<%BANNER%>

The Only Paradise We Ever Need

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022149/00001

Material Information

Title: The Only Paradise We Ever Need An Investigation into Pantheism's Sacred Geography in the Writings of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, and Matthew Fox, and a Preliminary Survey of Signs of Emerging Pantheism in American Culture
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Religion -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Religion thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: I explore the definition and meaning of pantheism, and its related and contrasting concepts of theism, panentheism, atheism. Pantheism is identified as a concept of sacred geography that locates the sacred as penetrating the entire universe, but which does not indulge in speculation about a sacred dimension outside the space and time of this cosmos. Pantheism is divided into two categories: naturalistic pantheism and spiritualized pantheism. Panentheism acknowledges the sacred as penetrating all of this universe but still asserts a divinity that transcends this cosmos. Both of these concepts are contrasted with dualistic theism and nihilistic atheism. Specific explorations of the presence of pantheism in the work of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, Albert Einstein and Matthew Fox, are undertaken. Abbey is found to be a exemplar of naturalistic pantheism. Fox, in particular, is found to be pantheistic, notwithstanding his assertion that he is a panentheist. Finally, a tentative, preliminary survey of the extent to which pantheism is being taken up in American popular culture is presented. Nothwithstanding their professed antheism, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and Sam Harris are found to be examples of naturalistic pantheism. While a full evaluation of the extent to which pantheism is penetrating American culture must await further research, suggestive examples of pantheism in cyberspace, movies, television, popular music and even among purported atheists are presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Taylor, Bron.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022149:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022149/00001

Material Information

Title: The Only Paradise We Ever Need An Investigation into Pantheism's Sacred Geography in the Writings of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, and Matthew Fox, and a Preliminary Survey of Signs of Emerging Pantheism in American Culture
Physical Description: 1 online resource (113 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Religion -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Religion thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: I explore the definition and meaning of pantheism, and its related and contrasting concepts of theism, panentheism, atheism. Pantheism is identified as a concept of sacred geography that locates the sacred as penetrating the entire universe, but which does not indulge in speculation about a sacred dimension outside the space and time of this cosmos. Pantheism is divided into two categories: naturalistic pantheism and spiritualized pantheism. Panentheism acknowledges the sacred as penetrating all of this universe but still asserts a divinity that transcends this cosmos. Both of these concepts are contrasted with dualistic theism and nihilistic atheism. Specific explorations of the presence of pantheism in the work of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, Albert Einstein and Matthew Fox, are undertaken. Abbey is found to be a exemplar of naturalistic pantheism. Fox, in particular, is found to be pantheistic, notwithstanding his assertion that he is a panentheist. Finally, a tentative, preliminary survey of the extent to which pantheism is being taken up in American popular culture is presented. Nothwithstanding their professed antheism, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and Sam Harris are found to be examples of naturalistic pantheism. While a full evaluation of the extent to which pantheism is penetrating American culture must await further research, suggestive examples of pantheism in cyberspace, movies, television, popular music and even among purported atheists are presented.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Taylor, Bron.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022149:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101203_AAAACW INGEST_TIME 2010-12-03T18:19:04Z PACKAGE UFE0022149_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 1053954 DFID F20101203_AABGHS ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH zaleha_d_Page_082.tif GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
886e69e9e563112b8af07322ca39dfbd
SHA-1
85ce5cbfc0adf6e4af111e8a0b42aeb2d1bc12a2
F20101203_AABGIH zaleha_d_Page_102.tif
122979d03e852938e30a5b19363d86c9
227a488cc06b74769e3fd8ab7cf79bd1bc02003b
25271604 F20101203_AABGHT zaleha_d_Page_084.tif
f0727125e5bfb3ad5ade89fb93fcf462
7bbd141e234e20befe1c7919f614bb82f8cddafd
F20101203_AABGII zaleha_d_Page_103.tif
df4e95a270a45bd984e3958428374a6e
81c26f9fe1e50fb306c42250baaa6af2dbc31823
F20101203_AABGHU zaleha_d_Page_085.tif
06656328762eb634fff79bf2166cd04f
3fc68084a911f5ab79d3d5fa034a75840cf0f7b7
F20101203_AABGIJ zaleha_d_Page_104.tif
63782fb81c273631c147f42e213241b1
bde410e968804c337b38454e94bbdbbb7762d453
F20101203_AABGHV zaleha_d_Page_086.tif
f664499d0212e29bd25a9cd0fb1f2d95
c4610578c159a988e5aeebcee8ddc0502d234ccf
F20101203_AABGIK zaleha_d_Page_107.tif
afc0a2df057e991e3f72f89c834210b7
1deeaa8c9c3c6efafc156a81fa6624e0a452397d
F20101203_AABGHW zaleha_d_Page_087.tif
ebb0e73403ccf10457dda2ca6919c0bc
446ed37ecc3f7466fee2703e915d318bd48f1090
F20101203_AABGHX zaleha_d_Page_088.tif
5bcee888fe0413da86c42241d9761728
5b550c65badeaee45e8d2b21ad377532388af87f
59116 F20101203_AABGJA zaleha_d_Page_016.pro
188319e946dc51c1a78dfd0a730fc054
8116ee7bddd4528d280ac95ebbbf054b021595ec
F20101203_AABGIL zaleha_d_Page_108.tif
6ab04c590f0fb59c84b13c910d52e5a2
de3008e2a725776fc48eaf3e82d82d1037963830
F20101203_AABGHY zaleha_d_Page_090.tif
756da4390f6755dd95078dac924deaa4
7a3db50bca93b63478abb6e1a2bf3c17bd83cecd
54965 F20101203_AABGJB zaleha_d_Page_017.pro
2b49a9ee4912016b28a2a92fd711a16e
5ba5330985b2fe8cc59ff8ade16aab329bee5849
F20101203_AABGIM zaleha_d_Page_110.tif
2fed1a4d5b9b5f311e4fc78bf35048f4
54936a0084e5bae02500c1ed14071ae37847f5be
F20101203_AABGHZ zaleha_d_Page_091.tif
9345a8016b322f3cfe24e68903463c54
b941e3611a247f24b3eefb25836c78a975070632
56953 F20101203_AABGJC zaleha_d_Page_018.pro
4731f62c37358be3e439a54a6f8f6af7
2e0b87e4f2a7a526a7d3ca7c1cfe5500aecdc5a8
F20101203_AABGIN zaleha_d_Page_112.tif
e62df671019b0e7a33335ae401ddef37
05c16c34ee14a4cf52acfed3a91b2c82450c42c4
59707 F20101203_AABGJD zaleha_d_Page_019.pro
94b8859c31535de431291b815c66adfe
76fd1e2d6b41d739a39ff2fd0a4af56682645133
990 F20101203_AABGIO zaleha_d_Page_002.pro
2e85f8284ecbb8f28ca99bc115fac103
ca065f74109892eb68fde7483af95a1273b7bada
44969 F20101203_AABGJE zaleha_d_Page_022.pro
880caddc6f0c00f274ad2fd8de557063
d67015f4ec5d9c0a7c74ad880887084780645597
8640 F20101203_AABGIP zaleha_d_Page_003.pro
7760f8587f278e635f2b9bfeb405a09f
a9806a3351dffe89b3b4fc14f9ea9406720b8b75
73755 F20101203_AABGJF zaleha_d_Page_023.pro
e8d862476168432cc51d3b3d07afa721
cba6a43dc5c69c9c99baeb36750654ed251dac29
7403 F20101203_AABGIQ zaleha_d_Page_004.pro
90fb1e1bbb0335ee040a13a695d8d391
3baaa2483e86477700cb356ea1d6b3029ff2f160
71814 F20101203_AABGJG zaleha_d_Page_024.pro
125514a374d16c52f215aa45a5e905e5
9119fe47f07864d6b283622f4bffca6cc584269a
59959 F20101203_AABGIR zaleha_d_Page_005.pro
c979bd46aaa1b982ddfa42dd6175602e
aa0ad21907272fc5dc8bec2a3f2417baa27cbc5a
56033 F20101203_AABGJH zaleha_d_Page_025.pro
4ac10e4a9ca952b9aebe0dd17d7efefe
0e77d7ec54c03fcaba187d9299d70ea55c8f04f1
45915 F20101203_AABGIS zaleha_d_Page_006.pro
0c62cfb31e7b788246b551eb1d0f0607
5b8bc3b7461bbc292f0dbed23e7a2111c8539339
49324 F20101203_AABGJI zaleha_d_Page_026.pro
dc4f990b0418ef057fc57b795390ff30
9ef346a59bce89a1f4d0f381a963607b0c5af96d
6140 F20101203_AABGIT zaleha_d_Page_007.pro
00a3857ad99f7948a6df2d4b1bf05c07
5725f5f791bf7d5ee55945f58f94bc01d340d1bb
55330 F20101203_AABGJJ zaleha_d_Page_027.pro
ea74fc6a74b6d7d66063ca872006f868
537cadc41381f618b4c25e29d72f5c6c598e3d23
52714 F20101203_AABGIU zaleha_d_Page_008.pro
18209d955af990bed3395df6a986817e
2aea1d5114ba66d990469a80ad541b8ed0c3b4e9
60325 F20101203_AABGJK zaleha_d_Page_029.pro
d8db7926cc67594b29410a4a928d56c4
03f69cf651d3bd0c0a2b28d5abd1708f55e9daac
56890 F20101203_AABGIV zaleha_d_Page_011.pro
7ec88e6fd1ed5787647f7fa638470618
16b77c417a86f9245485f30df766fe1905a37976
67318 F20101203_AABGJL zaleha_d_Page_030.pro
f084915204e7d7b5642312f39a97a8d7
b72df9b6600332e8388087deb48cb6e4314006dd
6400 F20101203_AABGIW zaleha_d_Page_012.pro
0590109e2b18f9218ab3c37a46196e6b
f0b6c619bce12abdb15a3bdd2301dac3bd6d022b
62351 F20101203_AABGKA zaleha_d_Page_053.pro
a7367c68f8d81079320e819c513db29e
03fe08030d0d1f36dbd3a003943c08d68b354eb3
51795 F20101203_AABGIX zaleha_d_Page_013.pro
df254ff51cf08a340c9f5cd7e1c6437b
273b0b1a6e914f29e172caef493a0871f5e8abdc
81196 F20101203_AABGKB zaleha_d_Page_056.pro
93901e896436a2aff21068f5635c3634
12162116bcc666c858e846a0ee00e09ffd98346e
57028 F20101203_AABGJM zaleha_d_Page_031.pro
14143f8180fa194a086c3ad06631992e
7b4e951495d55987743b92ddbaeb4988e5b9482a
47705 F20101203_AABGIY zaleha_d_Page_014.pro
31268e59f0d30032b582b351321825fc
c350c3d38474cfd8b81396def8571b28b8788983
38217 F20101203_AABGKC zaleha_d_Page_057.pro
e28566c99529ca18f75038616a67f722
19039f0ebea3acc9dd09a105992de13d8e9220a8
54228 F20101203_AABGJN zaleha_d_Page_034.pro
d84529863f1cd266bdbc73780e9fc262
fe87814d5e6387d4e47bfd75d84caa441d4592b1
50469 F20101203_AABGIZ zaleha_d_Page_015.pro
94fb68bb49d3ff717860293dc0e6cc46
2dc1a2cd1beff4070c3cdd231e0b11ac9af9b6ec
47478 F20101203_AABGKD zaleha_d_Page_058.pro
ad8d94b1c9a0d70c65d592c0ba9420db
b85511a3945cd9de3c88912d60ce87227abb703c
71959 F20101203_AABGJO zaleha_d_Page_036.pro
bd30b94142dcf9b0d54cec8931c1d985
8b0274edc80ecdf3180c2443bff9b2007d37cbf6
52134 F20101203_AABGKE zaleha_d_Page_060.pro
52cefada2f5dfb3ad97ebfa66d860965
e269845073f05fec84db51a0935e3fdf9cd19c6e
59160 F20101203_AABGJP zaleha_d_Page_037.pro
3e186b8efd91d48146eb406d7ab3b332
76bf254b02d8206f8a19273610d7d124adc66a36
48436 F20101203_AABGKF zaleha_d_Page_061.pro
e2cc62fd0a5d80458b06fbb178cdf3cf
8ad4197c9f7019b5bfb5431595f27dbbe6a759d0
55014 F20101203_AABGJQ zaleha_d_Page_039.pro
fddf4f1b0e1940a23766d88eb0e7741d
33891a5f94aab32ccc3c11eacd8db263ebaab646
83237 F20101203_AABGKG zaleha_d_Page_062.pro
ab5fd8cb4f5ee57f8db880b57d22714c
a21159506026c27384db3a8ef0402f7a6c3edd33
57605 F20101203_AABGJR zaleha_d_Page_040.pro
098f394acf2048dc27174bcc4319120a
7d79911f2b48d4c99475aa329286ef91b31ddb38
59398 F20101203_AABGKH zaleha_d_Page_063.pro
919d92496a8783b4cb8c8ef3a85729f0
10be9b6f22b5481f4976d4d7edf6ea63b9a77ec5
53699 F20101203_AABGJS zaleha_d_Page_044.pro
1f1eab00b624c1867def7d12e82f45fe
26726d8bcb4806e09bf41bb83ed3508de5e347ab
60071 F20101203_AABGJT zaleha_d_Page_045.pro
3ab6baf4b1d3b1d444d71a14c42be857
69102102b28808c1f4ca55258cbfe31c0411d399
54019 F20101203_AABGKI zaleha_d_Page_064.pro
e46f38911486d6541dcb24c80681a587
beecdf6b350635417a536c93bd0cca11a65d1c35
57414 F20101203_AABGJU zaleha_d_Page_046.pro
2ec389bc114e0108c70a22b6044a929f
7202148bcd995a7abc4d06609a8e4a74435610a0
67522 F20101203_AABGKJ zaleha_d_Page_066.pro
28bcc93ae32f47bfab5595d82bb37db6
cd0fd1dc5c21bfec8e1e54090ab954911f8d7a31
69812 F20101203_AABGJV zaleha_d_Page_047.pro
28adae14968d629aa8fe4ab320a52ef6
10a1ccde07551b0b61164de6d96454f6a9fca150
53401 F20101203_AABGKK zaleha_d_Page_067.pro
d53e034277a1a868a1500bd76dd32289
cdca391f13c018e9e0ec35405208d54479267051
78325 F20101203_AABGJW zaleha_d_Page_048.pro
ed62ebb49648a966893cf980c8947e30
7881b5d430a868d33015eee7d5707dfc08490f4b
51397 F20101203_AABGKL zaleha_d_Page_069.pro
8cf3b52d7195de26ff0c4182e2767a4d
76389599c23fa96f8372fbfa96efc87edf2c6624
36553 F20101203_AABGJX zaleha_d_Page_050.pro
0140b53ecaadb10d2916f7b377f385cb
16a7903313473590b67fa174189f97c74a14dfdc
84854 F20101203_AABGLA zaleha_d_Page_089.pro
f7b638ad0410a50b2be92e51fb3ae58b
f11bbc23b256d082b1886cb6d11a98588f61d7bb
53602 F20101203_AABGKM zaleha_d_Page_070.pro
32e0a7f5a3156579d8c397cdc94329ae
6e3fa2b151b225623e364ec39efbc1761e8d4641
59422 F20101203_AABGJY zaleha_d_Page_051.pro
6a2a5798c120da72eee4e3aa1c866f22
d622e3fb056bbabb30a193070964f38bf07e4f44
58256 F20101203_AABGLB zaleha_d_Page_090.pro
f257d24e0710977e0077559d750a52ec
631b5b02e8b455307412496fdbfbd5d909d5026d
54878 F20101203_AABGJZ zaleha_d_Page_052.pro
08e9c33d2f29314d4786dc6ed6d2fb69
7c88d89181f88f2a76f8d93d52121da1ac7b5969
50031 F20101203_AABGLC zaleha_d_Page_091.pro
cee7cd5e0f716d8b7fafdd269e2965e6
a660df5c14a80e41588a211b0de224273e29db9d
55355 F20101203_AABGKN zaleha_d_Page_071.pro
53beeec169aabdaf514e3163e771771b
e56c4b135b7eb52da53e69fa50eb4e247b2117a1
44585 F20101203_AABGLD zaleha_d_Page_094.pro
9162f12c1c17d78ed861c43246b0b243
70dc1c3c9623f67880926719054b2e0d811f9f5e
54550 F20101203_AABGKO zaleha_d_Page_072.pro
215fa93febf863373aad153da9801ddc
45e3097b84cb578ade3617697f935b803f1e87ee
44504 F20101203_AABGLE zaleha_d_Page_095.pro
792bea59fd08dd7f8ccb7fa7cede9f40
a80ff81c6a9f00d4b1042fd2ba545d91951a6770
71130 F20101203_AABGKP zaleha_d_Page_073.pro
a3da62ea77417db2ca704d38763cee91
be1e34afe3de8bef6f973bb78bcf7a0a57d609f3
50091 F20101203_AABGLF zaleha_d_Page_097.pro
129dcfc943d9459aef2553a537494130
467a1ca4e30d68c199727a8f7a0a7797739cafd1
55147 F20101203_AABGKQ zaleha_d_Page_075.pro
3a66cfd2775e5182e78b76e436f38c83
2c786c2fee5f9c41b3cd251cca46bda44c110481
52979 F20101203_AABGLG zaleha_d_Page_099.pro
fb77a99d71f7d390bcba9f8792c24cf5
d32c213b54c95c04bc5d0b30043e8dff7e1b46f4
54887 F20101203_AABGKR zaleha_d_Page_076.pro
7d350205a934f4ad10a17d6bedf83b03
9c479ad4d8a85134f9ae5c04550d6c1bbd8ce990
79546 F20101203_AABGLH zaleha_d_Page_100.pro
6b8d0c08071e1d452c9fb6ec08e362e2
87173be040eca72c586546dfcc8e52dc44cc5f7c
34326 F20101203_AABGKS zaleha_d_Page_077.pro
84a6985498d6203014ec2fa999657f2e
8c3fbde1b3ebb2894512995f9dd229ae9a3d3717
59269 F20101203_AABGLI zaleha_d_Page_101.pro
09ecf1dfb22b00ad48c8bd20d8d83b88
f1e2d2c42e07cc93496e3a3465e20f436fc231f8
55562 F20101203_AABGKT zaleha_d_Page_078.pro
f1d1417a89440773351adfbec1851502
bde3d349dbbcc5a7a375ebd69262306468cb88c1
9613 F20101203_AABGLJ zaleha_d_Page_102.pro
666b431f72c99af3279e46a1b350f423
ede45f16c85b4e902400d5e1d25a15739ff83250
52202 F20101203_AABGKU zaleha_d_Page_081.pro
5525bf6492d9a3131748c9d58dae1ae4
24b1d858aa7f1db4482a3ed4806ded1a854df709
51520 F20101203_AABGLK zaleha_d_Page_103.pro
7695ed328e007ab6d3a1f9b35da18a1c
0a1e8d0253d4e41dfabcf3bbd465594aa86f552c
58841 F20101203_AABGKV zaleha_d_Page_082.pro
a432c1c028ae051f81ce4cb56ca09c97
159a342b5526d56ef662286fcff266835397ac84
53549 F20101203_AABGLL zaleha_d_Page_106.pro
57e01fa5dff191407101f9c08663d519
56c63d6bb0dc3895e301e6387cfe6b58b0924e81
53765 F20101203_AABGKW zaleha_d_Page_083.pro
98d635af46f5927c7b486496f69b5442
d4d07c430eecd3a3fee26dda340478a50600dc21
2020 F20101203_AABGMA zaleha_d_Page_015.txt
41c2ab22874d2bc859bd488ef5803e82
89a99dbf0a2699d8d478c4df038c042c9e4fa679
50551 F20101203_AABGLM zaleha_d_Page_108.pro
17fd6f9cc8216b53ceaad4e43e106b56
272e130ecf2b7061971507d91b8a553a7eaff89c
67819 F20101203_AABGKX zaleha_d_Page_085.pro
cb19f1e0fc928e37862d50eac66625ad
da523001ea73fdfae67d2e9356c8ec4f9e6852ae
2311 F20101203_AABGMB zaleha_d_Page_016.txt
6d7634bd93695b0510fb5fe7486e697b
29990f9d6bcc4e24670c3f34f8004090804f8360
54603 F20101203_AABGLN zaleha_d_Page_109.pro
32960b8fc99fdc8f72ae84b97872cb7a
c723f52c436762275c8eb962d7f455a3bcfabd3b
65878 F20101203_AABGKY zaleha_d_Page_086.pro
2a5c252d9c410f2e3992a57ee8e80941
4be22ae155f77ecc1924f5d9c556e27185f1f09f
2174 F20101203_AABGMC zaleha_d_Page_017.txt
616346aa1a72505a4b3f3353e970cc7c
6d46e23bda4ba80a295b4c1e1fdba26b1e4e8915
54518 F20101203_AABGKZ zaleha_d_Page_087.pro
fcafa4e962230697fcc9601a7208b86f
078df4ee15f77244a3235ef8af644d167ae3a4ba
2238 F20101203_AABGMD zaleha_d_Page_018.txt
fb7802a784d1dc5fac4944efe6f0d8b9
0a3e1a912ce6bcc775231188713fd191a77ce42c
56450 F20101203_AABGLO zaleha_d_Page_110.pro
28e83e800542b0b098097d57db612ee1
1f295cfe4f35cedf1caf1e97cdb9ce88376684aa
1996 F20101203_AABGME zaleha_d_Page_020.txt
0a8b9dec668cf4fe548a7e331fca4820
27c227d6478cdf28451627df3bd7017dce4ff995
42332 F20101203_AABGLP zaleha_d_Page_112.pro
07db0e8e81d2fcb3e5847f2e8fd4938a
b9b3b73bc818bc5682f3f757874b3348de7c33b6
2169 F20101203_AABGMF zaleha_d_Page_021.txt
8b0a51f77f2b221c03167bcdc8cc4aec
5eb87f7d157940ff94aaa116e7f9eeb1de3c9f71
623 F20101203_AABGLQ zaleha_d_Page_001.txt
fcdab39d98a4fa9d785b36e3941fc100
5026b4b18c4e26cca2ebb73628c50f926b832c5a
1794 F20101203_AABGMG zaleha_d_Page_022.txt
850d69e7bc9407bdc2a3190296fbc7ae
6bbb78915695fb26e5aa339edaa5edc0fbdd5439
94 F20101203_AABGLR zaleha_d_Page_002.txt
b541e25026835074f689e083f31ba5b7
970a6a3434b6b3abd6987403b3c1ee910135928f
2957 F20101203_AABGMH zaleha_d_Page_023.txt
518fe4aa1f888b1292e586683120b96b
5b0d44a11aa87faa04424044aca06e49f0d466af
336 F20101203_AABGLS zaleha_d_Page_004.txt
78a9747667cbae666e695b815e3eeba1
838957de3a932b9a5845980187eadcc2ef71b3e8
2825 F20101203_AABGMI zaleha_d_Page_024.txt
7f784b77e62868769ec78df4a874dfa1
4d0b1d731e14a7ef815a713ee311e99db2afd758
2501 F20101203_AABGLT zaleha_d_Page_005.txt
d33130f1c38fe9d8ec7d190508c80405
28316ebcb6563745fb38c5cd597771c09f71064c
2373 F20101203_AABGMJ zaleha_d_Page_025.txt
b5d23b957558e192a6e76b3d0658ea9a
0dcc6cbf3263e9ce49592a852b5cf1095083ab5e
2560 F20101203_AABGLU zaleha_d_Page_009.txt
7b7da925c107caeec222944bdc325648
89a9e17f93b3b5dcf996c34e9cb332e28d2d0416
2014 F20101203_AABGMK zaleha_d_Page_026.txt
12c837898c7ad5cf1cd8b027c615cf10
8756c318b583d416bfb35869a9e68dfab4c695c6
2826 F20101203_AABGLV zaleha_d_Page_010.txt
ed1479fbe1f052f08d87f165bfdfbe7e
e9e73d2030dd9f4f5418dca056b5a91044c9dfc1
2516 F20101203_AABGML zaleha_d_Page_027.txt
072b5ffdac1635f72b1807576f136aa0
24c67a1ccc8c29787be49cb73930b978a4d0fe0d
2240 F20101203_AABGLW zaleha_d_Page_011.txt
a307b28c59bbaf865ae2d7f4dce5446d
640bfc5e786fc7dd34b744af1347f276c6332b1e
2178 F20101203_AABGMM zaleha_d_Page_028.txt
e5f3ef9c09c08e3010e33edb14db333b
139981db554b8531b637a58db8d2cffc95f1dd7e
257 F20101203_AABGLX zaleha_d_Page_012.txt
39b04f54b427446ad6a59530cb432f9b
f1036e4c801f31d469f967039ce9644201b3eaae
2364 F20101203_AABGNA zaleha_d_Page_045.txt
1881e498bff97165beeed1aeddc74e36
33656f32909e5f46af5e89936c66185d1539317a
2479 F20101203_AABGMN zaleha_d_Page_029.txt
bf01b4b19dc6c1d6206d02d99bc440b5
9c8f4709e5bb917075bf1bfd41944f33194e27d6
2137 F20101203_AABGLY zaleha_d_Page_013.txt
5479f801e8841ec8195237915d47b76a
5f1822dd76d730498b097fc37404d190ff2d82ba
2362 F20101203_AABGNB zaleha_d_Page_046.txt
47c203f6d3513821b0c2c82b3c51a99e
a761e65614a0e978ad81e2580a8d884efec58f7d
2657 F20101203_AABGMO zaleha_d_Page_030.txt
ebc3dfc502808283235292dfa33d4975
2c055805d6f0f90c2770617ece230451887aaed6
1910 F20101203_AABGLZ zaleha_d_Page_014.txt
0d797b5721a445ad224014263c425025
01b8a0aaabbefcd163cbbbc6485dd7e046fd7896
2798 F20101203_AABGNC zaleha_d_Page_047.txt
b2c097bf9dd688982e7499f4c5326c18
3765d0bab0fd32a632f73812b861d080fd4f5bfb
3146 F20101203_AABGND zaleha_d_Page_048.txt
8b97d5231cf6f2383b76b49ba3cea0d4
daf1d895e594107297085d0a97345509f8e3c4f9
2244 F20101203_AABGMP zaleha_d_Page_031.txt
f46bf9def401c372abacd8b8a6f66fdf
32a66cedeec67d36630e93ede1cdf5db99889338
2544 F20101203_AABGNE zaleha_d_Page_049.txt
aecdb22741a4665065dd2ca0a4d51ce3
babee5ffb2ada31d65a00db03e5f21076d3bb2dd
3331 F20101203_AABGMQ zaleha_d_Page_032.txt
12ddbb18466c16d1ceb02cc4384a6d5e
b2cee99f988a2cd03431c2e89fd52251b563bd19
1444 F20101203_AABGNF zaleha_d_Page_050.txt
d509076b8124d4a330c42dd88de40b7a
25b88437a3ed7b8052c746edaef3f1f4b51671c8
2148 F20101203_AABGMR zaleha_d_Page_034.txt
d816eacb3f1adcf2f5a190563afea210
586dda2b6045be6eacf12b527166d3dd4e7eea5a
2413 F20101203_AABGNG zaleha_d_Page_051.txt
6b2dd719888c8e93b49d1a658b2cc077
646b37aceb8d2348603cab3b98b9d71e16659747
2735 F20101203_AABGMS zaleha_d_Page_035.txt
1777fcbab95db78e66efec171bc137f0
fbd9d9ff70ec84c46e68fd942c360ee9aa647ef1
F20101203_AABGNH zaleha_d_Page_052.txt
296e644061f78e85abd9499789ddc116
3347b9e9f9389bd62c50ffe25f98a743f0df7a2a
2338 F20101203_AABGMT zaleha_d_Page_037.txt
8d4575cecbc3f94ee6fb277d036eb6e3
786a5d280de9ee3b112dd4879010f63a3e72a251
2608 F20101203_AABGNI zaleha_d_Page_053.txt
b24acf33eb7864259933e199d5bdb2a6
aac18136f1cb746a20b358f968625aba260d6704
2810 F20101203_AABGMU zaleha_d_Page_038.txt
dd2171f88fe3ed0707fa5ef765ee7618
0e54a6160db9653e6a639af3bed0e57e765ee251
3050 F20101203_AABGNJ zaleha_d_Page_054.txt
3ce4275ba88fe57bd2073712d1c483ec
83fc14afd21976c4b06cb7f8ba43f5f8ede47ce7
2234 F20101203_AABGMV zaleha_d_Page_039.txt
ac0ed9e33cb63c5ba92c006dad3afe92
6785cc077b7f8b0503a17537b1bc180380f5cfa3
3415 F20101203_AABGNK zaleha_d_Page_055.txt
5f34924f40e05160b2c882cd0c96a448
a981c339b28137644d7868fe268d0951c500c114
3007 F20101203_AABGMW zaleha_d_Page_041.txt
b0621f5d0beedcf2b382f7e0383b9fb5
e66d9db878522ba99ae7643981831fa591edf090
1554 F20101203_AABGNL zaleha_d_Page_057.txt
70fa796a0e21c264053a56b82b88a531
bd4b24f641e51e889d74cf735e54151a6787b29d
3509 F20101203_AABGMX zaleha_d_Page_042.txt
6df61ce12fbeba0ec1d957b310051c81
c0921b1c00fb890192c91a6065d558f2aecab96d
2645 F20101203_AABGOA zaleha_d_Page_085.txt
6b8c6942e653b301573eb546963f10da
f896cc8ba19cda0c835739fe6f2f55e0d37d886b
1968 F20101203_AABGNM zaleha_d_Page_058.txt
8fa3c14dda18776c5b55656fa18da6c9
8ce2e717d9e7696a7c795f32bf7dbc20df7e308b
1963 F20101203_AABGMY zaleha_d_Page_043.txt
534a3bdb1cff2f21372eb596e040680b
e0a5086a090c760767bb1fd2d1284c803539fdc0
2889 F20101203_AABGOB zaleha_d_Page_086.txt
ad0cc26634d5a311525e01d8fb3d075c
e618203722c17cfe24665c9194596c6dd0fd66e1
2173 F20101203_AABGNN zaleha_d_Page_060.txt
a2a1aa45507a3739ee87bc9bb1e7e133
9908a449d072f2a33a54d22a9b075b8980a5bdb6
2202 F20101203_AABGMZ zaleha_d_Page_044.txt
ccb5b3b55a17240c2da54ddc416d0def
4312f689f3fe975231b18c83292ea6334f17d6cb
2171 F20101203_AABGOC zaleha_d_Page_087.txt
2476e9fd9c643adcda31d8aa478c0613
39b96375c696fd58d7b035faa52bf5c055e575a1
1939 F20101203_AABGNO zaleha_d_Page_061.txt
d28b407c707281fad4444c72ef5a7a2d
4fa1f6df53e1a8bcee2b1e52c6e99b033f626277
2125 F20101203_AABGOD zaleha_d_Page_088.txt
a567b7b6c8bff3b59c7533d78e629560
27a2d0c66fd70a54646b1f67912cbe0126eedf9c
3493 F20101203_AABGNP zaleha_d_Page_062.txt
6498b1790707d5b222e6c4e6cf334ac3
f8a9412a479430cb8dd2d3c720a0bc8127a6d3d2
3382 F20101203_AABGOE zaleha_d_Page_089.txt
5cac111d4f01d987606ab192fb180ef2
e6d6b1c60773802947815c5dcba922e2a5562258
2006 F20101203_AABGOF zaleha_d_Page_091.txt
45a4311e9991bb99cc2b7bf79618aa16
fee38be08575e15cd2cf50eec9d73ec60c7ca5f9
2472 F20101203_AABGNQ zaleha_d_Page_063.txt
4248c364fd5144acea3eff381b37c8d5
ca945edfa260bea49602e0416c77bc92d0d215b5
2066 F20101203_AABGOG zaleha_d_Page_093.txt
a04585a435246d1852a1e0d2d3c7478c
6f3575f418a4f993bd0a4d60872a6b1cd554e3a6
2079 F20101203_AABGNR zaleha_d_Page_065.txt
fd5b739dfc8be5fd3cc393bebc0964ed
094bae64d8c2b887b792b5cac3ea831f173aa9dc
2030 F20101203_AABGOH zaleha_d_Page_095.txt
12d566c945cd56d27489f2fca173a210
7a8755c2ed906efca4d60a5fd34a0a8ecd46f31f
2184 F20101203_AABGNS zaleha_d_Page_067.txt
cd6c3e540ef336c1202062e603f4855f
7ec5e012d1cbc4b4574bb62d6474c50cbf2d124a
1926 F20101203_AABGOI zaleha_d_Page_096.txt
8130f625981c4a7a08239d20346ee2fa
086c54571fded67e4f5ae784aa04f41bb0f32696
2405 F20101203_AABGNT zaleha_d_Page_068.txt
c8ad585613212d21cbbcb838fdebde46
f9d05778b508357d59498c83e56435f87728f956
2313 F20101203_AABGOJ zaleha_d_Page_097.txt
216175b6262f2198e665d0c1779265f9
7547fc8c9b2490cd392b316851eb67f518a4b6f8
2165 F20101203_AABGNU zaleha_d_Page_072.txt
cdf0b1dcd7e25e196495e145a64b5c21
e0e8435e2be40acb1fe8e64415cb3f6a0346bc50
2037 F20101203_AABGOK zaleha_d_Page_098.txt
3476d4b50043933b8589a281f049ea40
04f877279846b69080df160ee7009dddcd84c126
1384 F20101203_AABGNV zaleha_d_Page_077.txt
14d1d73c2ebf88eacf6059ffe3c7503b
50fbb2a48b6cff808b26d288f28e2ad0991201bf
2111 F20101203_AABGOL zaleha_d_Page_099.txt
a0f4b0d3cac437443b10fe15b6ff5732
1d4585fe0d58b5c131de7e847b9369fe3fb4e0e5
2403 F20101203_AABGNW zaleha_d_Page_078.txt
3c83cc7b9c8d6a5b0c107779cdfcbfcb
721fb7e747a024fa8de255f3100dc95226be6d32
511 F20101203_AABGPA zaleha_d_Page_002thm.jpg
eb8da0ab069ecc9e722fcf5717d024d8
f597ea66b5c770631a837b223a902becc5f93176
3367 F20101203_AABGOM zaleha_d_Page_100.txt
a2b83a82dc0e052e4219ea92b99b4a67
2f2a706817bfc862570cf0055c87ea67a5407382
2118 F20101203_AABGNX zaleha_d_Page_080.txt
ca2e82e89ddfb786024eabf5943120be
47fcc8b8e30dab528ca36f4556399d3d9d0b90f3
5300 F20101203_AABGPB zaleha_d_Page_003.QC.jpg
59d2e48a5a3106104fe012e05c3d8b36
4123d779c8643e52e38b843e3684d7ae4078b246
2421 F20101203_AABGON zaleha_d_Page_101.txt
ee704392c51de9aa193b3e3583dc5eb2
0d9084420c8a2f770c4e26554b21f957830aedfd
2406 F20101203_AABGNY zaleha_d_Page_082.txt
39fcbc6e15339c312cefe14ad0704083
c6441667d01f77bde9cbb0b2f78a8d25522ad628
1430 F20101203_AABGPC zaleha_d_Page_003thm.jpg
fb2205cdadab696e544129a3c61e1b49
e707c4c50c4f04a1b90f0dcd1fe04cafa44f2a7d
383 F20101203_AABGOO zaleha_d_Page_102.txt
abe908fcd1653bc5b707ea5d61041c71
fc810355235c2ea8bc74acb8d8c08ab9d0f50b1a
2147 F20101203_AABGNZ zaleha_d_Page_084.txt
86111d696b9ae092960d96196745fd28
8b28a11e1ff6d4a1f83c76aeca8dd964976955f5
6287 F20101203_AABGPD zaleha_d_Page_004.QC.jpg
8d7cc2523078e740d5665cc33f0473b6
19ebb78c21359cde1321c07ad74fea49135ffe23
2126 F20101203_AABGOP zaleha_d_Page_103.txt
3123b7d86a6b3130c4ee3d7af0099e2e
49b779805ca00b4af81864d2f1e642b3ac893967
1866 F20101203_AABGPE zaleha_d_Page_004thm.jpg
d2f290e79ca8c077bff2e709e0e44200
d977bd4cfc0d49162ee3ead56e3dae2336471a45
784 F20101203_AABGOQ zaleha_d_Page_104.txt
2884bd22dafae30a0183fba4de89bb59
2499e947d87ed978be0e956b6eb7754967e68b76
25883 F20101203_AABGPF zaleha_d_Page_005.QC.jpg
c44ad4a30ff33d042ae40fe35000b937
96af6b16cb53b009ffb7deb0d967d69a2486e951
F20101203_AABGOR zaleha_d_Page_106.txt
850c6e6d6af24b716c8717df23405824
b36851e500d9c43ceb4753b1f975deb48db72335
6378 F20101203_AABGPG zaleha_d_Page_005thm.jpg
ce7cb793ad96c064b603f07dc0aa02a2
28247e3e6e3b509f304c4e930c5f3108bd59818a
2122 F20101203_AABGOS zaleha_d_Page_107.txt
82fea02d7d50ee924ed57d6cb03246ab
1025c0a45910ee5ebf419ebf3da1e646e0f8eca5
30282 F20101203_AABGPH zaleha_d_Page_006.QC.jpg
a76eacae41db7c0d95cc81466ce21a78
372f8801caecac4de3be3a87eabf179e1b5a3182
2207 F20101203_AABGOT zaleha_d_Page_109.txt
0123cd12a6f913c3c8d57bd720a49287
a078cbf9e3efb0e2c6bd7b33bea5043b4d67e126
5698 F20101203_AABGPI zaleha_d_Page_007.QC.jpg
185d023ecbda725a229fddb644853d0e
4fbe41706ab545d47ec512e7ebcaa37cbd08607c
2462 F20101203_AABGOU zaleha_d_Page_111.txt
76ee4d5c95c85eefcde6b022b7feeeb9
5ba9f3052431ae95ecdb844adb78409cb41116fd
35144 F20101203_AABGPJ zaleha_d_Page_008.QC.jpg
71146c4659e22f60da7be6d86e43c7e0
26d3f8055d018ad09dee8e8bb77d98b97801a7e7
1626 F20101203_AABGOV zaleha_d_Page_113.txt
734ca77f85daccce61afae9fba90ff2a
91e7bc77011a6f780506cbb922c45def52265040
8548 F20101203_AABGPK zaleha_d_Page_008thm.jpg
bc6f4c2f21f503f2ae65a14176a99539
2f84b496ee8e4116874bef4b0985077e99d64608
496619 F20101203_AABGOW zaleha_d.pdf
cf1005ebaf47280770d540a13a460f3c
1a9ad0d2e0fc61824b2fa649c30d45abc3d12e87
36783 F20101203_AABGPL zaleha_d_Page_009.QC.jpg
af1aeb95b73fd6f3e3a099d5ed67fe43
8b8dd489c632041c37ced23b78ad7ce8e6665277
131701 F20101203_AABGOX UFE0022149_00001.mets FULL
a9c018fb6a540b949f1f492a3ce2768e
68dcd176cde45af5ba224d0b5eac9b9fa2e58703
35391 F20101203_AABGQA zaleha_d_Page_018.QC.jpg
143ed9ab4224476d7d15c29570afde09
6715d1dbcccda5e7c507ca227bfb24542f3ba752
8939 F20101203_AABGPM zaleha_d_Page_009thm.jpg
15cd9b1fdf7da4e0334e6299cee13e7e
5b775ae7a77a7a9832fb7e111dba31852b9e7fb0
10684 F20101203_AABGOY zaleha_d_Page_001.QC.jpg
cc4a91ea7ac732799e83a130597a28bc
5acc6dd08e511abbe6daf061ec507c25d0f70f74
9075 F20101203_AABGQB zaleha_d_Page_019thm.jpg
8737e4b2e0f032b06e8577d064ec5af8
5cf56c2679e6b0eea0a932ba95026daaee4b3ac9
33619 F20101203_AABGPN zaleha_d_Page_010.QC.jpg
5e3e777f3ca53d5fdbbd97997b2cd911
7759f81ae550a3ae199b15e3cdb4980bc1111efa
1243 F20101203_AABGOZ zaleha_d_Page_002.QC.jpg
a22e4b8dfdc79c46163094c27bc05ae4
dfa6ce0fbf2f35e2e614f1eca36cf0ac6ad94df9
31242 F20101203_AABGQC zaleha_d_Page_020.QC.jpg
db82b63ad69d6086f81058a57f4b0fa1
44176039fa86e78583e92312729d4243ebc04730
36751 F20101203_AABGPO zaleha_d_Page_011.QC.jpg
813b789dd93ef3dad4825979ff355444
5f83c4ab4284cfa85ada32c5c65cab02ba2bba64
7916 F20101203_AABGQD zaleha_d_Page_020thm.jpg
a68f00441b7952c9905c673059968d94
087e6d77d9d0c166dc4368a5237c0d6f53d359e4
9103 F20101203_AABGPP zaleha_d_Page_011thm.jpg
46ee6891460f9794ac730d5f4ab421fa
2200b577f21238f1c265067a05060799789f3488
8892 F20101203_AABGQE zaleha_d_Page_021thm.jpg
fb76b1d45bb64a4464bab190d524332d
b6f2f096421465130a4ecf46e0940e4231d7ecb1
1495 F20101203_AABGPQ zaleha_d_Page_012thm.jpg
9e07af134704df749f7e1c84e4d3064d
449544bbf8cd3723afe971396621469d0100aa15
29521 F20101203_AABGQF zaleha_d_Page_022.QC.jpg
c7b53d0df638db3febbb6d6c88a0030a
40708d2ad1827d194619c93e02233e97c376bb8b
31836 F20101203_AABGPR zaleha_d_Page_013.QC.jpg
6c5de3b21aedd3bd2133161dd3abadfa
c8b2cc7c8d67eb1a9d933ecec1b047e8fe59bee6
40293 F20101203_AABGQG zaleha_d_Page_023.QC.jpg
664ab0d94ca027e2db8c98780c2e6d98
28931f9d1198322a965ea0be87e23a448cf0944e
39068 F20101203_AABGQH zaleha_d_Page_024.QC.jpg
6d891a8b721fcf0e8ea5685d2e897297
638a60d2bde3b99e746c8d8d2ad0b219db549f3b
8373 F20101203_AABGPS zaleha_d_Page_013thm.jpg
99dc14afbd728a0ae7e7dc5f1e605bf1
793a959b7255527c1fd9d6f708474ba61086ae1e
9401 F20101203_AABGQI zaleha_d_Page_024thm.jpg
91a6265bb87be2b6b886cc2261de6e0a
d60cc68f52ad05c617e9593bdd1d3ca02c20a51c
31711 F20101203_AABGPT zaleha_d_Page_014.QC.jpg
f8cfd0fe214bb304a8bd5546ad83d3a2
46df002ec0d76d68b0bf446506a05e9d0487998d
33099 F20101203_AABGQJ zaleha_d_Page_025.QC.jpg
b2587ff720ab61499a39e07ac52a54b2
c248a73dc068c7fc1e35f8a33be32133f5ac8005
32307 F20101203_AABGPU zaleha_d_Page_015.QC.jpg
ff9d5978307109d7b7a60eebe7c0bf37
b1e0e912b767760e2ab07a00787aa7ccd486d298
30944 F20101203_AABGQK zaleha_d_Page_026.QC.jpg
10e759978f15034a921bac5ccb66f712
4aa65bafda151576236c6079697bfc77190c528a
8237 F20101203_AABGPV zaleha_d_Page_015thm.jpg
2d8e2e3e8d69987a7c2409ee96ae0ea2
36c5d330faf39c28de13eb3ecca804ee515991ea
8349 F20101203_AABGQL zaleha_d_Page_026thm.jpg
3569a85cf7eda478b581d20a3b64d5f2
ad38178794c79ca0dd856ea0a53fe049f7c1741a
36918 F20101203_AABGPW zaleha_d_Page_016.QC.jpg
4591280b1d5fe3b280362752bc1317b2
6131dfadbeefe76a759329192017b8693f7d134e
41662 F20101203_AABGRA zaleha_d_Page_035.QC.jpg
e6a80dba06563dd53f4b4a8fad420a80
8a6a2864a4efcfda31cf830fa41fe2849d573242
32064 F20101203_AABGQM zaleha_d_Page_027.QC.jpg
b7b58565acc7d095b35db30e17c268ff
1853182c17940a32c2fe05078dde5abfee6869ea
9284 F20101203_AABGPX zaleha_d_Page_016thm.jpg
863e4e2aff198b80de61d2a1b59fce8a
53796a5412f02d17f10a977c73e8e266068bbc21
10057 F20101203_AABGRB zaleha_d_Page_035thm.jpg
1af9d146ce3440d1bbaa57d91eed2628
996f8e5ff364775551bbe20543a0f1dc645b1915
7945 F20101203_AABGQN zaleha_d_Page_027thm.jpg
b1d6dd2901d6ccad1cad9c6ba204a8b9
25b25b0f1540999de186c3c94c1034c4f1761fc5
34829 F20101203_AABGPY zaleha_d_Page_017.QC.jpg
3322f41714d4363b40bd11064776b6f7
7087fe98a6ef96de5848cc7afaf3e0258640cb9a
38113 F20101203_AABGRC zaleha_d_Page_036.QC.jpg
fa881a354a41d79ebfa5aaf86906df10
b92e6b77352ae8c865c747ba5368b507a8713d00
37199 F20101203_AABGQO zaleha_d_Page_028.QC.jpg
9741bff3ee72e4028a875ca13f206ca4
e376fe0fa35bac5b02847e3638e41023a63bf68a
8536 F20101203_AABGPZ zaleha_d_Page_017thm.jpg
04d648161bdef0bf5e5073e4d25f54c3
650576b7c8f617e2d6766bbc3568ede240525074
8958 F20101203_AABGRD zaleha_d_Page_036thm.jpg
75731e9b1932cc0e7ccf978be923fed4
3125c1490021bbca8095317efc1888ad9e64f1d3
36314 F20101203_AABGQP zaleha_d_Page_029.QC.jpg
26b372621903c8e65b0491a94d7dc5f7
2011fafc44671781f8faa71b1267a01423818709
36837 F20101203_AABGRE zaleha_d_Page_037.QC.jpg
b36a846595c23445fffbf2cfaee8f5fc
eebb9e24eca926be5b7afddbd89faed47f32a6a8
F20101203_AABGQQ zaleha_d_Page_030.QC.jpg
c1870b7ef3ab1142f743ede6122e9881
f72fe9895a7c225fad09614e1eba9386ad3736da
9198 F20101203_AABGRF zaleha_d_Page_037thm.jpg
102767e1e71132a93fad06b5a0053d98
a365503f3ce74930659cb69c2464c0a27ba5c891
8998 F20101203_AABGQR zaleha_d_Page_030thm.jpg
b77597754d926bf7869221a4f8e2ec3f
c7ae36a84b6ffadfa973764a5414788d983c4774
37944 F20101203_AABGRG zaleha_d_Page_038.QC.jpg
284ff2f0bd6e4b459344e790a6b7b164
7a1bd0e1fa9096f3ec22651a62ba686fb3528162
37823 F20101203_AABGQS zaleha_d_Page_031.QC.jpg
08da55552f3f9b780e84722fc531d7e2
5d77538b5be164531e869ec5f0680a9b5b7f7c10
8955 F20101203_AABGRH zaleha_d_Page_038thm.jpg
b0eb41affb71d9e9e6bf850b69663e15
719d47de474f5d2562650da1abc16d15d24a896b
33772 F20101203_AABGRI zaleha_d_Page_039.QC.jpg
907667428c064ba5ed07e02ba947219a
2438af8f352bb21edf27b8da40a6d597c3aa35ef
9578 F20101203_AABGQT zaleha_d_Page_031thm.jpg
d92b5c98a501127615a3d2f7ed970681
bf319bc8ad577bafb1ed030b620bd00e61e15915
7888 F20101203_AABGRJ zaleha_d_Page_039thm.jpg
d9f2e58e3f317e29e0fe9467710789a3
7756581418f66bd181ef3f356b92435d8b22554f
37680 F20101203_AABGQU zaleha_d_Page_032.QC.jpg
0f6fdac21c16025b2234881ccfc7818d
f6b20ea47c4479a2fb12600b141493eeeb1b4243
36150 F20101203_AABGRK zaleha_d_Page_040.QC.jpg
9ee7bff22423efdc814e5e9a73168d30
c90ccfaeac3bf58e48708820dc29aaca94be497d
8202 F20101203_AABGQV zaleha_d_Page_032thm.jpg
2a27bf39059e6da536e969a6de814f44
4f7eac2d7bc2555b36586759f6018b47dcf804e3
8984 F20101203_AABGRL zaleha_d_Page_040thm.jpg
6adafbf1a3b2a83eed93741b9a084875
bf6e48f8c7e564f4a16f164f2365169762c6f774
37901 F20101203_AABGQW zaleha_d_Page_033.QC.jpg
180d54812963300d0713e7578197c139
dbbff46532566cbcb2e6a666e1ffe15c4900e978
39667 F20101203_AABGRM zaleha_d_Page_041.QC.jpg
6c46c06d35864ba5ff0b8f2d2941a886
50d60da63a79982af9121fd9ba719d50a08b579d
9420 F20101203_AABGQX zaleha_d_Page_033thm.jpg
964cfa16ed1f54787133ec9a48a9797e
4b5549403a7c9e95324d44e03c22659cd2cd2f4c
9424 F20101203_AABGSA zaleha_d_Page_049thm.jpg
32846ee0cf999bc3a79266d049b64d00
2488abebdcbc676d02721bffee84e85499c03ccf
9142 F20101203_AABGRN zaleha_d_Page_041thm.jpg
5cf1a17cf98f3bcd5db455cd305b048c
9efab2dcff2ac18df39b6ca74cdf4e5fe00e85f5
35828 F20101203_AABGQY zaleha_d_Page_034.QC.jpg
ba2b01dab68b2deb3fda3ac529aa1c73
0d05ec97c5d8fe6ae9eab9313434e74b4308ca9c
5504 F20101203_AABGSB zaleha_d_Page_050thm.jpg
2a59b718c46330ca3673ccc81f59e5b3
a6614fb5c62ae077d1306fe7bf9989b77b00f709
39602 F20101203_AABGRO zaleha_d_Page_042.QC.jpg
77e46bfd97972a25dec4577ba41c109c
77639590687f8c65539bd42effdb993561f81cc6
8901 F20101203_AABGQZ zaleha_d_Page_034thm.jpg
5e7048fffd491300a2c8c717c4121234
b70cca1be069d995ee4c977f2aecd2ed020e0430
35939 F20101203_AABGSC zaleha_d_Page_051.QC.jpg
62663c49d51a0946c4a01980b2ad0ca9
5479182d02f6d39080e9657c2b5027f8c9cfb765
24701 F20101203_AABGRP zaleha_d_Page_043.QC.jpg
2e9a297f7e8a9692fb5eb314699d15f2
b8c8b6eb1ea137d52a650477a5c0a8ddaf112227
8844 F20101203_AABGSD zaleha_d_Page_051thm.jpg
852e3b86f1515341d9331fe20152e3d6
177faa2f5b20994ca8eed4aa75c47b78bdd19653
6143 F20101203_AABGRQ zaleha_d_Page_043thm.jpg
355700d24ca5611fd8f9c3d095ed7c7a
1af5df6f1f96f6078aa860b2c213d2dfdf8e1e29
33382 F20101203_AABGSE zaleha_d_Page_052.QC.jpg
0a1cf659bdbcad458e9b1748e6bac872
e075eb47b7a5d3117d60980b6f107fd958c046dc
34144 F20101203_AABGRR zaleha_d_Page_044.QC.jpg
2ab8df618dc470c2a2943439c9ec3416
10fe12c4da4625d5403dbfbef19dcf437db31e69
8461 F20101203_AABGSF zaleha_d_Page_052thm.jpg
1507ddd849790cf2217831ce92a177f1
7adfb907144d0e476f1f340f60dc96c0dc978f72
36203 F20101203_AABGRS zaleha_d_Page_045.QC.jpg
69fe8e51e3a91ce64e115f92e956fdef
9ba856f4b662a1e958218a24a82ea872e8f5407d
8213 F20101203_AABGSG zaleha_d_Page_054thm.jpg
c80c144258be46c3ee5df8639a5bd781
ed8f428729d3b04863db469d150af3b918af2afd
9038 F20101203_AABGRT zaleha_d_Page_045thm.jpg
49c6c8e51b81d697b8ffdb3f779a32e3
6b85fbc3d8127f7049d213875fe1edb8f39d1543
40636 F20101203_AABGSH zaleha_d_Page_055.QC.jpg
4451386abbedcde29c64f08446846250
ae81ade6afc466e981ac5a2c83d16426d5609cee
9176 F20101203_AABGSI zaleha_d_Page_055thm.jpg
42424332f992d6786ec98486fb560903
0e91f850ec441b2fd730c07254019664960be97d
34664 F20101203_AABGRU zaleha_d_Page_046.QC.jpg
c82495f1ef28506c5f605aef3612ac12
61df1489d955f7be1907e2a83413e625be1955ff
39558 F20101203_AABGSJ zaleha_d_Page_056.QC.jpg
e593178f3c68e2ed9d9bfb76343b27dc
8bd6ec184e142b3f93a5680cc73d7d31f021b265
8700 F20101203_AABGRV zaleha_d_Page_046thm.jpg
64796d1124968d6e1f0176f64f11613d
687abb70b43c138bd18611a7bbaa3706f6aa5749
9187 F20101203_AABGSK zaleha_d_Page_056thm.jpg
783ca472db8fe2f823b99204b4d517d5
129fe027b3070c14fddf95b4bfbb6fa888159fd4
38059 F20101203_AABGRW zaleha_d_Page_047.QC.jpg
d8563bffcc819e6777f1105680840a48
476b088cfbaead350288ff79c9b3bad0a86d211a
22758 F20101203_AABGSL zaleha_d_Page_057.QC.jpg
2904a4c4ed100d4938e2f9e7788616ac
d9d33181405e1d29bac158c8d7c766c783e140fa
9085 F20101203_AABGRX zaleha_d_Page_047thm.jpg
344d97d5d17e0a387cde533e6b7a721b
75e0e389c4c5a6f465167c786ecb08a15a35800f
7155 F20101203_AABGTA zaleha_d_Page_070thm.jpg
51835ed015d9ef3b0c274238b2dd4b01
87ce42b07424c059cf081a9cbf362f5221092750
5740 F20101203_AABGSM zaleha_d_Page_057thm.jpg
9477467826b39c6680ae89d8fd3ac1af
b5302bebe15f9822131f0104d784c634d09349bc
9229 F20101203_AABGRY zaleha_d_Page_048thm.jpg
a7beeb31cfbcc23e10cac4b31f60bd58
6dd55e2862fa23ec27a60f22e1c539accacc9ec0
35350 F20101203_AABGTB zaleha_d_Page_071.QC.jpg
fcd748ca4c1b495ce74689ca4ca03d49
34237b719e4b45b405f73df4630480351435c721
8084 F20101203_AABGSN zaleha_d_Page_058thm.jpg
027925ff87e77a821c750d2e746b9eb4
16f427177173bc566151988d26633823e491751d
39653 F20101203_AABGRZ zaleha_d_Page_049.QC.jpg
8306c41dfcc924b51a45f0b35a57b019
96b69ed0b9d3b5b3466c73f5294038438af009a1
8922 F20101203_AABGTC zaleha_d_Page_071thm.jpg
81744aeff6ae41679673dc31c7ace0b0
9870a3e7233ac8a350b9b88c98d61dd38fd64cda
31180 F20101203_AABGSO zaleha_d_Page_059.QC.jpg
c3a0f1c6511c84dbf3552938fca74649
be2df3c125844b4befb5c1be54d22ca38385d54a
9001 F20101203_AABGTD zaleha_d_Page_072thm.jpg
8236851f31608b9aca3fd46052c0f6db
32804f268993c1c00e68a599c96761a4354fb969
F20101203_AABGSP zaleha_d_Page_060thm.jpg
21c7bca1a1d3708e83be78cd0d2790c7
dbe5e4c4436293522c4d404af969403803796e31
36752 F20101203_AABGTE zaleha_d_Page_073.QC.jpg
576ffb65cfe8a3c32c67283703ac6619
350f346f1cb7b4c84127c75b9cdccb9884a57950
30288 F20101203_AABGSQ zaleha_d_Page_061.QC.jpg
822b1f742453708a41742684b2c20ef9
34a5113d9e1bbf44a05c519075f6c3f62ca38441
8499 F20101203_AABGTF zaleha_d_Page_073thm.jpg
c1655b6e79a2558db817552c43e38fdf
3c96a27dd635408e3ef196fa31c65b2abf27cb98
7628 F20101203_AABGSR zaleha_d_Page_061thm.jpg
0a53d62871150871ca1cf1c0d137d399
38ce32a97d01c415840c422ac7bf43e24f01a720
36397 F20101203_AABGTG zaleha_d_Page_074.QC.jpg
355a8496558cbd1da71df3e16545af76
e91d6bc80bb55181b3036a6e4d69693de79d27e2
39154 F20101203_AABGSS zaleha_d_Page_062.QC.jpg
f4e9d7434aaddfdee05945cddb3c3b37
58061143946ffbab97ef5890f35972339db33657
9302 F20101203_AABGTH zaleha_d_Page_074thm.jpg
5f057e18e80cb82852096c522ee789ec
d76c17ad9183dc82111a16c4dae4a9a8a13ea272
8605 F20101203_AABGST zaleha_d_Page_062thm.jpg
dce07d1bd3fc12ad1843b68f3d0da4f6
1e476116db13d780cdae89f198aaa47696381048
8910 F20101203_AABGTI zaleha_d_Page_075thm.jpg
3bb71792ca1334b2e4fca4648f723fe4
918dad04060d464525b6c2c0ecfac13211bbb8c6
34218 F20101203_AABGSU zaleha_d_Page_063.QC.jpg
248279ca37d41f447b9e2d04f2b23b8a
27357f335b6491a31a0fb6259db3004e443f7cee
36278 F20101203_AABGTJ zaleha_d_Page_076.QC.jpg
d59f7483510328f5839392d8b6a34184
256699ffcfe0e12b85b7bcf47d8171aa37674ce9
9233 F20101203_AABGTK zaleha_d_Page_076thm.jpg
3479482d049e61283f5c752cf237d7e9
0d98017294a9cd24c09291ad82195aafc428bf3d
33440 F20101203_AABGSV zaleha_d_Page_066.QC.jpg
4945cabd7556a55370060b12e385ed50
378f8acff3361035125cf3c210541fe907030f8d
22836 F20101203_AABGTL zaleha_d_Page_077.QC.jpg
21ff92cb63674c6d03bad81275641e92
b6049ede7eb8f05d79b71f33f59dc410169be4d3
8045 F20101203_AABGSW zaleha_d_Page_066thm.jpg
a00fe99d5f70e324dd54687fdbf22657
eaf127933ea22f83d8ecac60460e91b2cc1f76ea
35641 F20101203_AABGUA zaleha_d_Page_087.QC.jpg
57f48984316f057d33e4156cf94d1671
0d4a7d1af40b046cdc02db14cad82eadd5953b9d
36726 F20101203_AABGTM zaleha_d_Page_078.QC.jpg
2a430072c0f0e13e20a15bca90d10e03
31c17a08d94c2c4c04c8e58d8d91714316591eeb
31869 F20101203_AABGSX zaleha_d_Page_067.QC.jpg
9d7f1a36aad12bc647403edb7f5885ba
8da39eced6afd8e490bc16bb309539057aff4e83
8976 F20101203_AABGUB zaleha_d_Page_087thm.jpg
e7ae6c1c6954644faf70540300747542
7c6bed9168aa41f9dd313098efc9c0148ae8bd47
9091 F20101203_AABGTN zaleha_d_Page_078thm.jpg
7cec5a7ff1dbcca12c3cf1121dc80a85
c3f411d79cdaa3d2af818e165e23ddf0cc528d37
31036 F20101203_AABGSY zaleha_d_Page_068.QC.jpg
9e747e36121206d356099bc21dfdc797
1fd21183affd0d27afca4df1d9bd56296f637de5
36198 F20101203_AABGTO zaleha_d_Page_080.QC.jpg
d259f27472569daaaede88684c0514d2
80f503092255b6ffe4707f811697a6862745a74a
8322 F20101203_AABGSZ zaleha_d_Page_069thm.jpg
e5e505ccadb94d7bb3dc9bc03264d930
71af9a1716166597795edcd75bc875efa225be1d
F20101203_AABFRA zaleha_d_Page_075.tif
fee09f443a7371b1c797de082261f234
a1dc12d392deedf143607b123ff5b43c9f05a2a1
8693 F20101203_AABGUC zaleha_d_Page_088thm.jpg
709908e82891aed3f304be884ad63261
f5489832ce03a852ae8425c97107a8b6f03b85ee
9288 F20101203_AABGTP zaleha_d_Page_080thm.jpg
632ae2ee3f0e6f736e4c20e07c37825b
a397ea6f74007cb49eb4d6fec458efca033fea54
51683 F20101203_AABFRB zaleha_d_Page_105.pro
7b5c0885688a0e573fce9c69a8806b6c
b30039eba259611f5b9710a22261cfd17f8d47d7
F20101203_AABGUD zaleha_d_Page_090.QC.jpg
42872281f0588b18cabcc250dd0ac8fd
9869fc676ad4aae2825e6a8a9e6f751c14b22d76
35508 F20101203_AABGTQ zaleha_d_Page_081.QC.jpg
e2725a82848cbbb1b2efa4b6dd3b19c8
facd4a9389b0d5035f85ac57b88b266cc3f3a40b
F20101203_AABFRC zaleha_d_Page_046.tif
8005cf9a547f4b7029a503dd6b7f362c
16bab41ec67f2d98d2aaca3aa3a27bc072995cdb
33987 F20101203_AABGUE zaleha_d_Page_091.QC.jpg
1cbf2b31dc3a0a26d9786b60e98f516a
05a948cd9c77ed6d30d6aa7cf0e625264fb200fb
8653 F20101203_AABGTR zaleha_d_Page_081thm.jpg
853038d29c938931b7c69e496cef11e8
3a867b1507c5a55852cf4c9228e2fb498b4bc8a2
7228 F20101203_AABFRD zaleha_d_Page_095thm.jpg
2d7cd8d9764847fa7805c7468a7c1d64
7a23523f9e584bb46c6e65f7c644ce49ec081869
31279 F20101203_AABGUF zaleha_d_Page_092.QC.jpg
b203f2b80149b2a9120b83b033aa24de
7be93e03878b7635e24fa2956f1351e4a076df6b
8501 F20101203_AABGTS zaleha_d_Page_082thm.jpg
2759fe1d9df5b37fc35d61864ecd2327
525fb5a841bc8f10b87a3de0ccc49480d8a7cefb
22018 F20101203_AABFRE zaleha_d_Page_050.QC.jpg
93190b6c4ab2f4a2ebfce69745c73fc8
efc39d7b0464dc8146e52ddd828b7615c7640b07
8372 F20101203_AABGUG zaleha_d_Page_092thm.jpg
ebd1150fac371a7bcce9b4ef80b84700
8499656d6159d29cf289e406fc084aa215480967
31389 F20101203_AABGTT zaleha_d_Page_083.QC.jpg
5a5947dae14873ecfe3d9351cca1fd39
b5bcb12ff9f0dc475383aa22b50cbcf701cede3b
8513 F20101203_AABFRF zaleha_d_Page_044thm.jpg
652c44005386ad2a231cbeb5cc762aab
ece8c2e9c8e7e8110fc62d2940c2871fb1cd186f
31634 F20101203_AABGUH zaleha_d_Page_093.QC.jpg
e3d71044065455851d28a858ce321990
fd78832e1749cd244ba4f111b107a41dfe7b9e29
7869 F20101203_AABGTU zaleha_d_Page_083thm.jpg
05e06bf4c75b7aa5c5112d85cec7143e
40b9891987ffec6480b73f32c28423a0e3a9b253
40125 F20101203_AABFRG zaleha_d_Page_113.pro
2534705c65acbcc0db26ceee3e29cdcc
c14480a46b7b6962fcaa666e9f8f4df7bacbe7ea
7912 F20101203_AABGUI zaleha_d_Page_093thm.jpg
fac6c458446f0a442bc959d7d8a7d561
eb6b7379ea12b5b223a979fd97ea49eb390dd888
37031 F20101203_AABGTV zaleha_d_Page_084.QC.jpg
e667b8e6de811fc6bb2481b83c216f6a
65db24c5529dd7904ffee6092897d226da771bc6
3316 F20101203_AABFRH zaleha_d_Page_056.txt
cbf61b0aa511449e5c77832233d81af7
9d9f71b758e8b35443362e52bd921a4ddea8ca16
25835 F20101203_AABGUJ zaleha_d_Page_094.QC.jpg
8af8c35e41fa60f9dc26a90aa5a6a22d
0029c49d8dc005a7aaa2f30a9719575c370da2cc
2325 F20101203_AABFRI zaleha_d_Page_090.txt
fb0ad0de73212c64f2fe08a04b99fb00
e6a3e5566a60fa9dbc5b5fcc7bf1d48c54d94703
6117 F20101203_AABGUK zaleha_d_Page_094thm.jpg
f195dd99b59dc00f7316495d73cca2fd
15e215aa7ecc495ef89b94a2f0efcfe50088d1d6
109874 F20101203_AABFQU zaleha_d_Page_034.jpg
8939d59db479a4ebe467ace359219c15
84490cf38702c0cdcf7772c32c39aec47b8dc688
39885 F20101203_AABGTW zaleha_d_Page_085.QC.jpg
327e537dabe6b77b3c7b1e09465a8916
54b24518a23648d15e55d295244810bd94740c14
146441 F20101203_AABFRJ zaleha_d_Page_048.jpg
b07f81e33a07880f91ffb67ee1ce3f00
bd55deada5a385cbb1e0cc78ba39bd5187d66a79
27717 F20101203_AABGUL zaleha_d_Page_096.QC.jpg
19a4387bc16881b4aff8d067b8205cc5
7532571428577e23756460819136dcb367fbfdf6
33347 F20101203_AABGVA zaleha_d_Page_107.QC.jpg
7390a5366698b007321e29794613b606
6e47cdce8fe0f3b8e10ed598792967aa99794360
8360 F20101203_AABFQV zaleha_d_Page_090thm.jpg
6cd920140b3e15046f23fe4561e239c6
aa0ada9488355dde2ee927671cfb956715787fdf
9467 F20101203_AABGTX zaleha_d_Page_085thm.jpg
0284169adb422d21bd1fef64d747aaed
de44d0834d3c515e1ffe18e2b72ac29b70c7e27e
2182 F20101203_AABFRK zaleha_d_Page_075.txt
462dad76d045c53c1e2d019ab35094f8
b1fc85ce30d4f1d08d247726b5e03e0e2721a744
6983 F20101203_AABGUM zaleha_d_Page_096thm.jpg
3c587854bf8119cc6c446df3a28be0f7
afc2ee8dee152ed21e02d5e450e36aa920d4827e
8743 F20101203_AABGVB zaleha_d_Page_107thm.jpg
1f36e6d0f18a150a774db64381e7e872
647096e1f89e03449a4e6a6c783a8d53e4704a5f
F20101203_AABFQW zaleha_d_Page_048.tif
dbbfc066a37756646ce55d055556a338
aa7fcdc98cd917ca7052d5dd7ee5809bd02920bb
34771 F20101203_AABGTY zaleha_d_Page_086.QC.jpg
23a2c4493cbd89c86e1a4f4a8e7abc93
8ddb5f7a2553b2d771ee44cd00f5b923981386eb
66075 F20101203_AABFRL zaleha_d_Page_009.pro
0aedf803bd5551e0c386c481274ffc29
8ce5f9c61e158209913af71ba0deb202cd244f88
31025 F20101203_AABGUN zaleha_d_Page_097.QC.jpg
8ae3e296865e250d93dd002bc2c65c08
2523004ebf9176e56733eb0cefb6fec6f4b11483
32379 F20101203_AABGVC zaleha_d_Page_108.QC.jpg
794e54b9c96bb97dca4acba6aca96584
9fd4764247ed7d632938621d0d611ab34d39d9a5
164128 F20101203_AABFQX zaleha_d_Page_089.jp2
c8fcca504306fec7e22c35783f3ab623
809cc7c6159e4995d243742ad260776c8782fb99
8331 F20101203_AABGTZ zaleha_d_Page_086thm.jpg
207a8fae19f3d465d4f81fb7da71e212
9129af29d8f8b3ca6e2c20c1825cd1ecd2b61e06
1867 F20101203_AABFSA zaleha_d_Page_092.txt
a9e08f55a78b51fff0009cafa7e03177
b47c4c8213510872b401ebe04fe9b3b2894e8534
2062 F20101203_AABFRM zaleha_d_Page_108.txt
3e0f8cef137def128eeadb7b136d9080
1d0c99ad5b7ce02b2c1a5230bd3565699595e2e3
8024 F20101203_AABGUO zaleha_d_Page_097thm.jpg
307ca98636b27458d6822a2aa717818e
ff6900611ace14f9dcefef9021690ea434bda85e
8867 F20101203_AABGVD zaleha_d_Page_108thm.jpg
4a98bd6eb00e9367e8c7df9f9f73c0d9
8f7db4e7eccd14982de67cc55a645c82377c6bf9
F20101203_AABFQY zaleha_d_Page_076.txt
6837a07d28b5e434f9014097301dd284
7b2c0ba392d9a2fe055af93087b73355f8d4a598
116684 F20101203_AABFSB zaleha_d_Page_064.jp2
9b4c08d354772da8540aaf863234dd5d
c7ac1a672a965d0ec26649f057a505e35ab6a51d
9377 F20101203_AABFRN zaleha_d_Page_023thm.jpg
d35cb9cf694201cd54c485ab5bed9085
1d40d8078d2ecd8050198b169f45b2e36a5b059d
33460 F20101203_AABGUP zaleha_d_Page_098.QC.jpg
1125a5d89d1148702922e4b113bd646b
348b816ba0e0ab191cd9d29b64d72371106ae030
8938 F20101203_AABGVE zaleha_d_Page_109thm.jpg
56760e13e47feef59b3a17cec57478bd
9fc2ff4613cf4a586d5a7c8777a7430c549e4a0a
F20101203_AABFQZ zaleha_d_Page_033.tif
d201350908955efdd37553a321f8887c
96f5df3b501a6b61eb0ac107f7dfb74bb25246fb
9149 F20101203_AABFSC zaleha_d_Page_028thm.jpg
ecc925b41900030b38f14cd3f026eb9a
ab2f191a8607868de7ba9bcfb525a74f6751ba19
36845 F20101203_AABFRO zaleha_d_Page_019.QC.jpg
d60f52e7f3eb75f34b96003af95f5924
8076d03cfad4f19212cc79d69eafad42e0fefa3d
34837 F20101203_AABGUQ zaleha_d_Page_099.QC.jpg
85a22d6ca985f08b2eec522a2a5ad532
cb2f74b79ac631431258b3aa5fb33120b900e458
34965 F20101203_AABGVF zaleha_d_Page_110.QC.jpg
17b2686ae9912eeea606a508d5649af8
e915db0acd40a0262a5dd5e24d556c7518320ed5
F20101203_AABFSD zaleha_d_Page_050.tif
7fc3e1b80f703b1bed3b41df1c288e25
ac8f13a7cbcaf7d670b25b0865c10fb7bae87aac
8464 F20101203_AABFRP zaleha_d_Page_099thm.jpg
4a19fcbf918b5d28e22d99b26b11e76e
4bf3798ac3afe730ad57b2ba4f7293db6cf0dc53
37940 F20101203_AABGUR zaleha_d_Page_100.QC.jpg
668d64e2696ca7537590bcfe99065f6c
f94f568de8ba4558a3e469859082a669cfbb885a
8904 F20101203_AABGVG zaleha_d_Page_110thm.jpg
64256bd76a38b4f7962a8b7ac7466d6a
50004fa179ab1e1043163155eac086c9cb278653
53511 F20101203_AABFSE zaleha_d_Page_088.pro
27c260030fc99532eb1c1e599a6a647a
e13bf5c52bf2c8f8561e97c31441d4ae1475a408
43426 F20101203_AABFRQ zaleha_d_Page_104.jp2
fa9218e05e7455931642cfac0d273242
9de6630727e3bb8546851105242879129c5fff69
34862 F20101203_AABGUS zaleha_d_Page_101.QC.jpg
fbc30dc072b1c629c6d2c931501878fb
084493a0a7e4b215ca812e51f82f32a276a4e6e6
35940 F20101203_AABGVH zaleha_d_Page_111.QC.jpg
437943502b5113fe2e088b823ce6c113
08da8b485ad702806d2a7858fad6815a920f84e4
19294 F20101203_AABFSF zaleha_d_Page_004.jpg
435a7307a222ec209abd8d7ff1eb81df
5ef8e390142f945573b56fd82cdb029190e33049
8728 F20101203_AABFRR zaleha_d_Page_029thm.jpg
cd735abbf82803c6f9ba26e4f6b27b08
7b9cb69453bca153015207d0b48c8242fb398281
7440 F20101203_AABGUT zaleha_d_Page_102.QC.jpg
04566e33c77652572c74cb564fd4c9c5
c7319d3b6f0b1e56ad1fea001be4700e5f1db5ea
7087 F20101203_AABGVI zaleha_d_Page_112thm.jpg
ce8a4d8320916c54bd65959b9bea43c4
1d5d0c10978087bafaf98a5a152dc8fb3bcd496e
44582 F20101203_AABFSG zaleha_d_Page_096.pro
f48e40df6503759643d2dea6d4dadab6
527ba811bdab37fe8f3eae6f82b06774dde6375a
66748 F20101203_AABFRS zaleha_d_Page_010.pro
e73a8c258eb1cdbfe3b437ce9f01abc7
b50b780df2a73f2f9df5a19e75645766c3579bf7
34055 F20101203_AABGUU zaleha_d_Page_103.QC.jpg
19acfe93f51c5b860f190699229197f6
a8b972cd65e755907b1a8d3e67670651e4b0e053
6780 F20101203_AABGVJ zaleha_d_Page_113thm.jpg
d2c1cfba8e65b4f97a83530a47f60318
c9c7db338691b81678f643d75d5803c60dc77f33
F20101203_AABFSH zaleha_d_Page_039.tif
29a65d3a420f7da4c6aeb0899a56db3c
31ba64d4240da6a947e1ab617fca8510daadfdd6
48035 F20101203_AABFRT zaleha_d_Page_093.pro
aa9afff1a9b337a44e7ae2e2a9129964
7ff97db2a81dd7ff1ff1d5db82e08e9c30fa2002
8629 F20101203_AABGUV zaleha_d_Page_103thm.jpg
99a0ec017370ecb55c73da95f7f56f8b
717942850d3828f9d92fe44f09d90ff2090630b5
34517 F20101203_AABFSI zaleha_d_Page_088.QC.jpg
40584da72afecd639d1714895c0bbcf8
0f85bca0700110909dbd0c1ec2e875ee36a7f78c
49148 F20101203_AABFRU zaleha_d_Page_020.pro
831fecebdf5528676983469630f27f93
63d9c07780ebf2f634a25e42c5158d99b76915cc
31608 F20101203_AABGUW zaleha_d_Page_105.QC.jpg
9f9c12af1a08c28d0ba95bd958115968
56730b5dd4c1836bee802a0579e01e346d808b6f
118617 F20101203_AABFSJ zaleha_d_Page_068.jp2
c91cd5435f4e6f5b842d4f2ce0290cbd
02b3335968d858db74964abb4835c62b1b1b3eb7
161428 F20101203_AABFSK zaleha_d_Page_032.jp2
a80a9044fcace81c5c5aaa42fd151c18
63a288605a602ef7ed21622aeb022d08ab9331dd
91395 F20101203_AABFRV zaleha_d_Page_022.jpg
1466c93eae627dc5f16626035c14dd09
0a85242c46f197babb7bf68aae68ee463994ebe0
8380 F20101203_AABGUX zaleha_d_Page_105thm.jpg
8c5a75e4d2991ecde3995336bc1b4d25
f52c8c46f33aa978a9b574fdfc8a7184ffa9c4c8
1892 F20101203_AABFSL zaleha_d_Page_079.txt
88bf18331c455bb39562e9c4fb44b368
73f528403c022724aca9e03bd0339653e873921c
1051984 F20101203_AABFRW zaleha_d_Page_005.jp2
e832b9b633722f3d6af4f9cb1b765148
7ca7a95216bdc7dc3697195ac336b2deaeacb953
34191 F20101203_AABGUY zaleha_d_Page_106.QC.jpg
3adfde7005657c30b06e65f3124b819b
2fd0ebc24bc6201d74104de0bbe58e9e9a0ff71f
27109 F20101203_AABFTA zaleha_d_Page_112.QC.jpg
564ba3170a2cb00f64e41f70a2188057
6b60c4e54ce7401d5d0a17f2b0ae4b499f6f3c7c
F20101203_AABFSM zaleha_d_Page_113.jp2
bdb278e18d23641eb8ca03ce32e63c9a
cd0a3c17993a3c223b7441d88fe646f52cec3b49
8200 F20101203_AABFRX zaleha_d_Page_010thm.jpg
de34cd129135dfce4a63ed03f7a53b6c
c5591621283775cb210fcb3f147c526274092e6d
8641 F20101203_AABGUZ zaleha_d_Page_106thm.jpg
bcf09555d7b4a9a2b3f10dd8e858182f
45a32b8f7bef3cce4f3a6a7a2f84550acaba3f43
89689 F20101203_AABFTB zaleha_d_Page_112.jpg
bd166f6098794bc0a4815c2725c00d0d
f852565fad96ce672c3e5cbfc08b15e2f8fae143
104582 F20101203_AABFSN zaleha_d_Page_013.jpg
628c6d78fd24fd0d74483ea7488ea74b
fbfc3b72c71d0a86a0f3b4da943387712330efaf
135343 F20101203_AABFRY zaleha_d_Page_066.jp2
0a3cbb6e7d2c89ba31b17604e0cc603c
20a52073ca8a84b772a7b881ff96a35ff91b9664
121528 F20101203_AABFTC zaleha_d_Page_046.jp2
de650b4c2426720e433bf393a558c1a2
69e6dac0b69bcefed911117e4f5b1dbf7db31bc9
7917 F20101203_AABFSO zaleha_d_Page_053thm.jpg
4d08737a82ae270461298a658d7ee286
94cd773ac6b3cf055f93af4a8e6ced5adbb9ebd1
70610 F20101203_AABFRZ zaleha_d_Page_038.pro
2c3a7f6caf455d2a5b968fd48283a5e9
693fb76bef3ecf208ca102462060018e54a71bcf
1051986 F20101203_AABFTD zaleha_d_Page_084.jp2
9837a4b2255f43d32297edb877dc6063
e092a387863835e325bedbaaf1f1267a89ca9881
8106 F20101203_AABFSP zaleha_d_Page_079thm.jpg
14468c444f701cc58aa835680c8ea4da
5fe250c26e8615626feed9c232287acea54bc3a0
F20101203_AABFTE zaleha_d_Page_071.tif
1045d87981da4e0492c244c01deb5745
bf07290040ee19a8d154134bce9aecdd81c2eb28
117178 F20101203_AABFSQ zaleha_d_Page_037.jpg
921c6630785649d821418f11da101e96
cf15166759b23778ca5c432ad32946f74f41ed6e
114933 F20101203_AABFTF zaleha_d_Page_044.jp2
6cebb4090b584215bf3a45dd6287782c
da0e3b5daeb37f140a4bc9289b20f2289fa687ba
33028 F20101203_AABFSR zaleha_d_Page_053.QC.jpg
e744b40b7c56e675e43450c7b63f0d90
9359792d9f4fbb5645dfe09807b6b4c244b83585
F20101203_AABFTG zaleha_d_Page_111.tif
dfec6822725ab968369d42dd9e7595f2
9832d441204382e73d65ba94f8c4efb99bf2f6d0
F20101203_AABFSS zaleha_d_Page_042.tif
127593a58f7f26af57345aaf237941db
9873704e96789361b1cc3171224d4628947cd807
2360 F20101203_AABFTH zaleha_d_Page_094.txt
3d391252997a35e75ee7ab6f4fba9190
f7771187f9c0d9e4dbc82685a36ff6391695de36
52508 F20101203_AABFST zaleha_d_Page_065.pro
5390c506fe8785d11b0880d6ea73f116
3512292bf5cba9871f95bb54cec88498c79d0eff
2136 F20101203_AABFTI zaleha_d_Page_064.txt
18224d46372b072cdff5a1222a1486a0
33829ab464b09926ff560700d43f3fc61d6435ec
8808 F20101203_AABFSU zaleha_d_Page_042thm.jpg
1c1de2e3eae0dc2a377944dd501af382
0bb40a85af017c74157f8df5bb1970322dcf9306
35865 F20101203_AABFTJ zaleha_d_Page_075.QC.jpg
4321da2cb0018f8df3faf2d16a8a8464
026713b8e556c818511a788d91b211ee2db95529
11767 F20101203_AABFSV zaleha_d_Page_001.pro
bb82988b498792b4a0d4027638476a8d
6b736c0725db17bf1ea36d00f7fe312c8c4541f0
29843 F20101203_AABFTK zaleha_d_Page_060.QC.jpg
af63b3aa4143a2161ca708333da384f8
dabe1d58fe537a6e30d2056d116737d06f2dd326
8598 F20101203_AABFTL zaleha_d_Page_100thm.jpg
2df51422b927e4cd59720bcee1778e50
5b88cbc6db3b414e1227fe30aa41b01fcbbe28c6
39758 F20101203_AABFSW zaleha_d_Page_048.QC.jpg
b7c5a2678fef727f8d13ee0598efec41
fdadcd64cca13e240e0942a36e8ea7aa2b76a6ab
92039 F20101203_AABFTM zaleha_d_Page_094.jp2
7d7ff4663985404a27bdddf069bd2c37
aeef4b2f6f78480360c5491329f4dc45b6007523
2097 F20101203_AABFSX zaleha_d_Page_081.txt
5d09cdb7bf738879dd39ee08ada192fc
e51db910fd12615967220cf2f1f0ed326b8cdfbb
30619 F20101203_AABFUA zaleha_d_Page_079.QC.jpg
3b3c839f3b88648d7cbbb8513ba60111
b58e15aeb0440850cf431213df9420538a9c3b29
5978 F20101203_AABFTN zaleha_d_Page_077thm.jpg
d83547b9a86b954acc9b9f600632d0e5
fbc651865d0ad3e54832e94a4100f7ae5b948a03
104400 F20101203_AABFSY zaleha_d_Page_061.jp2
063777b500385b87c058ec49401afce0
d2599fa984ae2e69cdf739463bbd8a8de2c62fae
124088 F20101203_AABFUB zaleha_d_Page_082.jp2
1a2e1cf241020ceff65b4e58b84a1513
24a7883cbc275fed3eeaacd551a0e97ef383578d
2952 F20101203_AABFTO zaleha_d_Page_073.txt
546b92ff920dc8487ee186a64272e5f3
2b1837f6f8fec1508b000f354e58dd1fecc01f6e
93816 F20101203_AABFSZ zaleha_d_Page_079.jpg
7e2e97486262cf91b15b678cd4a3654c
5b3bbff13e4a97df97e7fe2d01569c731a77095c
35553 F20101203_AABFUC zaleha_d_Page_021.QC.jpg
44713a75d5ceb1bb8ff24165b72ed5c9
4256b93971a45fedafdf3e221ecce6aed44cb5bc
117071 F20101203_AABFTP zaleha_d_Page_053.jpg
0ca97e21ae81d973202f1e2db2dd4266
104d2579a34e324c628dd66e3d607aad8527e629
45938 F20101203_AABFUD zaleha_d_Page_092.pro
6c80565fb4a3ab9c93d355a9dd158d56
84dd58819c768cab9ee8807894fbd3ff02397256
57152 F20101203_AABFUE zaleha_d_Page_068.pro
fde5ec83dfee7b785a052f3ac007c347
ee348649fee953605372b181e8aa2b93c5c6a162
55083 F20101203_AABFTQ zaleha_d_Page_028.pro
ea1e1a9dff7cfbe483a8146d7422f246
1fb95101d70cdaf1c66014806c6acab3ab334f40
111896 F20101203_AABGAA zaleha_d_Page_028.jpg
1042cf8724760306a9d40bc69d8db763
73ce771889a1ef38964fd0b49cd5bb9619ea4d11
9166 F20101203_AABFUF zaleha_d_Page_111thm.jpg
f7c9e23a1e384e1f669e974670debccf
90f63e96f14db2312b490e25e1d643017578dc1f
F20101203_AABFTR zaleha_d_Page_070.txt
91424fbddd90ac26440d76665bbb4215
2065706f1417766dda96bd39651d27a737319abb
122248 F20101203_AABGAB zaleha_d_Page_029.jpg
5a6ae7601e9582facbf5b9d16fb56fb7
de27fbc8740d55302ea442f19b8de74fa3319615
9481 F20101203_AABFUG zaleha_d_Page_089thm.jpg
3405cbf6834bb249624c7bda53a6a9b9
adf5c843b7be9876fdffb49335e067147c536854
41005 F20101203_AABFTS zaleha_d_Page_089.QC.jpg
03ab7be2d44823f252053dce33faad26
4678ab9d67e2054ae4ed904c8be27b779aa660e3
117910 F20101203_AABGAC zaleha_d_Page_031.jpg
5f7d4d0dfbe4edc4c5a23aa1dadb18f8
aa56ded7c18a87c9839576eca3ec2c07b05368c8
4095 F20101203_AABFUH zaleha_d_Page_002.jpg
c720228ec1261ace0368eeca0dfc3d75
7352bf8b5f9224b5a0fe93f3c9522c938627da1a
58703 F20101203_AABFTT zaleha_d_Page_033.pro
ebad0d708fcd76f6923ad8aa24527f7e
619a0fed4aa464f1e8bbfc57aae102c887074b45
12833 F20101203_AABFUI zaleha_d_Page_104.QC.jpg
8056cc1b5e8361065299cc50b88b559a
e88810bba1415bc3d8135003c2e4b13130305701
2045 F20101203_AABFTU zaleha_d_Page_006.txt
648118c024a1995a39b10599bbad4147
2d9d0cd2c5c899f656c94a6a08a242b925c9cf22
146850 F20101203_AABGAD zaleha_d_Page_032.jpg
600b2e0634e7087d29f6e5c2ffd54def
a2ff68f0354064ac3f9e125392aa30330b44102b
8823 F20101203_AABFUJ zaleha_d_Page_098thm.jpg
b9bfeba2d4c47cf08dd0b4c6b8afacc9
e79ecae34016ec7816ce91e0d0d26ef8e1695ce5
2259 F20101203_AABFTV zaleha_d_Page_040.txt
f3837ae23678ba3696ed4a20d1891a3e
d0600f9961584f689cc1346b8f651e7ad510a9b8
117525 F20101203_AABGAE zaleha_d_Page_033.jpg
ba3de49babdd92fea85040053ecc096b
73a61b2d38b7db5d71712c885152e24659df806a
7999 F20101203_AABFUK zaleha_d_Page_067thm.jpg
66f6691e26ed2b3c3f5e3df729305ca5
f023ab4395a425ae10878c62732ae4407316f6f4
95758 F20101203_AABFTW zaleha_d_Page_095.jp2
0d71c3afdf5b2754882b125174345fe7
4c26ca0d381d0e2210496ddc53022e211fd08a6b
141225 F20101203_AABGAF zaleha_d_Page_035.jpg
04483c781d0ead2cca8b71efcebfa932
c4792d6c732420d9769417836abacb0e2cdfb950
110569 F20101203_AABFUL zaleha_d_Page_075.jpg
3dbcf0692be096e909b585783526071a
ea3d64700c98bf6007cb992ea2018a14f4f60949
137714 F20101203_AABGAG zaleha_d_Page_036.jpg
4ff2c6270064a1576a42ea4230f7b183
6d0adf9ca0acce1d7205f2add834a6d0b1dc259d
117870 F20101203_AABFVA zaleha_d_Page_027.jp2
03312c844e27769768740cec25be1e91
79e118a7eeed80306ecded54d0345705df28011b
F20101203_AABFUM zaleha_d_Page_004.tif
2a64a467241e96decf1ed0cad471f125
4057aa7ff2e0ac10ff7f5ee9bc305dc854bc80d0
52459 F20101203_AABFTX zaleha_d_Page_107.pro
db2418c25a864b628f3f88ed7977a74e
0f1a04c35471cc72d7d8c429026a5fb181a1df91
108665 F20101203_AABGAH zaleha_d_Page_039.jpg
1060363932e7e8996db98639321260d9
974d3e6f905dd4413fe9ef0e163ea50fbbb56d00
8226 F20101203_AABFVB zaleha_d_Page_063thm.jpg
88750e985eadb6ba4e09481ec08cc5f6
e2df355a28bdd8aee754dd492631cd186c4e9f09
2307 F20101203_AABFUN zaleha_d_Page_033.txt
0d8230dee47cc3884691e627ba145bf8
ee2c900985bb721f8b58ac60cab8ccf460e650f8
121814 F20101203_AABFTY zaleha_d_Page_011.jp2
d6f2fc80cbf500c643adc08c9883aeca
5908385c7fd69edf19ec000333ed5eefe1b00b33
110504 F20101203_AABGAI zaleha_d_Page_040.jpg
4960fdfcf9cba1625987c0598620fbd4
6e764d9da9f49533b4b5310ef4a45eb240915cca
156971 F20101203_AABFVC zaleha_d_Page_042.jpg
35dbac63e0127ccb99bcca1ac4a8a665
92f8180eca13064686e00d43ea3ef6bfcfdd2c96
121859 F20101203_AABFUO zaleha_d_Page_040.jp2
178a2d28becd477a8cb1fd24553cc003
a87d6fac67ee80242e1d7891dc84ce5445a79681
8788 F20101203_AABFTZ zaleha_d_Page_101thm.jpg
5fa51ae2be6fb96ebcdb6e2c57bcf1e6
10fca632651333c3223e7dffcd67dfba8861d458
144413 F20101203_AABGAJ zaleha_d_Page_041.jpg
5ef32b1f0d917e2cc2df0978370ceefc
66d2993a3d7f6247d4e68e48d6c36002e267fb0d
F20101203_AABFVD zaleha_d_Page_063.tif
7e9bacad99db277b2be8da876adbc8ec
2af9ee2e7cc48c438625b20eecd96e4c96745db5
1051950 F20101203_AABFUP zaleha_d_Page_097.jp2
14011e63f058463305a196de4665c7f9
cc5f12822535a8c6fd0ba17f903cf83d2bc22bf6
91800 F20101203_AABGAK zaleha_d_Page_043.jpg
f8bb8e32ccfb16b11bfd07b71832957a
b319a1174692461e95ae0d3cf565a7823c55353d
82997 F20101203_AABFVE zaleha_d_Page_057.jp2
fa6b5a9c0161f5fee4d89eab0d95012c
d3e1710c3114ac6e425ff35cb6060b0dd7b87ef6
113101 F20101203_AABFUQ zaleha_d_Page_109.jpg
879e57b5388e5540ae9665b8c82ddfc4
fd7063543767982fff2599259f034d4cf37587aa
108479 F20101203_AABGAL zaleha_d_Page_044.jpg
658ef14294304d56acca2336bd591ad9
738ed9a24dd6960c8188bde4989cbfb878f3dd85
165822 F20101203_AABFVF zaleha_d_Page_042.jp2
a348324c4f7628c099adbbe5cf5415e2
39d38a76c1908f22b187ff139e845c25c6959b20
2882 F20101203_AABFUR zaleha_d_Page_036.txt
d95f6f02553d6cd304b5631288d7be39
5a1127b1e877d71dbb5a695a03f3424a236cceee
125693 F20101203_AABGBA zaleha_d_Page_066.jpg
756cdc809dfafd3466bc9ba59b1ffe46
aa39b3e537c059b744387aab814aa9a7b2780b03
129074 F20101203_AABGAM zaleha_d_Page_049.jpg
e8c67e8d63b841b061b7a6eb985b7df3
61dc48992eb4864d6f5ad2438ea47cf39b21d64d
7319 F20101203_AABFVG zaleha_d_Page_022thm.jpg
32b3827e8fd99b38acfba4a575aa3aa7
5080e69cd99277404277161755860aa8de763963
129735 F20101203_AABFUS zaleha_d_Page_110.jp2
7cab7210b12bb46f262380d963469454
c75f49d20cd3189e3db598c362050a8245320eeb
106265 F20101203_AABGBB zaleha_d_Page_067.jpg
43f7ceff6bcc8e6ee0b6ab28cb1379ca
92ba3bda63f82f77da45137672a0137ea3043cad
F20101203_AABFVH zaleha_d_Page_113.tif
3a60b59c10c5c8e198c1fa7159364748
969c6b266606c849addf7acd12079e8dbbac7ff4
32938 F20101203_AABFUT zaleha_d_Page_065.QC.jpg
886e42661f8e3d723007852b89e6e2c5
9732979e3e6ba73edb8f3c9df10472c3c432de93
109994 F20101203_AABGBC zaleha_d_Page_068.jpg
d77cc1ed39596a8942a814df311352c4
8b10a0875e8b4aee1786d3e6e48cb2a8af9f8462
75014 F20101203_AABGAN zaleha_d_Page_050.jpg
285b1fc319a47c4591d97f2d3eff3016
09a66a2110344705d35a266961e2c82b04a2c622
2341 F20101203_AABFVI zaleha_d_Page_019.txt
6f897b27e9d36ce1437be94ab9beb84b
82283ec80abad10112abefbb71c3f77b7cbe2351
116082 F20101203_AABFUU zaleha_d_Page_045.jpg
c715645aee6e79abf848f24948f4de38
f1ad63e71879e75538af29aae7c5b96b82cfa5f4
104670 F20101203_AABGBD zaleha_d_Page_069.jpg
c3a287d2b139aa877b53670b193e3146
26588488a52beee543aff5523914dbd524c335fa
119273 F20101203_AABGAO zaleha_d_Page_051.jpg
8bd9e5e03ee7f2ac5b6125d82b626472
1391153e1c7a478c1a36ebcb15288a725be8746d
7256 F20101203_AABFVJ zaleha_d_Page_006thm.jpg
5e14b57b3919b39db875d8d9f4959f1a
053c2bcd1a4bb7ef527a3014f05e05735a98292c
1992 F20101203_AABFUV zaleha_d_Page_102thm.jpg
c3133fcd0ec656ffef3f03ae1eb80673
890ad5dd63c6d813a4b8c7704b1db05e30e0e393
110407 F20101203_AABGAP zaleha_d_Page_052.jpg
879f6844eb200ceae0209a92b2f9b237
fbdfa75b5e81d8a4ff147b2ef6b80e1c9b1eb823
8421 F20101203_AABFVK zaleha_d_Page_065thm.jpg
df8c7e1a2315ac03b4f82d47d5525549
84ac9fe4921d62eff6776ee670c6a8e5746fbf69
3574 F20101203_AABFUW zaleha_d_Page_104thm.jpg
57d10f018977b0e66d13fe6e001999a8
9ba1a9499c0532706e6bf0055d0dc487a87caaab
105074 F20101203_AABGBE zaleha_d_Page_070.jpg
8e74aa63513f87ddfe8dd3132d20a8f9
0879988b0886882680da06ed12b0a724e1c1422a
134289 F20101203_AABGAQ zaleha_d_Page_054.jpg
1d1b6de4e3ff7003676131e69e36f413
0360ab7f1b5a89f14038d537a45f0d5db9593de0
120309 F20101203_AABFVL zaleha_d_Page_028.jp2
93e5188d9cd92b32846a4ce0e12acd55
051640ebcc082c1367aee69a1f35d1c70ee58119
F20101203_AABFUX zaleha_d_Page_071.txt
c29b90bb9d5363e22904fa5b29348820
e5a70c54c9d33ba5f679d1ab3d93a40560e1569f
112888 F20101203_AABGBF zaleha_d_Page_071.jpg
da6f886416b2c427244e17b0d3abc694
f32230da80cf680bf6aa6f6816da44bc1a02c34b
154545 F20101203_AABGAR zaleha_d_Page_055.jpg
32710cf2273bf25e83809cf36626d103
ba2e7cb14f1f0157a37259dfcd001fc69d5b624c
34432 F20101203_AABFVM zaleha_d_Page_054.QC.jpg
52658bb55436d68c1ad80f233d477007
33259dee600257ae0135c6e8088b2b8af11227c6
107405 F20101203_AABGBG zaleha_d_Page_072.jpg
0e0810adfc90e3f9966f1796f4e62deb
4e893708201cda742569d5bdfd5a0a3cab5a11f7
F20101203_AABFWA zaleha_d_Page_109.tif
37671d5bed00c1b2449280d11a3659bb
2e248188ae2ce02cdc8f266f822aa2b19dadcc58
150798 F20101203_AABGAS zaleha_d_Page_056.jpg
14598275b99f9d76d2cffa1a73461398
58cadb16469181b0f2eee8ae1c9c96e32e33dd42
8344 F20101203_AABFVN zaleha_d_Page_025thm.jpg
3c8321c176da6c415c88bcf348966e32
a3537229065363666b4042e6bbb424a4bbabefa3
2278 F20101203_AABFUY zaleha_d_Page_110.txt
a0e15e50cda7ee8230ae84e43ab8868f
4286e573fad4bb54d8d9028c219d443930e0f674
135003 F20101203_AABGBH zaleha_d_Page_073.jpg
e817bad02c4bd9da909a6317804b4329
b804ce7cb3798ce957ac80293a0c19482c33e232
1051966 F20101203_AABFWB zaleha_d_Page_029.jp2
5414ada006360b300eda2139ed6a9944
4cd3f755f7db21fa287cfe03d8a2a4d66901c176
99321 F20101203_AABGAT zaleha_d_Page_058.jpg
29498962e58d1240907cd36620805050
5152b1f227f4a52488f8887cdc847daf8012d874
F20101203_AABFVO zaleha_d_Page_101.tif
3c5d180617a481e661f69290bfeb631b
b4f300d701e106ccd50de3f4fc34d8eb6a018888
35998 F20101203_AABFUZ zaleha_d_Page_072.QC.jpg
812082583e3077877b82dd871cdf95cd
2e2e72846131df197343f7220fa2e925d3cf23f1
110109 F20101203_AABGBI zaleha_d_Page_076.jpg
ffb2196c7628a37f88747c935ecd4650
12bc3355faa1ac0d92c469caddbc5935a3c1898b
F20101203_AABFWC zaleha_d_Page_040.tif
ea3be400c3d5328dd99477b9a37aa962
73e83a9c70c224bd3bb3952d5e67654df0a32230
96995 F20101203_AABGAU zaleha_d_Page_059.jpg
72b78a81c6ffd05f41e933edcfc159f2
665aa6a801b186c24df2618991de82bea4faef8a
2099 F20101203_AABFVP zaleha_d_Page_069.txt
147be9fd1d0c11ec89a2ac0862686827
2683d64784a6c27d6ba116782a489695ac93f1df
69905 F20101203_AABGBJ zaleha_d_Page_077.jpg
037d94d40453fea0bc07933619368e19
27ed3df4bfdaec2a600ee4a00b67bad3377c6f61
1739 F20101203_AABFWD zaleha_d_Page_112.txt
ec093090eec53e9cf03612a69d53af60
536f9c07f75606ab614bddc37511ef427cb91156
99893 F20101203_AABGAV zaleha_d_Page_060.jpg
0a303994dc8a1f779828c38845a5b481
2b47ef5b2574d2a043d348cf38803b153e749552
119895 F20101203_AABFVQ zaleha_d_Page_021.jp2
0d97c3f67f3dd06a66b323f7b9c2801c
f5b0345e2823a14610938158290cad14c7bc8100
116357 F20101203_AABGBK zaleha_d_Page_078.jpg
aaa73480aa752c017fa4e9ab7ea0f845
b038ad26ca5944fbd5c4d3bdc4fc272478a53af4
F20101203_AABFWE zaleha_d_Page_049.tif
de7db9752d7f8aeed5909e113e9ff06e
cb213c8eab996e5650f14a4b05f5b9ffecfd3218
96146 F20101203_AABGAW zaleha_d_Page_061.jpg
5f81b2ff5facacdee753949f62b2b84a
e2d064b3b83344b763c7a444fee3351eddb806f4
F20101203_AABFVR zaleha_d_Page_079.tif
422fda1267559c414f72c13ae254c133
ff2d0c4b0b22a12a58daf12ad8e3b21843f230d1
101836 F20101203_AABGCA zaleha_d_Page_098.jpg
e2d9653c54e685cd72b355b96b345cbd
cae0d850fcf8ba09e71da52cbc163db82d7a7f7a
110677 F20101203_AABGBL zaleha_d_Page_080.jpg
6b3eee3c2e6c58ee6e47cdf094bcba0a
55e849b4ffe1f57c06e3b47cd407c87fc07ca47e
106764 F20101203_AABFWF zaleha_d_Page_108.jpg
db9b9b00bb02ffd796fcefa8356af8ad
9ed6bf5c3c0c1b9acd07ec46c8bbdb47d88170fb
154512 F20101203_AABGAX zaleha_d_Page_062.jpg
5c8e89218ec13a45ac6d297d2d57cbcf
bbef4040a0b567d2f64630f8938c8e42f672cc11
30630 F20101203_AABFVS zaleha_d_Page_070.QC.jpg
c0e1b3ea9689e6f7cd9dccf88374fb2f
46a0c60669fdf02f635b42f8d3a686f801f434ac
106227 F20101203_AABGCB zaleha_d_Page_099.jpg
53a79732ae69a452dd23acdfc73ed567
db980db345a56d50e127d34ea2382f3b2df57c0c
114739 F20101203_AABGBM zaleha_d_Page_082.jpg
6ea0df8df8afd797ff6c9e75bbbf069c
73b65e681552049e1a9fed43ebc3b4d0ed67f87a
83059 F20101203_AABFWG zaleha_d_Page_042.pro
c11bb585d5b065031c45926413295720
3786340a4f592f83829b43de3320d7a0719a4eaf
118564 F20101203_AABGAY zaleha_d_Page_063.jpg
5b7378f01f94899b27f67b97eefe0c89
7da7ba928a0cbf98809f0d6913ef71eb0719c837
28859 F20101203_AABFVT zaleha_d_Page_095.QC.jpg
e3560bb6db9ac5ce1a91a4abb6b2a045
aeb31955a6a1347957083831eb54110660bea6e9
146063 F20101203_AABGCC zaleha_d_Page_100.jpg
0ed2fa98aa51f010603f936a732738dd
159bfc67349642c9147e3c6c9858951794b206c6
104445 F20101203_AABGBN zaleha_d_Page_083.jpg
2ae156be9375d1af3d3427fcd5216bb2
68087b263ff64446d3f7c46fefbb3eed5edb85d8
2427 F20101203_AABFWH zaleha_d_Page_083.txt
e7b116e606a2b4080d1a7134c10c125e
07ba8a0cd28cca9da247f8a6ad1d4a1c218ce962
108481 F20101203_AABGAZ zaleha_d_Page_064.jpg
f7ccb719a1e5d37301195998f306befa
9f7cb9f95f66e1c5667cd0fb8ad7efa67d7a8537
118181 F20101203_AABFVU zaleha_d_Page_087.jp2
a40a0c1e6d3ff7590d210eac339f1994
06350187cc449c0685a760c5c47c7d61b2b1f7e3
116276 F20101203_AABGCD zaleha_d_Page_101.jpg
c8c75c37494fa84690a4afc445489552
aef4768470ea5176cea78f75bb02061b48224eae
114370 F20101203_AABGBO zaleha_d_Page_084.jpg
e342a58578b48654e534bd6ae120fce8
f9b1c0a864b9acc17728b3c635a80aaf26de64aa
7958 F20101203_AABFWI zaleha_d_Page_014thm.jpg
268a79c08e68aa9a0be447c19dd1bafd
7f79d822594e682b7d93108003f4ae1a18d57154
79092 F20101203_AABFVV zaleha_d_Page_032.pro
84aa8854ab746d995021ae068448364c
49b0ad872ff00bb3d88ed0229020464e4e67571c
21806 F20101203_AABGCE zaleha_d_Page_102.jpg
1bc5bd5d8adc7556d377097367a3409d
c44fab9ae05e5301386b991bcec47343c6ad71e8
132775 F20101203_AABGBP zaleha_d_Page_085.jpg
a07aabfe5ca0a3927c82d46996578ea4
14a09fb094a1036effd5b881001294aeb1a7e12e
F20101203_AABFWJ zaleha_d_Page_011.tif
0edf2d1ea60566c7dd947a20d5b28dbe
2b898d93e0fc8dc5b4be3d3d6c42a9727fb9e28e
52962 F20101203_AABFVW zaleha_d_Page_080.pro
728ea067780b722d7136601ae312601e
4fc559b2fd7a448da6da80acf27a2ce9fa1fec41
125949 F20101203_AABGBQ zaleha_d_Page_086.jpg
0d11d19cf111ea0dd739930be68365e2
39516106663b3576ce87c497984858bc8a838bf1
F20101203_AABFWK zaleha_d_Page_083.tif
59939ecb2170760b26983acd0067469a
3801b1f71bb5457255944e5d79639eb8446efb30
115615 F20101203_AABFVX zaleha_d_Page_099.jp2
54effb6c96aaecf9fbd327c9a424cd4a
3d8831275123d606fee86fd9570e02741e5313ae
105784 F20101203_AABGCF zaleha_d_Page_103.jpg
83d3ff15cc0156259b9792c6ddf12e94
e094e7c9c31394ee5c38b4e3608df62514c81eb7
111764 F20101203_AABGBR zaleha_d_Page_087.jpg
5ab9b67a930c2da1c1c6da651b443ec6
625a562f01cb973a1996348442c1ad8dee31ce2d
8628 F20101203_AABFWL zaleha_d_Page_091thm.jpg
171b6b94f4ef59c744c21ea66853eac3
c0fd6fdb26d89a87cb5494b18d6e40acc12a028d
F20101203_AABFVY zaleha_d_Page_054.tif
7bdea6aaf0942f8bef38bf512a377e23
5cb26636944cf188145f1d4a926d957726a47bfa
39745 F20101203_AABGCG zaleha_d_Page_104.jpg
42773d5f71b39b517d9598a7cf8dc874
1ee8760b2244eeb812f8ef6a6d8972f31766e593
2141 F20101203_AABFXA zaleha_d_Page_008.txt
b0b76064154863e1025a9e1f731bda53
0770bbbe20bdd89a1b13b263cd90dba0506bb39a
104867 F20101203_AABGBS zaleha_d_Page_088.jpg
6733e8a8d09a77d0297192c014f06703
3cb032ef23f20ead0a2cb951bb486adea31e836c
9256 F20101203_AABFWM zaleha_d_Page_084thm.jpg
8b178f962ee7a118bdee4a4fe52bd0da
29d0f05847406f08edd64b2e6f89b2649b5d8bb7
104961 F20101203_AABGCH zaleha_d_Page_105.jpg
1e273c5ca230e3c7547da97631a3a00d
b6d8968e9bf99264ad3789e02eb9fc7bf5d0e326
F20101203_AABFXB zaleha_d_Page_094.tif
f2cc50b8756a6f2bab6ba1edd635a562
6e0509460930fbbc3bbd507f809b57f9bd7ea967
114973 F20101203_AABGBT zaleha_d_Page_090.jpg
b84fbd4be261227503706e17e2b7687a
23914930a887d9c8a861c7091d4120882c880e8d
8015 F20101203_AABFWN zaleha_d_Page_068thm.jpg
c28392f9f695019d1ea23877dd446db4
9d24fa91c74b6ca7ce2c2334ef9399b83c080d60
1051963 F20101203_AABFVZ zaleha_d_Page_035.jp2
be6691f4bea088126b7b4a4ce8283df5
d94028d6118be38bf0ec749fb65d6c88781c73fd
110497 F20101203_AABGCI zaleha_d_Page_106.jpg
6a6bd455df5c7e3afb4481d19bda75fe
8c30fbb32448a1309a15197265cd9ba69a983efb
129174 F20101203_AABFXC zaleha_d_Page_019.jp2
833f548ccf1c4987795dbcf641b916d9
b3834e849babe9ad6b962761a2f56187865fe784
100896 F20101203_AABGBU zaleha_d_Page_091.jpg
cae4cde5fd13f6fd6cc0af954a9e6919
d2300cb0df85581b422587e0759cccdc3ca3737a
112282 F20101203_AABFWO zaleha_d_Page_074.jpg
503c7198cae39a84284111a237f24f56
8a16c4f93a1a56a65954e0a89d9be6c595ef8aa6
107885 F20101203_AABGCJ zaleha_d_Page_107.jpg
f41f7ccbb4d2553cd4545130064b9405
ed6c05fd9df767744a8b742019de690145f42e9f
107202 F20101203_AABFXD zaleha_d_Page_081.jpg
872d4ce45a0e626154f96f18486c5ac2
282f78dc931dfe95e44622a27d4a9a8731b7a7b3
95018 F20101203_AABGBV zaleha_d_Page_092.jpg
faf65ea27234ba4d8a1cdc95e29284d6
3c472c79ddce977319c0abcbccbd8cc4156c58c0
31685 F20101203_AABFWP zaleha_d_Page_058.QC.jpg
0a93855a3087d9ca9ce8d1b51cb93ceb
a6217a251e72b3ac1e00db9c019a5e9fc1b6d906
121013 F20101203_AABGCK zaleha_d_Page_111.jpg
423a954f7787be41ae67814d7f21e611
f643f9626a2bdca00df1527b79e5a68083f71bbc
F20101203_AABFXE zaleha_d_Page_105.tif
7723af5cf32d19aa5770b24e26fbeb2d
c8d2042056fddbdd58ced8d53ef25881179e5845
100491 F20101203_AABGBW zaleha_d_Page_093.jpg
3eb1d580652dc2c62fbfb85dd9df4940
f070296ffcd0433bc2a62b22f999fb994bf0864f
34699 F20101203_AABFWQ zaleha_d_Page_109.QC.jpg
26ad62645c4f3cf8d40c0f3e24e8dea3
5a6a9798e0bb0bd4f9eb538c736ff984665fff3e
84103 F20101203_AABGCL zaleha_d_Page_113.jpg
fef8e2601d04b5557e3bfb22659699d9
47185bb622e8536c74561b4227e6fc63488a7773
117487 F20101203_AABFXF zaleha_d_Page_034.jp2
4e31ed31547c3b571f417e6faf3b288b
e99306981b78d0aeddf82575551effb81334c9cc
87627 F20101203_AABGBX zaleha_d_Page_094.jpg
a26f784ea1f39ca9b75a31c825694ff8
944939e3fec62c298a7a761278ffd4c454d6fef7
100189 F20101203_AABFWR zaleha_d_Page_026.jpg
23de6eafd7bea8513cb70fc8aa35f589
a58278c234a43e13112237951a984104b6ddd864
119710 F20101203_AABGDA zaleha_d_Page_017.jp2
31588db9558554d07883fee2a0363a0d
2417d4ea271328b756143a4629170e1177100964
35444 F20101203_AABGCM zaleha_d_Page_001.jp2
645462e2e90af5252f8efbcb08a19ad2
53c18abea5b69dbc7ed39f244393a7006f6e754f
113870 F20101203_AABFXG zaleha_d_Page_103.jp2
4b4cd77c9956c2d40e5fa3276b506994
81d94cb52e18575ffdc9c0732db66ed7b7d75c05
89777 F20101203_AABGBY zaleha_d_Page_096.jpg
972af6f0e36f8741d8a61009f7375c5e
2402db4c9302fe420b8313f149060000079021d4
76711 F20101203_AABFWS zaleha_d_Page_057.jpg
637fed72526961c60d11027790832ff0
8ca2f4dd5720057b8d1bd99ce8d9670a4bbf2cb6
125026 F20101203_AABGDB zaleha_d_Page_018.jp2
931a9ade5bc1f434ebd60ac0c9296db1
494657b4768a8b1c0afcb92127f5eb9dd64d6a5c
5936 F20101203_AABGCN zaleha_d_Page_002.jp2
57f9a41bf84b32bda9e5f408e7c25d55
8843f496686010c827f7328384562e75c5289a22
75459 F20101203_AABFXH zaleha_d_Page_041.pro
81d7190e185495e54fd58987aff9dcba
962e60da540e54b71c53be6f5a190f3f8d47604a
103190 F20101203_AABGBZ zaleha_d_Page_097.jpg
1024c12ba165fffaa60ee7b111617f2d
5d8c61c4530b4f374c6d6f10ec352a6c32702ca7
F20101203_AABFWT zaleha_d_Page_105.txt
9e8a75a0219e62428b8a832c8dce183a
80d7d3018dc38c2f1560483a235f48a17993c0b8
107753 F20101203_AABGDC zaleha_d_Page_020.jp2
d6c8dbd18cdbe314353f923fb3947ed5
85267b1d584562d6326b22e47b60a5eba2d46a9a
21938 F20101203_AABGCO zaleha_d_Page_003.jp2
51f5a33252bdf6df525be91111a08fd8
fba6e7daba511f9be95734ee17b7f78bd8017953
F20101203_AABFXI zaleha_d_Page_070.tif
50802f53bba7c2115b17c57aa02bec4e
d6f9213851337424c6b65d5ed17141089654b106
18379 F20101203_AABFWU zaleha_d_Page_104.pro
326f93ad0b4fc251c88ff36454c158c4
a57a39616475d691cf985aeb0073854ac112989f
97694 F20101203_AABGDD zaleha_d_Page_022.jp2
0e9f088efc7b8820d98f4377a0e569b9
bdd118e5b5e3c658866c29c7b37a24233f209a5c
20718 F20101203_AABGCP zaleha_d_Page_004.jp2
8390b62a978850d4f8046c1ab5065b7a
84fc6c5ac5fa79a883957a9df20c5358dbef44b9
7754 F20101203_AABFXJ zaleha_d_Page_059thm.jpg
c7a1a07fa6cea934b7c4d310d8cf4b2d
6ba3643f0b5de83950b4679815f5c99e6c051d61
247 F20101203_AABFWV zaleha_d_Page_007.txt
c4168362d6ee13797c93e2dcfa238ea2
7c88a75f95072ddfad756bf5a2232f82955a746b
152549 F20101203_AABGDE zaleha_d_Page_023.jp2
bec95d1bc5db7b5c12fcada85bc85ae3
d5168f8c929696ede19f711ed2cd0e6238eb4a52
104282 F20101203_AABGCQ zaleha_d_Page_006.jp2
a90416f3cf59660a8e4e359474a24dad
4c0a64aeaf339a97003ab46610190f871d330fa8
F20101203_AABFXK zaleha_d_Page_089.tif
4a1f879f5a06b49e4cc2e5872c0dbee3
1e7257463637b3eccbb3a55c227c6da501b99605
2791 F20101203_AABFWW zaleha_d_Page_001thm.jpg
446efd3b90a8ea7084e54a4458316deb
00371648694515a6fe1f15f98f61d7b153e9b219
150622 F20101203_AABGDF zaleha_d_Page_024.jp2
059b3c6ee5477f4247abc1f3a4349df2
27f8d2c5c2e995210d4f54d0ec20a3898920104b
17204 F20101203_AABGCR zaleha_d_Page_007.jp2
d1d6a2d94b3ce135521849a4a01b7220
aec82945bc4b408175927670cb02636c117c79bb
F20101203_AABFXL zaleha_d_Page_080.jp2
c1b16989cb62be333849d372684da24a
a9d0ed3cea5b17eff887a8ef34c968836a99ce9d
134784 F20101203_AABFWX zaleha_d_Page_038.jpg
e57787621114f71d60ae790c272eaf4e
f8cd2a9b0217460d19364d2ce149e5b539ed58ae
F20101203_AABFYA zaleha_d_Page_092.tif
f7c100c50caff51ba696a5f16d374989
70aeb47f61c1050e43ddf52519adc465bf9a748a
117335 F20101203_AABGCS zaleha_d_Page_008.jp2
c4154189f1ffa64eebc191e4ac058e27
1050acd87fd769082030565caf2a8b81974e9653
8872 F20101203_AABFXM zaleha_d_Page_064thm.jpg
8333f9410d3a594c798775c540499278
29fecff2cc1c45986322a65871faf61448bbfc60
83724 F20101203_AABFWY zaleha_d_Page_055.pro
f1632c260aa5efc22053f7d2945a8b2a
f400f87be16c03957af2637380a14a6d43f7c747
1051982 F20101203_AABGDG zaleha_d_Page_025.jp2
b9d3aee08ce24eca379eee1907663d8e
f2d1d310a1353280a33e1335c952f2fc98963bc1
54763 F20101203_AABFYB zaleha_d_Page_021.pro
8d6321cd45abcbeb75af95a6ea15e5c5
77d45a67f5c71098646c7945db3f29e78c9686eb
136537 F20101203_AABGCT zaleha_d_Page_009.jp2
8fcd2686780f332a249986796113f15b
5cb1d1cb72fab5b34bad418cfd7354d4a0bc9748
F20101203_AABFXN zaleha_d_Page_106.tif
52f8486d5aa16686e8add6996fb705fd
0f0b3406556a92ff5a965eeae72cbb1201e911dc
2017 F20101203_AABFWZ zaleha_d_Page_059.txt
d802020fe29cddc23323bb01c8723369
14d5e4fd5d810ade8498db91e74abe6d5cd97374
107372 F20101203_AABGDH zaleha_d_Page_026.jp2
e2daa55b1f892073ee9c310d7097f995
011cbb71dda83282ebdf337e48eca7b4fee4e360
F20101203_AABFYC zaleha_d_Page_026.tif
168279d0b16c8eead96b153481d0c7da
07cff1a0069c8e79e2bde9534a35654e62f1e221
134087 F20101203_AABGCU zaleha_d_Page_010.jp2
d48b390669efe8d1a89ec832c7d0c98e
abe91279edb702b7563d3c98c333db4ba7041dc7
143088 F20101203_AABFXO zaleha_d_Page_054.jp2
a85824f77177c3d84c26a3929285bea3
8e86d33548c6a551801c5ccc867312a5eea1de12
139548 F20101203_AABGDI zaleha_d_Page_030.jp2
da3e7a471ffc0d4f8a0d48943729dfca
f1ef138b98e1020e5592dd8dc0d48d0b0dd776f8
89300 F20101203_AABFYD zaleha_d_Page_095.jpg
4961c3ea61f8cbc8adce9b8575562c4b
9bb8f78c8ee150826e2f1c560e083458d26715aa
16946 F20101203_AABGCV zaleha_d_Page_012.jp2
178fc41e7b604a7a5b293b0fb6531d21
677ab5894575489c9a20e76fccab586aae46b82a
33310 F20101203_AABFXP zaleha_d_Page_069.QC.jpg
98e53d86c20f4078045f931db1946078
467501760569951b7281beac83bd7b55111c1b7e
1051985 F20101203_AABGDJ zaleha_d_Page_031.jp2
f85c6edfa31c7573c7dbbbd45952fdd8
eaafce15689b8497ef271fc170a08489cad4fffc
425 F20101203_AABFYE zaleha_d_Page_003.txt
147671083dff5d7b39914a13109ab569
8b99a4548a5d4009962391c287f920a73bddf6ed
114391 F20101203_AABGCW zaleha_d_Page_013.jp2
a9fa86b42ccd44983b14529f9f05f942
5cbcea5c042c4990426f38f4494d5d3946ac570e
46834 F20101203_AABFXQ zaleha_d_Page_043.pro
0db51132a59eeaad99fe44e2dd3cb444
490eeb625b984ca3501158886af474418beaf527
124934 F20101203_AABGDK zaleha_d_Page_033.jp2
cab29d34b584657877f35f2e974fd955
2c99a74926ebf94667e9f537727fedca6cc8a217
55534 F20101203_AABFYF zaleha_d_Page_074.pro
6a792f82d675e49d75383e41ce20b4a5
4399f2a5f141fe3371ca48239fc66e60600506f6
106256 F20101203_AABGCX zaleha_d_Page_014.jp2
98d29aa79f451e463bd05847c236b9f4
f00deaedc4a898c813573afaf5aee6668151fd07
F20101203_AABFXR zaleha_d_Page_030.tif
7ff94150a252ba4907e6c967acd7ee90
b81fc35fddea9e7634c19260260600b66a576da3
108174 F20101203_AABGEA zaleha_d_Page_059.jp2
0cdc64154fa0b4f570e8b8ca6b0237e3
cbd0452adbb4d40d1c8cb41a53824e0b9e374ec8
146305 F20101203_AABGDL zaleha_d_Page_036.jp2
54da492ffb7a9532d18f4f4900b49de2
bcdf6e274b96de8c486d2d131c1d851c0e084972
35179 F20101203_AABFYG zaleha_d_Page_082.QC.jpg
e852d09a76b0f07925f0c7264424802d
cd71870e623dc2b2061c64657ba61aee027ad022
109634 F20101203_AABGCY zaleha_d_Page_015.jp2
72fc26573fd066f5b5e04ac4a1f7b78c
538f31167fe69275de3a974d9c95fb63287c106f
158516 F20101203_AABFXS zaleha_d_Page_048.jp2
2e1f20d98804c38afd6832affeb63efd
1c102ab3bb352e1de5f8e63d4905a66d7974884a
108446 F20101203_AABGEB zaleha_d_Page_060.jp2
ea624cdcedd743f4dedb5ff56328ec92
22c42e32a1fd2fdb147ae3a61758d4a14e52a630
123571 F20101203_AABGDM zaleha_d_Page_037.jp2
e61a5b35d5df4cf14d4235ba7c6b2998
86b8d8ddf2af3d9753cff325cab62e9ef260024e
71914 F20101203_AABFYH zaleha_d_Page_054.pro
531b5e5e9421c5a428b9df93c07a9bcd
2a6399cd52613e5e57d874ac66592faa76f80e54
129383 F20101203_AABGCZ zaleha_d_Page_016.jp2
acd006da8999759ef192608b821784ab
c5e3b889b2045f655407cc81c2eb00d4e174e451
162828 F20101203_AABFXT zaleha_d_Page_062.jp2
98a2e69795cd57ff6e9b777841f06a16
cb7944e4027e8f33f813a0a7fcdfeae4b77abe4b
125788 F20101203_AABGEC zaleha_d_Page_063.jp2
a8789ea7a4425cc0f0d5e095a5e49bb5
b32ae284a026183ba45bfcce71370f2eed168540
145467 F20101203_AABGDN zaleha_d_Page_038.jp2
43cbff1b319fa9261d3bf690ca1d6dcf
c7c1d7bca1edbd06f1f2d502e8aa5f66760caee5
127206 F20101203_AABFYI zaleha_d_Page_101.jp2
c8b240d675c63b7db51f761289c555f9
679cc18741dfd3309422da74877adfb3222e04e2
9171 F20101203_AABFXU zaleha_d_Page_018thm.jpg
e0b379a45086fa5b7eed5866ec7a015c
d24e4c419e5aab3ed3d1149a3c963e9980cbdf81
114025 F20101203_AABGED zaleha_d_Page_065.jp2
12578c449f9c27dec17b01ee43db2327
fe7bfb3262551dbb77eb65af6a98af3091f8a5d7
115276 F20101203_AABGDO zaleha_d_Page_039.jp2
20d96c73f0f6d372215c3ea9ac48712b
9eb7338d33c8df8f26ee009c8ea614ccbbfb237a
F20101203_AABFYJ zaleha_d_Page_016.tif
aef482d9d289d2745accc711d414f502
9f2a5265a653a2d04d4aeb0b4de5c0455f8c1b2c
115691 F20101203_AABFXV zaleha_d_Page_110.jpg
65782438f96e70f15d25947ff9dbc08a
b2cdce18439e51fcb4703d75fd20daf0d4a7bdbb
116866 F20101203_AABGEE zaleha_d_Page_067.jp2
fab52a7d86a7ef003554265aab543bf3
7fa44040dc5ca598bfb3e5366ec0bce30c314a5c
155385 F20101203_AABGDP zaleha_d_Page_041.jp2
2e66f08344b96691c99eaef35853e609
5aed21f2d8f6375dd395a7db0604033df3f176bf
54573 F20101203_AABFYK zaleha_d_Page_084.pro
ddfd84b21a1e68c03bac61858217f00e
57916b8b918c3e3854864117918f15087c3d3c3a
45317 F20101203_AABFXW zaleha_d_Page_079.pro
8cf121e02e4990fb34f8a043fade84c8
6032e69f654d2293e0084a9f83aeafe6e5579ea7
112685 F20101203_AABGEF zaleha_d_Page_069.jp2
ea3011b54266c7bb32453fc9b848834b
471c6900c95d3c1197f02c1d7acc51204c3aff2d
97979 F20101203_AABGDQ zaleha_d_Page_043.jp2
6609095f3e6a8acf5b8ff53016ec0048
0ee033e7bbefc3d3f61bb45263ac76db86331d0f
27734 F20101203_AABFYL zaleha_d_Page_113.QC.jpg
062643a4d6a73e1a02b24af5db45f964
a7486eb8ef700e6667594043f6c94cb7d787791c
118140 F20101203_AABFXX zaleha_d_Page_052.jp2
5ff9affd04b85c99da9483491fcc9b82
06a1ae57f5adf38f5c5c3cd6b6f1dc1d39830137
111671 F20101203_AABGEG zaleha_d_Page_070.jp2
2d4e4947aac9cb177194750f465437c5
244a24d88c8828ee87f80e5c8b31f8f398a145fa
128143 F20101203_AABGDR zaleha_d_Page_045.jp2
8e60af9ec43c35d8ebb7f5449164353b
c646a505972279a182eddfa6b43148825343bb47
155037 F20101203_AABFYM zaleha_d_Page_089.jpg
f88007c5f7927e53f0e4479b34922cdf
4e31bf7448554fbf1448467176d8fb887be52740
60788 F20101203_AABFXY zaleha_d_Page_111.pro
10904079e3939aece955aa64bd573a8e
a823baead5c09de72fa557c3c788edcc55a7b191
128633 F20101203_AABFZA zaleha_d_Page_030.jpg
8512c8aaa1975c624cdfbb23fcbb2df1
b36c90ca77f85fd5d5e7ce6935c94e19303fcca7
146369 F20101203_AABGDS zaleha_d_Page_047.jp2
464042c164956bdcd39f06c62591a9b5
861530d82615aa4216ba0ab0e91a2b230fce2a96
F20101203_AABFXZ zaleha_d_Page_065.tif
b7acfd9accfb1067db7b454fc36736c3
4158b4eb20dbd247e25fe657207a29e40d009572
120950 F20101203_AABGEH zaleha_d_Page_071.jp2
7c393d86b3faba1f960309fff69944b5
dc8b51c8ec6efa5ec247139349c6ba79d31e2530
170309 F20101203_AABFZB UFE0022149_00001.xml
a765f09a7ddaa5500401317201edb5a0
0b834f8ebcb5527c413b781321062da3fbe7085e
140903 F20101203_AABGDT zaleha_d_Page_049.jp2
96dc8d0c3d8a70395b5a3c7b3abea00c
8536987e7efa5c7577dc3a124913b3baeff7e4cb
51104 F20101203_AABFYN zaleha_d_Page_098.pro
9f040e5f775591339d9a96b53e82afbf
60afda9b49a805e6276b076b6c80b9737460687d
119547 F20101203_AABGEI zaleha_d_Page_072.jp2
08014d71926d5db05db11f81907424ad
8baa1552f547cbf1598324176481570c8ba43335
865804 F20101203_AABGDU zaleha_d_Page_050.jp2
32b3040b53e37b4c58388054c29d77f8
66fa8af6d2292cb33aa9e2718a2937ed1833a389
F20101203_AABFYO zaleha_d_Page_041.tif
70b278b603cccd522bc7abb73943a375
c34da78b7664c955848bb1eaf4e5376ed8865966
144520 F20101203_AABGEJ zaleha_d_Page_073.jp2
2fcf024e3e92045e1769f3b7bb6fce89
4aa9a2621499f9f91050755b50470e9bee0bde26
126568 F20101203_AABGDV zaleha_d_Page_051.jp2
a2ee96713d06330f7fb7a55a2725ad57
cd7ca99c4c76b83c75c603a6dcf4d6a1c8cf82d1
134148 F20101203_AABFYP zaleha_d_Page_047.jpg
d592b509674808816e3903cd48053f65
0d926bcd7459e452bc13b7694cf68d29a62f9cdc
118629 F20101203_AABGEK zaleha_d_Page_074.jp2
52100ae5a020c1090ed3b4d69ace50e6
db7dcd9f6471e23f1530028c057ffc3c847e192e
37090 F20101203_AABFZE zaleha_d_Page_001.jpg
30195ccec67c6e9f196194814615e1c4
3abaa52444733bc33a421e72d6ace1e3a8db3d2b
128101 F20101203_AABGDW zaleha_d_Page_053.jp2
42babc9871c2da16f3452179d46b6f84
de09b233c482daf36f587f3cb0ec9aa6a4c8ec5e
65255 F20101203_AABFYQ zaleha_d_Page_049.pro
4edc686578681e359d18730698ea4cb2
3073d1d331d1c6617c50097c5f708f9476064109
111557 F20101203_AABGFA zaleha_d_Page_098.jp2
2339813dd8d66e78f0eb5a1a5b39a878
18aa5d9789a776468b25112c7c8167b7521f39e5
121254 F20101203_AABGEL zaleha_d_Page_075.jp2
aa5f183139480af0f0602ecf54248947
650662af2407b1e37f055ee22720057f35938167
20205 F20101203_AABFZF zaleha_d_Page_003.jpg
f042269aa0916d527797538f6fee1835
54f3017c101cda0628336863f07fdc4d824993f1
166786 F20101203_AABGDX zaleha_d_Page_055.jp2
c39b4fb9825f1a2d8bff414eef571f27
2695795e33ef2cb9ac9da4f5a26c22f66afb1f07
105370 F20101203_AABFYR zaleha_d_Page_065.jpg
5ae808bf79d1d7ce4be5291f9108f3a8
be40609de7aea7f10ca0143d34bf9837c4ac6db7
156984 F20101203_AABGFB zaleha_d_Page_100.jp2
b4f7ab1549de31b5848e04649ba5ad19
b34cdccb3148af45a79be8567f5ba48df988df47
118331 F20101203_AABGEM zaleha_d_Page_076.jp2
01d9f5d4e1b2eff2b4bbfeccd3c07e84
4a5f6718754f285b798f46c4f709dec3754bd513
96937 F20101203_AABFZG zaleha_d_Page_005.jpg
05eb5fde1a9564cf1c8191a2ea885ce3
b480d792b0e3a1e555a50bb1127d113ba80eef20
162448 F20101203_AABGDY zaleha_d_Page_056.jp2
c3760f34c432e0cc0d037bf09f0e5eee
76e7255cc8b1cc6c1c3449a717da189754a9f080
70806 F20101203_AABFYS zaleha_d_Page_035.pro
c267ef6de96ed1257592cf98b840d05d
757cbeb35f644e33791de5beffe01934a55919a6
24162 F20101203_AABGFC zaleha_d_Page_102.jp2
6b960ef7ba52ce1aa09b519bb4f32d8c
dd2e8838706515145e5b11b246fa6591eca63748
74357 F20101203_AABGEN zaleha_d_Page_077.jp2
534652a4bde1a05028ba0bd87e8c5fd0
109296b48b47a316359d8ab60a58413f600f60c9
98564 F20101203_AABFZH zaleha_d_Page_006.jpg
3ec7130df263a72477211e08289b1605
941e288439f86d7f94520915abee7cb027ba5543
109032 F20101203_AABGDZ zaleha_d_Page_058.jp2
361dc84ccc0da16b74427d17ba19b6e1
bb8483d0c033e5e77b79a8b2f8c9582f8b3247d8
36337 F20101203_AABFYT zaleha_d_Page_064.QC.jpg
a27500f72f07539137b82faf1f8edb5f
6a8110524819c6938109d518f9dfcfacf53d3dad
117900 F20101203_AABGFD zaleha_d_Page_105.jp2
f10bdbda6b632142bee47c1e208b3940
cde22b79985d5ed540e59a7f5624c18dbc3a3482
120334 F20101203_AABGEO zaleha_d_Page_078.jp2
d00510d97fdc7212c68a7e0abc8c7c98
c076b1887ea831f3b71d37fa620e56e4722e3c3b
15470 F20101203_AABFZI zaleha_d_Page_007.jpg
309190c220381b7d531f3dd3b8445f54
24935e1d923530ab6044a4753c78bddb744d95ea
112637 F20101203_AABFYU zaleha_d_Page_046.jpg
4e5bc8cabb6dc62e1a350a6b9f402ef2
4377201ff891ece95904adbd6601dea2308f78db
124325 F20101203_AABGFE zaleha_d_Page_106.jp2
c79b9720b02981a15b945d2a7ebea77b
338a706f7e9aaf51c58196ad6417c1a46e88f841
98251 F20101203_AABGEP zaleha_d_Page_079.jp2
95dc0d4e63c7b64e2623d35b6449af69
d5983afb57049b73b0850ba5fac892a37ebdc012
109137 F20101203_AABFZJ zaleha_d_Page_008.jpg
3e2fb618e7c775a3d81f6ea226829870
96933b55f592869e2fbf6421a725a6212e8439d3
5770 F20101203_AABFYV zaleha_d_Page_012.QC.jpg
f9f926e889528d6b349e78c46bf92151
c8dbaba28550a191b9e27cf2212e3c650f5f017f
121556 F20101203_AABGFF zaleha_d_Page_107.jp2
b77709ef361288a75a6565156860ae0b
192eb98bd4b5d04cd028c8c37a6da7bf4247ed3c
1051954 F20101203_AABGEQ zaleha_d_Page_081.jp2
ea49af9bdfccda52507ff7031ac1934d
4431096000e5bee1571f112c4937bda628ad75bd
127976 F20101203_AABFZK zaleha_d_Page_009.jpg
cb0a7517d05da633da2a9240df9f47f2
19bf6e1b37dff99401211116000fea7fccb9bc9e
49018 F20101203_AABFYW zaleha_d_Page_059.pro
33357312896d733e65ae261e90571dfc
d6b77ed08d2dbab73c6e5e8fce615456b817b079
117907 F20101203_AABGFG zaleha_d_Page_108.jp2
3a00a87d42f7225c827a2acf11f6aef6
78cdcb4c354017782d457ab221fd5b4213122ecf
112473 F20101203_AABGER zaleha_d_Page_083.jp2
5c56aefc44982544942f2bf68db225cf
45561871eaf9d4518be351dc9a282b4e0fda2ca8
127944 F20101203_AABFZL zaleha_d_Page_010.jpg
2494e8bf7cb0d50fa75e18fed7cbc72f
b397486a0b52eb12ea1a757936a1168647561d0d
1479 F20101203_AABFYX zaleha_d_Page_007thm.jpg
cbf4b12045ab29b62b5cc77f4ce7fcab
0934d618066232b22cfb46f8d4ac5cd0080322da
125716 F20101203_AABGFH zaleha_d_Page_109.jp2
224ea6045c26473fa4ac9e0a18c41c7c
9b4697005658367ecee08e9e975a139bf29e5d60
145199 F20101203_AABGES zaleha_d_Page_085.jp2
13aa769b32d65a72d71d1e27fb93f656
a3d5ec7a36b8048214041a7149f2dc83b17a8454
112896 F20101203_AABFZM zaleha_d_Page_011.jpg
4b6cfbef4759570b0d9f01f12b67a63b
eb09e9551c2b533cee9ccb8994614973e750f062
2877 F20101203_AABFYY zaleha_d_Page_066.txt
e0d32955487b32604c004828686a5337
755c212b7a9e1e0377c64678117cb4e335e18e6b
133095 F20101203_AABGET zaleha_d_Page_086.jp2
0df423688374fdbc31eee638c8a7ddbb
948652e6e1aa7cebacdf6c31363a325c72c3fa84
15712 F20101203_AABFZN zaleha_d_Page_012.jpg
0fcd3235a2b2ac4ce12613ce23d0334e
0dab17dec97aba17d2b791e717ed19b3005205b8
2192 F20101203_AABFYZ zaleha_d_Page_074.txt
a710b8454b4a4170e1c6d34c8844838c
b504298bddf40bb31a85f31ca89ec8428d3cbf87
132422 F20101203_AABGFI zaleha_d_Page_111.jp2
6fe0ee7928337447fc403132b4dd04dd
c9a80bdcf7cf48581839f7240e697f322f13141d
114016 F20101203_AABGEU zaleha_d_Page_088.jp2
ef8b09a489ee0ab50f96515310ffca40
6595a70191e8fc17059657be3ca4c9d682312852
95247 F20101203_AABFZO zaleha_d_Page_014.jpg
5b9da9444e60410668d84c8ce97cca96
7bc2d8f60e0512d7970d3fa716d9153a2d4a0823
97768 F20101203_AABGFJ zaleha_d_Page_112.jp2
b7932496dae3a719b723ebced43557b6
ee0f2ed41ec375e17549d663a5d2017820a0c66d
123823 F20101203_AABGEV zaleha_d_Page_090.jp2
e7fbb58ca5be483fc55b7b19373d68f9
3da940f689663c3dc79a2d30ee666a01ecac07c1
100159 F20101203_AABFZP zaleha_d_Page_015.jpg
4a6e5421985eaa9f7c228ece63120a54
e02924958c8e7a4f115d43ab0f85dc4a88d96721
108798 F20101203_AABGEW zaleha_d_Page_091.jp2
36415e0f74f7936df507017029d3ab7b
87dec8a71e3ce0f2d820b13283545fad356bc922
116343 F20101203_AABFZQ zaleha_d_Page_016.jpg
79935080bc4e0f79861fa4c926f34e25
944194f3af8764ea201d8c75416080b7b06c1ae2
F20101203_AABGFK zaleha_d_Page_001.tif
322200a29475566ffa0084b58c843db5
5e0f545a0963ca891ce330efd3822490f8e991e2
103473 F20101203_AABGEX zaleha_d_Page_092.jp2
74e292aeac895b149058af89b63f3c26
451b3ad261871a20e58ac8282dd46ebb532ac7e1
109036 F20101203_AABFZR zaleha_d_Page_017.jpg
b5be121339dcca65341319ef937b1803
55f535fc0823e3d49883fd2991e0c4c8ca50fff9
F20101203_AABGGA zaleha_d_Page_020.tif
b565dbe33401cf831dded38f058d3211
972fcdc889a70d68b6bd74a666d51710b6c89748
F20101203_AABGFL zaleha_d_Page_002.tif
523abcac0f8179a1aa3628105cb1064a
e9051502f1150ff3a891c9ac8f02fb8f268fe504
F20101203_AABGEY zaleha_d_Page_093.jp2
27c46ed45c510c9a731150f658757e29
2094d79487430779d33d6051ae2434fcd2078289
112477 F20101203_AABFZS zaleha_d_Page_018.jpg
b50426d96f08f3b6e08db3141cfed569
a23e864ba925181f8a50559fc56fc623969dfa97
F20101203_AABGGB zaleha_d_Page_021.tif
6fb6bbad194e15e3e42a6216cfefd552
b4359b24cac16ab76cfaccac1a1a8391e906cdb6
F20101203_AABGFM zaleha_d_Page_003.tif
251fff6798dc7442065c46c8e0c55070
4ef1c71d68f30d138a09fa50fb92a74ada1bf82f
98882 F20101203_AABGEZ zaleha_d_Page_096.jp2
7a85ad0ca1f7dd73539215fa20cdb3f9
c6ebe3156d9fe987d433dd052ba68d523a54f726
116471 F20101203_AABFZT zaleha_d_Page_019.jpg
8637f8aa1eddaae98bedcc43295dcdcf
dfdf6f04257dbfd560fc471712f0b8234b033125
F20101203_AABGGC zaleha_d_Page_022.tif
f30056ee5ef9cc851d5270e3355ccf43
8d7757a174320913b3560325125d602c77a28d25
F20101203_AABGFN zaleha_d_Page_005.tif
c1f8c50d5c28d7573baa765ec04bc7f5
8b56a6aa23cd3e2c12797e12d30d7de8cd323421
97434 F20101203_AABFZU zaleha_d_Page_020.jpg
e4e1e1799f7fa7fb2e097a26b9ae8038
c8699def3898e2d9b90950b3a42ce9724252370b
F20101203_AABGGD zaleha_d_Page_023.tif
de55e3ecc1be268dd4f215acec6a574b
5553527123f83272bd64e50793d635b98fc3a0f6
F20101203_AABGFO zaleha_d_Page_006.tif
86f45c04107f5e45a8c7f65c0a0892f2
204e25fd7116583fa4c38a2c112127e889c082bf
110489 F20101203_AABFZV zaleha_d_Page_021.jpg
70f29532de594d8128bd092fb27b2902
99c959cc3075da7ff60d3813ce8a134b722aed62
F20101203_AABGGE zaleha_d_Page_024.tif
2e186d71cd934a052ac0b3fd984c0462
4a53f3cfdddf00818ae3a42b1bdda398dddc8db8
F20101203_AABGFP zaleha_d_Page_007.tif
ac14bbc37b5eb886700fb0053ed529b8
3b2ab5644f657d69a81b1278a30208b44e107b30
144478 F20101203_AABFZW zaleha_d_Page_023.jpg
cd21cab4bd3e2f1f66c35af3b7d96658
54f3848a2b31ac44f286896bebec25709afdf0dc
F20101203_AABGGF zaleha_d_Page_025.tif
fb8411145ef3740bfab8f05db1864f87
22061402d6d5219de5dbb228147a19d2d418f846
F20101203_AABGFQ zaleha_d_Page_008.tif
64b3d7be2993e345e917890ea51f1bb2
d5753a1308127be9e0a84361c7e0e00587556dba
139194 F20101203_AABFZX zaleha_d_Page_024.jpg
29cfe79a169b9fdcbf394531f31ba169
157a45a63b29222fdeb46ec9a49e949dd6a00f84
F20101203_AABGGG zaleha_d_Page_027.tif
76430357346ab4a9c808145340d93786
5d77989c00597a31050da37479987d8eeb8d0af0
F20101203_AABGFR zaleha_d_Page_009.tif
4f3d2271b7ede01a297b971366c779d8
bca0a0045a2843fa1b81e9c8fdc1d72c67e42dbc
113746 F20101203_AABFZY zaleha_d_Page_025.jpg
f1b791bc04c536efaa7285fe0608a441
961ab9288c0ca73d58c8ec4812a8a5197d61f1b2
F20101203_AABGGH zaleha_d_Page_028.tif
6cb497781c3e2ff5ea24bd6be2114797
c5b3712c5ab79dbd26819f53d4c4c7335b638084
F20101203_AABGFS zaleha_d_Page_010.tif
fd74802c4edbbdb6db5bacbc5ad67753
be04e568b838fe65618bbb6e7e30a7610d74e46b
109924 F20101203_AABFZZ zaleha_d_Page_027.jpg
9a81904890b0f5d20b6a3f41bc155258
6d164126ac25684634e6895045e79b43e0ae97b8
F20101203_AABGGI zaleha_d_Page_029.tif
ac9c8dbbcad2f0c48f3672b64fd50493
a4b1c8e4c47f771201e6317fae9d6f5004648178
F20101203_AABGFT zaleha_d_Page_012.tif
079a184df8f57422df6ce18c1ba1c58a
0fd56f5bd4ed8b887e8aea28a139b64519caa0f6
F20101203_AABGFU zaleha_d_Page_013.tif
3b97178f8b6f578b239500574f126752
739e79879e3a5026be02b3da016922f6390308a3
F20101203_AABGGJ zaleha_d_Page_031.tif
10b59c57fef2ebb27fcd954279a9e2ab
038b1eac5e065fddd5a9939b9ce9d9ebfea5a06e
F20101203_AABGFV zaleha_d_Page_014.tif
cb75a11c0079882b3cb4e6f1d2b2fd91
55f2a171e0c065e21d6a012947affbef622b4335
F20101203_AABGGK zaleha_d_Page_032.tif
4d408a5910dccb666641fb79eb838c96
173cfc45a28380ad9a8f8f84bc19fed99de9f280
F20101203_AABGFW zaleha_d_Page_015.tif
cbcd85dc19fc80ceb33054f205da931f
73a75e363abef71820021796cd1ba00e687f923e
F20101203_AABGHA zaleha_d_Page_058.tif
fd2171ec7e990ba341ca03ffb790f46e
9178acb990046fd6f899164fd3d10cc9429a2964
F20101203_AABGGL zaleha_d_Page_034.tif
d4261ad098abca5ac1afcfe90bb5ca6e
f15c65cde21d0f0f8be12c9f87c180c65555df76
F20101203_AABGFX zaleha_d_Page_017.tif
f4508e57e207739b5e8a12f3e8039bdf
3e1c9f30d077c1048be416a6b152f65620bb107c
F20101203_AABGHB zaleha_d_Page_059.tif
cc3b52e921eba19df2ea2ad5dc7ccb35
144c48440ee831df265349a119d550c67416e9bc
F20101203_AABGGM zaleha_d_Page_035.tif
83bba07f513dfb2f14d15b8769237b7d
090bb4c71bc53c6884e1e27d4243879d4023498e
F20101203_AABGFY zaleha_d_Page_018.tif
46dd8e80be4f5fa986b8f3c458113fbe
0ba695bfffb7a887722be5177e0880f98331a66a
F20101203_AABGHC zaleha_d_Page_060.tif
e809197b4cdb3be9bbe0a55af85ddb79
94d263aece79333855968a9d0e3968ed8f49fe3f
F20101203_AABGGN zaleha_d_Page_036.tif
0fa70139dc7e6cc9c5e8fee712a77bd8
f49b9e906afe973623802304c7f418b5524248f6
F20101203_AABGFZ zaleha_d_Page_019.tif
2ed76bc7d10e2d82a60e26fc961cecfc
465a31be4f560c4a5883dcb430e6fb1ff689a90f
F20101203_AABGHD zaleha_d_Page_061.tif
7b2dd4029eadfab66dc3ab7e9c7c0443
5b289e5e3d7361df6cf2801033c1c62ad5b92c3a
F20101203_AABGGO zaleha_d_Page_037.tif
d5b7f051a6f51ff1945220b2aab33ffd
e3e27ed1dcc4367d9176181827a3d7ec11270d05
F20101203_AABGHE zaleha_d_Page_062.tif
07f4422b364a9cd4845d9b3d3c7fe4ee
a1906609dd48a90cdd013d73d1259d95f52442df
F20101203_AABGGP zaleha_d_Page_038.tif
4f7a2d8dc47573183ebfb1aab8f1dbcd
864eb293504c726610d08dd37433e25ff7262e27
F20101203_AABGHF zaleha_d_Page_064.tif
26990c651b3c4766a7f51c8071fe6f6b
2b2dbcc58eeb8d2d05c32b33c6c6ed167af613d6
F20101203_AABGGQ zaleha_d_Page_043.tif
7d2a1d073b2068cbbe001d496f8dc76f
4032f811f8faf0dda0d55d6a8bee709e355fbc7d
F20101203_AABGHG zaleha_d_Page_066.tif
62ecc147e09db07fff99e4b32cf0890a
cc43b9c09bf641eba33de0e3afe18e94913f2865
F20101203_AABGGR zaleha_d_Page_044.tif
880109548ec498c32d6db11cd176b1c8
80f670b451bae5b433f6e0c3e52b3041cdcc7585
F20101203_AABGHH zaleha_d_Page_067.tif
56ccf32ee8c2775dc6db2c1929ca3667
f6f0f840cc5d38115fe059ffce1034154348ee66
F20101203_AABGGS zaleha_d_Page_045.tif
0213a13c18803429e4a78396bf012d25
5be3851a007f8eec2376390dd762f2be34b4fdbe
F20101203_AABGHI zaleha_d_Page_068.tif
15dc25f8a964ffa8b47e7f8d986384f7
4e6bbc0277d080611fe2420b9e66a450d8b5fc87
F20101203_AABGGT zaleha_d_Page_047.tif
bbf8f878dbe58bfac48033f599e9028e
ff433e0f29967ab9231fc62446885eaa9ea1370c
F20101203_AABGHJ zaleha_d_Page_069.tif
76add5fe53481e716d69adf81630707b
c7b199e6f9981448952f222e9a3a8c818e5c66c8
F20101203_AABGGU zaleha_d_Page_051.tif
d9fe2c3b49db9aa84fd8fcafbbb122b5
582518a4397409f3677ddb52bebefc679398e98d
F20101203_AABGGV zaleha_d_Page_052.tif
292ca63347126cc9725cad01c70e155c
af7913f24d99559c4034d067f71e595b794259da
F20101203_AABGHK zaleha_d_Page_072.tif
47bae6bd82788f242be4f17f490d7dac
dc66d3e48988ac0d08b123e030c1f850e50a7eae
F20101203_AABGGW zaleha_d_Page_053.tif
a112c5c75f076f01a95eac9868cd1ba9
dbab25905205e106472f20a3e9b5b6a4a172d9ab
F20101203_AABGHL zaleha_d_Page_073.tif
d80b1afebf44c78344a941322f998e92
40ec2d85a38cd3d535778b11f8796b9c9b28cb6c
F20101203_AABGGX zaleha_d_Page_055.tif
209d175b33cdac202f324c0ec2e6b071
93fab6a6cb6b5a8503701860a382c4d15151f8e2
F20101203_AABGIA zaleha_d_Page_093.tif
cd5e3e783ab64c0ac6e43f4751bf3972
027a29e7b2a1b0a05a97389be7221f1ad34b606f
F20101203_AABGHM zaleha_d_Page_074.tif
48bf34cbe1fbc6aa40ceb4dd13510dbc
9e473a5a8729590add44392b1c23e6765fe88d7e
F20101203_AABGGY zaleha_d_Page_056.tif
0eb271b3eb1411e761d8288f0ba3bf43
9cec62a702c2f4d902ea9d9cd706ea4a9872e9e7
F20101203_AABGIB zaleha_d_Page_095.tif
e8fb3afad8e27cc326bdfbe492f8e481
1ed28cf7f9a566ff0e30d0fec5a4fd8816a02b4b
F20101203_AABGHN zaleha_d_Page_076.tif
bf7a4508939bf8e3fb0f9fb4fec2dc52
223c10f802a1c48628cfe983661817806b26b7f5
F20101203_AABGGZ zaleha_d_Page_057.tif
fdbce1ec84bc101fe6a1bbb5e6172ff5
1b808fbee68c8d20e6c3927314c11c872c46bce5
F20101203_AABGIC zaleha_d_Page_096.tif
a6e122a89c75efce618a6a4ad77b46dc
3f4b0c7520b279448f328256181c47d3a64c81a7
F20101203_AABGHO zaleha_d_Page_077.tif
46991ab5ee51e32d85f42576038058a1
200cef15c1f51326da3b3fb40d68aec70972530f
F20101203_AABGID zaleha_d_Page_097.tif
f1cfab4950567b5fa10ca47e445ab4db
74c88697c963360f04cd0ba44e9ddec922f47f87
F20101203_AABGHP zaleha_d_Page_078.tif
1018721574a3fb8098b9d1737352aa81
ee1dbe7f95a59f291984db8ab873edd296089c76
F20101203_AABGIE zaleha_d_Page_098.tif
57d57de5e4aabef9ddb6384407061c9c
42b8c569f2239552a54c877fc16e6b9f85906911
F20101203_AABGHQ zaleha_d_Page_080.tif
86e1421499feb13a395a00557ead79f9
48f3403340b6d81afe75156bd4390ec35be273bb
F20101203_AABGIF zaleha_d_Page_099.tif
5b0bf8aae20311ac5c5a2feec879530c
64f1f442379b4e384ee54e09e1677b8b4ece93e6
F20101203_AABGHR zaleha_d_Page_081.tif
db9b2fd4e0c127e1ddc486ea263411ad
16d3e1e6315c015dff5d9cb8eb5d5f2cad37ca65
F20101203_AABGIG zaleha_d_Page_100.tif
41b485cf168015be6e01f423265d9934
8c9c0e5bedd727d5eeedff37e872cae3b2093e5e







"THE ONLY PARADISE WE EVER NEED": AN INVESTIGATION INTO
PANTHEISM'S SACRED GEOGRAPHY IN THE WRITINGS OF
EDWARD ABBEY, THOMAS BERRY, AND MATTHEW FOX, AND A
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF SIGNS OF
EMERGING PANTHEISM IN AMERICAN CULTURE

















By

BERNARD DALEY ZALEHA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Bernard Daley Zaleha































To Veronica Daley Zaleha, my loving wife,
to John Van Cleve, my devoted friend and supporter,
to Gregory Gilbert, my long time friend and conversation partner,
to Henry David Thoreau, whose timeless wisdom helped me understand this Cosmos,
and to Edward Abbey, who interpreted Thoreau's wisdom for our contemporary era.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I wish to express my deep thanks to Drs. Bron Taylor and Sheldon Isenberg for their

invaluable guidance. I wish to thank my colleague and fellow sojourner in the graduate school

experience, Robin Globus, for all her encouragement and friendship throughout.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T .................................................... ............................................... 4

A B S T R A C T .................................................................................................. .............. ........... 6

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ............................................................................. .................... 8

2 WEBER, ELIADE AND GEERTZ AS AIDS IN INTERPRETING
PANTHEISM, PANENTHEISM AND CLASSICAL THEISM .................................. 13

3 PANTHEISM, PANENTHEISM AND CLASSICAL THEISM DEFINED ................ 23

4 THE BIBLICAL CONTEXT .......................................................... .................... 44

5 THE NATURALISTIC PANTHEISM OF EDWARD ABBEY ................................. 51

6 THE ECOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF THOMAS BERRY ........................................ 58

7 THE CREATION SPIRITUALITY OF MATTHEW FOX ................................... 71

8 SIGNS OF EMERGING PANTHEISM WITHIN AMERICAN CULTURE ............ 78

Quantitative Signs of Pantheism on the Internet ............................... .............. 78
Pantheism O organizations ............................................................... .................... 80
Pantheism and the Deep Ecology Movement ..................................................... 81
Pantheism in the M movies ................................................................. .................... 82
Pantheism in Television ...................................................................................................... 90
Pantheism in Popular M music .......................................................... .................... 92
Pantheism in Dawkins, Dennett and Harris ....................................................... 97

9 C O N C L U SIO N ................ ........ .......................................................... ......................... 103

LIST O F R EFEREN CES ........................................................................... ................... 105

BIO GRA PH ICA L SK ETCH ..................................................................... .................. 113









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

"THE ONLY PARADISE WE EVER NEED": AN INVESTIGATION INTO
PANTHEISM'S SACRED GEOGRAPHY IN THE WRITINGS OF
EDWARD ABBEY, THOMAS BERRY, AND MATTHEW FOX, AND A
A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF SIGNS OF
EMERGING PANTHEISM IN AMERICAN CULTURE

By

Bernard Daley Zaleha

May 2008

Chair: Bron Taylor
Major: Religion

I explore the definition and meaning of pantheism, and its related and contrasting concepts

of theism, panentheism, atheism. Pantheism is identified as a concept of sacred geography that

locates the sacred as penetrating the entire universe, but which does not indulge in speculation about

a sacred dimension outside the space and time of this cosmos. Pantheism is divided into two

categories: naturalistic pantheism and spiritualized pantheism. Panentheism acknowledges the

sacred as penetrating all of this universe but still asserts a divinity that transcends this cosmos. Both

of these concepts are contrasted with dualistic theism and nihilistic atheism. Specific explorations

of the presence of pantheism in the work of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, Albert Einstein and

Matthew Fox, are undertaken. Abbey is found to be a exemplar of naturalistic pantheism. Fox, in

particular, is found to be pantheistic, notwithstanding his assertion that he is a panentheist. Finally,

a tentative, preliminary survey of the extent to which pantheism is being taken up in American

popular culture is presented. Nothwithstanding their professed antheism, Richard Dawkins, Daniel

Dennett, and Sam Harris are found to be examples of naturalistic pantheism. While a full evaluation









of the extent to which pantheism is penetrating American culture must await further research,

suggestive examples of pantheism in cyberspace, movies, television, popular music and even among

purported atheists are presented.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION: "I WAS BORN TO BE A PANTHEIST"

"I was born to be a pantheist." Henry David Thoreau made this declaration in a February 9,

1853, letter to the famed editor of the New York Tribune, Horace Greeley.1 For some time, Greeley

had been promoting Thoreau to various publishers. Thoreau was responding to a January 2, 1853,

letter from Greeley wherein Greeley explained that Thoreau's "very flagrant heresies" and his

"defiant Pantheism" were frustrating his efforts to promote Thoreau's work.2 In January, February,

and March of 1852, Putnam's Monthly Magazine, had published the first three installments of A

Yankee in Canada (essays recounting Thoreau's 10-day trip to Canada in the fall of 1850).3 Then

Thoreau learned that George William Curtis, the editor ofPutnam 's, had insisted on omitting certain

"heretical" passages from the final installments. Rather than submit to this censorship, Thoreau

withdrew the manuscripts, giving rise to Greeley's exasperation.4 As the famed Protestant

theologian Paul Tillich has noted, the term pantheist is "a 'heresy' label of the worst kind."5 As

Greeley's tone demonstrates, this was accurate in 1853 as well. Heresy label or not, upon having

the pantheist label applied to him by Greeley, Thoreau declared "if that be the name of me, and I do

the deeds of one," then "I was born to be a pantheist."6



Walter Harding and Carl Bode, eds., The Correspondence ofHenry David Thoreau (New
York: New York University Press, 1958), 294.

2 Harding and Bode, eds., The Correspondence ofHenry David Thoreau, 293.

3 Philip Van Doren Stem and Henry David Thoreau, The Annotated Walden: Walden; or,
Life in the Woods, 1st ed. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970), 56, 88.

4 Harding and Bode, eds., The Correspondence ofHenry David Thoreau, 293.

5 Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, 3 vols., vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1951), 233.

6 Harding and Bode, eds., The Correspondence ofHenry David Thoreau, 294.









Given Thoreau's personal and intellectual history, it is not surprising that Thoreau would not

let charges of heresy deter him from adopting any particular self-description. After all, in his first

book, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Thoreau had noted that "I know that some will

have hard thoughts of me, when they hear their Christ named beside my Buddha, yet I am sure that

I am willing they should love their Christ more than my Buddha."' Even in his first attempt to

publish a successful book, Thoreau was not afraid to risk offense of the dominant Christian

sensibilities. Nevertheless, Thoreau's embrace of the term pantheist signals something new. While

he continued to use other terms of self-description (for instance, "mystic, "transcendentalist," and

"natural philosopher"),8 Thoreau provides perhaps the first American example of a person claiming

the term pantheist as a self-description. A review of the literature has revealed no earlier

documented exemplar in American history.

What was the content of Thoreau's pantheism at the time he accepted the label? On the same

day Greeley was penning his pantheist indictment, Thoreau was penning this in his journal that gives

at least a partial description of his thinking at that time:





7 Henry David Thoreau, "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers," in Henry David
Thoreau: A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers; Walden, or Life in the Woods; the Maine
Woods; Cape Cod, ed. Robert F. Sayre (New York: The Library of America, 1985), 55.

8 In his journal entry for March 5, 1853, in explaining his completion of a "printed circular" from
the Association for the Advancement of Science, he states, "The fact is I am a mystic, a
transcendentalist, and a natural philosopher to boot. Now I think of it, I should have told them at
once that I was a transcendentalist. That would have been the shortest way of telling them that they
would not understand my explanations." "The Journal of Henry David Thoreau, Volume
5," ed. Bradford Torrey and Francis H. Allen (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1984), 4.
While still using "transcendentalist" to describe himself, Walter Harding, one of the giants of
Thoreau scholarship, and Carl Bode note that in Thoreau's life history, 1853 marked the year when
"Thoreau's eye for nature has sharpened, but his eye for Transcendentalism has definitely clouded."
Harding and Bode, eds., The Correspondence ofHenry David Thoreau, 292.









The [church] bells are particularly sweet this morning. I hear more, methinks, than
ever before. How much more religion in their sound, than they ever call men together
to! Men obey their call and go to the stove-warmed church, though God exhibits
himself to the walker in a frosted bush to-day, as much as in a burning one to Moses
of old.9

And then this, a day later:

I love Nature partly because she is not man [using 'man' here to label humanity and
its culture], but are retreat from him. None of his institutions control or pervade her.
There a different kind of right prevails. In her midst I can be glad with an entire
gladness. If this world were all man, I could not stretch myself, I should lose all
hope. He is constraint, she is freedom to me. He makes me wish for another world.
She makes me content with this. None of the joys she supplies is subject to his rules
and definitions. What he touches he taints. In thought he moralizes. One would
think that no free, joyful labor was possible to him. How infinite and pure the least
pleasure of which Nature is basis, compared with the congratulation of mankind!
The joy which Nature yields is like that afforded by the frank words of one we love.

Man, man is the devil,
The source of all evil.

Methinks that these prosers, with their saws and their laws, do not know how glad
a man can be. What wisdom, what warning, can prevail against gladness? There is
no law so strong which a little gladness may not transgress. I have a room all to
myself; it is nature. It is a place beyond the jurisdiction of human governments. Pile
up your books, the records of sadness, your saws and your laws. Nature is glad
outside, and her merry worms within will ere long topple them down. There is a
prairie beyond your laws. Nature is a prairie for outlaws. There are two worlds, the
post-office and nature. I know them both. I continually forget mankind and their
institutions, as I do a bank.1"

In this January 3, 1853 passage, Thoreau displays an "ecstatic naturalism" (a term more recently

coined by pantheist philosopher Robert Corrington)," a bit of misanthropy (perhaps hyperbolic) or



9 Journal entry for January 2, 1853; Henry David Thoreau, "The Journal of Henry David Thoreau,
Volume 4," ed. Bradford Torrey and Francis H. Allen (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books,
1984), 443.

10 Journal entry for January 3, 1853; Ibid., 445-46.

Robert S. Corrington, Nature and Spirit: An Essay in Ecstatic Naturalism (New York:
Fordham University Press, 1992).









at least contempt for human civilization, a sense of Nature as a refuge, a place beyond human law,

a place for "outlaws" (a theme taken up by the contemporary novelist, Tom Robbins),12 and perhaps

most important for this project, a "contentment" with "this world." In embracing the termpantheist,

Thoreau was blazing a path of new metaphysical understanding that would be increasingly taken up

in American culture.

That it is being taken up within popular culture was demonstrated by the release in 2007 of

a Hollywood produced movie, Evan Almighty. This movie will be explored more fully in Chapter

8. It is sufficient here to note that viewers learn in the movie that "God is the creator of the Heavens

and the Earth ... He lives in all things." This is quite consistent with one of the definitions of

pantheism provided by the Oxford English Dictionary, namely, "a belief or philosophical theory that

God is immanent in or identical with the universe," a definition that I will explore at length herein.

Heresy label or not, Hollywood knows about, and is interested in depicting, pantheism.

As the foregoing examples from Thoreau and Hollywood illustrate, pantheism addresses the

question, Where does God reside, or Where is the sacred located? It is therefore, in this sense, a

question of geography. It is for this reason that I have characterized this study as an investigation

into Sacred Geography, in particular, the sacred geography of Pantheism. I will explore various

definitions of pantheism, and its related and contrasting concepts of atheism, theism, panentheism,

and paganism and will arrive at definitions of each of these terms for the purposes of this study. As

to pantheism, I will distinguish between spiritualizedpantheism and naturalisticpantheism. In three

individual chapters, the presence of pantheism in the work of Edward Abbey, Thomas Berry, and

Matthew Fox, is explored. Finally, I make a tentative, preliminary survey of indications that



12 "Unwilling to wait for mankind to improve, the outlaw lives as if that day were here.. ." Tom
Robbins, Still Life with Woodpecker (New York: Bantam Books, 1980), 65.









pantheism is being taken up in American popular culture. While a full evaluation of the extent to

which pantheism is penetrating American culture is beyond the scope of this project, it is a question

that is ripe for further research.









CHAPTER 2
WEBER, ELIADE AND GEERTZ AS AIDS IN INTERPRETING
PANTHEISM, PANENTHEISM, CLASSICAL THEISM AND ATHEISM

In approaching this study of pantheism in America, and its necessary subsidiary

investigations in to panentheism and classical theism, I will utilize the theories and heuristic

perspectives of several theorists of religion, namely, Max Weber, Mircea Eliade, and Clifford

Geertz.

The Weberian approach to the sociological study of human culture and religious ideas can

be succinctly stated as, "Ideas matter." Elaborated a bit more, ideas matter and may in fact effect

the way individual humans go about living their lives. This will be an illuminating insight in the

present project.

Even though he believed ideas matter, Weber was not an idealist and did not regard ideas

themselves as the only decisive factor. Weber puts it this way:

Not ideas, but material and ideal interests, directly govern humanity'ss conduct. Yet
very frequently the 'world images' that have been created by 'ideas' have, like
switchmen, determined the tracks along which action has been pushed by the
dynamic of interest.1

Weberian analysis may therefore provide useful insights in settings in which given behaviors seem

divorced from or even in opposition to either the best interests of the individuals or the explicit

ethics or values of the individuals under study. Weber himself declared that in a real sense, his goal

was to study the unintended consequences of ideas. For instance, in his famed work, The Protestant

Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber stated that he hoped to make a modest "contribution to




Max Weber, "The Social Psychology of the World Religions," in From Max Weber: Essays in
Sociology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1958), 280, reproducing 'Die Wirtschaftsethik der
Weltreligionen' (The Economic Ethic of the World Religions), Gesammelte Aufsaetze zur
Reigionssoziologie (Tiibingen, 1922-23), vol. 1, pp. 237-68.









the understanding of the manner in which ideas become effective forces in history."2 His case study

on the relationship between capitalism and Protestantism yields models for interpreting the interplay

between theism, pantheism, and panentheism, and I will therefore summarize some of Weber's key

insights.

Weber's starting point for his investigation into "the relationship between the old Protestant

ethic and the spirit of capitalism" would be the works of Calvin, Calvinism, and the other Puritan

sects.3 However, Weber knew that none of these Calvinists would have in any way imagined they

were actively promoting anything called "the spirit of capitalism."4 Indeed, the pursuit of worldly

goods as an end in itself would have been considered by these religionists as sinful. The salvation

of the soul alone was the center of their life and work. Thus, Weber notes that paradoxically "the

cultural consequences of the Reformation were to a great extent... un-foreseen and even unwished-

for results" for these unintentional capitalist innovators.5

Weber also makes clear he was not evaluating the social or religious worth of the

Reformation. Instead, he was "merely attempting to clarify the part which religious forces played

in forming the developing web of our specifically worldly modem culture, in the complex

interaction of innumerable different historical factors." Further, "at the same time we must free

ourselves from the idea that it is possible to deduce the Reformation, as a historically necessary

result, from certain economic changes," showing Weber was also not a crude, Marxian materialist.




2Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit ofCapitalism, trans. Talcott Parsons, Routledge
Classics (London & New York: Routledge, 2001), 48.

3 Ibid., 47-48.

4 Ibid., 48.

SIbid.









"Countless historical circumstances, which cannot be reduced to any economic law, and are not

susceptible of economic explanation of any sort, especially purely political processes, had to concur

in order that the newly created Churches should survive at all."6

Further, Weber declares he was not "maintaining such a foolish and doctrinaire thesis as that

the spirit of capitalism ... could only have arisen as the result of certain effects of the Reformation,

or even that capitalism as an economic system is a creation of the Reformation." Instead, Weber

was exploring "whether and to what extent religious forces have taken part in the qualitative

formation and the quantitative expansion of that spirit over the world, [and] what concrete aspects

of our capitalistic culture can be traced to them."' Then, making an implied reference to his concept

that he elsewhere called "elective affinities,"8 he notes that "in view of the tremendous confusion

of interdependent influences between the material basis, the forms of social and political

organization, and the ideas current in the time of the Reformation, we can only proceed by

investigating whether and at what points certain correlations between forms of religious belief and

practical ethics can be worked out."9 Finally, Weber declares his intention to "as far as possible

clarify the manner and the general direction in which, by virtue of those relationships, the religious

movements have influenced the development of material culture."1"

In these key few pages in Protestant Ethic, in the course of that particular case study, Weber

articulates the complex relationship between religion and society, and that trying to understand in



6 Ibid., 49. (emphasis supplied).

7Ibid.

8 Weber, "The Social Psychology of the World Religions," 284.

9 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 49. (emphasis supplied).

10 Ibid., 49-50.









the specific case whether religion or other cultural factors within a given society are playing the

determinative role will always provide challenging obstacles to finding conclusive empirical data.

Thus, making confident assertions about causal connections between a given belief or set of beliefs

held by individuals or societies and the behavior or those individuals or societies is always a

problematic assertion.

Another illuminating concept developed by Weber is his concept of disenchantment. In his

modern context, Weber defined disenchantment as an intellectually rationalized knowledge or belief

that, at least in principle, there are no mysterious, unknowable forces at play in the physical world

around us that cannot be measured, known or in some way discovered." One of the consequences

of this thoroughgoing "rationalizing" of humanity's "conception of the world" into a "cosmos

governed by impersonal rules" has been, according to Weber, to shift religion "into the realm of the

irrational." Thus, the aboriginal perception of a reality where "everything was concrete magic" has

been transformed instead into "rational cognition and mastery of nature, on the one hand, and

'mystic' experiences, on the other." In his Economic Ethic of the World Religions, Weber suggests

that the inexpressible contents of these mystic experiences become the only possible "beyond" for

human experience in this new, mechanistic world "robbed of gods.""12 This demythologized reality

thus results in a shift towards a this-worldly soteriological locus, widespread in, if not unique to, the

West.

Weber has a certain melancholy in seeing humanity deprived of the meaning previously


Max Weber, "Science as Vocation," in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1958), 155, reproducing 'Wissenschaft als Beruf, Gesammelte Aufsaetze
zur Wissenschaft (Tiibingen, 1922), pp. 524-55. Originally a speech in 1918 at Munich University.

12 Weber, "The Social Psychology of the World Religions," 281-82, reproducing 'Die
Wirtschaftsethik der Weltreligionen' (The Economic Ethic of the World Religions), Gesammelte
Aufsaetze zur Reigionssoziologie (Tiibingen, 1922-23), vol. 1, pp. 237-68.









obtained from a magical, enchanted world. At one level, Weber echoes the angst ofNietzsche13 and

anticipates the further angst of existentialists like Sartre and Camus. However, in recognizing a

cosmos devoid of supernaturalism, Weber's concept of disenchantment also lays the foundation for

the re-enchanting religious naturalism of theorists like Edward Abbey,14 Donald Crosby15 and Ursula

Goodenough.16 Thus, Weber helped lay the foundation for a very vibrant area of current religious

theorizing that joyfully embraces a non-supernaturalistic world. Religious naturalism, including

pantheism, is an ongoing attempt to remedy the disenchantment that Weber recognized.

The famed historian of religion, Mircea Eliade, continued to insist on the reality of the

sacred. For Eliade, the sacred is "the opposite of the profane and secular life."" Yet paradoxically,

for Eliade, any object, from a stone, to all of earthly nature, to the "the cosmos in its entirety" can

become a hierophany to those humans susceptible to or capable of experiencing such hierophanies,

even while others continue to experience these things as desacralized, secular, profane matter.18

Aldo Leopold's observation that thereee are some who can live without wild things, and some who






13 "'Whither is God' he cried. 'I shall tell you. We have killed him-you and I. All of us are his
murderers." Nietzsche, F.W., "The Gay Science," reproduced in Walter Kaufmann, Existentialism:
From Dostoevsky to Sartre, Rev. and expanded. ed. (New York: New American Library, 1975), 126.

14 Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988 [1968]).

15 Donald A. Crosby, A Religion of Nature (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,
2002).

16 Ursula Goodenough, The SacredDepths ofNature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

17 Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press,
1996), 1.
18 The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion, trans. Willard R. Trask, 1st
American ed. (New York,: Harcourt Brace, 1959), 12.









cannot,""9 comes to mind as an illustration of differing perceptions among humans of the importance

of various natural features. Further, those experiencing hierophanies conclude that "the sacred is

equivalent to power and in the last analysis, to reality,. enduringness and efficacy."20 Thus, the

religious practitioner, upon experiencing the hierophany, wishes to immerse him or herself in this

sacred reality and be saturated with its power.

While Eliade declares that mere profane objects can be experienced as revealing the sacred,

his is nevertheless primarily a supernaturalist, theistic understanding of the sacred. And Eliade is

not merely describing the theistic beliefs of others, but appears to be declaring the metaphysical

truth of reality as theistically conceived, leading Ninian Smart to describe him as, "in disguised

form, a preacher."21

As an advocate for theism, Eliade is decidedly dualistic. The Sacred is completely distinct

from ordinary reality, what Eliade called The Profane. Russell McCutcheon describes the core of

Eliade's thought as seeing a dichotomy in existence "based on an ontological distinction between

the sacred, understood by him as representative of order, the ultimately meaningful, and real, and

the profane, which comprises chaos, contingency, and nonreality."22 Thus, Eliade's understanding

of the nature of the sacred makes him an exemplar of dualisitic theism, whereby God or the sacred

is understood as either separate from the universe, or as a separate realm within this universe that


19 Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There (New York,: Oxford
Univ. Press, 1949), vii.

20 Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature ofReligion, 12-13.

21 Ninian Smart. "Retrospect and Prospect: The History of Religions." In The Notion Of
"Religion" In Comparative Research: Selected Proceedings of the XV IAHR Congress, edited by
Ugo Bianchi, 901-03, 901. Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1994.

22Russell T. McCutcheon, Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and
the Politics of Nostalgia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 51.









is distinct from the profane, material realm.23 (Eliade never really declares "where" the sacred

permanently resides. He merely insists that the sacred is where the profane is not). In this study,

the term theism will be understood in this sense of dualistic theism, exemplified by Eliade. Eliade

thereby serves as a contrast to more recent theorists that speak of non-supernatural, naturalistic

understandings of religion, of which naturalistic pantheism is an example, or theorists that

understand everything as sacred, such as most forms ofpanentheism and pantheism. The definitions

and distinctions between these terms will be explored in the following chapter.

Returning again for a moment to Weber, he opined that humans, who seem to innately abhor

chaos and the void, have a "metaphysical need for a meaningful cosmos."24 Elaborating, Weber

declares that humans "demand ... that the world order in its totality is, could, and should somehow

be a meaningful 'cosmos.'"25 Weber's choice of "metaphysical" to modify "need" is somewhat

awkward. I take him to mean that humans have a psychological need for a meaningful cosmos and

all humans will adopt some metaphysical stance that supplies the required meaning. Stated more

compactly, humanity's central existential situation is a yearning for meaning and comprehensibility.

Or, as the anthropologist Roy Rappaport put it, humanity "lives, and can only live, in terms of

meanings it must construct in a world devoid of intrinsic meaning but subject to physical law."26


23 See William L. Reese, "Pantheism and Panentheism," in The New Encyclopcedia Britannica
(Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1994).

24 Weber, "The Social Psychology of the World Religions," 281, reproducing 'Die
Wirtschaftsethik der Weltreligionen' (The Economic Ethic of the World Religions), Gesammelte
Aufsaetze zur Reigionssoziologie (Tiibingen, 1922-23), vol. 1, pp. 237-68.

25 Ibid.

26 Roy A. Rappaport, Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, Cambridge Studies in
Social and Cultural Anthropology Series, no. 110 (Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1999), 1. Rappaport restates this observation toward the end of his book, at 451.
See also discussion of Rappaport in Chapter 3.









Famed anthropologist Clifford Geertz agreed with Weber on this point, also arguing that

making reality "comprehensible" is a central human need, and that humans simply cannot "leave

unclarified problems of analysis merely unclarified," and will constantly use "their beliefs to

'explain' phenomena, or, more accurately, to convince themselves that the phenomena were

explainable within the accepted scheme of things."27 How do humans obtain their required

meaning? According to both Geertz and Rappaport, through religion.

Clifford Geertz's definition of religion continues to be frequently used if at times critiqued.28

In "Religion As a Cultural System," he defines it as follows:

(1) a system of symbols which acts to (2) establish powerful, pervasive, and long-
lasting moods and motivations in men by (3) formulating conceptions of a general
order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality
that (5) the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.29

In elaborating the first element of his definition, Geertz develops his "model of and model for"

concept.30

Geertz declares that human culture patterns are "systems or complexes of symbols" that

serve as "extrinsic sources of information" (i.e., not internally genetic or biological) for a given

human.31 He argues that "human behavior is so loosely determined by intrinsic sources of

information" (thereby showing that Geertz favored the Nurture side in the Nature/Nurture debate)




27 Clifford Geertz, "Religion as a Cultural System," in The Interpretation of Cultures (New York,:
Basic Books, 1973), 100-01.

28 See Talal Asad, "Anthropological Conceptions of Religion: Reflections on Geertz," Man 18,
no. 2 (1983): 238, for a frequently cited critique of Geertz's definition.

29 Geertz, "Religion as a Cultural System," 90.

30 Ibid., 93.

31 Ibid., 92.









that humans specifically need to acquire various models of reality and modelsfor reality to make

sense of reality. Thus, these culture patterns that transmit these models of reality serve as a sort of

cultural DNA, since in the view of some theorists human beings are relatively unfinished from the

neuro-physiological point of view. (Just how unfinished remains a matter of fierce debate. Witness

the resurgence of theories postulating stronger roles for biological processes in determining human

nature, ala E.O. Wilson32 and Steven Pinker33).

According to Geertz, these culturally acquired models of reality are inherently dual in nature.

A model of is a cultural representation, a symbolic copy of the natural world, while a model for is

an actual template to generate meaningful behaviors to affect that nature.

Elaborating, models that are "models for" are templates to shape the human processes that

actually produce reality-whether architectural ideals that guide the construction of dams or

prescriptions for social behavior that then guide human behavior, and thereby the social construction

of men and women. At the same time, these models are "models of' reality: the architectural

principles used to build dams or to make sense of or judge existing dams and or the gender

conceptions used to make sense of the differing public behavior of men and women. Geertz argues

that it is this "double aspect" that makes "true symbols." Indeed, Geertz suggests that it is the ability

to create true "models of' symbols that is the unique "essence of human thought," something no

other species can do.34 He concludes that the "model of' and "modelfor" doubleness of symbols

means that they give "objective conceptual form to social and psychological reality both by shaping


32 Edward Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 25th anniversary ed. (Cambridge, Mass.:
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000).

3 Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature (New York: Viking,
2002).

34 Geertz, "Religion as a Cultural System," 94.









themselves to it and by shaping it to themselves."35

To give an example, Christianity as traditionally articulated in its creeds provides a model

of reality, a metaphysical system that attempts to make sense of the world encountered by the

believer by explaining why things are as they are now and how things will change in the future: A

supernatural God created the world perfect and deathless. However, a rebellious divine being

tricked the primal humans into sinning, thereby introducing death into this world. The supreme

being incarnated a part of itself into this world and sacrificed that part of itself, thereby paying off

the cosmic debt created by the primal couple's sin, making possible a restoration. The supreme

being will supernaturally intervene in the near future to restore the primordial perfection of the

world. However, there are requirements to participate in this paradise. Thus, Christianity provides

a model for reality, an ethical system that lays out the behavioral terms for participation in the

anticipated future paradise. These rules are laid out in a book that has been magically given to

humans. So long as any human follows the rules in this book (as personally discovered (Luther) or

as interpreted by the religious authorities (Catholicism)), he or she will be able to participate in the

restored deathless perfection of reality that is near at hand. The "model for" is directly related to

the "model of." Both have their origin in the biblical revelation.

As we will see herein, adherents to each of the metaphysical systems investigated here

produce different "models for" and "models of' reality, in turn effecting both their ideas and their

material.


35 Ibid., 93.









CHAPTER 3
PANTHEISM, PANENTHEISM, CLASSICAL THEISM AND ATHEISM DEFINED

A beginning point for analyzing pantheism in American culture is arriving at a definition of

the term for use this investigation. And as will become clear in this chapter and the next, pantheism

cannot be understood without also understanding the terms pagan, panentheism, theism, and

atheism. I will define theism in this study as the dualistic theism set forth in Chapter 2 of which

Eliade is the prime exemplar. I will define the remaining terms in this chapter.

An individual who comes across the term pantheism and wants to know its meaning may

very well consult a dictionary and, if the person wants to have an especially authoritative definition,

may very well consult the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), where I will therefore begin.

On March 19, 2008, the online edition of the OED offered two definitions of pantheism:

1. A belief or philosophical theory that God is immanent in or identical
with the universe; the doctrine that God is everything and everything is God. Freq.
with implications of nature worship or (in a weakened sense) love of nature. Cf.
PANENTHEISM n.1
2. Worship or tolerance of all or many gods. Cf. POLYTHEISM n.2


SThe etyology of this meaning as presented in OED's Dec. 2007 revision is as follows: 1729 S.
COLLIBER C(ir-i ian Relig. p. ix, The Supposition of such an Absolutely Unlimited, and, as it were,
Antecedent Necessity..leads directly to Pantheism. 1743 J. BROWN Honour 18 (note) That Species
of Atheism commonly called Pantheism. a1834 S. T. COLERIDGE Lit. Remains (1836) II. 326 The
sacerdotal religion of Egypt had..degenerated from the patriarchal monotheism into a pantheism,
cosmotheism, or worship of the world as God. 1848 R. I. WILBERFORCE Doctr. Incarnation
(1852) v. 121 Pantheism, the principle of which is to merge the personality of the moral Governor
in the circle of His works. 1890 J. F. SMITH tr. O. Pfleiderer Devel. Theol. IV. i. 338 His agnostic
evolutionism is only a disguised materialistic (hylozoistic) pantheism. 1907 J. R. ILLINGWORTH
Doctr. Trinity x. 196 We may..think of God as dwelling in the universe, without in any way
transcending it. This means pantheism of one kind or another. 1955 Sc. Jrnl. Theol. 8 88 This
process is illustrated in religions which tend towards cosmic pantheism..immanental piety [etc.].
1995 New Yorker 4 Dec. 48/1 The prevailing religion [in England] is a kind of domesticated
pantheism: a communion with shrubberies and rockeries, with the song thrush at the birdbath. (Bold
in the original)

2 The etyology of this meaning as presented in OED's Dec. 2007 revision: 1822 tr. M. C. Bruun
Universal Geogr. I. 576 Pantheism, modified by the institutions of particular nations, and blending









OED labeled these definitions as a "Draft Revision December 2007", along with etymologies of

each usage. The still official OED definition is in its printed 1989 Second Edition, which was also

available online on March 19, 2008, and provides the following pair of definitions which are similar

but slightly different from the 2007 draft revision:

1. The religious belief or philosophical theory that God and the universe are
identical (implying a denial of the personality and transcendence of God); the
doctrine that God is everything and everything is God.3
2. The heathen worship of all the gods.4

While the OED is usually thought of as the most authoritative dictionary for scholarly

purposes, it is only available online to the general public for a fee. Seeing this study is more

concerned with popular understandings of pantheism, the available free, online dictionary resources

are perhaps more relevant to an understanding how the term may understood in popular culture. On



itself with Sabeism, became systematic, or mythological Polytheism. 1837 F. PALGRAVE
Merchant & Friar (1844) i. 21 The greater portion of the Tartar tribes professed a singular species
of Pantheism, respecting all creeds, attached to none. 1861 C. H. PEARSON Early & Middle Ages
Eng. (1867) I. 18 The spirit of Roman pantheism, which erected a temple to the divinities of all
nations. 1988 J. L. ESPOSITO Islam iv. 117 A new wave of Neo-Sufism arose that sought to
restrain and purify the excesses of pantheism and electicism that had infected Sufism. (Bold in the
original).

3 The etyology of this meaning as presented in OED's 1989 2nd Edition, which differs somewhat
from the 2007 proposed revision, is as follows: "1732 WATERLAND Chr. Vind. C(/ry 76
Pantheism..and Hobbism are scandalously bad, scarce differing from the broadest Atheism. a1766
J. BROWN Honour 176 note, That species of atheism commonly called Pantheism. 1823
COLERIDGE Table-t. 30 Apr., Pantheism and idolatry naturally end in each other: for all extremes
meet. 1848 R. I. WILBERFORCE Doct. Incarnation v. (1852) 121 Pantheism, the principle of
which is to merge the personality of the moral Governor in the circle of His works." (Bold in the
original).

4 The etyology of this meaning as presented in OED's 1989 2nd Edition, which again differs
somewhat from the 2007 proposed revision, is as follows: "1837 SIR F. PALGRAVE Merch. &
Friar i. (1844) 21 The greater portion of the Tartar tribes professed a singular species of Pantheism,
respecting all creeds, attached to none. 1861 PEARSON Early & Mid. Ages Eng. (1867) I. 18 The
spirit of Roman pantheism, which erected a temple to the divinities of all nations." (Bold in the
original).









March 19, 2008, the free online resource, Dictionary.com, provided the following definitions of the

term from four sources:

From Random House5:
1. the doctrine that God is the transcendent reality of which the material
universe and human beings are only manifestations: it involves a denial of God's
personality and expresses a tendency to identify God and nature;
2. any religious belief or philosophical doctrine that identifies God with
the universe.

From American Heritage Dictionary6:
1. A doctrine identifying the Deity with the universe and its phenomena;
2. Belief in and worship of all gods.

WordNet 3.07:
1. (rare) worship that admits or tolerates all gods;
2. the doctrine or belief that God is the universe and its phenomena
(taken or conceived of as a whole) or the doctrine that regards the universe as a
manifestation of God.

From The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy8:
The belief that God, or a group of gods, is identical with the whole natural
world; pantheism comes from Greek roots meaning "belief that everything is a god."

The other major free online dictionary is the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.9 It defines

pantheism as follows:



5 Pantheism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pantheism (accessed: March 19, 2008)

6 Pantheism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pantheism (accessed: March 19, 2008)

7 Pantheism. Dictionary.com. WordNet 3.0. Princeton University.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pantheism (accessed: March 19, 2008)

8 Pantheism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy,
Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pantheism
(accessed: March 19, 2008)

9 Pantheism. Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,
Inc, 2005. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pantheism (accessed: March 19, 2008)









1. a doctrine that equates God with the forces and laws of the universe;
2. the worship of all gods of different creeds, cults, or peoples
indifferently; also: toleration of worship of all gods (as at certain periods of the
Roman empire).

This survey of definitions from five different online sources reveals that Merriam Webster,

American Heritage Dictionary and Princeton's WordNet 3.0 all include some variation on the

OED's second definition, though WordNet identifies it as a rare usage. Random House does not

include any version of the OED's second definition.

OED's pair of definitions, in both their 1989 and 2007 renderings, plus those variations in

the three online dictionary resources present an immediate challenge for studying pantheism,

because the definitions are quite different. The second definition is essentially a synonym for

polytheism (and a perhaps indiscriminate polytheism ("Worship of all gods")), namely, the belief

in multiple, discretely different gods or deities, while OED's first definition presents pantheism as

a belief system that equates or at least very closely associates Nature or the total reality that is the

universe with God, not discrete subsets of that reality. Polytheism is ultimately type of dualistic

theism.

My own unscientific sampling, wherein I simply ask friends and colleagues to share what

they believe the term "pantheism" means, confirms that both definitions are in play in the larger

culture. Some say something like "Nature is God" (the first definition), and some say some

variation on "Worshiping or believing in all gods" (the second definition). Like many facets of

culture, there is not agreement on terminology.

To further complicate this investigation are the varied definitions of the word "pagan." As

with pantheism, the OED has a new draft revised definition released in March 2008:









A. noun.
la. A person not subscribing to any maj or or recognized religion, esp. the
dominant religion of a particular society; spec. a heathen, a non-
Christian, esp. considered as savage, uncivilized, etc. Now chiefly
hist.
lb. A follower of a pantheistic or nature-worshipping religion;
esp. a neopagan.
In extended use:
2a. euphem. A prostitute. Obs.
2b. A person of unorthodox, uncultivated or backward beliefs, tastes,
etc.; a person who has not been converted to the current dominant
views of a society, group, etc.; an uncivilized or unsocialized person,
esp. a child.
B. adjective.
la. Holding, characteristic of, or relating to those who do not subscribe
to any major or recognized religion, esp. the dominant religion of a
particular society; spec. heathen, non-Christian or pre-Christian
(usually with connotations of savagery or primitiveness). Now
chiefly hist.
lb. Pantheistic, nature-worshipping; (now) esp. neopagan.
In extended use:
2. In extended use: immoral, spiritually lacking; uncivilized, backward, savage.

The main difference from OED's 1989 edition is thatpagan now is recognized as a noun to describe

"A follower of a pantheistic or nature-worshipping religion; esp. a neopagan." Thus, in the OED's

new March 2008 revision whereinpagan is defined as a "follower of a pantheistic religion," pagan

and pantheist nearly or in some usages are actually synonymous.

The OED's second definition of pantheism could be applied to New Age and Neopagan

religions. Sarah Pike, in her investigations of both these new religious movements, notes that "New

Agers and Neopagans" believe in a highly diverse group of "gods and spirit helpers" that "they

contact... in ritualized settings. Some of the entities they honor exist on a separate plane of reality,

while others are extraterrestrials with special messages intended to improve life on this planet."

Further, in terms of practices, New Agers and Neopagans "consult astrologers and tarot cards, the

I Ching and other divinatory techniques for guidance in life choices and to further self knowledge.









They appropriate the spiritual riches of other cultures, including Tibetan Buddhist, Hindu, Taoist,

Egyptian, American Indian, and even some Christian beliefs and practices. They put statutes of the

Buddha or Hindu or Egyptian deities their home altars alongside objects such as pentacles, candles,

crystals, and goddess figurines."10 Thus, Pike's description of New Agers and Neopagans is quite

consistent with the "pantheism" of the OED's second definition, either in it's 1989 or 2007 form.

While in some instances it may be that the same individual embraces both definitions, the

pantheism of individuals who embrace the OED's first definition is usually much different than the

neopagan/new age religion captured by the second definition ofpantheism. To further illustrate the

differences, I will lay out some additional common sources for understanding the nature of both

pantheism andpanentheism, turning first to the so far undefined termpanentheism. The importance

of the term panentheism will become clear presently, as it is offered by many contemporary

philosophers and theologians as a superior alternative to pantheism.

None of the free online dictionaries provide a definition of panentheism and until very

recently neither did the OED. The OED, also in December 2007, now provides what it denominates

as a "Draft Revision" that defines panentheism as: "The theory or belief that God encompasses and

interpenetrates the universe but at the same time is greater than and independent of it. Freq.

contrasted with pantheism." It is not really a revision, because the 1989 OED did not provide a

definition of panentheism.

The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, available free online because it is now in the public

domain, provides this definition: "Panentheism, the name given by K. C. F. Krause (q.v.) to his

philosophic theory. Krause held that all existence is one great unity, which he called Wesen



10 Sarah M. Pike, New Age and Neopagan Religions in America, Columbia Contemporary
American Religion Series (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 14-15.









(Essence). This Essence is God, and includes within itself the finite unities of man, reason and

nature. God therefore includes the world in Himself and extends beyond it. The theory is a

conciliation of Theism and Pantheism."" The only other free online encyclopedia explications of

panentheism are provided by Wikipedia, with its recognized lack of reliability.

While not available online for free, The Encyclopaedia Britannica has provided an

exposition that has been widely available for a number of decades, namely, William L. Reese's

article "Pantheism and Panentheism" which forms a subsection to the section entitled "Systems of

Religious and Spiritual Belief." Reese was a student of the famed philosopher and process

theologian Charles Hartshorne. The two co-authored Philosophers Speak of God in 1953,12 a book

providing an exposition ofpanentheism. Thus, Britannica's article explaining pantheism is actually

authored by an advocate of panentheism, which perhaps in part explains why the article has a less

than neutral tone in places. The first two paragraphs read as follows:

Pantheism: the doctrine that the universe conceived of as a whole is God
and, conversely, that there is no God but the combined substance, forces, and laws
that are manifested in the existing universe. The cognate doctrine of panentheism
asserts that God includes the universe as a part though not the whole of his being.
Both "pantheism" and "panentheism" are terms of recent origin, coined to
describe certain views of the relationship between God and the world that are
different from that of traditional Theism. As reflected in the prefix "pan-" (Greek
pas, "all"), both of the terms stress the all-embracing inclusiveness of God, as
compared with his separateness as emphasized in many versions of Theism. On the
other hand, pantheism and panentheism, since they stress the theme of
immanence-i.e., of the indwelling presence of God-are themselves versions of
Theism conceived in its broadest meaning. Pantheism stresses the identity between
God and the world, panentheism (Greek en, "in") that the world is included in God





http://www.1911 encyclopedia.org/Panentheism

12 Charles Hartshorne and William L. Reese, Philosophers Speak of God (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1953).









but that God is more than the world.13


The remainder of the nearly 8,000 word article provides a reasonably detailed and at times technical

survey of the different types of pantheism and panentheism across time and cultures. The two

concluding paragraphs provide a fairly strong endorsement of panentheism and a negative critique

of both pantheism and classical theism.14

The Encyclopedia Americana, another common American encyclopedia, includes a one page

article titled "Pantheism." It's first paragraph reads as follows:

Pantheism: a term describing the philosophical belief that literally "everything is
God." The word has no undisputed definition and refers to a family ofworldviews
that identify all or part of God with all or part of the universe. Although pantheism
is monotheistic, its deity is ultimately impersonal, and like much primitive
polytheism, it deifies nature. Its origins are found both in religious mysticism and
philosophical speculation.1

The author of this article is John W. Cooper, a Christian philosopher and theologian at Calvin

Theological Seminary, who also authored the recent book surveying the history ofpanentheism from

the ancient Greeks to contemporary theologians like John Cobb, Jr., and then in his final chapter


13 William L. Reese, "Pantheism and Panentheism," in The New Encyclopcedia Britannica
(Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1994).

14 Ibid. Reese concludes the entry as follow: "Panentheism is then a middle way between the
denial of individual freedom and creativity characterizing many of the varieties of pantheism and
the remoteness of the divine characterizing Classical Theism. Its support for the ideal of human
freedom provides grounds for a positive appreciation of temporal process, while removing some of
the ethical paradoxes confronting deterministic views. It supports the sacramental value of reverence
for life. At the same time the theme of participation with the divine leads naturally to self-fulfillment
as the goal of life.
Many pantheistic and Theistic alternatives claim the same advantages, but their natural tendency
toward absoluteness may make justification of these claims in some cases difficult and, in others,
some argue, quite impossible. It is for this reason that a significant number of contemporary
philosophers of religion have turned to panentheism as a corrective to the partiality of the other
competing views."

15 Cooper, "Pantheism," in The Enyclopedia Americana, Vol. 21 (Danbury, CT: Grolier
Incorporated, 1998), 363.









argues for its rejection and continued Christian adherence to traditional theism.16 His assertion that

pantheism is "impersonal" like "primitive polytheism," based in "mysticism" and "speculation,"

reveals Cooper's negative bias in the first paragraph.

Finally, there is a short entry in World Book. "Pantheism is the belief that the essence of

God is in all things. It is often associated with nature religions, including many American Indian,

African, and ancient Middle Eastern religions. In these religions, gods are connected with such

things as storms, stars, the sky, the sea, fertility, and skill in hunting. In the Japanese Shinto

tradition, gods are identified with natural objects, including rocks and trees. In a more general sense,

pantheism refers to any religious philosophy that identifies God with nature."" This short entry

maintains the clearest scholarly neutrality and recognizes both the God in nature and the polytheism

strands of the two OED definitions.

Thus far I have concentrated on sources commonly available to the general public and that

may therefore contribute to their understandings of these terms. Resolving whether or the extent

to which one of the two OED definitions is dominant would require field and/or quantitative polling

research that is beyond the scope of this project. However, as a proxy for such research, I have done

a survey of the The Encyclopedia ofReligion and Nature (ERN) and the manner in which pantheism

and panentheism is discussed in that work, thereby at least reviewing data on how scholars use the

terms. I begin with Michael York's article on pantheism and then survey the remaining references

to the terms throughout the rest of the work. York's article provides a reasonably concise

descriptions of pantheism, panentheism, and theism that I will use hereafter to analyze various


16 John W. Cooper, Panentheism, the Other God of the Philosophers: From Plato to the Present
(Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006).

17 Juergensmeyer, Mark. "Pantheism." World Book Online Reference Center, 2008.
http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar413040 (accessed: March 19, 2008)









manifestations of pantheism in American culture, and thus set forth these portions in full:

Pailhn, iim relates to the question concerning transcendence and the place
ofdeity whether it is within or beyond space and time. It contrasts essentially with
theism that holds that the personality and being ofgod (God) transcend the universe.
For pantheism, the universe as a whole is god or, in feminist "theological" terms,
goddess. In this sense, pantheism is to be distinguished both from deism, which still
holds a personal god to be creator of the world but neither immanent in nature nor
revealed through history or by religious experience, and from atheism as the
complete rejection of belief in god's existence. Pantheism is also known as
"cosmotheism," which either ascribes divinity to the cosmos or simply identifies god
with the world, and as "acosmism," which is the fundamental denial of the existence
of the universe as distinct from god. Consequently, pantheism is also to be
contrasted with "panentheism or the doctrine that god/goddess includes the world
as apart ofu hi /i r being but not the whole ofit. In other words, and especially from
the acosmic view, god is none other than the combinedforces and laws that manifest
in the existing universe. In general, the pantheistic position holds that all is god
rather than that god is all (theopantism). .
.. [E]specially in its Christian forms, Abrahamic religion posits a
transcendental personal god that stands "outside" nature and/or the material world
and is its fully autonomous creator. From the theistic perspective, god and nature are
ontologically separate and distinct. The Abrahamic religions do not deny the
metaphysical reality of the world, but inasmuch as they adopt what is still essentially
a Gnostic position, though this world may be the "gift" of the creator god, it is not
an end in itself but more an impediment to obtaining or regaining a state of
transcendental and/or heavenly grace 9
The ultimate understanding of pantheism and the relation between the divine
and nature rests not only in its distinction from theism but also from the theological
framework of panentheism and the process theologies of Alfred North Whitehead
(1861-1947) and Charles Hartshorne (1897-2000). Panentheism attempts to
reassert the godhead as the totality of both actual and potential being. But unlike the
"god is all" stance of pantheism, panentheism ("all in god") is closer to the
theopantic position of "god is all." In other words, this view asserts that all things are
within the being of god, but god is not subsumed or "exhausted" by all things and is
additionally something other than the world or cosmos itself.20

York notes that the distinctions between pantheism, panentheism, and theism come down



18 Michael York, "Pantheism," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor
(London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 1257, (emphasis supplied).

19 Ibid., 1258.

20 Ibid., 1260.









to different metaphysical claims about sacred geography, namely, where does "the sacred" (or

"God" or "the divine") exist. In noting the geographical aspect of this question, York explains my

reference to "Pantheism's Sacred Geography" in the title of this project.

Pantheism says the sacred is here, in this universe, and everywhere in this universe, and,

given the standard naturalistic assumptions, the only universe we actually know exists. According

to latest data combined with the best astrophysical theories, the universe emerged out of a "vacuum

fluctuation" 13.7 billion years ago and trillions of years from now will fizzle to a halt as dead

motionless matter, there to sit for eternity.21 In contrast, both panentheism and theism in York's

definition, speculate that there is an elsewhere (it does not really do to call it "a space" or "a place")

for the sacred to exist and further speculates does exist there.

But what of the polytheistic component of the OED definition no. 2? In his article on

polytheism, York acknowledges that there is "a prevailing affinity for polytheistic conceptions of

divine reality to be grounded in a pantheistic understanding of cosmic actuality." York notes that

"this need not invariably be the case, and polytheism might in some circumstances be understood

as a sub-category of theism itself."22 However, looking from a social evolutionist perspective, York

notes that polytheism can be seen as the beginning of a human reflection that led in two historic

directions, namely, to "pantheism and absorption in the One" and in the other direction to

"monotheism and its victory over the many." York notes further that polytheismm in both its

naturalistic and humanistic forms tends to resist the rationalism of pantheism," even if it accepts "the

basic understanding of the non-transcendental immanence of deity," while also retaining theism'ss


21 Brad Lemley, "Guth's Grand Guess (Cover Story)," Discover, April 2002 2002.; Michael D.
Lemonick, "How the Universe Will End (Cover Story)," Time, Jun. 25, 2001 2001.

22 Michael York, "Polytheism," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor
(London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 1290.









notion of divine personality (in this case, multiple) whether as a reality, a metaphor or both." In

noting this ambiguous relationship between polytheism and pantheism, York seems to suggest,

though he does not expressly state, that the two metaphysical concepts should be kept distinct.

Thus, from York's perspective, the OED's definition no. 2, which treats pantheism as a synonym

for polytheism, creates an unnecessary and unfortunate theoretical confusion. I concur with York.

Both terms serve a different descriptive purpose for describing fundamentally different metaphysical

understandings.

In further testing this approach, I reviewed the 249 occurrences of "pantheism" or

"pantheist[ic]" in the The Encyclopedia ofReligion and Nature. There were a few instances where

the author's intended definition (OED1 or OED2) could not be determined from context. Either

could apply. There were a few instances where OED2 was clearly the intended usage. But overall,

OED1 was the intended definition. Hereafter, I will continue my analysis based on OED1.

In addition to arriving at working definitions of theism, panentheism, and pantheism, it is

also necessary to have a settled definition of atheism. This may seem odd at first. However,

pantheism is often accused of being "merely another form of atheism."23 Indeed, Arthur

Schopenhauer made this complaint: "Against pantheism I have mainly the objection that it states

nothing. To call the world God is not to explain it, but only to enrich the language with a

superfluous synonym for the word world. It comes to the same thing whether we say 'the world is

God' or 'the world is the world."'24 Thus, I return to the OED.

In the OED, atheism is defined as: "Disbelief in, or denial of, the existence of a God. Also,


23 Richard H. Popkin and Avrum Stroll, Philosophy Made Simple, 2nd ed. (New York:
Doubleday, 1993), 175.

24 Arthur Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, trans. E. F.
J. Payne, 2 vols., vol. 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 99.









disregard of duty to God, godlessness (practical atheism)." A visit to dictionary.com confirms that

each of the dictionaries there utilized contain a definition essentially consistent with the OED.

However, Random House includes a second definition: "disbelief in the existence of a supreme

being or beings.""2 And Webster's defines it this way: "The disbelief or denial of the existence of

a God, or supreme intelligent Being," and provides two examples of usage.26 Thus, Random House

and Webster's provide a definition of atheism that allows atheism to be limited to a denial of the

existence of a supreme being or beings. Thus, an understanding of God that did not include belief

in a supreme being or beings would not be inconsistent with or excluded by this second definition

of atheism. This second definition would not therefore necessarily include a denial of God

understood pantheistically. (This distinction will become important when I explore the self-

professed atheism of Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Sam Harris in Chapter 8).

An example of an atheistic sentiment, in this case a nihilistic one, is the anthropologist Roy

Rappaport's statement that humanity "lives, and can only live, in terms of meanings it must

construct in a world devoid of intrinsic meaning but subject to physical law."27 In calling this an


25 Atheism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Atheism (accessed: March 19, 2008)

26 Atheism. Dictionary.com. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Atheism (accessed: March 19, 2008). The examples are:
(1) "Atheism is a ferocious system, that leaves nothing above us to excite awe, nor around us to
awaken tenderness. R. Hall"; and (2) "Atheism and pantheism are often wrongly confounded. -
Shipley."

2 Roy A. Rappaport, Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, Cambridge Studies in
Social and Cultural Anthropology Series, no. 110 (Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1999), 1. Rappaport restates this observation toward the end of his book, at 451.
Rappaport did not always display a nihilistic materialism that denied intrinsic meaning. Indeed, he
can also be cited as an anti-nihilist, or even a pantheist. In an interview near the end of his life, he
admits that he was "some sort of an environmental mystic" and, contrary to his assertion that the
"world [is] devoid of intrinsic meaning," instead argues that ideas (or meanings?) that lead to
"environmental destruction" are "wrong," and that ideas that lead to a "flourishing" world should









example of nihilistic atheism, I am relying on OED's first definition of "nihilism" as "the belief that

life is devoid of meaning." Rappaport is asserting that to the extent a human finds meaning, it is a

self or societally constructed meaning, not one intrinsic to existence itself. In rendering his opinion

of the human condition, Rappaport appears to echo Jean Paul Sartre:

Atheistic existentialism, of which I am a representative, declares with greater
consistency that if God does not exist there is at least one being whose existence
comes before its essence, a being which exists before it can be defined by any
conception of it. That being is man or, as Heidegger has it, the human reality. What
do we mean by saying that existence precedes essence? We mean that man first of
all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world-and defines himself afterwards.
If man as the existentialist sees him is not definable, it is because to begin with he
is nothing. He will not be anything until later, and then he will be what he makes of
himself. Thus, there is no human nature, because there is no God to have a
conception of it. Man simply is. Not that he is simply what he conceives himself to
be, but he is what he wills, and as he conceives himself after, already existing-as he
wills to be after that leap towards existence. Man is nothing else but that which he
makes of himself. That is the first principle of existentialism.28

Thus, Sartre lays out in more detail what it means to declare that the cosmos has no intrinsic

meaning.

I have not yet addressed a key question in any investigation of pantheism, namely, What

exactly does it mean to say, "The Universe is God"? Why is Richard Dawkins wrong, if he is, when

he says "Pantheism is [just] sexed-up atheism"?29 This project is not primarily a philosophical

investigation into the various ways that philosophers parse the various interpretations of pantheism.


be "privileged" over ideas that lead to destruction. In so stating, he said "this separates me, as far
as I understand it, from most postmodernists who would simply say that there is no ground for
judgment, that it is all relative." Roy A. Rappaport, Brian A. Hoey, and Tom Fricke, "'from Sweet
Potatoes to God Almighty': Roy Rappaport on Being a Hedgehog," American Ethnologist 34, no.
3 (2007): 590, 93-94. In that interview, Rappaport seemed to describe a personal meaning that was
something more than a mere internal construction.

28 Jean Paul Sartre, "Existentialism Is a Humanism," in Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to
Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufmann (New York: New American Library, 1975), 349.

29 Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 18.









But I will briefly review here three of the more prominent philosophers of pantheism, Michael

Levine, Robert Corrington and J. Edward Barrett, particularly their expositions of what it means to

declare that the universe is God.

Michael Levine, in Pantheism: A non-theistic concept ofdeity, in the epigraph of his section

entitled "Divinity," provides a portion of the following from the poet Robinson Jeffers: "I believe

the Universe is one being, one organic whole. The parts change and pass, or die, people and

races and rocks and stars, none of them seems to me important in itself, but only the whole. This

whole is in all its parts so beautiful, and is felt by me to be so intensely in earnest, that I am

compelled to love it, and to think of it as divine. .. It seems to me that this whole alone is worthy

of the deeper sort of love; and that there is peace, freedom, I might say a kind of salvation, in turning

one's affections outward toward this one God, rather than inwards on one's self, or on humanity,

or on human imaginations and abstractions-the world of spirits."30

Having introduced Jeffer's explanation of why he called the Universe "God," Levine states

that pantheism is the view that in some sense "everything that exists constitutes a unity" and in some

sense "this all-inclusive unity is divine," and gives philosophical Taoism as "one of the best

articulated and thoroughly pantheistic positions there is. "31 A scientific materialist could conceive

of reality as in some sense "a unity." Thus, pantheism's defining trait is its additional assertion that

the unity is "divine." Levine explains this critical aspect of pantheism as follows:

I use the terms "divinity" and "holiness" interchangeably. "Divine" is defined as
pertaining to God ("of, from, or like a god"), but also as "sacred" or "holy." Either


30 Michael P. Levine, Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity (London; New York:
Routledge, 1994), 47, citing Letter to Sister Mary James Power (Oct. 1, 1934), included in Robinson
Jeffers, "The Wild God of the World: An Anthology of Robinson Jeffers," ed. Albert Gelpi
(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 189. and

31 Levine, Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept ofDeity, 25.









definition suits the present purpose, since determining why pantheists regard the
Unity as divine, or god, is equivalent to determining why they regard the Unity [of
the Universe] to be sacred or holy. The idea of "divinity" in pantheism is similar in
some respects to its theistic meaning and use.
Why dopantheists ascribe divinity to the Unity? The reason is similar to why theists
describe God as holy. They experience it as such. In [Rudolf] Otto's experiential
account, what is divine is what evokes the numinous experience. This can be a
theistic god, but it can also be a pantheistic Unity. And, when looked at from socio-
scientific perspectives in terms of how the concept of divinity functions intellectually
and effectively (e.g. its ethical, soteriological and explanatory roles), its application
in theism and pantheism is much the same.32

In laying out this exposition, Levine relies on Rudolf Otto's term, numinous. Levine notes that Otto

"coined the word 'numinous' to describe 'that aspect of deity which transcends or eludes

comprehension in rational or ethical terms."'33 For Otto, rationalisticc speculation" about God has

the effect of concealing God, and it is only by breaking "through the hard crust of rationalism" and

bringing "into play the feelings buried deep down in our religious consciousness" that humans

become able to encounter God's "sheer mystery and marvel" that is experienced as "the wholly non-

rational and 'other.'"34 Levine notes that for Otto, the "holy has an objective correlate in the object

(i.e. the numinous) that evokes the experience,"35 and is not merely a term to describe a subjective

human mental state. Put another way, a human who experiences the numinous is experiencing




32 Ibid., 47-48. (emphasis supplied).

33 Ibid., 52, citing John W. Harvey's "Translator's Preface" in Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy:
An Inquiry into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational,
trans. John W. Harvey, 2nd ed. (New York,: Oxford University Press, 1950), xvi.

34 Ibid., 195-94. It is worth noting here that Otto's phrase describing God as "the wholly other"
often gets used in support of dualistic theism's understanding of God as separate from profane
reality. Here though, it seems clear that Otto means "wholly other" to denote the "sheer mystery
and marvel" of existence that can only be an affective, non-rational human experience. Thus, the
concept of wholly other can be consonant with pantheistic understandings and cannot not be
exclusively claimed by panentheists and dualistic theists.

35 Levine, Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept ofDeity, 48.









something real, and is not merely hallucinating. Levine notes that Otto's assertion that the numinous

is an objective reality is at odds with theorists such as Geertz and Berger that argue that experiences

of the numinous are "a human projection."36 Levine argues that for many pantheists, the "intuition

and ground for attributing divinity to the Unity (i.e. the pantheist's intimations of divinity) rests on

numinous experience or something like it. It is effectively and experientially grounded. The Unity

is experienced as numinous-i.e. as 'divine."'37 Levine explains further that what it means to

experience the Unity as divine is complex, but it "partly means that it is experienced as having

value." Thus, seeing reality as divine is for the pantheist a rejection of the meaninglessness of

nihilistic atheism, regardless of whether reality can be said to be "meaningless" in any absolute

sense. Whether as an emotional human projection or as an experience of some objectively real

aspect of existence, the pantheist finds his or her own existence and the existential reality in which

it is embedded "sacred," i.e., meaningful and valuable.

Levine, expressly relying on Geertz's definition of religion and his concept of "models of'

and "models for," declares that

Divinity for the pantheist functions symbolically in a manner not unlike the way
"God" does for the theist. It is part of a system of symbols, one of which is Unity,
that enables those for whom the symbols are operative to do what all sacred symbol
systems (i.e. religions) do; that is, to get about the business of "ordering" and
"making sense of," of making moral judgments, working, relating to others-in
short-living in a world which no matter how grand is fundamentally difficult.
Thus, theistic and pantheistic concepts of divinity are functionally equivalent.38

I will briefly touch on the complex thought of Robert Corrington. In his article, "My Passage

from Panentheism to Pantheism," he explains his personal journey from a panentheism born out of


36 Ibid., 128, n. 18.

37 Ibid., 58.

38 Ibid., 69.









the thought of Paul Tillich and Charles Hartshorne to his new found pantheism. Corrington now

finds panentheism's attempt to preserve a realm (perhaps "supernatural" or extraordinary) for God

somewhere outside of nature as impossible and logically incoherent. "Nature is all there is," and

necessarily includes whatever higher, transcendent realm panentheism is trying to preserve. For

Corrington, "the concept of 'non-nature' makes absolutely no sense."39 In like manner, the term

"superatural" is likewise incoherent, because there can be "no supernatural realm. Starkly

put-there are no non-natural traits or orders."40 Because of what Corrington deems the logical

incoherence ofpanentheism, he describes it as "conceptual laziness" born of the "last gasp of liberal

Protestant theology."41 Corrington's "naturalism" does not imply any sort of "materialism." Indeed,

Corrington is open to models of reality that most other theorists, and indeed most non-specialists,

would consider supernatural. For instance, he asserts "human beings are eternal,... that is, that our

soul was neither created nor will it be destroyed. [However,] the soul is fully an order within

nature and that it will always be so. It is simply an order with specific non-temporal features that

renders it different in kind from all those orders subject to entropy and the time process."42 Given

his openness to, indeed insistence on, the existence of non-material realities, Corrington is an

exemplar of what I will refer to herein as spiritualized pantheism,43 in contrast to naturalistic



39 Robert S. Corrington, "My Passage from Panentheism to Pantheism," American Journal of
Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 141.

40 Ibid.: 134, 137.

41 Ibid.: 130, 136.

42 "Deep Pantheism," Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 1, no. 4
(2007): 506 (Corrington's emphasis).

43I specifically considered and rejected calling this type of non-naturalistic pantheism, pantheistic
spirituality, because the term spirituality is increasingly coming to include naturalistic
understandings of reality. An example is the way purported atheist Sam Harris extols the









pantheism, which either denies or is agnostic about non-material realms currently undetectable by

contemporary, mainstream science.44

Finally, I review the pantheism of Christian theologian and philosopher, J. Edward Barrett.

Like Corrington, Barrett describes an intellectual odyssey from a more traditional understanding of

Christianity to a new found Christian pantheism. Barrett eloquently lays out a Christian Pantheism,

primarily naturalistic in tenor. Many will consider the very idea of a naturalistic Christian

pantheism as oxymoronic, not to mention heretical (for reasons that will become clear in the next

chapter). I therefore set forth Barrett's argument in his own words without risking the imposition

of my own interpretation through selective quotation.

"God" is not the name of something outside and above reality (as with Barth), nor
is it a super consciousness grounded in the whole of reality (as with Hartshome).
Instead, the word "God" is a way of addressing-with awe, appreciation, and a
posture of reverence-our everyday encounters with nature and one another. As
Elizabeth Barrett Browning wrote: "Earth's crammed with heaven, and every
common bush aflame with God, but only those who see take off their shoes."
Passing over the ancient Stoics, and even Spinoza (who for all his genius and piety
thought of the world as a machine), I am prepared to argue that pantheism has two
distinct advantages which qualify it for first place in the list of options available to
those interested in a religious interpretation of life.
a) When "God" is understood as an "attitude" word, a posture of reverence
or respect we assume toward the world, a way of saying "Thou" to the world, then


importance of humans developing their "spirituality." Sam Harris, The End of Faith: Religion,
Terror, and the Future ofReason, 1st ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2004), 205-07. As Bron
Taylor has said, "there are many examples around the world where people feel and speak of a
'spiritual connection' to nature, or of 'belonging to' the earth (mother earth, or even mother ocean),
or speaking of the earth as 'sacred,' without any concomitant confession of supernatural beliefs."
Bron Taylor, "A Green Future for Religion?," Futures 36 (2004): 1000. I believe spiritualizedd"
captures the supernatural/extraordinary connotation which I intend.

44 My categories of spiritualized pantheism and naturalistic pantheism are closely analogous to
Bron Taylor's categories of Gaian Spirituality and Gaian Naturalism. See "Dark Green
Religion: Gaian Earth Spirituality, Neo-Animism, and the Transformation of Global Environmental
Politics," unpublished paper at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion (San
Diego: 2007). and Dark Green Religion (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press,
Expected 2009).









we know our talk about God is about something real, the reality in which we "live
and move and have our being."45 In case you haven't noticed it, talking about
something unquestionably real is an advantage few theologians throughout history
have enjoyed.
b) Not only is "God" then undeniably real, but religion is then indisputably
relevant. It has to do with our ordinary lives, their guts and their glory. And
however much we may prefer another world, or weigh the possibilities of another
one awaiting us after this one, the divine in this world is the one with which we have
to do now. Pantheism makes religion relevant to our earthly life-so far as we
know, the only life we have (which is not to rule out other possibilities, but simply
to remain agnostic regarding what William James called "over-beliefs"). Pantheism
is what Whitehead called "world loyalty."
Should one be asked "Is this God a "person?" the only honest answer is that
we do not know-Charles Hartshorne's "Cosmic Consciousness" and the traditional
interpretation of Martin Buber's "Eternal Thou" (which I believe is incorrect) to the
contrary. There are well documented but inconclusive arguments both ways. I find
myself unable to choose between them.
But, I would affirm that on occasion we feel the quality, quantity, and value
of our relationships with nature and history, relationships that are more abundant,
deeper, richer and meaningful than we normally know. These experiences ...
[which I call] "grace," have three characteristics: (1) experiences of support or
nourishment, (2) experiences of summons or challenge, and (3) experiences of union
with a height, and depth, and breadth of connections of consequence that we can
begin to describe, but that eventually fade into mystery, beyond the horizon of
language and imagination.
But, the opposite is also true. We experience emptiness, shallowness,
meaninglessness, nausea, and blatant evil. This means that reality (whether or not
addressed as "God") is morally ambiguous. The idea of God in the Jewish
Scriptures, as one capable of both wrath and repentance, as well as steadfast love,
seems to me (however mythological) to be closer to the truth about our experience
of reality than the idealistic abstraction of John's first letter, where he writes that
"God is light, and in God is no darkness at all" (I John 1:5). John's selective
idealism creates that difficult and unsolvable "problem of evil," or theodicy. For my
own part, it seems wiser for us to liken God to everything else we know about in
nature (and about ourselves)-with both precious and appalling impulses, helpful
and horrendous behaviors, constructive and destructive dynamics-hoping that the
scales tip on the constructive side, but uncertain. The dilemma of the religious
moralist is that we are ambiguity in the midst of ambiguity striving to make the
world less ambiguous.46



45 See Chapter 4 for the significance of this quotation to Acts 17:28.

46 J. Edward Barrett, "A Pilgrim's Progress: From the Westminster Shorter Catechism to
Naturalistic Pantheism," American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 168-70.









In concluding this investigation of the various definitions of paganism, pantheism,

panentheism, polytheism, theism, and atheism, I offer this example of how one self-described

layperson pantheist tries to explain all these different definitions to a neighbor who asks for an

explanation of what she means by describing herself as a pantheist:

Pantheism is a word easily confused with other words. Pantheon, for
example, refers to a collection of many gods. Polytheism is the belief in many gods.
When I tell an acquaintance that I am a pantheist, she looks at me askance. Do I
believe in tree spirits? No, that is animism, I explain-the belief that individual souls
inhabit natural objects and phenomena. Am I a pagan? she wonders. Yes, I say.
Paganism is the religion of anyone not specifically a Christian, Muslim, or Jew. But,
I add, she is probably thinking of neo-pagans, people from a modem, technological
society who are trying to revive the ancient worship of nature. My pantheism does
revere nature. But I don't practice any ancient rituals.
Importantly, what pantheism is not is theism-the acceptance of a single,
personal god. Pantheism is not atheism either, a disbelief in a sacred or numinous
universe. There is some argument here. The well-known atheist and scientist
Richard Dawkins calls pantheism "sexed-up atheism." Well, nothing wrong with
being sexy. But the pantheist acknowledges a strong religious impulse. The
pantheist walks literally, every day, in the Mind and Body of God. Panentheism
sounds the most like pantheism but also is not, being the doctrine that God is both
immanent in the world and transcendent or outside it, too.47


47 Sharman A. Russell, Standing in the Light:
2008), 3-4.


My Life as a Pantheist (New York: Basic Books,









CHAPTER 4
THE BIBLICAL CONTEXT FOR
PANTHEISM, PANENTHEISM AND CLASSICAL THEISM

Any exploration of pantheism must occur with at least some understanding of its polar

opposite, classical theism. So it is with the emergence of classical theism I will begin.

Richard Elliott Friedman, in noting that biblical Israel was the first enduring monotheism

known, notes further that the "difference between Israelite monotheism and pagan religion ... was

not a simple matter of arithmetic: one God rather than many. The pagan religion that dominated

the ancient world for four millennia was tied to nature. Pagan religion personified [Nature's]

forces, ascribed a will to them, and called them: gods... Having one God who controlled all these

forces was another (more appealing?) way to ... deal with these" natural forces. Thus, "Israel's

monotheism, for the first time, conceived of a God who was outside of nature, controlling its de-

deified forces."' While I will explore this in more detail, this dualistic separation of God from

nature is the key element of classical theism, as I discussed in regard to Mircea Eliade in Chapter

2.

This divorce of God from Nature had other ramifications. It allowed biblical writers to

imagine that humans occupied a more exalted position in the natural order. Thus, in the Priestly

version of the Israelite creation story contained in the first chapter of Genesis,2 humanity is given

this command: "God blessed them, and God said to them 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth

and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every


Richard Elliott Friedman, The Hidden Face of God (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995),
87-88.

2 See, Michael D. Coogan, The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the
Hebrew Scriptures (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 405-06, for an argument that this
story was most likely composed in the mid-sixth century BCE during Israel's period of Babylonian
exile.









living thing that moves upon the earth" (NRSV).3 In regards to Christianity, it is this passage along

with the declaration that humanity was made in "God's image" contained in Genesis 1:26 that led

historian Lynn White to argue in a now famous and still controversial essay that especially "in its

Western form, Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen."4 Jeremy Cohen

notes that the two Hebrew verbs that the NRSV translates as "subdue" and "have dominion" and that

Cohen translates as "master" and "rule" indeed do have harsh connotations, contrary to some

Christian interpreters efforts to soften the terms by equating them to God's wise and compassionate

rule. According to Cohen, the Hebrew equivalent of "subdue" "usually denotes the enslavement of

people or the physical conquest of territory." In like manner, the Hebrew equivalent of "have

dominion" is "often reinforced by terms of harshness, refers in general to the rule over slaves,

subjects, or enemies, at times to the vanquishing of an opponent in battle, and perhaps even to the

trampling of grapes in a winepress." Cohen notes that these harsh connotations lead some

interpreters to "flatly to agree with White."5

Another key passage from the Hebrew Bible needs to be considered, Psalms 8. It reads as

follows:

To the leader: according to The Gittith. A Psalm of David.
1 0 LORD, our Sovereign, how majestic is your name in all the earth! You have set


3 Jewish scholar Jeremy Cohen translates the passage as follows: "God blessed them and said
to them, 'Be fertile and increase, fill the earth and master it; and rule the fish of the sea, the birds
of the sky, and all the living things that creep on the earth.'" Jeremy Cohen, Be Fertile andIncrease,
Fill the Earth and Master It: The Ancient and Medieval Career of a Biblical Text (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1989), 1.

4 Lynn White, "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," Science 155, no. 3767 (1967):
1205.; see also Elspeth Whitney, "White, Lynn -- Thesis Of," in Encyclopedia of Religion and
Nature, ed. Bron Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005).

5 Cohen, Be Fertile and increase, Fill the Earth and Master It: The Ancient and Medieval Career
of a Biblical Text, 16.









your glory above the heavens,
2 Out of the mouth of babes and infants, you have founded a bulwark because of your
foes, to silence the enemy and the avenger.
3 When I look at your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars that
you have established;
4 what are human beings that you are mindful of them, mortals that you care for
them?
5 Yet you have made them a little lower than God, and crowned them with glory and
honor.
6 You have given them dominion over the works of your hands; you have put all
things under their feet,
7 all sheep and oxen, and also the beasts of the field,
8 the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, whatever passes along the paths of the
sea.
9 0 LORD, our Sovereign, how majestic is your name in all the earth!

Scholars have noted the similarity and relationship between Psalm 8 and Genesis 1:28, though they

disagree on which text predates which. According to Cohen, some see this text as substantially

earlier than the Priestly creation text, while others consider it a merely a later gloss on the Genesis

idea of dominion.6 Either way, it is another text that has during the course of the evolution of ideas

in Western Civilization reinforced the sense of human entitlement to dominate, control and utilize

the natural world to its own benefit. As Clarence Glacken noted in regard to Psalm 8 and Psalms

115:16 ("The heavens are the Lord's heavens, but the earth he has given to human beings"), the

"theme that man, sinful though he be, occupies a position on earth comparable to that of God in the

universe, as a personal possession, a realm of stewardship, has been one of the key ideas in the

religious and philosophical thought of Western civilization regarding [humanity's] place in nature."

In terms of Christian belief in the separation between God and the natural created order, the

Apostle Paul is the decisive character. Paul, in the opinion of many if not most scholars, is the


6 Ibid., 34-35.

7 Clarence J. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought
from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press,
1967), 155.









decisive interpreter and, some would say, creator of the Christian Myth.8 Of the various letters

included in the Christian New Testament, there is near-unanimous agreement among scholars that

seven were authentically written by Paul.9 His letter to the Romans, the last of these seven, and is

considered to be the most comprehensive articulation of his theology. In Chapter 1, Paul has this

to say:

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and
wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress truth. 19 For what can be
known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20 Ever since
the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they
are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. So they are
without excuse; 21 for though they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give
thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their senseless minds
were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23 and they exchanged the
glory of the immortal God for images resembling a mortal human being or birds or
four-footed animals or reptiles. 24 Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their
hearts to impurity, to the degrading of their bodies among themselves, 25 because
they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature
rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever! Amen. (Romans 1:19-25, NRSV)

Glacken notes that the idea expressed in verse 20, that the reality of God is demonstrated by God's

creation, "could have been written by a Stoic philosopher." Yet it is the declaration in verse 25 that

has proven decisive in the history of Western Civilization. "It is a theme repeated often in Christian

theology: worship the Creator, not the creature. The works of God can be discerned in the creation,

but God is transcendent, the creation is by him but not of him, and it is only a partial teacher. One

can see His ways in it, but worship is for the Creator alone."10 Viewed through the lens ofmemetics


8 See generally Burton L. Mack, The Chiri niii Myth: Origins, Logic, and Legacy (New York:
Continuum, 2001).; Hyam Maccoby, The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity, 1st
Harper & Row pbk. ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1987).

9 John Dominic Crossan and Jonathan L. Reed, In Search ofPaul: How Jesus's Apostle Opposed
Rome's Empire with God's Kingdom, 1st ed. (New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2004), 105.

10 Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient
Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century, 161.









or meme theory," this idea, that worship is for the Creator alone and that the divine is not to be seen

in the creation, is a meme that has been wildly successful and casts a long shadow. It must be taken

into account in any investigation of ideas about God and Nature.

Given Paul's undisputed authorship of this passage and its derivative ideas, it is therefore

necessary to examine another biblical passage, also attributed to Paul, that seems to have exactly the

opposite message. In the New Testament book of Acts is this account of a public sermon by Paul

at Athen's Areopagus,12 set forth here in full for complete context:

22Then Paul stood in front of the Areopagus and said, "Athenians, I see how
extremely religious you are in every way. 23For as I went through the city and looked
carefully at the objects of your worship, I found among them an altar with the
inscription, 'To an unknown god.' What therefore you worship as unknown, this I
proclaim to you. 24The God who made the world and everything in it, he who is Lord
of heaven and earth, does not live in shrines made by human hands, 25nor is he served
by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mortals
life and breath and all things. 26From one ancestor he made all nations to inhabit the
whole earth, and he allotted the times of their existence and the boundaries of the
places where they would live, 27so that they would search for God and perhaps grope
for him and find him-though indeed he is not far from each one of us. 28For 'In him
we live and move and have our being'; as even some of your own poets have said,
'For we too are his offspring.' 29Since we are God's offspring, we ought not to think
that the deity is like gold, or silver, or stone, an image formed by the art and
imagination of mortals. 30While God has overlooked the times of human ignorance,
now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on
which he will have the world judged in righteousness by a man whom he has
appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all by raising him from the dead."

The decisive verse for anyone looking for biblical warrant for seeing the divine in nature is the



The term meme was coined by Richard Dawkins in Chapter Eleven of his 1976 book, The
Selfish Gene. Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, 30th Anniversary ed. (Oxford; New York:
Oxford University Press, 2006), 189-201. For an updated summary, see Daniel Clement Dennett,
Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (New York: Viking, 2006), 341-57.

12 Richard Oster notes that this sermon is depicted in a way that "deliberately echoes the trial of
Socrates for proclaiming new deities and leading the populace to question its beliefs in the
traditional gods." Richard E. Oster, Jr., "Athens," in The Oxford Companion to the Bible, ed. Bruce
M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 65.









quotation contained in verse 28, "For 'In him we live and move and have our being."' Glacken

notes it as a contrast to Paul's ideas in Romans.13 Charles Hartshorne, the founding philosopher of

20th Century panentheism, cites it and, apparently assuming that Paul said it, asks whether Paul was

"a pan-theologian?"14 The philosopher and theologian Philip Clayton uses the verse in the title to

one of his recent books on panentheism.15 The non-theistic philosopher of religious naturalism

Donald Crosby in a recent journal article uses the quote without attribution16 and with attribution

in his book." Panentheistic Christian theologian and New Testament scholar Marcus Borg uses the

quote to demonstrate the immanence of God.18 The passage appears repeatedly in discussions of

religion and nature.

But did Paul actually deliver this sermon and utter these words? It has been argued both

ways.19 Given the way this passage has been used by Christian panentheistic theologians, perhaps


13 Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient
Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century, 161, n. 30.

14 Charles Hartshorne, "Pantheism and Panentheism," in Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea
Eliade (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1987), 166.

15 Philip Clayton and A. R. Peacocke, In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being:
Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a Scientific World (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William
B. Eerdmans Pub., 2004).

16 Donald A. Crosby, "A Case for Religion of Nature," Journalfor the Study ofReligion, Nature,
and Culture 1, no. 4 (2007): 490.
17 A Religion ofNature (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2002), 10.

18 Marcus J. Borg, Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus & the Heart
of Contemporary Faith, 1st ed. (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994), 38.

19 For an argument that he may have delivered this sermon, see F. F. Bruce, "Acts of the
Apostles," in The Oxford Companion to the Bible, ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 8.; for the contrary view, see Bart D. Ehrman, The New
Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early C(i 'ij iji Writings, 2nd ed. (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2000), 264-65.; A. N. Wilson, Paul: The Mind of the Apostle, 1st American ed.
(New York: W.W. Norton &, 1997), 157.; Giinther Bornkamm, Paul, Paulus, 1st U.S. ed. (New









the more important question is who is Paul allegedly quoting in this passage? In annotated bibles,

the quote is sometimes attributed to the 6th Century BCE Greek poet Epimenides,20 but it is more

likely a passage from the 1st Century BCE Stoic pantheist monistic poet Posidonius (c. 135-51

BCE).21 I will return to this, but I will note here a certain irony when this piece of pantheistic pagan

verse which happened to make into the biblical canon is adamantly utilized by Christian

panentheistic theologians as a refutation of pantheism.

























York,: Harper & Row, 1971), 65.

20 See Martin Dibelius and K. C. Hanson, The Book ofActs: Form, Style, and Theology, Fortress
Classics in Biblical Studies (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004), 109, suggesting the passage is from
a hymn to Zeus by Epimenides of Crete. See also "Epimenides," Encyclopedia Britannica, (2008),
Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, Mar. 30,2008 http://www.search.eb.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/eb/article-
274263; and EuanNisbet, "Heavenly Phenomena: How an Astronomer's Words Were Transformed
into a Citation Classic," Nature, 5 April 2001, 635.

21 Michael D. Coogan et al., eds., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, New Revised Standard
Version with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2001), at page 219 (New Testament), in note to Acts 17:28.









CHAPTER 5
THE NATURALISTIC PANTHEISM OF EDWARD ABBEY

The quoted phrase in the title of this project, "the only paradise we ever need," was penned

by Edward Abbey (1927-1989), an essayist and novelist that many consider the Thoreau of

contemporary America, in his essay "Down the River" in Desert Solitaire, his famed collection of

essays about two seasons as a park ranger in Arches National Monument in the 1950s. He was also

a philosopher of anarchy and an inspiration to the formation of contemporary radical

environmentalism. But my interest here is the metaphysical framework by which he oriented

himself and that he advocated for others.1

Abbey played with his metaphysical grounding over time. But on at least one occasion in

1983, approximately six years before his death, he applied the term pantheist to himself:

Call me a pantheist. If there is such a thing as divinity then it must exist in
everything, and not simply be localized in one supernatural figure beyond time and
space. Either everything is divine, or nothing is. All partake of the universal
divinity-the scorpion and the packrat, the Junebug and the pismire. Even human
beings. All or nothing, now or never, here and now.2

Thus, we do not have to wonder if he would apply the term to himself. But what kind of pantheist

was he? I will argue Abbey is a very good exemplar of naturalistic pantheism.

How early did Abbey's earth-centered metaphysics emerge? In a 1959 letter, he referred to

the "Great Christian Hangover" and also to himself as "an atheist. Tho' earthiest might be a better



Abbey's pantheistic thought has also been explored by Bron Taylor. See Bron Taylor, "The
Tributaries of Radical Environmentalism," Journal for the Study of Radicalism 2, no. 1: 32-36.;
Bron Taylor, Dark Green Religion (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, Expected 2009),
and "Resacralizing Earth: Pagan Environmentalism and the Restoration of Turtle Island,"
in American Sacred Space, ed. David Chidester and Edward T. Linenthal (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1995), 105-10.

2 Jack Loeffler, "Edward Abbey," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor
(London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 2.









term. I believe in the earth. Let Heaven go to Hell!"3 He reworked this sentiment later in Desert

Solitaire as follows:

God? ... who the hell is He? There is nothing here, at the moment, but me and the
desert. And that's the truth. Why confuse the issue by dragging in a superfluous
entity? Occam's razor. Beyond atheism, nontheism. I am not an atheist but an
earthiest. Be true to the earth.4

Is Abbey expressing disloyalty to rest of the cosmos? Probably not. So far, the only part of the

Cosmos that humans can harm through disloyalty is the Earth. Hence, it is a proper focus for

pantheistic loyalty.

In his famous 1975 novel of radical environmentalism, The Monkey Wrench Gang,5 Abbey

gives an intimation of pantheism by having Doc Sarvis, the character that was a fictionalized

combination of himself and his friend John DePuy,6 say the following: "Pan shall rise again, my

dear. The great god Pan... My God is alive and kicking. Sorry about yours."

Abbey penned an especially evocative pantheistic credo reflecting on the need for

wilderness:

The love of wilderness is more than a hunger for what is always beyond reach; it is
also an expression of loyalty to the earth, the earth which bore us and sustains us, the
only home we shall ever know, the only paradise we ever need-if only we had the
eyes to see. Original sin, the true original sin, is the blind destruction for the sake
of greed of this natural paradise which lies all around us-if only we were worthy of
it.7



3 Edward Abbey and David Petersen, Postcards from Ed: Dispatches and Salvos from an
American Iconoclast, 1st ed. (Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions, 2006), 11. The letter was to a
college professor and was mostly a scathing critique of the playwright and writer Samuel Beckett

4 Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988 [1968]), 163.

5 The Monkey Wrench Gang (New York: Avon Books, 1975), 50.

6 James M. Cahalan, EdwardAbbey: A Life (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2001), 157-58.

7 Abbey, Desert Solitaire, 147. (emphasis supplied).










Thus, Abbey tells us that this is our only home, thereby declaring disbelief in a heavenly afterlife,

though not necessarily ruling out reincarnation. Indeed, Abbey frequently would ruminate on being

reincarnated as a vulture. But was he serious?

Appealing as I find the idea of reincarnation, I must confess that it has a flaw: to wit,
there is not a shred of evidence suggesting that it might be true. The idea has nothing
going for it but desire, the restless aspiration of the human mind. But when was
aspiration ever intimidated by fact? Given a choice, I plan to be a long-winged
fantailed bird next time around. .. I think I'll settle for sedate career, serene and
soaring, of the humble turkey buzzard... And contemplate this world we love from
a silent and considerable height.8

Thus, Abbey displayed his capacity to engage in flights of fancy while simultaneously showing his

essentially empirical orientation.

Elsewhere, he expressed disapproval of taking flights of fancy away from factual truth, as

shown in this description of a day hike up Escalante Canyon in Southern Utah:

Is this at last the locus Dei? There are enough cathedrals and temples and
altars here for a Hindu pantheon of divinities. Each time I look up one of the
secretive little side canyons I half expect to see not only the cottonwood tree rising
over its tiny spring- the leafy god, the desert's liquid eye-but also a rainbow-colored
corona of blazing light, pure spirit, pure being, pure disembodied intelligence, about
to speak my name.
If a man's imagination were not so weak, so easily tired, if his capacity for
wonder not so limited, he would abandon forever such fantasies of the supernatural.
He would learn to perceive in water, leaves and silence more than sufficient of the
absolute and marvelous, more than enough to console him for the loss of the ancient
dreams.9

Abbey reveled in his existence and the mystery of it:

... Einstein thought that the most mysterious aspect of the universe (if it is, indeed,
a universe, not a pluri-verse) is what he called its "comprehensibility." Being
primarily a mathematician ... Einstein saw the world as comprehensible because so
many of its properties and so much of its behavior can be described through


8 Edward Abbey, Down the River, 1st ed. (New York: Dutton, 1982), 55.

9 Abbey, Desert Solitaire, 155.









mathematical formulas.
But to me the most mysterious thing about the universe is not its
comprehensibility but the fact that it exists. And the same mystery attaches to
everything within it. The world is permeated through and through by mystery. By
the incomprehensible. By creatures like you and me and Einstein and the lizards.10

Trained philosopher that he was, he had no patience for philosophical nonsense that would

deny the reality of our existence on our "paradise" home:

Solipsism, like other absurdities of the professional philosopher, is a product of too
much time wasted in library stacks between the covers of a book, in smoke-filled
coffeehouses (bad for the brains) and conversation-clogged seminars. To refute the
solipsist or the metaphysical idealist all that you have to do is take him out and throw
a rock at his head: if he ducks he's a liar. His logic may be airtight but his argument,
far from revealing the delusions of living experience, only exposes the suffocation
of logic."

Reveling in the real, with a real appreciation for knowledge obtained through science, Abbey

reveals an ecstatic empiricism:

[T]he Colorado Plateau lies still beyond the reach of reasonable words. Or
unreasonable representation. This is a landscape that has to be seen to be believed,
and even then, confronted directly by the senses, it strains credulity. [T]here
remains something in the soul of the place, the spirit of the whole, that cannot be
fully assimilated by the human imagination.
My terminology is far from exact; certainly not scientific. Words like "soul"
and "spirit" make vague substitutes for a hard effort toward understanding. But I can
offer no better. The land here is like a great book or a great symphony; it invites
approaches toward comprehension on many levels, from all directions.
The geologic approach is certainly primary and fundamental, underlying the
attitude and outlook that best support all others including the insights of poetry and
the wisdom of religion. Just as the earth itself forms the indispensable ground for
the only kind of life we know, providing the sole sustenance of our minds and
bodies, so does empirical truth constitute the foundation of higher truths. (If there
is such a thing as higher truth.) It seems to me that Keats was wrong when he asked,
rhetorically, "Do not all charms fly ... at the mere touch of cold philosophy?" The
word "philosophy" standing, in his day, for what we now call "physical science." But
Keats was wrong, I say, because there is more charm in one "mere" fact, confirmed
by test and observation, linked to other facts through coherent theory into a rational


10 Down the River, 51.

1" Desert Solitaire, 88.









system, than in a whole brainful of fancy and fantasy. I see more poetry in a chunk
of quartzite than in a make-believe wood nymph, more beauty in the revelations of
a verifiable intellectual construction than in whole misty empires of obsolete
mythology.
The moral I labor toward is that a landscape as splendid as that of the
Colorado Plateau can best be understood and given human significance by poets who
have their feet planted in concrete-concrete data-and by scientists whose heads and
hearts have not lost the capacity for wonder. Any good poet, in our age at least, must
begin with the scientific view of the world; and any scientist worth listening to must
be something of a poet, must possess the ability to communicate to the rest of us his
sense of love and wonder at what his work discovers.12

In his essay paean to Thoreau, Abbey explores where a metaphysics grounded in science

leads:

Watching the planets, I stumble about last night's campfire, breaking twigs,
filling the coffeepot. I dip waterbuckets in the river; the water chills my hands. I
stare long at the beautiful, dimming lights in the sky but can find there no meaning
other than the lights' intrinsic beauty. As far as I can perceive, the planets signify
nothing but themselves. "Such suchness," as my Zen friends say. And that is all.
And that is enough. And that is more than we can make head or tail of.
"Reality is fabulous," said Henry; "be it life or death, we crave nothing but
reality."'3 And goes on to describe in precise, accurate, glittering detail the most


12 Edward Abbey, The Journey Home: Some Words in Defense of the American West, 1st ed.
(New York: Dutton, 1977), 86-87.

13 Abbey is here referring to Thoreau's famous reflection on reality in the two penultimate
paragraphs of Chapter 2 in Walden, "Where I Lived, and What I Lived For":
Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous. .
... Let us settle ourselves, and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and
slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance, that alluvion
which covers the globe, through Paris and London, through New York and Boston and
Concord, through Church and State, through poetry and philosophy and religion, till we come
to a hard bottom and rocks in place, which we can call reality, and say, This is, and no
mistake; and then ... set a ... Realometer, that future ages might know how deep a freshet
of shams and appearances had gathered from time to time. If you stand right fronting and face
to face to a fact, you will see the sun glimmer on both its surfaces, as if it were a cimeter, and
feel its sweet edge dividing you through the heart and marrow, and so you will happily
conclude your mortal career. Be it life or death, we crave only reality. If we are really dying,
let us hear the rattle in our throats and feel cold in the extremities; if we are alive, let us go
about our business.
Philip Van Doren Stem and Henry David Thoreau, The Annotated Walden: Walden; or, Life in the
Woods, 1st ed. (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970), 226-29. (Thoreau's emphasis). While









subtle and minute aspects of life in and about his Walden Pond; the "pulse" of water
skaters, for instance, advancing from shore across the surface of the lake.
Appearance is reality, Thoreau implies; or so it appears to me. I begin to think he
outgrew transcendentalism rather early in his career, at about the same time that he
was overcoming the influence of his onetime mentor Emerson; Thoreau and the
transcendentalists had little in common-in the long run. .14

Abbey also explored this "Appearance is reality" theme in both his original 1968 "Author's

Introduction" to Desert Solitaire, and the final "Preface" in the 1988 final edition, penned nine

months before his death:

Desert Solitaire, I'm happy to add, contains no hidden meanings, no secret messages.
It is no more than it appears to be, the plain and simple account of a long sweet
season lived in one of the world's most splendid places. If some might object that
the book deals too much with mere appearances, with the surface of things, and fails
to engage and reveal the patterns of unifying relationships that many believe form
the true and underlying reality of existence, I can only reply that I am content with
surfaces, with appearances. I know nothing about underlying reality, having never
encountered any. I've looked and I've looked, tried fasting, drugs, meditation,
religious experience, even self-mortification, but never seem to get any closer to
basic reality than the lizard on a rock, a hawk in the sky, a dead pig in the sunshine.
Beneath each stone I find more stone .. .; peeling an onion to the core I end up with
nothing but the perfect complement to my hot skillet of fried eggs, diced chiles and
hashbrown turnips. Appearance is reality, I say, and more than most of us deserve.
You whine and whimper after immortality beyond space-time? Come home, for
God's sake, and enjoy this gracious Earth of ours while you can. .. Okay, you
contemplate the underlying relationships; I'll ... [t]hrow metaphysic to the dogs. I
never heard a mountain lion bawling over the fate of his soul.1


Abbey is here citing to Thoreau for his proposition that surface reality is all we need, Charles
Anderson argues that this passage is, in contrast to Abbey's usage, the "most abstract treatment of
Idealism in Walden." Charles Roberts Anderson, The Magic Circle of Walden (New York,: Holt,
1968), 102, cited in Stem and Thoreau, The Annotated Walden: Walden; or, Life in the Woods, 226.

14 "Down the River with Henry Thoreau," in Abbey, Down the River, 19-20.

15 Desert Solitaire, xii. As written by Abbey in the original 1968 version, the passage
reads as follows:
It will be objected that the book deals too much with mere appearances, with the surface
of things, and fails to engage and reveal the patterns of unifying relationships which form the
true underlying reality of existence. Here I must confess that I know nothing whatever about
true underlying reality, having never met any. There are many people who say they have, I
know, but they've been luckier than I.









In his characteristic humorous style, Abbey acknowledged "pondering what my hero

[composer] Charles Ives called [in the title of his orchestral piece] The Unanswered Question. What

am I doing with my life? Nothing. What is the significance of existence? Who knows. Where do

we come from and where are we going? Who cares."16 But further responding to the question,

What is the nature of this universe, he answered it is "something strange and more beautiful and

more full of wonder than your deepest dreams. .""

In conclusion, Abbey provides one of the best examples that an ecstatic pantheistic

naturalism is possible, one that embraces science, accepts human mortality, does not quest after

unseen spirits or immaterial presence, and yetj oyfully celebrates our amazing good luck to be here.




















For my own part I am pleased enough with surfaces-in fact they alone seem to me to be
of much importance. Such things for example, as the grasp of a child's hand in your own, the
flavor of an apple, the embrace of a friend or lover .., the sunlight on rock and leaves, the
feel of music, the bark of a tree, the abrasion of granite and sand, the plunge of clear water
into a pool, the face of the wind-what else is there? What else do we need?
Edward Abbey, Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness, Paperback ed. (New York: Ballantine
Books, 1968), xi.

16 Abbey, Desert Solitaire, viii.

7 Abbey, Desert Solitaire, xiii.









CHAPTER 6
REINVENTING WHAT IT MEANS TO BE HUMAN:
THE ECOLOGICAL THOUGHT OF THOMAS BERRY

Born in 1914, Thomas Berry is Catholic priest of the Passionist Order.' His education at

Catholic University was as a historian of Western intellectual history.2 He has become a key figure

in environmental philosophy. Newsweek has recognized Berry as a key figure in Christian

ecotheology, known for promoting "the evolution of the universe" as humanity's "new sacred

story." Newsweek summarized Berry's view: "evolution is both a 'sacred process' and 'the primary

revelation of God to man.' And like all revelations, this one elicits a new set of commandments:

to preserve and protect the life forms created by Mother Earth."3

What I will do here is review and compare his major works, and see how his writing has

evolved over time. I will consider individually and then together, The Dream of the Earth,4

Befriending the Earth A Theology of Reconcilation Between Humans and the Earth,5 and The

Great Work Our Way Into the Future.6






1 Thomas Mary Berry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Reconciliation between
Humans and the Earth (Mystic, Conn.: Twenty-Third Publications, 1991), Back Cover.

2 Mary Evelyn Tucker, "Berry, Thomas," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron
Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 164.

3 Kenneth L. Woodward, "On the Road Again: Americans Love the Search So Much That the
Idea of a Destination Is Lost," Newsweek, Nov. 28, 1994.

4 Thomas Mary Berry, The Dream of the Earth (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988).

5 Berry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Reconciliation between Humans and the
Earth.

6 Thomas Mary Berry, The Great Work: Our Way into the Future, 1st pbk. ed. (New York:
Bell Tower, 1999).









The Dream of the Earth

The Dream ofthe Earth was published by Sierra Club Books in 1988 as the first of its "Sierra

Club Nature and Natural Philosophy Library." An example of the book's influence is that Gardner

and Stem, in their chapter on "Religious and Moral Approaches" in their social psychology text

book, exclusively rely on Berry and The Dream of the Earth to describe new developments in

Christian eco-theology and describe his ideas as "Berry's new religion."

For those as yet uninformed about the environmental challenges currently facing humanity,

Berry spends some time in Dream laying out the basic facts of our planetary crisis; increased

extinction rates, increased air and water pollution, increased accumulation of toxic waste, dying

oceans, the common litany usually recited when urging the importance of this issue. He notes that

"[i]t is a supreme irony of history that the consequences of [humanity's] millennial expectations

have been the devastation of the planet-wasteworld rather than wonderworld.. [W]e need to alter

our commitment from an industrial wonderworld achieved by plundering processes to an integral

earth community based on a mutually enhancing human earth relationship."8 Berry acknowledges

our collective guilt:

We all bear a certain amount of guilt for our present situation. .. We have been
entranced with the progress myth, unlimited progress, progress that would lead
beyond the existing human condition to something infinitely better, to wonderworld.
Such is the seductive theme in almost all our advertising.9

Berry declares his prescription as "reinventing the human."10 (See also "Our challenge is to create


7Gerald T. Gardner and Paul C. Stem, Environmental Problems and Human Behavior (Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, 1996), 51.

8 Berry, The Dream of the Earth, 29-30.

9 Ibid., 57.

10 Ibid., 21, 82.









... a new sense of what it is to be human""). He spends much of the book in diagnosis of this

wasteworld problem by critiquing what he sees as the four human institutions responsible for our

plight: government, corporations, religious institutions, and the modem university.

Berry speaks with a strong prophetic voice that doesn't mince words. For example:

In this disintegrating phase of our industrial society, we now see ourselves not as the
splendor of creation, but as the most pernicious mode of earthly being. We are the
termination, not the fulfillment of the earth process. If there were a parliament of
creatures, its first decision might well be to vote the humans out of the community,
too deadly a presence to tolerate any further. We are the affliction of the world, its
demonic presence. We are the violation of the earth's most sacred aspects.12
**
In relation to the earth, we have been autistic for centuries. Only now have we begun
to listen with some attention and with a willingness to respond to the earth's demands
that we cease our industrial assault, that we abandon our inner rage against the
conditions of our earthly existence, that we renew our human participation in the
grand liturgy of the universe.13

Berry sets forth his proposed principles that must guide us in developing technologies that

will mutually enhance both the human community and the earth process. "Creation must now be

experienced as the emergence of the universe as a psychic-spiritual as well as material-physical

reality from the beginning. We need to see ourselves as integral with this emergent process. ."

"All human professions, institutions, and activities must be integral with the earth as the primary

self-nourishing, self-governing, and self-fulfilling community. [This] is our way into the

future."14

Berry declared that one of the principal characteristics of the emerging Ecological Age is the




Ibid., 42.

12 Ibid., 209.

13 Ibid., 215.

14 Ibid., 81, 88.









move from a human-centered norm of reality and value to a nature-centered norm. Berry says, "We

cannot expect life, the earth, and the universe to fit our rational human designs of how life, the earth,

and the universe should function. We must fit our thinking and our actions within the larger process.

We must move from democracy to biocracy. We need a constitution for the North American

continent, not simply a constitution for the humans occupying this continent. We need a United

Species, not simply a United Nations.""1

Berry also prescribes a new direction for seeking the divine. "The natural world is the larger

sacred community to which we belong. To be alienated from this community is to become destitute

in all that makes us human. .. [T]his sense of the sacred character of the natural world as our

primary revelation of the divine is our first need."16 At a public lecture in Boise, Idaho in October

1993, Berry made the same point even more succinctly: "The earth is the primary scripture; all

written scriptures are secondary at best,"" here echoing the Apostle Paul's sentiments in Romans

1:20. And in 2005, he declared the natural world should be "seen as primordial scripture, a scripture

predating the Bible."18

Is there any hope that the needed changes will occur? In his chapter "Patriarchy," Berry

gives this ominous assessment:

If mitigations [to industrial processes] have appeared, they have served only to make
industrial processes more endurable. Thus the question of meliorism appears, the


15 Ibid., 161.

16 Ibid., 81. (emphasis supplied).

7 This quote is from my lectures notes from that public lecture.

18 Thomas Berry. "Thomas Berry on Religion and Nature." In Encyclopedia of Religion and
Nature, edited by Bron Taylor, 166-68. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005,
167.









tendency to constantly modify an existing system without changing the basic pattern
of its functioning. What is needed is a profound alteration of the pattern itself, not
some modification of the pattern. To achieve this, the basic principle of every
significant revolution needs to be asserted: rejection of partial solutions. The
tension of the existing situation must even be deliberately intensified so that the root
cause of the destructive situation may become evident, for only when the cause
becomes painfully clear will decisive change take place. The pain to be endured
from the change must be experienced as a lesser pain to that of continuing the
present course.19

But, in the last two pages ofDream, Berry ends with this explanation of why hope is justified

and does so in so evocative a manner, that I present this extended quote:

.. .Evidence for this hopefulness is found in the sequence of crisis moments
through which the universe and, especially, the planet Earth have passed from the
beginning until now. At each state of its development, when it seems that an
impasse has been reached, most improbable solutions have emerged that enabled the
Earth to continue its development. At the very beginning of the universe, the rate of
expansion had to be at an infinitesimally precise rate so that the universe would
neither explode nor collapse. So it was at the moment of passage out of the radiation
stage: only a fragment of matter escaped antimatter annihilation, but out of that
fragment has come the galactic systems and the universe entire. So at the shaping
of the solar system: if the Earth were a little closer to the sun, it would be too hot;
if slightly more distant, it would be too cold. If closer to the moon, the tides would
overwhelm the continents; if more distant, the seas would be stagnant and life
development could not have taken place. So with the radius of the Earth: if it were
a little greater, the Earth would be more gaseous, like Jupiter; if a little less, the Earth
would be more solid, like Mars. In neither case could life have evolved in its present
form.
After the appearance of cellular life, when the original nutrients were
consumed, the impasse was averted by invention of photosynthesis, upon which all
future life development has depended. So it has been with the great story of life in
its groping toward unlimited variety of expression; the mysteries of life multiply, but
the overall success of the planet became increasingly evident, until the Neolithic
phase of the human.
This story of the past provides our most secure basis of hope that the earth
will so guide us through the peril of the present that we may provide a fitting context
for the next phase of the emergent mystery of earthly existence. That the guidance
is available we cannot doubt. The difficulty is in the order of magnitude of change
that is required of us. We have become so acclimated to an industrial world that we
can hardly imagine any other context of survival, even when we recognize that the
industrial bubble is dissolving and will soon leave us in the chill of a plundered


19 Ibid., 158-59.









landscape.
None of our former revelatory experiences, none of our renewal or rebirth
rituals, none of our apocalyptic descriptions are quite adequate for this moment.
Their mythic power remains in a context far removed from the power that is abroad
in our world. But even as we glance over the grimy world before us, the sun shines
radiantly over the earth, the aspen leaves shimmer in the evening breeze, the coo of
the mourning dove and the swelling chorus of the insects fill the land, while down
in the hollows the mist deepens the fragrance of the honeysuckle. Soon the late
summer moon will give a light sheen to the landscape. Something of a dream
experience. Perhaps on occasion we participate in the original dream of the earth.
Perhaps there are times when this primordial design becomes visible, as in a
palimpsest, when we remove the later imposition. The dream of the earth. Where
else can we go for the guidance needed for the task that is before us.20

Befriending the Earth

Befriending the Earth had its genesis as a television series consisting of 13 half-hour

episodes produced by Canada's Vision TV. The series, which I have viewed in its entirety, records

a colloquium between Berry, as a Passionist priest, and Thomas Clarke, a Jesuit priest, that occurred

in 1990 at the Holy Cross Centre of Ecology and Spirituality in Port Burwell, Ontario. In 1997, I

had the chance to interview Berry about some of the seemingly unorthodox statements he made at

that 1991 colloquium and inquired how he managed to avoid getting in trouble with his Catholic

superiors. He said he was indeed quite spontaneous and was just talking extemporaneously and was

not really thinking about the fact that video cameras were going.

Much of the spontaneity of the videos is preserved in the book. To at least some extent, the

book is a transcript of the videos, though the book has clearly be rearranged, edited, and somewhat

toned-down. Missing is Berry's declaration in the video version that the First Commandment in the

Hebrew Bible should really be understood as the sky father decreeing that "Thou shalt not have an

Earth Mother."

Unless one already knew it, one would never guess that The Dream of the Earth was written


20 Ibid., 221-23.









by a Catholic priest. He never says he's a priest and the book contains no biographical information

indicating it. You might think he was just a secular environmentalist commentator, albeit, with a

bit of New Age feel toward the end. He negatively critiques Christianity, but it is a critique that

could have come from any outsider. In Befriending, you have much more of a sense that one is

hearing a disappointed insider, disappointed that the religion of Christianity and its Roman Catholic

form to which he has dedicated his life is failing so miserably in its duties to the Earth. After

extolling the wisdom of Black Elk, he declares "the salvation of Christians lies in the unassimilated

elements of paganism."21 Seemingly realizing that he is saying something radical, he goes on the

justify this statement: "We have assimilated the Greek wisdom. We are assimilating the Oriental

mystique, as well as the meditation techniques of different parts of the world. We have assimilated

much of what China has to offer. Why, then, do we exclude the assimilation of the culture of 'pagan

people'?" One does not usually imagine a Catholic priest encouraging Christians to look to pagan

wisdom for their salvation, which is one of the noteworthy aspects of this book.

After extolling pagan wisdom, he marginalizes The Holy Bible, the sacred text of

Christianity: "I suggest we might give up the Bible for awhile, put it on the shelf for perhaps twenty

years. Then we might have a more adequate approach to it. We need to experience the divine

revelation presented to us in the natural world." "Why are we not getting our religious insight from

our experience of the trees, our experience of the mountains, our experience of the rivers, of the sea

and the winds? Why are we not responding religiously to these realities?" "Here we are with a

planet that is being devastated and we are still reading the book instead of reading the world





21 Berry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Reconciliation between Humans and the
Earth, 21.









about us. We will drown reading the book."22

In a manner recalling William Ophuls' Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity," Berry has

harsh words for one of our Western Civilization's most cherished secular institutions, democracy.

"I consider democracy a conspiracy of humans against the natural world. The United States

Constitution is a constitution of humans guaranteeing human rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit

of happiness at the expense of the continent. We need a North American constitution that would

include all the components of the North American continent... In my view, the human community

and the natural world will go into the future as a single sacred community or we will both perish in

the desert."24 "If democracy is such a great thing, why is U.S. democracy destroying the planet?

Why does democracy not guide us?"25

In a move again unusual for a Catholic priest, Berry also chastises those who say "Trust in

God." "God is not going to take care of our present crisis. The deity is not going to pick up the

pieces and remedy the disasters we bring about. God gives us the capacity to deal with these things.

One of the most disappointing aspects of Christian spirituality comes from counsels [of] total

abandonment and total trust in the divine... [L]ook what God is permitting us to do. God is letting

us kill off the most beautiful things around and evidently God is not bringing an end to it. God is

functioning through ourselves. God is telling us what to do. The natural world is telling us what


22 Ibid., 75-76.

23 William Ophuls, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity: Prologue to a Political Theory of the
Steady State (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977).; William Ophuls and A. Stephen Boyan,
Ecology and the Politics ofScarcity Revisited: The Unraveling of the American Dream (New York:
W.H. Freeman, 1992).

24 Berry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Reconciliation between Humans and the
Earth, 42-43.

25 Ibid., 76.









to do. God speaks to us through the natural world.. How the human functions, will determine the

destiny of' the Earth.26

Finally, and perhaps most unusual for a Catholic priest, Berry addresses the explosion of

humanity's population.

S. .The bishops of the Philippines put out a document called What Is
Happening to Our Beautiful Land? It was written by a missionary in cooperation
with tribal peoples. A local bishop presented it to the national meeting of the bishops.
They approved it. But what did they do before they approved it? They took out one
of the important statements on population. They diminished an important aspect of
the document by their unwilling-ness to deal with population, even though
overpopulation is one of the most disastrous realities facing the Philippines and the
planet.
While we are trying to be good to people, we are often being cruel. The
Philippines, at the beginning of this century, had six million people. That figure has
doubled every twenty years, from six to twelve, twelve to twenty-four, twenty-four
to fifty. The number is 70 million now, and that is in the process of doubling. There
will be over 100 million people shortly after the year 2010. Meanwhile, the
mangrove swamps are destroyed, and 80 percent of the coral reefs, which are among
the richest ecosystems on the planet, are severely damaged. A third of the soil is
severely damaged, two-thirds is partly damaged, and the rain forest that once covered
over 90 percent of the area will, it seems, soon be totally gone. Only 10 percent
survives now.
So we can list disaster after disaster to the natural environment, all occurring,
ostensibly, in order to better care for people's needs. Why do they blast the
fisheries? To take care of people. Why do they destroy the mangrove swamps? To
take care of people. And where is it all going to end up? In the impoverishment and
death of millions of people.
This points to a number of other things. We have to live on the planet, on the
planet's terms and not on our terms. Living in the natural world on its terms is hard
for us. We want the planet to exist on our terms. At last we are realizing that we had
better find out right away what the planet's terms are. We must accept life, the
human mode of being, within the conditions of the natural world that brings us into
being. We were brought into being by the natural world, and we must survive on its
conditions.27

Given the Catholic Church's historic opposition to birth control, this passage is startling. This last



26 Ibid., 52.

27 Ibid., 45-46.









paragraph is reminiscent of remarks by the radical environmentalist Paul Watson's28 essay On the

Precedence of Natural Law.29

In summary, while the themes contained in Befriending the Earth are consistent with those

laid out in The Dream of the Earth, they have an edge and passion here that give the work a

distinctive feel. This is probably owing to the unique genesis of the book.

The Great Work Our Way into the Future

Berry begins Great Work in his introduction as follows:

Human presence on the Planet Earth in the opening years of the twenty-first century
is the subject of this book. We need to understand where we are and how we got
here. Once we are clear on these issues we can move forward with our historical
destiny, to create a mutually enhancing mode of human dwelling on the planet Earth.
Just now we seem to be expecting some wonderworld to be attained. In the
process, however, we are causing immense ruin in the world around us.30

Beginning thus, Berry maintains the wonderworld/wastworld theme that he first presented us in

DREAM. The book is clearly intended to stand on its own without reference to prior works, so much

of the ground covered in the previously discussed works is presented here as well. Here, however,

Berry arranges his material around the theme of "The Great Work." By this, Berry means that the

Great Work of the present and foreseeably future human generations is that "of moving the human

project from its devastating exploitation to a benign presence" on planet Earth,31 or as I might phrase

it, from malignancy to benignity. And indeed, as noted in the opening sentences, Berry imagines




28 See generally Steven Best, "Watson, Paul and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society," in
Encylopaedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor (Continuum International, 2005). for an
account of Paul Watson.

29 Paul Watson, "On the Precedence of Natural Law," Environmental Law & Litigation 3 (1988).

30 Berry, The Great Work: Our Way into the Future, ix.

31 Ibid., 7.









something a bit more positive for humanity than mere benignity, but imagines a future in which we

are "a mutually enhancing human presence within an ever-renewing organic-based Earth

community."32

Berry explains our human situation as follows:

The Great Work before us ... is not a role that we have chosen. It is a role given to
us, beyond any consultation with ourselves... We do not choose the moment of our
birth, who our parents will be, our particular culture or the historical moment when
we will be born. We do not choose the status of spiritual insight or political or
economic conditions that will be the context of our lives. We are, as it were, thrown
into existence with a challenge and a role that is beyond any personal choice. The
nobility of our lives, however, depends upon the manner in which we come to
understand and fulfill our assigned role.33

Noting Al Gore's maxim that "we must make the rescue of the environment the central organizing

principle for civilization,"34 Berry exhorts us to step up to the plate, and lays out the reasons we must

do so.

In an effort to be hopeful, in his final chapter entitled "Moments of Grace," Berry concludes

his book as follows:

We are now experiencing a moment of significance far beyond what any of
us can imagine. .. The mythic vision has been set into place. The distorted dream
of an industrial technological paradise is being replaced by the more viable dream
of a mutually enhancing human presence within an ever-renewing organic-based
Earth community... In the larger cultural context the dream becomes the myth that
both guides and drives the action.
But even as we make our transition into this new century we must note that
moments of grace are transient moments. The transformation must take place within
a brief period. Otherwise it is gone forever. In the immense story of the universe,
that so many of these dangerous moments have been navigated successfully is some
indication that the universe is for us rather than against us. We need only summon


32 Ibid., 201.

33 Ibid., 7.

34 Albert Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1992), 269.









these forces to our support in order to succeed. Although the human challenge to
these purposes must never be underestimated, it is difficult to believe that the larger
purposes of the universe or of the planet Earth will ultimately be thwarted.35

In addition to this conclusion, elsewhere in the book a certain yearning desperation can be

seen. "[W]e must believe that those powers that assign our [Great Work] must in that same act

bestow upon us the ability to fulfill this role. We must believe that we are cared for and guided by

these same powers that bring us into being."36 Berry, showing his influence by Teilhard de

Chardin,37 suggests that it is Humanity that the universe has been building toward. (See "The

Anthropic Principle", cited by Berry in DREAM38). Surely it won't let us snuff ourselves out. Yet,

in his concluding paragraph, Berry admits that "moments of grace are transient," that our window

of opportunity is closing. And in passages I noted in the foregoing section on Befriending the Earth,

Berry there acknowledges that "God is not bringing an end" to our self-destructive impulses, and

that we are on our own.

Is Berry's Thought Pantheistic?

For the purpose of the present project, based on my heuristic device of pantheism's sacred

geography, I conclude that Berry's thought can be fairly described as pantheistic. Unlike other

Christian writers, based on my review of his writings, Berry avoids explicitly labeling himself as

a member of any particular metaphysical camp, including those primarily explored here. However,

Berry's thought is devoid of any sense of importance or even discussion of a realm outside this

universe. He does not discuss issues of human after-life. Instead, he is throughout this Earth and


3 Berry, The Great Work: Our Way into the Future, 201.

36 Ibid., 7.

37 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, The Phenomenon of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1959).

38 Berry, The Dream of the Earth, 16.









this Universe focused.

As a final example of this, I provide this from a 2005 essay.

... The saying of Henry Thoreau (1817-1862) is now heard more often: "In
wildness is the preservation of the world." This return to the natural world is at the
same time a manifestation of the survival of religion and a support for the renewal
of religion throughout the Earth... [W]hen we return to nature in its wilderness form
.. for the healing of our inner world alwayss there seems to remain in the
human soul an awareness of some divine presence in the wilderness regions of the
world, a presence that can provide relief from the anxieties of existence in an
industrial dominated society.
Perhaps the person in America who best personifies the religious tradition of
Western civilization in its most intimate relation to the natural world is John Muir
(1838-1914). He spent the greater part of his life after 1860 wandering through the
fields and woodlands of Northern California and recording his experiences there.
Brilliant compositions, his writings can be considered so many songs to the
indwelling sacred presence of the Yosemite Valley along the Merced River.39

Again, not a trace of concern for some sacred realm outside this universe. And he cites as sources

of his inspiration, Thoreau, a self-described pantheist, and Muir, another figure that, though

contested, many scholars see as pantheistic. Berry uses the word God and at places suggests that

this God may be a super-intelligence guiding us forward, thus showing some affinity for

spiritualized pantheism. However, he never suggests that his God exists outside the dimension of

this universe. His overall tone is naturalistic. Given Berry's sole concern with the dimension of this

universe, which he constantly reminds us is a divine and sacred universe, "the primordial scripture,"

I conclude he is an example of pantheism in American Christianity, whether or not the term is a

"heresy label of the worst sort."










39 "Thomas Berry on Religion and Nature," 168.









CHAPTER 7
THE CREATION SPIRITUALITY OF MATTHEW FOX

Matthew Fox, born in 1940, was ordained as a Catholic priest in the Dominican order in

1967.' He was silenced by Pope Benedict XVI in 1989-90 (who was then Cardinal Ratzinger, the

head of the Roman Catholic Church's Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith) and was expelled

from his order in 1993. According to Andrea Kresge, the Vatican "objected specifically to Fox's

refusal to deny his belief in pantheism, his denial of original sin, for referring to God as 'mother'

and for promoting a feminist theology."2 He is currently a Episcopal priest.3 He is noted for his

radical rethinking of Christian theology toward a more earth-centered orientation. In one of his early

works, Fox dramatically illustrated the extent of this rethinking as follows: "Is Mother Earth herself

not the ultimate [victim], the most neglected of the suffering, voiceless ones today? And along with

her, the soil, forests, species, birds, and waters are not being heard where legislators gather, where

judges preside, and where believers gather to worship. Is the human race involved in a matricide

that is also ecocide, geocide, suicide and even decide? .. .[Are we our] mother's keeper? This is

the moral and spiritual question of our time. Evidence is slim that Westerners have taken that

responsibility at all seriously. Patriarchal agendas and cultural presuppositions, patriarchal

educational and religious institutions have left us all with maternal blood on our hands. The blood

of Mother Earth crucified."4


1 Andrea A. Kresge, "Fox, Matthew," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor
(London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 669.

2 Kresge, "Fox, Matthew," 670.

3 Matthew Fox, A New Reformation: Creation Spirituality and the Transformation of Chiri linr a
(Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions, 2006), 132.; Kresge, "Fox, Matthew," 669.

4 Matthew Fox, The Coming of the Cosmic Christ: The Healing of Mother Earth and the Birth
ofa Global Renaissance, 1st ed. (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1988), 17, 33.









During Pentacost week 2005, Fox, reenacting Luther's act in 1517, posted 95 new theses

penned by Fox to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany.5 In his Thesis No. 15, he

states "Christians must distinguish between Jesus (a historical figure) and Christ (the experience of

God-in-all things)."6 In Thesis No. 10, Fox says "God loves all of creation, and science can help

us more deeply penetrate and appreciate the mysteries and wisdom of God in creation. Science is

no enemy of true religion."7 And in Thesis No. 6, he says Th/,< ii (the idea that God is 'out there'

or above and beyond the universe) is false. All things are in God and God is in all things

(panentheism)."8 Thus, Fox explicitly claims panentheism as his metaphysical stance.

While the Vatican may have accused him of being a pantheist, he denies this, and goes into

the most detail in one of his early and still influential books, Original Blessing. There, among other

sources for his metaphysical claims, he cites "Paul in Acts 17:28 It is in God that we live and

move, and have our being" and the medieval Christian mystic "Mechtild of Magdeburg The day

of my spiritual awakening was the day I saw-and knew I saw-all things in God and God in all

things."9 He then goes into some detail as to why he is properly understood to be a panentheist.

Because I argue that, his claim to the contrary not withstanding, Fox is best understood as a

contemporary expression of pantheism, I will here begin with Fox's own argument for his position:




5 Fox, A New Reformation: Creation Spirituality and the Transformation of Chiri \tiinr, Back
Cover.

6 Ibid., 67.; Here, Fox states in thumbnail the argument developed in his still widely cited book,
The Coming of the Cosmic Christ. The Coming of the Cosmic Christ: The Healing of
Mother Earth and the Birth of a Global Renaissance.

7 -- A New Reformation: Creation Spirituality and the Transformation of Christianity, 65.

8 Ibid., 63.

9 Matthew Fox, Original Blessing (Sante Fe: Bear and Co. Publishing, 1983), 88.









.The idea that God is "out there" is probably the ultimate dualism,
divorcing as it does God and humanity and reducing religion to a childish state of
pleasing or pleading with a God "out there." All theism sets up a model or paradigm
of people here and God out there. All theisms are about subject/object relationships
to God. .. [R]eligious theism itself. kills God and the soul alike by preaching a
God "out there."
What is the solution to the killing of God and the loss of human soul? It is
our moving from theism to panentheism. Now panentheism is not pantheism.
Pantheism, which is a declared heresy because it robs God of transcendence, states
that "everything is God and God is everything." Panentheism, on the other hand, is
altogether orthodox ... for it slips in the little Greek word en and thus means, "God
is in everything and everything is in God." This experience of the presence of God
in our depth in all the blessings and the sufferings of life is a mystical
understanding of God. Panentheism is desperately needed by individuals and
religious institutions today. It is the way the creation centered tradition of
spirituality experiences God. It is not theistic because it does not relate to God as
subject or object, but neither is it pantheistic. Panentheism is a way of seeing the
world sacramentally. Indeed, as we have seen previously, in the creation centered
tradition, the primary sacrament is creation itself-which includes every person and
being who lives. Other sacraments derive their fruitful and creative power from this
primary sacrament. This is one thing that distinguishes pantheism from
panentheism-pantheism has no need of sacraments, but panentheism does. For while
everything is truly in God and God is truly in everything, this is not always evident
to our experience.10

Why does pantheism have no need for sacrament? Fox doesn't say. And the momentous import that

Fox attaches to the difference between "is" and "in" is likewise not explained.

Another radically new aspect of Fox's theology is the seeming disappearance of the

traditional Christian doctrine of the trinity. The traditional Nicene formulation of the trinity, where

God the Father is the Creator that resides somewhere outside the universe, where God the Christ

("Jesus") was a special, one-time incarnation of part of God into human form, who's now back with

God the Father somewhere outside the universe, and God the Holy Spirit, which is that part of God

that exists inside the universe and through whom God now, since Jesus' departure, communicates

with humanity. By emphasizing the Christ as the "God in all things" and denying the theistic God


10 Ibid., 89-90.









that "is 'out there' or above and beyond the universe," all three parts of the traditional formulation

seem to disappear. If God, the Cosmic Christ exists in all things and in that sense communicates

with all things, what remaining purpose is served by imagining a Holy Spirit? Doesn't the Cosmic

Christ now serve the purpose previously imagined for the Holy Spirit? Fox's writings don't really

explain if he intends this outcome.

When Fox visited the University of Florida on November 1, 2006, I was able to ask him

whether the idea of a "holy spirit" was retained in his understanding of the universe. His response

was an emphatic "Yes," and went on to explain that "just as photons display qualities as both

particles and waves," he imagines "the Cosmic Christ as the particle aspect within all matter in

universe, while the Holy Spirit is the 'wave' or 'energy' aspect in all matter in universe, which

intermix with each other constantly." In response to my question "What if any continuing role is

there for God the Father?" He immediately corrected me by saying "God the Father/Mother,"

consistent with his known feminist theology, and then said that "God the Father/Mother is the

Creator who continues the ongoing process of creation; creation isn't done; God is still creating, and

thus, God the Father/Mother is that ongoing creative part of God." He concluded the interview with

a smile and said, "Of course, this is all just metaphor." Thus, Fox at least implicitly acknowledged

these are his creative efforts to come up new ways of imagining the divine mystery in useful and

meaningful ways. Fox does not conceive of them as "The Truth" with a capital "T."

In evaluating Fox's denial of pantheism, I note that along with many progressive Christian

theologians, he cites to Acts 17:28. I noted in Chapter 4 that the quoted text is most likely from the

Stoic pantheist monistic poet Posidonius. Given the import attached to his text, it is perhaps

justifiable to explore this poet a bit more.

According to the historian of philosophy, Frederick Copleston, Posidonius was a Stoic









monist who tried to demonstrate through an empirical method "the articulated unity of Nature" and

the "'sympathy' that prevails between all parts of the cosmic system."" Glacken writes that

"Posidonius' thought is derived from ideas in biology, history, astonomy, geography, [and]

ethnology" and noted the "ecological" character to his thought as well. Glacken says Posidonius

"had more to say on environmental questions relating to human beings than any writer before him,

perhaps including Hippocrates and Aristotle." And he was an early student of ethnology, believing

that "primitive peoples [then] existing represent early conditions in the history of" humanity.12

Does a line of verse from this pantheist philosopher really help establish Fox's case for

"panentheism"? In a public lecture at the University of Florida on October 31, 2008, Fox stated that

"pantheism has always gotten poor theological marks because it imagines God as frozen, incapable

of change." Fox went on to say that in contrast, panentheism instead imagines the universe and

therefore God dynamically.

Reese explains that there is a type of pantheism called "Absolutistic monistic pantheism"

wherein "God is absolute and identical with the world [and t]he world, although real, is therefore

changeless." Thus, there is a type of pantheism that meets Fox's description. However, as

explained by both York and Reese, there are other pantheisms that understand God/The Universe

dynamically, in much the same way Fox describes God/The Universe. Thus, avoiding frozenness

is not be a sufficient reason to reject pantheism as label.

Like Berry, with whom Fox has been in dialogue, Fox makes no claims about a reality



Frederick Charles Copleston, A History of Philosophy: Greece and Rome -from the Pre-
Socratics to Plotinus, New rev. ed., 9 vols., vol. 1 (New York: Doubleday, 1962), 422.

12 Clarence J. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought
from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press,
1967), 54, 97.









outside this cosmos and makes no claims about an after-life. All his public teaching is directed

toward encouraging a more ecstatic engagement in this life, in this universe, all the while utilizing

Christian imagery and metaphor. Given the sacred geography that I have heretofore set forth, Fox

is better understood as a naturalistic pantheist than a panentheist. He displays no interest in a reality

outside this universe. This universe is his sacred geography.

For Acts 17:28 and the Mechtild quote to fully support panentheism, those quotes would

have to be modified as follows: Acts 17:28 "It is in God that we live and move, and have our

being [but God is also outside this cosmos]"; Mechtild "I saw all things in God and God in all

things [and knew God was also outside all things]." These would have been unambiguous

declarations ofpanentheism. The word "in" simply cannot support the metaphysical weight that Fox

and other panentheistic philosophers and theologians attempt to place on it.

When Fox was developing his understanding of Creation Spirituality, he was still under the

watchful eye of Cardinal Ratzinger. He needed to avoid Tillich's "worst kind of heresy label." It

is at least possible that Fox's need to try to keep at least one toe inside the orthodox fold, especially

if he was going to put the Wiccan witch Starhawk on the faculty of HolyNames College,13 may have

served as one of Weber's "switchman" that "determined the tracks along which action has been

pushed by the dynamic of interest," in this case, Fox's "ideal interest" in remaining at least quasi-

orthodox.

There are and have been Christian theologians who have accepted the term pantheist as a

description. According to the theologian Nels F.S. Ferr6, both Whitehead and Tillich at times told

him "that they would prefer to be called pantheists rather than theists," and Ferr6 himself accepted



13 See Kresge, "Fox, Matthew," 670.; Jone Salomonsen, "Starhawk," in Encyclopedia ofReligion
and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005).









the label.14 Further, Tillich argued that pantheism as "the doctrine that God is the substance or

essence of all things" is necessary for a "Christian doctrine of God" as "being-itself."15 As I noted

in Chapter 3, Chrisitan theologian Edward Barrett accepts the pantheist label proudly, noting that

with pantheism "[n]ot only is 'God' then undeniably real, but religion is then indisputably

relevant."16 So were Fox to stand as a pantheist, he'd have company.

Of course Fox is free to describe himself however he wants, and if his audiences are more

receptive to his call to creation-centered spirituality if he calls himself a panentheist, perhaps it

serves his purpose. My purpose here is a sociological one. To what extent is pantheism, in contrast

to panentheism, present and perhaps spreading in American culture. For this scholarly purpose, it

is useful to understand Fox as a naturalistic pantheist.






















14 Nels F.S. Ferr6, "God without Theism," Theology Today 22, no. 3 (1965): 373.

15 Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology, 3 vols., vol. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951),
233-34.
16 J. Edward Barrett, "A Pilgrim's Progress: From the Westminster Shorter Catechism to
Naturalistic Pantheism," American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002), 169.









CHAPTER 8
SIGNS OF EMERGING PANTHEISM WITHIN AMERICAN CULTURE

Quantitative Signs of Pantheism on the Internet

Still to be investigated is the extent to which pantheism is penetrating American culture. One

way to obtain a quick quantitative snapshot of cultural penetration is by conducting internet searches

of the key terms at issue in this study. Because Paganism, Pantheism, and Panentheism are terms

that all have some understanding of the sacred in nature, these are the terms that I contrasted and

studied. I undertook such a project on March 29, 2008, with the outcome listed in the following

table:

Search Results MySpace Facebook Yahoo Google Yahoo Search Google Search
on 03- 29-08 Groups Groups (approx.) (approx.)
Pantheism 1,990 34 348 16 1,600,000 520,000
Pantheist 1,820 25 237 19 754,000 338,000
Panentheism 250 3 144 18 274,000 94,400
Panentheist 131 2 7 1 49,600 16,300
Paganism 29,600 234 19,394 388 11,700,000 3,780,000
Pagan 130,000 1,039+ 11,580 480 60,100,000 25,400,000

The table demonstrates that the terms "paganism"/"pagan" are far more common by more than an

order of magnitude than either "pantheism"/"pantheist" or "panentheism"/"panentheist." Also,

using MySpace and Facebook, I looked at the top results to determine the type of paganism that was

being displayed. One site referred to "Scientific Paganism," and defined it in a way consistent with

what this investigation refers to as naturalistic pantheism. However, the overwhelming majority of

pagan sites showed some references to "magic," "Wicca," "witches," "goddesses," "shamanism,"

and had images of goddesses and/or the pagan pentagram on the sites. It was clear that pagan

members and groups on MySpace and Facebook demonstrated the characteristics described by Pike.

In contrast, the sites that contained either pantheism/pantheist were substantially in the category of

naturalistic pantheism. Thus, on these sites, the OED1 definition was the one operative. The sites









that contained either panentheism/panentheist used the term as defined in this project, namely, to

affirm belief in a deity that was immanent in this universe, but also transcended it. This exercise

provides evidence that the manner these terms have been defined herein are consistent with actual

usage in the larger culture.

To obtain another quantitative snapshot, I also visited Meetup.com. A visit to the "About

Meetup" page on March 30, 2008 provided the following explanation fo Meetup:


About Meetup
"Real Groups Make a Real Difference"

Meetup is the world's largest network of self-organized clubs and community groups.

Meetups help people:
Find others in their area who share their interests
Learn, teach, and share things
Make friends and have fun
Rise up, stand up, unite, and make a difference
Be a part of something bigger-both locally and globally


People visiting the Meetup.com site can search any term related to an interest, such as "pagan" or

"pantheism" and find out if there are active Meetups in the searcher's area related to the searched

topic. If there are no local Meetups, anyone can try to start a new Meetup in their area on a new

topic or interest.

I searched two terms "pagan" or "pantheism" on March 29, 2008, with these results:

Search Results Members Interested Meetups Cities Countries Events so far
on 03- 29-08 existing
Pantheism 934 760 14 12 3 268
Pagan 28,646 22,965 382 273 5 10,025

The results for "pantheism" were sufficiently small that I could visit each site. This disclosed that

only 8 of the 14 reported Meetups were actually pantheist. These eight Meetups (New York City,









Washington, DC, Atlanta, GA, San Francisco Bay Area, London, San Diego, and Los Angeles,

Worcester, MA) were all naturalistic pantheism groups, while a visit to the top ten pagan meetups

demonstrated that they also conformed to the neopagan type described by Pike. Thus, this additional

exercise provides evidence that this project's definition of terms in regard to paganism and

pantheism is consistent with stable actual usage in the larger culture.

Pantheism Organizations

There are two organizations, organized in the United States, that activelypromote pantheism.

They are the World Pantheism Movement and the Universal Pantheist Society. I will discuss each

in turn.

The World Pantheism Movement ("WPM"), was founded on 1998 and has developed a

Pantheist Credo as a general description of its core beliefs.' At its website, the WPM notes Rachael

Carson, Albert Einstein, novelist Margaret Atwood, Mikhail Gorbachev, Chief Sitting Bull, Stephen

Hawking, Carl Sagan, and Thoreau as exemplars of naturalistic pantheism. The website as discloses

four honorary advisors: the biologists David Suzuki and Ursula Goodenough, the chemist James

Lovelock (originator of the Gaia Hypothesis), and the skeptic, Michael Shermer. The Credo notes

Pantheism's reverence "for the self-organizing universe's overwhelming power, beauty and

fundamental mystery" and views "all matter, energy, and life as an interconnected unity." The

WPM "has a strongly naturalistic base. Nature, the entire living and non-living universe, is all that

exists. There are no supernatural entities and no separate spirit realms." Thus, the WPM expressly

rejects forms of spiritualized pantheism. "Consciousness and mind are emergent qualities of

energy/matter. The senses and science are our best means of developing our ongoing knowledge


Paul Harrison, "World Pantheism Movement," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed.
Bron Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005). See also www.pantheism.net.









of the universe, and the most solid basis for aesthetic and religious feelings about reality. Nature

is seen as the only real basis on which religious feeling can be built."

Consistent with this, the WPM views death naturalisticallyy, as a return to nature through

the natural recycling of our elements, which should be facilitated by cremation or natural burial in

simple linen shrouds or wicker baskets. There is no afterlife for the individual consciousness, but

we live on through our actions, our ideas and memories of us, giving us a powerful incentive to do

good."2 Paul Harrison, the WPM's founder, is currently the facilitator of the Los Angeles Pantheism

Meetup Group, discussed above.

The Universal Pantheist Society, founded in 1975, seeks to "stimulate a revision of social

attitudes away from anthropocentrism and toward reverence for the Earth and a vision of Nature as

the ultimate context for human existence, and to take appropriate action toward the protection and

restoration of the Earth." The UPS expressly declares that it is "not tied to any single view of

pantheism, but rather recognizes] a diversity of viewpoints within it. UPS accepts and explores

various interpretations of pantheism, stressing the importance of each member's personal pantheistic

beliefs." Stressing "that freedom of belief is inherent in the Pantheist tradition, the UPS's bylaws

prohibit [insisting upon] any particular interpretation of Pantheism or imposition of any particular

dogma."3 This openness on the part of the UPS to more spiritual interpretations distinguishes it from

the World Pantheism Movement.

Pantheism and the Deep Ecology Movement

There are significant parallels between the Deep Ecology Movement and naturalistic



2 Harrison, "World Pantheism Movement."

3 Harold Wood, Jr., "Universal Pantheist Society," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed.
Bron Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005). See also www.pantheist.net.









pantheism. Bron Taylor notes

S. .most deep ecologists trace their perspective to personal experiences of
connection to and wholeness in wild nature, experiences which are the ground of
their intuitive, affective perception of the sacredness and interconnection of all life.
Those who have experienced such a transformation of consciousness (experiencing
what is sometimes called one's "ecological self' in these movements) view the self
not as separate from and superior to all else, but rather as a small part of the entire
cosmos. From such experience flows the conclusion that all life and even
ecosystems themselves have inherent or intrinsic value-that is, value independently
of whether they are useful to humans.4

In Chapter 3, I laid out Michael Levine's argument that to call something sacred and/or God

is to declare that it has value. Deep ecologists, like naturalistic pantheists, find value in the entirety

of existence and use language of the sacred to denote that value. The primary difference between

deep ecologists and naturalistic pantheists is that most deep ecologists, notwithstanding their general

comfort with the term sacred, generally refrain from using the word God, perhaps because of the

cultural baggage the term carries.

Pantheism in the Movies

Metaphysical ideas, including pantheism, can appear in popular movies. One of the most

famous examples is the 1977 movie, Star Wars. In that movie, set "Long, long ago, in a galaxy far,

far away," one of the heros of the movie, Obi-Wan Kenobi, is a Jedi Knight, which in the course of

the movie viewers learn is an old and disappearing religion. Obi-Wan tells Luke Skywalker about

one of the tenets of this religion, namely belief in "The Force" which is "an energy field created by

all living things. It surrounds us, penetrates us, it binds the galaxy together." In this, we hear strong

echoes of Acts 17:28. Later, Kenobi, just before sacrificing himself in a saber battle with Darth

Vader, a former Jedi that uses the force for evil, declares "You can't win Darth, you can strike me



4 Bron Taylor, "Deep Ecology," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron Taylor
(London & New York: Continuum International, 2005), 456.









down, I will become more powerful than you can possibly imagine," apparently confident that he

will survive in some spiritual form, which in fact turns out to be the case. Kenobi, guiding

Skywalker to successful engagement in battle from his new, spiritualized form, intones, "Remember,

the Force will be with you, Always." Here, George Lucas, the screenwriter of this initial episode

of the Star Wars saga, is parroting, almost word for word, Jesus command to his disciples, post-

resurrection, in the final sentence of Matthew's Gospel, "And remember, I am with you always, to

the end of the age." In Star Wars, it is an impersonal, morally ambiguous, pantheistic Force that is

eternally present, with potential to lend redemptive assistance. Star Wars then is an example of

spiritualized pantheism. This cosmos is still the focus of concern. The after-life, as evidenced in

the original movie and even more so in the sequels, occurs in this Cosmos.

Another example of pantheism is found in Disney's 1995 animated feature film, Pocahontas.

The primary pantheistic content is conveyed in a scene where Pocahontas sings the song, "Colors

of the Wind" (whose lyrics were written by Steven Schwartz), to Captain John Smith. The pertinent

content is the following:

You think I'm an ignorant savage. ..,
You think you own whatever land you land on,
The Earth is just a dead thing you can claim,
But I know every rock and tree and creature,
Has a life, has a spirit, has a name. ..
Come run the hidden pine trails of the forest,
Come taste the sunsweet berries of the Earth,
Come roll in all the riches all around you,
And for once, never wonder what they're worth.
The rainstorm and the river are my brothers,
The heron and the otter are my friends,
And we are all connected to each other,
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends...

Earlier in movie, Pocahontas goes to consult a talking willow tree named Grandmother Willow.

When Pocahontas approaches the tree, the side of the tree becomes animated and takes the form of









an old woman's human face, and begins talking to Pocahontas. Given these supernaturalistic,

animistic elements, the ideas expressed in Pocahontas are an example of spiritualized pantheism.

"Colors Of The Wind" was also a major hit in 1995 for the singer Vanessa Williams. Thus, the

pantheistic message was disseminated both through the movie itself and via radio play and

soundtrack sales.

I mentioned in Chapter 1 the 2007 movie, Evan Almighty. Evan, a newly elected, Hummer-

driving, congressman, is directed by God, in the form of Morgan Freeman, to build an ark to save

the animals because a second flood is coming. God gives Evan an "Ark Building for Dummies"

book. The key pantheistic scene shows Evan propped up in bed, about to read the book, and he

opens the cover and the audience can read: "About the Author: God is the creator of the Heavens

and the Earth. He lives in all things and has 6,717,323,711 children." Then Evan reads the words

aloud. This movie generated some controversy, not because it was teaching pantheism, but because

a question was raised if Hollywood was inappropriately targeting church audiences with such fare.5

The movie portrays a supernaturalistic, personal God who can materialize and disappear at will.

However, as Corrington's exposition of pantheism demonstrates, pantheism can be supernaturalistic.

Notwithstanding the supernatural elements, the God portrayed in Evan Almighty nevertheless "lives"

in this universe and in all parts of this universe. No suggestion is made that God transcends this

universe, or that there is any portion of this universe that God does not penetrate. Thus, Evan

Almighty meets this project's definition of pantheism, albeit, spiritualized pantheism, because this

universe is the only reality affirmed, and that reality is implicitly sacred due to the fact that God

lives in all parts of it.



5 JeffBrumley, "Are religious films crossing the lines?" The Florida Times-Union, July 12, 2007,
Page Al, Column 1 http://www.jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/071207/lif 183888983.shtml









Another movie with a pantheistic theme was the 1999 movie, Stigmata.6 The movie was a

demon possession horror movie in a similar vein to The Exorcist. The pantheist twist is that Frankie

Paige, the possessed young woman, while experiencing episodes of possession by an unidentified

supernatural entity, says the following in the Aramaic language: "Jesus said the Kingdom of God

is within you, not in buildings of wood and stone. Split a piece of wood and I am there. Lift a stone

and you will find me." The first part of the first sentence is from Luke 17:21.7 The second and third

sentences are from Saying 77 of the Gospel of Thomas found at Nag Hammadi in 1945.8

The Jesus Seminar, a group of new testament scholars who met from 1985 to 1998, in

analyzing whether this verse might have come from Jesus, concluded: "The kind of pantheism-God

in everything, God everywhere-reflected in 77:2-3 is unknown from other sources, either gnostic

or Christian. Jesus would scarcely have considered himself omnipresent." Hence, they concluded

it was not an authentic saying from the historical Jesus.9 However, Hollywood took interest.

The rest of the movie unfolds a plot by the Vatican seeking to suppress a new gospel

containing these, and presumably other, formerly unknown sayings of Jesus. Through the course


6 Stigmata, Dir. Rupert Wainwright, MGM (DVD), 1999.

7 The King James Version of Luke 17:21 reads "the kingdom of God is within you." The New
Revised Standard Version reads "the kingdom of God is among you." However, The New Oxford
Annotated Bible notes that other ancient manuscripts of Luke use "within" instead of "among." See
Michael D. Coogan et al., eds., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, New Revised Standard Version
with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)., at
page 130 (New Testament), in footnote d to Luke 17:21.

8 The whole saying reads: "'Jesus said, 'I am the light that is over all things. I am all: from me
all has come forth, and to me all has reached. 2Split a piece of wood; I am there. 3Lift up the stone,
and you will find me there.'" Marvin Meyer, ed., The Nag Hammadi Scriptures: The International
Edition (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2007), 149. See also, Elaine H. Pagels, The Gnostic
Gospels, 1st ed. (New York: Random House, 1979), for information on the Nag Hammadi find.

9 Robert Walter Funk and Roy W. Hoover, The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic
Words of Jesus: New Translation and Commentary (New York: Macmillan, 1993), 515.









of the movie, viewers learn that the supernatural entity possessing Frankie is the ghost of a deceased

priest who had been involved, along with two other priests, with translating a newly found gospel,

and that this ghost is trying to transmit the contents of this unknown gospel. The core of this

information to transmitted to the viewers through the following dialogue between another of the

three translators, Father Petrocelli, and Father Andrew Kieman, the priest that is investigating for

the Vatican Frankie's possession and her stigmata:

Kiernan (K): [after being shown a picture of a document] What is this?
Petrocelli (P): It is maybe the most significant Christian relic ever found.
K: Why?
P: It's an Aramaic scroll from the first century discovered near the caves of the Dead
Sea scrolls outside Jerusalem. Alameida and I concluded that it is a gospel of Jesus
Christ in his own words, Aramaic. But there are some factions in the Vatican who
believe that this document could destroy the authority of the modem church.
K: How?
P: It was Jesus words to his disciples on the night of his last supper. His instructions
to them on how to continue his church after his death.
K: Why would that be so threatening?
P: When we gave our initial conclusions to the gospel commission [Vatican Cardinal]
Houseman ordered us to stop our work immediately. Alameida refused. He stole the
document and disappeared. Houseman excommunicated us in our absence.
K: You have no idea where he is?
P: He doesn't want to be caught until he finishes the translation. [P shows a picture to
K with three men, including himself]. That's Delmonico, me, and Alameida. We
were all translating the gospel together.
K: I've seen this man, three weeks ago, in Brazil. He's dead. I saw him in his coffin in
his church in Bella Quinto. Sorry.
P: Then it is all over. It's gone forever.
K: Why was your work stopped? What is so threatening about this gospel?
P: Look around you father. What do you see?
K: I see a church.
P: It's a building. The true church of Jesus Christ is so much more! Not in buildings
made of wood and stone. I love Jesus! I don't need an institution between him and
me. You see! Just God and man. No priests, no churches. The first words in Jesus
gospel "The Kingdom of God is inside you and all around you. Not in buildings of
wood and stone. Split a piece of wood and I am there. Lift the stone,
P and AK in unison: and you will find me.
P: Yes brother...









K: ... She's [Frankie] just his [Alameida's ghost] messenger.
P: Houseman will never let this gospel get out.10

As the story further unfolds, in a dramatic exorcism scene where Cardinal Houseman attempts to

murder Frankie and thereby suppress the new gospel but is thwarted by Kieman, Kieman promises

Alameida's ghost he will work to get the new gospel out to the world, and the ghost then releases

Frankie from possession. In the final scene of the movie, Kieman has gone to a rural, remote

Catholic church in Belo Quinto, Southeast Brazil, and finds the hidden scrolls, while the saying

noted in for foregoing is dramatically intoned. The screen fades to black, and then the following

three sentences in a sequence of three darkened screens are presented to the audience to read: (1)

"In 1945, A scroll was discovered in Nag Hamadi, which is described as 'The Secret Sayings of the

Living Jesus'"; (2) "This scroll, the Gospel of St. Thomas, has been claimed by scholars around the

world to be the closest record we have of the words of the historical Jesus""; (3) "The Vatican

refuses to recognize this Gospel and has described it as heresy." Thus, the film explicitly includes

information about recent finds and developments in New Testament scholarship. However, whywas

the most pantheistic text in Thomas chosen?

The story as originally developed by screenwriter Tom Lazarus did not have this element to

it, and did not in any way relate to the Gospel of Thomas or its pantheistic message. It was the

director, Rupert Wainwright, who took the film in this direction.12 In the director's commentary

track on the DVD, Wainwright says about the three statements at the end: "These cards at the end

are all true, and it was a huge fight to get these cards on, because some people believed it was a


1o Stigmata, at lh:22m:56s, and following.

1 For scholarship supporting this statement, see Elaine H. Pagels, Beyond Belief. The Secret
Gospel of Thomas, 1st ed. (New York: Random House, 2003).

12 Telephone interview with Tom Lazarus, March 22, 2008









distraction for the audience. I believe that what it did was it points the audience towards other facts

about the movie that happen to be true. The movie is not about the Gospel of St. Thomas, but it

refers to that gospel and other gospels like it. So I would encourage you to if you are at all interested

in this material to look further."13

Why did Wainwright pick Thomas' pantheistic saying? Did Wainwright think this would

be the verse most interesting to audiences or was it the verse most interesting to him? This is

unknown.14 However, Wainwright's disclaimer that the movie is not about the Gospel of Thomas

notwithstanding, the central dramatic tension of the movie derives from the idea that a pantheistic

understanding of Jesus and God, which is indeed contrary to traditional understandings of

Christianity as set forth in the Nicene Creed and other traditional Christian creeds, is a threat to

established religious institutions. The director expressly encourages his viewers to "look further."

So, for the purposes of this project, I conclude that Stigmata is one sign that pantheistic ideas are

emerging into and being taken up in at least some sectors of American popular culture. In this case,

a movie director expressly encouraged his viewers to learn more about recent developments in New

Testament scholarship and its new pantheistic finds.

The next movie with strong sense of ecstatic naturalism/pantheism is 1999's "American

Beauty." Two long speeches occur. One is by the character Ricky Fitts, as he plays a video tape

of plastic bag swirling in the wind, and he explains what he was feeling as he filmed it to his

girlfriend:

It was one of those days when it's a minute away from snowing and there's this
electricity in the air, you can almost hear it. And this bag was, like, dancing with me.


13 Stigmata, at lh:35m:43s, and following.

14 At the time this thesis was being, I learned via email that Wainwright was then in Moscow,
Russia, and not readily available for an interview.









Like a little kid begging me to play with it. For fifteen minutes. And that's the day
I knew there was this entire life behind things, and this incredibly benevolent
force, that wanted me to know there was no reason to be afraid, ever. Video's a poor
excuse, I know. But it helps me remember and I need to remember .
Sometimes there's so much beauty in the world I feel like I can't take it, like my
heart's going to cave in.

The other main speech is when Lester Burnham gives his final speech to the audience in the final

moments of the movie after he's just been murdered by his homophobic next door neighbor:

I had always heard your entire life flashes in front of your eyes the second before you
die. First of all, that one second isn't a second at all, it stretches on forever, like an
ocean of time. .. For me, it was lying on my back at Boy Scout camp, watching
falling stars And yellow leaves, from the maple trees, that lined my street. .. Or
my grandmother's hands, and the way her skin seemed like paper ... And the first
time I saw my cousin Tony's brand new Firebird. .. And Janie. .. And Janie ..
And... Carolyn. I guess I could be pretty pissed off about what happened to me ...
but it's hard to stay mad, when there's so much beauty in the world. Sometimes I feel
like I'm seeing it all at once, and it's too much, my heart fills up like a balloon that's
about to burst... And then I remember to relax, and stop trying to hold on to it, and
then it flows through me like rain and I can't feel anything but gratitude for every
single moment of my stupid little life... You have no idea what I'm talking about,
I'm sure. But don't worry. .. you will someday.

This film won the Best Picture Oscar, so these scenes were very evocatively acted. It may be that

it is hard to experience the effect of these passages on the written page, but as acted they portrayed

an ecstatic message that everyone should celebrate their existence, and celebrate that they have been

lucky enough to win the cosmic lotto by being here at all. Bill Bryson, in his introduction to his

book, A Short History of Nearly Everything, evocatively articulates this theme.15 Julia Sweeney, in


15 Bryson welcomes his readers with this following celebration of existence: "Welcome. And
congratulations. I am delighted that you could make it. Getting here wasn't easy, I know; In fact,
I suspect it was a little tougher than you realize. To begin with, for you to be here now trillions of
drifting atoms had somehow to assemble in an intricate and intriguingly obliging manner to create
you. It's an arrangement so specialized and particular that it has never been tried before and will
only exist this once. For the next many years (we hope) these tiny particles will uncomplainingly
engage in all the billions of deft, cooperative efforts necessary to keep you intact and let you
experience the supremely agreeable but generally underappreciated state known as existence... To
be here now, alive in the twenty-first century and smart enough to know it, you also had to be the
beneficiary of an extraordinary string of biological good fortune. .. Not one of your pertinent









her one-woman comedic lesson in metaphysics, declares she is a "naturalist" who, after the epiphany

of her conversion to a naturalistic perspective, is "astonished" that she is "here at all. The smallest

things in life just seem amazing to me now... I used to think there are no coincidences. Now I think

there are coincidences!!! Wow, coincidence!!! If this is all there is, everything means more, not

less!" She expresses pity for the "anaturalistists," a term she coined to label for those who reject

a naturalistic perspective.16 These examples are similar or identical to the ecstatic naturalistic

pantheism of Abbey.

Pantheism in Television

Pantheism showed up in television in the 1970's perhaps most prominently in the television

series Kung Fu, whose television pilot aired on February 22, 1972 and whose 62 episodes ran from

October 1972 to April 19, 1975.1 The "Writers' Guide" manual produced by Warner Brothers

Television indicated that writers were to drawn the show's philosophical content from

"Confucianism, Taoism and Zen," though predominately from Confucianism "because it is the most

optimistic" in outlook.18 Kung Fu was set in the 1870s and follows the story of a Shaolin priest,

Kwai Change Caine, born in China to an American father and a Chinese mother, who after being




ancestors was squashed, devoured, drowned, starved, stranded, stuck fast, untimely wounded, or
otherwise deflected from its life's quest of delivering a tiny charge of genetic material to the right
partner at the right moment in order to perpetuate the only possible sequence of hereditary
combinations that could result-eventually, astoundingly, and all too briefly-in you. This is a book
about how it happened-in particular how we went from there being nothing at all to there being
something, and then how a little of that something turned into us. ." Bill Bryson, A Short History
of Nearly Everything, 1st ed. (New York: Broadway Books, 2003), 1-4.

16 Julia Sweeney, Letting Go of God (Audio CD) (Indefatigable Inc., 2006).

17 Herbie J. Pilato, The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical
Eastern Western, 1st ed. (Boston: Tuttle Co., 1993), 57, 150.

18 Ibid., 63.









orphaned is brought up in Shaolin temple. After killing a royal nephew of the Chinese emperor,

Caine flees to the American West and searches for his half-brother, with bounty hunters always

pursing him. Each episode depicted some dramatic story, interlaced with flash backs to scenes of

his training at the Shaolin Temple, and his two main teachers, Master Kan and Master Po.

In one such flash back in Episode 1, Master Kan tells young Cain, "To know nature is to put

oneself in harmony with the Universe. Heaven and Earth are one.""19 Master Kan further teaches

Caine in Episode 4 that "All life is sacred"20 and in Episode 20 that to "be a man is to be one with

the Universe."21 In the series pilot, Kan teaches that "All creatures, the low and the high, are one

with Nature. If we have the wisdom to learn, all may teach us their virtues."22 In Episode 4, Master

Po teaches Caine that to "be one with the Universe is to know bird, sun, cloud,"23 and in Episode 50

that the "Sage says: 'The beginning of the Universe is the Mother of all things."'24 Finally, this

example, again from Master Kan in Episode 46: "Do wars, famine, disease and death exist? Do lust,

greed, and hate exist? They are humanity'ss creations .. brought into being by the dark side of

nature." Thus, in pantheistic fashion, the metaphysics of Kung Fu taught that nature and the

Universe were the only and self-creating reality, that human's can learn the nature of reality by

studying the natural world, that mortality is the way of nature (not even the possibility of


19 The Kung Fu Book of Wisdom: Sage Advice from the Original Tv Series, 1st ed.
(Boston: C.E. Tuttle, 1995), 20.

20 Ibid.; Pilato, The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical
Eastern Western, 71.

21 Ibid., 101.

22 The Kung Fu Book of Wisdom: Sage Advice from the Original Tv Series, 26.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid., 106.









reincarnation is suggested), that nature is morally ambiguous (as with "The Force" in Star Wars),

and that thus a wise person seeks to live in alignment with the forces of nature and the universe as

much as possible. Levine noted the close coherence between Taoism and pantheism, and this

affinity is visible in Kung Fu.

After the original series, Kung Fu The Movie, a made-for TV movie aired February 1,

1986,25 and a new television series, Kung Fu The Legend Continues, continued the storyline into

the present day. That series ran with 83 episodes from January 1993 to January 1997. The main

character was still Kwai Change Caine, who is the grandson of the Caine of the original series, again

he is a Shaolin monk, now residing in a large American city. He continued to dispense the

pantheistic wisdom of the original series. Numerous clips of both series are presently available on

YouTube, and continue to have cultural influence.

Pantheism in Popular Music

At about the same time of the debut of the original Kung Fu series, the United States was

experiencing another missionary of pantheism in the person of popular folk rock singer, John

Denver (born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr.). According to Newsweek, in 1976, Denver was "an

ecoaware pantheist" who was "the most popular pop singer in America."26 Four years earlier, in

September 1972, Denver released his album Rocky Mountain High, whose title track was an

autobiographical paean to the glories of nature that in March 1973 made it to number nine on






25 The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical Eastern
Western, 154.

26 Maureen Orth, Peter S. Greenberg, and Janet Huck, "John Denver: The Sunshine Boy,"
Newsweek, Dec. 20, 1976.









Billboard's Hot 100 list.2 On March 12, 2007, the song became Colorado's second state song.28

In this autobiographical song, which was inspired by watching the Persied meteor shower on a dark

night in the Rocky Mountains,29 Denver describes himself as someone who in "his 27th year" was,

invoking Christian imagery, "born again" through his transforming encounters with nature and

thereby came "home to a place he'd never been before." After this epiphany, Denver tells his

listener's, speaking about himself in the third-person,

Now he walks in quiet solitude the forest and the streams
seeking grace in ev'ry step he takes.
His sight has turned inside himself to try and understand
the serenity of a clear blue mountain lake.

As a result of this inward meditation, Denver can, through nature, "talk to God and listen to the

casual reply." However, the song tells further that this new intimacy with God through nature comes

with a price:

Now his life is full of wonder but his heart still knows some fear,
of a simple thing he cannot comprehend.
Why they try to tear the mountains down to bring in a couple more,
more people more scars upon the land?

Though he now knows "he'd be a poorer man if he never saw an eagle fly," this new intimacy

with sacred nature had attached to it a new concern for the fate of the environment.30 Denver

could no longer be indifferent to the fate of creation.



27 Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits, Updated and Expanded 5th ed. (New
York: Billboard Books, 2003), 360.

28 http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/history/symbemb.htm#RMH
(retrieved 03-29-2008)

29 Hence, the song's reference to seeing it "rainin' fire in the sky." John Denver and Arthur
Tobier, Take Me Home: An Autobiography, 1st ed. (New York: Harmony Books, 1994), 108-09.

30 Ibid.









"Rocky Mountain High" was the first song on the album. With his song, "Spring," he

concluded that album with a rapturous hymn of connection to nature:

Open up your eyes and see the brand new day,
a clear blue sky and brightly shining sun,
open up your ears and hear the breezes say
everything that's cold and gray is gone.
Open up your hands and feel the rain come on down,
taste the wind and smell the flowers' sweet perfume.
Open up your mind and let the light shine in,
the earth has been reborn and life goes on.

And do you care what's happening around you?
Do your senses know the changes when they come?
Can you see yourself reflected in the seasons?
Can you understand the need to carry on?

Riding on the tapestry of all there is to see,
so many ways, and oh, so many things.
Rejoicing the differences, there's no one just like me,
Yet as different as we are, we're still the same.

And oh, I love the life within me,
I feel a part of everything I see.
And oh, I love the life around me,
a part of everything is here in me. ..

Over the remaining 25 years of his career, cut short by his death in plane crash in 1997,

Denver continued to explore nature-centered understandings of the sacred. In his album, Spirit,

released in August 1976, he included a song with strong pantheistic elements entitled "The Wings

That Fly Us Home," wherein Denver tells his listening public that he knows "that love is seeing all

the infinite in one," and that "You're never alone" because

the spirit fills the darkness of the heavens,
It fills the endless yearning of the soul,
It lives within a star too far to dream of,
It lives within each part and is the whole.31


31 Ibid., 253.









In November 1977, Denver released his album, I Want To Live, that included his song,

"Singing Skies and Dancing Waters," which describes the lament of someone, perhaps himself,

struggling with loss of faith in a traditional god. The despairing seeker in the song laments to God

"I just couldn't see you; I thought that I'd lost you; I never felt so much alone; Are you still with

me?" God responds to the seeker's plea, explaining that "I'm with you in, Singing skies and dancing

waters, Laughing children, growing old, And in the heart, and in the spirit, And in the truth when

it is told."32

In the title track of his September 1983 album, It's About Time, in a line reminiscent of

Edward Abbey, Denver tells his audience that "It's about time we start to see it, the Earth is our only

home; It's about time we start to face it, we can't make it here" without the rest of Earth's family

of creatures. Then, in his song "Children of the Universe," from his 1990 Earth Songs album,

Denver describes reality in this way:

The cosmic ocean knows no bounds,
For all that live are brothers,
The whippoorwill, the grizzly bear,
The elephant, the whale,
All children of the universe,
All weavers of the tale.33

In his song "Raven's Child," from his 1990 album, The Flower That Slaiiu red the Stone,

after describing various human kings (drug kings, oil baron kings, arms dealer kings (complete with

a reference to Ronald Reagan's Star Wars missile shield)) who all sit on an "arrogant throne, away,

and above, and apart," Denver invokes biblical language of God as King, but this pantheistic

true King sits on a heavenly throne,
Never away, nor above, nor apart,


32 Ibid.

33 Ibid., 255.









With wisdom and mercy and constant compassion,
He lives in the love, that lives in our hearts.34

As a final example of Denver's pantheistic lyrics, I'll conclude with this from the title

track of his The Flower That Sallu r< J The Stone album:

The earth is our mother just turning around,
with her trees in the forest and roots underground,
Our father above us whose sigh is the wind,
paint us a rainbow without any end.

Here, Denver uses the Amerindian imagery of Mother Earth and Father Sky to understand the

divine as immanent within the Cosmos.

John Denver continues to impact American culture. A search of "john denver" on

MySpace.com on March 30, 2008, yields 33,700 results. Sampling the search results reveals

John Denver Tribute sites, numerous clips of John Denver songs, as well as MySpace members

that list Denver as a favorite artist. A YouTube.com search of the same phrase yielded 2,810

related clips. At least one fan-written book has been written exploring Denver's spirituality.3

His pantheistic influence continues in present culture.

I will give one more example of popular musician whose lyrics show clear elements of

pantheism, the late Dan Fogelberg (1951-2007). Fogelberg's music career, like Denver's,

became successful in the early 1970s. However, his most nature-centered metaphysical albums

were in the 1990s. In the title track to his 1990 The Wild Places, Fogelberg included these

thoughts:




34 Ibid.

3 Christine Smith, A Mountain in the Wind: An Exploration of the Spirituality ofJohn Denver
(Findhorn, Scotland; Tallahassee, FL: Findhorn Press, 2001). Smith's title is drawn from Denver's
song, "The Wings That Fly Us Home," treated herein.









.. .There's a heaven on earth that so few ever find,
Though the map's in your soul and the road's in your mind.
.When you sleep on the ground with the stars in your face,
You can feel the full length of the beauty and grace.
In the wild places man is an unwelcome guest,
But it's here that I'm found and it's here I feel blessed.

Here, echoing Thoreau and John Muir's love of wildness and experience of wild places as the place

of achieving "blessing," Fogelberg tells in listeners that "heaven is on earth." In his followup album

that he considered the second volume of a two volume work, Fogelberg released "Magic Every

Moment" on his 1993 River of Souls album. Here,

There's a magic every moment
There's a miracles each day. ..
On a high and windy island I was gazing out to sea
When a long forgotten feeling came and took control of me
It was then the clouds burst open and the sun came pouring through
When it hit those dancing waters in an instant all eternity I knew...
You can see forever in a single drop of dew
You can see that same forever if you look down deep inside of you
There's a spark of the creator in every living thing. .

These examples have a mystical quality to them and reveal more of spiritualized pantheism than a

naturalistic pantheism. But the element of sacred focus remains this Cosmos.

In discussing these albums and these songs, Fogelberg said "I know metaphysical songs

aren't going to sell on the radio," but "I felt there was no way we could save this planet unless we

learned to love it [here, echoing Thomas Berry]. So these songs were about my love for nature."36

Pantheism in Dawkins, Dennett and Harris

Pantheism also shows up in another surprising place. Newsweek has referred to biologist

Richard Dawkins, philosopher Daniel Dennett, and neuroscientist Sam Harris as "The New





36 http://www.danfogelberg.com/biography.html (Retrieved 3-30-2008).









Naysayers."3 Indeed, the three can be considered the new evangelical atheists, vigorously spreading

atheism's good news. The trio are usually mentioned together. However, a close reading of their

works yields some surprises.

Richard Dawkins, in his 2006 book, The God Delusion, makes clear that for him it is the

belief that "there exists a superhuman, supernatural intelligence who deliberately designed and

created the universe and everything in it, including us"38 that he believes is delusional. He further

states that his title, The God Delusion, "does not refer to the God of Einstein and other enlightened

scientists... I am talking only about supernatural gods. ."39 "I am calling only supernatural gods

delusional."40 Given that Dawkins expressly states that he is not challenging Einstein's God, a

deeper investigation into Einstein's notion of God is necessary.

Kocku von Stuckrad notes that Einstein always regarded himself as a "religious" scientist,

even while rejecting the idea of a personal god who might interfere with human affairs or with

nature. According to Stuckrad, Einstein "definitely had a kind of pantheistic religious attitude." In

his 1934 book, The WorldAs ISee It, Einstein expressed pantheistic ideas, talking about the mystery

of the eternity of life, and his endeavor "to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the reason

that manifests itself in nature." Stuckrad characterizes Einstein's self-described "rapturous

amazement" at the harmony of natural law as a sort of mysticism.41



37 Jerry Adler, "The New Naysayers: In the Midst of Religious Revival, Three Scholars Argue
That Atheism Is Smarter," Newsweek, Sept. 11, 2006.

38 Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 31.

39 Ibid., 20.

40 Ibid., 15.

41 Kocku von Stuckrad, "Eistein, Albert," in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, ed. Bron
Taylor (London & New York: Continuum International, 2005).









Einstein's recent biographer, Walter Isaacson, confirms Stuckrad's conclusions. Einstein

expressly rejected the label "atheist" on a number of occasions. Indeed, on one occasion, Einstein

declared "I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due

to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth." Instead,

he elsewhere said "I am fascinated by Spinoza's pantheism, but I admire even more his contribution

to modem thought because he is the first philosopher to deal with the soul and body as one, and not

two separate things." When asked if he believed in immortality, Einstein said "No. And one life

is enough for me." In response to a Rabbi's 1929 telegram, asking specifically, "Do you believe in

God?," Einstein replied, "I believe in Spinoza's God, who reveals himself in the lawful harmony of

all that exists, but not in a God who concerns himself with the fate and the doings of mankind."42

Dawkins, however, objects to labeling as religion "the pantheistic reverence which many of

us share with its most distinguished exponent, Albert Einstein."43 Does Dawkins include himself

among those who share Einstein's "pantheistic reverence" for the cosmos? He does not expressly

say so, and he does not expressly preclude that conclusion. While making it clear that it is only

"supernatural gods" that he is challenging, Dawkins does express a desire that physicists refrain, to

avoid confusion of terms, from using the term God because the "metaphorical or pantheistic God

of the physicists is light years away from the interventionist, miracle-wreaking, thought-reading,

sin-punishing, prayer-answering God of the Bible."44 It seems fair though to conclude that Dawkins'

is at least tolerant of naturalistic pantheism and may himself share in pantheistic reverence as



42 Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), 386-
90.

43 Dawkins, The God Delusion, 14.

44 Ibid., 19.









defined in this study. The following is suggestive of Dawkins a ecstatic wonderment:

.. The evolution of complex life, indeed its very existence in a universe
obeying physical laws, is wonderfully surprising... Think about it. On one planet,
and possibly only one planet in the entire universe, molecules that would normally
make nothing more complicated than a chunk of rock, gather themselves together
into chunks of rock-sized matter of such staggering complexity that they are capable
of running, jumping, swimming, flying, seeing, hearing, capturing and eating other
such animated chunks of complexity; capable in some cases of thinking and feeling,
and falling in love with yet other chunks of complex matter. We now understand
essentially how the trick is done, but only since 1859. Before 1859 it would have
seemed very very odd indeed. Now, thanks to Darwin, it is merely very odd.
Darwin seized the window ... [and let] in a flood of understanding whose dazzling
novelty, and power to uplift the human spirit, perhaps had no precedent...
... I [have] tried to convey how lucky we are to be alive, given that the vast
majority of people who could potentially be thrown up by the combinatorial lottery
of DNA will in fact never be born... We are staggeringly lucky to find ourselves
in the spotlight. However brief our time in the sun, if we waste a second of it, or
complain that it is dull or barren or (like a child) boring, couldn't this be seen as a
callous insult to those unborn trillions who will never even be offered life in the first
place? As many atheists have said better than me, the knowledge that we have only
one life should make it all the more precious. The atheist view is correspondingly
life-affirming and life-enhancing, while at the same time never being tainted with
self-delusion, wishful thinking, or the whingeing self-pity of those who feel that life
owes them something. Emily Dickinson said,
That it will never come again
Is what makes life so sweet.45

Another alleged atheist, Daniel Dennett, declares that "The world is sacred." Because

Dennett is one of contemporary culture's most well-known advocates of atheism, the full quote

where he makes this surprising claim is warranted:

Benedict Spinoza, in the seventeenth century, identified God and Nature, arguing that
scientific research was the true path of theology. [I]n proposing his scientific
simplification, was he personifying Nature or depersonalizing God?. Should
Spinoza be counted as an atheist or a pantheist? He saw the glory of nature and then
saw a way of eliminating the middleman! As I said at the end of my earlier book:
The Tree of Life is neither perfect nor infinite in space or time, but it is
actual, and ... it is surely a being that is greater than anything any of us will
ever conceive of in detail worthy of its detail. Is something sacred? Yes, say
I with Nietzsche. I could not pray to it, but I can stand in affirmation of its


45 Dawkins, The GodDelusion, 366-67.









magnificence. The world is sacred.
Does that make me an atheist? Certainly, in the obvious sense. If what you hold
sacred is not any kind of Person you could pray to, or consider to be an appropriate
recipient of gratitude (or anger, when a loved one is senselessly killed), You're an
atheist in my book.46

Thus Dennett, who (like Dawkins) foreswears any elements of supernaturalism, describes himself

with all the attributes characteristic of naturalistic pantheism. He uses language of the sacred to

describe his affirmation of the universe's "magnificence." However, along with Schopenhauer years

ago, he chooses to describe this viewpoint as atheism instead of pantheism. He claims Spinoza for

atheism rather than join in the usual understanding of Spinoza's metaphysics as pantheism.

Sam Harris, best known for his books, The End ofFaith47 and Letter to a ChirIon i Nation,48

self-describes as an atheist. Yet, in his Newsweek-sponsored debate with evangelical Christian

pastor, Rick Warren, Harris said the following:

You can have your spirituality. You can go into a cave and practice meditation and
transform yourself, and then we can talk about why that happened and how it could
be replicated. .. Let's realize that there's a power in contemplating the mystery of
the universe, and in reminding yourself how much you love the people closest to
you, and how much more you could love the people you haven't met yet. There is
nothing you have to believe on insufficient evidence in order to talk about that
possibility... You can feel yourself to be one with the universe.49

In End of Faith, Harris describes himself as agnostic on the question of an after-life (thereby leaving

open the possibility), and extols "spirituality" and "mysticism."50 Like Dawkins and Dennett, when


46 Daniel Clement Dennett, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (New York:
Viking, 2006), 244-45.

47 Sam Harris, The End ofFaith: Religion, Terror, and the Future ofReason, 1st ed. (New York:
W.W. Norton & Co., 2004).

48 Letter to a Christian Nation, 1st ed. (New York: Knopf, 2006).

49 Jon Meacham, "The God Debate," Newsweek 149 (2007).

50 Harris, The End ofFaith: Religion, Terror, and the Future ofReason, 205, 08.









Harris declares himself to be an atheist, he is merely declaring his disbelief in supernaturalistic gods

as commonly understood. Yet, he celebrates "the mystery of the universe" and a feeling of oneness

with it in a way that closely parallels or is, at least arguably, identical with many of the expressions

of naturalistic pantheism explored in this study.









CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSION

Pantheism's embrace of this universe and this planet is increasingly offering a form of

religious meaning to satisfy the metaphysical void that Weber spoke of, and which allows people

who are disinclined to speculate about dimensions beyond time, beyond death, and beyond this

universe a metaphysical stance around which to orient their lives. However, the term itself, remains

relatively little known in American culture, and subject to various definitions. Thus, because people

with a pantheistic stance often do not use the term for self-description, either because they do not

even know of it (Sharman Russell states she did not learn of the term until she was forty-two'),

because they wish to avoid its heretical associations within the Abrahamic traditions, or because

they wish to avoid any association with any metaphysical stance that has any association with any

conception of God, pantheistic or otherwise. However, this study has demonstrated that the

geography of the sacred laid out by a pantheistic metaphysics is present in American culture, in

some cases explicitly (as with Einstein and Abbey), and in many other cases implicitly.

This study has given examples of signs of the presence of pantheistic thought, both

spiritualized and naturalistic, in American culture and laid out a framework for detecting pantheistic

beliefs in American culture. Thomas Berry has said "Without a fascination with the grandeur of the

North American continent, the energy needed for its preservation will never be developed."2 And

the great humanitarian physician to Africa, Albert Schweitzer, in articulating his principle of

"Reverence for Life," argued that humans are "ethical only when life, as such, is sacred .., that of




1 Sharman A. Russell, Standing in the Light: My Life as a Pantheist (New York: Basic
Books, 2008), 5.

2 Thomas Mary Berry, The Dream of the Earth (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988), 33.









plants and animals [as well] as that of"'3 their fellow humans. If Schweitzer was right, the fact that

our natural world is increasingly being regarded as the locus of the sacred may be good news for a

planet facing an accelerating environmental crisis.4 However, the full extent of the penetration of

pantheistic thought into American culture and whether such ideas actually modify environmental

behaviors remains for further research.



































3 Albert Schweitzer, Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiogrphy, trans. Charles Thomas
Campion (New York: H. Holt & Co., 1933), 156-59.

4 Jeffrey Kluger, "Be Worried, Be Very Worried: Global Warming Heats Up," Time, 167, no.
14 (2006).









REFERENCES

Abbey, Edward. Desert Solitaire. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988 [1968].

- Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness. Paperback ed. New York: Ballantine Books,
1968.

Down the River. 1st ed. New York: Dutton, 1982.

The Journey Home: Some Words in Defense of the American West. 1st ed. New York:
Dutton, 1977.

- The Monkey Wrench Gang. New York: Avon Books, 1975.

Abbey, Edward, and David Petersen. Postcards from Ed: Dispatches and Salvos from an American
Iconoclast. 1st ed. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions, 2006.

Adler, Jerry. "The New Naysayers: In the Midst of Religious Revival, Three Scholars Argue That
Atheism Is Smarter." Newsweek, Sept. 11, 2006.

Anderson, Charles Roberts. The Magic Circle of Walden. New York,: Holt, 1968.

Asad, Talal. "Anthropological Conceptions of Religion: Reflections on Geertz." Man 18, no. 2
(1983): 237-59.

Barrett, J. Edward. "A Pilgrim's Progress: From the Westminster Shorter Catechism to Naturalistic
Pantheism." American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 154-72.

Berry, Thomas. "Thomas Berry on Religion and Nature." In Encyclopedia ofReligion and Nature,
edited by Bron Taylor, 166-68. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Berry, Thomas Mary. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988.

- The Great Work: Our Way into the Future. 1st pbk. ed. New York: Bell Tower, 1999.

Berry, Thomas Mary, Thomas E. Clarke, Stephen Dunn, and Anne Lonergan. Befriending the Earth:
A Theology ofReconciliation between Humans and the Earth. Mystic, Conn.: Twenty-Third
Publications, 1991.

Best, Steven. "Watson, Paul and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society." In Encylopaedia of
Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor: Continuum International, 2005.

Borg, Marcus J. Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time: The Historical Jesus & the Heart of
Contemporary Faith. 1st ed. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994.









Bornkamm, Giinther. Paul, Paulus. 1st U.S. ed. New York,: Harper & Row, 1971.

Bronson, Fred. The Billboard Book ofNumber 1 Hits. Updated and Expanded 5th ed. New York:
Billboard Books, 2003.

Bruce, F. F. "Acts of the Apostles." In The Oxford Companion to the Bible, edited by Bruce M.
Metzger and Michael D. Coogan, xxi, 874. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Bryson, Bill. A Short History of Nearly Everything. 1st ed. New York: Broadway Books, 2003.

Cahalan, James M. Edward Abbey: A Life. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2001.

Clayton, Philip, and A. R. Peacocke. In Whom We Live and Move and Have Our Being:
Panentheistic Reflections on God's Presence in a Scientific World. Grand Rapids, Mich.:
William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2004.

Cohen, Jeremy. Be Fertile and Increase, Fill the Earth and Master It: The Ancient and Medieval
Career of a Biblical Text. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Coogan, Michael D. The Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew
Scriptures. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Coogan, Michael D., Marc Z. Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, and Pheme Perkins, eds. The New Oxford
Annotated Bible, New Revised Standard Version with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical
Books. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Cooper. "Pantheism." In The Enyclopedia Americana, Vol. 21. Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated,
1998.

Cooper, John W. Panentheism, the Other God of the Philosophers: From Plato to the Present.
Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006.

Copleston, Frederick Charles. A History ofPhilosophy: Greece and Rome -from the Pre-Socratics
to Plotinus. New rev. ed. 9 vols. Vol. 1. New York: Doubleday, 1962.

Corrington, Robert S. "Deep Pantheism," Journalfor the Study ofReligion, Nature and Culture 1,
no. 4 (2007): 503-07.

"My Passage from Panentheism to Pantheism," American Journal of Theology and
Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 129-53.

- Nature and Spirit: An Essay in Ecstatic Naturalism. New York: Fordham University Press,
1992.









Crosby, Donald A. "A Case for Religion of Nature." Journalfor the Study ofReligion, Nature, and
Culture 1, no. 4 (2007): 489-502.

- A Religion ofNature. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Crossan, John Dominic, and Jonathan L. Reed. In Search ofPaul: How Jesus's Apostle Opposed
Rome's Empire with God's Kingdom. 1st ed. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2004.

Dawkins, Richard. The God Delusion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.

The Selfish Gene. 30th Anniversary ed. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Dennett, Daniel Clement. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York:
Viking, 2006.

Denver, John, and Arthur Tobier. Take Me Home: An Autobiography. 1st ed. New York: Harmony
Books, 1994.

Dibelius, Martin, and K. C. Hanson. The Book ofActs: Form, Style, and Theology, Fortress Classics
in Biblical Studies. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2004.

Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings.
2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Eliade, Mircea. Patterns in Comparative Religion. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

- The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature ofReligion. Translated by Willard R. Trask. 1st
American ed. New York,: Harcourt Brace, 1959.

Ferr6, Nels F.S. "God without Theism." Theology Today 22, no. 3 (1965): 372-79.

Fox, Matthew. The Coming of the Cosmic C(iri The Healing of Mother Earth and the Birth ofa
Global Renaissance. 1st ed. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1988.

-- A New Reformation: Creation Spirituality and the Transformation of Chroijnmary.
Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions, 2006.

- Original Blessing. Sante Fe: Bear and Co. Publishing, 1983.

Friedman, Richard Elliott. The Hidden Face of God. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.

Funk, Robert Walter, and Roy W. Hoover. The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic Words
ofJesus: New Translation and Commentary. New York: Macmillan, 1993.









Gardner, Gerald T., and Paul C. Stem. Environmental Problems and Human Behavior. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, 1996.

Geertz, Clifford. "Religion as a Cultural System." In The Interpretation of Cultures, ix, 470. New
York,: Basic Books, 1973.

Glacken, Clarence J. Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in Western Thought from
Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1967.

Goodenough, Ursula. The Sacred Depths ofNature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Gore, Albert. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1992.

Harding, Walter, and Carl Bode, eds. The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau. New York:
New York University Press, 1958.

Harris, Sam. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. 1st ed. New York:
W.W. Norton & Co., 2004.

- Letter to a C(irl oijn Nation, 1st ed. (New York: Knopf, 2006).

Harrison, Paul. "World Pantheism Movement." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by
Bron Taylor, 1769-70. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Hartshome, Charles. "Pantheism and Panentheism." In Encyclopedia ofReligion, edited by Mircea
Eliade. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1987.

Hartshome, Charles, and William L. Reese. Philosophers Speak of God. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1953.

Isaacson, Walter. Einstein: His Life and Universe. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.

Kaufmann, Walter. Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre. Rev. and expanded. ed. New York:
New American Library, 1975.

Kresge, Andrea A. "Fox, Matthew." In Encyclopedia ofReligion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor,
669-70. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Kluger, Jeffrey. "Be Worried, Be Very Worried: Global Warming Heats Up." Time 167, no. 14
(2006): 28-33.

Lemley, Brad. "Guth's Grand Guess (Cover Story)." Discover, April 2002 2002, 32.









Lemonick, Michael D. "How the Universe Will End (Cover Story)." Time, Jun. 25, 2001 2001, 48.

Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There. New York: Oxford Univ.
Press, 1949.

Levine, Michael P. Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept ofDeity. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Loeffler, Jack. "Edward Abbey." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor,
1-4. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Chri ijnamr. 1st Harper & Row pbk.
ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Mack, Burton L. The Clirijn l Myth: Origins, Logic, and Legacy. New York: Continuum, 2001.

McCutcheon, Russell T. Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and the
Politics of Nostalgia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Meacham, Jon. "The God Debate." Newsweek 149 (2007): 58-63.

Meyer, Marvin, ed. The Nag Hammadi Scriptures: The International Edition. San Francisco:
HarperSanFrancisco, 2007.

Nietzsche, F.W. "The Gay Science," in Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre, ed. Walter
Kaufmann. New York: New American Library, 1975.

Nisbet, Euan. "Heavenly Phenomena: How an Astronomer's Words Were Transformed into a
Citation Classic," Nature, 5 April 2001: 635.

Ophuls, William. Ecology and the Politics ofScarcity: Prologue to a Political Theory of the Steady
State. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977.

Ophuls, William, and A. Stephen Boyan. Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity Revisited: The
Unraveling of the American Dream. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1992.

Orth, Maureen, Peter S. Greenberg, and Janet Huck. "John Denver: The Sunshine Boy." Newsweek,
Dec. 20, 1976, 60f.

Oster, Richard E., Jr. "Athens." In The Oxford Companion to the Bible, edited by Bruce M. Metzger
and Michael D. Coogan, xxi, 874. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the
Divine and Its Relation to the Rational, trans. John W. Harvey, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1950.









Pagels, Elaine H. Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas. 1st ed. New York: Random House,
2003.

- The Gnostic Gospels. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1979.

Pike, Sarah M. New Age and Neopagan Religions in America, Columbia Contemporary American
Religion Series. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Pilato, Herbie J. The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical Eastern
Western. 1st ed. Boston: Tuttle Co., 1993.

- The Kung Fu Book of Wisdom: Sage Advice from the Original Tv Series. 1st ed. Boston:
C.E. Tuttle, 1995.

Pinker, Steven. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial ofHuman Nature. New York: Viking, 2002.

Rappaport, Roy A. Ritual and Religion in the Making ofHumanity, Cambridge Studies in Social and
Cultural Anthropology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Rappaport, Roy A., Brian A. Hoey, and Tom Fricke, "'from Sweet Potatoes to God Almighty': Roy
Rappaport on Being a Hedgehog," American Ethnologist 34, no. 3 (2007): 581-99.

Reese, William L. "Pantheism and Panentheism." In The New Encyclopcedia Britannica. Chicago:
Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1994.

Robbins, Tom. Still Life with Woodpecker. New York: Bantam Books, 1980.

Russell, Sharman A. Standing in the Light: My Life as a Pantheist. New York: Basic Books, 2008.

Salomonsen, Jone. "Starhawk." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor,
1595-96. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Sartr6, Jean Paul. "Existentialism Is a Humanism," in Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre,
ed. Walter Kaufmann. New York: New American Library, 1975.

Schopenhauer, Arthur. Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, trans. E. F. J.
Payne, 2 vols., vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Schweitzer, Albert Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiogrphy, trans. Charles Thomas
Campion. New York: H. Holt & Co., 1933.

Smart, Ninian. "Retrospect and Prospect: The History of Religions." In The Notion Of "Religion"
In Comparative Research: Selected Proceedings ofthe XVIIAHR Congress, edited by Ugo
Bianchi, 901-03. Rome: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1994.









Smith, Christine. A Mountain in the Wind: An Exploration of the Spirituality of John Denver.
Findhom, Scotland; Tallahassee, FL: Findhom Press, 2001.

Stem, Philip Van Doren, and Henry David Thoreau. The Annotated Walden: Walden; or, Life in
the Woods. 1st ed. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1970.

Stuckrad, Kocku von. "Eistein, Albert." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron
Taylor, 582. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Sweeney, Julia. Letting Go of God (Audio CD): Indefatigable Inc., 2006.

Taylor, Bron. Dark Green Religion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, Expected 2009.

- "Dark Green Religion: Gaian Earth Spirituality, Neo-Animism, and the Transformation
of Global Environmental Politics." InAnnualMeeting ofthe American Academy ofReligion.
San Diego, 2007.

- "Deep Ecology." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor, 456-60.
London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

"A Green Future for Religion?" Futures 36 (2004): 991-1008.

"Resacralizing Earth: Pagan Environmentalism and the Restoration of Turtle Island." In
American Sacred Space, edited by David Chidester and Edward T. Linenthal, 97-151,
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

- "The Tributaries of Radical Environmentalism." Journalfor the Study ofRadicalism 2, no.
1(2008): 27-61.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. The Phenomenon of Man. New York: Harper & Row, 1959.

Thoreau, Henry David. "The Journal of Henry David Thoreau, Volume 4." edited by Bradford
Torrey and Francis H. Allen, xiii, 503. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1984.

- "The Journal of Henry David Thoreau, Volume 5." edited by Bradford Torrey and Francis
H. Allen. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1984.

- "A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers." In Henry David Thoreau: A Week on
the Concord and Merrimack Rivers; Walden, or Life in the Woods; the Maine Woods; Cape
Cod, edited by Robert F. Sayre, 1114. New York: The Library of America, 1985.

Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology. 3 vols. Vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. "Berry, Thomas." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron
Taylor, 164-66. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.









Watson, Paul. "On the Precedence of Natural Law." Environmental Law & Litigation 3 (1988): 79-
90.

Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by Talcott Parsons,
Routledge Classics. London & New York: Routledge, 2001.

- "Science as Vocation." In From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, xi, 490. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1958.

"The Social Psychology of the World Religions." In From Max Weber: Essays in
Sociology, xi, 490. New York: Oxford University Press, 1958.

White, Lynn. "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis." Science 155, no. 3767 (1967): 1203-07.

Whitney, Elspeth. "White, Lynn -- Thesis Of." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by
Bron Taylor. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Wilson, A. N. Paul: The Mind of the Apostle. 1 st American ed. New York: W.W. Norton &, 1997.

Wilson, Edward O. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. 25th anniversary ed. Cambridge, Mass.:
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.

Wood, Harold, Jr. "Universal Pantheist Society." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited
by Bron Taylor, 1683-84. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

Woodward, Kenneth L. "On the Road Again: Americans Love the Search So Much That the Idea
of a Destination Is Lost." Newsweek, Nov. 28, 1994.

York, Michael. "Pantheism." In Encyclopedia ofReligion andNature, edited by Bron Taylor, 1257-
61. London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.

- "Polytheism." In Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature, edited by Bron Taylor, 1290-92.
London & New York: Continuum International, 2005.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Bernard Daley Zaleha graduated first in his class with highest honors from California State

University, San Bemardino, with a Bachelor of Arts dual major in environmental studies and

geography in 1983. He received his Juris Doctor, magna cum laude, from Lewis and Clark College

Northwestern School of Law, with a certificate in Environmental and Natural Resource Law in

1987. He spent most of the last two decades practicing environmental law and has defended

environmental civil disobedience protesters, both civilly and criminally. He is published legal

scholar in the areas of federal public land management and the federal law of wetlands protection.

Mr. Zaleha has been an environmental activist for the last quarter century. He is presently serving

his second term on the national board of directors of the Sierra Club and from March 2004 to May

2006 served as its 62nd national Vice President. He is the founding president of the Fund for

Christian Ecology, and has received recognition as a lay eco-theologian, primarily for authoring two

essays, Recovering Christian Pantheism as a Lost Gospel of Creation and Befriending the Earth.

His professional interests include the ongoing emergence of Christian Pantheism as a new

this-worldly, ecological interpretation of the Christian tradition; the efficacy (or lack thereof) of

religious values in inspiring environmental activism; and the potential role of intelligent

design/creationism as a factor retarding or suppressing environmental concern.





PAGE 1

1 “THE O NL Y PARADI SE W E EVER NEED” : AN I NVESTI GATI ON I NTO PANTHEI SM’S S ACRED GEOGRAPHY I N THE WRI TI NGS OF EDWARD ABB EY, THOMA S BERRY, AND MATT HEW FOX, A ND A A PREL I MI NARY SURVEY OF SI GNS OF EM ERG I NG PAN TH EI SM I N A ME RI CA N C UL TU RE By BERNA RD DAL EY Z AL EHA A THESI S PR ESENTED TO TH E GRADUAT E SCHOOL OF T HE UNI VERSI TY OF FL ORI DA I N PARTI AL FUL FI L L MENT OF T HE REQUI REMENTS FOR THE DE GREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNI VERSI TY OF FL ORI DA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Be rnar d Daley Z aleha

PAGE 3

3 To Ver onica Da ley Z aleha my loving wif e, to J ohn Van Cleve my devoted f riend a nd supporter, to Greg ory Gilbert, my long time f riend a nd conver sation partner to H e nr y Da vid Th or e a u, wh os e tim e le ss w isd om h e lpe d me un de rs ta nd thi s Co smo s, and to Edwa rd Abbe y who interpre ted Thore au’s wisdom for our conte mporary era

PAGE 4

4 AC KN OWL ED GM EN TS I wi sh to e xpre ss m y de e p th a nk s to Drs B ro n T a y lor a nd She ldo n I se nb e rg fo r t he ir invaluable g uidance I wish to thank my colleag ue and f ellow sojourner in the g radua te school e xpe ri e nc e Ro bin Gl ob us f or a ll h e r e nc ou ra g e me nt a nd fr ie nd sh ip t hr ou g ho ut.

PAGE 5

5 TAB L E OF CONTENTS p age ACKNOWL EDGMENT .............................................................................................................. 4 AB STRACT ................................................................................................................................. 6 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTI ON ............................................................................................................. 8 2 WEBER, EL I ADE AN D GEERTZ AS AI DS I N I NTERPRETI NG PANTHEI SM, P ANENTH EI SM AND CL ASSI CAL THEI SM ................................... 1 3 3 PANTHEI SM, P ANENTH EI SM AND CL ASSI CAL THEI SM DEFI NED ................. 23 4 THE B I BL I CAL CONTEXT ......................................................................................... 4 4 5 THE NAT URAL I STI C PANTHEI SM OF EDWARD AB BEY ................................... 5 1 6 THE ECOL OGI CAL THOUG HT OF THOMAS B ERRY ........................................... 58 7 THE CREATI ON SPI RI TUAL I TY OF MATTHEW FOX .......................................... 71 8 SI GNS OF E MERGI NG PANTHEI SM W I THI N AMERI CAN CUL TURE ............... 78 Quantitative Signs of Pantheism on the I nterne t ............................................................ 7 8 Pantheism Org anizations ............................................................................................... 8 0 Pantheism and the De ep Ec ology Movement ................................................................ 8 1 Pantheism in the Movies ................................................................................................ 8 2 Pantheism in Television ................................................................................................. 9 0 Pantheism in P opular Music .......................................................................................... 9 2 Pantheism in Dawkins, Denne tt and Har ris ................................................................... 9 7 9 CONCL USI ON ............................................................................................................ 103 L I ST OF REF ERENCES ......................................................................................................... 105 BI OGRAPHI CAL SKETCH ................................................................................................... 113

PAGE 6

6 Abstrac t of Thesis Presente d to the Gra duate School of the Unive rsity of F lorida in Partial Fulf illment of the Re qu ir e me nts fo r t he De g re e of Ma ste r o f A rt s “THE O NL Y PARADI SE W E EVER NEED” : AN I NVESTI GATI ON I NTO PANTHEI SM’S S ACRED GEOGRAPHY I N THE WRI TI NGS OF EDWARD ABB EY, THOMA S BERRY, AND MATT HEW FOX, A ND A A PREL I MI NARY SURVEY OF SI GNS OF EM ERG I NG PAN TH EI SM I N A ME RI CA N C UL TU RE By Be rnar d Daley Z aleha May 2008 Chair: Br on Tay lor Major: Relig ion I e xplor e the de fi nit ion a nd me a nin g of pa nth e ism a nd its re la te d a nd c on tr a sti ng c on c e pts of t h ei sm, panentheism, atheism. Pantheism is identified as a c oncept of sacr ed g eog raphy that locates the sacr ed as pe netra ting the e ntire universe but w hich does not indulge in spe culation about a sac red dimension outside th e s p ac e an d time of this cosmos. Pantheism i s divided into two c a te g or ie s: na tur ali sti c pa nth e ism and sp iri tua liz e d p an the ism Panentheis m ac k n owledg es the sa c re d a s p e ne tr a tin g a ll o f thi s un ive rs e bu t sti ll a sse rt s a div ini ty tha t tr a ns c e nd s th is c os mos B oth of t hese conce pts are contra sted with dualistic theism and nihi listi c athe ism. S pecif ic explorations of the prese nce of pantheism in the work of Edwar d Abbey Thomas Be rry Albert Einst ei n and Ma tth e w F ox, a re un de rt a ke n. Ab be y is fo un d to be a exe mpl a r of na tur a lis tic pa nth e ism F ox, in p a r t i c u l a r i s f o u n d t o b e p a n t h e i s t i c n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t h e i s a p a n e n t h e i s t F i n a l l y, a tentative, pr eliminary survey of the e x tent t o wh i ch panthe ism is being take n up in America n popular c ulture is prese nted. Nothwithstanding their profe ssed antheism, Richar d Dawkins, Da niel Denne tt, and Sam Harr is are f ound to be examples of naturalistic pantheism. Whil e a full evaluation

PAGE 7

7 of the e x tent to which pantheism is penetr ating Americ an culture must await furthe r re sear ch, sug g estive ex amples of pantheism in cy berspa ce, movies, television, popular musi c and even a mong purported a theists are pr esente d.

PAGE 8

Walter Har ding a nd Carl B ode, eds., The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau (Ne w 1 York: Ne w York U niversity Press, 1958), 294. Har ding a nd Bode eds., The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau 293. 2 Phili p Van Dor en Stern a nd Henr y David Thore au, The An no tat e d W ald e n: W ald e n; or 3 Life in the W oods 1st ed. (Ne w York: Clarkson N. Potter, I nc., 1970), 56, 88. Har ding a nd Bode eds., The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau 293. 4 Paul Tilli ch, Systematic Theology 3 vo ls. v ol. 1 ( Chi c a g o: U niv e rs ity of Chi c a g o Pr e ss, 5 1951), 233. Har ding a nd Bode eds., The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau 294. 6 8 CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTI ON: “I WAS BORN TO B E A PANTHEI ST” “I was born to be a pantheist.” He nry David Thore au made this declara tion in a Febr uary 9, 1853, letter to the fa med editor of the New Y ork Tribune Hora ce Gree ley For some time, Gree ley 1 had bee n promoting Thor eau to va rious publishers. Thorea u was responding to a J anuar y 2, 1853, le tter fr om G re e le y wh e re in G re e le y e xpla ine d th a t T ho re a u’ s “ ve ry fl a g ra nt h e re sie s” a nd his “ d e f i a n t P a n t h e i s m ” w e r e f r u s t r a t i n g h i s e f f o r t s t o p r o m o t e T h o r e a u ’ s w o r k In J a n u a r y, F e b r u a r y, 2 an d Marc h of 1852, Putnam’s Monthly M agazine had published the fir st three installments of A Y ankee in Canada (essa y s rec ounting Thor eau’ s 10-day trip to Canada in the fall of 1850) Then 3 Thorea u lear ned that Ge org e Willi am Curtis, the editor of Putnam’s ha d in sis te d o n o mit tin g c e rt a in “her etical” passag es fr om the final installments. Rather than submit to this censors h i p Thorea u withdrew the manuscr i pts, giving rise to Gre eley ’s exaspera tion. As the fa med Protestant 4 the olo g ia n Pa ul T ill ic h h a s n ote d, the te rm pa nth e ist is “a ‘he resy ’ labe l of t he wor st kind.” As 5 Gre ele y ’ s to n e d e mo n s tr a te s th is w a s a c c u r a te in 1 8 5 3 a s w e ll H e r e s y la b e l o r n o t, u p o n h a v ing the pantheist labe l applied to him by Gre eley Thorea u decla red “ if that be the na me of me, a nd I do the dee ds of one,” then “I was born to be a panthe ist.” 6

PAGE 9

Henr y Da v i d T h orea u, “A Week on the Concord and Me rrimac k Rivers,” in He nr y Da v id 7 Thoreau: A W eek on the Concord and Merrimac k Rivers; W alden, or Life in the W oods; the Maine W oods; Cape Cod ed. Robert F Say re ( New Y ork: The L ibrary of Amer ica, 1985) 55. I n his journal entry for March 5, 1853, in expl aining his completion of a “pr inted circ ular” from 8 the As s o ci at ion for the Adva nceme nt of Science he states, “ The fa ct is I am a my stic, a transce ndentalist, and a na tural philosopher to boot. Now I t h i n k o f it, I should have told them at once tha t I was a transce ndentalist. That would have been the shortest way of t elling them that they wo uld no t un de rs ta nd my e xpla na tio ns .” —— —, Th e Jour na l of He nry Dav id T ho re a u, Vo lum e 5," e d. Br adfor d Torre y and F ranc is H. Allen (Salt L ake City : Pereg rine Smith Books, 1984), 4. Whil e still using “tra nscende ntalist” to d es cr i b e himself, Walter Ha rding one of the g iants of Thorea u scholarship, a nd Carl B ode note that in Thorea u’s l ife hist ory 1853 marke d the y ear when “Thore au’s e y e for nature has shar pened, but his ey e for Transc endenta lism has definitely clouded.” Har ding a nd Bode eds., The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau 292. 9 Given Thore au’s pe rsonal and intellec tual history it is not sur prising that Thorea u would not le t c ha rg e s o f h e re sy de te r h im f ro m a do pti ng a ny pa rt ic ula r s e lf -d e sc ri pti on A ft e r a ll, in h is f ir st book, A W e e k on the Con c or d a nd Me rri ma c k Ri v e rs Th or e a u ha d no te d tha t “ I kn ow tha t so me wi ll have ha rd thoug hts of me, when they hear their Christ named beside my Buddha y et I am sure tha t I a m w ill ing the y sh ou ld l ov e the ir Chr ist mor e tha n my B ud dh a .” Ev e n in his fi rs t a tte mpt to 7 publish a succe ssful book, Thorea u was not a fra id to risk offe nse of the domin an t C hristian se ns ibi lit ie s. Ne ve rt he le ss, Th or e a u’ s e mbr a c e of the te rm pa nth e ist sig na ls so me thi ng ne w. Whil e he continued to use other ter ms of self-de scription (for instance, “my stic, “tra nscende ntalist,” and “natur al philosopher”) Thorea u provides perha ps the first Americ an example of a per son claiming 8 the te rm p a n t h e ist as a se lf-desc ription. A review of the litera ture ha s reve aled no e arlier d o c u m e n t e d e x e m p l a r i n A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y. Wha t w a s th e c on te nt o f T ho re a u’ s p a nth e ism a t th e tim e he a c c e pte d th e la be l? On th e sa me day Gre eley was pe nning his pa ntheist indictment, Thorea u was penning this in hi s journal that g ives at least a partial de scription of his thinking at that time:

PAGE 10

J ournal e ntry for January 2, 1853; Henry David Thore au, “T he Journal of Henr y David Thore au, 9 Vo lum e 4, ” e d. B ra df or d T or re y a nd F ra nc is H A lle n ( Sa lt L a ke City : Pe re grin e S mi th B oo ks 1984), 443. J ournal e ntry for January 3, 1853; I bid., 445-46. 10 R o b er t S Corring ton, Nat ur e an d S pir it: An Es sa y in E c sta tic Nat ur ali sm (Ne w York: 11 For dham Univer sity Press, 1992). 1 0 The [churc h] bells are par ticularly swee t this morning I hear more, methinks, than ever befor e. How much more relig ion in their sound, than they ever call men tog ether to! Men ob ey th eir c a ll a nd g o to the sto ve -w a rm e d c hu rc h, tho ug h G od e xhibi ts himself to the walker in a frosted bush to-day as much as in a burning one to Moses of old. 9 And then this, a day later: I love Natur e par tly beca use she is not man [using ‘man’ here to label humanity and its culture], but are retre at from him. None of his instit utions control or perva de her There a diffe rent kind of r ight pr evails. I n her midst I can be g lad with an entire g ladne ss. I f t his wo rl d w e re a ll m a n, I c ou ld n ot s tr e tc h my se lf I sh ou ld l os e a ll hope. He is constraint, she is fre edom t o me. He makes me wis h for a nother wor ld. She makes me c ontent with this. None of the j oy s she supplies is subject to his rules a nd de fi nit ion s. Wha t he tou c he s h e ta int s. I n thoug ht h e mor a lize s. On e wo uld thi nk tha t no fr e e joy fu l lab or wa s p os sib le to h im. Ho w i nf ini te a nd pu re the le a st pleasure of which N ature is basis, co m pare d with the cong ratulation of mankind! The joy which Na ture y ields is like that affor ded by the fra nk words of one we love. Ma n, ma n is the de vil Th e so ur c e of a ll e vil Methinks that the s e p ro sers, with their sa ws and their la ws, do not know how g lad a ma n ca n be Wha t wisd om, wh a t wa rn ing c a n p re va il a g a ins t g la dn e ss? The re is no la w so stro ng wh ic h a lit tle g la dn e ss m a y no t tr a ns g re ss. I ha ve a ro om a ll t o my se lf ; it is na tur e I t is a pla c e be y on d th e jur isd ic tio n o f h uma n g ov e rn me nts Pi le up y our books, the re cords of sadness, y our saws a nd y our laws. Na ture is g lad ou tsi de a nd he r m e rr y wo rm s w ith in w il l ere lon g top ple the m do wn T he re is a prairie bey ond y our laws. Nature is a prairie for outlaws. There are two worlds, the po stof fice and natur e I kn ow the m bo th. I c on tin ua lly fo rg e t ma nk ind a nd the ir instit utions, as I do a bank. 10 I n th is Ja nu a ry 3, 18 53 pa ssa g e T ho re a u d isp la y s a n “ e c sta tic na tur a lis m” (a ter m mo re re c e ntl y coined by pantheist philosopher Robert Corring ton), a bit of misanthropy (per haps hy perbolic) or 11

PAGE 11

“Unwilling to wait for mankind to improve, t he outl aw lives as if that day wer e her e. .” T om 12 Robbins, Still L ife with W oodpeck er (Ne w York: B antam B ooks, 1980), 65. 1 1 at l east c ontempt for human c iviliz ation, a sense of Nat ur e as a ref ug e, a pla ce be y ond human law, a plac e for “outlaws” (a the me taken up by the contempor ary novelist, Tom Robbi ns), and per haps 12 mos t im po rt a nt f or thi s p ro je c t, a “ c on te ntm e nt” wi th “ thi s wor ld. ” I n emb ra c ing the te rm pa nth e ist Thorea u was blazing a path of new metaphy sical understanding that would be incr easing ly taken up in America n culture. That it is being ta ken up within popular c ulture wa s demonstrated by the re lease in 2007 of a Holly wood produc ed movie, Ev an Al mi gh ty This movie will be expl ored more fully in Chapter 8. I t is sufficient her e to note that viewer s lear n in the movie that “God is the c rea tor of the He avens and t h e E ar t h He lives in all thing s.” This is quite consistent with one of the de finitions of pa nth e ism provided by the Ox ford English Dictionary namely “a belief or philosophica l theory that God is immanent in or identical with the universe,” a definition that I will ex plore a t leng th here in. He re sy la be l or no t, H oll y wo od kn ow s a bo ut, a nd is i nte re ste d in de pic tin g p a nth e ism As the for eg oing e x amples fr om Thorea u and Holly wood illustrate, pantheism addr esses the question, Where does G od res i d e, or Where is the sacr ed loca ted? I t is therefor e, in this sense, a question of g eog raphy I t is for this re ason that I have c hara cter ized this study as an inve stiga tion into Sacred G eography in particular th e s acr ed g eog raphy of Pantheism. I will ex plore va rious de fi nit ion s o f p a nth e ism a nd its re la te d a nd c on tr a sti ng c on c e pts of a the ism th e ism p a ne nth e ism and paga nism and will arr ive at definitions of each of these terms for the purposes of this study As to pantheism, I will dist ing uish betwee n sp iri tua liz e d p an the ism and na tur ali sti c pa nth e ism I n three in d iv id u a l c h a p te r s th e p r e s e n c e o f p a n th e is m in th e w o r k o f E d w a r d A b b e y T h o ma s Be rry and Matthew F ox is ex plored. F inally I make a tentative, pre liminar y s u rv ey o f indications that

PAGE 12

1 2 pa nth e ism is be ing ta ke n up in Ame ri c a n pop ula r cu ltu re Whil e a fu ll e va lua tio n o f t he e xten t to which panthe ism is penetrating Americ an culture is bey ond the scope of this project, it is a question that is ripe for f urther r esea rch.

PAGE 13

Max W eber "T he S ocial P sy cholog y of t he W orld Religions," in Fr om Ma x W e be r: Es sa y s in 1 Sociology (Ne w York: Oxford University Press, 1958), 280, repr oducing ‘Die W irtschaf tsethik der Weltreligione n’ (The Economic Ethic of the World Religions), Ge s a mm el te Aufsaetze zur Re igi on sso zio log ie (Tbing en, 1922-23) vol. 1, pp. 237-68. 1 3 CHAPTER 2 WEBER, EL I ADE AN D GEERTZ AS AI DS I N I NTERPRETI NG PAN TH EI SM, PAN EN TH EI SM, CL ASS I CA L TH EI SM A ND AT HE I SM I n approa ching t h i s study of panthe ism in America, a nd its necessa ry subsidiary inv e sti g a tio ns in t o p a ne nth e ism a nd c la ssi c a l th e ism I wi ll u til ize the the or ie s a nd he ur ist ic perspe ctives of se vera l theorists of relig ion, namely Max W eber Mircea El i ad e, an d Clifford G e e r tz The Weber ian appr oach to the soc iologica l study of human culture and relig ious ideas ca n be su cc i n ctl y stated as, “ I deas ma tter.” Ela borate d a bit more, idea s matter and ma y in fac t effe ct the way individual humans go a bout living their lives. This will b e an illuminating insig ht in the pr e se nt p ro je c t. Even thoug h he believe d ideas matter Weber wa s not an idealist and did not re gard ide as t h e m s e l v e s a s t h e o n l y d e c i s i v e f a c t o r W e b e r p u t s i t t h i s w a y: Not ideas, but mater ial and idea l inter ests, direc tly g overn [humanity ]'s conduc t. Yet very fre quently the ‘wor ld image s’ that have b ee n cre ated by ‘idea s’ have like swi tc h me n d e te r mi n e d th e tr a c k s a lo n g w h ic h a c ti o n h a s b e e n p u s h e d b y the dy na mic of int e re st. 1 Weberian a naly sis may there fore provide usef ul insights in settings in which g iven beha viors seem div or c e d fro m or even i n o pp os iti on to e ith e r t he be st i nte re sts of the ind ivi du a ls o r t he e xplic it ethics or va lues of the individuals under study Weber himself de clar ed that in a r eal se nse, his g oal was to study the uni ntended consequenc es of ideas. For instance, in his fa med work, The Protestant Et hic an d th e Sp iri t of Cap ita lis m We be r s ta te d th a t he ho pe d to ma ke a mod est “con tr ibu tio n to

PAGE 14

Max W eber The Pr ote sta nt E thi c an d th e Sp iri t of Cap ita lis m t ra n s T al co t t P ar s o n s R o u t l ed ge 2 Classics (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Routl edg e, 2001), 48. I bid., 47-48. 3 I bid., 48. 4 I bid. 5 1 4 the under standing of the manne r in which idea s become eff ective f orce s in history .” His case study 2 on the re lationship between c apitalism and Protestantism y ields models for int erpr eting the interplay betwee n theism, pantheism, and pane ntheism, and I will there fore summarize some of Weber’ s key ins ig hts Weber’s star ting point for his investiga tion into “the relationship betwee n the old Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism” would be the works of Calvin, Calvinis m, and the other Puritan sects. Howeve r, Weber knew that none of these Calvinists would have in a ny way imag ined they 3 we re a c tiv e ly pr omo tin g a ny thi ng c a lle d “ the sp ir it of c a pit a lis m.” I nd e e d, the pu rs uit of wo rl dly 4 g oods as an e nd in itself w ould have be en conside red by these re ligionists as sinful. The salva tion of the soul alone w as the c enter of their life and work. Thus, Weber notes that para dox ically “the cultural c onsequenc es of the Re formation we re to a g rea t ext ent un-for esee n and eve n unwishedfo r r e su lts ” fo r t he se un int e nti on a l c a pit a lis t in no va tor s. 5 Weber al s o makes c lear he wa s not evaluating the social or r elig ious worth of the Reforma tion. I nstead, he was “mer ely attempting to c larify the part which relig ious f orce s play ed in forming the deve loping we b of our spe cifica lly worldly modern c ulture, in the comple x int e ra c tio n o f in nu me ra ble dif fe re nt h ist or ica l fac tor s .” F urther, “ at the same time we m ust free ou rse lv e s fr om the ide a th at i t is po ssi ble to d e du c e the Re for ma tio n, as a his tor ic all y ne c e ssa ry re su lt, fro m c e rta in e c on om ic c ha ng e s, ” sh ow ing Web e r w a s a lso no t a c ru de M a rxia n ma te ri a lis t.

PAGE 15

I bid., 49. (emphasis supplied). 6 I bid. 7 Weber, The Social Psy cholog y of the World Religions," 284. 8 ———, The Pr ote sta nt E thi c an d th e Sp iri t of Cap ita lis m 49. (empha sis suppli ed). 9 I bid., 49-50. 10 1 5 “ Co u n tl e s s h is to r ic a l c ir c u ms ta n c e s w h ic h c a n n o t b e r e d u c e d to a n y e c o n o mi c la w a n d are not susceptible of e conomic explanation of any sort, espec ially purely political proce sses, had to conc ur in order tha t the newly cre ated Churc hes should survive at a ll.” 6 Fur ther, Weber decla res he was not “ma intaining suc h a foolish and doctrinaire thesis as that the spirit of ca pitalism could only have a risen as the result of c erta in effe cts of the Ref ormation, or eve n that capitalism as an e conomic sy ste m i s a cre ation of the Ref ormation.” I nstead, Weber was e x ploring “whe ther a nd to what extent relig ious force s have ta ken p art in t he qualitative fo rm a tio n a nd the qu a nti ta tiv e e xpa ns ion of tha t sp ir it o ve r t he wo rl d, [an d] w ha t c on c re te a sp e c ts of our c apitalistic culture c an be trac ed to the m.” Then, making an implied ref ere nce to his conc ept 7 that he else w h e r e c a ll e d “ e le c ti v e a f f in it ie s ” h e n o te s th a t “ in v ie w o f th e tr e me n d o u s c o n f u s ion 8 of interde pendent influe nces be tween the materia l basis, the forms of soc ial and poli t i cal org anization, and the ideas c urre nt in the t i m e o f t he Refor mation, we ca n only proce ed by investiga ting whe ther a nd at what points ce rtain correlations between forms of religious belief and practical ethics can be worked out .” F ina lly Web e r de c la re s his int e nti on to “ a s fa r as po ssi ble 9 clar ify the manner and the g ener al direc tion in which, by virtue of those relationships, the relig ious movements have influence d the deve lopment of materia l culture.” 10 I n these ke y few pag es in Pr ote sta nt E thi c in the course of that particula r ca se study Weber a rt ic ula te s th e c omp le x r e la tio ns hip be tw e e n r e lig ion a nd so c ie ty a nd tha t tr y ing to u nd e rs ta nd in

PAGE 16

Max W eber "Scie nce a s Voca tion," in From Max W eb er : E s says in Sociology (Ne w York: 11 Oxford University Press, 1958), 155, repr oducing ‘Wissenschaft a ls Ber uf’, Ge sa mm e lte Au fsa e tze zu r W iss e ns c ha ft ( T b i n g e n 1 9 2 2 ) p p 5 2 4 5 5 O r i g i n a l l y a s p e e c h i n 1 9 1 8 a t M u n i c h U n i v e r s i t y. Web e r, Th e Soc ia l Psy c ho log y of the Wor ld R e lig ion s, 28 182 r e pr od uc ing ‘D ie 12 Wirt schaf tsethik der Weltrelig ionen’ (T he Ec onomic Ethic of the World Religions), Ge sa mm e lte Au fsa e tze zu r R e igi on sso zio log ie (Tbing en, 1922-23) vol. 1, pp. 237-68. 1 6 the spec i fi c ca s e whether relig ion or other c ultural fac tors within a g iven society are play ing the deter minative role will alwa y s provide cha lleng ing obstacles to f inding conclusive empirica l data. Thus, making confide nt assertions about causa l c onnections betwee n a g iven belief or set of be liefs he ld b y ind ivi du a ls o r s oc ie tie s a nd the be ha vio r o r t ho se ind ivi du a ls o r s oc ie tie s i s alw ay s a problematic a ssertion. An oth e r i llu min a tin g c on c e pt d e ve lop e d b y Web e r i s h is c on c e pt o f d ise nc ha ntm e nt. I n h is modern c ontext Weber de fined disenchantme nt as an intellectually rationalized knowledg e or be lief tha t, a t le a st i n p ri nc ipl e th e re a re no my ste ri ou s, un kn ow a ble fo rc e s a t pl a y in t he ph y sic a l w or ld around us that c annot be mea sured, known or in some way discovere d. One of the conse quence s 11 of this thoroug hg oing “ rationalizing” of humanity ’s “ co n ce p t i o n of the wor ld” into a “c osmos g overne d by impersonal rule s” has be en, accor ding to Weber, to shi ft relig ion “into the rea lm of the irrational.” Thus, the abor igina l perc eption of a r eality wher e “e very thing wa s concr ete mag ic” ha s been tr ansfor med instead into “ra tional cog nition and m as t ery of nature on the one ha nd, and ‘m y sti c ’ e xpe ri e nc e s, on the oth e r. ” I n h is Economic Ethic of the W orld Religions We be r s ug g e sts that the i nexpressible contents of these my stic experience s become the only possible “bey ond” for hu ma n e xpe ri e nc e in t his ne w, me c ha nis tic wo rl d “r ob be d of g od s. ” Th is d e my tho log ize d r e a lit y 12 thus results in a shift towards a this-wor ldly soteriolog ical locus, wide sprea d in, if not unique to, the Wes t. Web e r h a s a c e rt a in m e la nc ho ly in s e e ing hu ma nit y de pr ive d of the me a nin g pr e vio us ly

PAGE 17

“ ‘Wh ith e r i s G od ’ h e c ri e d. ‘I sh a ll t e ll y ou We h a ve kil le d h im– y ou a nd I A ll o f u s a re his 13 murdere rs.” Nietzsche, F.W., “The Gay Science ,” re produce d in Walter Kaufma nn, Existentialism: Fr om Do sto e v sk y to S ar tre Rev. and ex panded. e d. (Ne w York: Ne w Amer ican L ibrary 1975), 126. Edwar d Abbey De se rt S oli tai re (Tucson: Unive rsity of Arizona Press, 1988 [1968] ). 14 Donald A. Crosby A R e lig ion of N atu re (A lba ny N Y: Sta te Un ive rs ity of New Y ork P re ss, 15 2002). Ursula G o o denoug h, The Sa c re d D e pth s o f Na tur e (Ne w York: Oxford Univer sity Press, 1998). 16 Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparati ve R eligion (L inc oln : U niv e rs ity of Ne br a sk a Pr e ss, 17 1996), 1. ———, The Sacred and the Profan e: The Nature of Religion tr a ns Wil la rd R. T ra sk 1 st 18 Americ an ed. ( New Y ork,: Har court B rac e, 1959), 12. 1 7 obtained fr om a mag ical, enc hanted wor ld. At one level, Weber echoe s the ang st of Nietzsche and 13 an t i ci p at es t h e f u rt h er an gs t o f e x i s t en t i al i s t s l i k e S a r t re an d C am u s Ho we v er i n re co gn i z i n g a cosmos devoid of superna turalism, Webe r’s conce pt of disencha ntment also lay s the foundation for the re -e nc ha nti ng re lig iou s n a tur a lis m of the or ist s li ke Ed wa rd Ab be y Do na ld C ro sb y a nd Ur su la 14 15 Goodenoug h. Thus, Weber he lped lay the founda tion for a very vibrant ar ea of curr ent re ligious 16 theorizing that joy fu l l y embra ces a non-super natura listi c wor ld. Religious natura lism, i ncluding pantheism, is an ong oing a ttempt to remedy the disencha ntment that Weber re cog nized. The fa med historian of re ligion, Mirce a Eliade continued t o i n s i s t on the re ality of the s a c r e d F o r E l i a d e t h e s a c r e d i s “ t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e p r o f a n e a n d s e c u l a r l i f e ” Y e t p a r a d o x i c a l l y, 17 for Eliade, any object, from a st one, to all of earthly nature to the “the c osmos in it s entirety ” ca n be c ome a hie ro ph a ny to tho se hu ma ns su sc e pti ble to o r c a pa ble of e xpe ri e nc ing su c h h ie ro ph a nie s, even w hile others continue to e x perie nce t h es e things a s desac ralized, secula r, prof ane ma tter. 18 Aldo L eopold’s obser vation that “[t] here are some who ca n live without wild thi ng s, and some who

PAGE 18

Aldo L eopold, A S an d Co un ty Al ma na c a nd Sk e tc he s H e re an d Th e re (Ne w York,: Oxford 19 Un iv. Pr e ss, 19 49 ), vii Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion 12-13. 20 Ninian Smart. “Retrospe ct and Prospec t: The History of Relig ions.” I n The N o t ion Of 21 "Re lig ion In C om pa ra tiv e Re se ar c h: Se le c te d P ro c e e din gs of t he XV I I AH R Co ng re ss edited by Ug o Bia nchi, 901-03, 901. Rome: L Erma" di Bre tschneider 1994. Russell T. McCutcheon, Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Ge neris Religion and 22 the Po lit ic s o f No sta lgi a (Ne w York: Oxford Univer sity Press, 1997), 51. 1 8 cannot,” comes to mind as an ill ustration of diffe ring perc eptions among humans of the importanc e 19 of var ious natural fe ature s. Furthe r, t h o s e experienc ing hie rophanie s conclude that “the sacred is equivalent to power and in the l ast analy sis, to re ali ty enduring ness and e ffica cy .” Thus, the 20 re lig iou s pr a c tit ion e r, up on e xpe ri e nc ing the hie ro ph a ny wi sh e s to i mme rs e him or he rs e lf in t his sacr ed re ality and be sa turated w ith its power Whil e Eliade decla res that mere profa ne objects can be ex perie nced as reve aling the sac red, his is n e ve rt he le ss p ri ma ri ly a su pe rn a tur a lis t, the ist ic un de rs ta nd ing of the sa c re d. An d E lia de is not merely descr ibing the the istic beliefs of other s, but appea rs to be dec laring the metaphy sical tr u th o f r e a li ty a s th e is ti c a ll y c o n c e iv e d le a d in g N in ia n Sm a r t t o d e s c r ib e h im a s “ in d is g u ise d form, a pr eac her.” 21 As an a dvocate for theism, Eliade is de cidedly dualistic. The Sacred is c ompletely distinct from ordina ry rea lity what Eliade called The Profane Russell McCutcheon descr ibes the cor e of Eliade’s thoug ht as see i n g a dichotomy in exi stence “base d on an ontolog ical distinction betwee n the sac red, unde rstood by him as repr esenta tive of orde r, the ultimatel y m ea n i n gful and re al, and the profa ne, which c omprises chaos, conting ency and nonrea lity .” Thus, Eliade’s unde rstanding 22 of the nature of the sacr ed makes him a n exemplar of dualisitic theism, whereby God or the sa cre d is understood as either separ ate f rom the universe or as a separ ate r ealm wi t h in this uni verse that

PAGE 19

See Willi am L Reese, Pantheism and Panentheism," in The New Encyc lopdia Bri tannica 23 (Chicag o: Ency clopdia Br itannica I nc., 1994). Web e r, "T he Soc ia l Psy c ho log y of the Wor ld R e lig ion s, 28 1, re pr od uc ing ‘D ie 24 Wirtschaftsethik der Weltrelig ionen’ (T he Ec onomic Ethic of the World Religions), Ge sa mm e lte Au fsa e tze zu r R e igi on sso zio log ie (Tbing en, 1922-23) vol. 1, pp. 237-68. I bid. 25 Roy A. Rappapor t, Ri tua l an d R e lig ion in t he Makin g o f H um an ity Ca mbr idg e Stu die s in 26 S o ci al an d C u l t u ra l An t h ro p o l o gy S er i es n o 1 1 0 ( C am b ri d ge, U. K. ; Ne w Y o rk : C am b ri d ge University Press, 1999), 1. Rappa port resta tes this observation towar d the end of his book, at 451. See also discussion of Rappa port in Chapter 3. 1 9 is disti nct from the pr ofane mat er i al re al m (Eliade ne ver r eally decla res “ wher e” the sacr ed 23 perma nentl y re s i d es He mer ely insists that the sac red is wher e the pr ofane is not ) In t h i s s t u d y, the te rm the ism will be understood in this sense of dualistic theism, ex emplified by Eliade. Eliade the re by se rv e s a s a c on tr a st t o mo re re c e nt t he or ist s th a t sp e a k o f n on -s up e rn a tur a l, n a tur a lis tic underst an d i n gs o f re ligion, of w hich natura listi c panthe ism is an ex ample, or the orists that understand e very thing a s sacr ed, such a s most forms of panenthe ism a nd pantheism. The de finitions and distinctions between the se terms will be e x plored in the following chapte r. Returning ag ain for a m oment to Weber, he opined that humans, who see m to innately abhor chaos a nd the void, have a “metaphy sical nee d for a meaning ful cos m o s ” Elabora ting, Weber 24 decla res that humans “ demand that the w orld order in its t otality is, could, and should somehow be a me aning ful ‘cosmos.’” Weber’s c hoice o f “metaphy sical” to modify “nee d” is somewhat 25 awkwa rd. I take him to mean that humans have a psy cholog ical nee d for a meaning ful cosmos and all humans will adopt some metaphy sical stance that supplies the re q u i red meaning Stated more c o m p a c t l y, h u m a n i t y’ s c e n t r a l e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n i s a ye a r n i n g f o r m e a n i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y. Or, a s the anthropolog ist Roy Rappaport put it, h u m an i t y “lives, and c an only live, in terms of meaning s it must construct in a w orld devoid of intrinsic mea ning but subjec t to phy sical law.” 26

PAGE 20

Clifford Gee rtz, Religion as a Cultural Sy stem," in The Interpretation of Cultur es (Ne w York,: 27 Ba sic Books, 1973) 100-01. S ee Tal al A sad "An th rop ol ogica l C on cept io ns of R eli gion : R efl ect io ns on Geert z ," Man 18, 28 no. 2 (1983): 238, for a fr equently cited cr itique of Gee rtz’s definition. Gee rtz, "Relig ion as a Cultural Sy stem," 90. 29 I bid., 93. 30 I bid., 92. 31 2 0 Fa med anthropolog ist Cl ifford G eer tz agr eed w ith W eber on this point also ar gu i n g that making rea lity “compr ehensible” is a central human nee d, and that humans simply cannot “ leave un c la ri fi e d p ro ble ms o f a na ly sis me re ly un c lar if ie d, ” a nd wi ll c on sta ntl y us e “ the ir be lie fs to ‘explain’ phenomena or, more a ccur ately to conv i n ce t hemselves that the phe nomena we re explainable within the acc epted sc heme of things.” How do humans obtain thei r required 27 meaning ? Acc ording to both Geer tz and Rappaport, throug h relig ion. Clifford Gee rtz’s definition of relig ion continues to be frequently used if at times cr itiqued. 28 I n “ Re lig ion As a Cul tur a l Sy ste m,” he de fi ne s it a s f oll ow s: (1) a sy stem of sy mbols whic h acts to ( 2) establish power ful, perva sive, an d l o n glasting moods and motivations i n m en by (3) f ormulating conce ptions of a g ener al or de r of e xiste nc e a nd (4 ) cl oth ing the se c on c e pti on s with su c h an a ur a of fa c tua lit y that (5) the moods a nd motivations seem uniquely rea listi c. 29 I n e la bo ra tin g the fi rs t e le me nt of his de fi nit ion Ge e rt z devel op s h is “mod e l of a nd mod e l for ” c on c e pt. 30 Gee rtz declare s that human culture pa ttern s ar e “s y stems or complexes of sy mbols” that s e r v e a s “ e xtr in s ic s o u r c e s o f in f o r ma ti o n ” ( i. e n o t i n te r n a ll y g e n e ti c o r b io lo g ic a l) f o r a g iv en h u m an He arg ues that “huma n behavior is so loosely deter mined by intrinsic sources of 31 information” (there by showing that Gee rtz fa vored the Nurture side in the Nature /Nurture de bate)

PAGE 21

Edwar d O. Wils on, So c iob iol og y : T he Ne w Sy nth e sis 25th anniversa ry e d. (Cambridg e, Mass.: 32 Be lknap Press of Ha rvar d University Press, 2000). Steven Pinker, T h e B l a n k S l a t e : T h e M o d e r n D e n i a l o f H u m a n N atu re ( N e w Y o rk : Vi k i n g, 33 2002). Gee rtz, "Relig ion as a Cultural Sy stem," 94. 34 2 1 tha t hu ma ns sp e c if ic a lly ne e d to acqu ir e va ri ou s mo de ls of re a lit y a nd mod e ls for rea lity to make sense of rea lity Thus, these culture patterns that transmit these models of reality serve as a sor t of cultural DN A, s ince in the vi ew of some theorists human beings are relatively unfinished from the ne ur oph y sio log ic a l po int of vie w. (Jus t ho w un fi nis he d r e ma ins a ma tte r o f f ie rc e de ba te Wit ne ss the re surg ence of t heorie s postulating stronge r roles f or biolog ical proc esses in dete rmining huma n nature ala E.O Wil son and Steven Pinker ). 32 33 Acc ording to Geer tz, t hese c ulturally acquir ed models of reality are inhere ntly dual in nature A model of is a cultural repr esenta tion, a sy mbolic copy of t he natural world, whil e a model for is an ac tual template to g ener ate mea ningf ul behaviors to af fec t that nature. El a bo ra tin g mo de ls t ha t a re “ mod e ls for ” are templates to shape the human proc esses that actua l l y p ro d u ce r eality –whether arc hitectura l ideals that g uide the construc tion of dams or presc riptions for social be havior that then g uide human beha vior, and ther eby the social c onstruction of me n a nd wo me n. At the sa me tim e th e se mod e ls a re “mo dels of ” re ality : the arc hitectura l principles used to build dams or to make sense of or j u d ge existi ng dams and or the g ender conce ptions used to make sense of the diffe ring public behavior of men a nd women. Ge ertz arg ues tha t it is t his “ do ub le a sp e c t” tha t ma ke s “ tr ue sy mbo ls. ” I nd e e d, Ge e rt z sug g e sts tha t it is t he a bil ity to c re a te tr ue “ mod e ls of ” sy mbols that is t he unique “ essenc e of huma n thought,” some t h i n g no oth e r s pe c ie s c a n d o. He c on c lud e s th a t th e “ mod e l of ” a nd “ mod e l for ” do ub len e ss o f s y mbo ls 34 means that they g ive “objec tive conce ptual form to social a nd psy cholog ical re ality both by shaping

PAGE 22

I bid., 93. 35 2 2 themselves to it and by shaping it to themselves.” 35 To g ive an e x ample, Christianity as traditionally art i culated in its cre eds provides a model of rea lity a metaphy sical sy stem that attempts to make sense of the world e ncoun t ered by the be lie ve r b y e xpla ini ng wh y thi ng s a re a s th e y a re no w a nd ho w thi ng s wi ll c ha ng e in the fu tur e : A superna tural God c rea ted the wor ld perfe ct and de athless. Howe ver, a rebe l l ious divine being tr ic ke d th e pr ima l hu ma ns int o s inn ing th e re by int ro du c ing de a th i nto th is world. Th e su pr e me being incar nated a part of itself into this world and sa crific ed that par t of itself, there by pay ing of f the c os mic de bt c re a te d b y the pr ima l c ou ple ’s sin makin g p os sible a re sto ra tio n. Th e su pr e me being will s u p e r n a tu r a ll y in te r v e n e in th e n e a r f u tu r e to r e s to r e th e p r im o r d ia l p e r f e c ti o n o f the world. Howe ver, the re are require ments to participate in this para dise. Thus, Christianity provides a model for rea lity an ethica l sy stem that lay s out the behavioral terms for pa rticipation in the a nti c ipa te d f utu re pa ra dis e T he se ru le s are lai d out i n a bo ok tha t ha s b e e n ma g ic a lly g ive n to humans. So long a s any human follows the rules in this book (as per sonally discovere d (L uther) or as interpr eted by the religious authoriti es (Catholi cism)), he or she will be able to participate in the re sto re d d e a thl e ss p e rf e c ti on of re a lit y tha t is ne a r a t ha nd T he “ mod e l for ” is d ir e c tly re la te d to the “ mod e l of .” B oth have their orig in in the biblical reve lation. As we w ill see here in, adher ents to eac h of the meta phy sical sy stems inv es t i gat ed here pr od uc e dif fe re nt “ mod e ls for ” a nd “ mod e ls of ” re a lit y in tur n e ff e c tin g bo th the ir ide a s a nd the ir ma te ri a l.

PAGE 23

Th e e ty olo g y of thi s me a nin g a s p re se nte d in OE D’ s D e c 2 00 7 r e vis ion is a s f oll ow s: 1729 S. 1 CO L L I B ER Christ ian Relig. p. ix The Supposition of such an Absolutely Unlimited, and, as it were Antece dent Nec essity ..leads dire ctly to Pantheism. 1743 J BROWN Honour 18 ( no te ) That Spec ies of Atheism commonly called Panthe ism. a 1834 S. T. COL ERI DGE Lit. Remains (1836) I I 326 The sa c e rd ota l r e lig ion of Eg y pt h a d. .d e g e ne ra te d from the pa tr ia rc ha l mo no the ism int o a pa nth e ism cosmotheism, or worship of th e world as God. 1848 R. I WI L BERF ORCE Doctr. Inc arnation (1852) v. 121 Pantheism, the principle of which is to merg e the persona lity of the mora l Governor in the circ le of His wor ks. 1890 J F. SM I TH t r. O. P fleider er De v e l. T he ol. I V. i. 3 38 Hi s a g no sti c evolutionism is only a disg uised materia listi c (hy lozoi stic) pantheism. 1907 J R. I L L I NGWORTH Do c tr. Trin ity x 196 We may ..think of God as dwe lling in the univer se, wit hout in any way trans ce n d i n g it. This means pantheism of one kind or a nother. 1955 Sc J rn l. T he ol. 8 88 Th is p r o c e s s is il lu s tr a te d in r e li g io n s w h ic h te n d to w a r d s c o s mi c p a n th e ism..im man e n ta l p ie ty [e tc ]. 1995 New Y orker 4 Dec 48/1 The pre vailing r elig ion [ in E n gl and] is a kind of domesticate d pantheism: a communion with shrubber ies and rockerie s, with the song thr ush at the birdbath. ( Bol d in t he or ig ina l) Th e e ty olo g y of thi s me a nin g a s pr e se nte d in O ED ’s De c 2 00 7 r e vis ion : 1822 tr. M. C. Bruun 2 Un iv e rsa l G e og r. I 576 Pantheism, modified by the instit utions of particula r nations, and blending 2 3 CHAPTER 3 PANTHEI SM, P ANENTH EI SM, CL ASSI CAL THEI SM AND ATHEI SM DEFI NED A beg inning point for a naly zing pantheism in Americ an culture is arriving at a de finition of the te rm fo r use thi s inve sti g a tio n. An d as wil l bec ome c le a r in this c ha pte r a nd the ne xt, pa nth e ism c a nn ot be un de rs too d wi tho ut a lso un de rs ta nd ing the te rm s pagan pa ne nth e ism the ism and ath e ism I will define t h e i sm i n t h i s study as the dua listi c theism set forth in Chapter 2 of which Eliade is the prime e x emplar. I will define the r emaining terms in this chapter. An ind ivi du a l w ho c ome s a c ro ss t he te rm pa nth e ism an d wants to know its meaning may very well consult a dictionary and, if the person wants to have a n espec ially authoritative de finition, may very well consult the Oxford Eng lish Dictionary (OED) wher e I will therefor e beg in. On Ma rc h 1 9, 20 08 th e on lin e e dit ion of the OE D o ff e re d tw o d e fi nit ion s o f p a nth e ism : 1. A belief or philosophical theory that God is immane nt in or identica l with the universe; the doctrine that God i s ever y thing and ever y thing is God. Fr eq. with im p li c a ti o n s o f n a tu r e w o r s h ip o r ( in a w e a k e n e d s e n s e ) lo v e o f n a tu r e Cf PAN EN TH EI SM n. 1 2. Wor sh ip o r t ole ra nc e of a ll o r m a ny g od s. Cf PO L YT HE I SM n. 2

PAGE 24

its e lf wi th S a be ism, be c a me sy ste ma tic o r m y tho log ic a l Po ly the ism 1837 F. PAL GRAVE Merc hant & Friar (1844) i. 21 The g rea ter portion of the Tarta r tribes prof essed a singula r spec ies of Pantheism, respec ting a ll cree ds, attache d to none. 1861 C. H. PEARS ON Early & Middle Ages E n g. ( 1 8 6 7 ) I 1 8 T h e s p i r i t o f R o m a n p a n t h e i s m w h i c h e r e c t e d a t e m p l e t o t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f a ll nations. 1988 J. L E SP O SI TO Islam iv. 11 7 A ne w w a ve of Ne oSuf ism a ro se tha t so ug ht t o restra in and purify the ex cesse s of pantheism and electicism that had infected S ufism. ( Bol d in the orig inal). The e ty ology of this meaning as presented in OED’s 1989 2 Edition, which differ s somewhat 3n d fr om t he 20 07 pr op os e d r e vis ion, is a s f oll ow s: “ 1732 WATERL AND Chr. Vind. Char ge 76 Pantheism..and Hobbism are scanda lously bad, sca rce differ ing from t he broa dest Atheism. a 1766 J BROWN Honour 176 no te That spe ci es o f atheism commonly called Panthe ism. 1823 COL ERI DGE Tab le -t 30 Apr., Pantheism and idolatry natura lly end in eac h other: for all extremes meet. 1848 R. I WI L BERF ORCE Doct. Inc arnation v. (1852) 121 Pantheism, the prin ci p l e of which is to merg e the pe rsonality of the mora l Governor in the circ le of His works.” ( Bol d in the orig inal). The e ty ology of this meaning as pre sented in OED’s 1989 2 Edition, which ag ain diffe rs 4n d so me wh a t f ro m th e 20 07 pr op os e d r e vis ion is a s f oll ow s: “ 1837 SI R F. PAL GRAVE Merc h. & Friar i. ( 18 44 ) 2 1 T he g re a te r p or tio n o f t he Ta rt a r tr ibe s pr of e sse d a sin g ula r sp e c ie s o f P a nth e ism respe cting all cre eds, attac hed to none. 1861 PEARSON Early & Mid. Ages Eng. (1867) I 18 The spirit of Roman pa ntheism, w hich ere cted a temple to the divinities of all nations.” ( Bol d in the orig inal). 2 4 OED labe led these de finitions as a “Dr aft Revision De cembe r 2007" along with ety mologies of e a c h u sa g e The sti ll of fi c ia l OED de fi nit ion is in its p ri nte d 1 98 9 Se c on d E dit ion w hic h w a s a lso available online on Marc h 19, 2008, and provide s the following pair of definitions which ar e similar but slightly differ ent from the 2007 dr aft re vision: 1. The re ligious belief or philosophical theory that God and the unive rse a re identical (imply ing a denial of the persona lity and transcende nce of God); the doctrine tha t God is every thing a nd ever y thing is God. 3 2. Th e he a the n w or sh ip o f a ll t he g od s. 4 Whil e the OE D i s u su a lly tho ug ht o f as th e mos t a uth or ita tiv e dic tio na ry fo r s c ho la rl y purposes, it i s o n l y av ai lable online to the g ener al public for a fee Seeing this study is more conce rned w ith popular understa ndings of pantheism, the ava ilable fre e, online dictionar y resour ces are perha ps more relevant to an understanding how the ter m may understood in popular c ulture. On

PAGE 25

Pantheism. Dictionary .com. Dictionary.com Una b r i d ged ( v 1.1) Random House, I nc. 5 htt p:/ /di c tio na ry .r e fe re nc e .c om/ br ow se /Pa nth e ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) Pantheism. Dictionary .com. Th e A m e r ic a n H e r it a g e D ic ti o n a r y o f t h e E n g li s h La n g u a g e, 6 Fourth Edition Houg hton Mifflin Company 2004. htt p:/ /di c tio na ry .r e fe re nc e .c om/ br ow se /Pa nth e ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) Pantheism. Dictionary .com. W ordNet 3.0 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y. 7 htt p:/ /di c tio na ry .r e fe re nc e .c om/ br ow se /Pa nth e ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) P a n t h e i s m D i c t i o n a r y. c o m T h e A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e N e w D i c t i o n a r y o f C u l t u r a l L i t e r a c y, 8 Third Edition. Houg hton Mifflin Co., 2005. htt p:/ /di c tio na ry .r e fe re nc e .c om/ br ow se /Pa nth e ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) Pantheism. MerriamWebster.com. Me rri am -W e bs te r O nli ne Di c tio na ry Merr iam-Webster, 9 I nc, 2005. htt p:/ /w ww .me rr ia mwe bs te r. c om/ dic tio na ry /pa nth e ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) 2 5 Marc h 19, 2008, the fre e online re source Dictionary .com, provided the f ollowing de finitions of the te rm fr om f ou r s ou rc e s: F ro m Ra nd om H ou se : 5 1. the doctrine that God is the transc endent r eality of which the mater ial u n i v er s e a n d h u m an b ei n gs ar e o n l y m an i fe s t a t i o n s : i t i n v o l v es a d en i al o f G o d 's persona lity and expresses a tendenc y to identify God and na ture; 2. a ny re lig iou s b e lie f o r p hil os op hic a l do c tr ine tha t id e nti fi e s G od wi th the universe Fr om America n Her itag e Dictionar y : 6 1. A doctrine identify ing the Deity with the universe a nd its phenomena; 2. B e lie f i n a nd wo rs hip of a ll g od s. WordNet 3.0 : 7 1. (r a re ) w or sh ip t ha t a dmi ts o r t ole ra te s a ll g od s; 2 the doctrine or bel ie f th a t G o d is th e u n iv e r s e a n d it s p h e n o me na (t a ke n o r c on c e ive d of as a wh ole ) o r t he do c tr ine tha t r e g a rd s th e un ive rs e a s a manifestation of G od. Fr om The Amer ican He ritag e Ne w Dictionar y of Cultural L iterac y : 8 The be lief that God, or a gro up of g ods, is identical with the whole natur al world; pantheism comes from Gre ek roots meaning “belief that ever y thing is a g od.” The other major fr ee online dic tionary is the Merria m-Webster Online Dic tiona ry I t defines 9 pa nth e ism a s f oll ow s:

PAGE 26

2 6 1. a doctr ine that equa tes God with the forces and laws of the unive rse; 2. the worship of a ll gods of dif fer ent cr eeds, c u l t s or people s indiffer ently ; also: toleration of wors h i p o f all gods (a s at ce rtain per iods of the Roman empire) This survey of def initions from five differ ent onl ine s ource s reve als that Merr iam Webster, American Her itag e Dictionar y and Prince ton’s WordNet 3.0 all include some va riation on the OED’s s ec o n d d ef inition, t houg h WordNet identifies it as a r are usag e. Random House doe s not include any version of the OED’s se cond def inition. OE D’ s p a ir of de fi nit ion s, in bot h the ir 19 89 a nd 20 07 re nd e ri ng s, plu s th os e va ri a tio ns in the thr e e on lin e dic tio na ry re so ur c e s p re se nt a n im me dia te c ha lle ng e fo r s tud y ing pa nth e ism beca use the de finitions are quite diff ere nt. The sec ond definition is essentially a sy nony m for poly theism (and a pe rhap s i n d i scriminate poly theism (“Worship of all g ods”)) namely the belief in multi ple, discre tely differ ent g ods or deities, while OED’ s first definition prese nts pantheism as a belief sy stem that equate s or at lea st very closely associate s Nature or the total re alit y that is the un ive rs e wi th G od n ot d isc re te su bs e ts o f t ha t r e a lit y Po ly the ism is ul tim a te ly ty pe of du a lis tic the ism My own unscientific s am pling, whe rein I simply ask fr iends and c olleag ues to share what they beli ev e t h e t er m “panthe ism” means, conf irms that both definitions are in play in the larg er c ult ur e So me sa y so me thi ng lik e “ Na tur e is G od ” (t he fi rs t de fi nit ion ), a nd so me say so me varia tion on “Worshiping or be lieving in a ll gods” (the sec ond definition). L ik e m an y fac ets of c u l t u r e t h e r e i s n o t a g r e e m e n t o n t e r m i n o l o g y. To furthe r complica te this investigation are the varie d definitions of t he wor d “pag an.” A s with pantheism, the OED ha s a new draf t revised de finition release d in March 2008:

PAGE 27

2 7 A. noun 1a. A per son not subscribing to a ny major or r ecog nized relig ion, esp. the dominant relig ion of a pa rticular soc iety ; spec. a h ea then, a nonChr ist ia n, e sp c on sid e re d a s sa va g e un c ivi lize d, e tc No w chiefly his t 1b. A follower of a pa ntheistic or nature -wor s h ipping r elig ion; e sp a neopa g an. I n extended use: 2a. euphem A prostitute. Obs 2b A p e rs on of un or tho do x, un c ult iva te d o r b a c kw a rd be liefs, ta ste s, etc.; a pe rson who has not been co nverte d to the curr ent dominant views of a society g roup, etc.; an uncivili zed or unsocialized per son, e sp a child. B. adjective 1a. Holding, c hara cter istic of, or relating to those who do not subscribe to any major or r ecog nized relig ion, esp. t he dominant re ligion of a particular society ; spec. he athen, nonChristian or preChristian (usually with connotations of sava g ery or primitiveness). Now c hie fl y his t. 1b. Pantheistic, natureworshipping ; (now) e sp. neopag an. I n extended use: 2. I n extended use: immoral, spiritually lacking ; unciviliz ed, bac kwar d, savag e. Th e ma in dif fe re nc e fr om OE D’ s 1 98 9 e dit ion is t ha t pagan now i s rec og nized as a noun to descr ibe “ A f oll ow e r o f a pa nth e ist ic or na tur e -w or sh ipp ing re lig ion ; e sp a neopa g an.” T hus, in the OED’s new Ma rch 2008 revision wher ein pagan is defined a s a “f ollower of a pantheistic re ligion,” pagan and pa nth e ist ne a rl y or in s ome us a g e s a re a c tua lly sy no ny mou s. The O E D ’ s s e c o n d d e f in it io n o f p a n th e is m c o u ld b e a p p li e d to N e w A g e a n d N e o p a g an relig ions. Sarah Pike, in he r investiga tions of both the se new relig ious move ments, notes that “Ne w Ag ers a nd Neopa g ans” be lieve in a hig hly diverse g roup o f “go d s and spi rit helpers” that “they c o n t a c t i n r i t u a l i z e d s e t t i n g s S o m e o f t h e e n t i t i e s t h e y h o n o r e x i s t o n a s e p a r a t e p l a n e o f r e a l i t y, while ot he r s a r e e xtr a te r r e s tr ia ls w it h s p e c ia l m e s s a g e s in te n d e d to im p r o v e li f e o n th is p la n et.” Fur ther, in terms of prac tices, New Ag ers and Neopa g ans “c onsult astrologe rs and tar ot car ds, the I Ching and other divinatory techniques for guidanc e in life choices and to further self knowledg e.

PAGE 28

Sarah M. Pike, New Age and Neopagan Religions in America Columbi a Contemporar y 10 Americ an Relig ion Series (Ne w York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 14-15. 2 8 Th e y a pp ro pr ia te the sp ir itu a l r ic he s o f o the r c ult ur e s, inc lud ing Ti be ta n B ud dh ist H ind u, Ta ois t, Eg y ptian, Americ an I ndian, and e ven some Christian belief s and prac tices. They put statutes of the B ud dh a or Hi nd u o r Eg y pti a n de iti e s the ir ho me a lta rs a lon g sid e ob je c ts su c h a s pe nta c le s, c a nd le s, c ry sta ls, a nd g od de ss fi g ur ine s. ” Th us Pike ’s de sc ri pti on of Ne w A g e rs a nd Ne op a g a ns is q uit e 10 c on sis te nt w ith the “ pa nth e ism ” of the OE D’ s se c on d d e fi nit ion e ith e r i n it ’s 19 89 or 20 07 fo rm Whil e in some instance s it may be that the s ame indivi dual embra ces both de finitions, the pantheism of individuals who embrace the OED’s first definition is usually much di ffe rent than the neopag an/new a g e re ligion ca ptured by the second definition of panthe ism. To further illustrate the dif fe re nc e s, I wi ll l a y ou t so me a dd iti on a l c omm on so ur c e s f or u nd ers ta nd ing the na tur e of bo th pa nth e ism and pa ne nth e ism tu rn ing fi rs t to the so fa r u nd e fi ne d te rm pa ne nth e ism The importanc e of th e te rm pa ne nth e ism w il l b e c o me c le a r p r e s e n tl y a s it is o f f e r e d b y ma n y c o n te mporary ph ilo so ph e rs a nd the olo g ia ns a s a su pe ri or a lte rn a tiv e to p a nth e ism None of the fre e online dictionar ies provide a definition of pa ne nth e ism and until very rec ently neither did the OED. The OED, also in Dec ember 2007, now provides wha t it denominates a s a “ Dr a ft Re vis ion ” tha t de fi ne s pa ne nth e ism as: “The theory or belief that God enc ompasses and interpene trates the unive rse but at the sa me t ime is gr eate r than a nd independe nt of it. Fre q. contra sted with pantheism.” I t is not really a re vision, because the 1989 OED d i d not provide a de fi nit ion of pa ne nth e ism Th e 19 11 En c y c lop e dia B ri ta nn ic a a va ilable free on lin e be c a us e it i s n ow in t he pu bli c do ma in, pr ov ide s th is d e fi nit ion : “ Pa ne nth e ism th e na me g iv en by K. C. F K ra us e (q .v .) to h is philosophic theory Kra use held tha t al l ex istence is one g rea t unity which he c alled W esen

PAGE 29

11 htt p:/ /w ww .1 91 1e nc y c lop e dia .o rg /Pa ne nth e ism Charles Ha rtshorne a nd Wil liam L Reese, Philosophers Speak of God (C hic a g o: U niv e rs ity 12 of Chicag o Press, 1953). 2 9 (Essenc e). This Essenc e is God, a n d i n cl u d es wit hin itself the finite unities of man, re ason and na tur e G od the re fo re inc lud e s th e wo rl d in Hi mse lf and exte nd s b e y on d it T he the or y is a conciliation of The ism and Pantheism.” The only other fr ee online e ncy clopedia expl ications of 11 p a n e n t h e i s m a r e p r o v i d e d b y W i k i p e d i a w i t h i t s r e c o g n i z e d l a c k o f r e l i a b i l i t y. Whil e not a vailable online fo r f re e, The Ency clopaedia Britannica has provided a n exposi tion that has been wi d el y available for a number of de cade s, namely Wil liam L Reese’ s article “Pantheism and P anenthe ism” which forms a subsection to the section entitled “Sy stems of Re lig iou s a nd Spi ri tua l Bel ief .” Re e se wa s a stu de nt o f t he fa me d p hil os op he r a nd pr oc e ss theolog ian Charles Har tshorne. The two c o-authore d Philosophers Speak of God in 1953, a book 12 pr ov idi ng a n e xpos iti on of pa ne nth e ism Th us B ri ta nn ic a ’s a rt ic le e xpla ini ng pa nth e ism is a c tua lly a uth or e d b y a n a dv oc a te of pa ne nth e ism w hic h p e rh a ps in p a rt e xpla ins wh y the a rt ic le ha s a le ss tha n n e utr a l to ne in p la c e s. Th e fi rs t tw o p a ra g ra ph s r e a d a s f oll ow s: Pantheism: the doctrine that the univer s e co n ceived of as a whole is God and, conve rsely that there is no God but the combined substance forc es, and la ws tha t a re ma nif e ste d in the e xistin g un ive rs e T he cog na te do c tr ine of pa ne nth e ism asser ts that God includes the univer se as a part thoug h not the whole of his being B oth “ pa nth e ism ” a nd “ pa ne nth e ism ” a re te rm s o f r ecent ori g in, c oin e d to d es cr i b e cer tain views of the r elationship betwee n God and the w orld that are diffe re nt from that of tra ditional Theism. As refle cted in the pr efix “pan-” (Gre ek pas, “a ll”), both of the ter ms stress t h e al l-embra cing inclusiveness of God, a s compar ed with his separ atene ss as emphasized in many versions of The ism. On the other ha n d pantheism and pa nentheism, since they stress the theme of immanence —i.e., of the indwe llin g p re s ence of God—a re the mselves ver sions of Theism conce ived i n its broade st meaning Pantheism stresses the ide ntity betwee n God and the w orld, pane ntheism (Gre ek en, “in”) that the world is included in God

PAGE 30

Wil l i am L Reese, Pantheism and Panentheism," in The New Encyc lopdia Bri tannica 13 (Chicag o: Ency clopdia Br itannica I nc., 1994). I bid. Reese c oncludes the e ntry as fo l l o w: “Panenthe ism is t hen a middle wa y betwee n the 14 denial of individual fr eedom a nd cre ativ i ty char acte rizing many of the va rieties of pa ntheism and the re moteness o f the divine cha rac terizing Classical The ism. I ts support for the idea l of human fre edom provides g rounds for a positive apprec iation of temporal pr ocess, while r emoving some of the ethica l para dox es confronting deter minist ic views. I t supports the sacr amental va lue of re vere nce for life At the s ame tim e the theme of par ticipation with the divine leads natura lly to self-fulf illment as the g oal of life. Many pantheistic and Theistic alterna tives claim the same advanta g es, but the ir natura l tendency tow a rd a bsol ut e ne ss m a y ma ke jus tif ic a tio n o f t he se c la ims in s ome c a se s d if fi c ult a nd in oth e rs some arg ue, quite impossible. I t is for this reas o n t h at a sig nificant number of conte mporary philosophers of re ligion have turned to panen t h ei s m as a cor rec tive to the partiality of the other competing views.” Cooper, Pantheism," in The Enyc lopedia A me r i cana, Vol. 21 (Da nbury CT: Grolier 15 I ncorpor ated, 1998) 363. 3 0 but that God is more than the wor ld. 13 The re mainder of the nea rly 8,000 word a rticle provide s a re asonably detailed a nd at times technica l survey of the differ ent ty pes of pantheism and panenthe ism a cross time a nd cultu re s T h e two concluding para g raphs pr ovide a fairly strong endorse ment of panenthe ism a nd a neg ative cr itique of bo th p a nth e ism a nd c la ssi c a l th e ism 14 The Ency clopedia Ame ricana an o t h er co m m o n Am er i ca n en cy cl o p ed i a, incl u d es a o n e p age a rt ic le tit le d “ Pa nth e ism .” I t’ s f ir st p a ra g ra ph re a ds a s f oll ow s: Pa nth e ism : a te rm de sc ri bin g the ph ilo so ph ic a l b eli ef tha t li te ra lly e ve ry thi ng is God." The word has no undisputed definition and re fer s to a family of worldview s tha t ide nti fy a ll or pa rt of Go d with a ll or pa rt of the un ive rs e A lth ou g h p a nth e ism is monotheisti c, its deity is ulti mately impersonal, a n d l i ke much pr imiti ve poly theis m i t d ei fi es nature I ts origins a re f ound both in relig ious my sticism and philosophical speculation. 15 Th e a uth or of thi s a rt ic le is Joh n W. Coo per, a Chr ist ia n p hil os op he r a nd the olo g ia n a t Ca lvi n Theolog ical Seminary who also authore d the recent book survey ing the history of panentheism from the anc ie n t G r e e k s to c o n te mp o r a r y th e o lo g ia n s li k e Jo h n Co b b Jr a n d th e n in h is f in a l c h a p ter

PAGE 31

J ohn W. C ooper, Panentheism, the Other God of the Philosophers: From Plato to the Prese nt 16 (Gra nd Rapids, MI : Ba ker A cade mic, 2006). J uerg ensmey er, Ma rk. “Panthe ism.” W orld Book Online Re ferenc e Center 2008. 17 http:// www.wor ldbookonline.com/wb/Article? id=ar 413040 (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) 3 1 arg ues for its rejection and c ontinued Christian a dhere nce to tr aditional theism. His assertion that 16 pantheism is “imperso n al” like “primitive poly theism,” based in “ my sticism” and “spe culation,” reve als Cooper’s ne g ative bias in the fir st parag raph. Finally there is a short entry in World Book. “Pant h ei s m i s t h e belief that the essenc e of God is in all things. I t is often associated with nature re ligions, including many Americ an I ndian, Afric an, and a ncient Middle Easte rn re ligions I n t hese r elig ions, gods a re c onnecte d with such th ing s a s st or ms, sta rs th e sk y th e se a f e rt ili ty a nd sk ill in h un tin g I n th e Japa ne se Shi nto tradition, g ods are identified with natura l objects, including rocks and tree s. I n a more g ener al sense, pa n th e is m r e f e r s to a n y r e li g io u s p h il o s o p h y th a t i d e n ti f ie s G o d w it h n a tu r e ” T h is s h o r t e n try 17 ma int a ins the c le a re st s c ho la rl y ne utr a lit y a nd re c og nize s b oth the Go d in na tur e a nd the po ly the ism str a nd s o f t he tw o O ED de fi nit ion s. Thus far I have conce ntrated on source s commonly available to the g ener al public and that may there fore contribute to their unde rstanding s of these te rms. Resolving wh et h er o r t h e extent to which one of the t wo OED definitions is dominant would require f ield and/or qua ntitative polling rese arc h that is bey ond the scope of t his projec t. Howeve r, as a proxy for suc h rese arc h, I have done a surve y of the The En c y c lop e dia of Re lig ion an d Na tur e (E RN ) a nd the ma nn e r i n w hic h p a nth e ism and pane ntheism is dis cussed in that wor k, there by at l east reviewing data on how scholar s use the terms. I beg in with Michael York’ s article on pa ntheism and then surve y the re maining r efe renc es to t he te rm s th ro ug ho ut t he re st o f t he wo rk Y or k’ s a rt ic le pr ov id es a re a so na bly c on c ise descr iptions of pantheism, panentheism, and theism that I wi l l use her eaf ter to ana ly ze various

PAGE 32

Michae l York, Pantheism," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor 18 (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 1257, (empha sis suppli ed). I bid., 1258. 19 I bid., 1260. 20 3 2 ma nif e sta tio ns of pa nth e ism in A me ri c a n c ult ur e a nd thu s se t f or th t he se po rt ion s in fu ll: Pantheism rel ates to the question conce rning transcendenc e and the place of d e ity – whe the r it is with in or be y on d sp ac e an d tim e It c on tra sts e sse nti all y with theism that holds that the personality and being of god ( God) transcend the universe. For pantheism, the unive rse as a whol e is god or in fe min ist “ the olo g ic a l” te rm s, g od de ss. I n thi s se ns e pa nth e ism is to be dis tin g uis he d b oth fr om d e ism w hic h s til l holds a persona l god t o b e cr ea tor of the wor ld but neither immanent in nature nor reve ale d t h ro u gh history or by relig ious ex perie nce, a nd from athe ism as the complete r ejec tion of belief in g od’s exist enc e. P antheism is also known as “cosmotheism,” whic h either a scribes divinity to the cosmos or simply identifies g od with the world, and a s “ac osmism,” which is the fundamenta l denial of the exi stence o f th e u n iv e r s e a s d is ti n c t f r o m g o d Co n s e q u e n tly p a n t h eis m is also to be c on tra ste d wi th “ pa ne nth e ism ” or the do c tri ne tha t go d/g od de ss i nc lud e s the wor ld as a part of his /her being but not the whole of it. In other words and espe cially from the ac osmic view, go d is no ne oth e r th an the c om bin e d fo rc e s a nd law s th at m an ife st in t he e x ist ing un iv e rse I n g ener al, the panthe istic positi on holds that all i s g od rathe r than that g od is all (theopantism). 18 [E] specia lly i n i t s C hristian forms, Abra hamic re ligion posits a tr a ns c end enta l pe rs on a l g od tha t st a nd s “ ou tsi de ” na tur e a nd /or the ma te ri a l w or ld and is its fully autonomous cre ator. F rom the theistic per spective, g od and natur e ar e ontol o gically separ ate a nd distinct. The Abra hamic re ligions do not deny the me ta ph y sic a l r e a lit y of the wo rl d, bu t in a smu c h a s th e y a do pt w ha t is sti ll e sse nti a lly a Gnostic position, thoug h this wor ld ma y be the “g ift” of the cre ator g od i t i s not an end in itself but mo re an i m p edim ent to obtaining or reg aining a state of transce ndental and/or heave nly g rac e 19 The ult imate understanding of pantheism and the r elation betwe en the divine and nature rests not only in its distinction from theism but also from the theolog ical fra mework of panenthe ism and the proce ss theolog ies of Alfr ed Nor th Whi tehea d (1 86 1– 19 47 ) a nd Cha rl e s H a rt sh or ne (1 89 7– 20 00 ). Pa ne nth e ism attemp ts t o rea ssert the godhe ad as the totality of both ac tual and potential being But unlike the “g od is all” stance of panthe ism, panentheism (“a ll in god”) is closer to the theopantic position of “g od is all.” I n other words, this view asserts that all thing s are wi thi n th e be ing of g od b ut g od is n ot s ub su me d o r “ e xha us te d” by a ll thi ng s a nd is additionally something othe r than the w orld or cosmos itself. 20 Y o r k n o te s th a t th e d is ti n c ti o n s b e tw e e n p a n th e is m, p a n e n th e is m, a n d th e is m c o me down

PAGE 33

Brad L eml ey "Gu th 's Gran d Gu ess (C ov er S to ry )," Discove r April 2002 2002.; Michael D. 21 L emo ni ck, "How t he U ni vers e W il l E nd (C ov er S to ry )," Time J un. 25, 2001 2001. Michae l York, Poly theism," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor 22 (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 1290. 3 3 to dif fe re n t m et aphy sical cla ims about sacre d g eog raphy namely wher e does “ the sac red” (or “ Go d” or “ the div ine ” ) e xist. I n no tin g the g e og ra ph ic a l a sp e c t of thi s qu e sti on Yo rk e xpla ins my re fe re nc e to “ Pa nth e ism ’s Sa c re d G e og ra ph y ” in t he tit le of thi s p ro je c t. Pant h ei s m s ay s the sacr ed is here in this uni verse and eve ry wher e in this universe, a nd, g iven the standa rd natura listi c assumptions, the only universe w e ac tually know exist s. Acc ording to latest data c ombined with the best astrophy sical t heorie s, the uni verse emer g ed out of a “ vacuum fluctuation” 13.7 billion y ear s ag o and trillions of y ea rs fr om now will fiz zle to a halt as dea d motionless matter, there to sit fo r eternity I n contra st, both panentheism and theism in York’s 21 definition, speculate that there is an elsewhere (it does not rea lly do to call it “a space ” or “a plac e”) for the sa cre d to exi st and furthe r spec ulates does e x ist there. But wha t of the poly theistic component of the O ED def inition no. 2? I n h is article on po ly theism, York ac knowledg es that there is “a pre vailing a ffinity for poly theistic conce ptions of divine rea lity to be g rounded in a pantheistic under standing of cosmic a ctuality .” Yor k notes that “this need n o t invariably be the c ase, a nd poly theism might in some circ umstances be understood as a subcate g ory of theism itself.” Howeve r, looking from a social evolutionist perspec tive, York 22 no t e s t h a t p o l y t h e i s m c a n b e s e e n a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a h u m a n r e f l e c t i o n t h a t l e d i n t w o h ist or ic dir e c tio ns n a me ly to “pant he ism a nd a bs or pti on in t he On e ” a nd in t he oth e r d ir e c tio n to “ mon oth e ism a nd its vic tor y ov e r t he ma ny .” Yo rk notes fur th er t ha t “ po ly the ism in b oth its natura listi c and huma nistic forms tends to re sist the rationalism of pantheism,” eve n if it acc epts “the basic unde rstanding of the non-transce ndental im manenc e of deity ,” while also reta ining “ theism’s

PAGE 34

Richard H. Popkin and Avr um Stroll Ph ilo so ph y Ma de Sim ple 2nd ed. (N ew Yor k: 23 Doubleday 1993), 175. Arthur Schope nhauer Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays t rans E F. 24 J Pay ne, 2 vols., vol. 2 (Oxford: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 2000), 99. 3 4 n o t i o n o f d i v i n e p e r s o n a l i t y ( i n t h i s c a s e m u l t i p l e ) w h e t h e r a s a r e a l i t y a m e t a p h o r o r b o t h ” In no tin g thi s a mbi g uo us re la tio ns hip be tw e e n p oly the ism a nd pa nth e ism Yor k s e e ms t o s ug g e st, tho ug h h e do e s n ot e xpre ssl y sta te th a t th e tw o met aphy sic a l c on c e pts sh ou ld b e ke pt d ist inc t. T h u s f r o m Y o r k ’ s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e O E D ’ s d e f i n i t i o n n o 2 w h i c h t r e a t s p a n t h e i s m a s a s yn o n ym for poly theism, crea tes an unnece ssary and unfortunate theore tical conf usion. I concur with York. Both ter ms serve a differ ent desc riptive pur p o s e for descr ibing f undamentally differ ent metaphy sical un de rs ta nd ing s. I n further testing this appr oach, I revie wed the 249 oc curr ence s of “pa ntheism” or “panthe ist[ ic]” in the The En c y c lop e dia of Re lig ion an d Na tur e There wer e a few instances whe re the author’ s int ended definition (OED1 or O ED2) c ould not be deter mined from conte x t. Either c ou ld a pp ly T he re we re a fe w ins ta nc e s wh e re OE D2 wa s c le a rl y the int e nd e d us a g e B ut o ve ra ll, OED1 wa s the intended de finition. Herea fter, I will continue my analy sis based on OED1. I n a dd iti on to a rr ivi ng a t w or kin g de fi nit ion s o f t hei sm p a ne nth e ism a nd pa nth e ism it is also nec essar y to have a settled definition of ath e ism T h i s m ay s eem odd a t first. Howeve r, pantheism is often ac cused of being “mer ely another form of a theism.” I ndee d, Arthur 23 Schopenhaue r made this c omplaint: “A g ainst pantheism I have mainly the objection that it states nothin g. T o call the world God is not to ex plain it, but only to enrich the lang uag e with a su pe rf luo us sy no ny m fo r the wo rd wo rl d. I t c ome s to the sa me thi ng wh e the r w e sa y ‘t he wo rl d is God’ or ‘ the world is the wor ld.’” Thus, I return to the O ED. 24 I n the OED, a theism is defined as: “D isbelief in, or denial of, the exist ence of a G od. Also,

PAGE 35

Atheism. Dictionary .com. Dictionary.com Unabridged ( v 1.1) Random House, I nc. 25 htt p:/ /di c tio na ry .r e fe re nc e .c om/ br ow se /A the ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) A th e is m. D ic ti o n a r y c o m. W ebst e r's R e v ise d U na br idg e d D ic tio na ry MI CRA, I nc. 26 htt p:/ /di c tionary .ref e re nc e .c om/ br ow se /A the ism (ac cesse d: March 19, 2008) The e x amples ar e: (1 ) “ At he ism is a fe ro c iou s sy stem, th at lea ves no thi ng a bo ve us to e xcit e a we n or a ro un d u s to awa ken tende rness. R. Ha ll”; an d (2 ) “A theism and pantheism ar e ofte n wrong ly confounde d. Shipley .” Roy A. Rappapor t, Ri tua l and Reli gio n in the Ma k ing of H um an ity Ca mbr idg e Stu die s in 27 S o ci al an d C u l t u r a l An t h ro p o l o gy S er i es n o 1 1 0 (C am b ri d ge, U. K. ; Ne w Y o rk : C am b ri d ge University Press, 1999), 1. R appapor t restates this observa tion toward the e nd of his book, at 451. Rappaport did not alway s display a nihilis tic materia lism t hat denied intrinsic mea ning. I ndeed, he can a lso be cited a s an anti-nihilist, or even a pantheist. I n an intervie w nea r the e nd of his life, he admits that he was “ some sort o f an en v i ro n mental my stic” and, c ontrary to his assertion that the “ wo rl d [is ] de vo id o f i ntr ins ic me a nin g ,” ins te a d a rg ue s th a t id e a s ( or me a nin g s?) th at le a d to “ e nv ir on me nta l de str uc tio n” a re “ wr on g ,” a nd tha t id e a s th a t le a d to a “ fl ou ri sh ing ” wo rl d s ho uld 3 5 disreg ard of duty to God, godlessness (pr actica l atheism).” A visit to dictionary .com conf irms that eac h of the dictionar ies there utiliz ed conta in a def inition essentia l l y consistent with the OED. Ho we ve r, Ra nd om H ou se inc lud e s a se c on d d e fi nit ion : “ dis be lie f i n th e e xiste nc e of a su pr e me being or being s.” And Webster’s de fines it this way : “The disbelief or denial of the exis tence of 25 a Go d, or su pr e me int e lli g e nt B e ing ,” a nd pr ov ide s tw o e xamp le s of us a g e Th us Ra nd om H ou se 26 and We b s te r ’ s p r o v id e a d e f in it io n o f a th e is m th a t a ll o w s a th e is m to b e li mi te d to a d e n ia l of the exis tence of a supr eme be ing or being s. Thus, an under standing of God that did not include be lief in a supreme being or being s would not be inconsistent w ith or excluded by this second def inition of athe ism. This second definition woul d n o t there fore nece ssarily include a de nial of God understood panthe istically (This distinction will become important when I explore the selfprofe ssed atheism of Richa rd Da wkins, Daniel De nnett and Sam Har ris in Chapter 8). An example of an atheistic sentim ent, i n this case a nihi listi c one, is the anthropolog ist Roy Ra pp a po rt ’s sta te me nt t ha t hu ma nit y “ liv e s, a nd c an on ly li ve in te rm s o f m e a nin g s it mus t construct in a w orld devoid of intrinsic mea ning but subjec t to phy sical law.” I n ca l l i n g t his an 27

PAGE 36

be “privileg ed” over ideas that lead to destruction. I n so stating, he said “this separ ates me, a s far as I understand it, fr om most post modernists who would simply say th at t h er e is no g round for judgme nt, tha t it is all rela tive.” Roy A. Rappapor t, Bria n A. Hoey and Tom F ricke “‘f rom Sweet Potatoes to God Alm ighty ’: Roy Rappaport on Being a He dg ehog ,” Am e ric an Et hn olo gis t 34, no. 3 (2007): 590, 93-94. I n that interview, Rappaport seeme d to de scribe a per sonal meaning that was something more than a mer e interna l construction. J ean Paul Sar tre, Ex istentialism I s a Hu m an ism," in Ex ist e nti ali sm : F ro m D os toe v sk y to 28 Sa rtr e ed. Walter Ka ufmann (N ew Yor k: New Ame rica n L ibrary 1975), 349. Richard Da wkins, The God Delusion (B oston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 18. 29 3 6 example of nihilist ic atheism, I am re ly ing on O ED’s fir st definition of “nihilism” as “the belief tha t lif e is d e vo id o f me a nin g .” Ra pp a po rt is a sse rt ing tha t to the e xten t a hu ma n f ind s me a nin g it is a self or soc ietally constructe d meaning not one intrinsic to exis tence itself. I n rende ring his opinion of the human c ondition, R appapor t appea rs to echo Jean Paul Sartre : Atheistic exist entialism, of which I am a r epre sentative, de clar es with g rea ter consi s t en cy that if God does not exist t here is at least one be ing w hose existence comes be fore i t s essenc e, a be ing w hich exist s befor e it can be define d by any conce ption of it. That being is ma n or, as Heideg g er ha s it, the human rea lity What do we mea n by say ing that exis tence prec edes e ssence ? We mean that man f irst of a ll e xists e nc ou nte rs him se lf s ur g e s u p in the wo rl d– a nd de fi ne s h ims e lf a ft e rw a rd s. I f man a s the exist enti al i s t s ee s h im is not defina ble, it is because to beg in with he is nothing. He will not be a ny thing until later and then he will be wha t he makes of himself. Thus, there is no human nature, be cause there is no God to have a c on c e pti on of it. Ma n s imp ly is. No t tha t he is simp ly wh a t he c on c e ive s h ims e lf to be, but he is what he w ills, and as he conc eives himself a fter, a lrea dy exis ting–a s he wills to be a fter that leap towards e x istence. Ma n is nothing else but that whic h he ma ke s o f h ims e lf T ha t is the fi rs t pr inc ipl e of e xiste nti a lis m. 28 Th us Sa rt re la y s o ut i n mo re de ta il w ha t it me a ns to d e c la re that th e cos mo s has no int ri ns ic m ea n i n g. I have not y et addr ess ed a k ey question in any investiga tion of pantheism, namely What exactly does it mean to say “The Universe is God”? Why is Richard Da wkins wrong if he is, when he say s “Pantheism is [ just] sexed-up ath ei s m ”? This project is not primarily a philosophical 29 inv e sti g a tio n in to t he va ri ou s w a y s th a t ph ilo so ph e rs pa rs e the va ri ou s in te rp re ta tio ns of pa nth e ism

PAGE 37

Michae l P. L evine, Pa ntheis m: A No nThe ist ic Con c e pt o f D e ity (L ondon; New Yor k: 30 Routledge 1994), 47, citi ng L etter to Sist er Ma ry J ames Power (Oc t. 1, 1934), included in Robinson J eff ers, T h e Wi ld G o d o f th e Wo r ld : A n A n th o lo g y o f Ro b in s o n Je f f e r s e d A lb e r t G elpi (Stanford: Stanfor d University Press, 2003), 189. and L evine, Pa nth e ism : A Non -T he ist ic Con c e pt o f D e ity 25. 31 3 7 But I w il l b r ie f ly r e v ie w h e r e th r e e o f th e mo r e p r o mi n e n t p h il o s o p h e r s o f p a n th e is m, Mic hael L e vin e Ro be rt Cor ri ng ton a nd J. Ed wa rd B a rr e tt, pa rt ic ula rl y the ir e xpos iti on s o f w ha t it m e a ns to decla re tha t the universe is God. Michae l L evine, in Pa nth e ism : A n on -t he ist ic c on c e pt o f de ity in the epig raph of his section entitled “Divinity ,” provide s a portion of the f ollowing f rom the poet Robinson J eff ers: “I believe the Universe is one being one org anic whole. The parts chang e and pass, or die, peopl e and ra c e s a nd ro c ks a nd sta rs non e of the m se e ms t o me imp or ta nt i n it se lf b ut o nly the wh ole T his whole is in all its parts so beautiful, and is fe lt by me to b e s o intensely in ear nest, that I am compelled to love it, and to think of it as divine. I t seems to me that this whole alone is wor thy of the de eper sort of love; and that ther e is pea ce, f ree dom, I might say a kind of salva tion, in turning o n e ’ s a f f e c t i o n s o u t w a r d t o w a r d t h i s o n e G o d r a t h e r t h a n i n w a r d s o n o n e ’ s s e l f o r o n h u m a n i t y, or on human imag inations and abstra ctions–the world of spirits.” 30 Having introduced Jeffe r’s e x planation of why he ca lled the Universe “God,” L evine state s tha t pa nth e ism is the vie w tha t in so me se ns e “ e ve ry thi ng tha t exists c on sti tut e s a unit y ” a nd in s ome sense “th is a llinc lus ive un ity is d ivi ne ,” a nd g ive s p hil os op hic a l T a ois m a s “ on e of the be st articula ted and thoroug hly pantheistic posi tions there is. ” A s cientific ma terialist could conc eive 31 of re ality as in some sense “a unity .” Thus, pantheism’s defining trait is its additional asser tion that the un ity is “ div ine .” L e vin e e xpla ins thi s c ri tic a l a sp e c t of pa nth e ism a s f oll ow s: I use the terms “divinity ’’ and “holiness” intercha ng eably “Divine” is de fi n ed as perta ining to God ( “of, f rom, or like a god” ), but also as “ sacr ed” or “holy .” Either

PAGE 38

I bid., 47-48. (empha sis suppli ed). 32 I bid., 52, citing John W Har vey ’s “Tr anslator’ s Prefa ce” in Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy: 33 An Inquiry int o the N on-Rational Factor i n the Idea of the Divine and Its Re lation to t he Rational tr a ns Joh n W. Ha rv e y 2 nd e d. (N e w Y or k, : O xfor d U niv e rs ity Pr e ss, 19 50 ), xvi. I bid., 195-94. I t is worth noting he re tha t Otto’s phrase de scribing God as “ the wholly other” 34 often g ets used in support of dua listi c theism’s under stan d i n g o f God as separa te from pr ofane rea lity Her e thoug h, it seems clea r that Otto means “ wholly other” to denote the “ sheer my stery and mar v el” of exi stence that can only be an a ffe ctive, non-r ational human experienc e. Thus, the conce pt of wh o ll y other ca n be consona nt with pantheistic understanding s and ca nnot not be e xclu siv e ly c la ime d b y pa ne nth e ist s a nd du a lis tic the ist s. L evine, Pa nth e ism : A Non -T he ist ic Con c e pt o f D e ity 48. 35 3 8 definition suits t he pre sent purpose, since deter mining wh y pantheists reg ard the Unity as di vine, or g od, is equivalent to deter mining why they reg ard the Unity [of the Un ive rs e ] to b e sa c re d o r hol y Th e ide a of “ div ini ty ” in pa nth e ism is simi la r i n some respe cts to its theist ic meaning and use. W hy do pantheists ascribe divinity to the Unity? Th e re a so n is simila r to w hy the ist s d e s c r ib e G od as hol y They ex perienc e it as such. In [Rudolf] Otto’s expe riential account, what is divin e is what evoke s the numinous expe rience This can be a theistic g od, but it can also be a pantheistic Unity And, when looked at from soc iosc ie nti fi c pe rs pe c tiv e s in te rm s o f h ow the c on c e pt of div ini ty fu nc tio ns int e lle c tua lly and af fec tively (e.g its ethical, soteriolog ical and explanatory roles), its applica tion in theism and pantheism is much the same. 32 I n lay ing out this expositi on, L evine r elies on Rudolf Otto’s term, numinous L e vin e no te s th a t O tto “coine d the word ‘ numinous’ to describe ‘ that aspec t of deity which tra nscends or eludes compre hension in r ational or ethical terms.’” For Otto, “ra tionalisti c spec ulation” about God ha s 33 the ef fec t of conce aling God, and it is only by brea king “throug h the hard crust of r ationalism” and bring ing “ into play the fe eling s buried dee p down in our re l i gi o u s consciousness” that humans become able to encounte r God’s “shee r m y stery and marvel” that is experience d as “the wholly nonrational a nd ‘other.’ ” L evine notes that for Otto, the “ holy has an obje ctive cor rela te in the object 34 (i.e. the numinous) that e vokes the e x perie nce,” and is not mere ly a ter m to describe a subjective 35 human mental st at e. Put another wa y a human who e x perie nces the numinous is ex perie ncing

PAGE 39

I bid., 128, n. 18. 36 I bid., 58. 37 I bid., 69. 38 3 9 something real, and is not merely hallucinating L evine notes tha t Otto’s assertion that the numinous is an objective r eality is at odds with theorists such as Gee rtz and Be rg er tha t arg ue that experienc es of the numinous are “a huma n projec tion.” L evine arg ues t hat for many pantheists, the “intuition 36 and g round for attributing divinity to the Unity (i.e. the pantheist’s intimations of divinit y ) re sts on nu min ou s e xpe ri e nc e or so me thi ng lik e it. I t is a ff e c tiv e ly a nd e xpe ri e nti a lly g ro un de d. Th e Un ity is e xpe ri e nc e d a s n umi no us—i .e a s ‘ div ine .’ ” L e vin e e xpla ins fu rt he r t ha t w ha t it me a ns to 37 experience the Unity as divine is complex, but i t “par tly means that it is experie nced a s having value.” Thus, seeing rea lity as divine is for the pa ntheist a re j ec t i o n of the mea ningle ssness of nih ili sti c a the ism r e g a rd le ss of whe the r r e a lit y c a n b e sa id t o b e “ me a nin g le ss” in a ny a bs olu te sense. Whether as an emotional human projection or as a n experience of some objec tively rea l aspec t of exist ence the pantheist finds his or her own exis tence and the exist ential re ality in which it is embedded “sa cre d,” i.e., mea ningf ul and valuable L evine, e x pressly rely ing on G eer tz’s definition of relig ion and his conce pt of “models of” a nd “ mod e ls f or ,” de c la re s th a t Divinity for th e p an theist functions sy mbolically in a manner not unlike the way “ G o d ” d o e s f o r t h e t h e i s t It i s p a r t o f a s ys t e m o f s ym b o l s o n e o f w h i c h i s U n i t y, that enable s those for whom the sy mbols are ope rative to do wha t all sacre d sy mbol sy stems (i.e. re ligions) do; that is, to g et about the bu s i n es s o f “orde ring ” and ‘‘ ma kin g se ns e of ,” of ma kin g mor a l ju dg me nts w or kin g r e la tin g to o the rs —in sh or t—l iv i n g i n a w o r l d w h i c h n o m a t t e r h o w g r a n d i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f i c u l t. Th us th e ist ic a nd pa nth e ist ic c on c e pts of div ini ty a re fu nc tio na lly e qu iva le nt. 38 I wi l l b ri ef l y t o u ch o n t h e c o m p l ex t h o u gh t o f R o b er t C o rr i n gt o n I n h i s ar t i cl e, “M y P as s age from Panenthe ism to P antheism,” he explains hi s persona l journey from a pa nentheism born out of

PAGE 40

Ro bert S C orr in gton "My P ass age from P a n e n t h e i s m to P ant hei sm ," American J ournal of 39 Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 141. I bid.: 134, 137. 40 I bid.: 130, 136. 41 —— —, "Deep P ant hei sm ," J ou rn al f or the Stu dy of R e lig ion Na tur e an d Cu ltu re 1, no. 4 42 (2007): 506 (Corr ington’ s emphasis). I sp e c if ic a l l y c on sid e re d a nd re je c te d c a lli ng thi s ty pe of no nna tur a lis tic pa nth e ism p a nth e ist ic 43 sp ir itu a lit y b e c a us e the te rm sp iri tua lit y is i nc reasin gly c omi ng to i nc lud e na tur a lis tic understanding s of re ality An example is the way purported at h ei s t S am Har ris extol s the 4 0 the thoug ht of Paul Tillich and Charles Ha rtshorne to his new f ound panth ei s m Corring ton now finds panenthe ism’s attempt to prese rve a rea lm (per haps “supernatura l” or extraordinary ) for God somewher e outside of na ture a s impossi ble and log ically incoher ent. “Na ture is all there i s ” and nece ssarily includes wha tever highe r, transc endent r ealm pane nth ei s m i s try ing to pr eser ve. F or Corrin gt o n “the c oncept of ‘non-na ture’ ma kes absolutely no sense.” I n like manner the term 39 “ su pe rn a tur a l” is l ike wi se inc oh e re nt, be c a us e th ere can be “ no su pe rn a tur a l r e a lm. Sta rk ly put–there a re n o n o n -n at ural tra its or orders.” Be cause of wha t Corring ton deems the log ical 40 incoher ence of pane ntheism, he descr ibes it as “conce ptual laziness” born of the “ last g asp of liber al Protestant theolog y .” Corring ton’s “natur alism” does not imply any sort of “mater ialism.” I ndeed, 41 Cor ri ng ton is op e n to m od e ls o f r e a lit y tha t mo st o the r t he or ist s, a nd ind e e d mo st n on -s pe c ia lis ts, would consider supe rnatura l. For instance, he asser ts “human beings are eterna l, that is, that our soul was neither cre ated n o r wi l l i t be destroy ed. .[Howeve r,] the soul is full y an orde r with in nature and that i t will alway s be so. I t is sim ply an orde r with specif ic non-tempora l fea tures that rende rs it differ ent in kind from all those order s subject t o entropy and the time proce ss.” Given 42 hi s o p en n ess to, indeed insistence on, the exist ence of non-mate rial re alities, Corring ton is an e xemp la r o f w ha t I wi ll r e fe r t o h e re in a s sp iri tua liz e d p an the ism in contrast to na tu ra lis tic 43

PAGE 41

importance of humans deve loping their “spiritual i t y ” S am Har ris, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason 1st ed. (Ne w York: W.W Norton & Co., 2004) 205-07. As B ron Tay lor has said, “ there are man y ex am p les around the world whe re pe ople fe el and spe ak of a ‘spiritual conne ction’ to nature or of ‘belong ing to’ the ea rth (mother e arth, or e ven mother oc ean) or spea king of the ea rth as ‘sa cre d,’ without any concomitant confession of super natura l beliefs.” Bron Tay lo r, "A Green Fut ure for R e l igi on ? ," Futures 36 (2004): 1000. I believe “ spiritualiz ed” captur es the super natura l/ex traordina ry connotation which I intend. My cate g ories of sp iri tua liz e d p an the ism and na tur ali sti c pa nth e ism a re c los e ly a na log ou s to 44 Br on Tay lor’s ca teg ories of Ga ian Sp iri tua lit y and Ga ian Nat ur ali sm S ee ———, "D ark G ree n Religion: Ga ian Earth Spiritualit y NeoAnimism, and the Transf ormation of Global Environme ntal Polit ics," unpublished paper at the Annual Mee tin g o f the Ame rican Acade my of Re ligion (San Dieg o: 2007). and ———, Dark Gre en Religion (B e rk e le y CA : U niv e rs ity of Ca lif or nia Pr e ss, Ex pecte d 2009). 4 1 pa nth e ism which either denies or is a g nostic about non-mater ial rea lms curre ntly undetec table by contempora ry mainstream sc ience 44 F ina lly I re vie w the pa nth e ism of Chr ist ia n th e olo g ia n a nd ph ilo so ph e r, J. Ed wa rd B a rr e tt. L ike Corring ton, Ba rre tt descr ibes an intellec tual ody ssey from a mor e tra ditional understanding of Chr ist ia nit y to a ne w fo un d Chr ist ia n pa nth e ism B a rr e tt e loq ue ntl y la y s o ut a Chr ist ia n Pa nth e ism p ri m ar i l y natura listi c in tenor. Ma ny will consider the ve ry idea of a natur alistic Christian p a n th e is m a s o xy mo r o n ic n o t t o me n ti o n h e r e ti c a l ( f o r rea s o n s th a t w il l b e c o me c le a r in th e n e xt chapte r). I there fore set forth Ba rre tt’s a rg ument in his own words without risking the imposition of my own interpre tation throug h selec tive quotation. “God” is not the name of something outside and above rea lity (as with B arth), nor is it a s u p er co n sciousness g rounded in the w hole of re ality (as with Ha rtshorne) I nstead, the w ord “ Go d ” is a wa y of addr essing —with awe, a pprec iation, and a posture of r ever ence —our eve ry day encounte rs with nature and one a nother. As Eliz abeth B arr ett Br owning wrote: “ Earth’ s cra mmed wi t h heave n, and eve ry common bush aflame with God, but only those who see take of f their shoe s.” Pa ssi ng ov e r t he a nc ie nt S toi c s, a nd e ve n Spin oza (w ho fo r al l his g e niu s and pie ty thought of the world as a machine ), I am pre pare d to arg ue that panthe ism has two dis tin c t a dv a nta g e s w hic h q ua lif y it f or fi rs t pla c e in the lis t of opt ion s a va ila ble to those intereste d in a re ligious interpr etation of life. a) When “God” is unde rstood as an “ attitude” wor d, a posture of reve renc e or re spect we assume towar d the world, a way of sa y ing “ Thou” to the wor ld, then

PAGE 42

See Chapter 4 for the sig nificanc e of this quotation to Acts 17:28. 45 J Edw a rd B a rr e tt, A Pi lg ri m’ s Pr og re ss: F ro m th e Wes tmi ns te r S ho rt e r C a te c his m to 46 Natura listi c Pantheism," American J ournal of T heology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 168-70. 4 2 we know our talk about God is about something rea l, the rea lity in which we “ live and move a nd have our being .” I n case y ou haven’ t noticed it, talkin g about 45 something unque stionably rea l is an advanta g e fe w theolog ians throug hout history have e njoy ed. b) No t only is “G od ” the n und e nia bly re a l, but re lig ion is t he n in dis pu ta bly rele vant. I t has to do with our ordinary lives, their g uts and t h eir g lory And howev e r mu c h w e ma y p r e f e r a n o th e r w o r ld o r w e ig h th e p o s s ib il it ie s o f another one awaiting us a fter this one, the divine in this world is t he one w ith which we ha ve to do now. Panthei sm makes re ligion re levant to our e arthly life—so fa r as we kn ow th e on ly lif e we ha ve (w hic h is no t to ru le ou t ot he r p os sib ili tie s, bu t si mpl y to r e ma in a g no sti c re g a rd ing wh a t Willi a m Jam e s c a lle d “ ov e rbe lie fs ” ). Pa nth e ism is what Whit ehea d called “ world loy alty .” Should one be asked “I s this God a “per son? ” the only honest answe r i s that we do not know—Charles Har tshorne’s “ Cosmic Consciousness” and the tra ditional interpre tation of Martin B uber’ s “Eter nal Thou” ( which I believe is incorre ct) to t he contra ry There are well documente d but inconclusive ar g uments both way s. I find my se lf un a ble to c ho os e be tw e e n th e m. But, I would aff irm that on occa sion we feel the quality quantity and value of ou r r e la ti on ships wi th n a tur e a nd his tor y r e la tio ns hip s th a t a re mor e a bu nd a nt, deepe r, ri ch er and mea ningf ul than we nor mally know. These experience s [which I call] “g rac e,” ha ve thre e cha rac t eristi cs: (1) e x perie nces of support or nourishment, (2) ex perie nces of summons or challeng e, and ( 3) experienc es of union with a heig ht, an d d ep t h and bre adth of c onnections of c onsequenc e that we can beg in to describe, but that e ventually fade into my s t ery bey ond the horizon of lang uag e and imag ination. B ut, the op po sit e is a lso tr ue We e xp eri ence emp tin e ss, sh a llo wn e ss, meaning lessness, nau s ea an d blatant evil. This means that re ality (whe ther or not a dd re sse d a s “ Go d” ) is mo ra lly a mbi g uo us T he ide a of Go d in the Jew ish S criptures, as one c apable of both wra th and re pentanc e, as w ell as steadf ast love, seems to me (howe ver my thologica l) to be closer to the truth about our experienc e o f r e a li ty th a n th e id e a li s ti c a b s tr a c ti o n o f Jo h n ’ s f ir s t l e tt e r w h e r e h e w r it e s tha t “God is lig ht, and in God is no darkne s s at al l” (I J ohn 1:5). J ohn’s selec tive ide a lis m c re a te s th a t di ff ic ult a nd un so lva ble “ pr ob le m of e vil ,” or the od ic y F or my ow n p a rt it se e ms w ise r f or us to l ike n G od to e ve ry thi ng e lse we kn ow a bo ut i n nature (and a bout ourselves)—w ith both precious and ap p al l i n g impulses, helpful and horr endous beha viors, constructive and destructive dy namics—hoping that the scale s tip on the constructive side, but unc erta in. The dilemma o f t h e religious moralist i s t h at we are ambig uity in the midst of ambiguity striving to make the wo rl d le ss a mbi g uo us 46

PAGE 43

Sharman A. Russell, Sta nd ing in t he Lig ht: My Life as a P an the ist (N e w Y or k: B a sic B oo ks 47 2008), 3-4. 4 3 I n c on c lud ing thi s in ve sti g a tio n o f t he va ri ou s defi nit ion s o f p a g a nis m, p a nth e ism panenthe ism, poly theism, theism, and atheism, I offer t h i s ex ample of how one selfdescr ibed lay person pa ntheist tries to ex plain all these diff ere nt definitions to a neig hbor who as k s fo r an e xpla na tio n o f w ha t sh e me a ns by de sc ri bin g he rs e lf a s a pa nth e ist : Pantheism is a word ea sily confuse d wi t h o t her w ords. Pantheon, for e xamp le r e fe rs to a c oll e c tio n of ma ny g od s. Pol y the ism is the be lie f in m a ny g od s. When I tell an ac quaintance that I am a pa ntheist, she looks at me askan ce Do I be lie ve in t re e sp ir its ? No tha t is a nim ism I e xpla in– the be lie f t ha t in div idu a l so uls i n h a b i t n a t u r a l o b j e c t s a n d p h e n o m e n a A m I a p a g a n ? s h e w o n d e r s Y e s I s a y. Pa g a nis m is the re lig ion of a ny on e no t spe c if ic a lly a Chr ist ia n, Mu sli m, o r Je w. B ut, I add, she is proba bly thinking of neo-pa g ans, people from a modern, tec hnologic al society who are try ing to revive the ancie nt worship of nature My pantheism does re ve re na tur e B ut I do n' t pr a c tic e a ny a nc ie nt r itu a ls. I mportant l y what pantheism is not is theism–the acce ptance of a sing le, persona l god. P an theism is not atheism either, a disbelief in a sacr ed or numinous un ive rse Th ere i s so me a rg ume nt h e re T he we llkn ow n a the ist a nd sc ie nti st Ric ha rd Da wk ins c a lls pa nth e ism se xed -u p a thei sm. Wel l, n oth ing wr on g wi th being sexy But the pa ntheist acknowle dg es a strong religi ous impulse. The pa nth e ist wa lks li ter ally e ve ry da y in the Min d a nd B od y of Go d. Pa ne nth e ism so un ds th e mo st l ike pa nth e ism bu t a lso is n ot, be ing the do c tr ine tha t G od is b oth immanent in the world and tra nscende nt or outside it, too. 47

PAGE 44

Richard Elliott Friedma n, The Hidden Face of God (San Fr ancisc o: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1995), 1 87-88. Se e M ic h a e l D Co o g a n T h e Ol d T es tament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the 2 Hebre w Scriptures (N e w Y or k: O xfor d U niv e rs ity Pr e ss, 20 06 ), 40 506 f or a n ar g ume nt tha t th is story was most likely composed in the m id-six th centur y BCE during I srae l’s period of B aby lonian exil e. 4 4 CHAPTER 4 THE B I BL I CAL CONTEXT F OR PAN TH EI SM, PAN EN TH EI SM A ND CL ASS I CA L TH EI SM Any exploration of pantheism must occur with at lea st s o m e understanding of its polar opposite, classica l theism. S o it is wit h the emer g ence of cla ssical theism I will beg in. Ric ha rd El lio tt F ri e dma n, in n oti ng tha t bi bli c a l I sr ael wa s th e fi rs t e nd ur ing mon oth e ism known, notes fur ther that the “ differ ence betwee n I srae lite monotheism and paga n relig ion was not a simple ma tter of arithmetic: one God rathe r than many The pag an relig ion t h at d o m i nated the a nc ie nt w or ld f or fo ur mil le nn ia was ti ed to na tur e Pa g a n r e lig ion pe rs on if ie d [N a tur e ’s ] fo rc e s, a sc ri be d a will to the m, an d ca lle d the m: g od s. Ha vin g on e Go d w ho c on tr oll e d a ll t he se forc es wa s a n o th e r ( mo r e a p p e a li n g ?) w a y to d e a l w it h th e s e ” n a tu r a l f o r c e s T h u s “ I s r a e l’s monot h ei s m fo r the fir st tim e, conc eived of a God who w as outside of na ture, c ontrolling its dedei fi ed for ces.” Whil e I will ex plore this in more deta il, this dualistic separ ation of God fr om 1 nature is t h e k e y e le me n t o f c la s s ic a l t h e is m, a s I d is c u s s e d in r e g a r d to M ir c e a E li a d e in Cha pter 2. Th is d ivo rc e of Go d f ro m Natu re had oth e r r a mif ic a tio ns I t a llo we d b ibl ic a l w ri te rs to i m a g i n e t h a t h u m a n s o c c u p i e d a m o r e e xa l t e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r T h u s i n t h e Pr ie stl y version of the I srae lite cre ation story contained in the f irst chapter of Ge nesis, humanity is give n 2 thi s c omm a nd : “ Go d ble sse d the m, a nd Go d sa id to the m ‘B e fr uit fu l a nd mul tip ly a nd fi ll t he e a rt h and subdue it; and ha ve dominion over the f ish of the sea and over the bi rds of the a ir and ove r eve ry

PAGE 45

Jew ish sc ho la r Je re my Coh e n tr a ns la te s th e pa ssa g e a s f oll ow s: “ Go d b le sse d them an d s a id 3 to them, ‘Be fer tile and incre ase, f ill the ea rt h an d m as t er it; and rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky and all the living things that cre ep on the ear th.’” J ere my Cohen, Be Fe rtile and Increase Fill the Earth and Master It: The Ancient and Me dieval Career of a Biblical Text (I tha c a : Co rn e ll University Press, 1989), 1. L y nn W hi te, "The H is to ri cal Ro ot s o f Ou r Eco lo gic C ri si s, Scienc e 155, no. 3767 (1967): 4 1205.; see a lso Elspeth W hitney "White, L y nn -The sis Of," in Ency clopedia of Religion and Nat ur e ed. B ron Tay lor (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005). Cohen, Be Fe rtile and Increase Fill the Earth and Master I t: The Ancient and M ediev al Career 5 of a Biblical T ext 16. 4 5 living thing that moves upon the ea rth” (N RSV). I n reg ards to Christianity it is t his passag e along 3 with the decla ration that humanity was made in “God’s image ” conta ined in Gene sis 1:26 that led his tor ia n L y nn Whit e to a rg ue in a no w f a mou s a nd sti ll c on tr ov e rs ia l ess ay tha t e sp e c ia lly “ in i ts Western form, Christianity is the m ost anthropoc entric relig ion the world has seen.” J ere my Cohen 4 notes that the two He brew verbs that the NRSV tra nslates as “ subdue” a nd “have dominion” and that Coh e n tr a ns la te s a s “ ma ste r” a nd “ ru le ” ind e e d d o h a ve ha rs h c on no ta tio ns c ontr ary to s ome Chr ist ia n in te rp re te rs e ff or ts t o sof te n the te rm s by e qu a tin g the m to Go d’ s wise a nd c omp a ssi on a te rule. Ac cording to Cohen, the Hebr ew equivalent of “subdue” “usually denotes the e nslavement of people or the phy sical conque st o f t err itory .” I n like manner the Hebr ew e quivalent of “ have do min io n” is “ of te n r e inf or c e d b y te rm s o f h a rs hn e ss, re fe rs in g e ne ra l to the ru le ov e r s la ve s, subjects, or e nemies, at times to the vanquishing of an oppone nt in battle, and per haps eve n to the tr a m p l i n g o f g r a p e s i n a w i n e p r e s s ” C o h e n n o t e s t h a t t h e s e h a r s h c o n n o t a t i o n s l e a d so me interpre ters to “f latly to ag ree with Whi te.” 5 Another ke y passag e fr om the Hebr ew Bible needs to be considere d, Psalms 8. I t rea ds as fo llo ws : To the lea der: a ccor ding to The Gittith. A P salm of David. O L ORD, our Sovere ign, how majestic is y our name in a ll the ear th! You have set 1

PAGE 46

I bid., 34-35. 6 Clarenc e J. Glacken, Trac es o n t h e R h o dian Shore: Nature and Culture in W estern Thought 7 fro m A nc ie nt T im e s to the En d o f th e Ei gh te e nth Ce ntu ry (B e rk e le y : Un ive rs ity of Ca lif or nia Pr e ss, 1967), 155. 4 6 y our g lory above the heave ns, Out of the mout h of babes and infants, y ou have founded a bulwark be cause of y our 2 foes, to silence the ene my and the a veng er. When I look a t y our heave ns, the work of y our fing ers, the moon a nd the stars that 3 y ou ha ve e sta bli sh e d; what ar e human be ings tha t y ou are m i n d ful of them, mortals that y ou car e for 4 t h e m ? Yet y ou have ma de them a little lower than God, and c rowne d them with g lory and 5 honor. Yo u h a ve given th em do min ion ov e r t he wo rk s o f y ou r h a nd s; y ou ha ve pu t a ll 6 things unde r their f eet, all sheep a nd ox en, and a lso the beasts of the f ield, 7 the birds of the air, and the fish of t he sea, whateve r passes along the paths of the 8 sea. O L ORD, our Sovere ign, how majestic is y our name in all the ear th! 9 Scholars have not ed the simil arity and relationship betwee n Psalm 8 and Genesis 1:28, though they dis agree on wh ic h te xt pr e da te s w hic h. Ac c or din g to C oh e n, so me se e thi s te xt as su bs ta nti a lly e a rl ie r t ha n th e Pr ie stl y c re a tio n text, wh ile oth e rs c on sid e r i t a me re ly a la te r g los s o n th e Ge ne sis idea of dominion. Either way it is another text that has during the cour se of the e volution of ideas 6 in We s te r n Ci v il iz a ti o n r e in f o r c e d th e s e n s e o f h u ma n e n ti tl e me n t t o d o mi n a te c o n tr o l a n d u ti li ze the na tur a l w or ld t o it s o wn be ne fi t. A s Cl a re nc e Gl a c ke n noted in r e g a rd to P sa lm 8 a nd Psa lms 11 5 : 1 6 (“The heave ns are the L ord’s he avens, but the e arth he has g iven to human being s”), the “theme tha t man, sinful though he be, occupie s a posi tion on earth c ompara ble to that of God in the universe, a s a per sonal possession, a re alm of stewa rdship, has bee n one of the key ideas in the relig ious and philosophical thought of Western civilization reg arding [hum anity ’s] place in nature .” 7 I n terms of Christian belief in the separ ation betwee n God and the natura l c rea ted order the Apostle Paul is the decisive c hara cter Paul, in the opinion of many if not m o s t s ch o l ar s, is the

PAGE 47

See gene rally Bur ton L Mack, The Christ ian M yth: Origins, Logic, and Legacy (Ne w York: 8 Continuum 2001).; Hy am Mac coby The My thm ak e r: Paul an d th e In v e nti on of C hr ist ian ity 1 st Har per & Row pbk. ed. (Ne w York: Ha rper & Row, 1987) J ohn Dominic Crossan and J onathan L Reed, In Searc h of Paul: How Jesus's Apostle Opposed 9 Rome's Empire with God's K ingdom 1st ed. (Ne w York: Ha rper SanFr ancisc o, 2004), 105. Glacke n, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Cult ure in W estern Thought from Ancient 10 Tim e s to the En d o f th e Ei gh te e nth Ce ntu ry 161. 4 7 decisive inter prete r and, some w o u l d s ay creator of the Christian My th. Of the va rious letters 8 included in the Christian New Testament, ther e is nea r-una nimous ag ree ment among scholars tha t se ve n w e re a uth e nti c a lly wr itt e n b y Pa ul. Hi s le tte r to the Rom a ns the la st o f t he se se ve n, a nd is 9 c on sid e re d to be the most compr e he ns ive a rt ic ula tio n o f h is t he olo g y I n Ch a pte r 1 Pa ul h a s th is t o s a y: For the wra th of God is reve aled f rom heav en ag ainst all ung odliness and 18 wickedne ss of those who by their wicke dness suppress t ru t h For what ca n be 19 known about God is plain to them, bec ause G od has shown it to them. Ever sinc e 20 the cr eation of the world his eter nal power and divine nature invisibl e thoug h they are have be en under stood and seen thr oug h t h e t h i n g s he has made So they are without ex cuse; for thoug h they knew God, the y did not honor him as God or g ive 21 thanks to him, but the y beca me futile in the ir thinking, and their sensel es s m i nds wer e darkene d. Claiming t o be wise, they beca me fools, and they exchang ed the 22 23 g lory of t he im mortal God for imag es resembling a mortal human being or birds or fo ur -f oo t e d a n i m a l s o r r e p t i l e s T h e r e f o r e G o d g a v e t h e m u p i n t h e l u s t s o f t h e ir 24 he a rt s to impur ity to the de g ra din g of the ir bo die s a mon g the mse lve s, be c a us e 25 they exchang ed the truth a bout G od for a lie and wor shiped and ser ved the c rea ture rathe r than the Creator, who is blessed for ever Amen. ( Romans 1:19-25, NRSV) Glacke n notes that the idea expressed in verse 20, that the rea lity of God is demonstrate d by God’s cre ation, “could ha ve bee n written by a S toic philosopher.” Yet it is the declara tion in verse 25 that has prove n decisive in the history of W estern Civi liz ation. “I t is a theme re peate d often in Christian theolog y : worship the C rea tor, not the creature The wor ks of God ca n be disce rned in the c rea tion, but God is transce ndent, the cr eation is by him but not of him and it is only a partial teac her. O ne can se e His wa y s in it, but worship is for the Creator alone.” Viewe d throug h the lens of meme tics 10

PAGE 48

Th e te rm meme was c oined by Richard Da wkins in Chapter E l even of his 1976 book, The 11 Selfish Gene Richard Da wkins, The Selfish Gene 30th Anniversar y ed. (O x fo rd ; New Y ork: Oxf or d U niv e rs ity Pr e ss, 20 06 ), 18 920 1. F or a n u pd a te d s umm a ry s e e Da nie l Cle me nt D e nn e tt, Breaking the Spe ll: Religion as a Natur al Phenome non (Ne w York: Viking 2006), 341-57. Richard Oster notes that this ser mon is depicted in a way that “deliber ately echoe s the trial of 12 Socrate s for proc laiming ne w deities and le ading the populace to question i t s b el i efs in the traditional g ods.” Richar d E. Oster, Jr., "A thens," in The Ox for d Com pa nio n to the Bi ble ed. B ruce M. Metzger and Micha el D. Coog an (N ew Yor k: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 1993), 65. 4 8 or meme the ory this idea, that worship is for the Cre ator a lone and that the divine is not to be seen 11 in the cre ation, is a meme that has been wildly succe ssful and ca sts a long sha dow. I t must be taken into account in any investiga tion of ideas about God a nd Nature Given Paul’s undisputed authorship of this passa g e an d i t s deriva tive ideas, it is theref ore nece ssary to examine another biblical pa ssag e, also attributed t o Paul, that seems to have e x actly the opposite messag e. I n the New Testament book of Acts is this acc ount of a public ser mon by Paul a t A the n’ s A re op a g us se t f or th h e re in f ull fo r c omp le te c on te xt: 12 Then Paul stood in front of the A reopa g us and said, “A thenians, I see how 22 extremely relig ious y ou are in ever y way For as I went throug h the city and looked 23 car ef u l l y at t he objec ts of y our worship, I found among them an altar with the i n s c r i p t i o n ‘ T o a n u n k n o w n g o d ’ W h a t t h e r e f o r e y o u w o r s h i p a s u n k n o w n thi s I procla im to y ou. The God who m ade the world and e very thing in it, he who is L ord 24 of hea ven and e arth, doe s not live in shrines made by human hands, nor is he ser ved 25 by hu ma n ha nd s, a s th ou g h h e ne e de d a ny thi ng s inc e he him se lf g ive s to a ll m or ta ls life and br eath a nd all things. Fr om one ance stor he made all nations to inhabit the 26 whole ea rth, and he allotted the times of their e x istence and the bounda ries of the place s where they would live, so that they would sear ch for God and pe rhaps g rope 27 fo r h im a nd fi nd him —th ou g h in de e d h e is n ot f a r f ro m e a c h o ne of us F or ‘I n h im 28 we live a nd move and ha ve our be ing’ ; as eve n s ome of y our own poe ts have said, ‘F or we too are his offspring .’ Since we are God’s offspring we oug ht not to thi nk 29 that the deity is like gold, or silver or stone, an imag e f o rm ed b y t h e art and imag ination of mortals. Whil e God has overlooke d the times of human ig noranc e, 30 now he commands all people ever y wher e to r epent, beca use he ha s fix ed a da y on 31 which he wi l l have the world judg ed in rig hteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has g iven assura nce to a ll by raising him from the dea d.” The de cisive ver se for any one looking for bibl i ca l wa rr ant for seeing the divine in nature is the

PAGE 49

Glacke n, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Cult ure in W estern Thought from Ancient 13 Tim e s to the En d o f th e Ei gh te e nth Ce ntu ry 161, n. 30. Charles Ha rtshorne, Pantheism and Panentheism," in E n cy cl o p edia of Religion ed. Mirce a 14 Eliade (N ew Yor k: Macmillan Publishi ng Co., 1987), 166. Phili p Clay ton and A. R. Peac ocke, In W hom W e Live and M ove and Have O ur Being: 15 Pa ne nth e ist ic Re fle c tio ns on Go d's P re se nc e in a Sc ie nti fic W or ld (Gra nd Rapids, Mich.: W illiam B. Ee rdmans Pub., 2004). Don ald A. Cr os by "A Ca se for Re li gion of N atu re," Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, 16 an d Cu ltu re 1, no. 4 (2007): 490. ———, A R e lig ion of N atu re (Albany NY: State Univer sity of Ne w York Pre ss, 2002), 10. 17 Marc us J Bor g Me e tin g J e su s A ga in f or the Fi rst Tim e : T he Hi sto ric al J e su s & the He ar t 18 of C on te mp or ar y Fa ith 1st ed. (San F ranc isco: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1994), 38. For an arg ument that he may have delivere d this ser mon, se e F. F. Br uce, "A cts of t he 19 Apos tles," in The Ox for d Co mp an ion to t he Bi ble ed. B ruce M. Metzger and Micha el D. Coog an (Ne w York: Oxford Univer sity Press, 1993), 8.; for the contrary view, see Ba rt D. Ehrma n, The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian W ritings 2nd ed. (N ew Yor k: Ox ford University Press, 2000), 264-65.; A. N. Wilson, Pa ul: The Mi nd of t he Ap os tle 1st A merica n ed. (Ne w York: W.W. Norton &, 1997), 157.; Gnther B ornkamm, Paul, Paulus 1st U.S. ed. (New 4 9 quotation c ontained in ve rse 28, “F or ‘I n him we live and move and have our being .’” Gl ac k en notes it as a contra st to Paul’s ideas in Romans. Charles Har tshorne, the founding philosopher of 13 20 Century panenthe ism, cites it and, appar ently assuming tha t Paul said it, asks whether Paul was th “ a pa nthe olo g ia n?” Th e ph ilo so ph e r an d the olo g ia n Phili p Cla y ton us e s th e ve rs e in t he tit le to 14 on e of his re c e nt b oo ks on panen the ism Th e no nthe ist ic ph ilo so ph e r o f r e lig iou s n a tur a lis m 15 Donald Crosby in a re cent journa l article use s the quote without att ri b u t i on and with attribution 16 in his book. Panentheistic Christian theolog ian and New Testament scholar Marcus Borg uses the 17 quote to demonstrate the immanence of God. The pa ssag e appe ars r epea tedly in disc ussions of 18 relig ion and nature B ut d id P a ul a c tua lly de liv e r t his se rm on a nd utt e r t he se wo rd s? I t has been a rg ue d b oth way s. Given the wa y this passag e has been used by Christian panentheistic theolog ians, perha ps 19

PAGE 50

York,: Ha rper & Row, 1971) 65. See Martin Dibelius and K. C. Hanson, The Book of Acts: F orm, Style, and Theology F or tr e ss 20 Classics in Biblical Studies (Minneapolis: For tress P ress, 2004), 109, sug g esting the passag e is from a hy mn to Ze us by Epimenides of Crete. See a lso “Epimenides,” Ency clopdia Britanni ca (2008), Ency clopdia Br itannica Online, Ma r. 30, 2008 http:// www.s ea rc h eb co m l p h s cl u fl ed u / eb / article 274263 ; and Euan Nisbet, “He avenly Phenomena: How an Astronomer’ s Words W ere Transf ormed into a Citation C lassic,” Nat ur e 5 April 2001, 635. Michae l D. Cooga n et al., eds., The Ne w O x for d A nn ota te d B ib le, New Re v ise d S tan da rd 21 Version with the Apocryphal/ De u terocanonical Book s 3 rd e d. (O xfor d: O xfor d U niv e rs ity Pr e ss, 2001), at pa g e 219 (N ew Te stament), in note to Acts 17:28. 5 0 the mor e imp or ta nt q ue sti on is w ho is Pa ul a lle g e dly qu oti ng in t his pa ssa g e ? I n a nn ota te d b ibl e s, the quote is sometimes attributed t o the 6t h Century BCE Greek poet Epimenides, but it is more 20 likely a passa g e fr om the 1 Century BCE Stoic pantheist monistic poet Posidoni u s (c. 13551 st BCE). I will r eturn to this, but I will note here a cer tain irony when this piece of panthe istic pag an 21 verse which happe ned to make into the bi b l i ca l canon is ada mantly utiliz ed by Christian pa ne nth e ist ic the olo g ia ns a s a re fu ta tio n o f p a nth e ism

PAGE 51

Abbey ’s pantheistic thoug ht has also bee n explored by Br on Tay lor. See B ron Tay lor, The 1 Tri bu tar ies of R adi cal En vi ron men tal is m, J ou rn al f or the Stu dy of R ad ical ism 2, no. 1: 32-36.; Br on Tay lor, Dark Gre en Re ligion (B erke ley CA: University of California Pre ss, Ex pecte d 2009), and ———, Resacr alizing Earth: Pag an Environmenta lism and the Restoration of Turtle I sland," in American Sacre d S p ace ed. Da vid Chidester and Edwa rd T. L inenthal (B loomington: I ndiana University Press, 1995), 105-10. J ack L oeff ler, "E d war d Abbey ," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor 2 (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 2. 5 1 CHAPTER 5 THE NAT URAL I STI C PANTHEI SM OF EDWARD AB BEY The quoted phrase in the t itle of this project, “ the only paradise we e ver ne ed ,” wa s penned by Edwar d Abbey (1927-1989) an essa y ist a nd novelist that many consider the Thorea u of contempora ry Americ a, in his e ssay “Down the River” in De se rt S oli tai re his fame d collection of e ssa y s a bo ut t wo se a so ns a s a pa rk ra ng e r in Ar c he s N a tio na l Mo nu me nt i n th e 19 50 s. He wa s a lso a philosopher of anar chy and an inspirat i o n t o the forma tion of contempora ry radic al environmenta lism. But my interest her e is the metaphy sical fr amewor k by which he or iented him se lf a nd tha t he a dv oc a te d f or oth e rs 1 Ab be y pla y e d wi th his me ta ph y sic a l g ro un din g ov e r tim e B ut on a t le a st on e oc c asi on in 1983, approximately six y ear s befor e his dea th, he applied the te rm pantheist to himself: Ca ll m e a pa nth e ist I f t he re is s uc h a thi ng a s d ivi ni ty th en it mus t e xist in ever y thing, a nd not simpl y be loca liz ed in one super natura l fig ure be y ond time and space Either eve ry thing is d i v i n e, o r not hing is. All par take of the universa l divinity – t h e s co rpion and the pa ckra t, the J unebug and the pismire. Eve n human being s. All or nothing, now or never here and now. 2 Th us w e do no t ha ve to wo nd e r if he wo uld a pp ly the te rm to him se lf B ut wh a t kind of pa nth e ist wa s h e ? I wi ll a rg ue Ab be y is a ve ry g oo d e xemp la r o f n a tur a lis tic pa nth e ism Ho w e a rl y did Ab be y ’s e a rt hc e nte re d me ta ph y sic s e me rg e ? I n a 19 59 le tte r, he re fe rr e d to the “Gr eat Christian Ha ng over” and also to himself as “a n atheist. Tho’ e arthiest mig ht be a be tter

PAGE 52

E dwar d Abbey and Da vid Petersen, Postcards from Ed: Dispatches and Salv os from an 3 Am e ric an Ic on oc las t 1st ed. (Minnea polis: Mi lkweed E ditions, 2006), 11. The letter wa s to a c oll e g e pr of e sso r a nd wa s mo stl y a sc a th in g critiqu e of the pla y wr ig ht a nd wr ite r S a mue l B e c ke tt Edwar d Abbey De se rt S oli tai re (Tucson: Unive rsity of Arizona Press, 1988 [1968] ), 163. 4 ———, The Monke y W rench G ang (Ne w York: Avon B ooks, 1975), 50. 5 J ames M. Caha lan, Ed war d A bb e y : A Life (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2001), 15758. 6 Abbey De se rt S oli tai re 147. (empha sis suppli ed). 7 5 2 term. I believe in the ear th. L et Hea ven g o to H ell!” He r ewor ked this sentiment later in De se rt 3 So lit air e a s f oll ow s: Go d? wh o the he ll i s He ? There is nothing here, at the moment, but me and the deser t. And that' s the truth. Why co n fu s e t h e issue by drag g ing in a superf luous en ti ty ? O c c a m' s r a zo r B e y o n d a th e is m, n o n th e is m. I a m n o t a n a th e is t but an ear thiest. Be tr ue to the ea rth. 4 I s Abbey expressing disloy alty to rest of the c osmos? Probably not. So fa r, t h e o n l y p ar t of the Cosmos t hat humans ca n harm throug h disloy alty i s t h e E ar t h. Henc e, it is a proper focus f or p a n t h e i s t i c l o ya l t y. I n his famous 1975 novel of radic al environme ntalism, The Monke y W rench G ang Abbey 5 g ives an intimation of pantheism by having Doc Sar vis, the char acte r that wa s a fictionalized c omb ina tio n o f h ims e lf a nd his fr ie nd John De Puy sa y the fol lo wi ng : “ Pa n s ha ll r ise a g a in, my 6 dear The g rea t god Pan. My God is alive and kic king. Sorr y about y ours.” Abbey penned a n espec ially evoca tive pantheistic cr edo re flec ting on the ne ed for wi lde rn e ss: Th e lov e of wi lde rn e ss is mor e tha n a hun g e r fo r wh a t is a lw a y s b e y on d r e a c h; i t is also an e x pression of loy alty to the ear th, the earth which bore us and sustains us, the only home we sha ll ever know t h e o n l y paradi se we ev er nee d –if only we ha d the ey es to see. O rig inal sin, t h e t rue origina l sin, is t he blind destruction for the sake of g ree d of this natural pa radise which l ies all around us–if only we were worthy of it. 7

PAGE 53

Edwar d Abbey Down the River 1st ed. (Ne w York: Dutton, 1982), 55. 8 Abbey De se rt S oli tai re 155. 9 5 3 Thus, Abbey tells us that this is our onl y home, t here by decla ring disbelief in a he avenly afte rlife, though not ne cessa rily ruling out r einca rnation. I ndeed, Abbey fre quently would ruminate on being re inc a rn a te d a s a vu ltu re B ut w a s h e se ri ou s? Ap pe a lin g a s I fi nd the ide a of re inc a rn a tio n, I mus t c on fe ss t ha t it ha s a fl a w: to w it, there is not a shred of e vidence sug g esting that it might be true. The idea has nothing g oing f or it but desire, the r estless as p i ra t i o n of the human mind. B ut when wa s aspiration eve r intimida t ed by fac t? Given a c hoice, I plan to be a long -wing ed fanta iled bird next t ime around. I think I ’ll settle for se date c are er, s er en e and soaring of the humble turkey buzz ard. A nd contemplate this world we love from a sil e nt a nd c on sid e ra ble he ig ht. 8 Th us A bb e y dis pla y e d h is c a pa c ity to e ng a g e in f lig hts of fa nc y wh ile sim ult a ne ou sly sh ow ing his essentially empirica l orientation. Elsewher e, he e x presse d disapproval of taking flig hts of fan cy aw ay from factual truth, as shown in this description of a da y hike up Esca lante Cany on in Southern Utah: I s this at last the loc us De i? There ar e en oug h cathe drals and te mples and altars here fo r a Hi n du pantheon of diviniti es. Eac h time I look up one of the secr etive little side cany ons I half e x pect to see not only the cottonwood tre e rising over its tiny spring – the leaf y g od, the deser t's liquid ey e–but also a r ainbow-c olored corona of blazing light, pure spirit, pur e being pure disembodied intellig ence about to speak my name. I f a ma n' s imag ination were not so weak, so e asily tired, if his ca pacity for wo nd e r n ot s o li mit e d, he wo uld a ba nd on fo re ve r s uc h f a nta sie s o f t he su pe rn a tur a l. He would lea rn to perc eive in wa ter, lea ves and silenc e more than suffic ient of the absolute and ma rvelous, more than enough to console him for the loss of the ancie nt dr e a ms. 9 Ab be y re ve le d in his e xiste nc e a nd the my ste ry of it: Einstein thought that the m ost my sterious aspec t of t he universe (if it is, indeed, a univer se, not a pluri-ve rse) is what he c al l ed i ts “compre hensibility .” B eing pr ima ri ly a ma the ma tic ia n Ei ns te in sa w t he wo rl d a s c omp re he ns ibl e be c a us e so m an y o f i t s p ro p er t i es an d s o m u ch o f i t s b eh av i o r c an b e d es cr i b ed t h ro u gh

PAGE 54

———, Down the River 51. 10 ———, De se rt S oli tai re 88. 11 5 4 ma the ma tic a l f or mul a s. B ut t o me the mos t my ste ri ou s th ing a bo ut t he un iver se is n ot i ts c omp re he ns ibi lit y bu t th e fa c t th a t it e xists A nd the sa me my ster y a tta c he s to ever y th in g wit hi n i t. Th e wo rl d i s perm eat ed th rou gh and th rou gh by my st ery By the inc omp re he ns ibl e B y c re a tur e s li ke y ou a nd me a nd Ei ns te in an d the liza rd s. 10 Tr a ine d p hil os op he r t ha t he wa s, he ha d no p a tie nc e fo r p hil os op hic a l no ns e ns e tha t w ou ld deny the re ality of our e x istence on our “par adise” home: Solips ism, li ke other absurdities of the pr ofessional philosopher, is a product of too much time w asted in libra ry stacks betwee n the cover s of a bo o k i n s m oke-f illed coff eehouse s (bad f or the bra ins) and conve rsation-c logg ed seminar s. To ref ute the solipsis t or the metaphy sical idealist all that y ou have to do is take him out and throw a ro c k a t hi s he a d: i f h e du c ks he s a lia r. Hi s lo g ic ma y be a ir tig ht b ut h is a rg ume nt, far f r o m r e v e a li n g th e d e lu s io n s o f li v in g e xp e r ie n c e o n ly e xp o s e s th e s u f f o c a ti on of log ic. 11 Reveling in the rea l, with a real apprecia tion for knowledg e obtained thr oug h scienc e, Abbe y re ve a ls a n e c sta tic e mpi ri c ism : [T] he Colorado Platea u lies still bey ond the rea ch of r easona ble words. Or unrea sonable re prese ntation. This is a landscape that has to be seen to be believed, and eve n then, conf ronted dire ctly by the senses, it strains cr edulity [T] here re ma in s s o me th in g in th e s o u l o f th e p la c e th e s p ir it o f th e w h o le that cannot be fully assimilated by the human imag ination. My te rm ino log y is f a r f ro m e xac t; c e rt a inl y no t sc ie nti fi c Wo rd s li ke so ul" and spirit" make vag ue substitutes for a ha rd effort toward understanding But I can offe r no better The land he re is like a g rea t book or a gre at sy mphony ; it invi tes a pp ro a c he s to wa rd c omp re he ns ion on ma ny le ve ls, fr om a ll d ir e c tio ns The g eolog ic appr oach is certainly primary and fundamental, under ly ing the attitude and outl ook that best support all others including the insig hts of poetry and the wisdom of re l i gion. J ust as the ea rth itself forms the indispensable g round for the only kind of life we know, providi n g t he sole sustena nce of our minds and bodies, so does empirica l tru t h co n s titute the foundation of hig her truths. (I f there is such a thing as highe r truth.) I t se ems to me that Kea ts was wrong when he asked, rhetoric ally "D o not all char ms fly at t he mere t ouch of c old philosophy ? T he word philosophy sta nding, in his day for wha t we now call "phy sical scienc e." But Kea ts was wrong I say beca use there is more cha rm in one mere f act, c onfirmed by test and obser vation, linked to othe r fa cts throug h coher ent theory into a rational

PAGE 55

Edwar d Abbey The J ou rn e y Ho me : S om e W or ds in D e fe ns e of t he Am e ric an W e st 1st ed. 12 (Ne w York: Dutton, 1977), 8687. Ab be y is he re re fe rr ing to Th or e a u’ s fa mou s re fl e c tio n on re a lit y in the tw o p enu lti ma te 13 para g raphs of Chapter 2 in W alden “Where I L ived, and What I L ived For ”: Shams and delusions are estee med for sounde st truths, while reality is fabulous. . L et us settle ourselve s, and work and we dg e our f eet downw ard throug h the mud and slush of opinion, an d p re judice, and tr adition, and delusion, and a ppear ance that alluvion which cove rs the g lobe, throug h Paris and L ondon, throug h Ne w York a nd Boston and Con c or d, thr ou g h Ch ur c h a nd Sta te th ro ug h p oe tr y a nd ph ilo so ph y a nd re lig ion ti ll w e c ome to a ha rd bo tt om and roc ks in p la c e w hic h w e c a n c a ll re ali ty and say This is, and no mistake; and then set a Realometer that future a g es mig ht know how dee p a fr eshet of shams and appea ranc es had g ather ed from time to time. I f y ou stand rig ht fronting and fa ce to fac e to a f act, y ou will see the sun g limmer on both its s urfa ces, a s if it were a cimete r, and fe e l i t s s w e e t e d g e d i v i d i n g y o u t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t a n d m a r r o w a n d s o y o u w i l l ha pp ily co n cl u d e y o u r m o rt al ca re er Be i t l i fe o r de at h we cr av e on l y re al i t y I f w e a re re al l y d y i n g, l et u s h ea r t h e r at t l e i n o u r t h ro at s an d fe el co l d i n t h e e x t re m i t i e s ; i f we ar e a l i v e, l et u s go a bo ut o ur bu sin e ss. Phili p Van Dor en Stern a nd Henr y David Thore au, The Annotated W alden: W alden; or, Life in the W oods 1 st e d. (N e w Yo rk : Cla rk so n N. Pot te r, I nc ., 19 70 ), 22 629 ( Th or e a u’ s e mph a sis ). Whil e 5 5 sy stem, than in a whole brainful of fanc y and fanta sy I see more poetry in a chunk of quar tzi te than in a make -believe wood ny mph, more bea uty in the reve lations of a ve ri fi a ble int e lle c tua l c on str uc tio n th a n in wh ole mis ty e mpi re s o f o bs ole te m yt h o l o g y. The mora l I labor towa rd is that a landsc ape a s sp l en d i d as that of the Colorado Plateau can best be understood and given human significa nce by poets who have the ir fee t planted i n concr ete–c oncre te data–and by scientists whose hea ds and he a rt s h a ve no t lo st t he c a pa c ity fo r w on de r. An y g oo d p oe t, i n o ur a g e a t le a st, mus t be g in w ith the sc ie nti fi c vie w o f t he wo rl d; a nd a ny sc ie nti st wo rt h li ste nin g to m us t be so me thi ng of a po e t, mus t po sse ss the a bil ity to c omm un ic a te to t he re st o f u s h is se ns e of lov e a nd wo nd e r a t w ha t hi s w or k d isc ov e rs 12 I n his essay paea n to Thorea u, Abbey ex p l o res where a metaphy sics g rounded in scie nce le a ds : Wat c hin g the pla ne ts, I stu mbl e a bo ut la st nig ht' s c a mpf ir e br e a kin g tw ig s, filling the c offe epot. I d i p wa terbuc kets in the river ; the water chills my hands. I stare long at the beautiful, dimming lights in the sky but can f ind there no me aning other than the lights' intrinsic beauty As fa r as I can pe rce ive, the plane ts signify no thi ng bu t th emse lve s. Suc h s uc hn e ss, a s my Z e n f ri e nd s sa y A nd tha t is a ll. And that is enoug h. And that is more than we can ma ke hea d or tail of. "Re ality is fabulous," said Henr y ; "be it l ife or de ath, we c rave nothing but r e a l i t y A n d g o e s o n t o d e s c r i b e i n p r e c i s e a c c u r a t e g l i t t e r i n g d e t a il t he mos t 13

PAGE 56

Abbey is h er e ci ting to Thore au for his proposition t hat surfa ce r eality is all we nee d, Charles Ander son arg ues that this pa ssag e is, in contra st to Abbe y ’s usag e, the “ most abstract tre atment of I dealism in W alden .” Charle s Roberts Ander son, The Magic Circle of W alden (N e w Y or k, : H olt 1968), 102, cited in Ster n and Thore au, The Annotated W alden: W alden; or, Life in the W oods 226. “Down the River with Henr y Thorea u,” in Abbey Down the River 19-20. 14 ———, De se rt S oli tai re x i i As wr i t t en b y Ab b ey i n t h e o ri gi n al 1 9 6 8 v er s i o n t h e p as s age 15 re a ds a s f oll ow s: I t will be objected that the book deals too much with mere appea ranc es, with the surfa ce of thing s, and fails to e ng ag e and reve al the patterns of unify ing r elationships which form the true unde rly ing r eality of existence. He re I must confess that I know nothing w hateve r about true unde rly ing r eality having never met any There are many people who sa y they h av e, I k n o w b u t t h e y v e b e e n l u c k i e r t h a n I. 5 6 subtle and minute aspec ts of life in and about his Walden Pond; the "pulse" of wa ter skaters, f or instance advanc ing f rom shore a cross the sur fa ce o f the lake. Appea ranc e is rea lity Thorea u implies; or so it appea rs to m e. I beg in to think he outgr ew tra nscende ntalism ra ther ear ly in his car eer at about the sa me time that he was ove rcoming the influenc e o f h is onetime mentor Emerson; Thor eau a nd the transce ndentalists had little in common–in t he long run. 14 Abbey also explored this “Appea ranc e is rea lity ” theme in both his orig inal 1968 “Author’ s I n t ro d u ction” to De se rt S oli tai re and the f inal “Pref ace ” in the 1988 fina l edition, penned nine months before his death: De se rt S oli tai re I m ha pp y to a dd c on ta ins no hid de n me a nin g s, no se c re t me ssa g e s. I t is no more than it appea rs to be, the plain an d simple acc ount of a long swee t sea s o n li v e d in o n e o f th e w o r ld s mo s t s p le n d id p la c e s I f s o me mi g h t o b je c t t h at the bo ok de a ls t oo muc h w ith me re a pp e a ra nc e s, wi th t he su rf a c e of thi ng s, a nd fa ils to eng ag e and r evea l th e patter ns of unify ing r elationships that many believe f orm the tr ue and un de rl y ing re a lit y of e xiste nc e I c a n o nly re ply tha t I a m c on te nt w ith surfa ces, w ith a ppear ance s. I know nothing a bout underly ing r eality having never encounte red a ny I ve looked a nd I ve looked, trie d fa s t i n g, d rug s, meditation, r e l i g i o u s e xp e r i e n c e e v e n s e l f m o r t i f i c a t i o n b u t n e v e r s e e m t o g e t a n y c los e r t o basic re ality than the liz ard on a rock, a hawk in the sky a dea d pig in the sunshine. B e ne a th e a c h sto ne I fi nd mor e sto ne .; p e e lin g a n o nio n to the c or e I e nd up wi th nothing but the pe rfe ct complement to my hot skillet of fried eg g s, diced chiles and hashbrown tur nips. Appea ranc e is rea lity I say and more than most of us deser ve. You whi n e a n d w h im p e r a f te r im mo r ta li ty b e y o n d s p a c e ti me ? Co me h o me for God' s sake, a nd enjoy this gra cious Ear t h o f o u rs whil e y ou can. O kay y ou contemplate the underly ing relationships; I ll [t ]hrow metaphy sic to the dog s. I ne ve r h e a rd a mou nta in l ion ba wl ing ov e r t he fa te of his so ul. 15

PAGE 57

For my own par t I am please d enoug h with surfac es–in fac t they alone se em to m e to be of much importance Such things for example, a s the g rasp of a child' s hand in y our own, the flavor of an apple the embra ce of a fr i en d or lover ., the sunlight on roc k and lea ves, the fe e l o f mu s ic th e b a r k o f a tr e e th e a b r a s io n o f g r a n it e a n d s a n d th e p lu n g e of c lear water into a pool, the fac e of the wind–what else is there? What else do we ne ed? Edwar d Abbey De se rt S oli tai re : A Se as on in t he W ild e rn e ss Paperba ck ed. (Ne w York: Ballantine B oo ks 1 96 8) xi. Abbey De se rt S oli tai re v iii 16 Abbey De se rt S oli tai re xiii 17 5 7 I n his chara cte ri s t i c humorous st y le, Abbey acknow ledg ed “ponde ring what my hero [c o mp o s e r ] Ch a r le s I v e s c a ll e d [i n th e ti tl e o f h is o r c h e s tr a l p ie c e ] The Unanswered Que stion What am I doing with my life? Nothing. What is the s ignif icanc e of ex istence? Who knows. W here do we c ome from a nd wher e ar e we g oing? W ho car es.” But fur ther re sponding to the que stion, 16 What i s the nature of this universe, he answe red it is “something strang e and mor e bea utiful and more full of w onder tha n y our dee pest drea ms. .” 17 I n c on c lus ion A bbey pr ov ide s o ne of the be st e xamp le s th a t a n e c sta tic pa nth e ist ic natura lism i s possible, o n e t h at embra ces sc ience acc epts human mortality does not quest af ter unseen spirits or i mmaterial presenc es, and y et j oy fully cele brate s our amazi ng g ood luck t o be her e.

PAGE 58

Thomas Mary Be rry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of R econciliation betw een 1 Hu ma ns an d th e Ea rth (My stic, Conn.: Twenty -Third Publications, 1991), B ack Cove r. Mary Evely n T u ck er "Berry Thomas," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron 2 Tay lor (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 164. Kenne th L Woodward, On the Road Ag ain: Americ ans L ove t h e Searc h So Much That the 3 I dea o f a Des ti nat io n I s L os t, Newsweek Nov. 28, 1994. Thomas Mary Be rry The Dr e am of t he Ea rth (San F ranc isco: Sierra Club B ooks, 1988). 4 Be rry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Re conciliation between Hum ans and the 5 Ea rth Thomas Mary Be rry The Gr e at W or k : O ur W ay int o th e Fu tur e 1st pbk. ed. (Ne w York: 6 Be ll Tower, 1999) 5 8 CHAPTER 6 REI NVENTI NG WHAT I T MEANS TO B E HUMAN: TH E E CO L OG I CA L TH OU GH T O F TH OM AS B ERR Y Bor n in 1914, Thomas Be rry is Catholic priest of the Passionist Or d er Hi s educa tion at 1 Catholic University was a s a historian of Western intellec tual history He ha s become a key fig ure 2 in environmenta l p h i l osophy Newsweek has re cog nized Ber ry as a ke y fig ure in Christian ecothe ology k n o wn for pr omoting “the evolution of the universe ” as huma nity ’s “ne w sac red story .” Newsweek summarized Be rry ’s view: “e volution is both a ‘sac red pr ocess’ and ‘the primary re ve la tio n o f G od to m a n. ’ And li ke all re ve la tio ns th is o ne e lic its a ne w s e t of c omm a nd me nts : to preser ve and pr otect the life forms cr eate d by Mother Ea rth.” 3 What I wil l d o h ere is review a nd compar e his major wor ks, and see how his writing ha s evolved o v er tim e. I will consider individually and then tog ether The Dr e am of t he Ea rth 4 Be fri e nd ing the Ea rth A The olo gy of R e c on cil at io n Betwe e n H um an s a nd the Ea rth and The 5 Gr e at W or k O ur W ay In to t he Fu tur e 6

PAGE 59

Ger ald T. Ga rdner and Paul C. Stern, Environmental Problems and H uman Behav ior (B oston: 7 Ally n and B acon, 1996) 51. Be rry The Dr e am of t he Ea rth 29-30. 8 I bid., 57. 9 I bid., 21, 82. 10 5 9 The Dr e am of t he Ea rth The Dr e am of t he Ea rth was publi shed by Sierra Club Books in 1988 as the first of its “Sierra Club Nature and Natural P hilosophy L ibrary .” An ex ample of the book’s influence is that Gardne r a n d S t e r n i n t h e i r c h a p t e r o n “ R e l i g i o u s a n d M o r a l A p p r o a c h e s ” i n t h e i r s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g y te xt book, exclusively rely on Be rry and T h e D r e a m o f t h e Ea rth to des cribe ne w d e ve lop me nts in Christian eco-the ology and desc ribe his ideas a s “B err y ’s new r elig ion.” 7 F o r t h o s e a s ye t u n i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e s c u r r e n t l y f a c i n g h u m a n i t y, Be rry spends some tim e in Dream lay ing out the ba sic fac ts of our plane tary crisis; increa sed exti nction rate s, increa sed air an d water pollution, i ncre ased a ccumulation of toxic waste, dy ing ocea ns, the common litany usually rec ited when urg ing the importance of this issue. He notes tha t “[i] t i s a supre me irony of history that the conse quence s of [humanity ’s] mi llennial expectations have be en the devasta tion of t he planet–wastewor ld rathe r t han wonderworld. [W ]e need to a lter our commitment from an industrial wonde rworld a chieve d b y p l u n d ering proc esses to an integ ral ear th community based on a mutually enhanc ing huma n ear th relationship.” Be rry acknow ledg es 8 ou r c oll e c tiv e g uil t: We a ll be ar a cer tain amount of g uilt for our prese nt situation. W e h av e b een entra nced wi t h t h e prog ress my th, unlimi ted prog ress, prog ress that would lea d bey ond the exist ing huma n condition to something infinitely better, to wonde rworld. S u ch i s t h e s ed u ct i v e t h em e i n al m o s t al l o u r a d v er t i s i n g. 9 B e rr y de c la re s his pr e sc ri pti on a s “r e inv e nti ng the hu ma n. ” (S e e a lso “ Ou r c ha lle ng e is t o c re a te 10

PAGE 60

I bid., 42. 11 I bid., 209. 12 I bid., 215. 13 I bid., 81, 88. 14 6 0 a ne w s e ns e of wh a t it is to be huma n” ). He sp e nd s mu c h o f t he bo ok in d ia g no sis of thi s 11 wastew orld problem by critiquing what he sees as the four human instit utions re spons i b l e f o r o ur p l i g h t : g o v e r n m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t h e m o d e r n u n i v e r s i t y. Be rry speaks with a strong prophetic voic e that doesn’ t mince words. F or example: I n this disi nteg rating phase of our industrial society we now see ourselves not as the splendor of c rea tion, but as the most pernic ious mode of ea rthly being We are the termination, not the fulf i l l m ent of the e arth proc ess. I f there wer e a pa rliament of c r e a t u r e s i t s f i r s t d e c i s i o n m i g h t w e l l b e t o v o t e t h e h u m a n s o u t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y, too de a dly a pr e se nc e to tol e ra te a ny fu rt he r. We ar e the a ff lic tio n of t he wo rl d, its de mon ic pr e se nc e We a re the vio la tio n o f t he e a rt h’ s mo st s a c re d a sp e c ts. 12 ** I n rela tion to the e arth, we have been autistic for centur ies. Only now have we be g un to listen with some attention and with a w illingness to re spond to the ear th's de mands that we c ease our industrial assault, that we a bandon our inne r ra g e ag ainst the conditions of our ea rt h ly exis tence that we r enew our human pa rticipation in the g rand liturg y of the univer se. 13 Be rry sets forth his proposed pr inciples that must guide us in de veloping technolog ies that will mutually enhanc e both the human c ommunity and the e arth proc ess. Creation mus t now be experience d as the e merg ence of the univer s e as a psy chicspiritual as well as mate rial-phy sical rea lity from the be g inning. We nee d to see ourse lves as integ ral with this emerg ent pro ce s s .” “All human prof essions, instit utions, and activities must be integ ral with t h e ea rt h as t he primar y self-nour ishin g, self-g overning and selffulfilling c ommunity [This ] i s our way into the future." 14 Be rry decla red tha t one of the pr incipal cha rac teristics of the emer g ing Ecolog ical Age is the

PAGE 61

I bid., 161. 15 I bid., 81. (emphasis supplied). 16 This quote is from my lecture s notes from that public lec ture. 17 Thomas B err y "T homas Be rry on Religion a nd Nature ." I n Ency clopedia of Religion and 18 Nat ur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 166-68. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005, 167. 6 1 mo v e f r o m a h u ma n c e n te r e d n o r m o f r e a li ty a n d v a lu e to a n a tu r e c e n te r e d n o r m. B e r r y s a y s We cannot e x pect life the ea rth, and the universe to fit our rational human desig ns of how life, the ear th, a nd the un ive rs e sh ou ld f un c tio n. We m us t f it o ur thi nk ing a nd ou r a c tio ns wi thi n th e la rg e r p ro c e ss. We mus t m o ve fr om democra cy to biocrac y We need a constitution for the North Amer ican continent, not simply a constitution for the humans o cc u p y i ng this continent. W e nee d a United Species, not simply a United Na tions." 15 Be rry also presc ribes a new dire ction for se eking the divine. “The natura l world is the larg er sa c re d c omm un ity to w hic h we be lon g To be a lie na te d f ro m th is c omm un ity is t o b e c ome de sti tut e in all that makes us human. [ T ] h i s s ense of the sac red c hara cter of the na tural world as our primary rev elation of the divine is our first nee d.” At a public lec ture in B oise, I daho in Octobe r 16 19 93 B e rr y ma de the sam e po int e ve n mo re su c c inc tly : “ Th e e a rt h is the pr ima ry sc ri ptu re ; a ll written scr iptures ar e sec ondary at best,” here echoing the Apostle Paul’s sentiments in Romans 17 1:20. And in 2005, he dec lare d the natura l world should be “se en as pr imordial scripture, a scripture preda ting the B ible.” 18 I s there a ny hope that the ne eded c hang es will occur ? I n his chapter “Patriar chy ,” B err y g ive s th is o min ou s a sse ssm e nt: I f mitiga tions [ to industrial processe s] have appea red, they have serve d only to make industrial proce sses more e ndurable Thus t h e q u est ion of meliorism appea rs, the

PAGE 62

I bid., 158-59. 19 6 2 tendenc y to constantly modify an existi ng sy stem without chang ing the basic pa ttern of its functioning What is nee ded is a profound altera tion of the pattern itself, not some modification of the pa ttern. To ac hieve this, the basic pri n ci p l e of eve ry signific ant re volution needs to be asse rted: re jectio n o f p ar t ial solutions. The tension of the existi ng situation must even be deliberately intensified s o that the root c a us e of the de str uc tiv e sit ua tio n ma y be c ome e vid e nt, fo r on ly whe n t he ca us e become s painfully clea r will decisive c hang e t ak e p l ac e. The pain to be endur ed from the c hang e must be experienc ed as a lesser pa in to that of continuing the prese nt course. 19 But, in the last two pag es of Dream Be rry ends wit h this explanation of why hope is justified and does so in so evoc ative a ma nner, tha t I prese nt this ex tended quote: .E vid e nc e fo r thi s h op e fu lne ss i s f ou nd in t he se qu e nc e of c ri sis mom e nts throug h w h ic h th e u n iv e r s e a n d e s p e c ia ll y th e p la n e t E a r th h a v e p a s s e d f r o m the beg inning until now. At ea ch state of its dev el opment, when it see ms that an impasse has be en re ache d, most im probable solutions have emer g ed that ena bled the Earth to continue its development. At the very beg inning of the universe the ra te of e xpa ns ion ha d to be a t a n in fi nit e sim a lly pr e c ise ra te so th at th e un ive rs e wo uld neither e x plode nor c ollapse. So it was at t he moment of pa ssag e out of the r adiation sta g e : o n ly a f r a g me n t o f ma tt e r e s c a p e d a n ti ma tt e r a n n ih il a ti o n b u t o ut of that fra g ment has come the g al actic sy stems and the univer se entire So at the shaping of the so la r sy ste m: if the Ea rt h we re a lit tle c los e r to the su n, it wou ld be too ho t; if sli g htl y mor e dis ta nt, it wou ld b e too c old I f c los e r t o th e moo n, the tid e s w ou ld overw helm the continents ; i f m o re distant, the seas would be stag nant and life development c ould not have take n place So with the radius of the Earth: if it were a lit tle g re a te r, the Ea rt h w ou ld b e mor e g a se ou s, lik e Jupit e r; if a lit tle le ss, the Ea rt h would be more solid, li ke Mar s. I n neither c ase c ould life have evolved in its pre sent fo rm After the appe ara nce of cellular life, whe n the orig inal nutrients wer e c on su me d, the imp a sse wa s a ve rt e d by inv e nti on of ph oto sy nth e sis upo n whi c h a ll fu tur e lif e de ve lop me nt h a s d e pe nd e d. So i t ha s b e e n with the g re a t st or y of lif e in its g roping toward unlimited varie ty of expression; the my steries of life multipl y but the ov e ra ll su c c e ss o f t he pla ne t be c a me inc re a sin g ly e vid e nt, un til the Ne oli thi c phase of the human. Th is s tor y of the pa st p ro vid e s o ur most secure ba sis of ho pe tha t th e e a rt h w il l s o g u id e u s th r o u g h th e p e r il o f th e p r e s e n t th a t w e ma y p r o v id e a f it ti n g c o n te xt for the ne x t pha se of the emer g ent my stery of ear thly exis tence That the g uidance i s av ai l ab l e w e c an n o t d o u b t T h e di ff i cu l t y i s i n t h e o rd er o f m agn i t u d e o f c h an ge that is r equire d of us. We have be come so a cclimated to a n industrial world that we can ha rdly imag ine any other c ontext of survival, e ven whe n we r ecog nize that the industrial bubble is dissol v i n g and will soon leave us in the chill of a plunder ed

PAGE 63

I bid., 221-23. 20 6 3 landsca pe. No ne of ou r f or me r r e vel ato ry e xpe ri e nc e s, no ne of ou r r e ne wa l or re bir th ri tua ls, no ne of ou r a po c a ly pti c de sc ri ption s a re qu ite a de qu a te fo r t his mom e nt. Their my thic power rema ins in a context fa r remove d from the power that is abroad in our world. B ut even a s we g lance over the g rimy world before us, the sun shines radia ntly over the ear th, the aspen le aves shimm er in the evening bree ze, the coo of the mourning dove and the swelling chorus of the insects fill the land, wh ile down in the ho ll o w s t h e m i s t d e e p e n s t h e f r a g r a n c e o f t h e h o n e y s u c k l e S o o n t h e l a te summer moon will give a light shee n to t h e l an d s cape Something of a drea m experience Perhaps on oc casion we participa te in the or igina l drea m of the ea rth. Perhaps t h er e are times when this primordial de sign be comes visible, as in a palimpsest, when we remove the later imposit ion. The dre am of the e arth. Where e lse c a n w e g o f or the g uid a nc e ne e de d f or the ta sk tha t is be fo re us 20 Be fri e nd ing the Ea rth Befri end in g the Ea rth had its g enesis as a television series c onsisting of 13 ha lf-hour e pis od e s p ro du c e d b y Ca na da ’s Vi sio n TV The ser ies, which I have vie wed in its entirety rec ords a colloquium betwee n Be rry as a Passionist priest, and Thomas Clarke a Jesuit priest, that occurre d in 1 9 9 0 at the Holy Cross Centre of Ec ology and Spirituality in Port Burwe ll, Ontario. I n 1997, I had the c hance to inter view Be rry about some of the see mingly unorthodox statements he made at tha t 19 91 c oll oq uiu m a nd inq uir e d h ow he ma na g e d to a void g e tti ng in t ro ub le wi th h is C a tho lic superiors. He said he wa s indeed quite spontane ous and wa s just talking ext empora neously and wa s n o t re al l y t h i n k i n g ab o u t t h e f ac t t h at v i d eo ca m er as we re go i n g. Much of the sponta neity of the videos is pr eser ved in the book. To at lea st some ext ent, the book is a transc ript of the videos, though the book has clea rly be re arr ang ed, edited, a nd somewhat toned-down. Missing is B err y ’s decla ration in the video ve rsion that the Fir st Comm andment in the Hebr ew B ible should really be under stood as the s ky fathe r decree ing that “Thou shalt not have a n Earth Mother .” Un le ss o ne a lr e a dy kn e w i t, o ne wo uld ne ve r g ue ss t ha t The Dr e am of the Ea rth was wr itten

PAGE 64

Be rry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Re conciliation between Hum ans and the 21 Ea rth 21. 6 4 by a Catholic priest. He never say s he’s a prie st and the book conta ins no biogra phical informa tion indicating it. You might think he was just a se cular en v i ronm entalist commentator, a lbeit, with a bit of New A g e fe el towar d the end. He neg atively crit iques Christianity but it is a cr itique that c o u ld h a v e c o me f r o m a n y o u ts ide r. I n Befriending y ou ha ve muc h mo re of a se ns e tha t on e is he a ri ng a dis a pp oin te d insi de r, dis a pp oin te d th a t th e re lig ion of Chr ist ia nit y a nd its Rom a n Ca tho lic form to w h ic h h e h a s d e d ic a te d h is li f e is f a il in g s o mi s e r a b ly in it s d u ti e s to th e E a r th After extol ling the w isdom of B lack Elk, he decla res “ the salvation of Christians lies in the unassimilated eleme n ts o f p a g a n is m. ” Se e mi n g ly r e a li zi n g th a t h e is s a y in g s o me th in g r a d ic a l, h e g o e s on the 21 justify this statement: “We have a ssimil ated the G ree k wisdom. W e are assimilating the O riental my stique, as well as the meditation techniques of dif fer ent par ts of the world. We have assimilated much of wha t China has to of fer Why then, do we exclude the assimilation of the culture of ‘pag an people’ ? ” One does not usually imag ine a Catholic priest encourag ing Christi ans t o look to pag an wisdom for their sa lvation, which is one of the note worthy aspec ts of this book. Af te r e xtoll ing pa g a n w isd om, he ma rg ina lizes The Ho ly Bi ble the sac red te x t of Chr ist ia nit y : “ I su g g e st we mig ht g ive up the B ibl e fo r a wh ile p ut i t on the sh e lf fo r p e rh a ps tw e nty y ear s. Then we might have a more adequa te appr oach t o i t W e n eed to ex perie nce the divine reve lation presente d to us in the natural world.” “Why are we not g etting our relig ious insight from our experienc e of the tree s, our experience of the mountains, our e x perie nce of the river s, of the sea and the winds? Why are we not re sponding r elig iously to these re alities? ” “H ere we a re w ith a pla ne t th a t is be ing de va sta te d a nd we a re sti ll r e a din g the bo ok ins te a d o f r e a din g the wo rl d

PAGE 65

I bid., 75-76. 22 Wil liam Ophuls, Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity: Prologue t o a Political Theory of the 23 Ste ad y Sta te (San F ranc isco: W. H. Free man, 1977).; Will iam Op huls and A. Stephen B oy an, Ecology and the Politics of Scarc ity Rev isited: The Unrave ling of the American Dre am (Ne w York: W.H. Fre eman, 1992) Be rry et al., Befriending the Earth: A Theology of Re conciliat ion between Hum ans and the 24 Ea rth 42-43. I bid., 76. 25 6 5 about us. We will drown rea ding the book.” 22 I n a manne r re calling Wil liam Ophuls’ Ec olo gy a nd th e Po lit ic s o f Sc ar c ity Be rry has 23 h a r s h w o r d s f o r o n e o f o u r W e s t e r n C i v i l i z a t i o n ’ s m o s t c h e r i s h e d s e c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s d e m o c r a c y. “I co n s i d er democra cy a conspira cy of humans ag ainst the natura l world. The United States Con sti tut ion is a c on sti tut ion of hu ma ns g ua ra nte e ing hu ma n r ig hts to l if e li be rt y a nd the pu rs uit of ha pp ine ss a t th e e xpe ns e of the c on tin e nt. We n e e d a No rt h A me ri can con sti tut ion tha t w ou ld inc lud e a ll t he c omp on e nts of the No rt h Am e ri c a n c on tin e nt. I n my vie w, the hu ma n c omm un ity a nd the na tur a l w or ld w ill g o in to t he fu tur e a s a sing le sa c re d co mmu nit y or we wi ll b oth pe ri sh in the de se rt .” “ I f d e moc ra c y is such a g re a t th ing w hy is U .S. de moc ra c y de str oy ing the pla ne t? 24 W h y d o e s d e m o c r a c y n o t g u i d e u s ?” 25 I n a mov e a g a in u nu su a l f or a Ca tho lic pr ie st, B e rr y a lso c ha sti se s tho se wh o s a y “ Tr us t in God.” “ God is not going to take ca re of our pre sent crisis. T h e d ei t y i s not going to pick up the pie c e s a nd re me dy the dis a ste rs we br ing a bo ut. Go d g ive s u s th e c a pa c ity to d e a l w ith the se thi ng s. One of the most disappointing aspe cts of Christian spirituality comes fr om coun s el s [ of] total abandonme nt and total trust in the divine. [ L ]ook what God is permitting us to do. God is letting us kil l of f t he mos t bea uti fu l thin g s ar ou nd a nd e vid e ntl y Go d is not bri ng ing a n en d to it. God is functioning throug h ourse l v es God i s telling us wha t to do. The natura l world is telling us wha t

PAGE 66

I bid., 52. 26 I bid., 45-46. 27 6 6 to do. God s peaks to us throug h the natural world. How the human f unctions, will determine the destiny of” the Earth. 26 Finally and per haps most unusual for a Catholic priest, Be rry ad d re s s es t he explosion of humanity ’s population. The bishops of the Philippines put out a d o cument called W hat Is Happening to O ur Beauti f u l L and? I t was written by a missionary in cooper ation wi th t ri ba l pe op le s. A l oc a l bi sh op pr e se nte d it to the na tio na l mee tin g of the bis ho ps They approve d it. But what did the y do befor e they approve d it? They took out one of the important stateme nts on population. They diminis hed an important aspect of t h e d o cu m en t b y t h ei r u n w i l l i n g-n es s t o d ea l wi t h p o p u l at i o n ev en t h o u gh overpopula tion is one of the most disastrous rea lities fac ing the Phili ppines and the pla ne t. Whil e we are try ing to be g ood to peopl e, we are of ten being crue l. The Phili ppines, at the be g inning of this century had six milli on people. That fig ure ha s doubled ever y twenty y ear s, from six to twelve, twelve to twenty -four twenty -four to fifty The number is 70 mil lion now, and that is in the proce ss of doubling. There will be over 100 mil lion people shortly afte r the y ear 2010. Meanw hile, the mang rove swa mps are de stroy ed, and 80 perc ent of the cora l r eef s, which ar e among the ri c he st e c os y ste ms o n th e pla ne t, a re se ve re ly da ma g ed. A thi rd of the so il i s sever ely damag ed, two-thirds is partly damag ed, and the rain for est that once cover ed over 90 p er ce n t o f t h e ar ea w ill, it seems, soon be totally g one. Only 10 perc ent survives now. S o we ca n l i s t d i s as t er af t er d i s as t er t o t h e n at u ra l en v i ro n m en t al l o cc u rr i n g, ostensibly in order t o better c are for pe ople’s nee ds. Why do they blast the fisherie s? To take c are of people Why do they destroy the m ang rove swamps? To take c are of people And wher e is it all g oing to end up? I n the impoverishment and death of milli ons of people. This points t o a number of ot her things. W e have t o live on the planet, on the planet’s ter ms and not on our terms. L iving in the na tural world on its terms is hard for us. We want the planet to exis t on our terms. At last we a re r ealizing that we had better f in d o u t r ig h t a w a y w h a t th e p la n e t’ s te r ms a r e We mu s t a c c e p t li f e the hu ma n mo de of be ing with in t he c on dit ion s o f t he na tur a l w or ld t ha t br ing s u s in to be ing We we re br ou g ht int o b e ing by the na tur a l w or ld, a nd we mus t su rv ive on its c on dit ion s. 27 Gi ve n th e Ca tho lic Chu rc h’ s his tor ic op po sit ion to bir th c on tr ol, thi s p a ssa g e is s ta rt lin g T his la st

PAGE 67

Se e g e ne ral ly S tev e n B e st, Wat so n, Pa ul a nd the Se a She ph e rd Con se rv a tio n So c ie ty ," in 28 En cyl op aedia o f R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor (Continuum I nterna tional, 2005). for a n acc ount of Paul Watson. P aul W ats on "On th e P reced ence o f Nat ural L aw, Environmental Law & Liti gation 3 (1988). 29 Be rry The Gr e at W or k : O ur W ay int o th e Fu tur e ix. 30 I bid., 7. 31 6 7 p a r a g r a p h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f r e m a r k s b y t h e r a d i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t P a u l W a t s o n ’ s e s s a y On the 28 Prece dence of Natural Law 29 I n summary while the themes c ontained in Be fri e nd ing the Ea rth a re c on sis te nt w ith tho se laid out in The Dr e am of t he Ea rth they have a n edg e and pa ssion here tha t gi v e t h e wo rk a distinctive feel. This is probably owing to the unique g enesis of the book. The Gr e at W or k O ur W ay int o th e Fu tur e B e rr y be g ins Gr e at W or k in h is i ntr od uc tio n a s f oll ow s: Human presence on the P lanet Earth in the opening y ear s of the twenty -first ce ntury is the subject of this book. We need to under stand wher e we are and how we g ot here O n c e w e a r e c le a r o n th e s e is s u e s w e c a n mo v e f o r w a r d w it h o u r h is torical destiny to cre ate a mutually enhanc ing mode of human dwe lling on the planet Earth. J ust now we see m to be expecting some wonder wo rl d to be attained. I n the pr oc e ss, ho we ve r, we a re c a us ing imm e ns e ru in i n th e wo rl d a ro un d u s. 30 B e g inn ing thu s, B e rr y ma int a ins the wo nd e rw or ld/ wa stw or ld t he me tha t he fi rs t pr e sente d u s in DREAM The book is clea rly intended to stand on its own wit hout ref ere nce to prior works, so much of the g round cove red in the pr eviously discussed works is pr esente d here as we ll. Here howeve r, Be rry arr ang es his materia l around the the me of “ The Gr eat Work.” B y this, B err y means that the Gre at Work of the pre sent and for esee ably future human g ener ations is that “of moving the human pr oje c t f ro m its dev a sta tin g e xploi ta tio n to a ben ig n pre se nc e ” on pla ne t E a rt h, or a s I mig ht p hr a se 31 i t from malig nancy to benig nity And indeed, a s noted in the opening sentenc es, B err y imag ines

PAGE 68

I bid., 201. 32 I bid., 7. 33 Albert Gor e, Ea rth in t he Ba lan c e : Ec olo gy an d the Hu ma n S pir it (B oston: Houghton Mifflin, 34 1992), 269. 6 8 something a bit more positive for humanity than m ere benig nity but imag ines a future in which we a re “ a mut uall y e nh a nc ing hu ma n p re se nc e wi thi n a n e ve rre ne wi ng or g a nic -b a se d E a rt h community .” 32 B e rr y e xpla ins ou r h uma n s itu a tio n a s f oll ow s: Th e Gr e a t Wor k b e fo re us is no t a ro le tha t w e ha ve c ho se n. I t is a ro le g ive n to us, bey ond any consultation with our selves. We do not c hoose the moment of our birth, who our pare nts w ill be, our particula r culture or the historica l moment when w e w il l b e b o r n We d o n o t c h o o s e th e s ta tu s o f s p ir it u a l in s ig h t o r political or economic c onditions t hat will be the conte x t of our lives. W e are, as it were, throw n into ex istence w it h a ch al leng e and a role that is bey ond any persona l choice. T he no bil ity of ou r l ive s, ho we ve r, de pe nd s u po n th e ma nn er in wh ic h w e c ome to understand a nd fulfill our assig ned role 33 Noting A l Gore’ s max im that “we must make the rescue of the e nvironment the ce ntral org anizing pr inc ipl e fo r c ivi liza tio n, ” B e rr y e xhor ts us to s te p u p to the pla te a nd la y s o ut t he re a so ns we mus t 34 do so. I n an ef fort to be hope ful, in his final chapte r entitled “Moments of Gr ace ,” B err y conclude s his bo ok a s f oll ow s: We are now experienc ing a moment of signific ance far bey ond what any of u s ca n i mag ine. The my thic vision has been se t into place. The distorted drea m of an indu s t ri al t echnolog ical par adise is being repla ced by the more via ble dre am of a mutually enhanc ing human prese nce w ithin an ever -re newing org anicbased Earth c ommunity I n the l arg er cultural contex t the dream become s the my th that both guide s and drives the action. But e ven as w e make our transition into this new centur y we must note that mom e nts of g ra c e a re tr a ns ie nt mom e nts Th e tr a ns fo rm a tio n mu st t a ke pla c e wi thi n a brie f pe ri o d. Otherw ise it is gone f oreve r. I n the immense story of the univer se, tha t so ma ny of the se da ng e ro us mom e nts ha ve be e n n a vig a te d s uc c e ssf ull y is s ome indication that the uni verse is for us rathe r t han aga inst us. We need only summon

PAGE 69

Be rry The Gr e at W or k : O ur W ay int o th e Fu tur e 201. 35 I bid., 7. 36 Pierre T eilhard de Chardin, The Phenome non of Man (Ne w York: Ha rper & Row, 1959) 37 Be rry The Dr e am of t he Ea rth 16. 38 6 9 the se fo rc e s to ou r s up po rt in o rd e r t o s uc c e e d. Al though th e hu man ch a lle ng e to these purpose s must never be undere stimated, it is difficult to be lieve that the lar g er purposes of the universe or of the plane t Earth will ultimately be thwar ted. 35 I n addition to this conclusion, elsewhere in the book a certain y ear ning despera tion can be seen. “ [W ] e m u s t b el ieve that those pow ers that a ssign our [Great Work] mus t in that same ac t bestow upon us the abilit y to fulfill this role. We must believe that we ar e ca red f or and g uided by the s e s a me p o w e r s th a t b r in g u s in to b e in g ” B e r r y s h o w in g h is in f lu e n c e by Teilhard de 36 Chardin, sug g ests that it is Humanity th at the universe has bee n building towar d. (See “ The 37 Anthropic Principle” cited by Be rry in DREAM ). Sur e ly it w on ’t le t us snuf f o ur se lve s o ut. Ye t, 38 in his concluding para g raph, Be rry admits tha t “ moments of g rac e are transient,” tha t our window of opportunity is closing. And in pa ssag es I noted in the fore g oing se ction on Be fri e nd ing the Ea rth Be rry there acknow ledg es that “G od is not b ri n g ing a n end” to our self-de structive impulses, and that we a re on our own. Is Berry ’s Thought Pantheistic? For the purpose of the prese nt pr oject, based on my heuristic device of pantheism’s sac red g eo gra p h y I conclude that Be rry ’s thoug ht can be fairly descr ibed as pa ntheistic. Unlike other Christian writers, base d on my revie w of his writing s, Be rry avoids expli citly labeling himself as a member of any particula r m etaphy sical camp, including those primarily explored here Howeve r, B e rr y ’s tho ug ht i s d e vo id o f a ny se ns e of imp or ta nc e or e ve n d isc us sio n o f a r e a lm o uts ide thi s un ive rs e H e do e s n ot d isc us s is su e s o f h uma n a ft e rlif e I ns te a d, he is t hr ou g ho ut thi s E ar th and

PAGE 70

———, "T homas Be rry on Religion a nd Nature ," 168. 39 7 0 thi s U niv e rse focuse d. A s a f i n a l e x a m p l e o f t h i s I p r o v i d e t h i s f r o m a 2 0 0 5 e s s a y. T h e s a y i n g o f H e n r y T h o r e a u ( 1 8 1 7 – 1 8 6 2 ) i s n o w h e a r d m o r e o f t e n : “ In wildness is the prese rvation of the world.” This return to the na tural world is at the same time a ma nifestation of the sur vival o f religion and a support for the r enew al of re ligion throug hout the Earth. [W] hen we return to nature in its wilderness form for th e h e a li n g o f o u r in n e r w o r ld [a ]l w a y s th e r e s e e ms to r e ma in in the human soul an aw are ness of some divine pr esenc e in the wilder ness re gi o ns of the world, a pr esenc e that ca n provide re lief fr om the anxieti es of ex istence in a n i n d u s t r i a l d o m i n a t e d s o c i e t y. Perhaps the person in America who be st personifies the r elig ious tradition of Wes te rn c ivi liza tio n in its mos t in tim a te re la tio n to the na tur a l wor ld is John Mu ir (1838–1914). He spent the g rea ter pa rt of hi s life after 1860 wandering throug h the fields and woodla nds of Northe rn Califor n i a and re cording his ex perie nces the re. Br illiant composit ions, his writings ca n be conside red so ma n y song s to the indwelling sa cre d prese nce of the Yosemite Va lley along the Merc ed River. 39 Ag ain, not a tra ce of conc ern f or some sac red r ealm outside this universe. And he cites as sourc es o f h i s i n s p i ra t i o n T h o re au a s el fd es cr i b e d p an t h ei s t an d M u i r, an o t h er fi gu re t h at t h o u gh contested, ma ny scholars se e as pa ntheistic. Be rry uses th e wo rd God and at place s sugg ests that this God may be a supe r-intellig ence g uiding us for war d, thus showing some a ffini t y for spiritualiz ed panthe ism. How ever he neve r sug g ests that his God exi sts outsi de the dimension of thi s u niv e rs e His ov e ra ll t on e is n a tur a lis tic G ive n B e rr y ’s so le c on c e rn wi th t he dim e ns ion of thi s universe, w hich he c onstantly reminds us is a divine and sa cre d universe, “ the primordial scr ipture,” I c on c lud e he is a n e xamp le of pa nth e ism in A me ri c a n Chr is ti ani ty wh e the r o r n ot t he te rm is a “her esy label of the worst sort.”

PAGE 71

Andre a A. Kresg e, Fox, Matthew," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor 1 (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 669. Kre sg e, Fox, Matthew," 670. 2 Matthew F ox A Ne w Re for ma tio n: Cr e a t i o n S p i r i t u a l i t y an d th e Tra ns for ma tio n o f Ch ris tia nit y 3 (Rocheste r, Vt.: I nner Tr aditions, 2006), 132.; Kresg e, Fox, Matthew," 669. Matthew F ox The Com ing of the Cos mi c Chr ist : The He ali ng of M oth e r E ar th a nd the Bi rth 4 of a Global Renaissance 1st ed. (San F ranc isco: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1988), 17, 33. 7 1 CHAPTER 7 THE CREATI ON SPI RI TUAL I TY OF MATTHEW FOX Ma tthew F ox, b or n in 19 40 w a s o rd a ine d a s a Ca tho lic pr ie st i n th e Do min ic a n o rd e r i n 1967. He wa s silenced by Pope Be nedict XVI in 1989-90 (who wa s then Cardinal Ratzinge r, the 1 head of the Roman Catholic Church’s Cong reg ation of t he Doctrine of the Faith) and wa s expelled from his order in 1993. Ac co rd i n g t o Andre a Kr esg e, the Va tican “obje cted spe cifica lly to Fox’s ref usal to deny his belief in panth eism, his denial of orig inal sin, for re fer ring to God as ‘mother ’ a nd fo r p ro mot ing a fem in ist the olo g y .” He is c ur re ntl y a Ep isc op a l pr ie st. He is n ote d f or his 23 ra dic a l r e thi nk ing of Chr ist ia n the olo g y tow a rd a mor e e a rt hc e nte re d or ie nta tio n. I n o ne of his e a rl y wo rk s, F ox dr a ma tic a lly ill us tr a te d th e e xten t of thi s r e thi nk ing a s fo llo ws : “ I s Mo the r E a rt h h e rs e lf no t th e ult ima te [vic tim ], th e mos t ne g le c te d o f t he su ff e ri ng v oic e le ss o ne s to da y ? An d a lon g wi th her, the soil, fore sts, species, birds, and w ater s are not being hear d wher e leg islators g ather wher e judge s preside, a nd wher e believe rs g ather to worship. I s t h e h u m an ra ce involved in a matricide tha t is a lso e c oc ide g e oc ide s uic ide a nd e ve n de ic ide ? .[A re we ou r] m oth e r' s k e e pe r? Thi s is the moral a nd spiritual quest i o n o f our tim e. Evidenc e is slim that W esterne rs have taken that responsibility at all seriously Patriarc hal ag endas a nd cultural pre s u p p o sitions, patriarcha l educa tional and religious ins tituti ons have left us all with materna l blood on our hands. The blood of Mother Ea rth cruc ified.” 4

PAGE 72

Fox, A Ne w Re for ma tio n: Cre ati on Sp iri tua lit y an d the Tra ns for ma tio n o f Ch ris tia nit y Ba ck 5 Cover. I bid., 67.; Here Fox states in thumbnail the arg ument develope d in his sti ll widely cited book, 6 The Com ing of t he Cos mi c Chr ist ———, The Coming of t h e Cosmic Christ: The Healing of Mother Earth and the Birth of a Global Renaissance ———, A New Re for ma tio n: Cre ati on Sp iri tua lit y an d th e Tra ns for ma tio n o f Ch ris tia nit y 65. 7 I bid., 63. 8 Matthew F ox Original Blessing (Sante F e: B ear and Co. Publishi ng 1983), 88. 9 7 2 Durin g Pentacost we ek 2005, F ox ree nacting L uther’s a ct in 1517, posted 95 new the ses penned by Fox to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg Ger many I n his Thesis No. 15, he 5 states “Christians must disti ng uish betwee n J esus (a historical fig ure) and Christ (the experience of Go dina ll t hin g s) .” I n Th esis No 1 0, F ox sa y s “ Go d lo ve s a ll o f c re a tio n, a nd sc ie nc e c a n h e lp 6 us mor e de e ply pe ne tr a te a nd a pp re c ia te the my ste ri e s and wi sd om of Go d in c re a tio n. Sc ie nc e is no e ne my of tr ue re lig ion .” An d in Th e sis No 6 h e sa y s “ The ism (the idea that God is ‘out there ’ 7 o r a b o v e a n d b ey o n d t h e u n i v er s e) i s f a l s e. Al l t h i n gs ar e i n Go d an d Go d i s i n al l t h i n gs (pane ntheism).” Thus, Fox ex plicitly claims pane ntheism as his metaphy sical stance 8 Whil e the Va tic a n ma y ha ve a c c us e d him of be ing a pa nth e ist he de nie s this a nd g oe s in to the most de tail in one of his early and still influential books, Original Blessing There among other source s fo r h i s m etaphy sical cla ims, he cites “Paul in Acts 17:28 – I t is in God that we live and move, and ha ve our be ing” and the medieval Christ ian m y stic “Mec htild of Magde burg – The da y of my sp ir itu a l a wa ke nin g wa s th e da y I sa w– a nd kne w I sa w– a ll t hin g s in Go d a nd Go d in a ll thi ng s. ” He then goes into s ome de ta il a s to wh y he is p ro pe rl y un de rs too d to be a pa ne nth e ist 9 B e c a us e I a rg ue tha t, h is c la im t o th e c on tr a ry not wi th st anding F ox is b e st u nd e rs too d a s a contempora ry expression of pantheism, I will here beg in with Fox’s own arg ument for his position:

PAGE 73

I bid., 89-90. 10 7 3 T he id ea th at G od is ou t th e re is p ro ba bly the ult ima te du a lis m, divorcing as it does God and huma nity and re ducing relig ion to a chil d i s h state of p l ea s i n g o r p l ea d i n g wi t h a G o d "o u t t h er e. Al l t h ei s m s et s u p a m o d el o r p ar ad i gm of people here and God out there. A ll theisms are about subjec t/object rela tionships t o Go d [R ]eligious theism itself kills God and the soul a like by p re ac h i n g a God out there." Wha t is the so lut ion to the kil lin g of Go d a nd the los s o f h uma n s ou l? I t is ou r mov ing fr om the ism to pa ne nth e ism No w pa ne nth e ism is no t pa nth e ism Pantheism, which is a dec lare d here sy beca use it robs God of tra nscende nce, sta tes tha t e ve ry thi ng is Go d an d God is e ve ry thi ng ." Pa ne nth e ism o n th e oth e r h a nd is altog ether orthodox for it s lips in t he little Gree k word en and thus means, God is in every thing a nd ever y thing is in God." This experience of the pre sence of God in our depth in all the blessing s and the suff ering s of life is a my stical understanding of God. Pane ntheism is desperate ly neede d b y i n d ividuals and relig ious insti tutions t oday I t is the way the cr eation ce ntere d tradition of spirituality ex p er ience s God. I t is not t heistic bec ause it does not re late to God as subject or objec t, but neither is it pantheistic. Panentheism is a way of see ing the world sac rame ntally I n d ee d as we have se en pre viously in the cre ation cente red tradition, the primary sacr ament is cre ation itself–which includes every person a nd be ing wh o li ve s. Ot he r s a c ra me nts de ri ve the ir fr uit fu l a nd c re a tiv e po we r f ro m th is primary sacr ament. This is one thing that distinguishes pant h ei s m from pa ne nth e ism –p a nth e ism ha s n o n e e d o f s a c ra me nts b ut p a ne nth e ism do e s. F or wh ile ever y thing is truly in God and God i s truly in ever y thing, this is not alway s evident to our experience 10 Why does panthe ism have no nee d for sa cra ment? Fox doesn’t say And the momentous import that Fox attaches to the diff ere nce be tween “ is” and “ in” is likewise not explained. Another r adica lly new a spect of F ox ’s t heolog y is the seeming disappea ranc e of the traditional Christian doc trine of the trinity The tra ditional Nicene f ormulation of the trinity wher e Go d th e F a the r i s th e Cr e a tor tha t r e sid e s so me wh e re ou ts id e the un ive rs e w he re Go d th e Chr ist (“ Jesu s” ) w a s a sp e c ia l, one -t ime inc a rn a tio n of p a rt of Go d in to h uma n f or m, w ho ’s no w b a c k w ith God the F ather somewher e outside the univer se, and God the Holy Spirit, which is that part of God that exis ts inside the universe a nd throug h whom God now, since Jesus’ depar ture, c ommunicates with humanity By emphasizing the Christ as the “God in all things” a nd deny ing the theistic God

PAGE 74

7 4 that “is ‘out there ’ or above and bey ond the uni verse ,” all three parts of the traditional formulation seem to disappea r. I f God, the Cosmic Christ exi sts in all thi ng s and i n that sense c ommunicates wi th a ll t hin g s, wh a t r e ma ini ng pu rp os e is se rv e d by ima g ini ng a Ho ly Spi ri t? Doe sn ’t the Cos mic Chr ist no w s e rv e the pu rp os e pr e vio us ly ima g ine d fo r the Ho ly Spi ri t? F ox’s wr iti ng s d on ’t re a lly explain if he intends this out come. Whe n F ox vis ite d th e Un ive rs ity of F lor ida on No ve mbe r 1 2 00 6, I was a ble to a sk him wh e the r t he ide a of a “ ho ly sp ir it” wa s re ta ine d in h is u nd e rs ta nd ing of the un ive rs e H is r e sp on se wa s a n e mph a tic “ Ye s,” and we nt o n to e xpla in t ha t “ jus t a s p ho ton s d isp la y qu a lit ie s a s b oth pa rt ic le s a nd wa ve s, ” he ima g ine s “ the Cos mic Chr ist a s th e parti cle a sp e c t w ith in a ll m a tte r i n universe, w hile the Holy Spirit i s the ‘wa ve’ or ‘ene rg y ’ aspe ct i n al l m at t er in universe, whic h int e rm ix wit h e a c h o the r c on sta ntl y .” I n r e sp on se to m y qu e sti on “ Wha t if a ny c on tin uin g ro le is there for God the Fa ther? ” He immediately correcte d me by say ing “ God the F ather /Mother,” consistent with his known feminist theology and then sa id that “God the F ather /Mother is the Creator who continues the ong oing pr ocess of cre ation; cre ation isn’t done ; G od is stil l cre ating and thu s, Go d the F a the r/ Mo the r is tha t on g oin g c re a tiv e pa rt of Go d. ” He c on c lud e d th e int e rv ie w w ith a smile and said, “ Of c ourse, this is all just m etaphor .” Thus, F ox at least implicitly acknow ledg ed these a re his cr eative e ffor ts to come up new w ay s of imag ining the divine my s t ery in useful and meaning ful way s. Fox does not conceive of them as “ The Tr uth” with a ca pital “T.” I n evalua ting F ox ’s denial of pantheism, I note that along with many prog ressive Christian theolog ians, he c ites to A cts 17:28. I noted in Cha pter 4 that the quoted text i s most li kely from the Stoi c p an t h ei s t monisti c poet Posidonius. Given the import attache d to his tex t, it is perha ps justifiable to expl ore this poet a bit more Ac c or din g to t he his tor ia n o f p hil os op hy F re de ri c k Co ple sto n, P os id on ius wa s a Sto ic

PAGE 75

Fr eder ick Charles Copleston, A History of Philosophy: Gree ce and R ome from the Pre11 Socratics to Plotinus New r ev. ed., 9 vols., vol. 1 (Ne w York: Double day 1962), 422. Clarenc e J. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in W estern Thought 12 fro m A nc ie nt T im e s to the En d o f th e Ei gh te e nth Ce ntu ry (B e rk e le y : Un ive rs ity of Ca lif or nia Pr e ss, 1967), 54, 97. 7 5 monist who tried to demonstrate throug h an empiric al method “the a rticulated unity of Na ture” and the “‘ sy mpathy ’ that pre vails between all parts of the cosmic sy stem.” Glacke n writes that 11 “Posidonius’ thought is derive d from idea s i n b i ology history astonomy g eog raphy [and] ethnolog y ” and note d the “e colog ical” c hara cter to his thought as we l l Gl acke n say s Posidoni us “ ha d mo re to s a y on e nv ir on me nta l qu e sti on s r e la tin g to hu ma n b e ing s th a n a ny wr ite r b e fo re him perha ps including H ippocra tes and Ar istotl e.” A nd he was a n ear ly student of ethnolog y believing t h a t “ p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s [ t h e n ] e x i s t i n g r e p r e s e n t e a r l y c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f ” h u m a n i t y. 12 Does a line of ver se fr om this pantheist phil osopher r eal l y h el p es t ablish Fox’s case f or “pane ntheism”? I n a public lec ture at the Univer sity of F lorida on Oc tober 31, 2008, F ox stated that “ pa nth e ism ha s a lw a y s g ott e n p oo r t he olo g ic a l ma rk s b e c a us e it i ma g ine s Go d a s f ro zen in c a pa ble of cha ng e.” F ox went on to say that in contrast, pane ntheism instead imag ines t h e u n i verse and t h e r e f o r e G o d d yn a m i c a l l y. Re e se e xpla ins tha t th e re is a ty pe of pa nth e ism calle d “ Ab so lut ist ic mon ist ic pa nth e ism ” wher ein “God is a bsolute and identica l with the world [and t] he wor ld, al t h o u gh rea l, is therefor e chang eless.” T hus, there is a ty pe of pa ntheism that m ee t s Fox’s description. Howe ver, a s ex pl ain ed b y bo th Y or k a nd Re e se th e re a re oth e r p a nth e ism s th a t un de rs ta nd Go d/T he Un ive rs e dy na mic a lly in muc h th e sa me wa y F ox de sc ri be s God /T he Un ive rs e Th us a vo idi ng fr oze nn e ss is n ot b e a su ff ic ie nt r e a so n to re je c t pa nth e ism a s la be l. L ike B e rr y w ith wh om F ox ha s b e e n in di alo g ue F ox ma ke s n o c la ims a bo ut a re a lit y

PAGE 76

See Kresg e, "Fox, Matthew," 670.; J one Salomonsen, Starhawk," in Ency clopedia of Religion 13 an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005). 7 6 outside this cosmos and makes no claims about an afte r-life All his publi c tea ching is directed toward e ncoura g ing a more e cstatic e ng ag ement in this life, in this uni verse all the while utiliz ing Christian image ry and metaphor Given the sa cre d g eog raphy that I have here tofore set forth, F ox is b e tte r u nd e rs too d a s a na tur a lis tic pa nth e ist tha n a pa ne nth e ist He dis pla y s n o in te re st i n a re a lit y o u t s i d e t h i s u n i v e r s e T h i s u n i v e r s e i s h i s s a c r e d g e o g r a p h y. F or Ac ts 1 7:2 8 a nd the Me c hti ld q uo te to ful ly su pp or t pa ne nth e ism th os e qu ote s w ou ld have to be mod i fi ed as follows: Acts 17:28 – “I t is in God that we live and move, a nd have our be ing [but Go d is a lso ou ts id e th is cos mos ]”; Me c hti ld – “ I sa w a ll t hin g s in Go d a nd Go d in a ll things [and knew G od was a lso outside al l t hings].” The se would have been una mbiguous decla rations of pa nentheism. The word “in” simply cannot support the me taphy sical we ight that F ox a nd oth e r p a ne nth e ist ic ph ilo so ph e rs a nd the olo g ia ns a tte mpt to p la c e on it. When Fox wa s developing his unde rstanding of Creation Spiritualit y he was still under the w a t c h f u l e y e o f C a r d i n a l R a t z i n g e r H e n e e d e d t o a v o i d T i l l i c h ’ s “ w o r s t k i n d o f h e r e s y l a b e l ” It is a t lea st pos sib le tha t Fo x’s ne e d to try to k e e p a t le a st o ne toe ins ide the or tho do x fol d, e sp e c ia lly if he wa s g oing to put the Wicca n witch Starhaw k on the faculty of Holy Names Colleg e, may have 13 serve d as one of Weber’s “ switchman” tha t “deter mine d t he tra cks along which ac tion has been pu sh e d b y the dy na mic of int e re st, ” in thi s c a se F ox’s “ ide a l int e re st” in re ma ini ng a t le a st q ua sio r th o d o x. Th e re a re a nd ha ve be e n Ch ri sti a n th e ologians wh o h a ve a c c e pte d th e te rm pa nth e ist a s a de sc ri pti on A c c or din g to t he the olo g ia n N e ls F .S. F e rr b oth Whit e he a d a nd Ti lli c h a t ti me s to ld him “that they would pref er to be called pantheists rathe r t han theist s,” and Fe rr himself acc epted

PAGE 77

Nel s F. S Ferr "Go d wi th ou t T hei sm ," Theology Today 22, no. 3 (1965): 373. 14 Paul Tilli ch, Systematic Theology 3 vols., vol. 1 (Chicag o: University of Chicag o Press, 1951), 15 233-34. J Edw a rd B a rr e tt, A Pi lg ri m’ s Pr og re ss: F ro m th e Wes tmi ns te r S ho rt e r C a te c his m to 16 Natura listi c Pantheism," American J ournal of T heology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002), 169. 7 7 the label. Fur ther T i l l i ch argue d that pantheism as “the doctrine tha t God is the substance or 14 essenc e of a ll things” is nec essar y for a “Christian doctrine of God” as “being -itself.” As I noted 15 in Ch a p te r 3 Ch r is it a n th e o lo g ia n E d w a r d B a r r e tt a c c e p ts th e p a n th e is t la b e l p r o u d ly noting that wi th pa nth e ism “ [n]ot on ly is ‘G od ’ the n un de nia bly re a l, bu t re lig ion is t hen in di sp uta bly r e l e v a n t ” S o w e r e F o x t o s t a n d a s a p a n t h e i s t h e ’ d h a v e c o m p a n y. 16 Of c ourse F ox is free to describe himself howeve r he wants, and if his audienc es ar e more re c e pti ve to h is c a ll t o c re a tio nc e nte re d s pir it ual ity if he c a lls him se lf a pa ne nth e ist p e rh a ps it se rv e s h is p ur po se M y pu rp os e he re is a so c iol og ic a l on e T o w ha t e xten t is pa nth e ism in c on tr a st to pa ne nth e ism pre se nt an d pe rh a ps sp re a din g in Ame ri c a n cu ltu re F or thi s sc ho la rl y pu rp os e it is u se fu l to un de rs ta nd F ox a s a na tur a lis tic pa nth e ist

PAGE 78

7 8 CHAPTER 8 SI GN S OF EM ERG I NG PAN TH EI SM WI TH I N A ME RI CA N C UL TU RE Quan titative Sign s of Pantheism on the Internet Stil l to be investiga ted is the extent to which pa ntheism is penetr ating Americ an culture. O ne way to obtain a quick quantitative s napshot of cultural penetr ation is by conducting internet sea rche s of the ke y te rm s a t is su e in thi s stu dy B e c a us e Pa g a nis m, P a nth e ism a nd Pa ne nth e ism a re te rm s that all have some understanding of the sac red in na ture, these are the terms that I co n t ra s t ed and studi ed I u n d ertook such a projec t on March 29, 2008, w ith the outcome listed in the following table: Se a rc h Re su lts on 0329-08 My Space Fa cebook Yahoo Groups Go og le Groups Yahoo Sea rch (appr ox .) Goog le Sear ch (appr ox .) Pantheism 1,990 34 348 16 1,600,000 520,000 Pantheist 1,820 25 237 19 754,000 338,000 Panentheism 250 3 144 18 274,000 94,400 Panentheist 131 2 7 1 49,600 16,300 Pag anism 29,600 234 19,394 388 11,700,000 3,780,000 Pag an 130,000 1,039+ 11,580 480 60,100,000 25,400,000 The table demonstrates that the terms “pag anism”/“pa g an” are far more common by more than an order of mag nitude than either “panthe ism”/“pantheist” or “pane ntheism”/“pane ntheist.” Also, using My Space and Fa cebook, I looked at the top r esults to de termine the ty pe of pa g anism that was be ing dis pla y e d. On e sit e re fe rr e d to “Sc ie nti fi c Pa g a nis m,” a nd de fi ne d it in a w a y c on sis te nt w ith what this investiga tion refe rs to a s naturalistic panthe ism. However the over whelming majority of pag an si tes showed some r efe renc es to “mag ic,” “ Wicca,” “ witches,” “g oddesses,” “shama nism,” and h a d im a g e s o f g o d d e s s e s a n d /o r th e p a g a n p e n ta g r a m o n th e s it e s I t w a s c le a r that pag an members a nd g roups on My Space a nd Fa cebook de monstrated the c hara cter istics described by Pike. I n contra st, the sites tha t contained e ither panthe ism/pantheist were substantially in the cate g ory of natura listi c panthe ism. Thus, on these sites, the OED1 definition was the one opera tive. The sites

PAGE 79

7 9 tha t c on ta ine d e ith er pan enth e ism /pa ne nth e ist us e d th e te rm a s d e fi ne d in thi s p ro je c t, n a me ly to a ff ir m be lie f i n a de ity th a t w a s im ma ne nt i n th is u niv e rs e b ut a lso tr a ns c e nd e d it T his e xer c ise provides evide nce tha t the manner these terms have been define d here in are consistent with actual usag e in the lar g er c ulture. To obtain another quantitative snapshot, I also visite d M eetup.c om. A visit t o the “About Meetup” pag e on Mar ch 30, 2008 provide d the following explanation fo Meetup: Abo ut M e e tu p “Real G roups Make a Real Diff ere nce” Me e tup is t he wo rl d' s la rg e st n e tw or k o f s e lf -o rg a nize d c lub s a nd c omm un ity g ro up s. Meetups help pe ople: • F ind oth e rs in t he ir a re a wh o s ha re the ir int e re sts • L ea rn t ea ch an d s h ar e t h i n gs • Make f riends and ha ve fun • Rise up, stand up, unite, and make a diffe renc e • B e a pa rt of so me thi ng big g e r— bo th l oc a lly a nd g lob a lly People visiting the Mee tup.com site can se arc h any term re lated to an interest, such as “pag an” or “panthe ism” and find out if there are active Me etups in the sear cher ’s ar ea r elated to the se arc hed topic. I f there are no local Mee tups, a n y o n e can try to start a new Meetup in their a rea on a new top ic or int e re st. I se a rc he d tw o te rm s “ pa g a n” or “ pa nth e ism ” on Ma rc h 2 9, 20 08 w ith the se re su lts : Se a rc h Re su lts on 0329-08 Members I ntere sted Meetups exis ting Citi es Countries Events so far Pantheism 934 760 14 12 3 268 Pag an 28,646 22,965 382 273 5 10,025 The re sults for “panthe ism” were sufficie ntly small that I could visit each site. This disclosed that o n l y 8 o f t h e 1 4 r e p o r t e d M e e t u p s w e r e a c t u a l l y p a n t h e i s t T h e s e e i g h t M e e t u p s ( N e w Y o r k C i t y,

PAGE 80

Paul Harr ison, "World Pantheism Movement," in En c y c lop e dia of Re lig ion an d Nat ure ed. 1 Br on Tay lor (L ondon & New Y ork: Continuum I nterna tional, 2005). See a lso www.pa ntheism.net 8 0 Was hin g ton D C, A tla nta G A, Sa n F ra nc isc o B a y Ar e a L on do n, S an Di e g o, a nd L os An g e le s, Worcester MA) were all natura listi c pantheism g roups, whil e a visit to the top ten pag an mee tups demonstrated tha t they also confor med to the neopag an ty pe described by Pike. Thus, this additional exercise pr ovides evidenc e that this project’ s defini t i on of terms in re g ard to pa g anism and pantheism is consistent with stable actua l usag e in the lar g er c ulture. P ant he ism Or ga niz at ion s Th e re a re tw o o rg a niza tio ns o rg a nize d in the Un ite d St a te s, tha t a c ti v e l y p r omo te pa nth e ism They are the World Pantheism Movement and the Universa l Pantheist S ociety I will discuss each in turn. The World Pantheism Movement (“WPM”), wa s founded on 1 9 9 8 an d h as deve loped a Pantheist Credo as a g ener al desc ription of its c ore beliefs. At its website, the WPM notes Racha el 1 Carson, Alber t Einstein, novelist Marg are t Atwood, M ikhail Gorbac hev, Chief Sitting B ull, St ephen Hawking Carl Sag an, and T horea u as exemplars of natura listi c pantheism. The website a s discloses four honor ary advisors: the biolog ists David Suz uki an d Ursula Goodenoug h, the che mist J ames L ovelock (orig inator of the Gaia Hy pothesis), and the ske ptic, Michae l Shermer. The Credo notes Pantheism’s reve renc e “f or t he selforg anizing univer se’s ove rwhe lming powe r, bea uty and fundame ntal my stery ” and vie ws “a ll matter, ene rg y and life a s an interc onnecte d unit y ” The WP M “has a strong ly natura listi c base Nature the entire living and nonliving univer se, is all that e xists T he re a re no su pe rn a tur a l e nti tie s a nd no se pa ra te sp ir it re a lms .” Th us th e WPM e xpre ssl y reje cts forms of spiritualized pantheism. “Conscious n es s and mind are emer g ent qualities of en er gy / m at t er T h e s en s es an d s ci e n c e a r e o u r b es t m ea n s o f d ev el o p i n g o u r o n go i n g k n o wl ed ge

PAGE 81

Har rison, "World Pantheism Movement." 2 Har old Wood, J r., "U niversal Pantheist Socie ty ," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. 3 Br on Tay lor (L ondon & New York: Continuum I nterna tional, 2005) See also www.pa ntheist.net 8 1 of the univer se, and the most soli d basis for a esthetic a nd relig ious feeling s about rea lity Nature is seen as the only rea l basis on which re ligious fe eling can be built.” C o n s i s t en t wi t h t h i s t h e W P M v i ew s d ea t h “n a t u r al i s t i ca l l y as a r et u rn t o n at u re t h ro u gh the na tur a l r e c y c lin g of ou r e le me nts wh ic h sh ou ld be fa c ili ta te d by c re ma tio n o r n a tur a l bu ri a l in simple linen shrouds or wicke r basket s T h ere is no after life for the individual consciousness, but we live on throug h our ac tions, our ideas and memories of us, g iving us a powerf ul incentive to do g oo d. ” Pa ul H a rr iso n, the WPM’ s fo un de r, is c ur re ntl y the fa c ili ta tor of the L os An g e le s Pa nth e ism 2 Meetup Gr oup, discussed above The Unive rsal Pantheist Society founded in 1975, see ks to “stimulate a re vision of social attitudes awa y from anthr opocentr ism and toward r ever ence for the E arth a nd a vision of Natur e as the ultimate context for human exist ence and to take a ppropriate action towar d the protec tion and restora tion of the Ear th.” The U PS ex pres sly decla res that it is “not tied to any single view of pantheism, but rather rec og niz[ es] a diversity of viewpoints within it. UPS ac ce p t s and explores va ri ou s in te rp re ta tio ns of pa nth e ism s tr e ssi ng the imp or ta nc e of e a c h me mbe r’ s p e rs o n a l p a n t h e ist ic beliefs.” Stressing “ that fre edom of belief is inhe rent in the Pantheist tra dition, the UPS’s by laws prohibit [ insisti ng upon] any particula r interpre tation of Pantheism or imposit ion of any particula r dog ma.” This openness on the pa rt of the UPS to more spirit ual i nterpre tations disti ng uishes it from 3 the Wor ld P a nth e ism Mo ve me nt. P antheism and th e De ep Ecology Movem ent Th e re are sig nif ic a nt p a ra lle ls b e tw e e n th e De e p E c olo g y Mo ve me nt a nd na tur a lis tic

PAGE 82

Br on Tay lor, Dee p Ecolog y ," in En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron Tay lor 4 (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005), 456. 8 2 pantheism. Br on Tay lor notes most de e p e c o lo g is ts tr a c e th e ir p e r s p e c ti v e to p e r s o n a l e xp e r ie n c e s of connec tion to and wholeness in wild nature ex p er i en ces which are the g round of their intuitive, affe ctive per ception of the sacr edness a nd interconne ction of all life. Those who ha ve experienc ed such a transfor mation of consciousness (experienc ing wh a t is so me tim e s ca lle d o ne ’s “ e c olo g ic a l se lf ” in t he se mov e me nts ) v ie w t he se lf not as separ ate f rom and super ior to all else, but ra t h er as a small part of the entire cosmos. Fr om such experience fl o ws the conc lusion that all li fe a nd even e c os y ste ms the mse lve s ha ve inh e re nt or int ri ns ic va lue –th a t is, va lue ind e pe nd e ntl y of wh e the r t he y a re us e fu l to hu ma ns 4 I n C h ap t er 3 I l ai d o u t M i ch ae l L ev i n e’ s ar gu m en t t h at t o ca l l s o m et h i n g sacred and/or God is t o d e c la re tha t it ha s value D e e p e c olo g ist s, lik e na tur a lis tic pa nth e ist s, fi nd va lue in t he e nti re ty of existence and use lang uag e of the sacr ed to denote tha t va lue. The primar y differ ence betwee n deep e colog ists and naturalistic pantheists is that most deep e colog ists, notwit hstanding their g ener al c omf or t w ith the te rm sacred g ener ally ref rain fr om using the w ord God perha p s b ec au s e of the c ult ur a l ba g g a g e the te rm c a rr ie s. P ant he ism in t he M ov ie s Me ta ph y sic a l id e a s, in clu din g pa nth e ism c a n a pp e a r i n p op ula r m ov ie s. On e of the mos t famous examples is the 1977 movie, Sta r W ar s I n that movie, set “L ong long a g o, in a g alaxy far far awa y ,” one of the her os of the movie, Obi-Wan Ke nobi, is a J edi Knig ht, which in the cour se of the movie viewe rs lear n is an old and disappea ring relig ion. Obi-Wan tells L uke Sky walker about one of the tenets of this re ligion, namely belief in “ The F orce ” which is “ an ene rg y field cr eate d by all living thing s. I t surrounds us, penetr ates us, it binds the galaxy toge ther.” I n this, we hear strong e c ho e s o f A c ts 1 7:2 8. L a te r, Ke no bi, jus t be fo re sa c ri fi c ing him se lf in a sa be r b a ttl e wi th D a rt h Va de r, a fo rm e r Je di t ha t us e s th e fo rc e fo r ev il, de c la re s “Y ou c a n' t win Da rt h, y ou c a n str ike me

PAGE 83

8 3 down, I will be come more power ful than y ou can possibly imag ine,” a ppare ntly confide nt that he will survive in some spiritual form, wh i ch in fa ct turns out to be the ca se. Ke nobi, guiding S k y wa l k er t o s u cc es s fu l en gage m en t i n b at t l e f ro m h i s n ew s p i ri t u al i z ed fo rm i n t o n es “Remembe r, the For ce w ill be with y o u Al wa y s ” Here, G eorg e L ucas, the scre enwr iter of this initial episode of the S tar War s sa g a is pa rr oti ng a lmo st w or d f or wo rd Jes us c omm a nd to h is d isc ipl e s, po stre su rr e c tio n, in t he fi na l sen te nc e of Ma tth e w’ s Gos pe l, “A nd re me mbe r, I a m with y ou a lw a y s, to the end of the ag e.” I n Sta r W ar s it is a n imp e rs on a l, mor a lly a mbi g uo us pa nth e ist ic F or c e tha t is et ernally prese nt, with potential to lend redemptive a ssistance. Sta r W ar s th e n is a n e xa mple of sp ir itua lize d p a nth e ism T his c os mos is s til l th e fo c us of c on c e rn T he a ft e rlif e a s e vid e nc e d in the or ig ina l mo vie a nd e ve n mo re so in t he se qu e ls, oc c ur s in thi s Co smo s. Another e x ample of pa ntheism is found in Disney ’s 1995 animated f eatur e film, Pocahontas The primar y pantheistic c o ntent is convey ed in a sc ene w here Pocahontas sing s the song “Colors of the W ind” (whose ly rics were w ritten by Steven Schwar tz), to C aptain John S mith. The pertinent co n t en t i s t h e f o l l o wi n g: You think I m an ig norant sava g e. ., You think y ou own whate ver la nd y ou land on, Th e Ea rt h is jus t a de a d th ing y ou c a n c la im, But I know eve ry rock a nd tree and cr eatur e, Has a life, has a spirit, has a name Com e ru n th e hid de n p ine tr a ils of the fo re st, Come taste the sunswee t berrie s of the Ea rth, Come roll in all the riches a ll around y ou, And for onc e, neve r wonde r wha t they re w orth. Th e ra ins tor m a nd the ri ve r a re my br oth e rs Th e he ro n a nd the ott e r a re my fr ie nd s, And we a re a ll connecte d to eac h other, I n a cir cle, in a hoop tha t never ends. Earlier in movie, Pocahontas g oes to consult a talkin g wi l l o w t ree named Gr andmother Willow. When Pocahontas approa ches the tree the side of the tre e bec omes animated a nd takes the f orm of

PAGE 84

J eff Br umley “Ar e re ligious films crossing the lines? ” The Florida Ti mes-U nion J uly 12, 2007, 5 Pag e A1, Column 1 htt p:/ /w ww .ja c ks on vil le .c om/ tuon lin e /st or ie s/0 71 20 7/l if _1 83 88 89 83 .s htm l 8 4 an old wo m an ’s human fa ce, a nd beg ins talking to Pocahonta s. Given these supe rnatura listi c, animistic elements, the idea s expressed in Pocahontas a re a n e xamp le of sp ir itu a lized pa nth e ism “Colors Of The Wind” was also a major hit in 1995 for the sing er V anessa Wil liam s T h u s the pantheistic messag e wa s di s s em i n at ed both throug h the movie itself and via r adio play and so un dtr a c k s a le s. I mentioned in Chapter 1 the 2007 movie, Ev an Al mi gh ty Evan, a newly elec ted, Hummerdriving cong ressman, is dire cted by God, i n the form of Morga n Fr eema n, to build an ar k to save the a nim a ls be c a us e a se c on d fl oo d is c omi ng Go d g ive s Ev a n a n “ Ar k B uil din g fo r Dummi e s” book. The ke y pantheistic sce ne shows Eva n propped up in be d, about to rea d the book, and he opens the c over and the audienc e can rea d: “ About the Author: God is the cre ator of the Hea vens and the Ea rth. He lives in all thing s and has 6,717,323,711 c hildren.” The n Evan re ads the wor ds a lou d. Th is m ov ie g e ne ra te d s ome c on tr ov e rs y n ot b e c a us e it w a s te a c hin g pa nth e ism b ut b e c a us e a question wa s raised if Holly wood was inappropria tely targ eting churc h audienc es with such fa re. 5 Th e mov ie p ort ray s a su pe rn a tur a lis tic p e rs on a l G od wh o c a n ma te ri a lize a nd dis a pp e a r a t w ill Howeve r a s Co r r in g to n ’ s e xp o s it ion of pantheism demonstrate s, pantheism can be superna turalistic. Notwithstanding the superna tural ele ment s th e G o d p o r tr ay ed in Ev an Al mi gh ty ne ve rt he le ss “ liv e s” in t his un ive rs e a nd in al l part s o f t his un ive rs e N o s ug g e sti on is m a de tha t G od tr a ns c e nd s th is universe, or that th er e i s an y portion of this universe that God doe s not penetra te. Thus, Evan Al mi gh ty me e ts t his pr oje c t’ s d e fi nit ion of pa nth e ism a lbe it, sp ir itu a lize d pa nth e ism be c a us e thi s universe i s t h e o n l y re ality aff irmed, and tha t rea lity is impl icitly sacr ed due to the f act that God liv e s in a ll p a rt s o f i t.

PAGE 85

Sti gm ata Dir. Rupert Wainwrig ht, MGM (DVD) 1999. 6 The King J ames Ve rsion of L uke 17:21 re ads “the kingdom of God is within y ou.” The New 7 Revised S tandar d Ver sion rea ds “the kingdom of God is among y ou.” Howe ver, The Ne w O x for d An no tat e d B ibl e notes that other a ncient manusc ripts of L uke use “ within” instead of “ among .” See Michae l D. Cooga n et al., eds., The New Oxford Annotated Bible, New Rev ised Stan dard Version with t he Apoc ryphal/Deuteroc anonical Books 3rd ed. ( Oxford: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 2001)., at pag e 130 (N ew Te stament), in footnote d to L uke 17:21. Th e wh ole sa y ing re a ds : “ Jesu s sa id, ‘I a m the lig ht tha t is ov e r a ll thi ng s. I a m a ll: fr om m e 81 all has come forth, and to me all has reache d. Split a piece of wood; I am t here L ift up the stone, 23 and y ou will f ind me there .’” Marvin Mey er, e d., The Nag Hammadi Scriptures: The Inte rnational Edition (San F ranc isco: Har perSanF ranc isco, 2007), 149. See also, Elaine H. Pag els, The Gn os tic Go sp e ls 1st ed. (Ne w York: Random House 1979), for information on the Na g Hammadi find. Robert Walter F unk and Roy W. Hoover, The Fi v e Go sp e ls: The Se ar c h fo r th e Au the nti c 9 W or ds of J e su s: Ne w Tra ns lat ion an d Co mm e nta ry (Ne w York: Mac millan, 1993), 515. 8 5 Another movie w ith a pantheistic theme was the 1999 movie, Sti gm ata Th e mov ie wa s a 6 demon possession hor ror movie in a simil ar ve in to The Ex or c ist T he pa nth e ist tw ist is t ha t F ra nk ie Paige the pos sessed y oung woman, while experiencing episodes of possession by an unidentified superna tural entity say s the following in the Ara maic lang uag e: “Jesus said the King dom of God is within y ou, not in buildi ng s of wood and stone. Split a piece of wood and I am there L ift a stone and y ou will find me.” The f irst pa rt of the first sentenc e is f rom L uke 17:21. The sec ond and third 7 sentenc es ar e fr om Say ing 77 of the Gospel of T homas found at Na g Hammadi in 1945. 8 Th e Jesu s Se min a r, a g ro up of ne w t esta me nt s c ho la rs wh o me t f ro m 19 85 to 1 99 8, in analy zing whethe r this verse mig ht have c ome from Jesus, concluded: “The kind of pantheism–God in e ve ry thi ng G od e ve ry wh e re –r e fl e c te d in 77: 23 is un kn ow n f ro m ot he r s ou rc e s, e ith e r g no sti c or Christian. J esus would sca rce ly have c onsidered himself omnipre sent.” He nce, the y conclude d it w a s n ot a n a uth e nti c sa y ing fr om t he his tor ic a l Jes us Ho we ve r, Ho lly wo od too k in te re st. 9 The re st of the movie u n fo l d s a p l ot by the Vatica n seeking to suppress a ne w g ospel c on ta ini ng the se a nd pr e su ma bly oth e r, fo rm e rl y un kn own sa y ing s o f Je su s. Th ro ug h th e c ou rs e

PAGE 86

8 6 of the movie, viewers learn that the s uperna tural entit y possessing Fra nkie i s the ghost of a de cea sed pr ie st w ho ha d b e e n in vo lve d, a lon g wi th t wo oth e r pr ie sts wi th tr a ns la tin g a ne wl y fo un d g os pe l, a nd tha t th is g ho st i s tr y in g t o tr ans mit the c on te nts of thi s u nk no wn g os pe l. T he c or e of thi s information to transmitted to the viewer s throug h the following dialog ue betwe en another of the three translators, F ather Petroce lli, and Fathe r Andre w Kier nan, the pr iest that is investigat i ng for the Vatica n Fr ankie’ s possession and her stig mata: Kie rnan (K) : [af te r b e ing sh ow n a pic tur e of a do c ume nt] Wh a t is thi s? P etr ocelli (P ): I t is may be the most signif icant Christian relic e ver f ound. K: W h y? P: I t's a n Ara maic scr oll from the first ce ntury discovere d near the ca ves of the D ead Sea scr olls outsi de Jerusalem. Alame ida and I conclude d that it is a gospel of Jesus Christ in hi s own words, Ar amaic. B ut there are some fac tions in t he Va tican who believe tha t this document could destroy the authority of the moder n churc h. K: How? P: I t was Jesus words to hi s d i s ciples on the nig ht of his last supper. His instructions to them on how to continue his churc h afte r his death. K: W h y wo u l d t h at b e s o t h re at en i n g? P: Whe n w e g a ve ou r i nit ia l c on c lus ion s to the g os pe l c omm iss ion [Va tic a n Ca rd ina l] Houseman or dere d us to stop our work immediate ly Alameida r efuse d. He stole the document and disa ppear ed. House man excommunicated us in our abse nce. K: Yo u h a ve no ide a wh e re he is? P: He do e sn t wa nt to be c a ug ht unt il he fi nis he s the tr a ns la tio n. [P sho ws a pic tur e to K w it h th r e e me n in c lu d in g h im s e lf ]. T h a t’ s D e lm o n ic o me a n d A la me id a We wer e all tra nslating the g ospel tog ether K: I ve se e n th is m a n, thr e e we e ks a g o, in B ra zil. He s d e a d. I sa w h im i n h is c of fi n in h i s c h u r c h i n B e l l a Q u i n t o S o r r y. P: Then it is all over. I t's g one for ever K: Why wa s y ou r w or k s top pe d? What is s o th re a te nin g a bo ut t his g os pe l? P: L ook around y ou fathe r. What do y ou see? K: I see a churc h. P: I t 's a b u i l d i n g. T h e t r u e c h u rc h o f J es u s C h ri s t i s s o m u ch m o re N o t i n b u i l d i n gs made of wood and stone. I love J esus! I don' t ne ed an instit ution be tween him and me. You see Jus t God and man. No pr iests, no c hurche s. The first words in Jesus g ospel The King dom of God is inside y ou and all ar ound y ou. Not in buildings of wood and stone. Split a piece of wood a nd I am there L ift the stone, P and A K in uni so n: and y ou will find me. P: Yes brothe r.

PAGE 87

Sti gm ata at 1 h : 2 2 m : 5 6 s an d fo l l o wi n g. 10 For scholarship supportin g t h i s s t at ement, see Elaine H. Pag els, Bey ond Belief: The Se cret 11 Gospel of Thomas 1st ed. (Ne w York: Random House 2003). Telephone interview w ith Tom L azarus, Mar ch 22, 2008 12 8 7 K: She' s [Frankie] just his [ Alameida’ s g host] messeng er. P: Ho us e ma n w ill ne ve r l e t th is g os pe l g e t ou t. 10 As the sto ry fu rt he r u nf old s, in a dr a ma ti c ex or c ism sc e ne wh e re Ca rd ina l H ou se ma n a tte mpt s to murder F rankie and ther eby suppress the ne w g ospel but is thwarted by Kierna n, Kierna n promises Alameida’ s g host he will work to g et the new g ospel out to the world, and the g host then relea ses F ra nk ie fr om p os se ssi on I n th e fi na l sc e ne of the mov ie K ie rn a n h a s g on e to a ru ra l, r e mot e Catholic churc h in Be lo Quinto, Sout heast B razil, and finds the h i dden scr olls, while the say ing noted in for f oreg oing is dra matically intone d T h e s cr ee n fade s to black, and the n the following three sentenc es in a seque nce of three darke ned scr eens a re pr esente d to the aud i en ce t o rea d: (1) “I n 1945, A scroll was discove red in Na g Hamadi, whic h is describe d as ‘The Secre t Say ings of the L iving Jesus’”; (2) “ This scroll, the Gospel of St. Thomas, has been claimed by scholars a round the world to be the c losest rec ord we have of the words of the hi s t o rica l J esus” ; (3) “T he Va tican 11 ref uses to rec og nize this Gospel and has descr ibed it as here sy .” Thus, the f ilm ex plicitly includes information about re cent f inds and deve lopments in New Testa ment scholarship. How ev e r w h y was the most pantheistic text in Thomas chosen? Th e sto ry a s o ri g ina lly de ve lop e d b y sc re e nw ri te r T om L a zar us did no t ha ve thi s e le me nt t o it, and d i d n o t i n an y wa y rela te to the Gospel of T homas or its pantheistic messag e. I t was the direc tor, Rupert Wainwrig ht, who took the fil m in this di rec tion. I n the direc tor’s commenta ry 12 trac k on the DVD, Wainwr ight sa y s about the three statements at the e nd: “These car ds at the end a re a ll t ru e a nd it w a s a hu g e fi g ht t o g e t th e se c a rd s o n, becau se so me peo ple be lie ve d it wa s a

PAGE 88

Sti gm ata at 1 h : 3 5 m : 4 3 s an d fo l l o wi n g. 13 At the time this thesis was being I lear ned via e mail that Wainwright wa s then in Moscow, 14 Russia, and not rea dily available for a n interview. 8 8 dis tr a c tio n f or the a ud ie nc e I be lie ve tha t wha t it did wa s it po int s the a ud ie nc e tow a rd s o the r f a c ts a bo ut t he mov ie tha t ha pp e n to be tr ue T he mov ie is n ot a bo ut t he Go sp e l of St. Thom as, bu t it ref ers to that g ospel and other g ospels like it. So I would encour ag e y ou to if y ou are at all intere sted in this m ater ial to look further.” 13 Why did Wai nw ri g ht p ic k T ho ma s’ pa nth e ist ic sa y ing ? Di d Wa inw ri g ht t hin k th is w ou ld be the ve rs e mos t in te re sti ng to a ud ie nc e s or was it the ve rs e mos t in te re sti ng to h im? Thi s is unknown. Howeve r, Wainwrig ht’s disclaimer that the movie is not about the Gospel of Thomas 14 no tw ith sta nd ing th e c e ntr a l dr a ma tic te ns ion of the mov ie de ri ve s f ro m th e ide a tha t a pa nth e ist ic understanding of Je s u s and God, whic h is indeed contra ry to traditional understanding s of Chr ist ia nit y a s se t f or th i n th e Ni c e ne Cr e e d a nd oth e r t ra dit ional Chr ist ia n c re e ds is a thr e a t to established re ligious instituti ons. The dire ctor expressly encour ag es his vie wer s to “ look further .” So, fo r t he pu rp os e s o f t his pr oje c t, I c on c lud e tha t Sti gm ata is one sign tha t pantheis t i c idea s are emer g ing into and being taken up in at lea st some sectors of A merica n popular c ulture. I n this case, a movie dire ctor e x pressly encour ag ed his viewe rs to lear n more a bout rec ent developments in New Te sta me nt s c ho la rs hip a nd its ne w p a nth e ist ic fi nd s. The ne x t movie with strong se nse of e cstatic na turalism/pantheism is 1 999' s “Amer ican Be auty .” Two long speec hes o cc u r. One is by the cha rac ter Ricky Fitts, as he play s a video tape of pla sti c ba g sw ir lin g in t he wi nd a nd he e xpla ins wh a t he wa s f e e lin g as he fi lm ed it to h is g irlfriend: I t w a s o ne of tho se da y s w he n it s a m in ut e awa y fr om s no wi ng a nd the re s th is elec tricity in the air, y ou can almost hear it. And this bag was, like, da ncing with me.

PAGE 89

Br y son welcome s his reade rs with this following ce lebra tion o f ex i stence : “Welcome. And 15 c on g ra tul a tio ns I a m del ig hte d tha t y ou c ou ld ma ke it. Ge tti ng he re wa sn t ea sy I kn ow ; I n f a c t, I suspect it was a littl e tougher than y ou rea liz e. To beg in with, for y ou to be her e now trillions of dr if tin g a tom s h a d s ome ho w t o a sse mbl e in a n in tr ic a te a nd int ri g uin g ly ob lig ing ma nn e r t o c re a te y ou I t' s a n a rr a ng e me nt s o s pe c ia lize d a nd pa rt ic ula r t ha t it ha s n e ve r b e e n tr ie d b e fo re and wi ll on ly e xi s t t h i s o n c e F o r t h e n e xt m a n y y e a r s ( w e h o p e ) t h e s e t i n y p a r t i c l e s w i l l u n c o m p l a ini ng ly eng ag e in all the billions of deft, coope rative e ffor ts nece ssary to keep y o u i n t ac t and let y ou experience the supreme ly ag ree able but g ener ally undera pprec iated state known as exis tence To be her e now, a live in the twenty -first ce ntury and smart e noug h to know it, y ou al s o had to be the benef iciary of an e x traordina ry str i n g of biolog ical g ood fortune. N ot one of y our per tinent 8 9 L ike a little kid beg g ing me to play with it. For fif teen minutes. And that' s the day I knew the re wa s t h i s entire life behind things, a nd this incredibly benevole nt forc e, that wa nted me to know there was no rea son to be afr aid, ever Video' s a poor excuse, I know. Bu t i t h elps me re member a nd I need to r emember Som eti mes th ere's so muc h b e a uty in t he wo rl d I fe e l li ke I c a n' t ta ke it, lik e my hear t's g oing to c ave in. The other main speec h is when L ester B urnham g ives his final speec h to the audienc e i n t h e final moments of the movie af ter he ’s just been murde red by his homophobic nex t door neig hbor: I had alwa y s hear d y our entire life flashe s in front of y our ey es the sec ond befor e y ou die. Fir st of all, that one sec ond isn't a second a t all, it st retc hes on for ever like an ocea n of t i m e. For me, it was ly ing on my back a t Boy Scout camp, wa tching falling stars. And y ellow l eave s, from the maple trees, that lined my street. Or my g ra nd mot he r' s h a nd s, a nd the wa y he r sk in seem ed like pa pe r. An d th e fi rs t time I saw my cousin Tony s bran d n ew Fi rebird. And J anie. And Janie. And. Caroly n. I g uess I could be pretty pissed off a bout what happe ned to me. but it's har d to stay mad, when the re' s so muc h beauty in the world. Sometimes I fee l l i k e I'm s ee i n g i t al l at o n ce an d i t 's t o o m u ch m y h ea rt fi l l s u p l i k e a b al l o o n t h at 's about to burst. And then I reme mber to re lax, and stop try ing to hold on to it and then it flows throug h me like ra in and I can' t fee l any thing b u t gra t itude for e very sin g le mo ment of my stu pid lit tle lif e Y ou ha ve no ide a wh a t I m ta lki ng a bo ut, I' m s u r e B u t d o n t w o r r y. yo u w i l l s o m e d a y. This film won the Be st Picture Osca r, so these scene s wer e ver y evoca tively acte d. I t may be that it is hard to experience the effec t of these pa ssag es on the wr itten pag e, but as a cted they portray ed an ec static messag e that eve ry one should ce lebra te t heir ex istence, a nd cele brate that they have be en luc ky e no ugh to wi n the c os mic lot to b y be ing he re a t a ll. B ill B ry so n, in h is i ntr od uc tio n to his book, A Short History of Nearly Every thing e vo c a tiv e ly a rt ic ula te s th is t he me Julia Swe e ne y in 15

PAGE 90

ance stors was squashe d, devoure d, drowne d, starved, stra nded, stuck fa st, untim ely wounded, or otherwise de flec ted from its lif e's q u es t of delivering a tiny char g e of g enetic ma terial to the rig ht partne r at the r ight moment in orde r to perpe tuate the only p o s s i b l e sequence of her editary combinations that could result–eve ntually astounding ly and all too briefly –in y ou. This is a book about how it happene d–in p ar t i cular how we w ent from ther e being nothing a t all to there be ing something, a nd then how a little of that something turned into us. .” B ill Bry son, A S ho rt H ist or y of Nearly Eve rything 1st ed. (Ne w York: B roadw ay Books, 2003) 1-4. J ulia Sweene y Letting Go of God ( Audio CD) (I ndefa tiga ble I nc., 2006). 16 H e r b ie J. Pi la to, T h e K ung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical 17 Ea ste rn W e ste rn 1st ed. (B oston: Tuttl e Co., 1993), 57, 150. I bid., 63. 18 9 0 her one -woman c omedic lesson in metaphy sics, decla res she is a “na turalist” who, af ter the e piphany of he r c on ve rs ion to a na tur a lis tic pe rs pe c tiv e is “ a sto nis he d” tha t sh e is “ he re a t a ll. Th e sma lle st things in life just seem a mazing to me now... I used to think there a re no c oincidence s. Now I think there ar e co i n ci d ence s!!! Wow, coinc idence !!! I f this is all there is, eve ry thing mea ns more, not less!” She e x presse s pity for the “ an atu ra lis tis ts ,” a te rm she coine d to label for those who reje ct a na tur a lis tic pe rs pe c tiv e Th e se e xamp le s a re sim ila r o r i de nti cal to the e c sta tic na tur a lis tic 16 p a n t h e i s m o f A b b e y. P ant he ism in Te le vis ion Pantheism showe d up in te levision in the 1970' s perha ps most prominently in the television se ri e s Kung Fu whose television pilot air ed on Fe bruar y 22, 1972 and whose 62 episodes ra n from Oct o b e r 1 9 7 2 to A p r il 1 9 1 9 7 5 T h e “ Wr it e r s ’ G u id e ” ma n u a l p r o d u c e d b y Wa r n e r B rothers 17 Televis io n in d ic a te d th a t w r it e r s w e r e to d r a w n th e s h o w ’ s p h il o s o p h ic a l c o n te n t f r om “ Con fu c ia nis m, T a ois m a nd Z e n, ” tho ug h pre do min a te ly fr om Con fu c ia nis m “be c a us e it i s th e mos t op tim ist ic ” in o utl oo k. Ku ng F u w a s se t in the 18 70 s a nd fo llo ws the st ory of a Sha oli n p ri e st, 18 Kwai Chang e Caine, bor n in China to an America n fathe r and a Chinese mother, who a fter be ing

PAGE 91

———, The Kung Fu Book of W isdom: Sage Adv ice from the O riginal T v Serie s 1st ed. 19 (B oston: C.E. Tutt le, 1995), 20. I bid.; Pi lato, The Kung Fu Book of Caine: The Complete Guide to Tv's First Mystical 20 Ea ste rn W e ste rn 71. I bid., 101. 21 ———, The Kung Fu Book of W isdom: Sage Adv ice from the O riginal T v Serie s 26. 22 I bid. 23 I bid., 106. 24 9 1 orphane d is broug ht up in Shaolin t emple. Af ter killing a ro y al n ep h ew of the Chinese empe ror, C a i n e f l e e s t o t h e A m e r i c a n W e s t a n d s e a r c h e s f o r h i s h a l f b r o t h e r w i t h b o u n t y h u n t e r s a l w a ys pursing him. Each e pisode depicte d some drama tic story interlac ed with f lash backs to scene s of his training a t the Shaolin Temple, and his two main teac hers, Ma ster Ka n and Master Po. I n one such f lash bac k in Episode 1, Master K an tells y oung Cain, “To know nature is to put oneself in ha rmony with the Universe Hea ven and E arth a re one .” Master K an fur ther tea ches 19 Ca ine in E pis od e 4 th a t “ Al l li fe is s a c re d” a nd in E pis od e 20 tha t to “ be a ma n is to b e on e wi th 20 the Univer se.” I n the serie s pilot, Kan teac hes that “A ll crea tures, the l o w an d t h e high, ar e one 21 with Nature I f we have the wisdom to lear n, all may teac h us their virtues.” I n Episode 4, Master 22 Po tea ches Caine that to “ be one with the Universe is to know bird, sun, cloud,” and in Episode 50 23 tha t th e “ Sa g e sa y s: ‘ Th e be g inn ing of the Un ive rs e is t he Mo the r of all thing s. ’” F ina lly th is 24 e xamp le a g a in f ro m Ma ste r K a n in Ep iso de 46 : “D o wa rs fa min e dise a se a nd de a th exis t? Do lus t, g ree d, and hate exis t? They are [hum anity ]’s crea tion s b ro u gh t into being by the dar k side of nature. ” Thus, in pantheistic fashion, the me taphy sics of Kung Fu taug ht that nature a nd the Universe wer e the only and selfcre ating rea lity th at human’s ca n lear n the nature of re ality by study ing the natura l world, that mortality is the way of nature (not eve n the possibilit y of

PAGE 92

———, The Kun g F u B oo k of C ain e : T he Com ple te Gu ide to T v 's F irs t M y sti c al E as te rn 25 W e ste rn 154. Maure en Or th, Peter S. Gree nberg and Janet Huck, J ohn Denv er: The Sunshine Boy ," 26 Newsweek Dec 20, 1976. 9 2 reinc arna tion is sugg ested), tha t n at u re is mora lly ambig uous (as with “The For ce” in Sta r W ar s ), and that thus a wise person seeks to live in a lignment with the forc es of nature and the univer se as muc h a s p os sib le L e vin e no te d th e c los e c oh eren ce betw e e n T a ois m a nd pa nth e ism a nd thi s aff inity is visibl e in Kung Fu After t he orig inal series, Kun g F u The Mo v ie a made -for TV movie aire d Fe bruar y 1, 1986, and a ne w television serie s, Kung Fu The Legend Continues co nti nu e d the sto ry lin e int o 25 the pr e se nt d ay Th at ser ie s r a n w ith 83 e pis od e s f ro m Jan ua ry 19 93 to Ja nu a ry 19 97 T he ma in c ha ra c te r w a s st ill Kw a i Ch a ng e Ca ine w ho is t he g ra nd so n o f t he Ca ine of the or ig ina l se ri e s, a g a in he is a Shaolin monk, now residing in a larg e Amer ican c ity He c ontinued t o d i spense the pantheistic wisdom of t he orig inal series. N umerous clips of both ser ies are prese ntly available on YouTube, a nd continue to have cultural influenc e. P antheism in Popular Music At about the same time of the debut of the orig in al Ku ng Fu se ries, the United States w as experiencing another missionary of panthe ism in t he p er s o n o f p opular folk r ock sing er, John Denve r (born Henr y J ohn Deutsche ndorf, J r.). Ac cording to Newsweek in 1976, Denver was “ an e c oa wa r e p a n t h e i s t ” w h o w a s “ t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p o p s i n g e r i n A m e r i c a ” F o u r y e a r s e a r l ie r, in 26 Se pte mbe r 1 97 2, De nv e r r e le a se d h is a lbu m Rock y Mountain High whose title trac k was a n autobiog raphic al pae an to the g lories of na ture that i n Marc h 1973 made it to number nine on

PAGE 93

Fr ed B ronson, The Bi llb oa rd Bo ok of N um be r 1 Hi ts Updated a nd Ex p an d ed 5 th ed. (Ne w 27 York: B illboard Books, 2003) 360. 28 htt p:/ /w ww .c olo ra do .g ov /dp a /do it/ a rc hiv e s/h ist or y /sy mbe mb. htm #RM H (re trieved 0329-2008) Henc e, the song ’s re fer en ce t o s ee ing it “r ainin' fire in the sky .” John Denver a nd Arthur 29 Tobier, Take Me Home: An Autobiography 1st ed. (Ne w York: Ha rmony Books, 1994) 108-09. I bid. 30 9 3 Bi l l b o ar d ’s Ho t 1 0 0 l i s t On M ar ch 1 2 2 0 0 7 t h e s o n g b ec am e C o l o ra d o ’s s ec o n d s t at e s o n g. 27 28 I n this autobiogra phical song, which was inspi red by watching the Persied mete or shower on a dar k nig ht i n the Roc ky Mo un ta ins De nv e r de sc ri be s hims e lf a s some on e wh o in “hi s 27 y e a r” wa s, 29 th invoking Christian imag ery “born a g ain” throug h his t ransf orming encounte rs with nature and the re by c a me “ ho me to a pla c e he d n e ve r b e e n b e fo re .” Af te r t his e pip ha ny Den ver te lls his listener’s, spe aking about himself in the third-per son, No w h e wa lks in q uie t so lit ud e the fo re st a nd the str e a ms se e kin g g ra c e in e v' ry ste p h e ta ke s. His sight has turne d inside himself to try and under stand the sere nity of a c lear blue mountain lake. As a re sult of this i nwar d meditation, Denver can t h ro u gh nature “talk to God and listen to the casua l reply .” Howe ver, the song tells f urther that this new intimacy with God throug h nature comes wi th a pr ic e : Now his life is full of wonde r but his hear t stil l knows some fea r, of a simple thing he ca nnot comprehe nd. Why they try to tear the mountains down to bring in a couple more more pe ople more sc ars upon the la nd? Thoug h he now knows “ he' d be a poor er ma n if he ne ver sa w an e ag le fly ,” this new intimacy with sacre d nature had attac hed to it a new c oncer n for the f ate of the environme nt. Denve r 30 could no long er be indiffer ent to the fa te of c rea tion.

PAGE 94

I bid., 253. 31 9 4 “Rocky Mountain Hig h” wa s the first song on the al b u m W i t h h is song, “ Spring,” he conclude d that album with a ra pturous hy mn of conne ction to nature: O p e n u p yo u r e ye s a n d s e e t h e b r a n d n e w d a y, a cle ar blue sky and brig htly shining sun, o p e n u p yo u r e a r s a n d h e a r t h e b r e e z e s s a y ev’r y thing that’ s cold and g ray is gone Open up y our hands a nd fee l the rain c ome on down, taste the wind a nd smell the flower s’ swee t perfume Open up y our mind and let the lig ht shine in, the ea rth has bee n rebor n and life g oes on. A n d d o y o u c a r e w h a t ’ s h a p p e n i n g a r o u n d y o u ? D o y o u r s e n s e s k n o w t h e c h a n g e s w h e n t h e y c o m e ? C a n y o u s e e y o u r s e l f r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s e a s o n s ? Can y ou understand the need to c arr y on? Riding on the tape stry of all there is to see, so ma ny wa y s, a nd oh s o ma ny thi ng s. Rejoicing the diff’ renc es, there ’s no one just like me, Yet as diff ’re nt as we a re, w e’r e still the same. And oh, I love the life w ithin me, I fee l a par t of ev’r y thing I see. And oh, I love the life a round me, a par t of ev’r y thing is her e in me. Over the re maining 25 y ear s of his car eer cut short by his death i n p l an e cr ash i n 1997, Denve r continued to e x plore na ture-c enter ed understanding s of the sac red. I n his album, Sp iri t re l ea s ed i n Au gu s t 1 9 7 6 h e i n cl u d ed a s o n g wi t h s t ro n g p an t h ei s t i c e l em en t s en t i t l ed “T h e W i n gs Th a t F ly Us Ho me ,” wh e re in De nv e r te lls his lis te nin g pu bli c tha t he kn ow s “ tha t lo ve is s e e ing a ll the inf ini te in o ne ,” a nd tha t “ Yo u’ re ne ve r a lon e ” be c a us e the sp ir it f ill s th e da rk ne ss o f t he he a ve ns I t f ill s th e e nd le ss y e a rn ing of the so ul, I t lives within a star too far to drea m of, I t lives within each pa rt and is the whole. 31

PAGE 95

I bid. 32 I bid., 255. 33 9 5 I n November 1977, Denve r re lease d h i s album, I W ant To L ive t h at i n cl u d ed h i s s o n g, “Singing Skies and Danc ing Water s,” which de scribes the lament of som eo n e, per haps himself, strug g ling with loss of fa ith in a traditional god. The despairing seeke r in the song laments to God “ I jus t c ou ldn t se e y ou ; I tho ug ht t ha t I d lo st y ou ; I ne ve r f elt so mu ch a lon e ; A re y ou sti ll w ith me? ” God r esponds to the seeke r’s plea explaining that “I m with y ou in, Singing skies and danc ing water s L a u g h in g c h il d r e n g r o w in g o ld A n d in th e h e a r t, a n d in th e s p ir it A n d in th e tr u th when it is t old.” 32 I n the title track of his September 1983 album, I t’ s A b out Time in a line re miniscent of Ed wa rd Ab be y De nv e r te lls his a ud ie nc e tha t “I t’ s abo ut time we sta rt to se e it, the Ea rt h is ou r o nly ho me ; I t’ s a bo ut t ime we sta rt to f a c e it, we c a n’ t ma ke it h e re” wi th ou t the re st o f E a rt h’ s f a mil y of cre ature s. Then, in his song “Children of the Universe ,” f ro m h i s 1990 Earth Songs a lbu m, D e n v e r d e s c r i b e s r e a l i t y i n t h i s w a y: Th e c os mic oc e a n k no ws no bo un ds F or a ll t ha t li ve a re br oth e rs The whippoorw ill, the gr izz ly bear The e lephant, the wha le, All children of the universe, All weave rs of the ta le. 33 I n h is s o n g “ Ra v e n ’ s Ch il d ” f r o m h is 1 9 9 0 album, T h e Flower That Shat tered the Stone a ft e r d e sc ri bin g va ri ou s h uma n k ing s ( dr ug kin g s, oil ba ro n kin g s, a rm s de a le r k ing s ( c omp le te wi th a r e f e r e n c e t o R o n a l d R e a g a n ’ s S t a r W a r s m i s s i l e s h i e l d ) ) w h o a l l s i t o n a n “ a r r o g a n t t h r o n e a w a y, a nd a bo ve a nd a pa rt ,” De nv e r i nv ok e s b ibl ic a l la ng ua g e of Go d a s K ing b ut t his pa nth e ist ic true King sits on a heave nly throne, Ne ve r a wa y n or a bo ve n or a pa rt

PAGE 96

I bid. 34 Christine Sm ith, A Mountain in the W ind: An Exploration of the Spirituali ty of John De nver 35 (F indhorn, Scotland; Tallahasse e, F L : F indhorn Press, 2001). Smith’s tit le is drawn f rom Denve r’s song “The Wings That F ly Us Home,” trea ted her ein. 9 6 Wit h wisdom and merc y and consta nt compassion, He liv e s in the lov e th a t li ve s in ou r h e a rt s. 34 As a fi na l e xamp le of De nv e r’ s p a nth e ist ic ly ri c s, I ’l l c on c lud e wi th t his fr om t he tit le tr a c k o f h is The Flower That Shat tered The Stone a lbu m: The e arth is our mother just turning around, with her tre es in the for est and roots unde rg round, Our fa ther a bove us whose sig h is the wind, paint us a ra inbow without any end. Her e, De nver use s the Amerindian imag ery of Mother Ea rth and F ather Sky to understand the div ine a s im ma ne nt w ith in t he Cos mos J ohn Denve r continues to impact Ame rica n culture. A sear ch of “ john denver ” on My Spa c e .c om o n M a rc h 3 0, 20 08 y ie lds 33 ,7 00 re su lts Sa mpl ing the se a rc h r e su lts re ve a ls J ohn Denve r Tribute sites, numer ous clips of J ohn Denve r song s, as well as My Space me mbers that list Denver a s a fa vorite ar tist. A YouTube.com sea rch of the same phr ase y ielded 2,810 r e l a t e d c l i p s A t l e a s t o n e f a n w r i t t e n b o o k h a s b e e n w r i t t e n e x p l o r i n g D e n v e r ’ s s p i r i t u a l i t y. 35 His pantheistic influenc e continues in pre sent culture. I will give one more e x ample of popula r musician whose ly rics show c lear elements of pa nth e ism th e la te Da n F og e lbe rg (1 95 120 07 ). F og e lbe rg ’s mus ic c a re e r, lik e De nv e r’ s, be c a me su c c e ssf ul i n th e e a rl y 19 70 s. Ho we ve r, his mos t na tur e -c e nte re d me ta ph y sic a l a lbu ms wer e in the 1990s. I n the title track to his 1990 The W ild Places F og e lbe rg inc lud e d th e se tho ug hts :

PAGE 97

36 htt p:/ /w ww .d a nf og e lbe rg .c om/ bio g ra ph y .h tml (Retrieve d 3-30-2008) 9 7 .There s a hea ven on ea rth that so few ever find, Thoug h the map' s in y our soul and the r oad' s in y our mind. .When y ou sleep on the g round with the stars in y our fa ce, You ca n fee l the full leng th of the bea uty and g rac e. I n th e wi ld p la c e s ma n is a n u nw e lc ome g ue st, But it' s here that I m found and it' s here I fee l blessed. Her e, ec hoing T horea u and J ohn Muir’s love of wildness and experience of wild pla ces as the place of ac hieving “blessing ,” F og elber g tells in li steners that “hea ven is on ea rth.” I n his followup album that he conside red the second volume of a t wo v olume work, F og elber g rele ased “ Mag ic Ever y Moment” on his 1993 Ri v e r o f So uls album. Her e, Th e re s a ma g ic e ve ry mom e nt There s a mirac les ea ch day On a hig h and windy island I was g azing out to sea When a long forg otten fee ling c ame a nd took control of me I t was then the c louds burst open and the sun c ame pour ing thr oug h When it hit those danc ing w ater s in an instant all eternity I knew. You ca n see f oreve r in a sing le drop of de w You ca n see tha t same for ever if y ou look down deep inside of y ou There s a spar k of the c rea tor in ever y living thing These e x amples have a my stical quality to them and revea l more of spiritualiz ed pantheism than a na tur a lis tic pa nth e ism B ut t he e le me nt o f s a c re d f oc us re ma ins thi s Co smo s. I n d i s cu s s i n g t h es e a l b u m s an d t h es e s o n g s Fo gel b er g s ai d "I k n o w m et ap h y s i ca l s o n gs are n' t going to sell on the radio," but "I felt there was no wa y we could save this planet unless we lear ned to l ove it [here, echoing Thomas B err y ]. S o these song s were about my love for na ture." 36 P ant he ism in D awkins D e nne tt and H ar r is Panth ei s m also shows up in another sur prising pla ce. Newsweek ha s r e fe rr e d to bio log ist Richard Da wkins, philosopher Danie l Dennett, and ne uroscientist Sam Harr is as “The New

PAGE 98

J err y Adler, The Ne w Nay say ers: I n the Midst of Religious Revival, Thre e Scholar s Arg ue 37 Th at A th eis m I s S mar ter ," Newsweek Sept. 11, 2006. Richard Da wkins, The God Delusion (B oston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006), 31. 38 I bid., 20. 39 I bid., 15. 40 Kocku von Stuckra d, "E istein, Albert," in En c y c loped ia of Re lig ion an d Na tur e ed. B ron 41 Tay lor (L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005). 9 8 Nay say ers.” I ndeed, the three can be considere d the new e vang elical a theists, vigorously sprea ding 37 a the ism ’s g oo d n e ws The tr io ar e us ua lly me nti on e d tog e the r. Ho we ve r, a c los e re a din g of the ir wo rk s y ie lds so me su rp ri se s. Richard Da wkins, in his 2006 book, The God Delusion makes c lear that fo r h i m i t i s the belief tha t “there exis ts a s u perhuma n, superna tural intellige nce w ho delibera tely desig ned and cre ated the unive rse a nd ever y thing in it, including us” that he believe s is de lusional. He f urther 38 states that his titl e, The God Delusion “does not r efe r to the God of Einstein and othe r enlig htened sc ie nti sts I a m ta lki ng on ly a bo ut supernatural g ods. .” “I am ca lling only superna tural g ods 39 delusional.” Given that Da wkins expressly states that he is n o t ch alleng ing E instein’s God, a 40 d e e p e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o E i n s t e i n ’ s n o t i o n o f G o d i s n e c e s s a r y. Ko c ku vo n St uc kr a d n ote s th a t E ins te in al wa y s re g a rd e d h ims e lf a s a “ re lig iou s” sc ie nti st, e ve n w hil e re je c tin g the ide a of a pe rs on a l g od wh o mi g ht i nte rfere with hu ma n a ff a ir s o r w ith n a t u r e A c c o r d i n g t o S t u c k r a d E i n s t e i n “ d e f i n i t e l y h a d a k i n d o f p a n t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e ” In his 1934 book, The W orld As I See I t Einstein expressed pantheistic ideas, talking about the my stery of the e ternity of life, a nd his endea vor “to c omprehe nd a portion, be i t ever so tiny of the re ason that manifests itself in nature .” Stuckra d ch ar acterizes Einstein’s self-de scribed “ rapturous a ma zem e nt” a t th e ha rm on y of na tur a l la w a s a so rt of my sti c ism 41

PAGE 99

Walter I saac son, Ei ns te in: Hi s Lif e an d U niv e rse (Ne w York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), 38642 90. Dawkins, The God Delusion 14. 43 I bid., 19. 44 9 9 Ei ns te in’ s r e c e nt b iog ra ph e r, Wal te r I sa a c so n, con fir ms St uc kr a d’ s c on c lus ion s. Ei ns te in e xpre ssl y re je c te d th e la be l “ a the ist ” on a nu mbe r o f o c c a sio ns I nd e e d, on on e oc c a sio n, Ei ns te in decla red “ I do not share the crusa ding spirit of the profe ssional atheist whose f ervor is mostl y due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious i ndoctrination receive d in y outh.” I nstead, he else wher e said “ I am fa scinated by Spinoz a’s pa ntheism, but I admire e ven more his contribution to modern thoug ht beca use he is the first philosopher t o deal with the soul and body as one, a nd not two separ ate thing s.” When asked if he believe d in imm o rt al i t y Einstein said “No. And one life is e no ug h f or me .” I n r e sp on se to a Ra bb i’ s 1 92 9 te le g ra m, as kin g sp e c if ic a lly “ Do y ou be lie ve in God? ,” Einstein re plied, “I believe in Spinoza’s God, who reve als himself in the l awf ul harmony of all that exis ts, but not i n a God who c oncer ns himself with the fate a nd the doing s of mankind.” 42 Da wk ins h ow e ve r, ob je c ts t o la be lin g a s religion “the pa ntheistic reve renc e which ma ny of us sh a re wi th i ts m os t di sti ng uis he d e xpon e nt, Al be rt Ei ns te in. ” Do e s D a wk ins i nclu de him se lf 43 a mon g tho se wh o sha re Ei ns te in’ s “pa nth e ist ic re ve re nc e ” fo r t he c os mos ? He do e s n ot e xpre ssl y sa y so a nd he do e s n ot e xpre ssl y pr e c lud e tha t c on c lus ion Wh ile ma kin g it c le a r t ha t it is o nly “ su pe rn a tur a l g od s” tha t he is c ha lle ng ing Da wk ins do e s e xpre ss a de sir e tha t ph y sic ist s r e fr a in, to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n o f t e r m s f r o m u s i n g t h e t e rm God b ec au s e the “ metaphoric al or pa ntheistic God o f t h e p h y s i ci s t s i s l i gh t y ea rs aw ay fr o m t h e i n t er v en t i o n i s t m i ra cl ewr e ak i n g, t h o u gh t -r ea d i n g, sin -p un ish ing p ra y e ra ns we ri ng Go d o f t he B ibl e .” I t se e ms f a ir tho ug h to c on c lud e tha t D a wk ins ’ 44 is at least tolera nt of natura listi c panthe ism and may himself share in pantheistic reve renc e as

PAGE 100

Dawkins, The God Delusion 366-67. 45 100 de fi ne d in thi s st ud y T he fo llo wi ng is s ug g e sti ve of Da wk ins a e c sta tic wo nd e rm e nt: Th e e vo lut ion of c omp le x lif e in de e d it s v e ry e xiste nc e in a un ive rs e ob e y ing ph y sic a l la ws is wo nd e rf ull y su rp ri sin g T hin k a bo ut i t. O n o ne pla ne t, a nd po ssi bly on ly on e pla ne t in the e nti re un ive rs e mole c ule s tha t w ou ld n or ma lly make nothing more c omplicated than a chunk of r ock, g ather them s el ves tog ether int o c hu nk s o f r oc ksize d ma tte r of su c h sta g g e ri ng c omp le xity tha t th e y a re c a pa ble of running jumping, swim ming, fly ing, seeing hear ing, capturing and ea ting other s u ch an i m at ed ch u n k s o f co m p l ex i t y ; ca p ab l e i n s o m e c as es o f t h i n k i n g an d fe el i n g, and fa lling in love wit h y et o t h er chunks of complex matter. We now under stand essentially how the trick is done, but only since 1859. B efor e 1859 it would have seeme d ver y v er y o dd indeed. Now thanks to Darw in, it is mere ly very odd. Dar win seized the window [and let] i n a flood of unde rstanding whose da zz ling novelty and powe r to uplift the human spirit, perha ps had no pre cede nt. . I [ha ve ] tr ie d to c on ve y ho w l uc ky we a re to b e a liv e g ive n th a t th e va st majority of people who could potentially be thrown up by the combinatoria l lottery of DNA will in fact neve r be bor n We are stag g ering ly lucky to find ourselves in the spotlight. How ever brief our time in the sun, if we w aste a second of it, or c omp la in that it is du ll or ba rr e n o r ( lik e a c hil d) bo ri ng c ou ldn t th is b e se e n a s a c a llo us ins ult to tho se un bo rn tr ill ion s who wi ll ne ve r ev e n be of fe re d lif e in t he fi rs t pla c e ? As ma ny a the ist s h a ve sa id b e tte r tha n me th e kn ow le dg e tha t w e ha ve on ly on e lif e sh ou ld m a ke it all th e mor e pr e c iou s. Th e a the ist vie w i s c or re sp on din g ly lif e -a ff ir min g a nd lif e -enh a nc ing w hil e a t th e sa me tim e ne ve r b e ing ta int e d w ith self-de lusion, wishful thi nking, or the whing eing self-pity of those who f eel that life owes them something Emily Dickinson said, Th a t it wi ll n e ve r c ome a g a in I s w ha t ma ke s li fe so sw e e t. 45 An oth e r a lle g e d a the ist D a nie l D e nn e tt, decl ares tha t “ Th e wo rl d is sa c re d. ” B e c a us e Den net t is on e of c on te mpo ra ry c ult ur e ’s mos t w e llkn ow n a dv oc a te s o f a the ism th e fu ll q uo te wher e he ma kes this surprising c laim is warra nted: Be nedict Spinoza, in the seve nteenth ce ntury identified God and Na ture, a rg uing tha t sc ie nti fic re se a rc h w a s th e tr ue pa th o f t he olo g y [I ]n pr op os ing his sc ie nti fi c sim pli fi c a tio n, wa s h e pe rs on if y ing Na tur e or dep ers on alizin g Go d?. Sho uld Spinoz a be counted as an atheist or a pantheist? He sa w the g lory of nature and then saw a way of eliminating the middleman! As I said at the e nd of my ear lier book: Th e Tree of L if e is n e ith e r p e rf e c t no r i nf ini te in s pa c e or tim e b ut i t is a c tua l, a nd it is s ur e ly a be ing tha t is g re a te r t ha n a ny thi ng a ny of us wi ll ever conce ive of in detail worthy of i ts detail. I s something sa cre d? Yes, say I with Ni e tzsc he I c ou ld n ot p ra y to i t, b ut I c a n s ta nd in a ff ir ma tio n o f i ts

PAGE 101

Daniel Clement De nnett, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (Ne w York: 46 Viking, 2006) 244-45. Sam Harr is, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason 1st ed. (Ne w York: 47 W.W Norton & Co., 2004). ———, Letter to a Chri stian Nat ion 1st ed. (Ne w York: Knopf 2006). 48 J on Meac ham "Th e Go d De bat e," Newsweek 149 (2007). 49 Har ris, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason 205, 08. 50 101 mag nificenc e. The world is sacr ed. Do e s th a t ma ke me a n a the ist ? Ce rt ain ly in the ob vio us se ns e I f w ha t y ou ho ld sa c re d is no t a ny kin d o f P e rs on y ou c ou ld p ra y to, or c on sid e r to be a n a pp ro pr ia te rec ipie n t o f gratit ude (or ang er, w hen a love d one is sensele ssly killed), You' re a n atheist in my book. 46 Th us De nn e tt, wh o ( lik e Da wk ins ) fo re sw e a rs a ny e le me nts of su pe rn a tur a lis m, d e sc ri be s h ims e lf wi th a ll t he attr ibu te s c ha ra c te ri sti c of na tur a lis tic pa nth e ism H e us e s la ng ua g e of the sa c re d to descr ibe his aff irmation of the univer se’s “ mag nificenc e.” H oweve r, along with Schopenhaue r y e ars ag o, he chooses to de scribe this view point a s atheism instead of pantheism. He claims Spinoz a for a the ism ra the r t ha n jo in i n th e us ua l un de rs ta nd ing of Spi no za’ s me ta ph y sic s a s p a nth e ism Sam Harr is, best known for his books, The En d o f F ait h and Letter to a Chri stian Nat ion 47 48 s e l f d e s c r i b e s a s a n a t h e i s t Y e t i n his Newsweek -sponsored de bate with eva ng elical Christian p as t o r, R i ck W ar re n Ha rr i s s ai d t h e f o l l o wi n g: You ca n have y our spirituality You ca n g o into a cave and pra ctice meditation and tr a ns fo rm y ou rs e lf a nd the n w e c a n ta lk ab ou t why tha t hap pe ne d a nd ho w i t c ou ld be re plicated. L et' s rea liz e that ther e' s a powe r i n co n t em p lating the my stery of the un ive rs e a nd in r e min din g y ou rs e lf ho w much y ou lov e the pe op le c los e st t o y ou, a nd ho w m uc h mo re y ou c ou ld l ov e the pe op le y ou ha ve n' t me t y e t. T he re is nothing y ou have to be lieve on insuffic ient evidenc e in orde r t o talk about that possibili ty You ca n fee l y ourself to be one with the univer se. 49 I n En d o f F ait h Har ris descr ibes himself as ag nostic on the question of an a fterlife (ther eby leaving open the possibility ), and e x tols “spirituality ” and “ my sticism.” L ike Daw kins and Denne tt, when 50

PAGE 102

102 Har ris decla res himself to be an atheist, he is mere ly decla ring his disbelief in superna turalistic g ods a s c omm on ly un de rs too d. Ye t, he c e le br a te s “ the my ste ry of the un ive rs e ” a nd a fe e lin g of on e ne ss with it in a way that closely para llels or is, at least ar g uably identical with many of the e x pressions o f n a t u r a l i s t i c p a n t h e i s m e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y.

PAGE 103

Sharman A. Russell, Sta nd ing in t he Lig ht: My Life as a P an the ist (N e w Y or k: B a sic 1 Books, 2008) 5. Thomas Mary Be rry The Dr e am of t he Ea rth (San F ranc isco: Sierra Club B ooks, 1988), 33. 2 103 CHAPTER 9 CONCL USI ON Pantheism’s embrac e of this universe and this planet is incre asing ly offeri ng a for m of re lig iou s me a nin g to s a tis fy the me ta ph y sic a l vo id t ha t We be r s po ke of, and wh ic h a llo ws pe op le wh o a re dis inc lin e d to sp e c ula te a bo ut d ime ns ion s b e y on d ti me b e y on d d e a th, and be y on d th is universe a metaphy sical stance around which to or ient their lives. Howe ver, the term itself, re mains re la tiv e ly lit tle kn ow n in Am e ri c a n c ult ur e a nd su bje c t to va ri ou s def ini tio ns T hu s, be c a us e pe op le with a pantheistic stanc e ofte n do not use the term f or selfdescr iption, either bec ause t h ey d o not even know of it (Sharman Russell states she d i d n o t lear n of the ter m until s he wa s forty -two ), 1 be c a us e the y wi sh to a vo id i ts h e re tic a l a sso c iati on s wi thi n th e Ab ra ha mic tr a dit ion s, or be c a us e they wish to a void a ny association with a ny metaphy sical stance that has any association with any conce ption of God, pantheistic or othe rwise. How ever this study has demonstrated tha t the g e ograph y of the sa c re d la id o ut b y a pa nth e ist ic me ta ph y sic s is pr e se nt i n A me ri c a n c ult ur e in s o m e c a s e s e x p l i c i t l y ( a s w i t h E i n s t e i n a n d A b b e y) a n d i n m a n y o t h e r c a s e s i m p l i c i t l y. Th is s tud y ha s g ive n e xamp le s o f s ig ns of the pr e se nc e of pa nth e ist ic tho ug ht, bo th sp ir itu a lize d a nd na tur a lis tic in Am e ri c a n c ult ur e a nd la id o ut a fr a me wo rk fo r d e te c tin g pa nth e ist ic beliefs in Amer ican c ulture. Thomas Ber ry has said “Without a fa scination with the g rande ur of the North Amer ican c ontinent, the ener g y neede d for its prese rvation will never be deve loped.” And 2 th e g r e a t h u ma n it a r ia n p h y s ic ia n to A f r ic a A lb e r t S c h w e it ze r in a r ti c u la ti n g h is p r in c ip le of “Reve renc e for L ife,” arg ued that humans are “ethica l only when life as such, is sac red ., tha t of

PAGE 104

Albert Schwe itz er, Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiogrphy trans. Charle s Thomas 3 Campion (New Y ork: H. Holt & Co., 1933), 156-59. J effrey Kl uger, "Be W orr ied Be Ver y W orr ied : G lo bal W arm in g Heats Up, Time 167, no. 4 14 (2006). 104 plants and animals [as well] as that of” their fellow humans. I f S chwe itz er was right, the fa ct that 3 our natura l world is increa singly being reg arde d as t he locus of t he sac red ma y be g ood news for a planet fa cing an ac cele rating environmenta l crisis. Howeve r, t he full extent of the pe netra tion of 4 pantheisti c t h o u gh t into America n culture a nd whether such idea s actua lly modify environmenta l behavior s remains for further rese arc h.

PAGE 105

105 REF ERE NC ES Abbey Edwar d. De se rt S oli tai re T u c s o n : U n iv e r s it y o f A r iz o n a Pr e s s 1 9 8 8 [1 9 6 8 ]. ———. De se rt S oli tai re : A Se as on in t he W ild e rn e ss Pap e rb a c k e d. Ne w Y or k: B a lla nti ne B oo ks 1968. ———. Down the River 1st ed. New York: D utton, 1982. ———. The J ou rn e y Ho me : S om e W or ds in D e fe ns e of t he Am e ric an W e st 1st ed. New York: D utton, 1977. ———. The Monke y W rench G ang New Y ork: Avon B ooks, 1975. Abbey Edwar d, and Da vid Petersen. Postcards from Ed: Dispatches and Salvos from an American Ic on oc las t 1st ed. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions, 2006. Adler, Jerry "T he Ne w Nay say ers: I n the Midst of Religious Revival, Thre e Scholar s Arg ue Tha t At hei sm I s S mar ter ." Newsweek Sept. 11, 2006. Ander son, Charles Roberts. The Magic Circle of W alden New Y ork,: Holt, 1968. As ad, Tal al. "Ant hro po lo gical Co n c e p t io ns of R eli gion : R efl ect io ns on Geert z ." Man 18, no. 2 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 2 3 7 5 9 B a rr e tt, J. Ed wa rd A Pilg ri m’ s Prog re ss: F ro m the Wes tmi ns te r S ho rt e r C a te c his m to Na tur a lis tic Pantheism." American J ournal of T heology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 154-72. Be rry Thomas. "Thomas Berr y on Religion a nd Nature ." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 166-68. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Be rry Thomas Mary The Dr e am of t he Ea rth San Fr ancisc o: Sierra Club Books, 1988. ———. The Gr e at W or k : O ur W ay int o th e Fu tur e 1st pbk. ed. New York: B ell Tower 1999. Be rry Thomas Mary Thomas E. Clarke, Stephen D unn, and Anne L onerg an. Befriending the Earth: A Th e olo gy of Re c on c ili ati on be twe e n Hu ma ns an d th e Ea rth My stic, Conn.: Twenty -Third Publications, 1991. Be st, St even. Watson, P aul and the Sea Shepherd C o n s ervation Society ." I n Ency lopaedia of Re lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor: Continuum I nterna tional, 2005. Bor g Marc us J Mee ting Jesus Again for the First T ime: The H istorical Jesu s & t h e He art of Con te mp or ar y Fa ith 1st ed. San Fr ancisc o: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1994.

PAGE 106

106 Bor nkamm, Gnther. Paul, Paulus 1st U.S. ed. New Y ork,: Har per & Row, 1971. Br onson, Fre d. The Bi llboa rd Bo ok o f Nu mb e r 1 Hi ts Updated a nd Ex panded 5th e d. New Y ork: Billboard B ooks, 2003. B r u c e F F A c ts o f th e A p o stles." I n T he Oxf or d Co mp an ion to t he Bi ble e dit e d b y B ru c e M. Metzge r and Micha el D. Coog an, xx i, 874. New Yor k: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 1993. Br y son, Bill. A Short History of Nearly Every thing 1st ed. New York: B roadw ay Books, 2003. Cahalan, James M. Ed war d A bb e y : A Life Tucson: Univer sity of Arizona Press, 2001. Clay ton, Phil ip, and A. R. Peac ocke. In W hom W e Live and Mo ve a nd Have Our Being: Pa ne nth e ist ic Re fle c tio ns on Go d's P re se nc e in a Sc ie nti fic W or ld Gra nd Rapids, Mich.: Wil liam B. Ee rdmans Pub., 2004. Cohen, J ere my Be Fe rtile and Incre ase, Fill the Earth and M aster It: The Anc ient and Medie val Career of a Biblical Text I thaca : Cornell University Press, 1989. Cooga n, Michae l D. The Old Testament: A Histori cal and L iterary Introduction to the Hebre w Scriptures New Y ork: Oxford University Press, 2006. Cooga n, Michae l D., Marc Z Br ettler, Car ol A. Newsom, a nd Pheme Perkins, eds. The Ne w O x for d Annotated Bible, New Rev ised Standard Version with t he Apo cr yphal/ Deuteroc anonical Books 3rd ed. O x ford: Oxford Univer sity Press, 2001. Cooper. Pantheism." I n The Enyc lopedia Americana, V ol. 21 Danbur y CT: Grolier I ncorpor ated, 1998. Co o p e r Jo h n W. P a n en t heism, the Othe r God of the Philosophers: From Plato to the Present Gra nd Rapids, MI : Ba ker A cade mic, 2006. Copleston, Fre deric k Charles. A History of Philosophy: Gree ce and Rome from the Pre-Soc ratics to Plotinus New r ev. ed. 9 vols. Vol. 1. Ne w York: Double day 1962. Co rri ngto n, Ro bert S "Deep P ant hei sm ," J ou rn al for the Stu dy of Re lig ion Nat ur e an d Cu ltu re 1, no. 4 (2007): 503-07. —— —. "My P ass age from P anen th eis m t o P ant hei sm ," Ame r ican Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23, no. 2 (2002): 129-53. ———. Nat ur e an d Spir it: An Es sa y in Ec sta tic Nat ur ali sm Ne w Yo rk : F or dh a m U niv e rs ity Pr e ss, 1992.

PAGE 107

107 Cr os by Do nal d A. "A Ca se f or R eli gion of N atu re." Journal for the Study of R eligion, Nature, and Cul tur e 1, no. 4 (2007): 489-502. ———. A R e lig ion of N atu re Albany NY: State Univer sity of Ne w York Pre ss, 2002. Crossan, J ohn Dominic, and Jonathan L Reed. In Search of Paul: How Jesus's Apostle Opposed Rome's Empire with God's K ingdom 1st ed. New York: Ha rper SanFr ancisc o, 2004. Dawkins, Richar d. The God Delusion Boston: Houg hton Mifflin, 2006. ———. The Selfish Gene 30th A nniversar y ed. Oxford; New Y ork: Oxford University Press, 2006. Denne tt, Daniel Clement. Breaking the S p el l : Religion as a Natural Phenome non New Y ork: Viking, 2006. Denve r, J ohn, and Arthur Tobier. Take Me Home: An Autobiography 1st ed. New York: Ha rmony Books, 1994. Dibelius, Martin, and K. C. Ha nson. The Book of A cts: Form, Style, and Theology For tress Classics in Biblical Studies. Minneapolis: Fortre ss Press, 2004. Ehrman, B art D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction t o the Early Christian W ritings 2nd ed. Ne w York: Oxford Univer sity Press, 2000. Eliade, Mirc ea. Patterns in Comparati ve R eligion L incoln: University of Ne braska Press, 1996. ———. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Re ligion T ra ns la te d b y Willa rd R. T ra sk 1 st Americ an ed. N ew Yor k,: Harc ourt Br ace 1959. Ferr, Nel s F. S "Go d wi th ou t T hei sm ." Theology Today 22, no. 3 (1965): 372-79. Fox, Matthew. The Com ing of t he Cos mi c Chr ist : T he He ali ng of Mo the r Ea rth an d th e Bi rth of a Global Renaissance 1st ed. San Fr ancisc o: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1988. ———. A New Re for ma tio n: Cre ati on Sp iri tua lit y an d th e Tra ns for ma tio n o f Ch ris tia nit y Rochester Vt.: I nner Tr aditions, 2006. ———. Original Blessing Sante Fe : Be ar a nd Co. Publ ishing, 1983. Fr iedman, Richar d Elliott The Hidden Fac e of God San Fr ancisc o: Harpe rSanF ranc isco, 1995. Funk, Robert Walter, and R oy W. Hoover. The Five Gospels: The Search for the Authentic W ords of J e su s: Ne w Tra ns lat ion an d Co mm e nta ry New Y ork: Macmillan, 1993.

PAGE 108

108 Ga rdner Ger ald T., and Paul C. Stern. Environmental Problems and H uman Behav ior Boston: Ally n and B acon, 1996. Gee rtz, Cl ifford. "Re ligion as a Cultural Sy stem." I n The Interpretation of Cultur es ix 470. New York,: B asic B ooks, 1973. Glacke n, Clarenc e J. Traces on the Rhodian Shore: Nature and Culture in W estern Thought from An c ie nt T im e s to the En d o f th e Ei gh te e nth Ce ntu ry B e rk e le y : U niv e rs ity of Ca li fo rn ia Press, 1967. Goodenoug h, Ursula. The Sa c re d D e pth s o f Na tur e New Y ork: Oxford University Press, 1998. Gore Albert. Ea rth in t he Ba la nce: Eco log y an d th e Hu ma n S pir it Boston: Houg hton Mifflin, 1992. Har ding, Walter and Carl B ode, eds. The Correspondence of Henry D avid Thoreau New Y ork: New Y ork Univer sity Press, 1958. Har ris, Sam. The End of Faith: Relig i o n, Terror, and the Future of Reason 1st ed. New York: W.W Norton & Co., 2004. ———. Letter to a Chri stian Nat ion 1st ed. (Ne w York: Knopf 2006). Har rison, Paul. "World Pantheism Movement." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 1769-70. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Har tshorne, Charles. "Panthe ism and Panentheism." I n Ency clopedia of Religi on edited by Mircea Eliade. Ne w York: Mac millan Publ ishing Co., 1987. Har tshorne, Charle s, and Will iam L Reese. Philosophe r s S p eak of God Chicag o: University of Chicag o Press, 1953. I saac son, Walter. Ei ns te in: Hi s Lif e an d U niv e rse New Y ork: Simon & Schuster, 2007. Kauf mann, Walter. Ex ist e nti ali sm : Fr om Do sto e v sk y to S ar tre Rev. and e x panded. e d. New Y ork: New A merica n L ibrary 1975. Kre sg e, Andr ea A "F ox Matthew." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 669-70. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Kl uger, J effrey "Be W orr ied Be Ver y W orr ied : G lo bal W arm in g Heats Up. Time 1 6 7 n o. 14 (2006): 28-33. L eml ey Brad "Gu th 's Gran d Gu ess (C ov er S to ry )." Discove r April 2002 2002, 32.

PAGE 109

109 L emo ni ck, Mi chael D. "How t he U ni vers e W il l E nd (C ov er S to ry )." Time J un. 25, 2001 2001, 48. L eopold, Aldo. A S an d Coun ty Al ma na c and Sk e tc he s H e re an d Th e re New Y ork: Oxford Univ. Press, 1949. L evine, Micha el P. Pa nth e ism : A Non -T he ist ic Con c e pt o f D e ity New Y ork: Routledge 1994. L oeff ler, Jack. Edwar d Abbey ." I n En c y c lop e dia of Rel ig io n a nd Nat ur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 1-4. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Macc oby Hy am. The My thm ak e r: Pa ul a nd the In v e nti on of C hr ist ian ity 1st Harpe r & Row pbk. ed. Ne w York: Ha rper & Row, 1987. Mack, B urton L The Christ ian Myth: Origins, Logic, and Legacy New Y ork: Continuum, 2001. McCutcheon, Russell T. Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Ge neris Religion and the Po lit ic s o f No sta lgi a New Y ork: Oxford University Press, 1997. Meac ham J on "Th e Go d De bat e." Newsweek 149 (2007): 58-63. Mey er, Ma rvin, ed. Th e Na g H a m m a d i S c r ip tu r e s : Th e I n te r n a ti o n a l E dition San Fr ancisc o: Har perSanF ranc isco, 2007. Nietzsche, F .W. “The Ga y Science ,” in Ex ist e nti ali sm : F ro m D os toe v sk y to S ar tr ed. Walter Kauf mann. New York: Ne w Amer ican L ibrary 1975. Nisbet, Euan. Hea venly Phenomena: How a n Astronomer’ s Words W ere Transf ormed i n t o a Ci tat io n C las si c," Nat ur e 5 April 2001: 635. Ophuls, Wi lliam. Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity: Prologue to a Political T heory of the Ste ady Sta te San Fr ancisc o: W. H. Free man, 1977. Op h u l s Wil liam, and A. Stephen B oy an. E c o lo g y a n d th e P o li ti c s o f S c a r c it y R e v is it e d : The Unrave ling of the American Dre am New Y ork: W.H. Fre eman, 1992. Ort h, Mau reen P ete r S Gr eenb erg, an d J anet Huc k. "J oh n De nv er: Th e S un sh in e Boy ." Newsweek Dec 20, 1976, 60f. Oster, Richa rd E., Jr. "Athens." I n The Ox for d Com pa nio n to the Bi ble edited by Br uce M. Me tzger and Micha el D. Coog an, xx i, 874. New Yor k: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 1993. Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the H oly: An In q uiry into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational trans. J ohn W. Ha rvey 2nd ed. Ne w York: Oxford University Press, 1950.

PAGE 110

110 Pag els, Elaine H. Bey ond Belief: The Se cret Gospe l of Thomas 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2003. ———. The Gn os tic Go sp e ls 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1979. Pike, Sarah M. New Age and Neopagan Religions in America Columbi a Contemporar y Americ an Religion Serie s. New Y ork: Columbia University Press, 2004. Pilato, Herbie J. The Kun g F u B oo k of C ain e : T he Com ple te Gu ide to T v 's Fi rst My sti c al E as te rn W e ste rn 1st ed. Boston: Tuttle Co., 1993. ———. The Kung Fu B ook of W isdom: Sage Adv ice from the O riginal T v Serie s 1st ed. Boston: C.E. Tuttle, 1995. Pinker, Steven. The Bl an k Sla te : The Mo de rn De nia l of Hu ma n Na tur e New York: Viking 2002. Rappaport, Roy A. Ri tua l an d R e lig ion in t he Ma k ing of H um an ity Cambridg e S tudies in Social and Cultural Anthropolog y New Y ork: Cambridg e Univer sity Press, 1999. Rappaport, Roy A., Br ian A. Hoey and Tom Fr icke, “‘f rom Sweet Potatoes to God Almig hty ’: Roy Rappaport on B eing a He dg ehog ,” Am e ric an Et hn olo gis t 34, no. 3 (2007): 581-99. Reese, Wil liam L "Panthe ism and Panentheism." I n The New Ency clopdia Britanni ca Chicag o: Ency clopdia Br itannica I nc., 1994. Robbins, Tom. Still L ife with W oodpeck er New Y ork: Ba ntam Books, 1980. Russell, S harma n A. Sta nd ing in t he Lig ht: My Life as a P an the ist New Y ork: Ba sic Books, 2008. Salomonsen, J one. Starhawk." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e ligio n a nd Nat ur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 1595-96. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Sartr, J ean Paul. Ex istentialism I s a Humanism," in Ex ist e nti ali sm : F ro m D os toe v sk y to S ar tr ed. Walter Ka ufmann. Ne w York: Ne w Amer ican L ibrary 1975. Schopenh auer, Arthur. Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays t r a n s E F J. Pay ne, 2 vols., vol. 2. Ox ford: Oxford Univer sity Press, 2000. Schweitzer, Alber t Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiogrphy t ra ns. Charles Thomas Campion. New Yor k: H. Holt & Co., 1933. Smart, Ninian. “Retrospe ct and Prospec t: The History of Relig ions.” I n The Notion Of Religion" In Com pa ra tiv e Re se ar c h: Se le c te d P ro c e e din gs of t he XV I I AH R Co ng re ss ed i t ed b y Ugo Bia nchi, 901-03. Rome: L Erma" di Bre tschneider 1994.

PAGE 111

111 Sm it h Ch r is tine. A Mo u ntain in the W ind: An Exploration of the Spiritual ity of John Denv er Findhorn, Scotland; Ta llahassee FL : Findhorn Press, 2001. Stern, P h i l i p Van Dor en, and H enry David Thore au. The An no tat e d W ald e n: W ald e n; or Li fe in the W oods 1st ed. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, I nc., 1970. Stuckrad, Koc ku von. "E istei n Al bert." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 582. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Sweene y J ulia. Letting Go of God ( Audio CD) : I ndefa tiga ble I nc., 2006. Tay lor, Br on. Dark Gre en Re ligion Be rkele y CA: U niversity of California Pre ss, Ex pecte d 2009. ———. "D ark G ree n Religion: Ga ian Ear th Spirit uality NeoAnimi s m, and the Tra nsformation of Global Environme ntal Polit ics." I n Annual Mee ting of the American Ac ademy of Religion San Dieg o, 2007. ———. "D eep E colog y ." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 456-60. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. —— —. "A Green Fut ure f or R eli gion ? Futures 36 (2004): 991-1008. — — — R e s a c r a l i z i n g E a r t h : P a g a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m a n d t h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f T u r t l e Is l a n d In American Sac red Space edit ed b y Da v id Chidester and Edwa rd T. L inenthal, 97-151, Blooming ton: I ndiana Unive rsity Press, 1995. —— —. "The Tri bu tar ies of Rad ica l E nv ir on men tal is m. J ou rn al for the Stu dy of R ad ic ali sm 2, no. 1 (2008): 27-61. Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre The Phenome non of Man New Y ork: Har per & Row, 1959. Thorea u, Henr y David. The Journal of Henr y David Thoreau Volume 4." edited by Br adfor d Torre y and F ranc is H. Allen, x iii, 503. S alt L ake City : Pereg rine Smith Books, 1984. —— —. Th e Jour na l of He nr y Da vid Th or e a u, Vo lum e 5. e dit e d by B ra df or d T or re y a nd F ra nc is H. Allen. Salt L ake City : Pereg rine Smith Books, 1984. ———. "A Week on the Concord a nd Merr imack Rivers." I n Henry David Tho r ea u : A W ee k on the Concord and Me rrimack Riv ers; W alden, or Life in the W oods; the Maine W oods; Cape Cod edited by Robert F. Say re, 1114. N ew Yor k: The L ibrary of Amer ica, 1985. Tillich, Paul. Systematic Theology 3 vols. Vol. 1. Chicag o: University of Chicag o Press, 1951. Tucke r, Mary Evely n. "B err y Thomas." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 164-66. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005.

PAGE 112

112 W ats on P aul "On th e P reced ence o f Nat ural L aw. Environmental Law & Liti gation 3 (1988): 7990. Weber, Max. The Pr ote sta nt E thi c an d th e Sp iri t of Cap ita lis m T ra ns la te d b y Talcot t Pa rs on s, Routledge Classics. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Routl edg e, 2001. ———. "Scie nce a s Voca t i o n I n From Max W eber: Essays in Sociology x i, 490. New Yor k: Oxford University Press, 1958. ———. "T h e S o ci al Psy cholog y of the World Religions." I n Fr om Ma x W e be r: Es sa y s in Sociology x i, 490. New Yor k: Ox ford Unive rsity Press, 1958. W hi te, L y nn "The Hi st ori cal Ro ot s of O ur E col ogic C ri si s. Scienc e 155, no. 3767 (1967): 1203-07. Whit ney Elspeth. "White, L y nn -The sis Of." I n En c y c lop e dia of Re lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Wil son, A. N. Pa ul: The Mi nd of t he Ap os tle 1st A merica n ed. New York: W.W Norton & 1997. W i l s o n E d war d O. So c iob iol og y : T he Ne w Sy nth e sis 2 5 th a n n iv e r s a r y e d Ca mb r id g e M a s s .: Be lknap Press of Ha rvar d University Press, 2000. Wood, Ha rold, J r. "U niversal Pantheist S o ci et y I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 1683-84. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. Woodward, Ke nneth L "O n the R oad Aga in: America ns L ove the Sea rch So Much Tha t the I dea of a D est in ati on I s L os t. Newsweek Nov. 28, 1994. York, Micha el. Pantheism." I n En c y c lop e dia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 125761. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005. ———. "Poly theism." I n En c y c loped ia of R e lig ion an d Na tur e edited by Br on Tay lor, 1290-92. L ondon & N ew Yor k: Conti nuum I nterna tional, 2005.

PAGE 113

113 BI OGRAPHI CAL SKETCH B e rn a rd Da le y Z a le ha g ra du a te d f ir st in his c la ss w ith hig he st h on or s f ro m Ca lif or nia Sta te University San Be rnar din o wi t h a B ache lor of Ar ts dual major in environmenta l studies and g eog raphy in 1983. He re ceive d his J uris Doctor, magna cum laude fr o m L ew i s an d C l ar k C o l l ege No rt hw e ste rn Sc ho ol o f L a w, with a cert if ic a te in E nv ir on me nta l a nd Na tur a l Re so ur c e L a w i n 1987. He spe n t m o s t o f t h e last two dec ades pr acticing environmenta l law and ha s defe nded environmenta l civil disobedience pr otesters, both civilly and cr iminally He is pu b l i s hed leg al scholar in the a rea s of federa l public land m anag ement and the fede ral law of we tlands protection. Mr. Z aleha has bee n an envir onmental ac tivist for the last quarte r centur y He is presently serving his second ter m on the national board of direc tors of t he S ierra Club and from Marc h 2004 to May 2006 serve d as its 62n d national Vice President. He is the f ounding pr esident of the F und for Christian Ecolog y and has rec eived r ecog nition as a lay ecotheolog ian, primarily for a uthoring two essay s, Rec o ve r i n g C h ristian Pant heism as a Lost Gospel of Creation and Be fri e nd ing the Ea rth His profe ssional interests include the ong oing e merg ence of C h ri s t i an Pantheism as a ne w this-worldly ecolog ical interpr etation of the Christian tra dition; t he ef fica cy (or lac k there of) of relig ious values in inspiring e nvironmental ac tivism ; and the potential role of intellige nt desig n/cre ationism as a fa ctor re tarding or suppre ssing e nvironmental conc ern.