<%BANNER%>

Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022091/00001

Material Information

Title: Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil
Physical Description: 1 online resource (107 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, amazon, anthrosol, management
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terra preta do ?ndio, is a fertile anthropogenic soil that has been touted as a potential model for sustainable agriculture in Amazonia and beyond. However, while much has been written about the potential of ADE for sustainable agriculture, relatively little research has investigated how the soil is used and managed today by rural Amazonians. This research presents a case study from the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil, which compares management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production on upland farms situated on ADE and non-ADE soils (terra firme Oxisols). The results of this study suggest that ADE farmers in Borba have a tendency towards greater market orientation and greater use of inputs, including chemical fertilizers and herbicides. However, the data show no significant difference in the agrobiodiversity managed by ADE and non-ADE farmers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Oyuela-Caycedo, Augusto.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022091:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022091/00001

Material Information

Title: Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil
Physical Description: 1 online resource (107 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agriculture, amazon, anthrosol, management
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terra preta do ?ndio, is a fertile anthropogenic soil that has been touted as a potential model for sustainable agriculture in Amazonia and beyond. However, while much has been written about the potential of ADE for sustainable agriculture, relatively little research has investigated how the soil is used and managed today by rural Amazonians. This research presents a case study from the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil, which compares management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production on upland farms situated on ADE and non-ADE soils (terra firme Oxisols). The results of this study suggest that ADE farmers in Borba have a tendency towards greater market orientation and greater use of inputs, including chemical fertilizers and herbicides. However, the data show no significant difference in the agrobiodiversity managed by ADE and non-ADE farmers.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Oyuela-Caycedo, Augusto.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022091:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101203_AAAAFA INGEST_TIME 2010-12-04T02:42:49Z PACKAGE UFE0022091_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 1989 DFID F20101203_AACCYN ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH kawa_n_Page_069.txt GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
7e2d070172a44d4ef5eb2ebf285dc30a
SHA-1
7fb029164d1aff0ba07e4cf65efb09984c8e2890
2090 F20101203_AACCXZ kawa_n_Page_070.txt
c46c34cd1d5f311a0980852f6242d0a6
3159419c83f22daeff9a0bb08c0da5b2daf02836
1051957 F20101203_AACDEI kawa_n_Page_057.jp2
89aa007a30d55967c4573607329a2d0e
f978e4dd53e9c306ae8b77678aca741ea137dfd3
8375 F20101203_AACCZB kawa_n_Page_087thm.jpg
d98925c9722c7eedaf665ebd5d5422f6
4877fd6331b4c09a220ca3243c97a3ddbfd4930e
1051967 F20101203_AACDDT kawa_n_Page_014.jp2
0c55ca2fbf4a31eb4a50bfa6106d16df
ec95a7a48395630c76f95064beabccc62185774c
25271604 F20101203_AACCYO kawa_n_Page_027.tif
c1319614f6158adf9090410e7cb75a7d
7669a302b4dadd8e0249a4180b65ce5197d73792
1051981 F20101203_AACDEJ kawa_n_Page_058.jp2
61736507e3c6ae3896f463ac4eaf5ad4
9b866b81ba8532866ee6b877820bf0a5f5268e32
25486 F20101203_AACCZC kawa_n_Page_024.QC.jpg
04b1cceb27b70931fce9279229d40d01
5924680159e99c820a17cdff5262ca065a5d670f
1051949 F20101203_AACDDU kawa_n_Page_016.jp2
89b666ebf12ce09cfeb85b48a7860a21
8b2a2c96dbb4b80d7dd251241418183aed10318e
105685 F20101203_AACCYP kawa_n_Page_026.jpg
415753f197bfd3b5b0e5d6723bce38e1
863c1a1024a595dbbc819af2f9c2c8dd95ea37f1
479258 F20101203_AACDEK kawa_n_Page_062.jp2
a866f7001d1d208b2c838a55605b6d04
bccdee9b29bc4b9e594cefeab01152758c453fba
2105 F20101203_AACCZD kawa_n_Page_095.txt
9dfecde88bbf04379ad67cab2b1f04cd
cac44c4204ccf3aa006cd1b3c2bc1532ca057cc8
1051834 F20101203_AACDDV kawa_n_Page_017.jp2
3734c7334a91cfc12d2241519c84053d
82e95e94ffe4746dbe60adb6acf2d8bb77029916
1051983 F20101203_AACCYQ kawa_n_Page_053.jp2
2a692f03f5f0cc5d5f29bd2fbe2a87c6
dd4b765245dce54c77d38f5335b0a08837a5cb6b
8925 F20101203_AACCZE kawa_n_Page_064thm.jpg
bc980e4e5d5b32a013ee0f3800b9a2d3
feeef1d4885ba5029893512d5f41c5e8bfe2c9f6
902406 F20101203_AACDDW kawa_n_Page_021.jp2
c5fe94648a326a10aa0e90b156489e0d
788a18c36109ea5d19d932feeb697abefc1ed4af
112995 F20101203_AACCYR kawa_n_Page_100.jpg
8a28d62db8bc45c80f4d1a0d4fea7a3d
edfaf7d60573b1e9664c493e226e48d7af8eb573
1051978 F20101203_AACDFA kawa_n_Page_105.jp2
6da1e939d38cedc71d904f1089e348bf
3d399fd3a17270eb5c08fb93d413329f8b0e33ff
1051972 F20101203_AACDEL kawa_n_Page_063.jp2
91e54d25182593d49f4a19c0eed67190
c3228554b54a10894471d8c46bf33e32fe4dcecf
1884 F20101203_AACCZF kawa_n_Page_091.txt
a329087dbc9a852e9f8519aab989e283
f0772e7752b8cfddd0d075e6bee0f4456953a705
88589 F20101203_AACDDX kawa_n_Page_025.jp2
2f5bfaf998531daaaa3268c160c2f5d1
014c4a18d901f3436d0dd163e7e2a29d3602a672
15063 F20101203_AACCYS kawa_n_Page_062.pro
52c6f623f677365e187d4f43e7bc01fe
8512d271137bafcc8dfdf6a38d622f79726c7a46
201253 F20101203_AACDFB kawa_n_Page_106.jp2
6a623121cd99e63440a1b790c65b8d9d
4fdcb569c2c6c4983b0fed2bc7400713c98915c9
1051980 F20101203_AACDEM kawa_n_Page_064.jp2
c52f75f49c8ba50c8ef0b38903058841
0c33784bbd29be1d64d15b82aa95375c8ccd7bec
31790 F20101203_AACCZG kawa_n_Page_013.QC.jpg
227ac41341834884857c89f1603500d6
fa5513b9c7bdb3b77f88f40b919b3c98f7b4bd84
1051968 F20101203_AACDDY kawa_n_Page_026.jp2
26f6c82d072073a2ebdeec4f3e5019a1
93bd5100be7ba5365045a67dde1449a844558689
34551 F20101203_AACCYT kawa_n_Page_057.QC.jpg
fd04ea4db8fe23fdc06feb8a37d0d8c0
4c0774c7d09141058652b771ea194112979bc061
F20101203_AACDFC kawa_n_Page_001.tif
30897f70940d1e14e373d8b62ea27a53
fc326886f9ac91e4e264489b9c961a708f547c47
83703 F20101203_AACDEN kawa_n_Page_070.jp2
8b5ba1666ac896d90a2100b0a1f08200
a21dfe4e3b3f8ba1d70d24a29c3ecebcd045d4d4
8844 F20101203_AACCZH kawa_n_Page_066thm.jpg
1cac86e984a1721ddcb91ecf328dbd05
ac8189c90f7cc96ed0d99b7109acfd1c74845eef
F20101203_AACDDZ kawa_n_Page_027.jp2
d9c415acf7d5a4dde07622ef41c1a606
b819a608f584c803f337c1bfc1c94469fc84b755
F20101203_AACCYU kawa_n_Page_014.tif
1ef416ff9f56dad93bf6cfe2f54f1531
9f593612a562a82e09050a74e6f7085d61e36826
F20101203_AACDFD kawa_n_Page_003.tif
f68b1775b35cda8d2911be4fac2a67e5
14d4d359effe3fe92509aa4de2c2f6822af488dd
82295 F20101203_AACDEO kawa_n_Page_071.jp2
9db9efe285ac958e42d5062a4be3ed17
17924aa820732f10dc43cee1d76ce1af3f2395c4
17124 F20101203_AACCZI kawa_n_Page_069.QC.jpg
9b1a5b6dea8551995227b3072e5d517c
b6358044ef18cc1a8220ac2a9d99224755f4a133
8698 F20101203_AACCYV kawa_n_Page_067thm.jpg
bfaa5c64b72d43bce13bb82435625c78
df05b6f93d0b051578f36bb0560f5aa99b2310e7
F20101203_AACDFE kawa_n_Page_005.tif
f1e0ebe111df69925ef9ec884a69fe18
c8dac452b78e8b49dccbf907b31822e30d8e5821
63245 F20101203_AACDEP kawa_n_Page_072.jp2
1a18867c10f26be96874f9e7f847c5af
611dceae8cc7588e6a5d40b1f59c39f81d903386
32824 F20101203_AACCZJ kawa_n_Page_015.QC.jpg
427a8a18a4f78fdbc09b768b20b03142
8345aa2fc55611eed608f6f9bde5f5f5dfac7da5
3413 F20101203_AACCYW kawa_n_Page_008thm.jpg
3ed3ecc015b7ffcb527fd56da47e8106
f6996d94367cc065776c5e51a02ac02a4fbb2df6
F20101203_AACDFF kawa_n_Page_008.tif
ca9573f0fb9360858aaf3f40051048fa
d1e8ac498cc59ad6c146430d407d7660d0900c2f
1051945 F20101203_AACDEQ kawa_n_Page_076.jp2
b65df88f1b5e755f2f7418f1227c132c
79636962eddef9bddbcd7e8465bce270d1cec98b
73481 F20101203_AACCZK kawa_n_Page_011.jpg
8a280e93a6a18a4bfa5cea073a1f5daa
f4571f5dffe3dbc464c0e631c5b13f23dd888284
33330 F20101203_AACCYX kawa_n_Page_019.QC.jpg
115390388adb03e2ac916e34cb059d9c
e645becdbffdf4288a8be6487790a975adace3d3
F20101203_AACDFG kawa_n_Page_009.tif
3cb7bd4917174fe4f08e99c54c2f9f43
65fb3a7458264c94b6d34789aa8f0c59305b76e3
1051919 F20101203_AACDER kawa_n_Page_083.jp2
7bde3907ad86b62fabe5d621612b4319
ea94a128d8fe29b2767fac2d19e904e129e46fbb
F20101203_AACCZL kawa_n_Page_032.jp2
da87fbdd716a7bb5ce5ae9d4f4f6c369
c817e1823379e57db9c36ba66da26bb52a0647a6
34236 F20101203_AACCYY kawa_n_Page_017.QC.jpg
dca17b4dd1010a9b76577bb637be4333
e4081039fda47fb80a7b7f75ed89f52d514cda0f
F20101203_AACDFH kawa_n_Page_015.tif
2bf335050bd469d66a0b8879844bf247
aa77b6cd998e9d9b659c71d677b44af92481b9e5
1051960 F20101203_AACDES kawa_n_Page_084.jp2
2a6d07f6722b3022644be40adcf49567
76083266fdac0fb0f0220a952683f5c050897afc
34793 F20101203_AACCZM kawa_n_Page_064.QC.jpg
a77247f2dbddd81eb1cd0d29f622c619
ea4912b8b4c6a9e5578894b7da56017011da9adf
6317 F20101203_AACCYZ kawa_n_Page_092thm.jpg
eb15a450379c0a883fde462639a136ea
457b74de5a24c55e6c4412c59814866749c7645b
F20101203_AACDFI kawa_n_Page_017.tif
7229f044ffd26da1f6275107815a26a7
306ab6fd8903ad1d4690b85efd283f5aea746f13
965705 F20101203_AACDET kawa_n_Page_086.jp2
9c0b986a0d47ffe6e07c7b415a1fb3e6
d181aa5219c97ed42bac0b25d51042edaebfb010
2581 F20101203_AACCZN kawa_n_Page_078.txt
bc62b90dcc0768d28df57ad7d20ed3bd
fdd7d786b51511f505df2689d1ce27995d59ef17
F20101203_AACDFJ kawa_n_Page_018.tif
6baad57f2376e37dca6eea4d1cb2abb5
c4138ba78e8ed43d61496feeff0a45792e838e6d
1051923 F20101203_AACDEU kawa_n_Page_087.jp2
8d7b06ebaedc8aeb5843721458ef21f7
404c4f4dcc2833ac3202b5211db502211c960612
33842 F20101203_AACCZO kawa_n_Page_052.QC.jpg
dbf28cd6eb7f83920bc15e748506c7cf
1dd297ef718fc05a8effa832788b338cec3cf920
F20101203_AACDFK kawa_n_Page_019.tif
ffeb891addbc38bde16202a6e968d569
c6351df29df62db930def2d68044113df8fe1146
F20101203_AACDEV kawa_n_Page_096.jp2
f7d50f8ce2c15584c450d345f5f8c7ca
12146964b3fb96bf570d3ea7e94ac114055ef9e3
54150 F20101203_AACCZP kawa_n_Page_070.jpg
331dee3fae2c13755210a7660baa377b
59a96de406ca1bd635437a85f28576fe7c4faaeb
F20101203_AACDFL kawa_n_Page_021.tif
c6df77fc363cca2d6dd6f15327fda312
79b1f789d14210b30b80af08c671c79c065634cc
1044145 F20101203_AACDEW kawa_n_Page_097.jp2
a07c4ac886d75735e942f7ce81c180ec
09746392a9daf03ab5553db7f9418d0f6c467d2e
841 F20101203_AACCZQ kawa_n_Page_042.txt
07edbd9a34c7bad176e8ec3418441e3a
f755a242aa4f7933cdec90c834c9556bde605f24
985921 F20101203_AACDEX kawa_n_Page_099.jp2
47f8cd54a2d727c24b99633e7945706a
17e6c247d4884824be538f4c8f416e2d0d0818ea
F20101203_AACCZR kawa_n_Page_034.tif
cbfacde6189d0b822237e0001dab50d0
dc9bbe3d8454a1f86facb2663e1798ff2175e973
F20101203_AACDGA kawa_n_Page_055.tif
df8b6067521a8f17932b2f6b0dc57556
c7a0d8db757437bd0a2ea4505864fe3e0a740424
1054428 F20101203_AACDFM kawa_n_Page_025.tif
995e2a0f2077df696d0df845955d225b
38efe3b3876b12d7bb01afb75a8c02f793c8146a
1051921 F20101203_AACDEY kawa_n_Page_100.jp2
a7de4826a3732af9cbc46fad05fe2fb9
be1718912b93e451a4f503ae760461504fbf294b
8032 F20101203_AACCZS kawa_n_Page_099thm.jpg
3cb7f338fe1cdf6fd9e728ebf7276eb7
2fe4c28dc3cec7c3153120ffcca29a7c8404a6ce
F20101203_AACDGB kawa_n_Page_057.tif
0d2197520b1deaba033878b6f8acc9f4
68e262becf86455480fe351f5f529b027d974167
F20101203_AACDFN kawa_n_Page_026.tif
d02dc71a4150ea1702f104c6d6084aa1
225d6769d9442efaeeff89ac045912edb26cdc6e
1051985 F20101203_AACDEZ kawa_n_Page_103.jp2
7129a1947f6d6322136f64a67abcad15
bb92ebc2d232cc93a4176785599436bf781ce230
2083 F20101203_AACCZT kawa_n_Page_076.txt
78d31b79a4aa95ac7a1bdb132f380c42
5436135b030663e414e00e3c1d14afeb12f9c80e
F20101203_AACDGC kawa_n_Page_059.tif
56a3136295ea1af17c7a7b5ac3c3d83b
a682a8d08be4748356948a845db85e8b67d9e866
F20101203_AACDFO kawa_n_Page_029.tif
3d7c089bc1602b17198c109a8f697632
47428bb78d255fac4ba67bbcd3c28f316de1b54d
5480 F20101203_AACCZU kawa_n_Page_009thm.jpg
d4eecb3e675f5ac93b5af97b917a4d9a
ee83280ee2db9d0375a744a67fd193f9c5a1d497
F20101203_AACDGD kawa_n_Page_060.tif
6100cbc7423dafc5bd73312945d78da3
71fcb3fbc50c1268a4677352786a68a010abfb74
F20101203_AACDFP kawa_n_Page_030.tif
a4fcf463ae99e172dd3359eefa5f3a6e
1a938a8b19ce75b3e8bf910c5fa01bea4f77e586
1051942 F20101203_AACCZV kawa_n_Page_045.jp2
b3f25361c2a16039f11962622dac8a35
1c7068df22ea3230823a1afe4a4d080bbb30b744
F20101203_AACDGE kawa_n_Page_063.tif
a01fd4ab27d33add004c33918759f1b6
bd5a2dbb30f1a1a5ccd2007fafabeab2391453ca
F20101203_AACDFQ kawa_n_Page_035.tif
af3e4daf35bde4f128571929e75636fb
78def2e0a6eae9a7f81aaf72929eabe26cfa69cf
1938 F20101203_AACCZW kawa_n_Page_014.txt
b03d4437962fd869a8a55f7e46c33768
c1aed4e8162b13ef9583f652879c51a167f0271f
F20101203_AACDGF kawa_n_Page_065.tif
b512c753e7460b3e2a05eb5f4b617e31
9ac77bac21980b6e1f2ee4358b21151a633703e5
F20101203_AACDFR kawa_n_Page_037.tif
128925b0ef43fea230f4ec08bd813770
19665dc6035aa5fba08a452ee52502dd623d08b6
4888 F20101203_AACCZX kawa_n_Page_089thm.jpg
9c7b33914d86c3ef7f13ac8902597758
79f62880b8755708fd6f5ed8be9cefdc84b55d6f
F20101203_AACDGG kawa_n_Page_066.tif
8cf6fa8714ae10bcec1a6779c99e89fc
743d59f2b380984f81a324c1fc0383ac82a1f5b4
F20101203_AACDFS kawa_n_Page_040.tif
40cdf49f76cae4049efd520af7bb32eb
40a0474b6989ad17911dbf510d152e07638d551d
1465 F20101203_AACCZY kawa_n_Page_003.QC.jpg
f90e8f7e40ec53e6aa10c738835ec7af
7f60dae398d906b10e82c775e52bfff6d9dc9d4b
F20101203_AACDGH kawa_n_Page_067.tif
14b3c2bf79e9243e563ba3ba3dcd199f
4449f9f76db895261f7178708a6c21cb2fa6449b
F20101203_AACDFT kawa_n_Page_043.tif
0c9919da43ce7b7258360270c699ebe1
75ee04d25bc4254278ce84cffb3a7847b64211a3
50313 F20101203_AACCZZ kawa_n_Page_020.pro
8ca2af973ef1f6188f2379e44322628b
7adf9934e1b44e2f563d2dcbe3547bcca45723c9
F20101203_AACDGI kawa_n_Page_068.tif
bd93f85f1b91d288cbb18790a063437a
1e76c0596bc57adc4701a47ed810298b88aa58ec
F20101203_AACDFU kawa_n_Page_045.tif
44961c4dc2449ede2428774d3f66ee1c
8356cd451f8b100701d884e5a001638f613185ea
F20101203_AACDGJ kawa_n_Page_069.tif
1710dacae5a14ac331efd6ceb170b2e1
d25c7903a48bc9ddc5e69c88928e284aea41f3f5
F20101203_AACDFV kawa_n_Page_046.tif
c59c29180229ac00b81724fee12fed30
4d96d20da3ad943c3289c53c9a9a026384e457ea
F20101203_AACDGK kawa_n_Page_072.tif
0749008c80e4fbdb39af6d621901438e
8e1e08f7b69da6819de486072146ed6c7e16a68b
F20101203_AACDFW kawa_n_Page_047.tif
51dd533710661bf875ac08c7c99b58d9
1b42ca439c200a37b1ccba3ab7721dd9960e41dc
F20101203_AACDGL kawa_n_Page_077.tif
e29fc4dc5af7840a1f0e6b4eb89899da
c1c32cdf72ee7996efb65501ee733ba7fd4faeec
F20101203_AACDFX kawa_n_Page_048.tif
8470850fc8c9f78528eba2d21e8f11f6
d2a1c54cc5f682c75884f03d4b873d6373934673
F20101203_AACDHA kawa_n_Page_106.tif
1800e215e1a0bc0c7a642c1c92923cee
4c9e07999884033b760065dee0d57ad37fddc5ba
F20101203_AACDGM kawa_n_Page_078.tif
39e7f9b9f385fd027c6cdaf57a2d37a6
f77fd3afb8834987ca5f4f6d349119bb70bf7e50
F20101203_AACDFY kawa_n_Page_051.tif
1bfb41f24d5c341ed1033027637e38aa
1045189c95bfb607e1f693f0d83250ba77f433e4
7628 F20101203_AACDHB kawa_n_Page_001.pro
a9bc31fd953276c86729ca1c3e343312
64297c89add920ace797d86945dac749c826cdd9
F20101203_AACDFZ kawa_n_Page_054.tif
5c5124c73a6c8d7faa5f876908fb8058
86fdaac74d45cd16cf7097c6b2ed1a02ba204e64
51486 F20101203_AACDHC kawa_n_Page_004.pro
414a498c2dc69fc8a8b0d8b6e314c47c
acb51d25abdf069cad37950af021fa34f74931ed
F20101203_AACDGN kawa_n_Page_081.tif
c6882daed3befbdbd606f50d63b6222e
efcd3a573f60a7ad1489f9480156c2cc28893acc
93433 F20101203_AACDHD kawa_n_Page_006.pro
5841d1b11890018e5563478c39a6fb39
1047f1dbb09aa4f5cd4f0a111bba7aa1220c2a33
F20101203_AACDGO kawa_n_Page_083.tif
99c6213730616c83671354129571f91f
dec64de39ab35d7b984126b8269a7ada3164eaa9
97849 F20101203_AACDHE kawa_n_Page_007.pro
3d44cccaba881bdaea2cc37cf385b10b
2ecf0398c24ebe1f74bee9409123bc586afecca0
F20101203_AACDGP kawa_n_Page_085.tif
3a6d9ad1e2f619bc44a1cd6b0488c95e
1ad3a0494eb6e144d0f369dde1d7064452b083c2
21593 F20101203_AACDHF kawa_n_Page_010.pro
7452a2c560d5280c831aa5d9831d8afb
8c19cff6a2144e1f4d203ad24aa6f0f7156d8921
F20101203_AACDGQ kawa_n_Page_087.tif
aeb8a78d2a979be0815003408735486f
58b90f0a3c563bab7f8fc910a534c2b93a981f00
48047 F20101203_AACDHG kawa_n_Page_013.pro
2d2a8e986001ad3cc572422978b6c867
a92d9a367105dd61ef3f8a81f0802fd803f12239
F20101203_AACDGR kawa_n_Page_090.tif
2aaeeaa32da9831415aa84f1ce57b6b9
36ef90b3565b93c1fa1ee24f03d1f746b15ad90d
49483 F20101203_AACDHH kawa_n_Page_016.pro
60b09280ea12814e818a5c88b2330881
b6ecfb69faa66b380dd42fdee933cb32972cf93b
F20101203_AACDGS kawa_n_Page_092.tif
e59c698f525da6a94a6a0d83d5ea502b
cc4fd18729a2b12d56fc8207cc61120a96b68d3e
52739 F20101203_AACDHI kawa_n_Page_019.pro
9bdb58b3b397839e71e02d7cb17d3fff
0ec1d5a723535f8ba155dc2fcb2fc1d0a7ed9da3
F20101203_AACDGT kawa_n_Page_094.tif
f1ce658d0352346e94e6069fa2d19c60
199d18ab319e211291bfaa5307691e0e727de65d
28782 F20101203_AACDHJ kawa_n_Page_021.pro
9d40748740de82c6ef5827b7dcd4c8e8
990a7119cfe426994475a5c256583847a655677e
8423998 F20101203_AACDGU kawa_n_Page_096.tif
bcb2a3889f4a916189f561cedffbd5ac
ce193fa4b54dc700a6d3ca9292d733a439bde0e6
3910 F20101203_AACDHK kawa_n_Page_022.pro
338e43216f9f7c394a2a842e77f1d046
24cd9e9b5fcab406eb23390382fb77d944d8c685
F20101203_AACDGV kawa_n_Page_097.tif
a63550062fa4c8cd6f31a17347170019
7171148eb7c55d9acf7e934be2874030509783f1
42847 F20101203_AACDHL kawa_n_Page_025.pro
4ca5dee8b91071016b0e6a781977128a
b9f55c45beca9c58c03c9e6447bf4fcd2e5287d1
F20101203_AACDGW kawa_n_Page_100.tif
4dcc4740f17b9972b6cfbec21f37fd5a
62c9d9cd1d86a5f84fdde1271d5340bf6bf53bbe
53806 F20101203_AACDHM kawa_n_Page_027.pro
c13579a61adfd9dac2133c24cfe3259e
a20530ab16e110dbb1680c5053f0c343e1085b3d
F20101203_AACDGX kawa_n_Page_102.tif
8d135ef399a6d9e1defb22e3f1d92ce3
5fc8524a997ada051e9dca8abd3fcfa9566c4b5a
12335 F20101203_AACDIA kawa_n_Page_068.pro
3505fe7fb859b7ca1612b57e3e5d6768
18ca5e732c9ca7ab5e7ff1bc6a3cb6345143e8f1
55912 F20101203_AACDHN kawa_n_Page_028.pro
074ef65c806b1f5311f0e898f2da0d0f
2961648f443e25dc33d427221f717d1452c3dbdd
F20101203_AACDGY kawa_n_Page_104.tif
e07b7afcd2ff73cbe7904c70c8cda2c5
7ba3106676722f78e1476af91abaafbef3867014
42407 F20101203_AACDIB kawa_n_Page_069.pro
cff787855cfb14a491896860f6fd77d8
224a66db93dee76e6e8466b2d2fd31858fc05873
F20101203_AACDGZ kawa_n_Page_105.tif
10c45e2435f342d308a4c611180092de
38d68e81bd6e7f127fe7903783c4a95da155bcee
42475 F20101203_AACDIC kawa_n_Page_070.pro
08cc9cbe9941f2f1eddaf1d1c378b810
4fe5553f91d288bf5f592eb79c72edd14e2375f9
57021 F20101203_AACDHO kawa_n_Page_030.pro
067d7a852b65a8e3810c0cd359484213
bcf331d005b01984eb842b0b9366135a101bc8fc
12303 F20101203_AACDID kawa_n_Page_074.pro
115af931e798ff394625e086236ecbe7
d82742445139809d0737b2eda456d841c2ad0b08
57434 F20101203_AACDHP kawa_n_Page_031.pro
ef87ff90f19fb358af9e5176590d4117
6395e591928521b6a67802160b6b9850b59ab95a
50128 F20101203_AACDIE kawa_n_Page_075.pro
4fd27dae2e54b5f6be727f32484ba7ff
657e363b7b852ce2fd8781ec4e6ba15cf4074c1a
53446 F20101203_AACDHQ kawa_n_Page_040.pro
8a7bd838c9b6a6dd53525613cbc1a2d2
8dc51eaacaa3d190666bf23b0efafbd365c963b0
52035 F20101203_AACDIF kawa_n_Page_076.pro
061a62c6fb578c8faa58d897d8797a7a
3db265222ffdd9ceb9ebb5f09ac3dbb981ecaea0
62130 F20101203_AACDHR kawa_n_Page_048.pro
ec36b9b464d8ed9f016f744732db2870
2cbbc174b62faf61c1f02698c8d480b8a9eea57a
54622 F20101203_AACDIG kawa_n_Page_077.pro
ceb1d2d9fccdce196367def02bb796e9
eb381d16225225991b0441b1a91c41e156fbef96
49072 F20101203_AACDHS kawa_n_Page_049.pro
86b543dc04fedf98be63fb545e7840cd
bf746cb060e1d974c2f8fb80375ac6e1e95e224b
64097 F20101203_AACDIH kawa_n_Page_078.pro
7ebf7293009f0ee8c284a180c7e38364
bd04c0ad93aaca27af05e8311ff281a72bdb7547
54444 F20101203_AACDHT kawa_n_Page_054.pro
43382c4a2b10a59fc98a71de291efacf
c1e28d6b5810b6de38e8bead2a207d09af7754dc
54074 F20101203_AACDII kawa_n_Page_080.pro
d8fb045f8bbd34cd02ed911714b0dbe6
67ec336fb5f39ee69bfb78e54771bc6c43150041
52083 F20101203_AACDHU kawa_n_Page_058.pro
7b48babe2c59fbc4fc8a6f69a1899af9
cda0a6a03b2cb6fab5520d7ea7df2fec2e1eab7f
52122 F20101203_AACDIJ kawa_n_Page_081.pro
b93b4cd32fc6f314920910ccc8b3b0b6
f22ac9114493fa3c90bb47b5bc05bd419e244dfb
56176 F20101203_AACDHV kawa_n_Page_059.pro
a9893f4cb852959465d65c1771fcdd0b
e6fabcbf94067f478b21397a4f271d4b2da1f47f
52180 F20101203_AACDIK kawa_n_Page_082.pro
cf86c946e7722934686129e347285f3f
f7560bdfb7d1735b8549251f6c8e8c93ec11b2a2
4251 F20101203_AACDHW kawa_n_Page_061.pro
fd412515ac51ebf8df5600b0524bd922
df4ee36e76af555d0ff9cf78cc83ddd45d76bbdb
52274 F20101203_AACDIL kawa_n_Page_083.pro
bd7ee4783abe387263ee5c41e6a3c436
0db85a58d96f5556ee0471fc4f22bbb059b31eef
53856 F20101203_AACDHX kawa_n_Page_064.pro
0aa445814b51616b84408f4754f84831
873aa9ae7887e400b707c9fe4c22344623dd7cfe
1531 F20101203_AACDJA kawa_n_Page_011.txt
d6126296f3994e7db2cc1c3ad555df38
922fe9f8d5db325032ebf858b679efd70c211d5e
55986 F20101203_AACDIM kawa_n_Page_084.pro
a0fd3334e208ea6ada1c91fb657ff5d5
0960aa1b75cbb552d90a4b29a816ec4b56185c2c
51967 F20101203_AACDHY kawa_n_Page_065.pro
65512f47eead28fe2c477d6671f575c9
58cc03b7da38ae92055c9e0ed84ddcf3d0a73e10
1944 F20101203_AACDJB kawa_n_Page_015.txt
c3d5edd8bda4650e9c1ff904ce213436
95e7c7a0692e8ea6879f268449d057097e3d1afb
41563 F20101203_AACDIN kawa_n_Page_086.pro
085f6ab3dbd8685e8513c5e6886d040b
e4434d5e153838810db81edc809e62dad8cef1d5
53024 F20101203_AACDHZ kawa_n_Page_066.pro
92c51c553f48f1e3ea610ef71c2aa1c7
39c7c4b6fd2a787f06bf3bd309e600eaf5549e94
2103 F20101203_AACDJC kawa_n_Page_017.txt
3e63d4e1a7a293f55551a0137396f4a8
552c63f26b512623a24d9187454319eb12149af7
44829 F20101203_AACDIO kawa_n_Page_087.pro
db1d21bbc336fab0eb4206e3fb5cfd6b
9f142e2b0da805aa56b163a4e330672044b80d39
1997 F20101203_AACDJD kawa_n_Page_020.txt
21ac3002a872d88412119968b5256805
13ed847af6e57b249ae37dce3486331b13a67d02
231 F20101203_AACDJE kawa_n_Page_022.txt
3ada747e0bdeb91428579b4599d3bfb6
db3e006321c7544f8f35dc80179293e86d6a110c
28478 F20101203_AACDIP kawa_n_Page_089.pro
ba654bde65ae1bc965f3a195c10ae744
19b88c25a9c742fe59bf229dd35bcbc0f80bc666
255 F20101203_AACDJF kawa_n_Page_023.txt
839a636edd42695b43b6b5c44082edf8
c995a629077d478a107cc9545db8da67275c10ac
44956 F20101203_AACDIQ kawa_n_Page_091.pro
4dc1d54a28821ea2bb233c182a208e1b
102691a32f194b7cb564f001cfe7fc6abc45b486
1934 F20101203_AACDJG kawa_n_Page_025.txt
fd92bc7e17770b86bd152fad1ef91121
daedb85fde05dc9ed2978dae8b7bec78b517c8cd
49651 F20101203_AACDIR kawa_n_Page_101.pro
a2190e00d8e2ead559883744115aac95
9b6c301c1abbe3e4df0e85daa201915621f86ee0
2093 F20101203_AACDJH kawa_n_Page_026.txt
1bb9450d5f0155a447682b08dae5dda9
af5788de0882df2f940923503cc24ce076bbe928
46340 F20101203_AACDIS kawa_n_Page_104.pro
27ac04612c027b72b4e12dea80e953ec
182fa228b8bd153e801b1dc12c0b5f1acea63042
2119 F20101203_AACDJI kawa_n_Page_027.txt
ad286e6e8fca2ec302d7c5645c8520ca
fdeba124e4ae7f05904f753a0f10451d0e6c2aa8
8378 F20101203_AACDIT kawa_n_Page_106.pro
914a6a4a458dbef22dd22d80ca42979b
fe206222c64fe76b4ab9c922e3b63dc02eb9f140
2232 F20101203_AACDJJ kawa_n_Page_028.txt
3c9a459127dd46bf2697c948fc68c4c2
47c87df4745f72624d8cbf821a7fd5c9f6053912
17003 F20101203_AACDIU kawa_n_Page_107.pro
7f30c3985a9a66180b541749a4861ad8
681ff2d4559f386218e0f64d88638a57c2efcaac
2246 F20101203_AACDJK kawa_n_Page_031.txt
0a5577cfa4b7521547ba8788cea0dadc
cbf40f9dacd4d2b3085198020a135f263dd6347d
437 F20101203_AACDIV kawa_n_Page_001.txt
c71e506374294a1c5fe24108101ef6ee
2a7e75cfcc68d2dd49e3dacdcc691b24a17557bc
2247 F20101203_AACDJL kawa_n_Page_032.txt
4ee0cf40a0b9979d50ae55683d21e9da
2bc22ca925d2d10a910b0cc32b08560535c3e04d
80 F20101203_AACDIW kawa_n_Page_002.txt
5c716d2c8422406536fe152cfe0211c3
09a01135d7a1d0eb5e91c76669a00d534511b37b
2084 F20101203_AACDKA kawa_n_Page_075.txt
280b9fe812cafeca36fc218d1ec8abfd
b0f68ef8569550a9a2791a20a21b543bb77d939f
2982 F20101203_AACDJM kawa_n_Page_033.txt
134a47dd3138f20da239a92f47f3456a
410a484dd7c8fa9e5548ed88eedc8a64ad788571
2069 F20101203_AACDIX kawa_n_Page_004.txt
414fd52d2392a341bee7a096372296d7
160ce0368d083dd79aae96baae252a7c8896d7d9
2079 F20101203_AACDKB kawa_n_Page_081.txt
16ca75dc5873dc060ec4e59a3c298d66
d85162dee7fff29d338639f7e1bcd796d8053fbc
2251 F20101203_AACDJN kawa_n_Page_034.txt
530663e5ae878dc15b9176c81c009695
48540c69dc04d35c8f724e7784b9cf15db8c15bc
1169 F20101203_AACDIY kawa_n_Page_005.txt
b756e39578dad6f7880c5adb2f48f395
73043564c0d3836edf0a6e34b74e3585e55c4a6e
700 F20101203_AACDKC kawa_n_Page_085.txt
d12b07def965f7219b4b1926c1ec4d8f
56e08df43c934bd91a49edc8c77efa5daa395808
2050 F20101203_AACDJO kawa_n_Page_038.txt
882bdcb7f1f953191f230e9f19041568
19c60d0a0475edb78503dbd1c07be89b1164d64a
1611 F20101203_AACDIZ kawa_n_Page_009.txt
98b4e4ce239e5a41b05a77f59fff567d
03b68b2974945fa3f3e2808559b49858d5a6bc76
1691 F20101203_AACDKD kawa_n_Page_086.txt
1b1a7820e1ceb5d4cbec4222e056f1a7
471c72252d5051178d0c446186856497832360fe
2268 F20101203_AACDJP kawa_n_Page_041.txt
6d33997ca6c7a2edaf9ceae32e9d0625
0e23fb056da4dcf5b5f562f52d718dcaa16c6e6a
2120 F20101203_AACDKE kawa_n_Page_088.txt
d4ea5b5bf052a3ef20c6fe15ad325527
9a76e64e90c1811dea7d4687cd8b9644f1ab9ec4
1973 F20101203_AACDKF kawa_n_Page_096.txt
4dd9b880a958497b859762f5676c0b96
5c9081fc887900deac50d9c359b513f7d0eeb0e9
2282 F20101203_AACDJQ kawa_n_Page_043.txt
34ffabc245bfb07dc6e2c4d388720f38
b9ba0d7def303851c75916f299e2b7b028fc6e33
1967 F20101203_AACDKG kawa_n_Page_097.txt
dc572154e97cacf494ba0041c71e2597
077b17863add16982d5d1bdcb25db7da5209d2a0
2217 F20101203_AACDJR kawa_n_Page_047.txt
b265b6ee0b30cb1a9295df0d6a6a64f9
ceb7aea0a73d87ea15eb6ee120e816a649b85689
2332 F20101203_AACDKH kawa_n_Page_100.txt
a842678a4ee65bef247ab95377f3432e
8fb61f20caec2b47190b26235373e429adeb323c
2493 F20101203_AACDJS kawa_n_Page_048.txt
96116b2ef322f6e7a710a83238822b5f
292dc775211a9ec1a962a55d68c4c75587364de3
2306 F20101203_AACDKI kawa_n_Page_105.txt
8d55f079888f84f57ffcd89625d18854
09c717e53587fa180e6fb06ea99e4dfd8a07236a
2181 F20101203_AACDJT kawa_n_Page_054.txt
40a9988c3507f10a9dbe72712194d106
e90f4bb1e487be1e694a6afcae10daee6133eac2
354 F20101203_AACDKJ kawa_n_Page_106.txt
47ea0ac13534d3d5bde8f79174ac9bcc
ad91cad3fdb97fa4c01786f997694d1053f36f00
2102 F20101203_AACDJU kawa_n_Page_057.txt
0885d3378c3fbe03bf37c6eece80f481
5e758cb2a617e7c49f699d6503fc96782cf1ce9e
1927296 F20101203_AACDKK kawa_n.pdf
814c1a3bc52956ab3303602e98a81f09
f4ca5a91e029520a68b02699f04655f63fd2ae5a
331 F20101203_AACDJV kawa_n_Page_060.txt
3cdc3fa3b1e231a21a0eefa629ae592a
36bd7d2dfeca252eaff9905eac658d73d50c714a
7805 F20101203_AACDKL kawa_n_Page_001.QC.jpg
5a681f423a6b70c3690ba4303015c5c5
0b784b432d4f1be0c7a651754a2879fd42d43afb
2146 F20101203_AACDJW kawa_n_Page_064.txt
479665c0b632e77755030d9fbb9460cb
50b4b9921df426e543fa07e1266d9eee4efb30d4
542 F20101203_AACDKM kawa_n_Page_002thm.jpg
fa1f204d8539dc6c6c8c8bc977a1026d
e25bf5d1d3e687a38057eb78dfd36bf42937dbca
2099 F20101203_AACDJX kawa_n_Page_066.txt
3f7e3c0636fa42a114af57874e470a8a
d1676f0012bf3fca4a02ef96f0f383b35a41d6e5
8860 F20101203_AACDLA kawa_n_Page_023thm.jpg
2b71ea45f0de3a893958762736021ee0
da301f634c52e6d6eaee4f845e6981757e8e1b79
621 F20101203_AACDKN kawa_n_Page_003thm.jpg
dab63620991411fc9379b1b8bdd55249
c15209f8e7d797cbfdda1235f1d9fa68bd181ff8
1211 F20101203_AACDJY kawa_n_Page_073.txt
38b5c3c295cee2590c20273a88789e9e
891aa9bc21e0c60f151e04589e3e471fde77c565
7385 F20101203_AACDLB kawa_n_Page_024thm.jpg
0e7260923ae017aa628260130919af5d
f795a1ad70f8655ea16e4da8be4406b252dc3400
35351 F20101203_AACDKO kawa_n_Page_004.QC.jpg
13322675de362d8930cf48a2cc30a867
ed1187865ec2832cba46b1acd88c05a32f033eeb
528 F20101203_AACDJZ kawa_n_Page_074.txt
a3345d4ffe55e339ad2606836385517d
5fc23eb12dd3f09dc3bc3c3ef8fd85316e8bb26c
34687 F20101203_AACDLC kawa_n_Page_026.QC.jpg
4cea728740a5daa74975b8430e65b8dd
b18498d73716ce128d05de4e681b8f4020ef9698
30007 F20101203_AACDKP kawa_n_Page_006.QC.jpg
d92d2493991f0917710d5cdd9dc2af35
6881edac97a4080b9b9ba7e838900b50d707369f
8597 F20101203_AACDLD kawa_n_Page_026thm.jpg
02d3a9955cf4addba4e1e1198b29d34e
550d54501e908575b77369b715b4e27188aac280
7184 F20101203_AACDKQ kawa_n_Page_006thm.jpg
de2cb5330fa752cf3701bf4c9d74e6c1
92d5755a67321192d1b33e47b4e0c1aff0fe2cec
8474 F20101203_AACDLE kawa_n_Page_028thm.jpg
fca3d28c0e7ea8e307b06130b583150c
4ca4980a6b35237ec41cde38eeb4b0733b0a7376
36664 F20101203_AACDLF kawa_n_Page_030.QC.jpg
b6750f2d03f7b335684ba5a7a6ba3d19
4210645c079bdb33d93fb6a7da6f7ac44963545d
21221 F20101203_AACDKR kawa_n_Page_009.QC.jpg
73138a862679772d9d6cbbebd1a27bb2
35b47eb34f859787d2de609918ba643197e1e1ba
8823 F20101203_AACDLG kawa_n_Page_030thm.jpg
bec25f9c2e13ff3a4c9bf182afad9283
6635b064cff5371add2ad3719921eb8538f3cb81
15370 F20101203_AACDKS kawa_n_Page_010.QC.jpg
ed0c55e4ad4026643e39bb2592680de2
5ddb0a4cada6030c715c975bd4b5e52509707943
35000 F20101203_AACDLH kawa_n_Page_032.QC.jpg
2efd8ff3663e4e7c26d3e1012e78b13c
bf53924bdf89dad67b5a3ebe453775e664d07809
3961 F20101203_AACDKT kawa_n_Page_010thm.jpg
25a2e1fb8aa7cf2fbf090965ee120f2a
21cb7a133f946c8c39207ba2ff24e89a91fe07a3
37147 F20101203_AACDLI kawa_n_Page_034.QC.jpg
57f0c8cb15adbb42d6cf0aecb0452097
b9655b55b6b99f3572d9c8ebe7d512fac023c8e9
8180 F20101203_AACDKU kawa_n_Page_012thm.jpg
038d7a3c3a658b9cd79702e591a3bc4d
37de943b9246acd847336e1cc7780935aac53e28
36911 F20101203_AACDLJ kawa_n_Page_035.QC.jpg
28461a17067c010a0f20188712e68260
b333f47c91167b75e125a041fd8be17a912610e5
7889 F20101203_AACDKV kawa_n_Page_013thm.jpg
de9c293a59dda9b0bd0b3cb37719f3ab
c9d4f3a8945a7da2175a40e720147f799c8ca259
8073 F20101203_AACDLK kawa_n_Page_036thm.jpg
7a3b571a0e1f40db67de1c32a7bb6c44
b88deb82f91d2b5bee0c6339546ba0932d0175c2
8286 F20101203_AACDKW kawa_n_Page_015thm.jpg
24e4c66e8e18aa959a9a1f49a66d38d2
66bd28a43e6dd1d36cd135131d116708a6514ad7
34511 F20101203_AACDLL kawa_n_Page_038.QC.jpg
8c45c17619e36cc66d1da1ea0ac6db85
2ce08063f7069497a277bbbe190be16c64c2fe22
8975 F20101203_AACDMA kawa_n_Page_056thm.jpg
78580981e7c9e114769b8a3a17ec1afc
f11c7d2c7f43d141459ec1bba1cf8a0b149bdd1b
8675 F20101203_AACDLM kawa_n_Page_038thm.jpg
b303795f5e1a34eb86782fddf79eaa94
32222321925c617e866561471643503ff30f7d5e
32123 F20101203_AACDKX kawa_n_Page_016.QC.jpg
98b89c6293b35c8bf3401d334b98a133
546f5082601a7451929beeb2c79f849345e8159b
37343 F20101203_AACDMB kawa_n_Page_059.QC.jpg
959aa35b1d6d08e5702474d51b302b2d
89f78d7f054ae12a019c9febfe88d9effb1c7ceb
34477 F20101203_AACDLN kawa_n_Page_040.QC.jpg
aa952ec575f97b6a487c4ef226975280
fc5c952e1b38c2840f77d630a23caa806191df5a
8217 F20101203_AACDKY kawa_n_Page_016thm.jpg
70b9a679a3ae409d8c455cdadedcf792
b321ca091e69060e8de0910ee4db6273416b58d6
8338 F20101203_AACDMC kawa_n_Page_063thm.jpg
afe047f85661da811781161badbd0cc7
3b48e4d04673228fb311af9e275da38fd1dc84e7
39058 F20101203_AACDLO kawa_n_Page_041.QC.jpg
b62598845d9b924ccc309041df2f753e
09926a3d7051ac3e5cde38d08a1e0dec4bc70b01
7162 F20101203_AACDKZ kawa_n_Page_021thm.jpg
d6043cf06cf67700ed395447fd81b661
98a5bb467afb5487cdf02a937675fb69b0c6cff5
34347 F20101203_AACDMD kawa_n_Page_065.QC.jpg
3f083af318598eb41fb47a4ac7ec4d11
b657f620774f0ea3152d5b5042290684a245bb9f
9314 F20101203_AACDLP kawa_n_Page_041thm.jpg
6a958d80a1cffb3d5ee968e8fba69378
8a1173c91695338c13f9f89727335825e2423c85
34761 F20101203_AACDME kawa_n_Page_066.QC.jpg
678dac83e4bfbdfd7b836bcac6d7e81c
089a5f33ad76e85f23a7b49f54b1982161c087b6
3815 F20101203_AACDLQ kawa_n_Page_042thm.jpg
af488ac897cc032d89e359578c0e7c38
5832e57aec985f6f9001e020119c08d823924a4d
31450 F20101203_AACDMF kawa_n_Page_068.QC.jpg
afdb62ff8e463a11afd082d51e4b0959
a7f3ff4dd5756e1e38be54533ae9bb6fb5de711c
33418 F20101203_AACDLR kawa_n_Page_043.QC.jpg
2d3e35082170b56065a7947e77958714
43f486e28283bab7d3665bffa8e71cce0ec9df9f
8624 F20101203_AACDMG kawa_n_Page_068thm.jpg
b2e51101d2c99639d6a6b5ff67fbd064
e63ccf54767114873c1ecc339295f73b7bf73d7b
4948 F20101203_AACDMH kawa_n_Page_070thm.jpg
437936fe86fe4b697883049bfbe33059
1872839ac0c11d211801af40a60fe31b2db67a7d
8972 F20101203_AACDLS kawa_n_Page_045thm.jpg
b1e100a6bcff7f2c6899bb4a0bb5c61a
c22da7502c395794f5018bd6a6424a58bd0737bb
5036 F20101203_AACDMI kawa_n_Page_071thm.jpg
2d577e594880650025239117c3680d1a
69746e716deb0352da56f28dd34b7410de67afcb
8547 F20101203_AACDLT kawa_n_Page_048thm.jpg
05eedc15cb29d85b4fdb11a7b025d9c2
5016e3bc2aa0ef6426033a2119eabac7602f0e2e
13452 F20101203_AACDMJ kawa_n_Page_072.QC.jpg
ea69a24018b4910c33be54367aee577a
c4c198f68b2868ef8d36c9b197aa83f82b73babe
32521 F20101203_AACDLU kawa_n_Page_049.QC.jpg
b394373ca00152ff69a41c93117b937b
15b65418e0c9a1edb186f6bb5ea53b152dd1b538
3941 F20101203_AACDMK kawa_n_Page_074thm.jpg
0e620204c4dc5266fad65c5f511fde8d
22c11a1b5e1aa27fda3644b97d2fe9a1fbdc848c
32077 F20101203_AACDLV kawa_n_Page_050.QC.jpg
7f6efb1740f76b7c8db5b6e82c58c46e
0f7a7ff11708be84a386706eae7e056f0bebdc4a
8608 F20101203_AACDML kawa_n_Page_075thm.jpg
6a0276d42c7e80fcdf98a018fc37a41f
ea66bcbc69cc793e50e9fd931b2e33b479bb8744
8066 F20101203_AACDLW kawa_n_Page_050thm.jpg
4ce7841a95b25e08152a3116f98fc30e
6bc4a6d7be8e8db6c1f2de584aabb0f558ec49e9
35912 F20101203_AACDMM kawa_n_Page_076.QC.jpg
443b5dcf69c53d57089a52e6776f6fc8
c8145f77f76576afca424119b0cdd367be9fe070
39037 F20101203_AACDLX kawa_n_Page_053.QC.jpg
90bf5b4d1da8954a39f788b196a9094a
608f04907d1bd814f640e9da9993230392e9ce90
5168 F20101203_AACDNA kawa_n_Page_094thm.jpg
2f93a6d905a205c30d2c97ad97f88fa6
13941c3e8fb79da2a3d5c9108be176f50b76463e
8571 F20101203_AACDMN kawa_n_Page_076thm.jpg
2e86ba2ed68cfd07ab7a20f32b0b7c72
bb0352884f77dbd959d5cc36c51c0a94052be1b8
9153 F20101203_AACDLY kawa_n_Page_053thm.jpg
6b026ab7eb5ca4f02ac2641fa5a5b41c
9ec78f061706b2b92b79aa840def265b46bc49af
8060 F20101203_AACDNB kawa_n_Page_095thm.jpg
26b07716d21cf80194b08271352396e7
b43f1baccaa4a81e6626daa517e6017478b9a049
8323 F20101203_AACDMO kawa_n_Page_077thm.jpg
03c7f1470d2220ecf4efb937ce2eddd8
b7bb97be088bd5ee57723ff499ecbcd874585a37
37839 F20101203_AACDLZ kawa_n_Page_055.QC.jpg
2c1f00b94eca364f974d3dd9f68c6a66
212019a0f66e5717c26d8ee3d6f685c25a0d1266
7896 F20101203_AACDNC kawa_n_Page_096thm.jpg
8c810902171944c219f2c7d395796691
0d52ade9fe7544049202a245763606174da4dbad
36617 F20101203_AACDMP kawa_n_Page_079.QC.jpg
d12d2ece228405bedf4a2cbb3bc53997
6d0c4a043e44ee934b7c188168c9a24bd34800ae
28075 F20101203_AACDND kawa_n_Page_097.QC.jpg
ea5c0e6f44f3d6c43b7d987e93ef3858
43ca1773f0e66fb48026e26d0b315e78325b303c
8786 F20101203_AACDMQ kawa_n_Page_080thm.jpg
d8a76148006b9cdf2c8e1751b7eb21ce
8f1fa7553dbf14b44fefd2e762df7a0e56025841
8525 F20101203_AACDNE kawa_n_Page_100thm.jpg
a95d5d657056788c553b654f4a6de6c6
5f60cb4ff4699a9ef63d9dbf82482fe2d6c289a1
34270 F20101203_AACDMR kawa_n_Page_082.QC.jpg
a4212c4e1f70e4a8bc685eadcccc0a7f
e456b706c6fe47a6464079bb479efc37e993d0db
29696 F20101203_AACDNF kawa_n_Page_101.QC.jpg
c1ddfa0ac56de641590139a2fed27ba7
53afb9d93dc60e80c446f7170b20b9a1f67b734a
8506 F20101203_AACDMS kawa_n_Page_082thm.jpg
0c463416218a775b390d21e3ec5e9873
201110f80efb39a5b0a1382340bdb7c10d8a3874
7917 F20101203_AACDNG kawa_n_Page_101thm.jpg
1be7201e5b97a6acdfd1db296ce9a4db
69a9e6fc00de4217d14b673ad8e6fa475c0dfb4e
8500 F20101203_AACDNH kawa_n_Page_102thm.jpg
5b27c854dbfe47ed9a9ebf6955d0cf01
524a448d2b7a6c73d0ca6dbeebf9875abfa741ce
8748 F20101203_AACDMT kawa_n_Page_083thm.jpg
b4ebfe1c72212b8e8a100f6868b4e701
5b36d0c20e7270918243d0e1e5799632340f0332
29601 F20101203_AACDNI kawa_n_Page_103.QC.jpg
8598e35e9f98708b8b08e666f3a4bfa3
32ed79ebc527cea8245ee15939f8c65e8b91b52d
37399 F20101203_AACDMU kawa_n_Page_084.QC.jpg
6e60532a898ef51ec673deb41dc29082
a1431e09d9bb71764f2155f20426e2c02114eb4e
7905 F20101203_AACDNJ kawa_n_Page_104thm.jpg
67bae7c4db35494878633ad9f4a1436c
d94e35faf325c5071d2e9afc453ffb0047fe3dcc
3227 F20101203_AACDMV kawa_n_Page_085thm.jpg
54b5c090ab845fbf3e39252af7147962
a6925b59531e3f15e72f68262b435cc36aab5f10
32214 F20101203_AACDNK kawa_n_Page_105.QC.jpg
ebd58e9e298d6192d275ede95993afff
0928fcdf81f0dd8b414cd069023dcd701d8bf9bb
26918 F20101203_AACDMW kawa_n_Page_086.QC.jpg
088868db3a207359e8b955f06f938114
b7092876183551b621485d672e7528ff2530e372
8138 F20101203_AACDNL kawa_n_Page_105thm.jpg
294f067b5d12ca32d1448f24c160fa9b
a4979a7a52db53ea5448448fa028d7bb5a84b77a
8673 F20101203_AACDMX kawa_n_Page_088thm.jpg
f07ae19e9fb763e84f38f116049fa391
6f5f68c06127bfd5a8189d3b7eb7715ed9e92bc6
5904 F20101203_AACDNM kawa_n_Page_106.QC.jpg
b6bf5f55346b3a19ac06b00bd7d1325f
7adbfed2dd56c76ddc17f3a42ce3532c3a952e79
19380 F20101203_AACDMY kawa_n_Page_089.QC.jpg
5d7c5154a871a795faf01ed800ae3d40
2db3be7b09a37e5c0d15ddf347e0e8705140be9d
12479 F20101203_AACDNN kawa_n_Page_107.QC.jpg
c72950e24f9f6bd3377aa50620bdc7b4
04fc290dbf13c2e080cd43c61afe582296919fc8
11478 F20101203_AACDMZ kawa_n_Page_093.QC.jpg
243321b6b273cb3489f0bfdceab13726
6a69f101b09eb3ad27dcca9928c2978e30cd8f9b
1051976 F20101203_AACCLA kawa_n_Page_031.jp2
16a76e43ba28bc195f2db9c6d90dd24e
9a057b2584a1370de0bee3d17cabfaae4ce6b10c
123506 F20101203_AACDNO UFE0022091_00001.mets FULL
2acbb1e787f49164b14da0e570a8dd4f
27b897f1171f5685539f5d486d01e96406c9e799
112603 F20101203_AACCLB kawa_n_Page_044.jpg
36d5056c8fe73a0028d10ad7ebdd0e07
a7374e399206939df19598a161131220721e77d1
2149 F20101203_AACCLC kawa_n_Page_039.txt
8ac72b71f3f414f67b570e280a9ef77c
e85b4e0bc18aaba8f6b3e6b84dff81c564784bc7
F20101203_AACCLD kawa_n_Page_037thm.jpg
b31142e15e7050abcd11c631c678232f
d47a324ea1a3892032834a45431948f7cbe6f04a
109200 F20101203_AACCKP kawa_n_Page_039.jpg
ec163d2bd48fb56a1daa7015fff17e61
d06435825cbcb3ad89b957f64580ada1478b1ca0
3843 F20101203_AACCLE kawa_n_Page_006.txt
abada0d218e1f78bdfe6228d301a8f96
a1c3b251978490a38d8bdcb675074d2f546c010c
545 F20101203_AACCKQ kawa_n_Page_024.txt
3ef87949adea99c97cf4891b2e6023e1
7dc18e284e5b84044cd63198843da62ed1caaa59
36646 F20101203_AACCLF kawa_n_Page_029.QC.jpg
821f8825340e800f5227bcc0529a8268
e8c5e719709874698a51c1cf74a9a47972502fc4
1051977 F20101203_AACCKR kawa_n_Page_009.jp2
6fa197a8bf7ae34ebd040a433ba3aa7b
19643c833e4a983231578d1d079792eb915cd25c
98447 F20101203_AACCLG kawa_n_Page_050.jpg
8389222de8f36b7129adb0c71202be07
48dcc7839a7f32653bd841ad37e7aa6a096dfec0
133057 F20101203_AACCLH kawa_n_Page_007.jpg
4d61bafc1d3d89349b17c378909d5e61
57eb839d38ca65fd0f19371015e7ca855224f8eb
35813 F20101203_AACCKS kawa_n_Page_080.QC.jpg
47aa06fbc245c8129393b23801d2ddbd
48bff81007abd93d131571604cd0a3e082a8e51a
F20101203_AACCLI kawa_n_Page_033.tif
c0bca355567639ef8c1889b9031a5752
32a3f13317ca800390da0db92d8ebc599ce38a0b
F20101203_AACCKT kawa_n_Page_088.tif
b22112205213911530433d61275cc8a5
c07c7f5fb8f0e6f645257154b2e9d29a7dbd9a79
6481 F20101203_AACCLJ kawa_n_Page_061thm.jpg
3425744a8ae511c0f204ba5a9e711c09
975b3c3872f6df2fc8bbd51504d930f6d563668c
1955 F20101203_AACCKU kawa_n_Page_013.txt
5583a156f24690cdf95e3e8da2964a15
93f1e812e67e891480701fb2a12aab192a79a1ae
F20101203_AACCLK kawa_n_Page_091.tif
d92dc25a5f60c510cac64b0a7bd5129e
d816d3a33888db7d793036f7d338fbfb31ee8d38
38422 F20101203_AACCKV kawa_n_Page_009.pro
81bc20fd1274f88d4b68858a344688ea
cda8cfe87463191bb154d0aa34ee75fb720fe58e
126637 F20101203_AACCLL kawa_n_Page_078.jpg
075cfc5e1ab76772f5fb5ef216472e71
34e062c89dd81dda44352c8d6ded909b7f5f5283
25298 F20101203_AACCKW kawa_n_Page_061.QC.jpg
2956509761a1fed7d3492a2f1b1e2b40
a2be8d12fcfad4150c6c094b94c5f303c0ccda91
8583 F20101203_AACCMA kawa_n_Page_014thm.jpg
f59c054e9ba2e2128bc01321e9865e31
9d5fd35746ee1e12206aed23ed4cd47ea7fa1c7f
884 F20101203_AACCLM kawa_n_Page_002.pro
1f9674dc8f1c2debb54edf755450ea9c
dde2afbc5c8ca169c6e8cbd9e715f9221e3b2ec2
1966 F20101203_AACCKX kawa_n_Page_012.txt
700920db58bec3bcdb8dbd035e6e31f8
1c8dbfabbf8f223ac3adf9ec43eba5a814df05d1
1402 F20101203_AACCMB kawa_n_Page_003.pro
5f35012fd56c9c35d0612510bee99795
2fb3275ed5bf3a4661697cfcc1c7b5a0c90167c2
2208 F20101203_AACCLN kawa_n_Page_056.txt
a3739c10ab44abd20cf6418e95db72c6
f26a195c0506928cf96a498ca042fe79853bbbf3
F20101203_AACCKY kawa_n_Page_086.tif
bcb1dcb886f8958f0566164ddf986c06
dadf55563c0371819db704282055f1b3c5574add
20761 F20101203_AACCMC kawa_n_Page_106.jpg
0bf4c90edb1696214921454e8a5ad59a
0d14e6e9387d88872f1717be77ca93de01fe650b
688 F20101203_AACCLO kawa_n_Page_062.txt
2623b996d07c4a8750c4d31fad520c21
ad6085768f0a84747773072129215447b1aaa9c4
46101 F20101203_AACCKZ kawa_n_Page_097.pro
5a782d21cf6a893e9328a5ddd2373058
1b4cef6bc53df4431f05dc9660b01e6d2c8e6ca3
52615 F20101203_AACCMD kawa_n_Page_045.pro
27df47350018a30210c6fdb393b982c4
0eba23deb263f21602c3d31ccd64a1b1766681d9
47983 F20101203_AACCLP kawa_n_Page_014.pro
0594e49c0206dcf4e89161cb8e55b27f
2fc8ce766925ca04b21509a8b3845cf80e0fbc1d
1051982 F20101203_AACCME kawa_n_Page_079.jp2
97d838c96212432a57721ac636dabcec
b573cec82f43333d45ef56be087832e0e2d968ec
26731 F20101203_AACCLQ kawa_n_Page_002.jp2
14e6607011c04b6ec165d99d694f43dc
6ff62880537dbd3016997d391ab5514e325925d6
117414 F20101203_AACCMF kawa_n_Page_055.jpg
ea0d2e457ce94f191835fd8eb728cc51
413c7d3b5e9b950a08bd9caa4ca66aaae4508560
2117 F20101203_AACCLR kawa_n_Page_040.txt
c7ef72ebdef0b8834fb0de1cce132222
c0b0383638c06eaf1b1d4ae88bcf6bb9dc3856e8
1051969 F20101203_AACCMG kawa_n_Page_061.jp2
0edc5cec7b80833439c97ab4a63edfc8
9fd9ead49f2d78cf1951e8bef93b58f3f46f5fdc
2984 F20101203_AACCLS kawa_n_Page_093thm.jpg
d6268b8ebd5a804ca714c084ccb6291c
3444739e757ff45720448c72c7959cbfa8e8339f
5353 F20101203_AACCMH kawa_n_Page_003.jpg
7ccdfc208a6e95e483401ee4bae5d422
896879f81d47b73d034b3fc606c3f3a6a7881004
62707 F20101203_AACCMI kawa_n_Page_005.jpg
d52c558fb7bbac99575ec944046d0c57
402a06f0c5bf40e6fa01811d9b0424b358ba8ba8
8855 F20101203_AACCLT kawa_n_Page_081thm.jpg
8b41d68888a34e5bfb8547ee5c7e6ea1
87f88659d72f45c115e27fe714bca6f58fef25ae
8693 F20101203_AACCMJ kawa_n_Page_054thm.jpg
e5d045512f12a7d7bbf3ccb91818872f
d3abc01e485b3f7bba25a486cc9910af5bea933e
108926 F20101203_AACCLU kawa_n_Page_027.jpg
f19681bbc50048e3c9a4c0fdc2228c7c
1bf920a37ac11633ce1343807658d798f3210c26
118246 F20101203_AACCLV kawa_n_Page_041.jpg
c5b402bf24c4b44d19f80f71d729608b
30865490cb1f60d507722c1383272a9c32368d09
30185 F20101203_AACCMK kawa_n_Page_023.QC.jpg
1de3354288ccd73b4c18f61a2e9cfdda
7517609bde97a2d0caf1fbfa160c756c1f57bbe0
195020 F20101203_AACCLW kawa_n_Page_060.jp2
d53a6e90d918a86a61540adbf8a07b6e
e6b076b0b940e487044fe68637f3d7e7be55e64b
26336 F20101203_AACCML kawa_n_Page_021.QC.jpg
6de7b9e4f9413bdc74bb789503fffec0
9f3f0092833adbf3ce52df034b702bc8a4c198e7
1051963 F20101203_AACCLX kawa_n_Page_050.jp2
3471faad17bb0af137d872cde986fe75
5f6f579efdb1ada6ed680b5b959ad08290b4b439
121668 F20101203_AACCNA kawa_n_Page_053.jpg
84c44d2f0c78f45261fa328039a6eb4f
b66533c5d17bc277879706be94799d8e42d106ca
13360 F20101203_AACCMM kawa_n_Page_085.QC.jpg
05a896d9d45f4a7344264d5e212c2f75
ab75c19af66de4110a96236b4ed36f7001e878fc
4981 F20101203_AACCLY kawa_n_Page_073thm.jpg
386978a8f19bd55b0be6d9508aa3cd81
9b931d8ec2eeb9f2dbdf9616179713e57dd3290f
56242 F20101203_AACCNB kawa_n_Page_032.pro
41f9f40125550425f39219aeadebe6ef
1027894f49e7f85e79dfc9b1b8e54053414efd7f
1857 F20101203_AACCMN kawa_n_Page_072.txt
40c7f4325ccbcbfbe37fb2ff3369acb6
8ef5fc13371ee14e0f18341a0235a71de73ff1b5
F20101203_AACCLZ kawa_n_Page_101.txt
b2d432f15cfc75352d9fc61f29cb5f77
f567b068e8743356c87c0d426000b2d76ab6ff11
20204 F20101203_AACCNC kawa_n_Page_005.QC.jpg
b7ccbdd36d86288af116c24cd93f4738
04ed2f912d7c50fdc064cec6a5646c45d57611b0
21204 F20101203_AACCMO kawa_n_Page_042.pro
ca7fc97238e9fef28ba8b8900f5cdbc4
10ef3b5dff0fd2efc77238293f6fa1fb3d62c55e
49985 F20101203_AACCND kawa_n_Page_095.pro
e88b308f972fcbb1bee6e7bc161eab09
293ca2a801ee18a8ec12fe8f2a462cdd83a6ed49
8664 F20101203_AACCMP kawa_n_Page_027thm.jpg
fb11da20cf097da852007a46e490e71e
1d5528c8b7beddaf6245994c9b17a29149b3e66c
6630 F20101203_AACCNE kawa_n_Page_062thm.jpg
e7f33931c39a4a1aec4af5b312808c37
66221cdd219946da43e9fec972aa5fc8812b7ca0
52435 F20101203_AACCMQ kawa_n_Page_088.pro
5fced7af0873e8ad037fbb29771133dd
529c888e17897b8855b3f1a38193b562313496dd
59757 F20101203_AACCNF kawa_n_Page_055.pro
f503022bd44228104ead3cc33cbddb4b
8ccce8b7420729dea873f9969b367f7f423445cb
8472 F20101203_AACCMR kawa_n_Page_098thm.jpg
5990a9afa0abf5faa0abc594b6c1f743
7b17274fc8d0a613196a9ef710d7e335b6229c0e
48796 F20101203_AACCNG kawa_n_Page_063.pro
33763464db098e29d614f6e35c58b50e
1e636fbe748de5af9ff7262eabde4320eaa8872d
F20101203_AACCMS kawa_n_Page_006.tif
a02c151bc1a1316ecf1d34053b75631d
664930f4b4810ca6ac5cdec33ebce5860c27bde2
19212 F20101203_AACCNH kawa_n_Page_090.QC.jpg
5452c242568fcb78dd0c7a2d81d0ea5b
7e4b02762536d56c25f786a24fcc41c6e282a555
18295 F20101203_AACCMT kawa_n_Page_025.QC.jpg
82213c738f9e4634a3accb73b1a01220
2ca8b7bca9b7ef0897405f0366aac2736654fda3
1051934 F20101203_AACCNI kawa_n_Page_082.jp2
b6d9fa3dd24ace62a586ea2b295d97ec
b5e3d9cf7104a00d509f2c5cefaf1bc3aad84a7f
25080 F20101203_AACCNJ kawa_n_Page_073.pro
3d6b12e010ca7a682dec9e56759f60cc
aec018d5fffdb6ef2f7299d0c1430f445b642ccc
8765 F20101203_AACCMU kawa_n_Page_057thm.jpg
30f261d453fd7786799e1f8ef6f565fa
e01ffac93a5a193b01cdb76b8afe9dc734867100
7986 F20101203_AACCNK kawa_n_Page_049thm.jpg
65b5090c8a2c8f8d1c8363292983c321
9cae59c8ce7cdd7880c4fc84d1bfc45225aeccdf
24572 F20101203_AACCMV kawa_n_Page_001.jpg
d5e97a867deab4cfb2d805237db3c1e3
1a7f69718fbe281e28636077c65c9d7cda96e793
8632 F20101203_AACCNL kawa_n_Page_058thm.jpg
dbe89224f6bf496547604598d94346c7
34c54d2d6c9c5fc8ac0eacb93dc3d4efbed885ad
103372 F20101203_AACCMW kawa_n_Page_063.jpg
0dacb0c6495c0fcc2b3f3f730f5a5ca5
031627b16107ff197d73161860ce54cbc9539308
F20101203_AACCOA kawa_n_Page_089.tif
38b608c3eb71b90be261fab0d51beacd
fd7c86df679a7566b731cef3bdf5b1a4144a8e7d
18355 F20101203_AACCNM kawa_n_Page_073.QC.jpg
59a83ffbfad38b1add18945960d96eba
8bad2dcbecd43bb84cb9e9992d2d6964cc86d636
54328 F20101203_AACCMX kawa_n_Page_102.pro
1feff0d1c23ba51e2d0514d0c650fbd0
8ac0e112da02a9bdc5cd58382c26f086a3be1bc1
37036 F20101203_AACCOB kawa_n_Page_067.QC.jpg
23550a8245475152b59c6e4d417d7621
895b402f7ab34fcf7a0f00c2b5e24817d2623cc5
F20101203_AACCNN kawa_n_Page_011.tif
06f56de36fb5e3c7690f239c19e51742
045125d64779aa7865888fa61622fba748274473
8949 F20101203_AACCMY kawa_n_Page_065thm.jpg
857d089353559bb72eecc8c963e3fc5b
7595aa39bb4fc447abc33342c84125c4b0a552b6
36645 F20101203_AACCOC kawa_n_Page_048.QC.jpg
03fb1485968f818938de9c1cfd76461a
197e9b1c4a261bddadce3a0eae85ea9e3e91798f
56207 F20101203_AACCNO kawa_n_Page_069.jpg
4ac94e4beb249c7f985d7466b11ff5c2
4d5b47eb11d600b1664b2f24af258b6632b6c3c3
87580 F20101203_AACCMZ kawa_n_Page_024.jpg
20eb4733ba93772dd63aad53fad8f9ae
57482e2729a8d2fac6850102ab4d13dfd34b4c1c
2191 F20101203_AACCOD kawa_n_Page_079.txt
93de851fd6ce1ff7e047ebcd867e79fe
830c3ac314259c0fa7bd02e82e37c843ad43ea72
54852 F20101203_AACCNP kawa_n_Page_105.pro
159bfa87a822a94a1af1b47d2c69afcb
b034d3fdbf928d6988e19340a5cdb35ea32f4b69
1976 F20101203_AACCOE kawa_n_Page_104.txt
5d220bd7fadc944fe81f89ace2b7d425
9f13988256b1dcc1b090eccd4521cadc3eff7c50
38118 F20101203_AACCNQ kawa_n_Page_056.QC.jpg
93e7ac27101d7496b95f6099af950714
1d6b97808e2aa92cfaa559c2952637f208e27dad
30023 F20101203_AACCOF kawa_n_Page_007.QC.jpg
43cafcbda039c071cdcc0ab74f2f3f95
09abad3b06388850fb41a31cdd33108e5dbe6a0d
F20101203_AACCNR kawa_n_Page_075.jp2
147ce06cd3713228f03b7555a82e63b9
7261e11b95e00abef90b1359858405f443dc7de6
3219 F20101203_AACCOG kawa_n_Page_107thm.jpg
808816842b6187b0dbecdbbffcc87e8c
9fca99a1d6da97239f49d4d19f52255443a83af6
60612 F20101203_AACCNS kawa_n_Page_089.jpg
a37742439dc7962931d16df4ed9405fa
59e834920d1469aefb7bdcd9be1f41a82072d968
34392 F20101203_AACCOH kawa_n_Page_088.QC.jpg
c70f828a1a447428c53d4a6961db92f1
715931e51cbe061e5bad0d3b5912756c875bcb43
2230 F20101203_AACCNT kawa_n_Page_037.txt
8d0c78fa61a2a1211a9b87dc58f2fa02
ec8f8f3dd72b84f56550690a6f1f7b1bfa1e4130
1363 F20101203_AACCOI kawa_n_Page_021.txt
ff163940113100f173bd203f91506f77
d12fe1ffd9480b05f6a64adca84a3f86ef0a9d57
1051964 F20101203_AACCNU kawa_n_Page_081.jp2
bbd76e112b6453dc341e9d43a3e8f3e2
5fdda879504ddd6421739f650242bd0ef30c72a3
F20101203_AACCOJ kawa_n_Page_064.tif
7d8e3241f0e7951405048771df8ece7a
a2e2a9dc830f85ba8c767a9c433cc56f97c40c2d
8991 F20101203_AACCOK kawa_n_Page_035thm.jpg
e67743faf0f898c9f85d521f07fc73d5
de637d55d55c66fb67fb3ca1856a65f5f879c738
F20101203_AACCNV kawa_n_Page_053.tif
b7d5bd9cfd53c7fb50d0ce456f76c8e8
3781b29cfafe7e931f147853e7ce0cf787af67a3
123285 F20101203_AACCOL kawa_n_Page_048.jpg
a99561feedfffb022f7a7aaaf7d73c5f
fbc7675504dd13271670bb7ed996740a30a25f90
1051974 F20101203_AACCNW kawa_n_Page_055.jp2
f3c00f59b9de2e0f1157199006224b4f
e59dec82a72cee53c7500ef772171c918b76b6ca
F20101203_AACCOM kawa_n_Page_010.tif
df15615549c604aeeb7ac15b03e998ce
f1023cc9e4ed13ae64b4f561690691049bd71cbe
8806 F20101203_AACCNX kawa_n_Page_020thm.jpg
27a78f42da220ff69874f012da2ba940
df336fab91b6332816ba6cebef00bd8ef6f55d2e
54910 F20101203_AACCPA kawa_n_Page_043.pro
2fea096b004e7fcb7aecae43bdb23902
1b388d9a72cf4d8fc220924e082fc322e0873456
2143 F20101203_AACCON kawa_n_Page_051.txt
fbe2d00c2e7c57ce13e8beb627c9f07a
67b32c112a615c31cced082c4799860f497e8380
F20101203_AACCNY kawa_n_Page_028.tif
2f59ab462426c2e35e489cf4eed64acf
1b526934f84280c1cb24f7a713f6bf6badc3e9e8
1712 F20101203_AACCPB kawa_n_Page_090.txt
d538482b2c5bbebcf33beae0cc1cd211
76afa331e4828e53db940bb276e6337416616fce
2077 F20101203_AACCOO kawa_n_Page_045.txt
9e75c86a33d97c271fe91c15756dea8f
d2d9ed403ce0c391feebd9e5a970576521f4502f
30255 F20101203_AACCNZ kawa_n_Page_095.QC.jpg
f322b56733d9e54ff7acfed555e02bab
1037af9e53982af2c4f5de4406669952e3296cfd
2377 F20101203_AACCPC kawa_n_Page_098.txt
28c4b8e1935c8bbedae10c01664216f8
bb1e2091ea5b9fc42718e83dbc25817172415d2e
314361 F20101203_AACCOP kawa_n_Page_093.jp2
4944613a831d5ad22c30483de2757c3e
8fd535d46302dcfbd5363efb384911a6ded457a3
511878 F20101203_AACCPD kawa_n_Page_073.jp2
44d86f38ac6648949cc918c03801ba5c
891f785834e05dcc630002984e266cdee970330d
29525 F20101203_AACCOQ kawa_n_Page_104.QC.jpg
ddfb3439f3b0912ada13852ce099f1cd
71b50acd11324523929d6c2d90149f90223b7ba9
1051971 F20101203_AACCPE kawa_n_Page_035.jp2
4fe5a56a931ced7a590bb27cb4bdfbb8
525a73afc7bcc1692919a9dd8b791169f405110d
614160 F20101203_AACCOR kawa_n_Page_090.jp2
eb6303545ba3069f74eea7dc90f4dca8
9accde0ed0235fcf3d47e081dda881ba3fc5405f
F20101203_AACCPF kawa_n_Page_061.tif
723f9067cb3074af4b08b2fd5ff8dfe2
e2c0eddb8292c40b9e4e657280b47e17c94242a5
2252 F20101203_AACCOS kawa_n_Page_030.txt
68f2539d68873eb043b2d78e17c4df67
b8300460a55fdb3e4859ba0f64189b8b6399bf4c
1051975 F20101203_AACCPG kawa_n_Page_041.jp2
e49e2ac775713a24733c883886428406
c0f374c916b3fe69d6bb9e5fc507c03a874c9e15
F20101203_AACCOT kawa_n_Page_013.tif
154a3bcdfb5a078239580c920a01f0ef
4cefb30fe347a63e5e7d2c1e12513e6fbb558067
35054 F20101203_AACCPH kawa_n_Page_027.QC.jpg
7aeac42e725f5acbd1d81555bf49ee0c
387946ad444aba35fb833bdbb1d0d461b9b16f58
5542 F20101203_AACCOU kawa_n_Page_005thm.jpg
78aaa09beccde4d2b32f1728c412a2fc
9ad65b7b2934f1b7552a1d5a8eadf9e3bfc55a41
111268 F20101203_AACCPI kawa_n_Page_067.jpg
ec201ce6330805979ebd2998218c22fc
6e1adc2b408ed01e4248f02cdc1d529943f32610
1968 F20101203_AACCOV kawa_n_Page_016.txt
b5065f41ed27cdcb487aa50e58ab15b4
f31204baad12103ee8b0426d73cc6e5998e6163e
35838 F20101203_AACCPJ kawa_n_Page_058.QC.jpg
c7e98ab24c9a578b9eaae39f0c694167
c6abe09b3c4620c6701ca6df36beb390b42fa082
73635 F20101203_AACCPK kawa_n_Page_033.pro
2ece2488f6281af17a26f997f4b3162d
dd733bb5e0aec4f89cf24270e2e626f07085bef8
48167 F20101203_AACCOW kawa_n_Page_103.pro
35bc46463771b0942fc13cb340d26bf3
894158e82848ad56c1bca755148e7cf06c3b47a0
25726 F20101203_AACCPL kawa_n_Page_092.QC.jpg
9b272b842bda032676e0e49e7da4122c
a9c36fc8c751e3f04fd39a6dd2ecb07ed24f2bcf
2073 F20101203_AACCOX kawa_n_Page_065.txt
521496ac777346d7e699a2bd9659b661
366743f3b9c0013b678c935a5d071a0c1d17fad6
7979 F20101203_AACCQA kawa_n_Page_103thm.jpg
fa475d581a42c3bf4964c51f9deece1f
e711ff52727b1421d5f1acfc08c344afa57be430
F20101203_AACCPM kawa_n_Page_023.tif
21a86ae054c49214e3b2b297173dfa88
cc62e14e68174a80397dc556c2a6657d04f8f26d
1051966 F20101203_AACCOY kawa_n_Page_018.jp2
a07e82012dea6dd5ecc88af7e6325218
7907d30e8a3bf00dcf8a661d8511a2447c2a262f
1295 F20101203_AACCQB kawa_n_Page_002.QC.jpg
15f182660a85d32de48d3376068b4567
575c82790289a66720c33bd23dba9921bb026730
53717 F20101203_AACCPN kawa_n_Page_046.pro
212b8c645b9a45b2ee8b97f870ea9088
a2a1ffc970c6c491baab6f773bf839825bda2cb4
61107 F20101203_AACCOZ kawa_n_Page_053.pro
2d7c7a5f03c4ebf928f4e918a48444de
6ab20314c80872249446a6b0947b37d3718576de
100503 F20101203_AACCQC kawa_n_Page_103.jpg
a4f5a256371c3d5bdee7b2c541e6459d
5004d2d641ce987203e9a662705de195e454fa94
2186 F20101203_AACCPO kawa_n_Page_067.txt
7239aed79752ded7b2a42200846d5d4b
55dec1212e597628b0c476e0fc3d4aceeec84c5e
1051956 F20101203_AACCQD kawa_n_Page_038.jp2
a407c8ffa78a7988398ab80f841c8e66
500ccaa8a8ff11fb1f7d4beb11b7b7d66573a494
F20101203_AACCPP kawa_n_Page_103.tif
9b2eb09b2ed4e62a27af40d4b4a842ff
a72bba0afca63e979daa8e446be52854f0e2c19f
F20101203_AACCQE kawa_n_Page_024.jp2
801fec94a87413b2cdf4757313b2b078
74faef3aba33583a94dff865a06cd0937c98a513
2194 F20101203_AACCPQ kawa_n_Page_077.txt
90b8df0341ea879856609f66ed98b8b1
d871ae7cf4b05c770266f992465ffc1c399c8b8a
F20101203_AACCQF kawa_n_Page_039.tif
c7c904068841bde3244f1e1c074df967
5b745ecb08530c12891495e7b3ee4c0897abc9fd
8745 F20101203_AACCPR kawa_n_Page_039thm.jpg
585bc40536aa7d30c4b1f209f28f2631
cb662c61ab038667be9135911cd68b7eaebd14c0
395439 F20101203_AACCQG kawa_n_Page_107.jp2
5755f73b83c28670c335bf4168538b3e
3fd099772b5f91d7bbe43e72969469f05af6c046
18164 F20101203_AACCPS kawa_n_Page_093.pro
4a4285be69117df10ab10b705fdf78a6
2d519a331e7559999043032d9380b1401be619c2
F20101203_AACCQH kawa_n_Page_098.jp2
bc99e8d81b80ea2bec768264db7f8c15
587149ba015f5b57a3b0ff6c1f1082c532d0360e
2057 F20101203_AACCPT kawa_n_Page_082.txt
bc030515fecb72406c3197bb26097ad5
f43f84406ce7b793b83dddee5036e59c339af1f0
F20101203_AACCQI kawa_n_Page_036.tif
b1f74431405569613a82487db1414a1b
de42aa705909c54df34db2497b232874b6459189
F20101203_AACCPU kawa_n_Page_080.tif
7a026cbd0cb322a3ce502e623ba7f497
92787bc93ab2ea70850dafbe74e27db4802f9559
F20101203_AACCQJ kawa_n_Page_040.jp2
ac2b7234b7be5a427c2e4d597a95f3fe
62a8e2896c8fb7586f9d2ed819c4aacac47a686d
19857 F20101203_AACCPV kawa_n_Page_060.jpg
cede6da437a0e62799448c53117f8875
f3f63e2762cade878e61944667fb42a3e96fa847
52695 F20101203_AACCQK kawa_n_Page_017.pro
95d999a1953afd8a1047b637b84df05d
4b6e5aeded0818cc0f31bc6219e8e48628fde4ca
F20101203_AACCPW kawa_n_Page_065.jp2
e7d6f1ba5f8b7d50b6ae4a7da71ac45d
4241d7c698a672401db9601fe8c878f26b09e1f0
3918 F20101203_AACCQL kawa_n_Page_007.txt
689582b880377b9ba06240ea42b168ea
798cbbe7cb0c66ba26bae023c30d4c687b9d0fa6
1896 F20101203_AACCRA kawa_n_Page_060thm.jpg
66cb41e392e5fbcf1d5525d380a0062a
5809803a26d928494da4e6faa9bf25e3a3e76505
9149 F20101203_AACCQM kawa_n_Page_047thm.jpg
8732dd67ca3973afe8eafc59a3470d24
7f0fa6ebd82e4f59fcfa14b6408c9f4846d2402a
106691 F20101203_AACCPX kawa_n_Page_083.jpg
53f9710d169df2b4c67a17df3eb5fbf1
81d309c33d78c8905ee7895b11c4edf36eb333b4
8948 F20101203_AACCRB kawa_n_Page_079thm.jpg
934735e56b27314bb391aeeadeab3e21
10cd2806e71d1f1619f6369ea19dfa52912a6f67
F20101203_AACCQN kawa_n_Page_074.tif
43766e8a2b6e42872776aded389a5c1d
ac89b9445054fe3068a0d696773c78386d66d6f7
1984 F20101203_AACCPY kawa_n_Page_049.txt
59c12cc1b33022afdc96520fc4116850
375af626c1643b37e269cb8424ef0cb3083dbd73
F20101203_AACCRC kawa_n_Page_031.tif
bf9a2834ddc4f00f6c7200ac027b72d0
dc6bc64a76b098755c5233b9e69c93496169a98d
F20101203_AACCQO kawa_n_Page_095.tif
0778a5b05df3c98acdf6b30d8b63148f
c1b4343ec24742cecd662b259ff46f856677a7d3
2080 F20101203_AACCPZ kawa_n_Page_019.txt
f7f06a0410853c686e5ce407252604f3
06913af31dbed72fc9652a9175524149d64a8ad4
4972 F20101203_AACCRD kawa_n_Page_069thm.jpg
0a650b33703071c9c6f04594e906c456
6a0a1636f9358ebef5b70aabba6ccc915d1d92e5
105943 F20101203_AACCQP kawa_n_Page_088.jpg
da4fcddeb9dcfa6d3d490c681f1a81fc
3feff4de878cb2104fcd87393bf53897529dc03c
17085 F20101203_AACCRE kawa_n_Page_070.QC.jpg
ffd95bef8ca1387d59325c42b470e678
bae10df318dd4b25ffa44b6cf69c16883b6eae5b
120733 F20101203_AACCQQ kawa_n_Page_098.jpg
2db92f4a8d2b89435985501df61670f4
75dccc37954005fcb82daeec6aaae8abe977c947
9003 F20101203_AACCRF kawa_n_Page_024.pro
575ac9af4ab5ac58d68af547a4b6c2fe
d66f428fd799934d7ac9df7beecb82e251a447c4
8617 F20101203_AACCQR kawa_n_Page_052thm.jpg
2bde6d6cfba6f64455bc53cfeb26d4bc
4f8c186ef511f5affa850292098d06777f389a44
403594 F20101203_AACCRG kawa_n_Page_085.jp2
d9d41bb2647364c656eb3ea2f5bd5c3b
73b46d37ada4ffda401e2a353c0e282a7b3b8309
29080 F20101203_AACCQS kawa_n_Page_005.pro
d5bc25fd9a1ce23af62ecb8bfbb68c6b
cc0280959014bce3b0de44fc24a0b2d1678b44f6
57209 F20101203_AACCQT kawa_n_Page_098.pro
952d014eb17b9c56ed4c37e91e65b877
39d855d8f37b7e6df5d65625b0f69ddc63af86bb
89430 F20101203_AACCRH kawa_n_Page_086.jpg
370196ebbd82015e91ff0b95e9445eb9
4977c21126cb32b14da1fb4a5fd09d00b9b2c7af
2062 F20101203_AACCQU kawa_n_Page_058.txt
c8bb715d61ba83ad0c22cf430a2e50eb
b721c8f5ac23fc8d6398ebe0d324c11d70b70c62
9209 F20101203_AACCRI kawa_n_Page_029thm.jpg
6c4d09fcd1a65481af875e05c30bf9d4
98304899e774cacd99db044bc1b22a0e8afd5ad1
35143 F20101203_AACCQV kawa_n_Page_045.QC.jpg
8202af8b0d0ce86d202eaeec941ada15
8095e82fee0c3a9976b16e830585ff4097ef5542
34444 F20101203_AACCRJ kawa_n_Page_063.QC.jpg
f46124bfbab65de7d9a05d404bfa90de
d8ce111300ef3efd981bedca4de7dea7c31d1d4d
9065 F20101203_AACCQW kawa_n_Page_044thm.jpg
28d46f187259d41293b5998b5b1a7993
183bd442ade6570573eb41932eda8a1f577cf1c7
F20101203_AACCRK kawa_n_Page_101.tif
cab5e8c08f12786758ad4a4b94ad0083
b9222f150da2396f9580624de3b6f09d8a6e6b6d
F20101203_AACCQX kawa_n_Page_073.tif
1b2952fbaa814fa2958cd262409f5e29
045a1cf4f85d2607174c8d0ca8c28d6a62aa1ada
44870 F20101203_AACCRL kawa_n_Page_071.pro
ac58c276a4c33aac794ddec602559722
044e4ca40c3e078f293a0e727736ba83696180b1
1051917 F20101203_AACCSA kawa_n_Page_054.jp2
ce30d04fd704753ec03f654fb5596d12
493f4be613de537ab636e9b6ecfeabf7257a2398
113827 F20101203_AACCRM kawa_n_Page_047.jpg
51a227dea3a3106646c780e460927cd0
c1eb0b5cc690babde6da1e87f072f340a361457f
1882 F20101203_AACCQY kawa_n_Page_087.txt
756415f9e712a1e735f8306d18d279ca
405f83d76674cca0b73b043ebb98add791f296fe
96 F20101203_AACCSB kawa_n_Page_003.txt
0a6a54f07bd21c00a9760d531e094981
b9c08aed4fe548a9ccfd3caa7223206bca0c33d0
115941 F20101203_AACCRN kawa_n_Page_030.jpg
9420d49c53eb9a4e2e12333d243d62dd
05f156b26907214c552ae8abb850f4fb2cf43084
F20101203_AACCQZ kawa_n_Page_033.jp2
575dea0fa69bb3cb09ea6701fdbf4915
73a545c1d844f94f9384beca73b6f7bab634a4c2
56085 F20101203_AACCSC kawa_n_Page_037.pro
db5ea4dcddbc33d54761d3a1ea03ee2d
b266f6b8b991d50075ce1b5bdcdc9da7ca0e5458
F20101203_AACCRO kawa_n_Page_084.tif
8d24da6088d55fc91f8a078098291a21
4d7a0bba85748620f8451188992a13ed7854fadf
9154 F20101203_AACCSD kawa_n_Page_033thm.jpg
e54dc43e8157c2276a866418f4aa76e3
ae7a4668f8352f969a9235588b191bc83c4ffca5
2325 F20101203_AACCRP kawa_n_Page_055.txt
422f5e8bb7159f3af1ab455504e0799a
1faa6cbead7afeb8830f22a55c2a3f4d2a5aeac8
1051951 F20101203_AACCSE kawa_n_Page_039.jp2
2b23311ba78a5c83d98b884946bc1de9
206dbc658e09a3c0292a14baca8fcecc169f04ab
46563 F20101203_AACCRQ kawa_n_Page_096.pro
43b2d78409c8377f0995674df14b28e8
529b372be049bcfd2b639126c486f59d263226fb
6091 F20101203_AACCSF kawa_n_Page_091thm.jpg
85633e077748a420caf9a85fa905d648
e1a9d6523327489630be4473195d8c6f8e54eb5a
F20101203_AACCRR kawa_n_Page_083.txt
6c651d76f79ed08e96464af034d2e9df
64168fdca2a1d94f4b6200ce8c7a0dbe89a0c998
F20101203_AACCSG kawa_n_Page_041.tif
422d3c9af3d711c7e080d86a428a6964
8c1347126dca7762dc7834c67a55de87ec929275
F20101203_AACCRS kawa_n_Page_023.jp2
9e043470c35a0b1235eb04f04412eb3e
ac1368ef6ddf60b68c1dc1e8fd549b985f6f3276
39440 F20101203_AACCSH kawa_n_Page_033.QC.jpg
aa3bc1dafe9c006303e036c461a5d5f2
d8f571153744544baf40b8b32807ec774ac5c92c
101420 F20101203_AACCRT kawa_n_Page_068.jpg
adc78c25eef81b18a480a930890ef451
6a53cc30c43a84566a871d58aeba466124ef2721
50471 F20101203_AACCSI kawa_n_Page_026.pro
8633f160e7a347466cc3f2da53e88e1d
d651e72b4aa144b277c6f1b28b8fb783bfcff79d
35072 F20101203_AACCRU kawa_n_Page_020.QC.jpg
4e0efc752013ed91c01cf1b76d5517b0
bcb5e80af1e118d9f6cdd0aea70ee85e8211b2b7
F20101203_AACCSJ kawa_n_Page_032.tif
33f12f2d6aeae16de0a0357bf03c8051
f5b360e60ee58f54034a01991ec73c2f0ba6562c
54788 F20101203_AACCRV kawa_n_Page_039.pro
e9c8a5b3c621a6fcbe036923540e56a1
74d883bd7c656a60125eacd6dbf1289103b5ca86
F20101203_AACCSK kawa_n_Page_080.jp2
3842a76eb3be25817a899d9612a96bc4
0a686ee5f9bc5c8cf4c27d321338d739566ffaa9
35227 F20101203_AACCRW kawa_n_Page_046.QC.jpg
4b9b7b9aec3e6d6f03e43d93fa88c1e0
2978065f546660909c20d3614209d2d1d14a19ae
831534 F20101203_AACCSL kawa_n_Page_091.jp2
00c7157b29e3d1c1978ae3bba22b5465
fffd21f99c27c0e5c5014918402d2d781bfaae3e
35855 F20101203_AACCRX kawa_n_Page_039.QC.jpg
c9d1cdffbc721155cd75d46728e0f578
9f3444330d38c1d3745a0958e0989444d04201bc
17664 F20101203_AACCTA kawa_n_Page_085.pro
bf996fa37420282d513b16588ac45956
1d1115c432053f2bcad7eed97d472dcf02e788a0
F20101203_AACCSM kawa_n_Page_015.jp2
32981818dd4f1e2eacbea37f2c95c7b6
939aea2268c0fb54753cb7413d2b0df0e2507ce4
F20101203_AACCRY kawa_n_Page_095.jp2
4302abc50d29b7e1b33656bfe547f62d
50dfb13d5ee786fd36f2074b119a246db39cb9ec
34075 F20101203_AACCTB kawa_n_Page_074.jpg
47d82e76d31959a8ff1cbbd1004a6383
6034648fc4219b74362894b38bbc202995ae35d4
F20101203_AACCSN kawa_n_Page_075.tif
0cde26332f7e07612a7020add6fe93b6
9951578d6f42822265b94d57d743c76a66153777
1051965 F20101203_AACCTC kawa_n_Page_088.jp2
e4fd6967d7f4eba86514877a446f69c6
a5b837b9c80c0e9643ee0edeeee3af6044d2e826
49420 F20101203_AACCSO kawa_n_Page_092.pro
257de57e365566cd388798cada1f0a07
0cc7efe92b8910043b848cd5f1507bf2ef9c95c8
F20101203_AACCRZ kawa_n_Page_012.tif
abf7a1d0b7ffde021ce7b7f859f44dd9
87175934cc29cedd735949e4292f1ae5d5869d65
28170 F20101203_AACCTD kawa_n_Page_096.QC.jpg
4f0ba75a1338baba12b8c22ca55b99d0
5e72290739fdd00dbbd4f7d9a1aa7b8496b293e5
8350 F20101203_AACCSP kawa_n_Page_017thm.jpg
1b99a651e2898494d026ae46abc0d7b1
f81587672cc5299690d89791e60da129d012c41f
F20101203_AACCTE kawa_n_Page_034.jp2
76b38ce8b3438f15f39e2876a55aed26
5971bdc9e1225390758f6d521325e44c3cc4e48e
36694 F20101203_AACCSQ kawa_n_Page_031.QC.jpg
9c6c2d76a1f85c05e46aed78823d5f41
d3cfbb4bc5222be154dd510af216c3f6e07c8da3
F20101203_AACCTF kawa_n_Page_058.tif
550f078337e5247f53e6a93e6b84625b
aa5b785000ebd11015c41dd1c647f177877e652c
657104 F20101203_AACCSR kawa_n_Page_005.jp2
a0b7b0e1b01688f72967f1af2470dcf3
e1268f00d2fb49dc36cf3083137fe9e16259645a
54502 F20101203_AACCTG kawa_n_Page_051.pro
02e93a7217e5be359f6ea61f5c295cc6
8ae1ddaa7bb4eef76557b102dcea0419b8fcb2f1
23412 F20101203_AACCSS kawa_n_Page_091.QC.jpg
a999db21bdfd83930af76133d241b4dd
d1726148d3066491b3b722163d56666644546f07
8259 F20101203_AACCTH kawa_n_Page_060.pro
f4bbf49dddc43519debc8a03e09d6c51
193ea1ddf1a5c2e06e0af63a15a9be72ff1cee26
F20101203_AACCST kawa_n_Page_038.tif
c5150e2a0f4a8ccc8f9ad6104032ab12
62b5f31736d5e34138a6695e865a9b23c4029b3e
8212 F20101203_AACCTI kawa_n_Page_019thm.jpg
224f723e5887a7c35ad07e248f96c2fb
e9444a0266e2a6a1e64d081608449ac1743cf23b
104422 F20101203_AACCSU kawa_n_Page_101.jpg
afb6e2cea9bce0175287fa762e9159ad
9481502f7d2a808019e077c49ddbcc86ea25e1b8
8705 F20101203_AACCTJ kawa_n_Page_004thm.jpg
437acd0ae9d47f59b814cd2fd49ddd39
aecb1603d03b7e8123a89d4238db5309de75f8dc
F20101203_AACCSV kawa_n_Page_068.jp2
b0acc4b4000a9ce025374ee6d2267b6f
4129b39ac9e450deb7e498f544ab3f5d4c3b1a07
33440 F20101203_AACCTK kawa_n_Page_036.QC.jpg
3558ac929097c90f92b924f12fed690d
35a5ae43015701551c7ac61900660d7f986eba02
54200 F20101203_AACCSW kawa_n_Page_018.pro
08ed00139ecca35a7ff40dd3a17f0b56
f34f9d06fca07b3daccb70cc28d0d410c5c59904
2226 F20101203_AACCTL kawa_n_Page_084.txt
94a8cc0da468e842bb36f30dbcc3ec9b
d3e1a3efbdb64e48b477063b8f03022dbf732d3f
8789 F20101203_AACCSX kawa_n_Page_043thm.jpg
e9083bbcaf3bb790ddd8ee60488b31de
ee2728f4d28e11bdeb1b8b36343a00d1145aa8d7
25002 F20101203_AACCTM kawa_n_Page_008.pro
c313a690d7c0cf14924534d9aae18c2b
45bca2d57f2d618a1bf9bba07d4444f3a00a9274
24270 F20101203_AACCSY kawa_n_Page_094.pro
348f7153beb6421e457541c941945744
eda3858af15b6b3dd333930224a99853b1bee2ed
103618 F20101203_AACCUA kawa_n_Page_019.jpg
487eaa9949882a71a51a5567853a3ef8
afaa3d67123ee2aed2a536c12931f67da8dff8fb
F20101203_AACCTN kawa_n_Page_078.jp2
8c2b2b8d9df98d33a3752469fbd0d3e9
fca064eaaf893e7621f9e221d5ee218d9fcaeb7a
34848 F20101203_AACCSZ kawa_n_Page_081.QC.jpg
6fabf4f64e2767046e634d1b8a630eae
012c130b485088a20b0f67bb5f41f226ec2b7289
113953 F20101203_AACCUB kawa_n_Page_031.jpg
7bdc3a5d72d774da532c4382718495bf
6da861553987fccc47f9bf6682ef8b7a2bd7b84c
32084 F20101203_AACCTO kawa_n_Page_012.QC.jpg
bbe250b0a194c5603fd7c9423a8537ca
1fb71bde2401855b18a8d3ea04dfaa44ba8e188f
2153 F20101203_AACCUC kawa_n_Page_046.txt
343f2f207420ea08b5725cdcfd825838
7e60d15d2f06606a8133f8fae9da5a8371b3f27f
2199 F20101203_AACCTP kawa_n_Page_044.txt
f756ff3bf91fd4442b5897bcb5665f47
e4fd3a6335929915acf0effc2968a9bf93cff3f6
57548 F20101203_AACCUD kawa_n_Page_041.pro
4917761e75f2131bbac275ebb79fe671
4b928a4cffc3ed31ead7730eeaa4acbf2c1a069d
1051948 F20101203_AACCTQ kawa_n_Page_066.jp2
f619ff55a43a91ce512558cfb6860e81
5d04631ef60bb0d2df87c8366b217214446e55bf
32884 F20101203_AACCUE kawa_n_Page_098.QC.jpg
985b1c623f702fb906aa2e5a2b20287e
56348839ee642f7bec8eaee36779ee22618d20e9
55138 F20101203_AACCTR kawa_n_Page_079.pro
8e79dab9745eb8e648825bfa7091e193
9398b7a3f241443cb26b21d680397ae9d3bd50d7
500 F20101203_AACDAA kawa_n_Page_068.txt
1ccceeb3e49836efe2fb73e83d29b5f8
2ab77b415f331c41cf332c8a7bb4e7192d9d75e5
1051986 F20101203_AACCUF kawa_n_Page_019.jp2
0e8920b0d84c9532c89fe13d67a54e9a
d70819864769103b414acc49357dee3008293ec9
877 F20101203_AACCTS kawa_n_Page_093.txt
b0e518db6d6ac4175506018b08f59afe
4c28db812097616a250c1260fb6c9f89f68dc997
110552 F20101203_AACDAB kawa_n_Page_018.jpg
5a5b5264c6c670e66acff350cb7a69c1
ec1e9c912e2757c725fa0240e82dc3a1cc3f4ef5
8791 F20101203_AACCUG kawa_n_Page_040thm.jpg
b8987e58165da2b8d3503bc267c6fa97
9d4099c184f885322d51d885b2694c65c5917310
F20101203_AACCTT kawa_n_Page_002.tif
44589e088ab37399fef4a559722f2d5e
51f40e10ed6ddce101203d108e0315efb0b7b260
1619 F20101203_AACDAC kawa_n_Page_106thm.jpg
7259279b4417f592d2377f73b7c4a9e6
1e2e80582e45c7ec8fab241e29be98db84dbf8f2
132345 F20101203_AACCUH kawa_n_Page_006.jpg
67e4c7e34bd2c744cf8de2e7e1338e9d
c3cfb84d3e5bf8ab6aca7d9e52951cff5d0e0175
111693 F20101203_AACCTU kawa_n_Page_084.jpg
373acd7d980f3a6fdfd9a82503d7e816
5ea2e4e46cc79bc521f20698f5262e17e81bcda7
F20101203_AACDAD kawa_n_Page_020.jp2
606ec8b1a2ba4150a7a0b5b8502d5f0e
049748233b0d4f0b26ac635bdd06f9df7fbd5ed9
F20101203_AACCUI kawa_n_Page_013.jp2
3f01c997202bf353e104f60744231f7e
87dcb2e27d6576aa6e77662a4660afcc300f7a96
6088 F20101203_AACCTV kawa_n_Page_011thm.jpg
84671222106547f8be7d0c573f1eb722
89bf7f3916e4d9131787f3e8e9916a84d8534cb8
F20101203_AACDAE kawa_n_Page_090thm.jpg
41c2dd6f91f15bfc33fc1675bd037ad5
3aad3939849d4989a8d215841eac395ae04e5075
55896 F20101203_AACCUJ kawa_n_Page_100.pro
ead9cbbf4fd65b9e82b4beb686ff37e6
0eea384ecb58c549ae4529193add1b296ae8a80c
101371 F20101203_AACCTW kawa_n_Page_014.jpg
a0cd380ed677045f2ea5f2e301d766b5
8f25b16e1f9b73bd605931bb72f953289a660a27
141576 F20101203_AACDAF kawa_n_Page_033.jpg
cb422930a77fd379de215d2d7e7979d8
eb1e13990c123270ac561cfe0c59597e9a2ea13b
4053 F20101203_AACCUK kawa_n_Page_023.pro
d240bd57c1b771eb13d8f4cbaf84a3fc
409b928427bcbdf84f463ee767240fe8a0f83e0c
9141 F20101203_AACCTX kawa_n_Page_055thm.jpg
18b4f119fda2a463cc27976b460c86c5
f5bafada180618630b740b0356011b9d6ef1675a
F20101203_AACDAG kawa_n_Page_001thm.jpg
fa2846c65cf0a8b83d9ef15eb3a9a26d
20f68a42c99ebcc95c7465e43889cd14c6f91460
1051946 F20101203_AACCUL kawa_n_Page_077.jp2
4b6d53028f2f741362fd5ea143f6e700
2ae6b9d2655c713702a90a306459365200e6e287
109453 F20101203_AACCTY kawa_n_Page_051.jpg
0b5be98604285ba9c8905513dbd537d8
38317c59a5d8a1acf3754ad77c6bd3ea38be3346
32825 F20101203_AACCVA kawa_n_Page_011.pro
c413c2d284a7eac1f0708d096c05f63b
8b241e4751e8daee2eea947a2c666e2ba1be43a5
F20101203_AACCUM kawa_n_Page_036.txt
09bcefa90df36047bc75d3de51ae1918
cf097ff0212ec30fe7a12b433fd71cfb65e1fc56
2442 F20101203_AACCTZ kawa_n_Page_053.txt
0a0419f3defde504dcfe11a3494cbdf2
77a212843faaacecb75e28ae4b3c85e61ec1fcf1
25265604 F20101203_AACDAH kawa_n_Page_022.tif
47374707cf3feeed8095a95f7e56dc5b
0532f2fb51ebef5b0bf426b386daf3d90ede1ce4
F20101203_AACCVB kawa_n_Page_044.tif
715c6bae5be8d328edd762f499e988c6
a9a8645dfab9593a3a93bfb9ee168efed40c7165
F20101203_AACCUN kawa_n_Page_052.tif
fe3f73fda783eba2926adaa37d222651
ade98d67f12aa295f829f83eeaba11f84cd178ad
1160 F20101203_AACDAI kawa_n_Page_089.txt
5275146557a9843db7b9b4215ab90eb9
65e3581f07175c5f40fcc7d5aa49bf41939153d9
105289 F20101203_AACCVC kawa_n_Page_020.jpg
acb0eaf7f4a3762d4923279b9ffe5055
dea1c26fa98d53476ec08342063c8b46de0016a2
F20101203_AACCUO kawa_n_Page_046.jp2
6c75d75fb4c475daf3146d149910b77f
4a211bc6e03a01c8a778c8bdd21338ccba0f4f4a
35271 F20101203_AACDAJ kawa_n_Page_051.QC.jpg
7c3e31673f6f4fc44cd7664671aadbcd
ee5d1adfb9f336938a3c5178e09f873371d44e95
F20101203_AACCVD kawa_n_Page_059thm.jpg
c51f3228e6a378f62def33e5d7ddb4db
f24b64f970ecbf92c808f5659804544a67197b5f
107757 F20101203_AACCUP kawa_n_Page_040.jpg
5f5d826cddd36ebdca9baeed8ac79393
3ae01568212146bba7ddff13e15d2907aa692eee
F20101203_AACDAK kawa_n_Page_092.txt
3ae55e78cf0e5aafe87ea83e6244b48a
47ce3328625a922eef2531604c8af43c92734023
778449 F20101203_AACCVE kawa_n_Page_011.jp2
218c2eb25871a8535f1f2cc59c01c7bb
2192ee26d27f0b19449547346e0036797a8d4759
2059 F20101203_AACCUQ kawa_n_Page_063.txt
0adffc1e170f9c59af80e11c8090ab02
1be2113123f748f866404b1de944e8f44db01f3b
31398 F20101203_AACDAL kawa_n_Page_087.QC.jpg
f45dbb2589af65661afb8265a1e918bb
af033ff8f15dcb28c4e707300d8324f2331b514b
F20101203_AACCVF kawa_n_Page_029.jp2
12616d000269627f8bdaa842026f6831
2ac10ac1ed9fc35b324147838e5fdfba7ecb12c7
F20101203_AACCUR kawa_n_Page_067.jp2
686d4efca76dcd7972b5ec105c029d31
9fa8b00524a1bc146e00cc4141fc6b9fa5b145c6
7246 F20101203_AACDBA kawa_n_Page_007thm.jpg
864f762dc37b5c396ca03301d1da525d
77b82a5f8c2edcda7b3ade84612a74c41f4b2d3b
2277 F20101203_AACDAM kawa_n_Page_102.txt
6837ed7c5e7b1f6c92e47828078906d1
b2efebbb0ba4bf966da9174fe448187e3474d353
42666 F20101203_AACCVG kawa_n_Page_072.jpg
9caf8024b42e355c7d27a73e2c2a868f
00f739d986587e1b78729ac363171d25131fa935
18981 F20101203_AACCUS kawa_n_Page_094.QC.jpg
6d595cca0f7b1bc6734c2d836a550499
27d283931052f8ad0e0007bf97ed333d35747f71
56952 F20101203_AACDBB kawa_n_Page_034.pro
6d7cef9d8bd79ada0c25e2ceab940b7b
848ca1b41cff05ef4e7bca218c3a61f2048d4332
107290 F20101203_AACDAN kawa_n_Page_057.jpg
8d68b5a1a3c47fd5394bb0c2fe703e6a
21c10b99d9123b227e6e6b14a67b0ef187b770b1
348443 F20101203_AACCVH kawa_n_Page_094.jp2
55ebfe679c6c6dd86988c772ebe8d052
f0be27a4ebad70be218c33dd8d70f5dcc75d0867
27326 F20101203_AACCUT kawa_n_Page_099.QC.jpg
78f6d0d1d80d407c11b050b8201e3082
c76bae7a50a127c55a4954da48a212e0fbcda5bc
38076 F20101203_AACDBC kawa_n_Page_037.QC.jpg
17e0897015d2544a13ac58357d82c80d
4e87fa672972cefde04935b6fdf2cfe4b382e0c6
1051922 F20101203_AACDAO kawa_n_Page_102.jp2
efd5f019c94094b037b50c225de978d8
90a1406d7be09976bbd76e8c62f6b1bcbbdcc68d
2133 F20101203_AACCVI kawa_n_Page_018.txt
f6ca1eb6aaa7799cb75b30085cfc322b
27296852a181314f5e44a64f5bb340ea710f97c9
F20101203_AACCUU kawa_n_Page_024.tif
305f224fc821f6c7b2ef8ca764a6d46a
264d7acd90d0273c95407ca587662c4b0af16ae3
8741 F20101203_AACDBD kawa_n_Page_046thm.jpg
34518665a56b11a6bea5252b5e69c993
a8e2dccd375bccfe237478345437addbfda5d305
47308 F20101203_AACDAP kawa_n_Page_012.pro
4dc32ec493c2b3b6f24c91a4cb919039
cce4eae8eda7bc977e090b801b60a1e368951aea
54529 F20101203_AACCVJ kawa_n_Page_067.pro
b929711992261c3bbf159c8d1deabbcb
8b7db1a83d8a1f4605b35f5cca57218205ea733a
107111 F20101203_AACCUV kawa_n_Page_076.jpg
95c99d1c69d0d3edb62fed58663d25b7
10d285b4176090216d37de3a48cb322214d427ae
1051861 F20101203_AACDBE kawa_n_Page_022.jp2
a6c1e85b0d42007763df90ec5c57faab
6a36e40b3993e516dfc8244660e9b14f65797c4b
51105 F20101203_AACDAQ kawa_n_Page_052.pro
5e6ab2036ec4f986399408d3f55fb700
d80747e64e19ea695c63db85b2b8ad7be2977ec3
6692 F20101203_AACCVK kawa_n_Page_086thm.jpg
2a4cbe8fd70cef9e70d78bfde2d2f457
27b603e6672bdbb31a7ed689a40aa382d0b6bae8
56792 F20101203_AACCUW kawa_n_Page_029.pro
59104698b7a25c0103ddea5e2792d630
852e4b8cc1fa1e146c482f7bc500385da8dbc874
107947 F20101203_AACDBF kawa_n_Page_081.jpg
d91787cf374875c9311f3f6b7bb82044
c20a5b0da2e18204bbe8e310c8f6aa93d2c3bd86
34054 F20101203_AACDAR kawa_n_Page_077.QC.jpg
cb01c67b6356e9862a77e55ed18ee3b9
31b2e8226a839d0482cc2a9fc07d73b2dc234df2
9211 F20101203_AACCVL kawa_n_Page_078thm.jpg
abe67916593496cf6631edc00312c139
db9baf7fc2cbed522b67a20781d1f6ef1449aac0
11790 F20101203_AACCUX kawa_n_Page_074.QC.jpg
953f2d44b4f60e40a6be44621c3be607
c1cf107e54ea80b6becbf9d8fd3fd6bd9444b4df
33754 F20101203_AACDBG kawa_n_Page_083.QC.jpg
12a8fb2a6c467a54026948c41b89718c
157c62083a049b4e5e1892a157c79644b7a50342
F20101203_AACCWA kawa_n_Page_107.tif
88ab01db9af700f032c74c61ccc324a7
e8d2f477c4218bb2ed565ec10d66cd0109f39d1f
36846 F20101203_AACDAS kawa_n_Page_054.QC.jpg
188213de83f55912c071c0832d6718d4
193681fb3503d657e38f0dc0c78dd9d7cada8546
1051786 F20101203_AACCVM kawa_n_Page_030.jp2
8a6f46f7054c9414465e0244330d5557
8364dca28f81f5a4ba4c01cc5fcd457b11aafcb2
38101 F20101203_AACCUY kawa_n_Page_003.jp2
480c0fc5c5747d0b8d9b650434512ad8
c7e3ae23082a9e6c6d132efab3bc6afd5eca53d5
899 F20101203_AACDBH kawa_n_Page_010.txt
376f47d35dec53843858fc40a44bd6a8
582ec293ff0bd5bc32815beafc06bbd338398d38
F20101203_AACCWB kawa_n_Page_093.tif
80b486fd39ab657812073c0ce796514c
e51f9d44ab2d92e315644bb314ffaee3befdb3c3
33209 F20101203_AACDAT kawa_n_Page_014.QC.jpg
51629e8c5d0da6a6e9e6f07982ee27e1
b4f7655854c8ab658d6e563901574e7d9cf78cbe
894127 F20101203_AACCVN kawa_n_Page_092.jp2
db8483e044fd4323e26349d5b5f6b291
8dcdd1445961a0c36066cd0c2d0bc4a1e631ef70
39051 F20101203_AACCUZ kawa_n_Page_072.pro
9bf36209345dbd178eefdab379658c6f
2c99424ba341f0a31135ea9e69c7b669ec69cbb7
F20101203_AACCWC kawa_n_Page_004.tif
c5f29cca9748bd95b700ed20a3df68fe
d05adf10b7f77e3c6b168e2ea4318939d2dd5d97
47984 F20101203_AACDAU kawa_n_Page_050.pro
5b1c9445562eb674a1ebb01d9a4c1344
981b46941aa24a67b6e3fa85b0496056ea014bf7
34980 F20101203_AACCVO kawa_n_Page_075.QC.jpg
2b41461d918fc27db45d006622ac6ff6
5b45e3b5f63f607c9cd146ac8e0e33c0c56e0b70
F20101203_AACDBI kawa_n_Page_076.tif
b9baa0620be266601033373ac3c781ba
ac34990781d50b3cb2ad1db9f6f71e5961e66c77
116255 F20101203_AACCWD kawa_n_Page_034.jpg
632283aa0f7fc6065c1644b5c3f14e73
589a35c9f7521f7844e2a7ff46953076d97c50b6
F20101203_AACDAV kawa_n_Page_070.tif
fd011660da01421bc02f5ec54117c13c
39cf7a79882d7779a28ea1d184b28fef7e18ec36
9163 F20101203_AACCVP kawa_n_Page_031thm.jpg
8effd690f00cfd0b609aabfc840f969a
d056ad0e3599b04a7a5b1e9b8e09c3efdd4d7e3c
250 F20101203_AACDBJ kawa_n_Page_061.txt
68a22d877fa1a994180ff49e2656c80d
1e499120e5f24f4a9eead82ecd7f7a22290bc449
21025 F20101203_AACDAW kawa_n_Page_062.QC.jpg
58b9734aaf8c8e638e7ed8b81697525f
e4a394d322b6de43c538cca8336b9467d30abd0d
712 F20101203_AACCVQ kawa_n_Page_107.txt
1a0ce06d00dd69b0c836670a9d45f64d
096d62a1b852a0ff56c4dced2f3666966b3c6975
F20101203_AACDBK kawa_n_Page_043.jp2
cb43c5678071e1f8231c0090acdbaf40
05dffeb0ebcd9671a0d0c2962b82c97da7ffba05
8963 F20101203_AACCWE kawa_n_Page_051thm.jpg
5603532c3bee7d9f8c4cd4a05ca8d786
d6937eb995b8fb2b7cdacaf473b73424fbd2c9dd
F20101203_AACDAX kawa_n_Page_016.tif
157678d665b96bf09b18189cc0658fab
e5c894da1d0acfd51d5722e615db094cf887f4c5
F20101203_AACCVR kawa_n_Page_020.tif
dc81a0e68c94c59d53a3f8a4e7e4074e
9b5a8da0885b3255437b3c36b4e665b4165c7b10
45206 F20101203_AACDCA kawa_n_Page_008.jpg
2f76cb611dfc007a207a54450162910b
e4826f9c66815c00cb6d7357874b23db7625cf81
112205 F20101203_AACDBL kawa_n_Page_079.jpg
3ae0fdfbe68884e9ac2d1b020666b8cb
e0c8d94372d08288b5c9557e8a680e1b32ebd40a
2241 F20101203_AACCWF kawa_n_Page_059.txt
bcb25f04ec963a952d85fe657b7ab143
40d000dc4ae79955afe769682c3353ce9b4364ef
9008 F20101203_AACDAY kawa_n_Page_018thm.jpg
0c292340e5111733e81425b9bf9f9724
a39299a952fa9669fd8c290d91d0821fbbb4d2b5
F20101203_AACCVS kawa_n_Page_098.tif
33e1456200e712c376ebc3fca6a9750b
dd477c005aa40f7b2ad7a992d331d2d3174ff975
73268 F20101203_AACDCB kawa_n_Page_009.jpg
87cc3587c8745f6ef05a893cf60baa6f
07f2ab92b9ddb28c950a86ce491220097009e583
106115 F20101203_AACDBM kawa_n_Page_052.jpg
1ed4d02a377cc865a5c2426f5109eeef
aec03a55c8395245eed8ca56ad42d5fd0336a7e4
8999 F20101203_AACCWG kawa_n_Page_084thm.jpg
de15e444796d5f5033bf1b18abfe7cea
1c1c64833863de7aad32b4e8a0761c81ae12f7a8
56020 F20101203_AACDAZ kawa_n_Page_044.pro
364fd651878a2d59375c9d34ac9aa056
b9bd0f833f7583edb0b235ef75331f11ee788591
801481 F20101203_AACCVT kawa_n_Page_008.jp2
544dcf892f570d7e126a201f23e8dd1a
f28177249e7ec0edb6ec8ec59cc22e2807d9a45f
99126 F20101203_AACDCC kawa_n_Page_012.jpg
b86e8a984398668fca8e7ac28926cf34
d2b45664cddc667cfb3ff7f947386cc8b2b647d1
31719 F20101203_AACDBN kawa_n_Page_100.QC.jpg
56d469bbfd042b351c4aa11c267d3cb6
1c412bb79eab512d2f30879f0bbb3a6007832f92
98022 F20101203_AACCWH kawa_n_Page_013.jpg
47c15e9c89ab6c5abfa25b57ec07bb5a
f22d0abd6e61867421f3ae29901d1d1bc97a5e10
15181 F20101203_AACCVU kawa_n_Page_022.QC.jpg
40213bb433e47d6b78e6f7e79c28efb3
542d016ead14f0e9c716f4fa9b1e3c1f36a1efd9
101894 F20101203_AACDCD kawa_n_Page_015.jpg
2cf87d2a0a55d332eae282ec73b26f1b
8a212c9a34db615d88106e95992c8064f242b947
8752 F20101203_AACDBO kawa_n_Page_032thm.jpg
c8dcaf85bc0ddbda50b7d481cb534906
5b59b8db0c0536f52ffd97961d7886dea498f23f
22752 F20101203_AACCWI kawa_n_Page_011.QC.jpg
8f20e08ecdd4693dd1f6da672355a274
87dd97ed9f0bec012d653b7e9817b614e998b44a
7851 F20101203_AACCVV kawa_n_Page_097thm.jpg
a952e9c1b1695a8da8b4c9f96ef67655
2ea539f7324d148a1ae35cb8a10eec28fb0f0518
103778 F20101203_AACDCE kawa_n_Page_016.jpg
b16b50f3789167c3929cbec3f4ea7ab2
bf81d9646833121784e6de2a00b81e2ea241bb4f
114448 F20101203_AACDBP kawa_n_Page_029.jpg
4249793f156aaccbbd8907a6f5a0910d
6678eacfd7089d42616972876c30a5483aa27c5b
56120 F20101203_AACCWJ kawa_n_Page_056.pro
ef6cfb3bddb15c14d6a0ced498dbf9c7
f61dcecd6d25c1546aee536d780baae70f260b45
4964 F20101203_AACCVW kawa_n_Page_025thm.jpg
9ef3d0232a83c7dc6eeca6a80116c052
38dfe4f5eb5fb86a8153c85bee3d3b5b8e8158e6
105068 F20101203_AACDCF kawa_n_Page_017.jpg
da52a664f0f66e6e3732fe4d047f508a
bc41fb1635c761510822304b88bee7eb8948a4ec
57556 F20101203_AACDBQ kawa_n_Page_036.pro
fd16b13893bf3a450718cd4ab77f653a
b880ee372b8b7d93842a1108faca8c2c09745722
1051913 F20101203_AACCWK kawa_n_Page_101.jp2
87c3f0b0e7388bf797545a43dd446a4e
a06e0fa2efb99c120de484f7a3cec97987b8847b
96215 F20101203_AACCVX kawa_n_Page_087.jpg
73ca45eefc97d43b32924d26631f4c1e
2e27c8cffe7f5962e01649cd48f34a2284b45f0f
77486 F20101203_AACDCG kawa_n_Page_021.jpg
cf618026d973324b01077706fd431490
2e513e7409e0a1fca16aeffb9be56092fce797dd
47645 F20101203_AACDBR kawa_n_Page_094.jpg
7366a79efe626ebd4c36aaa635316253
54ee95ee399e6274d06751a24f173acc1928599c
1931 F20101203_AACCWL kawa_n_Page_050.txt
f62b5138f02e81f1ff3214f6a4342bc0
230f26b074512a9e7e3e2ad3685399206bc86b1d
55743 F20101203_AACCVY kawa_n_Page_047.pro
a2f42a2de50b895ac99496dcae7c0af6
262ac4c6b5334f4e3a9380c35ceb59bff2c44d7d
49160 F20101203_AACDCH kawa_n_Page_022.jpg
9c9565a630ba1f466793f87f2a1d8320
8eab672e5e8c8693d9a9adb5e96996661aa9d891
2129 F20101203_AACCXA kawa_n_Page_080.txt
18bbd72693a9a343ad68c14ef0c64c1c
ec89ef541b101f656c8067bc496420bd147c8861
F20101203_AACDBS kawa_n_Page_007.tif
b88a534ba8c5a6f2e9ec0fc07b653e18
11ca5d3d73bb1ef8dbbcefaa001942f6ae656b88
57801 F20101203_AACCWM kawa_n_Page_035.pro
c81aec0611949ace19db0ad4a801af17
715b3550005015d99911fb62234a22cab8eef4a9
643573 F20101203_AACCVZ kawa_n_Page_089.jp2
865b9ade017095d64fa2f17b669073c2
002d9df8c535c8335c6933b4af5ae3254f253fca
60603 F20101203_AACDCI kawa_n_Page_025.jpg
3b2263a303bb6bcf42e7c535d7459b0c
d908e8c9e5141ec8f7ff300a799eb92d91b91ada
31955 F20101203_AACCXB kawa_n_Page_102.QC.jpg
84bd360cbd506db0b1c107d6c850f105
0bb9355061a11efb719fbe6f22705677eb85ddc5
53239 F20101203_AACDBT kawa_n_Page_057.pro
0e7c837e8890d06ff033a88e1b3695ed
7194d8830b4aa6aad7c37f8a05a1fe6014191bf0
17029 F20101203_AACCWN kawa_n_Page_071.QC.jpg
1e139a7bdd17fb0ae3ffebcdff88b22b
b107145736249d8ae7f7742d88b6970c00d20684
2018 F20101203_AACCXC kawa_n_Page_052.txt
bea4d60f24524e0facf36d89c938598c
ea5a6ff62fcf0a7aaa7eaa2cd55d6e6cfc4b3a3c
F20101203_AACDBU kawa_n_Page_049.tif
7bcf2981bf5a7a962cbd1483976214d5
87adf49363fa343f71b723bab3de4c41b0cafb60
84951 F20101203_AACCWO kawa_n_Page_069.jp2
b142847b640ea6a0ed9eabb0fcb20cb9
02fbfca7186555b38f7a34c65f252cb349305ceb
109176 F20101203_AACDCJ kawa_n_Page_028.jpg
4f2c5ef71793766b468e01d8dcb7c0ff
c0b0220cb8eb663507a2dbeec239e806476d1b5b
95246 F20101203_AACCXD kawa_n_Page_096.jpg
bd664a4cf1c97bc3f17b5937bd5a0c03
ea8685db9bea2266f987b240d31a3e52ea91710b
159665 F20101203_AACDBV UFE0022091_00001.xml
6bac8bf96d6b95f67511e8baf548e97f
b6e83df54dc7e32c0390cfc937c5060d83b48b46
2256 F20101203_AACCWP kawa_n_Page_035.txt
a9d27e7cead553e5f359160752aa2364
5d0dd33bb1d7d33a50b67cbd62d3e835cbfe9062
111674 F20101203_AACDCK kawa_n_Page_032.jpg
9f8d349c4265844bcbdf822b147640f0
cce1d8766e2d111912989484ab72a2d1955df81a
37799 F20101203_AACCXE kawa_n_Page_078.QC.jpg
f4dd51a57279aed0f2862b817748874d
040a78b08f6aee8415267233f5fa7492ba3f189c
F20101203_AACCWQ kawa_n_Page_050.tif
a9872b3435be244e7b6808995f3d02fe
4a87553cd1ac9d10fa75f2f80b2b9934aa19e5b0
106705 F20101203_AACDDA kawa_n_Page_065.jpg
c59eb7bcaef662f13f408582c1639e34
71981b0eb73cedf4d91897dd85bbb881c1bb4201
116867 F20101203_AACDCL kawa_n_Page_035.jpg
763dd55889c987b047d38c966eadc17e
01f5f55f314c8c07d4e87592a25b9315ed44eaeb
F20101203_AACCXF kawa_n_Page_012.jp2
7b146e3b9be44e2ff79ef030fc940f94
56e4c2a363c7a52131c8175e75b69e43405eb958
F20101203_AACCWR kawa_n_Page_099.txt
9459052e6b17b36d466c0453842db413
ca0ba1cbc73c250721208f053c6f7f73f2a73cae
108904 F20101203_AACDDB kawa_n_Page_066.jpg
a4c8b00401435c2a31edee7fd371f8e9
75648c1ed1f1f67bef43f02dc7607f680f9d0d8b
114407 F20101203_AACDCM kawa_n_Page_036.jpg
d2f8242c02bd6d5729198bcdfdeac3cb
2548bd77cb70be4735da126c46b5cadef8bd2017
9138 F20101203_AACCXG kawa_n_Page_034thm.jpg
1f4cdb6a11ac6095b7a78cf43b13432d
9533209b3496720c1468e9fd42c3e9f6c0a6f882
3981 F20101203_AACDBY kawa_n_Page_002.jpg
88f6e66c67d5c10c0e6060499e9126d1
19bb22b40592248788bdb4d622c52a31b1762db5
F20101203_AACCWS kawa_n_Page_082.tif
11b25f913c7168904ff74f7c031fac81
67104f7d9fd40e3c572d28aad74815248051b53d
114435 F20101203_AACDCN kawa_n_Page_037.jpg
951cbffd50ffc435a2c3e5321debacf8
6dc9a944d0d166b35444eee9a90f464afa4ce687
328654 F20101203_AACCXH kawa_n_Page_074.jp2
0a0584fc1e29ddf0a23490cd6e106d32
704da8592a73372c319fb7db1c79c5c6c21dc6bf
108314 F20101203_AACDBZ kawa_n_Page_004.jpg
598e8c927305f0d58bcdacf127a3d360
5fdb8ed5d49f69eb233d159c50ddb2d990f708f0
1428 F20101203_AACCWT kawa_n_Page_094.txt
96539a20e7d54fab42b9fc67ba2d64bf
252aad74315a3afaba5834c917814f8c6446d4b8
106250 F20101203_AACDDC kawa_n_Page_075.jpg
b30e83a95fb8237044276fe26536ebaf
9f816061a01197b0c16bf298d6c4f3eee52b1c92
107632 F20101203_AACDCO kawa_n_Page_038.jpg
0613e752576dfd16e85ee2c4eeb0ae21
178e17eeea758e89090fb274a75b6de01a596ab6
1051979 F20101203_AACCXI kawa_n_Page_048.jp2
c740b59316f9b34d455a78742a55f1f5
32a5125a7625c257ec6280e5e32cf56390ae9904
F20101203_AACCWU kawa_n_Page_056.tif
bd286bd03e4ee58efb639f6c5ecb3b81
dfae17e653ebcd59ff56e19bfdb72e91103ae3b6
110879 F20101203_AACDDD kawa_n_Page_077.jpg
cfca779706c99ede887f8e9e8b75b35e
8fb5face252b9f4ac95cd04fa9899aa5404d385a
46019 F20101203_AACDCP kawa_n_Page_042.jpg
772e2a5370455527fb2d6070757e0e50
52e665c50be27d264af3ff4ea10d2ce929ba098c
4982 F20101203_AACCXJ kawa_n_Page_022thm.jpg
25d00b2c645df1a07542d0c108cf52cc
7bf1e3977d5d1e58b076c44bbfd1261ef85dc761
34832 F20101203_AACCWV kawa_n_Page_028.QC.jpg
243c95c0a3478b8d28ce33f2bab12afc
8ab3dc06b7373170f7aeb3ab8aa7efb054069a02
110671 F20101203_AACDDE kawa_n_Page_080.jpg
f91cc54444b884bb0f27554cfc4930bd
6a12825ac14ddc90292436b62a34408da81a0bf9
108409 F20101203_AACDCQ kawa_n_Page_043.jpg
caf58b325c8b21e2cd12e8bf6a5787b8
e2dd14b3f240017e582bf3397ca24d20855a7124
F20101203_AACCXK kawa_n_Page_062.tif
fd4031296d364a09b5bc8dfebde0dc84
f9e80c751e6b27909fcb367ad0bd90dedb28dbb0
2047 F20101203_AACCWW kawa_n_Page_103.txt
448ddf1079a2d6852b04d5cd7900284a
a141b34c9149c0cb8c57a0a405796cee5a3e639f
105788 F20101203_AACDDF kawa_n_Page_082.jpg
0c2e199dd3ea20db2d494d386643ffd4
54423048aa0d8cd37abceff444090026746e02e5
107724 F20101203_AACDCR kawa_n_Page_045.jpg
9e8307c6a799dfc34097fec74896ac84
05802767165742a337a3bbf796dc26c2fe814840
15065 F20101203_AACCXL kawa_n_Page_042.QC.jpg
38e7a1a459befeb5abab687813c444d6
3c4c5697bb67e03b7748bfa41e8d6195392a2962
1051936 F20101203_AACCWX kawa_n_Page_056.jp2
9028ecfd89a91b7b910ca722ab887b09
a92d1a7db7ab3f89eff9f4dca30f30866f35a5a6
38588 F20101203_AACDDG kawa_n_Page_085.jpg
ab909e8a70a3a7d25f667ea40b69bcf0
2a34be9039b2ead1396064272c17424dd94c7d74
35050 F20101203_AACCYA kawa_n_Page_018.QC.jpg
50f8399e3a986677895dbb9282a2cf08
76b48a0809af5cde110c15d3a75db467567ca08b
108047 F20101203_AACDCS kawa_n_Page_046.jpg
13016313c90b13ea0cd78c610b812bff
b15dd82e5776f491c6a79f3bdd9684d46a701b8d
34648 F20101203_AACCXM kawa_n_Page_090.pro
955e82ed5324c303cd611a54e73e96f2
34c7901f27bb49570ca5060cf712997b3c4e49ad
43239 F20101203_AACCWY kawa_n_Page_099.pro
945308312529635e8b7c5aa74cdf3f88
d9a7965a06cc2d6c3647739ba5e7aac0c599f764
59443 F20101203_AACDDH kawa_n_Page_090.jpg
9f7038484ae44bfb58f84ded4c032bca
86e8e0103eee81c9f64de54acc7a69852f52441b
52314 F20101203_AACCYB kawa_n_Page_010.jpg
f870f33aedf5bfd7054a5026c9a7bab6
94a13ab85fe367853d758c78ec628ba1347b82c9
110481 F20101203_AACDCT kawa_n_Page_054.jpg
5d9bf8a8f7cb8b8f22ff0a03812d71a3
cbc7d0ef97051a9b21369b3c261a009d9dddaeaa
34668 F20101203_AACCXN kawa_n_Page_093.jpg
3e8e1285b3709989fb2aaf28dc8da925
2b9be9443784e0b4cfe9c8dd7848cdae4e0db887
2229 F20101203_AACCWZ kawa_n_Page_029.txt
11e46620803f6b7fdfd40159b0d97ba4
a330eaf07185d64db2b72198827f4540d97423f1
70825 F20101203_AACDDI kawa_n_Page_091.jpg
7770ac1e9c537948a51d06fe1b3a0839
76d1d83b345aaa2a33f83873f5b58978e0e24d34
114776 F20101203_AACCYC kawa_n_Page_105.jpg
707e4c643a2e0bbb7e6774955c0e7ba0
970799319bd230ff801ee070eadc0b9b8268af6e
114425 F20101203_AACDCU kawa_n_Page_056.jpg
20cdb49182ea7bd46efc9d88a5245858
5dd31b60e5cb86f32982d3a5708b9a85ae57820c
54559 F20101203_AACCXO kawa_n_Page_073.jpg
3a5e0ee0d46ca1ee1af376e3d968b2b3
956e07597fd4fdb8d79c22c2e4c03fc33248cb46
80961 F20101203_AACDDJ kawa_n_Page_092.jpg
534bdb9e7c1bb609f98305f3d53e6890
140c8a37066fcb44a5f22c8b2eb9b758c6d3adc8
53817 F20101203_AACCYD kawa_n_Page_071.jpg
41e6e6ed71290219e39ae3700c15c7f4
61ec603ba96482cc33066ef6ef641b69e63289f1
106088 F20101203_AACDCV kawa_n_Page_058.jpg
bd4de7f6f9085ce46efcc30a2e5e7d47
908bb32bcd387be5e72c5f7554bcf61792a67ff8
1029 F20101203_AACCXP kawa_n_Page_008.txt
ee03e56817675687bfcd7338e58d3479
e6a782f917e274b7910e3df02fa457dfbb702f34
13588 F20101203_AACCYE kawa_n_Page_008.QC.jpg
f559c3b2dac2d20a7568fd16937b1202
99cad582478268c7c2cf413e3fdcf27987d01753
114382 F20101203_AACDCW kawa_n_Page_059.jpg
e921215b54ed2cb8410505ea52ff8baf
429f956878501d3a3bfbf478e36a6098be82272f
93011 F20101203_AACCXQ kawa_n_Page_023.jpg
492b8dc7f8129984d87c66643ecde05d
b94a38573edd7bc058cafa099d77575082789f3c
105172 F20101203_AACDDK kawa_n_Page_095.jpg
11445f36ba8071d8fbb2a2e4d6dbed40
cfa015dc7786dbc515b88316895e3ec803d9d89e
F20101203_AACCYF kawa_n_Page_059.jp2
d2fa6456a9186c54593da9d2fdd31d1b
6c9ea0ce8408c3c0e5c3f15eb575cbc31fd1eff7
91807 F20101203_AACDCX kawa_n_Page_061.jpg
179b33f62462ce3dc5b2b54cd7b31c42
a6e1655cfbe1c5dfbf600f4ec057474cb1d5117b
F20101203_AACCXR kawa_n_Page_071.txt
1fa90a29ee87d39eae4ed9824859d484
4f7a1969643f7c78e010c2e82a87339ec728091f
F20101203_AACDEA kawa_n_Page_028.jp2
51d19a9288f070d9ec08de43b26c0cdb
08b6ba1a7fc5230152a5ccd2f94fdc2576d44f7a
95224 F20101203_AACDDL kawa_n_Page_097.jpg
9fb9822043f016529a0541785e976f20
d6d3c5c269e347db707e9398d7e05fabd40525e3
36046 F20101203_AACCYG kawa_n_Page_044.QC.jpg
d17ed3462410241eeb82c417959b0673
df0dfd1aa95875f13dffa4976c9f544b15c6b833
58675 F20101203_AACDCY kawa_n_Page_062.jpg
3e321ee8e642a7038d2d76a5fd3dcf00
8b39fc738b878d3bef612eb85f0153bd8172bfcd
F20101203_AACCXS kawa_n_Page_104.jp2
fd98cb3fc3dd42b07673fd15c5d7d87a
55ac1623598844a9a03f70eb7b5d056ac7170923
1051939 F20101203_AACDEB kawa_n_Page_036.jp2
a37978364d927f74c5d41fa80cad4bdd
6667df144baf13d605a4b073f6eed23ccb465c5d
91695 F20101203_AACDDM kawa_n_Page_099.jpg
e9f66ccce9f8de5cf9666f15568d2471
2e8b3bfa63e657d27c97775948ba57b61760eb1f
F20101203_AACCYH kawa_n_Page_099.tif
df2c8c70647cab6c6d85d49ece663bce
8c54f285a6a82042d5349a0efe93f74ec51e812a
108761 F20101203_AACDCZ kawa_n_Page_064.jpg
3469138dbd21987290534ffab4c144a0
670a08dbe1e2d41e92ae0cc416779bf66e61d657
100948 F20101203_AACCXT kawa_n_Page_049.jpg
8914e1f91af63e029719236906090b69
ffda91d09bbbddde6ca15ace79d19f43e930cf25
F20101203_AACDEC kawa_n_Page_037.jp2
c682a3a5569bee6675f6680c2d62efe9
24e2935ac3bd447720744ba0622823586538203f
108440 F20101203_AACDDN kawa_n_Page_102.jpg
03a6e7b58e088b48f3968f2080bd44c6
38adca0cff7333766952d6cdde5564d8a04fd5e7
49234 F20101203_AACCYI kawa_n_Page_015.pro
8590643088960c86e162f69c042e68a1
176a8c3bad799e4970d855ffe68f1ec2c3acf484
99554 F20101203_AACCXU kawa_n_Page_104.jpg
febca91f54640a619e8085667986b4cd
8d6db250bb1d47c95403e7eb84bb21e1de856efe
487133 F20101203_AACDED kawa_n_Page_042.jp2
3ff961d1dbcac682ef1eb5b79a6abd42
ed72ff4d9e99311088e46e125abd0dc75ad16559
39248 F20101203_AACDDO kawa_n_Page_107.jpg
d91f989660e829a1835ce71bb8463b0d
9c3bb357812c2697f9af588417f6a46a86624e97
3901 F20101203_AACCYJ kawa_n_Page_072thm.jpg
730909497e02a0f645afecf9293708ff
0a14de7e32da5546012a6ed88de5fe0b38c106e2
F20101203_AACCXV kawa_n_Page_071.tif
be81a306acfead8d6f3e2ca2ce39d104
8d5265257771812125e2d9c35b1b06c0af4dcd04
F20101203_AACDEE kawa_n_Page_044.jp2
3f1dac9626868777e0c4f08f2ce02a9a
748275147c5f96f73daa475145881524325c529d
229729 F20101203_AACDDP kawa_n_Page_001.jp2
8c407ec4fe8ae0d382635722c3a1460d
6498d14b4cc9a7a4145c09b4e02be052844f6071
1051955 F20101203_AACCYK kawa_n_Page_004.jp2
14acf6685afe9776041663c8aae6a44e
3cc02717a30a63acc222b56a958952e604ebb2c1
F20101203_AACCXW kawa_n_Page_079.tif
7d7375fc96936eb7cb7c43c8a1897d40
8c191f0198377f316939006b7d063453b9f0e892
1051877 F20101203_AACDEF kawa_n_Page_047.jp2
9acabe75b9ae026147c41e1ada209629
d6995c81ee2a0154c421e1161c4f305f1add7585
F20101203_AACDDQ kawa_n_Page_006.jp2
718c13f56e23cc30bd36ad8f5becd7ba
78b27ecca725db16c7d9cab4067a5ca4b4982b6f
52022 F20101203_AACCYL kawa_n_Page_038.pro
e607806bc2eaa74bc83bb3d06974c660
62c6fd794ebda1d9be7e6a9f4823f3141b15f81e
F20101203_AACCXX kawa_n_Page_042.tif
1344b133f685c941694174006d2960fa
1686f1e0a25926b27a6ef98a011cfc57a7c7c82e
1051973 F20101203_AACDEG kawa_n_Page_051.jp2
d2d5358c65933e66675451501a9c6227
cdc258533415d6bc775fb016ed0d7c4ad22d9076
6832 F20101203_AACCZA kawa_n_Page_060.QC.jpg
9e4bb589a845086ed9cb23de07527a96
a3ff05fadaeb7f33af73e893aa0556f38263ae08
F20101203_AACDDR kawa_n_Page_007.jp2
f64885d00d4297ed5de1b419544b88d9
a3936b1f29d004a594a73b4edc85dd6b550e9204
36995 F20101203_AACCYM kawa_n_Page_047.QC.jpg
8aa8ec472e5c510565c4b53f60153bb2
6a01d05105b1d571f71484e2c7e51707dbe258c5
1051962 F20101203_AACCXY kawa_n_Page_049.jp2
64e7fa0d2f82970ace937151bcc13bfe
3de8691595b7de4f43d139f91293ecea431a8f62
F20101203_AACDEH kawa_n_Page_052.jp2
28f5f5a5855aaef46fe5188cfe4d27a0
746d9a5aa4ccd0dbd4cb19f1e9ac21fa0e315240
541135 F20101203_AACDDS kawa_n_Page_010.jp2
efb7af66c10ef40cafc61f526343c5ed
af3bf896fb2b2a5bf8dfe8d3dcb07827e7dc1260







USE AND MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH
IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL


















By

NICHOLAS C. KAWA


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008




























2008 Nicholas C. Kawa



























To my parents, Chris Kawa and Nora Gubbins.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First, I must thank my supervisory committee chair, Dr. Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo. He

was extremely supportive of my research and kept me regularly fueled with coffee. I also thank

my supervisory committee, Drs. Nigel Smith and Mike Heckenberger for providing important

insight from their decades of research in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition, I thank Dr. Hugh

Popenoe for sharing his depth of knowledge on tropical soil management.

Field research was supported by the Charles Wagley Research Fellowship through the

Center of Latin American Studies and the Tropical Conservation and Development Program at

the University of Florida. Their support was crucial to the realization of this project. I also must

acknowledge the Brazilian National Research Council for accepting my proposal and granting

me permission to conduct my research project (Proc. EXC 007/07-C) in the Brazilian Amazon.

In Manaus, there are number of people who I must recognize. Drs. Charles Clement and

Newton Falco from INPA helped orient my master's research while in Brazil, and together they

were important sources of expertise on things Amazonian. Dr. Clement, in particular, was a

tremendous help in shaping my research questions and overseeing my project. Dr. Jose

Francisco Goncalves de Carvalho from INPA has also been a good friend, encouraging me to

pursue my research in the Brazil. James Fraser, a Ph.D. candidate from University of Sussex

who was hosted by INPA, provided consistent insight through his work on use and management

of dark earths in the area of Manicore. Also, I want to acknowledge the continuous support and

friendship of my surrogate family at the Condominio Vila do Sol Maior. Without them, I would

have never learned Portuguese.

In Borba, I owe great thanks to Denise and Myrlena Barata for sharing their home with me

during my time there. Daniel Rodrigues had an especially important role in arranging my stay in









Borba and helping me establish contacts throughout the area. Tarcisio, Messias, Edinaldo,

Renato, and Dorinha from IDAM were also good friends and helped me make contacts with

various communities in the region. At Puruzinho, Joci and Claudia went out of their way to

welcome me and assist me in my research in the community. For their help, I'm particularly

thankful.

Of course, my mother, Nora Gubbins, and my father, Chris Kawa, deserve recognition for

always encouraging me to follow my academic interests even while they knew very well that I

would go broke in the process and that they would have to come to my rescue. I also thank my

brother, Nate, and my sister, Kolleen, for putting up with my endless and often tired stories of

research and travel in Amazonia. I can't give my family enough thanks for their patience and

love over the years.

Lastly, I have to thank all my friends from Chicago, U of A, UF, and everywhere in

between. Karen Pereira deserves special thanks for helping with my map. And, of course, I

have to thank Nice for putting up with me during the writing of all of this.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

L IS T O F T A B L E S ........................................................................... 8

L IST O F A B B R E V IA T IO N S ......... ............... .......................................................... 10

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... ............................................................ 1 1

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... .............................. 12

Use and M management of Amazonian Dark Earth................................................................ 12
Research Questions........... .......... .......... ... .. .... ...... .... .......... 13
R research D design and M ethods............................................................................... ........ 14
Site Selection ................................................................ ..... ..... ......... 14
S am p lin g ............................................................................... 15
D ata C collection ................................................................................ 16
D ata A n a ly sis ............................................................................................................. 1 6
R e search S ite ...............................................................17
A ssentam ento do Puxurizal ................................................................................ 19
P u ru zinh o/P uru G ran de ............................................................................................. 2 0
Guariba .......................................20
O th er C o m m u n cities ................................................................................................... 2 0
C contribution of R research ......................................... ................. ................. .. 21

2 A HISTORY OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH RESEARCH ................ .... ...........26

In tro d u ctio n .......................... ......................................................................... .....................2 6
Amazonian Dark Earth Nomenclature (What's in a Name?) ..................... ..................26
The Confederados, a Canadian Geologist, and the First Amazonian Archaeologists
(186 0 s-18 80 s) ........ .... .. ... .. .. ........ .. .. .................. .................................. 2 8
Early Interpretations of Dark Earths as Anthropogenic Landscapes (1870s-1900s) ..............32
Curt Unkel: The One Who Knew How to Open His Path in This World and Conquer
His Place in Amazonian Anthropology (1920s-1940s) .................................................34
Terra Preta in the "Modern" Age (1940s-1980s) .................. ............. .............. .............. 37
ADE and the Question of Intentionality (1990s-Present) ............. ..... ............40
The Development of Contemporary ADE Management Studies .......................................41

3 CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE
LOWER MADEIRA: A CASE STUDY IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL ...................43

Introduction ..................................................... 43
U se of F ire ............................. ................ ...... ........................................ 43
F fertilizers ..................................................................... ............ 46
Crop Rotation and Shifting Cultivation........................................ ...............47









W eed in g ................. ................... ........................................................................ ............... 4 9
Controlling Pests, Fungus, and D isease............................................ ........... ............... 50
Issues of Water, Climate, and Seasonal Variation....................... ...... ..............53
Prim ary Crops .............. ........ .....................................................................54
M anioc (M anihot esculenta).......................... ....................................... ............... 54
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)............................... .............................. 56
Papaya (Carica papaya) ............................................................... ............... 58
C acao (Theobrom a cacao) ...................................................................... ..................58
C onclu sions.......... ..........................................................59

4 MARKET PRODUCTION AND AGROBIODIVERISITY ON AMAZONIAN DARK
EARTH FARMS IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL ................................................. 63

Introduction ................................................... ................................... 63
Market Orientation......... .......... .......... .. .... ..... ..................63
A grobiodiversity R results ........................ ........................ .. .... .... ................. 64
Agrobiodiversity and ADE ............................................................. ............ ............... 65
The Relationship between Agrobiodiversity and Market Orientation...................... ..66
C onclu sions.......... ............................... ................................................67

5 AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL CONTEXT: A
MODEL OF "SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE"? FOR WHOM? ..............................75

Introdu action .................... .................. ...... ...... ..... ..................... ................. 75
Terra Preta Nova: A model for sustainable agriculture..................................................75
B iochar: A Terra Preta Technology.......................................................................... ....... 76
Responses to the Bio-char Fertilizer........................................................................ 77
Cultural and Intellectual Property Questions................................... .................................... 78
Biopiracy and the Neighbors to the North .....................................................................79
Revisiting World Systems Theory and Dependency Theory ...........................................81
A Terra Preta Technology Exchange? ........................................................................ ...... 83
C o n c lu sio n ................... .......................................................... ................ 8 4

6 CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................. ...............87

Sum m ary of R research F findings ................................................................... .....................87
Final Considerations .............. ................. ........... ............................ 88

IN T E R V IE W G U ID E ......................................................................................... .....................90

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ...................................................................................... ...................95

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......................................................................... .. ...................... 107









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1-1 Distribution of primary communities surveyed................................ ......................24

1-2 Sociodemographic and land use data of sampled farmers...............................................25

4-1 Species surveyed on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil...................69

4-2 A D E farm s species distributions.............................................. .............................. 73

4-3 N on-ADE farm s species distributions ........................................ .......................... 73

4-4 ADE farms market orientation (descriptive statistics) ..................................................73

4-5 Non-ADE farms market orientation (descriptive statistics).............................................74

5-1 Companies that produce bio-char and pyrolyizers....................................... 86









LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page

1-1 Relationships between management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market
production on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil...........................21

1-2 Map of sites visited and surveyed in the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil
(Created by Karen Pereira. Data source USGS) ..................................... .................22

1-3 Main plaza in the municipal center of Borba (July 2003). ..............................................23

1-4 Puruzinho L ake (July 2007) .............................................................................. .............23

1-5 House of a rural farming family (Puruzinho: July 2007)................................................24

3-1 Burned secondary vegetation in a field in Jatuarana near the town of Borba. The
owner was intending to plant manioc in September (July 2007).................................61

3-2 Differences in input use among ADE and Non-ADE farmers.....................................62

3-3 Differences in crop management on ADE and non-ADE farms....................................62

4-1 Watermelons from an ADE farm outside of Borba's municipal center are loaded on
to a river boat destined for M anaus (July 2007). .................................... .................68

4-2 Relationship between species under management and market orientation......................74











ADE

CDEA


CEPLAC


EMBRAPA


IDAM



INCRA


INPA


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Amazonian dark earth (also known as terrapreta do indio)

Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amaz6nico (Center of Amazonian
Energy Development)

Comissdo Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (Executive
Commission for the Planning of Cacao Production)

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecudria (Brazilian Agricultural
Research Corporation)

Institute de Desenvolvimento do Amazonas (Amazonas State Development
Institute). The rural development agency of Amazonas state that maintains
numerous agricultural extension offices, including in Borba.

Institute Nacional de Colonizacdo e Reforma Agrdria (National Institute
of Colonization and Agrarian Reform)

Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz6nia (National Institute of
Amazonian Research)









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

USE AND MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN BORBA, AMAZONAS,
BRAZIL

By

Nicholas C. Kawa

May 2008

Chair: Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo
Major: Anthropology

Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terrapreta do indio, is

a fertile anthropogenic soil that has been touted as a potential model for sustainable agriculture in

Amazonia and beyond. However, while much has been written about the potential of ADE for

sustainable agriculture, relatively little research has investigated how the soil is used and

managed today by rural Amazonians. This research presents a case study from the municipality

of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil, which compares management practices, agrobiodiversity, and

market production on upland farms situated on ADE and non-ADE soils (terra firme Oxisols).

The results of this study suggest that ADE farmers in Borba have a tendency towards greater

market orientation and greater use of inputs, including chemical fertilizers and herbicides.

However, the data show no significant difference in the agrobiodiversity managed by ADE and

non-ADE farmers.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth

Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terrapreta do indio or

simply terrapreta, is a fertile anthropogenic soil that has become an object of fascination (or at

least relative intrigue) for many soil scientists, archaeologists, anthropologists, and geographers.

In contrast to the leached, yellow-orange Oxisols that dominate much of the Amazon, ADE

ranges in color from light brown to black and maintains relatively high levels of stable soil

organic matter and plant-available phosphorus (Lehmann et al. 2003a). Early research on the

soil suggested that ADE sites were products of either alluvial deposits or volcanic ash (see

Camargo 1941; Cunha-Franco 1962), but today it largely agreed that ADE is a vestige of Pre-

Columbian Amerindian occupation (Smith 1980; Lehmann et al. 2003b; Glaser and Woods

2004).

In recent years, Amazonian Dark Earth has been touted as a potential model for sustainable

agriculture in Amazonia and beyond. Studies have shown that pyrogenic carbon (black carbon,

charcoal) is a key feature of the soil, exhibiting many important functions that enhance nutrient

availability and the stability of soil organic matter (see Glaser et al. 2003; Lehmann et al. 2002).

Aside from potentially heightening agricultural production, pyrogenic carbon is considered to be

an important carbon sink. These factors have propelled the ADE phenomenon from relative

obscurity to the attention of international agronomists and environmentalists. The media have

also caught wind of the ADE phenomenon and have produced enthusiastic (although perhaps

overly optimistic) articles about the potential of ADE for curbing global warming and promoting

environmentally-sound agriculture.









While much has been written about the potential of ADE for sustainable agriculture,

relatively little research has investigated how the soil is used and managed today by rural

Amazonians. This thesis presents a case study of contemporary management of ADE in Borba,

Amazonas, Brazil with the intention of describing the relationship the soil has to regional market

production, agrobiodiversity, and management practices. This examination further seeks to

analyze how local management and use relates to the intended global application of the ADE

model.

Research Questions

Studies of contemporary management of ADE have revealed that Amazonian farmers have

conflicting opinions regarding the advantages of the soil and the appropriate management of it.

Complications related to weeding have been presented as a major limiting factor of ADE

production (German 2001, 2003; Major et al. 2003; also see Carneiro 1957). Also, while ADE

can produce nutrient-demanding crops with higher market values, market articulation has been

said to be limited by differences in market access (Hiraoka 2003; German 2001), individual life

histories, and regional historical ecology (Fraser et al. 2007). Building upon past studies of

contemporary use of ADE, this thesis investigates the relationships between management

practices, market production, and agrobiodiversity (Figure 1-1). The following research

questions frame this study:

1. Do ADE farmers maintain different management practices than "non-ADE" farmers?

2. Do ADE farms maintain higher levels of agrobiodiversity?

3. Do ADE farms have a higher market orientation than "non-ADE"' farms?




Non-ADE farms in this study mostly correspond to terrafirme latossolos (Oxisols), often referred to locally as
"barro amarelo" (yellow clay) or "barro vermelho" (red clay).









In addressing these questions, this study will also examine the way in which management

practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production interrelate on both ADE and non-ADE farms,

prompting the following questions:

4. Does agrobiodiversity decrease with heightened market production?

5. Does heightened market production correspond to specific management practices and
techniques?

Research Design and Methods

Site Selection

The municipality of Borba, Amazonas was selected as the focus of this study for two

primary reasons. First, very limited research has been conducted on the Madeira River with

regards to Amazonian Dark Earth management. An exception to this is the most recent work of

James Fraser, who has focused his study in the municipality of Manicore (a municipality

southwest of Borba). Through his work comparing use of dark earths in the Rio Negro and

middle Madeira, Fraser has made the argument that the inhabitants of the Madeira have a greater

'culture of agriculture' than those of the Rio Negro region. Fraser relates this to the wider

abundance of dark earths, the influence of varzea agriculture, and generally longer settlement of

inhabitants in the Madeira region (James Fraser, Univ. Sussex, pers. comm., 2006). By

examining management of ADE in Borba, this study seeks to expand ADE research in the

Madeira region.

The second reason for having chosen Borba is that the Madeira is likely to undergo

radical changes in its relationship to regional markets in coming years (Fearnside and Graca

2006). The imminent paving of the BR-319 highway will soon connect Borba and other nearby

municipalities by road to Manaus and Humaita. This development is likely to change the

influence of markets on the area, and for this reason research in this site represented a unique









opportunity to assess the management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market orientation of

regional farms before such developments take place.

Sampling

Gaining access to communities that were willing to participate in the study proved to be a

major obstacle confronted during fieldwork. Due to the on-going public discourse in Amazonia

on biopiracy and foreign exploitation of native natural resources, many individuals were hesitant

to participate in a study conducted by a foreigner researcher. Randomized sampling was not a

practical strategy given the limited timeframe of the project since most individuals were only

willing to participate in the research when introduced to the researcher by other community

members. As a result, a strategy of snowball sampling (also known as "referral sampling") was

implemented (Bernard 2006: 192-193). Officers from IDAM, the state agricultural development

agency operating in Borba, introduced the researcher to community leaders within the

municipality who in turn assisted in referring the researcher to individuals that were willing to

participate in the research.

Within the municipality of Borba, 19 communities (comunidades) were visited on three

different rivers: the Rio Madeira, Rio Marimari, and Rio Canuma (Figure 1-2). Of the 19

communities visited, 3 communities served as primary centers of data collection: Puxurizal,

Puruzinho, and Puru Grande. In addition to these communities, informal interviews and data

were collected from farmers in the communities of Guariba, Guajara, Mucaj and Vila do

Canuma. Interviews and data were collected from farmers at 27 different terra firme (upland)

farms, 14 of which were located mostly on Amazonian Dark Earth while the other 13 were

located on non-ADE soils, which were largely Oxisols (see Table 1-1 and Table 1-2 for

community and sample data)









Data Collection

Individuals who agreed to participate in this study were asked to engage in both informal

and semi-structured interviews to discuss their management practices on ADE and non-ADE

soils. Qualitative data was gathered through questionnaires in order to compare management

practices (e.g. short fallowing; use of fertilizers and pesticides) on ADE and non-ADE soils.

Semi-structured interviews also served to elicit information regarding access to credit, life

histories, trade networks, and economic activities outside of farming.

In terms of quantitative data gathering, the area and number of species grown was recorded

at each farm. Following Major et al. (2005), the total area of crops destined for markets was

divided by the total area of cultivation at the time of the study, disregarding land left fallow

(Major et al. 2005). This provided a framework to determine the degree to which an individual

farm is oriented towards the market. GPS data was also collected at farms surveyed and used in

the mapping of Amazonian Dark Earth sites2. In addition, GPS data from individual farms were

used to determine the distances to urban centers and individuals' target markets.

Data Analysis

Data collected on agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms were analyzed using t-

tests to assess statistical differences between farms of the two soil groups. T-tests were also used

to analyze statistical differences in market orientation between ADE and non-ADE farms.

Fisher's exact test was performed to assess differences in proportions of chemical fertilizer and

herbicide use among ADE and non-ADE farmers. Lastly, linear regression analysis was






2 These data will be shared with other researchers in Brazil and abroad through a project led by Dr. Newton P.
Falc~o and Dr. Charles R. Clement of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA).









conducted to determine the relationship between market orientation and species diversity for all

farms3

Research Site

The municipality of Borba is located on the Madeira River, 150 kilometers southeast of

Manaus (215 km by waterway). The municipality covers an area of 44,251 km2 and has a

population of 35,525 inhabitants (IBGE 2005). In the Pre-Columbian era, the Lower Madeira is

believed to have been a relatively densely populated region, although little of this history is

documented. The abundance of dark earth sites in the area, paired with the findings of the brief

archaeological surveys ofNimuendaju, Hilbert, and Sim6es and Lopes, support this claim

(Nimuendaju 2004; Hilbert 1968; Sim6es and Lopes 1987). In the post-contact period, the

Portuguese settlement of Borba was first known as "Aldeia do Trocano" and was founded by the

Jesuit Priest Jodo de Sampaio around 1728 (Comissdo de Estudos da Estrada de Ferro do

Madeira e Mamore 1885: 73; Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas 2007). In 1755, the settlement

was named the first vila (Portuguese town) in the Amazon and became known as "Borba-a-

Nova" (Leite 1943: 403). During its early history, the inhabitants of Borba were engaged in an

on-going conflict with the Mura Indians, and the vila was attacked on numerous occasions4

(Leite 1943; Marcoy 2001: 207; Santos 1999: 78). In 1833, shortly after one particular invasion

by the Mura, Borba lost its designation as vila and it was given the name "Araretama"

(Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas 2007). Two years later, the Cabanagem Revolt began in which

detribalized Indians (tapuios) and escaped slaves united in rebellion against Portuguese




3 The statistical package employed to conduct all statistical analyses was SPSS version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago).
4 Santos and Marcoy, among others, mention that the settlement had moved on several occasions before being
established in its present location due to conflict with the Mura (Santos 1999: 78; Marcoy 2001).









settlements in the region. During this time, Borba was one of the few settlements that resisted

the cabano rebels ibidd.) and eventually regained its status of vila.

In 1852, U.S. Naval Officers William Lewis Hemdon and Lardner Gibbon passed through

Borba while conducting a survey of the Amazon region. Hemdon and Gibbon described Borba

as a small town which they estimated as having 300 inhabitants5; the majority of the population

they described as "negroes", half of which were slaves (Herndon & Gibbon 1854: 311). In

regards to economic activities, sugar cane was produced in farms of the area, principally for

manufacture of rum (cachaga) while oranges, limes, and watermelons were cultivated for local

consumption (Hemdon & Gibbon 1854: 312). The tobacco produced in Borba was claimed to be

the best in Brazil, and was traded to the Atlantic Coast of Brazil along with cacao, sarsaparilla

(Smilax spp.), coffee, and Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) (Herndon & Gibbon 1854: 311).

Between 1850 and 1880, Borba lost and gained its status as vila numerous times until

finally in 1888, it was established definitively as a municipality (municipio). This period

coincides with the rubber boom when the Madeira was flooded by immigrants mostly from the

Brazilian Northeast who were seeking out the quality rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) found in the

region.

Today, the economy of Borba depends largely on agriculture and extractive activities.

Manioc, bananas, watermelon, beans, jute, and citrus are amongst the primary agricultural

products produced in the area while rubber, timber, Brazil nuts, copaiba oil (Copaifera

officinalis), and rosewood (Swartzia spp.) represent major extractive resources. Like much of

Central Amazonia, fishing and cattle ranching are the other primary economic activities in the

municipality. In the month of June, Borba is also a tourist destination, known throughout the

5 This is a questionable figure considering that in 1864 there are said to be 2,335 inhabitants in the district (Bastos
1873).









Central Amazon region for its Festival de Santo Antonio. Pilgrims migrate from across the

region for this particular event held from June 1st to the 13th

Within the municipality of Borba, approximately 160 communities exist outside of the

municipal center of the same name (Figure 1-3). In this study, 19 communities were visited, and

3 of these served as primary locations for data collection. A description of each of these is

provided below.

Assentamento do Puxurizal

In the late 1990s, INCRA (The Brazilian National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian

Reform) undertook the project of opening roads into the periphery of Borba's municipal center in

order to provide needy families with lands for agricultural production. Of these, the primary

project was that of the Assentamento do Puxurizal (Puxurizal Settlement), named after a stream

that runs through the area6. Within Puxurizal, 110 lots of varying sizes were defined and

allocated to families from the municipal center.

Since the opening of the assentamento, many of the lots have exchanged hands and not all

the families that were intended to occupy the area continue to live there. Some of the lots were

exploited strictly for their timber resources and have since been left relatively vacant, or have

been sold. In one case, it was brought to my attention that a local vereador (municipal

lawmaker) acquired a lot for his own personal use. Despite this, most of the lots in use are

occupied by rural farmers. Of the farms that are currently being used for agricultural production,

9 were visited and formal interviews were conducted with 6. Of the 110 lots in Puxurizal,

informants claimed that only 2 lots contained dark earths, with a third lot that is suspected to

have dark earths, but is currently unoccupied.

6 The Puruxizal Stream derives its name from the puxuri (Licaria puchury-major, Lauraceae), a tree endemic to the
Rio Madeira region whose leaves and nuts are used in perfumes and medicinal teas.









Extending from Puxurizal are the communities of Piaba and Jatuarana that were also

opened by INCRA. Individual farmers in these areas were also visited, and dark earths were

found on one property.

Puruzinho/Puru Grande

The community of Puruzinho is located approximately 32 kilometers downstream from the

municipal center of Borba. The vila of Puruzinho is situated between the left bank of the Rio

Madeira and Puruzinho Lake (Figure 1-4). Half of the Puruzinho community lives on a stretch

of terra firme on the opposite side of the lake (Figure 1-5). A second community, Puru Grande,

is located on the same lake, but 5 km south of Puruzinho. As in most communities of the

municipality's interior, farming, fishing, and hunting are the primary economic activities in the

area. In terms of agriculture, commercial production is focused largely on watermelon, West

Indian gherkin (Cucumis anguria), cacao, papayas, and manioc. Although all farmers in the area

can be considered smallholders (with an average of 3 to 5 ha of land under management), several

individuals produce for the larger regional market of Manaus. Between Puruzinho and Puru

Grande, 11 terra fire farms were visited, 8 of which were located largely on dark earth.

Guariba

The community of Guariba is located on the right margin of the Rio Madeira, just east of

the Vila of Puruzinho. Two individuals from this community were interviewed during research.

Both individuals managed areas of varzea, but focused much of their production on terra mulata

on terra firme lands that they possessed on their lots. These two individuals also managed the

greatest number of total species when compared to other interviewees.

Other Communities

In addition to the communities listed above, the researcher visited several others as part

of an expedition organized by IDAM to distribute seeds and collect signatures for agricultural








projects managed through the institute. During these visits, which included stops in Nova

Recordacgo, Axinim, Mucaja, Trocana, and Vila do Canumd, information was collected on

management practices and market production through informal conversations with local farmers.

Contribution of Research
The contributions of this research are both theoretical and empirical. Here are presented

much-needed data regarding ADE and its relationship to market production, agrobiodiversity,

and smallholder management strategies. This information is complemented by a critical

theoretical discussion of the use of the ADE model in global industrial agriculture. Through this

analysis, Amazonian Dark Earth can be understood as a phenomenon that is simultaneously

defined by the natural and the cultural, the local and the global, the traditional and the

innovative.




nagem t



E
and
non-ADE
Agro iodiversi o__ E market pr duction




Figure 1-1. Relationships between management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market
production on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil










































Figure 1-2. Map of sites visited and surveyed in the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil (Created by Karen Pereira. Data source
USGS)











-W -"


Figure 1-3. Main plaza in the municipal




































Figure 1-4. Puruzinho Lake (July 2007).


center of Borba (July 2003).


--C-~


~
~.










































iF ure 1-5 House of a n


mil (Puruzinho: Jul 2


Table 1-1. Distribution of primary communities surveyed
Community # of households Households interviewed


Puruzinho 62 8


Puru Grande 33 3


Puxurizal 110 6


Guariba 24 2


Other N/A 8


Ji-=


3
1









Table 1-2. Sociodemographic and land use data of sampled farmers


Farmer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27


Age
21
55
53
51
42
36
22
24
45
23
57
61
40
43
26
31
25
49
56
29
62
47
39
52
57
31
41


Sex
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
F
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
F


*Total species in these instances are only based on agroplots.


Community
Guajara
Guariba
Guariba
Jatuarana
Jatuarana
Mucaja
Mucaja
Mucaja
Piaba
Puru Grande
Puru Grande
Puru Grande
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puruzinho
Puxurizal
Puxurizal
Puxurizal
Puxurizal
Puxurizal
Puxurizal
Vila do Canuma


Soil Under
Mgmt.
ADE
ADE
ADE
Non-ADE
ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
ADE
Non-ADE
ADE
ADE
ADE
ADE
ADE
ADE
ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
Non-ADE
ADE
ADE
Non-ADE


Lot Area
(ha)
72
50
23
26
60
N/A
N/A
N/A
21
25
N/A
125
20.5
28
60
22
10
50
26
30
35
35
45
36
75
39
97


Area
Under
Mgmt. (ha)
1
9
12
2.5
2
2
2
2
1
5
2
7.25
3.5
0.5
4
3
4.2
10
3
2.25
5
6
18
5
4
8
2.5


Garden
Area
(ha)
0.14
0.24
0.4
0.3
N/A
0.5
N/A
N/A
0.1
0.24
0.15
N/A
0.2
0.25
0.35
0.25
0.35
0.32
0.2
0.3
0.24
0.36
0.5
0.42
0.28
0.05
0.18


# of
species -
garden
20
11
19
18
N/A
14
N/A
N/A
10
17
5
N/A
10
16
19
11
14
15
23
16
22
20
20
21
11
4
13


# of
species-
agroplot
2
27
19
1
4
3
8
4
2
15
1
11
5
2
10
10
6
5
9
4
4
2
2
3
4
2
7


Total
spp.
22
31
30
19
4*
16
8*
4*
13
24
6
11*
14
18
26
15
17
17
24
19
23
21
20
22
14
5
18









CHAPTER 2
A HISTORY OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH RESEARCH

Introduction

Since the first description of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) was printed in the late

1800's, the perception of the soil has evolved from that of a pedological anomaly to prime

evidence of widespread anthropogenic transformation in the Amazon basin. This chapter intends

to trace the history of ADE research, highlighting the work of the anthropologists,

archaeologists, geographers, geologists, and soil scientists that have contributed to our present

knowledge of the Amazonian Dark Earth phenomenon. It should be emphasized that this history

serves as a general outline and is by no means an exhaustive description of past research. Other

excellent summaries of the history of ADE research can be found in Woods and Denevan (2007)

and Glaser, Zech, and Woods (2004). Building upon these past historical descriptions of ADE

research, this chapter serves to contextualize the present study within its larger historical

surroundings, while also discussing the debates that have shaped past investigations of

Amazonian Dark Earth. Ultimately, this historical overview intends to demonstrate how

Amazonian Dark Earth research exposed the anthropogenic nature of the soil, spurring interest in

both its management (past and present) and its potential application as a model for "sustainable"

or "intensive" agriculture.

Amazonian Dark Earth Nomenclature (What's in a Name?)

The long history of Amazonian Dark Earth studies is evidenced in the varied and

abundant terms used to describe this pedological phenomenon. Early descriptions referred to

areas of the soil as "black lands" while the soil itself was described as "black earth", "dark

earth", "terra preta do indio" ("Indian black earth" in Portuguese), or simply "terra preta" (see

Hartt 1874a; Hartt 1874b; Smith 1879a; Brown and Lidstone 1878). Later references included









"archaeological black earth" and "archaeological dark earth", reflections of the abundance of

potsherds and cultural material often found at such sites7 (Costa and Kern 1999). Studies

originating from Spanish-speaking countries of Amazonia, used the terms tierras negras (black

earths) and suelos negros (black soils) (Andrade 1986; Herrera 1980; Mora 2002). In addition to

these referents, a host of other names describing the soil and its variations have been introduced

as research has changed and expanded over time.

In 1966, Wim Sombroek published his doctoral dissertation entitled Amazon Soils: A

Reconnaissance of the Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region, which made reference to not only

terra preta, but also to an associated soil called terra mulata (Sombroek 1966). Woods and

McCann later provided their own insights regarding terra mulata, and claimed that it could be

distinguished from terra preta by its grayish-brown color, lower concentration of nutrients, lack

of cultural material, and surprisingly higher content of soil organic matter (Woods and McCann

1999; Woods and McCann 2001). In their writings, Woods and McCann employed the term

"Amazonian Dark Earth" in consideration of both terra preta and terra mulata. The first two

books dedicated to the study of these soils also opted for the use of the term "Amazonian Dark

Earth" (Lehmann et al. 2004; Glaser & Woods 2003).

In the recent history of dark earths, other names and descriptors have been incorporated

into the literature, which have helped to shape the debate concerning the origin of dark earths. In

1980, Nigel Smith published the article "Anthrosols and Human Carrying Capacity in

Amazonia" in which Smith's use of the term "anthrosol" reflected the growing belief at the time

that human interaction with the soil was responsible for its formation (Smith 1980). As the




7 All true dark earth sites are archaeological sites. For a discussion of dark earths and their archaeological
importance sensu lato see Oyuela-Caycedo et al. n.d.









human link to the soil became more accepted, more articles began referring to terra preta as an

"anthropogenic" or "anthropic" soil.8

Most recently, an article published by Elizabeth Graham (2006) has suggested that perhaps

a more appropriate term would be "Neotropical Dark Earth" (Graham 2006). Graham and her

associates have examined dark earths in other parts of Latin America including Belize and Cuba,

arguing that the soils can not be treated solely as an Amazonian phenomenon9. This development

reflects the broadening of dark earth research and a resultant increasing awareness of the

phenomenon.

For purposes of this research, which is focused in Amazonia, I have chosen to rely on the

terms "Amazonian Dark Earth" and "dark earth" when referring to these soils in a general sense.

When there is a need to discuss the variations of dark earth, I specify by employing the terms

"terra preta" or "terra mulata".

The Confederados, a Canadian Geologist, and the First Amazonian Archaeologists (1860s-
1880s)

When the American Civil War ended in 1865, a number of Confederate families decided

to migrate to Brazil rather than remain in the defeated South. One particular man, Major

Lansford Hastings, surveyed parts of Central Amazonia and chose to establish a colony in an

area south of the city Santarem in 1866 (Griggs 1987). A little more than a year after having

procured the land, Hastings died during a trip to recruit more settlers from the American South

ibidd). Nonetheless, the colonists, known as Os Confederados, remained and many of them

situated their plantations on dark earth sites, whose fertility they most likely had learned of


8 Debate concerning the intentionality of dark earth creation has led some to use the term "anthropogenic" as
intentionally created where as "anthropic" is used to denote unintentional creation (See Neves et al. 2003).

9 Anthropogenic dark earths are also referred to in archaeological research outside Latin America as in the case of
Carrier Mills, Southern Illinois (Jeffries 1987) and West Africa (Fairhead and Scoones 2006: 35).









through local peoples (Woods and Denevan 2007). It has been suggested that Hastings had

chosen to settle in the Santarem area due in part to the abundance of dark earth and its

advantages for agriculture, but this can not be verified in the literature. What can be said,

however, is that the arrival of the Confederados to Amazonia was a critical event that led to the

early recognition and archaeological investigation of terra preta sites by non-Amazonians.

Around the time of Hasting's arrival to Amazonia, Charles F. Hartt, a young Canadian

geologist, was exploring parts of the region with Louis Agassiz and the Thayer Expedition

(Agassiz and Agassiz 1868). As a member of the expedition, Hartt spent 15 months in Brazil

and became intrigued by the geology and natural history of the land. After returning to the U.S.

and accepting a teaching position at the newly founded Cornell University in 1868, he began

preparing for a second trip to Brazil.

In 1870, Hartt returned to Brazil as the leader of the Morgan Expeditions. The Morgan

Expeditions (1870 and 1871), financed in part by Colonel Edwin P. Morgan, were undertaken

with the purpose of studying the geology of the Amazon valley (Hartt 1874b: 1). Despite this

intended geological focus, considerable time was dedicated to archaeological investigation in the

region. To support the second of the two expeditions, Hartt received some financial support

from the Peabody Museum at Harvard University, specifically for the collection of artifacts

ibidd.: 5). Consequently, Hartt, the geologist and natural historian, became a self-made

archaeologist through his explorations of the wealth of cultural material in the Lower Amazon10.

Upon return from the Morgan Expeditions, Hartt even remarked in his published preliminary

report: "The archaeological material has been so rich that it has been difficult to work out. New

collections have constantly been coming in, and what I intended as a short report on the


10 Hartt's posthumous work Contribuiges para a Fii. i*. ,1., do Valle do Amazonas dealt solely with his
anthropological research in the Amazon Valley (Hartt 1885).









antiquities of the lower Amazonas, has grown to be a large volume on the antiquities of the

whole Empire." (Hartt 1874b: 7).

In the second Morgan expedition of 1871, Hartt and his students investigated several

archaeological sites in the Middle Amazon. Hartt's student Orville Derby along with J.B. Steere,

a graduate of the University of Michigan, visited the farms of American settlers (i.e.

Confederados) near Santarem while Hartt went to Taperinha to re-examine "the great fresh-water

Kitchen-midden" he had seen on a previous trip (Hartt 1874b: 5). During both trips to

Taperinha, Hartt was accompanied by Romulus J. Rhome, a Confederado who operated a

plantation in the area. Along with Rhome, Hartt found pottery and some bones as well as other

artifacts in a nearby bluff that he described as ancient Indian settlement marked by terra preta

(Hartt 1885: 3). These materials later became part of archaeological collections at Cornell and

Harvard, which the archaeologist Anna Roosevelt examined in the early 1980s (Roosevelt

1995:121). In 1982, Roosevelt took a radiocarbon date of a shell from Hartt's excavations,

which dated to 5705 B.P (Ibid.). In 1987, Roosevelt and colleagues conducted an archaeological

investigation of the Taperinha shell midden and found the oldest pottery to date in the Amazon,

believed to have been crafted around 8000-7000 years B.P. (Roosevelt et al. 1991).

It is important to note that Rhome, who assisted Hartt at the shell-midden site, resided in

Taperinha and was known to collect archaeological artifacts from many of the dark earth sites in

the region. Hartt's student, Herbert Smith, wrote about Rhome in his account of the Morgan

Expeditions and in one passage, describes Rhome's collections as they visit a dark earth site:

We find fragments scattered everywhere, and Mr. Rhome has been making archaeological
collections for years. He gets all sorts of curious clay figures: vultures' heads, frogs, a
cock with comb and wattles complete, a whistle, and one odd-looking affair punched full
of holes, which so Mr. Rhome laughingly insists must be a toothpick-stand. (Smith
1879a: 169)









Later, part of Rhome's collection was housed at the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro (see

Nimuendaju 1953: 59). Although little literature is focused on Rhome specifically (with the

exception of Herbert Smith's article, "An American Home on the Amazons"; Smith 1879b), his

life represents an important nexus of linkages between the Confederados, Hartt and the

geologists, and the exploration of dark earth sites.

Outside of the Santarem region, Hartt and his students also explored areas of eastern Para,

including Maraj6 Island. Hartt mentions having his student Orville Derby investigate the Indian

burial mound of Pacoval on Maraj6 Island, which resulted in an important collection of pottery.

In his writings, Hartt mentions that the site was brought to his attention by Domingos Soares

Ferreira Penna, a Brazilian scholar who conducted a preliminary survey of Pacoval in 1870

(Hartt 1874b: 3; Palmatary 1949: 270). Ferreira Penna and Hartt had met during the latter's first

visit to Brazil during the Thayer Expeditions and the two later collaborated on several occasions

(Moraes Bertho 2001: 150). Some scholars consider Ferreira Penna to be one of the first

Amazonian archaeologists as he surveyed numerous archaeological sites and wrote extensively

about archaeology and ethnology of the Amazon11. Perhaps even more importantly, Ferreira

Penna founded what would later become the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, the primary

institution of archaeological and anthropological research in Amazonia (Barreto and Machado

2001). While there is no denying that Hartt's work is well-deserving of recognition, it shouldn't

be forgotten that he is also known for being the first North American scholar to take interest in

Amazonian archaeology, inspiring the work of archaeologists like William Farabee, Curt

Nimuendaju, Helen Palmatary, Clifford Evans, Betty Meggers, and Anna Roosevelt. As



1 Summaries of Ferreira Penna's contributions to archaeology are included in Helen Palmatary's excellent
manuscript discussing pottery of Maraj6 Island (Palmatary 1949:270-273) as well as Hartt's Contribuigaes para a
Ei,,i. 1. ,*,, do Valle do Amazonas (Hartt 1885).









scholarly ethno- and linguo-centric tendencies can inhibit our understanding of history, the work

of Ferreira Penna and other early Amazonian scholars should not go unnoticed2.

Early Interpretations of Dark Earths as Anthropogenic Landscapes (1870s-1900s)

The association of dark earths with indigenous artifacts led Hartt, Rhome, Ferreira Penna,

and others who surveyed the region to the logical conclusion that dark earth sites had been

former indigenous settlements. The relationship between the soil's fertility and indigenous

occupation was not understood, but an accepted theory of its formation was offered in this early

stage. Perhaps unknowingly, these explorers began to expose dark earths as features of much

larger anthropogenic environments.

Herbert Smith, a student of Hartt, was particularly attentive to the existence of dark earths.

Although Hartt was first to publish a document describing these anthrosols, much more detailed

descriptions of dark earths were found in Smith's book, Brazil, the Amazons and the Coast

(Smith 1879a). Smith first describes the soil while on a visit to a sugar cane field near

Taperinha:

The cane-field itself is a splendid sight; the stalks ten feet high in many places, and as big
as one's wrist. This is the rich terra preta, 'black land,' the best on the Amazons. It is a
fine, dark loam, a foot, and often two feet, thick. Strewn over it everywhere we find
fragments of Indian pottery, so abundant in some places that they almost cover the ground.
(Smith 1879a: 144)

Throughout this book, Smith cross-references his writings with those of Pedro Cristoval de

Acufia, the Jesuit Priest that chronicled the Amazon voyage of Pedro Texeira in 1639. Acufia,

like Carvaj al who chronicled Orellana's expedition, described large indigenous populations

found on the banks of the Amazon. Perhaps influenced by these descriptions, Smith viewed the

dark earth sites as kitchen middens of former indigenous settlements:


12 See Barreto and Machado 2001 for a brief summary of early contributions to Amazonian archaeology by Brazilian
scholars like JoAo Barbosa Rodrigues.









At Taperinha, as at Diamantina and Panema, and far up the Tapaj6s, the bluff-land owes its
richness to the refuse of a thousand kitchens for maybe a thousand years; numberless
palm-thatches, which were left to rot on the ground as they were replaced by new ones.
For the bluffs were covered with Indian houses, 'so close together,' says Acuha, 'that from
one village you can hear the workmen of another.' (Smith 1879a: 168)

With his knowledge of Acuha's writing, Smith attempted to envision Amazonia as the Jesuit

priest may have seen it. Smith's awareness of dark earth sites and their association with

indigenous villages, led him to compare his evidence with Acuha's descriptions of the dense

populations found in the region:

We found the black land and its antiquities on the bluffs of Panema and Diamantinha; we
shall find it, also, all along the bluffs of the Lower Tapajos; and here, twenty-five miles
below Santarem, we find it again in a like situation. Now, all these bluffs are the edges of
the same plateau, and the pottery and stone implements are everywhere similar. On the
Tapaj6s the black land occurs at intervals of one to five miles; but from Panema to
Taperinha, and for some distance below, it forms almost a continuous line; indicating, in
fact, a single village, or city, thirty miles long, but extending only a little way in from the
edge of the plateau. At intervals, there are signs of ancient roads leading down toward the
river, as at Diamantina. Acuha gives no positive evidence of such a city; he says only, that
the Tapajos region is very populous, and that he and his party encamped near a village
where [there] were five hundred families. (Smith 1879a: 169)

Smith's observations are particularly relevant to the on-going debate regarding Amazonian

demographics in the pre- and early post-contact periods. Moreover, Smith's theory linking prior

human settlements to dark earth sites is an important insight that is only accepted more than 100

years after the publication of his book.

During the same time period, dark earths came to the attention of the geologists C.

Barrington Brown and William Lidstone during their explorations of the Amazon. In fact,

Brown and Lidstone were the first to describe the soil as "terras pretas" in print (Woods and

Devenan 2007). Like Smith, they too associated the sites with indigenous settlement:

Villages must have stood upon these sports for ages, to have accumulated such a depth of
soil about them... At the present day these localities are highly prized as agricultural
grounds, owing to their fertility; and they bear the name of "Terras pretas" (black earths).
We have observed them occurring in many places almost too numerous to mention.
(Brown & Lidstone 1878, 270-271; Smith 1999).









As evidenced in the work of Brown and Lidstone, as well as Smith, it was generally accepted in

this early period of ADE recognition that the dark earths of the region were a product of

indigenous occupation13. Friedrick Katzer, a German geologist who conducted the first soil

analysis of ADE, came to a similar conclusion, suggesting that the soil had been cultivated in

prehistoric times when the basin was more densely population (Katzer 1903: 68; cited in Woods

2003: 4). While the significance of this conclusion did not lead to further questioning of

indigenous influence on the environment, it represents an important historical perspective that is

contrary to many later writings in the mid 20th century. Today one can only guess as to why

early explorers were more willing to accept dark earths as an indigenous artifact, but perhaps

knowledge of historical accounts like that of Acufia, paired with the abundance of archaeological

findings, facilitated the acceptance of this conclusion.

Curt Unkel: The One Who Knew How to Open His Path in This World and Conquer His
Place in Amazonian Anthropology (1920s-1940s)

The legacy that Smith, Hartt, Ferreira Penna and their contemporaries left for early

Amazonian archaeology and the study of dark earths was perhaps best succeeded by a German

named Curt Unkel. Unkel had no formal training in anthropology, but he immigrated to Brazil in

1903 specifically to live and work with indigenous people (Schaden 1967-1968: 77-78). In

1906, Unkel was given the name "Nimuendaju" by a Guarani group in the state of Sao Paulo.

This title, which would become his official surname when he became a Brazilian citizen, meant

"the one who knew how to open his path in this world and conquer his place in it" (Schaden

1967-1968: 78; Neves 2004). After spending 10 years in Sao Paulo, working with indigenous

groups of Southern Brazil, Nimuendaju moved to Belem in Eastern Amazonia. From 1913 until



13 Hartt, however, did not necessarily hold this viewpoint as he remarks in his writings on the ethnology of the
Amazon that indigenous people had been attracted to terra preta soils (Hartt 1885: 12).









his death14 in 1945, Nimuendaju split time between work in Belem and extended forays into the

field. Over this period, Nimuendaju collected an incredible amount of information and materials,

including ceramic artifacts, linguistic data, and skillfully drawn maps of areas he had visited.

Recently, his writings and maps have been compiled and organized in posthumous works Cartas

do Seil i and In Pursuit of a Past Amazon that provide a more complete vision of his life's work

(see Nimuendaju 2000; Nimuendaju 2004).

Nimuendaju's contribution to Amazonian anthropology and the study of dark earths is

considerable. Between 1923 and 1925, he canvassed large expanses of the Central Amazon

basin, recording dark earth sites and collecting ceramics from those areas. Nimuendaju was

aware of Hartt's work and it led him to investigate the area around Santarem where he made

significant collections. The sites he names in the area are too many to mention, but those that he

found to be most valuable in terms of ceramics collection were Santarem-Aldeia and Lavras

(Nimuendaju 1953). Aside from collecting ceramics in the area around Santarem, Nimuendaju

discovered many of the important anthropogenic features of the region. In his article "Os

Tapaj6", Nimuendaju described finding wells dug by the Tapaj6 Indians along theplantalto or

riverine bluffs in the region. He claimed that the wells, about 2 meters in both diameter and

depth, continued to provide water for the "neo-Brazilians" (as he referred to them) at the time of

his visit. Although he found only 5 such wells, he argued that many more had to exist. Aside

from these wells, Nimuendaju also documented the existence of trails (between a meter and a

meter and a half in width) linking different dark earth sites together. Despite finding overgrowth

occasionally interrupting the paths, Nimuendaju claimed that the paths continued to be quite

visible (Nimuendaju 1953: 60). While most of the sites he investigated were found in terra

14 Joao Pacheco de Oliveira presents a fascinating account of Nimuendajfi's work amongst the Tikuna and the
circumstances leading up to his death in 1946 (see Pacheco 1992).









firme, he also mentioned finding dark earth sites located near the edge of the floodplain, most

notably at Santarem-Aldeia and Alter do Chdo ibidd).

In Nimuendaju's descriptions of archaeological sites provided in the recent compilation

In Pursuit ofa Past Amazon, "terra preta" is mentioned numerous times. From his travels in the

Central Amazon (1923-1925), Nimuendaju specifically mentioned terra preta in 65 different

locales while surveying the area for ceramics and artifacts (Nimuendaju 1953: 59; Nimuendaju

2004). Like Herbert Smith and others, Nimuendaju argued that indigenous peoples were

responsible for the formation of terra preta, and in his writings he listed the many reasons why:

1. Wherever the subsoil consists of clay or sand, the terrapreta is also clay or sandy.

2. The terrapretas occur only as relatively small areas, in rare cases more than 500 m in
diameter.

3. The black soil originating from organic matter cannot have been formed by deposits of
dissolved vegetable substances, since it is never found in the beds of the valleys or in
depressions, whereas it is always found on hills, where such formation cannot take place.

4. It can be observed even today how the soil of the kitchen site of a new habitation
becomes coloured black after some time.

5. The fact that the terrapreta is especially suitable for growing vegetables may be the
reason why the Indians chose it for their Rocas. However, the huge amount of fragments
found in many terrapretas cannot accumulate in a plantation, but only in a place of
permanent habitation.

6. Apart from fishing stations in inundated areas, all the ancient dwelling-sites I found
were situated on terrapretas, and every terrapreta I have seen showed traces of ancient
Indian habitation.

7. In terrapretas with a thickness of even more than 1 m, traces of habitations are found
regularly in the entire depth. At Lavras, I found hearths with ashpits, particularly of Emys
sp., right above the yellow soil and under a terrapreta with a thickness of 25 cm and at
Santarem Ald6a almost at a depth of 1 m, facts which indicate a more or less permanent
habitation

(italics from text; Niumendaju 2004:122)









To conclude his list, Nimuendaju stated that the only possible reason why one would argue

differently is due to the incredible thickness of the soil (up to 1.5 m) at certain sites, which could

raise doubts as to how indigenous groups were able to produce such a quantity of dark earth.

Despite this potential argument, Nimuendaju remained convinced that indigenous peoples were

responsible for the formation of dark earths. This belief would go unchallenged until 1941.

Terra Preta in the "Modern" Age (1940s-1980s)

In the 1940's, Amazonian Dark Earth research began to change as the origin of the soil

came into question. Although this debate may have begun arbitrarily, it is likely that changing

historical attitudes contributed in driving the discussion. It can be argued that with the rise of

modern science, indigenous technologies became viewed as increasingly antiquarian and

obsolete. Moreover, many archaeologists and anthropologists of the era promoted the belief that

environmental constraints inhibited the development of large, complex societies in Amazonia.

From this perspective, the debate of dark earth formation developed as part of the modem

questioning of the indigenous capacity to alter the Amazonian environment on a regional scale.

In 1941, Felisberto Camargo published a study of Amazonian soil profiles in which he

included a description of terra preta. As to the formation of the soil, Camargo proposed the

hypothesis that dark earths may have been the product of deposited volcanic ash (Camargo

1941). Shortly thereafter, Barbosa de Faria, an archaeologist who investigated areas of the

Trombetas and Jamunda Rivers, offered another hypothesis suggesting that floodplain lakes may

have led to the formation of dark earths (Barbosa de Faria 1944). This theory, however, did not

provide an explanation for the formation of dark earths on terra fire, where the majority of

ADE sites are located.

These hypotheses circulated until 1949, when Pierre Gourou, a French geographer, offered

that the soils were of "archaeological" origin. Although Gourou doubted that the contemporary









indigenous peoples could have been responsible for dark earth formation, he made an astute

observation: "the present is not necessarily the image of the past" (Gourou 1949, author's

translation). The idea described by Heckenberger as "cultural uniformitarianism" (i.e.

contemporary indigenous populations are directly analogous to those of the past) appears to have

influenced Gourou's contemporaries who had preferred to opt for "natural" explanations of dark

earth formation (Heckenberger 2004). In contrast, Gourou reasoned that larger indigenous

populations in the past may have been influential in the development of such soils.

Despite Gourou's insight, natural explanations for dark earth formation continued to be

offered. In 1962, Cunha-Franco reformulated the hypothesis offered by Barbosa de Faria (Cunha

Franco 1962). Cunha-Franco argued that closed depressions common throughout the Santarem

planalto had filled with water during the rainy season and formed small lakes or ponds. He

reasoned that indigenous peoples gravitated toward these shallow lakes in the uplands during the

rainy season as they moved away from the floodplain. In this manner, seasonal villages formed

near these lakes and waste was deposited in them including broken pottery, animal bones, and

other organic waste. Cunha-Franco believed that over hundreds of years these shallow

depressions formed dark earth sites.

Italo Falesi continued to shape the discussion of terra preta formation in a 1974 article

published in Charles Wagley'sMan in the Amazon (Falesi 1974). Falesi hypothesized that

during the Tertiary, the massive lake that was created in Amazonia through the rise of the Andes

created extensive deposits of mineral sediments. At the end of the Tertiary, the lake began to

empty into the Atlantic, which drained the basin. According to Falesi's argument, depressed

areas remained filled with water for a time, accumulating aquatic vegetation and other organic









matter. Over time these depressions dried and indigenous groups settled on them, thus producing

the archaeological context as witnessed today" (Falesi 1974).

The movement towards the adoption of "natural" explanations for the occurrence of

Amazonian Dark Earth coincided with the anthropological model of Amazonian indigenous

societies offered at the time. According to the "Tropical Forest Model",16 which was promoted

in the Handbook of .N,,im American Indians (Steward 1946-1959), it was asserted that small,

dispersed, and impermanent settlements were characteristic of Amazonian societies throughout

history (and pre-history). Betty Meggers later became the primary proponent of this model,

arguing that environmental constraints prevented Pre-Columbian populations from developing

large complex societies (see Meggers 1996). Although Meggers recognized that groups like the

Tapaj6 had maintained denser populations and more socially complex polities, she stressed that

they had reached the "maximum level of cultural elaboration" for their given environment

(Ibid.: 149).

Despite the dominant trend of the time to downplay human agency in the Amazon Basin,

other scholars during this period continued to assert that humans played a crucial role in the

formation of dark earth. Wim Sombroek argued that areas of terra preta were sites of former

occupation while the more extensive terra mulata soils were ancient agricultural fields

(Sombroek 1966:175). Other scholars like Hilgard O'Reilly Sternberg and Peter Paul Hilbert

supported similar hypotheses that emphasized the human role in dark earth formation as Herbert

Smith and Curt Nimuendaju had done previously (Sternberg 1956; Sternberg 1975; Hilbert

1968). In the late 1970s, Robert Eidt also contributed important findings on the use of phosphate


15 Falesi has since agreed with the idea that ADE soils are anthropogenic in origin (N. Smith, pers. comm.)
16 Later described as the "standard model" by Viveiros de Castro (Viveiros de Castro 1996: 180), followed by
Heckenberger et al. 1999.









analysis for determining human occupation linked to anthrosols (Eidt 1977). Yet it was not until

the 1980's, following the publishing of Nigel Smith's article "Anthrosols and Human Carrying

Capacity in Amazonia", this human link to Amazonian Dark Earth became more widely accepted

once again (Smith 1980; Woods and Denevan 2007). Contemporary research has concluded that

dark earths are in fact the product of indigenous occupation, although the exact processes by

which they have formed are still disputed.

ADE and the Question of Intentionality (1990s-Present)

As the debate over the natural vs. human-driven explanations for Amazonian Dark Earth

formation has subsided, the question of intentionality has surfaced. Did indigenous groups

intentionally create Amazonian Dark Earth or was it simply an unintentional by-product of their

occupation17? Expanding interdisciplinary research projects oriented by the theoretical

perspectives of historical ecology have sought to trace the ways in which human-environmental

interactions played out in the formation of the Amazonian environment as witnessed today, yet

the question of intentionality in some ways contradicts the very basis of the historical ecology

approach.

One of the principal problems of the question of intentionality is of a philosophical nature.

Oftentimes, the idea of intentionality reflects the assumption that the environment is an inert

object acted upon by people (see Marcoulatos 2006). This notion contradicts the theoretical

groundings of historical ecology, which has been described by Balee as: "...the interpenetration

of culture and the environment, rather than the adaptation of human beings to the environment.

In other words, a relationship between nature and culture is conceived, in principle, as a

dialogue, not a dichotomy" (Balee 1998: 14). Graham identifies this obstacle with regards to


1 Neves et al. attempt to address this issue by distinguishing anthropic and anthropogenic soils (Neves et al. 2003:
35-36).









ADE, stating: "At the level of analysis in which we explore the origins but not the implications

- of dark-earth deposits, I am uncomfortable with intentions, and I do not think we can

disentangle the threads of the association between ADE and human activity if we privilege a

dichotomy of intentionality versus inadvertency." (Graham 2006: 70).

Heckenberger asserts that the debate over intentionality is misdirected or perhaps

unnecessary (pers. comm. 2006). Whether indigenous groups were conscious of the manner in

which they produced dark earth or not, Heckenberger claims that it is obvious that they "mapped

onto" these areas and exploited them. In the Kuikuru villages of the Upper Xingu, it is noted that

contemporary peoples deposit organic waste outside ring plazas and over time, the soil is

enriched (Heckenberger 2004). In a similar manner, the Ka'apor of Eastern Amazonia have

shaped their environment through the development of agro-forestry systems and unique land

management practices, yet they do not express an understanding of the long-term effects of these

practices on their environment (Balee 1994). To further the complicate the issue, Posey reminds

that indigenous groups may have different conceptions of what is "active" or "intentional"

resource management when compared to the ecologists or anthropologists who document their

activities (Posey 1992). For these reasons, it is argued here that rather than ponder the degree to

which indigenous management was intentional or not in the development of dark earths, the

management practices employed by groups is a more appropriate focus of research. Clearly, Pre-

Columbian management practices may only be inferred by researchers, but the fields of

pedology, ethnography, ethnohistory, and archaeology can yield better clues to such hypothetical

practices. Under such reasoning, the question of intentionality can remain an afterthought.

The Development of Contemporary ADE Management Studies

As archaeologists investigate questions related to the formation of dark earths historically,

other scholars are beginning to recognize the value of studying ADE management at present.









Since much of the Amazon basin is occupied today by rural peoples of mixed ethnic

backgrounds (commonly referred to as caboclos), researchers hope to address how contemporary

management practices can improve production of regional soils and how regional farmers may

sustain production on existing dark earths. Although no direct evidence has shown that rural

Amazonians continue to recreate dark earths on a large scale, their management of the soil is

important for understanding both the benefits and shortcomings of agricultural production on

these soils. Moreover, the role of ADE in the livelihoods of rural Amazonians and the

relationship of such soils to agrobiodiversity in the basin require further attention. A case study

presented in the following chapters explores precisely these issues.









CHAPTER 3
CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE LOWER
MADEIRA: A CASE STUDY IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

Introduction

This chapter describes management practices of rural farmers in Borba, focusing on the

ways that management differs on ADE and non-ADE soils18. Practices that are commonly

shared between dark earths and non-dark earth farmers are also discussed, particularly in relation

to contentious issues such as the use of fire in shifting agriculture. Lastly, general conclusions

are drawn about ADE management, noting both the limitations and advantages of agricultural

production on these anthropogenic soils.

Use of Fire

The use of fire by smallholders has become an increasingly controversial issue in

Amazonia. Due to the impact of heightened deforestation and climatic change, researchers have

argued that Amazonian forests are becoming more vulnerable to the threat of fires (Nepstad et al.

2004; Malhi et al. 2008). Nevertheless, the use of fire as a management tool is of an extended

historical tradition in the basin19 (Denevan 2001). Swidden agriculture continues to be the

prominent form of management, requiring clearing and burning of vegetation (see Conklin

1961). Not only does the burning of dried vegetation release nutrient-rich ash, but charcoal from

burned stumps and roots also contribute to fertility as witnessed in Amazonian Dark Earth

(Figure 3-1). The contribution of nutrients from ash, however, is considered to be a short-term

benefit as the majority of farmers interviewed described significant declines in production within



18 Non-ADE soils in this study were nearly all terrafirme Oxisols

19 Denevan describes many Pre-Columbian indigenous practices involving the use of fire, but he argues that swidden
agriculture may be a relatively recent development. According to Denevan, Pre-Columbian agriculture was most
likely more intensive, relying on in-field burning and mulching. The use of fire in practices like "coivara" is likely
to be of an extended historical tradition (see Denevan 2001).









a year or two (see also Nye and Greenland 1964). Some scholars note that nutrients released by

burning are not the only benefit of fire as it also helps to destroy weed seeds (Ewel et al. 1981).

The local head of the state agricultural extension agency in Borba offered a third reason for

burning: it is a simple and effective tool for clearing an area that requires relatively little work.

Descola, amongst others, supports this final conclusion (Descola 1994: 158).

In Borba, all of the farmers interviewed used fire in management of their lands, although

farmers that invested more time and space in the production of annual crops were required to

burn more frequently than those that focused their production largely on perennial fruit trees.

The cultivation of manioc, in particular, usually requires the clearing of new lands every 2 or 3

years due to losses in soil fertility when cultivating on Oxisols. However, recent research by

Fraser has shown that in some communities of the Middle Madeira, farmers have developed

management schemes that allow for continuous cultivation of manioc on ADE soils, thus

requiring less frequent clearing and burning of lands (Fraser et al. 2007). On both types of soils,

the management of perennial crops like cacao prevents the need for frequent burning since such

species can be managed in orchards for extended periods of time.

After initially clearing an area through burning, many farmers acknowledged

implementing the practice of coivara, a post-burn management technique. Coivara consists of

collecting partially burned stumps and roots left in a field after a bum from which a small pile is

formed and burned a second time (Cf. German 2001: 155). This practice allows for the

introduction of charcoal into the soil matrix, a key characteristic of dark earths and their

formation. Farmers acknowledge that these pockets of coivara tend to have greater fertility, and

oftentimes they are treated as microenvironments used to plant crops that have greater nutrient

demands. On a visit to one farm (with a member of IDAM), it was pointed out on a pineapple









plot that the individual plants that fared best were located near a partially-burned tree stump that

had contributed both charcoal and nutrients through the slow release of the tree's decomposed

biomass.

Another method by which rural farmers improve soil fertility is through the use of terra

queimada (burned earth). The making of terra queimada is a practice that is also present in urban

areas in which small sticks and leaf litter are collected in piles outside the home and burned in

the evening. This burned material is mixed with soil, which creates a nutrient rich mix of soil

organic matter, charcoal, and ash (see Winklerprins and Souza 2005: 117-118). The benefits of

terra queimada are well known as one farmer said, "terra queimada e um adubo bom para

qualquerplanta" ("burned earth is a good fertilizer for any plant").

Despite some of the advantages of fire as a management tool, the use of fire is also

perceived locally as a problem. Many individuals claimed that fire could be a detriment to the

soil, particularly if the duration of a burn was too long. Recent campaigns by IDAM have

discouraged burning, particularly in the dry months of the year (July October). Some farmers

who are involved in projects with IDAM have now adopted new management techniques that

seek to lessen the use of fire. One such project promoted by IDAM is the planting of acai

(Euterpe spp.) palms in rows (linhas) through secondary vegetation (capoeira). This

management practice allows smallholders to plant a species that has had considerable

commercial success recently in a manner that prevents the need for burning. This practice has

been largely adopted in the community of Puxurizal just outside the municipal center of Borba,

where farmers tend to have greater contact with officers of IDAM.

Even with the development of new management practices that seek to minimize the use of

fire, it should be reaffirmed that fire remains a primary management tool. IDAM and other









agricultural extension agencies accept this tradition and have tried to promote safe practices that

control burning. Many of the farmers interviewed claimed to make aceiros (firebreaks) to

prevent the spread of fires, although accidents are not uncommon. Despite these accidents, many

farmers feel that they are left with few viable alternatives to burning for clearing and "cleaning"

their lands.

Fertilizers

Farmers interviewed in Borba fertilize their soils with a wide array of materials from

cacao pods to cow manure to NPK. Many farmers, however, simply rely on the existing

nutrients in the soil. In general, individuals that had higher market orientation tended to rely

more upon chemical fertilizers, although highly market-oriented farmers also commonly used

cow manure and organic fertilizers. When comparing those farmers who used chemical

fertilizers with those who did not, farmers using chemical fertilizers averaged 67.4% market

orientation while those who did not averaged only 47.9% market orientation. Independent t-tests

confirm that these differences are statistically significant with 95% confidence (p-value= .019).

A third of farmers interviewed used chemical fertilizers. Within groups, 50.0% of ADE

farmers used chemical fertilizers while only 15.4% of non-ADE farmers made use of them

(Figure 3-2). Fischer's exact test was conducted to test this difference in proportions, yielding a

p-value of .103 or nearly 90% confidence.

Although farmers that managed dark earths used chemical fertilizers more often, this is not

necessarily because of a greater need to enhance fertility. Most ADE farmers alluded that they

used chemical fertilizers on ADE to maximize production of valuable market crops like

watermelon. These claims are supported by the data as all but one of ADE farmers who used

chemical fertilizer produced watermelon. It is also important to mention that data on the exact

amount of chemical fertilizer used by farmers was not recorded at every farm, but of the little









data collected, it appears to be used very minimally, particularly when compared to large-scale

mechanized operations. Most of the farmers using chemical fertilizers only had a few liters of

liquid fertilizer, the most common product being Ouro Verde NPK 6-6-8.

Organic fertilizers were used by only 29.6% of farmers interviewed. Within groups

42.9% of ADE farmers used organic amendments while only 15.4% non-ADE farmers used

them (Figure 3-2). The specific organic fertilizers used tend to vary greatly from farm to farm.

Two farmers mentioned using a mixture of cow manure and rotting wood or mulch (pau), while

others used manioc peels, cacao pods, and other forms of locally available plant biomass. Even

though few farmers used organic fertilizers, many commented on the benefits of mulch, manure,

and rotting wood, as one farmer said, "Old wood (pau velho) and old leaves (folhas velhas) are

the best things in the world for plants".

No fertilizers (chemical or organic) were used by 48.1% of farmers interviewed. 76.9% of

non-ADE farmers used no fertilizers while only 21.4% of ADE farmers used none. This large

number of farmers who used no fertilizers (chemical or organic) is likely attributed to two

principal factors. First, chemical fertilizers are often prohibitively expensive for most

smallholders while the application of organic fertilizers usually requires extra labor (i.e.

processing and distribution of mulch or other plant biomass). Second, the dominant crop of the

Amazon, manioc, requires no fertilizer for successful production under shifting cultivation.

Crop Rotation and Shifting Cultivation

Upland shifting agriculture remains the primary agricultural land-use system in

Amazonia. It is reported to contribute to upwards of 80% of the region's total food production

(Serrdo 1995: 267). In the municipality of Borba, the majority of farmers interviewed practiced,

at least in part, a form of shifting cultivation. Few farmers who were interviewed managed to

cultivate annual crops on the same plots for extended periods of time. As a general rule, farmers









cultivated annual crops in a field (plantio or rogado) for 2 years and then abandoned it for at

least 2 to 7 years. Many ADE farmers who planted watermelon complained that the soil simply

could not withstand more than a couple of years of production without suffering serious declines.

On Oxisols, manioc was often the primary crop cultivated, which was also usually only planted

for 2 years, consisting of the initial planting and a second planting known as the "replanta".

No farmers described having any management strategies that involved crop rotation to

recuperate mined soils after a year of particularly demanding cropping. However, many farmers,

particularly those on ADE, adopted less demanding crops or perennials after several years of

production of watermelon. Several farmers had planted watermelon for years on their ADE sites,

but after what they perceived as declines in soil fertility, they opted to plant cacao and other

perennials instead. One ADE farmer focused on cucurbits, beans, and corn before moving on to

less demanding crops like manioc and acai as described in my fieldnotes here:

In terms of production, Ataliba said he would plant the terra preta with manioc and would
"replantar" [replant] for another 2 years. He said that in the terra preta, the manioc tubers
would become quite large, but adubo de gado [cow manure] was necessary also. In the
past he said he had also planted corn on terra preta as well as watermelon, cucumbers, and
feijao de praia [beans]. He said that thefeijao did quite well (a variety he described as
manteguinha which is white). Nonetheless, after 25 years of production on and off, he felt
that the soil was pretty worn out and with the rain water that carried topsoil down to the
igarapd [small stream], the soil was bound to lose its productive capacity. He also
mentioned in the summer, it would get pretty dried out... He mentioned planting acai in
the future like many of the other farmers I met in the area.

Similarly, another ADE farmer reported to have produced watermelon for several years on his

land before he felt that the soil couldn't handle it any longer. He believed that the use of

herbicide had contributed to the decline in fertility. For this reason, he shifted management

towards less demanding perennials including cacao, soursop (Annona muricata), banana, and

agai.









Weeding

As noted by previous dark earth scholars (German 2001, 2003; Major et al. 2003), the

proliferation of weeds on dark earths is one of the soil's major disadvantages. Due to the

heightened fertility of the soils, weeds thrive in areas quickly after clearing, sometimes

threatening to choke out managed species if not properly tended to. Some farmers interviewed

managed large fruit orchards in which shade helped to block out the majority of insistent weeds,

but this would only occur after plants had begun to fully mature (usually 3 to 4 years). For those

that managed annual crops, the use of herbicide was quite common. A third of farmers

interviewed reported to use herbicides. 50% of farmers on ADE soils used herbicides while only

15.4% of non-ADE farmers used them (Figure 3-2). Fisher's exact test was conducted to

analyze this difference in proportions, yielding a p-value of .103. Despite common use of

herbicides among farmers, particularly those managing ADE, some individuals felt that

herbicides inhibited the soil's fertility as one declared: "a herbicidaprejudica a terra e

enfraquece o solo" ("Herbicide harms the earth and weakens the soil").

For ADE farmers that did not use herbicides for reasons that were either personal or

financial, it was said that more frequent clearing was necessary for ADE soils than Oxisols or

Ultisols. It was noted on numerous occasions: "a terrapreta cerra muito" ("terra preta weeds up

a lot"). Due to the tendency of weeds to grow more quickly on dark earths, ADE farmers that

managed larger areas of land often described a need for either more labor or machinery in able to

combat the proliferation of weeds. One farmer even inquired if I could use my contacts with the

local agricultural extension agency to acquire a weedwacker for him as he was tired of fighting

unruly invasive plants.









Controlling Pests, Fungus, and Disease

Of the many obstacles that smallholders must face, controlling pests and disease may be

one of the most challenging. In the context of this analysis, it must be stressed that pests and

disease present problems that affect all farms and all soils. That being said, farmers that

maintain large mono-cultural plots are usually vulnerable to specific types of diseases and pests

attracted to those individual crops. Here, some of the more common threats that were either

encountered or described by farmers from this study are examined.

Mites, referred to as dcaro, are a common problem for farmers in the Amazon, particularly

for those who produce papayas. The two most common mites affecting papayas in Brazil are the

broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

(Viera et al. 2004; Collier et al. 2004). Broad mites tend to attack terminal buds while the two-

spotted spider mites usually feed on older leaves, which yellow and eventually drop (Collier et

al. 2004). In the latter case, fruits usually receive greater exposure to the sun, which can have

undesirable affects on fruit production. In Borba, few farmers mentioned this specific pest, but

during a visit to a papaya orchard in Iranduba near Manaus in 2003, a researcher at INPA

informed that mites were an increasing problem for papaya farmers in the Central Amazon

(Newton Falcdo, pers. comm., 2003).

In the case of bananas, sigatoka and Panama disease (mal do Panama) are the most

common threats. Unfortunately, there are no existing pesticides to combat sigatoka or Panama

disease, although it has been found that sigatoka can be controlled by planting bananas in shade

(C. Clement pers. comm., 2006). EMBRAPA, the Brazilian Agricultural Corporation, has also









tried to address these problems by developing cloned bananas, which have better production and

are highly-resistant to such diseases20

For cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuacu (T. grandiflorum) production, witches' broom

is the primary threat. In the state of Bahia, cacao plantations have been devastated by this

disease. The high humidity of the Amazonian climate is also considered to be conducive to the

propogation of the causal agent, Crinipellisperniciosa (Purdy and Schmidt 1996). In this study,

one family mentioned planting cacao in plots that were 2.5m x 3m and they said it may have

been better to space the trees out in a 4m x 4m arrangement to give them room to develop and

allow for better circulation of air.

Anthracnose, caused by a fungal pathogen, was cited as another frequent disease. To be

specific, the term anthracnose actually refers to a group of diseases caused by infection of fungi,

one of the most common being the genus Colletotrichum (Agrios 2005: 487). Anthracnose can

affect a whole host of plants on Amazonian farms, from avocados to passion fruit to watermelon.

Many farmers who produced watermelon talked specifically about this problem. Since

watermelon was produced only on ADE, it is important to recognize that despite the fertility of

dark earths, production is complicated by other factors like anthracnose. Since anthracnose is

caused by fungi, this also inhibits the number of years one can produce on a plot as the fungi will

becoming increasingly concentrated in the soil through time.

In this study, farmers managing large monoculture plots of pineapple encountered

problems with what is known locally as cochonilha or pineapple mealy bug (Dysmicoccus

brevipes). On one visit to the community of Puxurizal, the municipal head of IDAM identified

damage characteristic of cochonilha on 3 different farms. The pineapple plants had begun to

20 Despite the productive benefits of cloned bananas, several people in the municipal center claimed to avoid buying
them due to an aversion to their taste.









yellow and when the base of the plant was examined closely, a white pasty substance was

present. The head of IDAM said the same problem had occurred at his pineapple plot at the

IDAM office in Borba and that it could be fixed relatively easily with a product known as

Folisuper. Although affected pineapple can recuperate from the damage, many farmers do not

always have the necessary pesticides to salvage their crop.

In many visits to farms, queima (burning) and broca were general terms employed to

describe the effects of pests, fungus, and disease. On guava and soursop, one farmed said that

broca could be combated by spraying the trees with horse urine. An IDAM officer also

mentioned that the fruits of soursop trees affected by broca can be wrapped with plastic bags as

they begin to mature in order to protect them from the disease. Unfortunately, queima and broca

are blanket terms that subsume a great variation of diseases that affect different crops on rural

Amazonian farms. While farmers are able to combat some recognized forms of queima and

broca, many individuals would benefit from expertise of regional agronomists in identifying

specific diseases and pests.

In regards to pests, leaf-cutter ants and other bugs including the cascudinho were

commonly cited problems for farmers in Borba. A type of grasshopper known as the gafanhoto

soldado was another frequently described pest. Some farmers mentioned using pesticides known

as Mirex and Folisuper. Another farmer said he simply used boiling water to handle larger pests

like the grasshoppers.

Chemical pesticides were used in some form by 48.1% of the farmers interviewed (50%

of ADE farmers and 46.2% of non-ADE farmers; Figure 3-2). Agrochemical products used to

combat pests and pathogens by farmers of Borba included Decis, Tamaron, Ditane, and

Folisuper. Tamaron, specifically, is one of the more dangerous products and is considered very









toxic. Although specific data on the amount of such products used by farmers was not collected

for every farm, some individual farmers offered such information. The farmer from the highest

market-oriented farm said he had used over 30 kg of pesticide and herbicide in one season of

watermelon production. He said his crew sprayed 2 times a week during the raining season and

once a week during the dry season. He mentioned that Ditane was especially good for the wet

season. This specific farm was the most extreme case in use of pesticides; most others used

pesticides sparingly if at all.

Issues of Water, Climate, and Seasonal Variation

As in most of the Amazon Basin, the region surrounding Borba is subject to two distinct

seasons: the dry season (a dpoca de seca; verdo) and the wet season (a epoca de chuva; inverno).

The rhythm of life in the region is defined by this seasonality, which affects fishing, hunting, and

of course, farming. All of the farms visited during this research relied upon rain for irrigation.

On many occasions, farmers expressed how the reliance on rain-fed irrigation was another factor

that complicated production. One ADE farmer who produced watermelon shared the following:

Every year the -"i'/ iJ" [summer or dry season] arrives at a different time of the year. The
year before [2006] it had been raining up until June. This year, summer arrived early and
we probably would have been better off if we had planted in March instead of April. The
problem that we are now facing is that when the dry season really hits its peak, the soil
dries out, but the plantation really needs some rain water if the watermelons are going to
reach good form before the harvest. (Tigre ADEfarmer fom Puxurizal)

Although ADE is recognized for retaining moisture better than upland Oxisols probably due to

ADE's higher levels of organic matter, farmers still complained that in the summer the soil dried

out. One farmer shared the following: "Quando o verdo bate, a terra fica muito seca e producdo

ndo e tdo bom, mesmo na terra preta. S6 na vdrzea que e bom porque e humedo." (When the

summer hits, the land dries out and production isn't very good, not even on terra preta. Only on

the varzea is [production] good because it's moist). Another farmer suggested that dark earths









are generally more fertile and can produce crops like corn and beans except during the height of

the dry season (no verdo forte), when the drought limits production on the uplands.

Many of the farmers discussed the fertility of the varzea, which was seen to be the most

fertile soil in the region, although many farmers said the varzea was relatively limited near Borba

and only opened into larger stretches close to the upriver town of Manicore. Despite its fertility,

the varzea is also risky for agriculture since the floods vary greatly from year to year in their

timing and extent. This irregularity can be very problematic for those farmers who depend

strictly on varzea agriculture. Although farmers who cultivate upland soils are not exposed to

the same degree of risk, they too are greatly affected by yearly variation in the arrival of the rains

and the intensity of the dry season. With increased climatic variation expected as a result of

global warming, increased irregularities in rainfall and extended droughts will further complicate

smallholder agricultural production in Amazonia.

Primary Crops

Perhaps the most notable way in which management differed on the ADE and non-ADE

farms is related to the market crops farmers produced. Four of the market crops that reflect these

critical differences are manioc, watermelon, papaya, and cacao (Figure 3-3). These crops and

their relationship to ADE and non-ADE management are discussed here.

Manioc (Manihot esculenta)

Manioc is the primary staple crop of the Amazon. Oftentimes when rural farmers first

clear a piece of land, manioc is the crop to be planted first. The plant is uniquely adapted to

Oxisols of the Amazon due to its resistance to aluminum toxicity and low pH (see Moran 1973:

36). When planting, farmers stress digging a deep hole (cova) to place the manioc cuttings.

Depending upon the variety of manioc and the growing conditions, the manioc tubers are usually

mature within 8 to 12 months on terra firme and 5 to 7 months on the floodplain. Bitter manioc









varieties are processed for the production offarinha (manioc flour), a staple food of the Amazon.

Oftentimes, farmers stagger the harvest of tubers from a field and process the flour in stages

(every two weeks to a month)21. Tubers of certain varieties can remain in the ground upon

maturity for up to 12 months or more without rotting, and by processing little by little, manioc

flour sold in the local markets can bring income into the household over an extended period of

time. In addition to manioc flour, bitter manioc also yields tucupi22 and tapioca. Sweet manioc

(macaxeira) can be processed to produce a different variety of manioc flour or the tubers can be

sold whole without processing due to the low quantities of poisonous cyanic compounds that are

more concentrated in bitter manioc.

Contrary to the findings of Hiraoka and German, many farmers interviewed in this study

claimed that manioc produced well in Dark Earth soils, however only two of the individuals

managing ADE had manioc on their lands at the time of the study. Some individuals claimed

that manioc produced better in dark earths than Oxisols, but no quantitative data was collected to

confirm such claims. Many farmers claimed dark earths to be "softer" (maisfofa) or "looser"

(mais solta), characteristics considered locally to be favorable for manioc production. One

individual, however, claimed that he had only planted manioc on dark earth one year because he

found that the stalks and leaves of the plant had developed well, but the tubers did not mature.

This claim coincides with experiences of some of the farmers that Laura German interviewed in

the Rio Negro region (German 2001; German 2003). Howeler notes that manioc can be very

sensitive to over-fertilization and in certain instances, very fertile soils can cause plants to be

excessively leafy (Howeler 1980: 63). Another farmer from this study complained that manioc

21 This is also common amongst Amerindian groups as described by Carneiro amongst the Kuikuru of the Upper
Xingu (Carneiro 1957).
22 Tucupi is the liquid extracted from the bitter manioc when pressed. Boiling the liquid eliminates its toxic
elements cyanicc compounds) yielding a sauce commonly used in regional cuisine.









tubers planted in dark earths rotted too quickly due to the humidity of the soil. This problem

could be addressed by adopting manioc varieties from the floodplain that are better suited for

moist conditions. Fraser reports that communities in the municipality of Manicore do precisely

this, producing manioc in shorter periods of time than is customary on the terra firme, with as

little as 5 or 6 months depending on the cultivar (J. Fraser pers. comm. 2007).

In general, farmers participating in this study reported to manage manioc fields (roqados)

for 2 to 3 years, before letting the land go fallow from anywhere between 2 to 7 years. Despite

the heightened fertility of dark earths, most farmers managing these soils claimed that continuous

cultivation beyond 3 years was difficult due to the "weakening" of the soil. Interestingly, in the

municipality of Manicore, James Fraser has found that some communities have cultivated

manioc on the same dark earth soils for more than 30 years with short fallows of 2 years. What

may explain these seemingly contradictory experiences is that the communities studied by Fraser

invest their time primarily in manioc production, which through time has allowed for the

adoption of landraces that produce greater yields in that unique soil environment. For the

individuals interviewed in this study, other crops with greater market value (e.g. watermelon,

papaya, cacao) were the primary focus of production, and manioc production was oftentimes

secondary, perhaps explaining the less intensive management practices developed in association

with the crop. Since ADE soils tend to suffer from weed proliferation, it is probable that

communities that have more intense weeding practices are able to sustain manioc production on

ADE as weed control is also cited as one of primary determinants in obtaining high manioc

yields (Toro M. and Atlee 1980: 13).

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

Within the state of Amazonas, the Rio Madeira region is known as a major producer of

watermelon. For regional farmers, the production of watermelon is seen as a lucrative enterprise,









although it is also considered a risky one. On several occasions, analogies were made between

watermelon production and gold mining, activities in which some individuals strike it rich and

others go broke. One particular farmer lamented having invested so much time and energy in

watermelon the year prior as he claimed to suffer a large financial loss in a failed crop.

Watermelon was produced by 25.9% of farmers interviewed, all of which planted the crop

on dark earths. Since watermelon is a relatively demanding crop in terms of soil nutrients, dark

earths are considered particularly adapted for its cultivation. This belief is supported by German

who reported that farmers in the area of Acutuba (near Manaus) also favored dark earths for

watermelon cultivation (German 2001; also cited in Clement et al. 2003). An added benefit of

producing watermelon on dark earths on terra fire is that the crop can be harvested by June or

July when market prices are particularly high and the varzea is still flooded. The other part of

the watermelon destined for the market is planted on the varzea, which isn't harvested until

September. Dark earths, whose fertility parallels that of the varzea, hold a unique advantage for

the production of watermelon. As such, dark earths can be considered a terra firme analog of the

nutrient rich varzea soils.

Watermelons are usually planted in a 3x3m scheme with their holes (covas) measuring

approximately 40x40cm. As mentioned earlier, most of the ADE farmers utilize chemical

fertilizer in watermelon production despite the heightened fertility of the anthropogenic soils.

Oftentimes, West Indian Gherkin, another cucurbit, is planted alongside watermelon and

harvested at the same time.

As in the case of manioc, watermelon is seen to tire the soil quickly. Most farmers claimed

that they were unable to plant on the same clearing for more than a few years before

experiencing significant declines in production. What is perhaps a greater obstacle to planting









watermelon on dark earths in terra fire are pests and fungal diseases, such as anthracnose.

Unfortunately, many farmers are unequipped to combat such pests and fungus, and suffer losses

in production as a result. In this case, greater technical assistance is needed to help local farmers

address these obstacles to production.

Papaya (Carica papaya)

Papayas, like watermelon, are a popular crop for market production on dark earths. In the

town of Iranduba many farmers cultivate papaya for the market in the nearby capital of Manaus

(Falcdo and Borges 2006; Hiraoka et al. 2003; Clement et al. 2003; McCann 2003). Similarly,

several dark farmers in the municipality of Borba plant papaya, largely producing for the market

in Manaus as well. For market production, mamdo havai (Hawaiian Solo papaya) was the most

common variety managed, usually planted in a 2.5 x 3m scheme. On average, 1 ha of papaya

yield 25 tons per year (IDAM Borba, pers. comm.).

In the communities of Puruzinho, Caicara, and Mucaja, papayas were found on dark earth

farms. Outside of dark earth soils, papayas were usually only cultivated in homegardens. Of the

8 farms where papayas were found during this study, 7 of these were dark earth sites.

Papaya seeds are bird dispersed and can often be found as volunteers in fields and

homegardens where soils are relatively fertile. As such, dark earths are excellent candidates for

their spontaneous establishment (Clement et al. 2003). Families will often leave the plants after

they have established themselves in the garden and pick their fruits.

Cacao (Theobroma cacao)

Cacao, one of Amazonia's most economically valuable fruits, was found in 51.9% of

farms visited during this study. 71.4% of ADE farms managed cacao while 30.8% of non-ADE

farms managed the fruit. Although cacao has greater nutrient demands than many of the

perennial fruit trees that grow in poor acid soils of the Amazon, their production is possible on









Oxisols, particularly when managed under shade (Cabala-Rosand et al. 1989: 409). It is notable

that 70% of the ADE farmers planting cacao were participants in cacao projects sponsored by

CEPLAC (Comissdo Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira). Many factors can determine

the economic crops chosen by farmers, including not only their market price and productivity in

a given edaphic environment, but also the subsidies or loans available for producing such crops

through government programs. The latter reason appeared to have been a strong motivation for

the production of cacao for farmers in this study as they were offered up to as much as R$30,000

(approximately $15,000 U.S. dollars at the time of study) over a 5 year period of production.

Most farmers interviewed planted cacao in a 3x3m scheme. In general, trees were

reported to begin bearing fruit after the third or fourth year of planting. Cloned cacao varieties

were used largely by CEPLAC project participants to avoid problems with witches' broom and

similar fungal diseases. Nonetheless, some farmers had plantations suffering from an

unidentified disease. One father and son had hypothesized that they had planted the cacao trees

too close together and fungi were able to thrive.

Conclusions

For the majority of farmers interviewed, the primary benefit of Amazonian Dark Earth is

its ability to produce nutrient-demanding crops with relatively little inputs over the short term

(from 2 to 3 years). Watermelon, corn, beans, papayas, West Indian gherkin, and cucumbers are

all crops that farmers claimed to produce well on ADE, but performed poorly in non-ADE soils.

Despite this benefit, the majority of farmers interviewed also concluded that without inputs (i.e.

fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides), sustained production on a single plot was extremely

challenging after two years due to complications related to weeds, pests, and disease, regardless

of the soil that was being managed (ADE or non-ADE). As Denevan notes "..even on good

soils, a field may be fallowed in forest, bush, or grass when labor inputs for weeding become









excessive or when crop losses to pests become excessive" (Denevan 2001: 45). Thus, without

ecologically-sound multi-cropping arrangements, crop rotation strategies, or labor intensive

management, ADE soils are no more likely to yield sustainable agriculture systems than

surrounding Oxisols of the region.












































Figure 3-1. Burned secondary vegetation in a field in Jatuarana near the town ofBorba. The
owner was intending to plant manioc in September (July 2007).










% of Farmers Using Inputs on ADE and
Non-ADE Farms in Borba, AM, Brazil


90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%




/C


mADE
m Non-ADE


90"


Figure 3-2. Differences in input use among ADE and Non-ADE farmers


% of ADE and Non-ADE Farmers Producing
Manioc, Watermelon, Papaya, and Cacao

100.00%

80.00%

60.00% ADE

40.00% Non-ADE

20.00% -

0.00%
Manioc Watermelon Papaya Cacao


Figure 3-3. Differences in crop management on ADE and non-ADE farms









CHAPTER 4
MARKET PRODUCTION AND AGROBIODIVERISITY ON AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH
FARMS IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

Introduction

This chapter draws on empirical data to identify differences in market production and

agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms in the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil.

This chapter also discusses ADE's unique relationship to Pre-Columbian agrobiodiversity and its

advantages for market production in contemporary Amazonia. Finally, the relationship between

market production and agrobiodiversity is examined here, allowing for comparison with past

studies from Amazonia and other regions of the world that have attempted to determine the

effect of markets on the agrobiodiversity of rural farms.

Market Orientation

To determine the market orientation for each individual farm, the total area of crops

destined for markets was divided by the total area of cultivation at the time of the study,

disregarding land left fallow. Data collection was complicated by the fact that many farmers did

not manage discrete plots of market crops and non-market crops. In fact, several farmers

maintained mixed agroforestry systems in which orchards of cacao, soursop, citrus, and other

fruits were interplanted. In such polycultural orchards, some of the crops were destined for

markets while others were maintained for subsistence, and yet others fulfilled both roles.

Moreover, annual crops like manioc were often produced for both subsistence and local markets,

making approximations of the area dedicated to market production difficult. In many instances,

the area of market crops on large mixed agroforestry plots was designated at one half (.5).

Fortunately, farmers with higher market orientations tended to have more distinct cropping

patterns, thus allowing for more precise data collection on these farms.









In comparing means for market orientation, ADE farms averaged 61% market orientation

while non-ADE farms averaged only 47.3% (Table 4-4 and Table 4-5). Independent t-tests

confirm that these means are significant with 95% confidence (p=.023), demonstrating that ADE

farms from this sample have greater orientation towards the market. These data are also

supported by a comparison of the target markets of individual farms in which 50% of ADE

farmers produced for the primary regional market of Manaus compared to only 15.4% of non-

ADE farmers. This higher market orientation on ADE farms may be due in part to the fact that

many agriculturalists that focus on production for larger markets tend to seek out ADE soils in

order to exploit their fertility. This trend is remarked on by other researchers that conducted past

management studies, specifically German (German 2003: 196). However, it is also reasonable to

believe that due to the heightened fertility of ADE soils, smallholders are able to produce

nutrient-demanding species with higher market values, which in turn may increase their

production for the market. Since most of the communities in this study are located near the Rio

Madeira, market access is relatively favorable as boats traveling to Manaus pass daily (Figure 4-

1).

Agrobiodiversity Results

A total of 83 different species of plants were identified on the 27 farms surveyed23 (Table

4-1). The most common species found on the farmers surveyed were acai (n=22), banana

(n=19), orange (n=17), lemon (n=17), manioc (n=17), mango (n=17), and cupuacu (Theobroma

grandiflorum) (n=16). Acai, mango, lemon, orange, banana, and jambo (Eugenia malaccensis)

were the most frequent species found in homegardens while manioc, acai, bananas, and cacao

were the most common species found in agricultural plots, which consider both perennial and


23It was not possible to collect homegarden data at 4 of the 27 farms, thus total species and homegarden species
statistics are based on a sample of 23 farms.









annual crop plots. On ADE soils specifically, acai (n=l 1), bananas (n=l 1), oranges (n=10), and

cacao (n=10) were the most common species while on non-ADE soils, manioc24 (n=15), acai

(n=l 1), cashew (n=9), and banana (n=8) were the most frequent.

Regarding differences in agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms, the data do not

support the idea that ADE farms are more diverse than non-ADE farms. In analysis of the

overall agrobiodiversity on farms in which both homegardens and swiddens were considered,

ADE farms averaged 18.83 species with a standard deviation of 8.35 (Table 4-2) while non-ADE

soils averaged 17.36 species with a standard deviation of 6.18 (Table 4-3). With regards to the

species managed in homegardens, non-ADE soils maintained a higher average of 14.64 species

(std. deviation 4.86) while ADE gardens averaged 13.42 species (std. deviation 5.83). However,

on agricultural plots, ADE farms had higher means, averaging 8.14 species compared to 5.62

species on non-ADE farms. To evaluate the significance of these differences, independent t-tests

were conducted. Results for the independent t-tests (equal variances not assumed) reveal that the

differences in means of species between ADE and non-ADE farms are not significant (t =.482;

p=.635).

Agrobiodiversity and ADE

Amazonian Dark Earths are believed to represent potentially unique reservoirs of

economically important species that were managed by indigenous groups during the Pre-

Columbian era (Clement et al. 2003). Despite this, ADE farms also demonstrate a greater

capacity to support nutrient demanding exotics that otherwise suffer on regional Oxisols, which

is evidenced in ADE farmers' production of crops like watermelon and West Indian Gherkin. As

described in the last chapter, ADE farmers may manage different market crops than those

24 This figure exceeds the number of total non-ADE farms (n=13) because 3 ADE farmers plant manioc in non-ADE
soils.









individuals who farm on Oxisols, but the above data do not support the notion that ADE farmers

manage greater agrobiodiversity.

Many farmers and researchers believe that abandoned ADE plots harbor concentrations of

specific indicator species that are reflective of past management. Some of the species cited as

indicators are tucuma (Astrocaryum spp.), babacu (Orbignya phalerata25), caiaue (Elaeis

oleifera), cacao (Theobroma cacao), and Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) (McCann 1999;

German 2003). In Borba, specifically, many farmers said that largepalhais (stands of palms

used for thatch, usually babacu) were often indicative of abandoned dark earths (see Moran

1993: 69). Babacu was noted in great concentrations at many abandoned ADE plots visited as

well as some that were viewed from afar during boat trips made with IDAM. Another palm

commonly associated with ADE in the Lower Madeira is caiaue, an endemic palm species,

which bears fruits that can be used for oil (J. Fraser pers. comm. 2006; also see Moran 1993: 69).

Urucuri (Attalea excelsa) is yet another common indicator on dark earths in the Madeira region

(J. Fraser, pers. comm. 2008). Thus, while ADE farmers may take advantage of ADE to produce

nutrient-demanding exotics (e.g. watermelon, West Indian gherkin), many abandoned stretches

of ADE maintain thick stands of native palms from the region. Further research is necessary to

better understand the floristic composition and historical ecology of such abandon ADE plots.

The Relationship between Agrobiodiversity and Market Orientation

Rural smallholders are considered to be in a particularly unique position to manage and

maintain agrobiodiversity due to their relationship with the market economy, which is neither

completely committed nor entirely detached. The dependence of smallholders on local natural

resources for medicines, construction materials, and food sources allows for the maintenance of a


25 Also classified as Attalea speciosa. (Henderson 1995)









wide variety of economically important species, many of which are classified as endemic

species. Although not all evidence suggests that penetration of markets will lead to a

degradation of genetic and species diversity on regional farms, concern over agrobiodiversity

loss, particularly on ADE soils, is not unwarranted (Clement et al. 2003).

Interestingly, research by Major et al. has shown that ADE farms with lower market

orientation in the Lower Rio Negro region reflected negligible difference in overall

agrobiodiversity when compared with farms of higher market orientation as a result of the

maintenance of species-rich homegardens (Major et al. 2005). In this study, which sampled

farms considerably farther from the regional market of Manaus, the results reflect a relatively

ambiguous relationship between market orientation and agrobiodiversity. Linear regression fails

to reveal statistically significant relationship between market orientation (independent variable)

and agrobiodiversity (dependent variable) when considering all farms (r2= .028) or ADE and

non-ADE farms individually (r2=.183; r2=.182, respectively). Figure 4-2 depicts this relationship

between market orientation and agrobiodiversity for the entire sample (both ADE and non-

ADE). Although increased market orientation does not appear to have a negative effect

agrobiodiversity in this sample, it is highly probable that this is due to the fact that these farmers

are all smallholders. Certainly, large-scale mechanized operations that produce strictly for the

market tend to manage monocultures while smallholders who may even dedicate a large portion

of their land to market crops still maintain diverse gardens and orchards that they maintain for

their own subsistence.

Conclusions

From these data it is shown that ADE farms in this study tended to have greater market

orientation than non-ADE farms. This distinction is evidenced in the specific crops produced by

ADE farmers, the markets which they targeted, and the proportion of land that they dedicated to









market production. Despite this difference, the data do not demonstrate any significant

differences in the agrobiodiversity managed on ADE and non-ADE farms. Moreover, no

distinctive relationship could be drawn between market orientation and agrobiodiversity for the

farms (both ADE and non-ADE) visited in this study.


Figure 4-1. Watermelons from an ADE farm outside of Borba's municipal center are loaded on
to a river boat destined for Manaus (July 2007).











Table 4-1. Species surveyed on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil
Family Scientific Name Local English Name Total Plot HG. Forest ADE Non- Native/
Common freq. Freq. Freq. Spp. freq. ADE Exotic
Name (n=23) (n=27) (n=23) freq.


Anacardiaceae


Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae

Anacardiaceae
Annonaceae
Annonaceae
Annonaceae
Annonaceae

Apiaceae


Apocynaceae

Arecaceae

Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Arecaceae


Anacardium
occidentale
Mangifera indica
Spondias mombim

Spondias spp.
Annona muricata
Rollinia mucosa
Annona squamosa
Annona montana

Coriandrum
sativum L.

Himatanthus
sucuuba
Euterpe oleracea;
Euterpe precatoria
Bactris gasipaes
Astrocaryum spp.
Oenocarpus bacaba
Cocos nucifera
Attalea maripa
Oenocarpus bataua
Orbignya phalerata
Mauritia flexuosa
Attalea attaleoides
Attalea phalerata
Elaeis oleifera


Caju Cashew 14 7 11 0 5 9 Native


Manga
Taperebi;
caja
Cajarana
Graviola
Biribi
Ata
Araticum

Cheiro
Verde;
Coentro
Sucuba


Mango
Hog Plum



Soursop



Mountain
Soursop
Cilantro


Aqai


Pupunha
Tucumi
Bacaba
C6co
Inaja
Pataua
Babacu
Buriti
Palha Branca
Urucuri
Caiaue


Exotic
Native

Exotic
Native
Native
Native
Native


1 0


1 0


1 0 0 1 Exotic


1 0 0 1 Native


22 14 20 1


11 11 Native


Peach Palm
Star Nut Palm


Coconut










American Oil
Palm


Native
Native
Native
Exotic
Native
Native
Native
Native
Native
Native
Native











Table 4-1. Continued


Scientific Name Local
Common
Name


Asteraceae
Bignoniaceae
Bixaceae
Brassicaceae

Bromeliaceae
Caricaceae
Clusiaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae
Dioscoreaceae
S Euphorbiaceae


Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae

Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae

Lamiaceae
Lauraceae
Lauraceae

Lecythidaceae
Liliaceae


Acmella oleracea Jambu
Crescentia cujete Cuia
Bixa orellana Urucum
Brassica oleracaea Couve
L.
Ananas comosus Abacaxi
Carica papaya Mamio
Platonia insignis Bacuri
Citrullus lanatus Melancia
Cucumis anguria L. Maxixe

Cucurbita spp. Jerimum
Dioscorea trifida Card
Manihot esculenta Mandioca;
Krantz Maniva;
Macaxeira


Hevea spp.
Inga edulis


Seringa
Inga, ingi
cip6


Inga cinnamomea Ingi aqu
Cassia leiandra Marimari
Derris spp.; Timb6
Lonchocarpus spp.
Hyptis crenata. Salva de Maraj(
Persea americana Abacate
Licania puchuri- Puxuri


English Name Total Plot


Calabash
Annato



Pineapple
Papaya


Watermelon
West Indian
Gherkin
Squash


Manioc;
Cassava

Rubber
Ice cream
bean





6
Avocado


major
Bertholettia excelsa Castanha Brazil Nut
Allium Cebolinha Chives
schooenoprasum L.


freq. Freq.
(n=23) (n=27)
1 0
6 0
3 1
1 0


HG. Forest ADE Non- Native/


Freq.
(n=23)
1
6
2
1


Spp.


freq. ADE
freq.
0 1
5 1
2 1
0 1


1 0
11 5
11 5


Family


Exotic


Native
Native
Native
Exotic

Native
Native
Native
Exotic
Exotic

Native
Native
Native


Native
Native

Native
Native
Native

Native
Native
Native

Native
Exotic











Table 4-1. Continued


Family


Scientific Name Local
Common
Name


Malphigiaceae

Malphigiaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae

Malvaceae
Meliaceae
Monimiaceae
Moraceae

Musaceae
Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae

Myrtaceae
Oxalidaceae

Papilionaceae
Passifloraceae
Piperaceae

Poaceae


Poaceae

Poaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae


Malphigia glabra Acerola


Byrsonima


Murici


English Name Total Plot


Barbados
Cherry
Nance


crassif6lia
Hibiscus sabdariffa Vinagreira
L.
Theobroma Cupuaqu
grandiflorum
Theobroma cacao Cacau Cacao
Carapa guianensis Andiroba
Peumus boldus Boldo
Artocarpus Jaca Jackfruit
integrifolia
Musa spp. Banana Banana
Psidium guajava Goiaba Guava
Eugenia Jambo Malay ap
malaccensis
Eugenia cuminii Azeitona
Averrhoa Carambola Starfruit


freq. Freq. Freq.
(n=23) (n=27) (n=23)
3 0 3


1 0

1 0

16 8


19
12
pie 13

4
2


carambola
Dipterex odorata Cumaru Tonka bean 1
Passifloria edulis Maracuja Passion Fruit 1
Piper nigrum L. Pimenta do Black Pepper 1


Cymbopogon
citratus


reino
Capim
cheiroso;
Capim santo


Saccharum Cana de
officinarum L. aqucar
Zea mays Milho
Coffea spp. Caf6
Genipa americana Genipapo


Citronella; 4
lemon grass

Sugarcane 2


Corn
Coffee


HG. Forest ADE Non- Native/


Spp. freq. ADE
freq.
0 2 1


Exotic


Native


1 0 0 1 Native

1 0 0 1 Exotic

12 0 8 8 Native


Native
Native
Exotic
Exotic

Exotic
Native
Exotic

Exotic
Exotic

Native
Native
Exotic


0 4 0 2 2 Exotic


1 0 2 0 Exotic


Native
Exotic
Native











Table 4-1. Continued


Family


Scientific Name


Rubiaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Rutaceae
Sapindaceae
Sapindaceae

Sapotaceae
Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Solanaceae

Zingiberaceae


Alibertia edulis
Citrus
Citrus sinensis
Citrus reticulata
Ruta spp.
Citrus aurantifolia
Paullinia cupana
Nephelium
lappaceum
Pouteria caimito
Capiscum chinensis

Solanum
sessiflorum
Capiscum spp.

Capiscum chinensis

Lycopersicon
esculentum Mill.
Capiscum annuum
L.
Zingiber officinale


English Name


Lemon
Orange
Tangerine


Lime


Total
freq.
(n=23)
2
17
17
6
1
1
1
1


Plot
Freq.
(n=27)
1
3
6
2
0
0
0
1


HG. Forest ADE Non- Native/


Freq.
(n=23)
2
16
15
5
1
1
1
0


Spp. freq. ADE
freq.
0 1 1
0 9 8
0 10 7
0 3 3
0 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 0


Local
Common
Name
Purui
Limio
Laranja
Tangerina
Arruda
Lima
Guarand
Rambutan

Abiu
Pimenta
malagueta
Cubiu

Pimenta do
cheiro
Pimenta
murupi
Tomate

Pimentao

Gengibre;
Magarataia


3 0 3 0 0 3 Native


Sweet pepper


5 3


4 0 3 2 Native


Hot Pepper 4 1 3 0 2 2 Native


Tomato


1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic


Bell Pepper 1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic


Ginger


1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic


Exotic


Native
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Native
Exotic

Native
Native


4
Hot Pepper 5









Table 4-2. ADE farms species distributions
Homegarden
ADE Total Spp. S.Agroplot Spp.
Spp.
No. Valid 12 12 14
No. Missing 2 2 0
Mean 18.83 13.42 8.14
Median 17.5 14.5 5.5
Std. Dev. 8.354 5.583 6.982
25th
25th 14.5 11 3.5
Percentile
50th
5th 17.5 14.5 5.5
Percentile
75th
75th24.75 17.75 11
Percentile


Table 4-3. Non-ADE farms species distributions
Non-ADE Total Spp Homegarden Agroplot Spp.
Non-AD T l Spp.
No. Valid 11 11 13


No. Missing
Mean
Median
Std. Dev.
25th
Percentile
50th
Percentile
75th
Percentile


17.36
19
6.185


14.64
16
4.864


5.62
4.0
4.057


Table 4-4. ADE farms market orientation (descriptive statistics)


ADE
No. Valid
No. Missing
Mean
Median
Std. Dev.
25th Percentile
50th Percentile
75th Percentile


Market Orientation (%)


0
61
49.35
18.8834
47.975
49.35
73.525










Table 4-5. Non-ADE farms market orientation (descriptive statistics)


Non-ADE
No. Valid
No. Missing
Mean
Median
Std. Dev.
25th Percentile
50th Percentile
75th Percentile


Market Orientation (%)
13
0
47.629
47.5
7.1903
44.05
47.5
50


Linear Regression


1000-


Market Orientation = 59.86 + -0.35 total_sp
R-Square= 0.03


Total spp


Figure 4-2. Relationship between species under management and market orientation


w w ~ W W W --P~-P~









CHAPTER 5
AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL CONTEXT: A
MODEL OF "SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE"? FOR WHOM?

Introduction

Outside of Amazonia, the Amazonian Dark Earth model is being adapted as a tool to

combat climate change through carbon sequestration. Although this new technology described

as "bio-char" or "agri-char" is in many ways far-removed from the anthropogenic soils managed

by Amazonians, the development of this technology is a direct result of interdisciplinary research

conducted in Amazonia over recent decades. Today as North American and European

businesses intend to promote bio-char in the new "green" economy, the original intention of the

Terra Preta Nova project, which was to enhance smallholder agricultural production capacity, is

largely being overlooked.

This chapter examines the process by which this "local" or "regional" model has made the

transition to a global market and how this transition affects its local re-application. This

discussion also addresses the conflict of adapting past indigenous property to contemporary

problems while exploring issues of intellectual and cultural property. Lastly, suggestions are

made as to how new technologies inspired by the Amazonian Dark Earth model may be

introduced into smallholder communities of Amazonia.

Terra Preta Nova: A model for sustainable agriculture

Much attention has been drawn to dark earth as a result of its perceived potential as a

technology for sustainable agriculture. This interest has been driven by a growing need to

intensify agricultural production, particularly on abandoned or degraded lands. While the region

is traditionally conceived of as having nutrient poor soils unfit for sustainable agriculture

(particularly in Amazonian blackwater environments), ADE seemingly contradicts the notion of

the Amazon being a land of extreme environmental constraint.









In 2002 during the First Amazonian Dark Earth Workshop in Manaus, the late Wim

Sombroek proposed the idea of the Terra Preta Nova (TPN) project. The project was designed

with the aim of replicating dark earths in order to improve the capacity of small-holder

agriculture in the Amazon (Sombroek et al. 2002). The project was also presented as an

opportunity for ADE researchers to network and collaborate. Members of the workshop agreed

with the proposal and institutions from Brazil, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands

were invited to participate. Universities, research institutes, and a museum were integrated into

the project in addition to EMBRAPA, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation26. Since

2002, soil scientists from EMBRAPA and INPA have been conducting experiments in order to

determine the key components of the soil's physical and chemical make-up. Through these

experiments, it was hoped that a model for a "new dark earth" could be produced.

Biochar: A Terra Preta Technology

At the time that the Terra Preta Nova project was conceived, the corporation EPRIDA

was founded in the United States27. The founder of the company, Danny Day, had collaborated

with laboratories from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a process by which biomass

could be used to produce hydrogen fuel. Day found that charcoal produced in this same process

could also be used as a fertilizer following the Amazonian Dark Earth model. From this

research, Day founded EPRIDA and filed a patent for his process of producing hydrogen fuel

and charcoal fertilizer, known as "bio-char". Day demonstrated that when biomass is converted

to bio-char, the carbon that is normally released into the atmosphere during the decomposition of





26 See Madari et al. 2004 for a complete listing of institutions participating in the Terra Preta Nova project.
27 Visit www.eprida.com for further information regarding the company's history and its products.









the organic matter is locked in the charcoal. Thus, bio-char represents a simple technology that

can diminish carbon emissions and improve agricultural yields by storing charcoal in soil.

Since EPRIDA opened its business, a number of other alternative energy companies have

adopted similar models for the production of bio-char including Dynamotive, Bioware, Best

Pyrolysis, and Terra Humana Clean Energy. Today companies offering bio-char products and

bio-char processors (known as "pyrolizers") exist in 11 countries across the world (Table 5-1).

While EPRIDA is promoted as a socially-responsible corporation focused on assisting

subsistence farmers, other companies are beginning to market the model towards industrial

farmers and large agribusinesses. With the advent of carbon markets, it is believed that the use

of bio-char for carbon sequestration can render such models more than profitable.

Responses to the Bio-char Fertilizer

U.S. and European news corporations have caught on to the ADE phenomenon,

publishing articles with such titles as "Scientists Promote Benefits of 'Black Magic' Soil" (Binns

2006) and "Black is the new green" (Marris 2006). However, not everyone has shared the same

enthusiasm for the development of a new and profitable charcoal fertilizer. Some scholars feel

that with the promotion of bio-char as a product designed for industrial agriculture, the original

intention of the Terra Preta Nova project is being abandoned for big profits in international

markets. In response to the Nature article "Black is the new green", three researchers spoke

specifically about this trend:

... one might be left with the impression that the biochar initiative is solely directed
towards agribusiness applications. From the start, this has certainly not been the case.
Indeed, innovative biochar field trials involving a variety of crops are currently being
conducted in Amazonia... These trials are specifically designed for implementation by
smallholders, who comprise most of the world's farmers" (Woods et al. 2006).









Other concerns are voiced by Madari and company in the volume Amazonian Dark:

Explorations in Space and Time (Madari et al. 2004). Due to the larger history of Amazonian

Dark Earth and its relationship to indigenous people of South America, they argue that it is more

appropriate for such technology to be developed and managed in the region (specifically Brazil):

It is important to emphasize that many of the ADE sites have a reasonable amount of
archaeological material which makes these areas important subjects of cultural heritage
preservation. The objective of studying this phenomenon by no means can be the
exploration of discovered new sites, but the use of the 'buried' information in these soils.
This information should be considered as the intellectual property of the indigenous people
of Amazonia. For this reason, it would be fortunate if the administration of a project
aiming to study and use the knowledge of this phenomenon stayed with a Brazilian
national institution like Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) which
would ensure proper handling of intellectual property rights and even-handed and socially
acceptable distribution of the products and technologies. (Madari et al. 179)

By the time these words were published, however, the development of such technologies had

already moved beyond the Amazon to the U.S., linking it to the larger global market. How this

development relates to the original terra preta and the application of bio-char in Amazonia is a

question that requires analysis.

Cultural and Intellectual Property Questions

Due to Amazonian Dark Earth's association with indigenous settlements, Madari et al.

(above) claimed that such soil should be considered either cultural or intellectual property of

indigenous people (Madari et al. 2004). However, ambiguities that exist in our understanding of

ADE and intellectual and cultural properties themselves make such a determination problematic

at best. Strathern describes cultural property in the following manner: "... one of the tests of a

group's claims may the transmissibility of cultural knowledge over the generations: it is

authentic because it can be shown to have been handed on" (Strathern 1999:169). Clearly,

Amazonian Dark Earth fails to hold up to this definition. These soils are in part defined

contemporarily by their divorce from the peoples that are responsible for their formation.









Intellectual property, in contrast, is described by Stathern as claimable precisely because it is not

handed on over generations (ibid.). In other words, the knowledge associated with the

phenomenon must be isolated and controlled. Amazonian Dark Earth does not comply with this

definition of property either. First, the soil is distributed widely throughout the basin, in a

number of different countries and contexts. Second, no evidence has shown that ADE is more

than a by-product of indigenous habitation, begging the question as to whether or not there is any

human process related to its formation that can be considered "intellectual".

Yet, the fact remains that ADE's origins are intimately linked to past indigenous

occupation in the Amazon. How these anthropogenic landscapes can be managed and defined as

"properties" are issues that will require consideration by anthropologists in coming years. At the

moment, the FAO is considering dark earths as one of the world's Globally Important Ingenious

Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS 2006). Programs such as this may draw greater attention

to the existence of anthropogenic environments and their value for understanding co-

evolutionary relationships between humans and the environment through time.

Biopiracy and the Neighbors to the North

The tensions that are apparent in the commercialization of bio-char and the handling of

dark earths as a cultural property are situated in a larger context of Brazilian uneasiness with

foreign interests in Amazonia. In October of 2006, the British Secretary of State for

Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, David Milliband, was planning to propose an initiative

that would call for the privatization of parts of Amazonia (Hennessey 2006). When the news

was released by the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph, Miliband's office rejected the story,

in attempt to avoid mounting political backlash. Responding to the notion of such a plan,

Brazil's Foreign Minister and Environment Minister simply stated: "Amazonia is not for sale."

(Geraque and Can6nico 2006).









Since Henry Wickham left Belem with a ship full of rubber seeds, which later led to the

establishment of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia and the bust of the 'Rubber Boom',

Brazilians have become increasingly suspicious of the activities of foreigners in Amazonia.

Some have argued that Wickham left the country with the Brazilian port authority's full

knowledge of the seeds that he was carrying, but regardless of whether this is true or not, the

event became symbolic of a larger concept introduced to contemporary discourse concerning

property rights and biological research: the notion of"biopiracy".

Biopiracy is a concept that has been used to describe foreign extractive activities that lead

to the development of products derived from biota endemic to an area or region. The American

Heritage Dictionary defines biopiracy as the following: "The commercial development of

naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a

technologically advanced country or organization without fair compensation to the peoples or

nations in whose territory the materials were originally discovered." (Pickett 2000). One recent

example of biopiracy comes from a patent filed for the process to extract fat from cupuagu

(Theobroma grandiflorum) seeds. The process, which is used for the making of cupulate (a

product similar to chocolate) was developed by EMBRAPA, but had been claimed by the

Japanese corporation Asahi Foods. Asahi Foods also placed a trademark on the name "cupuacu"

for the sale of its products derived from the fruit. Both of these claims eventually went to

international courts and were sided in favor of EMBRAPA (Medina and Almeida 2006). Similar

legal wrangling occurred over international patents and trademarks related to the use of the

recently popularized Amazonian berry, acai (ibid.). As Amazonians witness foreigners attempt

to profit from products native to their region, their relationships with these outsiders is not

without a sense of resentment and regret.









In the case of bio-char, biopiracy is not an issue, yet research and development on the

subject may cause similar tensions. As outside companies develop processes to produce

pyrolizers and charcoal fertilizer inspired by ADE, Amazonians are faced with another example

in which outsiders are capitalizing upon their natural and cultural resources.

Revisiting World Systems Theory and Dependency Theory

A multitude of theoretical arguments have been made to explain the process by which

some nations and/or groups have exploited others through time in the global economic and

political arena. In the 1970s, Immanuel Wallerstein's "World Systems Theory" and Andre

Gunder Frank's "Dependency Theory" were particularly popular models for explaining the

historical forces which bind "developing" nations to a cycle of "underdevelopment."

In Wallerstein's work The Modern World System I (1974), he examines the origin of the

European World-Economy in the 16th century. In this historical account of capitalist origins,

Wallerstein distinguishes between "core" countries and "the periphery". The relationship

between the periphery and the core is defined by unequal exchange, in which the core countries

produce high-profit, high-capital intensive goods that are exchanged for low-profit, low-capital

intensive goods produced in the periphery. Wallerstein concluded that this unequal exchange

produced increasing social and economic disparities between the core and the periphery, which

perpetuated such imbalance.

Andre Gunder Frank, a contemporary of Wallerstein, had proposed similar ideas,

describing countries in terms of"metropoles" and "satellites". Rather than view "development"

and "underdevelopment" as two distinct phenomena, Frank understood them as being intimately

linked. According to his argument, the metropolis extracted surplus from the satellites,

inhibiting their development and feeding its own. Frank described this as "the development of









underdevelopment", which perpetuated the same disparities as described by Wallerstein (Frank

1966).

In the contemporary knowledge-based economy (Gibbon et al. 1994), it is difficult not to

draw similar comparisons between the manner in which information and knowledge is drawn

from the periphery and satellites to the contemporary cores and metropoles, much in the same

way natural resources and labor once were (and are). However, critics of the work of

Wallerstein and Gunder Frank have described these models as too simplistic, essentialist or

deductivist. It has been pointed out that i/ i/hin nations termed as either metropoles or satellites,

there exist further networks of metropoles and satellites. Moreover, it has been argued that with

the advent of the internet and global mass communication, the flow of information and resources

is far too disarticulated to be explained by models presented in such terms. Yet it is recognized

that rural Amazonia remains at the periphery, or at best, the frontier. This is evidenced by its

treatment historically as a target of extraction and not a focus of development. In fact, much of

the debate regarding issues of sustainability, biodiversity maintenance, and global climate

change has centered on the issue of whether the global community should allow for the

development of Amazonian forests. As such, the U.S., Western Europe, and Japan have sought

to promote research to understand and protect Amazonia's natural wealth while attempting to bar

Amazonian nations from developing the region for their own needs of land, energy, and

resources. Although the development ofbio-char as a technology modeled after ADE is only a

footnote in the larger history of this process, it is testament to the perpetuation of a lopsided

exchange.

Ironically, it can be argued that the force that led to the end of ADE's formation (i.e.

Western imperialism powered by global capitalism) is the same force that has led to the









introduction of this indigenous phenomenon to contemporary global markets. Global

capitalism's opportunistic exploitation of resources and knowledge is a familiar intellection, but

its increasing capacity to transform local natural and cultural resources into new global

technologies while simultaneously isolating the actors from which they were drawn is

concerning. Fortunately, in the case of Amazonian Dark Earth, the process that foreign

corporations have developed to produce bio-char fertilizer does not prevent South American

corporations from devising a similar process for the production of charcoal fertilizer and carbon

sequestration technologies, and some corporations in Brazil have begun to do so. Yet whether

these models will ever come to benefit to rural Amazonian smallholders is another question

entirely.

A Terra Preta Technology Exchange?

For non-Amazonians, ADE and more specifically, bio-char, represents a model that can

facilitate a shift towards agriculture that is perceived as environmentally friendly and

"sustainable". How this development of sustainable agriculture can benefit rural Amazonians is

not clear. As much of the present research regarding bio-char is moving its focus towards

application for large-scale mechanized agriculture, it appears that the rural smallholders of

Amazonia will have little to gain from these developments.

Interestingly, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues Souza, a researcher from the Centro de

Desenvolvimento Energetico Amaz6nico from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas28 has

developed a machine for a small community in the state of Amazonas which processes acai seeds

and creates a form of biodiesel that can be used to power the community's generator. As diesel

is rather expensive and often in high demand in rural communities of the interior of the Amazon,

28 Visit the site for the Center of Amazonian Energy Development from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas at
http://cdeam.ufam.edu.br/









a consistent energy source for individuals in these communities is a priority that is much more

immediate than carbon sequestration. With nearly endless supplies of biomass that represent

potential fuel for these communities, all that is missing is technology that can convert these

sources into fuel. As EPRIDA and other corporations have shown, technology has been

developed to not only harness fuel from this biomass, but create bio-char, which could serve as

an added bonus for local farmers, all while sequestering carbon for the North. Although it would

require tremendous investment, pyrolizers modeled after those of bio-char corporations could not

only contribute to the development of a "New Dark Earth" in the Amazon, but they could also

potentially provide rural communities with an excellent solution for energy independence, a

hugely important step towards development in rural Amazonia. Moreover, as state and federal

governments actively invest in infrastructure and agricultural financing projects to minimize

migration of rural peoples to urban capitals, technologies modeled after bio-char pyrolizers could

represent unique alternatives to provide communities with energy, subsequently improving the

quality of living in these areas and deterring potential out-migration. In order to test the potential

of this technology for rural agricultural communities, pilot projects must be carried out,

preferably in tandem with organizations like the Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico

Amaz6nico.

Conclusion

The development of bio-char as a technology is the indirect result of more than 100 years

of research in Amazonia and an even longer history of occupation by its indigenous inhabitants.

The potential this technology has for improving agricultural production and sequestering carbon

is promising, but how these benefits will be distributed is yet to be seen. The purpose of this

analysis here is not to demonize foreign corporations for profiting on this model since they are

equally responsible for its modern application, but rather point out that efforts must be made to









implement these technologies for the benefits of rural farmers in Amazonia and the tropics in

general, as these were the originally intended beneficiaries of ADE research. If Amazonia and

the rest of the developing tropics are to become images of "sustainable" development, then we

must cease to be view them as "pristine" forests needing to be saved, but rather complex social

spaces where development projects must attend to not only the needs of the local environment,

but its people as well. By providing alternative sources of energy while sequestering carbon in

the form of charcoal, new bio-char processing technologies have the potential to do exactly this.









Table 5-1. Companies that produce bio-char and pvrolvizers


Company
Advanced
Biorefinery Inc.
Agri-Therm Ltd.

Appropriate Rural
Technology Institute
Best Pyrolysis, Inc.

Biocarbo
Bioenergy, LLC
Bioware

Cleanfuels

Carbon Diversion
Technologies
Dynamotive Energy
Systems Corp.
Envipower

Eprida

Ensyn Corporation
International K & K
Enterprise
Pronatura
Renewable Oil
Corporation Pty Ltd
Renewable Oil
International, LLC
Terra Humana Clean
Technology Ltd


Country
Canada

Canada

Pune, India

USA/
Australia
Brazil
Russia
Brazil

Netherlands

Hawaii, USA

Canada

Lyngby,
Denmark
Georgia, USA

Canada
Korea

France/ Brazil
Australia

Alabama,
USA
Hungary


Products Offered
Transportable pyrolizers

Portable and stationary equipment for bio-oil
production
Pyrolizers for sugar cane waste

Pyrolizers and gasification technologies

Biochar and wood vinegar
Pyrolizers
Pyrolizers for charcoal powder and bio-oil; training
and consulting
International consulting and business development
for pyrolysis oil and charcoal production
Flash carbonization technology

Fast pyrolysis technology for BioOil and Biochar
production
Biomass boilers for carbon fertilizer production

Biochar fertilizer and pyrolysis technology;
consulting
Rapid thermal processing technology
Charcoal processing and charcoal products


Pyrolysis technology

Fast pyrolysis biorefinery technology

Thermal desorption, pyrolysis and low temperature
carbonization technologies for specific COAL &
CARBON applications for industry, agricultural
biotechnology science and agricultural applications.









CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Summary of Research Findings

As described in the first chapter, this case study sought to answer five specific research

questions regarding management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production among ADE

and non-ADE farmers in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil. Based on the data gathered in this study, the

findings are presented here.

1. Do ADEfarmers maintain different management practices than "non-ADE" farmers?

These data suggest that ADE and non-ADE farmers did maintain different management

practices. Specifically, ADE farmers had a greater tendency towards the use of both chemical

and organic fertilizers as well as herbicides. Moreover, ADE farmers tended to manage different

market crops, particularly watermelon and papayas, in contrast to non-ADE farmers who placed

greater focus on manioc.

2. Do ADE farms maintain higher levels of agrobiodiversity?

The data do not reveal any significant differences in the agrobiodiversity managed on ADE

and non-ADE farms. Although it is believed that abandoned ADE sites harbor higher

concentrations of economically important plants from the Pre-Columbian era, contemporary

ADE farmers in Borba do not necessarily manage a greater diversity of economic plants than

non-ADE farmers.

3. Do ADE farms have a higher market orientation than "non-ADE" farms?

The data do suggest that ADE farms from this sample have a higher market orientation

than non-ADE farms. In comparing means for market orientation, ADE farms averaged 61.0%

market orientation while non-ADE farms averaged only 47.3%. Independent t-tests confirm that

these means are significant with 95% confidence (p=.023).









4. Does agrobiodiversity decrease i/ ith heightened market production?

This research reveals no distinct relationship between market orientation and

agrobiodiversity for the farms surveyed. Linear regression analysis yields an extremely weak r2

value of .028, suggesting that the relationship is poorly defined in this sample.

5. Does heightened market production correspond to specific management practices and
techniques?

The farmers in the study who maintained higher market orientation (oftentimes ADE

farmers) did maintain different management practices, particularly with regards to inputs. When

comparing those farmers who used chemical fertilizers with those who did not, farmers using

chemical fertilizers averaged 67.4% market orientation while those who did not averaged only

47.9% market orientation. Independent t-tests confirm that these differences are statistically

significant with 95% confidence (p-value= .019).

Final Considerations

The case study presented in this thesis demonstrates that Amazonian Dark Earth soils

appear to provide distinct advantages for rural Amazonian farmers, particularly with regards to

production of valuable market crops over the short-term. However, the degree to which these

soils represent a model of sustainable agriculture is unclear. Research by Fraser and company

shows that long-term, intensive management of ADE soils occurs in the region of the Middle

Madeira with minimal use of inputs (Fraser et al. 2007), but it should be recognized that those

communities focus on the production of manioc, a crop that is not particularly nutrient-

demanding. Contrasting Fraser's research from Manicore with the research presented here from

Borba, I would surmise that as farmers seek to produce for larger regional markets, the adoption

of more demanding crops will limit the long-term productivity capacity of Amazonian Dark

Earths if farmers do not invest considerable agricultural inputs (i.e. organic or chemical






















From a global perspective, ADE has a different value as it demonstrates the utility of

charcoal as an agricultural input. The high concentration of charcoal in ADE is believed to help

maintain stable soil organic matter, prevent nutrient leaching, and potentially serve as an

important carbon sink. The development of bio-char technologies modeled after ADE have been

popularized internationally due to their potential for improving agricultural production in leached

soils across the world, however such global popularization has yet to produce any direct benefit

for rural Amazonians. I suggest that as pyrolizers and other technologies are developed to

produce bio-char, bio-diesel, and other similar products, Amazonian governments and businesses

can harness these technologies and develop pilot projects in rural communities following the lead

of Rubem Cesar Rodrigues Souza and other researchers at CDEA. Hopefully rural Amazonians

will then have the option to produce either bio-char for agricultural application or bio-diesel for

much-needed energy in their communities.











APPENDIX A
INTERVIEW GUIDE


DATA:
No. de entrevista:
Perguntas para entrevista
Informacoes biogrificas
1. Nome:

2. Idade:

3. Sexo:

4. Quantos anos voc6 mora na Amaz6nia?

5. Os seu pais sio da Amaz6nia?
a. MAe b. Pai

6. Voc6 trabalhava na roca quando era mais novo?

7. voc6 caca ou pesca: No caso sim, para subsistencia ou para vender?
C- P-

8. Quais sio outras atividades que voc6 faz para sustentar a sua familiar?

9. Quantas pessoas moram na sua casa?

10. Qual 6 a area total do seu lote?
a. Area de roca:
b. Area de capoeira:
c. Area de fruteiras e perenes:
d. Area de pastagem:
e. Area de mata:

Manejo
11. Voc6 tem certas prdticas ou m6todos para manter boa fertilidade de solo? (exemplo, rotaAio de cultural)

12. Voc6 usa fertilizante? No caso sim, adubo quimico ou organico?

a. Q b. O

13. Quantas rocas voc6 tem no moment?

14. Em geral, quantos anos voc6 trabalha (cultiva) uma roca?

15. Como e quando voc6 decide abandonar uma roca (para poder recuperar)?

16. Quantos anos voc6 deixa uma roca recuperar (descansar) antes de cultivar novamente?

17. Quais fatores influenciam o tempo que voc6 deixa uma area recuperar?

18. Como voc6 maneja areas de recuperaqio?

19. Voc6 plant certas culturas/arvores nessas areas?











20. Como e quando voc6 decide fazer uma roqa nova?

21. Quais fatores importantes sio mais importantes para voce quando faz uma roca nova: sol, drenagem,
vento, vegetaq~o, solo?

22. Quando (qual 6poca do ano) voc6 faz a derruba?

23. Como voc6 derruba a vegetaq~o?

24. Como voc6 derruba arvores grandes?

25. Quem ajuda voc6 nesse process todo? Voc6 participa em mutirio?

26. Voc6 usa fogo para o manejo do seu terreno? No caso sim:

a. Quando voc6 queima a area?

b. Quais plantas/esp6cies queimam facilmente?

c. Quais plantas/esp6cies sio mais resistentes ao fogo?

d. Qual 6 a temperature ideal para a queima?

e. Qual 6 a duraqio ideal para a queima?

f. Quantas vezes voc6 queima uma roqa nova?

g. Como voc6 control o fogo (usa aceiros)?

h. Como voc6 usa/maneja cinza, carvio, raizes e tocos (stumps) queimados?

i. Voc6 queima certas areas uma segunda vez ou coleta materials para fazer coivara?

j. Voc6 usa fogo para caqar ou usa em outras atividades fora de agriculture?

27. Voc6 utiliza um sistema de irrigaq~o? No caso sim, que tipo de sistema?

28. Se nio usa irrigaq~o:
a. Como voc6 sabe quando preparar a roqa e plantar antes da chuva chegar?

b. O que voc6 plant na 6poca de seca?

c. Quais sio os m6todos que voc6 usa na 6poca de seca?

29. Quais cultures sio interplantadas (plantadas em associaqio com outras)?

30. Como voc6 escolhe sementes (ou material vegetative)?

31. Quais sio raz6es par perda de produq~o (ex, pestes, doenqas, etc.)?

32. Voc6 tem m6todos para eliminar pestes (como a formiga safiva)?

33. Como voc6 lida com plants invasoras Tem prdtica ou t6cnicas para evitar a roqa de "cerrar muito"?

34. Qual 6 o rendimento previsto (aproximadamente) este ano?











35. Quando e como voc6 faz a colheita?

36. Como voc6 guard ou armazena a colheita?

37. Quais problems voce enfrenta no armazenamento da colheita?

Producio para subsistencia e para o mercado
38. Qual parte (porcentagem) da sua produ~io 6 para o consume de voc6 e a sua familiar?

39. Qual 6 a area de cultures produzidas para o mercado e a area total sob cultivacao?
a. Mercado: b.Total sob cultiva~io:

40. Tem certas cultures que voc6 s6 vende para o mercado? Quais?

41. Quais sio as outras cultures que voc6 vende tamb6m?

42. Como voc6 leva produtos para o mercado?

43. Se voc6 n~o leva, quem leva? Como voc6 conhece essa pessoa?

44. Quantas pessoas sio envolvidas na venda do seu produto?

45. Que tipo de transport voc6 usa para levar produto para o mercado (ex, barco, caminh~o)?

46. Onde voc6 vende os seus produtos? (Borba, Manicore, etc.)

47. Quantos anos voc6 esta produzindo para o mercado?

48. Voc6 tem acesso a credit? Quanto mais ou menos?

49. O que impede a sua producio para o mercado?

50. O que ia ajudar melhorar a sua producio para o mercado?

51. Quanto voc6 ganha por mrs? Por ano? Quanto vem de agriculture?

Agrobiodiversidade
52. Quantas cultures diferentes voc6 ter na sua(s) roca(s)?

53. Quantas cultivares (variedades) das cultures principals?

54. Quantas esp6cies diferentes no quintal? Na roca?
Q- R-
55. Escreve uma lista de cultures cultivadas normalmente (ultima pagina).

Terra Preta
56. Voc6 maneja rocas de terra preta de uma forma diferente do que as rocas de solo comum?

57. Quantos anos da para voce cultivar ou trabalhar uma roca de terra preta antes de perceber uma perda na
producao? Como isso compare com o solo comum?

58. Em sua opiniAo, existem cultures que rendem melhor na terra preta? Tmr outras que rendem pior?

59. Existem vantagens de cultivar terra preta? Quais sio?










60. Existem desvantagens de cultivar terra preta?

61. Tem cultures ou plants que s6 pode cultivar na terra preta? Quais sAo?

62. Voc6 achou cerimica e outro material arqueol6gico na terra preta?

63. Voc6 sabe como a terra preta foi formada/criada?

64. Voc6 acha que a terra preta pode ser reproduzida?

65. Voc6 acha que vai ter produAio melhor na terra preta do que em solo comum?

66. Voc6 acha que tem mais ou menos caqa em areas de terra preta?


GPS DATA

UTM da casa Oeste: Sul:

Lat.: Long.:

Localizaqio das fronteiras do lote:

Oeste: Sul:

Oeste: Sul:

Oeste: Sul:

Oeste: Sul:




OTHER NOTES











LISTA DE CULTURAS (cor numero de individuos de cada uma quando possivel)
R= roca Q= quintal

Nome Location N6mero Nome Location Nfimero
(R,Q) indiv.
1 26

2 27

3 28

4 29

5 30

6 31

7 32

8 33

9 34

10 35

11 36

12 37

13 38

14 39

15 40

16 41

17 42

18 43

19 44

20 45

21 46

22 47

23 48

24 49

25 50


OUTRAS CULTURES CULTIVADAS NORMALMENTE:









LIST OF REFERENCES


Agassiz, L. and E. Agassiz
1868 A Journey in Brazil. Boston: Ticknor and Fields.

Agrios, G.N.
2005 Plant Pathology. 5th edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press

Andrade, A.
1986 Investigaci6n Arqueol6gica de los Antroles de Araracuara. Bogota: Fundaci6n de
Investigaciones Arqueologicas Nacionales Banco de la Republica.

Balee, W.
1993 Indigenous Transformation of Amazonian Forests: An Example from Maranhao,
Brazil. In L'Homme: La remontee de 1' Amazone, Philippe Descola and Anne Christine
Taylor, eds. Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales.

1994 Footprints in the Forest. Ka'apor Ethnobotany the Historical Ecology of Plant
Utilization by an Amazonian People. New York: Columbia University Press.

1998 Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates. In Advances in Historical Ecology,
William Balee, ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Balee, W. and C. Erickson, eds.
2006 Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands.
New York: Columbia University Press.

Barbosa de Faria, J.
1944 A Cerdmica da Tribo Uaboi dos Rios Trombetas e Jamunda: Contribuicao para o
Estudo da Arqueologia Pre-historica do Baixo Amazonas. Anais III, 90 Congresso
Brasileiro de Geografia, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 3, Pp. 141-165. Conselho Nacional
Brasileiro de Geografia.

Barreto, C. and J. Machado
2001 Exploring the Amazon, Explaining the Unknown: Views from the Past. In
Unknown Amazon: Culture in Nature in Ancient Brazil, ed. Colin McEwan, Cristiana
Barreto, and Eduardo Neves, 232-251. London: The British Museum Press.

Bastos, A.C.T.
1866 O Valle do Amazonas. Rio de Janeiro: B.L. Gamier, Livreiro Editor.

Bernard, H.R.
2006 Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.

Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas
2007 Municipios do Estado do Amazonas: Borba. http://www.bv.am.gov.br. Accessed
June 15.










Binns, C.
2006 Scientists Promote Benefits of 'Black Magic' Soil. Foxnews.com. Feb 22.

Brown, C.B. and W. Lidstone
1878 Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon and Its Tributaries. London: Edward
Stafford.

Cabala-Rosand, P., M.B.M. Santana, and C.J.L. Santana
1989 Cacao. In Detecting Mineral Deficiencies in Tropical and Temperate Crops, D.L.
Plucknett and H.B. Sprague, eds., Pp. 409-425, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Camargo, F.
1941 Estudo de Alguns Perfis dos Solos Coletados em Diversas Regi6es da Hileia.
Belem: Instituto Agron6mico do Norte.

Cameiro, R.L.
1957 Subsistence and Social Structure: An Ecological Study of the Kuikuru.
Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Michigan.

Clement, C.R., J.M. McCann, and N.J.H. Smith
2003 Agrobiodiversity in Amaz6nia and its Relationship with Dark Earths. In
Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. D.C.Kem, J. Lehmann, B.
Glaser, and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 159-178. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.

Collier, K.F.S., J.O.G. de Lima, and G.S. Albuquerque
2004 Predacious Mites in Papaya (Caricapapaya L.) Orchards: In Search of a
Biological Control Agent of Phytophagous Mite Pests. Neotropical Entomology 33(6):
799-803.

Conklin, H.C.
1961 The Study of Shifting Cultivation. Current Anthropology 2(1):27-61.

Costa, M.L. and D.C. Kern
1999 Geochemical signatures of tropical soils with Archaeological Black Earth in the
Amazon. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 66: 369-385.

Comissdo de Estudos da Estrada de Ferro do Madeira e Mamore.
1885 Do Rio de Janeiro ao Amazonas e alto Madeira. Rio de Janeiro: Soares e
Niemeyer

Cunha Franco, E.
1962 As "Terras Pretas" do Planalto de Santarem. Revista da Sociedade dos
Agr6nomos e Veterinarios do Para 8:17-21.









Denevan, W.M.
1992 The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the
Association of American Geographers 82(3):369-385.

1996 The Bluff Model of Riverine Settlement in Prehistoric Amazonia. Annals of the
Association of American Geographers 86(4):654-681.

2001 Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the Andes. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

2004 Semi-Intensive Pre-European Cultivation and Origins of Anthropogenic Dark
Earths in Amazonia. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Time and Space, B.
Glaser and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.135-143. Berlin: Springer

Descola, P.
1994 In the Society of Nature: A Native Ecology in Amazonia. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.

Eden, M.J., W. Bray, L. Herrera, and C. McEwan
1984 Terra Preta soils and their archaeological context in the Caqueta Basin of
southeast Colombia. American Antiquity 49(1):125-140.

Edit, R.C.
1977 Detection and Examination of Anthrosols by Phosphate Analysis. Science 197
(4311): 1327-1333.

Eprida
2007 www.eprida.com Accessed 27 Nov.

Ewel, J., C. Berish, B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich
1981 Impacts of Slash and Bum on a Costa Rican Wet Forest Site. Ecology 62(3): 816-
829.

Fairhead, J. and I. Scoones
2005 Local knowledge and the social shaping of soil investments: critical perspectives
on the assessment of soil degradation in Africa. Land Use Policy. 22: 33-41.

Falcdo, N.P.S. and L.F. Borges
2006 Efeito da fertilidade de terra preta de indio da Amaz6nia Central no estado
nutricional e na produtividade de mamdo hawai (Caricapapaya L.) Acta Amaz6nica.
36(4): 401-406.

Falesi, I.C.
1974 Soils of the Brazilian Amazon. In Man in the Amazon, C. Wagley, ed., Pp. 201-
229. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.









Fearnside, P. and P.M.L. Graca
2006 BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho Highway and the Potential Impact of
Linking the Arc of Deforestation to Central Amazonia. Environmental Management. 38:
706-716.

Frank, A.G.
1966 The Development of Underdevelopment. Monthly Review 18: 17-31.

Fraser, J., T. Cardoso, A. Junqueira, N. Falcdo, and C.R. Clement
2007 Historical Ecology and Dark Earths in Whitewater and Blackwater Landscapes:
Comparing the Middle Madeira and Lower Negro Rivers. In Terra Preta Nova: A tribute
to Wim Sombroek, W.I. Woods, W. Teixeira, J. Lehmann, C. Steiner, A. WinklerPrins,
eds. Berlin: Springer.

Geraque, E. and M.A. Can6nico
2006 Governo do Reino Unido nega "privatizaco" da Amaz6nia. Folha de Sao Paulo
Online. October 4.

German, L.A.
2001 The dynamics of terra preta: An integrated study of human-environmental
interactions in a nutrient-poor Amazonian ecosystem. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
University of Georgia.

2003 Ethnoscientific understandings of Amazonian Dark Eai i/th. In Amazonian Dark
Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I.
Woods, eds. Pp. 179-201. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

GIAHS
2006 Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems website.
http://webapps01.un.org/dsd/partnerships/public/partnerships/1153.html. Accessed Nov.
7.

Gibbons, M., C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S. Schwartman, P. Scott, and M. Trow
1994 The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in
Contemporary Socieites. London: Sage Publications.

Glaser, B., W. Zech, and W.I. Woods
2004 History, Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives of Geoecological Research
Concerning the Origin of Amazonian Anthropogenic Dark Earths (Terra Preta). In
Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time, B. Glaser and W.I. Woods,
eds. Pp. 9-17. Berlin: Springer.

Glaser, B., G. Guggenberger, W. Zech and M.L. Ruivo
2003 Soil organic matter stability in Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark
Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, J. Lehmann. D. C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W. I.
Woods, eds. Pp. 141-158. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.










Goncalves, A.C.L.
1904 O Amazonas: Esboco hist6rico, chorographico e estatistico ate o ano 1903. New
York: Hugo J. Hanf, Publisher.

Gourou, P.
1949 Observa6es Geograficas na Amaz6nia. Revista Brasileira de Geografia (11):354-
408.

Graham, E.
2006 A Neotropical Framework of Terra Preta. In Time and Complexity in Historical
Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands, W. Balee and C.L. Erickson, eds. Pp. 57-
86. New York: Columbia University Press.

Griggs, W.C.
1987 The Elusive Eden: Frank McMullan's Confederate Colony in Brazil. Austin:
University of Texas Press.

Hartt, C.F.
1874 Contributions to the Geology and Physical Geography of the Lower Amazonas.
Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences (1):201-235.

1874 Preliminary Report of the Morgan Exhibitions, 1870-71 Report of a
Reconnoissance of the Lower Tapaj6s. Bulletin of the Cornell University (Science) (1): 1-
37.

1885 Contribuic6es para a Ethnologia do Valle do Amazonas. Achivos do Museu
Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (6):1-174.

Heckenberger, M. J., J.B. Petersen, and E.G. Neves
1999 Village Size and Permanence in Amazonia: Two Archaeological Examples from
Brazil. Latin American Antiquity 10:353-376.

Heckenberger, M.J.
2005 The Ecology of Power: Culture, Place, and Personhood in the Southern Amazon,
A.D. 1000-2000. New York: Routledge.

Henderson, A.
1995 The Palms of the Amazon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hennessey, P.
2006 Milliband promotes plan to buy rainforests. The Daily Telegraph. October 1.

Herndon, W.L. and L. Gibbon
1854 Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. Washington: A.O.P Nicholson, Public
Printer.










Herrera, L.F.
1981 Relaciones entire ocupaciones pre-hispanicas y suelos negros en la Cuena del Rio
Caqueta en Colombia. Revista CIAF 6: 225-242.

Hilbert, P.P.
1968 Archaeologische Untersuchungen am Mittleren Amazonas: Beitrage zur
Vorgeschichte des sudamerkanischen Tieflandes. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag

Hiraoka, M., S. Yamamoto, E. Matsumoto, S. Nakamura, I.C. Falesi, and A.R.C. Baena
2003 Contemporary use and management of Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian
Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and
W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.395-396. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Howeler, R.H.
1980 Soil-Related Cultural Practices for Cassava. In Cassava Cultural Practices:
Proceedings of a workshop held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 18-21 March 1980. E.J.
Weber, J.C. Toro M., and M. Graham eds. Pp. 59-69. Ottawa, Canada: International
Development Research Centre. Series IDRC-151e.

IBGE
2007 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. http://www.ibge.br.gov. Accessed
Nov 15. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica.

Jeffries, R.W.
1987 The Archaeology of Carrier Mills: 10,000 Years in the Saline Valley of Illinois.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Katzer, F.
1903 Gundzuge der Geologie des unteren Amazonasbaebietes (des Staates Para in
Brasilien). Leipzig: Verlag von Max Weg.

Lehmann, J., J.P. da Silva, M. Rondon, M.S. Cravo, J.Greenwood, T. Nehls, C. Steiner, and B.
Glaser
2002 Slash-and-char: A feasible alternative for soil fertility management in the Central
Amazon? In Symposium 13, Organic Matter Management in the Humid Tropics, B.
Vanlauwe ed. 17th World Congress of Soil Science, paper no. 449. Bangkok, Thailand:
CD-ROM.

Lehmann, J., D.C. Kern, L.A. German, J. McCann, J., G.C. Martins, and A. Moreira
2003a Soil Fertility and Production Potential. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin,
Properties, Management. J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.105-
124. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Lehmann, J., D.C, Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods









2003b Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. Dordrecht: Kluwer
Academic Publishers.

Leite, S.
1943 Hist6ria da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil. Vol 3. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto
Nacional do Livro.

Madari, B. E., W.G. Sombroek, and W.I. Woods
2004 Research on Anthropogenic Dark Earth Soils. Could It be a Solution for
Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Amazon? In Amazonian Dark Earths:
Explorations in Space and Time. B.Glaser and.W.I.Woods, eds. Pp. 169-181. Berlin:
Springer-Verlag.

Major, J., C.R. Clement and A. DiTommaso
2004 Influence of Market Orientation on Food Plant Diversity of Farms Located on
Amazonian Dark Earth in the Region of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Economic Botany
59(1):77-86.

Malhi, Y., J.T. Roberts, R.A. Betts, T.J. Killeen, W. Li, and C.A. Nobre
2008 Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate of the Amazon. Science 319(5860):
169-172.

Marcoulatos, I.
2006 Rethinking Intentionality: A Bourdieuian Pespective. In How Nature Speaks: The
Dynamics of the Human Ecological Condition, Yrjo Haila and Chuck Dyke, eds. Pp.
126-149. Durham: Duke University Press.

Marcoy, P.
2001 Viagem pelo Rio Amazonas. (trans. Antontio Porro.) Manaus: Editora da
Universidade do Amazonas.

Marris, E.
2006 Putting the carbon back: Black is the new green. Nature 442: 624-626.

McCann, J.
1999 Before 1492: The Making of the Pre-Columbian Landscape, Part 2: The
Vegetation and Impacts for Restoration for 2000 and Beyond. Ecological Restoration
17(3): 107-119.

2003 Subsidy from Culture: Anthropogenic Soils and Vegetation in Tapaj6nia,
Brazilian Amazonia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin Madison

Medina, L.F.A and M.S.C. de Almeida
2006 Biopirataria: A Exploracgo da Biodiversidade no Estado do Amazonas e a
Necessidade de Regulamentacgo. Monograph, Centro Universitario de Ensino Superior
do Amazonas.










Meggers, B. J.
1996 [1971] Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise, Revised Edition.
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Mora, S.
2001 Suelos Negros y Sociedad: Un sistema agricola de entonces, iUn sistema agricola
de ahora? In Desarrollo Sostenible en la Amazonia. M.Hiraoka and S. Mora, eds. Pp. 31-
45. Quito: Abya Yal.

Moraes Bertho, A.M. de
2001 As Ci6ncias Humanas no Museu Paraenese Emilio Goeldi em suas fases de
formacgo e consolidacgo (1886-1914). In Conhecimento e Fronteira: Hist6ria da Ci6ncia
na Amaz6nia, Priscila Faulhaber and Peter Mann de Toledo, eds. Belem: Museu Paraense
Emilio Goeldi

Moran, E.F.
1973 Energy flow analysis and the study of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Acta Amaz6nica
3(3): 29-39.

1993 Thorough Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations.
Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Myers, T. P., W. M. Denevan, A. WinklerPrins, and A. Porro
2003 Historical Perspectives on Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths:
Origin, Properties, Management. D.C.Kern, J. Lehmann, B. Glaser, and W. I. Woods,
eds. Pp. 15-28. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Nepstad, D., P. Lefebvre, U.L. da Silva, J. Tomasella, P. Schlesinger, L. Sol6rzano, P. Moutinho,
D. Ray, and J.G. Benito
2004 Amazon drought and its implications for forest flammability and tree growth: a
basin-wide analysis. Global Change Biology 10(5): 704-717.

Neves, E.G.
2004 Introduction: The Relevance of Curt Nimuendaju's Archaeological Work. In
Pursuit of a Past Amazon: Archaeological Researches in the Brazilian Guyana and in the
Amazon Region, by Curt Nimuendaju. Pp. 2-7. Goteborg: Etnologiska Studier 45.

Neves, E. G., J.B. Petersen, R.N. Bartone, and C.A. Silva
2003 The Historical and Socio-Cultural Origins of Amazonian Dark Earths. In
Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. D.C.K. J. Lehmann, B. Glaser,
and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 29-49. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Nimuendaju, C.
1952 [1925, 1949] The Tapaj6. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 6:1-25.









1953 [1949] Os Tapaj6. Revista de Antropologia 1(1):53-61.


2000 Cartas do Sertdo: de Curt Nimuendaju para Carlos Estevdo de Oliveira. Lisbon:
Assirio & Alvim.

2004 Pursuit of a Past Amazon: Archaeological Researches in the Brazilian Guyana
and in the Amazon Region. Goteborg: Etnologiska Studier 45.

Nye, P.H and D.J. Greenland
1964 Changes in the soil after clearing tropical forest. Plant and Soil 21(1): 101-112.

Oliveira, J.P. de
1992 Fazendo Etnologia cor os Caboclos do Quirino: Curt Nimuendaju e a Hist6ria
Ticuna. In Antropologia Social, Comunicacoes do PPGAS, Joao Pacheco de Oliveira, ed.
Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional UFRJ.

Oyuela-Caycedo, A., A. Zimmerman, and N.C. Kawa
No date The significance of redundancy, seasonality, and task activities in the
development of anthropogenic soils.

Palmatary, H.C.
1949 Pottery of Marajo Island, Brazil. Transactions of American Philosophical Society
39(3): 261-470.

1960 The Archaeology of the Lower Tapaj6s Valley, Brazil. Transactions of the
American Philosophical Society 50(3): 1-243.

Pickett, J.P.
2000 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin.

Posey, D.A.
1992 Interpreting the Reality of Indigenous Concepts. In Conservation of Neotropical
Forests: Working from Traditional Resource Use, Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch,
eds. Pp. 21-34. New York: Columbia University Press.

Purdy, L.H. and R.A. Schmidt.
1996 Status of Cacao Witches' Broom: Biology, Epidemiology, and Management.
Annual Review of Phytopathology 34: 573-594.

Roosevelt, A.C.
1995 Early Pottery in the Amazon: Twenty Years of Scholarly Obscurity. In The
Emergence of Pottery: Technology and Innovation in Ancient Societies, William K.
Barnett and John W. Hoopes, Eds. Pp. 115-131.Washington : Smithsonian Institution
Press.









Roosevelt, A.C., R.A. Houseley, M. Imazio da Sliveira, S. Maranca, and R. Johnson
1991 Eighth millennium potter from a prehistoric shell midden in the Brazilian
Amazon. Science 24: 1621-1624.

Santos, F.J.d.
1999 Alem da conquista: Guerras e rebeli6es indigenas na Amaz6nia Pombalina.
Manaus: Editora da Universidade do Amazonas.

Schaden, E.
1967-1968 Notas sobre a vida e obra de Curt Nimuendaju. Revista de Antropologia.
15-16: 77-89.

Sim6es, M.F. and D.F. Lopes
1987 Pesquisas arqueol6gicas no baixo/medio rio Madeira (Amazonas). Revista de
Arqueologia. 4: 117-134.

Smith, H.H.
1879a Brazil: The Amazons and the Coast. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

1879b An American Home on the Amazonas. Scribner's Monthly: An Illustrated
Magazine for the People 18: 692-704.

Smith, N.J.H.
1980 Anthrosols and human carrying capacity in Amazonia. Annals of the American
Association of Geographers 70: 553-566

1999 The Amazon River Forest: A Natural History of Plants, Animals, and People.
New York: Oxford University Press.

Sombroek, W.G.
1966 Amazon Soils: A Reconnaissance of the Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region.
Wageningen: Center for Agricultural Publications and Documentation.


Sombroek. W., D.C Kern, T. Rodrigues, M. Cravo, T.C. Jarbas, W.I. Woods, and B. Glaser
2002 Terra Preta and Terra Mulata: Pre-Columbian Amazon kitchen middens and
agricultural fields, their sustainability and their replication. Paper no. 1935. Symposium
18 Anthropogenic Factors of Soil Formation, 17th WCSS 14-21 Bangkok, Thailand, 14-
21 August, 2002.

Sternberg, H.O.R.
1975 The Amazon River of Brazil. New York: Springer-Verlag.

1998 [1956] A Agua e o Homem na Varzea do Careiro. Second edition. Belem: Museu
Paraense Emilio Goeldi.

Steward, J.H., ed.









1946-1959 Handbook of South American Indians, Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bulletin 143, 7 volumes, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution

Strathern, M.
1999 Property, Substance and Effect: Anthropological Essays on Persons and Things.
London: The Athlone Press.

Toro M., J.C. and C.B. Atlee
1980 Agronomic Practices for Cassava Production: a Literature Review. In Cassava
Cultural Practices: Proceedings of a workshop held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 18-21
March 1980. E.J. Weber, J.C. Toro M., and M. Graham eds. Pp. 13-28, Ottawa, Canada:
International Development Research Centre. Series IDRC-151e.

Vieira, M.R, L.D.S. Correa, T.M.G. Castro, L.F. Silva and M.D.S. Monteverde
2004 Efeito do Cultivo do Mamoeiro (Carica Papaya L.) em ambiente protegido sobre
a ocorrencia de acaros fit6fagos e moscas brancas. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura,
Jaboticabal 26 (3): 441-445.

Viveiros de Castro, E.
1996 Images of Nature and Society in Amazonian Ethnology. Annual Review of
Anthropology 25: 179-200.

Wallerstein, I.
1974 The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the
European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. and P.S. de Souza
2005 Surviving the City: Urban Home Gardens and the Economy of Affection in the
Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Latin American Geography 4(1): 107-126.

Woods, W.I.
2003 Development of Anthrosol Research. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin,
Properties, Management, J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp. 3-
14. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Woods, W.I., N.P.S. Falcao, and W.G. Teixeira
2006a Biochar trials aim to enrich soil for smallholder. Nature 443:144.

Woods, W.I. and J.M. McCann
1999 The Anthropogenic origin and persistence of Amazonian Dark Earths. Conference
of Latin Americanist Geographers Yearbook. 25:7-14.

2001 Origen y persistencia de las tierras negras de la Amazonia. In Desarrollo
Sostenible en la Amazonia: iMito o Realidad? M. Hiraoka and S. Mora, eds. Pp. 23-30.
Quito: Abya Yal.









Woods, W.I. and W.M. Denevan
2007 Discovery, Study, and Bibliography of Amazonian Dark Earths, 1870s-1970s. In
Ethnogeographic Research in Latin America: Essays Honoring William V. Davidson, P.
H. Herlihy, K. Mathewson, and C. S. Revels, eds. Geoscience and Man series. Baton
Rouge: Lousiana State University.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Nick Kawa was born in a small town in northern Illinois and grew up in the city of

Batavia, a suburb of Chicago. In 1999, he attended the University of Arizona where he studied

Anthropology and Spanish. After receiving his B.A. in 2002, Nick worked as an English teacher

in the Amazonian city of Manaus. While in Manaus, Nick also interned at the National Institute

of Amazonian Research (INPA). In 2006, he began his studies in anthropology at the University

of Florida. Having completed his master's degree in anthropology, Nick intends to continue his

Ph.D. at UF studying the historical ecology of Central Amazonia.





PAGE 1

USE AND MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL By NICHOLAS C. KAWA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

PAGE 2

2 2008 Nicholas C. Kawa

PAGE 3

To my parents, Chris Kawa and Nora Gubbins. 3

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First, I must thank my supervisory committ ee chair, Dr. Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo. He was extremely supportive of my research and kept me regularly fueled with coffee. I also thank my supervisory committee, Drs. Nigel Smith a nd Mike Heckenberger for providing important insight from their decades of research in th e Brazilian Amazon. In addition, I thank Dr. Hugh Popenoe for sharing his depth of knowledge on tropical soil management. Field research was supported by the Charles Wagley Research Fellowship through the Center of Latin American Studies and the Tropical Conservation and Development Program at the University of Florida. Their support was crucia l to the realization of th is project. I also must acknowledge the Brazilian National Research Co uncil for accepting my proposal and granting me permission to conduct my research projec t (Proc. EXC 007/07-C) in the Brazilian Amazon. In Manaus, there are number of people who I must recognize. Drs. Charles Clement and Newton Falco from INPA helped orient my master s research while in Brazil, and together they were important sources of expertise on things Amazonian. Dr. Clement, in particular, was a tremendous help in shaping my research quest ions and overseeing my project. Dr. Jos Francisco Gonalves de Carvalho from INPA ha s also been a good frie nd, encouraging me to pursue my research in the Brazil. James Fraser a Ph.D. candidate from University of Sussex who was hosted by INPA, provided consistent insi ght through his work on use and management of dark earths in the area of Manicor. Also, I want to acknowledge the continuous support and friendship of my surrogate family at the Condom nio Vila do Sol Maior. Without them, I would have never learned Portuguese. In Borba, I owe great thanks to Denise and Myrlena Barata for sharing their home with me during my time there. Daniel Rodrigues had an especially important role in arranging my stay in 4

PAGE 5

5 Borba and helping me establish contacts thr oughout the area. Tarc sio, Messias, Edinaldo, Renato, and Dorinha from IDAM were also good friends and helped me make contacts with various communities in the region. At Puruzinho, Joci and Claudia went out of their way to welcome me and assist me in my research in the community. For their help, Im particularly thankful. Of course, my mother, Nora Gubbins, and my father, Chris Kawa, deserve recognition for always encouraging me to follow my academic interests even while they knew very well that I would go broke in the process and that they would have to come to my rescue. I also thank my brother, Nate, and my sister, Kolleen, for putting up with my endless and often tired stories of research and travel in Amazonia. I cant give my family enough thanks for their patience and love over the years. Lastly, I have to thank all my friends from Chicago, U of A, UF, and everywhere in between. Karen Pereira deserves special thanks for helping with my map. And, of course, I have to thank Nice for putting up with me during the writing of all of this.

PAGE 6

TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .12 Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth...................................................................12 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....13 Research Design and Methods................................................................................................14 Site Selection...................................................................................................................14 Sampling..........................................................................................................................15 Data Collection................................................................................................................16 Data Analysis...................................................................................................................16 Research Site..........................................................................................................................17 Assentamento do Puxurizal.............................................................................................19 Puruzinho/Puru Grande...................................................................................................20 Guariba............................................................................................................................20 Other Communities.........................................................................................................20 Contribution of Research........................................................................................................21 2 A HISTORY OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH RESEARCH...........................................26 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........26 Amazonian Dark Earth Nomencla ture (Whats in a Name?).................................................26 The Confederados, a Canadian Geologist, and the First Amazonian Archaeologists (1860s-1880s)......................................................................................................................28 Early Interpretations of Da rk Earths as Anthropoge nic Landscapes (1870s-1900s)..............32 Curt Unkel: The One Who Knew How to Op en His Path in This World and Conquer His Place in Amazonian Anthropology (1920s-1940s)......................................................34 Terra Preta in the Modern Age (1940s-1980s)...................................................................37 ADE and the Question of Intentionality (1990s-Present).......................................................40 The Development of Contempor ary ADE Management Studies...........................................41 3 CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE LOWER MADEIRA: A CASE STUDY IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL...................43 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........43 Use of Fire..............................................................................................................................43 Fertilizers................................................................................................................................46 Crop Rotation and Shifting Cultivation..................................................................................47 6

PAGE 7

7 Weeding..................................................................................................................................49 Controlling Pests, Fungus, and Disease..................................................................................50 Issues of Water, Climate, and Seasonal Variation..................................................................53 Primary Crops.................................................................................................................. .......54 Manioc ( Manihot esculenta )............................................................................................54 Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).......................................................................................56 Papaya ( Carica papaya )..................................................................................................58 Cacao ( Theobroma cacao)..............................................................................................58 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................59 4 MARKET PRODUCTION AND AGROBI ODIVERISITY ON AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH FARMS IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL.......................................................63 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........63 Market Orientation............................................................................................................. .....63 Agrobiodiversity Results........................................................................................................64 Agrobiodiversity and ADE.....................................................................................................65 The Relationship between Agrobiodiv ersity and Market Orientation....................................66 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................67 5 AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL CONTEXT: A MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE AGRIC ULTURE? FOR WHOM?...................................75 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........75 Terra Preta Nova: A model for sustainable agriculture.........................................................75 Biochar: A Terra Preta Technology........................................................................................76 Responses to the Bio-char Fertilizer.......................................................................................77 Cultural and Intellectua l Property Questions..........................................................................78 Biopiracy and the Neig hbors to the North..............................................................................79 Revisiting World Systems Theo ry and Dependency Theory.................................................81 A Terra Preta Technology Exchange?....................................................................................83 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................84 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL CONSIDERATIONS..........................................................87 Summary of Research Findings..............................................................................................87 Final Considerations........................................................................................................... ....88 INTERVIEW GUIDE....................................................................................................................90 LIST OF REFERENCES...............................................................................................................95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................107

PAGE 8

LIST OF TABLES Table page 1-1 Distribution of prim ary communities surveyed.................................................................24 1-2 Sociodemographic and land use data of sampled farmers.................................................25 4-1 Species surveyed on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil...................69 4-2 ADE farms species distributions........................................................................................73 4-3 Non-ADE farms species distributions...............................................................................73 4-4 ADE farms market orientat ion (descriptive statistics).......................................................73 4-5 Non-ADE farms market orientat ion (descriptive statistics)...............................................74 5-1 Companies that produce bio-char and pyrolyizers.............................................................86 8

PAGE 9

LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Relationships between management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production on ADE and non-ADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil.............................21 1-2 Map of sites visited and surveyed in th e municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil (Created by Karen Pereir a. Data source USGS)................................................................22 1-3 Main plaza in the municipal center of Borba (July 2003).................................................23 1-4 Puruzinho Lake (July 2007)...............................................................................................23 1-5 House of a rural farming fa mily (Puruzinho: July 2007)...................................................24 3-1 Burned secondary vegetation in a field in Jatuarana near the town of Borba. The owner was intending to plant mani oc in September (July 2007).......................................61 3-2 Differences in input use among ADE and Non-ADE farmers...........................................62 3-3 Differences in crop management on ADE and non-ADE farms........................................62 4-1 Watermelons from an ADE farm outside of Borbas municipal center are loaded on to a river boat destined for Manaus (July 2007)................................................................68 4-2 Relationship between species under management and market orientation........................74 9

PAGE 10

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADE Amazonian dark earth (also known as terra preta do ndio ) CDEA Centro de Desenvolvimento Energtico Amaznico (Center of Amazonian Energy Development) CEPLAC Comisso Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira (Executive Commission for the Planning of Cacao Production) EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuria (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) IDAM Instituto de Desenv olvimento do Amazonas (Amazonas State Development Institute). The rural development agen cy of Amazonas state that maintains numerous agricultural extension offices, including in Borba. INCRA Instituto Nacional de Col onizao e Reforma Agrria (National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform) INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaznia (National Institute of Amazonian Research) 10

PAGE 11

Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts USE AND MANAGEMENT OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL By Nicholas C. Kawa May 2008 Chair: Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo Major: Anthropology Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terra preta do ndio, is a fertile anthropogenic soil that ha s been touted as a potential mode l for sustainable agriculture in Amazonia and beyond. However, while much has b een written about the potential of ADE for sustainable agriculture, relatively little resear ch has investigated how the soil is used and managed today by rural Amazonians. This resear ch presents a case study from the municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil, which compares management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production on upland farms situated on ADE and non-ADE soils ( terra firme Oxisols). The results of this study suggest that ADE farmers in Borba ha ve a tendency towards greater market orientation and greater use of inputs, including chemical fert ilizers and herbicides. However, the data show no significant differe nce in the agrobiodiversity managed by ADE and non-ADE farmers. 11

PAGE 12

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Use and Management of Amazonian Dark Earth Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), known in the Brazilian Amazon as terra preta do ndio or simply terra preta, is a fertile anthropogenic soil that has become an obj ect of fascination (or at least relative intrigue) for many soil scientists, ar chaeologists, anthropologists, and geographers. In contrast to the leached, yellow-orange Ox isols that dominate much of the Amazon, ADE ranges in color from light brown to black and ma intains relatively high levels of stable soil organic matter and plant-available phosphorus (Lehmann et al. 2003a). Early research on the soil suggested that ADE sites were products of either alluvial deposits or volcanic ash (see Camargo 1941; Cunha-Franco 1962), but today it largely agreed that ADE is a vestige of PreColumbian Amerindian occupation (Smith 1980; Lehmann et al. 2003b; Glaser and Woods 2004). In recent years, Amazonian Dark Earth has been touted as a potential model for sustainable agriculture in Amazonia and beyond. Studies have shown that pyrogenic carbon (black carbon, charcoal) is a key feature of th e soil, exhibiting many important functions that enhance nutrient availability and the stability of soil organic ma tter (see Glaser et al. 2003; Lehmann et al. 2002). Aside from potentially heightening agricultural production, pyrogenic carbon is considered to be an important carbon sink. These factors have propelled the ADE phenomenon from relative obscurity to the attention of in ternational agronomists and environmentalists. The media have also caught wind of the ADE phenomenon and ha ve produced enthusias tic (although perhaps overly optimistic) articles about the potential of ADE for curbi ng global warming and promoting environmentally-sound agriculture. 12

PAGE 13

While much has been written about the poten tial of ADE for sust ainable agriculture, relatively little research has investigated how the soil is used and managed today by rural Amazonians. This thesis presents a case study of contemporary management of ADE in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil with the intention of describing the relationship the soil has to regional market production, agrobiodiversity, and management practices. This examination further seeks to analyze how local management and use relates to the intended global application of the ADE model. Research Questions Studies of contemporary management of ADE ha ve revealed that Amazonian farmers have conflicting opinions regarding the advantages of the soil and the appropriate management of it. Complications related to weeding have been presented as a major limiting factor of ADE production (German 2001, 2003; Major et al. 2003; also see Carneiro 1957). Also, while ADE can produce nutrient-demanding crops with higher market values, market articulation has been said to be limited by differences in market access (Hiraoka 2003; Germ an 2001), individual life histories, and regional histori cal ecology (Fraser et al. 2007). Building upon past studies of contemporary use of ADE, this thesis invest igates the relationships between management practices, market production, and agrobiodiversity (Figure 1-1). The following research questions frame this study: 1. Do ADE farmers maintain different mana gement practices than non-ADE farmers? 2. Do ADE farms maintain highe r levels of agrobiodiversity? 3. Do ADE farms have a higher ma rket orientation than non-ADE1 farms? 1 Non-ADE farms in this study mostly correspond to terra firme latossolos (Oxisols), often referred to locally as barro amarelo (yellow clay) or barro vermelho (red clay). 13

PAGE 14

In addressing these questions, this study will also examine the way in which management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production interrelate on both ADE and non-ADE farms, prompting the following questions: 4. Does agrobiodiversity decrease wi th heightened market production? 5. Does heightened market production correspon d to specific manage ment practices and techniques? Research Design and Methods Site Selection The municipality of Borba, Amazonas was se lected as the focus of this study for two primary reasons. First, very limited research has been conducted on the Madeira River with regards to Amazonian Dark Earth management. An exception to this is the most recent work of James Fraser, who has focused his study in the municipality of Manicor (a municipality southwest of Borba). Through his work compar ing use of dark earths in the Rio Negro and middle Madeira, Fraser has made the argument that the inhabitants of the Madeira have a greater culture of agriculture than those of the Rio Negro region. Fraser relates this to the wider abundance of dark earths, the influence of vrzea agriculture, and generall y longer settlement of inhabitants in the Madeira region (James Fraser, Univ. Sussex, pers. comm., 2006). By examining management of ADE in Borba, this study seeks to expand ADE research in the Madeira region. The second reason for having chosen Borba is that the Madeira is likely to undergo radical changes in its relationship to regiona l markets in coming years (Fearnside and Graa 2006). The imminent paving of the BR-319 highw ay will soon connect Borba and other nearby municipalities by road to Manaus and Humait. This development is likely to change the influence of markets on the area, and for this re ason research in this s ite represented a unique 14

PAGE 15

opportunity to assess the management practices agrobiodiversity, and market orientation of regional farms before such developments take place. Sampling Gaining access to communities that were willin g to participate in th e study proved to be a major obstacle confronted during fieldwork. Du e to the on-going public discourse in Amazonia on biopiracy and foreign exploitati on of native natural resources, many individuals were hesitant to participate in a study conducted by a forei gner researcher. Randomi zed sampling was not a practical strategy given the limited timeframe of the project since most individuals were only willing to participate in the research when intr oduced to the researcher by other community members. As a result, a strategy of snowball sampling (also known as r eferral sampling) was implemented (Bernard 2006: 192-193). Officers fr om IDAM, the state agricultural development agency operating in Borba, introduced the re searcher to community leaders within the municipality who in turn assisted in referring the researcher to individuals that were willing to participate in the research. Within the municipality of Borba, 19 communities ( comunidades ) were visited on three different rivers: the Rio Madeira, Rio Marima ri, and Rio Canum (Fi gure 1-2). Of the 19 communities visited, 3 communities served as primary centers of data collection: Puxurizal, Puruzinho, and Puru Grande. In addition to thes e communities, informal interviews and data were collected from farmers in the communities of Guariba, Guajar, Mucaj, and Vila do Canum. Interviews and data were collected from farmers at 27 different terra firme (upland) farms, 14 of which were located mostly on Am azonian Dark Earth while the other 13 were located on non-ADE soils, which were largel y Oxisols (see Table 11 and Table 1-2 for community and sample data) 15

PAGE 16

Data Collection Individuals who agreed to partic ipate in this study were aske d to engage in both informal and semi-structured interviews to discuss th eir management practi ces on ADE and non-ADE soils. Qualitative data was gathered through que stionnaires in order to compare management practices (e.g. short fallowing; use of fertilizers and pesticides) on ADE and non-ADE soils. Semi-structured interviews also served to elicit information regarding access to credit, life histories, trade networks, and econom ic activities outside of farming. In terms of quantitative data gathering, the area and number of species grown was recorded at each farm. Following Major et al. (2005), the total area of crops destined for markets was divided by the total area of cultivation at the time of the study, disregarding land left fallow (Major et al. 2005). This provide d a framework to determine the degree to which an individual farm is oriented towards the market GPS data was also collected at farms surveyed and used in the mapping of Amazonian Dark Earth sites2. In addition, GPS data fr om individual farms were used to determine the distances to urban centers and individuals target markets. Data Analysis Data collected on agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms were analyzed using ttests to assess statistical differences between farm s of the two soil groups. T-tests were also used to analyze statistical differences in market orientation between ADE and non-ADE farms. Fishers exact test was performed to assess differe nces in proportions of chemical fertilizer and herbicide use among ADE and non-ADE farmers. Lastly, linear regression analysis was 2 These data will be shared with other researchers in Brazil and abroad through a project led by Dr. Newton P. Falco and Dr. Charles R. Clement of the Ins tituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA). 16

PAGE 17

conducted to determine the relationship between ma rket orientation and species diversity for all farms3. Research Site The municipality of Borba is located on the Madeira River, 150 kilometers southeast of Manaus (215 km by waterway). The municipality covers an area of 44,251 km2 and has a population of 35,525 inhabitants (IBGE 2005). In th e Pre-Columbian era, the Lower Madeira is believed to have been a relatively densely populat ed region, although little of this history is documented. The abundance of dark earth sites in the area, paired with the findings of the brief archaeological surveys of Nimuendaj, Hilbert, and Simes and Lopes, support this claim (Nimuendaj 2004; Hilbert 1968; Simes and L opes 1987). In the pos t-contact period, the Portuguese settlement of Borba was first known as Aldeia do Trocano and was founded by the Jesuit Priest Joo de Sampaio around 1728 (Comisso de Estudos da Estrada de Ferro do Madeira e Mamor 1885: 73; Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas 2007). In 1755, the settlement was named the first vila (Portuguese town) in the Amazon and became known as Borba-aNova (Leite 1943: 403). During its early history, the inhabitants of Borba were engaged in an on-going conflict with the Mura Indians, and the vila was attacked on numerous occasions4 (Leite 1943; Marcoy 2001: 207; Santos 1999: 78). In 1833, shortly after one particular invasion by the Mura, Borba lost its designation as vila and it was given the name Araretama (Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas 2007). Two years later, the Cabanagem Revolt began in which detribalized Indians (tapuios ) and escaped slaves united in rebellion against Portuguese 3 The statistical package employed to conduct all statistic al analyses was SPSS version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago). 4 Santos and Marcoy, among others, mention that the se ttlement had moved on several occasions before being established in its present location due to conflic t with the Mura (Santos 1999: 78; Marcoy 2001). 17

PAGE 18

settlements in the region. During this time, Borba was one of the few settlements that resisted the cabano rebels (ibid.) and eventual ly regained its status of vila In 1852, U.S. Naval Officers William Lewis Herndon and Lardner Gibbon passed through Borba while conducting a survey of the Amaz on region. Herndon and Gibbon described Borba as a small town which they estimated as having 300 inhabitants5; the majority of the population they described as negroes, half of whic h were slaves (Herndon & Gibbon 1854: 311). In regards to economic activities, s ugar cane was produced in farms of the area, principally for manufacture of rum ( cachaa ) while oranges, limes, and waterm elons were cultivated for local consumption (Herndon & Gibbon 1854: 312). The tobacco produced in Borba was claimed to be the best in Brazil, and was traded to the Atlantic Coast of Brazil along wi th cacao, sarsaparilla ( Smilax spp .), coffee, and Brazil nuts ( Bertholletia excelsa ) (Herndon & Gibbon 1854: 311). Between 1850 and 1880, Borba lost and gained its status as vila numerous times until finally in 1888, it was established definitively as a municipality ( municpio). This period coincides with the rubber boom when the Madeir a was flooded by immigrants mostly from the Brazilian Northeast who were seeking out the quality rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) found in the region. Today, the economy of Borba depends largely on agriculture and extractive activities. Manioc, bananas, watermelon, beans, jute, and citrus are amongst the primary agricultural products produced in the area while rubber, timber, Brazil nuts, copaiba oil ( Copaifera officinalis ), and rosewood ( Swartzia spp .) represent major extractive resources. Like much of Central Amazonia, fishing and cat tle ranching are the other prim ary economic activities in the municipality. In the month of June, Borba is also a tourist destin ation, known throughout the 5 This is a questionable figure considering that in 1864 there are said to be 2,335 inhabitants in the district (Bastos 1873). 18

PAGE 19

Central Amazon region for its Festival de Santo Antonio Pilgrims migrate from across the region for this particular event held from June 1st to the 13th. Within the municipality of Borba, approximately 160 communities exist outside of the municipal center of the same name (Figure 1-3). In this study, 19 commun ities were visited, and 3 of these served as primary locations for data collection. A description of each of these is provided below. Assentamento do Puxurizal In the late 1990s, INCRA (The Brazilian Na tional Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform) undertook the project of opening roads into the periphery of Borbas municipal center in order to provide needy families with lands for agricultural production. Of these, the primary project was that of the Assentamento do Puxurizal (Puxurizal Settlement), named after a stream that runs through the area6. Within Puxurizal, 110 lots of varying sizes were defined and allocated to families from the municipal center. Since the opening of the assentamento many of the lots have exchanged hands and not all the families that were intended to occupy the area c ontinue to live there. Some of the lots were exploited strictly for their timber resources and ha ve since been left relatively vacant, or have been sold. In one case, it was br ought to my attention that a local vereador (municipal lawmaker) acquired a lot for his own personal use. Despite this, most of the lots in use are occupied by rural farmers. Of the farms that are currently being used for agricultural production, 9 were visited and formal interviews were c onducted with 6. Of the 110 lots in Puxurizal, informants claimed that only 2 lots contained dark earths, with a third lot that is suspected to have dark earths, but is currently unoccupied. 6 The Puruxizal Stream derives its name from the puxuri ( Licaria puchury-major, Lauraceae), a tree endemic to the Rio Madeira region whose leaves and nuts are used in perfumes and medicinal teas. 19

PAGE 20

Extending from Puxurizal are the communities of Piaba and Jatuarana that were also opened by INCRA. Individual farm ers in these areas were also visited, and dark earths were found on one property. Puruzinho/Puru Grande The community of Puruzinho is located approx imately 32 kilometers downstream from the municipal center of Borba. The vila of Puruzinho is situated betw een the left bank of the Rio Madeira and Puruzinho Lake (Figure 1-4). Half of the Puruzinho community lives on a stretch of terra firme on the opposite side of the lake (Figure 1-5). A second community, Puru Grande, is located on the same lake, but 5 km south of Puruzinho. As in most communities of the municipalitys interior, farming, fishing, and hunt ing are the primary economic activities in the area. In terms of agriculture, commercial produ ction is focused largely on watermelon, West Indian gherkin (Cucumis anguria ), cacao, papayas, and manioc. Although all farmers in the area can be considered smallholders (with an average of 3 to 5 ha of land under management), several individuals produce for the larg er regional market of Manaus. Between Puruzinho and Puru Grande, 11 terra firme farms were visited, 8 of which were located largely on dark earth. Guariba The community of Guariba is located on the ri ght margin of the Rio Madeira, just east of the Vila of Puruzinho. Two individuals from this community were interviewed during research. Both individuals managed areas of vrzea, but focused much of their production on terra mulata on terra firme lands that they po ssessed on their lots. These tw o individuals also managed the greatest number of total species when compared to other interviewees. Other Communities In addition to the communities listed above, th e researcher visited se veral others as part of an expedition organized by IDAM to distribute seeds and collect signatures for agricultural 20

PAGE 21

21 projects managed through the institute. During these visits, which included stops in Nova Recordao, Axinim, Mucaj, Trocan, and Vila do Canum, information was collected on management practices and market production through informal conve rsations with local farmers. Contribution of Research The contributions of this research are both th eoretical and empirical. Here are presented much-needed data regarding ADE and its relatio nship to market production, agrobiodiversity, and smallholder management strategies. This information is complemented by a critical theoretical discussion of the use of the ADE model in global industr ial agriculture. Through this analysis, Amazonian Dark Earth can be unders tood as a phenomenon that is simultaneously defined by the natural and the cultural, the lo cal and the global, th e traditional and the innovative. Figure 1-1. Relationships between management practices, agrobiodiversity, and market production on ADE and non-ADE farm s in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil

PAGE 22

22 Figure 1-2. Map of sites visited a nd surveyed in the municipality of Borba, Amaz onas, Brazil (Created by Karen Pereira. Data source USGS)

PAGE 23

Figure 1-3. Main plaza in the municipal center of Borba (July 2003). Figure 1-4. Puruzinho Lake (July 2007). 23

PAGE 24

24 Figure 1-5. House of a rural farmi ng family (Puruzinho: July 2007). Table 1-1. Distribution of primary communities surveyed Community # of households Households interviewed Puruzinho 62 8 Puru Grande 33 3 Puxurizal 110 6 Guariba 24 2 Other N/A 8

PAGE 25

Table 1-2. Sociodemographic and la nd use data of sampled farmers Farmer Age Sex Community Soil Under Mgmt. Lot Area (ha) Area Under Mgmt. (ha) Garden Area (ha) # of species garden # of speciesagroplot Total spp. 1 21 M Guajar ADE 72 1 0.14 20 2 22 2 55 M Guariba ADE 50 9 0.24 11 27 31 3 53 M Guariba ADE 23 12 0.4 19 19 30 4 51 M Jatuarana Non-ADE 26 2.5 0.3 18 1 19 5 42 M Jatuarana ADE 60 2 N/A N/A 4 4* 6 36 M Mucaj Non-ADE N/A 2 0.5 14 3 16 7 22 M Mucaj Non-ADE N/A 2 N/A N/A 8 8* 8 24 M Mucaj Non-ADE N/A 2 N/A N/A 4 4* 9 45 M Piaba Non-ADE 21 1 0.1 10 2 13 10 23 M Puru Grande Non-ADE 25 5 0.24 17 15 24 11 57 M Puru Grande Non-ADE N/A 2 0.15 5 1 6 12 61 M Puru Grande ADE 125 7.25 N/A N/A 11 11* 13 40 M Puruzinho Non-ADE 20.5 3.5 0.2 10 5 14 14 25 43 F Puruzinho ADE 28 0.5 0.25 16 2 18 15 26 M Puruzinho ADE 60 4 0.35 19 10 26 16 31 M Puruzinho ADE 22 3 0.25 11 10 15 17 25 M Puruzinho ADE 10 4.2 0.35 14 6 17 18 49 M Puruzinho ADE 50 10 0.32 15 5 17 19 56 M Puruzinho ADE 26 3 0.2 23 9 24 20 29 M Puruzinho ADE 30 2.25 0.3 16 4 19 21 62 M Puxurizal Non-ADE 35 5 0.24 22 4 23 22 47 M Puxurizal Non-ADE 35 6 0.36 20 2 21 23 39 M Puxurizal Non-ADE 45 18 0.5 20 2 20 24 52 M Puxurizal Non-ADE 36 5 0.42 21 3 22 25 57 M Puxurizal ADE 75 4 0.28 11 4 14 26 31 M Puxurizal ADE 39 8 0.05 4 2 5 27 41 F Vila do Canum Non-ADE 97 2.5 0.18 13 7 18 *Total species in these instan ces are only based on agroplots.

PAGE 26

CHAPTER 2 A HISTORY OF AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH RESEARCH Introduction Since the first description of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE ) was printed in the late 1800s, the perception of the soil has evolved from that of a pedological anomaly to prime evidence of widespread anthropogenic transformati on in the Amazon basin. This chapter intends to trace the history of ADE research, highlig hting the work of the anthropologists, archaeologists, geographers, geolog ists, and soil scientists that have contributed to our present knowledge of the Amazonian Dark Earth phenomenon. It should be emphasized that this history serves as a general outline and is by no means an exhaustive description of past research. Other excellent summaries of the history of ADE research can be found in Woods and Denevan (2007) and Glaser, Zech, and Woods (2004). Building upon these past historical descriptions of ADE research, this chapter serves to contextualize the present study within its larger historical surroundings, while also discussing the debates that have shaped past investigations of Amazonian Dark Earth. Ultimately, this hist orical overview intends to demonstrate how Amazonian Dark Earth research exposed the anthropoge nic nature of the soil, spurring interest in both its management (past and present) and its po tential application as a model for sustainable or intensive agriculture. Amazonian Dark Earth Nomenclature (Whats in a Name?) The long history of Amazonian Dark Earth studies is evidenced in the varied and abundant terms used to describe this pedological phenomenon. Ea rly descriptions referred to areas of the soil as black lands while the so il itself was described as black earth, dark earth, terra preta do ndio (Indian black earth in Portuguese), or simply terra preta (see Hartt 1874a; Hartt 1874b; Smith 1879a; Brown and Li dstone 1878). Later references included 26

PAGE 27

archaeological black earth and archaeological dark earth, re flections of the abundance of potsherds and cultural material often found at such sites7 (Costa and Kern 1999). Studies originating from Spanish-speaking count ries of Amazonia, used the terms tierras negras (black earths) and suelos negros (black soils) (Andr ade 1986; Herrera 1980; Mora 2002). In addition to these referents, a host of other names describing the soil and its variations have been introduced as research has changed and expanded over time. In 1966, Wim Sombroek published hi s doctoral dissertation entitled Amazon Soils: A Reconnaissance of the Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region which made reference to not only terra preta, but also to an associated soil called terra mulata (Sombroek 1966). Woods and McCann later provided their own insights regardi ng terra mulata, and claimed that it could be distinguished from terra preta by its grayish-brown color, lower concentration of nutrients, lack of cultural material, and surpri singly higher content of soil organic matter (Woods and McCann 1999; Woods and McCann 2001). In their wri tings, Woods and McCann employed the term Amazonian Dark Earth in consideration of both terra preta and terra mulata. The first two books dedicated to the study of these soils also op ted for the use of the term Amazonian Dark Earth (Lehmann et al. 2004; Glaser & Woods 2003). In the recent history of dark earths, other names and descriptors have been incorporated into the literature, which have helped to shape the debate concerning the origin of dark earths. In 1980, Nigel Smith published the article Anthr osols and Human Carrying Capacity in Amazonia in which Smiths use of the term anth rosol reflected the growing belief at the time that human interaction with the soil was res ponsible for its formation (Smith 1980). As the 7 All true dark earth sites are archaeological sites. Fo r a discussion of dark earth s and their archaeological importance sensu lato see Oyuela-Cayced o et al. n.d. 27

PAGE 28

human link to the soil became more accepted, more articles began referring to terra preta as an anthropogenic or anthropic soil.8 Most recently, an article published by Elizabet h Graham (2006) has suggested that perhaps a more appropriate term would be Neotropical Dark Earth (Graham 2006). Graham and her associates have examined dark earths in other parts of Latin America including Belize and Cuba, arguing that the soils can not be treat ed solely as an Amazonian phenomenon9. This development reflects the broadening of dark earth research and a resultant increasing awareness of the phenomenon. For purposes of this research, which is focuse d in Amazonia, I have chosen to rely on the terms Amazonian Dark Earth and dark earth when referring to these soils in a general sense. When there is a need to discu ss the variations of dark eart h, I specify by employing the terms terra preta or terra mulata. The Confederados, a Canadian Geologist, an d the First Amazonian Archaeologists (1860s1880s) When the American Civil War ended in 1865, a number of Confederate families decided to migrate to Brazil rather than remain in the defeated South. One particular man, Major Lansford Hastings, surveyed parts of Central Am azonia and chose to esta blish a colony in an area south of the city Santarm in 1866 (Griggs 1987). A little more th an a year after having procured the land, Hastings died during a trip to recruit more se ttlers from the American South (ibid). Nonetheless, the colonists, known as Os Confederados remained and many of them situated their plantations on dark earth sites, whose fertility they most likely had learned of 8 Debate concerning the intentionality of dark earth cr eation has led some to use the term anthropogenic as intentionally created where as anthropic is used to denote unintentional creation (See Neves et al. 2003). 9 Anthropogenic dark earths are also re ferred to in archaeological research out side Latin America as in the case of Carrier Mills, Southern Illinois (Jeffries 1987) and West Africa (Fairhead and Scoones 2006: 35). 28

PAGE 29

through local peoples (Woods and Denevan 2007). It has been suggested that Hastings had chosen to settle in the Santar m area due in part to the a bundance of dark earth and its advantages for agriculture, but this can not be verified in the literature. What can be said, however, is that the arrival of the Confederados to Amazonia was a critical event that led to the early recognition and archaeological investigat ion of terra preta s ites by non-Amazonians. Around the time of Hastings arrival to Amaz onia, Charles F. Hartt, a young Canadian geologist, was exploring parts of the region with Louis Agas siz and the Thayer Expedition (Agassiz and Agassiz 1868). As a member of the expedition, Hartt spent 15 months in Brazil and became intrigued by the geology and natural hist ory of the land. After returning to the U.S. and accepting a teaching position at the newly f ounded Cornell University in 1868, he began preparing for a second trip to Brazil. In 1870, Hartt returned to Brazil as the leader of the Morgan Expeditions. The Morgan Expeditions (1870 and 1871), financed in part by Colonel Edwin P. Morgan, were undertaken with the purpose of studying the geology of the Amazon valley (Hartt 1874b: 1). Despite this intended geological focus, considerable time was dedicated to archaeological investigation in the region. To support the second of the two expe ditions, Hartt received some financial support from the Peabody Museum at Harvard University specifically for the collection of artifacts (ibid.: 5). Consequently, Hartt, the geologi st and natural historian, became a self-made archaeologist through his explorations of the w ealth of cultural material in the Lower Amazon10. Upon return from the Morgan Expeditions, Hartt even remarked in his published preliminary report: The archaeological material has been so rich that it has been difficult to work out. New collections have constantly been coming in, a nd what I intended as a short report on the 10 Hartts posthumous work Contribuies para a Ethnologia do Valle do Amazon as dealt solely with his anthropological research in the Amazon Valley (Hartt 1885). 29

PAGE 30

antiquities of the lower Amazonas, has grown to be a large volume on the antiquities of the whole Empire. (Hartt 1874b: 7). In the second Morgan expedition of 1871, Hartt and his students i nvestigated several archaeological sites in the Middl e Amazon. Hartts student Orvill e Derby along with J.B. Steere, a graduate of the University of Michigan, vi sited the farms of American settlers (i.e. Confederados) near Santarm while Hartt went to Taperinha to re-examine the great fresh-water Kitchen-midden he had seen on a previous trip (Hartt 1874b: 5). During both trips to Taperinha, Hartt was accompanied by Romulus J. Rhome, a Confederado who operated a plantation in the area. Along w ith Rhome, Hartt found pottery and some bones as well as other artifacts in a nearby bluff that he described as ancient Indian settlement marked by terra preta (Hartt 1885: 3). These materials later became part of archaeological collections at Cornell and Harvard, which the archaeologist Anna Roosev elt examined in the early 1980s (Roosevelt 1995:121). In 1982, Roosevelt took a radiocarbon date of a shell from Hartts excavations, which dated to 5705 B.P (Ibid.). In 1987, Roosev elt and colleagues conduct ed an archaeological investigation of the Taperinha shell midden and found the oldest pottery to date in the Amazon, believed to have been crafted around 80007000 years B.P. (Roosevelt et al. 1991). It is important to note that Rhome, who assist ed Hartt at the shellmidden site, resided in Taperinha and was known to collect archaeological artifacts from ma ny of the dark earth sites in the region. Hartts student, Herbert Smith, wrot e about Rhome in his account of the Morgan Expeditions and in one passage, describes Rhomes collections as they visit a dark earth site: We find fragments scattered everywhere, a nd Mr. Rhome has been making archaeological collections for years. He gets all sorts of curious clay figures: vultures heads, frogs, a cock with comb and wattles complete, a whistle, and one odd-looking affair punched full of holes, which so Mr. Rhome laughingly insi sts must be a toothpick-stand. (Smith 1879a: 169) 30

PAGE 31

Later, part of Rhomes collection was housed at the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro (see Nimuendaj 1953: 59). Although little literature is focuse d on Rhome specifically (with the exception of Herbert Smiths ar ticle, An American Home on the Amazons; Smith 1879b), his life represents an important nexus of linkages between the Confederados, Hartt and the geologists, and the explorat ion of dark earth sites. Outside of the Santarm region, Hartt and his st udents also explored areas of eastern Par, including Maraj Island. Hartt mentions having his student Orville Derby investigate the Indian burial mound of Pacoval on Maraj Island, which resu lted in an important collection of pottery. In his writings, Hartt mentions that the site was brought to his atte ntion by Domingos Soares Ferreira Penna, a Brazilian scholar who conduc ted a preliminary survey of Pacoval in 1870 (Hartt 1874b: 3; Palmatary 1949: 27 0). Ferreira Penna and Hartt ha d met during the latters first visit to Brazil during the Thayer Expeditions a nd the two later collabora ted on several occasions (Moraes Bertho 2001: 150). Some scholars consid er Ferreira Penna to be one of the first Amazonian archaeologists as he surveyed numerous archaeological sites and wrote extensively about archaeology and ethnology of the Amazon11. Perhaps even more importantly, Ferreira Penna founded what would later become the Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi, the primary institution of archaeological a nd anthropological research in Amazonia (Barreto and Machado 2001). While there is no denying that Hartts work is well-deserving of recognition, it shouldnt be forgotten that he is also know n for being the first North American scholar to take interest in Amazonian archaeology, inspiring the work of archaeologists like William Farabee, Curt Nimuendaj, Helen Palmatary, Clifford Evans, Betty Meggers, and Anna Roosevelt. As 11 Summaries of Ferreira Pennas contributions to archaeology are included in Helen Palmatarys excellent manuscript discussing pottery of Maraj Island (Palmatary 1949:270-273) as well as Hartts Contribuies para a Ethnologia do Valle do Amazonas (Hartt 1885). 31

PAGE 32

scholarly ethnoand linguo-centric tendencies can inhibit our understanding of history, the work of Ferreira Penna and other early Amaz onian scholars should not go unnoticed12. Early Interpretations of Dark Earths as Anthropogenic Landscapes (1870s-1900s) The association of dark earths with indigenous artifacts led Hartt, Rhome, Ferreira Penna, and others who surveyed the region to the logi cal conclusion that dark earth sites had been former indigenous settlements. The relations hip between the soils fe rtility and indigenous occupation was not understood, but an accepted theory of its formation was offered in this early stage. Perhaps unknowingly, these explorers began to expose dark earths as features of much larger anthropogenic environments. Herbert Smith, a student of Hartt, was particularly attentive to the existence of dark earths. Although Hartt was first to publish a document desc ribing these anthrosols, much more detailed descriptions of dark earths were found in Smiths book, Brazil, the Amazons and the Coast (Smith 1879a). Smith first describes the soil while on a visit to a sugar cane field near Taperinha: The cane-field itself is a splendid sight; the st alks ten feet high in many places, and as big as ones wrist. This is the rich terra preta, black land, the best on the Amazons. It is a fine, dark loam, a foot, and often two feet, thick. Strewn over it everywhere we find fragments of Indian pottery, so abundant in so me places that they almost cover the ground. (Smith 1879a: 144) Throughout this book, Smith cross-references his writings with those of Pedro Cristoval de Acua, the Jesuit Priest that chronicled the Amazon voyage of Pedro Texeira in 1639. Acua, like Carvajal who chronicled Orellanas e xpedition, described larg e indigenous populations found on the banks of the Amazon. Perhaps influe nced by these descriptions, Smith viewed the dark earth sites as kitchen middens of former indigenous settlements: 12 See Barreto and Machado 2001 for a brief summary of ea rly contributions to Amazonian archaeology by Brazilian scholars like Joo Barbosa Rodrigues. 32

PAGE 33

At Taperinha, as at Diamantina and Panma, an d far up the Tapajs, the bluff-land owes its richness to the refuse of a thousand kitchens for maybe a thousand years; numberless palm-thatches, which were left to rot on the ground as they were replaced by new ones. For the bluffs were covered with Indian houses so close together, says Acua, that from one village you can hear the workme n of another. (Smith 1879a: 168) With his knowledge of Acuas writing, Smith attempted to envision Amazonia as the Jesuit priest may have seen it. Smiths awareness of dark earth sites and their association with indigenous villages, led him to compare his evidence with Acuas descriptions of the dense populations found in the region: We found the black land and its antiquities on the bluffs of Panma and Diamantinha; we shall find it, also, all along th e bluffs of the Lower Tapajos; and here, twenty-five miles below Santarem, we find it again in a like situa tion. Now, all these bluffs are the edges of the same plateau, and the pottery and stone im plements are everywhere similar. On the Tapajs the black land occurs at intervals of one to five miles; but from Panma to Taperinha, and for some distance below, it fo rms almost a continuous line; indicating, in fact, a single village, or cit y, thirty miles long, but extending only a little way in from the edge of the plateau. At interv als, there are signs of ancient roads leading down toward the river, as at Diamantina. Acua gives no positive evidence of such a city; he says only, that the Tapajos region is very populous, and that he and his party encamped near a village where [there] were five hundred families. (Smith 1879a: 169) Smiths observations are particularly relevant to the on-going debate regarding Amazonian demographics in the preand early post-contact periods. Moreover, Smith s theory linking prior human settlements to dark earth sites is an impor tant insight that is only accepted more than 100 years after the publication of his book. During the same time period, dark earths cam e to the attention of the geologists C. Barrington Brown and William Lidstone during th eir explorations of the Amazon. In fact, Brown and Lidstone were the first to describe the soil as terras pretas in print (Woods and Devenan 2007). Like Smith, they too associat ed the sites with indigenous settlement: Villages must have stood upon these sports for ages, to have accumulated such a depth of soil about themAt the present day these loca lities are highly prized as agricultural grounds, owing to their fertility; a nd they bear the name of Te rras pretas (black earths). We have observed them occurring in many places almost too numerous to mention. (Brown & Lidstone 1878, 270-271; Smith 1999). 33

PAGE 34

As evidenced in the work of Brown and Lidstone as well as Smith, it wa s generally accepted in this early period of ADE rec ognition that the dark earths of the region were a product of indigenous occupation13. Friedrick Katzer, a German geol ogist who conducted the first soil analysis of ADE, came to a similar conclusion, s uggesting that the soil had been cultivated in prehistoric times when the basin was more dens ely population (Katzer 1903: 68; cited in Woods 2003: 4). While the significance of this conclusion did not lead to further questioning of indigenous influence on the environment, it represents an important historical perspective that is contrary to many later writings in the mid 20th century. Today one can only guess as to why early explorers were more willing to accept dark earths as an indigenous artifact, but perhaps knowledge of historical accounts lik e that of Acua, paired with the abundance of archaeological findings, facilitated the accep tance of this conclusion. Curt Unkel: The One Who Knew How to Open His Path in This World and Conquer His Place in Amazonian Anthropology (1920s-1940s) The legacy that Smith, Hartt, Ferreira Pe nna and their contemporaries left for early Amazonian archaeology and the study of dark earths was perhaps best succeeded by a German named Curt Unkel. Unkel had no formal traini ng in anthropology, but he immigrated to Brazil in 1903 specifically to live and work with indi genous people (Schaden 1967-1968: 77-78). In 1906, Unkel was given the name Nimuendaj by a Guaran group in the state of Sao Paulo. This title, which would become his official su rname when he became a Brazilian citizen, meant the one who knew how to open his path in th is world and conquer his place in it (Schaden 1967-1968: 78; Neves 2004). Afte r spending 10 years in So Paulo, working with indigenous groups of Southern Brazil, Nimuendaj moved to Belm in Eastern Amazonia. From 1913 until 13 Hartt, however, did not necessarily hol d this viewpoint as he remarks in his writings on the ethnology of the Amazon that indigenous people had been attracted to terra preta soils (Hartt 1885: 12). 34

PAGE 35

his death14 in 1945, Nimuendaj split time between work in Belm and extended forays into the field. Over this period, Nimuendaj collected an incredible amount of information and materials, including ceramic artifacts, linguistic data, and skillfully drawn maps of areas he had visited. Recently, his writings and maps have been compiled and organized in posthumous works Cartas do Serto and In Pursuit of a Past Amazon that provide a more complete vision of his lifes work (see Nimuendaj 2000; Nimuendaj 2004). Nimuendajs contribution to Amazonian an thropology and the study of dark earths is considerable. Between 1923 and 1925, he canvass ed large expanses of the Central Amazon basin, recording dark earth sites and collecting ceramics from those areas. Nimuendaj was aware of Hartts work and it led him to invest igate the area around Santarm where he made significant collections. The sites he names in the area are too many to mention, but those that he found to be most valuable in terms of ceramic s collection were Santar m-Aldeia and Lavras (Nimuendaj 1953). Aside from collecting ceramics in the area around Santarm, Nimuendaj discovered many of the important anthropogenic f eatures of the region. In his article Os Tapaj, Nimuendaj described finding wells dug by the Tapaj Indians along the plantalto or riverine bluffs in the region. He claimed that the wells, about 2 meters in both diameter and depth, continued to provide water fo r the neo-Brazilians (as he re ferred to them) at the time of his visit. Although he found only 5 such wells, he argued that many more had to exist. Aside from these wells, Nimuendaj also documented the existence of trails (between a meter and a meter and a half in width) linking different dark earth sites together. De spite finding overgrowth occasionally interrupting the paths, Nimuendaj claimed that the paths continued to be quite visible (Nimuendaj 1953: 60). While most of the sites he investigated were found in terra 14 Joao Pacheco de Oliveira presents a fascinating account of Nimuendajs work amongst the Tikuna and the circumstances leading up to his death in 1946 (see Pacheco 1992). 35

PAGE 36

firme he also mentioned finding dark earth sites located near th e edge of the floodplain, most notably at Santarm-Aldeia and Alter do Cho (ibid). In Nimuendajs descriptions of archaeol ogical sites provided in the recent compilation In Pursuit of a Past Amazon terra preta is mentioned numerous times. From his travels in the Central Amazon (1923-1925), Nimuendaj specifica lly mentioned terra preta in 65 different locales while surveying the ar ea for ceramics and artifacts (Nimuendaj 1953: 59; Nimuendaj 2004). Like Herbert Smith and others, Nimue ndaj argued that indigenous peoples were responsible for the formation of terra preta, and in his writings he listed the many reasons why: 1. Wherever the subsoil cons ists of clay or sand, the terra preta is also clay or sandy. 2. The terra pretas occur only as relatively small areas, in rare cases more than 500 m in diameter. 3. The black soil originating from organic matter cannot have been formed by deposits of dissolved vegetable substances, since it is never found in the beds of the valleys or in depressions, whereas it is always found on hill s, where such formation cannot take place. 4. It can be observed even today how the so il of the kitchen site of a new habitation becomes coloured black after some time. 5. The fact that the terra preta is especially suitable for gr owing vegetables may be the reason why the Indians chose it for their Roas. However, th e huge amount of fragments found in many terra pretas cannot accumulate in a planta tion, but only in a place of permanent habitation. 6. Apart from fishing stations in inundated areas, all the ancient dwelling-sites I found were situated on terra pretas and every terra preta I have seen showed traces of ancient Indian habitation. 7. In terra pretas with a thickness of even more than 1 m, traces of habitations are found regularly in the entire depth. At Lavras, I found hearths wi th ashpits, particularly of Emys sp., right above the ye llow soil and under a terra preta with a thickness of 25 cm and at Santarm Alda almost at a depth of 1 m, facts which indicate a more or less permanent habitation (italics from text; Niumendaj 2004:122) 36

PAGE 37

To conclude his list, Nimuendaj stated th at the only possible reason why one would argue differently is due to the incredible thickness of th e soil (up to 1.5 m) at cer tain sites, which could raise doubts as to how indigenous groups were able to produce such a quantity of dark earth. Despite this potential argument Nimuendaj remained convinced that indigenous peoples were responsible for the formation of dark earths. This beli ef would go unchallenged until 1941. Terra Preta in the Modern Age (1940s-1980s) In the 1940s, Amazonian Dark Earth research began to change as the origin of the soil came into question. Although this debate may have begun arbitrarily, it is likely that changing historical attitudes contributed in driving the discussion. It can be argued that with the rise of modern science, indigenous technologies became viewed as increasingly antiquarian and obsolete. Moreover, many archaeologists and anthr opologists of the era prom oted the belief that environmental constraints inhibited the developmen t of large, complex societies in Amazonia. From this perspective, the deba te of dark earth formation deve loped as part of the modern questioning of the indigenous capac ity to alter the Amazonian environment on a regional scale. In 1941, Felisberto Camargo published a study of Amazonian soil profiles in which he included a description of terra pr eta. As to the formation of the soil, Camargo proposed the hypothesis that dark earths may have been th e product of deposited volcanic ash (Camargo 1941). Shortly thereafter, Barbosa de Faria, an archaeologist who investigated areas of the Trombetas and Jamund Rivers, offered another hypothesis suggesting th at floodplain lakes may have led to the formation of da rk earths (Barbosa de Faria 1944). This theory, however, did not provide an explanation for the formation of dark earths on terra firme, where the majority of ADE sites are located. These hypotheses circulated until 1949, when Pie rre Gourou, a French geographer, offered that the soils were of archaeological orig in. Although Gourou doubted that the contemporary 37

PAGE 38

indigenous peoples could have b een responsible for dark earth formation, he made an astute observation: the present is not necessarily the image of the past (Gourou 1949, authors translation). The idea described by Heckenbe rger as cultural uniformitarianism (i.e. contemporary indigenous populations are directly an alogous to those of the past) appears to have influenced Gourous contemporaries who had preferred to opt for natural explanations of dark earth formation (Heckenberger 2004). In contrast, Gourou reasoned th at larger indigenous populations in the past may have been infl uential in the devel opment of such soils. Despite Gourous insight, natural explanations for dark earth formation continued to be offered. In 1962, Cunha-Franco reformulated th e hypothesis offered by Barbosa de Faria (Cunha Franco 1962). Cunha-Franco argued that clos ed depressions common throughout the Santarm planalto had filled with water during the rainy season and formed small lakes or ponds. He reasoned that indigenous peoples gravitated toward these shallow lakes in the uplands during the rainy season as they moved away from the floodpl ain. In this manner, seasonal villages formed near these lakes and waste was deposited in th em including broken pottery, animal bones, and other organic waste. Cunha-Franco believe d that over hundreds of years these shallow depressions formed dark earth sites. talo Falesi continued to shape the discu ssion of terra preta formation in a 1974 article published in Charles Wagleys Man in the Amazon (Falesi 1974). Fale si hypothesized that during the Tertiary, the massive la ke that was created in Amazonia through the rise of the Andes created extensive deposits of mine ral sediments. At the end of the Tertiary, the lake began to empty into the Atlantic, which drained the basin. According to Falesis argument, depressed areas remained filled with water for a time, accumulating aquatic vegetation and other organic 38

PAGE 39

matter. Over time these depressions dried and indigenous groups settled on them, thus producing the archaeological context as witnessed today15 (Falesi 1974). The movement towards the adoption of nat ural explanations for the occurrence of Amazonian Dark Earth coincided with the an thropological model of Amazonian indigenous societies offered at the time. Accord ing to the Tropical Forest Model,16 which was promoted in the Handbook of South American Indians (Steward 1946-1959), it was asserted that small, dispersed, and impermanent settlements were ch aracteristic of Amazoni an societies throughout history (and pre-history) Betty Meggers later became the pr imary proponent of this model, arguing that environmental constraints preven ted Pre-Columbian populations from developing large complex societies (see Me ggers 1996). Although Meggers rec ognized that groups like the Tapaj had maintained denser populations and more socially complex polities, she stressed that they had reached the maximum level of cultu ral elaboration for their given environment (Ibid.:149). Despite the dominant trend of the time to downplay human agency in the Amazon Basin, other scholars during this period continued to assert that humans played a crucial role in the formation of dark earth. Wim So mbroek argued that areas of terr a preta were sites of former occupation while the more extensive terra mulata soils were ancient agricultural fields (Sombroek 1966:175). Other scholars like Hilgard OReilly Sternberg an d Peter Paul Hilbert supported similar hypotheses that emphasized the human role in dark earth formation as Herbert Smith and Curt Nimuendaj had done previous ly (Sternberg 1956; Sternberg 1975; Hilbert 1968). In the late 1970s, Robert Eidt also contri buted important findings on the use of phosphate 15 Falesi has since agreed with the idea that ADE soils are anthropogenic in origin (N. Smith, pers. comm.) 16 Later described as the standard model by Viveiros de Castro (Viveiros de Castro 1996: 180), followed by Heckenberger et al. 1999. 39

PAGE 40

analysis for determining human occupation linked to anthrosols (Eidt 1977). Yet it was not until the 1980s, following the publishing of Nigel Sm iths article Anthrosols and Human Carrying Capacity in Amazonia, this human link to Amaz onian Dark Earth became more widely accepted once again (Smith 1980; Woods and Denevan 2007). Contemporary research has concluded that dark earths are in fact the product of indi genous occupation, although the exact processes by which they have formed are still disputed. ADE and the Question of In tentionality (1990s-Present) As the debate over the natural vs. human-driv en explanations for Amazonian Dark Earth formation has subsided, the question of inte ntionality has surfaced. Did indigenous groups intentionally create Amazonian Da rk Earth or was it simply an unintentional by-product of their occupation17? Expanding interdisciplinary research projects oriented by the theoretical perspectives of historical ecology have sought to trace the ways in which human-environmental interactions played out in the formation of th e Amazonian environment as witnessed today, yet the question of intentionality in some ways cont radicts the very basis of the historical ecology approach. One of the principal problems of the question of intentionality is of a philosophical nature. Oftentimes, the idea of intentionality reflects the assumption that the environment is an inert object acted upon by people (see Ma rcoulatos 2006). This notion contradicts the theoretical groundings of historical ecology, which has been described by Bale as: the interpenetration of culture and the environment, rather than the adaptation of human beings to the environment. In other words, a relationship between nature and culture is conceived, in principle, as a dialogue, not a dichotomy (Bale 1998: 14). Grah am identifies this obstacle with regards to 17 Neves et al. attempt to address this issue by distinguish ing anthropic and anthropogeni c soils (Neves et al. 2003: 35-36). 40

PAGE 41

ADE, stating: At the level of analysis in which we explore the origins but not the implications of dark-earth deposits, I am uncomfortable with intentions, and I do not think we can disentangle the threads of the association between ADE and human activity if we privilege a dichotomy of intentionality versus inadvertency. (Graham 2006: 70). Heckenberger asserts that the debate over intentionality is misdirected or perhaps unnecessary (pers. comm. 2006). Whether indigenous groups were conscious of the manner in which they produced dark earth or not, Heckenberger claims that it is ob vious that they mapped onto these areas and exploited them. In the Kui kuru villages of the Upper Xingu, it is noted that contemporary peoples deposit organic waste outsi de ring plazas and over time, the soil is enriched (Heckenberger 2004). In a similar manner, the Kaapor of Eastern Amazonia have shaped their environment through the developm ent of agro-forestry systems and unique land management practices, yet they do not express an understanding of the long-term effects of these practices on their enviro nment (Bale 1994). To further the complicate the issue, Posey reminds that indigenous groups may have different conceptions of what is active or intentional resource management when compared to the eco logists or anthropologists who document their activities (Posey 1992). For these reasons, it is argued here that ra ther than ponder the degree to which indigenous management was intentional or not in the development of dark earths, the management practices employed by groups is a more appropriate focus of research. Clearly, PreColumbian management practices may only be inferred by researchers, but the fields of pedology, ethnography, ethnohistory, a nd archaeology can yield better clues to such hypothetical practices. Under such reasoning, the question of intentionality can re main an afterthought. The Development of Contemporary ADE Management Studies As archaeologists investigate questions related to the formation of dark earths historically, other scholars are beginning to recognize the value of studying ADE management at present. 41

PAGE 42

42 Since much of the Amazon basin is occupi ed today by rural peoples of mixed ethnic backgrounds (commonly referred to as caboclos ), researchers hope to address how contemporary management practices can improve production of regional soils and how regional farmers may sustain production on existing dark earths. Although no direct evidence has shown that rural Amazonians continue to recreate dark earths on a large scale, their mana gement of the soil is important for understanding both the benefits and shortcomings of agricultural production on these soils. Moreover, the role of ADE in the livelihoods of rural Amazonians and the relationship of such soils to agrobiodiversity in the basin require further attention. A case study presented in the following chapters explores precisely these issues.

PAGE 43

CHAPTER 3 CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT OF AM AZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE LOWER MADEIRA: A CASE STUDY IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL Introduction This chapter describes management practices of rural farmers in Borba, focusing on the ways that management differs on ADE and non-ADE soils18. Practices that are commonly shared between dark earths and non-dark earth farm ers are also discussed, pa rticularly in relation to contentious issues such as th e use of fire in shifting agriculture. Lastly, general conclusions are drawn about ADE management, noting both th e limitations and advantages of agricultural production on these anthropogenic soils. Use of Fire The use of fire by smallholders has beco me an increasingly controversial issue in Amazonia. Due to the impact of heightened defo restation and climatic ch ange, researchers have argued that Amazonian forests are becoming more vulnerable to the th reat of fires (Nepstad et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2008). Neverthe less, the use of fire as a management tool is of an extended historical tradition in the basin19 (Denevan 2001). Swidden agri culture continues to be the prominent form of management, requiring clea ring and burning of vegetation (see Conklin 1961). Not only does the burning of dried vegetation release nutrient-rich ash, but charcoal from burned stumps and roots also contribute to fertility as witnessed in Amazonian Dark Earth (Figure 3-1). The contribution of nutrients from ash, however, is considered to be a short-term benefit as the majority of farmers interviewed de scribed significant declin es in production within 18 Non-ADE soils in this study were nearly all terra firme Oxisols 19 Denevan describes many Pre-Columbian indigenous practices involving the use of fire, but he argues that swidden agriculture may be a relatively recent development. Acco rding to Denevan, Pre-Colu mbian agriculture was most likely more intensive, relying on in-field burning and mulchi ng. The use of fire in practices like coivara is likely to be of an extended historical tradition (see Denevan 2001). 43

PAGE 44

a year or two (see also Nye and Greenland 1964). Some scholars note that nutrients released by burning are not the only bene fit of fire as it also helps to de stroy weed seeds (Ewel et al. 1981). The local head of the state agricultural extens ion agency in Borba offered a third reason for burning: it is a simple and effective tool for clearing an area that re quires relatively little work. Descola, amongst others, supports this final conclusion (Descola 1994: 158). In Borba, all of the farmers interviewed us ed fire in management of their lands, although farmers that invested more time and space in the production of annual crops were required to burn more frequently than those that focused th eir production largely on perennial fruit trees. The cultivation of manioc, in particular, usuall y requires the clearing of new lands every 2 or 3 years due to losses in soil fertil ity when cultivating on Oxisols. However, recent research by Fraser has shown that in some communities of the Middle Madeira, farmers have developed management schemes that allow for continuous cultivation of manioc on ADE soils, thus requiring less frequent clearing and burning of lands (Fraser et al. 2007). On both types of soils, the management of perennial crops like cacao prev ents the need for frequent burning since such species can be managed in orchards for extended periods of time. After initially clearing an area th rough burning, many farmers acknowledged implementing the practice of coivara a post-burn management technique. Coivara consists of collecting partially burned stumps and roots left in a field after a burn from which a small pile is formed and burned a second time (Cf. German 2001: 155). This practice allows for the introduction of charcoal into the soil matrix, a key characteristic of dark earths and their formation. Farmers acknowledge that these pockets of coivara tend to have greater fertility, and oftentimes they are treated as microenvironments used to plant crops that have greater nutrient demands. On a visit to one farm (with a member of IDAM), it was pointed out on a pineapple 44

PAGE 45

plot that the individual plants that fared best were located n ear a partially-burned tree stump that had contributed both charcoal and nutrients through the slow rele ase of the trees decomposed biomass. Another method by which rural farmers impr ove soil fertility is through the use of terra queimada (burned earth). The making of terra queimada is a practice that is also present in urban areas in which small sticks and leaf litter are collected in piles outside the home and burned in the evening. This burned materi al is mixed with soil, which cr eates a nutrient rich mix of soil organic matter, charcoal, and ash (see Winkler prins and Souza 2005: 117-118). The benefits of terra queimada are well known as one farmer said, terra queimada um adubo bom para qualquer planta (burned earth is a good fer tilizer for any plant). Despite some of the advantages of fire as a management tool, the use of fire is also perceived locally as a problem. Many individuals claimed that fire could be a detriment to the soil, particularly if the dura tion of a burn was too long. Recent campaigns by IDAM have discouraged burning, particularly in the dry months of the year (July October). Some farmers who are involved in projects with IDAM have now adopted new management techniques that seek to lessen the use of fire. One such pr oject promoted by IDAM is the planting of aai ( Euterpe spp .) palms in rows ( linhas ) through secondary vegetation ( capoeira ). This management practice allows smallholders to plant a species that has had considerable commercial success recently in a manner that prev ents the need for burning. This practice has been largely adopted in the community of Puxuri zal just outside the muni cipal center of Borba, where farmers tend to have greate r contact with officers of IDAM. Even with the development of new management practices that seek to minimize the use of fire, it should be reaffirmed that fire remains a primary management tool. IDAM and other 45

PAGE 46

agricultural extension agencies accep t this tradition and have tried to promote safe practices that control burning. Many of the farmers interviewed claimed to make aceiros (firebreaks) to prevent the spread of fires, although accidents are not uncommon. Despite these accidents, many farmers feel that they are left with few viable alternatives to burning for clearing and cleaning their lands. Fertilizers Farmers interviewed in Borba fertilize their soils with a wide array of materials from cacao pods to cow manure to NPK. Many farm ers, however, simply rely on the existing nutrients in the soil. In genera l, individuals that had higher ma rket orientation tended to rely more upon chemical fertilizers, although highly market-oriented farmers also commonly used cow manure and organic fertiliz ers. When comparing those farmers who used chemical fertilizers with those who did not, farmers usi ng chemical fertilizers averaged 67.4% market orientation while those who did not av eraged only 47.9% market orientation. Independent t-tests confirm that these differences are statistically significant with 95% confidence (p-value= .019). A third of farmers interviewed used chemical fertilizers. Within groups, 50.0% of ADE farmers used chemical fertilizers while only 15.4% of non-ADE farmers made use of them (Figure 3-2). Fischers exact te st was conducted to test this di fference in proportions, yielding a p-value of .103 or nearly 90% confidence. Although farmers that managed dark earths used ch emical fertilizers more often, this is not necessarily because of a greater need to enhance fertility. Most ADE farmers alluded that they used chemical fertilizers on ADE to maximi ze production of valuable market crops like watermelon. These claims are supported by the da ta as all but one of ADE farmers who used chemical fertilizer produced watermelon. It is al so important to mention that data on the exact amount of chemical fertilizer used by farmers wa s not recorded at every farm, but of the little 46

PAGE 47

data collected, it appears to be used very minima lly, particularly when compared to large-scale mechanized operations. Most of the farmers usin g chemical fertilizers only had a few liters of liquid fertilizer, the most common product being Ouro Verde NPK 6-6-8. Organic fertilizers were used by only 29.6% of farmers interviewed. Within groups 42.9% of ADE farmers used organic amendm ents while only 15.4% non-ADE farmers used them (Figure 3-2). The specific or ganic fertilizers used tend to vary greatly from farm to farm. Two farmers mentioned using a mixture of cow manure and rotting wood or mulch ( pa), while others used manioc peels, cacao pods, and other fo rms of locally available plant biomass. Even though few farmers used organic fertilizers, ma ny commented on the benefits of mulch, manure, and rotting wood, as one farmer said, Old wood ( pau velho ) and old leaves ( folhas velhas) are the best things in the world for plants. No fertilizers (chemical or organic) were us ed by 48.1% of farmers interviewed. 76.9% of non-ADE farmers used no fertilizers while only 2 1.4% of ADE farmers used none. This large number of farmers who used no fe rtilizers (chemical or organic) is likely attributed to two principal factors. First, chemical fertiliz ers are often prohibitively expensive for most smallholders while the application of organic fertilizers usually requi res extra labor (i.e. processing and distribution of mulc h or other plant biomass). Second, the dominant crop of the Amazon, manioc, requires no fertilizer for su ccessful production under shifting cultivation. Crop Rotation and Shifting Cultivation Upland shifting agriculture remains the primary agricultural land-use system in Amazonia. It is reported to contribute to upwar ds of 80% of the regions total food production (Serro 1995: 267). In the municipality of Borba, the majority of farmers interviewed practiced, at least in part, a form of sh ifting cultivation. Few farmers who were interviewed managed to cultivate annual crops on the same plots for extended periods of time. As a general rule, farmers 47

PAGE 48

cultivated annual crops in a field ( plantio or roado) for 2 years and then abandoned it for at least 2 to 7 years. Many ADE farmers who plan ted watermelon complained that the soil simply could not withstand more than a couple of year s of production without suffe ring serious declines. On Oxisols, manioc was often the primary crop cultivated, which was also usually only planted for 2 years, consisting of the initial planting and a second planting known as the replanta. No farmers described having any management strategies that invol ved crop rotation to recuperate mined soils after a year of partic ularly demanding cropping. However, many farmers, particularly those on ADE, adopted less demanding crops or perennials af ter several years of production of watermelon. Several farmers had pl anted watermelon for years on their ADE sites, but after what they perceived as declines in so il fertility, they opted to plant cacao and other perennials instead. One ADE farmer focused on cucurbits, beans, and corn before moving on to less demanding crops like manioc and aai as described in my fieldnotes here: In terms of production, Ataliba said he would plant the terra preta with manioc and would replantar [replant] for another 2 years. He said th at in the terra preta, the manioc tubers would become quite large, but adubo de gado [cow manure] was necessary also. In the past he said he had also plan ted corn on terra preta as well as watermelon, cucumbers, and feijo de praia [beans]. He said that the feijo did quite well (a va riety he described as manteguinha which is white). Nonetheless, after 25 years of production on and off, he felt that the soil was pretty worn out and with th e rain water that carried topsoil down to the igarap [small stream], the soil was bound to lose its productive capacity. He also mentioned in the summer, it would get pretty dried out He mentioned planting aai in the future like many of the other farmers I met in the area. Similarly, another ADE farmer reported to have produced watermelon for several years on his land before he felt that the soil couldnt handle it any longer. He be lieved that the use of herbicide had contributed to the decline in fer tility. For this reason, he shifted management towards less demanding perenni als including cacao, soursop ( Annona muricata ), banana, and aai. 48

PAGE 49

Weeding As noted by previous dark earth scholars (German 2001, 2003; Major et al. 2003), the proliferation of weeds on dark earths is one of the soils major disadvantages. Due to the heightened fertility of the so ils, weeds thrive in areas qu ickly after clearing, sometimes threatening to choke out managed species if not properly tended to. Some farmers interviewed managed large fruit orchards in which shade helped to block out the majority of insistent weeds, but this would only occur after plants had begun to fully mature (usually 3 to 4 years). For those that managed annual crops, the use of herbicide was quite common. A third of farmers interviewed reported to use herbicides. 50% of farmers on ADE soils used herbicides while only 15.4% of non-ADE farmers used them (Figure 32). Fishers exact test was conducted to analyze this difference in pr oportions, yielding a p-value of .103. Despite common use of herbicides among farmers, particularly those managing ADE, some individuals felt that herbicides inhibited the soils fertility as one declared: a herbicida prejudica a terra e enfraquece o solo (Herbicide harms the eart h and weakens the soil). For ADE farmers that did not use herbicides for reasons that were either personal or financial, it was said that more frequent clear ing was necessary for ADE soils than Oxisols or Ultisols. It was noted on numerous occasions: a terra preta cerra muito (terra preta weeds up a lot). Due to the tendency of weeds to grow more quickly on dark earths, ADE farmers that managed larger areas of land often described a need for either more labor or machinery in able to combat the proliferation of weeds. One farmer even inquired if I could use my contacts with the local agricultural extension agency to acquire a weedwacker for him as he was tired of fighting unruly invasive plants. 49

PAGE 50

Controlling Pests, Fungus, and Disease Of the many obstacles that smallholders mu st face, controlling pests and disease may be one of the most challenging. In the context of this analysis, it must be stressed that pests and disease present problems that affect all farms and all soils. That being said, farmers that maintain large mono-cultural plots are usually vulnerable to specific types of diseases and pests attracted to those individual crops. Here, some of the more common threats that were either encountered or described by farmers from this study are examined. Mites, referred to as caro are a common problem for farmer s in the Amazon, particularly for those who produce papayas. The two most co mmon mites affecting papayas in Brazil are the broad mite ( Polyphagotarsonemus latus ) and the two-spotted spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae ) (Viera et al. 2004; Collier et al 2004). Broad mites tend to att ack terminal buds while the twospotted spider mites usually feed on older leaves, which yellow and eventually drop (Collier et al. 2004). In the latter case, fruits usually rece ive greater exposure to the sun, which can have undesirable affects on fruit production. In Borba, few farmers mentioned this specific pest, but during a visit to a papaya orchard in Iranduba near Manaus in 2003, a researcher at INPA informed that mites were an increasing problem for papaya farmers in the Central Amazon (Newton Falco, pers. comm., 2003). In the case of bananas, sigatoka and Panama disease ( mal do Panam ) are the most common threats. Unfortunately, there are no existi ng pesticides to combat sigatoka or Panama disease, although it has been found that sigatoka can be controlled by planting bananas in shade (C. Clement pers. comm., 2006). EMBRAPA, the Br azilian Agricultural Corporation, has also 50

PAGE 51

tried to address these problems by developing cloned bananas, which have better production and are highly-resistant to such diseases20. For cacao (Theobroma cacao ) and cupuau ( T. grandiflorum ) production, witches broom is the primary threat. In the state of Bahia, cacao plantations have been devastated by this disease. The high humidity of the Amazonian clim ate is also considered to be conducive to the propogation of the causal agent, Crinipellis perniciosa (Purdy and Schmidt 1996). In this study, one family mentioned planting cacao in plots that were 2.5m x 3m and they said it may have been better to space the trees out in a 4m x 4m arrangement to give them room to develop and allow for better circulation of air. Anthracnose, caused by a fungal pathogen, was c ited as another frequent disease. To be specific, the term anthracnose actually refers to a group of diseases caused by infection of fungi, one of the most common being the genus Colletotrichum (Agrios 2005: 487). Anthracnose can affect a whole host of plants on Amazonian farms, from avocados to passion fruit to watermelon. Many farmers who produced watermelon talked specifically about this problem. Since watermelon was produced only on ADE, it is important to recognize that desp ite the fertility of dark earths, production is complicated by other fa ctors like anthracnose. Since anthracnose is caused by fungi, this also inhibits the number of years one can produce on a plot as the fungi will becoming increasingly concentrat ed in the soil through time. In this study, farmers managing large m onoculture plots of pineapple encountered problems with what is known locally as cochonilha or pineapple mealy bug (Dysmicoccus brevipes ). On one visit to the community of Puxuriz al, the municipal head of IDAM identified damage characteristic of cochonilha on 3 different farms. The pineapple plants had begun to 20 Despite the productive benefits of cloned bananas, several people in the municipal center claimed to avoid buying them due to an aversion to their taste. 51

PAGE 52

yellow and when the base of the plant was ex amined closely, a white pasty substance was present. The head of IDAM said the same probl em had occurred at his pineapple plot at the IDAM office in Borba and that it could be fixed relatively easily with a product known as Folisuper. Although affected pineapple can rec uperate from the damage, many farmers do not always have the necessary pesticides to salvage their crop. In many visits to farms, queima (burning) and broca were general terms employed to describe the effects of pests, fungus, and disease. On guava and soursop, one farmed said that broca could be combated by spraying the trees with horse urine. An IDAM officer also mentioned that the fruits of soursop trees affect ed by broca can be wrappe d with plastic bags as they begin to mature in order to protect them from the disease. Unfortunately, queima and broca are blanket terms that subsume a great variation of diseases that affect different crops on rural Amazonian farms. While farmers are able to combat some recognized forms of queima and broca many individuals would benef it from expertise of regional agronomists in identifying specific diseases and pests. In regards to pests, leaf-cutter ants and other bugs including the cascudinho were commonly cited problems for farmers in Borb a. A type of grasshopper known as the gafanhoto soldado was another frequently described pest. So me farmers mentioned using pesticides known as Mirex and Folisuper. Another farmer said he simply used boiling water to handle larger pests like the grasshoppers. Chemical pesticides were used in some form by 48.1% of the farmers interviewed (50% of ADE farmers and 46.2% of nonADE farmers; Figure 3-2). Ag rochemical products used to combat pests and pathogens by farmers of Borba included Decis, Tamaron, Ditane, and Folisuper. Tamaron, specifically, is one of the more dangerous products and is considered very 52

PAGE 53

toxic. Although specific data on the amount of such products us ed by farmers was not collected for every farm, some individual farmers offered su ch information. The farmer from the highest market-oriented farm said he had used over 30 kg of pesticide and herb icide in one season of watermelon production. He said hi s crew sprayed 2 times a week during the raining season and once a week during the dry season. He mentioned that Ditane was especially good for the wet season. This specific farm was the most extreme case in use of pesticid es; most others used pesticides sparingly if at all. Issues of Water, Climate, and Seasonal Variation As in most of the Amazon Basin, the region surrounding Borba is subj ect to two distinct seasons: the dry season ( a poca de seca ; vero) and the wet season (a poca de chuva ; inverno ). The rhythm of life in the region is defined by th is seasonality, which affects fishing, hunting, and of course, farming. All of the farms visited durin g this research relied upon rain for irrigation. On many occasions, farmers expressed how the reli ance on rain-fed irrigati on was another factor that complicated production. One ADE farmer who produced watermelon shared the following: Every year the vero [summer or dry season] arrives at a different time of the year. The year before [2006] it had been raining up un til June. This year, summer arrived early and we probably would have been bett er off if we had planted in March instead of April. The problem that we are now facing is that when the dry season really hits its peak, the soil dries out, but the plantation really needs some rain water if the watermelons are going to reach good form before the harvest. ( Tigre ADE farmer from Puxurizal ) Although ADE is recognized for retaining moisture better than upland Ox isols probably due to ADEs higher levels of organic matter, farmers stil l complained that in the summer the soil dried out. One farmer shared the following: Quando o vero bate, a terra fica muito seca e produo no to bom, mesmo na terra preta. S na vrzea que bom porque humedo. (When the summer hits, the land dries out and production isnt very good, not even on terra preta. Only on the varzea is [production] good because its moist) Another farmer suggested that dark earths 53

PAGE 54

are generally more fertile and can produce crops like corn and beans except during the height of the dry season ( no vero forte ), when the drought limits production on the uplands. Many of the farmers discussed the fertility of the vrzea, which was seen to be the most fertile soil in the region, although many farmers said the vrzea was relatively limited near Borba and only opened into larger stretches close to the upriver town of Manicor. Despite its fertility, the vrzea is also risky for agricu lture since the floods vary greatly from year to year in their timing and extent. This irregularity can be very problematic for those farmers who depend strictly on vrzea agriculture. Although farmer s who cultivate upland soils are not exposed to the same degree of risk, they too are greatly affected by yearly vari ation in the arrival of the rains and the intensity of the dry seas on. With increased climatic vari ation expected as a result of global warming, increased irregularities in rain fall and extended droughts will further complicate smallholder agricultural production in Amazonia. Primary Crops Perhaps the most notable way in which ma nagement differed on the ADE and non-ADE farms is related to the market crops farmers produce d. Four of the market crops that reflect these critical differences are manioc, watermelon, pa paya, and cacao (Figure 3-3). These crops and their relationship to ADE and non-ADE management are discussed here. Manioc ( Manihot esculenta ) Manioc is the primary staple crop of the Am azon. Oftentimes when rural farmers first clear a piece of land, manioc is the crop to be pl anted first. The plant is uniquely adapted to Oxisols of the Amazon due to its resistance to aluminum toxicity and low pH (see Moran 1973: 36). When planting, farmers stress digging a deep hole ( cova ) to place the manioc cuttings. Depending upon the variety of manioc and the grow ing conditions, the manioc tubers are usually mature within 8 to 12 months on terra firme and 5 to 7 months on the floodplain. Bitter manioc 54

PAGE 55

varieties are processed for the production of farinha (manioc flour), a staple food of the Amazon. Oftentimes, farmers stagger the ha rvest of tubers from a field a nd process the flour in stages (every two weeks to a month)21. Tubers of certain variet ies can remain in the ground upon maturity for up to 12 months or more without rotting, and by processing little by little, manioc flour sold in the local markets can bring inco me into the household over an extended period of time. In addition to manioc flour, bitter manioc also yields tucupi22 and tapioca. Sweet manioc ( macaxeira ) can be processed to produce a different vari ety of manioc flour or the tubers can be sold whole without processing due to the low quantities of poisonous cyanic compounds that are more concentrated in bitter manioc. Contrary to the findings of Hiraoka and German, many farmer s interviewed in this study claimed that manioc produced well in Dark Ea rth soils, however only two of the individuals managing ADE had manioc on their lands at the time of the study. Some individuals claimed that manioc produced better in dark earths than Ox isols, but no quantitative data was collected to confirm such claims. Many farmers claimed dark earths to be softer ( mais fofa ) or looser ( mais solta), characteristics considered locally to be favorable for manioc production. One individual, however, claimed that he had only planted manioc on dark earth one year because he found that the stalks and leaves of the plant had developed well, but the tu bers did not mature. This claim coincides with experiences of some of the farmers that Laura German interviewed in the Rio Negro region (German 2001; German 2003). Howeler notes that manioc can be very sensitive to over-fertilization and in certain instan ces, very fertile soils can cause plants to be excessively leafy (Howeler 1980: 63). Another farmer from this study complained that manioc 21 This is also common amongst Amerindian groups as described by Carneiro amongst the Kuikuru of the Upper Xingu (Carneiro 1957). 22 Tucupi is the liquid extracted from the bitter manioc when pressed. Boiling the liquid eliminates its toxic elements (cyanic compounds) yielding a sauce commonly used in regional cuisine. 55

PAGE 56

tubers planted in dark earths ro tted too quickly due to the humid ity of the soil. This problem could be addressed by adopting manioc varietie s from the floodplain that are better suited for moist conditions. Fraser reports that communities in the municipality of Manicor do precisely this, producing manioc in shorter periods of time than is customary on the terra firme, with as little as 5 or 6 months depending on the cultivar (J. Fraser pers. comm. 2007). In general, farmers participating in this study reported to manage manioc fields ( roados ) for 2 to 3 years, before letting the land go fallow from anywhere between 2 to 7 years. Despite the heightened fertility of dark earths, most fa rmers managing these soils claimed that continuous cultivation beyond 3 years was difficult due to the w eakening of the soil. Interestingly, in the municipality of Manicor, James Fraser has found that some communities have cultivated manioc on the same dark earth soils for more than 30 years with short fallows of 2 years. What may explain these seemingly contradictory experien ces is that the communities studied by Fraser invest their time primarily in manioc pr oduction, which through time has allowed for the adoption of landraces that produce greater yields in that unique soil environment. For the individuals interviewed in this study, other crops with greate r market value (e.g. watermelon, papaya, cacao) were the primary focus of pr oduction, and manioc production was oftentimes secondary, perhaps explaining the less intensive management practices developed in association with the crop. Since ADE soils tend to suffer from weed proliferation, it is probable that communities that have more intense weeding pract ices are able to sustain manioc production on ADE as weed control is also c ited as one of primary determinants in obtaining high manioc yields (Toro M. and Atlee 1980: 13). Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) Within the state of Amazonas, the Rio Made ira region is known as a major producer of watermelon. For regional farmers, the production of watermelon is seen as a lucrative enterprise, 56

PAGE 57

although it is also considered a risky one. On several occasions, analogies were made between watermelon production and gold mining, activities in which some individuals strike it rich and others go broke. One particular farmer lament ed having invested so much time and energy in watermelon the year prior as he claimed to suffer a large financial loss in a failed crop. Watermelon was produced by 25.9% of farmers in terviewed, all of which planted the crop on dark earths. Since watermelon is a relativel y demanding crop in terms of soil nutrients, dark earths are considered particularly adapted for it s cultivation. This belief is supported by German who reported that farmers in the area of Autuba (near Manaus) also favored dark earths for watermelon cultivation (German 2001; also cited in Clement et al 2003). An added benefit of producing watermelon on dark earths on terra firme is that the crop can be harvested by June or July when market prices are particularly high a nd the vrzea is still floode d. The other part of the watermelon destined for the market is pl anted on the vrzea, which isnt harvested until September. Dark earths, whose fertility parallel s that of the vrzea, hold a unique advantage for the production of watermelon. As such, dark earths can be considered a terra firme analog of the nutrient rich vrzea soils. Watermelons are usually planted in a 3x3m scheme with their holes ( covas ) measuring approximately 40x40cm. As mentioned earlier, most of the ADE farmers utilize chemical fertilizer in watermelon production despite the he ightened fertility of the anthropogenic soils. Oftentimes, West Indian Gherkin, another cu curbit, is planted alongside watermelon and harvested at the same time. As in the case of manioc, watermelon is seen to tire the soil quickly. Most farmers claimed that they were unable to plant on the same clearing for more than a few years before experiencing significant declines in production. What is perhap s a greater obstacle to planting 57

PAGE 58

watermelon on dark earths in terra firme are pe sts and fungal diseases, such as anthracnose. Unfortunately, many farmers are unequipped to co mbat such pests and fungus, and suffer losses in production as a result. In this case, greater technical assist ance is needed to help local farmers address these obstacles to production. Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Papayas, like watermelon, are a popular crop fo r market production on da rk earths. In the town of Iranduba many farmers cultivate papaya fo r the market in the nearby capital of Manaus (Falco and Borges 2006; Hiraoka et al. 2003; Clement et al 2003; McCann 2003). Similarly, several dark farmers in the muni cipality of Borba plant papaya, largely producing for the market in Manaus as well. For market production, mamo hava (Hawaiian Solo papaya) was the most common variety managed, usually planted in a 2.5 x 3m scheme. On average, 1 ha of papaya yield 25 tons per year (IDAM Borba, pers. comm.). In the communities of Puruzinho, Caiara, a nd Mucaj, papayas were found on dark earth farms. Outside of dark earth soils, papayas were usually only cultivated in homegardens. Of the 8 farms where papayas were found during this study, 7 of these were dark earth sites. Papaya seeds are bird dispersed and can often be found as volunteers in fields and homegardens where soils are relatively fertile. As such, dark earths are excellent candidates for their spontaneous establishment (Clement et al. 2003) Families will often leave the plants after they have established themselves in the garden and pick their fruits. Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) Cacao, one of Amazonias most economically valuable fruits, was found in 51.9% of farms visited during this study. 71.4% of ADE farms managed cacao while 30.8% of non-ADE farms managed the fruit. Although cacao has greater nutrient demands than many of the perennial fruit trees that grow in poor acid soil s of the Amazon, their pr oduction is possible on 58

PAGE 59

Oxisols, particularly when managed under shade (Cabala-Rosand et al. 1989: 409). It is notable that 70% of the ADE farmers planting cacao were participants in cacao projects sponsored by CEPLAC (Comisso Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira). Many factors can determine the economic crops chosen by farmers, including not only their market price and productivity in a given edaphic environment, but also the subsidies or loans available for producing such crops through government programs. The latter reason appeared to have been a strong motivation for the production of cacao for farmers in this study as they were offered up to as much as R$30,000 (approximately $15,000 U.S. dollars at the time of study) over a 5 year period of production. Most farmers interviewed planted cacao in a 3x3m scheme. In general, trees were reported to begin bearing fruit af ter the third or fourth year of planting. Cloned cacao varieties were used largely by CEPLAC project participan ts to avoid problems with witches broom and similar fungal diseases. Nonetheless, some farmers had plantations suffering from an unidentified disease. One father and son had hypot hesized that they had planted the cacao trees too close together and fungi were able to thrive. Conclusions For the majority of farmers interviewed, the primary benefit of Amazonian Dark Earth is its ability to produce nutrient-demanding crops wi th relatively little inputs over the short term (from 2 to 3 years). Watermelon, corn, beans, pa payas, West Indian gherkin, and cucumbers are all crops that farmers claimed to produce well on ADE, but performed poorly in non-ADE soils. Despite this benefit, the majority of farmers interviewed also c oncluded that without inputs (i.e. fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides), sustai ned production on a single plot was extremely challenging after two years due to complications related to weeds, pests, and disease, regardless of the soil that was being managed (ADE or non-ADE). As Denevan notes ..even on good soils, a field may be fallowed in forest, bush, or grass when labor inputs for weeding become 59

PAGE 60

60 excessive or when crop losses to pests become excessive (Denevan 2001: 45). Thus, without ecologically-sound multi-cropping arrangements, crop rotation strategies, or labor intensive management, ADE soils are no more likely to yield sustainable agri culture systems than surrounding Oxisols of the region.

PAGE 61

Figure 3-1. Burned secondary vegeta tion in a field in Jatuarana ne ar the town of Borba. The owner was intending to plant manioc in September (July 2007). 61

PAGE 62

62 % of Farmers Using Inputs on ADE and Non-ADE Farms in Borba, AM, Brazil0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00%Chemic al F ertili z er Org a nic Fer ti liz e r No Fer t ilizer H e rbici des P estic ides ADE Non-ADE Figure 3-2. Differences in input use among ADE and Non-ADE farmers % of ADE and Non-ADE Farmers Producing Manioc, Watermelon, Papaya, and Cacao0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% ManiocWatermelonPapayaCacao ADE Non-ADE Figure 3-3. Differences in crop mana gement on ADE and non-ADE farms

PAGE 63

CHAPTER 4 MARKET PRODUCTION AND AGROBIODIVE RISITY ON AMAZONI AN DARK EARTH FARMS IN BORBA, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL Introduction This chapter draws on empirical data to id entify differences in market production and agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms in th e municipality of Borba, Amazonas, Brazil. This chapter also discusses ADEs unique relationship to Pre-Co lumbian agrobiodiversity and its advantages for market production in contemporar y Amazonia. Finally, the relationship between market production and agrobiodiversity is examin ed here, allowing for comparison with past studies from Amazonia and other regions of the world that have attempted to determine the effect of markets on the agrobi odiversity of rural farms. Market Orientation To determine the market orientation for each individual farm, the total area of crops destined for markets was divided by the total area of cultivation at the time of the study, disregarding land left fallow. Data collection was complicated by the fact that many farmers did not manage discrete plots of market crops a nd non-market crops. In fact, several farmers maintained mixed agroforestry systems in whic h orchards of cacao, soursop, citrus, and other fruits were interplanted. In such polycultural orchards, some of the crops were destined for markets while others were maintained for subsistence, and yet others fulfilled both roles. Moreover, annual crops like manioc were often pr oduced for both subsistence and local markets, making approximations of the area dedicated to ma rket production difficult. In many instances, the area of market crops on large mixed agrofore stry plots was designated at one half (.5). Fortunately, farmers with higher market orienta tions tended to have mo re distinct cropping patterns, thus allowing for more precise data collection on these farms. 63

PAGE 64

In comparing means for market orientation, ADE farms averaged 61% market orientation while non-ADE farms averaged only 47.3% (Table 4-4 and Table 4-5). Independent t-tests confirm that these means are significant with 95% c onfidence (p=.023), demonstrating that ADE farms from this sample have greater orientat ion towards the market. These data are also supported by a comparison of the target market s of individual farms in which 50% of ADE farmers produced for the primary regional mark et of Manaus compared to only 15.4% of nonADE farmers. This higher market orientation on ADE farms may be due in part to the fact that many agriculturalists that focus on production for larger markets tend to seek out ADE soils in order to exploit their fertility. This trend is remarked on by other researchers that conducted past management studies, specifically German (Germa n 2003: 196). However, it is also reasonable to believe that due to the heighten ed fertility of ADE soils, sma llholders are able to produce nutrient-demanding species with higher market values, which in turn may increase their production for the market. Since most of the communities in this study are located near the Rio Madeira, market access is relatively favorable as boats traveling to Mana us pass daily (Figure 41). Agrobiodiversity Results A total of 83 different speci es of plants were identified on the 27 farms surveyed23 (Table 4-1). The most common species found on the farmers surveyed were aai (n=22), banana (n=19), orange (n=17), lemon (n=17), mani oc (n=17), mango (n=17), and cupuau ( Theobroma grandiflorum ) (n=16). Aai, mango, lem on, orange, banana, and jambo (Eugenia malaccensis) were the most frequent species found in homeg ardens while manioc, aai, bananas, and cacao were the most common species found in agricult ural plots, which cons ider both perennial and 23It was not possible to collect homegarden data at 4 of the 27 farms, thus total species and homegarden species statistics are based on a sample of 23 farms. 64

PAGE 65

annual crop plots. On ADE soils specifically, a ai (n=11), bananas (n=1 1), oranges (n=10), and cacao (n=10) were the most common species while on non-ADE soils, manioc24 (n=15), aai (n=11), cashew (n=9), and banana (n=8) were the most frequent. Regarding differences in agrobiodiversity on ADE and non-ADE farms, the data do not support the idea that ADE farms are more divers e than non-ADE farms. In analysis of the overall agrobiodiversity on farms in which both homegardens and swiddens were considered, ADE farms averaged 18.83 species with a standa rd deviation of 8.35 (Tab le 4-2) while non-ADE soils averaged 17.36 species with a standard devia tion of 6.18 (Table 4-3). With regards to the species managed in homegardens, non-ADE soils maintained a higher average of 14.64 species (std. deviation 4.86) while ADE gardens averaged 13.42 species (std. deviation 5.83). However, on agricultural plots, ADE farms had higher means, averaging 8.14 species compared to 5.62 species on non-ADE farms. To evaluate the sign ificance of these differences, independent t-tests were conducted. Results for the independent t-tests (equal variances not assu med) reveal that the differences in means of species between ADE and non-ADE farms are not significant (t =.482; p=.635). Agrobiodiversity and ADE Amazonian Dark Earths are believed to repr esent potentially uni que reservoirs of economically important species that were managed by indigenous groups during the PreColumbian era (Clement et al. 2003). Despite this, ADE farms also demonstrate a greater capacity to support nutrient demanding exotics that ot herwise suffer on regional Oxisols, which is evidenced in ADE farmers production of crop s like watermelon and West Indian Gherkin. As described in the last chapter, ADE farmers ma y manage different market crops than those 24 This figure exceeds the number of to tal non-ADE farms (n=13) because 3 AD E farmers plant manioc in non-ADE soils. 65

PAGE 66

individuals who farm on Oxisol s, but the above data do not su pport the notion that ADE farmers manage greater agrobiodiversity. Many farmers and researchers believe that aban doned ADE plots harbor concentrations of specific indicator species that ar e reflective of past management. Some of the species cited as indicators are tucum ( Astrocaryum spp.), babau ( Orbignya phalerata25), caiau (Elaeis oleifera ), cacao ( Theobroma cacao), and Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa ) (McCann 1999; German 2003). In Borba, specifica lly, many farmers said that large palhais (stands of palms used for thatch, usually babau) were often i ndicative of abandoned dark earths (see Moran 1993: 69). Babau was noted in great concentrations at many abandoned ADE plots visited as well as some that were viewed from afar dur ing boat trips made with IDAM. Another palm commonly associated with ADE in the Lower Ma deira is caiau, an endemic palm species, which bears fruits that can be used for oil (J. Fraser pers. co mm. 2006; also see Moran 1993: 69). Urucuri (Attalea excelsa ) is yet another common indicator on dark earths in the Madeira region (J. Fraser, pers. comm. 2008). Thus, while ADE farmers may take advantage of ADE to produce nutrient-demanding exotics (e.g. watermelon, West Indian gherkin), many abandoned stretches of ADE maintain thick stands of native palms from the region. Further re search is necessary to better understand the floristic composition and hi storical ecology of such abandon ADE plots. The Relationship between Agrobiodiversity and Market Orientation Rural smallholders are considered to be in a particularly unique position to manage and maintain agrobiodiversity due to their relations hip with the market ec onomy, which is neither completely committed nor entirely detached. The dependence of smallholders on local natural resources for medicines, construc tion materials, and food sources a llows for the maintenance of a 25 Also classified as Attalea speciosa. (Henderson 1995) 66

PAGE 67

wide variety of economically important specie s, many of which are classified as endemic species. Although not all evidence suggests that penetration of mark ets will lead to a degradation of genetic and species diversity on regional farms, concern over agrobiodiversity loss, particularly on ADE soils, is not unwarranted (Clement et al. 2003). Interestingly, research by Major et al. ha s shown that ADE farms with lower market orientation in the Lower Rio Negro region reflected negligible difference in overall agrobiodiversity when compared with farms of higher market orientation as a result of the maintenance of species-rich homegardens (Major et al. 2005). In this study, which sampled farms considerably farther from the regional mark et of Manaus, the results reflect a relatively ambiguous relationship between market orientation and agrobiodiversity. Linear regression fails to reveal statistically significant relationship between market or ientation (independent variable) and agrobiodiversity (dependent vari able) when considering all farms (r2= .028) or ADE and non-ADE farms individually (r2=.183; r2=.182, respectively). Figure 42 depicts this relationship between market orientation and agrobiodivers ity for the entire sample (both ADE and nonADE). Although increased market orientation do es not appear to have a negative effect agrobiodiversity in this sample, it is highly probable that this is due to the fact that these farmers are all smallholders. Certainly, large-scale mech anized operations that produce strictly for the market tend to manage monocultures while smallholders who may even dedicate a large portion of their land to market crops still maintain dive rse gardens and orchards that they maintain for their own subsistence. Conclusions From these data it is shown that ADE farms in this study tended to have greater market orientation than non-ADE farms. This distinctio n is evidenced in the specific crops produced by ADE farmers, the markets which they targeted, and the proportion of land th at they dedicated to 67

PAGE 68

68 market production. Despite this difference, the data do not demonstrate any significant differences in the agrobiodiversity manage d on ADE and non-ADE farms. Moreover, no distinctive relationship could be drawn between market orientation and agrobiodiversity for the farms (both ADE and non-ADE ) visited in this study. Figure 4-1. Watermelons from an ADE farm outside of Borbas municipal center are loaded on to a river boat destined for Manaus (July 2007).

PAGE 69

Table 4-1. Species surveyed on ADE and nonADE farms in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil Family Scientific Name Local Common Name English Name Total freq. (n=23) Plot Freq. (n=27) HG. Freq. (n=23) Forest Spp. ADE freq. NonADE freq. Native/ Exotic Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale Caju Cashew 14 7 11 0 5 9 Native Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica Manga Mango 17 0 17 0 9 8 Exotic Anacardiaceae Spondias mombim Tapereb; caj Hog Plum 5 2 3 0 2 3 Native Anacardiaceae Spondias spp. Caja rana 1 0 1 0 0 1 Exotic Annonaceae Annona muricata Graviola Soursop 13 7 9 0 6 7 Native Annonaceae Rollinia mucosa Birib 4 1 3 0 1 3 Native Annonaceae Annona squamosa Ata 3 0 3 0 2 1 Native Annonaceae Annona montana Araticum Mountain Soursop 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Apiaceae Coriandrum sativum L. Cheiro Verde; Coentro Cilantro 1 0 1 0 0 1 Exotic Apocynaceae Himatanthus sucuuba Sucuba 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Arecaceae Euterpe oleracea; Euterpe precatoria Aai Aai 22 14 20 1 11 69 11 Native Arecaceae Bactris gasipaes Pupunha Peach Palm 13 7 8 0 6 7 Native Arecaceae Astrocaryum spp. Tucum Star Nut Palm 12 6 6 2 6 6 Native Arecaceae Oenocarpus bacaba Bacaba 9 5 4 0 3 6 Native Arecaceae Cocos nucifera Cco Coconut 11 2 11 0 7 4 Exotic Arecaceae Attalea maripa Inaj 2 1 1 0 0 2 Native Arecaceae Oenocarpus bataua Pataua 2 0 0 2 0 2 Native Arecaceae Orbignya phalerata Babau 3 2 0 1 2 1 Native Arecaceae Mauritia flexuosa Buriti 3 1 2 0 2 1 Native Arecaceae Attalea attaleoides Palha Branca 3 0 2 1 2 1 Native Arecaceae Attalea phalerata Urucuri 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Arecaceae Elaeis oleifera Caiaue American Oil Palm 6 4 1 2 6 0 Native 69

PAGE 70

Table 4-1. Continued Family Scientific Name Local Common Name English Name Total freq. (n=23) Plot Freq. (n=27) HG. Freq. (n=23) Forest Spp. ADE freq. NonADE freq. Native/ Exotic Asteraceae Acmella oleracea Jambu 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Bignoniaceae Crescentia cujete Cuia Calabash 6 0 6 0 5 1 Native Bixaceae Bixa orellana Urucum Annato 3 1 2 0 2 1 Native Brassicaceae Brassica oleracaea L. Couve 1 0 1 0 0 1 Exotic Bromeliaceae Ananas comosus Abacaxi Pineapple 10 3 7 0 4 6 Native Caricaceae Carica papaya Mamo Papaya 8 6 6 0 7 1 Native Clusiaceae Platonia insignis B acuri 1 0 1 0 1 0 Native Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus Mela ncia Watermelon 7 7 0 0 7 0 Exotic Cucurbitaceae Cucumis anguria L. Maxixe West Indian Gherkin 4 4 0 0 4 0 Exotic Cucurbitaceae Cucurbita spp. Jeri mum Squash 3 0 3 0 3 0 Native Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea trifida Car 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Euphorbiaceae Manihot esculenta Krantz Mandioca; Maniva; Macaxeira Manioc; Cassava 17 17 1 0 2 70 15 Native Euphorbiaceae Hevea spp. Sering a Rubber 6 2 3 2 2 4 Native Fabaceae Inga edulis Ing, ing cip Ice cream bean 12 4 9 0 7 5 Native Fabaceae Inga cinnamomea Ing au 2 0 2 0 0 2 Native Fabaceae Cassia leiandra Marimari 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Fabaceae Derris spp.; Lonchocarpus spp. Timb 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Lamiaceae Hyptis crenata. Salva de Maraj 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Lauraceae Persea americana Abacate Avocado 11 5 7 0 4 7 Native Lauraceae Licania puchurimajor Puxuri 11 5 7 0 6 5 Native Lecythidaceae Bertholettia excelsa Cast anha Brazil Nut 13 4 8 5 6 7 Native Liliaceae Allium schooenoprasum L. Cebolinha Chives 8 0 8 0 4 4 Exotic 70

PAGE 71

Table 4-1. Continued Family Scientific Name Local Common Name English Name Total freq. (n=23) Plot Freq. (n=27) HG. Freq. (n=23) Forest Spp. ADE freq. NonADE freq. Native/ Exotic Malphigiaceae Malphigia gl abra Acerola Barbados Cherry 3 0 3 0 2 1 Native Malphigiaceae Byrsonima crassiflia Murici Nance 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Malvaceae Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Vinagreira 1 0 1 0 0 1 Exotic Malvaceae Theobroma grandiflorum Cupuau 16 8 12 0 8 8 Native Malvaceae Theobroma cacao Cacau Cacao 15 10 9 0 10 4 Native Meliaceae Carapa guianensis Andiroba 5 3 3 0 2 3 Native Monimiaceae Peumus boldus Bo ldo 1 0 1 0 1 0 Exotic Moraceae Artocarpus integrifolia Jaca Jackfruit 4 0 4 0 1 3 Exotic Musaceae Musa spp. Banana Banana 19 12 13 0 11 8 Exotic Myrtaceae Psidium guajava Goiaba Guava 12 1 11 0 7 5 Native Myrtaceae Eugenia malaccensis Jambo Malay apple 13 0 13 0 10 71 3 Exotic Myrtaceae Eugenia cuminii Azeit ona 4 0 4 0 3 1 Exotic Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola Carambola Starfruit 2 0 2 0 0 2 Exotic Papilionaceae Dipterex odorata Cumaru Tonka bean 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Passifloraceae Passifloria edulis Maracu ja Passion Fruit 1 1 0 0 1 0 Native Piperaceae Piper nigrum L. Pimenta do reino Black Pepper 1 0 1 0 1 0 Exotic Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus Capim cheiroso; Capim santo Citronella; lemon grass 4 0 4 0 2 2 Exotic Poaceae Saccharum officinarum L. Cana de aucar Sugarcane 2 2 1 0 2 0 Exotic Poaceae Zea mays Milho Corn 2 2 0 0 2 0 Native Rubiaceae Coffea spp. Caf Coffee 11 6 9 0 6 4 Exotic Rubiaceae Genipa americana Genipapo 2 2 0 0 1 1 Native 71

PAGE 72

72 72 Table 4-1. Continued Family Scientific Name Local Common Name English Name Total freq. (n=23) Plot Freq. (n=27) HG. Freq. (n=23) Forest Spp. ADE freq. NonADE freq. Native/ Exotic Rubiaceae Alibertia edulis Puru 2 1 2 0 1 1 Native Rutaceae Citrus Limo Lemon 17 3 16 0 9 8 Exotic Rutaceae Citrus sinensis Laranja Orange 17 6 15 0 10 7 Exotic Rutaceae Citrus reticulata Tangerin a Tangerine 6 2 5 0 3 3 Exotic Rutaceae Ruta spp. Arruda 1 0 1 0 1 0 Exotic Rutaceae Citrus aurantifolia Lima Lime 1 0 1 0 1 0 Exotic Sapindaceae Paullinia cupana Guaran 1 0 1 0 0 1 Native Sapindaceae Nephelium lappaceum Rambutan 1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic Sapotaceae Pouteria caimito Abiu 4 1 3 0 3 1 Native Solanaceae Capiscum chinensis Pimenta malagueta Hot Pepper 5 1 4 0 2 3 Native Solanaceae Solanum sessiflorum Cubiu 3 0 3 0 0 3 Native Solanaceae Capiscum spp. Pimenta do cheiro Sweet pepper 5 3 4 0 3 2 Native Solanaceae Capiscum chinensis Pimenta murupi Hot Pepper 4 1 3 0 2 2 Native Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Tomate Tomato 1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic Solanaceae Capiscum annuum L. Pimentao Bell Pepper 1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic Zingiberaceae Zingiber o fficinale Gengibre; Magarataia Ginger 1 1 0 0 1 0 Exotic

PAGE 73

Table 4-2. ADE farms species distributions ADE Total Spp. Homegarden Spp. Agroplot Spp. No. Valid 12 12 14 No. Missing 2 2 0 Mean 18.83 13.42 8.14 Median 17.5 14.5 5.5 Std. Dev. 8.354 5.583 6.982 25th Percentile 14.5 11 3.5 50th Percentile 17.5 14.5 5.5 75th Percentile 24.75 17.75 11 Table 4-3. Non-ADE farms species distributions Non-ADE Total Spp. Homegarden Spp. Agroplot Spp. No. Valid 11 11 13 No. Missing 2 2 0 Mean 17.36 14.64 5.62 Median 19 16 4.0 Std. Dev. 6.185 4.864 4.057 25th Percentile 13 11 2.5 50th Percentile 19 16 4.0 75th Percentile 23 18 10 Table 4-4. ADE farms market orientation (descriptive statistics) ADE Market Orientation (%) No. Valid 14 No. Missing 0 Mean 61 Median 49.35 Std. Dev. 18.8834 25th Percentile 47.975 50th Percentile 49.35 75th Percentile 73.525 73

PAGE 74

74 Table 4-5. Non-ADE farms market or ientation (descriptive statistics) Non-ADE Market Orientation (%) No. Valid 13 No. Missing 0 Mean 47.629 Median 47.5 Std. Dev. 7.1903 25th Percentile 44.05 50th Percentile 47.5 75th Percentile 50 Linear Regression 10 20 30Total spp 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0M a r k e t O r i e n t a t i o n Market Orientation = 59.86 + -0.35 total_sp R-Square = 0.03Figure 4-2. Relationship between species und er management and market orientation

PAGE 75

CHAPTER 5 AMAZONIAN DARK EARTH IN THE CONTEMPORARY GLOBAL CONTEXT: A MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE? FOR WHOM? Introduction Outside of Amazonia, the Amazonian Dark Earth model is being adapted as a tool to combat climate change through carbon sequestration. Although this ne w technology described as bio-char or agri-char is in many ways far-removed from the anthropogenic soils managed by Amazonians, the development of this technology is a direct result of inte rdisciplinary research conducted in Amazonia over recent decades. Today as North American and European businesses intend to promote bio-char in the ne w green economy, the original intention of the Terra Preta Nova project, which was to enhan ce smallholder agricultura l production capacity, is largely being overlooked. This chapter examines the process by which this local or regional model has made the transition to a global market and how this transition affects its local re-application. This discussion also addresses the conflict of adap ting past indigenous pr operty to contemporary problems while exploring issues of intellectual and cultural property. Lastly, suggestions are made as to how new technologies inspired by the Amazonian Dark Earth model may be introduced into smallholder communities of Amazonia. Terra Preta Nova: A model for sustainable agriculture Much attention has been drawn to dark earth as a result of its perceived potential as a technology for sustainable agriculture. This inte rest has been driven by a growing need to intensify agricultural production, particularly on abandoned or degraded lands. While the region is traditionally conceived of as having nutrien t poor soils unfit for sustainable agriculture (particularly in Amazonian blackwater environmen ts), ADE seemingly contradicts the notion of the Amazon being a land of extr eme environmental constraint. 75

PAGE 76

In 2002 during the First Amazonian Dark Earth Workshop in Manaus, the late Wim Sombroek proposed the idea of the Terra Preta N ova (TPN) project. Th e project was designed with the aim of replicating dark earths in order to improve the capacity of small-holder agriculture in the Amazon (Sombroek et al. 2002 ). The project was also presented as an opportunity for ADE researchers to network and collaborate. Members of the workshop agreed with the proposal and institutions from Brazil, the United States, Germany, and the Netherlands were invited to participate. Universities, resear ch institutes, and a museum were integrated into the project in addition to EMBRAPA, the Braz ilian Agricultural Research Corporation26. Since 2002, soil scientists from EMBRAPA and INPA ha ve been conducting experiments in order to determine the key components of the soils physical and chemical make-up. Through these experiments, it was hoped that a model for a new dark earth could be produced. Biochar: A Terra Preta Technology At the time that the Terra Preta Nova project was conceived, the corporation EPRIDA was founded in the United States27. The founder of the company, Danny Day, had collaborated with laboratories from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a process by which biomass could be used to produce hydrogen fuel. Day found that charcoal produced in this same process could also be used as a fertilizer following th e Amazonian Dark Earth model. From this research, Day founded EPRIDA and filed a patent for his process of producing hydrogen fuel and charcoal fertilizer, known as bio-char. Da y demonstrated that when biomass is converted to bio-char, the carbon that is normally released into the atmosphere during the decomposition of 26 See Madari et al. 2004 for a complete listing of in stitutions participating in the Terra Preta Nova project. 27 Visit www.eprida.com for further information regarding the companys history and its products. 76

PAGE 77

the organic matter is locked in the charcoal. T hus, bio-char represents a simple technology that can diminish carbon emissions and improve agri cultural yields by storing charcoal in soil. Since EPRIDA opened its business, a number of other alternative en ergy companies have adopted similar models for the production of bio-char including Dynamotive, Bioware, Best Pyrolysis, and Terra Humana Clean Energy. T oday companies offering bi o-char products and bio-char processors (known as pyrolizers) exist in 11 countries across the world (Table 5-1). While EPRIDA is promoted as a socially-r esponsible corporation focused on assisting subsistence farmers, other companies are begi nning to market the model towards industrial farmers and large agribusinesses. With the advent of carbon markets, it is believed that the use of bio-char for carbon sequestra tion can render such models more than profitable. Responses to the Bio-char Fertilizer U.S. and European news corporatio ns have caught on to the ADE phenomenon, publishing articles with such title s as Scientists Promote Benefits of Black Magic Soil (Binns 2006) and Black is the new green (Marris 2006). However, not everyone has shared the same enthusiasm for the development of a new and profitable charcoal fertilizer. Some scholars feel that with the promotion of bio-char as a produc t designed for industrial ag riculture, the original intention of the Terra Preta N ova project is being abandoned fo r big profits in international markets. In response to the Nature article Black is the new gr een, three researchers spoke specifically about this trend: one might be left with the impression that the biochar initiative is solely directed towards agribusiness applications. From the start, this has certainly not been the case. Indeed, innovative biochar fiel d trials involving a variety of crops are currently being conducted in AmazoniaThese trials are spec ifically designed for implementation by smallholders, who comprise most of th e worlds farmers (Woods et al. 2006). 77

PAGE 78

Other concerns are voiced by Madari and company in the volume Amazonian Dark: Explorations in Space and Time (Madari et al. 2004). Due to the larger history of Amazonian Dark Earth and its relationship to indigenous people of South Ameri ca, they argue that it is more appropriate for such technology to be developed and managed in the region (specifically Brazil): It is important to emphasize that many of the ADE sites have a reasonable amount of archaeological material which makes these areas important subjects of cultural heritage preservation. The objective of studying this phenomenon by no means can be the exploration of discovered new site s, but the use of the buried information in these soils. This information should be considered as th e intellectual property of the indigenous people of Amazonia. For this reason, it would be fortunate if the admini stration of a project aiming to study and use the knowledge of th is phenomenon stayed with a Brazilian national institution like Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) which would ensure proper handling of intellectual property rights and even -handed and socially acceptable distribution of the products a nd technologies. (Madari et al. 179) By the time these words were published, however, the development of su ch technologies had already moved beyond the Amazon to the U.S., linking it to the larger global market. How this development relates to the original terra preta an d the application of bio-char in Amazonia is a question that requires analysis. Cultural and Intellectual Property Questions Due to Amazonian Dark Earths association w ith indigenous settleme nts, Madari et al. (above) claimed that such soil shou ld be considered either cultur al or intellectual property of indigenous people (Madari et al. 2004). However, ambiguities that exist in our understanding of ADE and intellectual and cultural properties themselves make such a determination problematic at best. Strathern describes cult ural property in the following ma nner: one of the tests of a groups claims may the transmissibility of cultural knowledge over the generations: it is authentic because it can be shown to have been handed on (Strathern 1999:169). Clearly, Amazonian Dark Earth fails to hold up to this definition. These soils are in part defined contemporarily by their divorce from the peoples that are responsible for their formation. 78

PAGE 79

Intellectual property, in contrast, is described by Stathern as clai mable precisely because it is not handed on over generations (ibid.). In othe r words, the knowledge associated with the phenomenon must be isolated and controlled. Amazonian Dark Earth does not comply with this definition of property either. First, the soil is distributed widely th roughout the basin, in a number of different countries and contexts. Second, no evidence has shown that ADE is more than a by-product of indigenous habitation, begging th e question as to whether or not there is any human process related to its formation that can be considered intellectual. Yet, the fact remains that ADEs origin s are intimately linked to past indigenous occupation in the Amazon. How these anthropogen ic landscapes can be managed and defined as properties are issues that will require consideration by anthropologists in coming years. At the moment, the FAO is considering dark earths as on e of the worlds Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS 2006). Progr ams such as this may draw greater attention to the existence of anthr opogenic environments and their value for understanding coevolutionary relationships between hu mans and the environment through time. Biopiracy and the Neighbors to the North The tensions that are apparent in the comme rcialization of bio-char and the handling of dark earths as a cultural prope rty are situated in a larger c ontext of Brazilian uneasiness with foreign interests in Amazonia. In October of 2006, the British Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, David Mi lliband, was planning to propose an initiative that would call for the privati zation of parts of Amazonia (Hennessey 2006). When the news was released by the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph Milibands office rejected the story, in attempt to avoid mounting political backla sh. Responding to the notion of such a plan, Brazils Foreign Minister and Envi ronment Minister simply stated: Amazonia is not for sale. (Geraque and Cannico 2006). 79

PAGE 80

Since Henry Wickham left Belm with a ship full of rubber seeds, wh ich later led to the establishment of rubber planta tions in Southeast Asia and the bust of the Rubber Boom, Brazilians have become increasingly suspicious of the activities of fore igners in Amazonia. Some have argued that Wickham left the country with the Brazilian port authoritys full knowledge of the seeds that he wa s carrying, but regardle ss of whether this is true or not, the event became symbolic of a larger concept in troduced to contemporary discourse concerning property rights and biological rese arch: the notion of biopiracy. Biopiracy is a concept that has been used to describe foreign extractive activities that lead to the development of products derived from biot a endemic to an area or region. The American Heritage Dictionary defines biopiracy as the following: The commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, such as plant substances or genetic cell lines, by a technologically advanced country or organizatio n without fair compensation to the peoples or nations in whose territory the materials were or iginally discovered. (Pic kett 2000). One recent example of biopiracy comes from a patent filed for the process to extract fat from cupuau ( Theobroma grandiflorum) seeds. The process, which is used for the making of cupulate (a product similar to chocolate) was develope d by EMBRAPA, but had been claimed by the Japanese corporation Asahi Foods. Asahi Foods also placed a trademark on the name cupuau for the sale of its products derived from the fruit. Both of these claims eventually went to international courts and were sided in favor of EMBRAPA (Medina and Almeida 2006). Similar legal wrangling occurred over in ternational patents and trademarks related to the use of the recently popularized Amazonian be rry, aai (ibid.). As Amazonians witness foreigners attempt to profit from products native to their region, th eir relationships with these outsiders is not without a sense of resentment and regret. 80

PAGE 81

In the case of bio-char, biopiracy is not an issue, yet research and development on the subject may cause similar tensions. As outside companies develop processes to produce pyrolizers and charcoal fertilizer inspired by ADE, Amazonians are faced with another example in which outsiders are cap italizing upon their natural a nd cultural resources. Revisiting World Systems Theory and Dependency Theory A multitude of theoretical arguments have been made to explain the process by which some nations and/or groups have exploited others through time in the global economic and political arena. In the 1970s, Immanuel Wallersteins World Syst ems Theory and Andre Gunder Franks Dependency Theory were part icularly popular models for explaining the historical forces which bind developing na tions to a cycle of underdevelopment. In Wallersteins work The Modern World System I (1974), he examines the origin of the European World-Economy in the 16th century. In this historical account of capitalist origins, Wallerstein distinguishes betw een core countries and the periphery. The relationship between the periphery and the co re is defined by unequal exchange in which the core countries produce high-profit, high-capital intensive goods that are exchanged for low-profit, low-capital intensive goods produced in the periphery. Walle rstein concluded that this unequal exchange produced increasing social and economic disparities between the core and the periphery, which perpetuated such imbalance. Andre Gunder Frank, a contemporary of Wa llerstein, had proposed similar ideas, describing countries in terms of metropoles and satellites. Ra ther than view development and underdevelopment as two distinct phenomen a, Frank understood them as being intimately linked. According to his argument, the metropol is extracted surplus from the satellites, inhibiting their development and fe eding its own. Frank described this as the development of 81

PAGE 82

underdevelopment, which perpetuated the same disparities as described by Wallerstein (Frank 1966). In the contemporary knowledge-based economy (G ibbon et al. 1994), it is difficult not to draw similar comparisons between the manner in which information and knowledge is drawn from the periphery and satellites to the cont emporary cores and metropoles, much in the same way natural resources and labor once were (and are). However, critics of the work of Wallerstein and Gunder Frank have described these models as t oo simplistic, essentialist or deductivist. It has been pointed out that within nations termed as either metropoles or satellites, there exist further networks of metropoles and satellites. Moreover, it has been argued that with the advent of the internet and global mass comm unication, the flow of information and resources is far too disarticulated to be explained by models presented in such terms. Yet it is recognized that rural Amazonia remains at the periphery, or at best, the frontier. This is evidenced by its treatment historically as a target of extraction and not a focus of development. In fact, much of the debate regarding issues of sustainability, biodiversity maintenance, and global climate change has centered on the issue of whethe r the global community should allow for the development of Amazonian forests. As such, the U.S., Western Europe, and Japan have sought to promote research to understa nd and protect Amazonias natural wealth while attempting to bar Amazonian nations from developing the regi on for their own needs of land, energy, and resources. Although the development of bio-char as a technology modeled after ADE is only a footnote in the larger history of this process, it is testament to the perpetuation of a lopsided exchange. Ironically, it can be argued that the force th at led to the end of ADEs formation (i.e. Western imperialism powered by global capitalism) is the same force that has led to the 82

PAGE 83

introduction of this indigenous phenomenon to contemporary global markets. Global capitalisms opportunistic exploitation of resources and knowledge is a familiar intellection, but its increasing capacity to transform local natural and cultural resources into new global technologies while simultaneously isolating the actors from which they were drawn is concerning. Fortunately, in the case of Amaz onian Dark Earth, the process that foreign corporations have developed to produce bio-char fertilizer does not prevent South American corporations from devising a similar process for the production of charcoal fertilizer and carbon sequestration technologies, and some corporatio ns in Brazil have begun to do so. Yet whether these models will ever come to benefit to rural Amazonian smallholders is another question entirely. A Terra Preta Technology Exchange? For non-Amazonians, ADE and more specificall y, bio-char, represents a model that can facilitate a shift towards agriculture that is perceived as environmentally friendly and sustainable. How this development of sustai nable agriculture can benefit rural Amazonians is not clear. As much of the present research regarding bio-char is moving its focus towards application for large-scale mechanized agricultu re, it appears that the rural smallholders of Amazonia will have little to gain from these developments. Interestingly, Rubem Csar Rodrigues S ouza, a researcher from the Centro de Desenvolvimento Energtico Amaznico from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas28 has developed a machine for a small community in th e state of Amazonas which processes aai seeds and creates a form of biodiesel th at can be used to power the comm unitys generator. As diesel is rather expensive and often in high demand in rural communities of the interior of the Amazon, 28 Visit the site for the Center of Amazonian Energy Development from the Universidade Federal do Amazonas at http://cdeam.ufam.edu.br/ 83

PAGE 84

a consistent energy source for indi viduals in these communities is a priority that is much more immediate than carbon sequestration. With nearly endless supplies of biomass that represent potential fuel for these commun ities, all that is missing is te chnology that can convert these sources into fuel. As EPRI DA and other corporations have shown, technology has been developed to not only harness fuel from this bi omass, but create bio-char, which could serve as an added bonus for local farmers, all while se questering carbon for the North. Although it would require tremendous investment, pyrolizers modeled af ter those of bio-char corporations could not only contribute to the development of a New Da rk Earth in the Amazon, but they could also potentially provide rural communities with an excellent solution for energy independence, a hugely important step towards development in ru ral Amazonia. Moreover, as state and federal governments actively invest in infrastructure an d agricultural financing projects to minimize migration of rural peoples to urban capitals, tech nologies modeled after bi o-char pyrolizers could represent unique alternatives to provide comm unities with energy, subsequently improving the quality of living in these areas a nd deterring potential out-migration. In order to test the potential of this technology for rural agricultural comm unities, pilot projects must be carried out, preferably in tandem with organizations lik e the Centro de Desenvolvimento Energtico Amaznico. Conclusion The development of bio-char as a technology is the indirect result of more than 100 years of research in Amazonia and an even longer hist ory of occupation by its indigenous inhabitants. The potential this technology has for improvi ng agricultural production and sequestering carbon is promising, but how these benefits will be dist ributed is yet to be seen. The purpose of this analysis here is not to demonize foreign corpor ations for profiting on this model since they are equally responsible for its modern application, but rather point out that effort s must be made to 84

PAGE 85

85 implement these technologies for the benefits of rural farmers in Amazonia and the tropics in general, as these were the orig inally intended beneficiaries of ADE research. If Amazonia and the rest of the developing tropics are to become images of sustainable development, then we must cease to be view them as pristine forests needing to be saved, but rather complex social spaces where development projects must attend to not only the needs of the local environment, but its people as well. By providing alternativ e sources of energy while sequestering carbon in the form of charcoal, new bio-char processing te chnologies have the potential to do exactly this.

PAGE 86

Table 5-1. Companies that produce bio-char and pyrolyizers Company Country Products Offered Advanced Biorefinery Inc. Canada Transportable pyrolizers Agri-Therm Ltd. Canada Portable an d stationary equipment for bio-oil production Appropriate Rural Technology Institute Pune, India Pyrolizers for sugar cane waste Best Pyrolysis, Inc. USA/ Australia Pyrolizers and gasification technologies Biocarbo Brazil Biochar and wood vinegar Bioenergy, LLC Russia Pyrolizers Bioware Brazil Pyrolizers for char coal powder and bio-oil; training and consulting Cleanfuels Netherlands International consulting and business development for pyrolysis oil and charcoal production Carbon Diversion Technologies Hawaii, USA Flash carbonization technology Dynamotive Energy Systems Corp. Canada Fast pyrolysis tec hnology for BioOil and Biochar production Envipower Lyngby, Denmark Biomass boilers for carbon fertilizer production Eprida Georgia, USA Biochar fer tilizer and pyrolysis technology; consulting Ensyn Corporation Canada Rapid thermal processing technology International K & K Enterprise Korea Charcoal processing and charcoal products Pronatura France/ Brazil Renewable Oil Corporation Pty Ltd Australia Pyrolysis technology Renewable Oil International, LLC Alabama, USA Fast pyrolysis biorefinery technology Terra Humana Clean Technology Ltd Hungary Thermal desorption, pyrolysis and low temperature carbonization technologies for specific COAL & CARBON applications fo r industry, agricultural biotechnology science and ag ricultural applications. 86

PAGE 87

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL CONSIDERATIONS Summary of Research Findings As described in the first chapter, this case study sought to answer five specific research questions regarding management practices, ag robiodiversity, and mark et production among ADE and non-ADE farmers in Borba, Amazonas, Brazil. Based on the data gathered in this study, the findings are presented here. 1. Do ADE farmers maintain different manage ment practices than non-ADE farmers? These data suggest that ADE and non-ADE farmers did maintain different management practices. Specifically, ADE farm ers had a greater tendency towards the use of both chemical and organic fertilizers as well as herbicides. Moreover, ADE farmers tended to manage different market crops, particularly watermelon and papayas, in contrast to non-ADE farmers who placed greater focus on manioc. 2. Do ADE farms maintain highe r levels of agrobiodiversity? The data do not reveal any significant differences in the agrobiodiversity managed on ADE and non-ADE farms. Although it is believed that abandoned ADE sites harbor higher concentrations of economically important plants from the Pr e-Columbian era, contemporary ADE farmers in Borba do not necessarily manage a greater diversity of economic plants than non-ADE farmers. 3. Do ADE farms have a higher market orientation than non-ADE farms? The data do suggest that ADE farms from th is sample have a higher market orientation than non-ADE farms. In comparing means for market orientation, ADE farms averaged 61.0% market orientation while non-ADE farms averaged only 47.3%. Independent t-tests confirm that these means are significant with 95% confidence (p=.023). 87

PAGE 88

4. Does agrobiodiversity decrease with heightened market production? This research reveals no distinct rela tionship between market orientation and agrobiodiversity for the farms surveyed. Linear regression analysis yields an extremely weak r2 value of .028, suggesting that the relationship is poorly defined in this sample. 5. Does heightened market production corres pond to specific manage ment practices and techniques? The farmers in the study who maintained hi gher market orientation (oftentimes ADE farmers) did maintain different ma nagement practices, particularly with regards to inputs. When comparing those farmers who used chemical fer tilizers with those who did not, farmers using chemical fertilizers averaged 67.4% market orie ntation while those who did not averaged only 47.9% market orientation. Independent t-tests confirm that these differences are statistically significant with 95% conf idence (p-value= .019). Final Considerations The case study presented in this thesis de monstrates that Amazonian Dark Earth soils appear to provide distinct advantages for rural Amazonian farmers, particularly with regards to production of valuable market cr ops over the short-term. Howeve r, the degree to which these soils represent a model of sustainable agriculture is unclear. Research by Fraser and company shows that long-term, intensive management of ADE soils occurs in the region of the Middle Madeira with minimal use of inputs (Fraser et al. 2007), but it should be recognized that those communities focus on the production of manioc, a crop that is not particularly nutrientdemanding. Contrasting Frasers research from Manicor with the research presented here from Borba, I would surmise that as farmers seek to produce for larger regional markets, the adoption of more demanding crops will limit the long-te rm productivity capacity of Amazonian Dark Earths if farmers do not invest considerable agricultural inpu ts (i.e. organic or chemical 88

PAGE 89

89 From a global perspective, ADE has a differe nt value as it demonstrates the utility of charcoal as an agricultural input. The high concen tration of charcoal in ADE is believed to help maintain stable soil organic matter, prevent nutrient leaching, and potentially serve as an important carbon sink. The development of bio-ch ar technologies modeled after ADE have been popularized internationally due to their potential for improving agricultural producti on in leached soils across the world, however such global popula rization has yet to produce any direct benefit for rural Amazonians. I suggest that as pyrolizers and other technologies are developed to produce bio-char, bio-diesel, and other similar products, Amazonian governments and businesses can harness these technologies and develop pilot projects in rural communities following the lead of Rubem Csar Rodrigues Souza and other researchers at CDEA Hopefully rural Amazonians will then have the option to produce either bio-char for agricultural application or bio-diesel for much-needed energy in their communities.

PAGE 90

APPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDE DATA: No. de entrevista: Perguntas para entrevista Informaes biogrficas 1. Nome: 2. Idade: 3. Sexo: 4. Quantos anos voc mora na Amaznia? 5. Os seu pais so da Amaznia? a. M e b. Pai 6. Voc trabalhava na roa quando era mais novo? 7. voc caa ou pesca: No caso sim, para subsistncia ou para vender? C P 8. Quais so outras atividades que voc faz para sustentar a sua famlia? 9. Quantas pessoas moram na sua casa? 10. Qual a rea total do seu lote? a. rea de roa: b. rea de capoeira: c. rea de fruteiras e perenes: d. rea de pastagem: e. rea de mata: Manejo 11. Voc tem certas prticas ou mtodos para manter bo a fertilidade de solo? (exemplo, rotao de culturas) 12. Voc usa fertilizante? No caso sim, adubo qumico ou orgnico? a. Q _____________ b. O _____________ 13. Quantas roas voc tem no momento? 14. Em geral, quantos anos voc trabalha (cultiva) uma roa? 15. Como e quando voc decide abandona r uma roa (para poder recuperar)? 16. Quantos anos voc deixa uma roa recuperar (descansar) antes de cultivar novamente? 17. Quais fatores influenciam o tempo que voc deixa uma rea recuperar? 18. Como voc maneja reas de recuperao? 19. Voc planta certas cultu ras/rvores nessas reas? 90

PAGE 91

20. Como e quando voc decide fazer uma roa nova? 21. Quais fatores importantes so mais importantes para voc quando faz uma roa nova: sol, drenagem, vento, vegetao, solo? 22. Quando (qual poca do ano) voc faz a derruba? 23. Como voc derruba a vegetao? 24. Como voc derruba arvores grandes? 25. Quem ajuda voc nesse processo todo ? Voc participa em mutiro? 26. Voc usa fogo para o manejo do seu terreno? No caso sim: a. Quando voc queima a rea? b. Quais plantas/espcies queimam facilmente? c. Quais plantas/espcies so mais resistentes ao fogo? d. Qual a temperatura ideal para a queima? e. Qual a durao ideal para a queima? f. Quantas vezes voc queima uma roa nova? g. Como voc controla o fogo (usa aceiros)? h. C omo voc usa/maneja cinza, carvo, razes e tocos (stumps) queimados? i. Voc queima certas reas uma segunda vez ou coleta materiais para fazer coivara? j. Voc usa fogo para caar ou usa em out ras atividades fora de agricultura? 27. Voc utiliza um sistema de irrigao? No caso sim, que tipo de sistema? 28. Se no usa irrigao: a. Como voc sabe quando preparar a roa e plantar antes da chuva chegar? b. O que voc planta na poca de seca? c. Quais so os mtodos que voc usa na poca de seca? 29. Quais culturas so interplantadas (p lantadas em associao com outras)? 30. Como voc escolhe sementes (ou material vegetativo)? 31. Quais so razes para perda de produo (ex, pestes, doenas, etc.)? 32. Voc tem mtodos para eliminar pestes (como a formiga sava)? 33. Como voc lida com plantas invasoras Tem prtica ou tcnicas para evitar a roa de cerrar muito? 34. Qual o rendimento previsto (aproximadamente) este ano? 91

PAGE 92

35. Quando e como voc faz a colheita? 36. Como voc guarda ou armazena a colheita? 37. Quais problemas voc enfrenta no armazenamento da colheita? Produo para subsistncia e para o mercado 38. Qual parte (porcentagem) da sua produo para o consumo de voc e a sua famlia? 39. Qual a rea de culturas produzidas para o mercado e a rea total sob cultivao? a. Mercado: b.Total sob cultivao: 40. Tem certas culturas que voc s vende para o mercado? Quais? 41. Quais so as outras culturas que voc vende tambm? 42. Como voc leva produtos para o mercado? 43. Se voc no leva, quem leva? Como voc conhece essa pessoa? 44. Quantas pessoas so envolvidas na venda do seu produto? 45. Que tipo de transporte voc usa para levar produto para o mercado (ex, barco, caminho)? 46. Onde voc vende os seus produtos? (Borba, Manicore, etc.) 47. Quantos anos voc esta produzindo para o mercado? 48. Voc tem acesso a credito? Quanto mais ou menos? 49. O que impede a sua produo para o mercado? 50. O que ia ajudar melhorar a sua produo para o mercado? 51. Quanto voc ganha por ms? Por ano? Quanto vem de agricultura? Agrobiodiversidade 52. Quantas culturas diferentes voc tem na sua(s) roa(s)? 53. Quantas cultivares (variedades) das culturas principais? 54. Quantas espcies diferentes no quintal? Na roa? Q R 55. Escreve uma lista de culturas cultivadas normalmente (ltima pagina). Terra Preta 56. Voc maneja roas de terra preta de uma form a diferente do que as roas de solo comum? 57. Quantos anos d para voc cultivar ou trabalhar uma roa de terra preta antes de perceber uma perda na produo? Como isso compara com o solo comum? 58. Em sua opinio, existem culturas que rendem melhor na terra preta? Tm outras que rendem pior? 59. Existem vantagens de cultivar terra preta? Quais so? 92

PAGE 93

60. Existem desvantagens de cultivar terra preta? 61. Tem culturas ou plantas que s pode cultivar na terra preta? Quais so? 62. Voc achou cermica e outro material arqueolgico na terra preta? 63. Voc sabe como a terra preta foi formada/criada? 64. Voc acha que a terra preta pode ser reproduzida? 65. Voc acha que vai ter produo melhor na terra preta do que em solo comum? 66. Voc acha que tem mais ou menos caa em reas de terra preta? GPS DATA UTM da casa Oeste: _______________ Sul: ________________ Lat.: _______________ Long.: ________________ Localizao das fron teiras do lote: Oeste: ________________ Sul: _________________ Oeste: ________________ Sul: _________________ Oeste: ________________ Sul: _________________ Oeste: ________________ Sul: _________________ OTHER NOTES 93

PAGE 94

LISTA DE CULTURAS (com nmero de indivduos de cada uma quando possvel) R= roa Q= quintal Nome Location (R,Q) Nmero indiv. Nome Location Nmero 1 26 2 27 3 28 4 29 5 30 6 31 7 32 8 33 9 34 10 35 11 36 12 37 13 38 14 39 15 40 16 41 17 42 18 43 19 44 20 45 21 46 22 47 23 48 24 49 25 50 OUTRAS CULTURAS CULTI VADAS NORMALMENTE: 94

PAGE 95

LIST OF REFERENCES Agassiz, L. and E. Agassiz 1868 A Journey in Brazil. Bost on: Ticknor and Fields. Agrios, G.N. 2005 Plant Pathology. 5th edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press Andrade, A. 1986 Investigacin Arqueolgica de los Antroles de Arar acuara. Bogota: Fundacin de Investigaciones Arqueologicas Naci onales Banco de la Republica. Bale, W. 1993 Indigenous Transformation of Amazonian Forests: An Example from Maranho, Brazil. In LHomme: La remonte de l Amazone Philippe Descola and Anne Christine Taylor, eds. Paris: Ecole des Ha utes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. 1994 Footprints in the Forest. Kaapor Ethnobotany the Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People. New York: Columbia University Press. 1998 Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates. In Advances in Historical Ecology, William Bale, ed. New York: Columbia University Press. Bale, W. and C. Erickson, eds. 2006 Time and Complexity in Historical Ec ology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands. New York: Columbia University Press. Barbosa de Faria, J. 1944 A Cermica da Tribo Uabo dos Rios Trombetas e Jamund: Contribuio para o Estudo da Arqueologia Pr-historica do Baixo Amazonas. Anais III, 9 Congresso Brasileiro de Geografa, Rio de Jane iro, Vol. 3, Pp. 141-165. Conselho Nacional Brasileiro de Geografia. Barreto, C. and J. Machado 2001 Exploring the Amazon, Explaining the Unknown: Views from the Past. In Unknown Amazon: Culture in Nature in Anci ent Brazil, ed. Colin McEwan, Cristiana Barreto, and Eduardo Neves, 232-251. L ondon: The British Museum Press. Bastos, A.C.T. 1866 O Valle do Amazonas. Rio de Jane iro: B.L. Garnier, Livreiro Editor. Bernard, H.R. 2006 Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press. Biblioteca Virtual do Amazonas 2007 Municpios do Estado do Amazonas: Borba. http:// www.bv.am.gov.br Accessed June 15. 95

PAGE 96

Binns, C. 2006 Scientists Promote Benefits of Black Magic Soil. Foxnews.com Feb 22. Brown, C.B. and W. Lidstone 1878 Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon and Its Tributaries. London: Edward Stafford. Cabala-Rosand, P., M.B.M. Santana, and C.J.L. Santana 1989 Cacao. In Detecting Mineral Deficiencies in Tropical and Temperate Crops, D.L. Plucknett and H.B. Sprague, eds., Pp. 409-425, Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Camargo, F. 1941 Estudo de Alguns Perfis dos Solos Coleta dos em Diversas Regies da Hilia. Belm: Instituto Agronmico do Norte. Carneiro, R.L. 1957 Subsistence and Social Structure: An Ecological Study of the Kuikuru. Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Michigan. Clement, C.R., J.M. McCann, and N.J.H.Smith 2003 Agrobiodiversity in Amaznia and its Relationship with Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties Management. D.C.Kern, J. Lehmann, B. Glaser, and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 159-178. Do rdrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Collier, K.F.S., J.O.G. de Lima, and G.S. Albuquerque 2004 Predacious Mites in Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Orchards: In Search of a Biological Control Agent of Phytophagous M ite Pests. Neotropical Entomology 33(6): 799-803. Conklin, H.C. 1961 The Study of Shifting Cultivation. Current Anthropology 2(1):27-61. Costa, M.L. and D.C. Kern 1999 Geochemical signatures of tropical soils with Archaeological Black Earth in the Amazon. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 66: 369-385. Comisso de Estudos da Estrada de Ferro do Madeira e Mamor. 1885 Do Rio de Janeiro ao Amazonas e al to Madeira. Rio de Janeiro: Soares e Niemeyer Cunha Franco, E. 1962 As Terras Pretas do Planalto de Santarm. Revista da Sociedade dos Agrnomos e Veterinrios do Par 8:17-21. 96

PAGE 97

Denevan, W.M. 1992 The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82(3):369-385. 1996 The Bluff Model of Riverine Settlement in Prehistoric Amazoni a. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86(4):654-681. 2001 Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the Andes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2004 Semi-Intensive Pre-European Cultivation and Origins of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in Amazonia. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Time and Space, B. Glaser and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.135-143. Berlin: Springer Descola, P. 1994 In the Society of Nature: A Native Ecology in Amazonia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eden, M.J., W. Bray, L. Herrera, and C. McEwan 1984 Terra Preta soils and their archaeologi cal context in the Caquet Basin of southeast Colombia. American Antiquity 49(1):125-140. Edit, R.C. 1977 Detection and Examination of Anthrosols by Phosphate Analysis. Science 197 (4311): 1327-1333. Eprida 2007 www.eprida.com Accessed 27 Nov. Ewel, J., C. Berish, B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich 1981 Impacts of Slash and Burn on a Costa Rican Wet Forest Site. Ecology 62(3): 816829. Fairhead, J. and I. Scoones 2005 Local knowledge and the social shaping of soil investments: critical perspectives on the assessment of soil degradatio n in Africa. Land Use Policy. 22: 33-41. Falco, N.P.S. and L.F. Borges 2006 Efeito da fertilidade de terra pr eta de ndio da Amaznia Central no estado nutricional e na produtividade de mamo hawa ( Carica papaya L.) Acta Amaznica. 36(4): 401-406. Falesi, .C. 1974 Soils of the Brazilian Amazon. In Man in the Amazon, C. Wagley, ed., Pp. 201229. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. 97

PAGE 98

Fearnside, P. and P.M.L. Graa 2006 BR-319: Brazils Manaus-Porto Vel ho Highway and the Potential Impact of Linking the Arc of Deforesta tion to Central Amazonia. E nvironmental Management. 38: 706-716. Frank, A.G. 1966 The Development of Underdevelop ment. Monthly Review 18: 17-31. Fraser, J., T. Cardoso, A. Junqueir a, N. Falco, and C.R. Clement 2007 Historical Ecology and Dark Earths in Whitewater and Blackwater Landscapes: Comparing the Middle Madeir a and Lower Negro Rivers. In Terra Preta Nova: A tribute to Wim Sombroek, W.I. Woods, W. Teixeira, J. Lehmann, C. Steiner, A. WinklerPrins, eds. Berlin: Springer. Geraque, E. and M.A. Cannico 2006 Governo do Reino Unido nega privatizao da Amaznia. Folha de So Paulo Online. October 4. German, L.A. 2001 The dynamics of terra preta: An in tegrated study of human-environmental interactions in a nutrient-poor Amazoni an ecosystem. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Georgia. 2003 Ethnoscientific understandings of Amazonian Dark Earths In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp. 179-201. Dordrecht, Nether lands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. GIAHS 2006 Globally Important Ingenious Agri cultural Heritage Systems website. http://webapps01.un.org/dsd/partners hips/public/partnerships/1153.html Accessed Nov. 7. Gibbons, M., C. Limoges, H. Nowotny, S. Schwartman, P. Scott, and M. Trow 1994 The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Socieites. London: Sage Publications. Glaser, B., W. Zech, and W.I. Woods 2004 History, Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives of Geoecological Research Concerning the Origin of Amazonian Anth ropogenic Dark Earths (Terra Preta). In Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time, B. Glaser and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp. 9-17. Berlin: Springer. Glaser, B., G. Guggenberger, W. Zech and M.L. Ruivo 2003 Soil organic matter stability in Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, J. Lehmann. D. C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 141-158. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. 98

PAGE 99

Gonalves, A.C.L. 1904 O Amazonas: Esboo histrico, chorogr phico e estatstico at o ano 1903. New York: Hugo J. Hanf, Publisher. Gourou, P. 1949 Observaes Geogrficas na Amaznia. Revista Brasileira de Geografa (11):354408. Graham, E. 2006 A Neotropical Framework of Terra Preta. In Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotr opical Lowlands, W. Bale and C.L. Erickson, eds. Pp. 5786. New York: Columbia University Press. Griggs, W.C. 1987 The Elusive Eden: Frank McMullans Confederate Colony in Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press. Hartt, C.F. 1874 Contributions to the Geology and Physical Geography of the Lower Amazonas. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences (1):201-235. 1874 Preliminary Report of the Morgan Exhibitions, 1870-71 Report of a Reconnoissance of the Lower Tapajs. Bulletin of the Cornell University (Science) (1):137. 1885 Contribuies para a Ethnologia do Valle do Amazonas. Achivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (6):1-174. Heckenberger, M. J., J.B. Petersen, and E.G. Neves 1999 Village Size and Permanence in Amaz onia: Two Archaeological Examples from Brazil. Latin American Antiquity 10:353-376. Heckenberger, M.J. 2005 The Ecology of Power: Culture, Pla ce, and Personhood in the Southern Amazon, A.D. 1000-2000. New York: Routledge. Henderson, A. 1995 The Palms of the Amazon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hennessey, P. 2006 Milliband promotes plan to buy ra inforests. The Daily Telegraph. October 1. Herndon, W.L. and L. Gibbon 1854 Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. Washington: A.O.P Nicholson, Public Printer. 99

PAGE 100

Herrera, L.F. 1981 Relaciones entre ocupaciones pr-hispnicas y suelos negros en la Cuena del Rio Caquet en Colombia. Revista CIAF 6: 225-242. Hilbert, P.P. 1968 Archaeologische Untersuchungen am Mittleren Amazonas: Beitrage zur Vorgeschichte des sudamerkanischen Tieflandes. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag Hiraoka, M., S. Yamamoto, E. Matsumoto, S. Nakamura, I.C. Falesi, and A.R.C. Baena 2003 Contemporary use and management of Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management J. Lehman, D.C. Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.395-396. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Howeler, R.H. 1980 Soil-Related Cultural Practices for Cassava. In Cassava Cultural Practices: Proceedings of a workshop held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 18-21 March 1980. E.J. Weber, J.C. Toro M., and M. Graham ed s. Pp. 59-69. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre. Series IDRC-151e. IBGE 2007 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. http://www.ibge.br.gov Accessed Nov 15. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Bras ileiro de Geografia e Estatstica. Jeffries, R.W. 1987 The Archaeology of Carrier Mills: 10,000 Years in the Sa line Valley of Illinois. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. Katzer, F. 1903 Gundzuge der Geologie des unteren Am azonasbaebietes (des Staates Par in Brasilien). Leipzig: Verlag von Max Weg. Lehmann, J., J.P. da Silva, M. Rondon, M.S. Cra vo, J.Greenwood, T. Nehls, C. Steiner, and B. Glaser 2002 Slash-and-char: A feasib le alternative for soil fertility management in the Central Amazon? In Symposium 13, Organic Matter Management in the Humid Tropics, B. Vanlauwe ed. 17th World Congress of Soil Scien ce, paper no. 449. Bangkok, Thailand: CD-ROM. Lehmann, J., D.C. Kern, L.A. German, J. Mc Cann, J., G.C. Martins, and A. Moreira 2003a Soil Fertility and Production Potential. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. J. Lehman, D.C. Ke rn, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp.105124. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Lehmann, J., D.C, Kern, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods 100

PAGE 101

2003b Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Leite, S. 1943 Histria da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil. Vol 3. Ri o de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional do Livro. Madari, B. E., W.G. Sombroek, and W.I. Woods 2004 Research on Anthropogenic Dark Earth Soils. Could It be a Solution for Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Amazon? In Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time. B.Glas er and.W.I.Woods, eds. Pp. 169-181. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Major, J., C.R. Clement and A. DiTommaso 2004 Influence of Market Orientation on F ood Plant Diversity of Farms Located on Amazonian Dark Earth in the Region of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Economic Botany 59(1):77-86. Malhi, Y., J.T. Roberts, R.A. Betts, T.J. Killeen, W. Li, and C.A. Nobre 2008 Climate Change, Deforestation, and th e Fate of the Amazon. Science 319(5860): 169-172. Marcoulatos, I. 2006 Rethinking Intentionality: A Bourdieuian Pespective. In How Nature Speaks: The Dynamics of the Human Ecological Conditi on, Yrjo Haila and Chuck Dyke, eds. Pp. 126-149. Durham: Duke University Press. Marcoy, P. 2001 Viagem pelo Rio Amazonas. (tra ns. Antontio Porro.) Manaus: Editora da Universidade do Amazonas. Marris, E. 2006 Putting the carbon back: Black is the new green. Nature 442: 624-626. McCann, J. 1999 Before 1492: The Making of the Pre-Columbian Landscape, Part 2: The Vegetation and Impacts for Restoration for 2000 and Beyond. Ecological Restoration 17(3): 107-119. 2003 Subsidy from Culture: Anthropogenic So ils and Vegetation in Tapajnia, Brazilian Amazonia. Unpublished Ph.D. thes is, University of Wisconsin Madison Medina, L.F.A and M.S.C. de Almeida 2006 Biopirataria: A Explorao da Biodiversidade no Estado do Amazonas e a Necessidade de Regulamentao. Monograph, Ce ntro Universitrio de Ensino Superior do Amazonas. 101

PAGE 102

Meggers, B. J. 1996 [1971] Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise, Revised Edition. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press. Mora, S. 2001 Suelos Negros y Sociedad: Un sistema ag rcola de entonces, Un sistema agricola de ahora? In Desarrollo Sostenible en la Amazonia. M.Hiraoka and S. Mora, eds. Pp. 3145. Quito: Abya Yal. Moraes Bertho, A.M. de 2001 As Cincias Humanas no Museu Paraenese Emlio Goeldi em suas fases de formao e consolidao (1886-1914). In Conhecimento e Fronteira : Histria da Cincia na Amaznia, Priscila Faulhaber and Peter Ma nn de Toledo, eds. Belm: Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi Moran, E.F. 1973 Energy flow analysis and the study of Manihot esculenta Crantz. Acta Amaznica 3(3): 29-39. 1993 Thorough Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Myers, T. P., W. M. Denevan, A. WinklerPrins, and A. Porro 2003 Historical Perspectives on Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. D.C.Kern, J. Lehmann, B. Glaser, and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 15-28. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Nepstad, D., P. Lefebvre, U.L. da Silva, J. Tomasella, P. Schlesinger, L. Solrzano, P. Moutinho, D. Ray, and J.G. Benito 2004 Amazon drought and its implications for forest flammability and tree growth: a basin-wide analysis. Glob al Change Biology 10(5): 704. Neves, E.G. 2004 Introduction: The Relevance of Curt Nimuendajs Archaeological Work. In Pursuit of a Past Amazon: Archaeological Rese arches in the Brazilian Guyana and in the Amazon Region, by Curt Nimuendaj. Pp. 2-7. Goteborg: Etnologiska Studier 45. Neves, E. G., J.B. Petersen, R.N. Bartone, and C.A. Silva 2003 The Historical and Socio-Cultural Origins of Amazonian Dark Earths. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management. D.C.K. J. Lehmann, B. Glaser, and W. I. Woods, eds. Pp. 29-49. Dord recht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Nimuendaj, C. 1952 [1925, 1949] The Tapaj. Kroeber Anth ropological Society Papers 6:1-25. 102

PAGE 103

1953 [1949] Os Tapaj. Revista de Antropologia 1(1):53-61. 2000 Cartas do Serto: de Curt Nimuendaj para Carlos Estevo de Oliveira. Lisbon: Assrio & Alvim. 2004 Pursuit of a Past Amazon: Archaeological Researches in the Brazilian Guyana and in the Amazon Region. Gteborg: Etnologiska Studier 45. Nye, P.H and D.J. Greenland 1964 Changes in the soil after clearing trop ical forest. Plant a nd Soil 21(1): 101-112. Oliveira, J.P. de 1992 Fazendo Etnologia com os Caboclos do Quirino: Curt Nimuendaj e a Histria Ticuna. In Antropologia Social, Comunicaes do PPGAS Joao Pacheco de Oliveira, ed. Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional UFRJ. Oyuela-Caycedo, A., A. Zimmerman, and N.C. Kawa No date The significance of redundanc y, seasonality, and task activities in the development of anthropogenic soils. Palmatary, H.C. 1949 Pottery of Marajo Island, Brazil. Tran sactions of American Philosophical Society 39(3): 261-470. 1960 The Archaeology of the Lower Tapajs Valley, Brazil. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 50(3):1-243. Pickett, J.P. 2000 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Posey, D.A. 1992 Interpreting the Reality of Indigenous Concepts. In Conservation of Neotropical Forests: Working from Traditional Resource Use, Kent H. Redford and Christine Padoch, eds. Pp. 21-34. New York: Columbia University Press. Purdy, L.H. and R.A. Schmidt. 1996 Status of Cacao Witches Broom: Biology, Epidemiology, and Management. Annual Review of Phytopathology 34: 573-594. Roosevelt, A.C. 1995 Early Pottery in the Amazon: Twenty Years of Scholarly Obscurity. In The Emergence of Pottery: Technology and Innova tion in Ancient Societies, William K. Barnett and John W. Hoopes, Eds. Pp. 115-131.Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press. 103

PAGE 104

Roosevelt, A.C., R.A. Houseley, M. Imazio da Sliveira, S. Maranca, and R. Johnson 1991 Eighth millennium potter from a prehistoric shell midden in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 24: 1621-1624. Santos, F.J.d. 1999 Alm da conquista: Guerras e rebe lies indgenas na Amaznia Pombalina. Manaus: Editora da Universidade do Amazonas. Schaden, E. 1967-1968 Notas sobre a vida e obra de Curt Nimuendaj. Revista de Antropologia. 15-16: 77-89. Simes, M.F. and D.F. Lopes 1987 Pesquisas arqueolgicas no baixo/medi o rio Madeira (Amazonas). Revista de Arqueologia. 4: 117-134. Smith, H.H. 1879a Brazil: The Amazons and the Coast. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1879b An American Home on the Amazo nas. Scribner's Monthly: An Illustrated Magazine for the People 18: 692-704. Smith, N.J.H. 1980 Anthrosols and human carrying capacity in Amazonia. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 70: 553-566 1999 The Amazon River Forest: A Natural History of Plants, Animals, and People. New York: Oxford University Press. Sombroek, W.G. 1966 Amazon Soils: A Reconnaissance of th e Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region. Wageningen: Center for Agricultural Publications and Documentation. Sombroek. W., D.C Kern, T. Rodr igues, M. Cravo, T.C. Jarbas, W.I. Woods, and B. Glaser 2002 Terra Preta and Terra Mulata: Pre-Columbian Amazon kitchen middens and agricultural fields, their su stainability and their replic ation. Paper no.1935. Symposium 18 Anthropogenic Factors of Soil Formation, 17th WCSS 14-21 Bangkok, Thailand, 1421 August, 2002. Sternberg, H.O.R. 1975 The Amazon River of Brazil. New York: Springer-Verlag. 1998 [1956] A Agua e o Homem na Vrzea do Careiro. Second edition. Belm: Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi. Steward, J.H., ed. 104

PAGE 105

1946-1959 Handbook of South American I ndians, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143, 7 volumes, Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Strathern, M. 1999 Property, Substance and Effect: Anth ropological Essays on Persons and Things. London: The Athlone Press. Toro M., J.C. and C.B. Atlee 1980 Agronomic Practices for Cass ava Production: a Literature Review. In Cassava Cultural Practices: Proceedings of a works hop held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 18-21 March 1980. E.J. Weber, J.C. Toro M., a nd M. Graham eds. Pp. 13-28, Ottawa, Canada: International Development Res earch Centre. Series IDRC-151e. Vieira, M.R, L.D.S. Correa, T.M.G. Castro, L.F. Silva and M.D.S. Monteverde 2004 Efeito do Cultivo do Mamoeiro ( Carica Papaya L.) em ambiente protegido sobre a ocorrncia de caros fitfagos e moscas brancas. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, Jaboticabal 26 (3): 441-445. Viveiros de Castro, E. 1996 Images of Nature and Society in Amazonian Ethnology. Annual Review of Anthropology 25: 179-200. Wallerstein, I. 1974 The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press. WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. and P.S. de Souza 2005 Surviving the City: Urban Home Gard ens and the Economy of Affection in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Latin American Geography 4(1): 107-126. Woods, W.I. 2003 Development of Anthrosol Research. In Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management, J. Lehman, D.C. Ke rn, B. Glaser, and W.I. Woods, eds. Pp. 314. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kl uwer Academic Publishers. Woods, W.I., N.P.S. Falcao, and W.G. Teixeira 2006a Biochar trials aim to enri ch soil for smallholder. Nature 443:144. Woods, W.I. and J.M. McCann 1999 The Anthropogenic origin and persiste nce of Amazonian Dark Earths. Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers Yearbook. 25:7-14. 2001 Origen y persistencia de las tierras negras de la Amazonia. In Desarrollo Sostenible en la Amazonia: Mito o Realid ad? M. Hiraoka and S. Mora, eds. Pp. 23-30. Quito: Abya Yal. 105

PAGE 106

106 Woods, W.I. and W.M. Denevan 2007 Discovery, Study, and Bibliography of Amazonian Dark Earths, 1870s-1970s. In Ethnogeographic Research in Latin America: Essays Honoring William V. Davidson, P. H. Herlihy, K. Mathewson, and C. S. Revels eds. Geoscience and Man series. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University.

PAGE 107

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Nick Kawa was born in a small town in nor thern Illinois and grew up in the city of Batavia, a suburb of Chicago. In 1999, he attended the University of Arizona where he studied Anthropology and Spanish. After receiving his B. A. in 2002, Nick worked as an English teacher in the Amazonian city of Manaus. While in Mana us, Nick also interned at the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA). In 2006, he bega n his studies in anthro pology at the University of Florida. Having completed hi s masters degree in anthropol ogy, Nick intends to continue his Ph.D. at UF studying the historic al ecology of Central Amazonia.