUbegantodisappearafterWorldWarIIwhen severaltrendsledtourbansprawlandlow-densitysuburbandevelopments.Theattainabilityof theautomobile,theGIBill,theInterstateHighwayActof1956,andhomeownershiptaxbenefits encouragedfamiliestopurchasenewdetachedsingle-familyhousingattheperimeterofurban areas(Jackson,1985).Peoplewhowantedprivacyandanescapefromurbanelementsleftthe citiesforsuburbandevelopmentsandnaturalenvironments(FishmanascitedbyLang,2005). Characteristicsofsuburbsdevelopedfrom1945to1973includelow-density,architectural similarities,easyavailability,economicandracialhomogeneity,andlocatedoutsideoftheurban area(Jackson,1985).Mostsuburbancommunitiesadoptedzoningregulationsthatprohibited ADUs. AfterWorldWarII,theVeteransAdministration(VA)loanprogramhelpedreturning soldiersandsailorspurchaseover11millionnewsingle-familysuburbanhomes(Duany,PlaterZyberk,&Speck,2000;Jackson,1985).Newsingle-familyhousingunitsincreasedfrom 114,000in1944to1,692,000in1950(Jackson,1985,p.233).Suburbandevelopments,local governments,andmunicipalitieswidelyadoptedsingle-usezoningregulationsasthesolutionto avoidingovercrowding,factories,andinner-cityblight(Duanyetal.,2000;Jackson,1985). Today,severalcommunitiesmaintainthesuburbanzoningregulationsthatpromotesinglefamilyneighborhoods.Thepost-WorldWarIIsuburbangrowthpatternprovidedanescapefrom theinnercityproblemsandurbanelements,butdidlittletosupplydecenthomesfortheelderly, low-income,andone-personhouseholds.

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15 Sprawlingsuburbanneighborhoodsareclaimedtobeanunsustainableformof development(Duanyetal.,2000).ADUswithinsingle-familyneighborhoodscancreatean alternativeandsustainablehousingoptionforadiversegroupofpeoplewithoutdestroyingthe existingneighborhoodcharacteristics.Recentlylocalgovernmentsbeganaccommodatingdesign principlesfromthepast.Newcommunitiesdesignedbasedonsmartgrowthinitiativesand traditionalneighborhooddesignsincorporateADUs.Smartgrowthinitiativegoalsandpolicies promotemixed-usezoning,high-densitydevelopment,revitalizingolderneighborhoods, reducingautotravel,andpreservingopenspace(Downs,2005).Smartgrowthdevelopment patternsuseseveralprinciplesofneighborhoodsdevelopedpriortoWorldWarII(Duanyetal., 2000). Creatingneighborhoodswithavarietyofhousingchoices,includingADUs,provides optionsforolderresidentswhowishtoage-in-place,singleparents,andyounghomebuyers (Cobb&Dvorak,2000).Typically,olderresidentslivinginsuburbandevelopments,zoned single-familyresidential,mustleavetheirneighborhoodswhentheyrequiresmallerunitsfor healthorincomereasons(Duanyetal.,2000).Further,neighborhoodswithdiversehousing optionsallowtheelderly,families,workers,andone-personhouseholdstolivewithinthesame community.ADUsincreaseagedistributionandincomediversitywithinsingle-family neighborhoods(Chapman&Howe,2001). StatesthatadoptedlegislationtolimitlocalgovernmentsabilitytorestrictADU developmentsareCaliforniaandFlorida(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).Local governmentswithinthesestatesalsotookaggressivepositionsonallowinginfillADUs.Most notably,SantaCruz,CaliforniaadoptedanawardwinningADUordinancethatprovides technicalassistanceandconstructionloansusingagrantfromtheCaliforniaPollutionControl

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16 FinancingAuthority(CCS,2004.).SantaCruzadoptedtheordinancetoaddressanexisting housingshortageandencourageresidentstobuildinfillrentalADUs(Andrews,2005). CommunitieswithADUsprovideanalternativetolow-density,sprawlingsingle-family neighborhoodsthatlackadiversesupplyofhousingtypesandrentaloptions.Thisstudyreviews theSantaCruzADUordinancesadaptabilitytotheCentralFloridaRegion,particularlyWinter Park,Florida.Thestudyalsoexaminestheprobabilitythatlocalresidentswouldsupportan ADUprogramthatpromotesconstructionandrentalofsecondaryunits.CasestudiesoftheCity ofOrlando,FloridaandtheCityofWinterPark,Floridaprovidebackgroundinformationonthe localcommunitiesviewsregardingrentalADUs.OrlandoandWinterParkhistorically permittedtherentalandconstructionofADUs.TheCityofOrlandosCodepermitsthe constructionandleasingofADUs;however,theCityofWinterParksCodeonlypermitsADUs asguestquarterswithoutcookingfacilities(WinterPark,1993).Accordingtothedefinitionof anADU,cookingfacilitiesareamongthefeaturesthatmaketheseunitsindependentliving facilities.Therefore,theCityofWinterParkszoningregulationsattempttorestrictthe establishmentofADUs. ThisstudysmethodologyincludesanassessmentoftheCityofWinterParkshousing needs,housingtypes,medianhouseholdincomes,medianrentalprices,andtheexisting affordabilitygaps.WinterParkandSantaCruzhavesimilarcommunitycharacteristics includingcollegecampuses,higherhousingcosts,andashortageofdevelopableland.The methodologyalsoincludesacasestudyoftheCityofOrlandosADUsupplytodetermine OrlandossuccesswithADUrentals. TheCityofOrlandoandtheCityofWinterParkcontainpre-WorldWarII neighborhoodsbuiltusingtraditionalneighborhooddesignconcepts.Thecitiesneighborhood

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17 layoutsprovideexcellentopportunitiesforamixofhousingtypesincludingADUs,multi-family residences,andsingle-familyhomes.Theneighborhoodsarewithinwalkingdistanceof transportation,shopping,employment,anddoctorsoffices.Providinginfillunitsthroughout CentralFloridasestablishedtraditionalneighborhoodscreatesopportunitiesfornewresidentsto enjoythesamequalityoflifeastheexistinghomeownersandtenantslivingwithinthese desirableneighborhoods. Thisdocumentcontainsatotaloffivechapters.Thenextchapterreviewsliterature relatedtoADUsandthebenefitsandconcernsassociatedwithADUs.Thedocumentcontainsa chapterthatdescribesthemethodologyusedtocompletethecasestudies.Thefourthchapter describesbothcasestudiesandreportsthefindingsandanalysisbasedoncensusdata, interviews,andADUsurveys.Thefinalchapterconcludesthisstudybymaking recommendationsandreportingkeyfindingsrelatedtopreviousworkcompletedonthistopicas wellasnotingopportunitiesforfutureresearch. Inthenextchapter,theliteraturereviewdocumentspreviousresearchandstudies completedonADUhousing.Untilrecently,researcherscompletedfewstudiesontheNotIn MyBackyardissuesassociatedwithADUs.Thenextchapterreviewsseveraloftherecent opinionstudies,academicliterature,andothertopicsrelatedtopermittingADUs.Theliterature reviewalsodocumentsstatelegislationadoptedtoencouragelocalgovernmentstoamend existingzoningregulationsthatrestrictADUs.

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18 CHAPTER2 THEADUSOLUTION ReviewingtheliteraturerelatingtoADUsandthemovementtouseADUstomeetfuture housingneedsrevealsthatADUshavethepotentialtoprovideaffordableinfillhousingwithout compromisingsingle-familyneighborhoodcharacteristics;however,somelocalgovernmentsare reluctanttoallowADUbecauseofresidentsconcerns.Afterreviewingliteraturerelatedtothe nationshousingneeds,theADUsrelationtotheseneedsanditsdefinitionareoutlined.Smart growthinitiativesandADUordinancesarereviewedtounderstandhowregulationscanbe craftedtoaccommodatethishousingtypeandaddresscertainhousingproblems.Otherliterature reviewedincludesdocumentshighlightingthebenefitsandresidentconcernsassociatedwith ADUs.ThischapterconcludeswithadescriptionoftheADUordinanceimplementedinSanta Cruz,Californiaasameanstoidentifysuccessfulelementsofanordinancethataccommodates ADUs. TheAccessoryDwellingUnit Pre-WorldWarII,communitiesdevelopedusingtraditionalneighborhooddesign(TND) elements(Duanyetal.,2000).TNDincludesmixed-use,mixed-agegroups,pedestrian-friendly communitieswithavarietyofhousingchoices,includingADUs(Duanyetal.,2000).PreWorldWarII,ADUswerepartofthetraditionaldevelopmentwithinAmericancommunities. ADUsareahistoricformofaffordablehousing(Duanyetal.,2000). Forinstance,inSanFrancisco,California,historicallylowerincomeresidentsand householdhelplivedinADUs(Spur,2001).SanFranciscoresidentsbuiltadditionalillegalunits duringWorldWarIItomeetthehousingneedsofworkerstakingdefensejobs(Spur,2001). TheBureauofBuildingInspectionestimatedthatin1960SanFranciscohad20,000to30,000 secondaryunits(Spur,2001).

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19 AfterWorldWarII,localgovernmentsandplannersadoptedresidentialzoning ordinancestolimitorbantheuseofADUsinsinglefamilyneighborhoods(MRSC,1995).The intentofzoningistoprotectthepublicfromcongestion,blight,andnoxiousindustries(Jackson, 1985).However,zoningseparatedlow-density,mediumdensity,medicaloffices,general offices,restaurants,andshoppingandhelpedfostersprawlnearAmericascities(Duanyetal., 2000).Otherfactorsthateliminatedneighborhoodswithhousingchoicesincludemassproduced automobiles,cheapfuel,theGIBill,cheapland,thefederalhighwayprogram,andlong-term mortgageloans(Jackson,1985).Whensoldiersreturnedhomefromwar,themarriageandbirth raterose,andhomeownershipbecamecheaperthanrenting(Jackson,1985).Postwar communities,suchasLevittown,NewYork,consistedofmassproduced,detached,singlefamilyandsingle-usezoned,suburbanmiddle-classranchhouseswithcarports(Jackson,1985). AdoptingzoningregulationsthatrestrictedtheconstructionanduseofADUsdeniedaffordable housingoptionstogenerationsoflow-incomeAmericans(Kelbaugh,2001). Americastillcontainsanumberofolderlargehomes;however,Americastypicalfamily sizeisshrinking(Kelbaugh,2001).In2006,singlepersonhouseholdsrepresented27percentof thenationstotalhouseholds(APA,2006).Accordingtothe2000Census,elderlyhouseholds represented22millionofthesinglepersonhouseholdsandthenumberwilldoublewithin25 years(APA,2006).Thenationisfacingahousingcrisis,butnotduetoashortageofsingle familyhomes.The2004AmericanCommunitySurveydocumented122.7millionunitsfor 109.9millionhouseholds(APA,2006).In2005,theStateofFloridadocumented7,302,947 housingunitsfor6,337,929households(CityofOrlando,2005).Americahasahousingproblem becausesingle-familyhomesdonotmeettheneedsofeveryAmericanfamily.Developersbuilt anaverageof1.9millionunitseachyearfrom2000to2004(APA,2006).U.S.government

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20 housingpoliciesencouragehomeownership,whichcreatesanexcesshousingsupplyofsinglefamilyhomesandfewaffordablerentalunits(Downs,2004). ThehousingproblemremainsbecauseAmericasunitsaretoolarge,tooexpensive,and toodistantfromjobs.TheJointCenterforHousingStudiesestimatedthatover100,000lowcostunitsarelosteachyear(APA,2006).Theexistingrentalunitsarelosttoredevelopment, gentrification,anddeterioration(APA,2006).TheU.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrban DevelopmentdeterminedthatIfoneinevery10ofAmericasowner-occupiedsingle-family homesbuiltbefore1975weretodevotespacetoanADU,3.8millionrentalunitswouldbe generatedincreasingthesupplyofrentalhousingby10percent(NIMBYreportascitedby MRSC,1995).Thus,Plannersneedtolearnstrategieswhichcreateaffordableanddiverse housingsuchasaccessoryapartments,clusterhousing,eldercottages,manufacturedhousing, mixed-incomehouseholds,sharedresidences,accessorydwellingunits,singleroom occupancies,andprovideregulationsallowingthesestrategies(APA,2006,n.p.).To implementaffordablehousingstrategies,plannersneedtousetoolsincludingcomprehensiveand strategicplans,zoning,regulatorytools,anddevelopmentincentives(APA,2006). ADUBenefits ADUsareapopularsmartgrowthcost-effectivetechniqueforcreatinglow-and moderate-incomehousingforhomeownersandrenters(MRSC,1995).AnADUcosts25to40 percentlessthanconstructinganewunitthesamesize(MRSC,1995).ADUsincreasethe supplyofaffordablehousingwithoutgovernmentsubsidiesandprovidethehomeownerwith extraincometomeetongoinghousingcosts(MRSC,1995). Mostnotably,ADUsprovidealternativerentalhousingoptionswithinsingle-family neighborhoods(MRSC,1995).ADUsblendintosingle-familyneighborhoodsandcommunities, whichisabenefitcomparedtoconcentratedclustersofgovernmentaffordablehousing(MRSC,

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21 1995).IntegratingADUswithinsingle-familyneighborhoodsgivespeopleanopportunityto liveinbetterneighborhoods(MRSC,1995).AneighborhoodcanabsorboneADUforeveryten single-familyhomeswithoutadverselyimpactingthesingle-familylow-densityneighborhood character(Duanyetal.,2000).Diversehousingoptionswithinoneneighborhoodallows residentstoupgradeordownsizetheirhousingunitwithoutleavingthecommunity(Duanyetal., 2000). ADUsbenefittheelderlybyprovidingadditionalincomeandreducingthefinancial burdenoflargerhomes(TALC,2004).TheelderlycandownsizetoanADUwithoutleavingthe neighborhood(TALC,2004).AdultchildrencanbuildanADU,whichallowsparentstolive nearby(TALC,2004).OtherbenefitsassociatedwithADUsaretheabilitytolivewithinmore expensivedesirableneighborhoodsandtheabilitytoexchangeserviceswiththepersonlivingin theotherunit(TALC,2004).Also,anelderlypersonmightremainlivingwithinthemainhouse withapaidcaregiverresidingintheADU(Chapman&Howe,2001).WhileADUssignificantly benefittheelderly,ADUordinancesshouldnotcontainagerestrictivezoning(Chapman& Howe,2001,p.649).Addingagerestrictionstothezoningcodepreventsotherhomeowners frombuildingADUs,whichcouldlaterhousetheelderly(Chapman&Howe,2001). InMontgomery,NewYorkanewADUordinancehelpedresidentsearnenoughmoney torenovatethehistoricstructureslocatedontheirproperty(Sherman-Presser,2007).Kentlands, anewurbanistdevelopmentlocatedinGaithersburg,Maryland,providesvarioushousing choicesincludingtownhouses,mansions,andgarageapartments(Duanyetal.,2000). Accordingtotheprojectsarchitect,awomanlivinginKentlandsrentsoutherlargehousefor anamountthatcoversthemortgagewhileshelivesinthegarageapartmentrentfree(Duanyet al.,2000,p.52).IncorporatingADUsintoexistingneighborhoodscreatesanenvironment

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22 similartonewurbanismneighborhoods.WhilesomeresidentsarguethatpermittingADUs lowerspropertyvaluesinsingle-familyneighborhoods,researchshowsthatpeoplepay15 percentmoretolivewithinnewurbanistcommunitiesthatprovidesingle-familyhomeswith ADUs(Duanyetal.,2000;Lang,2004).Thus,ADUsshouldactuallyincreasethedesirability andvalueofneighborhoods. NewhousingdevelopmentsthatincludeADUsincorporatemorepeopleintothesame spaceandreducethevehiclemilestraveledbyresidents(NewUrbanNews,2001).TheCityof Durham,NorthCarolinaamendeditschartertopermitADUswiththeTrinityHeightsinfill project(NewUrbanNews,2001).InanattempttoeliminatebuildersconcernsaboutADU developments,theTrinityHeightsdeveloperofferedfinancialincentives.Specifically,builders coulddelaypayingthedeveloperforlotsprovidedtheydevelopedanADUwiththehomeon thoselots;atthetimeofsale,thebuildercouldpaythedeveloper17percentofthesellingprice ratherthanthepriceofthelot(NewUrbanNews,2001).AmeliaParkisanewdevelopment locatedinFernandinaBeach,FloridathatincludesanADUupgradeoption(NewUrbanNews, 2001).PeoplewhoplantoretireinFernandinaBeacharepurchasingtownhomeswithADUsin AmeliaParkandrentingoutthemaintownhousetopaythemortgage(NewUrbanNews,2001). ThehomeownersvisitontheweekendsandstayintheADU(NewUrbanNews,2001). ADUsprovideseveralbenefitstomunicipalities.Municipalitiesmaychargeadditional propertytaxrevenueswhenahomeowneraddsanADUandincreasesthevalueoftheproperty (CommonwealthofMassachusetts,2007).ADUsprovidemoderatelypricedhousingforlocal employeeswithoutrequiringlocalfunding(CommonwealthofMassachusetts,2007).Havinga supplyofmoderatelypricedhousingmayhelptoattractnewbusinessanddoesnotrequire municipalitiesextendutilitiesandservices(CommonwealthofMassachusetts,2007).

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23 CommunityConcerns Yet,severalcountiesprohibittheconstructionorrentalofADUsduetoresidents concerns.AstudycompletedbyCarlsonandMathur(2004)identifiedMontgomeryCounty, Maryland,SomersetandMiddlesexCountyinNewJersey,andFairfaxCounty,Virginiaas placesthatrestrictADUs.FairfaxCountyonlyallowselderlyresidentstolivewithinADUs (Carlson&Mathur,2004).CommunitieshavedifferentreasonsforprohibitingADUs.Concerns associatedwithADUsincludethebeliefthatpermittinghigherdensitieschangessingle-family neighborhoodcharacter,increasesparkingandtrafficcongestion,anddecreasespropertyvalues (MRSC,1995).Forthisreason,somehomeownerschosetoprohibitADUsinanattemptto preservesingle-familyneighborhoodcharacteristicsandpropertyvalues(MRSC,1995). Prohibitingsecondaryunitswithinsingle-familyneighborhoodssometimesresultsinresidents buildingillegalADUs,whichviolatezoningrestrictionsandcreatecommunityopposition (Andrews,2005).InSanFrancisco,housinginspectorsoftenrespondtoresidentscomplaints aboutillegalADUswithintheirneighborhoods(Spur,2001).Whentheinspectorsfindthe unauthorizedunits,theyremovetheunitsfromthehousingstockthroughcodeenforcement (Spur,2001).Codeenforcementremoves50to100illegalADUseachyear,whichdisplaces elderlyandlow-incomeresidentsinneedofaffordablerentalunits(Spur,2001). SomecommunitiesprohibitADUsbasedonconcernsaboutovercrowdingand congestion;however,anADUstudyconductedinSeattleaveraged1.20personslivingwithinthe surveyedADUs(Chapman&Howe,2001,p.643).TheSeattlestudyindicatedthatwhen zoningregulationspermitADUs,fewresidentsactuallyconvertorconstructtheunits(Chapman &Howe,2001).Overa3yearperiod,Seattleresidentsonlycreated101ADUconversions. ThestudyconcludedthatADUsdonotoverwhelmorovercrowdneighborhoodsbasedonthe lownumberofgarageconversions(Chapman&Howe,2001).Inanefforttocontrol

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24 overcrowding,someADUordinancesincludelanguagelimitingthenumberofpersonsper squarefeetorlimitingthenumberofpersonsinboththemainunitandtheADUtothe municipalitiesdefinitionofafamily(MRSC,1995). WhileADUsprovidebenefitsfortheelderly,aSeattlestudyindicatedthatpeopleoverthe ageof65arenotlikelytoownorrentanewlyconstructedADU(Chapman&Howe,2001). Also,ADUsarenotalwaysaccessiblefortheelderly.ThesuccessfulimplementationofADUs thatallowtheelderlytoageinplacedependsonthecommunitiesenvironmentalfeatures (Chapman&Howe,2001).Somecommunities,suchasSeattle,Washington,arebuiltonsloped sites,andtheADUsupplyconsistsofbasementconversionsthataredifficultfortheelderlyto access(Chapman&Howe,2001).Thus,thesuccessofADUsfortheelderlyrelieson accessibilityand,iftheelderlyresidentalreadyownsthehome,hisorherwillingnesstohavethe ADUconstructedontheproperty. Linkinggrowthmanagementandaffordablehousing,RobertLang(2004),thenAssociate EditorofHousingPolicyDebate,respondedtoCaliforniasADUAssemblyBill1866,What Californiareallyneedsisanaccurateassessmentofimpactshowinginwhichcasesgrannyflats lowerhousevalues.Perhapsthenthestatecouldtargetthelawtolocalitieswherehousevalues aretheleastaffectedbyaccessorydwellings.(p.170).SirmansandMacphersonconducteda propertyvaluestudyusinghedonicmodeling.Thestudyconcludedthatgrannyflatsorinlawsuitesreducehousingpricesby5.2percent(SirmansandMacphersonascitedbyLang, 2004,p.168).SirmansandMacphersonsstudycontradictstheresearchthatdeterminedpeople pay15percentmoretolivewithinnewurbanismcommunities(Lang,2004).Thedifferencein evidenceregardinghousingvaluescouldbecontributedtotwodifferenthousingmarkets:people

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25 whochoosehigherdensitiesandpeoplewhochooselow-densitysuburbs(Lang,2004). CommentingonSirmanandMacphersonsstudy,Lang(2005)stated: WhileagoodNewUrbanistorcityneighborhoodmayattractplentyofbuyers,suburban homesthathavesomeurbanelementsmaynotbeinhighdemand.Manyplaceswith urbanfeelandamenities,includingmixeduses,attractcitylovers.Butagrannyflat slappedonthebackofasingle-familydetachedsuburbanhomedoesnotacitymake.(pg. 9) Homebuyersineachhousingmarkethavebiasestowardsthecharacteristicsthatviolatetheother market(Lang,2005).Expensivesuburbscreatehomeownersassociationsthatrestrictusesthat resemblethecityandhelpmaintaintheantiurbanideal(Lang,2005) DuringthecompletionofaU.S.HousingandUrbanDevelopment(HUD)reportongranny flats,LangwasaskedabouthispositiononADUswithinhisneighborhood(Lang,2004).While Lang(2004)supportsADUs,hedoesnotinhisneighborhoodbecause,hecontendsthatadding extraunitswithinsingle-familyneighborhoodsdropshomevaluesby5to10percent.Evenif thisisnotabiasofthecurrenthomeowner,thenexthomebuyermaynotpurchaseahomebased onhigherdensitiesofADUswithinsingle-familyneighborhoods(Lang,2004). SinceADUsareindependentlivingfacilities,localgovernmentshavetherighttocharge impactfeesforcreatinganADU.Somelocalgovernmentschargeimpactfeesinanattemptto discouragehigherdensities(NewUrbanNewsascitedbyKoebel,Beamish,Danielson-Lang, Steeves,2003).OtherlocalgovernmentschargeADUimpactfeesforboththeconstructionof newhousingdevelopmentswithADUsandtheadditionofanADUtoexistingsingle-family homes(Koebeletal.,2003).InLongmont,California,theimpactfeeforanewADUis$6,000 (NewUrbanNews,2001).However,thereisageneraltrendtowardsstreamlingthepermit processandcreatinganeasierdevelopmentprocessthatencouragespeopletoaddADUs (Koebeletal.,2003).WhilethelocalgovernmentsaremakingtheADUdevelopmentprocess easier,newsuburbandevelopmentswithhigherdensitiesmayneedtorestrictthedevelopmentof

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26 ADUstotheoriginalconstructionorgarageconversionsratherthanallowADUsafterthe originalconstructionandattempttoregulateirregularlotsizes,parking,andtheneedfortransit (Koebeletal.,2003). WorkforceHousingandtheAccessoryDwellingUnit SeveralcitiesareconsideringADUsassolutionstoaffordablehousingneeds.ANational HousingConferencestudyconcludedthatacrossthenationjanitors,retailsalespersons, elementaryschoolteachers,policeofficers,andregisterednursescannotaffordamedian-priced $170,000home(Sullivan,2004).Janitorsandretailsalespersonsusedmorethan30percentof theirannualhouseholdincomewhenrentingatwo-bedroomapartment(Sullivan,2004).For peoplewhoworkinhigher-pricedareasorcentralcities,theonlyaffordablehousingoptionsare inthesuburbs(Sullivan,2004). SanFrancisco,Californiacreatedaninclusionaryordinancethatrequiresdevelopments withmorethan10unitstodesignate12percentoftheunitsasaffordableforpeopleearning60 percentorlessofthemedianfamilyincome(Sullivan,2004).Thecityalsoattemptedtorelax regulatoryrequirementsandencouragedeveloperstobuildhousingforpeopleearning80to120 percentoftheareasmedianincome;however,votersvotedagainsttheproposition(Sullivan, 2004).Asanalternativetothedefeatedproposition,thehousingconsultantfortheSan FranciscoChamberofCommercerecommendsthatthecityeliminaterestrictionsonADUs (Sullivan,2004). Edina,Minnesotasaverageincomeis$66,019,anditaveragehomepriceis$338,000 (Sullivan,2004).Teachers,daycareworkers,serviceindustryworkers,firefighters,andpolice officerscannotaffordtopurchasehomeswithinEdina(Sullivan,2004).Inanefforttoaddress

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27 workforcehousing 1 needs,EdinasOurLadyofGraceChurchandThirdWayNetwork,anonprofitgroup,requestedthatEdinaestablishcitycodesthatpermitADUswithinsingle-family neighborhoods(Sullivan,2004). SmartGrowthandtheAccessoryDwellingUnit CentralFloridahasseriousaffordablehousingissues;amongthem,somelowerincome residentscannotaffordtoliveneartheirjobs(Orlando,2005).TheCentralFloridaregionneeds toconsidersmartgrowthalternativesthatcounteractrapidpopulationgrowthandensure affordablehousing.Smartgrowthreferstoanoverallsetofbroadgoalsandpoliciesdesigned tocounteractsprawl(Downs,2004,p.265).Thepoliciesincludelimitingoutwardexpansion, encouraginghigherdensities,encouragingmixed-usezoning,reducingtravel,revitalizingolder areas,preservingopenspace,andoftenpromotingaffordablehousing(Downs,2004). Affordabilitymeansanyhouseholdabletopayforoccupyingaunitofdecentquality (asdeterminedbymiddle-classstandards)withoutspendingmorethanacertainfractionofits incomeforhousing,usually30percent(HUDascitedinDowns,2004).In2000,10.9percent ofOrangeCounty,Floridaresidentswerelivinginpoverty(Orlando,2005).Extremelylowincomeresidentswithincomesatorbelow30percentoftheareamedianincomehavethe greatestneedforaffordablehousinginFlorida(Orlando,2005). SmartgrowthregulationsthataddressresidentialusesincludeallowingADUs, establishingtimelimitsonthedevelopmentreviewprocess,streamliningthepermitreview process,allowingamixofhousingoptions,authorizingsmalllotinfilldevelopment,and 1 Severaldefinitionsforworkforcehousingexist.Sullivandefinesthetermasthegapfacingthosewhoearntoo muchtoqualifyforaffordablehousingsubsidiesbutnotenoughtoaffordahomeoranapartment.TheNational HousingConferencedefinesthetermashousingforthosewithatleastonefull-timeworkerwhoearnsbetween minimumwageandtheamountneededtoaffordtoliveinthearea.TheUrbanLandInstituteputsthebottomend oftheworkforcehousingbracketat50or60percentofmedianfamilyincometheuppercutoffformanyfederal subsidies(Sullivan,2004,p.2).

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28 providingintensivedevelopmentnearmasstransit(Meck,2000).Theseplanningtoolsprovide additionalhousingopportunitiesforlowerincomeindividuals(Meck,2000). Communitiesmaymeasuresmartgrowthprinciplesbyexaminingwhetherthe communityusesmorelandasthepopulationgrows(Meck,2000).Othersmartgrowth indicatorsincludewhetheremployersthinkitisdifficultfortheiremployeestofindaffordable housingandtransportationoptions(Meck,2000).ConstructingADUsincreasesthesupplyof affordablehousingwithoutincreasingsprawlandpromotestransportationpatternsthatreduce pollution(TALC,2004).Implementingsmartgrowthprinciples,includingaffordablehousing, requireslocalgovernmentstolowerthecostofhousingconstructionbypermittingmanufactured housing,creatingaccessoryapartments,andconstructingsmallcottages(Downs,2004). ADUOrdinances AmongtheargumentsforpermittingADUs,includingsustainablesmartgrowth, additionalincome,andhousingfortheelderly,themostimportantistoaddressaffordable housingneeds.Inresponsetothegrowinghousingissues,statesincludingCaliforniaand FloridahaveadoptedlegislationthatencourageslocalgovernmentstoprovideADUswithin single-familyneighborhoods(Nelsonetal.,2004,p.169).TheStateofWashingtonslegislature mandatesthatcitiesover20,000inpopulationallowADUswithinsingle-familyzoningdistricts (MRSC,1995).ADUordinancesprovidedesignanddensityguidelinesthathelptocontrolthe developmentofADUsandeasecommunityconcerns(MRSC,1995). Inanattempttosolveasignificanthousingshortage,CaliforniacreatedADUlegislation (SunnyvalePlanningDepartment,2003).CaliforniasAssemblyBill1866mandatesthatlocal governmentsapproveapplicationsforgrannyflatswithoutpublichearingsordiscretionary reviews(Nelsonetal.,2004,p.169:SunnyvalePlanningDepartment,2003).IfCalifornias localgovernmentschoosenottoadoptanADUordinance,thantheymustusestate-established

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29 criteriatoapproveordenyADUapplications(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).The lawalsoexemptsADUsfromlocalgrowthcontrolsandstateenvironmentalreviews(Regulatory BarriersClearinghouse,2006).However,Californiaslawplacedsomerestrictionsonthe constructionandrentalofADUs.CaliforniasADUsareonlyforrentalpurposes,cannotbe largerthan1,200squarefeet,cannotexceed30percentoftheprimaryunitsexistinglivingarea, andlocalgovernmentsmustuseADUzonestocontroltheintensityofADUswithinsinglefamilyneighborhoods(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).CitiesestablishADUzones basedoncriteriaincludingavailablewaterandsewerandexistingtrafficcongestionlevels (RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).ThenewCaliforniabillcreatedcontroversyaslocal governmentsbeganadoptinglocalordinancesthatplacednumerousrestrictionsonthe developmentofADUs(Nelsonetal.,2004,p.169). In2004,FloridasgovernmentfoundthatFloridashousingpriceswereunaffordablefor residentsearning80percentorlessofthemedianhouseholdincome(RegulatoryBarriers Clearinghouse,2006).FloridaadoptedADUlegislationasasolutiontothegrowingaffordable housingshortage(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).TheADUlegislationallowslocal governmenttoadoptADUordinancesafterestablishinganexistingneedforadditional affordablerentalunits(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).AnyADUsconstructedunder theADUordinancecounttowardssatisfyingthecommunityshousingneedsidentifiedinthe localcomprehensiveplan(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).Thelegislationrequires thatlocalgovernmentsplaceincomerestrictionsontheconstructedADUs(RegulatoryBarriers Clearinghouse,2006).Rentersmustqualifyasverylow-,low-,andmoderate-incomepeople earninglessthan80percentofthemedianhouseholdincome(RegulatoryBarriers Clearinghouse,2006).AfterlocalgovernmentsimplementADUordinances,theFlorida

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30 DepartmentofCommunityAffairs(DCA)evaluatestheordinanceseffectivenessandthe numberofunitsbuilt(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).Recently,DCAreportedthat KeyWestistheonlycommunityinFloridatakingadvantageoftherentrestrictionADU legislation(ADG,2007,p.92).Thereportalsoindicatedthatfewlocalgovernmentspermit ADUswithoutrentrestrictions(ADG,2007) SeverallocalgovernmentsadoptedADUordinancesafterdeterminingthatADUsarethe quickestandmostcost-effectivewaytoprovideaffordablehousingunits(Kelbaugh,2001). After9/11,Montgomery,NewYorkfacedahousingshortage(Sherman-Presser,2007).The MontgomeryAffordableHousingCommitteereportedthattheelderlyandyoungadult populationsneededhousingunits(Sherman-Presser,2007).MontgomeryadoptedanADU ordinance,whichallowedhomeownerstorenttheirbarns,carriagehouses,andgarages (Sherman-Presser,2007).SantaCruz,CaliforniaimplementedanawardwinningADU ordinanceinresponsetoanincreasinghousingshortagewithinthecommunity(CCS,2004.). Sunnyvale,CaliforniaaddedADUstoitsmunicipalcodeincompliancewiththepreviously mentionedCaliforniaAssemblyBill1866,whichpermitsADUswithouthearings.Sunnyvale requiresthatthehomeowneroccupyeithertheprimaryresidenceortheADUforaminimumof 20years(SunnyvalePlanningDepartment,2003). Generally,ADUordinancesincludeparkingrequirements,architecturalguidelines, heights,sizes,setbacks,anddensities(TALC,2004).Expensivedesignguidelines,largelotsize requirements,andexpandedparkingrequirementslimitthenumberofADUscreatedwithina community(TALC,2004)FewerhomeownersconstructandrentADUswhentheordinances containexcessiverestrictions(CommonwealthofMassachusetts,2007).

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31 TheModelADUProgram:SantaCruz,California LocalgovernmentswithsuccessfulADUprogramsandordinancesserveasmodelsfor implementingADUplanningtoolsandaddressingcommunityconcerns.SantaCruz,California adoptedanADUordinanceasasolutiontoitshousinganddevelopablelandshortage.Santa CruzsindustryconsistsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaSantaCruz,tourism,technology,and agriculture(Andrews,2005).ManySantaCruzresidentscommutetoSiliconValleyforwork (Andrews,2005).In2004,SantaCruzsmedianhomepricewas$670,000,whichis24percent higherthanthe2003medianhomeprice(Andrews,2005).Only6.9percentoftheresidentscan affordamedianpricedhome(CCS,2004.). PriortotheADUordinance,SantaCruzhomeownerscreatedillegalADUsto accommodatetheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaCruzsgrowth,createaffordablehousing,and provideadditionalunits(Andrews,2005).AccordingtoSantaCruzHousingDirectorCarol Berg,Peoplerealizethereisahousingshortage.Accessorydwellingsareawaytoincrease densitywithoutdestroyingtheneighborhood(Andrews,2005).SantaCruzconducteda housingstudythatidentifiedhousingoptionsbasedonthreevariables:Whatoptionsaremost costeffectivetodevelop?Whatoptionscanbeimplementedwithrelativeease?And,what optionsmightprovidethegreatestnumberofunits?(SantaCruz,2002,p.5).TheCityofSanta CruzcategorizedidealalternativehousingoptionasADUsforseniors,ADUsforstudents,and single-familyhomeswithanADUforfirst-timehomebuyers(SantaCruz,2002).In2003,Santa CruzadoptedanADUordinanceandanADUprogramtoencouragehomeownerstoadd secondaryunitstotheirsingle-familyparcels(CCS,2004.). TheADUprogramreceivedathree-year$350,000SustainableCommunitiesGrantfunded bytheCaliforniaPollutionControlFinancingAuthority(Andrews,2005).TheCityprovides programfinancialassistancethroughanADUloanprogramwithSantaCruzCommunityCredit

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32 Union,waiverofdevelopmentfees,constructiontraining,andawaiversubsidyprogram(APA, 2005).Duringthegrantperiod,theCityprovidedparticipantswith$100foronehourof technicalassistancewithanarchitectorengineerandmonetaryincentivesforhiringwomen constructionworkers(CCS,2004).Thefinancialassistancegrantperiodended;however,the SantaCruzCommunityCreditUnioncontinuedprovidinglow-interestloansforhomeowners whomaintaintheirunitsasaffordable(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopment Manager,personalcommunication,January28,2008).TheADUprogramsgoalistomake buildingandrentingADUsmoreprofitablethanmovingtoareasoutsidetheCityscore (Andrews,2005). Theprogramallowshomeownerstobuildbyright(CCS,2004).In2005,SantaCruz issuedover180copiesoftheADUmanualandplansettoresidentsandover90copiestoother cities(Andrews,2005).BruceKnight,FAICP,commented: Likemanyoldercommunities,SantaCruzhadfewoptionsforthedevelopmentofnew affordablehousing.Throughthisprogram,thecityhasexponentiallyexpandedthe numberofpotentialdevelopmentsitesanddonesoinawaythatdoesntjeopardize communitycharacter.(APA,2005,n.p.) TheSantaCruzADUprogramreceivedthe2004NationalAwardforSmartGrowthandthe AmericanPlanningAssociations2005NationalOutstandingPlanningAwardforcreatinga programthatencouragesresidentstoaddrentalunitswithnochargetotheCityandlittlechange totheexistingneighborhood(APA,2005:EPA,2004).Theprogramcreated35newunitsinthe firstyearand36unitsduringthesecondyear(APA,2005;Andrews,2005).SantaCruz designedtheADUprogramfortransferabilitytoothercitieswithsimilarcharacteristicsand neighborhooddesigns(Andrews,2005).

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33 CentralFloridasPopulationGrowthandHousingCrisis ThegrowingCentralFloridaregionfacespopulationgrowthandhousingissuessimilarto California.CreatingaCentralFloridaprogramsimilartotheSantaCruzADUprogramwill provideadditionalhousingunitstohelpsolvethecurrentproblemsfacingtheregion.Central Floridaspopulationincreasedfrom1.6millionresidentsin1980to3.5millionresidentsin2005 (CentralFloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).Since1980,theregionadded100 millionnewjobs(CentralFloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).Landdevelopment scenariosbasedonCentralFloridaspastdevelopmentpracticespredictthatby2050future growthwillconsume2,577squaremilesofland(CentralFloridaJointPolicyFramework Committee,2007).Amazingly,theamountoflandneededtoaccommodateCentralFloridas growthoverthenext45yearsequalstheamountoflandconsumedinthepast440years(Central FloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).Inthepast,housingdevelopersconstructed one-story,single-familyhomesonacrelots(CentralFloridaJointPolicyFramework Committee,2007).With7.2millionnewresidentsby2050,CentralFloridasresultingsprawl willincreasewaterconsumptionby70percentanddepletetheFloridanaquifer(CentralFlorida JointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).CentralFloridaspost-WorldWarIIdevelopments createdsingle-story,single-family,large-lotdevelopmentsthatcannotsupporttheregionsfuture needs.Theseunsustainabledevelopmentpatternsconsumeexcessivelandanddestroyfragile ecosystems.Inordertoaccommodatethisgrowthandavoidtheseimpacts,CentralFlorida governmentsneedtopreserveland,providetransportationoptions,promotecompact development,anddesignobtainablehousingthatisintegratedwithmarket-ratehousing.ADU developmentencompassesallofthenecessaryrequirementsforfuturesmartgrowthwithinthe CentralFloridaregion.

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34 ThenextchapterexplainsthemethodologyusedtomeasuretheadaptabilityoftheSanta CruzADUprogramtoWinterPark,Florida.InadditiontotheSantaCruzprogram,the methodologyreviewstheCityofOrlandosADUordinanceforcompatiblefeaturesfroma nearbycommunity.ThemethodologyexaminesboththeCityofOrlandoandtheCityofWinter Parkforaffordabilityandhousingneeds.Thefollowingchapterexplainsthesurveys, interviews,anddocumentsreviewedandanalyzedinthefindingsandanalysissectionofthis study.

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35 CHAPTER3 MEASURINGADUNEEDSANDADAPTABILITY Thischapterdescribesthemethodologyusedtomeasuretheneedforaffordablehousing andadditionalhousingunitswithinthetwocasestudyareas.Themethodologyalsoexamines whetherornotADUownerslivingwithinthecasestudyareassupportADUsasasolutionto affordablehousingandpopulationgrowth.TheADUcasestudiesincludeWinterPark,Florida andOrlando,Florida.Bothcasestudiesincludeanaffordabilityprofile.Thestudyfocuseson removingregulatorybarriersandimplementingamodelADUordinanceinWinterPark,similar totheordinancescreatedbySantaCruz,CaliforniaandtheCityofOrlando.Thischapterbegins bydescribingtheaffordabilityprofilemethodology.Next,thechapterdescribesthedocuments usedtoquantifythecasestudyfindingsandexplainsthemethodologyusedtodeterminewhether theSantaCruzandOrlandoADUordinancesareadaptabletoWinterPark. ThisstudysmethodologyusesamodifiedversionofDanielCarlsonandShishir Mathursmethodologyfrom DoesGrowthManagementAidAffordableHousing? ,RodneyL. CobbandScottDvoraksAmericanAssociationofRetiredPersons(AARP) AccessoryDwelling Units:AModelStateActandLocalOrdinance methodologyaswellasthehousingstudyusedto establishtheSantaCruzADUOrdinance CarlsonandMathurs(2004)studycomparedseveral countieswithgrowthmanagementpoliciestodetermineifthegrowthmanagementpolicies createaffordabilitybarriersformoderate-andlow-incomeresidentslivingwithinthosecounties. CarlsonandMathurs(2004)definitionofmoderate-andlow-incomeresidentsisdefinedas residentsearninglessthan80percentofthemedianincomeinthestudyarea(p.22).Applied here,thismethodologyprovidesasnapshotofaffordabilitywithinthecasestudyareasas comparedtotheOrlandoMSA.Using2000CensusdatafromtheCityofWinterParkandthe

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36 CityofOrlando,thetwoareasarecomparedtotheOrlandoMSAtodetermineifthese communitiesarelessaffordablethanotherCentralFloridaareas. WinterParkandOrlandoareestablishedcitieswithlonghistoriesintheCentralFlorida region.Thetwocitiescontainsimilartraditionalneighborhooddesignfeaturesincluding preservingopenspace,pedestrian-friendly,villagescale,newurbanismdesigns,mixed-use, existingADUs,andcommunityredevelopmentareas.Currently,theCityofOrlandopermits ADUsbyright;however,theCityofWinterParkpermitsADUsasguestquarterswithout cookingfacilitiesthroughoutthecity.Asahistoricpreservationincentive,WinterParkallows homeswithhistoricpreservationdesignationstolegallyactivateandrentanADU.Thisstudy examinesthefeasibilityofmeetinghousingneedsusingADUs,thebarrierstoprovidingADUs, andtheincentives;particularly,planningtools,thatencourageADUswhileaddressingcommon concernsaboutthishousingtype. Usingcensusdatafrom1990and2000,themethodologydetermineshousing affordabilityinWinterParkandOrlandobycomparingmediangrossrentsforboththeCityof OrlandoandtheCityofWinterParkwiththeOrlandoMSAsgrossrent.Then,therentalcosts ofADUscomparedtorentalcostsdocumentedinthecensusdataareexamined.Thecasestudy calculatesthecomparisonbyconductingashortADUsurveywithinOrlandoandWinterPark. ThesurveyasksADUhomeownersvariousquestionsincludinghowmuchtheychargefor monthlyrent. Thecasestudymethodologyalsolooksattherent-to-incomeratiobydividingthe percentdifferencefrom1990to2000medianhouseholdincomebythe1990to2000median grossrents(Carlson&Mathur,2004,p.29).Therent-to-incomeratioratiosabove1indicatea reductioninaffordabilityfrom1990to2000andratiosbelow1indicatethataffordability

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37 increased(Carlson&Mathur,2004,p.28).Thecasestudyalsocalculatestheaffordabilitygap todeterminetheamountofsubsidyneededbyresidentsearning50to80percentofthemedian incometoaffordmedianpricedrentalhousing.Theaffordabilitygapmethodologycalculates30 percentofthemedianhouseholdincomedividedbytwelveandsubtractsthatnumberfromthe mediangrossrenttodeterminethenecessarymonthlyrentsubsidyforresidentsearning50and 80percentofthemedianhouseholdincome. SimilartotheAARPADUstudy,thisstudyreviewsexistingliteratureonADUs,state ADUlegislation,localADUordinances,andconductsinterviewswithlocalofficialsandADU expertstodevelopinformationonkeyADUissues.ThecasestudyexaminesWinterParks HousingElement,WinterParksStrategicPlan,WinterParksCodeofOrdinances,Orlandos CodeofOrdinances,OrlandosHousingElement,andOrlandosConsolidatedPlanfor informationpertainingtoaffordablehousingneedsandADUs.Usingthesepublicdocuments, eachofthecitiesstrategiesforprovidingaffordablehousing,thenumberofadditional affordableunitsproposed,localworkforcehousinginitiatives,andpermittedzoningregulations aredetermined.Forqualitativeinformationregardingcommunityviews,theauthorconducts interviewswithkeyofficialsfromtheWinterParkPlanningDepartment,theOrlandoPlanning Department,andtheSantaCruzPlanningDepartment.Theinterviewquestionsaddressthe citiesprogresstowardsmeetingaffordableandworkforcehousingneedsandcommunity reactionstoADUs. TheauthorusedtheOrangeCountyPropertyAppraiserswebsitetoobtainarandom sampleofWinterParkandOrlandoADUhomeownersnamesandaddressesandsentforty ADUsurveystohomeownersinWinterParkandfortyADUsurveystohomeownersinOrlando.

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38 TheADUsurveyasksrespondentsthefollowingquestions(seetheappendixforthecomplete survey). AreADUsasatisfactorysolutiontopopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing? WhatistheprimarypurposeoftheADU? Istheunitcurrentlyrented? Howmuchdoyouchargepermonth? IfzoningregulationspermittedADUrentals,wouldyourenttheunit? ThepurposeofthesurveyistomeasurewhetherCentralFloridaresidentssupportADU ordinancesandthebenefitsassociatedwiththeexistingunits.Thisstudyalsoexploreswhenand whyWinterParkchangeditscodetorestricttherentalofexistingADUsbyimplementing regulatorybarriersthatprohibitcookingfacilitieswithinADUs.Unitswithoutcookingfacilities arenotindependentoftheprimarystructure. ThecasestudyofWinterParkusesOrlandoandSantaCruzasthemodelADUcities. TheauthorselectedtheSantaCruz,CaliforniaADUprogramasoneofthemodelsbasedonthe programwinninganAmericanPlanningAssociationAwardandanEnvironmentalProtection AgencySmartGrowthAward.AnotherreasonforusingtheSantaCruzmodelisthatboth WinterParkandSantaCruzarebuilt-outcollegetowns.However,WinterParkandSantaCruz havesubstantialdifferencesincommunityculture.WhiletheWinterParkareaisaconservative upperincomecommunity,SantaCruzismoreofaliberalcollegetown.Anotherdistinction betweenWinterParkandSantaCruzisthedifferenceinhousingneeds.WinterParkselderly populationisprojectedtoincreaseby120percentandaffordablehousingisbeinglostto reconstruction;however,SantaCruzcannotprovideenoughhousingunitsforfamilies,which resultedintwoelementaryschoolsclosing.Orlandoservesasanexampleofasuccessfuland establishedADUprograminCentralFloridaandwithinminutesofWinterPark.Thecasestudy usesOrlandosTraditionalCityzoningcodeastheothermodelbasedonWinterParkand

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39 Orlandossimilarpre-WorldWarIIdesignprinciples.Thismethodologyexamines characteristicsfromOrlandoandSantaCruzszoningregulationsinthecontextoftheCityof WinterPark.TheSantaCruzADUprogramencourageshomeownerstobuildADUsintheir existinghome,garage,orbackyard(APA,2005).TheCityofOrlandoallowsresidentsto constructADUsbyrightprovidedthelotexceedsacertainsize;however,bothcitieshave strictregulationsthatpreserveneighborhoodcharacteristics. Usingthemethodology,findings,andanalysisfromtheSantaCruzADUprogramand housingstudy,thesuccessofADUswithintheCityofWinterParkisdetermined.Basedonthe SantaCruzhousingstudyandordinance,thefollowingcharacteristicsareidentifiedascriteria forasuccessfulADUprogram.Usinginterviews,surveys,anddocumentreview,thisstudywill compareWinterParkscurrentregulationstothefollowinglistofrequirementsderivedfrom SantaCruzsstudiesandordinance. Aspeedyandconsistentapprovalprocess Public-privatepartnerships Communitiesopennesstohigherdensities Architecturaldesignstandards Rentalunitswithinthecitycore Infilldevelopmentpolicies Communityoutreachprograms Designprototypesthataddressconcernsexpressedbythecommunity 1 Technicalassistance LenientparkingrequirementsthatencourageADUdevelopment Waivedevelopmentfeesforunitsrentedataffordablerentsasestablishedbythecity Manualsonhowtobeagoodneighbor Minimumlotsizes(SantaCruzrequires5,000square-footlots) OneADUpermittedperparcel PropertyownerasoccupantofeithertheprimaryresidenceortheADU ADUsetbacksinaccordancewithUniformBuildingCode ADUorientationtoprotectscenicviews 1 AccordingtotheAmericanPlanningAssociation,SantaCruzsdesignprototypeguidelinesillustrateenergyefficientunitswithsmallfootprints.Theunitsalsoaddressprivacyissues,surveillance,theuseofpre-fabricated materials,howtobringtheoutdoorsinside,andhowtoincorporateanADUintoanexistinggarage.

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40 AdequatesewerandwatertoserveboththeprimaryresidenceandtheADU Exteriorcompatiblewiththeneighborhood Noexcessivenoise,traffic,orcongestionpermitted(SantaCruz,2002;SantaCruz, 2003b). TheSantaCruzhousingstudyhadtwoassumptions:economicallydiversecommunitiesrequirea broadrangeofhousingoptionsandanynewhousingdesignsrequiresensitivityand compatibilitywiththeuniquecommunitycharacter(SantaCruz,2002). TheSantaCruzADUstudydevelopedADUorientationguidelinesforthree neighborhoodcontexts:traditionalneighborhoods,transitionalneighborhoods,andpostwar neighborhoods(seeFigure3-1).Thisstudyusesfieldwork,historicSanbornmaps,andthe OrangeCountyPropertyAppraisersaerialmapstoexamineWinterParksneighborhood designsanddetermineswhetherornotADUsarefeasiblewithintheneighborhoodcontexts. TheSanbornmapsindicatehistoricstreetnames,lotlines,andpropertyboundaries.ADUsare representedasbothAandD.ThemapkeyindicatesthatDrepresentsdwellingsandA representsprivategaragesandautomobilehouses.Thisstudyestablishestheappropriatetypeof ADUandorientationforasampleofWinterParkneighborhoodsthatcanaccommodateADU developmentorconversionsbasedonSantaCruzscriteria. ADUprogramsprovideopportunitiesforolderneighborhoodstoaddnewrentalunits withoutchangingcommunitycharacter.Themethodologyusesthe1in10approach 2 to calculatethenumberofsingle-familyhomeslocatedwithinWinterParkandthenumberofrental unitsthatcouldbeaddedthroughanADUprogram.UsingtheSantaCruzADUprogramasa guide,thetotalnumberofsingle-familylotsatorabovetheminimumlotsizeof5,000square 2 The1in10approachmaintainsthatadding1ADUforevery10single-familyhomeswillnotadverselyimpact neighborhoodssingle-familycharacterincludinglow-density,minimaltraffic,andminimalcongestion.

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41 feetwithinWinterParkwillindicatethenumberofpotentialsecondaryunitsifindependent ADUsarepermittedinsingle-familyneighborhoods. Themethodologydescribedabovequantitativelymeasurestheaffordabilityofhousing withinthetwocasestudyareastodetermineaneedforaffordablehousingprogramsand incentives.Interviewswithlocalofficialsandhomeownersurveyshelptodeterminequalitative andquantitativecommunityneeds.ThemethodologyusestheSantaCruzADUprogramasa guideforimplementingsecondaryunitinfilldevelopmentwithinestablishedneighborhoodsin needofadditionalaffordablehousingunits.ChapterFourprovidesthecontextforWinterPark andOrlandosolderneighborhoods,presentsthereasonwhyWinterParkchangeditsADUland developmentregulations,andappliesthemethodologydescribedinthischaptertothecasestudy areas.ThenextchapterconcludeswithananalysisofthetransferabilityofanADUordinance andprogramtotheCityofWinterPark.Chapter5recommendsplanningtoolsincluding possiblezoningchanges,designstandards,andoutreachprogramsforsuccessfulADU implementationwithinthecommunity.

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4 2 Figure3-1.SantaCruzNeighborhoodContexts(Credit:IllustrationbyBruceRaceofRACESTUDIO,Berkley,California,Source: SantaCruzADUManual,2003).

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43 CHAPTER4 CASESTUDIES:ORLANDOANDWINTERPARK InthischapterADUsinOrlandoandWinterParkareanalyzedasaffordablehousingand smartgrowth.Thisanalysisinvolvesaffordabilityprofiles,reviewinglocalplanningdocuments, surveys,andinterviews.Thechapterbeginswithadescriptionofthetwocitiesurbandesign characteristicsincludingpre-WorldWarIItraditionalneighborhooddesigns,whichhistorically permittedADUs.ThecurrenthousingneedsintheCityofWinterParkandtheCityofOrlando areanalyzedusinglocalplanningdocuments,mediangrossrents,rent-to-incomeratios,and affordabilitygaps.Then,theCityofWinterParkshousingneedsandcommunityperspectives onADUsareexaminedwithinthecontextoftheCityofSantaCruz,CaliforniasADUprogram andOrlandosCodeofOrdinances.Finally,thechapterconcludeswithananalysisofwhether ornottheWinterParkcommunitywillacceptanADUprogramsimilartotheSantaCruz programandOrlandoscode. TheTraditionalCity:Orlando TheCityofOrlando,alsoknownasTheCityBeautiful,islocatedinCentralFlorida. Orlandoincorporatedin1875withapopulationof75people(CityofOrlando,1991,p.1-5). TheCitycontainstraditionalneighborhoodsdesignedwithbrickstreets,avarietyofhousing options,andaccesstolakesandparks(CityofOrlando,1991).TheTraditionalCityoverlay zoningdistrictcontainspropertylocatedinsidethePre-WorldWarIIboundariesoftheCity (CityofOrlando,1991)(seeFigure4-1fortheTraditionalCityboundaries).Theareainsidethe TraditionalCitycontinuestomaintainelementsoftheoldurbanism,includingmixed-use, accessorydwellingunits,higherdensities,andopenspaces,whichareespeciallyvaluedinthe newurbanismmovement(CityofOrlando,1991).The1925OrlandoSanbornMaps,which

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44 indicatelotlines,buildingoutlines,andbuildingtypes,illustratethatmanypropertiesinthe historicTraditionalCitycontainedADUs(seeFigure4-2forthe1925OrlandoSanbornMap). Orlandos1991GrowthManagementPlandocumentsthenegativelanduseanddesign featuresassociatedwithsuburbandevelopmentthatfollowedWorldWarIIandestablishesthe CitysintenttopreservethePre-WorldWarIItraditionalneighborhoodsthatsurroundthe downtownbusinessdistrict.Orlandopromotesinfilldevelopmentthroughoutthetraditional neighborhoodsaslongasthedevelopmentsareconsistentwiththeneighborhoodsscaleand traditionaldesign(CityofOrlando,1991). In2007,thepopulationofOrlandostoodat224,055,andtheCityhadanapproximate landareaof110.2squaremiles(CityofOrlando,1991).Over13,616acresofdevelopable vacantlandexiststhroughouttheCity(CityofOrlando,1991).Thisstudyconcentratesonthe TraditionalCityoverlaydistrictbecauseofitssimilaritiestoWinterPark;however,almostthe entireCityofOrlandopermitsADUsbyright(CityofOrlandoPlanner,personal communication,February12,2008).TheTraditionalCityextendsfromParAvenuetothe North,alongBumbyAvenueontheEast,downtoMichiganStreetontheSouth,andalong OrangeBlossomTrailontheWest.AnynewdevelopmenttakingplacewithintheTraditional Cityconsistsprimarilyofinfilldevelopment.In2000,48,444residentslivedwithinthe TraditionalCity(Census,2000).Thisareacontainedapproximately25,000housingunits (Census,2000).PredictionsindicatethatDowntownOrlandospopulation,whichislocated insidetheTraditionalCityOverlay,willgrowby104.62percentfrom2006to2030(Cityof Orlando,1991). TheCityofOrlandoCodepermitsaccessoryapartmentsandaccessorycottageswithin theareazonedwiththeTraditionalCityOverlay(CityofOrlando,1991).Theintentionisto

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45 provideamixofhousingtypesandaddinexpensivedwellingunitsthatmeettheneedsofolder households,singlememberhouseholds,andsingleparenthouseholds(CityofOrlando,1991). OutsideoftheTraditionalCity,ADUsarepermittedinareaszonedforsinglefamilyandduplex residential(upto12du/acre)andconditionallypermittedinsinglefamilyresidential(upto8 du/acre)(CityofOrlando,1991).TheCodeappliesspecificbuildingconditionstoADU developmentinanattempttopreservethesingle-familycharacteristicsofthetraditional neighborhoods(CityofOrlando,1991).ThefollowingaretheADUdesignstandardsenforced bytheCityofOrlando(seeTable4-2foracompletelistofADUregulations). OneADUperparcel; Theunitmaynotexceed25percentofthegrossfloorareaoftheprinciplestructure; Thesitemustaccommodateoneadditionalparkingspacefortheunit; TheADUfaademustincorporatesingle-familyhousingcharacteristics; 1-storyunitsrequire5-footsetbackfromthepropertyline; 2-storyunitsrequire15-footsetbackfromthepropertyline; Historicdistrictspermit2-storyunitswith5-footsetbackvariancesandopaqueorfrosted windowsonthesecondfloor; Garagecannotbeinfrontofthehouseifitcomprisesmorethan50percentofthefaade. TheCityofOrlandorestrictsADUstoonefamily.TheCitydefinesafamilyasoneor morepersonsoccupyingasinglefamilydwellingorlivingasasinglehousekeepingunit; providedthatunlessallmembersarerelatedbyblood,marriage,adoptionorfostercare,nosuch familyshallcontainover5people(Orlando,1991).HomeownerswhowanttoaddanADUto theirpropertymustgothroughthepermitprocess.Afterreviewandapprovalofplansand permitfeesarepaid,theCityissuesabuildingpermit.Publichearingsarenotrequiredtoobtain anADUbuildingpermit;however,theCityconductspropertyinspectionsduringthebuilding processandaftercompletiontoensurethatthenewstructuremeetsthebuildingcodesand designstandards(OrlandoChiefPlanner,personalcommunication,March25,2008).

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46 OrlandosTraditionalCitychargesimpactfeeswhenhomeownersaddanADUtoan existingsinglefamilydwellingunit;however,Orlandochargesdifferenttransportationimpact feesbasedontheunitslocationwithintheCity(OrlandoChiefPlanner,personal communication,March25,2008).TransportationimpactfeesarelowerwithintheTraditional City(OrlandoChiefPlanner,personalcommunication,March25,2008).Forexample,the impactfeeformulaforanADUlocatedwithintheTraditionalCityisasfollows:$1,851(multifamily)X2(twounitsontheproperty)-$2,636(creditforexistingsinglefamilyhome)=$1,066 (OrlandoChiefPlanner,personalcommunication,March25,2008).Whenaskedaboutproperty taxincreasesresultingfromaddinganADU,theChiefPlannerfromtheCityofOrlando responded: Iamlesssureonthepropertytaxissue,butIamgoingtoassumeitisthesamethroughout theState.Ifyouaddvaluetoyourproperty,youaregoingtobetaxedfortheadditional value.IfyouhaveaHomesteadpieceofproperty,youwillbetaxedasifyoudida remodelonyourhomewhenyouaddtheADU.(OrlandoChiefPlanner,personal communication,March25,2008) TheCityofCultureandHeritage:WinterPark Approximately25,000residentsliveinthe8-squaremiletownofWinterPark.In1887, theCitywasestablishedasawinterresortforwealthynorthernersandcontinuestoattract visitors,residents,andstudents(Chapman,2001).SimilartoOrlando,WinterParkssettlement patternspriortoWorldWarIIincludedADUsinsinglefamilyneighborhoods.WinterPark referstoitsurbanform,landuse,andarchitecturalstyleasvillagecharacter(WinterPark, 2007a).Thevillagecharacteristicsincludevillagescale,pedestrianconnectivity,landscaping andbuffering,goodproportionalrelationships,anddesignscompatiblewiththehistorical patternsandfeaturesofWinterPark(WinterPark,2007a). RollinsCollege,locatedinWinterPark,enrolled1,759full-timeundergraduatestudents in2005(WinterPark,2007a).Thecollegemanagesstudenthousingcapableofaccommodating

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47 1,161students(WinterPark,2007a).Studentswhodonotliveon-campussecurehousinginthe traditionalneighborhoodssurroundingthecampus(WinterPark,2007a).TheCitydoesnot countthestudentswholiveon-campusaspermanentresidentsofWinterParkintheannual populationprojectionsandestimates(WinterPark,2007a). In2000,theCensusreportedthatWinterParkcontained11,341housingunits,whichis 1,374morethanreportedinthe1990Census(WinterPark,2007a).TheCitysComprehensive Plannotedthatcurrenthousingconstructiontrendsindicatetheconstructionofmoremultifamily housingthansingle-familyhousing(WinterPark,2007a).Thetrendisduetoalimitedsupplyof developablelandforsingle-familyhomes(WinterPark,2007a).In2006,theCitycontained only267.96acresofvacantland(WinterPark,2007a).Currently,only50percentofthevacant landiszonedforresidentialdevelopment(WinterPark,2007a).Thenewsingle-family constructionwithintheCityoccursasurbaninfillorredevelopment(WinterPark,2007a).A redevelopmentpatternwithintheCityincludesdemolishingexistinghomesandreconstructing newhomesonthesamelot(WinterPark,2007a). WinterParksreconstructionusuallyoccursinWinterParksCommunityReinvestment Area(CRA),adoptedin1991,wherethelandiseasilyobtainableandlessexpensive(Winter Park,2007b)(seeFigure4-3fortheboundariesoftheWinterParkCRA).Recently,the HannibalSquarehistoricAfrican-Americanneighborhoodhasgonethroughsignificant redevelopment(Krueger,2005).The1927WinterParkSanbornMapillustratesthatthehistoric HannibalSquareneighborhooddidnotcontainADUswhiletheywereprevalentinthenearby historicCollegeQuarterandsurroundingneighborhoods(seeFigure4-4andFigure4-13forthe 1927WinterParkSanbornMaps).ManyrecentredevelopmentprojectswithinWinterPark involvethedemolitionofolderaffordablehousingandtheconstructionofnewlargerhousing

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48 (WinterPark,2007a).WhentheCRAformed,avacantresidentiallotlocatedwithintheCRA cost$15,000(Krueger,2005).In2005,thesamelotcost$150,000(Krueger,2005). Demolishingolderhomesnotonlyremovesaffordablehousing,butalsodestroysarchitecturally andhistoricallysignificantstructures(WinterPark,2007a)(seeFigures4-5through4-12 illustratingWinterParksWestsideredevelopment).RedevelopmenttrendswithintheCity resultfromthedemandtoliveinWinterPark,theageandconditionofexistingresidential structures,andthehighcostsassociatedwithbringingolderstructuresintocompliancewithnew standards(WinterPark,2007a). Since1980,WinterParkspopulationonlyincreasedbyapproximately3,000people,and theincreaseresultedfromannexations(WinterPark,2007a).Basedonthelimitedamountof developableland,WinterParkdoesnotexpectthepopulationtogrowsignificantlybytheyear 2021(CityofWinterPark,2007a).However,populationprojectionsfromtheUFShimberg CenterforAffordableHousinganticipatethatWinterParkspopulationage60andoverwill increaseby120percentby2030andthepopulationunderage60willonlyincreaseby12.4 percentby2030.Inthefuture,WinterParkwillhaveasignificantneedforone-personhousing unitsthatallowtheelderlytoageinplace. TheCityofWinterParkisbuilt-out.TheCityexpectstogrowathigherdensities becauseofthelimitedlanddesignatedforresidentialdevelopment(WinterPark,2007a).Based onWinterParkscurrentpopulationprojections,theCityneedsanadditional2,157new residentialunitsbytheyear2021,whichisanoveralltotalof16,667units(WinterPark,2007a). Theincreasingdemandforadditionalhousingunitsraiseshousingprices,whichresultsin barrierstoaffordablehousing(WinterPark,2007a).Inthefuture,verylow-andlow-income

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49 renterhouseholdsandverylow-tomoderate-incomeownerhouseholdswillfacedifficulties obtainingaffordablehousinginWinterPark(WinterPark,2007a). Inresponsetothegrowingneedforaffordablehousing,theCityofWinterParkcreated theWinterParkAffordableHousingProgram.Between1992and2005,theWinterPark AffordableHousingProgramhassupportedtheconstructionof45affordablenewsingle-family homesand30affordableapartments(WinterPark,2007a).Theprogramsgoalsaretoassure thatnewunitsprovideaffordablehousingforverylow-,low-,andmoderate-incomehouseholds (CityofWinterPark,2007a).TheWinterParkAffordableHousingProgramidentifiesthe followingaffordablehousinginitiativesaspartofitsgoals: SupporttheHannibalSquareCommunityLandTrust; SupportAffordableHousingPartnerships; EstablishaLandBankProgram; CreateaDensityBonusProgram/LandUseChanges; ChargeAffordableHousingLinkageFees; PromoteAffordableHousingConstruction; CreateanAffordableHousingRehabilitationProgram; EstablishtheWinterParkHousingAuthority; PromotePrivateSectorInvestmentsinAffordableHousing; ProvideTechnicalAssistance,Information,andReferralServices(WinterPark,2007a). TheCitysaffordablehousinggoalsincludeensuringregulatorytechniquesandreview proceduresdonotcreatebarrierstoaffordablehousingandestablishingastreamlined developmentreviewprocessforaffordablehousingdevelopmentsandredevelopments(Cityof WinterPark,2007a). TheWinterParkLandDevelopmentRegulationschangedtoprohibittheconstruction andrentalofADUsaroundthe1950to1960s(personalcommunication,WinterParkDirectorof PlanningandCommunityDevelopment,January25,2008).Thechangeresultedfromthe overalltrendofcitiesmovingtowardssuburbanizationandawayfromtraditionalneighborhood designs(personalcommunication,WinterParkDirectorofPlanningandCommunity

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50 Development,January25,2008).ThecurrentCityofWinterParkCode(1993)prohibitsADU rentalswithinareaszonedforsingle-familylowdensityresidential,duplexes,andcottage dwellings; 1 however,homeownersmayapplytocreateasecondaryguesthouse 2 withoutcooking facilities(WinterPark,1993).TheCityprohibitstherentalofADUsestablishedasguest quarterswiththeexceptionofhistorichomeslistedontheWinterParkRegisterofHistoric Places. In2001,theCityestablishedaHistoricPreservationOrdinance,whichallows homeownerslivingwithintheCollegeQuarterHistoricDistrictorhomeownerswhoowna propertydesignatedashistorictolegallyconstructandrentADUs(WinterParkDirectorof PlanningandCommunityDevelopment,personalcommunication,January25,2008).The programencourageshomeownerstopreservehistoricstructuresinexchangeforeitherbuildinga newADUorreactivatinganexistingADU(WinterParkDirectorofPlanningandCommunity Development,personalcommunication,January25,2008)(seeFigures4-13through4-19for picturesofexistingCollegeQuarterADUsandseeFigures4-18and4-19forpicturesofCollege QuarterADUscomparedtotheprimarystructure).TheADUslocatedwithinthehistoricdistrict maylegallycontainfullcookingfacilities(WinterParkDirectorofPlanningandCommunity Development,personalcommunication,January25,2008). ThepurposeoftheADUincentivewastoencouragehomeownerstopreservetheir propertiesintheiroriginalconfiguration;however,anyhomelocatedwithinthehistoricdistrict, 1 TheWinterParkCodedefinesacottagedwellingasabuildingwhichisattachedtoordetachedfroma [principle]dwelling,issmallerinareathanthe[principle]dwelling,isoccupiedexclusivelybyonefamily,hasone kitchen,andislocatedonthesame[parcel]asthe[principle]dwelling(WinterPark,1993,Section58-92). 2 TheWinterParkCodedefinesguesthouseasadetachedaccessorybuildingdesignedforusebyguests, servants,ormembersofafamilyoccupyingthemainbuildingonthesamelotandcontainingnokitchenorcooking facilitiesandnoseparateutilitymeters.Nosuchguesthousemayberented,letorhiredoutforoccupancywhether compensationispaiddirectlyorindirectly(WinterPark,1993,Section58-92).

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51 whetheritoriginallyhadanADUornot,iseligibletoaddoractivateanADU.Thisincludes homesbuiltwithinthelasttenyears,buteachpropertygoesbeforetheHistoricPreservation Commissionaspartofapublichearingprocessbeforereceivingapproval(WinterParkDirector ofPlanningandCommunityDevelopment,personalcommunication,February28,2008). Reflectingupontheserequirements,theCityofWinterParksDirectorofPlanningand CommunityDevelopmentcommented: TheCitytriedtothinkofcarrotstoencouragepeopletopreservetheirhomes.Carrots canbeextraincome.Since2001,residentshaveonlyaddedapproximatelyfivenew ADUsbecausemostpeopleliketheirprivacyanddontwanttobelandlords.Thepeople whowanttoaddADUsalreadyrentthemainhouseandwanttorentanotherunitinthe back.(Personalcommunication,February28,2008) WhenaskedaboutADUsasasolutiontopopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing,the CityofWinterParksDirectorofPlanningandCommunityDevelopmentresponded: Accessorydwellingunitscouldbeagoodsolutiontopopulationgrowthand affordablehousingbasedoninfillversussprawl;however,noonefromthe communityisrequestingthattheCitypermitADUs[outright].(Personalcommunication, January25,2008) WinterParkdippeditstoeintothewaterinregardtopermittingADUs,butseveralnegative perceptionsareassociatedwithADUrentals: AgeneralizationisthatyoungpeopleliveinADUsandmakenoisethatirritatesthe neighbors.Noiseis10percentofthereasonthatADUsarenotallowed.Parkingisthe othermajorirritantand90percentofthereasonwhyADUsarenotinthecode.Witha tenantinthegarageapartment,movingcarsaroundisnecessary.Friendsvisitthetenant andparkonthestreet.Themajorirritantiswhenthatnumberismultipliedby4or5 units.Theotherreasonisthatpeopledontwantotherpeopletodosomethingthey cannot.TheonlywayADUswouldbepermitted[outright]isifallthecarscouldbe legallyparked.Overall,ADUordinancesmeetmoreresistancewithinhigherincome neighborhoods(WinterParkDirectorofPlanningandCommunityDevelopment, personalcommunication,January25,2008) InresponsetowhetherornotWinterParkhasaneedforadditionalaffordablehousingunits,the WinterParkDirectorofPlanningandCommunityDevelopmentcommented:

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52 Inexchangefortheabilitytobuildsixluxurytownhomesononelot,theCityofWinter Parkpersuadedadevelopertorehabilitateandpreservea750square-footcottagelocated onthebackoftheparcel.Thedeveloperfixed-upthecottageandsoldtheunitatan affordablerate.Thedeveloperlatercommentedthatthecottagecouldhavesold25times over.Severalofthe$450,000townhomesremainunsold.Thepersonwhoboughtthe 750square-footcottageisasingleprofessionalmale. Preservingthesmallcottagedidnotaddaffordablehousingforverylow-tomoderate-income residents;however,addingmorecottage-styleinfillhousing,similartoADUs,mightassistin providingworkforcehousing. TheCityofWinterParkidentifiesitsexistingandfuturehousingneedsintheHousing ElementoftheComprehensivePlan.ThehousinggoalsincludepoliciestoassisttheCityin creatingaffordablehousingandpreservingtheexistinghousingstock.TheHousingElement Policy3-1.4.3promotesthedevelopmentofhousingalternativesdesignedfortheelderlyand specificallystatesthattheCityshallcontinuetoidentifyandpromotecertainlocationsforthe developmentofsecondunitsusedforelderlyhousingonsinglefamilylots(CityofWinter Park,2007a,p.3-8). AffordabilityProfiles AffordabilityprofilesfortheCityofWinterPark,theCityofOrlando,andtheOrlando MSAassistedinmeasuringtheaffordabilityofeachareaandtheneedforhousingsolutions, particularlyADUs(seeTable4-1and4-2forthecompleteaffordabilityprofiles).TheU.S. DepartmentofHousingandCommunityDevelopment(HUD)(1998)definesgrossrentasthe sumoftherentpaidtotheownerplusanyutilitycostsincurredbythetenant(n.p.).Census 2000samplingdatadocumentsthegrossrentsforthecensustractslocatedwithintheTraditional Cityas$637,WinterParkas$669,andtheOrlandoMSAas$698.The2000grossrentsare fairlysimilar.RecentcensusprojectionsfortheCityofWinterParkandOrlandosTraditional Cityarenotavailable;however,theAmericanCommunitySurveyestimatesthatthe2006gross

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53 medianrentfortheentireCityofOrlandowas$930.Thisestimateillustratesasignificant increasefrom2000to2006. UsingmedianhouseholdincomesforOrlando,WinterPark,andtheOrlandoMSA assistedindeterminingtheamountofrenttheaveragehouseholdcouldpayin2000withoutcost burden.Accordingtothe2000Census,themedianhouseholdincomeswere$36,947forthe censustractslocatedinsideOrlandosTraditionalCity,$48,884fortheCityofWinterPark,and $41,871fortheOrlandoMSA.ThemedianhouseholdincomeishighestwithintheCityof WinterParkandthelowestinOrlandosTraditionalCity.In2000,over43percentofWinter Parkrenterspaidmorethan30percentoftheirannualincometowardshousing(WinterPark, 2007). In2000,WinterParksvacanthousingratewas1.4percentforhomeownersand6.0 percentforrenters,whichissimilartotheCityofOrlando.WinterParkspovertyratewas5 percentforfamiliesand7.8percentforindividuals,whichislowerthanOrlandosrateof13.3 percentforfamiliesand15.9percentforindividuals(Census,2000).From1990to2000,Winter Parkspovertyrateforfamiliesdecreasedby21.75percentandthepovertyrateforindividuals decreasedby21.76percent(Census1990;Census2000).WinterParkhasalargerpercentageof householdsintheupperincomerangecomparedtootherareasinCentralFlorida(WinterPark, 2007). Rent-to-IncomeRatio Calculatedasasimpleratioofmonthlygrossrenttomonthlyhouseholdmedianincome availabletopayanaffordable(30%)rent,therent-to-incomeratiodetermineswhetheranarea increasedordecreasedinaffordabilityfrom1990to2000.ForOrlandosTraditionalCitythis ratiois1.137,fortheCityofWinterPark.969,andfortheOrlandoMSA.97.TheCityof WinterParkandtheOrlandoMSAhavesimilarrent-to-incomeratios.Bothareasareslightly

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54 below1,whichmeansthatWinterParkandtheOrlandoMSAminimallyincreasedin affordabilityfrom1990to2000.TheTraditionalCitysrent-to-incomeratioisover1,which meansthattheareadecreasedinaffordabilityfrom1990to2000. AffordabilityGap Theaffordabilitygapistheadditionalamountrequiredtoaffordthemediangrossrent. In2000,theaffordabilitygapforpopulationsearning50percentofthemedianhousehold incomewas$236.16intheTraditionalCity,$57.95intheCityofWinterPark,and$174.61in theOrlandoMSA.Theaffordabilitygapforpersonsearning80percentofthemedianhousehold incomeintheTraditionalCityis-$40.95,$-308.68intheCityofWinterPark,and-$139.42in theOrlandoMSA.TheaffordabilitygapisthelowestintheCityofWinterParkandthehighest intheTraditionalCity.Inallthreeareas,personsearning80percentofthemedianhousehold incomeearnenoughtopaythemediangrossrentwithoutadditionalsubsidy;however,persons earning50percentofthemedianhouseholdincomeandlivinginallthreeareasrequireasubsidy toaffordtherents. TheUFShimbergCenterforAffordableHousingreportedthatin2005theCityofWinter Parksaveragehomesalespricewas$537,528.BasedonHUDsdefinitionofaffordablehousing andcostburden,ahouseholdwouldneedtoearnover$160,000peryeartoaffordthemedian pricedhomeinthecommunity.In2005,1-2personhouseholdsresidedin54percentofthe housingunitswithinWinterPark(UFShimbergCenterforAffordableHousing,2008). AccessoryDwellingUnitSurvey AnADUsurveysenttoADUhomeownerslivingwithinOrlandosTraditionalCityand theCityofWinterParkrequestedinformationpertainingtotheaveragemonthlyrentsofthe ADUs,theprimaryuseoftheADUs,andthehomeownersopinionsaboutADUrentals.The surveyprovidessampledatausedtoanalyzethecommunitysacceptanceofADUsandthe

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55 affordabilityassociatedwithADUrentals.Atotalof40surveysweremailedouttobothcase studyareas.Orlandoresidentscompleted22ofthe40surveys,resultinginaresponserateof55 percent.WinterParkresidentscompleted14ofthe40surveys,resultinginaresponserateof28 percent. OrlandoSurveyResults InOrlandosTraditionalCity,13ofthe22surveyrespondentsor59percentcurrently renttheirADUs.OneofthesurveyrespondentslivesintheADUandrentsoutthemainhouse topaythemortgage,taxes,andinsurance.Thissurveyrespondentnotedonthesurveythat havinganADUprovideshimaffordablehousing.Themostcommonrangeofrentreceivedby thesurveyrespondentsequaled$700-$900permonth.Mostsurveyrespondentsreportedthe primaryuseasrental;however,someunitshouseafamilymemberorprovideguestquarters(see Figure4-20forthedistributionofADUuses).MostoftheADUswithintheTraditionalCityare approximately400-500squarefeet.Theaveragenumberoftenantsisone.Thesurveyasked respondentswhethertheyagreewiththestatementthatADUsareasatisfactorysolutionto populationgrowthandaffordablehousing.Atotalof6respondentsstronglyagreed,10agreed, 3disagreed,2stronglydisagreed,and1providednoanswer.Therespondentsagreeingor stronglyagreeingwiththestatementtotal73percent(seeFigure4-21forthedistributionof Orlandoresponses).Surveyrespondentsincludedthefollowingcommentsonthesurveys: Frommyexperiencemostgarageapartmentsremainunoccupiedinhigherincome neighborhoods. BoughtpropertyinAugust1999,andIrentthemainhouseandliveinthegarage apartment.Itpaysthemortgage,taxes,andinsurance.Soinmysituationitgivesmethe affordablehousing. Myfather-in-lawlivedthereuntilhisdeath.Prior[tothattime]wewouldletmynieces andnephewsstaytherewhileincollege. Itisalsoagoodwaytosub-outyourincomeintimesofneedandrealestatetroubles.

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56 YouneedtobeabletohavearentalinordertoHELPpaythehorriblyHIGHproperty taxes. IthinktheyareOKincertainareas.Goodforoneortwopeople.Parkingisalwaysa consideration.Grannyflatsormother-in-lawapartmentsshouldonlybeallowedfor relatives. Althoughtherentmightseemhigh,itislowerthananapartmentofequivalentsize. Thisisoneof3propertiesindowntownthatwehaverentedasaccessoriestothemain house. Ifeelthattherentindowntownforapartmentsisnotlessexpensivethanother apartments,thoughit[thedowntownapartment]canbemoreconvenient,private,safe, etc WinterParkSurveyResults TheWinterParksurveyaskedrespondentswhethertheCityszoningregulations permittedtherentaloftheirADU.Outofthe14respondents,9answeredyes,3answeredno, and1answeredunsure,and1didnotprovideananswer.Outofthe3peoplewhoansweredthat zoningordinancesdonotallowthemtorenttheunit,onlyonepersonrespondedthattheywould beginrentingtheunitiftheordinancechanged.Thatsurveyrespondentindicatedtheywould charge$1,000ormorepermonthinrent.Thesurveyrespondentwhowasunsureaboutthe zoningregulationsindicatedthattheyusetheunitforguestquartersandwouldnotrenttheunit evenifthezoningordinancechanged.Only7oftherespondentscurrentlyrenttheirADUs(see Figure4-22forthecompletedistributionofADUuses).Outofthe7ADUscurrentlyrented,4 chargefrom$700-$900permonthinrent;1chargesfrom$300-$500permonthinrent;1 chargesfrom$500to$700amonth;and1chargesover$1,000permonth.Themediannumber ofadultslivingintheADUsisone.NochildrenresideinanyoftheADUs. TheADUsurveysenttoWinterParkADUownersalsoaskedAreADUsasatisfactory solutiontopopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing.Outofthe14completedsurveys,5 respondentsstronglyagreed,2agreed,4disagreed,1stronglydisagreed,and2didnotanswer

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57 (seeFigure4-23forthedistributionofanswers).Threeofthe4respondentswhodisagreewith ADUsalsoindicatedthattheydonotandwouldnotrenttheirunits.Therespondentwho stronglydisagreedindicatedthattheycurrentlyrenttheirunitandchargeover$1,000permonth. Outofthe5respondentswhostronglysupportADUs,4currentlyrenttheirunitsfor$700to $900permonth.WinterParksurveyrespondentsincludedthefollowingcommentsonthe surveys: Theapartmentisusedasmother-in-lawquartersforan84yearoldwoman.However,we willnotrenttheunitwhenmommovestoassistedliving. Iagreeinprinciple[supportADUrentals],butwouldnotrentmygarageapartment. Ithinkit[permittingADUs]wouldonlybeafractionofthesolution. Thereisasignificantlossofprivacywhenrentingaccessorydwellingunits.Weturned ours[ADU]intoanartstudioacoupleofyearsagoandwishwewouldhavedoneso sooner. Idobelievefirmlythatsinglefamilyhomeswitharentalunitserveaveryuseful purposeandcreatestarterhousingforyoungpeopleorseniorsornewlydivorcedpeople. It[theADU]keepsresidentialqualityoflifeforpeopleinallpassagesoftheirlives. Therentersareusuallyprofessionalsalthoughusuallyatthebeginningoftheircareers. Also,salesandteachingaretheothertwopredominantfields.Idontrenttocollege studentstooimmature. TheSantaCruzModel SantaCruzdesigneditsADUordinanceforadaptabilitytomunicipalitiesexploring housingsolutions.ThissectioncomparestheSantaCruzmodelADUordinancewithinthe contextofWinterParksdesign,housingneeds,residentconcerns,andplanningdepartment perspectives.TheCityofSantaCruz,locatedinCalifornia,implementedanADUprogramin responsetoahousingshortage.Thehousingcrisisresultedfromalackofdevelopableland, whichdroveupthepriceofhousingandresultedintwoelementaryschoolsclosingwhen familiescouldnotaffordhousingandmovedoutoftown(SantaCruzHousingandCommunity

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58 DevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28,2008).SantaCruzisauniversity townandcannotmeettheexistingneedforrentalunits(SantaCruzHousingandCommunity DevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28,2008). SantaCruzADUProgram TheCityCommissionexaminedthezoningcodesandsearchedforsolutionstothe housingproblem(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personal communication,January28,2008).TheCommissionlookedforthemostaffordablehousing options,optionsthatcouldbeimplementedwithease,andoptionsthatmightprovidethegreatest numberofunits.TheeffortresultedincreatingtheSantaCruzADUProgram(SantaCruz HousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28,2008). Inordertogaininputandsupportfortheprogram,SantaCruzobtainedagrantthat providedtechnicalassistanceandfundedcommunityoutreach.TheCitymadepublic presentationsofthevariousADUprototypesandpublishedatotalof25articlesinthe newspaper,onebeforeandaftereachworkshop(SantaCruzHousingandCommunity DevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28,2008).AccordingtotheSanta CruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager: TheCityputafaceonADUsbymentioningcertainpeoplebyname.Thehumanspin helpedpeoplerealizetheywerehelpingTedsgrandmotherstayinthecommunity.The communityoutreachemphasizedtheimportanceofprotectingthecommunityfabric becausegrowthwillhappenanyway.CityCommissionsupportwasanimportantaspect oftheprogram.AfterimplementingtheADUprogramthecommunityhadnoreaction, whichisthebestresult(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager, personalcommunication,January28,2008). SantaCruzusedtheriskystrategyofeliminatingparkingregulations;however,tomakethis approachworkinothercommunitiestheremustbescarcelandandhighhousingcosts(Santa CruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28,

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59 2008).TheADUprogramishardtoimplementinacommunitywherelandisabundant(Santa CruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January28, 2008). InaccordancewithCaliforniaAssemblyBill1866,SantaCruzcreatedastreamlined ADUpermitprocess.SantaCruzdevelopedADUguidebooksanddesignprototypesthathelp residentsbuildADUswithminimaltechnicaldifficulties.Duringtheprojectgrant,SantaCruz offeredresidentsonefreehourwithanengineerorarchitecttoestablishtheirADUdesign. ResidentsmustsubmittheirADUplansandapplicablefeesforapprovalbeforereceivinga buildingpermit(SantaCruz,2003a).SantaCruzhomeownersmustsignadeedrestriction agreeingtotheestablishedADUregulations(SantaCruz,2003a).Oncethebuildingprocess begins,SantaCruzconductsanumberofinspectionsthatensuretheADUmeetscodeand architecturalstandardsandfollowsthesiteplanssubmittedbythepropertyowner(SantaCruz, 2003a).Further,lackofcompliancewiththedeedmayresultinrevocationoftheconditional usepermit(SantaCruz,2003a).TheSantaCruzADUprogramrequiresthatthehomeownerlive ineitherthemainunitortheADU.SantaCruzADUscanaccommodateonefamily.SantaCruz definesafamilyasanindividualortwoormorepersonslivingtogetherandoccupyinga dwelling(SantaCruz,2003a). PartoftheSantaCruzgrantrequiredthattheCityprovide67communitieswithfree copiesoftheADUprogrammanual(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopment Manager,personalcommunication,January28,2008).Afterthecommunitieshadtimeto reviewthedocuments,theHousingandCommunityDevelopmentDepartmentcontactedthe communitiesforfeedback.SantaCruzaskedeachcommunitywhetherornottheywouldutilize andimplementanADUprogram(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,

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60 personalcommunication,January28,2008).Mostcommunitiesanswered,Notnow,butwhen wearebuiltoutyes(SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personal communication,January28,2008). SantaCruzNeighborhoodContexts SantaCruzcreatedaneighborhoodcontextguidethatdeterminestheproperlocationof ADUsbasedonneighborhooddesigns(seeTable3-1).SantaCruzencouragesADU developmentalongexistingalleys.WinterParkandOrlandosneighborhooddesignsdonot includeanumberofalleys;therefore,SantaCruzsoptimalADUorientationdoesnotapplyto thecasestudyareas.UsingtheOrangeCountyPropertyAppraisersaerialmapsforasampleof WinterParksneighborhoods,thisstudyanalyzestheneighborhooddesignsforADU compatibility.Figures4-24through4-30illustrateseveraltypicalneighborhoodsfound throughouttheCity.TheCitycontainspre-WorldWarIIneighborhoodsaswellaspost-World WarIIlow-densitysuburban-stylesubdivisions.TheCityspre-warneighborhoodscontain smallerlotsandarangeofhousingdatingfromthe1920stothe2000s. BasedonSantaCruzsneighborhoodcontextADUstandards,theCityofWinterPark canaccommodategaragezoneADUsintransitionalneighborhoodblocks,whicharepre-war gridblockswithpostwarhousing.TheCitycontainstransitionalneighborhoodblockscloserto thecentralbusinessdistrict.TransitionalneighborhoodsincludethehistoricCollegeQuarter, HannibalSquare,andothersurroundingpre-warneighborhoodswithpostwarhousing. AccordingtotheOrangeCountyPropertyAppraiser,theHannibalSquareneighborhoodlotsizes averageapproximately3,000to4,000squarefeet,whichisnotlargeenoughtoaccommodatean additionalunitbasedontheCityofOrlandoandtheCityofWinterParksquarefootage requirements.ThegaragezoneADUsincludeaunitoverthegarageinthesecondstory,one-

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61 storybackyardcottages,1-1/2-storybackyardcottages,andone-storybackyardcottages(see Figure4-31forillustrationsofdetachedgaragezoneADUprototypes). TheCityspostwarneighborhoodscontaincul-de-sacblocks,largerlots,lowerdensity detachedsingle-familyhouses,anddrivewayparkinginfrontoftheunit.AccordingtoSanta CruzsADUstandards,theseneighborhoodscanaccommodateeithergarageconversionsor ADUsinrearlotareasonbiggerlots.WinterParksnewerdevelopmentsconsistoflargerlots withgarages.Ifdesignedappropriately,thenewhousingshouldeasilyaccommodateanADU. AttachedADUsaregarageadditionsinthefront,garageadditionsontheside,garageadditionin therear,andone-storybackyardadditions(seeFigure4-32forillustrationsofattachedgarage apartmentsandbackyardadditions). AnalysisofFindings During2000,WinterParkslow-incomehouseholds(above50%andupto80%of medianhouseholdincome)earned$25,000tonearly$40,000peryear.Thus,thesehouseholds couldaffordthemediangrossrentwithoutsubsidy;however,verylow-incomeindividualscould notaffordWinterParkorOrlandosmediangrossrentwithoutsubsidy.Since2000,rentsand landvalueswithinWinterParkroseconsiderably,andtherecentredevelopmentlocatedwithin theCitysCRAeliminatedseveralunitsaffordabletotheverylow-,low-andmoderate-income populations.AnADUprogramsimilartotheCityofSantaCruzwouldeffectivelyprovide additionalunitswithintheCityofWinterParkwithoutusingthelimitedamountofdevelopable land. TheADUsurveyrespondentsindicatedthatmostADUsrentfor$700to$900permonth. Incomparisontothe2000mediangrossrents,ADUsappearaffordableforresidentsearning over80percentofthemedianhouseholdincome.Theseunitsprovideopportunitiesfor workforcehousing,whichservesteachers,firefighters,policemen,andotherpeopleearning

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62 above80percentofthemedianhouseholdincome,butnotenoughtopurchasehousingwithin thecommunitieswheretheywork.FewsurveyrespondentsindicatedchargingADUrents higherthan$1,000permonth.Typically,theunitswithrentsgreaterthan$1,000permonth provideover800squarefeetoflivingspace.Theseunitsprovidereasonablypricedhousing locatedintraditionalneighborhoodswithinwalkingdistancetomixed-useamenities. TheSantaCruzapproachrelaxedparkingrequirementstoencourageADUdevelopment. TheCityofWinterParkexpressedmajorconcernsoverparkingirritants,andlenientparking regulationsarenotanoption.TheCityneedstoencourageADUhomeownerstocreatean additionalparkingspaceinthefrontoftheprimaryunitthatallowsboththeownerandtherenter toparkontheparcelwithouthavingtoparkintandemandmovecarsaround(seeFigures4-18 and4-19).Whenpossible,garageapartmentslocatedparalleltotheprimaryunitmayhavea separateentrance(seeFigures4-15and4-16). SantaCruzsADUprogramreliedoncommunityoutreacheffortstopromoteresident andpoliticalbuyin.CommunityoutreachisalsoakeycomponentofimplementinganADU programwithintheCityofWinterPark.AsuccessfulADUordinancewithintheCityofWinter ParkrequirescommunityacceptanceandwillingnesstorenttheexistingsupplyofADUs.The CityneedsanextensivepublicinvolvementplanthatmakesADUspersonalandexplainsthe needtopreservetheexistingaffordableneighborhoodslocatedintheHannibalSquare neighborhood.Publicinvolvementworkshopsalsoprovidethecommunitywithanopportunity toexpressconcernsrelatedtoADUrentalsincludingparking,congestion,noise,privacy,and propertyvalues.Theworkshopsprovidethecommunitywithanopportunitytodeveloptheir ownsolutionstotheseissues.Aftercommunityacceptance,theCitycancraftanidealordinance

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63 thataddressesallconcernsandpromotesalternativehousingoptionswithinsinglefamily neighborhoods. WinterParkresidentsarenotrequestingthattheCitychangeitsrestrictiveADU regulationsthatprohibittherentalofexistingADUs.Ifresidentsareindifferentaboutallowing therentalofexistingADUs,theyprobablywouldnotsupportanewordinancepermittingthe constructionofnewADUrentals.CentralFloridahasnotreachedahousingorlandshortageto theextentofSantaCruz;however,theCityofWinterParkslackofdevelopablelandisdriving uphousingprices.NotallowinghomeownerstorenttheirexistingADUsmaybean exclusionarypracticewhenlittleotheraffordableopportunitiesexist.TheCityshouldbegin communityoutreacheffortssimilartoSantaCruz.StartingearlyADUdiscussionsand communityawarenessmaymaketheideamoredesirableinthefuturewhentheCityfacesa significanthousingproblem. TheCityofWinterParkhasaneedforadditionalrentalunitsandanADUordinance. OrlandoandSantaCruzcreatedADUordinanceswithseveralkeyelementsthatWinterPark shouldincorporateincludingextensivecommunityoutreachefforts,requiringtheownerto occupyoneoftheunits,andarchitecturaldesignguidelinesthatprotectprivacy.Thenext chapterconcludesthisstudybydescribinghowanADUprogramwithintheCityofWinterPark providesbenefitsassociatedwithpreviousstudies.Theconclusionmakesrecommendationsfor inclusionintheWinterParkADUordinanceandnecessarystepsforsuccessfulimplementation. Thestudyconcludeswithasectiondescribingopportunitiesforfutureresearchidentified throughoutthisstudyonADUs.

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64 Table4-1.Affordabilityprofile AffordabilityProfile Cityof Orlando Cityof WinterPark Orlando MSA AverageGrossRent(2000)$637 $669 $698 MedianHouseholdIncomes(2000)$36,947 $48,884 $41,871 AmountofSubsidyRequiredin(2000) 50PercentoftheMHI$236.16 $57.95 $174.61 80PercentoftheMHI$-40.95 $-308.68 $-139.42 Rent-to-IncomeRatio(1990-2000)1.137 0.969 0.97 Source:2000Census

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6 5 Table4-2.ComparisonofADUregulations ADURegulationsCityofSantaCruzCityofOrlandoCityofWinterPark Privacy Entrance/mainwindowmaybe orientedtowardsmainhouse, butnotneighboringhomes 15-footrearsetbackor opaque/frostedsecondstory windows DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee Orientation SantaCruzprovidesseveral acceptabledesignprototypes Stairlocationpreferredonside ofgarageandscreenedfrom mainunit DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee AffordableHousing Loans Cityloanprogramfor15-to20yearaffordablerentals.The loanisrestrictedtorentalsfor householdsearning80percent orlessofthemedianincome ($1,060for1-personor$1,211 for2-personhouseholds). NoneNone AffordableHousing FeeWaiver Very-lowincomehouseholds qualifyforwaiverofsewerand waterconnectionfees,firefees, buildingpermitfees,andopen spacerequirements.Lowincomehouseholdsqualifyfor waiverofsewerandwater connectionfees. NoneNone Functional Requirements AnADUmusthaveakitchen, bathroom,andaplacetosleep. Nonespecified Cookingfacilitiesnotpermitted unlessthemainunitisdesignated ashistoric.

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6 6 Table4-2.Continued ADURegulationsCityofSantaCruzCityofOrlandoCityofWinterPark MinimumRequired LotSize 5,000square-foot Foraccessoryapartments,the buildingsitemustbeatleast1.5 timestheminimumsizerequired forthezoningdistrict.For accessorycottages,thebuilding sitemustbeatleast2.0timesthe minimumsizerequiredforthe zoningdistrict. DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee ADUSize Restrictions Upto7,499sq.ft.lot=500sq. ftADU 7,500-9,999sq.ft.lot=640sq. ft.ADU 10,000+sq.ft.lot=640sq.ft. ADU Maynotexceed40percentofthe principlestructureor1,200 squarefeet,whicheverisless.A mainhousewithlessthan1,700 squarefeetoflivingspacemay haveandADUupto700sq.ft. Maynotexceed1,000squarefeet SideYardSetback1-story=3feet;2-story=5feet For1-and2-story,5-foot setback,streetsideyard=15feet For1-storyunit,5-footsetback unlessADUiscurrentlyexisting. For2-storyunits,determinedby theHistoricPreservation Committee FrontYardSetback20feetAtleastequaltomainhouse DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee RearYardSetback 1-story=3feet;2-story=20 feet 1-story=5feet;2-story=15feet (variancesinhistoricdistrict withopaquewindows) For1-storyunit,5-footsetback unlessADUiscurrentlyexisting. For2-storyunits,determinedby theHistoricPreservation Committee

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6 7 Table4-2.Continued ADURegulationsCityofSantaCruzCityofOrlandoCityofWinterPark Height 1-story=13feettomidroof;2story=20feettoroofpeak. NotSpecified DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee DistanceBetween ADUandMain Structure HabitableADU=10feet;nonhabitableADU=6feet. Detached=5feet DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee MaximumRear YardCoverage 30%of20-footsetback,butnot requirediffacingalley Cannotcovermorethan35 percentoftherearyard DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee GrossFloorAreaNotspecified Cannotexceed25percentofthe mainunitsgrossfloorarea DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee Parking 1spaceperADU,2perhouse. Doesnotrequirecovered parking;3carsmaybetandem parked,and3spacesare allowedinthefrontyardwitha maximumof50%paved. 1ADUparkingspacebehind frontyard Noregulardaytimeorovernight parkingonCitystreets.Tenants musthaveanon-siteparking space,behindthefrontsetback, thatcanbeaccessedwithout movingcars. Exterior ADUexteriormustrelatetothe mainhouse(i.e.materials, roofline,otherdetails) Sameexteriorfinishasprinciple structureandmustincorporate twosimilararchitecturaldetails foundontheprinciplestructure (i.e.windows,doors,roofstyle, dormers,cornicedetailing). DeterminedbytheHistoric PreservationCommittee Owner-Occupancy Theownermustoccupyeither theADUorthemainhouse NotSpecified.Norequirement. NumberofUnits AllowedPerLot Only1ADUpermittedperlot.Only1ADUpermittedperlot.Only1ADUpermittedperlot.

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6 8 Table4-2.Continued ADURegulationsCityofSantaCruzCityofOrlandoCityofWinterPark PermittedZonesOnlywithinresidentialzones PermittedthroughoutTraditional CityOverlayDistrictand conditionallypermittedoutside oftheTraditionalCityOverlay District. ADUrentalsonlypermittedwithin theCollegeQuarterHistoric Districtorapropertydesignated ontheWinterParkRegisterof HistoricPlaces.Historic designationmustbecompleted beforetheissuanceofabuilding permit. StudiesRequired Additionalstudyormitigation requiredwhenthereareheritage trees,slopes,unstablesoils, nearacreekorwaterway,the propertyhasarcheological value,orthepropertyisa culturalorhistoricallandmark Nonespecified Everyrequestmustbepresentedto theHistoricPreservation Commissionaspartofapublic hearingprocess. HomeOccupations ADUsareforrentalpurposes only. Cannotbeusedforanyhome occupations. Cannotbeusedforanyhome occupations. Additional Restrictions Beforeobtainingapermitforan ADU,thehomeownermustfile adeedrestrictionstatingthat theADUwillnotbesold separatelyandtheunitis restrictedtotheapprovedsize. NotSpecified. ADUsusedasguestquartersare permitted,providednocooking facilitiesorseparateutilitymeters arepresent.Theunitscannotbe rentedforcompensationorletout inexchangeforservicesorindirect compensation.Homeownersmust signadeedrestrictionagreeingto theADUrestrictionsbefore buildingpermitsareissued. Source:OrlandoCode,1999,WinterParkCode,1993,andSantaCruzADUmanual,2003a.

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69 Figure4-1.TheCityofOrlandosTraditionalCityoverlaydistrict(Source:CityofOrlando, 2007, http://www.cityoforlando.net/gis/traditionalcity.htm .LastaccessedMarch 2008).

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70 Figure4-2.CityofOrlando1925SanbornMap(Source:TheSanbornMapCompany,1925).

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71 Figure4-3.WinterParkcommunityreinvestmentarea(Source:TheCityofWinterPark StrategicPlan,2007).

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72 Figure4-4.HannibalSquare1927SanbornMap(Source:TheSanbornMapCompany,1927).

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73 Figure4-5.HannibalSquare(Source:Photobyauthor). Figure4-6.HannibalSquarechurch(Source:Photobyauthor).

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74 Figure4-7.HannibalSquaredemolition(Source:Photobyauthor). Figure4-8.HannibalSquareredevelopment(Source:Photobyauthor).

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75 Figure4-9.NewlyconstructedHannibalSquaresingle-familyhomes(Source:Photobyauthor). Figure4-10.NewlyconstructedHannibalSquarebuildings(Source:Photobyauthor).

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76 Figure4-11.NewlyconstructedHannibalSquareoffices(Source:Photobyauthor).

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77 Figure4-12.CollegeQuarter1927SanbornMap(Source:TheSanbornMapCompany,1927).

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78 Figure4-13.CollegeQuarterdetachedADUincorporatingsimilardesigncharacteristicsfrom themainhouse(Source:Photobyauthor). Figure4-14.CollegeQuarterADUbehindmainhouse(Source:Photobyauthor).

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79 Figure4-15.CollegeQuarterADUoncornerlot(Source:Photobyauthor). Figure4-16.CollegeQuarterADUwithseparatedriveway(Source:Photobyauthor).

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80 Figure4-17.CollegeQuarterdetachedtwo-storyADUandone-storymainhouse(Source:Photo byauthor).

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81 A B Figure4-18.SeriesofphotosillustratingCollegeQuartermainhouseandADUoncornerlot withsimilararchitecturalcharacteristics.A)Primaryresidence.B)ADU.(Source: Photosbyauthor).

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82 A B Figure4-19.SeriesofphotosillustratingCollegeQuartermainhouseanddetachedADUwith anadditionalparkingspaceprovidedinfrontyard.A)Primaryresidence.B)ADU. (Source:Photosbyauthor).

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83 15 2 2 1 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 RentalStorage Office Family Occupied Owner Occupied Guest Quarters Figure4-20.OrlandoprimaryuseofADUs 6 10 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Strongly Agree AgreeDisagreeStrongly Disagree No Answer Figure4-21.OrlandoADUsurveyresponsesforthequestionAreADUsasatisfactorysolution topopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing.

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84 7 2 2 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RentalStorage Office Family Occupied Guest Quarters ArtStudio Figure4-22.WinterParkprimaryuseofADUs 5 2 4 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree AgreeDisagreeStrongly Disagree No Answer Figure4-23.WinterParkADUsurveyresponsesforthequestionAreADUsasatisfactory solutiontopopulationgrowthandaffordablehousing.

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85 Figure4-24.AerialimageoftheCollegeQuarterneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCounty PropertyAppraiser,2007).

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86 Figure4-25.AerialimageoftheSevillaneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCountyProperty Appraiser,2007).

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87 Figure4-26.AerialimageoftheHannibalSquareneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCounty PropertyAppraiser,2007). Figure4-27.AerialimageoftheWaterbridgeneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCountyProperty Appraiser,2007).

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88 Figure4-28.AerialimageoftheWindsongneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCountyProperty Appraiser,2007). Figure4-29.AerialimageoftheBrookshireHeightsneighborhood.(Source:OrangeCounty PropertyAppraiser,2007).

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89 Figure4-30.AerialimageofWinterParkwaterfrontestates.(Source:OrangeCountyProperty Appraiser,2007).

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90 Figure4-31.SantaCruzdetachedADUprototype.(Credit:IllustrationbyBruceRaceof RACESTUDIO,Berkley,CaliforniaSource:SantaCruzADUManual,2003).

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91 Figure4-32.SantaCruzattachedADUPrototype.(Credit:IllustrationbyBruceRaceof RACESTUDIO,Berkley,CaliforniaSource:SantaCruzADUManual,2003).

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92 CHAPTER5 APPLYINGTHEADUMODEL Therecommendationsoutlinedherearebasedonthefindingsandanalysisofthecase studiesdiscussedinthepreviouschapter.Chapter4reviewedtheplanningtools,policies,and regulationsneededtoaccommodateADUswithinsingle-familyneighborhoods,particularlyin historicareasthathaveincludedADUsinthepast.Thisstudyfocusesonprovidingadditional affordablehousingunitswithintheCityofWinterParkbyimplementingaplanningtoolthat addressesresidentconcernsandincorporatesmodelADUordinancesfromothermunicipalities. WinterParkcanbenefitfromadditionalsustainableinfillhousingunitsthataccommodatea varietyofhousingneeds;however,severalADUobstaclespresentedwithintheWinterParkcase studyrequireresolutionbeforetheCitywillconsiderpermittingADUs.ADUobstacles identifiedduringthisstudyinclude:(1)higher-incomehomeownersarenotwillingtorenttheir ADUs,(2)residentsareconcernedaboutlosingprivacy,(3)residentsareconcernedabout parkingproblemsassociatedwithaddingextraunits,and(4)residentsareconcernedaboutthe noiseassociatedwithyoungerrenters(usuallycollegestudents). AnotherobstacletoprovidingADUswithinWinterParkisthatneitherresidentsnorthe CityCommissionareaskingtheCitytolegalizeADUconstructionandrentals(WinterPark DirectorofPlanningandCommunityDevelopment,personalcommunication,January25,2008). WinterParkshousingproblemhasnotreachedalevelassignificantasSantaCruz,California. In2004,theStateofFloridaimplementedlegislationpermittinglocalgovernmentstoadopt ADUordinancesthatrestrictrentalrates,provideadditionalaffordablehousingunits,andmeet affordablehousingneeds(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006).OnlyKeyWesthas adoptedanADUordinancewithprovisionsthatlimittherentalratestotargetedpopulations (DCA,2007,p.92).WinterParksStrategicPlanidentifiesprovidingaffordable/workforce

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93 housingopportunitiesasitsfourthgoal.Inacommunityhousingsurvey,residentswithinthe HannibalSquareneighborhoodandWinterParkhouseholdswithannualincomesunder$35,000 peryearselectedaffordablehousingastheirfirstpriority(WinterPark,2007b,p.16).Thisstudy recommendsthatWinterParkconsideranADUprogramaspartofitsfutureAffordableHousing PlanandWorkforceHousingInitiative.TheADUordinanceshouldnotrestricttherentalrate, butprovideincentivestoresidentswhorenttheirunitsatworkforcehousingrates.The incentivesshouldincludewaivingtheaffordablehousinglinkagefees,permittingfees,andall otherdevelopmentfeeschargedbytheCity. Themethodologyusedinthisstudycomparesaffordabilityprofilesandexistingplanning documentsforWinterParkandOrlandotodetermineaffordablerentalhousingneeds. InterviewswithhousingdirectorsandplannersexplainwhysomecommunitiesresisttheADU concept.AnADUsurveycollectedsomedemographicinformationanddeterminedADU homeownersopinionsonwhetherornotADUsareasatisfactorysolutiontoaffordablehousing needsandpopulationgrowth.TheCityofSantaCruzsawardwinningADUprogramandthe CityofOrlandosCodeprovidedaframeworkofregulatoryelementsrequiredtomaintain single-familyneighborhoodcharacterandtoaddresstheADUconcernsidentifiedthrough interviewsandWinterParksurveys. ThisstudyrecommendsthatthepotentialWinterParkADUordinanceincludeaprogram withamajorfocusoncommunityoutreach.SantaCruzsADUprogramincludedanextensive outreachprogramthatmadetheneedforADUspersonal.TheSantaCruzDirectorofHousing andCommunityDevelopmentstressedtheimportanceofcommunityandpoliticalbuyin. SantaCruzbeganADUpublicoutreachactivitiesoneyearpriortointroducingtheADU program.ThecommunityheardthewordADUcountlesstimesbeforetheCityproposedthe

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94 program.SantaCruzseffortsincludednewspaperarticlesbeforeandaftereachpublic workshop.TheCityputafaceonADUsbymentioningpeopleinneedofhousingbyname (SantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentManager,personalcommunication,January 28,2008).TheCityofWinterParkwillneedasimilarprogramthatpersonalizestheneedfor ADUsratherthansimplyaskingresidentstoprovideaffordablehousingunitsontheirparcelof land. CommunityConcerns SomeWinterParksurveyrespondentsindicatedthattheywouldnotrenttheirunits. RobertLang,Editorof HousingPolicyDebate, commentedthathesupportsADUs,butnotinhis neighborhood(Sirmans&Macpherson,2004).Langarguesthataddingextraunitswithin single-familyneighborhoodsdropshomevaluesby5to10percent(Sirmans&Macpherson, 2004).WinterParkisaCentralFloridacommunitywithhigherthanaveragehousingpricesand aconsiderableshortageofdevelopableland.Consideringthatworkerscannotaffordtopurchase existinghomesandthenearbyaffordableHannibalSquareneighborhoodisundergoing gentrification,housingpriceswillprobablycontinuetoriseregardlessofADUinfill developmentandrentals.Furthermore,providinghomeownerswiththeoptiontobuildan additionalunitorrentanalreadyexistingunitincreasestheelasticityofavailablehousingduring housingshortagesandcostsnothingduringhousingsurpluses. SomeADUordinancesrestrictADUstorentalsorhousingfortheelderly.Californias legislationrestrictsADUforrentalpurposes(RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse,2006). CommunitiesbuildfewerADUswhenordinancesimposeagerestrictions;therefore,older peoplebenefitmorefromordinanceswithoutagerestrictions(Chapman&Howe,2001,p.648). ThisstudyrecommendsthatWinterParkadoptanADUordinancewithoutanyrestrictions.The ADUsshouldprovideanalternativeunitforanypurpose,agegroup,orincomelevel.Whilethe

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95 currenthomeownermaychoosenottorenttheirADU,thenexthomeownerhastheopportunity torenttheunit. TheparkingandtrafficassociatedwithADUsinWinterParkrequiresspecial consideration.SantaCruzremovedallparkingregulationsandbarrierstoaccommodateADU development.However,parkingisamajorconcernforresidentswithintheCityofWinterPark; therefore,relaxingparkingregulationsisnotanoption.TheCityshouldcreateADUdesign guidelineswithADUprototypesthatprovideanadditionalparkingspaceinfrontoftheprimary home.Providingacirculardriveinfrontoftheprimaryhomeoranadditionalspacenexttothe drivewayisthebestparkingsolution.Thisstudyrecommendsthatresidentconcernsregarding parkingareaddressedintheADUordinance.Iftheparcelcannotaccommodateanadditional space,theCityshoulddenytheADUbecauseofinsufficientlotarea.Figures4-15and4-23 showexamplesofexistingADUparkingsolutions. Severalcommunitiesrequirethatthehomeownereitherlivesintheprimaryunitorthe accessoryunit.WinterParkresidentsexpressedconcernsaboutnoiseandrentingtoyounger tenants.ThisstudyrecommendsthatWinterParkrequiretheADUhomeownertoliveinoneof theunits.Thepurposeofthisrecommendationistoeaseresidentsconcernsaboutrentersliving withinsingle-familyowner-occupiedneighborhoods.Mosthomeownerswillnotcontinueto renttodisruptivetenantsiftheyalsoliveonthepropertyandexperiencenoiseviolations. TheWinterParkADUsurveyidentifiedlossofprivacyasanotherresidentconcern.The CityofOrlandosCodecontainsspecificregulationsthataddressprivacyissues.Orlando requiresthattwo-storyADUsarelocated15feetfromtherearpropertylineorallsecondfloor windowsfacingtherearpropertylinemustbeopaque(CityofOrlandoPlanner,personal communication,February12,2008).VarianceswithinOrlandoshistoricdistrictspermittwo-

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96 storyADUs5feetfromtherearpropertyline(CityofOrlandoPlanner,personalcommunication, February12,2008).ThisstudyrecommendsthatWinterParkadoptregulationsthatrequiretwostoryADUstohaveopaquewindowsandatleast15-footsetbacksfromtherearpropertyline. WinterParkshouldadoptotherelementsfromOrlandosCodeincludingrestrictingtheADUto 50percentofthepropertysfaadeandlimitingADUsquarefootagetoamaximum1,200 square-feetor.5percentFloorAreaRatio(FAR). WinterParkADUBenefits WinterParkshistoricHannibalSquareneighborhoodisundergoingsignificant redevelopmentbecauseofWinterParkslandshortageandrisinghouseprices.Lotswithin HannibalSquareincreasedfrom$15,000in1991to$150,000in2005(Krueger,2005).ADUs willnotstoptheHannibalSquaregentrification;however,permittingADUsaddsadditional affordableunitstoWinterParkshousingsupplyandreplacessomeofthelostaffordableunits. HUDrecommendsthatcommunitiesaddoneADUforeverytensingle-familyowneroccupiedunitstoincreasethesupplyofrentalhousing(HUDascitedbyMRSC,1995).Using HUDsrecommendedoneintenrulewithinWinterParkcouldaddanumberofadditionalrental unitstotheexistinghousingsupplywithoutaffectingthesingle-familylow-density neighborhoodcharacter.Theexactnumberofadditionalunitsaddedtothesupplyisimpossible tocalculatebasedonfactorspreviouslymentioned.Forexample,newersuburbandevelopments builtathigherdensitieshavedifferentlotssizes(Koebeletal.,2005).WinterParks neighborhoodscontainavarietyoflotsizes.MostofthelotsizesexceedSantaCruzsminimum requirementof5,000squarefeet;however,lotswithintheHannibalSquareneighborhoodare smallerthan5,000squarefeet.SeveralotherlotsthroughouttheCityarealsotoosmallforan additionalADU.TheWinterParkPlanningDirectoralsocommentedthatheisunsureaboutthe numberofexistingADUswithintheWinterParkarea.Therefore,anaccuratenumbercannotbe

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97 calculatedwithoutfirstdetermininghowmanyunitscontainexistingADUs.Providingnewnet rentalunitswithinabuilt-outcommunityisabenefitforanycommunity. ADUsprovideimportanthousingoptionsforolderadultsortheirpaidcaregivers. PopulationprojectionsanticipatethatWinterParkspopulationage60andoverwillincreaseby 120percentby2030(UFShimbergCenterforAffordableHousing,2008).WinterParks populationunderage60willonlyincreaseby12.4percentby2030(UFShimbergCenterfor AffordableHousing,2008).ADUsallowolderpeopletoageinplacewhileprovidingasense ofsecurity,sourceofextraincome,andavarietyofhousingsizes(Chapman&Howe,2001,p. 638).Providingone-personandtwo-personunitsfortheelderlyallowsthemtoremaininthe neighborhoodandmakestheirsingle-familyunitavailabletoanotherfamily.Themosttypical ADUbarrierfortheelderlyisstairs(Chapman&Howe,2001).WinterParkshouldencouragea numberofhomeownerstodevelopone-storyADUsthatareADAaccessible.TheCityshould alsoprovidedesignguidelinesthatincludeanADAaccessibleoption.Thisstudyrecommends thatWinterParkincorporateeducationonhousingfortheelderlyintotheADUpublicoutreach effort. ADUOrdinanceComponents ThepotentialWinterParkADUordinanceandprogramisaplanningtoolfor implementationnoworwhentheCityreachesaseverehousingshortage(seeTable5-1fora completelistingofWinterParkADUordinancerecommendations).Ataminimum,theADU ordinanceneedstoincludethefollowing: Oneextraparkingspacerequiredofftheprimarydrivewayandbehindthefrontyard setback; ArchitecturalguidelinesandADUprototypesincludinganADAaccessibleoption; Requirementsfor15-footsetbacksoropaquesecondfloorwindows; Anextensivepublicoutreachplanthatincludesmarketingtoolsandeducationprograms; Norestrictionsinregardtoage,income,orprimaryuse;

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98 Incentivesforhomeownersrentingataffordable/workforcehousingrentalrates; Requirementsforthehomeownertoresideineithertheprimaryorsecondaryunit. TheWinterParkADUprogramneedsaneducationcomponentthatstartsbeforetheCity attemptstoimplementanADUordinance.Ataminimumthepublicoutreachprogramshould includethefollowing: NewspaperarticlesexplainingADUhousingneedsandbenefits; MarketingtoolsdescribingpersonalneedsbyputtingafaceonADUs; Consensusbuildingworkshopstoaddresscommunityconcerns. ThisstudyreviewedtheADUasanalternativetolow-densitysingle-familydevelopment. Populationprojectionspredictthat7.2millionnewresidentswillmovetoCentralFloridaby 2050(CentralFloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).CentralFloridasfuture growthrequireschangestotheunsustainablehousingtrendsimplementedafterWorldWarII. Olderhistoriccommunitiesarefortunateenoughtohavetraditionalneighborhooddesignsthat caneasilyabsorbinfillADUs,andpost-WorldWarIIneighborhoodshavethepotentialto supportADUs.TheCityofWinterParkshouldcreateguidelinesthatdeterminethetypesof ADUsallowedineachneighborhoodbasedonexistingdesignanddevelopmentpatterns.The CityshouldextendthehistoricdesignationADUincentivetoincludeallhousingunitsand neighborhoodsthroughouttheCityaslongasthepropertymeetstheADUordinances requirements.TheCentralFloridaregionneedstopreserveundevelopedland,promotecompact development,anddesignobtainablehousingthatisintegratedwithmarket-ratehousing(Central FloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee,2007).ADUs,withinexistingsingle-family neighborhoods,provideseveralofthecomponentsnecessarytoachievesustainablesmartgrowth whilemeetinghousingneedsforgrowingpopulationsoftheelderlyandlow-incomeindividuals.

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99 OpportunitiesforFutureResearch Futureresearchopportunitiesincludestudiesthatexplorewhetherornotextensivepublic outreachactivitieschangethepublicsperceptionsofADUs.Apublicoutreachstudyshouldbe completedwhenacommunityimplementsanADUpublicoutreachprogram.Priortothe outreachefforts,theresearchershouldconductanADUhomeownersurveythatasksresidents abouttheirpositionregardingADUinfilldevelopmentandrentals.Aftereducationand marketingtoolsaredistributed,theresearchershouldconductanothersurveythatasksthepublic abouttheirperceptionsofADUinfilldevelopmentandrentals.Theresultsofthisstudywill determinewhetherthenegativeperceptionsassociatedwithADUsresultfromthebehaviorsof thetenantsoralackofeducationregardinghousingneedsandADUbenefits.Furtherresearch shouldexaminethemagnitudeofpublicoutreachrequiredtoconvincethepublicthatADUsare notharmfultosingle-familyneighborhoodcharacter. Anotherresearchopportunityexaminesthetypeofneighborhooddemographicsrequired forthecommunitytoacceptADUs.Theresearchcouldexaminewhatincentivesarerequired forsuccessfulimplementationofanADUordinancewhenneighborhoodsdonotneed supplementarymonthlyincome.Additionalresearchcouldexaminethecharacteristicrequired forthecommunitytoaccepttheunitsandwheretheseneighborhoodsarelocated.Thisresearch couldutilizeanADUopinionsurvey,whichincludesdemographicquestions.Municipalities containingneighborhoodswiththepotentialtoacceptADUrentalsshouldbeginpublicoutreach activitiesandimplementADUprogramsthatencourageadditionalinfillhousing. ThisstudysentanADUsurveytoarandomsampleofWinterParkandOrlandoADU homeownerstoobtaintheirperspectivesonwhetherornotADUsareaneffectivesolutionto affordablehousingandpopulationgrowth.ThesurveyalsoaskedquestionsabouttheADU tenantsdemographicsandthetypicalrentschargedpermonth.FutureADUresearchshould

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100 surveyawidersampleofresidentswithinthecasestudyareasanddeterminetheperspectivesof residentswhodonotownanADU,butlivewithinthesamecommunityashomeownerswith ADUs.FutureresearchshouldalsoexaminetheapplicabilityofanADUprogrambeyond WinterParkandthroughouttheCentralFloridaregion.Aregionalstudyareamighthelp determinethelargerscalebenefitsofpermittingADUs. ADUsprovidecommunitybenefitsincludingrentalhousingforpeopleearning80percent ormoreofthemedianhouseholdincome,smallerhousingunitsforone-ortwo-person households,andextraincomeforhomeowners.However,communityacceptanceofADUs reliesonacommunitythatdoesnotmindmixingtraditionalneighborhoodelementswithlowdensitysuburbandesign.ADUacceptancemayresultfromseverehousingshortagesandhighpricedhousingunits.ThisstudyexaminedtheADUasaffordablehousingandsmartgrowth withintheCityofWinterParkusingtheCityofOrlandosCodeofOrdinancesandtheCityof SantaCruzsADUprogram.ThecasestudyresultsindicatedthattheWinterParkcommunityis notoverwhelminglyacceptingofADUrentals.PerhapstheWinterParkperspectiveresultsfrom theCentralFloridaregionnotfacingahousingshortageassevereasCalifornias. Still,asmorecommunities,especiallyinbuilt-outandhighgrowthareas,suchasWinter Park,facehousingpressures,ADUsmayofferanopportunitytoaddresstheseneeds.Additional issuesWinterParkneedstoresolvearetheimpactsofpublicinfrastructure,theuseofdeed restrictionstoestablishspecificrequirements,codeenforcementtoenforcebuildingcodesand siteplans,andthequestionofadditionalimpactfees.Thisstudyoutlinesanapproachforthose communitiestoassessthisopportunityandbegintheprocessofbuildingcommunitysupport. Further,itsuggestsseveralregulatoryapproachesanddesigncharacteristicsthataccommodate ADUswithoutdiminishingsingle-familyneighborhoodcharacter.

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1 0 1 Table5-1.WinterParkADUordinancerecommendations RecommendedCityofWinterParkADUordinancerequirements OwneroccupancyTheownermustoccupyeithertheADUortheprimaryunit PermittedZonesADUsshouldbepermitted"byright"throughoutthecitylimits NumberofADUsper Parcel OnlyoneADUpermittedperparcel SizeMaximumsize1,000squarefeetor40percentoftheprinciplestructure,whicheverisless Height One-storyADUheightlimit13feettomidroof Two-storyADUheightlimit20feettoroofpeak RearSetbacks One-storyADUsrequire5footsetbacksfromtherearpropertyline Two-storyADUsrequire15-footsetbacksfromtherearpropertylineor5-footsetbacks withopaquesecondstorywindows SideSetbacks5-footsetback FrontyardSetbackAtleastequaltothemainhouse RearYardCoverageNomorethan35percentoftherearyardcanbecoveredbytheADU DistanceBetween Structures 5-footdistancerequired MinimumLotSizeAminimumof5,000squarefeetrequired PrivacyRequirementEntrance/mainwindowmaybeorientedtowardsmainhouse,butnotneighbor ArchitecturalDesign Standards TheADUdesignshouldbecompatiblewiththeneighborhoodcharacteristicsand incorporateatleasttwoarchitecturalfeaturesfromthemainunit(e.g.,windows,doors,roof style,dormers,orcornicedetailing).Wherepossible,one-storyADAaccessibleunits shouldbeencouragedduringthedesignprocess. LotOrientationADUshouldbeorientatedtoprotectviewsforsurroundingneighbors TechnicalAssistance TheCityshouldworkwitharchitectsandengineerstodevelopatechnicalassistance handbookthataddresscommonquestionsthatariseduringtheADUdevelopmentprocess

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1 0 2 Table5-1.Continued RecommendedCityofWinterParkADUordinancerequirements FaadeRequirementADUmaynotoccupymorethan50percentoftheproperty'sfaade ParkingRequirement Oneadditionalon-siteparkingspaceisrequiredfortheADUandtwoon-sitespacesare requiredforthemainunit.Thespaceshouldbeprovidedonthesideforcornerlotsand behindthefrontyardsetbackforregularlots(offmaindrivewayoraddcircledriveway). ADUprovidedparkingshouldnotrequiremovingcarsaroundoron-streetparking. AffordabilityIncentive Developmentfees,permitfees,andaffordablehousinglinkagefeeswaivedforunitsrented tohouseholdsearning80percentorlessofthemedianhouseholdincome SeparateUtilityMeterSeparateADUutilitymeterspermitted ADUUseRestrictionsTheADUmaynotbeusedforhomeoccupations ADUApprovalProcess TheCityshouldestablishaconsistentandstreamlinedapprovalprocessthatincorporatesan adequatesewerandwaterrequirement DisruptiveNoise,Traffic, andCongestion TheCityshouldestablishasystemoffinesforhomeownerswhoviolatetheADUzoning regulations FunctionalRequirementsCooking,sleeping,andbathroomfacilitiesrequired

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103 APPENDIXA ORLANDOANDWINTERPARKADUSURVEYS

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107 LISTOFREFERENCES ADGBusinessandGovernmentalConsultants.(2007). 2007Accessorydwellingunitsreportto theFloridalegislature. RetrievedJanuary20,2007,from http://www.adgonline.com/publications/ADU.Report.pdf AmericanPlanningAssociation.(2005). SantaCruzhousingprogramrecognizedwithnational planningaward. RetrievedDecember8,2007,from http://www.planning.org/newsreleases/2005/ftp01070511.htm AmericanPlanningAssociation(2006). Policyguideonhousing .RetrievedDecember8,2007, from http://www.planning.org/affordablereader/policyguides/housing2006.htm Andrews,J.H.(2005).Notyourgrandmothersgrannyflat. Planning ,71(3),8-10. Carlson,D.andS.Mathur.(2004).CanWeTellifSmartGrowthAidsorThwartsAffordable Housing?InA.Downs(Ed.), Growthmanagementandaffordablehousing:Dothey conflict? (pp.20-66).Washington,DC:BrookingsInstitutionPress. CassCalderSmithArchitecture.(2004).AccessoryDwellingUnitsSantaCruz,California. Places ,16(3),26-29. CentralFloridaJointPolicyFrameworkCommittee.(2007). Howshallwegrow?Ashared visionforcentralFloridacreatedtohelpourregioncontinuetobeagreatplacetolive, work,andplay. RetrievedJanuary16,2008,from http://www.myregion.org/Default.aspx?tabid=65 Chapman,N.J.,&Howe,D.A.(2001).Accessoryapartments:Aretheyarealisticalternativefor ageinginplace?. HousingStudies, 16(5),637-650. Chapman,Robin.(2001). TheabsolutelyessentialguidetoWinterPark:Thevillageintheheart ofCentralFlorida. WinterPark,FL:TheAbsolutelyEssentialCompany. CityofOrlandoHousingDepartment.(2005). ConsolidatedPlanforHousingandCommunity DevelopmentPrograms:October2005-Septmeber30,2010. Orlando,FL:Author. CityofOrlandoPlanningDevelopmentDepartment.(1991). GrowthManagementPlan. Orlando,FL:Author. CityofSantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentDivision.(2002) ExecutiveSummary forExpandingHousingOptionsfortheCityofSantaCruz. RetrievedNovember5,2007, from http://www.ci.santa-cruz.ca.us/pl/hcd/ExecSum.pdf CityofSantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentDivision.(2003a). Accessory DwellingUnitManual:GrowingSantaCruzsNeighborhoodsfromtheinside. Santa Cruz,CA.:Author.

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108 CityofSantaCruzHousingandCommunityDevelopmentDivision.(2003b). ADUZoning Regulations. RetrievedNovember5,2007,from http://www.ci.santacruz.ca.us/pl/hcd/ADU/PDF/ADU_Zoning_Regulations.pdf CityofSunnyvalePlanningDepartment.(2003). CityofSunnyvaleReport:Planning CommissionReport03-0045. CityofSunnyvale,CA:Author. CityofWinterParkPlanningandCommunityDevelopmentDepartment.(2007a) ComprehensivePlan .WinterPark,FL:Author. CityofWinterParkPlanningandCommunityDevelopmentDepartment.(2007b). CityofWinter ParkCommunityRedevelopmentAgencyStrategicPlan. WinterPark,FL:Author. Cobb,R.L.&Dvorak,S.(2000). Accessorydwellingunits:Modelstateactandlocalordinance. RetrievedFebruary23,2008,from http://research.aarp.org/consume/d17158_dwell.pdf CommonwealthofMassachusettsExecutiveOfficeofEnergyandEnvironmentalAffairs. (2007). Smartgrowth/smartenergytoolkitbylaw:Modelbylawforaccessorydwelling units. RetrievedJanuary16,2008,from http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/bylaws/ADU-Bylaw.pdf Downs,A.(2004).(Ed.). Growthmanagementandaffordablehousing:Dotheyconflict? Washington,DC:BrookingsInstitutionPress. Duany,A.,Plater-Zyberk,E.,&Speck,J.(2000). Suburbannation:Theriseofsprawlandthe declineoftheAmericandream .NewYork:NorthPointPress. EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(2004). Nationalawardforsmartgrowthachievement2004 winners .RetrievedDecember17,2007,from http://www.epa.gov/dced/pdf/SG_awards_2004.pdf Jackson,K.T.(1985). Crabgrassfrontier:thesuburbanizationoftheUnitedStates .NewYork: OxfordPress. Kelbaugh,D.S.(2001).RepairingtheAmericanmetropolis. ForumforAppliedResearchand PublicPolicy, 16(2),6-12. Koebel,C.T.,Beamish,J.,Danielson-Lang,K.,andSteeves,J.(2003). EvaluationoftheHUD ElderCottageHousingOpportunity(ECHO)Program. Blacksburg,VA:Centerfor HousingResearchVirginiaPolytechnicInstituteandStateUniversity. Krueger,J.(2005,May13).BellowsprepsformoreprojectsinHannibalsquare:Butresidents expressconcernsaboutcommercialdevelopments'sizeanddensity. OrlandoBusiness Journal. RetrievedFebruary19,2008,from http://www.bizjournals.com/orlando/stories/2005/05/16/story4.html

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109 Lang,R.E.(2004).CommentonNelson,A.C.,Pendall,R.,Dawkins,C.J.,&Knaap,G.J.The linkbetweengrowthmanagementandhousingaffordability:Theacademicevidence.In A.Downs(Ed.),Growthmanagementandaffordablehousing:Dotheyconflict?(pp. 167-170).Washington,DC:BrookingsInstitutionPress. Lang,R.E.(2005).Valuingthesuburbs:Whysomeimprovementslowerhomeprices. Opolis:AnInternationalJournalofSuburbanandMetropolitanStudies,1(1),5-12. Meck,S.(2000,Summer). Bringingsmartgrowthtoyourcommunity .RetrievedDecember8, 2007,from http://www.planning.org/thecommissioner/19952003/summer00.htm MunicipalResearchServices&Center.(1995). Accessorydwellingunits:issuesandoptions. RetrievedonJanuary8,2008,from http://www.mrsc.org/Publications/textadu.aspx Nelson,A.C.,Pendall,R.,Dawkins,C.J.,&Knaap,G.J.(2004).Thelinkbetweengrowth managementandhousingaffordability:Theacademicevidence.InA.Downs(Ed.), Growthmanagementandaffordablehousing:Dotheyconflict? (pp.117-158). Washington,DC:BrookingsInstitutionPress. NewUrbanNews.(December,2001).Grannyflatsaddaffordabilityandflexibility. NewUrban News. Ithaca,NY. OrangeCountyPropertyAppraiser.(2007). Geographicinformationsystem. [Searchable database].AccessedJanuary-March,2008,at http://paarcgis.ocpafl.org/Webmap1/default.aspx OrlandoCityCode.(1999).RetrievedDecember4,2007,from http://www.municode.com/resources/ RegulatoryBarriersClearinghouse.(2006). Statesmovetopromoteaccessoryhousing developments. RetrievedJanuary20,2008,from http://www.huduser.org/rbc/newsletter/Volume5Iss4Print.html SanFranciscoPlanningandUrbanResearch(SPUR).(2001,April). Secondaryunits:Apainless waytoincreasethesupplyofhousing .PaperpresentedattheSPURBoardMeeting,San Francisco,CA. Sherman-Presser,J.(Ed.).(2007). TheNIMBYreportonthecontinuingstruggleforinclusive communitiesnumber77. Kensington,MD:BuildingBetterCommunitiesNetwork. Sullivan,T.(2004,November). Puttingtheforceinworkforcehousing .RetrievedFebruary16, 2008,from http://www.planning.org/affordablereader/planning/workforce1104.htm TransportationandLandUseCoalition(2004). Instantadvocate:Accessorydwellingunits RetrievedFebruary5,2008,from http://www.transcoalition.org/ia/acssdwel/01.html

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110 UniversityofFloridaShimbergCenterforAffordableHousing.(2008). Populationprojections byagefor1990-2030:Geographicareas .[Datafile].AccessedFebruary20,2008,from http://flhousingdata.shimberg.ufl.edu/a/population U.S.BureauoftheCensus.(1990). Censusofpopulationandhousing,DP-I,profileofgeneral demographiccharacteristics,(censussummaryfileI). RetrievedJanuary2008,from http://factfinder.census.gov U.S.BureauoftheCensus.(2000). Censusofpopulationandhousing,DP-I,profileofgeneral demographiccharacteristics,(censussummaryfileI). RetrievedJanuary2008,from http://factfinder.census.gov U.S.DepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment.(1998). U.S.HousingMarketsConditions Summary. RetrievedFebruary16,2008,from http://www.huduser.org/periodicals/USHMC/winter98/summary-2.html WinterParkCityCode.(1993).RetrievedDecember4,2007,from http://www.municode.com/resources/gateway.asp ?

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111 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH PatriciaTyrewasborninWinterPark,Florida.SheattendedWinterParkHighSchool andgraduatedfromWinterParksRollinsCollegewithaBachelorofArtsinenvironmentaland growthmanagementstudies.Patriciabecameintriguedwithurbanandregionalplanningduring anenvironmentalstudiesclassthatexpressedtheimperativeneedforenvironmentalplanning thatprotectsimportantnaturalresources.DuringherRollinsCollegecoursework,Patricia studiednewurbanismdevelopmentsandoldertraditionalneighborhoods.Shebecameinterested inthebenefitsassociatedwithtraditionalneighborhooddesignandsmartgrowth. AftergraduatingfromRollins,Patriciacontinuedherplanningeducationatthe UniversityofFloridasMasterofArtsinUrbanandRegionalPlanningprogram.Atthe UniversityofFlorida,Patriciacompletedacourseonhousingandpublicpolicy,whichinspired herinterestinaffordablehousing.Thecombinationofstudyingtraditionalneighborhooddesign, smartgrowth,andlearningabouttheseverityofthenationshousingcrisisledtoherthesistopic onaccessorydwellingunitsasaffordablehousingandsmartgrowth.Uponcompletionofher MasterofArtsinUrbanandRegionalPlanning,Patriciahopestocontributetothefutureof planningandhousingissuesintheCentralFloridaarea.