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Uncovering the Artist Model

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022085/00001

Material Information

Title: Uncovering the Artist Model An Exploratory Study
Physical Description: 1 online resource (229 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sociology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Sociology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: My study explored the characteristics and experiences of female artist models. The investigation is exploratory and descriptive in nature. There is nothing written that speaks to the issue of the meaning of artist modeling to models, how they define it, their experience of it and how they fit themselves into it. Twenty-five artist models who are currently working in the occupation in a southern state participated in the study. Through a combination of convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, models were recruited during the spring months of 2007 through colleges and universities and art schools, through artists and through referral from other models who participated in the study. The researcher used individual, semi-structured interviews to collect data across eight main topics: entry, posing, artists, body, mind, artwork, reactions from others and rewards. This method of inquiry permits the voices of the women to emerge, allowing them to discuss their own definitions of the situation. Through its qualitative nature we get our first real glimpse into the experiences of artist models in the United States by allowing them the opportunity to name and invest their experience with meaning. Their stories help us to better understand artist models, as well as how artist modeling operates in general, while also providing further insight into the constructed notions of the body and enhancing understanding of what body means to those who locate their body as central to their work.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Akers, Ronald L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022085:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022085/00001

Material Information

Title: Uncovering the Artist Model An Exploratory Study
Physical Description: 1 online resource (229 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Sociology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Sociology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: My study explored the characteristics and experiences of female artist models. The investigation is exploratory and descriptive in nature. There is nothing written that speaks to the issue of the meaning of artist modeling to models, how they define it, their experience of it and how they fit themselves into it. Twenty-five artist models who are currently working in the occupation in a southern state participated in the study. Through a combination of convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, models were recruited during the spring months of 2007 through colleges and universities and art schools, through artists and through referral from other models who participated in the study. The researcher used individual, semi-structured interviews to collect data across eight main topics: entry, posing, artists, body, mind, artwork, reactions from others and rewards. This method of inquiry permits the voices of the women to emerge, allowing them to discuss their own definitions of the situation. Through its qualitative nature we get our first real glimpse into the experiences of artist models in the United States by allowing them the opportunity to name and invest their experience with meaning. Their stories help us to better understand artist models, as well as how artist modeling operates in general, while also providing further insight into the constructed notions of the body and enhancing understanding of what body means to those who locate their body as central to their work.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Akers, Ronald L.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022085:00001


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1 UNCOVERING THE ARTIST MODEL: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY By CLAY ARDEN HIPKE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Clay A. Hipke

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3 To Ronald L. Akers

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank and acknow ledge a large number of pe ople who have each played a critical role in helping m e achieve the completion of this dissertation. Foremost, I wish to thank my dissertation chairperson, Ronald L. Akers, for his advice, guidance, and patience throughout this project. His valuable cri ticisms, suggestions and contributi ons were the basis on which this dissertation was built and improved. And his excellent professional standards inspired me to put forth my best work. I wish also to thank and express my sincerest gratitude to the members of my dissertation committee, Professors Lonn Lanza-Kaduce, John Scanzoni, Chris Faircloth and Jerry Cutler. Their insightful comments and he lpful feedback were invaluable to the development and success of this project. Special thanks goes to Jay Gubr ium, whose early belief in the project enthused me I wish to sincerely thank my respondents, who opened themselves and shared with me and gave generously of their tim e and without whom this project would not be possible. I wish to thank my graduate colleagues in the sociology depart ment at the University of Florida, especially those within my cohort, Da na Fennell, John Foster Melissa Mauldin, Mike Loree, and Ginger Battista. I have been fortunate to have thei r friendship and support through the years I was in graduate school. Other departmental colleagues from whom I have received inspiration and support in their unique and i ndividual ways are John Reitzel, Kuniko Chijiwa, and Yuko Fujino. I wish to thank my parents Dale A. Hipke and Martha V. Hipke whose encouragement was unwavering and whose means gave me the ability to work on the project without distractions, my brother, Dr. Matt Hipke who provided me with a superb example of what results when one devotes themself to something th ey love, and my brother Wade Hipke, who, in spirit, continues

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5 to give me confidence and courage. And a special word of thanks to Jacqueline Moffitt, who has stood by throughout the years. Finally, I thank Moses, whose tir eless devotion and selfless love gave me a reason to keep going daily.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................9 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................10 Background.............................................................................................................................10 Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .15 Artist Modeling................................................................................................................ .......16 History of Artist Modeling.....................................................................................................16 Research Questions That Helped Guide the Discovery Process............................................ 17 Purpose of Study.....................................................................................................................18 Definitions..............................................................................................................................19 Outline....................................................................................................................................19 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND CONCEDPTUAL FRAMEW ORK.............................. 21 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........21 Overview of Artist Modeling.................................................................................................. 22 Artist Modeling In Hi storical Context .................................................................................... 25 Greece..............................................................................................................................25 Italy..................................................................................................................................25 France..............................................................................................................................26 England............................................................................................................................29 United States....................................................................................................................30 Modern Trends................................................................................................................31 Artist Models.................................................................................................................. .32 Entry.........................................................................................................................32 Work roles................................................................................................................ 33 Compensation...........................................................................................................46 Other ways of making money..................................................................................48 Work roles................................................................................................................ 48 Additional roles in the studio................................................................................... 51 Activities apart from studio roles............................................................................. 52 Posing in different studios........................................................................................ 55 Relationships with artists......................................................................................... 57 Relations with other models..................................................................................... 59 Rewards....................................................................................................................59 Dissatisfactions.........................................................................................................60 Artworks...................................................................................................................62

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7 Reactions from others............................................................................................... 62 Life after modeling................................................................................................... 64 Summary..........................................................................................................................66 Symbolic Interactionism........................................................................................................ .66 3 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 73 Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........73 Research Design.....................................................................................................................73 Entering the Field: Finding and Contacting Resp ondents in Unfamiliar Territory............... 74 Participants......................................................................................................................76 Data Collection Sites.......................................................................................................77 Procedure for Data Collection................................................................................................77 Interviews........................................................................................................................77 Interview schedule...........................................................................................................78 Analytic-Inductive Approach................................................................................................. 81 4 THE WORLD OF THE ARTIST MODEL............................................................................ 83 Demographics of Participants.................................................................................................83 Participation in the Work and General Knowledge about the Work...................................... 84 Participation in Artist Modeling......................................................................................84 Knowledge about Art Models and Visual Art Industry................................................... 87 Entry into Modeling and Training for the Work.................................................................... 89 The Routine and Setting of Nude Posing............................................................................... 91 Interactions with Artists...................................................................................................... ..107 Managing Posing................................................................................................................ ..120 The Artwork.................................................................................................................... ......144 Reactions from Others.......................................................................................................... 157 Rewards and Work Requirements........................................................................................ 161 The Body..............................................................................................................................166 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.................................................................................. 176 Discussion.............................................................................................................................176 Limitations of the Study....................................................................................................... 199 Areas for Future Research....................................................................................................203 Other sociological research areas......................................................................................... 206 Conclusion............................................................................................................................207 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT.............................................................................. 210 B INTERVIEW SCHEDULE.................................................................................................. 212 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................220

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................229

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9 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy UNCOVERING THE ARTIST MODEL: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY By Clay Arden Hipke May 2008 Chair: Ronald L. Akers Major: Sociology My study explored the characte ristics and experiences of female artist models. The investigation is exploratory and descriptive in na ture. There is nothing wri tten that speaks to the issue of the meaning of artist modeling to models how they define it, their experience of it and how they fit themselves into it. Twenty-five ar tist models who are cu rrently working in the occupation in a southern state participated in the study. Through a combination of convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, models were recruited during the sp ring months of 2007 through colleges and universities and art schools, through artists and through referral from other models who participated in the study. The research er used individual, semi-structured interviews to collect data across eight main topics: entry, posing, artists, body, mind, artwork, reactions from others and rewards. This method of inqui ry permits the voices of the women to emerge, allowing them to discuss their own definitions of the situation. Through its qualitative nature we get our first real glimpse into the experiences of artist models in the United States by allowing them the opportunity to name and invest their ex perience with meaning. Their stories help us to better understand artist models, as well as how artist modeling ope rates in general, while also providing further insight into the constructed notio ns of the body and enhancing understanding of what body means to those who locate their body as central to their work

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background There just dont seem to be any concrete guidel ines. [. .] In general, its just, you know, get naked, be able to hit poses, and hold still. 5 What kind of woman poses naked for art? Before seeing artist model listed among a group of occupations some time ago in a colleg e textbook, I knew nothing about artist models. I knew there was a phenomenon in history where wo men posed for artists, but I could not recall from where I had seen or learned that informa tion. I was certain, however, that instances when I had seen something about them were indeed rare In fact, at that time I could not even recall anything particularly memorable about them from magazines, television or films. After that initial enc ounter with artist models in the textbook, my curiosity was piqued. I wondered who they were, and how long they had been used by artists. I wa s also curious to know what posing was like; specificall y, what it was like for someone to hold a pose--in the nude-before an artist for hours at a time. I also wondered whether other people--like me--even knew about them and, if they did, what they thought about them. Few people probably have any direct familiarity at all with artist models or the world of the studio. People have little know ledge of artist models because the places where they usually work--in artists studios--are still relatively unknown to the public in general. The distinct and separate social milieu of the studio is most lik ely to be observed by the public through a handful of paintings in museums which depict studio lif e. And much of the general public probably knows little about the artist model herself because they are rarely found in the media that people commonly read or see. General circulation mag azines and newspapers ra rely feature stories about artist models, and they ra rely appear with frequency in popular films, although a few notable exceptions like Camille Claudel (1989) and Sirens (1994) exist.

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11 Artist models appear at firs t blush to be analogous to ot her groups in society which employ nudity in the course of their work. These other groups are (1) exotic dancers-originally known as strippers, who remove their clothes while watched by paying customers; (2) pornographic models--who perform or pose in the nude for print or film; and (3) adult industry workers--who perform actual or simulated sexual acts to themselves or other confederates while on stage--as performance artists--or in some other enclosed space (a booth or small room)--as peep show workers--while watched by paying customers. These groups share several common attributes with artist models: (1) the principal occupational activity invo lves the exhibition of ones body, (2) financial remuneration is provided in exchange for a cluster of activities, (3) each exists at the margins of conven tional life--each is ascribed ei ther marginal legitimacy or recognized as abnormal or deviant by a s ubstantial proportion of the population, (4) each qualifies as an unskilled occupation, requiring little talent and little or no training being necessary to enter the occupation, (5) the work in each is recurri ng and routine, and (6) the work of the individuals involves at least one--usually more--set of people who are conceptualized as conventional by members of society; that is, the customers of thes e workers are so-called normal citizens who demand forbidden services that are provided by the individuals. My hunch is that the public, if they knew about artist models, draws likely comparisons between them and the other groups and considers th em to be a strange group of people. Nudity in a public setting tends to provoke outrage among certa in segments of the public, and artist models could be assumed by some to be bad girls or even nymphos. Artist models may be perceived by others in society as lazy and not very bright because they simp ly stand or sit motionless while staring into space for long stretches of time. S till others may believe that artist models are

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12 innocent victims who are treated as things in a studio--taking commands from artists for their own selfish artistic creations, slept with, then abruptly cast aside. Although ostensibly like the women in these occupations fo r a number of reasons, artist models are different in many ways. Some of the notable distinctions betw een artist modeling and the occupations closest to artist modeling are: (1) artist modeling has a long history whereas the others are more recent phenomena; (2) artist modeling is a hidden oc cupation, whereas the others are not only more visible to, but also more easily accessible by, the public; (3) artist modeling involves de-sexualized behavior, whereas the others directly emphasize sexuality; (4) artist modeling involves posing-in a motionless and passive posit ion--for long periods of time, whereas the others involve act ivity and moving about when nude ; (5) artist modeling involves the work of a sole nude person in a setting, wh ereas the others involve nudity among several nude others in their individual settings; (6) arti st modeling involves no dir ect interaction between the nude person and other individuals during the course of their wor k, whereas the others intrinsically entail sociability and even contac t between the nude pers on and other individuals; (7) artist modeling carries the possibility of a relationship forming between the model and a member of the audience apart from the work environment, whereas the others do not; and (8) artist modeling results in the creation of an artis tic product, whereas the others produce sex. These many differences--the history and inaccessibili ty of artist modeling, along with the solitary nudity, posing motionless for lengthy periods, the lack of sexualiz ation, possible interaction and the surviving product of artist m odeling--suggest that artist models may be like the other groups to only a small degree or not at all. Direct comparisons between artist models a nd the other groups are difficult to measure because, while the other groups have been st udied at length, artist models have been

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13 conspicuously ignored as a resear ch topic in the social scienc es. Of the other groups, dancers have been extensively examined beginning in the early 1970's by sociological researchers who have studied their lifestyle, car eer contingencies se lf-conception, and management of stigma (see review in Wesley, 2003 ). Research has also been done in the recen t decades on workers in the pornographic modeling (Abbot, 2000) and adu lt industry (Guidroz, 1996). A search of sociological scholarship on artist modeling, however, reveals only a single article, Nudity in the Art Training Process: An Essa y with Reference to a Pilot St udy, by Clinton Jesser and Louis Donovan, published in 1969. The inquiry that has taken place apar t from sociology is found in secondary sources, such as art world periodicals, which mostly concentrates on historical details about individual artist models us ed by particular artists. Given the generally high level of interest in marginal groups, occupational roles, and nudity-related topics evident in recent years, th e neglect of artist models as a subject of sociological inquiry is somewh at surprising. One can only specula te about the reasons regarding this current lacuna in sociologi cal knowledge. It is possible that sociologists have hesitated to embark on a study of this relatively small and unique population. And artist models are not a collective body, since most work alone or as an is olated individual; by not being a member of an identifiable group there is the absence of a ny possible comparison with other social groups. Another reason is that artist modeling does not neatly fit in any one specif ic sociological area. And lastly, most sociologists have little interest in the arts in general, so artist modeling, like most activities within the field of the ar ts, has received lit tle sociological study. That artist modeling has not attracted atte ntion from social researchers provides the opportunity for this research and directs how it should be conducted. The literature existing in this area is extremely limited a nd largely anecdotal. There remains a need for systematic study of

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14 virtually all aspects of the phenomenon of artist modeling. What is singularly lacking in the literature to date is a study of self-perceptions of these wome n regarding their lives, hopes, dreams, backgrounds, and experiences. It is this social psychology of artist modeling from the poi nt of view of the models themselves that is the focus of this study. A no minalist epistemology will be utilized in this study, so truth and reality are encountered through the perceptual and identity lenses of concrete individuals--the content, sim ilarities, and differences in be coming engaged in paid nude modeling for artists, the routine of that wo rk, interaction with artists in the modeling environment and the models views of their wor k. By centering models voices at the heart of this work, the study offers an understanding of ar tist modeling present in immediate experience. The study does not place prior constraints on wh at the outcomes of the research will be. Rather than impose upon artist models a preconceived scheme of what they are about by making restrictive assumptions or specifying hypotheses, the models speak directly without the filtering process of social science constr ucts. The study explores what dimensions, themes, and images / words the artist models use to describe their feelings, thoughts, and experiences. The study sorts through the material, concrete real ity of models lives as they themselves describe them to find out what is fundamental or centr al to artist modeling. Every commi tment was made to respect the models perspectives and to remain true to the nature of the phenomenon under study. This project was not launched with the plan of testing a pre-existing theoretical understanding of how the phenomen on of modeling for artists work s. Instead, the theoretical framework presented in the study mainly pertains to the beliefs about how the project should be designed and conducted rather than to beliefs about the anticipated nature of the findings. This framework does, however, lead the investigator to look into partic ular aspects of a situation for

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15 answers to questions about a human action such as artist modeling. For example, symbolic interactionists look at persons definitions of si tuations to find reas ons for behavior. Thus, although the nature of this particular phenomenon was nebulous at the outs et, I acknowledge that symbolic interactionism could be seen as predic ting the outcomes, in that it provides direction for how to frame the issue of artist modeling, wh at questions to ask, and where to look for answers. To be explicit about th e influence of this framework, I will summarize relevant points of symbolic interactionism and indicate how it informs the present study in the section entitled Literature Review and Conceptual Framework. The method best suited to look inside the so cial worlds of artist models and understand what things mean to them is qualitative social research. A rather standard qualitative research design was used in conducting this study. A semi-structured interview was utilized to hear the models authentic experiences as well as their perceptions of th eir work. During the interviews, the focus was on getting detailed behavioral desc riptions, in their own words, of the actions, events and situations of artist modeling as well as their sense of self and identity as related to their work as models. This is a qualitative study, and the data taken from the interviews with the models and reporting of the fi ndings consist primarily of su mmary, paraphrasing, and direct quotations from the interview protocols. Statement of the Problem Sociologists have yet to m ake the practice of artist modeling understood in sociological terms. In an era when research on unconven tional groups is abounding, this subgroup has been conspicuously overlooked. This is the first in-depth research st udy of the women who work as artist models. This exploratory investigation attempts to do several things in its approach: (1) penetrate and describe a marginal life-world, (2 ) go directly to women who are in the social world of artist modeling to captu re and communicate their experien ce of artist modeling in their

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16 own words, and (3) to gather information from artist models about their identity, their thoughts about their body, and views on artists and artworks. The saliency for such a study is twofold: (1) we know very little empirically about the nature of artist modeling, a nd (2) we know nothing empirically about what artist mode ls think about what they do. Artist Modeling The artist m odel of today is designated as an individual--most often a woman--who poses for seemingly any artist, regardless of their talent or ability, who has an interest in representing the human figure in some sort of visual way. The role of the artist model is to pose without clothes in any desired attitude fo r an artist in order to provide the image for, or sometimes be the actual subject for, a nude or partially nude work of art. The model may regularly pose or may pose periodically, and she may pos e exclusively for one artist or for any number of different artists. And the woman who is a model may be a professional artist mode l, or a woman who is casually discovered by an artist and asked to pose, or may even be a wife or girlfriend of an artist who agrees to pose. All in all, at this tim e it is impossible to quantify how many women are employed as artist models; nevertheless, thei r qualitative experiences can be examined. History of Artist Modeling Individu als have been used as the subject of art for as long as mankind has had the ability to pick up a stick and draw a figure of a pe rson in the sand. Yet having a person assume a particular position--in the nude--before an artist wh ile he or she draws, paints or sculpts their form has existed, as far as the historical reco rd shows, for only as far back as the Greek civilization (Gill, 1989). The tr adition of posing the nude body for an artist has continued uninterrupted through time in the West right into the modern era. Artist models have most often been used in three traditional settings throughout history. Models have posed in the private studios of individual artists. They have also posed in public and

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17 private academies of art instruction, most notably those in Italy, France Germany, England, and the United States. And they have posed for small groups of artists. Throughout the twentieth century, while models still pose in private studios and for small groups of artists, they also pose in the life cla ss for the instruction of student artists at art departments of colleges and universities and at private art schools. The study and drawing of the nude human figure is a standard discipline in public art schools and amateu r art classes all over the world. More importantly, it is incorporated into the foundation courses of almost all art schools. Research Questions That Helped Guide the Discovery P rocess Although no specific hypotheses are formulated at the outset of my research, there were several issues I wanted to explore with my res pondents. I wanted to uncov er the concrete aspects of their work. What is the work environment of artist modeling; i.e. wo rking conditions, hours, and wages? How do artist models initially beco me involved in artist modeling? What is the process by which the model learns to play appr opriate occupational roles? How do artist models perform their work? What are the negative and positive experiences of artist modeling? I also wanted to find out to what extent, and in what ways, artist models enjoy autonomy. How much control over occupational behavior within thei r occupation do artist models have and how do artist models conduct their work toward their own advantage? Does the artist model exhibit agency during posing sessions? In short, I wanted to discover the degree to which artist models are comfortable in their occupational world, and to what degree are they in charge. Additionally, I wanted to investigate the artist models pers onal understandings of performing a type of work involving explicit nudity. Specifi cally, what are the outcomes when nudity is employed, and what are the implications for their id entity, the sense of self? Does working in the nude alter the models perspectiv e about her body? These are all issues I want ed to examine. I

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18 was interested in the nature a nd dynamics of artist modeling from the perspective of the artist model within the general framewor k of symbolic interactionism. At the outset of my research I was also intere sted in investigating certain specific issues regarding the social characteristics of artist modeling. For example, I was curious about their familiarity with the art industry in general. What is the body of knowledge artist models possess about art and artists in general? What is the role the art subculture plays in the life of the artist model? I also wanted to investigate the social organization and social processes governing their work milieu. What are their attitudes toward ar tists? What opinions do they have toward the art works that are produced as a result of posing? In brief, I was curious ab out the relations that artist models have with artists a nd what artists do. I also wanted to elicit information about their abstract or intangible work experiences; that is, t hose that are a part of the artist models regular experiences when she does her j ob. Is there emotional investment ? Do models face formal or informal sanctions? Do models experience stereo typing from others? If so, how does the artist model manage stereotypes and reactions from othe rs, especially in pers onal relationships? In short, I was interested in the soci al impact of being an ar tist model. In total, my goal was to gain as full a picture as possible of the workings of an artist model in the early-2000's. Purpose of Study This is a sociological study of artist models and artist m odeling. In this study no specific hypotheses were laid out in adva nce. Rather, the overall objec tive of the study is to produce descrip tive and detailed information about wome n who are artist models. Because very little is known about artist models, the study is designed as a naturalistic study of artist models. Thus, basic information about their ba ckgrounds, motivations, experiences and attitudes about artists and art is required.

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19 Hopefully this study will provide at least a rudimentary framework for further analysis by setting forth as clearly as possi ble some of the particulars of artist modeling. Thus, the present study may serve, not only to fill a gap in soci ological knowledge, but will provide some facts that have hitherto been left out of scholarly di scourse. The secondary pur pose of this study is to contribute to the development of a foundation for further theori zing and research about women who are employed in the occupation of artist modeling. It is believe d that the utilization of openended questions focusing on a variety of issues cent ral to artist modeling is a necessary first step in the process. A number of general aspects of the lives of artist models will be explored. With insight into the personal and social dynamics of artist models experi ences of artist modeling, further studies and interviews can be planned which fit into the social milieu of this unique group. Definitions The term artist model in this paper only will mean the female model who poses nude. The term will be used interchangeably with the terms model, living model, and nude model throughout the remainder of the paper. All instances of artist models found in the Literature Review are those women who posed nude or mostly nude. Examples found in the existing literature in which it was unclear given the surroundi ng evidence whether or not an individual was a nude artist mode l, or historical cases that were difficult to determine given the scant evidence, were not included in the literature review. If an artist model also posed wearing clothes, it is distinctly specified in the paper as clothed or non-nude. Outline This document contains five chapters. In Chapter One the purpose of the study is outlined and the groundwork for the rem ainder of the st udy is established. Chapter Two contains a literature review of two separate main topics: a comprehensiv e review of artist modeling through

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20 history, which helps set the foundation so the read er may better understand the areas involved in the study, and a review of symbo lic interaction, which sets the theoretical framework for the study. In Chapter Three is a detailed discussion of how th e study was conducted and the participants involved. Chapter Four includes a report and summary of the data from the interviews. Chapter Five cont ains a discussion and analysis of the overall findings, the limitations of the study, recommendations for future studies, some implications of this research for other areas of sociology, and ends with a brief review and conc lusion about the study.

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21 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND CONCEDPTUAL FRAMEWORK Introduction This section provides an overview of artist m odels and artist modeling along with the conceptual framework utilized in the study. Hist orical information about artist modeling is offered, and links to current artist modeling practi ces are made. Socio-historical descriptions of artist modeling will contextualize the contours of the modern art industry, although the approach here is to illuminate rather than be comprehensive. A theoretical treatment of symbolic interactionism is also offered in this section. Given the limited scholarship on artist modeling and an over-reliance on historical studies, this se ction explores applicable theory from the sociological scholarship to explain various features of artist modeling. This literature review is desi gned to provide a rich context ag ainst which to view the topic under study. This study grew out of the lack of direct information about the experiences of artist models over time. It is therefore important that the reader understand the history of artist modeling and the role(s ) of the model. A survey of the literat ure pertaining to the history of artist modeling from the time of the Greeks to the presen t is given to contextua lize artist modeling and to demonstrate that artist modeling in the current era is neither an isolated nor an ahistorical phenomenon. Rather, many aspects of the modern phenomena can be traced back to antiquity. This literature review is divi ded into four sections: 1) an overview of artist modeling, 2) the historical context of artist modeling, 3) artist models and th eir work, and 4) the theoretical framework for the study. The first section provide s information about the existing data on artist models. The second section provides a brief history of artist mode ling. The third section provides somewhat detailed information on the work of ar tist models. Finally, the last section supplies a

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22 discussion of the principles and assumptions of symbolic interactionism as the roots of the studys formulation and design. Overview of Artist Modeling There is no t a whole lot of in formation disseminated about artis t models. This is evidenced by the small number of books, articles, essays, a nd even exposes dealing with the life and work of models. The very little data which has been recorded about artist modeling is mostly found in sources in the area of art--a f act not surprising considering the intimate connection the artist model has with the artworld. But despite the fact that artist m odeling is a mostly phenomenon of art and dealt with to some degree in the art lite rature, there are surprisingly few references to artist models even in that literature. A search of the literature uncove red just five books about a give n artist model. Of the five, individual models have written their own stories in just three books. One, Kikis Memoirs The Education of a French Model, is a short book by Kiki of M ontparnasse (1962), a renowned model in early nineteenth century Paris, who wrote a brief account of her life after being encouraged to write her memoirs by the journali st and caricaturist Henri Broca in 1931. The second, With Apparent Ease: Henri Matisse was written by Lydia Delectorskaya (1988), who recounted her work only as a model for Matisse in the 1930's. And the third Tiger-Woman, My Story (1929), was written by Betty May, an artist m odel in London in the early twentieth century. The book by May, while mostly accurate, contains fi ctitionalized passages in some parts (Deghy and Waterhouse, 1956). The other two books in th e existing literature in cludes those written by researchers about the lives of two additional artist models; one, Nina Hamnett Queen of Bohemia by Denise Hooker (1986), covers Nina Hamnett, a model in Paris in the early twentieth century, and the other, American Venus by Diane Rozas and Anita Gottrhrer (1999), details the life of Audrey Munson, a model in the Unite d States in the mid twentieth century.

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23 A few books have also been written about artis t models and the artist(s) for whom they posed. Two of the books were written about artis t models and artists in a particular era: Kikis Paris: Artists and Lovers 1900-1930 by Billy Kluver and Julie Martin (1989), focuses on a small group of artist models and th e artists for whom they posed in Montparnasse in Paris in the early 1900's to 1920's, while the other book, Artists and Models produced by the Archives of American Art (1975), briefly covers some late nineteenth century and early twentieth century models in the U.S. The remaining books are each in the style of an overv iew of select artist models and artists: Famous Artists and Their Models by Angelo S. Rappaport (1913) covers a few models and the artist s for whom they posed; The Courtezan Olympia: An Intimate Survey of Artists and Their Mistress-Models by C.J. Bulliet (1930), presents a survey of models who posed for the art of twenty-seven famous painters and sculptors, along with the details of their relationships; Famous Artists and Their Models by Thomas Craven (1962), focuses mostly on six widely-known painters, yet also has a very brief discussion of the models who posed for each; Painted Ladies: Models of the Great Artists by Muriel Segal (1972) gives a few details about some dozen models, and The Seduction of Venus: Artists and Models by France Borel (1990) focuses mostly on models and their lif estyles in nineteenth century Paris. The latter five books about artist models su ffer from inadequacies. For one, the same models turn up again and again, and many of t hose discussed are non-nude models. For another, the stories about models are nearly always connected with male painters and sculptors, and so the authors have placed an over-reliance on discussing models as either mistresses of artists or as inspiration for artists or both. The result is that no account is given to ar tist-model relationships that are not of the inspirational or sexual kind. Lastly, the authors ignore the factual aspects of the models lives.

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24 The subject of artist models is also found in books written by individual artists. The information found in autobiographies, memoirs, and reminiscences through which artists have documented their lives contains widely scattered details about models. However, most of the information about models used for their artwor ks or otherwise encount ered in their studies suffers from a few deficiencies. For one, passages which mention models are usually of two kinds: either a specific model is named or, mo re often, she is un-named and mentioned only indirectly as an aid to achieving a required effect. Both instances of references to models center more on their antics and less about where they lived or what they earned. For another, the interpretation of models presente d is viewed through the eyes of artists ; that is, it is reflective of the prejudices and paternalism of those persons who by and large rule th e art world. Secondly, the material is mostly written by male artists, and so presents a view of models largely based upon a male perspective. Moreover, the biographi es about artists, largely based on recorded information in notebooks, diaries, and letters home, cover mostly male artists and are also written by males, and so suffer from these same problems. Due to the restricted information about artist models in the few books just cited, resort was made to other sources in order to expand th e amount of background data about artist models included in this study. Books, art jo urnal articles and art world pe riodicals with t opics significant to the visual arts, such as the studios of artists, techniques of artists, academies of art, famous artworks of the nude, and periods of time in wh ich artists flourished, were consulted. Articles appearing in history, womens studies and humanities journals were also researched. And other sources consulted were turn of the century masscirculation magazines, historical newspapers, obituaries, and contemporary exhi bition catalogues and reviews.

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25 Artist Modeling In Historical Context Greece The presence of the nude in the artists studio during the ancient Grecia n era is described in a book written in the first century A.D. by Gaiu s Plinius Secundus, bett er known as Pliny the Elder. In one fa mous passage about painters a nd sculptors, the Roman historian describes that when the Greek artist Zeuxis was about to execute a painting for the people of Agrigentum to be consecrated in the Temple of the Lacinian Juno there, he had the you ng maidens of the place stripped for examination, and selected five of th em, in order to adopt in his picture the most commendable parts in form of each (quoted in Macdonald, 1970: 53-54; see also Borel, 1990, Woolf and Cassin, 1987, Bulliet, 1930). Italy Drawing from the nude model, either the w hole f igure or details (Meder, 1978), took place in the Carracci academy in Bologna around the early 1400's (Pevsner, 1973). Models were also used in other private academies in, for exampl e, Bologna and Venice (Pevsner, 1973). Drawing from the live model posed in the studio b ecame an increasingly popular practice during the course of the fifteenth century in Florentine workshops so that, by the end of the century, drawing from the nude model was probably the most practiced exercise in draughtmanship (Ames-Lewis and Wright, 1983). Drawing from the nude model in the late sixteenth century by Florentines also most likely took place at the Compagnia Ed Accademia del Disegno, an academy established in 1563 as an official organ of the Medici state (Barzman, 1989). By the end of the sixteenth century, the act ivity of drawing from the human figure had become an accepted part of artists training. Artist training within the informal structure of the masters workshop during the sixteenth century was gradually replaced by formal academies established in several European cities in the beginning of the seventeenth century. The core of

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26 academic art education at that time was the sequ ence of drawing from casts and from the live model. France Paris was acknowledged as the center of the intern ational art world in th e last quarter of the nineteenth century. The opportunities in Paris dr ew thousands of painters, sculptors, and printm akers into the city from all over the world. They were attracted by the widespread official and private patronage, government-sponsored inte rnational exhibitions, th e many fine galleries and collections to study, and the wide offering of facilities for training artisans and artists The principle French institution for artistic trai ning in the nineteenth century was the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Reputedly the finest school of ar t in Paris, if not in the Western world, the school was supported by the French government, and was entirely free (after 1863) to students of any nationality. Students who passed a series of admissions tests to the Ecole were offered a broad curriculum of study in the history of ar t, aesthetics, archeology, anatomy, and applied science in addition to a choice of distinguished t eachers in studio courses. At its most elementary level, the state-run Ecole des Beaux-Arts st ressed basic instruction in drawing. Instruction prior to 1863 consisted of daily two-hour se ssions spent drawing from the live model for specially qualified, experienced pupils Students worked in the afternoon at one of several private ateliers--a large studio or series of studios--run by master artists scattered across Paris. The curriculum at the private ateliers was a progressive sequence of drawing for students-first from engravings, then draw ings of whole figures or of an atomical details--heads and limbs, eyes, noses, mouths, and so on--to drawing from casts from antique sculptures, and lastly to drawing from the living model. Generally, a ma ster taught painting techniques only after a pupil had thoroughly mastered the rudi ments of drawing (Boime, 1982).

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27 The government transformed the base of ar t instruction in 1863 by establishing three ateliers at the Ecole in order to offer practical teaching within the physical and administrative domain of the Ecole. The conditions for entry into one of the three ateliers were determined by the patron : if the patron felt that the pupil showed promise on the strength of his portfolio, he would be required to undergo a period of supervised work, draw ing from casts of antique of Renaissance sculpture in one of two ground-floor galleries. And if he showed progress he would be promoted to the ateliers life-class ups tairs (Weinberg, 1991; Boime, 1977; Young, 1960). Eventually the Ecole included eleven ateliers, th ree each for painting, sculpture, and architecture and one each for line engravi ng and the cutting of gems. Another activity, not formally a part of or ganized instruction, was the practice of using models in outdoor locations. Throughout the 1800' s, the master would take his pupils on field trips to paint the model in plein air (Boime, 1971). Manet noted that students and models were taken on one occasion to a picturesque site, a so rt of great natural park where a vast clearing was well exposed to light from the sky, and near the wood a pond, reflecting upside-down images of the great trees. A few models were hire d for the expedition; they were asked to walk, sit and run, either nude or clothe d in drapery; mythology was right there, alive in front of us (quoted in Borel, 1990: 108). A notable early independent academy was the Academie Suisse, which was founded in 1815 by Pere Suisse, a former model of Davids studio. The Academie Suisse based instruction on the study of the live m odel, yet was actually an atelier libre an open studio without a teacher where, for a nominal fee, students could draw or paint from a nude model.(Hollander, 1991; Boime, 1971). The Academy closed in 1881.

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28 The ever-surging number of art students in Pari s in the mid nineteenth century prompted the formation of more independent academies of art. The most ambitious, distinctive, popular and successful of the schools was LAcadem ie Julian (Weinberg, 1991). Rodolphe Julian opened his first teaching studio, LAcademie Julian, in 1868, and founded it along a similar pattern as that of the Academie Suisse. For its first few y ears of its operation, any student could simply pay a small fee to use a studio to draw or paint from a model hired by Julian. He reorganized his school in the early 1870's by recruiting a well-respected group of artists to come round twice a week to correct the students wo rk in each studio. As enrollment increased throughout the 1870's and 1880's, his academy became, after the Ecole, the largest and renowned school of art in Paris. By 1892 the Academie Julian consisted of nine differ ent ateliers located in various sections of the city and about sixhundred students from around the world (Burke, 1983). Julians major rival was the Academie Cola rossi, opened in the 1890's, and which had several studios and tuition much lower than Juli ans. It simply provided space and a model for a nominal fee. The academy followed the same pattern as Julians, with well-known professors and a flexible schedule. Another independent academy was the Academie Carmen, opened in 1898 by Carmen Rossi, a former non-nude child model of Whistler. Whistler encouraged her to start an academy, [and] he gave her some two hundred pounds to rent, refurbish, and equip the building with easels, stools and model stands (Cody a nd Ford, 1984: 116). Rossi managed the academy, yet it closed within three years, and she went back to modeling (Lago, 1978). Other notable independent academies of art included the Academie de la Grande Chaumiere and the Academie des Champs-Elysees.

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29 Private instruction could also be obtained fr om individual master ar tists who maintained teaching studios in which they accepted students. For example, Leon Bonnats Life School (Anonymous, 1887a), in the atelier of Carolus Duran (Kennedy, 1888), or the academy of Marie Wassilieff (Hooker, 1986). England London was the center of artistic life in England, beginning in the late eighteenth century and extending to m odern times. Among the first private art schools opened in England to employ the nude model was the Great Queen Street A cademy established by Sir Godfrey Kneller in London in 1711 (Borzelo, 1982; Macdonald, 1970). Knellers Academy was re-established in St. Martins Lane in October, 1720. The founders at St. Martins Lane engaged female models to pose for the life class with the idea of making it more attractive (Whitley, 1928: 17). The school was closed sometime thereafter, only to be re-opened at the same location as The St. Martins Lane Academy in the Winter of 1735 by the artist William Hogarth. The school served as a club for professional artists who wanted lif e classes, and was the chief practicing ground for artists in need of models from 1735-1768. The Royal Academy of Arts in London was founded by the monarch on December 10, 1768, to provide a school to train students in the Fine Arts in England (Hutchison, 1968). The curriculum at the Academy included drawing from casts of the most famous antique sculptures and attending the life class. Teaching took place in two schools, the Plaister Academy and the Academy of Living Models. All students began th eir studies in the former; only when they had demonstrated their proficiency in drawing from the cast were they allowed to move on to the life class. Students also attended lectures on the structure and workings of the human body, which were given by the Academys ow n Professor of Anatomy. The school hired two female models in early 1769 (Borzelo, 1982).

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30 In the 1830's, the Royal Academy operated a School of Painting where the nude model was studied. At the outset it was decided that th e living model would not be used for students, who were classed as artisans rather than ar tists, and trained on public money for the aims of industry and the decorative arts. When another pr ivate school of design was quickly established that did employ a living model, the former school capitulated, and began supplying models. However, the living model remained in the eyes of the state-funded educators a necessary evil, grudgingly made available only to those who could prove that it was relevant to their future career (those, for example, involved in maki ng figurative designs for pottery) (Postle & Vaughn, 1999: 11). Private art schools were established in London and in the provinces by the 1840's. Operating in a more liberal regime than in the publicly-funded art sc hools, many of the schools offered training in anatomy and perspective, yet specifically provided arti sts with the opportunity to work with the living model. The largest of the schools was the Slade School of Fine Arts, established in October, 1871, at University College London. Fr om the beginning, the primary object of the Slade was to afford the Student th e most perfect means of making, and to aid him in learning to make, art studies from the lif e (quoted in Postle and Vaughn, 1999: 14). Dozens of smaller operations were established thr oughout London in the remainde r of the nineteenth century--e.g. Heatherleys (Massey, 1934), and von Herkomers in the 1890's (von Herkomer, 1908)--and provisional art schools grew up outside London at the same time. United States The use of artist m odels came late to the study of art in the United St ates. For most of the nineteenth century, drawing--whether from the an tique or from life--was the mainstay of the American academic system. Painting was offered in the major art schools by the mid-1880's. The National Academy of Design, founded in 1825, New Yorks first life school, provided a nude

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31 model in the life class begi nning in the 1840's. The New Yo rk Life School was founded by students in 1848, and was granted a room in the National Academy of Desi gn to conduct nightly, uninstructed drawing sessions w ith a nude model (Hollander, 1993). The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, founded in Philadelphia in 1805, employed models beginning in 1856, and regularly in the life class starting in 1868 (Huber, 1973). Early on, the life class was organized with the needs of the professional artist, rather than of the young art student in mind, and those who wished to join the life class had to submit a cast drawing to an artists committee for approval. By the early 1870's, with the addition of evening life classes, and instruction in painting as well as drawing from the live model, the school became more oriented to the needs of students (Lippincott, 1976). The model was also used in other venues in the United States, including private academies, artist groups and in private studios. The Art Students League founded in 1875 in New York was dedicated to the instruction of aspiring art students, specifically through an intensive program of life classes, both in painting and drawing. Robert Henri opened a school in New York City from 1909 to 1912 (Homer, 1969). Artists also organized cl ubs early on where they could sketch from imagination and from the model. An example of an early informal gathering of artists was a Philadelphia group formed in 1893 called the Charco al Club, a cooperative composed of fortythree artists who were, or had been, students at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts; the members drew from Lizzie Armstrong three nigh ts a week (Perlman, 1991; Homer, 1969). And models were used by artists in private studios only as early as 1800 in the United States, yet recorded instances of their use is rare (Hollander, 1993). Modern Trends Figure draw ing retained its primary position in th e ateliers and later in art schools until the middle part of the twentieth centu ry. For the first forty years of the twentieth century models

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32 took up classical poses in art schools. After the Second Worl d War, art schools no longer regarded the life class as centr al to their practice and progre ssive artists moved further and further away from pictorial representation in the post-war era. By that time, the influence of European Modernism and the American Abstract-E xpressionist movement had filtered down into the classrooms, and academic drawing was rejected as being restrictive a nd stifling to creativity. As art became a matter of form and color which led to abstraction or a product of individual vision, traditional academic drawing was either completely abandoned or modified to a more expressionist approach. During the early twentieth century, the academy was no longer the solitary educator. Other institutions such as co lleges and universities added studio art to their curriculum. Artist Models Entry Wom en have entered work as an artist model in a number of ways. (1) When an artist asks a person already known to the artist to pose for him or her. This may include an artists family member, such as a girlfriend, wife or daughter, a mistress, friend or someone in the employment of the artist in an otherwise non-artistic capacity (Postle and Vaughn, 1999; Perlman, 1998; Bauer, 1994; Gill, 1989; Beaumont, 1986; Lee, 1986; Bailey, 1978; Sleigh, 1968; Sutton, 1966; Craven, 1962; Soby, 1957; Bulliet, 1930). (2) When an artist locates an individual unknown to the artist to pose for the artist. This happens in one of two ways, in one, an artist searches specific locations in search of a person willing to model (Klu ver and Martin, 1991; Mathews, 1991; Borel, 1990;Lipton, 1990; Sorel, 1990; G ill, 1989; Cody and Ford, 1984; Meder, 1978; Segal, 1972; Beachboard, 1965; Deghy and Waterhous e, 1956; Bulliet, 1930). The other method is when an artist serendipitously discovers a woman and asks her to pose for him or her (Anonymous, 2004; Fine Arts ., 1993; Levi ne, 1993; Bourgeois, 1992; Danto, 1991; Kluver

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33 and Martin, 1991; Borel, 1990; Forbes, 1990; Kl uver and Martin, 1989; Gill, 1989; Pacheco, 1988; Berman, 1987; Brassai, 1982; Ormond, 1975; Renoir, 1962; Douglas, 1941; Bulliet, 1930). (3) When a third party commissions an artist to paint or sculpt the person (Rounding, 2003; Borel, 1990; Richardson, 1967; Bulliet, 1930). (4) When the person seeks employment as an artist model for an artist either on their own or at the urging of others. This happens in one of two ways: in one, the woman goes to the private studio of an artist who uses the nude figure and asks to pose (Grotmol, 1991; Kluver and Ma rtin, 1991; Kluver and Martin, 1989; Grimberg, 1986; Weller, 1985; Brassai, 1982; Archives of American Art, 1975; Craven, 1962; Massey, 1934; Scudder, 1925; Frith, 1888).In the other, the woman sends a letter to an artist and asks if he or she needs a nude model (Jopling, 1925). (5) When the woman--already involved in the art industry--simply models for an artist or group of artists (Sorel, 1994; Foster and Leibold, 1989; Hooker, 1985). (6) When a woman applies to be an ar tist model at an art institution, such as an art department at a university or college, free-st anding art school, a commun ity art center, an art workshop, or at an artists colony. (7) When a wo man is hired by a group of artists to pose for the whole group simultaneously. Models are mostly used in such situations in modern times when skilled artists in a club or as an informal group come together and share the cost of a model either because models are scarce outside of majo r metropolitan areas, because the artists are not enrolled in a school (with its ready availability of models) or because an artist cannot afford the model fee alone (Champa, 1994, Jevnikar, 1985). Work roles Historically, the work roles of m odels have varied, depending on whether she is employed in a school of art or in a private artists studio. (a.) Art School work

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34 France. Models used for work in the ateliers of the Ecole often were selected from a model market which gathered in front of the courtyard of the Ecole on Monday mornings. The Monday morning scene outside the Ecole was re counted by Fox: Groups of models, mostly Italian, were to be seen lounging ab out the outer gates, the women in bright national costume. Parties of students passing in or out w ould stop and exchange a few words with old acquaintances among the models . (Fox, 1909: 71) Sittings were eagerly sought out since the pay was generous--four to five francs for each four hour session (Kluver & Martin, 1991), or from 30 francs per week (by the end of the 1890's) (Milner, 1988) to 36 francs per week (Peterson, 1890). Models were paid by the week (Peterson, 1890). Fox, then a student, noted the selection process of models which took place wi thin every atelier on Monday morning: there were many models waiting to show themselves--one after another they m ounted the table, would strip and, taking their most effective poses, did their best to impress us favorably (Fox, 1909: 104). The students would vote on whether or not to have each for that week, and the chosen model would jump up on to the models ta ble and the pose for the week would be chosen following a discussion and a show of hands from those present (Fox, 1909). For the subsequent days of the week which the model would pose, the woman would begin the session by walking directly to the throne fully dr essed, then throw off her garments onto the nearest chair and begin the pose (Postle & Vaug hn, 1999; Macdonald, 1970). By 1875, students worked from a female model approximately once a month (Young, 1960). The poses of the model generally resemb led those of antique statues (Boime, 1971) 1 The model posed Monday through Friday for hour-long poses with a te n minute rest between poses 1 Boime (1971: 31) explained the reason why poses which echoed those seen in antique statuary were chosen: The Academic master preferred th e antique models for their simplicity of line and mass. He emphasized the need to generalize the major divisions of the human body, rather than attention to unessential detail, and for this stag e the antique examples were especially suited.

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35 during a four or five hour sess ion, according to the season. Duri ng the winter months, posing was usually from 8:00 a.m. to noon and then from 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., and during the summer months from 7:00 a.m. to noon and then from 1: 00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. (Kluver and Martin, 1991; Fox, 1909). On Saturdays the Ecole was open and the model was retained by the school only until noon for students who wanted to finish a study; however, the students were permitted to retain the model for the after noon at their own expense, which they often did by pooling money together to pay the models fee (Fox, 1909). The ateliers at the Ecole were described by Fox: The studios were practically selfgoverning little republics, owing allegiance to no man except the patron or visiting professor, who used only to put in a brief appearance tw ice a week. All affairs were managed by the massier, or chief student, who was elected by hi s fellows (Fox, 1909: 79). The students took up positions for working from the model according to their seniority or their rank in the atelier concours. During the weekday sessions, from forty to eighty students with easels and lowbacked chairs would be packed in around the model (Macdonald, 1970; Young, 1960). And throughout the pose, talk was carried on incessa ntly in French among the students (Macdonald, 1970: 285). The three ateliers established at the Ecole in 1863 were housed in a long upstairs room, divided into three studios by curtains hung beneath the high wi ndows. The studios were thus separated visually, but they were all within ea rshot of each other, and tales of their antics abound. The studios were overcrowded, dirty, sm oky, and noisy. [The students] were incapable of working without a steady stream of commentary--u sually vulgar--and song. The roar of each atelier would subside into silence only at the arrival of the patron (Weinberg, 1991: 20).

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36 Models for the private academies were also selected on Monday mornings. Riccardo Nobili, a former Julian student, described the process at the Academie Julian: The candidate disrobes and mounts the pedestal, taking many different positions. Th e massier (a student at the head of the school) takes a vote of the pupils amid a noise and confusion that is indescribable. If the majority approve, the model is employed. If by chance several of the weaker sex come together to be judged, the decision takes on somewh at the character of the judgment of Paris, not omitting the apple of discord, the fortunate one who is preferred being the subject of envy to those not selected (Nobili, 1890: 748). The model disrobed behind drapery before going to the platform and were paid only a few cents a day(Simmons, 1922: 119). The model in each atelier at Julians posed for fifty minutes, then breaking for ten minutes every hour, for ei ght hours daily--8:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.--interrupted only for a rest of an hour at noon (Nobili, 1890). The conditions within the ateliers at Julians in which models (and artists) worked is described by former students. William Rothenstein, then a student at Julians, recalled At the Academie there were no rules, and save for a massie in each studio who was expected to prevent flagrant disorder, there was no discipline. .The atmosphere wa s stifling, the noise at tim es deafening. Sometimes for a few minutes there was silence; then sudde nly the men would burst into song. Songs of all kinds and all nations were sung (Lago, 1978: 41). Warshawsky, then a student at Julians recounted about the morning class: The racket was continual, a veritable Bedlam of shouting, singing in various languages, accompanied by imitations of barnyard sounds (Warshawsky, 1980: 53). W.O. Tanner, a student at Julians from 1891 to 1896, recounted the atmosphere of the atelier: Never had I seen or heard such a bedlam--or men waste so much time. I had often seen rooms full of tobacco smoke, but not as here in a room never ventilated--and when I

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37 say never, I mean not rarely but never, during the five or six months of cold weather. Never were windows opened. They were nailed fast at the beginning of the cold season. Fifty or sixty men smoking in such a room for two or three hours wo uld make it so that those on the back rows could hardly see the model (Tanner, 1909: 11770). Edward Simmons, then a student at Julians recounted On a hot July day, what with paints dirty Frenchmen, stuffy air, nude models, and the [public cabinet daisance ] below, this room stank worse than anything I can think of (Simmons, 1922: 118). Alice Fessend en Peterson, then a student at Julians, described the atmosphere of the atelier: The ventilation of this room is execrable. The air is usually opaque with smoke from the cigars and pi pes of the students. Add to this the excessive heat of the room coming from the stoves,--the temperature necessar ily high on account of the models,--laden with impurities from the exhalations of five hundred pairs of lungs, with an almost utter lack of fresh air, and some idea may be formed of the customary condition of the room (Peterson, 1890: 669670). The models were sometimes susceptible to discourtesy or vulgari ties at Julians, as recounted by former students. At Julians in 1902, Jacob Epstein recounted: one day a German student pulled the model about brutally, a timid gi rl too frightened to protest. When I asked him why he behaved like that he was astonished. Why, in Germany, he said, we give them den fuss, accompanying the words with an appropriate gesture (Eps tein, 1975: 15). A student at Julians noted of another student in the class: He was sitting on a low stool near the model, and every time her foot would move from the chalk line on the platform where she stood, he jumped up and put it back in place. Suddenly he turned around and said to me, If shed only keep her foot still I could draw it. The bell rang, th e girl gave a sigh, threw on a dressing gown and sat down (Cole, 1976: 112).

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38 Early on, some women worked alongside men in Julians ateliers, but around 1878 Julian established separate studios for women. Nobili (1 890: 750) noted The atelier for women is truly a fortress of the Amazons. No soul of the other se x is allowed to pass the portals, save M. Julian, the masters, the models, and the dealer in colo rs. The artist Cecilia Beaux, once a student at Julians, recalled The patience and fidelity of the models to do their job was pitiful. There were so many others to take their place, if they fa iled. One poor thing, who had the face of a worn-out provider, and, with her aging countenance and sha bby clothes, would never have been noticed by any one, had a slender and perfect form, with exquisite articulations. She used to fetch a large basket of mending from behind the screen, during the rests, and, drawing a forlorn skirt about her shoulders, fall to with French zeal upon small ragged stocking s and patched underwear (Beaux, 1930: 120). Models for the Colarossi and Grande Chaumi ere were also selected on Monday mornings. Warshawsky noted of this: Every Monday morni ng at the Grande Chaumiere and Colarossis art academies, a veritable models congress was held, for then the models for the week were chosen. The overflow were parked all round on th e Rue de la Grande Chaumiere, where these academies are situated. The majority of the models of all ages were Italians . One of the curious sights was to see the models of every hue and age, promenading in the classroom stark nude, waiting to be chosen for the various classes in the schools (Warshawsky, 1980: 57). The massier of Colarossi would choose models for the classes on Monday mornings at this venue; those chosen would enter the classroom and undress behind a screen before being voted on by the students (Kluver and Mar tin, 1991). In sketching classes at Colarossi Academy or the Grande Chaumiere in 1909, Warshawsky recalled th at the poses were changed every half-hour

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39 and were generally varied, the models them selves choosing the positions, standing, bending, reclining, or lying down at full length (Warshawsky, 1980: 120). At Bonnats Life School by 1878, according to W.A. Coffin, then a student in the class, there were forty men in the morning class and sixt y in the night class. Coffin also recalled The pose, as is usual, was voted on by the students, and until after the third hour of the Monday sitting the pose could always be changed. The pose was for never less than an hour, with ten minutes rest, and the sitting for four hours. The same pose was kept for a week. And he noted that, as was customary in other schools, the massiere took charge of everything, paid expenses [and] engaged models (Anonymous, 1887a: 75). Ba rclay Day, then a student at Bonnats, recalled, The nominal hour of beginning work is seven oclock a.m. in the summer and eight a.m. in the winter months; but as a matter of fact work begins half an hour later at each season, and the sitting is of four hours duration, exclus ive of intervals of rest for the models (Day, 1882: 138). He also noted that when the models are chosen on Monday morning, it is usual to ask the model to suggest several poses that [she ] thinks she can keep without over-fatigue, and then, if neither of these is appr oved of, or if, as often happens, the model is stupid, one or more of the students arranges a pose, wh ich has in any case to be approve d by a fair majority of votes before it is definitely decided on. By the time th e pose is chosen, the first hour is generally gone, and the necessary chalk-marks having been made round the models feet, et c., so that [she] may be able to find the exact position again, the regul ar ten minutes rest is called, after which, according to the rules, no change can be made in the pose for the rest of the week (Day, 1882: 138). Worth quoting at length because of the light it sheds on a studio of instruction in Paris in the late nineteenth century, Day described the inte rior of the studio as a lofty room, rather more

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40 than thirty feet square, lighted by one great window, the bottom of which is eight feet from the floor. Against the wall, on a bi g model-table, at right angles to the window and close to the stove, stands the nude model, and in widening semi -circles, facing the table, are ranged rows of easels and strong straw-covered stools or labourets The front stools and easels are very low, and the students who work at them make studies of the head only, be ing much too near the model to be able to see the figure as a whole. The students behind these sit on stools about the height of an average chair; those behind these again on stools so high that they can sta nd or lean against them at will; and those farthest away from the mode l use generally larger canvases, and more often than not stand to their work. The walls of the studio are painted a reddi sh-brown, so that too much light may not be reflected back on the model to weaken the force of the shadows. Hung on a frame close to the model-table is a large pi ece of grey tapestry that sometimes forms the background to the study, but is more often drawn b ack, so that the luminous flesh is seen in bold relief against the flat surface of dark neutral grey. There is a set of hollow wooden cubes, or boxes, of various sizes, that serve as seats or supports to the m odel in certain pos es, and mattress covered with dark green toile-ciree which is used for reclining pos tures. The rest of the furniture consists of a clock of the commonest description; of a cast-iron stove (with its attendant coke-box) surmounted by a basin of steaming water, to keep the atmosphere from becoming insufferably dry; and of a rickety littl e table, in a drawer of which is kept a book of addresses of models and pupils, and over which hangs the Reglement containing the ten very simple rules that regulate the c onduct of the studio (Day, 1882: 138-139). England. Life drawing was taught at St. Martins Lane on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays from October until Spring each year for a fee of two guineas (Pevsner, 1973). In late 1722 The Prince of Wales visited th e life school when the m odel was sitting--he

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41 stayed an hour at the Academy watching the members at work, and on his departure ordered that five guineas should be given to the woman w ho was sitting as model (Whitley, 1928: 18). At the Royal Academy in London beginning in the early part of the 1800's and continuing to mid-century, female models pos ed in the life classes, held from 8 to 10 a.m. on weekdays. Necessary props provided for the model were a da is where the model woul d sit, a powerful oillamp above the dais, straps for the model to hold in stretching postures, an d chalk used to mark a pose if it should be resumed after a rest (Shawe-Taylo r, 1991). In contrast to that of the model in the French ateliers, the model at the Royal Academy would begin a session by appearing through a door or from behind a screen, discrete ly naked under a gown which she divested on the throne immediately before the pose (Macdona ld, 1970: 284). The pose of the model was set by the instructor of the life class, and most ofte n was a pose repeatedly used over the decades; as noted by Leslie, the older [ins tructors] generally set the mode ls in very good poses, possibly poses which they remembered as given by [their instructors] when they themselves were students (Leslie, 1914: 29). The pose would be re tained by the model for two hours, with a short break after one hour. An hour glass was used in the life class (until its replacement by a clock in1865) as a means of separating the time spent in resting from th at spent in sitting. When the model felt tired the hour glass was turned on its side, and turned up again when the rest was over. In an easy pose, if the model was strong and healthy, the glass was sometimes never turned, except at the commencement of the second hour (Les lie, 1914: 69). The arti sts in the life class at the Academy worked in complete silence (Fr ith, 1888). The pay for models in the Academy at the beginning of the 1800's was generous. Models were paid half a guinea for sittings that lasted two or three hours, along with sixpence beer money (Whitley, 1928).

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42 The models sat under strictly controlled condi tions at the inception of the Royal Academy of Arts in London. Designed to deny any complaint of impropriety between students and nude models, resolutions passed by th e Council in the late 1700's decreed that no unmarried student under twenty years of age was permitted to draw from the model, and when she was sitting no one but an Academician or a student was admitte d to the life room--unless the rank of Royalty (Hutchison, 1968; Whitley, 1928). (Male) students and female models were forbidden to speak to one another (Postle & Vaughn, 1999). At the Slade Schools, the daily routine around 1 871 in the life room c onsisted of the model holding a single pose in morning se ssion, and poses lasting every one half-hour in the afternoon session until 3:00 p.m. The model also sat from 3:30 p.m. until 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday for students who paid the model fee of 3s. 6d per te rm. In the late session, each student in turn could suggest a pose lasting one half-hour to the model to suit his or her composition (Weeks, 1883: 327). Gertrude Massey, then a stude nt at Heatherleys around 1910, recalled some important details about the inside of the studio and other facts about the m odels routine: A skeleton hangs beside the models throne, and on the front of the throne is a no tice which reads: SILENCE: No talking or whispering while the mo del is posing. The clock strikes; someone says, Rest. The model steps down from her throne and slips into her dressing-gown. Ten minutes have passed, and now the model is back on the th rone posing (Massey, 1934: 151, 152). Gertrude Massey also recalled an event at Heatherleys during World War I: We used to hold evening classes in the old school, but they came to an end during the War. They finished abruptly during a night air raid. Everybody was working hard as usual, but yet there was less than the normal concentration--one could not help listening for th e distant guns because we had had an air raid

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43 every evening for nearly a week. Suddenly we hear d the guns. There they were, far off certainly, but quickly sounding nearer and nearer. The model began to ge t fidgety; it wasnt a pleasant feeling to be on the top floor with only a glass roof between her a nd the danger. As the girl said, it felt much worse without any clothes on! We were about to warn her and the rest of the class to go down-stairs when shrapnel pattered on the glass roof, making a row like a terrible hailstorm. That was enough for the model--she didn t wait to be told. She took one dive from the platform, snatched up her clothes, and ran downstair s just as she was. One of the bombs fell near the school. As soon as the All Cl ear sounded, the entire class esco rted the model to the station and saw her safely underground. And that ende d our evening class (Massey, 1934: 162, 163). And von Herkomer recalled the curriculum at his school in England at the turn of the century: painting from the nude living model from nine until th ree, five days in the week; drawing in charcoal or pencil from the nude model at night from seven till nine, and he noted that students in his school take turns posing the model for the week (von Herkomer, 1908: 14, 21). United States. In 1848 at the New York Life School, no person under the age of twenty (unless married) was allowed to study from the model. And it was ruled that different members of the life class were to pose th e model on rotation basis each week (Hollander, 1993). An early observer at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts noted about th e posing of the models Every morning and evening from five to thirty minutes is spent in posing the model, which the pupils do themselves, sometimes under the supervisi on of [the instructor], but oftener unaided. The model is changed every week or fortnight (Brownell, 1879: 739). The pay for models at the academies up until about 1870 was about $1. 50 an hour, by the early 1880's it was 50 cents an hour (Hollander, 1993; Adams, 1883). Eakins, the director of life classe s at the Pennsylvania

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44 Academy of Fine Arts, proposed having women students at the PAFA replace art-school professional models to pose in his life class, bu t was denied by the Board after a female student complained about the unseemliness of studying her own colleagues nude (Foster and Leibold, 1989: 75). And in 1876, Eakins, then instructor of the evening life class, wrote to the Board of Directors requesting that respectable females, rather than prostitutes, be hired as models for the life class. Eakins claimed that the Academys regular models were coarse, flabby, ill formed & unfit in every way for the requirements of a school and that there was not a sufficient change of models for the successful study of form. Th e suggestion did not seem reasonable to the directors, who felt that prostitutes were accepta ble for the disreputable work of modeling for artists and that genteel women should pose only for portraits. Consequently, the request was turned down (Lippincott, 1976: 166, 168). In the mid-1850's at the PAFA, life classes met only three times a week. The life class was available only to those over twen ty-one years of age. In 1883, both the National Academy of Design a nd the Art Students League kept registers with the names of professional models (Adams 1883). In the life-classes of New York art schools, the only person who held communicatio n with the model was the monitor (Adams, 1883). At the Pennsylvania Academy and the National Academy throughout the 19th century, no conversation was permitted between the model a nd any member of the class (Bolger, 1976). A late nineteenth century interview with Lemuel Everett Wilmarth, the instructor of the life class at the National Academy of Design from 1870-1889, revealed some of the equipment essential to the life class at the time at the Academy. The basic pie ce of furniture in the studio for the pose of the model was a throne to stand or sit or lie on--high enough so that the model could easily be seen from every part of the room and m obile so that it could be moved from one part of the room to another when necessary. Other paraph ernalia used to aid the model when posing in

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45 complex positions included a.) we dges to support the heel when th e foot rests on the toes; b.) various sized boxes for raising the foot in other positions; c.) ropes suspended from the ceiling to hold on to when the pose demanded the hands be kept above the head or stretched out in front in a lifting position; d.) a posing pole to hold on to when the arm is extended from the body. For poses at night there should be a powerful bur ner that will throw a concentrated light on the model. This should be hung about six feet away from and two feet above the head of the model. The heat of such a light is intense, and it must not interfere with the co mfort of the model. The temperature of the room should re st with the model. Some mode ls require a very warm room, others prefer a lower temperature. The first are usually beginners. Eighty degrees is as high as students can ever stand. As models grow more experienced they lik e cooler rooms . And he noted that every class should have a monitor. It is the monitors place to pose the model, and at each seance to see that the same pose is resumed. During the seance the model is very apt to fall out of pose. When this is observed by a student he should address himself to the monitor. In fact, all remarks concerning the model should be ma de to the monitor. You can imagine how confusing it would be to the model to have the different members of the class calling out warnings and reproof. If the model is a novice the class should be very le nient and allow her to rest often; in assuring the comfor t of the model the class assures at the same time its own. (Anonymous, 1887b: 30-31). At the turn of the century at the New York Art Students League Warshawsky recounted that the custom was for a new student in the lif e class to treat the enti re class to beer and pretzels or a punch of light sherry while in the life class. The whole group would break into song, and while singing the song, would march in proce ssion through classrooms and halls, picking up recruits. On one occasion this rowdy ceremony ended in a scandal. Some roisterer picked a

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46 model from the throne on which she was posing and hoisted her ont o the shoulders of the tallest ones, who carried her triumphantly through th e school, which was bad enough; but to make matters worse, the procession, carrying aloft th e unclad lady, exclaiming with terror and cold, issued into the street to make public its triu mphant defiance of American morality. Threats of expulsion and suspension of the ringleaders put a stop to such extravagances in the future (Warshawsky, 1980: 19). On some occasions in the life class at the Ferrer School in 1912, R obert Henri would ask the students not to draw but just observe as a model disrobed before them, then redressed, and at this point he would tell them to sketch what they had seen (Perlman, 1991: 104; see also Homer, 1969). At the Beaux Arts Institute of Design in New York in the winter of 1916, Davidson instructed the sculpture class, and recalled Instead of posing the model in a given pose, I suggested that they us e the model in a composition of their own choosing. Each student would pose the model in a composition of their own choosing. Each student would pose the model as he wished for a few minutes, and the ne xt student would then pose the model for his sketch (Davidson, 1951: 127). And, Nancy Pindrus, a photographer who also modeled part-time at the Art Students League in New York in the late twentieth century, noted of the artist models at art academies, Any of us could make more money doing just a bout anything else. As corny as it sounds, you do it for the love of art as much as for any other reason (Pacheco, 1988: 55). (b.) Private studio work Compensation A m odel for a private studio posing in Paris from the 1850's to the 1870's was paid five francs for a four hour session (Levethe, 1972; Young, 1960). In the mid-1880's the rates went up briefly, and women were paid at least ten francs a session, though Italians could be found for five

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47 francs (Levethe, 1972) By the late 1890's the model was again paid five or six francs for a sitting of four hours (Olivier, 2001; Scudder, 1925). George Percy Jacomb -Hood recalled an instance in which a model sat for poor artists in Paris for a very small or no fee; when the artists became more wealthy, they repai d her by constant employmen t (Jacomb-Hood, 1925: 12). In England, the fee paid to the model from the late 1700's to the late 1800's was half a guinea a day (Laughton, 1971). In En gland in the mid-1800's, the m odel made a shilling an hour plus studio lunch; by the 1880's it was one-and-nine pence (which was a little above a housemaids salary and way above that of a seamstress) (Borzello, 1982). Betty Sedgewick, who later changed her name to Betty May, recalled when an (unidentified) artist and his wi fe took her out to dinner after a session ended (May, 1929). Leslie gave a wedding present to a model (Leslie, 1914). Davidson took a model on a trip in 1906 (Davidson, 1951). Throughout the 1920's, Davies took his model, Wreath McIntyre, to the opera, to his exhibition openings, and even to Paris so she could pose for him (Perlman, 1998). Davies provided funding for a private tutor for lessons in exercises, and also sometimes paid for voice lessons, for Wreath McIntyre (Perlman, 1998). Munch took his model Brieschke to his summer studio in the north of Norway in the 1930's (G rotmol, 1991). Sometimes an artist and model would take a break from work and have lunch in a caf in nineteenth century Paris (Smith, 1901). Foujita sold a nude artwork of Kiki for 8000 francs in 1922, and gave Kiki some of the money, which she subsequently spent on fine clothes and gli ttering shoes (Huddleston, 1931: 133). Shortly after beginning posing for Leighton, Doro thy Pettigrew, who exhibited a genuine dramatic talent[,] began to study drama and elocution for Leighton had insisted that she should train professionally. He selected a school that would give her a thorough grounding in the

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48 technique and practice of acting (Ormond, 1975: 135). Dorothy assumed the stage name of Dorothy Dene and made her stage debut in 1885 in London, and, despite continuing on the stage through 1890, her stage career failed thereafter She continued posing for Leighton through 1892, and until the very end of his life [in 1896], Leighton continued to support and promote the actress (Ormond, 1975: 138). Other ways of making money Because m odeling often was not steady employ ment, models often did other work on the side to eke out additional earnings In nineteenth century Paris Kiki did bottle-washing, worked at book-binding, sold newspapers on the boulevards, and sold a journal at cafes (Douglas, 1941, Huddleston, 1931); Aicha worked in theater (D ouglas, 1941); and Pigeot was a dressmaker (Renoir, 1962). In the mid-1920's in Paris, the Perlmutter sisters worked as runway models for the couturiers Paul Poiret and his sist er, Nicole Groult (Kluver and Martin, 1989). Work roles Rather th an the traditional role of the model staying on the dais holdi ng a static, classical pose in silence, models in some studios had cont rasting work roles. Vierny, the long-time model for Maillol, also modelled for Pierre Bonnard, of whom she noted, [I] was not allowed to remain still. For him, movement was life. So I had to walk. What do you mean, walk?I asked him. Walk! Walk! he replied (Shenker, 1985: 110). Some models in the past were not silent while posing. Vierny read while posing for Maillol (Shenker, 1985: 108). While posing for Kisling, Kiki talked and made funny noises (Douglas, 1941), and Georgette Pigeot, a model fo r Renoir, sang while she posed (Renoir, 1962). And some artists, such as Renoir and Lindsay, co nversed with their models while painting them (Anonymous, 2004; Renoir, 1962). Wreath McIntyre, an aspiring singer, sang operatic arias and classical music in her coloratu ra voice to Davies while posin g in his studio (Perlman, 1998).

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49 Some artists have had unique ways of interacting with thei r models while working. Judith Claudel provides an account of the intense wa y Rodin studied his mode ls: Georgette often posed at full length on a couch and he would sit leaning forward, exploring the face with a gaze so penetrating that the young woman occasiona lly lowered her eyes. Then he wrote .[Then] he leaned closer to the recumbent figur e, and fearing lest the sound of his voice might disturb its loveliness, he whis pered: Hold your mouth as t hough you were playing a flute. Again! Again! (Sutton, 1966: 80). Jules Desbois, an assistant to Rodin, r ecalled One day from the scaffolding round Les Bourgeois de Calais upon which I was working, I could see him over the top of a screen modelling a nude figure. His model was lying upon a table and when he had finished for the day he leaned over and kissed the young woman tende rly on the stomach . (Sutton, 1966: 180). Moise Kisling usually finished a painting within one week, yet worked on several canvasses at once; he had three models who cam e one after another durin g the day to pose for each (Kluver and Martin, 1989). The models for Ki sling had a fifteen minute break every hour. A friend of Kisling described how Kisling began a painting: Kis ling places a model on a kind of platform on wheels which is quite scary because he kicks it to move it around to find the best light. He moves around the model like a wa r dance. Then when both the light and his inspiration get going together, he rushes toward his canvas on which he st arts the picture with grand brushstrokes (quoted in Kluver & Martin, 1989: 236). Some artists in the past did not set the model in a particular pose. Gustav Klimt often had models, sometimes prostitutes, wandering around in the nude in his Vienna studio (Gill, 1989). And a visitor of Rodins studio in Paris in the nineteenth century later noted: There are a number of nude models walking or just lounging around. Rodin pays them to provide him

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50 constantly with the image of nud ity moving about with as much fr eedom as in ordinary life. He contemplates them incessantly and this is how he has long familiarized himself with the spectacle of muscles in motion. The nude, which for sculptors, is gene rally but an apparition limited to the length of the posing sessions, has become for Rodin a habitual sight. This familiar knowledge of the human body[:] [Rodin] ac quired it through the con tinual presence of unclothed human beings moving to and fro under hi s gaze. In this way, he learned to decipher the expression of feelings in ev ery part of the body (quoted in Borel, 1990: 152). The natural postures and movements that the models fell into while lounging in his studio were preferred by him, because, as a friend of his noted, [Rodin supposed] that imperceptible movements made by the models when they do not think themselves observed, if rapidly outlined, can contain a power of expression unimagined by us because we are not accustomed to giving them an active and sustained attention. Without taking his eyes off the model, letting his practiced and lively hand run freely over the paper, he drew a host of gestures never before seen (quoted in Borel, 1990: 153). Models in the past posed for artists not only in rooms beside s the studio but outside it altogether in some instances. Prevalent in Fran ce in the mid-1800's, drawings of the nude flowed from models posed on a bed; or even from the sofa; on a rug in front of the fire. In England, William Orpen posed Emily Scobel in the outdoors (Rutherston, 1943), Laura Knight took an artist model from London to pose nude in th e outdoors at Lamorna (Knight, 1965), while Henry Scott Tuke used Isa Watson, a professional artist model from London, to pose nude on Newport Beach during two months in the summer of 1905 (Wainwright, 1989). Waldo Peirce posed an artist model in the hay in a barn loft in the mi d-twentieth century in the United States (Archives of American Art, 1975).

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51 And some artists, such as the well-known Eugene Delacroix, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, and Amadeo Modigliani, as well as le sser-known artists, like Katherine Gili, would intently study a model, then dismiss them and complete the work from imagination. (Lewinski, 1987; Douglas, 1941; Bulliet, 1930). Some female models actually posed as men fo r some painters in the nineteenth century in France. Renoir did not like painting men a nd did not know how to go about representing a male person; when he wanted to paint the scen e of Paris presenting the apple to Venus, on the pretext that he could not find a suitable male mode l, he disguised Gabrielle, his favorite model, to play the part. And Danielle Caneel, who wa s Paul Delvauxs favorite model for eighteen years, often posed for figures of young boys (B orel, 1990). And Suzanne Valadon once posed for the men in a painting by de Chavannes (Warnod, 1981). Additional roles in the studio In addition to posing, models in the past have had other, non-artistic roles in the studios of som e artists. Jules Gilbert, a sculptor who went to see Cezanne in Paris in the nineteenth century, told the story of their first meeting: Upon arri ving in Paris, I went to see Cezanne. I rang the bell, and the door was opened by a completely na ked woman who led me into Cezannes studio, where he was painting sitting on his cornet case. While we conversed, the model was frying something in a pan on the stove, and the odors of th e one were no more pleasant than those of the other (quoted in Borel, 1990: 66). The models for Renoir were paid to live with Renoir and his family, and while not posing, they would watch food cooking in the kitchen betw een sittings, tend the fi re in the stove, help clean the dirty studio, mend clothe s, and even act as guards so no one from the public would disturb Renoir while he was at work (Renoir, 1962). Jean Reno ir recalled When the public was insistent on seeing Renoir in his studio, the [nude] model would protes t in a loud voice, and

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52 threaten to put on her clothes. And Renoir, made courageous by fear of losing his sitting, would turn his back while the nude model walked over and shut the door in the face of the unwelcome visitor (Renoir, 1962: 375). Activities apart from studio roles Apart from posing, there are also reported in stances of models engaging in benevolent actions. Dene distributed floral tributes given to her after a st age performance to patients at a hospital (Anonymous, 1890). Scudder recounted about Eleonora de Palme, who made her living by posing for life classes and in studios. She showed herself on many occasions to be a good friend and assistant to stranded art students in the Quarter. Her acts of kindness were without number . I have know her often to pass on to some friend or acquaintance a job for posing, just because the other woman needed it more th an she did; she posed for months for hard-up artists who were unable to pay her anything; and whenever she heard of any one being ill or in need of attention she would turn herself into a mo st efficient trained nurse in the twinkling of an eye. Throughout [WWI] she was superb, devoting a ll her time to cheering up the morale of her friends and acquaintances in the Quarter. .[She] was not unique. There are many others like her (Scudder, 1925: 168-170). Othe r charitable examples are those of Kiki, who did not hesitate to use her sexuality to help friends in need: she would collect money on the spur of the moment in a bar or restaurant by showing her breasts or lifting her skirt, telli ng the delighted patrons, That will cost you a franc or two (Kluver & Martin, 1989: 154). Aicha collected money for models who became pregnant (Douglas, 1941). Artis t models contributed to a collection for funeral expenses when Modigliani died in 1920 and even joined his funeral procession, too (Douglas, 1941; Carco, 1928). Borze llo (1982) suggests that the practice of collections for models arose from the lack of job security which plagued many models.

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53 Artist models, when not posing in studios, undertook other pursuits. For example, Kiki would drop in on artists to watch them work when she was not posing (Kiki, 1962). May regularly danced and sang songs at the London cab arets the Cave of the Golden Calf and the Crabtree Club (Hooker, 1986). Models would vis it London galleries in which artwork for which they posed was exhibited (Epste in, 1975). And the owner of the Rotonde would invite four or five models to the theater and pay for them all (Douglas, 1941). Models attended parties regularly given after-hours at the studios of Parisian artists, like Pascin or Van Dongen, in the early 1900's (K iki, 1962; Douglas, 1941). Nina Hamnett, for example, often went to [Van Dongens] extrav agant fancy dress parties on Thursday afternoons when he kept open house for friends and art critics. There was boxing and dancing, and one day Nina performed wearing nothing but a black veil (Hooker, 1986: 74). On another occasion at a party given by Hunt Diederich, where Russian musicians sang and played balalaikas, Nina began dancing in a veil but soon took it off and gaily pranced around naked, basking in the appreciative applause (Hooker, 1986: 74). Mode ls also attended the Bal des QuatzArts, a Parisian costume ball given every year at the Mo ulin Rouge in the earl y weeks of June, by the students of the different Ecol e ateliers. Nearly three thous and men and women attended the annual, all-night event--open only to members enrolled in one of the great ateliers of painting, architecture, or sculpture. Instru ctions about the ball were issued to the ateliers in the months leading up to the ball, portions of which (as translated) were The committee wish especially the attention of their comrades to the question of women, whose cards of admission must be delivered as soon as possible, so as to enlarg e their attendance--always insufficient. Prizes (champagne) will be distributed to the ateliers who may distinguish themselves by the artistic merit and beauty of their female display. A ll women who compete for these prizes will be

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54 assembled on the grand staircase before the orch estra. (Smith, 1901: 77) The rules of costume were very strict, and for the ball each atelier vied with the others in the creation of the various floats and corteges, and in the artistic effect a nd historical correctness of the costumes. Months [were] spent in the creation of spectacles and in the costuming of students and models. Prizes [were] given for the most successful organizations . At the ball, the beauty competition for female models, shown aloft in puris naturalibus and acclaimed below by the shouting crowd, was matched by a fancy-dress parade at midnight-- triumphal cars, chariots, mythological beasts, litters of unveiled beauties borne by slaves, proceeding amid a deafening din which continued crescendo throughout the night (Warshawsky, 1980: 125). One observer recalled about a float in the moving procession, [it] re presents the last days of Babyl on. One sees a nude captive, her golden hair and white flesh in contrast with th e black velvet litter on which she is bound, being carried by a dozen stalwart blackamoors, followed by camels bearing nude slaves and the spoils of a captured city . (Smith, 1901: 70, 72). L ily White, a noted artist model, once attended the Quatz Arts Ball as an Ethi opian princess, completely nude, borne on a litter on the shoulders of twenty slaves. When the ball was over at eight oclock the next morning, she paraded the length of the Boulevard St. Mich el--still nude--for which she was arrested and placed in jail. She was quickly bailed out by the artists who came to her rescue (Kimbrough, 1976; Scudder, 1925). First given in 1892, the ball attracted the atte ntion of authorities in the following year because of the improprieties of th e models at the ball. Smith (1901: 64) noted Senator Beranger, having read one morning in the C ourier Francais an acc ount of the revelry and nudity of several of the best know models of th e Quarter at the Quatz Arts ba ll, brought a charge against the organizers of the ball, and several of the models, whose beauty unadorned had made them conspicuous on this most festive occasion. At the ensuing trial, several celebrated beauties and

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55 idols of the Latin Quarter were convicted and se ntenced to a short term of imprisonment, and fined a hundred francs each. The sentenced were, however, remitted after students of the Quarter organized demonstrations against them. The following year the organizers banned nudity at the ball, though the policy was rarely followed. Posing in different studios In the past, it was not uncommon for artist models to pose in studios of many different artists. In the earliest example, the courtesan Ph ryne was a model for the sculptor Praxiteles and the painter Apelles in Rome in th e fifth century B.C. (Lawner, 1987) In Florence in the fifteenth century, Antonio Pollaiuolo used Simonetta Cattaneo Vespucci, the wife of a wealthy Genoan merchant, Marco Vespucci, (and also the mistress of Giuliano di Medici) as a model, as did Sandro Botticelli, who used her as his only model (Bulliet, 1930). Emma Hamilton (nee Emma Lyon), the daughter of a country blacksmith in Cheshire, England, grew up as a wild teen ager in London. At the age of seventeen she became pregnant by a rich young baronet, yet was cast off by him. She was subsequently set up as a mistress by an admirer, and, because he spotted her potential as a model, sent her to the studio of George Romney where she sat for more than thirty (non -nude) portraits over a peri od of four years. Soon thereafter, Sir William Hamilton, the British dipl omat in Naples, during a visit to London, became smitten with her, and, two years later, Sir William took her to Naples as his mistress. While there, he had numerous artis ts in Naples and Rome paint th is ideal artists model over the next several years, includi ng Gavin Hamilton, Thomas Gainsborough and Elizabeth Vigee Le Brun. When she married Sir William in 1791 sh e no longer modeled (Fraser, 1987, Bulliet, 1930). Amlie Lang (who later changed her name to Fernande Olivier), who had run away from an abusive marriage to Paris at age 19 to find work as a secretary, was approached by the

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56 sculptor Laurent Debienne in the front of a sw eatshop in the city in 1900. He offered her a place to stay in his studio in exch ange for modeling for him, and they soon became lovers. While living with and posing (non-nude) for Debienne, Olivier also posed nonnude for a number of painters and sculptors from 1901 to 1905 in order to supplement the couples income. She made nearly 10 francs per day, but, as she recalled I work all the time; all day, pose, pose, pose, without stopping--what monotony. In the mornings I go in the Pereire quarter to my portraitist; the afternoon to Bati gnolles at the end of Rue du Dome to Cormon. At four oclock I leave Cormon to pose for a class of young girls on Rue Victor Masse; I come home at eight oclock tired and discouraged, and then Laurent has the idea that I should pose for him for one or two hours every evening (quoted in Kluver & Martin, 1991: 162) .Olivier subseque ntly parted with Debienne, and moved in with Picasso in 1905, whom forbade her to pose for other artists (Kluver & Martin, 1991). Picasso subsequently took Olivier to his native land of Spain in 1906 where he continued to paint her in the early part of the twentieth century (Gill, 1989). Some models in the past readily circulated between studios of arti sts. Apollonie was a clothed model for Gustave Ricard, Vincent Vidal and Ernest Me issonier (Rounding, 2003; Richardson, 1967). Suzanne Valadon, who began m odeling at age 16 and by age eighteen was in high demand in Paris as an artist model (Beachboard, 1965: 137), modeled for Puvis de Chavannes, Renoir, Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec (Bulliet, 1930). Dina Vierny, the long-time model for Maillol, also modeled for his friends Matisse (with whom she spent one month), and for the sculptors Charles Despiau and Paul Belm ondo in Paris in the ea rly twentieth century (Rose, 1993). Emily Sobel, in addition to pos ing for Orpen, also posed by Albert Rutherston (Rutherston, 1943). Frederick Leighton sent a (u nidentified) model to Anna Lea Merritt in London in 1881 (Gorokhoff, 1982). Marquet recommended Vidil to Matisse, and she worked at

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57 the Matisse Academy during 1910; wh ile there, she met and fell in love with and subsequently married the artist Per Krohg, for whom she of ten posed in the following decade (Kluver & Martin, 1991). Maud Franklin, the mistress and model of Whistler, was also a model for Gustave Courbet and William Stott of Oldham (Brown, 2003; Bulliet, 1930). Kisling recommended the Perlmutter sisters to Nils Dardel, who made many drawings of both (Kluver and Martin, 1989). Hamnett posed in Wassilieffs academy in 1914, and once again in the 1930's; she also posed at age 27 for Roger Fry and at age 40 for John Ba nting (Hooker, 1986). In the U.S., Walter Kuhn recommended Wreath McIntyre, who had posed for hi m in costume, to Davies in 1914 (Perlman, 1998). Kiki fell in love with Polish painter Maur ice Mendjizky in 1918, with whom she lived and posed for almost four years. In 1921 she move d in with the surrealis t photographer Man Ray, with whom she lived and posed (for nude photographs) un til 1931. And she modeled for Mose Kisling and Leonard Foujita throughout th e late 1920's (Kluver & Martin, 1989: 96). Paul Valery noted about artist models in nineteenth century Paris that In the world of painting, the models played a part other than that of just offering their bodies to the analytic eye. Some, like insects in a garden, flew from flower to flower, fertilized them and randomly created various hybrids, transmitting from studio to studio remarks and judgments they overheard, sowing in the ear of one artist the joke hear d at anothers (quoted in Borel, 1990: 121). Relationships with artists Som e models in the past have had intimate interactions with the artists for whom they worked. For example, the sixteenth century Flor entine sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini used a model--a poor girl of about fifteen--for some later works, and, after finishing them, made her pregnant (Borel, 1990). Delacroix is know n to have had casual liaisons with several of his models in France in the 1800's (Peppiatt & Bellony-Rewald, 1982), and Klimt fathered three

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58 natural sons from two of his models early in the twentieth century (Grimberg, 1986). And the Italian painter and sculptor Amedeo Modigliani, while in Paris, persuaded Berthe Lipchitz to pose for him in the nude after having painted a po rtrait of her and her husband, Jacques Lipchitz; Berthe agreed on the condition that Jacques woul d be present the entire time because she was afraid of the possible amorous advances by Modi gliani, who had a reputation of taking sexual advantages of models (Szabo, 1989). Some artists in the past have poorly treated their models. Benvenuto Cellini contemptuously noted of one model in his Autobiography, Every day I gave her thirty soldi; and I made her pose in the nude. I made her pose in great discomfort for hours at a stretch. And, in her discomfort, she was as much annoyed as I was delighted, since sh e was very beautifully mad and won me great honour (quoted in Borel, 1990: 141). Other artists of the past were also demanding of the models with which they worked. For example, Degas would curtly order his models to Get undressed! without even bidding them Good morning! (Bulliet, 1930: 185) and then he demanded complex poses that were difficult to hold and would quickly fly into a rage if the poor model expre ssed the slightest inclination to interfere with his choice (Bor el, 1990). And, in another record ed instance involving Degas, when a model told Degas that the representa tion of her nose on the canvas was not like her real nose, she was put out of th e room without further ado and her clothes thrown after her (Bulliet, 1930: 187). The bond between some artists and their models has been extraordinary. In a dramatic example, Jeanne Hebuterne, Amadeo Modiglianis model and mistress, committed suicide on the day after the painters death (Borel, 1990).

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59 Relations with other models Very few instances of models interacting with on e another were located in the existing literature. In one, Dina Vierny, the long-time model for Maillol al so posed for the artist Andre Derain, the latter of whom was introduced to her by another m odel who was living with (and was later married to) Derain at the time (Rose, 1993). And in the other, models in Paris beginning in the early twentieth century would re gularly congregate in the late afternoons and evenings at the Caf de la Rotonde or Caf du Dome alongside painters, poets, Bolshevists, Bohemians, drugtakers, and mystics, of a ll nationalities (Douglas, 1941; see also Hooker, 1986, Kiki, 1962, Smith, 1901) or would sometimes congregate at th e Moulin de la Galette dance hall with milliners apprentices, shop assistants and art students (Warnod, 1981). The Caf Royal, the most famous artistic club in Londonin the 1910's, attracted artists, writers, journalists, models and actors (Deghy and Waterhouse, 1956; May, 1929). Far from being mutually exclusive, all these different groups of people overlapped and intermingled. Everyone knew everyone else and there was a co ntinual coming and going from table to table (Hooker, 1986). Rewards Som e rewards of the occupation are noted by models in New York City during the late twentieth century. Donna Severin noted, Im not exactly the picture of the ideal model. Im Rubenesque. So Im thrilled when a man comes up to me and says he like to draw me. Its a nice change of pace to be appreciated for the an gles and lines you can of fer. Being a model has given me a lot more confidence. Looking at vari ous drawings and painting s of myself has given me a sense of what looks good on my body, what looks bad. Who wouldve known that taking off my clothes would lead to my dressing better? (Pacheco, 1988: 56).

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60 Pindrus noted I love modeling. I love bei ng around creative people; throw in a little vanity for having a body that moves well (Pacheco, 1988: 56). Leger noted, [On one occasion in the past] I di d a class completely devoted to gesture and movement. For three solid hours, I did thirty-second to five-minute poses. It was like dancing in slow motion. Everybody got so into it that nobody paid any attention to the five-minute breaks and we didnt stop. At the end of three hours, ther e was newsprint and charcoal all over the floor, the students were sweating, and I was exhausted. It was really a spiritual thing (Pacheco, 1988: 56). Hollender noted, When I posed by the first time four years ago, I was interested, delighted, and weirded-out by it. As a philosoph y student, I found it food for feminist thought. It wasnt just a question of being an object--it was whether I was allo wed to like it. I did, and I still do (Pacheco, 1988: 56). And the then 30-year-old model Alexandra Renault noted some positive aspects of the occupation, When you model, the focus is co mpletely on you, and some people really appreciate the attention, especially if they didnt get it grow ing up. Youre being drawn; youre being looked at. Theres a sense of acceptance that comes from that (The Fine Art ., 1993: 9). And modeling late in the twentiet h century allows Jerinek to be involved in art in a communal way. She notes of this, Its very hard for ar tists to do things together in a noncompetitive atmosphere. Modeling is a way of doing that. It feels meaningful. It feels like useful work ( The Fine Art ., 1993: 13). Dissatisfactions Dissatisfactions with m odeling were infrequent ly found from models in the literature. The few examples located include the following exampl es. Kiki recounted an occasion in which an (unidentified) artist for whom she posed not onl y did not pay her but also tried to have sexual

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61 relations with her (Kiki, 1962). And Kiki recounte d that an art dealer often came by the studio when she was posing just to get an eyeful, an d another occasion in which a critic came into a studio in which she was posing and looked at her as if she were a hunk of beef in front of a butcher-shop (Kiki, 1962: 41). Kiki at first disliked modeling, because she noted that Ive got a hair system that is badly developed in a certain place and I have to make myself up with black crayon (quoted in Kluver & Martin, 1989: 97).2 Early in the twentieth century, the models used by Henri Matisse, a tireless worker himself, complained that they never had a day off (G ill, 1989). Matisse, described by his model, Clarnete, as combining the jealousy of an amor ous sultan with the generosity of a prince, refused to let Clarnete pose even for his son, Jean Matisse, and when he was painting her nude, would only allow her to swim betw een eight and nine in the morni ng so that she would not tan (Forbes, 1990: 41). Philip Pearlstein mentions that he eventually provided rugs and chairs for his models to use while posing in his studio only because the mode ls used to complain about sitting on a bare floor and leaning against a cold plaster wall (Shaman, 1981: 213). Eaton mentioned that It is true that this is a work that only the mo st robust can endure, but being young and vigorous, I soon rebounded from the muscle strain and fatigue of the long sittings (Archives of American Art, 1975: n.p.) Other dissatisfactions about the profession are those mentioned by Elizabeth Hollender, a model for academies in New York City at the en d of the twentieth century, You get up there, 2 Kiki noted while posing for Foujita that he of ten came over and put his nose above the spot to see if the hair hadnt started to sprout while Id been posing. Then hed say in that pretty little voice of his, Thats very f unny no hairs (Kiki, 1962: 37).

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62 take your clothes off, dont get any credit, get money, and youre not exp ected to know anything about art. Im tired of the general assumptions that models are dopes or flakes--anything but intellectual (Pacheco, 1988: 56). Artworks There are scant recorded instances of the impact that posing for artworks has had on models. Hamnett was proud of having been the model for Henri Gaudier-Brzeskas Torso, as she told an admirer on one occasion, Dont forget, Im a museum piece, darling (P&V, 1999: 131). Keller, in an interview with a newspaper reporter in 2005, noted of an artwork by John Andrea for which she posed in the 1980's, I dont talk about it. Its part of my past. (Anonymous, 2005: n.p.) A painting by Evelyn Page, completed in 1927 and bequeathed to an art gallery in 1943, was removed from its walls and placed into storage after the model for the work was finding the exhibition of the work an embarrassmen t and threatened lega l action; the work was consequently re-hung upon the death of the model in the 1970's (Pitts, 1983). Reactions from others Very few instances of reactions from othe rs connected to m odeling were found in the literature. Kiki recounted that when she began posing at age 16 at a sculptors studio close to her mothers house, some people told my mother that her daughter was undressing in mens rooms. My mother forced her way into the sculptors and proceeded to throw a scene. I was posing, and she began to scream that I wasnt her daughter any more, that I was nothi ng but a dirty whore (Kiki, 1962: 23); Kiki was subsequently disown ed by her family for posing, and was out on her own at age sixteen (Kluver and Martin, 1991). And Vierny, the model fo r Maillol, noted, At first I couldnt pose for him a great deal, sin ce I was preparing for university. My father knew nothing about it. The idea of appearing nude be fore an artist was not something he could understand. He found out after thr ee months, and he was furious, but by then it was too late. I

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63 was famous, and my father was flattered (S henker, 1985: 108). Copelov-Goldman, who first modeled at age 18 for Lindsay, was also a fashion model at the time, and would tell her parents she was going to a rehearsal or to do a fashi on show when actually going to pose in Lindsays studio; she noted that My parents went to th eir grave not knowing Id ever posed for Norman Lindsay. I would have been thrown out (Anony mous, 2004: n.p.). Mary Haskell, the lover of the writer and artist Kahil Gibran, was prohibi ted by Gibran from posing for Davies after he found out that she had posed for him on one occa sion; she recalled He told me frankly that Davies was thinking me either a fool, or a woman seeking [a] sex experience (quoted in Perlman, 1998: 242) Jopling used her maid as a model in the late 1880's in London, and noted she was a very modest girl [and] she feare d, seeing that the head was an ex act portrait, that people would naturally imagine that she had sat to me as a maiden wid nodings on (Jopling, 1925: 264). Charlotte Eaton, an artist model in the first decade of the tw entieth century in the U.S. recalled There is in the temperament of every good and earnest ar tist a quality that protects the model against her own danger, and if the model on he r part be of sound moral fibre she is as safe in his studio as she would be in her own home. Bu t these facts are too sub tle for the ordinary lay mind to grasp, hence the mis understanding that has always surrounded this profession, and I confess that I suffered a martyrdom because of th e work I had chosen. I did not dare to make known my employment to my landla dy lest I be turned out, and even after I became the wife of an artist, the artists wives, w ith one or two exceptions, still he ld to the prevailing prejudice and did not call upon me (Archives of American Art, 1975: n.p.) The reputation of the model sometimes reflects back on the artist, as Epstein notes: The charming and often facile moeurs of the model, if known, sometimes give the artist a lurid

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64 reputation. [But] for the moral and manners of my professional models I have never been responsible, and it is strange that an artist should have the odium of the somewhat erratic conduct of his models placed to his account. [So] I would prefer to work from models who are not known . (Epstein, 1975: 114). And Grotmol tells that at the celebration of the 125th anniversary of Munchs birth, Hanna caused a minor scandal simply by being there. The artists sophisticated admirers were astonished to see the model walking fully aliv e among them, but they chose to ignore her (Grotmol, 1991: 58). Life after modeling Som e artist models stayed in their positions for a number of years prior to leaving the profession. Traute Rose, the principal model of Swedish artist Lotte Laserstein, worked some fifty years for her in the 20th century (Stroude & Stroude, 1988: 38). Cleo Dorman, a model for sixty years in academies in New York City, Los A ngeles and other major U.S. cities, had became an artist model at age nineteen when she se nsed a calling after having earned a living in previous positions as a salesgirl in a department store and elevat or operator after she left school at age sixteen (Nilson, 1990: 32). A few women who were artist models went on to become painters of some notoriety. Apollonie had four small oil portraits accepted for the exhibition in the Salon of 1861 (Rounding, 2003). Meurent, the primary model for Manet, to ok up painting in the middle 1870's when she no longer modeled, and exhibited her paintings in the official Salons of Paris in 1876, 1879, 1885, and 1904. In seeking to exhibit and sell her paintings during this time, Meurent tried to capitalize on her role in Manets paintings by printing calli ng cards with the notation I am Olympia, the subject of M. Manets celebrated painting (Lipton, 1990). She di ed at age 84, yet none of her paintings survive (Lipton, 1990).

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65 Gwen Johns experience as a model for other artists likely en couraged her to work for herself in a similar capacity after leaving modeling (Pos tle & Vaughn, 1999). Kiki had an exhibition of her paintings in 1927 at Galeria du Sacre du Printemps in Paris (Barnes, 1985) and later in London, and sold many of her works (C ody and Ford, 1984). Kikis success came despite never having had a lesson in painting; Douglas (1941: 283) attributed this to her constant contact with painters while pos ing for them [which] enabled her to study methods and taught her the tricks of the trade better than any school could have done. Fernande Olivier became a painter (Douglas, 1941). Barber ev entually developed a successful career as an illustrator and teacher (and also married Eakins brother-in-l aws son) (Foster and Leibold, 1989). And Jerilyn Jurinek, a model of Philip Pearlstein, became a painter ( The Fine Art ., 1993: 13). The most successful painter of the former models was Su zanne Valadon, whose works appeared at national and international exhibitions before he r death in 1938 at age 73 (Warnod, 1981). Other models engaged in a variety of pursuits after having stopped modeling. Bronia Perlmutter played Eve in a movie in 1924; witne ssing that performance, French film director Ren Clair fell in love with Bronia and married her soon after (Barnes, 1985). Kiki sang erotic folk songs in Le Jockey, a cabaret on the Boulevard Montparnasse fo r non-French customers (Huddleston, 1931). Renee Jolivet, a model for Renoi r, became an actress and traveled after she left Renoir (Renoir, 1962). Andree, a model who began modeling for Renoir at age sixteen, eventually married Renoirs son, Je an, after Renoirs death (Renoir, 1962). Rosalie Tobia, one of Bouguereaus favorite models in her younger days and a non-nude model of Whistler, gained popularity when she opened a restaurant in the Qu arter specializing in Italian cooking (Milner, 1988; Cody and Ford, 1984). Jacomb-Hood recounted a case that a Parisian model, who once posed for numerous artists over several decades and gave up modeling becau se her body lost its

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66 classical proportions, a place as caretaker of some studios was found for her mother and herself (Jacomb-Hood, 1925: 12). Rose Pettigrew, engaged to Philip Wilson Steer while still in her teens, eventually married H. Waldo Warner a composer and profession viola player, and traveled with him around the globe where he played (Laughton, 1971). Dina Vierny, the model for Maillol, became an art dealer in Paris upon his death in the mid-twentieth century, and eventually became the curator of a museum de dicated to his works (Rose, 1993). CopelovGoldman became a showgirl and actress in th e 1930's and 1940's (Anonymous, 2004). Dorothy Dene was made a beneficiary of Leightons will when he died in 1896, yet she herself died in 1899 after becoming seriously ill (Ormond, 1975 ). Upon Picassos death in 1973, Roque inherited thirty percent of his estate, and eventually committed suicide in 1986 at the age of 60 (Danto, 1991). Keller taught poetry in the public school system as well as published many of her poems in the U.S. in the early 2000's (Anonymous, 2005). Summary A review of literature directly and in directly related to artist modeling reveals a general need for much additional systematic study. Nearly all of the existing literature relies on the opinions of others about the situ ation of the model, and is primarily anecdotal with few or no records of the personal feelings and experiences of artist models. Even more scarce is research involving artist models in the contemporary era. An ideal platform for fu rther research of the complex topic of artist modeling in current times is symbolic interactionism, discussed next. Symbolic Interactionism Here I present briefly the origins of this soci al psychological theory and describe in m ore depth several concepts that are directly relevant to this study of artist modeling. Roots of interactionism The Chicago sociological tradi tion was influenced by the social philosophy of Pragmatism, springing from James (1975) and expressed in the writing of John

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67 Dewey (e.g., 1922) and further developed by Ge orge Herbert Mead (1934). In Deweys Pragmatism, humans adjust to changing social realities by a con tinual process of adaptation, for which they are uniquely capable due to the existence of the mind. The mind is described not as an entity but a process of symbolizing social objects and deliberating action plans to achieve social adjustment. Mead expanded Deweys theory to describe the continual creation and adaptation in mind, self and society that occurs by virtue of role-taking, or imaging the experience of another and ac ting accordingly (Turner, 1982). The sociologist Herbert Blumer applied Mead s expanded theory of Pragmatism in the social science approach of symbolic interactionism. Blumer advised the so ciologist to take the role of the acting unit whose behavior he is studyi ng in order to grasp the perspective of persons in social interactions (Blumer, 1969, p. 86). Study of persons in society using the symbolic interactionist approach focus on experiences of self in social context and investigate interactions from the viewpoints of the actors. From this theo retical foundation arose the Chicago tradition of participant observation a nd naturalistic field methods in social research. Assumptions of interactionism. Central premises of symbolic interactionism include: Social reality is socially pr oduced, and the meanings of objects lie in the actions humans take toward them. Humans as thinking beings are capable of self -reflexive behavior that is intentional and responsive to past experien ces, the actions of others, and a constantly changing understanding of the self and the situation. In their interactions with others, humans manipulate symbols, words, and meanings, and relate to themselves as well as to others (Denzin, 1989, p. 51). To interactionists, the individual is not a stable structured entity with a fixed personality, but rather is an amalgam of socially-constructed perspectives always changing in response to interactions. People formulate their actions base d on current meanings considered from within. Societies likewise are not unchanging bodies to which the individual molds himor herself but

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68 rather represent a flow of social processes, changing over time but stabilized by culture, an accumulation of shared meanings to which individuals respond in patterned ways. Several concepts in symbolic interactionism hold special in terest for this project. They are: Interactions, self and identity, and definitions of the situati on. These will be described in a little more depth Interactions. The core of social life, interacti on has a clearly marked beginning and end for its participants: it begins when they come into one anothers physical presence and ends when they leave it. Even before a person enters into the interaction situation and is able to observe and define the actions of others, he or she has constructed a pre liminary definition of the situation by which to guide his or her conduct. In addition to a persons expectations concerning what he or she will find in an interaction, the i ndividual has a plan of ac tion that he or she hopes to initiate and which he or she hopes will be acce ptable to the other involved One of the more important aspects of the preliminary definitions of the situation is the definition of the others with whom the actor interacts (so called taking the role of the other). The people with whom the actor expects to interact will typically be defi ned in terms of the role s they are expected to perform and in terms of the ster eotyped situated identities that define their more personal characteristics (Lauer and Handel, 1977). As Bl umer (1969) noted, In my judgment, the most important feature of human associ ation is that the participants take each other into account. Such awareness of another person in this sens e, taking him and his acts into consideration, becomes the occasion for orienting oneself and for the direction of ones own conduct (pp. 108109, original italics). If people ta ke others into account in dire cting their own actions, modeling can be considered as more than an automatic act, but as a product of a buildup of sociallyacquired meanings and experiences--based on both general knowledge about the type of social

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69 setting and the type of people who frequent it and on specific knowledge about the precise setting and people he or she will encounter there. Once interaction begins, each ac tor in the interaction acts on the basis of his or her definition of the situation, and he or she become s aware through his or her interpretations of others actions of their definitions of the situatio n. To that extent, interaction may be coarsely defined as the result of the people involved (k eeping in mind that that might be a very large number) continually adjusting what they do in the light of what others do, so that each individuals line of actio n fits into what they others do by taking account of the meaning of what others do in response to their earlier actions. Human beings can only act in this way if they can incorporate the responses of others into thei r own act and thus anticipate what will probably happen, in the process creating a self in the Meadian sense (McCall and Becker, 1990, p. 3-4, authors adaptation from Becker, 1988) Thus, inte raction is based on meanings, and it cannot be understood without access to some of those mean ings and the history attached to them. Self and identity. To interactionists, the self is an internalized, changi ng understanding of what kind of person one is, an understanding built up over time by interactions in a variety of social surroundings (Charon, 1992). We come to know who we are through others responses to us (Turner, 1982). Self-concept is formed by se lf-judgment (our reactions and evaluations of ourselves) and identity, the classification or labe l we attach to our selv es in a given social context. Individual identities develop through ones performance in interaction and are maintained through the responses of others to th at performance. In a fully institutionalized system, the response to performance might mech anically follow the well-defined norms that characterize such social situations. However, in less institutionalized systems the responses to action are likely to be more variab le and may be a factor in the cr eation of identity. In the case of

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70 artist modeling, the responses of art students vi s a vis practicing artists may have differential influences on how an artist model percei ves of her self, and so must be studied. One may have many identities, each relevant to a different role, but all present within ones self-concept. In other words, se lf-concept is a combination of who we are and what we think about it. These interacting and changing aspects of the self are in themselves objects of social action. For example, an artist model may describe hers elf as a radical, and react to that identity in a certain way, and she may also view her identity as a employee and have a different appraisal of that identity. He r actions and those of others around her may be based on one meaning or the other, or both, in a given situation. Definitions of the situation. From a symbolic interacti onst viewpoint, people act on the basis of their definitions of each situation, a co mplex context-specific pers pective formulated in interaction with the self and with others. Each action is part of a larger series of actions over time, and we view our acts not only in the pres ent but as coming after pr ior acts and before other potential ones. The definition of a situation is made up of the information available to an actor by which he or she can anticipate events and respond accordingly. Charon (1992: 131) names some of the components of defining a situation, paraphrased below: 1. Establishing goals in the situation 2. Applying a perspective, from a re ference group or significant other 3. Noticing relevant objects (people, events, ideas, etc) in the situation 4. Taking the role of the other (seeing oneself from the others perspective) 5. Defining the self in the situation, includi ng assessing ones actions and others actions toward oneself, considering past and future, judging oneself, seeing one s identity in the situation, and interp reting the situation through emotions

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71 To understand how people define situations, th en, is to understand th e meaning that the situation has for them and thereby to understand why they behave as they do in the situation. Furthermore, to know how people define situations is to understand why they behave differently in the same situation. In short, the definition of a situation contai ns the explanations for actions. Therefore, to understand a given set of human ac tions, such as posing for long periods of time, one must attempt to grasp the actors definitio ns of the situation--a tricky and essentially impossible task, like the fairy-tale challenge of trying to hold onto a slippery monster as it constantly changes form. One cannot ever totally appraise anothers definition of a situation, but this concept provides a starting poi nt from which to explore interactive phenomena such as artist modeling. Symbolic interaction forms the foundation for other theoretical frameworks that shed additional light on the concepts of interactions, se lf and identity and definitions of the situation explored in this study. For example, differential association, (Sutherland, 1942), posits that self is a social construct and that indi viduals learn the values and motiv es for deviant behavior through interaction with others Additionally, social le arning theory (Akers, 1985) extends differential association theory by adding dimensions of differe ntial reinforcements and cognitive definitions to help explain non-conforming behavior. And a focu s on the body as an integral part of the self has been explored in recent times, notably the re presentation of the body as a vehicle of the self (Turner, 1989). In sum, symbolic interactioni sm, in positing the socially-const ructed nature of meanings and the responsive, self-reflexive root of human behaviors, can di rect a search for understanding of a social phenomenon such as artist modeling. Su ch a framework allows for collection of data about individuals perspectives and the experiences that led to these views. In this study design I

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72 gather and present information about the needs and opinions of a group of women who previously have had very little in fluence in the scientific world and reflect some of the variety and diversity in these womens lives. In it I focus on the empirical meanings, behavior and definitions of the situation of the artist models themselves from their own perspective.

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73 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Introduction As the preceding literature review and discus sion of theoretical fram ework demonstrates, the goals of the research here are exploratory and descriptive in nature. Within the theoretical framework of symbolic interaction, the best data collection method to utilize in order to achieve the objective previously set forth is in-depth interviews which record the personal accounts and individual reflection of the partic ipants. In this section, I addre ss my methods of collecting data about artist models from artist m odels own descriptions and subject ive appraisals. It contains the following four sub-sections: (A) a discussion of the research approach; (B ) a review of subject selection; (C) the interviewing process and strategi es used to facilitate obtaining the data, and (D) a discussion of analysis and presen tation procedures us ed in the study. Research Design To best understand the experi ence of wom en who are employe d as artist models, I used qualitative research methods. The focus of qualit ative research is ofte n on the participants subjective reality (Patton, 2002; Lofland, 1971).Q ualitative methods lend themselves well for a symbolic interaction framework, and allowed me to understand this phenomena from the perspective of the women who do this work. Qualit ative methods also allo wed for rich, detailed descriptions. Given the exploratory nature of the research questions, qual itative data collection methods were used for this study. A combination of convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling procedures were used to reach this population. Since it was not feasible to select a random sample, the researcher worked to interview wome n with varying demographic characteristics and with varied experiences from a variety of work settings, hoping to attract a broad cross-section of

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74 participants. Purposive sampling methods were used in the schools and groups in combination with convenience sampling methods to obtain a sample of women of varying demographic characteristics. A snowball sampling method was also employed for the study. Entering the Field: Findi ng and Contacting Respondents in Unfamiliar Territory The success of this research strategy is depende n t on the ability of a researcher to gain entre into the group being inve stigated. This problem is not easily surmounted in the investigation of any group, and when the group is very small and generall y considered marginal and secretive, the problems are compounded. Becau se of the reasons surrounding the secrecy, it was important to enter the data collection phase as a research er who was nonjudgmental as well as understanding about an artist models labor. My familiarity with artist modeling had grown significantly by virtue of havi ng read well over one hundred books and articles about models, artists and the art industry in gene ral, and my consequent comfort with the art scene, its language and social patterns. Learning as much as possibl e about the occupation and art in general helped me feel more knowledgeable and cr edible as a researcher of artis t models prior to starting data collection. Research in the field was initia ted by contacting an instructor of art at a nearby University. The instructor gave me the contact information for two models that he used. He also provided me with the names of artists who lead different artist groups in that ci ty along with some individual artists he knew in the city who employed artist models. Additionally, he provided me with the names of other instructors of art that he knew who used models both in the city and in other cities. The artist group leaders, in dividual artists, and ot her instructors which he provided were contacted by telephone if in the city, and by e-mail if out of th e city, and informed about the study. I fully described the study to all and asked if they knew models who may be willing to talk to me.

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75 Next, e-mail notices describing the study and my s earch for models were sent to instructors who taught figure drawing, painting or sculpture classes at community colleges, four-year colleges, large Universities, and private art sc hools in nearby cities. Some of the same art instructors either lead or participated in artis t groups within their communities so likely knew of or used artist models in places apart from acad emic settings, too. A few of the instructors who were contacted passed along information about the project directly to individual artists with whom they were familiar that used artist models or other artists who lead artist groups, or, in the alternative, provided me contact information about them, and I subsequently contacted them as well with details about the study. Instructors at two schools informed the managers of the model list at the schools about the project, and the managers, in turn, gave the list of models to me to contact directly. There were other ways I tried to reach mode ls. I contacted the h eads of organizations, associations and societies of artists across the nearby cities for information about individual artists who used models. I also sent informati on about the study to the coordinators for drawing and painting clubs which employed models that were located in the same areas. All of the individuals initially contacted were asked to pass the information about the study to any models they knew and to have them c ontact me either by telephone or through e-mail so that I could tell them more fully about the study and invite them to participate in it. The models for whom I had direct contact information--i.e. through the instructor I in itially contacted or by inclusion on the two model list s--were contacted either by te lephone or e-mail and both told about the study and also informed about the opportunity to part icipate in the study. During my initial contact with the instructors, coordinators of artist groups, artist associations and others, I presen ted myself as a sociologist, e.g. a doctoral candidate at the

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76 University of Florida. By assuming the social ro le of researcher, I did not have to worry about fitting into the art world, and I was able to show great ignorance wit hout being sanctioned by those I contacted. In short, I was a known in competent (Schwartz and Jacobs, 1979:55). Potential respondents notified me that they eith er were interested in participating in the study and eager to talk about their work experien ces, or, more often, required further information about the study before deciding whet her or not to participate in it. All potential re spondents were screened for inclusion in the study by the follo wing criteria: actively modeling and living in a city close enough to accommodate face-to-face interviewing. If the potential respondent met these criteria, I gave them an overview of the st udy and told them about the focus of the research. I also described the expectations for participants and the volunta ry nature of any sharing of information. When I experienced difficulties gene rating trust, I dealt with the problem by being open, enthusiastic, reassuri ng, and honest about my pr oject and my motivations. Many models expressed a concern about the exposing jeopardy in which my research might put them. I informed the respondents that I would take every preca ution to protect their biographical anonymity by not identifying them nor releasing or sharing th eir data or responses. Consequently, all names used in the analyses of this study are pseudonyms, including persons and places referred to by the partic ipants. (The exceptions to this are the names of historicallysignificant artists or names of famous artist models identified by the participants during the interview.) To further protect the confidentiality of the research participants, the names of the cities where the data collecti on efforts were located were ch anged, too. During the study, the tapes were stored in a locked cab inet in the researchers office. Participants The participants for this study were 25 artist m odels who are currently working in the art world. Through contacts with instructors I me t and interviewed twelve of the total 25

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77 respondents in the study. Seven of my respondents were found on the model lists, and three from a coordinator of an artist gr oup. Two were contacted through other models in the study, and one model in the study agreed to be in it after she responded to an announcement about the study which was placed on a regional artist listserve by another model who had already completed an interview. The result of trying to include a divers e sample of women was a vast and rich resource of interview data, reflecting many subtle and dramatic variations in womens backgrounds, experiences and current situations. Data Collection Sites Data collection efforts were concentrated in eight cities in a s outhern state. The state represents an ideal research ar ea. It has an unusually large number of classes held at art departments at colleges and unive rsities that regularly employ arti st models for instruction. There are a number of widely-respected schools of art in the state as well. Additionally, there is a significant representation of artists in many cities around the state who employ artist models. Procedure for Data Collection Interviews In-depth, face-to-face interviews were the pr im ary means of data co llection in this study. Once a model had expressed interest in participat ing and was found to meet the inclusion criteria, I scheduled an interview. Interviews with partic ipants were arranged in almost all instances over the telephone, and the in terview scheduled at a convenient and comfortable location for the participant, most commonly a restaurant. As mu ch as possible, after ascertaining when and where we would meet, I reiterated what my st udy was about, the types of questions I would be asking, and that I would be tape-r ecording the interview. I also assured each that I would protect their identity and insure confidentiality of what they told me.

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78 Because of the intrusive nature of the inquiry and the sensitivity of the material discussed, I employed the following safeguards. An Inf ormed Consent agreement outlining the possible risks, confidentiality protections afforded by the researcher, how the data was to be used and the availability of results was give n to each participant prior to the start of each interview. The written consent form verified voluntary participat ion, and the participant was told that she had the right to stop the interview a nd the right to withdraw from th e study at any point. I asked the participant permission to audio-tape the interview. The participant was also informed that only I would listen to the tape. Written permission was necessary to proceed. None of the respondents refused to sign the consent form. (See Appendix A for the Informed Consent form.) Interviews were conducted indivi dually with models. The semi-structured interviews were conducted individually to provide an opportunity for the models to describe their perceptions of their work without the influe nce of others responses. Th e average interview length was approximately one and one-half hours, although th ey ranged in time from one hour to two and one-half hours. All interviews were tape recorded and later transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Interview schedule A sem i-structured interview schedule was us ed to focus the interview. The schedule represented relatively open-ended questions around specific areas of interest about which the model could talk openly and freely when telling their stories. Th e informal and semi-structured format provided me the ability to stay focused a nd gather specific information, while at the same time allowed me flexibility to digress from the st andardized questions in order to probe in-depth the participants individual res ponses. It also gave the subject freedom to clarify or explain complicated information, and it permitted the aski ng of unanticipated ques tions. The interviews

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79 were conducted in a dialog style, with myself conversing with the model until the model had explained her reality to me. Consistent with a qualitative perspective, partic ipants were considered the experts in this study, and were assumed to be telling the truth. This did not mean that only the spoken words were used to understand a participants realit y. The participants voice tone and body language, as well as any inconsiste ncies in the conversation, was consid ered as information provided by the participant, and was further explored until I was satisfied that I understood what the participant wished to convey. During the interviewing process, it was importa nt to enable the models to answer from their own experience and not on the basis of re ceived knowledge or what they considered I wanted to hear. During the interview, participants were asked questions a bout sensitive features of their work; for example, the impact of nudity in their work and when poses become sexually suggestive. Additionally, they were asked questions about personal aspects of their lives, such as their interactions with intimate others and their experiences in ot her nude activities. The respondents had to feel comforta ble enough to discuss their work experiences as well as other personal matters involv ing explicit nudity. I surmounted these difficulties by creating and maintaining a level of comfort and communication with each respondent so each felt confident of giving responses relatively free of exaggeration, evasion or any other form of trut h dissipation. First, I re duced the potential for distress by wording delicate ques tions carefully. Secondly, in terviews were conducted like conversations to reduce anxiety or threat to the subjects. Thirdly, I tactically volunteered information about myself, including articulating thoughts, reflections or attitudes in order to equalize the relationship in the interview, so avoiding any comparison with an interrogation

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80 and to promote trust and relaxation. Fourthly, as much as possible, I suspended my own beliefs and values so I could enter more fully into the subjects phenomenological world and take the role of the other (Mead, 1934). That is, I made every effort to be respectful, affirming and considerate at all times while listening to their responses. And fifth, I kept my note taking during interviews to a minimum. Through the interviews with the artist models, the goal was to answer the primary research question; that is, what are the work experiences of artist models? Res pondents provided firsthand experiences directly related to the work they do. The themes of occupation, agency, reactions from others, identity, and body provide d an initial framework for the exploration of respondents experiences in light of the research questions. From these themes a set of orienting questions was derived, and became the Intervi ew Schedule I used during the interviews. Besides questions regarding posing and relationships with others (based on these themes), questions on the body, such as adornment, exerci se, and physical activitie s were incorporated into the interview schedule to elicit information about the specific role of the nude body within artist modeling. The specific language used in the construction of the interview questions was developed from the existing literatu re about artist models and the art industry in general. The interview schedule was arranged under certain broad headings which include: (1) Entry; (2) Posing; (3) Artists; (4) Body; (5) Artworks; (6) General; (7 ) Related Background; and (8) Demographics. (See Appendix B for the intervie w schedule). The questions on the interview schedule were designed to provide direction for this study. I also recorded field notes while I conduc ted the interviews. These notes included reminders as to the conversation with the partic ipant, impressions, reactions and reflections of my own, and other significant events that occu rred during the data co llection phase of the

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81 research. Field notes were used to verify the accur acy of transcriptions and to fill in portions of the transcript that were not audible. Analytic-Inductive Approach An analytic-inductive process was used in organizing and interpreting the interviews (Miles and Huberm an 1984). Such a process util izes an examination of similarities between phenomena in order to develop concepts or ideas. Data analysis included three activities: data reduction, which included the proces s of identifying emergent themes in the data; data display, the process of organizing and clustering the information to be us ed for deriving conclusions; and conclusion drawing and verifica tion, the process of deciding wh at experiences mean, noting patterns and explanations, and verifyi ng the findings (Miles and Huberman1984). The data reduction stage included selecti ng, simplifying and transforming raw data. Interviews with participants were transcribed verbatim into raw data from the tape recordings. This resulted in textual data about their specific experiences as artist models. Before this stage began, each transcript of interviews a nd field notes was assessed for accuracy. In the data display stage cross-case analysis began as I sorted, orga nized, summarized and coded the data that I collected. Coding categor ies were constructed to represent the various concepts, themes, and patterns identified. A summ ary sheet was created for each key phrase or topic raised by the respondents, and all relevant comments from th e transcriptions were included on the various summary sheets. For example, su mmary sheets depicted themes related to the work process, identity, the body, reactions, agen cy, and feelings about artists and artworks. Summary sheets for each concept or theme were then examined to identify both commonalities and variations that cut ac ross individual experiences. The coding process in the data display st age was an ongoing one as categories were developed, discarded and redevelope d as new data was added. The primary goal of the researcher

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82 was to organize and summarize the data in such a manner that it conformed to the theoretical model used for this study without doing violence to the data. I avoided the co mmon pitfall of other researchers in exploratory inquiry by being particularly careful to not force the data into inappropriate categories or fail to record significant data because I failed to develop categories in which to classify them. This meant a constant re-ordering of categories until all the interviews were completed. The final categories used in th e analysis of data wi ll hopefully represent divisions that this writer feel s best represents the substan ce of the twenty-five completed interviews. And in the final stage, conclusion drawing, I began to decide what things mean, noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurat ions, causal flows and propositions within the data. In analyzing and reporting the comments of models, the intent is not to construct a single profile characterizing the majority of respo ndents. Rather, realizing that models differ and that all comments are important, both similariti es and variations in responses are reported.

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83 CHAPTER 4 THE WORLD OF THE ARTIST MODEL The purpose of this chapter is to present a collective description of the twenty-five artist models experiences with modeling. The intent of the interviews was to locate the meanings artist models give to their experiences. Ther efore, I have added verbatim quotations from the transcriptions to support themes and patterns that arose from the interviews. Throughout the following sections I frequently include extended vi gnettes in which the models participating in the study are permitted to speak at-length about their experiences and the meanings they attach to them, thus allowing their voices to be hear d, emphasizing what they feel is important.1 The findings are reported in ten sections--the first section descri bes the demographics of the participants, the second section describes the experien ce of the respondents in the art world and their general knowledge about artis t modeling, and the eight subse quent sections corresponds to each of the research themes: entry, posing in gene ral, the artists, the roles of mind and body, the artwork, reactions to modeling, re wards, and body. In order to f acilitate a greater understanding of important findings, a brief summary is provided at the end of each of the ten sections. An overall discussion is provided in Chapter 5. Demographics of Participants Twenty-f ive women who work as artist models were interviewed. Demographic data collected during this study include age, ethnicity, socioeconomic st atus, marital status, religious affiliation, and highest educationa l level achieved. The age of the models in the sample ranged from 18 to 60, and the mean age of the models was 30; the distribution being 4% teens, 44% 20's, 12% 30's, 16% 40's, 20% 50's, and 4% 60's. Most (88%) of the models interviewed 1The quotations from the transcripts are shown verb atim in order to show the models state of mind and to reflect the natural inflection of their speech. Italics found in orig inal transcript. [. .] indicates a break in original transcript.

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84 identified their race/ethnicity as Caucasian, while 8% identified themselves as Mixed and 4% as Asian. The socioeconomic status, as self-identified by memb ers of the group, was 64% middle class. The marital status was 64% of the women were single, 32% were divorced, and 4% were married. Nearly all of the respondents (7 8%) reported no religious affiliation, while only 22% reported membership in a mainstream relig ion, specifically, Catholic, Episcopalian, Baptist and Jewish. The educational level of the particip ants ranged from high school completed to the completion of a Masters degree; 4% completed hi gh school only, 16% had an Associate of Arts degree, 36% had completed some college, 32% had a Bachelors degree, 4% had completed some graduate courses, and 8% had completed a Masters degree. Participation in the Work and General Knowledge about the Work This section provides ad ditional background details about the modeling work of the respondents, their other involvements in the field of visual arts in general and what they know about the place of artist models within the field. This section is composed of two sub-sections. The first is information about the level of part icipation of the respondents in modeling, including the types of settings in which they have posed, th e types of artist for which they have posed, their length of tenure in the work, the amount of pay they receive for modeling, and other sources of income. The second sub-section describes the level of immersion the models have in the visual arts field, including painting, drawing or sculpting classes they have taken and art exhibits they have attended. Additionally, the second sub-section summarizes th e amount of knowledge that the respondents have about artist modeling in gene ral, including the reasons that artists need artist models and the hi story of artist modeling. Participation in Artist Modeling The particip ants pose for artists in three main settings: in the classroom, for artist groups and for individual artists. Posing in all three settings takes place year-round for day-time and

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85 night-time sessions held every day of the week. The classroom setting consists of the model posing for a group of student artists. This most often happens for undergraduate, or occasionally graduate, students at a community college, four-y ear college, Universit y, or art school, but may also take place for art students in places such as at a museum. The individuals in these types of settings are students undergoing instruction and training in art in ei ther figure drawing, painting or sculpture courses, and the num ber of students in a single course could number as few as seven to as many as forty or more. Sometimes an open drawing lab at some schools will be held-usually one afternoon per week--for attendance by anyone for extra practice. The group setting consists of the model posing for a group of artis ts in a community art center, house, or some other space, such as a warehouse. Each artist in the group setting contributes a small fee for attending the group--the fee goi ng toward the payment for the model. The number of artists attending a group session could num ber as few as five or as many as twenty or more depending on the group and the day and time of day it meets. The individual setting consists of the model posing for an individual artist in his or her private studio, ho use, or even at an outdoor location. Among the studys respondents, 92% have posed in a classroom setting, 84% have posed in a group setting, and 56% have pos ed for individual artists. The respondents pose mainly for artists who e ither draw, paint or sc ulpt. Drawing, painting or sculpting done from the model takes place in all three settings iden tified above. Nearly all models (96%) have posed for drawing, 84% have posed for painting, and 40% have posed for sculpture. All respondents were currently active models at the time of the interview. The length of time the participants have been involved in modeling diverges widely among the models. The range was from one day to thirty-nine years: tw o models had only posed once (one was actively

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86 looking for additional work, and one had futu re work scheduled), and one had posed continuously for thirty-nine years. The average length of time posing was three years and five months.2 One model was on temporary leave from m odeling to care for an ill parent in a different city. Some models worked as little as once a week, while others posed for up to six days or more per week. A few models reported that they pose for nine hours or more on a single day-in the same setting or in up to three different settings. The pay that the models receive for posing va ries across the three settings. Colleges and universities and art schools pay a rate ra nging from $10.00 to $15.00 per hour, while some art schools pay an additional two dollars per hour fo r a last-minute call-in. The pay for posing for groups ranged from a low of $10.00 to a maximum of $20.00 per hour. Some groups guarantee a fixed sum for a three-hour sess ion, but the model can make much more depending on the number of people who attend a session. (That is, those attending the session pay a fee toward payment for the model, and a high number of artists resu lts in substantially greater pay for the session.) Individual artists pay the models who pose for them from $10.00 to $25.00 per hour. One model was paid $8.00 an hour plus a promised commissi on from the artist when the artwork sold, and another received a partia l rate and the artwork itself (work-f or-trade) in exchange for posing for an individual artist. The pay which models receive for posing in the school settings or for artist groups is a flat rate and does not vary by the type of pose re quired nor the amount of a models experience. However, the rates models are paid for working with individual artists are negotiable, and can vary depending on the type of pose (standing poses command a higher fee) and how long the work will take to complete (multiple sessions lead to a reduced fee). For some models, if there 2 This figure is based on 22 models; it excludes the tenure of the two models who each worked one day and the one model who has worked as a model for 39 years.

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87 are a number of individual artists in a given city, the rates are highe r than if there are fewer; for others, if an artist is estab lished--that is, likely selling ar tworks--then the model demands a higher rate than if the artist was just getting established. The participants were asked about sources of income they were getting in addition to that from modeling. About one half (5 9%) of the models did part-tim e work in addition to modeling. The work ranged from being a life organizer assistant, teaching coll ege courses part-time, instructing theater workshops and having a hom e-based body-work prac tice to horticulture, administrative work for a manufacturer, receptionist retail, real estate, a nd being a mural artist, spokes-model, and photographic model. Some of th e models (32%) were students and stated they did no other work, while another 9% of the models responded that they did nothing else for pay besides model. Knowledge about Art Models and Visual Art Industry The particip ants were asked whet her or not they had received in struction in the visual arts, and, more importantly, if they had ever taken an art class that include d a nude model. Sixteen percent of the respondents took art classes only up until high school, 48% had taken art classes beyond high school, and 36% had never received any t ype of training in visu al art. And 36% of the respondents reported having received visual art training wh ich involved the nude model. The participants were asked if they had ever attended an art exhibition that included the nude figure. Most of the participan ts (68%) had been to an art e xhibition that featured artworks depicting the nude human figure. The participants were asked wh at in their opinion were the main reasons artists use the nude model for their art. Their responses can be summarized into the following six categories: Artists want to learn about and understand human anatomy, notably musculature, so artists can discover how the human body move s and so draw a human figure.

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88 The three-dimensional configuration a nd complex structure of the human body-proportions, shades, shadows, lines, differences in color, and depth of each--varies across humans and is a challenge to draw; the artist needs to be able to walk around model to view all of these. A living body gives vibrations, emotion, feeling, spirit, humanity, a living energy, an essence or a potential movement which presents a challenge to artists to capture on paper or canvas. Artists believe the complexity of the huma n body requires them to use nude models to capture that complexity correctly. Once artists are able to properly capture the human body on paper or canvas, everything else is easier to draw or paint. Artists feel artistically inspired by the poses. Respondents were asked about th eir knowledge of the history of artist modeling. Some of the respondents (64%) knew about the history of th e use of artist models by artists. They stated, for example, that it was a phenomena that has ex isted for centuries, that models have always been treated with little respect by the public, and that very littl e information exists about artist models. Also, that artists once used male models to pose for the female form, that artists often combined the features of several models into a single finished artwork, that artists sometimes treated their models disrespectfu lly, that female artists were on ce prohibited from using the nude model, and that artist models we re commonly women of lower stan ding, such as prostitutes, or sometimes lovers of artists, before the pro fessional artist model came into existence. Respondents were also asked to name any famous ar tists models in history with whom they were familiar. A few of the respondents (35%) named notable artist models used by artists in the past: three mentioned Gala Dali, two identified Camille Claudel, one specified Fernande Olivier, one mentioned Helga Testorf, and one named both Vi ctorine Meurent and Mademoiselle OMurphy. Summary. The models in the sample have mostly worked in classroom settings and for artist groups for artists drawing and painting the nude human figure. On average, they have been

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89 involved in nude modeling for three and one half years. The models are usually paid by the hour rather than a set fee, ranging from $10.00 to $20.00 per hour. Despite the seemingly extraordinary pay for modeling, th e findings indicate that the res pondents are as likely as not to have other sources of income (in addition to modeling). Considering what the participants in the study know generally about th e visual art industry and artist models in history, the models as a wh ole have taken art classes themselves--some with a nude model--and have gone to art exhibitions that have featured nude artworks. Their perceptions of why artists want the model center on the artists need for a li ving person to supply a nude form so that they are able to both see anatomy as well as view how light affects human structures. The models were less able to re port about the history of artist modeling, although some respondents knew some generalities about the work, yet far fewer knew famous artists models of the past. Entry into Modeling and Training for the Work This section presents a discussion of how the respondents got into m odeling and the training they underwent pr ior to posing for the first time. I started each interview by asking the respondents how they initially got into the work. Nine of the pa rticipants began working after being told about the opportunity (in the case of three models) or available positions (in the case of six models) from a friend--ei ght from a friend who was then work ing as an artist model, and one after being told by a friend who was not a model. Four found their way into modeling through a suggestion of an acquain tance or friend who was an ar tist or an ar t student. Four entered the work by following up on a long-standing personal interest in trying the work. Three respondents, then nude photographi c models, started modeling--two started after being urged to try the work at the suggestion of photographic artists, and one on her own initiative. Two found the work after reading about and responding to a wanted advertisement on a bulletin board at a

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90 university. Two respondents entered modeling after it was suggested to them--one after reading about it in an art periodical, a nd the other through a parent who was an art major in college. And one did not specify how she entered modeling.3 Most (64%) of the respo ndents first modeled in a classroom setting, 28% for an arti st group, and 8% for an individual artist. In sum, entry into the work of artist modeling was in a classroom se tting, and came about through individuals already familiar with the visual arts industry. Respondents were asked whether they received any guidance or training upon entering the work for the first time. Instructions were given by telephone to all of the models except for those who received their instructions from a model c oordinator via a meeting, from a departmental secretary or an artist model friend in person. The models spec ified that the most frequent instructions were only to bring a cover and where to change into the cover. Only when models entered modeling by working for an instructor did they receive additional explanations about the types of poses they would be required to do. Most of the models (40%) received instructions from an instructor, 20% from an artist group coordinator, 12% by a model coordinator4, 4% by individual artists, and 4% by a se cretary in an art department of a college (and 8% could not remember, 4% were told by an artist model friend, 4% knew fr om having been in many drawing classes as a student, and 4% knew from being a bystander in classes). In general, most respondents were inducted instantaneously into modeling and had little or no formal training. 3 Models #2 and #25 both entered arti st modeling as a draped model. 4 At some art schools, models undergo a thorough training. A campus orientat ion is followed by a review of a packet of information including styl es of poses and an expl anation of a list of instructions for appropriate conduc t. Lastly, new models are paired with a more senior model who adds further information abou t the rules, and then has the ne w model attend classes with her in order to watch her pose.

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91 The scant amount of instructions and minimal level of training give n to models prior to modeling results in most models learning the work and work-related behaviors ty pically on the job. The Routine and Setting of Nude Posing This section presents a summary of the basi cs of posing as related by the m odels. It reviews the routine that models undergo prior to arriving at the setting, what takes place when they arrive at the setting, and an overview of th e basic types of poses, as well as related issues such as sexual sugge stivity in posing. Respondents were asked a series of questions about what they did to get ready before going to a session. A few of the models (24%) report ed that the only speci al grooming they did was showering, and 19% reported that they take care of other grooming needs like shaving their legs, arm-pits and bikini lines, and specifically making sure that the tops and bottoms of their feet were clean. About one-half of the models (56%) stated that they did no particular preparation to their body prior to posing. Some models (33%) repor ted that they wear make-up while modeling, simply because they have it on already prior to going to a session. The models that do not wear make-up (67%) either prefer not to wear make-up in general or remove it prior to modeling because some art schools often prefer that they not wear any while posing. About one-half of models (57%) wear finger-nail or toe-nail polish when they pose because it was already on prior to beginning a session, rather than applying it expressly for the purpose of modeling. About one-half of the models (55%) wear jewelry (earrings or studs, bracelets, necklaces, nipple piercings, or nose studs) whil e posing. As is true for make-up and nail polish, wearing jewelry is a matter of personal choice an d habit and is not related to the modeling job (about one-half do and one-half do not wear jewe lry in the modeling sense), although some art schools prefer that no jewelry be worn.

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92 What type of clothing to wear to the modeling session also is a fairly casual decision based mainly on convenience and the fact that clothes are essentially irrelevant to the modeling session itself. About one-half (58%)of the models stated that they wore every-day clothes to the setting while the other nearly one half (42%) of the re spondents reported that th ey wore clothing that was easy to take off and put on. Two models noted about wearing every-day clothes, I bring a robe, so it doesnt really matter what Im wearing--it doesnt matter--because as soon as I get there I change in to the robe and then I wear the robe, so it doesnt really matter. 3 Any kind of clothingll do because youre not using clothes when youre a nude model. 6 Other models reported about wearing clot hes that are easy to put on and remove. Things that came off easily, you know, yoga clothe s--something I could slip in and slip out of without a hassle 10 Usually I wear things that are like very comfortable and that I can whip off literally incredibly quickly. Like maybe a little draw-str ing pants and a top that has a built-in bra and thats it. I have two items to take off. 25 I wear things that dont constrict me at all because, you know, youll get dents and stuff, and theyll develop and youve got like all these jeans-things going on nd all that stuff, and I dont think it really matters to anybody but me, and thats just the way it is. 7 I dress like a bum when I go in there; I wear sweat s for goodness sake--I wear anything thats loose on me. You dont want any stretch marks on you: no panty lines, no bra-lines. [. .] [Wearing loose clothes] matters to me Its a distraction if you have lines on your body. [. .] When you take off--when, when you model in front of somebody, you just wanna see you --not the fact what you wore unde rneath your clothes, you wanna see you and thats why I wear my clothe s as loosely as possible cause once I take this off, theyre seeing me, theyre not seeing what I wore underneath it--theyre seeing me. Thats modeling-thinking. 15 I actually try to wear loose clothing cause, um, if you like take off your clothes, you have like, um bra marks like on the sides here [d emonstrates] or your underwear marks--those are considered unprofessional. 17 I dress very loosely so that theres no lines on my skin. Because you wanna get a nice straight line--you dont want to, um cause I want them to have a clean line--I dont want them to have to see a bra line or a pant y line, or, you know, my socks that have been bunched around my ankles because theyre tryi ng to render a very smooth surface--theyre

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93 trying to--you know, they dont, they dont need any added extr a detail because its, its already a complicated process. [. .] You don t wanna see those lines on the skin from the bra or the, the panties or the jean s or the--whatever youre wearing. 16 The items models most often take with them to a modeling session are a cover, such as a robe, sarong or an over-sized T-shirt--which is worn at all times when a model is not posing, a towel, sheet or blanket--which is placed over the surface where the model poses, such as the modeling stand, chair, stool or bench, in order to prevent skin contact wi th the less-than-clean surface; and sandals--which are worn when the model is walk ing around. Other things that models sometimes take are a timer, a roll of tape (to mark poses), an erasable marker (to mark poses), music, bottled water, food (such as chocolate bars, chewing gum or mints), rub (to soothe aching muscles), baby-wipes (to cl ean the bottom of the feet), drap es or scarves, pillows, a space heater and extension cord (in wint er), and a stool or chair. The ite ms (that can fit) are most often kept in a separate bag that models take to a session. Models arrive at the setti ng with their modeling things and immediately go to the designated changing area and change from their cl othes into their cover or robe. Nearly all models (86%) change from their cl othes into their cover or robe in an area apart from where they pose; that is, in a bathroom, a closet-area, a di vided area in the corner of the classroom behind a partition, a separate room if at a home, or ot her designated area. A few models (14%) remove their clothes while next to the mode ling stand and then put on their robe. Theres a bathroom down the hall I used the fi rst couple of times. A nd then after that I realized that they were gonna see me naked anyway, so, I mean, theres an attempt at modesty, but it seemed kind of silly to me, so I would just change right by the stand. 1 Half the time, because I forget the robe, I just drop the clothe s right beside the stand cause they--all these students--have seen me naked multiple times, so its just not really a big deal to me. 9 It just makes no difference to me, um, disrobi ng in front of them, I mean, I just--I dont know--I feel like, I feel like Im actually making a bigger deal out of it if I go try to change

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94 in private and then come out. I mean Im gonna--theyre gonna see everything anyway. 13 One model admitted that on some occasions she rem oves her clothing behind a partition, yet then emerges from behind the partition without a cover, Sometimes Ive gone--come out completely nude and walked up, got up on there, and sometimes its awkward, and yeah, my breasts in somebodys face and they might catch a glimpse of what would be considered ind ecent in other situations, but to me its no different than any other time, you know, just getting up and moving around. 6 Contiguous with changing into their cover or robe, those models with long hair pull it to the side, pull it to the back or put it up (so the n eck, shoulders and whole head is visible to artists while they pose). Having changed into their cover or robe, the models who have not changed by the stand or who have not arrived early at a classroom or group location, ente r the setting while carrying their modeling gear and make their way to the mode ling stand. The modeling stand (or platform) is located either in the center of the room, at the mi d-point of the wall or in the corner of the room. While they approach the modeli ng stand, 76% of the models reported that they look around the setting to ascertain what artists were present and if they recogni ze any from prior sessions or the community at large, the number and composition of artists present, including their age and gender make-up. They also look to see whether artists are sitting or st anding, and the way the artists are positioning themselves and their easels (in a semi-circle or in the round). Models also check out where the lights are and where shadows will fall when posing begins. A few models (24%) reported that they go straight to the stand without look ing around the setting. Once at the stand, the models set up the stand by laying out thei r towel or sheet and arranging any items that they may have brought w ith them, such as a timer, music, or pillows. They also re-position any props already present on the stand so that the artists will have an unobstructed view of the pose. In the remaining time before the session begins, most models sit

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95 on or near the model stand and wa it, although 32% reported that they use that time to stretch-out-consisting mainly of stretching their hamstrings, legs, shoulders or doing some simple twists. For me, [stretching before posing begins is ] akin to, uh, prize-fighting, um, and always knowing like within a few seconds Im gonna be ha ving to be very still, [. .] so Im jumping, you know, and getting everything to re ally open up [. .]. Theres a certain body movement that I do that just gets me very gr ounded, gets all the kinks out, all the energy is moved out [. .], Im very balanced, and I can stand up there for as long as you want me to stand. 7 If I dont [stretch], it really hurts when [laughs] I have to pose. 11 When the instructor, group coordinator or indivi dual artist indicates that posing is to begin, the model steps onto the stand (or into the modeling space) and removes her cover. Models may do a standing, sitting (seated) or lying (reclining) or all three kinds of poses in a single session, depending on whether they are working in a classroom, for a group or for an individual artist. In the classroom setting, poses vary across tw o broad forms: gesture poses and the long pose.5 Gesture poses are poses held from a thirty -second up to a five minute duration across a designated period of time. The gesture poses are usually a mix of standi ng, sitting and lying poses, and are typically exaggerated movements; for example, standing on one leg, lunging, or reaching up for something. The model may do five to ten gesture poses in a series. The aim of these poses is for the artist to capture a m ovement of the body in pencil or charcoal. Additionally, the artis t learns about the relationship betw een parts of the body when the body is in motion. In contrast, the long pose is a single standing, sitting or lying pose held by the model for anywhere from thirty minutes up to three hours if for a drawi ng, and up to five hours if for a 5 The long pose is nearly always held when nude, but, on occasion, a model will pose wearing or holding something. Models pose in very infrequent cases while wearing either a single item of clothing (not her cover) or while holding an object while nude. About one-half (42%) of the participants reported having ever worn an item of clothing while posing most often a scarf, hat, boa or slippers for a painting. And one-half of th e models have ever held something while posing a book, magazine, umbrella, pizza box, a jewel, a Chinese fan, or a large geometric object like a triangle.

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96 painting. A periodic break of five to ten minutes (or longer if near lunch-time or dinner-time) is taken by the model every twenty to forty minutes for the longer poses.6 The aim of these poses is for the artist to learn how draw or paint the whole body. Additionally, artis ts get to view the human body from any number of angles depending on where they are in relation to the model. In a group setting, there is most ofte n only a single long pose, while gestures may be used for the artists to warm up. The long pose is generally held for the duration of the session, usually three hours with attendant breaks. The goal for the artist in a group is to complete an artwork from the pose within the allotted time the group meets. A nd for an individual artist, there is only a single standing, sitting or lying pose. The length of th e pose during a single session varies, yet can range from three to six hours in total length. The same pose is us ed by the artist over the course of multiple sessions until the artwork is completed. In the classroom setting, the model always c hooses the gesture poses. The choice of a long pose, on the other hand, involves a collaborative effort between th e model and the instructor. The instructor first establishes the length of the pose, and then usually requests that the model assume a general standing, sitting or ly ing pose--front or back--depending on the lesson to be taught for that day. Using those parameters as starting guidelines, the model then chooses the specific pose, yet the instructor may suggest adjustments de pending on the specific needs for that day. The model then tweaks the pose to be sure that it is one in which she can both hold and be comfortable. 6 A break is given to the model every twenty minutes for a five to ten minute period depending on the length of the pose. When break is called, the model puts on her cover, gets off the stand and relaxes. The model might leave the room to ge t a drink of water, go to the bathroom, take a walk outside, or smoke a cigarette. The model mi ght stay near the stand and stretch, read for a class or for fun, eat a snack, drink water, check voice mail, knit, work puzzle books, listen to an instructor if he or she is lecturi ng to students, or, if cold, sit next to the heater. Or she might also walk around in the room to talk with the artists or look at the art work.

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97 Like if theyre looking to, you know, like wh en they first start a technique, itll be something very simple, like just kind of sta nd there. And as they ge t better, theyre like Ok, shift your weight on one side because youre trying to unde rstand how the thigh works. Or put an arm out, or turn your head to the si de--theyre kind of, depending on what they want the students to work on. 1 Generally what theyre gonna do is--theyre gonna tell you the kind of thing that they want, and then you can provide something-if thats good enough, theyll say that thats ok, and if theyre not happy with it, theyll tell you to keep m oving until they get what they want. 2 Sometimes its, theres a little bit of direction, like theyll indicate standing-seatedreclining, and then I pick from there, and then sometimes they want a certain thing: like an, an arm up or extra negative space or certain things that theyre trying to get the st--mostly in the class setting--that theyre trying to ge t the students to draw, a nd so Ill take a pose with that parameter in mind, but I still choose the pose in the end. 13 If the student class is not advanced, Im not gonna come up with this real complicated pose. Um, and I always ask the instructor, Is this ok? Is this what you have in mind? I want it to be a two-way street, otherwise, uh, if Im not doing him a service, I have no business being there. 23 Anytime you pick out a pose ther es the possibility that [instruc tors]re not going to like it-I would say thats pretty regular, especially if youre doing a lot of short term poses--like ten or twenty minute poses--then they s uggest that you move this way or, you know, you might be blocking out some of the people from seeing anything, and so theyll suggest that you move around. 2 So the teacher usually requests like the type of pose, and you just ki nd of work with it till they get what they want, like theyll wanna ma ke sure, especially in classes where you are sitting in the middle of the room, um, they want to make sure that it s an interesting angle for everyone. So if I just like face you head-on, you have an interesting angle to paint, but the person behind me has just the back, so they would have like a twist slightly, or have an arm out to the side a little bit. Youre pretty much just sitting there, but making sure that theres something going on. Or if youre reclinin g, like having one leg bent or one leg kind of on like a pillow or something, so that you have different levels to paint. 1 Some models note that even though they usuall y choose the final pose, sometimes instructors have a great deal to say a bout what the final pose is. Usually its been reciprocity back and forth on whats comfortable as far as pose. Once in a while you get some, some teachers, though, that they want a specific pose a particular way, and thats the way it has to be, and you ha ve no other choice--you dont have any say in the matter. And you just do what youre told. 6

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98 Ive worked for people for an entire semester where theyre like Do whatever you want. The more full professors thatve been around a long time: [. .] very particular on how you posevery--stickler [. .] you need to be su re that everyone in the room gets a view that is [. .] not, not a [. .] straight-s hot pose--straight, front, si de, whatever--you gotta have kind of twist in it so that everyone in the room gets a more dynamic figure. 3 One particular instruct or tells me almost exactly the pose he wants me to take, and I dont like that as often because its generally not gonna be a comfortable pose because hes not going to be standing in it for twenty minut es, so, you know, hes not taking that into account when he picks it. 13 And two models noted that on some occasions they challenge an instructors choice of the pose. The contrapposto poses--sitting on one hip nd standing--are the ones that I hate the most-like when someone says, Would you mind putting your foot on this box? [squeaky voice], and I know its gonna be a long pose, chances are Ill try nd talk em out of it cause I know that I, physically, cant handle it, nd that means going to the chiropractor, which means taking all the money I earned in that session, and giving it right over to him, so I just wasted my time. 23 They may say, you know, That doesnt work; can we try something else? And theyll usually--at that point--theyll direct me if they dont like my initial choice. But--and I, Im not--its--if I dont feel comfortable in a pose, Ill definitely speak up about it because I know my body and I know what I can and cant do, and if they ask too much of me, it--you know, something that I physically cant do fo r too long, Ill, Ill let them know. Can you turn your foot out that way? No, that hurts my ankle to do that. Nd, you know, stuff like that. 24 In contrast to the classroom setting, the long pose in the artist group setting is based on an accord among the artists present a nd the model. The artists in the group initially decide upon a standing, sitting or lying pose for the model. Once established, th ey call out suggestions to her based on what they prefer the specifics of the pos e to be until all artists (and model) come to an agreement, the pose is struck, and the timer is started. Usually its just a consensus among the artists th at are there of like, well, a standing pose?, sitting pose?, a reclining pose? you know, whic h one?, and usually kind, kind of vote on it, and figure out whats the wanted pose, and then theyll ask me, [Name] [. .], well, how bout this .? . Its kind of a democratic process. 3 [For] a longer pose, um, there will be, um a so rt of collaboration betw een the artists: I will try something and Ill say What do you think of this? and they will say Well, could you turn your head a little more that way? or Maybe you could put your arm up here? and well discuss it and work together, and they might suggest something and I will say, you

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99 know, Thats gonna be really painful for me, so they say Ok, then dont do that. So, theres like a give-and-take in those--e specially if its gonna be a long pose. 4 If what their request is, is unreasonable to me as far as they dont realize that its something Im not gonna be able to hold, I wi ll--I have--learned to speak up and say I cant hold that for that long or We could do this pose if you let me take a break every ten minutes or some kind of compromise, feedback. 13 Theyll shout out a request, or you know, maybe bring a, a book nd, nd show a pose that theyve been interested in working on. [. .] [But] usually its up to me to choose the pose. If I, you know, run out of ideas, Ill ask for a re quest. [. .] Mostly, you know, I find that most of the artists are really ok with, with drawing whatever. 21 Sometimes the people that youre working for will, will suggest an emotion they want the pose to capture or something like that, and in that case, definitely you would--with your body--try and convey a particular f eeling or something like that. 2 The pose for an individual artist results eith er from a request by the artist for a specific pose, or from working with the artist to come up with the pose. Model #7 notes that when she works with a particular artist, he has a particular pose in mind, and then works with her to get the pose fine-tuned prior to beginning the artwork, When I work with [name], sometimes, because hes working very, very specifically with play of light on, on the figure, and so hell want certain things sticking out and certain twists like, you know, the play of light coming down like this [demonstrates], so then hell say Now, face the light; turn away fr om the light--something like that. 7 In contrast, other models noted that the pose derives from a cooperative effort between the artist and model. A lot of times in private posings they will have ideas of what theyd like, but, even then, theyre usually open to like differences and, because they want the model to be comfortable as well, so they might say Iv e got this idea in my head--this pose--and youre sitting here in this chai r, and your leg is up there a nd I want to paint you and were probably gonna work on this for three weeks, and Ill think about it and say Um, that probably wont work, but if I put my leg over here we can do that, and that will work. So, it is, its a collaborative effort. 4 [For individual artists] its been Just pose-this is the kind of look Im going for, like Im looking for a very Grecian look or Im looking for a very, um, Reubensesque look. Um, Im going for this classic, uh, design, and Ill, Ill try to choose poses that I know are-have been heavily featured in, in classi c art like woman recl ining or, you know, woman looking at book, or, you know, just stuff like that. 24

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100 In one circumstance I actually collaborated wi th the artist on the pose, and we spent two hours picking a pose. Hes an ultra-realist painter, so he puts about 150 hours worth of work into each painting, so, um, two hours to pick a pose isnt that much. 13 For all three settings, at a minimum for the long pose, the model goes to lengthy efforts to find a pose that is comfortable to her. Models tr y to get into a pose that can be held for a long time with only minimal pain, because, as #9 points out, Even in a long pose, even in a simple pose, uh, your body actually complains after a while. And model #1 stated, You just think about the fact that youre gonna sit there anywhere fr om twenty minutes to maybe forty minutes before you get a break. So, its more about something that you can hold for a while without every limb falling asleep, um, than, you know, trying to look pretty, so to speak. 1 Models also believe that a pose that is comfortable to the model has collateral benefits to the artists as well. If its a longer pose, you gotta hold that pose for long, nd so if youre holding your arm out and everything [demonstrates] just--you cant: it starts saggin so theyll start to draw it correctly the first time, but then theyll--you, youre making their mark off because, you know, it starts to sag. 17 If the instructor says This is a twenty-m inute pose, and I--they want me on the ground with a leg up over my head and my arm out to the side and up in the air, there--I, Im physically incapable of holding that pose. And if ten minutes goes--if they are trying to draw a twenty-minute pose--and th eyve got in their minds and in their body nd--that Ive got twenty minutes to draw this pose--a nd ten minutes through the pose I come out and say Im sorry I cant hold this any more, then nobody is better off for any of it. 4 Anyone whos worked with models for while is very considerate of [the pose] being something that you can hold for a long time--just because they care about you being comfortable, but also because if you have to break pose mid-way th rough a session, thats not good for them either. 2 Theres, theres that certai n point that you cannot give anymore, and if you give--you go over that line and you give too much--then, you know, youre uncomfortable, the people in the group are uncomfortable--its a stupid situation, its just really stupid. 7 This importance of comfort in assuming a pos e became evident to some models only after having worked for a period of time.

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101 I try and make sure that any pose that Im goi ng to be holding for a long time is something thats not going to be like pain ful. So, that wasnt a problem when I first started, but it is now. [. .] Because its not until youve done that to yourself a few times that you know the things that your body can and cant do. [. .] After the second or third time your leg goes numb, you learn that you can t put yourself in the position again [laughs]. 2 I know when theres gonna be a pose thats gonna like restrict me in anywhere--where like my arm will start going numb, I kinda picked up on that. [. .] I know like if Im sitting in a chair, and that my shoulder bl ade is pinched up agai nst the, you know, its pressed pretty hard against the back of the ch air that doesnt have like a towel over it or anything, its like I know th at this [. .] is gonna go numb like within fifteen minutes. [. .] Now I really focus on ok, which--everything s gotta get some sort of circulation, you know, and what not while Im gonna be si tting there for that amount of time. 12 The poses that the models use spring from a variety of sources. Some get their ideas from yoga or dance, and others from their work as performance artists. Still others bring their poses from their work as models for nude photography, and, for others, their l ong experience as an artist model provides a source for poses. And for others, I learned [. .] just from hearing the professors speak to the students what they need to see. 8 I just try to picture myself fr om the outside and think what would be interesting for me to draw or paint if I were on the outside. Actu ally, the first gentleman that hired me as a model told me things like F oreshortening--to do this--that s interesting! If you have negative space--thats interest ing. Anything with a twist, or, you know, Just with your weight shifted--those are all things that become interesti ng and challenging to draw. And so I try to come up with all sorts of variations on those things. I dont ever try to--I try not to ever do anything thats tota lly symmetrical--totally straight on. I think that wouldnt be very interesting for me to draw, so Im not goi ng to ask them to draw it either [laughs]. 4 Model # 19 had a book of artistic po ses that she consulted before she posed for the first time, I have a, a book of, of nude models--like pict ures nd stuff like that that I can use for reference if I wanted my own art, nd I flippe d through that to see what kind of poses they had--just to sorta give myself, you know, more ideas and stuff like that. 19 After #15 had been modeling for about six months, she bought a book of artistic poses, I thought I was running out of id--out of options, out of ideas how to pose cause [. .] I was finding myself doing the same ol stuff. You know, like ya gotta be a little more elaborate. 15 Model #25 stated that she gets some of her ideas for poses after she showers,

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102 When Im getting out of the shower or something, you know, you catch a glimpse of yourself doing something: Yeah, thatd be a re ally good pose. [. .] I will see something and think Ah, I gotta think about that. 25 And #16 stated that she adjusts her poses over time based on the re sults she sees in the artwork, Like certain, certain poses: Ill, Ill see th e pose, and I was like Oh, ok, well, Im gonna work on that a little different, and I can, can al ter that pose a little bit, nd I can make it better this way or whatever--I do that, too, wh en Im--cause I walk behind [the artwork] and I look at the poses. 16 About one-fourth (28%) of the m odels practiced posing, yet one-ha lf of those that said they practiced only practiced occasionally or rarely. I practice my poses sometimes at home to see how they look in the mirror just to see, you know, Ill be working on a new pose that I wanna try out, nd, you know, you dont know until you really see it: sometimes youll be like Er, er, that looks kinda funny, you know, um, because I am, I am, you know, you don t want things to look too I dont know, uncomfortable, or, you know, you dont want the, the fat to kinda be [laughs] too much over this way. 16 Its because sometimes I want to see what the artist sees. I cant always imagine, ok, they must be seeing--no, I want to know so Im looking as if Im out there looking at me. At that time, Ill know what to do when I do get out there in front of them because I remember my reflection of those poses. [. .] It helps a lot --makes it a lot easier, makes the whole session move a lot smoother and ev eryones satisfied, including me. 20 Less so than I used to when I was having to--Id just started and I needed to come up with a lot of gesture poses, and now I have, you know some stuff. [. .] I think its my responsibility to continually come up with ne w [poses] cause theres people I see every week, you know, they dont wanna see the same poses every week [laughs]. 14 Perhaps one of the first issues that raises questions about the propriety of nude modeling is that nude poses are sexually suggestive. Models typically put limits on the choice of poses that have the potential to be sexually suggestive. Therefore, they ne ver intentionally choose a pose that could be construed as such by the artists. The following statements are representative of statements given by the models regarding the choice of poses that not sexually suggestive, Im always worried about doing something that toos suggestive, but, really, unless youre trying, its difficult to. 14

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103 I really try to focus on being professional, a nd not doing anything that--just cause its a nude pose doesnt mean that its really sexual or to be misguided like anything like that-so, um, I always try to have that come across. 11 Im sure there is [a line between acceptable and suggestive], I dont think Ive ever crossed it cause I think Im always that, you know, a lit tle bit--I, I do the more classical poses so Im not gonna be all like whoo [noise], you know, nd spread open everywhere, or anything like that. 12 There are certain things about your body that you dont want people to see. [. .] Were not porn stars, were models. [. .] There are personal parts of your body that you only want one other person to see at a time--not, not in a crowd. 3 I very rarely try to compromi se my, my below the belt area-I like to keep demure--like my demurely crossed--I dont want this to be some kinda gross-out. So, if, if its like especially a laying pose, I try to be very, um delicate about the way that I, I lay; sometimes I--cause I dont want--you know, I dont wanna, I dont want this to be a lewd-fest, so I, Im conscious about that. 24 Nonetheless, some models noted that their genital region will inevitably be seen by the artists during some types of poses. In an art class youre surrounde d by people--its a thirty-way mirror of [Name] [laughs]-they may know a little more about you than you want them to. 3 Uh, I have done things like, you know, done plenty of like bend-over poses, you know, which could be considered suggestive, but really its another position the bodys in: people bend over all the time. [. .] Um, because of the context, a lo t of things really arent suggestive, you know, I mean I dont do anything lik e grabbing my crotch or my breasts or whatever . 9 There are just certain things that, because of certain parts of your body, um, are exposed, and, and, I can strike a pose that might look suggestive and--but ever ything, to me, its all artistic and I can still see it as an artistic offer. 8 [An instructor said] Here, what can you do with this bench?--and so I did this crazy thing where Im like [demonstrates], you know, the bench is like this, Im like, like this [demonstrates], sort of like this [demonstrat es] so this is all stickin up all over the [demonstrates], you know, its like you just, you really cant re ally--somebodys gonna get that view--thats just the way it is; but a lot of other people are gonna get a really odd little abstracted killer dipsy-doodle kind of thing, and its gonna be a great draw. 7 Depending on where youre sitting, theyre gonn a be seeing different things, you know, especially if I do that--the leg up on the chai r--you know, but I think its a matter of what theyre putting into the rest of the painting or their draw ing, you know, are they just gonna blow that section up? 12

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104 Model #23 reported about an open pos e that she did for art students, I was asked to do a pose once where I was--it was an assessment drawing--um, they had me lie on the floor, kind of in an X, and so [laughs] I kept my X very small [laughs] because Im not comfortable with my legs sp read open. It was a female running the class, [. .] um, I know it was clearly for an assessm ent drawing, so I just told her that I was more comfortable with my legs being in a much smaller X, with no student actually sitting at the base of the model stand where my feet were. And she was ok with that. And, um, I felt a lot more comfortable. 23 Model #17 recounted a pose that she did which dr ew a reaction from the art students present, This one pose I did--it was during a, uh, gest ural, uh, drawing, or, you know, a short threeminute pose, and I just kinda, um I as sit ting down and I opened up like my legs into a full ninety degree spread--not only did I like just leave my vag--I raised it up so its like out a little bit--along with, with my leg like going up, and some of the girls actually, more so than the guys at all-nd, nd theyre like Oh, my God, and you know, just from hearing it . Youre like Oh; oh, well. 17 Model #16 remarked about an exposed pose that she once did, I can remember one time I did one pose th at was maybe, you know, very sexual and open, but, you know, not the not the centerf old, you know, spread-leg, open, you know, you know, like I would never touch my private dow n there when I was posing like they, like they would do in a centerfol d--like a Playboy centerfold. You know, its, its very dignified--you know, nudity can be dignified--it, it doe snt have to be perverted nd, you know you know, disgusting, lets say. 16 Model #16 also mentioned that some of her poses contain an element of sexual energy, Im sure that there is some type of energy in a long pose, but I think its more of a-depending on the pose sometimes--it can be a sexual energy; it can--it, its just there undoubtedly because you are nude, and I try to be very feminine nd, yet, um there--I, Im going to say I, I try to be a little sexual because I am a female and I am, you know, a woman, and I am nude, and the nude body does have some type of sexual connotation to it, but not in a, in a degrading way, not in a perv erse way, really, more in a, in a elegant, beautiful way where, you know you know, you, you try to give em something thats lounging and when youre lounging like that, you cant help but not want to be beautiful and sexual--it, its kinda lik e it just comes out of you. And I guess there, there is that energy. 16 Three models commented about the di singenuous intentions of models that might pose in a sexually suggestive manner and its subsequent effect on the artists. I think sometimes--and thats where energy co mes in--your intent behind your movement can change how people interpre t it, um, theres plenty of people who end up being skeezy,

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105 uh, wherever they are, even though theyre no t doing anything really that bad because something about their energy translates to skeezy. 9 I suppose that if a model in a professional se tting did something consistently suggestive, they would be fired--because that would be considered exhibitionism, not modeling. And if somebody had their own like persona l sexual kick that they were getting out of doing this, it would be disturbing: it would disturb everyone because thats not why the people are there. [. .] I mean I imagine like students would be really upset--it would be upsetting, [. .] I would think people would be--would avert their eyes, they would be embarrassed, you know. 10 Im very acutely aware of other peoples comf ort levels--and not wanting to make anyone uncomfortable--[. .] I try not to do a sp read-leg pose facing--with anybody whos, you know, facing me in between my legs--um, Ill do cross-leg poses, Ill do knees together or somewhat together, you know, there s like a standard like foot or so apart where theres no spreading going on, um, or I can do that if Im facing at such an angle where nobody can see, um, or Ive done it occasionally where like Ill put my hands in between my legs and like lean down on my hands in front of me and then between my legs and my legs are splayed out, um, so thats pretty much where it comes from. Otherwise, um, oh, and I guess Im cautious about if I do like a be nding over pose about giving someone a complete broad-side ass-view, but just be cause its not that interesting to draw more than anything. [. .] Im trying to protect the thi ngs that would put that little fl ag up in their heads that That looks suggestive to me, so Im trying not to do that. Um, and again, I, I only addressed the things that I show or don t show--I didnt address the type of--theres an eroticism in different types of poses, too, and [. .] [I try] not to do a sexy pose for the artists. 13 While nearly all models voiced opposition to posing in a blatantly sexually suggestive manner, models #4 and #10 reported a somewhat differing position. Um even things where its a seated pose with legs spread, Ive had artists say Could you do that ?--thatd be nice--not quite that spread, but maybe to he re? Id feel alright with. But I still believe those artists, even in asking for that werent asking for something really sexual--it was a central concept, um, the structure of what art they were trying to create--they thought it would be what they were trying to, uh, communicate through their art. 4 If I were to pose for like someones actual art, but not in a classroom, um I dont know if Id really have a huge problem with it; I dont think Im gonna sit there with my legs spread and, you know, hand in my crotch, but I would be ok with something that was relatively suggestive. 10 And model #13 reported that she had posed in s exually erotic poses for drawings by an individual artist.

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106 When posing finishes at the end of the se ssion, the model puts on her cover, and, while some may shake out a hand or foot that had fall en asleep, most re-pack their gear and simply return to the place where they removed their cl othes and put them back on. Some leave right away, yet if there is th e matter of being paid for the session with an artist group, the model will return to the group moderator and ta ke receipt of a check or cash th at had been collected from the artists. Others return to the setting and say good-bye to some individuals, look at some artworks, and then leave the area. Models do very little to ready their overall appearance for posing. Most do not groom their bodies to any significant degree, but they are as likely as not to wear make-up, finger-nail or toenail polish, jewelry, or any type of particular clothing. The mode ls tend to take only essential items with them to a session, such as a robe for their body, a cover for the stand, and sandals. Nearly all models change into th eir robe in an area separate fr om the posing area, and then look around the room at the artists prior to beginning a pose. Most models then simply wait for the session to begin, yet a few stretch out prior to begi nning the session. Summary. The long poses in each of th e three settings is mostly in the hands of the model. In the classroom the pose is initially specified by the instructor, then finalized by the model. In the group setting, the pose is a mutual agreem ent between model and group members. For individual artists, the pose may derive strictly from the model or by dire ction of the artist. The over-riding concern for getting into a longer pose in all three setti ngs is comfort for the model. The models obtain ideas for their poses from a number of places. The fi ndings indicate that models are not overly concerned with suggestivit y in poses, but place limits on types of poses and deny any intention for deli berately sexually s uggestive poses. The model poses throughout

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107 the length of the session--inte rrupted only by periodic breaks--until the sess ion is finished and the model leaves. Interactions with Artists The previous two sections give an indicat ion of how the respondents entered artist modeling and how they generally perform their work. Some of th at narrative necessarily invoked model-artist interactions. The descriptions in this section concentrate on th at interaction between models and art students and inst ructors in the classroom sett ing, artist groups and individual artists. These include how the model is addressed, talking between the model and artists, spatial factors between the model and others in th e setting during posing, inter-personal problems encountered, how the model perceives her role in the setting, and some views of the artists in general. In the classroom setting, models revealed that they are commonly addressed by the instructors and art students with their first name. When first beginning work in a classroom, the model is usually referred to as the model wh ile she is posing or is on breaks, but as work continues for the same class over the course of a semester, she quickly comes to be called by name. Regarding instructors, model #1 noted, When Im modeling, Im the model; they talk about the models arm or the models leg--especially if hes like trying to illustra te something, like Try to notice the shadow here. Um, its in very clinical terms. [. .] And then you are, you know, [name] again once youre clothed. 1 And model #7 stated about instructors, Theyll say Well, what youve got on your paper here is not whats happening on [name], you know, theyll go, theyll define you instead of . is not whats happening on the model--sometimes theyll say that, but very quickly it transfers to an actual person, you know, who has a name. 7 Nonetheless, model #10 noted that classroom instru ctors invariably refer to her as the model while she is posing,

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108 When the teacher was giving feedback to the students he would say like the model this or the model that. 10 And students in the classrooms sometimes refer to a model as the model when they are talking to other students. If theyre talking about--like asking something or talking to each other about like some part they cant figure out or something theyre drawing doesnt look right, and theyre kind of consulting each other--theyll just kind of poi nt, and its the model. I mean, some of the students are more likely to use she, but its either the model or she, . 1 Its funny how they talk about me during the cl ass as if I dont hear : Shes such a good model, isnt she? She really knows how to keep a good pose. And Im sitting within earshot, and they dont address me, but they ta lk to each other sa ying what a good model I am--which is always nice to hear--but its funny how they dont--and sometimes they will tell me that to my face--but its funny how they like to tell other artists in the room that Im a good model--as if Im, I cant hear it [laughs]. 23 If youre like in a--someplace like [art schoo l] where theyre young and theyve just started working with models--theyre more likely to talk about you as an object than someone whos been working with you for a long time. [. .] They talk about you in the third person about your skin tone, your hair color, um, things like that, what you look like, you know. 2 Models may engage in conversations with the art students prior to beginning a session, while they pose, or at the breaks. A few models reported that they talk to students before posing begins in those classes where they had some familiarity with them, while only three models mentioned that they talk to students while posing. A greater number of models reported that they talk to students while on brea k. Students are usually present in the classroom throughout the models break, and some models stated that th ey would walk around and talk to students during those times. In contrast, two models reveal ed that they talked to students but only after the students initiated the conversation with them, I pretty much walk around [the break] in s ilence unless they engage me in a conversation. [. .] Most kids dont talk to me unless sometimes theyll say, You know, I really like this; this is really cool, and Ill say, Oh, m glad I can help you, nd, you know, they might say, Whats your special training? Do you do something else? and then, you know, Ill tell em about the--a little b it about myself, um, but I keep the conversation to a minimum. 23

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109 When I was on break I would walk around and look at the work [. .] but I didnt talk--I mean, occasionally, students would talk to me-mostly they would just come up to like give me appreciation or ask me if Id do so me individual work on a project or something like that. But I didnt really initiate conversations with people--it just felt, um, like it might be misconstrued or--I, I didnt want to do that --I left it like at a very professional boundary. 10 While the model is posing in the classroom, a certain discreet distance is found between the model and the students. Art students usually ma intain a space of four to five feet from the posed model. When necessary, a student may leave their easel and walk to within two or three feet of the model for a closer ex amination then return to their easel. Contour drawing or painting, on the other hand, requires that students be approxim ately two to three feet away from the model while they work on their art. In contrast to the students, the instructor of the class will often get very close to the model while she is posing. Instructors get near to th e model for instructional purposes, as model #12 explains, Ill be posing nd [. .] shell come up nd sh es talk--teaching--a student or whatever like Oh, look at this, and the students like I dont see it, shell come up to me and be like--I mean she wont touch me--shes like--usu-, --usually shes pretty good like Ok, Im right here, you know, and its like I, I dont really care, but shes like No, but like look at the clavicle, you know, like this curve nd its not straight, nd t s got this little ., you know, so, I--thats never made me feel uncomfortable, anyway. 12 Some instructors are wary of that comfort level and try not to get close at all, uh, maybe, uh, bodily: two, three feet at hand--you know, like they reach out to point, maybe within a foot, like, er, try to k eep a foot barrier. 13 However, two models recounted that instructor s sometimes touch them while posing. Model # 16 stated, I have no problem with them coming right up to me and pointing--even, even if they had a pointer, and they touch me with the point er, like, uh, Look where how this hip is projected or Look how her arms are cro ssed or, you know, theyll point out certain things about the pose to their students. 16 And model #14 stated that instructors sometime s unintentionally touch her while she is posing,

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110 The only time Ive ever had anybody touch me actually is at [University], and the instructorsll be pointing out, you know, something, and its, its never been inappropriate or I dont particularly like it, but, if it really bothered me, then I would say something, um, and I understand its by accident, you know, theyre trying to point to my back-bone, and they touch it accidentally. 14 Instructors also need to get close to the model to tape the model. If youre holding a pose for more than one cla ss period, theyll put tape marks on whatever youre sitting or standing on to kind of mark wh ere things are, and whenever they did that, theyd say Ok, Im going to put a tape mark by your thigh, is that ok? 1 The professors Im really comfortable with beca use they have to come right up next to nd, nd mark where your body is [. .] um, so I think at first it was kinda--there was like that bubble there, and, um, it was, it was kinda strang e to have someone that close to you when you didnt have clothes on, but, um, now its Im ok with it. 11 I dont mind--and I make it clear to the instructor s--that it doesnt bother me if they touch me, so, you know, theyll touch my shoulder, you know, in a non-sexual way, um, or with a stick--a pointer item--and poi nt things out on my body, um, Iv e had instructors actually place tape on me to indicate a muscle line or the spine where they, th ey are trying to teach the students how to look at th e curvature of the spine, and, um, that doesnt bother me at all. 13 A few models related specific instances of difficulties betw een themselves and classroom instructors. Model #23 noted that a problem she had with one instructor ove r the repeatedly cold temperatures in his classroom resu lted in her not posing for him again, I wont model for this one arti stteacher--cause he, uh, refuse s to--he says he cant do anything about the air conditioning, which is bunk--he could put some kind of, um, cardboard over the vent--he just doesnt want to. Therefore, I dont model for him. [. .] I have to be comfortable. 23 And model #7 stated that she was once angry at an instructor because he did not provide adequate heat to her while she was posing--des pite his knowledge about the cold conditions in the room from previous classes held there. Mo del #7 went on to note about other instructors, Sometimes youll get these idiots and theyre Oh, well, lets do a fifteen minute pose, and you get into it--like I can hold this for fifteen minutes--and th en its so spanking good he wants to do it for forty-five minutes--thats when you get, you start to get pissed off. 7 Youre supposed to have a break every twen ty minutes, and have a couple of minutes to stretch and to relieve your muscles, uh, I of ten end up sitting in a pose for forty-five

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111 minutes; [. .] Ill go I need to stop for a st retch-break, and I, I dont do it in a mean way, but, you know, I have to take care of my body. 9 I have had some, some, uh, art teachers whore extremely strict, and they want their full hour and a half and they dont want you moving-at all--except one break. [. .] Sometimes they get real sticklers, th ough: Dont move, dont move an inch, dont move anything, you know, like I might have to stretch or some thing like that and go back into place, and they say No. 6 [One instructor] doesnt like when you fidget; hes, hes like, Well, I guess, uh, your feet going to sleep is just part of the hazards of be ing a model. [. .] [He] actually berated me in front of his classroom--I was so pissed--h e, he came outhe--I was swishin, kinda doin this [demonstrates] with my back cau se I got a lot to hold up, you know, cause my back usually is, is very tired by that time o day, and I was doin this [demonstrates] kinda thing--tryin to stretch out my back--I was gonna get right back into the pose, and hes like, Can you just stop fidgeting? and I was like, Sorry, sir, my back hurts. He goes, Well, you have five minutes. I said, You talked for fifteen before I got into this pose, you know, while--cause hes like can you hold the pose and then hell like talk for fifteen minutes and then expect you to keep holding the pose for another tw enty. And I was just like, I as like, Im sorry, Ive been holding this for over thirty mi nutes; I cant--my back hurts. He goes, Is it--and then he just let go : he as like, Is it too much to ask to have a model that, if they have a back problem, to be told before you come to my class? 24 I think--feeling sort of like were not really respected for our ability--were just, you know, ok, here this body comes, we want this body to pic, move on; just see nude body parts. 25 There was one teacher who did the weirdest thing: he had a laser-red-laser pointer--and he pointed it at me, and when it touched my body, I got furious: it just couldnt, I couldnt tolerate it, I hated it, and I felt it was very rude, and I went to the modeling manager, and they made him get rid of that pointer, and I never worked with him again. 10 The only time I never went back to work for somebody was--we just had a clash of personalities; he was teaching a small cla ss and we kind of argued with each other throughout much of the entire session, so I didnt go back and he didnt want me back. 2 The respondents offered their opinions about the art students they model for in the classroom settings. Three models commented about whether or not the stude nts in the art classes are, in fact, artists. Some of them have been making art since th ey were very young. [. .] I, I would call someone an artist whos doing art, whethe r or not theyre doing it super-well yet or not, who has like that commitment to doing it regular ly, um, you know, a quilt er is an artist, even if--when theyre a begi nning quilter, I mean, its a craft but its also an art, so I wouldnt say the students are artists, you know, they are in training, but they are artists. 9

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112 [Students]re creating works of art while theyre learning. 2 I feel that if t any level--w here, at--whatever the [student] is at any level--thats where theyre sup--thats where they are, you know, and theyr e gonna get better. 16 Two models expressed positive comments about the students. The students were wonderful--I never experienced anything other than joy in working with the students. 10 Theyre always very courteous and thanks fo r doing this cause they understand the value of having a model. And they understand that its actually not as easy as it looks, um, just to sit there and not move and be still and naked in front of people, so most of em have a lot of respect just for like the idea of modeling, um, because there they are six hours a week drawing naked people, but they wouldn t do it--like most of them would not be willing to strip down in front of fifteen people--so they have a lot of respect just for, I guess, the, the job. Um, and theres like thats what it is : its being a model, and being able to put yourself out there so to help ot her people learn and be art for th em or whatever; like theres gratitude for that cause they wouldnt be ab le to learn without somebody willing to do it, and most of them wouldnt do it. 1 One model commented about the halted inte raction that sometimes happens between models and students. Sometimes with some [students], male or fema le, it might take three or four times before they actually, actually look me dead on [. .]. [. .] Even when youre coming off the pedestal, and youre gonna change, you take a break, sometimes people just deliberately will kind of stay a little aloof at first. I, I think that has to do with, you know, youre a stranger when youre coming in, you know, [. .] and especially when its under an instructor--a teacher--because its not their choi ce, its the choice of th e teacher, so theyre actually being directed as well. 6 Two models offered comments about what they believed were the stud ents perceptions of them. A lot of times the students thi nk of the model [. .] in the classroom--youre on a pedestal in class [. .]--not like super-human, [. .] but more like cando-no-wrong, you know. [. .] [They] think about you as a subject sometimes more than an actual human. [. .] Theyre intimidated, I guess, [. .] they dont know how to respond to it, you know, its something that Ive never, never been exposed to before in my life, you know. 3 Since I worked in the same cl ass twice a week all semester, you get to actually know the people, and, at that point, like they dont even think of you as naked--like they think of you as like this, you know, this is art class. And when Im clot hed, well chat it up, you know,

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113 we can talk about our days, um, some peopl e you actually get to know since you see em six hours a week, and you talk a lot. 1 And three models stated their dislikes about some art student s they have encountered and what their responses were to them. Model #23 noted of the students in an art school, Sometimes I feel like, um, a slab of meat: these students often dont like me, um, now and then Ill get a student whos appreciative and that makes me feel good; I dont need my ego stroked, but I think a nice Thank you is in order. [. .] I think when a session is over, if a model has done a good job, I think the stud ents have an obligation to say Thank you to the model for, um, just being a part of these artistic classes, being the muse; um, I realize some students dont want to be in certain classes, and its, its mandatory for other, um, courses that they are discove ring, but I really thi nk its a two-way street: [. .] I think to make a good artist you need a good model, and, um, otherwise, I feel pretty much unappreciated, and that Im not givi ng anything special to that cl ass. Like I said, Id rather be a slab of meat in that case. 23 Theres one class I hated --hated the class--I had em for a month--oh, I hated that class because they were very rude, and they didnt know how--they, they hadnt been trained to-how to talk to models, and they ex--its not that they didnt e xpect--expected too much-I dont mind if they expect too much, but you need to be nice when you address me: Im not--youre not paying me, student s, and this, this school certa inly is not paying enough for you to be rude to me. 24 I have a positive attitude in the sense that I, I really want th em to have a chance to learn, uh, and Im fascinated by the f act that theyre learning how to draw [. .]. Um, sometimes theyre a little annoying because theyre eighteen to twenty-two year olds, and Im almost thirty-five, and, you know, sometimes you just wanna shake them a little bit when you hear them saying stupid things, but, for the most pa rt its quiet, so I dont have to listen to a bunch of b.s. from college students [laughs], and they seem like a good group of students, good group of people but then th eyre artists, and I tend to like artists. 9 Like lets say youre, youre doing a pose, you know, and all of a sudden the teacher goes Stop! and he wants to talk and say You guys are not getting what Im talking about. And Im just standing there while theyre getting a lecture, so I grab one of these [scarves] and just wrap myself around it cause I dont want a bunch of guys just staring at me while he chit-chats. 7 If I see some kid just sittin around like this [gestures open-eyed stare], you know, and hes not drawin anything: [Name], Yeah, The res a kid over there, I dont know what, you know, what is he lookin at ? Can you take care of that [. .] for me? 7 And model #7 noted that she brings music to just kind of drift into for times when You have a crazy butt-hanging-out pose and you dont feel like having these eighteen year old guys looking at you. 7

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114 Many models noted that they put forth their full efforts into the posing they do for the students in the classroom. For me because its about their learning: I want them, I want them and the instructor to do whats necessary for their learning. 9 I try, I try to find poses that are comfortable-nothing that is uncomfortable for three hours: somethings going to fall asleep, if not everythi ng. But I want it to be interesting for, for the students as well, like, if youre laying and youre flat on your back, thats not exactly a dynamic pose and its not going to do much for the students--and thats why youre there-well, you get paid--and, you know, youre there to teach the students, hopefully--its part of the classes. 3 If its a thirty second pose, I ll take an extraordinarily dyna mic pose cause I can hold it and I enjoy challenging [them]. 13 In the classes I work with, the students need to be challenged, so I tend to move, um, with better twists and turn s nd like long movements and everything, too. 17 [For gesture poses] I like to give it to em. I do. I like to really challenge them. [. .] [For long poses] I really put it out there--Ive had studen ts say Oh my God, I cant ., you know, they, they have a hard time with it cause theyre students. Like if I, if I model for a class--a, a drawing class--and theyre not re al experienced artists, and I give em something a little too complicate d, you, youll hear it af-, afte r theyre done--after the time is up theyll do Ohh, ., you know, theyr e like Ohh, Im glad thats over, or something because, you know, I dont just stand there, I, I give them something to draw. I challenge them, I try to challenge everyone I try to be a--you know, the type of figure model that you--I give em something to, to work on, and they really appreciate it--they dont want someone just to st and there or just sit there in some, you know, stick-figure position. 16 I wanted to give them as much as possible what they wanted [. .] and I was creative, so I would try to think--my ch allenge was whats the most creative pose and the most interesting pose, and the most shifts of lin es nd lights nd color nd contours that I can give them--because I know a bout art--that I can give them and still be comfortable-relatively comfortable. 10 Because Im a performance artist, I try to do interesting [gesture] poses that give them different, uh, ways of seeing the bod y, and different movement styles. 9 I like [extravagant poses] a lot because, uh, I like knowing that it he lps the artists learn more about motion and body, and, also Im a pe rformance artist, so I like big movement-Im a, you know, like a performance artist Ethy l Merman, so, that big extravagant gesture is just fun for me [laughs]. 9

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115 I like sit--doing sittedseated--poses where Im up on a stoo l--up, the, uh, even though theyre harder on my body, because that gives th e, uh, students, more levels to work with-in terms of the, uh, body. 9 Two models pointed to different instances of posing that were beyond the routine nature of their work. For example, model #11 stated that she posed for over three hours without a break for students taking a timed test. And for model #10, I was away for the weekend [. .] [and] there was asomething--got inside my blue jeans, and when I took my jeans off, I wa s like What is going on?--there was thirteen spider bites like this [gestures] on my--from my wa ist down, and I had to go model [laughs], and they were, you know, more than an in ch in diameter, and they were, um, red -dark [. .] like just angry red welts. And, so I remember standing in front of the class and going Ok, guys, nobody freak-out now [laughs] and I unwra pped and they were like Oh my God, what happened to you? [laughs] Its like spider bites, and everybody totally cracked up laughing: they were like Hey, can we paint, can we do color? [laughs]. 10 The way in which the model is a ddressed by artists in the group setting vari es slightly from that in the classroom setting. The model is ofte n referred to by her first name when she first begins posing for a group, and then thereafter as we ll. Many models nonethele ss talk to artists in the group settings either before starting a sessi on, while on their breaks or on both occasions. I mean there are a lot of times I, I pose for th e same people frequently, and so when I come into a room sometimes there are people that I have established a friendly relationship with, and so, a couple of minutes before the class starts--the session starts--Ill sit down on the stand and [theyll say] Hey, whats been going on? and theyll ask me what Ive been doing, and well have a ni ce little chit-chat. 4 I may talk with some, you know, just, uh, ba nalities, just, you know, How you doin?, Whats the weather?, that ki nd of thing, but I dont, I dont know any of the people, I dont have a, any kind of a relationship. 18 Its nice to be comfortable with the pe ople youre--that are gonna be drawing you, and after youve done it a while, you get to know pe ople and its like Hey, how you doin? And then everybodys comfortable. You know, you take your clothes off and its like youre, youre with friends; its not like youre perfect strangers. 16 And during the breaks, five models noted that they frequently interact with the artists. Everyone socializes in a small group. [. .] If people are standing around drinking coffee or whatever, then Ill join them and talk to em. [. .] Im just one more person whos there. 2

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116 Theres a back porch area at the house, um, a nd theyll have tea and hors d-oeuvres kind of things, so then well all just sit out there nd talk, eat, um, and then go back to the pose. 11 Youre always chatting with pe ople, nd, its a very closeknit--at least--I guess because Ive worked with most of these people for lik e, you know, six-seven years, it just becomes real, sort o like, uh, tightknit nd close kind of situati on, so--more like friendships. 25 Theres definitely a lot of, of personal conve rsation that goes on duri ng the breaks between all of us. [. .] It initially started out with them talking to me, and as I became more comfortable nd developed a relationship, you know, on an individual basis, then I might ask, you know, like, Oh, well, how did that work out for you that we were talking about? you know; you know, it becomes like a mutual friends hip-type situation, so it can be back and forth. 21 [At break] I pull out my book unless somebody says something to me, which happens fairly often, and Ill talk to people--it doesnt, doesnt bother me--but I wont talk--I mean Im not gonna speak to somebody first. 14 When the model is posing, th e artists in a group setting normally maintain a similar distance--five feet--from the model as do the art students in the classroom setting. On some occasions, artists have to set up their easel cl oser to the model because of overcrowding on certain days. And model #24 noted that when artists need to get closer for an examination of a particular feature, they almost always ask first, Theyre very conscious in saying, Can I ge t a--I, I see how the--a scar--Im doing, Im doing your hand--can I just get a closer look at that scar?[. .] The artists--theyre not gonna just like come up to you cause most of em know the models are gonna like, you know, bitch-slap em-back, you know. 24 Only model #13 reported an artist being noticeably too close when the artist got within two feet of her while she was posing on one occasion, yet she did not take any action given that the artist was still at a harmless distance from her since the model stand was about two feet high and she was about one and one half to two feet from the edge of the stand in a standing position. Like an instructor in a classroom, the moderator of an artist group will often tape a model, too.

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117 [The moderator]ll tape me off so I go back into that same pose, and th en hes right there, you know, next to me, I cant--Im not moving yet because, uh, he has to tape me--I, Ive never felt uncomfortable that I can remember. 12 Four models provided examples of negative ev ents they had encountered in group settings. Model #11 first noted that when members of one group sometimes choose a pose, Theyll, theyll throw out a lot of suggesti ons--kinda like bo rder-line demanding. [. .] I think they kinda forget that youre a pers on, but, you know, they, they forget kinda like that youre a nude model, nd more like youre an artist tool. 11 Model #11 then went on to note that, I mean, if, if you take a break and get back into a pose, and youre not exactly where youre at, you know, theyre frustrated because it--their painting theyre working on, and theyre really into it--um, so, you just have to keep that in mind. 11 Model #24 reported something similar, They, they tend to be very egocentric to their own art, so it--trying to please all of em and then end up not pleasing any of em--you know what Im saying?--lik e, Well, can you move your hand back there? No, her hand was like this. Oh you know? 24 There was this one guy that grabbed my arm, an d it was right, right next to my breast, and he grabbed it to move it, nd I kinda jerked away, and I didnt say anything to im because I didnt know if he really realized th e, the mistake that he had made. 16 There was one guy that used to come up, you know, when I worked at [City] Art Center, and, it wasnt just me as a model, but he would come up with his little book and pencil nd he really wasnt drawing, he was more ooggling, you know, looking nd you know, paying that six fifty for two and a half hour s to see a nude person, nd you can tell, you know, you can tell those types of people, and, and, you know, it only takes a couple of times for that, and theyll ask hi m not to, not to come back. 16 At the one drawing session, uh, Saturday mo rning, theres occasionally a young amateur artist who is so enthralled with himself that he wants me to see everything he does in during--the breaks, nd he is a little pushy about it, and wants me to say good things even though he cant draw worth a crap [laughs], a nd, uh, I just assume [he] stay at home. 13 One model noted a positiv e experience she had with artists in one group. [In one pose] I was really strugglin: I like over-did myself for that one--like, you know, the pose was just like difficult to hold, and one of the older ladies was in front and shes like, Oh, ok, stop now; shes gonna, shes gonna fall over, or some--like they were like, they were like looking out for me, but that was really like sweet. They were, you

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118 know, wanted to make sure I was ok. [. .] They like really had, you know, really, really cared about me as like the model or whatever. 19 A few models noted the rigor th ey employ in order to do a good job in posing for artists in artist groups. When the models in the center of the room and the artists completely surrounding the model, and in that situation I try to vary my poses so that one artist isnt always drawing the same side of me. [. .] Ill turn and f ace different directions and do foreshortening in different directions so that they ha ve a variety of things to draw. 4 If [. .] people are working so hard to really create on the, on the paper or on the canvas what theyre being taught to do, and this is a struggle for them, then why should I sit up there and be going [gestures], you know what I mean? 7 In the smaller group, uh, where the artists [. .] cant seem to get it, and I say ha--I sometimes feel not reject ed, but, you know, dejected in a l ittle bit of a way because I feel that Im not doing what they want--Im, ma ybe Im not living up to what they want me to be doing. [. .] Its not always me, but sometimes it is--sometimes I feel it is, and I havent done what they want, and then I feel guilty: Ahh, I didnt do my job today or something. 8 And model #7 recalled a particular misfortune she overcame in order to model for a group, I had been modeling for a couple of years, so I was pretty much happy with the way things were going with all that stuff, and all of a sudden I developed what they called psoriasis-but I dont think it was ever psoriasis--I thi nk it was some crazy--I dont know what the hell it was--but it was a rash on 60% of my body [. .]--itd be on my hands, all my arms, all over my legs, my face [. .]--so I, um, called up [artist] and I said [. .] I just, I dont think I can do it, Im just too, you know, its too ugly. He goes [Name], Ive got fifteen people coming tonight cause youre modeli ng, would you please get over yourself, and get over here [. .]. [. .] And I thought, we ll, you know, if hes l ooking at it that way, then who the hell am I to be saying, you know--if hes got people that are coming specifically because Im modeling, then, you know [. .]. I said Damn, you know, itll be fine. 7 Models who work for private artists are calle d by their first name, and readily engage in conversation with the artists--often while posing. The individual artists usually work at a distance that is closer to the model than in other settings some just a couple of f eet from the model. In contrast to the few reported instances of ba d conduct among artists in the classroom and group settings, none of the models who had posed for individual artist s reported an instance of a

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119 problem with these artists--actually, model #3 de scribed them as nice, and model #4 reported they were really wonderful, very positive peop le, very respectful, and very professional. Throughout the interviews, the models used words like really nice, wonderful, delightful and enthusiastic, as well as descriptions like sensitive and thinkers and feelers, to describe the artists in general. Model #6 admitted to having good faith in people who want to, to do this. And two models had co mments about their respect for the talents of the artists for which they model. To see some of the artists that I work for are so incredibly talented, and the work they do is so magnificent, for me to look at [artwork in a gallery] and say, Thats, thats me [whispers]. I mean, who, who wouldve known that I could in just my image could be transformed into something so phenomenally beautiful? 4 I very much admire that someone can do that. [. .] So, to be able--especially like to be able--what, what some of these people can do in five minutes just astounds me, and so I guess it would be an, an admiration for th at, um, that ability, that talent. 18 Two models, in contrast, expre ssed somewhat mixed assessments overall about the artists. I admire them for some, some of them living in poverty--some of them choosing to live in poverty on the chance that a painting might se ll. Um, I admire them for trying to create. [. .] So, pretty much I have a pretty good opinion of them. Um, so metimes I dislike them: I dislike if my hairs out of place and they sa y, Your hairs out of place. You had your hair on the left ear this morning, and now it s over the right ear [squeaky voice]. 23 I think for me its an admiration because like I wish I, I could draw. I can sing, and I can dance, and I can, you know, recite Shakespeare, but I cant draw. [. .] To know that they can create from a blank piece of paper something so beautiful with some of the things Ive seen, and so realistic. [. .] Just to know that thats something I cant do.[. .] I may not get any credit for [an artists artist ic experience]--and nine time s out of ten I dont--they thank me: Thank you for coming in--but, its not--they a lot o tim es they look at us--look at models--and Ive noticed that, that they look at models like a necessary evil, you know? 24 Also throughout the interviews the models reported their perceptions about how the artists as a whole treat them A sample of the words and phrases used were kind, appreciative, respectful, compassionate and very conscien tious about the model being comfortable. The concrete experiences with artist s and art students reported by artist models did not reveal a single

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120 incident regarding the integrity of the arti sts. The statements by models #2 and #8 are representative of those made by others. Virtually all of the men Ive worked with have been, you know, gentlemen and have always been very appropriate. 2 I appreciate the fact that they want to do what theyre doing [. .], and I have never had any really bad situations or--usually the people that are in a group or in a class are there for the sake of what theyre there for, and theyre not trying to give any kind of guff to anybody-at least Ive noticed that--I mean theyre--Ive never b een confronted or approached by anybody for any other type of .. activity or wh atever from that; in other words, they, I-theres a complete respect on all, on all sides. 8 Summary. There is a very similar level of resp ondents experiences wi th artists in the classroom, group and individual settings. Artists call the models by their name, and talk with them freely. The artists maintain a certain distan ce from the model while sh e is posing, but at all other times easily interact with her when she is wearing her robe or is clothed. The only problems which models have with artists are isolat ed and atypical and are confined to instances when they are posing. And the models have a serious level of commitment for completely fulfilling their work roles in all three settings. Managing Posing In addition to the artists, models have to m anage several othe r elements in a setting while they are posing. Some of those f actors are present in the setting, such as the temperature of the room and the liveliness of the artists who are pr esent. The others the model herself brings into the setting, and pertain to her en ergy level, her mental state of being, and her physical being. Models have to contend with the temperature of the room in which they are posing. Being too cold is a common problem which models fre quently encounter, especially in the colder seasons. The places where models usually pose are often over-size rooms with poor insulation and large windows which allow the insignificant amount of present h eat to easily escape. Models deal with this problem in a number of way. One is by requesting that the room thermostat be

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121 increased (if an individual one is present in th e room) or that a space he ater be turned on if nearby. A space heater is sometimes ineffectiv e because, as model #11 wryly stated, it only heats your fingers. She went on to say that, If its just a really cold day theres not much you can do about it. [. .] Like your mind can do a lot of things--so if its really cold sometimes you just gott a tell yourself that you are warm, and [. .] so you just have to, um, kinda mind over matter kinda thing--just think yourself through it. 11 Other models reported that they coped with the cold in a number of different ways. You just grin and bear it. 8 Sometimes Ive been so cold Ive left my so cks on or I just--I think one time theyve conceded to a draped pose when they didn t intend to because it was that cold. 13 [One time] it was so cold in there I had my hat nd a scarf nd I had my socks on--I was freezing 15 Only model #16 stated that she di d not mind the cold while posing, I kinda like the cold cause it gi ves me a natural boob-lift [laughs]. And while nearly all of the res pondents indicated that they infr equently became too hot, three models stated that they got hot while posing a nd two of those also mentioned what they did about that. Theres definitely been times where Ive become really hot, nd, [. .] I usually ask them to turn a fan on. 21 I just shut it out; I just forget about it; dont think about it. N d then I say something later: I say Hey, could you kick up the air conditio ning? you know. Thats all you can do. You know, you have to, have to sit it out--its only twenty minutes, twenty-five minutes, maybe. You know, you can sit there that l ong and sweat. I hate the sweating, though. 16 On some occasions, a model discovers that ther e is a lack of life among the artists when she enters a setting. Such a situation is more lik ely to be found in the classroom setting rather than in the artist group or with individual artis ts because the latter tend to be committed and serious, in part because they have hired the mode l with their own money. In contrast, art students

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122 may be spiritless due to being bored, or tired or simply not wanting to be there. Compounding the lack of liveliness among the art students are times when ther e is no music playing and the room is dark--save for a spotlight on the model. The lack of energy among individuals in a set ting is problematic for some models. Model #21 stated A lot of times I get su cked into that dead energy, m odel #11 noted Its really hard to get into like focus, and model #7 stated [Its] very draining. It makes me nervous because I think its me: if theres low energy in the room then I think that Im, you know, Ive come in and they-Im not what they expected or Im not modeling well or [. .] when Im in a situati on where Im not completely comfortable, then I tend to be very--not defensive, but be aloof--nd if theres low energy in the room, then I tend to become more so because Im not as comfortable. 14 Four models stated that they try to bring up a low energy level among artists in a setting. For art students in a classroom, model #15 stated, Ill make maybe like a, a joke, or do small talk conversation to pick them up a little bit. I really dont do much. [. .] Ill start makin em laugh, and next you know theyre a little better about themselves. 15 And model #10 stated, Always. [. .] Ill give em a better day. I mean Im a performance artist--Im a cut-up-so, you know, sometimes I even do like little si lly things: while I was doing my fast warmup poses Id make funny, real ly fun-, funny movements and gestures [demonstrates] and do things to make em crack up, and the en ergy would come back and everybody would be happy--it was nice. 10 Model #21 mentioned that for artist groups, I ask for, you know, any requests for certain poses, you know, nd kinda shift it in that way: like, you know, what am I doing here a nd what would you like to get out of it?--you know, sort of shift it a little bit. 21 In settings in general, model #16 reported, If I think the room is dead, Im gon-, Im de finitely gonna give em something to draw; Im not just gonna sit there and be like Well, this is bori ng; Im just gonna give em a boring pose. I give em a hard pose--I wake e m up cause they have to pay attention. Yeah. They have to pay attention: they have to look at what theyre doing. 16

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123 In contrast, five models reported that they do not do anything to restore a higher level of energy to a setting. In the classroom settings, My job isnt to change the energy--[. .] thats up to the teacher, thats up to the students. 9 I kinda rely on them nd their pers onalities cause Im pretty shy. 22 For settings in general, #11 stated, I might try to make a feeble attempt [to try to get the energy back in the room], but it kinda weighs on me--I might kinda feel like that, too. 11 Some models mentioned that boredom often accompanies the long poses they do. Therere a few times in there, I have to say, that it gets a litt le boring at times. 25 The gesture drawings are [. .] kind of entertaining because its livelier in the classroom because everyones changing it a nd theyre talking about em, whereas in the long poses youre just kind of sitting there watching people for forty minutes. 1 To be able to hold a pose for forty-five minut es nd--that, thats a long time. Ive done it, of course, but it, it gets--and then if there s no music, oh my God, its like a week youre sitting there. 16 You get bored, you know, its not like a w hole lot going on--Ooooh, theyre drawing. 2 When music is not available in some settings the models mentioned some techniques they use to make the time pass by more quickly whil e they are posing. Model #8 mentioned keeping a fresh amount of ideas in her consciousness for such occasions, On the podium I think, sometimes I think, Oh, am I ever gonna get through with this? and [. .] Isnt it time to finish?[. .] Sometimes it goes a lot more slowly on the podium than I want it to. But ityou--have to get ideas: making up, thinking of ideas because it does make the time go by better. 8 Others models noted the techniques of listening to, talking to and watching the people present. The forty minutes just watching people draw just drags along [. .], [yet] I enjoy like looking at the classes and listening to him as he lectures, and Try th is and This one looks really good or This one doesnt look hu man, or whatever hes talking about. 1 I just get so bored sometimes or some days I ju st cant focus, and like, um, I strive to keep [my eyes] on a spot, but sometimes my eyes do have a tendency to wander. I dont establish eye-contact with an artist because that s, thats just not proper, um, protocol. Ive

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124 caught myself on occasion looking at an artist--I dont why--just because Im bored thats why. And I tell you, I do get bored. 23 Model #15 noted that she listens to the di scussion between instructors and students, Im very in tune with whats around me wh en Im doing this and Ill hear conversation between a student and the teacher and Ill smile [laughs] cause of the stuff he has to say, and they always notice that I do that. [. .] Im always listening--I, you know, even with headsets on I still can hear what theyre sayin. 15 Models #11and #12 mentioned that th ey listen to the conversations among artists in groups while they are posing, and model #2 stated, A lot of times people are talk ing about their day, and so you can eavesdrop. [. .] Its actually kinda fun because a lot of times youre at the cen ter of the room, and you can hear all the conversations, a nd, uh, they tend to forget that youre a person who can hear them, and so you get to hear interesting things [laughs]. 2 And three models mentioned that they converse with art st udents while posing. While in the long poses, many respondents stated that they also watched the artists work. I do the peripheral-looking at other people looking at me when they dont think Im looking. 6 Id watch to see what they were doing cau se I was curious, and I like to watch people make art. 19 Depending on the angle, if I can see someone, I like to watch them draw. Um, its sometimes harder because you dont see what theyre doing. Almost everyone has a weird face they make when theyre like focusing on it; Im just, you know, Ill be amused by peoples faces and what theyre drawing. 1 If I see movement out of the corner of my ey e Ill like Ill look at it, but I dont move my head: Ill like look down or somebody mixing pa int, I think thats interesting to watch them mix their paint, and cau se theyll like fiddle around with their paint for like twenty minutes and then finally take a--put paint to canvas. 24 I try to keep [them] in a similar position, but Ill look around--use my peripheral vision [. .]. Sometimes Im watching students or watching the instructor work with students [. .]. I like watching people learn, so, and I like watchi ng the instructor tell people interesting, you know, things that help them learn. 9 I really--I like to, to see what the artists are doing in the room, and, you know, some of em will tap their feet when theyre really in spired, or, you know, move around, and some are just really like engrossed and such, and, peripherally I like to watch that as well. 21

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125 Of the eight models who commonly wear glasse s, four pose sometimes while wearing their glasses--usually depending on the time of day--while four pose without them. I never pose with glasses on. [. .] I cant see without my glasses, but Im just looking at the way theyre looking at me. 15 I do remove my glasses [. .] and so everybody in the room becomes a blur. [. .] I cant really see what theyre doing anyway; so they might think Im staring at them, but I, I really am not cause I m not focused on them. 13 Sometimes Ive taken my glasses off and Ive found its not good because I dont focus. 8 Other models stated that they do not let th eir eyes wander around th e room during the long poses, but instead simply pick a point of focus --such as on the floor, window, the stand, or even their own foot--to look at while in the pose. Five models specifically me ntioned that they only focus on a point and never watch the artists. Sometimes, um, artists wants--dont mind if you move your eyes around, but most of the time, theyre very interested in where your eyes are so that that can be drawn into their drawing or painted into their painting. 20 I would become self-conscious if I did that. Id had to stay in my own inner world. 10 I dont look at any of the st udents or anyone drawing cau se not [to] make anyone uncomfortable. 11 Other models look out th e window (when possible). Becoming sleepy while in the long poses, es pecially during a lying pose, is another problem with which most models stated that th ey must cope. Many models (75%) admitted that they had slept while posing. I do get a little tired because some of thats just because Im so relaxed--like I get really, you know, just doing like the whole meditation thing--Im just completely relaxed, and its like ahhh--I could take a nap right now. 12 It happens sometimes, it really does, cause youre just in a comf ortable state of mind, youre calm, especially if its cold youll wanna go to sleep [. .] But for me, I dont want to fall asleep: [. .] if I fall as leep on the job it feels like Im not doing anything about posing, just sleeping. 17

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126 Sometimes its funny like when you fall asleep, like sometimes I twitch as Im falling asleep, and so like, sometimes you just clos e your eyes: like when they did the contour drawing--all the times I closed by eyes cause it gets weird at a point when theyre staring at you, um, but then like my side twitched and Im like Ahh, no, they know I fell asleep [laughs]. [. .] I mean you never fall that deep asleep since youre not posing that long, but you just sort of drift off, and then youll like wake up and hear them rummaging around because theyre taking a break .1 Even when I do sort of doze off in those poses, I dont go into really deep sleep--REM sleep or anything like that--ju st to doze off and get a littl e rest and sometimes my, my headll twitch a little bi t, and Ill be very conscious of it [. .]. 4 One time I was laying down on my back, and I started to doze off, but then I kinda jumped a little bit, you know, when you fall asleep nd you kinda [demonstrates], and, uh, so they could tell I was falling asleep [laughs], but the, the profe ssor joked, shes like Oh, if you do that again, Ill poke you with a stick. [laughs]. Um, and then one time it happened but they just let me sleep cause I was holdi ng the pose the whole time, so, uh, it was a, a seated pose, and my head was like this [dem onstrates], uh, my arms were folded and my head was on my arms, and, um, and they werent, I dont, they werent sure if I fell asleep or not but I was in a deep sleep--I had dreams. 11 I have almost fallen off my stool a couple of tim es: Im that tired that Im sitting there nd, you know, you cant--uncontrollably dozing--and I catch myself as I would, you know, jerk awake [demonstrates] because, cause I felt like I was going to fall. Um I cant help it: during certain times of the day my en ergy level varies and, especially in that midafternoon time. 13 I dont move: Im able to stay in my pose and I m able to drop into a level of sleep where I am just acutely aware if like someones gonna talk to me--like if an instructors gonna tell me its--times up--I, Im at that point where I can hear that--Ive never missed that-but I have been sleeping. 13 And model #10 stated she would sleep, but also would Never be completely unconscious--meditative tr ick--its called bendi--its a state between awake and asleep: you get very rested, and youre dreaming, but youre not really fully unconscious. 10 A few models (23%) stated they had never fallen asleep while posing. Model #14 described sleeping while in a pose as unprofessiona l and inappropriate, and so had never slept. I dont fall asleep easily. I have occasionally drifted into a kind of dream-like state--more dream-like state--on very rare occasions when Im doing a supine pose, but, because you have to be aware of your body the whole time and keep it in the same position, um, you cant really fall asleep--at leas t I cant--cause Im too aware of my body. Um, so, um, but

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127 there is a change in my energy and my awar eness, uh, sometimes Ill become un-aware of time and be surprised that a long pose is over. 9 Notwithstanding the propensity to sleep wh ile posing, models undertake a variety of strategies to try to prevent falling asleep while they pose. Before arriving for a session, the models reported that they eat and drink a lot of food, do calisthenics or drink coffee. Others choose a pose with tension or one in which the light is shining directly in their eyes. While posing in a session, they may hum to themselves, lis ten to or talk to artists, focus on keeping their eyes open, take a quick in stant and shake their body, or thi nk about interesting things. And while on break they may eat candy bars, splash cold water on their face, or drink cola, tea or coffee to energize themselves. A problem common to nearly all models is some type of physical troub le that occurs while they are posing in the long poses. Reported inst ances include muscles that ache or cramp, limbs which tremble and go numb or fall asleep, and a stiffening of the neck and back. I had one time when I was, um, in a pose, and I was sitting and I was leaning: like my hand up with my wrist was like, um, at a 90, so by the time I was done my wrist was hurting so much I actually had to pick it up and m ove it--like my arm was literally dead. 17 [Soreness in] usually foot and spine if its, uh, having to balance maybe on one foot or if I have to put all my body--or not all my body weight, but a lot o body weight--on one arm to, to pose, um, and, uh, definitely my spine a lot because its hard to stay--to sit like straight--if you sit really strai ght in a pose it doesnt always r ead well--it doesnt seem real natural, so you usually kinda slump a little bit or somethi ng, and like kinda, kinda hurt your neck and spine and everything. 11 Most of the time what happens is you feel cer tain--like if Im holding a pose with a just--a seated pose with just a slight twist, and Im holding that pos e for forty-five minutes--which is a long time--um, that slight twist which f eels like nothing, um, over a couple of minutes, by the end of forty-five minutes is not excruciating but very noticeable. 9 Im doing a standing pose for [artist], and so th e blood sort of stops running to your legs after a while [laughs], and, uh, he was, he wa s saying that like by the end of the pose the colors all different, you know, cause if youre holding one position for a long time, by the time--you know, the bloodll settle a little bit and so you might be a little paler or redder. 2

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128 Ive probably had every part of my body fall asleep--more than others--and its very uncomfortable very uncomfortable, because then you get mad at it, and youre like Ahhh, and you cant walk, and, you know, youre stretching out and like Ooohhh--its not fair--why do I do this? 3 Im in pain almost every time, honestly. Um, I--and I think part of thats because of doing extreme twisting and turning. So, I mean, you know, I just, I just live with it. Um, I did get-fall off of a platform here one day; well, I was stepping down and somehow--I dont know--but I fell, um, and I really, uh, kinda-even when I fell on my leg--so it kinda twisted my left side--um, but aside from that, um, Id say just like pretty much on a dayto-day. 25 I blacked out a couple of times and accidentally dropped to my knees in a standing pose. 3 Despite the expected physical ailments that the respondents experience from posing, they do not endure any significant long term consequences from them. Nearly all models reported that the physical problems they experienced from their work are mostly temporary and not chronic or recurring. For example, model #14 st ated that it takes up to ten minut es to get the feeling back in her arms after an extended pose. Theres times when Ill do a long pose thats that goes all day--l iterally from like ten oclock in the morning until three-something in the afternoon, youre getting back into pose, youre getting back into the same pose over and ove r and over again, you know, [. .] youre in the same pose, you gotta get into the same position exactly the way you were, and [. .] this arm [demonstrates] literally, literally this whole side of my arm was numb for the whole next day cause it had gone num b during the poses--I m ean, instant it would go numb again because I was leaning on this elbow and I think it was pinching something, and it was literally numb for like a whole nothe r day after--like the w hole next day it was numb--just gone, numb--I could feel it a ll up this side [demonstrates]. 16 A few models reported something of a more serious, longer-lasting nature, however. For example, model #11 stated that she once suffered r eally bad soreness that lasted for a few days, and model #7 blew out a knee as a result of agreeing to do a standing pose for a group over a period of days at the beginning of her posing career. And #14 related, Theres only one time when Ive actually hurt--I feel like I hurt myself : um, I was in a pose in which one leg was resting on the other nd it was an all-day session--of course I got breaks every twenty minutes, I mean, naturally --but after six hours of that, I, I had happened to choose a pose in which there was stress on one of my hips, um, because my, my other leg was resting on that leg, a nd, um, it was very painful afterward. 14

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129 Four models recognized the physical toll that modeling is taking on their bodies. I did an extended pose for a sculptor--that wa s standing--[. .] and at that time I hadnt been modeling for that long, and I said Yeah, Im able to do that--Im a pretty strong person--but it was like all the weight on one leg with this crazy twist, and I actually have developed problems in my knee and ankle from that pose. 4 I do think that, in the long term, I will have mo re back problems as I age as a result of the time Im spending modeling than if I didnt model at all. 13 I find [modeling] is also detrimental to your health: I wasnt getting in enough of a workout, um, because Id be so tired after the session. Thinking: how can you be so tired doing nothing? [. .] Endurance starts to go because youve brought your resting heart-rate down so low--youre not movi ng--and, as a result, I found that my blood pressure was going up, my cholesterol was going up, and [. .] I also found that my weight was going up. 23 And model #10 recognized a particular physical change that is happening in her body due to modeling, and then stated what she is doing about it, Its really important to arra nge yourself carefully--I have spider veins now that I didnt have before from doing this work [. .] cause it--you, you cut off circulation when you sit for a long time in one place--then I got really good at it, and I got really good at knowing how to pad my body so that I would minimize the circulatory damage, but, um, thats the main concern is where are the cushions [laughs], and how can I make this work so th Im giving them what they want and my body is also ok. 10 Models stated that they try to avoid the longer poses that are difficult and almost always result in a significant degree of bodily pain. Th ese types of poses include, for example, holding an arm above the head (which can be done for onl y about five minutes), cr ossing legs (which can be held for about five minutes) or standing on one leg (which can generally be held only for about fifteen minutes). Apart from these types of poses, the long poses--which unfailingly bring pain to the bodies of models--are dealt with in a number of ways in order to overcome that pain. At the breaks or after the sessi on is completed, some models dr ink lots of water, do opposite motions from the twists of the pose and do stre tches--neck rolls, should er rolls, touching toes, standing, rolling up on toes and rol ling back down in order to stretch out legs--to help ease the pain and remove any discomfort they have.

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130 When I come out of a twenty-five minute pose, I have to unwind real slow kinda get it to move out and do certain little things just to kinda relieve the pressure, and then walk. 7 More immediately necessary, however, is when models have to implement techniques to resolve or at least cope w ith the pain they experience while they are posing in the long poses. Some models, like model #5, ignore it, or breat he like model #10 reported or sing songs to self as model #1 does. If theres pain in a certain area, you really try not to focus on it .[. .] If theres no music playing, I focus on the discomfort a lot, and it kinda makes me crazy: like its, it, you know, like it accentuates the pain quite a b it if I cant focus on something else. 11 You know, it can be excruciating sometimes--your leg is as leep, and its now gonna be asleep another ten minutes, but I remember th e first time it really happened, and I was working for [artist] and he was doing this beau tiful drawing, and I said Well, God, theres no way Im not gonna continue with this pose, but every time there would be a twentyfive minute sit that fifteen minut es into the thing my leg woul d go to sleep, and it happened every time, so I knew it was gonna happen so I figured well, you know what, after your legs asleep, it doesnt go more asleep--its asleep, so just be with what the sleep feels like-and so thats what I did, and so we, we got five days out of it. 7 If a pose does begin to hurt, then I spend a lo t of time thinking in my head Whens this gonna be over? Whens this gonna be over? or Shall I ask the professor how much longer this pose is? and I, I challenge myself before I break down and ask; Ok, lets make it two more minutes until I ask; and so th en I count out two minutes, you know, and then, usually, before I know it, the pose is over, a nd I havent had to ask. So it--yeah, if Im uncomfortable, Ill sit there and Ill count nd you know, Ill count out now five--I get to five minutes--Im like That, you know, didnt feel like I was in it for that long before, so we must be half-way through, er, yo u know, all those kinds of things. 13 I can usually keep the clock where I can see it--sometimes I count down; like Ill just count-down with the minutes, like one, two, three, four, but, um, its something I think about when Im up on the stand, but, um, if its, if it says--its like one minute or two minutes out, Ive already sat for eighteen, I can sit for another two minutes while my feet fall asleep, and Ill just fix em later. 24 I sort of just remind myself that, you know, just notice the aches, and, um, remind myself that this will change as soon as the pose is over, and--or just even noticing that thisll change, and usually just that acknowledgment, you know, that goes through my body, it, you know, it does change. 21 If it were really a situ ation where I just couldnt go on, and there have been some of those, uh, where I got dizzy, or stuff [. .], you know, usually I try to say Well, Ive made this pose, and I dont really like it, bu t [. .] I have to keep it. 8

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131 If youre in a difficult pose, um, that you dont think is real difficult, nd youre sitting there and you have to hold it, you dont have any choice ; I mean I guess you could stop and you could like say Unn, Im tired, but thats not, thats not me. Suck it up and drive on [laughs]. 16 You just learn to put up with or learn how to make very slight adjustments to your weight-shift the weight of the muscles that are s upporting your weight. You learn a lot about your own body being a model: something starts to get [tension, and] you just make like very minuscule adjustments to the way that your weig ht is shifted, and so metimes it can relieve the tension on particular muscles. 4 I either just suck it up and wait til a break, um, or if I feel that theres a way of somehow moving the muscle withou t it being apparent to the ar tists, I mean, Ill like do a twitching-thing, you know, and, um, so if theres a way that I can just either maybe clench for a second or do something to relieve it, then thats what Ill do; ot herwise Ill suck it up and wait for a break. 25 You ignore it. You try and breathe through it. If it gets really bad: I gotta break or I cant hold this--its t oo painful, and they go Ok [laughs ]. Hmm, yeah, you ignore it. You sit there as long as you can, [. .] and then, th en you take a break and you stretch it out, and in time figure out how you can never do that again [laughs]. 3 If theres like my arm going numb, Ill be like I need a towel. [. .] [The groups] more than willing, you know, to make me comfortable. 12 When the pain in a part of the body is too intense, the model may quickly stretch it, then put it back in the pose she was in. Most people [. .] are ok if you like--real quic k--like, you know, stretc h your neck, or sort of like take the weight off one leg for a minut e, [. .] just shift for a quick second to get blood flowing again. So youre not expected to be a statue: they realize that, you know, theres blood flow being cut off. You can just kinda shake out an arm and put it back again. 1 I ignore them until they get just too, too muc h, and then Ill--like if somethings cramping thats easy to move like my arm or neck--s ometimes does that--then Ill move it as discreetly as possible without changing the rest of my body, so Ill, you know, twist my wrists, or, um, Ill roll my head to sort of make it feel a little better, and that usually works out the kinks. 14 Sometimes, like for example, I just very quickly flex my feet, de pending on the po--like if Im in a standing pose, I just sort of flex, flex the muscles in my feet just for half a second-thats not gonna rea lly cause a problem for the type of drawings theyre doing. 9 The first twenty minutes I dont do that. But th e second and third one: my muscles start to ache and then I will flex, and they know it, too. They even say that, too: if, if you start to hurt, you know, just kind of gradually mo--and thats what I do: I gradually move out and

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132 do what I need to do, but everything elses just held the same, and then I put it back in place. 15 Ive had only a few times when Ive had to rea lly stop [. .], or the person will tell you, if you, you know, need to put your hand down or someth ing, do it, but I feel that Im strict to my pose and I should be because thats what the artists want [. .]--they dont want you to be constantly moving. 8 On occasion, when Ive had a pose that Ive ha d to hold for twenty minutes, and by fifteen minutes--if the pose is becoming so uncomfortable--I will tell them that for two minutes I have to shake the foot out, or Ill shake the body part out thats bothe ring me, and keep the rest still. Nd theyre pretty good with th at, you know, theyre, theyre not tyrants. 23 If its really bad, like if I s uddenly get a, like a cramp, you know, which I would just say I need to stop for a second and stretch my muscles. 9 [If] I feel like I need to stretc h, I let them know, I stretch, I ge t up, I make movements [. .] and I get back down into the pose again. 6 If I feel like my back is, is hur ting or if my arms are going to sleep or my feet are going to sleep, Ill stretch them out: just kinda rotate em a few times just to get the blood flowin back in, and Ill go right back int the pose. [. .] Um, and if I have to, you know, if I have to break the pose, you know, five minutes soone r than I anticipated, then I do, and Ill say, Im sorry, guys, I cant hold it any longer. Let me take five minutes and Ill get back into it in a second. 24 The participants were asked about the importance of facial expression during the long poses. A few models reported that they tried to have a particular expression while posing. I usually have a small smile on my f ace--kinda like Mona Lisa-type smile. 20 [Artists] loved that I always seemed happy cause I was joyful: that, um, I had a positive expression on my face, and it really uplifted them--thats what they would tell me; after I broke they would tell me that while I was posing I had this like smile on my face, and I wasnt particularly aware of that, but thats what they would say. 10 What Ive learned is, for myself, and for m y, again, my level of communication with the person or the group, is to have a very loving expression, a very pleasant expression [. .]. I do something thats pleasant and that seems to work for me. 7 When I first started modeling I noticed that a lot of artists were painting me with a sad face, and that was telling me that I was letting my facial muscles, perhaps, relax. Um, so Ive been recently thinking more nd more about keeping a happy face: lifting the mask a little bit so that it looks pleas ant. Um, I look at, I look at a lot of paintings--not just of myself but other models--and they all have that sad face. I just think that the muscles relax, and, um, its hard to keep a, a happy face, um through that length of time. But I try nd-like I said--lift the mask and think happy thoughts, and, um, at least be pleasant. 23

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133 If Im playing my music now, Im smiling-Im thinking about something pleasant--Im hoping theyre catching that at that moment. [. .] I like to express [laughs]--I want, I want my face to reflect what, what Im posing to, you know? 15 I guess I just sort of--if they didnt see my face, like I would-I guess I would just stare off, but if people were, you know, looking at me, I w ould try nd make an interesting facial expression for them, too. 19 Other models stated that they made no atte mpt to have a particul ar facial expression. Usually its a neutral expression, yo u know, whatever comes on for me. 21 I keep it fairly neutral, um, and, uh, basically I just have a neutral face: um, I dont smile, I dont frown, I just let my face re lax naturally because that would be incredibly hard to, uh, keep a certain non-relaxed expression for a long time, so I just let my face relax as it wants--the position it likes to be in relaxation--and keep it like that. 9 I try to relax my face muscles--I tend to tens e up my face: I tend to arch my eyebrows, um, or draw them in; I tend to tense up my mouth, so I really consciously try to relax my eyes and my face, and if I feel myself tensing up then I just try to relax it as much as possible. [. .] I think its just important to look like youre comforta ble. Trying to hold a facial expression will end up looking un-natural. 14 Very relaxed. [. .] Its pretty much a bla nk face, um, I might, you know put a little bit of a, of an attitude to it [. .] but not anythi ng thats, thats dramatic because you cant really hold it. 16 Two models admitted that they were not aware of the expression on their face while posing. I personally have not paid any attention to f acial expression at all. [. .] I just hold whatever is simplest in--to hold in--my face. 13 I think Im the least aware of that--Im trying to pay at tention of keeping everything else still, um, and I tend to just--like when my facial muscles are relaxed, it looks like Im frowning, so a lotta students draw me nd I look kind of mean [laughs], but no one said anything about it--I, I dont know if I could hold a smile fo r like two to three hours,so. 11 And one model admitted that she is unsu ccessful in holding a facial expression. I get so upset with myself because Im not--I, I have yet to--it would be very important if I were capable of doing it--I think its, I think its important, but Im, Im not at a place where Im able to hold a, um, facial expr essions, I dont think, well. I dont know, maybe I do better than I know. 18

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134 In addition to the body, models also bring their mind into the se tting. Some models indicated that there is a vital mental component to the work of artist modeling. For example, models have to think of poses on the spot--especi ally gesture poses. And they have to use their mental faculties to hold a pose: for a difficult pose, model #6 stated that it is necessary to have determination to keep that pose; it takes a lo t of, um, uh, of very, very mind-set. And model #11 stated, You have to be really self-aware of line s youre creating, um, sp ace--theres a lot of thought that goes into it 11 Models #7 and #8 summarized the role of the mind in posing. You have to have a lot of strength--inside, outside, head, everything--it takes a lot of strength. 7 [Posing is] emotionally very trying because when youre--you have to make--maintain a mental, um, stamina along with the physical--depending on the pose. [. .] Everything is working at the same time, its not just of question of physical, you know. [. .] Youre thinking, youre always [. .] mentally involved in it when you re up there. [. .] You have to be with it all the way: physic ally and emotionally and mentall y, and all that takes part of it--it all works itself into it. 8 The respondents were asked about what they think while they pose in the long poses. The most common response of models was that they space out, or something similar (e.g. drift off, space out, zone out, go into own litt le world, daydream, let the mind wander) [9]. The specific thoughts which the models mentioned th inking were mostly about something outside of the setting, such as wh at to do later in the day [9], homework [5], what to do next day [3], relationship issues [3], family members [3 ], who needs to be e-mailed [2], making grocery list [2], dance choreography or routines [2], char acter and lines or music for theater [2], friends [1], conflicts with people [1], who has to be paid [1], visual art projects [1], history of artists painting models [1], what to do on the weekend [1], live art projec ts [1], brainstorming for ideas for side-business [1], calculati ng how many hours worked and how much money have made that

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135 week [1], where will work next [1], housewor k [1], and movies and books [1]. Models also reported thinking about something present inside the setting while posing. Those things include meditative practices [7], the music--annoying, boring, or lack of [3], th e music--choreographing dance routines [1], slow breathcounts [1], talking to body (as a level of relaxation) [1], counting out minutes [1], let mind be blank so are aware of what is going on in room [1], and wondering about artists progress on artwork [1]. The respondents were asked if they were aware of their nudity (in their consciousness) while they were posing in the long poses. About one-half (53%) of the models answered yes, 31% responded that they did only when they fi rst began modeling, 5% responded that they did only once very recently due to a specific incide nt, and 11% answered no. The context within which the thoughts were located of those who answ ered yes varied widely: they influenced model #10 to be discreet while posing, while model #8 felt the freedom of being without anything on, and model #19 was aware of the wa y the stand felt against her skin, and model #6 became aware of her nudity in relation to the room temperature, and model #15 was aware of a scar on her lower abdomen. Every now and then youre like Wow, Im naked in front of thirty people [laughs], and I dont really know them [laughs]. But, you know, its, its a professional situation, so its not, not so weird. 3 I think theres always those first few moments th at its like Im completely naked in front of these people that I met like a year and a half ago, [laughs] and, you know, nd I, Im their art, you know, theres alwa ys that kinda realization that s like Wow, I am, Im what theyre focusing on; I am, Im being put down on this canvas or this paper, and, you know, its like a strange, beautiful thing to have at the same time. 12 Sometimes. [. .] I realize it, I guess, when, um, when Ill drift off and be thinking about something else--its sort of like in a dream when you like realize youre naked and then Oh, my gosh, Im naked. [. .] [Then] Im Its ok, its ok [laughs], done this a lot before. So, sometimes it sort of hits me. 14 You know, when you reach my age, your breas ts kinda sag a little bit more, and you wonder, Oh, I hope this, you know, I hope this is alright; I hope th eyre not like, you

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136 know [demonstrates]; you, you really you think about all that stuff --you still are, are a little insecure, but youre not really insecure, and you kinda hope that, um you kinda hope that things arent you know, unappealing. [. .] I know that Im nude up there--I mean, its obvious I am, um but then theres--I just dont even care. I mean, I know Im nude [. .] but do I care? No [laughs]. 16 Yeah, Im totally obviousawar e--that Ive got no clothes o n, nd thats why I take a shower and get things cleaned up and whatever, but as far as a connection with as sort of Oh-my-God-Ive-got-no-clothes-on: never, ever, Ive never had that, ever. Its [. .], Oh, God, I feel great, you know. 7 Model #23 stated that she is not aware of her nudity when posi ng currently, but mentioned that she was on one past occasion when she was pos ing while holding a pizza box for art students, and, A girl said--made some comment like--it was like, uh, Porno-pizza deliverer. For that one moment I all o a sudden was aware of my nudity, but I thought, Shes immature. And actually I made no expression on my face that the comment--I wouldnt necessarily say it bothered me--but it kinda pulled me out of my--it made me aware of my nudity for the second. Um, at the break she said, You know what? That was a really insensitive comment, and Im really sorry that I said th at. And I said You know, it really didnt bother me. [. .] It was derogator y, but it, it wasnt malicious, you know? 23 And six models mentioned that they were awar e of their nudity only when they first began posing, but are not aware of it now when they pose. There was a, an initial like weird feeling, but as soon as I like started doing it like I didnt care--it didnt matter. 19 I would say more so in the beginning. There wa s moments where I was really aware of it [. .] but mostly I sort of ha ve just forgotten that. 21 Initially in the classes I was but then, especially since I wo rked in the same class twice a week all semester, you get to actually know th e people, and at that point, like they dont even think of you as naked--like they think of you as like this, you know, this is art class. [. .] Um, but Im not that aware of it in the sense that Im constantly thinking about Oh my God, Im naked. 1 You know, Im not really [aware of my nudity in the long poses]. Its like a costume, except that it isnt. My costume for modeling is that Im nude. It was very the first time that I modeled nude I was very conscious of how I looked. Now I dont care. I justthey-either they like it or they dont. [. .] [Wha t changed is] I got used to it. The first time you drop trou, its difficult--anybodyll te ll you that. But, after you get used to the idea that ok, this is--its, and it is, its almo st like the mantle that you put on is your nudity. Its not, its-

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137 -me being nude in, in front of the artists is co mpletely different than me being nude in front of my fiancee; its different, its almost that--its, its differe nt kind of it, it really is: its like my--even though Im not wearing anything, thats my costume, now Im the model, and, you know, I--the only time that Im com-, that I am aware of it is if those there as one time where I, I just --I didnt feel comfor table with the pose that I had: kinda twisted me in a certain way and I could feel my, my breasts over here [demonstrates], and I was like I just wanna move that--can I move that? And that made me very conscious because theyre big uns: I cant do anything with em. But, and then, its--the, the pose. [. .] But, other than [tha t], pfft [noise], my, my being nude is--thats my, my--its like, again, its like a costume. 24 Right after I started posing, like at [art school], [. .] this particular night, it was, um--they had a talented artist come--and I dont know w ho this guy was, but apparently he was like a rock star to the art students, and so there must have been a hundred people in this room, and, the artist was working with me, and--it wasn t a specific thing--it s just that I was not really prepared to having a hundred people look at me, you know, ri ght after I had just started doing this. But now, it wouldnt have bo thered me; but at the time, I was like in a cold sweat. So, that was uncomfortable. [. .] You would guess that over the course of three hours that it was not something that I really enjoyed at the time. 2 The first time I actually modeled, um, I had some pretty severe tan lines: like the rest of me was tan, but where my bathing suit would be was like white I thought Well, that could throw off the drawing or something, maybe I should go tan. So I went to a tanning bed, and when I got burned, cause I was in one of the, um, lay-down ones, and I had like the, the light bulbs in it, so, what it ended up be ing was, uh, like completely white with red stripes, and that was my very first time modeling, and I was so embarrassed, but, [. .] I just did it anyway, so [laughs]. 11 Models were asked whether or not there was movement in the longer poses. Movement was defined for respondents as energy or a lif e-force. Models were additionally asked if artists could see that energy. M odels #4 and #8 said that there was energy while they posed, but did not offer elaboration. I feel there is [energy]. [. .] I mean I get feedback that makes me feel that they, you know, Ive had artists say, you know, God, that looks rea lly inspiring nd th ings like that, so, uh, theres an energy. 25 I hope so. I, I mean, I feel that there is [energy]. [. .] I presume they [see my energy while Im posing]. Im not really sure. Ive never as ked anybody a question like that. [. .] When Ive started to fall asleep, and, um, and usually either somebody will remark on that or I know that theyve noticed, so if they noticed when my energy is very low, I am guessing that they probably also know when, wh en theres energy there in the pose. 14

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138 [There is] an attitude that comes out, nd th ere is--oh, I think we ta lked about energy--and there is an energy that comes out. [. .] They say Im projecting an attitude: they say that, that I have a distinct modeli ng style as being [#16], um, Im a very forceful person, Im a very strong, independent, intelligent female, a nd they, they say that, you know, I have a pride to me--Im not a prideful person per se, where, you know, Im, you know egotistical, but I have certain female pride to me that when I get up there I, I let that show. I let that show, you know, Im really proud of what I do. They, they can feel that, they tell me that all the time. 16 Ive heard artists say that there is. And it th ink it depends on how excited I am about the pose. Um, I also think it depends on if its a one-on-one session, or if its a classroom situation. I think, personally, theres more en ergy coming from me what its a one-on-one session. I think its because also sometimes an artist can talk to me during the pose, and we get a rapport going on, and even though my mouth is moving, the rest of me stays pretty still, and, um, theyre getting a life-force co ming out of me, I dont know. But some of these poses where Im stuck in a pose and I have to be neat nd stare into space and listen to the music--[. .] I cant imagine energy--any energy--coming out of that, although I really dont know for sure. 23 That really depends on the day, and it depends on the class. Therere times when Ive felt complete creative movement, creative energy, just flowing from me to them and back to me in certain classes. And therere other classes where Ive literally--I shut off because somebody had said something [. .] so, uh, I mentally--I just shut off from them, and I, Ive sat. But therere a lot, a lot o times I can, I can feel almost--its hard to explain--the essence of creativity--its almost like a it s almost like--you know when youre in a, in a room and you can feel like a breeze that go es through the--that cycles through a room like from a fan or something, thats what it f eels like: its like touching each of us. So therere times when Ive, Ive felt very refr eshed and energized coming out of a, a, of a session.[. .] I would like to hope that [artists are receiving that energy], and I think some of them are very receptive. 24 Model #18 noted that artists in artist groups not only see but also co mpliment her about the energy when she poses, I had been told that when Im, when I hold a pos e I put a lot of energy into it so its not a static pose, its, it has movement, even though its not moving. Thats what Ive been told. 18 Model #17 reported that there is energy coming fro m her and that most definitely artists see that energy, I believe they can see it because it likell come out in drawings. [. .] [When posing with a prop], theyll draw it, but it wont look the same as me in the pict ure--it really wont. [. .] They really do try nd capture that. 17

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139 Model #20 stated that there was energy co ming from her while she posed, and that Some [artists] are sensitive enough to feel it. Others just kinda se nse it, nd others are totally oblivious. [. .] Whether they pick it up or not, it doesnt matter to me. Its ok. 20 Model #9 reported that there is en ergy present while she poses, but that art students in particular cannot sense energy coming from her while she is posing, [There is energy] in some ways, yes. [. .] I think theyre too busy concentrating on the form. [. .] Theyre way more focused on th e external, uh, the shape of the [model] than trying to get the, um, the details down--I dont think theyre, theyre noticing other factors that are there. 9 Model #13 noted that artists could se e her energy while she posed on only one occasion, The only time Ive had proof [that artists ca n see my energy] was one time I had a huge fight with my business partner before I came into the modeling session, and I was angry as hell, and, after that session, somebody came up to me and said My goodness, your poses were so incredibly dynamic and energetic today; wh at did you do differently? [. .] I had that [. .] energy pulsating through me be-, ev -, even though it came from a place of anger, and it really changed the way I posed. 13 Two models were uncertain if there was energy coming from them while they posed. I dont know if Im completely aware of what Im giving off necessarily. 11 I dont know if there is [energy]. I dont know. [. .] I honestly dont know [if the students feel the energy]. I dont--I ne ver had thought about that. 22 Model #19 stated that there is no energy coming from her while she poses, yet did not specify why. And model #15 reported that there is no energy coming fr om her while she posed, and that artists could not sense a ny energy that might come from her while she was posing, I dont feel that [theres energy], no. [. .] [The artists do not sense energy coming from me] when Im sitting up there, no. 15 The respondents were asked if they try to project their self when they pose. When necessary, the self was defined for the responden ts as that intrinsic part of you that makes you you. Model #15 responded that sh e projected her self during ge sture poses but not long poses. And model #10 stated that she c onsciously projected her self,

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140 Absolutely. [. .] Its all about presence, and the presence is what inspires the artist [. .] I knew that I was projecting--what amazed me is they got it, and they loved it, and they acknowledged me for it ove r and over again. 10 Two models reported that they consciously project th eir self, but also that it varies by the setting. Thats, again, case-specific because a lot of times thats not an option. Im--its-[students]re wanting a body a lot o time s--they, theyre not wanting, you know, that mischievous glint in my eye, that, that they know that Im up to something kind-of-a-look; they just want a body to paint. [. .] [For] si ngle artists, its, its--I put a lot of myself into it, you know, um, I--trying to project--and I--its almost like a caricature of myself that I project, but, I dont know how--its, its a little bit hard to explain be cause it is me, but then again, it isnt me; its almost like--i ts--again [Name] The Model, andwhich--who is me, completely, but at the same time its trying to put myself nd my artistic self in [it]. 24 Model #14, in the following exchange with the interviewer, stated something similar to model #24 about posing for art students, I think so--in situations in wh ich Im comfortable; in [certain classrooms], if its a basic drawing class and nobodys drawn the figure before, then I dont feel I have to do that, and I dont feel comfortable doing that because I dont feel comfortable in the hands of these artists [laughs] because theyre, theyre very new, theyre very--theyre not experienced with nude models, um, so I wouldnt say I real ly project myself, but if Im posing in a situation in which Im very comfortable, and in which the artists or the art students, um, are, are comfortable with me being there, then I think I do. Interviewer --So those times that youre not, wh at are you projecting, if anything? I say aloofness: I would really like everybody to think that I dont care [laughs] about being there, I dont want to be readab le, or, you know, show--I dont want anybody to know if Im cold or uncomfortable or having a bad day or having a great day. 14 Models #18 and #4 noted that they uncons ciously project their self while posing. I [project my self]. I, I mean I, I dont consci ously do it, but I, I do th ink that it happens.[. .] For the entire time its, its more like Im wearing a body-suit, and, and, well, I mean [. .] its like I think that Im projecting the essen ce of me, but that--in wh at Im--what I, what Im sensing when Im doing it is that what they are seeing is not who I am, I mean, you know, what, the, the external of what they are seeing is not wh o I am, and that, the--theres me, and then theres this body-sui t: this suit of skin that just happens to be out there. 18 I think unconsciously I do projec t my self. I dont make a conscious effort to or rarely I do make an effort to express my personal self through my poses, but I have had artists who draw me frequently--after I would get done with a section of drawing and wed go on break, and I had an artist come up to me and say Are you feeling angry? [laughs]. And I

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141 did not intentionally do any poses to express that, but, appa rently, modeling for me is, it is an expression of my self, but, is it in essen ce, um, whether or not I make an effort to put my feelings and emotions into it? I think they just come out naturally. 4 Four models stated that they do not project their self while posing. I dont think Im consciously trying to do anything--I think I just allow myself to project myself, and Im not trying to do anything other than that. 13 I wasnt really trying to project my self. [. .] I was just basically focused on giving them interesting things to draw. 19 I really dont try nd project anything too much with the longer poses just so like because its--to me its all about getting comfortable--[. .] its like I ne ed to be comfortable so they can do it. 17 I dont think I really try to project any kind of image. 22 And model #6 commented not about her self being projected per se, but about viewing her self in artwork, I have seen a few things--I dont know if theyve realized theyve done it or not. 6 The respondents were asked if they bring a good day or bad day they are experiencing outside of the setting into the setting and incorpor ate it into their poses or whether they hide it and thusly not let it show in their poses. Some models reported that the kind-of-day they are having outside of work comes into the setting with them. Model #15 stated that she lets the artists know about her day when she arrives at a setting: It comes in with me. [. .] I let em know--I dont, I dont hide that from them, no; if Im having a bad day, theyll know it, if I have a great day, theyll know that, too. I dont hide that from anybody. 15 The day which some models experience outside of wo rk affects their emotional state, and that, in turn, affects their poses in the setting. If Im having a bad day then Ill just sort of avoid talking to people. I think I just retreat into being you know, rather cool, a nd not really speaking to anybody except the teacher. Um, its really hard not to bring it in because if Im having a bad day or I, you know, I had an argument with my boyfrie nd or something, nd my energy is just so low, and thats the last place I want to be cau se I wanna be, you know, in bed or reading or

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142 something or making up with my boyfriend [l aughs], or, you know, so its very hard to separate that. [. .] [For good days], I have a lot of energy so I do really interesting poses: I can hold things for much longer, um, cause Im happy and have more energy. 14 It plays a big factor in how much I want to be there: if its a bad da y the last thing I wanna do is just sit in an uncomfortable pose fo r a few hours, so Ill just kinda be like [demonstrates], but I try--really try--not to, but uh, of course if Im having a, a great day, its easy and, you know, itmood--has a lot to do with it for me. 11 If Im feeling sad or depresse d, then I would do like more inward poses [demonstrates], and I would do more like expressing that fee ling with my body more--it would help me work with my emotions and it would be insp iring for the people I was working with. Same thing with joy 10 My boyfriend and I had been dating for five months-dating just courting me, no, nothing-well, after five months, we got together, and kind of took the relationship to the next level well say, and that next morning, I had a long pose--an all-day pose--and I really think that it affected my pose. Um, it was a very, uh, se nsual pose, um, very open, very freeing, um, just lounging, reallyit--nd, nd its not that we were a little--not, not really sexual, but very beautiful, open, a beautiful woman laying there nude, right? And, uh, I thought about the night before the whole time--so I think maybe that it, it affected. [. .] You gotta check [a bad day] at the door. 16 Other models noted that their da y outside the setting affects th e amount of physical energy they bring into the setting--w hich affects their poses. I have more energy if Ive had a good day; if I had a bad day, especially if Ive been not feeling well, itll limit which pose--type of pose--Ill do. 9 It, again, depends on the mood: if Im fully awake and Im feeling energetic, thatll come through more. But, if Im, you know, woke up late and its too early in the morning [laughs], and if Im just like laying down in a pose, half the time youre like half-asleep, so theyre, you know, pretty emotion-less [laughs]. 1 I have to learn when I go into a session a nd Im already physically tired from whatever it might be, that there are certain poses that Im just not gonna do [laughs]. And what Im capable of doing when I have a lot of en ergy and what Im capable of doing when Im kapoot. 4 Three models indicated that on certain occasions how they are fee ling outside of the setting influences their posing in the setting. I check [my day outside] at the door for the mo st part. [. .] The only thing that could actually come in with me is if Im tired or not. 17

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143 I think sometimes, not all times. [. .] I think its possible to walk in and have an altering experience within the classroom --one that might take away the positive or negative that you had from the outside--but I dont think I can drop it at the door and not let it affect my pose unless something else happens to change th at mood [. .] Theres days when Im just tired nd just getting through it, and so those are probably gonna be less or no energy. Um, and theres other days when Im completely inspired by the group of people that Im drawing for, and I do feel a lot of energy a nd, uh, you know, like Ill, I ll continue to renew the pose--the energy of the pose and what Im doing throughout the pose, and Ill, you know, just kinda--its a checking myself, you know, I drift off in, in a mental state-thinking of things--and then Ill come back a nd Ill, you know, am I s till maintaining that-the energy that was in th e pose in the beginning. 13 If I have a good day, I bring it with me. If I have a bad day, I try to check it at the door. [. .] [It works] sometimes--most of the time, y eah. [. .] There was one day where it was-during my menstrual cycle--and I found out that I didnt get the part in a play that I had desperately wanted to get a part in, and I found out that I didnt get th e part that I wanted like, like an hour before I went in to this modeling session, and I was just in tears. And I was so badly trying to hold it in, but the-- nd the professor even asked, Are you ok? and I was just like, Yeah. And thats the only time that I brought it with me. But I was--it was just too fresh. Then I had just given up my dog to, to the humane society [laughs] and I was upset about that. A lot o bad things all ha ppened all in like within a days time, and I was having a bad day. It was just one time, in the whole year that Ive been modeling that thats happened. 24 Six models reported that they do not bring what has been happeni ng outside of the setting into the setting with them. You check that at the door. 6 I check it at the door, to th e best of my ability. 18 If Im having a bad day, before I walk in, its over. Its behind me or Ive resolved it, or Ill just put it on the back burner for after. 20 I definitely try to hide it. [. .] Ill try to do the best I can to ha ve a good attitude, and, and put whatevers going on outside outside. 2 I try nd check it at the door. I dont know if Im always succ essful. But I try nd check it at the door. Um, and sit--put myself somewhere else--um, while Im posing. 23 I try to check it at the door, and I think part of the reason for that is because I really actually enjoy what I do, so even if Im having a bad day outside, coming to work is actually a good thing. [. .] When I co me here Im usually pretty pumped up. 25 Summary. Models contend with influences on thei r work found in the setting. Models not only pose sometimes in cold spaces but also for unenergetic artists. The temperature of the space

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144 impacts their work to a small degree while the energy level among those present is as likely as not to influence their poses. The mind and body of the models also affect their work. The energy level of the models themselves which they brin g into the setting not only affects their poses but also the amount of boredom they experien ce while posing. Models overcome boredom in particular by looking, listening, and talking, ye t sleeping during posing is a frequent happening. The mind of models is unfocused while in the lo nger poses, yet thoughts a bout things outside of the setting are common. And models tolerate a considerable degr ee of bodily discomfort while posing. The Artwork The outcome of posing by m odels is the artwor k which the artists create from their poses. I discuss the models observations about the artwork produced by art students, what models tell students about the artwork they create, the mode ls thoughts about why their image ends up as it does in the artwork and their role in that cr eative process, their t houghts about pride in and immortality created by having thei r image in the artwork, and then what happens to the artwork after it is completed. Some models offered comments about th e art works produced by art students. Its interesting to see, uh, how [students] interpret my body when I look at the canvases: some people interpret me thinner than I actually am, some people interpret me fatter than I actually am. 9 Ive had this observation: it s eems like these people draw you heavier, and other people draw you thinner, so I always look at it as two issues: one is peoples interpretation and how they see, and the other is their technical ability. So, I do nt really take it personally. 25 I think theres a range: I thi nk--I, I know--like one of them I look like Jabba the Hut or something: I was like a pile of something, um, which is really interesting and kind of like I know I dont look like that. And then other thi ngs--I think maybe I look a little better than I actually do, um, but most of the time I think its, its a pret ty good representation.[. .] [The Jabba the Hut piece is] kind of amusi ng, I guess [laughs]. Um, it doesnt bother me really. I dont know if that picture was hanging if I would be like, Oh, yeah, thats me [laughs]. I, I just think its interesting to see how everyone else sees me. 22

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145 There was this, this one time I was posing, and all I was doing was sitting there [. .] and I had this big stick--like this big wooden stick --nd I was--and it looked like I was like a a, like I was on a phone or somethin--it was very cool, and [the instructor] was like, Just draw. Draw her the way you see her, and one gu y had this big elaborate headdress like I was some kind of like, you know, sea queen, and ha d this big trident, and this one kid drew me in completely like lewd costume with this shor t, um, school-girl outfit and these fishnets, and these boots and this like--instead of a stick it was a ruler, and I was, nd I was just like whoa--thats so not what I was thinking [laughs], but alright. It was just--I was thinking, wow, you--where, where was your head this morning? Ull [noise]. But it was, it was interesting to see the guy that has me as this beautiful sea quee n, and this guy that has me as the naughty school-teacher, and so its, it s all perception, isnt it? [. .] Whats funny is perception is very diffe rent between each artist. Esp ecially what Ive noticed is that the younger the artist, the more extreme th eir perception. The olde r the artist, the more grounded their perception. I look at th e little students and Im either completely Kate Moss or a dancing hippo from Fantasia. Im very rarely--I very rarely look like myself. They take me to a very-very gross extreme: Im e ither--nd I like--I, its very weird to look up like, I know Im not like that. I know Im not that fat. I know Im a fat girl, but not that fat. [. .] Each artist is di fferent, and nine times out of te n I look heavier in--on paper than, than I really am--they usually add about--I would say anywhe re from fifty to a hundred pounds to me; sometimes two hundred pounds : Ive come out o there looking dis-gusting -I was--there was one class I [. .] came around, a nd I, I just stared at this one painting--er, this one, this one picture and I thought, Unnhh, this is disgusti ng; I look like my mother. [. .] So, its all perception. 24 Sometimes I loved [the art by students] and sometimes I thought it was terrible [laughs], and sometimes I was interested in it, and so metimes I wasnt. Some of it was very inspiring, actually; some of it was very beautiful. 10 In general, most people Ive look ed at, you know, they have a future in it. [. .] But some of the [painting class students] youre like O o I think you might want to get a new major; maybe this isnt for you you kinda thi nk [laughs]. [. .] [I n student drawings] I never really saw anything I wa s looking at like Wow, that, that speaks to me in some way. 1 Sometimes [the students] actually distort the figure and make me look much older and much fatter. I dont look at thos e pictures too much; I prefer the idealized me. I ve seen myself as Cher, Ive seen myself as Cather ine Zeta Jones, nd Im like, go for it. 23 The ones that are better, um, maybe I have a little more respect for; the ones that just dont seem to be getting perspectives or proportions right, um maybe--like I, I dont try to convey these attitudes at all--but, um, its like What are you doing he re? [laughs], I dont know, thats really horrible, but [laughs]. [ .] [A better s tudent] captures everything about the figure and not like so me alien thing with tiny little hands and a big head [laughs], [. .] so I mean, maybe Ill look at their drawings a little more 11

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146 Two models provided observations about the cr eative differences between male and female students in the type of artwork each gender prod uces. Model #1 stated about students that were doing life-size drawings over many class periods of her, [It] was kinda weird [laughs] when youd come in in the morning, and its like fifteen big yous looking at you. [. .] Then you see everyones drawing the exact same pose, and you see how things are different, and how me n and women notice different things, um, about bodies: like women are much less forgiving of flaws cause they see the same things in themselves, like, ok, Your hips are a litt le bulgier than somebody elses, whereas men tend to be like Oh, look its a woman and like, you know, smoother al l over. And like the men almost always have more flattering draw ings of me--which is interesting cause women are so used to picking out every flaw in th e body that men dont see those things, I dont think; cause women see like every little detail, and it shows up in a drawing, [. .] [for] some men theres an i nherent part of them like, Look, naked woman, um, and they idealize some of it. 1 Sometimes I have noticed, though, that men will draw my breasts larger than they are. And, so I guess that might fall into that idealized image category, even though theyre drawing the rest of me as what they see. 13 Sometimes models remark directly to the st udents about the artwor k upon which they are working from their pose. During the break Ill walk around and look at their pictures, a nd, um, I dont say Oh, thats good or I dont like that-I dont say anything. [. .] [T hey might ask] in a kind of a round-a-bout way: theyll be like Well, I kinda messed up on your head here and Ill say Oh, thats fine, so [laughs]. 11 Ill compliment it; I generally dont criticize it. Like Oh, wo w, thats interesting. 3 If I do particularly like something, I will say, This is beautiful, I really like it, um, if I dont like it I just shut my m outh.[. .] If I dont like someth ing, I, I will not tell them I dont like it. If they see me looking at it then they say, Whoa, what do you think? If they do, if they do say, What do you think? I say, Its coming along nicely. I never say anything negative [laughs]. [. .] First of a ll, Im not an expert to know whats good or bad, and I know people are at different stages of their training, and, um, I dont take it personally if someone has really, um, made a horrible mess of what Ive done with the pose. 23 [If I dont like it] Ill still say its very nice because it, it is good stuff. 15 Ill tell people Oh, I r eally like that or He y, you used that par. ., you know, nd Im always encouraging; I never would say Oh my God, that sucks, you know, God, why dont you quit now while you re ahead? I would never do that, ever. [. .] To me, its all

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147 beautiful, I dont care. Just the fact that th eyre sitting there and theyve sat there for twenty minutes nd, you know, struggled with th is, that to me is an accomplishment. 16 Ill peruse their work, nd I don t mind tellin em, I dont really like that or I, I like that. Can I take a picture o that? 24 And the following exchange took place between model #13 and the interviewer, If they seem--I, I like to pick out--if, if I can see somebody who maybe has potential but needs a little bit of an e go-boost, a little bit of a self-, uh, conscious boost, um, Ill come up with something nice to say about what theyre doing, or that theyre on the right track, or something if I can sense that somebodys having a problem: having, getting, having a barrier or something, I try to see if there isnt something th at I can see in their piece that maybe theyre not seeing that I ca n suggest to them, um, you know, Is my arm really at that angle? or those kinds of things nd get them to look at it again when I take the pose again. Interviewer --When you give some of those individuals that need an ego-boost an egoboost, what do you base your evaluation on? I, being in the pose, I can sense what the pose ought to look like, but at the same time Im not actually seeing it from their angle, so I can look at thei r piece and that gives an idea of what angle theyre seeing it from, and I know th e pose I was taking, so I can see if theres a discrepancy, but at the same, at the same time, I, I think I probably do compare it to others round, but I think I can even in the absen ce of any other artwork, tell if they have a quality--a positive quality--to their artwork or if theyre on the right track--if theyre doing good art--and thats from being present in a lot of the classes where I can see people whove never picked up a pencil before to pe ople whove been drawing for thirty years. 13 Some models offered their beliefs about thei r role in the creative process involving posing for artworks of specifically art students, and also their thoughts about what it is that the art students do with their form. [Art students]re still learning how to get to that level of, of being a, an artist, I mean cause they have their own styl e.[. .] [Their artworks are] their vision, their way of thinking of what art is; [. .] thats the wa y they see it because thats the way--that tells me how they perceive everything else around them and what they prefer. 15 [Beginning art students pictures are] really not me anyway, because they dont know what theyre doing and its just terr ible [laughs]. [. .] You ha ve to realize that its their interpretation of you, and [. .] you cant think of it as you. You need to remove your ego from it in order to, uh, Its not me--its ju st a figure that th eyre interpreting. 3

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148 I pretty much just try to not think about what artists [do with my fo rm]. [. .] Cause ultimately I am just a tool for the students, and, er, like a learning tool, so, um, its totally up to them. [. .] I think I just let them do what they feel like they need to do. 1 [My role is] inspiration, a starting point, um, something to learn on. 10 And the following exchange took pla ce with model #10 by the interviewer, I would say 90% of the [student] work that I saw did not represent me. Interviewer --Is that a good thing or bad thing? Its just art. Interviewer --So it didnt bother you th at it really wasnt you ? Its their piece of art. 10 Respondents also supplied their opinions on how artists in general create their art products, their perceptions of what their f unction is in that process, and th eir feelings about how their form appears in the artworks. They, for the most part, will draw each and ev ery roll I have in my stomach, um, or if Ive got my head down and you can see a little bit o skin under here [demonstrates] or they--no holds barred--they just draw what they see. Um, there are a few times that Ive seen, um, where they do idealized image a little bit more : they want--but thats when they kinda-they might have a finished artwork in mind a nd theyre using me as a reference, so then theyll make me--you know, make the body slend, more slender, or, you know, change the facial structure a little bit because it has to fit their finished image. 13 I think the [artists] have their own ideas of what they want for the drawing: some people make me a lot prettier than I am, or really, rea lly honest in the drawing. [. .] Theyre all so different. 11 There are artists who tend to, you know, make me into, um, either sort of pull out what they perceive as--I wont say flaws, but I have chunky thighs, so they ll like make me have not-quite-as-chunky thighs, or Im really short, and my proportions are different than somebody thats of average height, so theyll give me those proportions even when I dont have them. [. .] Its interest ing because in almost every-, ev erything I see, unless its just somebody that really cant draw, theres something of me: either something of my character or some little feature. I mean, Ive looked at a painting, and I think that looks nothing like me except my chin: thats my chin in somebody elses face. 14 [When I first started, I was] surprised to notice, that, you know, certain body parts are accentuated: [. .] I, uh noticed an abstract ar tists rendition of me and I had these really huge ears, and I was like really kind of, you know, intrigued about that, and as I thought

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149 about it I realized that, you know maybe hes expressing the fact that I really listen to him, you know. [. .] Theres definitely the rare artist that, I think, he captured the real me --like in expression. 21 Its all to the ability of th e artist and how much they want it to look like me: sometimes they dont want it to look like me, sometimes [they do]. Ive seen some that show my face, and Im like Wow, that, thats me. Good job. 3 Everybody is going to interpret things differently, right ? [. .] From the point of view of the differences in human perception, I think that that was very fascin ating; like it didnt bother me, I thought it was interesting: you can really see that people see things so differently. 10 [At the breaks] I see their stuff, and ask them, you know, I find it fascinating that each person has they own vision the same way you look through your glasses: everything looks different [. .] nd I like that. 15 I like to walk around--especially in the group-cause every art--t heyre all just so different, you know. [. .] [I want to] kinda see what they captured about me or what theyre, theyre seeing, you know, that Im giving off to them, or, you know, how they view me that day. 12 Its really interesting if youre in a half-round, um, to see--if you st art at one side and walk behind em nd look at all o the drawings you can see all the different angles that theyre seeing you in. I think thats real ly--I, I love doing that be cause you literally can see boomboom-boom--all the differe nt angles as you go around the half-moon, you know, youll see, well, he had this angle, nd the next angle, nd the next angle, nd it really is, its interesting, its interesting to see, nd the n, you now, each artist is different, so youre seeing all these different renderings of yourself. 16 The professional artists I posed for werent even interested in painting me, they just wanted a body and a certain shape, and then the ones who were interested in painting me--the professionals--a lot of them--didnt paint me e ither [laughs]. [Then told story about artist that painted a portrait of her during a group posing session.] So, you know, and if you look at it apart from me--if you didnt see, if youd never met me and you looked at that drawing, it was an interesting drawing --it just wasnt me--and thats ok. 10 If its a drawing group, [. .] youre still not artwork--youre, youre something inspiring the artist. [. .] [After having posed for a drawing by an individual artist]: it didnt look quite like me, but hes really good--but it was sl ightly abstract, and, uh--but it wasnt me-it was just an inspiration of me caused by me--I modeled it. 3 Youre there to, to, um, present yourself for th em as, as a modeling agent, so you think of yourself more as form that could be moved around, you know, although were interacting as human beings, of course. 6 What Im trying to be is essentially, um, an object that people can learn from--I call it positive objectification. Um, its, its a way in which my body is reduced to being an

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150 object, but in a positive way. And so, [. .] Im just trying to be present and be there so they can learn from my body. 9 I guess I think of my body as a to ol: its a tool fo r expression. 10 My body is an art-object at the time to be rende red. [. .] They may be objectifying me, but I dont care, thats my job there. [. .] Were a tool, were literally a tool for artists to, to improve their, their talent. [. .] Whatever they need--thats why Im there--Im there for their convenience. 16 Sometimes I think that, um, Im just projecti ng the pose itself--the fi gure--its not always just me. [. .] When Im up, up on the podium, I think the artist is looking at the figure, theyre not necessa rily looking at me I am a figure for them to draw, and, so sometimes I feel that I could be--it could be anybody up here--I mean, if theyre drawing just the figure, but it makes it more interesting when th e professor talks to the students and says something about me and who I am, and what I have wh en he says Thats a wonderful bicep, you know, something, and it, it makes a difference because, therefore, theyre, theyre looking at me for the--but, uh, most of the time I try to figure that, that Im just a figure [. .]. [. .] When I go and look at what they have drawn, sometimes I dont see me at all--I just see a figure. 8 In figure drawing I see myself a lot more [. .] than in painting, because painting is very interpretive, [and] because its interpretive, the artist is th ere to interpret color or whatever they want to, and, but I, I dont even see a human in there [laughs], I think What does that--is that me on .? 8 Thats the humbleness: is that Im remembering that Im a model --theyre not putting [name] on the page, theyre putting something th at is transferring fr om a visual--theyre looking at me doing a certain thing on a platform with the play of light coming down; now, that has to--in order to get from there to a piece of paper--it has to go through a person, and all of their--what makes them them--and so th e very specific definition of a model is youre a model for something that somebody s creating--and I remind myself of that all the time: Im only a model--they can draw me any way th ey want to: they can draw me fat, skinny, ugly, beautiful, long hair, short hair, they can do whatever they want--[. .] Im just a model for them to use for their creative process. 7 They can make us into what they want: Ive ha d artists [. .] take my body/shape/form and turn me into monsters, uh, or [. .] someone turned me into a tree: nothing much except maybe a little here or a little there of me in their, in their pictorial, you know, pictorial view. [. .] I think its great--I think its wonderful to exercise the imagination. 6 In contrast to the above statem ents, some models reported that the creation of artworks by artists involves a more direct en terprise between themselves and the artists for which they pose.

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151 Model #21 labeled the creation of artwork a synergis tic effort on the parts of her and the artists for whom she poses. I mean theres a collaboration cause the pe ople Im closest to--who I actually talk to-when they were drawing me, like theyre dr awing for more personality, they had more energy in them, they werent as li fe-less, it wasnt just a model because they had talked to me, and so you would see that, like you could see a little more energy in the drawing. And so I think in that sense like some of those there would be more collaboration. Um, because they knew me better and they kinda knew what they were dealing with. But towards the end, like I talked to everyone--I had been in their class six hours a week for an entire semester--um, theyd start to--everyone star ts to--get to know you a little bit, and you would see more energy, so I think in that sens e, like if you know the model, or if you talk to em, like you can see that theyve met me and Im sarcastic and sometimes witty [laughs] or whatever, but I think theyd notice that. 1 [There is] a sense of collaboration, a partnership--were working together--to make something beautiful. [. .] And so I mean I do believe that people who are established artists and who have the desire to be an artist have that [crea tive] energy in them, but that I do have the power to inspire them--to develop that energy. 4 Model #7 noted in working w ith individual artists that, Theres always a collaboration going on. [. .] There is that energy going back and forth. [. .] There has to be a transfer of energy--to really create something. 7 Model #7 went on to give more details of the collaborative experience by noting that her beginning relationship with individual artists star ts as one of humility and respect, but then, Theres a certain point where I see it shifting that I know, ok, now its time for me to get in there and prove myself equal with what Im doing, um, and from that point-that is where the shift happens, and the whole muse-thing st arts to happen, and something starts: theres an energy thats created again, you know, working with the two, um, thats, uh, sometimes it works and sometimes it doesnt work. [. .] This whole process, this whole thing that develops when I do see the point where I now can feel that place of my expression--that theyre picking up on my level of expre ssion--then, it goes to a higher place. 7 Its really nice to have that opportunity to collaborate with the [individual] artist in creating something, and its a much more--I have much more uh participation in that than when Im just modeling for a group of people. 13 The respondents were asked if they had pride in the artwork for which they posed. Nearly all models (75%) answered yes, 12% answer ed sometimes, and 13% answered no. The reasons offered by those models who take pride in the artwork ranged widely.

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152 Like I really worked hard so they could do that. 11 I feel very happy that someone woul d like to use me as a model. 6 Not in the artwork per se--more in the fact that you held th at pose, you know. That nd not, not so much in the artwork. [. .] More like I held that pose for a month [laughs], you know. [. .] You take pride in what you did--the job. 3 I think Im really helping artists. [. .] Im proud when I see a piece of work that I really like. 23 For the artwork by art st udents, model #16 stated, [I take pride in] the poses I give em. [. .] Im proud of the fact that I challenge them-that I give them something to draw. 16 For the artwork by art students, model #2 stated, I feel pride in that [I was] part of their tr aining, and that kind of th ing, rather than anything to do with what they produce. 2 For the artwork by artists in groups and for individual artists, model #2 stated, If it turns out well--[. .] [that is,] if the artist is happy with it [. .]--I like to feel like maybe I had something to do with that, or I enabled them to make a piece of art they couldnt have made otherwise. 2 The reasons offered by those models who sometimes take pride in the artwork concerned differences in artwork between the types of artists. Model #1 noted for the artwork of the art students, Sometimes. Some peoples there s pride, and other peoples you kinda hope they pick a different profession [laughs]. Um, and not even so much as theyre unflattering, but theres a quality element even in an unflattering draw ing that can still be technically very good, and there are some people youre like Oh, thats flattering, but its not good [laughs]. Its not, um, technically valuable. 1 Model #14 noted a difference in pride felt for th e artwork between art st udents and individual artists, [I feel pride] only if I know the artist well. [. .] A lot of students arent doing great art-theyre just learning how the body looks and moves and works, so I dont think I have-theres no reason for me to take pride in it-Im just there--its not something that Im giving em. If I know the artist then I have something to do with it because its a reciprocity. [. .] I pride myself on being able to sit very st ill, um, and be a good model. 14

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153 And model #15 stated that her pride varied accordi ng to whether the artists are art students or artists in groups, I feel pride with the group sessions over the art--I mean with the student sessions. [. .] [Students]re still learning how to get to that level of, of bei ng a, an artist, I mean cause they have their own style. 15 The respondents were asked if they felt immo rtalized by having their image in the better artwork for which they had posed. About one half of the models (55%) answered that they do feel immortalized by being in some of the artwork. [Immortalization] is kinda wh ats interesting about [artist modeling] is this idea that, you know, someone else is gonna see you as art. 1 Because I am now either a sculpture, a draw ing, a painting, or some kind of rendering--it might even be a pencil sketch--but usually people will hold onto those things; sometimes theyll hang it in the gallery-it could be there for who know s how long. Other times youre giving it as a gift to someone--its shar ed with a friend, sometimes your family. 20 Im in a piece of art--like Im th e subject of something artistic. 22 Its kinda neat to be--like you see famous paintings of models nd, uh, in a, in a small way Im kinda like a part of that. Um, mentioned in history maybe a little bit [laughs]--not that anyones really gonna see most of these drawings or paintin gs, but . 11 In, in a way, for me, its a way of living, um, posthumously, too, because I dont have any children [. .], and, um, I have to live on so mehow, and whether its in someones attic-because their grandmother painted that picture --years from now, or if it does end up in a gallery, um, its a way of living on forever. [. .] Its kinda nice to know that youre leaving something behind, especi ally if its of value and its aesthetically beautiful. 23 I wanna be remembered as somebody they, th ey were comfortable with and they, you know, theyre, theyre not--c ome off as snobby to them. 15 And model #12 tied her feeling abou t immortality in the artwork as something that she could remember as having taken place at a stage, At that time in my life: [. .] This was me like back when I was twenty-four. 12 In contrast, the other models (45%) responded that they do not feel immortalized by having their image put in the artwork. No, not necessarily.[. .] I dont really think about that. 21

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154 No [laughs]. I just dont think li ke that. [. .] I think that [. .] inner reality is whats important, so I dont really ca re about the outer reality. 10 I have a realistic idea of how much contempor ary art actually gets preserved for a very long time. [. .] Im not quite concerne d whether anybody knows it was me in, you know, ten years or one hundred years. 14 None of the paintings Ive ever posed for are th e kind of things that la st that long. [. .] I mean it would be cool if there were paintings in a museum, but its not something that, that, that has really anything to do with my interest in modeling. 2 I dont expect any of [the student artwork] to be around much--[. .] most of it is practices that theyre doing. [. .] If a ny of [the group artwork] were ev er to be framed or something, perhaps I would, but I dont know that it ever has or will be. 18 The artworks that the artists produce from the mo dels is either kept, exhibited, sold, traded, given away or thrown away by the artists. As model #23 pointed out, Artwork is, is something--its a journey for so me people, its a destination for others, and they can do whatever they want to with their artwork; [. .] once Ive posed for them Ive more or less agreed that they have full license to do what they want. 23 And model #8 added, Thats what the art worlds all about, you know : youre painted as a model and then you accept the fact that youre going to be in vari ous and sundry places, or areas, and not be worried about it. 8 The models were asked if they ever kept and saved any of the artwork from the artists for whom they had posed.7 Most models (71%) stated that they had obtained artwork, ranging in number of pieces from one up to a small collecti on. The models often stored several pieces in a portfolio, rolled in a tube, or in a flat space at home. Others hung the work on their walls at home, although, in contrast, #10 stated, I am a little shy about hanging the work about me. I love it personally and privately, but I dont like to really make it like a public display. 10 Others models saved pieces for awhile, but eventually gave some of them to friends as gifts. 7 This is for hard copies only, and not for images of artworks taken by a di gital camera or cellular telephone and stored in an electronic device.

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155 A few models (29%) models reported that they did not save any of the artwork. Models #11 and #2 noted that artists keep the better piec es. And #1 reported that sh e did not save any of the pieces because Ive never loved anyones that much--like theyre kind of good, but ., and because she noted that she knows full-well what her body looks like. Model #22 stated that she also never saved any of the artwork: I thought it would be weird, like Can I have this painting of me naked? I dont know, I just felt like I, I would just feel weird asking for it. And model #19 noted, To be honest, I didnt think any of it was that-like I mean Im sure there was some that I didnt see that mightve been better, but I didnt see anything th at like really jumped out at me as awesome. 19 Artworks for whom models pose also may be placed into a gallery, an exhibition, or in another type of showing for viewing by the public Some models stated that they had seen artworks for which they posed on public display. Three models even reported that they had attended gallery openings of individual artists that included artwork for which they had posed. Its neat to walk in and see, you know, that theres a beautiful seascape or theres a, a picture of a bird or--and then theres these be autiful pictures of, of woman, and I just happen to be one of them, and they look so roma ntic and so neat. Its, its cool; I love it. 24 Model #1 recounted an instance in which artwork of her image was recognized by a friend at an exhibition, I didnt know about it until after the fact, but a friend of mine went to [an on-campus art exhibition] with an art friend of hers, and sh e actually recognized me, um, because it was like me from, you know, eight angl es and tons of pictures a nd she was like I think I know this girl [laughs]. She asked me like This is kind of a weird question, but were you an artist model? I was like Yeah, she was like Ok, theres a whole exhibit, Im like Thats kinda neat. 1 On the other hand, model #8 pointed out that the im age of a model in an artwork may not always be readily recognized by others,

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156 I might look [. .] at something thats up lik e that and see myself, but other people might not necessarily know. 8 Accordingly, a model may herself be the only pe rson able to identify her image in an artwork either because she recognizes he r image or recognizes the pose. The respondents were asked about their feelings regarding the fact that a large proportion of the artwork for which they had posed is eventually discarded. Most (71 %) of the models were not concerned, for a few (14%) it mattered sometimes, while another few (14%) of the models did have concerns about the fact. Comments made by models who were unconcerned were similar to the following: Its helping people fu lfill their passion, It s a growing process for them, and Its part of the artistic process. Two models were somewhat concerned about some of the artwork being thrown away. [It matters sometimes] but not all the time b ecause I realize what situation Im in. 8 I get sort of a twinge [if] its a really good painting because they could give it to me [laughs]. 14 And two models were troubled that much of the artwork for which they posed was being destroyed. I think its a shame, um, Id like the opportunity to coll ect it if I were given that opportunity, um, rather than it get thrown away. 13 [Artworks being thrown away] makes me sad b ecause its stuff that I, I know I could probably--I would take it and l ove it, you know? And I just know that [artists] dont, they dont take that in consid eration when they think, Oh, we ll, shes just a mo-, shes just a model. Because thats--a lot of the artists--thats what th ey think of us: were just a model. Thats just a pie, thats just a glass. They, they--were just an object to, to their end results. And, so, to know that, even though you may think its crap, I think it s really pretty. 24 Summary. Artwork produced by the ar t students from the poses of models is of minor quality, although the models never criticize the artwork in front of the students. Moreover, the models are content in the knowledge that their form is subject to th e perception of artists, and so

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157 it ends up in a wide ranging disp lay of expressions in the resulting art products. The models are proud of the efforts they go through so that the art can be made, yet are as likely as not to gain a sense of immortality through the art. And, when possible, some artw ork that the artists create is kept by the models themselves. Reactions from Others The nature o f artist modeling makes it subject to reactions from other people both about the work and also about those who do it. The mode ls perceptions of people that they encounter and their reactions to their modeling is the subjec t of this section. It reviews the people in the models networks who know about their modeling and also their reactions to that work. It also reviews the stereotypes which people in general hold about th em and their work, and the consequences of the stereotypes on the models themselves. The respondents were asked a question about the people in their network that know about (or, in the alternative, do not know about) their work as an artist model. When necessary, the term network was defined for the respondents as those family members and friends with whom you have regular and repeated interaction. All models, except four, indicated that they made no intentional effort to keep their work secr et or conceal it from family and friends. Model #20 reported that her immediate family members do not know that she is a model. Model #18 stated that she has specifically not told her mother. Model #9 reported a single person--her fiances mother--in her network who did not kno w about her work as a model, and model #14 stated that she tried to avoid the topic of her modeling with he r boyfriends mother. Furthermore, models indicated that they made no effo rt to conceal their work from others apart from family members and friends--even in casual circumstan ces. The only exceptions to this were noted by models #11 and #25. Model #11 mentioned that she did not tell men about her work only to

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158 avoid hearing their offensive comments when she be lieved that they were hitting on her. In a similar vein, model #25 stated, I normally will not tell a male that I have rece ntly met that Im an artist model because the very next question out of their mouth is, Do you pose nude? And where are you? Can I come draw? Im thinkin--I mean its just ridiculous that adults would say something like that. 25 The models were additionally asked about the reactions they had gotten from the people in their network when it became known th at they were an artist mode l. The reported reactions from family members and friends ranged widely: from shock, hesitation and intr igue to understanding and acceptance. The only categorie s of individuals among family members and close friends who were mentioned as having particularly notable comments were the parents, female friends and significant others of only a fe w models. Parents were reporte d as being worried about the voyeuristic intentions of some artists, the possibl e exploitation by artist s, or the fact that modeling would ruin the future car eer of the person if it was ever discovered that they formerly were an artist model. The female friends we re mentioned as having high regard for the confidence the model had to be nude in front of ot hers and also that arti st modeling was a pursuit that fit the models personality. And the reactions of the signifi cant others of two models were recounted by them. Model #22 reported that her (non-art community) boyfriend only tolerates what she does, He doesnt like it. [. .] He didnt rea lly understand my motivation, he didnt understand why I was so interested in, in taking part in [mod eling]. [. .] [He said ], Its your decision; I dont want to stop you from doing somethi ng you wanna do, um, even though hes not really comfortable with it. [. .] He just ki nd of--I dont think he thinks about it that much. 22 In the following exchange with the interviewer, model #19 reporte d discussing her interest in modeling with her (non-art community ) boyfriend before she began posing. I sort of gave him a mini-forewarning cause I wanted to do it lik e four years ago or whatever, but my ex-boyfriend was like absolutely not--[. .] He did not want me to do

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159 that, and I was, nd I was just like th at upset me because I should--you know, you shouldnt be able to like tell, tell me what--o r not--you know, tell me what I can and cannot do, so I was like before I think I even knew that I had, I had a job I like told him that, you know, this person used to do that, and that really upset me, and this and that, so he sort of watched himself [laughs] and he wasnt gonna tell me no, but we did talk about it, and explained why--er, and, and told me he was unc omfortable with, with it, and wanted me to try nd convince him that him seei ng me naked is different--it is still special even though other people see me naked. Interviewer --Is he still uncomfortable with the fact that you did it or has he gotten over it? Um, I think hes over it, but I--he wa s probably rather me not do it again. 19 The respondents were asked if they had enc ountered any myths or stereotypes about artist models. Model #9 stated that she had not encountered any stereotypes, I dont think many people realize that there are figure models. I think its something that goes under the radar; I think most people dont r ealize that art students have to learn how to draw the human figure by looking at naked bo dies. [. .] I havent encountered a lot of weird perceptions about figure m odeling because most people dont know about it. So, unlike many jobs, its just not known. And t hose who do tend to know about it tend to be artists or art-freaks and so theyre not bothered by it. 9 And model #19 noted, I think people in society like will maybe see [artist modeling] in a movie and they dont really believe that it happens. On several o ccasions I have like talked to people--this is before I even modeled--I just talked to peopl e about art school, and te ll them about that and theyre like, Oh, that really happens? Im like, Yeah, it happens [laughs]. People like--a lot of people dont believe that re ally happens. Pretty crazy. [. .] [Once] they sorta get over the idea that--er, you know, the, the discovery that that really happnes, and then, for the most part, Im, I, I would assume most people are like think we re possibly nuts. 19 Some models point out that some people a ssociate artist modeling with some type of sexuality, [Society] condemns it because they think its just a sexy, something to do with Oh, you want to get down-and-dirty or something. [. .] I think people condemn it because they dont understand it. 8 People outside of the artworld that look at what I do and have a problem with it, they dont understand what its about. They think that because Im standing there--I dont have any clothes on--theres something sexual, somethi ng suggestive about it, a nd thats never been the case. 4

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160 People tend to have these assumptions--non-artist s--tend to have the a ssumption that it is sexy, but it really, honestly, is wa s probably the least sexy thing Ive ever done. I mean, sitting in a kind of cold room, holding still, you know, is not, is not really a sexual thing. 5 Other models commented that people associate an artist model w ith being a sort of prostitute. Youre just trying to be perverse--like a si ck nd perversive thing, or, you know, Im--its a sexual thing where Im, by the wa y, well just like a slut. 12 Like theres an assumption that, ok, Well, sh ell take her clothes off for people, shes probably a slut. [. .] Um, but I think th e stigma that surroun ds nudity and like the assumption that because she models for art cla sses, shell probably get naked for anyone in any time frame, um, so I think that for a lo t of people who dont know me as well and just know that theres an assumption thats being made: about sexuality, because, you know, girls are supposed to be delic ate and modest [whispers] [. .] To me its funny that someone could judge me on a job that I wo rk twelve hours a week--theyre gonna pass judgment on my entire life for some thing I do twelve hours a week. 1 And model #16 mentioned that others link artist models with pornography models. [The] idea that if youre nude youre a porn star. 16 These views are largely su mmed up by model #7 who noted, I think theres a good group that th inks that artist models ar e just nasty, um, not really pornographic, but, you know, what floozy or what ever. Then theres another aspect that just simply dont understand what the hell is going on: you know, its, its a very mysterious kind of thing. Then theres anothe r, another part that I would think, um, is rather caught up with the whole romantic r eason for the whole thing, um, of being in a studio, you know, with an artist or, you know, sort of that romantic/s exual kind of thing. And then theres probably a, a very good large group that has real first-hand experience with drawing--figure-draw ing--that understands the magic and mystery. 7 The respondents were asked if they felt condem ned by society because of their work as an artist model. Models #11 and #12 stated that th ey felt a little bit condemned by society for what they do. And model #8 stated that she did feel condemned, but followed up by noting her indifference to the perceptions of others, Finally I decided I dont care what [other pe ople] feel: if Im doing something that Ive always enjoyed doing, and Ive, well, decided to keep doing, and I will, then if they feel that way, then thats fine. 8

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161 Four models stated that they did not feel condemned by society; moreover, each offered a somewhat differing rationale for their feelings. Anybody on the outside, thats like not within the artworld, if they want to think about me in a different way because of what I do, then they probably dont even understand what its about, and I dont really care what they think. 4 I just think thats, uh, you know, people who are ignorant. [. .] I mean, its just ignorance, you know, and thats their problem, not mine. 25 I dont feel condemned because, one, you know, they just dont know [about modeling], and, two, I dont really care or only barely care. 9 I think the majority of society of today, uh, feels that there is a place for all things. [. .] Most of society today is comf ortable, uh, compared to what it was even twenty years ago or thirty years or thirty-five years ago [laughs]. 6 Summary. Models do not hide their work from family members and friends nor from others in general. The reactions from family members and friends when they found out about their work covered a range from appal to approv al. The cultural stereotypes about artist modeling place it alongside prostitution and pornography as sexually-loaded work. And models meet the stereotypes held by others with indifference. Rewards and Work Requirements The work of artist m odeling provides many rewards to models. I re view the rewards the models have received from their work, as we ll as the compliments the models have received from artists. The perceived requirement s for the work are also reviewed. The models revealed what they like about their work at severa l points throughout the interviews Their responses can be roughly grouped into the fo llowing twelve categories, listed in ascending order according to the fr equency with which each was mentioned. Seeing self inside artwork Some models like to see the artworks created that they are a part of. As model #5 noted, I enjoy seeing, um, artwork created from me just because its different from looking in a mirror--its like

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162 one time you actually get to see what somebody else is, is seeing [. .]. And model #1 stated, Its interesting to see yourself depicted instead of inside a photograph, and Its fun to, you know, be art I guess, and see yourself. Engaging with artists Model # 6 noted that she like meeting different kinds of people, and model #2 stated that she likes having a good relationship wi th a lot of interesting peopl e. She went on to state, Ive always liked working with them--its one of the reasons that I lik e the job is that you get to have, you know, a good working relati onship with somebody, and you get to know something about them and, you know, I like talking to th em, and that kind of thing. 2 And model #13 reported, I love em. [. .] I love the opportunity to be around them and to meet them and to see them working, and, uh, um, and to see the work in progress--its, its almost like a, a special honor to be able to witness the proce ss. [. .] I love seeing them over and over again when Im, you know, they come to multip le drawing groups, or I go to a drawing group again and they return, nd, or in a class setting where I, I get to know them throughout a whole semester. 13 Contribution to learning Some models like helping the artists learn and to increase their skills in order to become better artists. Im a poet, a musician and a dancer--performance artist--and, and I, I teach. Um, Im like a life coach: I teach people how to work with their lives, and I cons ider that my art is one of the ways that I teach, and so for me I was part of their way of learning, and I loved that. I found it also inspiring that I was getting to help people learn how to do what they wanted to do. 10 If youre an artist model youre just being paid for your time, but what your body gives everyone is priceless, and its very clear that its priceless, and I found that really life-giving and very up-lifting to my spirit and very healing, actually. 10 [For the students] I really want them to have a chance to learn, uh, and Im fascinated by the fact that theyre learning how to draw [. .]. [. .] Seeing them progress over the semesters very interesting to me. 9 As an artist, but maybe not a drawing or painting artist, but as a, as an artist myself, and the creativity of--that I, that Ive been immersed in because of my, my profession of choice, it,

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163 its so, its just cool to know that Im, Im a part of some body elses artistic experience: that Ive helped them. [Discusses posing for an artist free of charge.] I just like the experience of knowing that Im helping art is a dying breed now: everything has gone to computers, nd, nd cell phones [. .] and tr ue, good art is so hard to come by, and just knowing that Im, Im helping with that, makes me happy. I dont mind that Im--I have to have two other jobs to pay for the fact th at I like to model. I make good money, dont get me wrong, when I, when I work--but, just knowing that Im helping somebody else create something thatll, thatll last--thats, that is the true reason why I do it. 24 Importance of process I believe in the creation of art and the things that are beautiful and that are inspiring, and to be a part of that. 4 Feeling necessary, uh, feeling us eful, um, feeling like Im part of something important, um, seeing a lot of beautiful art cr eated that Im a part of. 2 Im helping to create love and beauty in the art world 7 The lack of stress Whats nice about it is its something that I can do and I sort of leave there. [. .] The nice thing about it is that you go, you do it, and th en its done--and it--to me its relaxing and meditative, so Im not taking crap from the scene, you know, actually. 9 I try nd treat that time as my down time, like as my, my time of meditation--I go a hundred miles an hour all day, like all the time, like this is my time to like sit still and do like kinda nothing, just kinda relax. 12 I try while Im there since I, you know, just to kinda focus on the breathing, and just kinda enjoy that time, that down time, you know, kinda force myself to just accept it for what it is and not get caught up in everything else [outside]. 12 Having time for meditation Modeling helps me to process my feelings and emotions, and to, you know, incorporate them into my body. [. .] Its almost like me ditation for me [. .] --how to work through things. [. .] Modeling is to me--its almost like a form of, of yoga and meditation. [. .] When you have to remain perfectly still and you dont have distractions to take you away from those thoughts its a great environment to think and feel and discover things about yourself [laughs]. 4 [Posing] is a very meditative state for me in many ways, um, I dont try to make it meditative, but, in the sense of like only fo cusing on the breath or doing a mantra or something like that--but I, I let my brai n go where it wants wit hout judging it--which is one of the things that meditation does [. .] The brains drifting, so it goes from thought to thought to thought--I dont try to make it stay on track, because that way I can enjoy the

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164 looseness of it--its not quite dream-like, but its, um, more associa tive-thinking, which is a release, you know. 9 Learning about art techniques Im hearing and listening and paying very close attention [. .] because I really wanna draw, and I really cant afford time or money-wise to go to these classes. 7 I get to experience, um, the instruction and I get to overh ear whats being taught. 13 Self-esteem enhancement To inspire an artist to create something so, so beautiful is, to me, an incredible, um, boost to my self-esteem. 4 Sometimes I see myself there [in artworks] and I think, Wow. I remember the first time I looked down, I--from the model stand--and saw something, and I thought--and I was havin a, kind of like a, I call it a fat day--just not a lot of pride in myself that day, and I looked down and I saw this piece and it was--an d, yeah, it was a, was a picture of me, but it was gorgeous --it was completely beautiful, and theres a professor at, at [Art School], and I love bein in his class cause he uses wo rds like luminescence and Look how, um, look at the beautiful curves of her body and, and he uses words like that that make me feel beautiful. 24 Confidence It does help you feel more confident [. .] I mean, the kind of person who will get naked for an art class has to have some degree of confidence. Um, but I think modeling kinda brings that out a lot more. 1 It gives you a lot of confidence, because if you can stand there in front of people--and have fifteen people look at your naked body--um, you can, you know, wear a dress or skirt or like be ok if people are looking at you, or [if] in a rela tionship, in the bedroom or wherever--you know what your body looks like, and you know that its more valuable than just like something to look at--like its been art to someone instead of . 1 Patience Youre forced to sit there. [. .] But Im a rather impatient person: I like things done now [laughs], and I want it done qui ckly--lets do it, get it over, fa st. Um, it forces me to slow down--you have no choice. 3 Extending self as artist Model #11 stated that she liked modeling because being in that kind of world allowed her to more fully round out her experience as an artist.

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165 Getting well paid The money is the main appeal of the job. Um ten bucks an hour an campus--for a campus job--is a pretty good deal for colle ge students for not doing much. 1 In addition to getting intrinsic and extrinsic rewards from the work, models also directly receive compliments from artists on some occasions Artists give compliments to models either while the model is posing, while she is on brea k, or after the session is over. I asked the respondents to specify that for wh ich the artists give them prai se. Their responses (in ascending order) were the way the model poses in general [11], a particular pose (for example, one that showed certain muscles on the side of the model or was aesthetically pleasing to the artists or was creative and dynamic) [8], not moving in a pose [8], body shape (for example, a very proportionate figure, a classical shape, a full shape) [4], model is an inspir ation (that is, poses of model inspire the artists to create great artwork) [2], a particular body feature (for example, hair, muscles) [2], arrive on time [2], easy to get along with [2], combination of skin and hair (notably, the coloring of both) [1], best model [1], and remembering pose so can quickly return to it after break [1]. I asked the respondents about th e characteristics they believ ed are required of a person wanting to become an artist model. The skills an d characteristics reported by the models can be roughly grouped into seven categorie s, arranged in order of the frequency with which they were mentioned: (1) being still--the ability to hold still for a long period of time--[11], patience --[2]; (2) the body--un-self-consciousness, uninhibited, content with body, comfortable with body--[9] (so can come up with different poses and not be, as model #12 noted, scrunched up all the time), confident to be nude in front of others--[3], be in shape (exercise, eat well, etc)[3] (to avoid effects on body after posing, and so are able to be still), flex ible--[2] (especia lly ability to pose with twists and bends), physical stamina[2 ], practice yoga or pila tes--[2], willing to hold

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166 body in different positions--[2] (depending on wh at artist wants), abil ity to get over the body image self-conceptions--[2] (because it is about the students learning and not their personal body), a sense of own body--[1] (body awareness, so can pose without being in pain), be in good health--[1]; (3) poses--be able to quickly think of inte resting poses--[8], pract ice posing--[1] (so can know what can hold and for how long); (4) k nowing about art--appreciation of art--[3] (so know the kind of poses that have been used in artwork before), take an art class using nude model--[2] (to be aware of what th e artist sees so the pose is interesting to draw or paint, and to know what it is like to look at another nude pers on), passion for the uni on with an artist that results in an artwork--[1], a se nse of light and color--[1]; (5) punctuality--be on time--[3]; (6) focus focus--[2] (concentration), mental stamina--[1]; (7) othe rs--have an understanding partner--[1], speak up for self [1] (if are unsettled about something that ha ppens in the session), be serious--[1]. Summary. The findings indicate that the aspects of the job that the models mostly enjoy are seeing the finished art products, being a part of the creative process, in teracting with artists, helping the artists, learning about different art techniques in gene ral, and the relaxing nature of the work. The models are mostly complimented by ar tists on aspects of thei r posing, the fact that they can hold a pose, and the shape of their fo rm. The characteristics that models need to perform the work are primarily the ability to hold a pose, be in shape and be comfortable with being nude, be able to come up with creative poses, and know something about the visual arts. The Body The (nude) body is the chief feature of artis t m odeling, and so ma ny additional issues about it merit further discussion. This section reviews the models percep tions of their body and the influence of modeling on those perceptions and their knowledge about their body and the influence of modeling on that knowledge. It also illuminates their current exercise habits and

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167 experience with yoga, their past pa rticipation in dance, organized sports, performing before an audience, and fashion modeling, and also their background experience with nudity at home, at a nudist resort or beach, in photographs and through exotic dancing. Models were asked about how they perceive of their overall body. Models #7 and #11 each stated that they were very comfortable w ith their body. Model #2 stat ed I feel good [about it], while model #12 stated that she was happy with her body. And #14 noted I really like my body, and model #22 stated Im just kind of average. Model #20 noted I like it; Im comfortable with it, Im comfortable in it, and I dont have any issues with it. The perceptions reported by five models were re lated to the issue of the weight of their bodies. Overweight. I dont know--I have some body issues, but, uh, I dont have them because of modeling. 5 Im comfortable being naked [. .] its just not big deal to me. Um, I do have plenty of body issues, though, parts of my body tha I dont like or--right now Im at one of my heaviest weights, uh, in part, due to health problems, and, do I like being that heavy? Im seeing how my bodys interpreted: not always. Am I conscious of the fact that as a thirtyfive year old woman Im not nearly as sk inny as women who are often fifteen years younger than me? Yeah, um, but Im able to sort of, you know, be aware of that before I tuck it to the side. 9 Big [laughs]. Ive, uh, shrunken down to about fi ve foot three and half now, I used to be five foot five. I used to carry around myself, you know, anywhere between 140 to 150 pounds, somewhere around in there--now I weigh 200 and like 27 pounds. Thats a whole other body on my body and its distressin g, distressing, its a lot harder to carry that weight around, uh, but as far as most cases I dont, I dont really f eel, like, embarrassed by it or anything like that. Ive had children. Ive got stretch marks, its just, you know, its part of living, I have a pre-diabetic condition, uh, Im doing my best with what I have, I am what I am. [. .] [But] Ive alwa ys had a comfort about my body. 6 Im very proud of my body. I I feel beau tiful; um at the moment I know I have extra weight on me that I dont want but at the same time, every time I say that in front of a group of artists, they, they tell me No, youre perfect, you dont need to worry about. [. .] I feel very good about my self, very confident. 13 Im alright with it--I wasnt al ways alright with it, but [. .] Im ok with it--um, because I lost a lot of weight recently. 3

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168 The perceptions by three models were linked to the physical conditioning of their bodies. Therere definitely things about my body that I would like to change; that I would like to be in better shape--I need to exercise more --thats my own fault. Um, but I do, I think, I have a nice body, I get compliments about it al l the time--it cant be that bad [laughs]. And, uh Im comfortable with my body but Im always wanting to be a little better than what I am. 4 I wouldnt call it beautiful, but its--I feel its in good shape. Im in good shape-physically. There are things I could do to improve, and Im trying to do that--its not always easy. [. .] I try really hard to keep my body in as good a shape as possible--I know they like to have curves and all that, but I dont think its ni ce to be a big fat person up there on the podium, and seeing texture and body, uh, bone, sculpture and all, does make a difference, I think, to the artist. 8 I look at certain things, uh, like muscle tone, a nd I sort of think I need to do more tones, but then I also [laughs] look and I see ot her models, and I think, You know what? You know, youre doin pretty well here. So I think that, overall, I, Id say I feel pretty good, you know. Um, it just depends on the day: you know when you have those ugly days [laughs], you look in the mirror a nd youre like ooo [noise]. 25 Five models linked their perceptions primarily to the physical characte ristics of their body. Model #17 described nearly every feature of he r body from head to feet, then declared You cant beat it, [. .] but youd be peeved about certain little features. 17 I wasnt blessed with a chest, you see--thats al right. Um, lets see, um, I like it nd I dont like it cause I dont lik e my scar, but other than that I think I have a nice body, even though its not curvaceous and its not bo-dacious, but its there. 15 Voluptuous: [. .] I have a very strong physique [. .] I just have this very strong upper body, very strong lower body, and Ive always had the very small, tiny waist--Ive always had an hour-glass figure. 16 I would change things if I could; I cant, so I accept it. [. .] An acceptance, I, I guess, of, of, um, what is, you know; Ive, Ive come to a, a place and a time in my life when I just accept what is. [. .] I mean, this is what I got, nd Im ok with it. 18 Nobodys perfect, I dont think Im perfect. [. .] Ive got really bad scars on my legs and stuff from just my life--I have like skin rashes and stuff like that. 19 Three models associated the perceptions of their bodies with its value for art. I really think its beauti ful. Um, for years, the dance worl d has made me feel I should hate my body because my thighs were large and muscular, but, the art world has actually, um, made me feel like my thighs are gorgeous becau se artists like to have some meat there. Um, and they like someone whos not a stick. [. .] And they made me feel very good

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169 about my body--they made me feel very proud that I have the body that I have: that Ive worked so hard at for many-many years. 23 Im pretty realistic; I mean, I know Im a pretty big girl, and I cant hide that. I dont think Im, you know, skinny-minny. [. .] I think Im--I think I have a veryI--sensual body, even though it is more voluptuous than, than the typical Cosmo gi rls. I dont have a typical look, but I am--I, Im fair--Im vol uptuous--Ruebenesque, some people have said; in a beaut--and I am beautiful in ain--but in my way. And Im not afraid to, to express that. 24 I knew that my body [. .] wasnt like perfectly chiseled and totally in shape, but I knew that I had a good body, and I knew that I had a body that was interesting to draw, nd I think that my body is fundamentally beautiful--like its not an unattractive body, and it has some real beauty to it. So, I enjoyed--ah, I used to use the image of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, because she always shared her b eauty with the world [ .]--she believed that her beauty was a gift to creation, and so I would definitely drape myself in that archetypal kind of consciousness, and focus on what was interesting and beautiful about my body and share that. 10 Models revealed differing opinions about the co ntributing role that modeling has played in shaping the attitude they have about their body. Some models me ntioned a positive contribution by their work. Theres an attitude towards my body that wa s shaped by modeling: which is that, whoa [laughs], you know, my body is precious [la ughs], and my veins are starting to get destroyed [laughs]--I mean, I dont--its not an issue of vanity, its like thats really a destroyed--theres something being destr oyed there, you know, so I think I became a little more conscious of the way a body is fragile [. .] and I need to take care of it, you know. 10 I would say that before I starte d modeling, I had no sense of um, the visual part of [my body]. I was just always just kinda, you know, kinda happy w ith it [. .], you know I was very content I really didnt give a shit, you know, what I really looked like [. .]--was never fat or hated myself because I had a lot of pimples or something like that--[. .] but, um, I would say that there was a turning poi nt where I was very conscious of, you know, what does this look like? [gestures in a head -down pose], you know, what is this resulting for somebody thats looking at this: how is th e light playing? Where, where is the light coming from? [. .] So that, you know, um, I thi nk that its dictated some things for me, like maybe being very aware that I dont really want to get flabby, um, I dont really want to get too much sun anymore because I dont wanna have too much color [. .], so that its more, you know, Ive shifted from being happy and free to being happy, free and what does this look like? 7 When I started modeling I could see how large I was: I could see the weight that was on me, and I didnt really see it. [. .] You vi ew yourself differently than people view you,

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170 and when I would see myself being drawn, I would realiz e, Wow, Im a lo t bigger than I think I am. Nd so I then really concentrated on the weight nd to lose the weight and to work on it. [. .] It rea lly--it helped me, it helped me look at my body--really look at it--and see it from a different perspective than I always see it. And it really helped me: it helped me to appreciate myself, it helped me to a ppreciate my body, and to lose the weight, and to, to wanna feel--nd I f eel better about myself. 16 [Modeling] made me feel a little better that I was able to actually like do that and expose my legs to people. 19 Ive gained a whole lo t of that confidence because of art modeling--I was less confident in my self prior to st arting art modeling. 13 I think so [. .] I recentl y--Ive been wondering if Im more self-conscious now since Ive started modeling than I was before I started modeling, and I dont know if its just something that happened at the time, but I think its because there are times when Im thinking like Oh, theyre really, theyre looking at this, er Theyre--how are they gonna perceive me compared to how I perceive myself? you know, a lot of times when I look at the paintings.12 I think what modeling has done for me is he lped me see how others see me, which is usually better than I see me. Usually what, wh at the people are drawi ng: its like Wow, I look like that? and that has he lped--it has; it has helped to shape an acceptance, I guess, more of an acceptance. [. .] I see what othe rs have, have drawn and I realize That looks better than I thought I did. Of course, some times its like I dont think I look like that [laughs], but, you know. 18 By looking at other artists works of the different types of mode ls that they work with and just seeing the beauty of differe nt types of, of bodies--I think that really helped me, um, be ok with mine; as well as I began to see, um, that were all beautiful in our way. Um, and so I really think it did help me find a, a sort of acceptance about myself. 21 I think that modeling actually sort of helps me with [percep tions] because it helps me to see a body; um--you know, you have a distorted sense of what you look like, and having people tell you that youre beautif ul helps: it makes you feel more positive [. .]. [. .] I do think I have more confidence--I believe a little bit more in, in my attractiveness, and, you know, that my body is something thats beautiful. 2 One model was only somewhat sure about the role that the work has had in influencing her attitude about her body. Um, I think so, cause, um, when you look at, uh, ar tists kinda interpretation of you, um, sometimes they really exaggerate certain th ings, and then, um, like you see that, so I guess in some ways it, it would kinda affect me. Like I, I see a drawing and see that this is how someone else sees me, maybe its not how I see myself, um, but it-I wouldnt say it has a profound effect on me: it doesnt make me wanna change anything, but its just like Oh,

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171 thats interesting--lik e some people draw me really really skinny with a really huge butt: like its this really long torso and those--all the little ribs in it--and I know I dont look that way, but, um, its like well, its weird to face all that, you know? 11 And models #15 and #3 and #17 stated that m odeling has had no part in shaping their attitude about their body. I think youre aware of it even before you go in. The modeling doesnt create that, I dont think. No way. 17 I dont think modeling has anything to do with it. [Modeling] is just being comfortable naked, not caring what other people think. But I think totally different about how I feel what other people think. 3 The respondents were asked whether they ar e ignorant about their body or if they know their body well. Nearly all respondents (92%) stat ed that they know their body well. Models #20, #5, #23 and #25 each noted that they know their body very well. Model #15 reported that she knows her body well, while models #16 and #18 each stated that they know their body pretty well. Model #14 reported that she knows her body v ery well because she spends a lot of time thinking about it and also watching it closely to see how it functions when she is acting on stage, while exercising, during her monthly menstrua l period, and even when inebriated; in sum, she noted, I pay really close attention [laughs] to my body, and I think Im very self-aware in that respect at least. 14 I know it very well [. .] Theres sexually, of course, exploration and becoming aware of, you know, the physical body and how it responds. Um I look at myself in the mirror a lot, so theres visually--I, I like to look at myself in the mirror. Um, I love to look at drawings of myself--so, again, thats a re presentation of what I look li ke. Im not afraid of my body. 13 I know my body very well. [. .] Those scars a nd stuff, and have to like--nd Im like con-, you know, itching, like my legs or whatever, and looking to s ee, you know, if its getting better or whatnot, like I know what I look like very well, stuff like that. And Im very into science and all that kinda stuff, and Ive taken Anatomy and all that kinda stuff, so the human body is very interesting to me. 19 I know my body inside and out. 24

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172 I know my body inside, outside I know how everything wo rks, I know how the energy flows through my body, everything, so I woul d say I am 100% tuned with my body. 7 Really well. Yeah, I, I can, uh, Im really in tune with whats going on: I can tell if Im gonna be sick, I know when I need water, I know if Im craving a certain food. 11 I know my body pretty well. [. .] Ive alwa ys been a really healthy eater, you know, nd take care of myself, exercise and everyt hing, so Id say I know my body pretty well. 12 I know it pretty well, even though I cant see all of it all the time. [. .] But, yeah, you know, I like me--I like me a lot. 6 One model stated that her knowledge about her body came from her practice of massage. I know my body very well. I study massage, a nd its very centere d on body-awareness.21 Two models mentioned that their knowledge a bout their body derives from their work as a stage performer. I know it really well [. .] because Im a pe rformer: theres a lot of movement in my performance, and so you have to kinda know your body. 9 I know my body really well: Im a dancer, Im a yoga teacher, nd, yeah, I mean, and its like I know I have this--I have an amazing back--so, any pose I could do where people could see the back, you know, and its--the reason its amazing is not like Oh, wow, its so--but you can see my back: [gestures] you can see the bone structure and you can see the, the shape of the shoulders and the sca pulas and the proporti ons, and the ribs, and everything with the hips in it--just, its interest ing for people to draw [. .]. [. .] I also know which parts of my body move more easily than others. [. .] The other thing is that I know that my body is beautiful in movement 10 Four models attributed the fact that they know their bodies well directly to modeling. I feel like I know it you know, intimately we ll, for lack of a better word, just because Ive--you know, Ive seen it--l ike Im around it naked a lot; Im totally comfortable with what it looks like. Um, because its like when you see yourself as a painting, you dont [criticize] yourself: Wow, my thighs are fat. Um, you re like Hey, thats me--like someone has drawn me and Im art which most people will never really understand--like theyve never been drawn--um, so they dont really understand what it feels like. So, kinda like its flattering in a way, you know, someone drew me, um, even if I dont look like, you know, a super-model, th ats ok, like I look like art. 1 I say I know my body pretty well. I mean, I certainly being naked in front of a lot of people forces you to be aware of, of how your body works, and of, you know, what your body can do and what it cant do, and whats comf ortable and whats not comfortable, so Id say Im pretty aware. [. .] I would say I was like this before [I began modeling], but I became more so [since modeling]. 2

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173 I think because of modeling, I ve come to know my body very well. In holding certain poses, you start to feel muscles--the way that your muscles work together, the way that you can compensate for muscles getting sore by us ing other muscles, and you realize how your body works together--all these segments: muscles and tendons and bones. Um, what my body is capable of withstanding, as far as length of pose, and the type of pose that I would hold for any particular length of time. 4 I know my body pretty well--cause Ive seen it in pictures: 360 de grees all the way around [laughs]--Im pretty familiar with it. [. .] Im pretty familiar with, with my skin. 3 And for model #7, her knowledge about her body was concur rent with her modeling: I think that probably, the rea lly getting there happened almost coinciding with the modeling because as my work increased a nd, um, you know, got to th e point where I was doing it, you know, as my prof ession--as my work--and, so, it was demanding more and more of my body, I had to really go in there mo re and more and sort of--as that progressed-Im going in there more and more and so it just all kind of worked together. 7 Of all models, only 8% stated a middle pos ition regarding knowledge about their body. Id say in-between: Im not totally cognizan t of everything going on in my body--Im trying to learn a lot more about it. 8 Closer to knowing my body. I think Im a litt le jaded about some things. But I think I know myself fairly well, you know. 22 The respondents were asked if they have a w ork-out routine, and 35% reported that they work out regularly--their r outines including bike riding, te nnis, running, walking, swimming, aerobics classes and gym work-outs, 21% reporte d that they work out occasionally, and 43% reported that they did not work out. The respondent s were also asked about their experience with yoga. About one-half of the models (42%) reported practicing yoga, yet 16% of those who stated that they practice yoga only engage in it occasionally. The respondents were asked about their background in four activities in which performance or some type of display before ot hers was a critical component. Those activities were dance, sports, performing in some type of activity before a crowd, and fashion modeling. Among the participants in the st udy, 60% of the respondents had some experience with dance: 32% reported taking dance classes only when a young child, 8% took dance classes for over

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174 fifteen years, 12% were practici ng dancers: a stage dancer, theate r dancer and a belly dancer, and 8% were former dancers: a stage dancer and a te acher of dance. Only ni neteen percent reported having participated in organized sports in thei r background, consisting of such sports as soccer, lacrosse, and hockey. Nearly all of the models (82%) reported they had performed before a large group of other people in some activity before ente ring modeling: 43% participated in gymnastics, track, color guard, band, teen court, as the song leader at church, or in community theater for acting, singing and dancing as a child or th rough high school years, while 39% of the respondents took part in classr oom instruction, giving business presentations, stage singing, dance recitals and in live theater for singing, acting, dancing or performance pieces since high school. And 44% reported having had fashion modeling in their backgrou nd: 24% merely did it on sparse occasions as a child, 16% once or twic e as an adult in local venues, and 4% on repeated occasions. The respondents were asked a bout their participation in ot her activities th at expressly involved their nude body. Those activities were nud ity at home, nudity at a nude beach or nudist resort, nude photographs and exot ic dancing. Among the participan ts in the study, 66% of the participants reported that they engage in casual nudity while at home. About one-third (37%) of the sample reported that they had been to (and pa rticipated at) a nude beac h or nudist resort in the past. Nearly all (8 8%) of the respondents reported having had nude photographs taken in the past: 60% by artists for reference for drawi ng or art studies, 20% ha d photographs taken by photographers for photographic studies, and 8% by a partner. And 8% of the participants mentioned having exotic dancing experience in th eir background: 4% only danced for a period of one day, and 4% for a longer period of time.

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175 Summary. The findings indicate that models have a positive overall perception about their body, yet are as likely as not to attribute th at perception to their experience in modeling. Furthermore, their knowledge about their body is high, yet the findings show that that knowledge did not derive from their work as artist models. Models are as likely as not to engage in regular exercise and practice yoga. The findings inform th at models have had little experience with organized sports or fashion modeling, yet have dance or another performance before others in their background. And while models are nude in th eir homes and have been photographed in the nude, participating in nude beach activities or nude dancing are infrequent or rare.

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176 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Discussion The highlights of the findings, patterns, and th eo retical perspectives are discussed in this chapter. Although the demographics and details of the finding for each re search theme will not be repeated here, the important overall findings are highlighted and discussed, and the findings concerning the role of posing are specifically disc ussed in relationship to the theory described in chapter two. It might be instruct ive to remember that this stud y was exploratory in nature and might only help the principal inve stigator to take a ge neral overview of th e situation. While the data collected from the twenty-five women who part icipated in the study covered a wide range of modeling experiences, some of whic h were very individual, the expe riences that led to the major themes and topics identified in the previous chap ter were more or less shared by all the women studied. Prior to her arrival at a session, a model know s that the work she will be doing in the session will be fundamentally sim ilar to that of every other tim e she has modeled. At its most basic level, she knows that she will pose in the nude for artists (o r an artist) for a given amount of time. Given that, however, she will have to discover and make sense of the different possibilities and potentialit ies each particular session holds ov er the course of that session. The same fact holds true even if a model has worked in a particular setti ng on repeated occasions. Upon first arriving at the sett ing, a model leisurely sizes up the environment of the setting. For example, she will assess the lighting (natural, florescent, spot), where she will pose (against a wall, surrounded by artists), and the temperat ure of the room (too hot, too cold). More importantly, she looks around the setting and checks out the composition of artists: their gender composition, age composition, whether sitting or standing, and group dynamics (talking or

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177 silence and general collective m ood.). A model exchanges greeti ngs (including the shaking of hands) and talks with artists befo re the session begins. The easy nature of the interaction with artists before posing begins is dramatically i llustrated by a statement from model #16 regarding artists in artist groups, Ive had my robe on nd Ive seen people that I, that I know, and I give em a hug, How you doin? you know, little ol ladies. 16 The interaction with artists prio r to beginning posing establishes a personalized relationship with artists which the model is not familiar (or to re-e stablish a relationship with artists for whom she has posed in the past) and also to more accurately pinpoint the general energy level and mood of the artists prior to beginning posing. When a model first enters a setting and colle ctively sizes up what she finds she begins a more concrete formulation of exactly how she will pose during the session. But once posing starts, a model is constantly c onsidering a number of additional th ings that impact not only the pose she is currently holding, but ev ery other pose she strikes subse quent to that one as well. (All of the items outlined hereafter have an effect on every pose a model uses in the session even if she has used the identical pose in the past.) Variables affec ting a single pose are her level of comfort, the amount of pain she is experien cing, and her mood and physical energy (both of which are affected in part by what happens before she enters the setting). Other important factors are changes in the temperature of the room a nd what happens during the breaks (discussed more below). Perhaps the most important things that influence a models poses while she is posing involve the artists. As a mode l poses, she watches what the ar tists are doing, hears the tools (crayon, charcoal) the artists are us ing on the paper or canvas, and al so hears the artists talk to

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178 one another and express verbal compliments to her while they work. Additionally, while she is posing, she receives a sort of feeling--model #7 calls it thoughts--emitted from the artists. You get a different energy coming back from [artists]. 4 I pick up on [energy] from [artists]. 11 Like when I hear the people like actually get into it nd paint nd draw, theres like a shhhhh--not a sound--it really like uplifts you nd Im just kinda posing there and everything nd Im just like breathing in a nd out and you can feel [e nergy coming from the artists]; its, its very common, it really is. 17 A positive amount and nature of artist compliment s, along with a great deal of energy received from artists in response to the pose, helps inspir e and assure a model of a job well done and spurs her to continue with verv e; an opposite perception bot hers and disappoints her. [When posing] I can always tell if they like it or not by how theyre reacting: Oh, thats great or This is fabulous. [. .] I really like [the talking], I like that two-way--therefore I know Im doing a good job. Um, if they dont sa y anything, um, I can pretty much tell by the intensity and the concentration--I can tell when theyre bored and I can tell when theyre into it a nd I react accordingly. 23 [When in the long poses] sometimes Ill look around and I can see, you know, just an intensity that, that theyre ge tting inspiration, nd Ive seen some get very frustrated because they, they--what their id ea and what theyre wanting isnt there--not able to put on, on paper or whatnot--and, and then I see that inspiration come to them again and them actually complete somethi ng. Thats interesting. 24 Depending on the artist[s], the mo re they give to me, you know, as far as encouragement, the more I wanna give them: more the more dynamic I wanna be with them. 24 And when a model is at break and not posing, she is defining several other charact eristics about the artists in the setting that will affect her pos es when the break is over and posing resumes. For one, a model sees the results of her poses at each break, and gets to see what the artists do with her form on their canvas or paper. The pieces co uld either be better than she expected, which further inspire her, or worse than she exp ected, in which case she becomes discouraged.1 More 1 While judgments of good art are individual to each person, a model has more than a basic knowledge about what is good art having seen many, many examples of t he nude, not only of

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179 often than not the pieces created by artists turn out completely different than a model expected--a fact attributed solely to the fact that it is totally up to the artist what they want to bring out of the pose. That is, while the whole figure of a model is drawn or painted or sculpted most often, at times the artists may just take a part of the m odels body--the torso, an arm, a leg--and focus on that for their artwork. Artists may also pick up on an undefinable something that models give off while in a pose--variously described throughout the interviews by the models as a feeling, emotion, attitude, energy, or self--and put that in their work. The artists perception of what he or she is looking influences how they draw or paint or scul pt--the resulting product solely an expression of the artist. Secondly, notwithstanding the artwork as a creation of the artists, a model uses her percep tions of the artworks she sees during the breaks to simultaneously judge the artistic ability of the artists. As with a models percep tions of the artwork in general, artists that seem to be competent and experienced stimulate the model. Those who are appear to be unskilled or unaware frustrate the model. Lastly, a model uses th e breaks to directly interact with the artists. Mingling with and having casual conversations with artis ts promotes a rapport with the artists. A solid rapport lowers barriers an d overall energy flows better when the model is posing; the opposite results are a working environment that is tense and unpleasant. A simple examination of the work roles of the artist model would suggest to the common person that the roles of artist modeling are easy and uncomplicated : holding the nude body in different positions over a set period of time for ar tists. Seemingly all that an individual would need to accomplish this work are simply a degree of comfort with the body, the ability to remain still, and some measure of im agination in order to generate creative poses. These modest ingredients suggest that any person could become an artist model, but as model #1 pointed out, herself but also of others seen in artists studios, shown by ar tists in artist groups and from exhibitions, too.

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180 A lot of people: [. .] I dont think they could do it. 1 The women who have become artist models describe a ve ry different picture of the work they do than that commonly presumed. One chal lenging task is holding st ill in a pose. Model #18 characterized staying in one position for a long period of time as grueling. Model #3 stated that holding a pose is not an easy thing to do, not everyone can do it, some people just cant sit still, and she went on to add why holding still is a demanding undertaking, The fact that things in motion tend to stay in motion. Youre gonna wanna move--its not natural to try and force your body to stay like that--[. .] its not an easy task, not an easy task at all So youre trying to make your body do some thing that is against the laws of nature [laughs]. Its unnatural to sta nd in one spot for th ree hours, you know. 3 Its very difficult to [. .] hold one position: the muscles become incredibly alive, nd, nd intense--[. .] just like re ally intense sensations. 21 Because you have to stay still, youre aware of like all the different parts of your body at once. Whereas like, you know, when youre si tting down, you dont real ly have to think about where your feet are, or where your ha nds are nd where your head is nd what-where, where your face is tilted or anything, but when youre like in a situation like that, like you have to feel where like all parts of your body. 19 Another challenging task of ar tist modeling is the physical nature of the work. All models characterized posing as physically demanding, partic ularly, as model #25 not ed, it is if you do it well. A statement by model #17 is re presentative of those by others, You do have to have like a sort of st rength to you and like to your body where you can hold a pose. 17 Many models are tired after they finish posi ng, and model #12 even labeled posing a workout, while model #7 summed up the work by calling it a hard job. And a difficult task of artist modeling is also the posing itself. Three models noted that posing is not something that just anybody can easily do. Some people cant [do poses]--they just, they dont know what to do. 7 I think not everybody can do it. Um, everybody can take their clothes off, but can they strike a, a decent pose? [. .] I think [the occupation] really requires the skill. 23

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181 I wouldnt say that anybody coul d do it, but anybody that was --could get over the hump of being comfortable being naked in public--could do that, but that doesnt always mean that they could do an intere sting job or a good job. 19 Above all others, the main area of difficulty of the work is the nudity, which is discussed at length below. I think thats what to most pe ople is hard about the job: let ting other people see you [nude]. 1 Not everybody can take their clothes off. I m ean that sounds stupid, but not everybody can; they--a lot of people have a lot of inhibitions that th at are best kept under wraps, so to speak. 24 Despite what models think about the work af ter having been involved in it, they thought about it in very similar ways to others before they started: that it is ea sy and uncomplicated. They also believed they could likely do it more easily than other women based on their prior training in either the visual arts or performing arts. Having the background experiences of being from either the world of visual arts (having taken cl asses in the visual arts, knowing others in the visual arts world, having taken ge neral art classes while in colleg e), or the world of performance art (dancing or performing in theater), or both, w ould give them the ability to handily accomplish the work. A background in the fine arts gi ves a person knowledge about how the body is artistically interesting for artworks, while traini ng in performing arts helps an individual be centered and grounded while on stage. Entering models, however, are hampered from getting the work done properly from the very start because there is no fo rmal training given prior to the first experience as a model. A comment from model #22 is representa tive of those made by others, I wasnt sure what to expect. I was kinda th inking I would just get up nd pose and thatd be it. [. .] I didnt [know what to bring with me]. Honestly, I assumed I should bring a robe, so I did--luckily. Um, I didnt really know--I mean nd that was because of things that I had heard, not from anybody I had talked to, but like movies and stuff like that. 22

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182 The negligible amount of formal training provided to a woman entering the work is probably due to the presumption by artists that the work is real ly basic, that a new-come r possesses a degree of comfort with the body, has th e ability to remain still, and ha s some measure of imagination in order to generate creative poses plus that she has an art background, and so is ready to begin the work straight away. Models #12 and #17 resorted to a reliance on their art background to help them prepare for what to expect prior to posing for the first time (in a classroom setting). I did know [about gesture poses] because I had taken drawing classes, like as far as they were for--my undergraduates in Fashion Design, so they were for fashion, sketching, and then a costume sketch--you know, rendering--and so I had an understanding of how the human body poses and how the whole thing works as far as gestures. 12 Id seen it done before in my art classes and everything, so I had an idea of what to do, so, kinda, kinda guessing, Im like Ok, I know what a gestural pose is; now I get to do it. 17 Assuming that a new entrant possesses the essent ial ingredients of havi ng a degree of comfort with the body, the ability to remain still, and some measure of imagination in order to generate creative poses, however, does not guarantee absolute ly a successful job th e first time modeling-absent some sort of job-specific training--as m odel #5 noted when she posed the first time (in a classroom setting), I had some difficulties thinking of [poses]--s o I was constantly Well, what do you want me to do? [laughs]. 5 A woman starts her journey into artist modeli ng oriented to doing the work largely for herself. Part of this attitude is due to the absen ce of formal training, yet another part is due to the fact that a model enters artist modeling with a hi story of participating in some kind of activity that can broadly be classified as a performance be fore others. That is, whether it is performing as a member of the flag corps or on stage, etc ., the end result of doing the activity is the performance itself. Early on in her experience wi th posing, every pose consequently becomes an

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183 end in itself. Subsequently, much of the early efforts of a model are focused wholly on trying to just accomplish the task of posing: holding still, being nude, and coming up with poses. My whole experience of that first time was so wrapped around, you know, Am I gonna do a good job? and this kinda stuff--probably standing there with no clothes on was like so far down the list it wasnt funny--I was just so concerned with what I was gonna present to them and everything. 7 The absence of formal training for the be ginning model also results in her making unsuitable poses for artists when she first en ters the work. A model may use her performing skills or dance skills or knowle dge about art to make poses, but the poses more often than not end up being uncomfortable and painful. More importantly, the poses a model opts for early on are simple and usually of little consequential worth to artists. Looking back on what I did, I was very stiff a nd very--probably not ve ry fun to draw, but [laughs]. Granted they werent good poses because, you know, I just picked that kind of thing up through practice. 13 At first, I did strike a lot o dance poses, but as time went on, I star ted to realize that the dance poses were only quite specific and that artists kind of sought different things. I looked around the room and I saw different sketches, and I caught on very quickly what was expected. 23 In the face of no formal training, a model slow ly begins to acquire skills and knowledge about the work through informal sources and on-t he-job experience. One informal source that a model uses to learn occupation ro les over time is socialization from artists. As an artist model works more, she accumulates knowledge about what ar tists want from her; that is, what artists specifically seek from her poses. She also learns what goes into posing for artists in a classroom setting; that is, she learns what instructors expect from her for the training of art students: poses with shadows, shapes, tones, negative space, etc. And continual work over time is also relied on by a model to increase her expertise at posing With more time spent with the work, a mode l adopts a new orientation to the work and soon begins to alter the way she poses. A mode l comes to understand that the resulting product

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184 from the work is different in type than that pr oduced by other activities in which she has engaged that involve performing before others (such as on stage or da nce).The outcome when she did those activities was the performance itself, but in modeling it is only the first step toward an outcome--an outcome in which a models pose is taken and used by artists to create works of art. A model uses this insight to see the work less as for themselves and more as working for artists. She begins to consider the artists first when she thinks about which pose to adopt; specifically, whether or not they will like the pose. So when a model considers a pose, she imagines in her mind how the artists would see the pose, and contem plates if it is something that artists would appreciate doing art with. From that viewpoint, poses become less the poses as poses which a model first utilizes when she begins th e work and more poses for artists. From that point on, a model comes to strike more dynamic and dramatic poses. A model is aided by her experiences in dance and theater to accomplish that task. Among other benefits for an artist model, training in dance gives an understanding of the line of the body, while theater training demands close attention to the way a pers on moves. Both help a m odel think in terms of movement. A model is then expressive with her body by stretching and bending the body, and incorporating some twists and turns into her poses. She uses her face, hands, and feet to present a whole environment with her body that is aesthetically pleas ing and interesting to draw or paint or sculpt. Along with better poses, she also integrates rotations on the stand so that artists see different angles and everyone in the room has a good view. Eventual ly a model gets to the point where she can critique her poses from the point of view of ho w artists see her. Theres some poses where youre like thats unflattering--um, just the way youre sitting, or like you can tell when someone has a re ally hideous angle of you, and youre like Aaah, I dont wanna look at th eirs when theyre done. 1

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185 Recurring work over time gives a model the opport unity to find and use poses that both are interesting for the artists and also comfortable fo r herself. Comfortable poses are ones which are not difficult to hold and cause the m odel little pain. Poses of this so rt are then of mutual benefit to both artists and model. [Modeling]s something you kinda have to keep doing to get, to get good at. 11 An adverse outcome of working for a long peri od of time is that a models posing likely becomes repetitious to a certain degree. I try not to repeat them. Now I know, of course thats impossible because, um, first of all, I cant remember what I did the day before neces sarily, either, at least not in length.[. .] But ultimately, I am me, and I will strike proba bly the same type of poses because of my psyche and my training nd, you know--it, it s limited to a point--like anybody else, you know. 23 I think I get into I dont wanna say like a rut, but theres like these cyclical patterns of where like Ill tend to do like a certain type of pose almost everywhere I go--I just fall into that pose on average, and then after a week or two I realize thats all Ive been doing, and I try to change that up a bit, you know, nd so I, I get--its almost like a muscle-memory thing I get into--theres something thats comf ortable for a time, and I--thats just what I habitually fall into, but its not so much because its a favorite. 13 This strategy might be adopted by a model becau se by learning which poses are both appealing to artists and which are comfortable for herself she eventually comes to use those poses as a matter of habit. Another contributing factor to this phenomenon is that while there may seem to be a countless number of ways in which the m odels body can be posed as standing, sitting or laying, the reality is that there are only a finite number of wa ys the body can be positioned--a number further reduced by those pos es that artists like and that ar e also natural in appearance. The result is that a model is restricted to a very narrow range of options when choosing poses, and so comes to persistently use the same unvary ing poses from within that range. However, a model may vary the same poses she uses time after time by twisting or tilting a part of the body

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186 into a different angle, for example, but the pose, in essence, is the same used over and over. Model #8 explained, Even though the gesture poses might seem the same, I think Oh, am I running out of poses to do; what can I do? [But] every day is differe nt in modeling: its not the same day in and out, because theres so much to work with in, in posing--theres so many different poses that--it may seem like the same pose--theyre similar but youre still not doing the same thing: [when] you turn around the room 360 degrees so that everybody gets a chance to see this, or not always have somebody in your back or be in your front, thats a different pose, thats a different angle; so, I think that that, that makes it a lot more interesting. 8 Any choice by a model of a pose near the boundarie s of the range would only mean doing poses involving a greater degree of se xual suggestivity, increasing amount s of discomfort, and also being unnatural and unappealing to artists. Summed by model #3, I guess everyone has a different approach to how they model. Theres no set way of doing it, you know, theres no, theres no manual, theres no Dummies Guide to Modeling 3 A second important change that a model experi ences the longer she is involved in artist modeling concerns the physical pa in with which she contends wh ile posing. The lack of training given to a model about posing discussed above also includes a dearth of information about the pain that a model will undergo while posing. The consequence of this is that a beginning model is often in a lot of pain while she poses. Over time, however, th e issue of being in pain while posing gradually subsides for a model, and seve ral reasons can be put forth to account for the decline. For one, a model may build up knowledge over time about which poses are less painful and come to use those more often. Secondly, a model may learn over time how to make imperceptible adjustments once in a pose to minimize pain. Thirdly, a model may learn to cope with the pain (by blocking it out of her mind, for ex ample) or even build up a tolerance to it. And lastly, a model may get used to the pain, an idea supported by the fact that only three models mentioned pain when asked during the interviews about what they thought while posing in the long poses.

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187 Accompanying the transition about poses and a new orientation to the pain a model undergoes in the work, a model also has a re-orien tation to the nudity involved in the work. Even though a woman may have a histor y of doing activities while wa tched by others, the modeling requirement that a person also be nude when before others presents a somewhat perplexing issue for a beginning model. As with entering any work for the first time--and particularly one where a person is required to do the work in the nude-a woman begins modeling with self-conscious concerns about her nude body. For me it was maybe a couple o months to, to be really comfortable and not to be selfaware; I mean, at first maybe I was a little uncomfortable doing it, and I was more just concerned about getting through th e pose, and, um, then I think when I got better, I really, really tried to, um, see myse lf as the artists see me. 11 When I first started out I was very somewhat judgmental about [the artists] since I was very uncomfortable with nudity, and I was uncomfortable with, you know, an artist drawing pictures of vulnerable--of just drawing n udity in the first place. [. .] Its evolved into sort of like a, you know, definitely a synergistic experience. Like I can, you know I can tell when an artist is very inspired nd re ally enjoying themselves nd I can, you know, sort of--it inspires me as well. 21 The more times a model poses, the more comfortable she becomes with the nudity. Ameliorating the gravity of being nude while watched by artists are a number of things, including some about the model herself, the artis ts, and also the artwork. (a.) The model. For one, a model defines herself as an object when she poses. Such a definition implies that a model identifies her body less as being somethi ng unclothed and more as an instrument for others to learn from. This self -perception also means that she thinks of herself simply as an objective being--absent any self-conscious f eelings--for the artists when posing. Secondly, a model does not take any extraordin ary steps to prepare her body fo r modeling prior to arriving at the setting. A lack of special preparation results in a de-p ersonalization of the body. Three models noted that their casual attitude toward readying the body for posing developed over time as a consequence of being in the work.

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188 I used to worry so much about that--er, more about that--and now I, and now I dont care [laughs]. [. .] I used to make sure that I was freshly-shaved: that my legs were freshlyshaved, my arm pits were freshly-shaved. [Now ] I just--I dont care anymore--I, Ill shave every few days anyway, and whatever they--wha tever Ive got, they see, and I dont care. [I changed] because I realized they dont ca re.[. .] Nobody said anything specifically to me, but, uh, maybe there was one particular time that I was running too late to do anything about it, and I just said Oh, fo rget it, and realized it made absolutely no difference--there was no different reaction from anybody if I ha dnt completely groomed myself, so I just said, you know, it--realized it doesnt matter. 13 I--in the beginning I would shave, but--like my legs--but I dont do it so much anymore, you know. I sorta figured they dont see it cause theyre not that close, so. I think Ive gotten lazier as Ive gone on [laughs]. 22 When I first started, it was different--I was ve ry, I was much more self-conscious about my body image and how I appeared to the artists. When I first started, I wanted to go to the gym--in the morning--any day that I was modeling. And I would do sit-ups and push-ups before I would get up on the stand. And now, Im [l aughs]--Ive sort of lost that [. .]. Um, I think because over the years I ve gone into a modeling situa tion in so many different um, scenarios--whether I have had time to work out, whether Ive, Ive been like out drinking half the night before [laughs], and I still get great reactions from the artists: they still say Youre a wonderful m odel and This is spectacular and I, you know, Im not so concerned as I used to be. 4 And model #17 bluntly reminded, Youre not going up there to be pretty, youre up th ere to to pose, and thats really it. 17 Thirdly, a model is more centrally occupied with other things besides the fact that she is nude when she is posing. For example, holding th e pose, her comfort level, and the amount of pain she is undergoing. Other distractions are provided by th e conversations of artist among themselves, watching artists, smelling odors (of paint) in the room, and thinking about other thoughts in her head. That their nudity is of little concern while posing is dramatically illustrated by the fact that no model mentioned that they were thinking about being nude when asked, What are you thinking about during the long poses? in the interviews. Some models only later in the interviews acknowledged that they thought about their nudity while posing in response to the question Are you aware of your nudity in your mind during the long poses? And fourth, a

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189 model does not mentally unwind after a session is completed. The lack of needing a ritual of separation from modeling indicate s that she finds the work free of psychic tension and that she is comfortable with posing in the nude. (b.) The artists. For one, artists are not looking at a models nudity per se when she is posing. Some models commented about at what artists look when they view the nude model. [Artists] view [the body] as, as art; they dont like view it sexually in any way, they dont-you know, or ugly in any way, they just see it for what it is. 12 [In artist groups], you see the same people th ere every Saturday--thats their hobby, thats what they love the love to draw, they love to paint. [. .] Theyre not looking at us like sex objects. 16 I was pretty confident that [artist group members]d be a very, you know, like mature group of people who, you know, they have to pay to go there nd stuff like that, and youd figure that they go there to draw and to earne stly like, you know, try nd learn how to draw better and get practice, so I wasnt too worried --I, I wasnt even wo rried about [whether they think my poses were suggestive]. 19 [Art students]--they dont have time to [check out] your body, theyre too busy, you know, for a class, theyre too busy trying to get it done --you know, its for a grade so they dont really care about what you look lik e naked--what they care about is getting it done. 5 You are a model to [art students]--they dont necessarily see you like, you know, a potential mate or anything. 1 Secondly, artists (with the exception of art instru ctors) stay out of the modeling space when the model is nude. The measured distance from th e artists to the modeling space--the stand or modeling area--serves as a predictable boundary between the artists and the models nude body, and helps to reassure the model that the artists will not get too close to her because of her nudity. The only instance reported throughout the interviews when individuals came too close to the model was noted by model #14 as a time when she posed in a specific classroom setting, Im in the middle of this big room, [and] theres no model stand. [. .] If a teacher wants to draw somebodys attention to this gesture ove r here thats really good, so then everybody walks across the room, you know--theyre right beside me--I mean within inches of me-and it makes me uncomfortable. 14

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190 The fixed boundary between artis ts and the nude body of the mode l also allows the model to quickly settle into a very relaxed and comfortabl e state for herself when she poses--a state that even results in her sleeping while she is nude. Third, artists do not subject the body of the model to unchang eable stares while she is posing. Instead the artists look up and look down at their paper or canvas and then back up again throughout the entire session. And f ourth, the individuals before w hom a model poses are at most her friends or are at least legitimately in the setting as artists. Posing before persons who unqualifiedly sanction her nudity reduces any potentia l anxiety she may have about her lack of clothes. (This may help explain why models have not been to a nude beach or nudist resort since the other people in such locations would be anonymous and unfamiliar, and may also have a prurient interest in the bodies of others present. It may also help explain why models choose to be nude in their own home: either because there are no other persons present or the others who are present are comfortable ar ound and approving of nudity.) (c.) The artwork. Aspects of a models body th at could particulari ze her body are rarely placed into artworks, especially in drawings created by both art students and artists in artist groups. The details are the last thing that you worry a bout. [. .] Theres a lot of things you leave out: you dont put in the little moles, nd you dont put in th e little scars, um, you know, facial features are usually the last thing that you do in a drawing, um, you know, details like fingers nd toes nd things like that. 16 Like any kind of scar--usually my scars and my, um, my tattoos dont make it in--they just kinda like look over those, so I become kind of like a non-entity--Im just like the body. 24 Like a lot o times when they do like--when they draw a model, they dont usually concentrate on the face in making--well, from what I have experienced--they dont like concentrate on the face in making the face realistic. 19

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191 As a result, much of the artwork completed of the nude image of a model, in at least drawings in these two settings, is anonymous and so unabl e to be personally connected to the model herself. The other thing that aids the model in her comf ort of being nude before artists is that she gets used to being nude over time. For exampl e, she is nude for hours at a time on any single day, and then often for many days within a wee k, and, additionally, all of the artwork she ever sees every time she goes to work only contains her nude form. Repeatedly being nude and constantly being surrounded by her image in ever y place and at every time she works certainly means a model gets easily adapted to it. The evident comfort with being nude while pos ing may have roots in how a model thinks about her body in general. The findings from the models reveal that a model generally does not like her body. This attitude is mostly based on the r ealization that her body is not perfect, that is, it is not perfect in the ideal ized ways of being thin, well-p roportioned, well-toned and in shape (from exercise), with a flawless face and completely smooth skin.2 A model is acutely knowledgeable about what her overall body looks like for a host of reasons connected to her work. For one, she has seen it (o r specific parts of it) in artw ork very often. Secondly, she has seen it depicted in artwork from an indefinite number of angles (front, back and sides). Third, she has seen it in drawn, painted or sculpted forms. Finally, she has seen it depicted by many artists--of various ages, genders and levels of expertise and representing various styles--each with an overall somewhat different interpretation. Despite a models discontent with the impe rfect nature of her body, she acknowledges that fact and comes to accept her body and not be asha med of it as it is. In short, she adopts an 2 Specific data on physical appearance, dimensions or body type were not collected in this study.

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192 attitude about her body such as This is it or T his is who I am. Having taken on this attitude, a model is able to show her body as nude to artis ts without embarrassment or concern. Adding to her lack of concern is that artists will only positively compliment her body and never judge nor criticize her body nor evaluate it by an idealistic standard of pe rfection. Additionally, the model focuses on what is good and valuable about her body for arti sts: the visual part of the body. In other words, a model comes to understand how an artist is going to ha ve a visual, and then create that visual on a two-dimensional piece of paper or canvas or a three-dimensional sculpture. As well, a model realizes that the body is a beautiful th ing in and of itself. That is, a model gets past the idea of nude body as nude body to nude body as female form and as something to be beheld. Even though a model defines herself conceptually as an object when she poses, there are some things that act to moderate that definition so that she retains some human qualities while posing. For one, a model is required to have an actively-engaged mind in order to hold poses throughout a session. Secondly, a model has to cont end with random occurrences that happen to her body while she is posing. The most critical o ccurrences are those which cause her shame or embarrassment. The embarrassing occurrence most often mentioned by models was flatulence. Uh, gas is a problem [laughs], like, um uh [laughs], its uh, if ya haveta fart, whatever [. .] it just kinda happens sometimes. [. .] The sound ones are really embarrassing. [. .] I dont know if [the people he ar it]; I triedit--when it has happened, I ignore it, and, um, everyone else does, too. 11 You eat something wrong, and it doesnt want to hide. Youre sittin th ere and release gases. [. .] Nobody else really noticed, noticed that it was me [laughs]. Ok, that was bad. [. .] But usually nobody notices. 3 I farted once [laughs]. And that can be embarrassing, but its human, and, uh, I always make light of things like that. 6 Farting [. .]--its mostly the noise. Um, in the circumstances where its happened, Ive been far enough away from the group that I dont think there was an odor issue. But, uh, you try as hard as you can to make it quiet, and then its just those times when it takes you

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193 by surprise and you cant. But Ive never had anybody say anything to me about it--they, theyve acted completely and utterly profe ssional: they didnt flin ch, they didnt, you know--I just acted like nothing ever happened. [. .] I didnt visibly show embarrassment, but inside I was like Oh, shit, I hope nobodys gonna say anything abou t that [laughs]. 13 Model #8 even mentioned that she takes precautions against the possi bility of releasing gas while posing, I try [. .] and make sure I dont eat the wrong things that would make me have indigestion or feel weird on--up at--the podium. I try to hyd rate myself and all a nd eat the right things. 8 Third, a model is not transfixed into a stone -like state from the time she places her body into a position for a long pose throughout the remainder of the session. As model #17 pointed out, Youre gonna move--its gonna happen. 17 The human body inevitably moves through breathi ng or by making imperceptible movements. A model sometimes quickly shakes out a painful or sleeping limb and then just as quickly resumes the pose. A model also may communicate to the artists while in a pose if she is too hot or too cold or if, for example, a light is too br ight in her eyes. In extraordinary cases, the pose may be stopped altogether by a model if it beco mes too painful to continue. And, of course, breaks are taken anyway at periodic intervals throughout a session so that the pose can be stopped and the model can relax. Fourth, a model has personal facets of her included in some artwork that is created--features from her body that are sometimes not seen when she wears clothes. When the respondents were asked if there was something on the surface of their body that had specifically been put into an artwork, 58% of them mentioned a tattoo, a henna tattoo, a brown spot, a mole, a bruise or a surgery scar as being in an artwork. (Of all models, 20% had at least one tattoo on th eir body, and all mentioned seeing a tattoo of theirs in an artwork). And lastly, a model is usually called by name when referred to or addressed by artists.

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194 Time and again in the interviews, models stated that their work in artist modeling was focused on making art and giving of themselves to help out artists. Its very important to me to inspire a nd challenge and, uh its important to me--if Im wicked tired and I just cant do it, then Ill do something simple, but theres going to be one hip higher than the other, I dont ca re what Im doin--theres gonna be just something where its not just this [flat pose], youve got--anybody can draw that, you know, its a stick-figure kind of thing. If you do this [open pose], and all of a sudden [whispers of approval], you know, so, I would say always my poses are amped-up. 7 So, maybe I do something thats unique or some thing that, thats ch allenging, and, yeah, I think thats part of my job, too-I like to think that its part of my job--is to challenge them to become better artists, because otherwise they wouldnt even be there if they didnt want to become a better artist--they w ouldnt be in that class, they wouldnt come to pay to draw from a model, they wouldnt hire me to come work for them if they didnt want to grow and develop--and so if I can do a pose and hear them go Ahhh, [la ughs] then I think Im doing something right--Im helping them to become better artists. 4 Similar statements to these were frequently mentioned even though the models had contrasting opinions about the general nature of the wo rk. Throughout the interviews, the respondents offered diverging opinions about th e occupational nature of artist modeling. To some it is a side job and a means of making good m oney, particularly for students, because it does not require a lot of time nor demand essential skills. To others, artist modeling is more akin to a profession in which they grow in their skill a nd try to perfect or even elevate to an art form. And, in a similar vein, a model maintains a commitment to giving her best work in the face of the several challenges and frustrations that are perpetually a part of her work--d emanding artists, cold rooms, painful body parts, boring conditions, bad art generated from her poses, and the weight of much of society that thinks her work as a m odel breaks societys rules for respectable female behavior. Representative of comments made by others, model #7 noted, My job is to be the best model that I can--no matter what 7 Other information disclosed during the inte rviews suggests that the models possess a significant measure of humility regarding themselv es, the artists, and the artwork in the work

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195 they do. For one, models did not indicate ego tistical ideas about their overall body. An opposite point of view about the body would have meant models show off the body by getting dressedup, styling the hair, and putting on make-up befo re modeling, and then preening and primping once on the stand. The latter behavior was neve r mentioned by any of the models during the interviews. Secondly, models are mostly humbled by the artists and in th eir experience posing for artists. For instance, after model #4 discusse d several compliments which she has received from artists, she stated I dont know what I do th ats so incredible [la ughs]. 4 None of the models stated any comments during the interviews that had a narcissistic tone, like The worlds all me or Its all because of me that theres good art being made or Im the model and I can do anything I want because Im special. Thirdly, further evidence that models are more otherdirected than self-directed in their work concer ns their ideas about the art products that artists create from their poses. Models did not specify a preference in the interviews that they be particularly acknowledged as the indivi dual whose image appears in an artwork. If I get hung up on having recognition, thats an e go-place [. .]--thats [. .] not a place I wanna be [. .], and when I get to go and see [the sculpture] wherever the hell it is-probably out in front of some airport or something at some point because these pieces are like $30,000 or whatever--that Ill know and I ll feel complete--it wont have Modeled by [Name]. 7 Model #10, who rarely went to art shows held at an art school that featured works of artists and students from the school, recounted that she was very reluctant to atte nd one such event in particular, even though a piece of her by an inst ructor was prominently featured, because, I didnt feel like I wanted to advertise that it wa s me in the painting [. .]. I felt a little shy about it--like its not reall y, I didnt really wanna nah-nah-nah-nah-nah, no. 10 In all likelihood, because a model is often unabl e to be truly recognizable by others in the artworks, she may value her poses and hard work more than being dis tinguished in artwork.

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196 Besides the finding that models are not much co ncerned that the art for which they pose is thrown away, they also take little or no credit for the artwork that is produced from their poses. When asked if they took credit for the artwork done for which they posed, most (76%) of the models responded no. The models who responde d yes (24%) stated that they took only partial credit for mostly the efforts that they did so that the artw ork could be created. Id like to share credit, um, for it: Id like to be recognized that my effort enabled it to come to fruition, but, um, the artist has full cr edit for, for the skill. [That is], um, if someone were to, uh, have their artwork in a show, it would be nice--and it doesnt generally happen--if it would be recognized that, you know, the model was [Name].[. .] Thats the ultimate in recognition, um, for an artwork. 13 Im taking credit for the pose. [. .] If they have a really great rende ring--of a certain pose that was very difficult, you know, without me they wouldnt have had that; but thats really--I, Im just taking credit for the pose, thats all I am taking credit for is the pose itself--which can make or break a really good, you know, image. 16 I dont take any kind of credit on--for th eir art, unless, unless Ive actively done something--like actively chose a pose that was expressive. 24 Partial. I really think that its the artists. I do know when artists say to me that Ive inspired them that, obviously, it makes me feel good, and so, ye s, in that regard, I guess I do take some credit. But I still think that it s the artists and their talents and ability. 25 I think I take credit for maybe 25% of it. I, I like to be the muse nd I like to think that I have, have given the artist an inspiration. But I think the technical as pects, of course, are due--credit is due to the artist. 23 A model may work diligently in order to help insure that she is called on to model again. Continuation of work for a model is based in pa rt on how well she pleases the artists (in the case of schools, the instructor) during a session.3 Of course, if artists are too demanding or 3 The amount of available work for a model within a particular area is dependent upon the total number of other models working at a given time, what they charge for posing, and what they can and cannot do regarding poses. Steady work also depends upon word-of-mouth referrals by both models and artists, and artists preferences in m odels models who are newer, cheaper, reliable and show up on time, and who can be still, tend to work more than others. The overall demand for models in a particular area is dependent upon the number of individual artists needing the nude human figure for their artwork, the amount of classes using models, and the number of artist groups that employ artist models.

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197 unreasonable or tried to treat a model differently than she expects, she could immediately leave and not have to work for the artists again. Ive never felt that I wasnt in a good situation --in a good place--nd if anybody tries to make demands on me I could stand up and walk away. 4 What I know I have put my boundaries at [regar ding the suggestive nature of poses], I stay there, I dont go beyond that, I wont go there. A nd if thats not ok with them, I can take a walk. See ya. I have the freedom to do that. They need me there, ok? 20 Hes paying you to sit a certain way [. .]; a lot of times they already have a preconceived notion of what they want: This is how I want you to sit, This is how --, you know, the expression Im looking for, This is the feel of the--feel of it. I mean, you do what youre told, and, if its completely unreas onable, then youre like, Sorry, bucko, find somebody else [laughs]. 3 [Modeling] has never been particularly high dram a; if it was, I would quit working for that artist. 2 But because artists would not be able to cr eate their art without the poses that a model provides for them, artists are generally courte ous and pleasant to every model and encourage each to do her best work. We just kinda do whatever because they ar e very accommodating to whatever we need cause finding someone wholl pose for your art classes is a bit of a challenge. 1 Even with the hard work and the problems w ith the work, there are several aspects of the work that a model likes and enjoys. A couple of not able extrinsic rewards of the work are a wage of up to twenty dollars a hour, and getting either a drawing or painting of their form from an artist. Perhaps more importantly the work provides a model with se veral intrinsic rewards. One is the ability to gain a greater awareness about her body. Another aspect of the work a model experiences as satisfying is the compliments sh e receives from artists fo r her posing endeavors. Third, artist modeling also gives a model the opportunity to be di rectly involved in the creative process of the art world. Working closely with artists allows a model to be in the space largely hidden from public scrutiny and inte ract closely with ar tists. And finally, the results of what a

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198 model does is, simply put, art Modeling allows a model to immediately realize the consequences of her work through the artworks that are genera ted throughout the session by the artists from her poses. Directly due to a model s efforts, her form will be f ound in a drawing, painting or sculpture at a minimum, and, at a maximum, the same drawing, painting or sculpture of her form may bring her a measure of immortality and possible fame. Cultural stereotypes attached to artist modeling directly link it to immorality generally and sexuality in particular. An artist model is not only aware of and subject to the negative images but additionally encounters negativ e reactions from others due to her work. The effect of the general social stigma on a model herself and on he r relationships with othe rs is small. Fear of censure and fear of rejection by family members, friends, and others does not prevent an artist model from disclosing the nature of her work. A model is mostly open with others about what she does in that she liberally reveals what she do es to family members and friends, and is also comfortable telling other people in her lives, too. In the same ve in, an artist models does not accept the negative cultural stereotypes of herself. And she dismisses the negative reactions of others either out-of-hand or as being derived from individuals with little general knowledge about or familiarity with the visu al arts. The negative reactions of others do not appear to impact her decision to continue to do the work on a long-term basis. The positive may contribute a measure of validation to her efforts. Comparing the data gathered from the twenty-f ive participants in th e present study to the information about models presented in the Li terature Review is fraught with difficulties considering a number of differen ces: the historical data is ve ry sketchy, is from secondary sources, and is about models who worked prior to the twenty-first centu ry. Nonetheless, a few general observations about the two sets of data ca n be made. Models in the current era still pose

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199 for artists in private studios, fo r groups of artists, and for student artists--much as they did in the past. Models are less likely to enter the work vi a private artists in more recent times, however, yet most models still work in all three settings when possible. Modeling remains part-time work for most models, as they continue to enga ge in other income-producing pursuits. The dissatisfactions with the work are notably sim ilar, including the pain involved with posing, extreme room temperatures, and rude treatment by some artists. The rewards of modeling are similar as well, including the moderately-high pay (considering the nature of the work), the feelings of confidence instilled by modeling, and the contribution to something culturally worthwhile. And, lastly, stigma has fo llowed the artist model across time. Artist models do not follow a script each tim e they go to a session. Instead, the social reality of artist modeling is open-ended, in a st ate of flux, and continually renegotiated. Three central concepts informed by sym bolic interaction theory--interac tions, self and definition of the situation--were employed in orde r to examine what led to th e development of perceptions, interpretations and actions regarding the modeling experience of models in the context of the setting, as well as how models de veloped their attitudes, behaviors, and work habits that were exhibited in the setting. Because I had no one idea when I began data collecting that I wished to support or refute, I have no one-line statement to easily sum up my work. What I do have, here, at the close of 200-odd pages of te xt, is a series of findings and interpretive statements. Because of the small sample size used and the exploratory na ture of this research, no definitive statements can be made at this time. There remains a need for additional subjective data to be obtained before sound hypotheses can be constructed. Limitations of the Study The novelty and com plexity of a study on artist models carries with it some limitations. Because very little was known a bout artist models, the use of a qualitative method seemed a

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200 reasonable way to begin investigating this area where no definitive hypotheses exist. I expected that this approach would yield new knowledge as well as highlight ideas for further research. However, qualitative methodology poses certain limits for a researcher. This researcher identified three areas of concern in the present study: (a.) the sa mpling procedure, (b.) the data collection methods, and (c.) researcher bias A summary of each is presented next. Sampling procedure. One methodological difficulty i nvolves the way in which the sample was selected. In qualitative research a ra ndom and representative sample is rare and very difficult to obtain. However, the effort was to make the sample as broad, inclusive and representative as possible across such variable s as age, number of y ears modeling, types of settings modeled in, types of visual arts modele d for, and locality. Multi-stage cluster sampling is an alternative (quantitative) method that could be used if employers of models (i.e. individual artists, colleges, coordinators of artist groups) were wil ling to either release a list of models or draw a random sample on behalf of the resear cher. Since many [artists and colleges] were unwilling to cooperate with this research, the feasibility of random sampling was limited. Another problem is sample size. Overall I ha d 25 interviews. Generally, a smaller sample size is not atypical for purposive sampling of ha rd-to-reach populations. The population of artist models in the art world as a whole remains diffi cult to access. The reasons for this are several: a major reason is because of the continued stigma applied to anyone working in a nude capacity, regardless of the type of work they do in the so ciety; artist modeling is transitory work for many women; employers try to keep it off the radar. The sample size was actually reasonable given the limited total number of artist models. The limita tion of the sample size to twenty-five cases allowed for greater in-depth data to be coll ected from the participants, while both keeping

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201 analysis manageable and offering illumination in to the subjective experiences of actors in the world of artist modeling. Because of sampling and sample size, the gene ralizability of this study may be restricted. There is no reliable way of discovering how well my sample of artist models represents the universe of artist models. Thus, the frequencies reported throughout the paper are for the purpose of presenting the findings in various formats and in order to indicate th e magnitude of certain themes. Therefore, the conclusions drawn only apply to this particular sample of models and thus should not be interpreted as representative of all artist models throughout the United States. Data Collection Methods The limitations of this study that might be linked to the datacollection methods involve the honesty and integrity of the participan ts. The research is somewhat dependent on the honesty of the participants in reporting their experiences. While the models were very cooperative, the data and de scriptions obtained from the participants are restricted to what they were willing to shar e and may involve some experiences that are not characteristic of all models. For example, the artists (and art stude nts) described by the respondents may not be typical of all artists that use the services of artist models. The study is also dependent on the accuracy of the participan ts memories regarding th eir lives. That is, the responses of participants may only reflect those points they felt we re most important, or at least ones they recalled being most important at the time of the inte rview. The conclusions reached, however, will be consistent with the narratives of the studys part icipants and offer a model to which the lives of individual models may be compared in order to arrive at a better understanding of what it means to be an artist model. The response validity of these data are high, since audio-taped face-to-face interviews was the primary method of data colle ction. Audio-tapes of the interviews were transcribed by the

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202 author. Additionally the fi eld notes kept during all interviews enhance reliability. The detailed documentation of my data collection and analysis procedures will allow another researcher to follow my process. Researcher bias As in all qualitative research, this study is limited by its instruments: in this case, a researcher, which is generally acknowle dged to be a part of the research instrument (Patton, 1990), and the interview guide that wa s used. The researchers life experiences, assumptions, opinions and professional training can have a significant impact on the study. Even the design of the project and the questions aske d are influenced by what I felt are important topics for study. A similar limitation is that I was not involved in the art industry. Be ing an outsider could introduce bias that may not othe rwise be found with an art-world researcher. For one thing, because of the concealed nature of artist mode ling, anyone who comes forward to expose it may be looked at with suspici on by models. In addition, the part icipants might have presented themselves and their experiences other than natu rally to someone who th ey know is an outsider studying them. And, as I was a person outside the so cial world of artist models who participated in the study, my analysis of the responses th e women gave may be colored by differences in cultural meanings. The researcher attempted to recognize his bias es prior to entering the field. I was flexible and attempted to put aside any predetermined e xpectations. This contributed to the openness, depth and detail of the information that the partic ipants were willing to share. Participants were willing to teach me, explain things to me, and tell me things they would not ordinarily share with others, i.e. criticisms of artists or their ar tworks, thoughts about their body, etc. In the rapport that quickly evolved in the time span of a one to two hour interview period, women eagerly

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203 shared their stories, and I was ab le to get fairly intimate inform ation about themselves and their activities. Areas for Future Research This was an exploratory study. W ork such as this requires choices, sometimes difficult ones, regarding how much to cove r and in what detail, and whic h factors are essential to an explanation of the basic social process of artist m odeling. While I have chosen to emphasize seven specific themes, I have chosen to excl ude other topics such as the contribution of predisposing or precipitating fact ors. Considering that models have never been studied, an investigation like this can only be the initial stag es for further research about various aspects of this neglected segment of our population. Further study of a number of additional ar eas appears warranted. These include additional aspects of self-perception, their general worldview, socio-economi c views, beliefs and values, along with general interpersonal relationships. Research should also examine background and antecedent factors, such as socio-economic status of family, structure of family of orientation, size of community in which grew up, family members with a visual arts background, appreciation and enjoyment of visual artwork in general and personality prior to entering modeling. Other areas needing further research are stigma and its perceived effects on future lives, e.g. jobs, relationships, etc., the differences in experiences and thoughts between experienced models and novice models their feelings about other ar tist models, what they think about women who work as exotic dancers, in por nographic print-work or in peep shows, and the specific reasons which motivated the participants to be in the study. Additional research is needed with the following sub-sets of artist models to determine if the data obtained in this study is similar to the subjective experiences of these other models who pose for paintings, drawing or sculpture. Those s ub-sets include models who are women of color,

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204 models in other cities and states, models in other nations, models who have moved out of the work (that is, the exit stage of artist modeling), and models who decline an opportunity to be in social scientific research (such as the present) after being info rmed about the chance to be a participant. A similar exploratory study performed with other groups in the visual arts would provide valuable insight into the perceptions female ar tist models hold of th eir modeling experiences. Another important group is those who mode l for animation, anatomy studies, body-painting, body-casting, or for artists painting only from nude photographs or for artists who combine a photographic image of a nude model within an artwork. Other groups include male artist models as well as artist models that pose for painting, drawing or sculpture while fully clothed. And future research could combine ar tist models along with women who work in comparable groups outside the visual arts into a single study. Thos e groups may include, for example, exotic dancers, workers in massage parlors, nude mode ling studios, peep shows, the pornographic print industry, and in Internet sex sites. The subcultural world of the visual arts also needs to be investigated. For an occupation, especially a marginal one like artist modeling, to be fully understood, th e subculture within which the occupational practitioners work should be studied rather thoroughly. A probe of the world-view, norms, and values of th e visual arts subculture within the art industry situs needs to be done. An investigation of th e visual arts sub-situs would be valuable for the following reasons: it includes pursuits whic h span the marginal-non-marginal gamut, thereby allowing a comparison to be made within these types within the same situs; it is a situs in which isolated work, a little-studied variable, is importantly invo lved; and the situs is important functionally for the maintenance of the social system.

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205 Additionally, the artists that empl oy artist models in all three settings need to be studied. Specifically, many of the same themes that were e xplored with the models need to be examined from the point of view of the artists. For ex ample, questions need to be asked about the characteristics they prefer in a model, the pr aise they give models, problems they have encountered with models, the energy they ge t from models bodies, their own performance as artist, their perceptions of the comfort level of models, and the reasons why they need models to pose for them. Alternative methodologies could also be employed in future studies of artist models. What are needed is larger sample sizes and multiple research methods for data that more accurately reflect artist models experiences in the art world. The findings of this study have enabled me to determine important variables that may be used to develop a se lf-administered questionnaire to collect data for future research. The use of a self-administered que stionnaire as a first phase in the data collection process would enable the inte rviewer to focus on other issues that could not be easily reported on a questionnaire. More spec ific studies of a number of topics through quantifiable methodologies and measurement appr oaches would likely prove fruitful. Selfesteem issues generally and body image construction could be addressed through the application of a variety of standardized instruments. This would permit needed comparisons and contrasts to be made with other populations. A micro-level, cr oss-cultural study of th e subjective experiences of artist models in various nati ons could provide a sp ringboard for comparisons with studies like the present one. Thus we could contrast the c onstructions and management of identities across societies, as I suspect it will carry different meanings and consequences. Perhaps some studies with smaller sample sizes examining women who model in greater depth would be useful. We need to understand more about how self-concept changes occur and what types of experiences

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206 act as turning points in increasi ng the probability that a woman ma y turn to artist modeling. Also needed, but difficult to conduct, are longitudinal st udies to find out what happens to women after they leave the occupation. These are a few of the avenues that can lead to new insights into the experiences of those involved in artist modeling. Given the number of models in the country, more research into the phenomenon seems well warranted. Admittedly, this dissertation does not provide answers to all the questions that it has brought forth; and no do ubt, many other questions about this subject will arise in the future. The strength of the work, rath er, lies in the fact th at it breaks new ground and opens the door to further unde rstanding of the complex social dynamics of artist modeling. Other sociological research areas This study could be useful to other researcher s of an assortment of social phenom ena. The several issues that came to light in this study of artist models are relevant for expanding the sociological scholarship of gender, art, o ccupations, deviance, and the body. Sociological researchers of womens lives, partic ularly those taking a feminist view point, will be interested in macro-level issues, such as class divisions and in the subordinate position of women in a patriarchal society. Researchers of occupations will welcome the study because (1) more can be learned about high status occupations by using con cepts found in a study like this of a low status occupation, (2) some of the issu es connected with artist modeling are also issues common to other occupations which involve a nudity compone nt or a physical component, (3) the meanings uncovered in this study shed light on the meani ngs occupations have for their practitioners--a topic especially important in light of the c ontemporary interest in the importance of selfactualization, positive self-concept and satisfaction related to work, and (4) it provides a greater understanding of the structural position occupied by the visual arts within the world of work. Sociological researchers of the na ture of deviance will find much in this study, including (1) how

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207 unconventional social groups are defined and cont rolled, (2) more on the nature of norms and conformity, and (3) more details on the interactional theoretical approach to deviance in which the primary focus is interaction among actors, su bculture, and external world. Also assisted by this studys findings on how individuals experience their bodies ar e social scientists exploring the body. And some of the findings will yield fruitf ul hypotheses pertaining to the art subculture, a most important but sociologically neglected situs. This section has presented a summ ary of research implications which have occurred to this writer during the course of this study. The inform ation gathered in this study from a group that has never been researched before offers social science researchers from across the discipline a fertile area for research opportunitie s. It is hoped that this review will serve to turn the focus of some sociologists to th is fascinating topic. Conclusion The researcher em ployed qualitative methods to conduct a basic resear ch study designed to investigate and explain how models perceive and make sense of their world. Qualitative researchers study things in an attempt to make se nse or interpret them in terms of the meanings people bring to them (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994). Th is type of inquiry process was employed by the researcher to provide an oppor tunity for the twenty-f ive participants in this exploratory study to share their stories. The researcher elicited responses to open-ende d questions rather than testing theoreticallyderived hypotheses. The interview schedule incl uded questions exploring the participants personal experiences in, percep tions of, and perspectives on modeling based around the themes of posing, artists, artwork, knowledge about the visual arts fiel d, the mind and body, reactions of others, rewards, and the body in general. By choo sing to listen to the participants answer openended, theme-based questions, I was enabled to l earn more about the partic ipants and their lives,

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208 as well as to get the essence of what their experiences really meant to them and how these experiences helped shape their modeling pursuits. The researcher employed inductive analysis to delve into the details and specifics of the recorded data from the twenty-five artist mode ls who participated in the study to discover important perceptions, actions, in teractions, and relationships. A detailed coding and analysis process produced findings specific to the eigh t original themed questions. The uniqueness of each models story, as well as the many underlying aspects common to their experiences, are highlighted by the use of the actual words, thoughts and beliefs of th e participants as they relate to the studys themes. The findings provide a better understanding of the li ves and experiences of artist models. The discussion explains how the major findings of this investiga tion are relevant to understanding the experiences of women who are artist models A symbolic interactionist approach was followed throughout in attempting to present an interpretive sociology of the world of artist models. A major research task was to in terpret the social meanings of these actors, and the symbolic interactionist perspective was used to examine how interactions with artists are structured as well as how posing is affected due to the models interpretations of those interactions. The researcher also examined the set of symbols and unders tandings that influence the models conceptions of posing, pain, nudity and the hard work they go through for the artists. And mention was included about th e great intrinsic and financial re wards of the work despite the fact that modeling is a chancy occu pation--beset with perplexing stigma. The limitations of this study are presented to po int out potential weaknesses. It is important to note, however, that although these limitations ex isted, this study merely establishes a starting point for research about artist models. And the ar eas for future research pointed out in the paper

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209 make it clear that further research is needed in vi rtually all areas of this poorly defined, socially condemned world. The biggest omission I observed in all the lit erature on artist modeling was the absence of artist model voices themselves. Hence, my cen tral goal was to explore what models thought themselves of their own experi ences and center those voices in my study. By being one of the only social scientific research pr ojects to conduct qualitative inte rviews of artist models, thus allowing them to speak in-depth about themselves their work and others, we have obtained our first real glimpse into their world. Their storie s help us to better unders tand the construction of the specific modeling identity of artist models while also providing insight into the modeling world. This study begins to remedy the neglect of artist models as a subject worthy of investigation. Marginal groups have been researched, but artist models have been ignored within the sociological literature. As long as artist modeling remains an academically taboo and underresearched subject, these women will continue to be equated with popular notions of deviant women in general and prostitutes and exotic dan cers in particular. The a ccounts of the women in this sample challenge the myth of artist mode ls as down and out individuals who are enmeshed in a world of unacceptable behaviors. Modeling has been a part of our culture for many years and will probably continue to be on the scene in the future. This writer hopes that this study will make a small contribution to the publics understanding of the lives of models.

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210 APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: Uncovering the Artist Model: An Exploratory Study Please read this consent document carefully befo re you decide to participate in this study Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to explor e the work experiences of artist models. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked for answers to a series of questions related to artist modeling by the principal investigator. You will be asked several questions about what artist modeling is like, how it affects your life, other questions about the world of art, and some background questions. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. With your permission, the interview will be audio-taped. Time required: 2 hours Risks and Benefits: There are no risks nor di rect benefits to your participation in the study. Compensation: None Confidentiality: Any information that is obtained in connection with this study and that can be identified with you will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your inform ation will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your information to this number will be kept in a locked f ile in my faculty supervisors office. When the study is completed and the data have been analyzed, this list will be destroyed. The tapes will be recorded so that no identifying information is on the cassette and the tape will be kept in a locked file cabinet. The tape will be heard only by myself. It is al so possible that the tape could be shared with my faculty supervisor, but it will not be heard by anyone else. Tapes will only be heard as necessary for da ta collection and analysis. The tapes will be erased at the end of this research project. The results of this study may be published in scholarly jour nals or books. Again, no information that will allow you to be identified will be revealed. As appropriate, you may be anonymously quoted in publications. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without consequence

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211 Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Clay A. Hipke, Graduate Student, Department of Sociology, 3219 Turlington Hall, 392-0265 Ronald L. Akers, Ph.D., Department of Criminology, Law and Society, 201 Walker Hall, 392-2230 Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: UFIRB Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611-2250; ph. 392-0433 Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agree to allow the interview to be audio-taped. I voluntarily agree to participate in the study, and I ha ve received a copy of this description. Participant: ___________________________ Date: _____________________ Principal Investigator: ___________________Date: _____________________

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212 APPENDIX B INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Have you ever posed fully-clothed? [If so, questions below pertain to only modeling nude.] Have you ever posed simultaneously with other artist models in a studio? [If so, questions below pertain to only modeling alone.] Entry How did you first get involved in modeling? When did you first become an artist model? In what types of settings have you posed ? [E.g. private studio, classroom, group] Which were your favorite settings? For what type of art have you posed [E.g. painting, drawing, sculpting]? For what type of art do you like posing the most? For what type of artist(s) have you pos ed? [E.g. beginning students, professional] For what type of artist(s) do you like posing the most? What are the rates for modeling? Posing Prior to your first time posing, did you undergo any sort of training? Who trained you or explained the rules to you? Are there rules to follow--either before, during or after posing? a. Before posing Could you describe what you typically do to get ready on the days you model before you arrive at the location? Do you undergo any special grooming?

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213 Do you apply lotion or oil to your skin? Do you wear any special garments? (bras, tight pants, shoes that leave lines) What objects do you bring with you to the studio? Do you do any exercising or stretc hing immediately before posing? Where do you remove your clothes? Do you prefer doing that in a separate room or behind a partition? Explain your routine of approaching the stand and beginning the pose. (I.e., walking in, eye contact, speech, dis-robing) b. While posing (1) Posing At the times you model, do you wear make -up or fingeror toe-nail polish? At the times you model, do you wear any jewelry? Have you ever posed wearing a single clothing item, such as sandals or a scarf, etc.? Have you ever posed while holding a single obje ct, such as pottery or a spear, etc.? Do you prefer to work in a certain li ghting? (natural, fluorescent, spotlight) How often do you get to choose a pose? When you get to choose a pos e, are there dos and donts? When you get to choose a pose, how often do you do extreme posing: with twists and turns, contortions? Do you have a favorite pose? How important is facial expression during a pose? While posing, what are you thinking about? When you pose, is there movement?

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214 When you pose do you try to project yourself (vis a vis being a pa ssive lump of nude flesh)? When you pose are you aware of your nudity (in your consciousness)? When you are posing, how far from you does your spac e extend? That is, if an artist wanted to get real close to you to observe the texture of your skin, how close is too close to be uncomfortable? (2) Artists What is your general attitude towa rds the artist(s) for whom you pose? Why do believe that artists need ar tist models to pose for them? Are you called the model or by your name or by a pseudonym? Do you make eye contact with the artist(s) before posi ng begins or during a pose? To what degree do you care about the mood of the artist(s) during the time you pose? Do you do something to change the mood of the artist(s) to a mood of your liking? Does the artist(s) use you to create the art product or do you and artist collaborate together to create the product? What are you praised for by artists? Do you ever get feedback from the artist(s) about something they liked or did not like, and then adjust accordingly for the next time? c. The break What do you do during your break? d. Difficulties with posing If you are having a good day or a bad day outside of the studio, do you carry that into the studio while posing, or do you hide it?

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215 When you are experiencing, or about to experien ce, your monthly menstrual period, what extra steps do you take, if any, for that? How do you overcome the discomfort(s) while posing? [E.g. hot or cold in studio, fatigue (sleepiness), aching muscles] Is modeling physically demanding? Have you suffered any physical injuries as a resu lt of modeling (e.g. pinched nerves, numbness, stiff joints, distended veins, spinal injuries)? Have you ever experienced an occasion when art students have had difficulty looking directly at you? Why do you think that is so? Have artists ever requested that you alter your appearance, such as dying or cutting your hair? Do you set limits for yourself (boundaries)--how far will you go in being suggestive? Are there any poses that you consider inappropri ate or an affront to your dignity [awkward or medical positions] and will not do? Can you specify a particular event that wa s notably embarrassing to you while posing? e. Ending a session Could you describe your typical rout ine after a session is completed? After you leave the posing locat ion, what do you typically do? The body How do you perceive of your overall body (i.e. how do you feel about your body)? Some people are ignorant about their ow n body while others know it well. You? Has modeling carried over to the way you think about your body outside the studio (E.g. more confidence; taking up exercising; dress)?

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216 Has posing in the studio carried over to the way you relate to others outside the studio regarding your body (e.g. less uptight or more uptight)? Artworks Of artwork for which you pose, is it the idealized you or the real you? Do you prefer artwork to be idealiz ed or a pictorial likeness of you? In general, do you take pride in the artwork for which you posed? In general, do you take credit fo r the artwork done while you posed? If so, how do you express it? If you were to go to a gallery and see an artwork created by an artist for whom you had posed, what are you likely to say to a friend with you? Have you ever read what art critics have pr inted about artworks fo r which you have posed? Is there something on the surface of your body specifi cally, such as a tattoo or long scar, that has been put into an artwork? Has an artist ever depicted you as a male? Has an artist ever done an obscene or sexually suggestive artwork of you? In the better artwork for which you posed: do you feel immortalized? How do feel about the fact that most of the artwork for which you posed will never be in the pages of a book or hung in a museum? Do you ever keep and save any of the artwork for which you posed? General Do you consider artist modeling a profession, a craft, an art or just a job? What criteria make a good artist model? What are the rewards you have receiv ed from being an artist model?

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217 What are the disadvantages you have experienced from being an artist model? [E.g. physical, relationships ] What constitutes a good day of work? What constitutes a bad day of work? How long do you plan to continue to be an artist model? What the benefits to society of what you do? Art and artist models Are you aware of the history behind the use of artist models by artists? Can you name any famous artist models by name ? Who are your favorite classical or cont emporary artists of the human figure? Have you ever been to an art exhibition th at featured the human figure? How many? Do you know other individuals who model? If so, did you know them prior to becoming a model? Do you associate with other models outside the studio? Have you had any art training? Have you had any training that used the nude model? Other people How would you describe what you do versus how ot hers may define it? (I.e. are there myths about artist modeling?) Do you feel condemned by society because of your work? Who in your network of friends and family members knows that you are an artist model? How do they feel about your work? Who in your network does not know that you are an artist model?

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218 Has being an artist model affect ed your personal relationship(s)? On whom or what do you rely on for emotional support regarding your being an artist model? [That is, for discussing about what you do or talking about problems at work.] Related and background characteristics Do you ever practice posing when not in the studio? Do you have tan lines? Do you have any tattoos? Do you regularly work-out? What is your background rega rding dance (and ballet), regul ar exercise, sports, yoga? Have you ever performed before a large crowd, e.g. in a play on a stage, as a speaker, a teacher in a classroom, sports or cheerleading or dance? Have you ever done any fashion modeling? Do you engage in casual nudity at home? Have you ever been to a nude beach or nudist resort? Have nude photographs ever been take n of you (amateur or professional)? Have you ever done any exotic dancing? Other background Besides being an artist model, do you do other kinds of work for income? Age Race/Ethnicity Class Religion Marital status

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219 Highest educational level completed Lastly What should I have asked you that I didnt think to ask that is important for me to know?

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220 LIST OF REFERENCES Abbot, Sharon (2000) Motivation f or Pursui ng an Acting Career in Pornography in Sex for Sale: Prostitution, Pornography and the Sex Industry by Ronald Weitzer (ed.) NY: Routledge. Adams, Charlotte (1883) Artists Models in New York The Century Magazine 25 (4), February: 570-577. Akers, Ronald L. (1985) Deviant Be havior: A Social Learning Approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Ames-Lewis, Francis and Joanne Wright (1983) Drawing in the Italian Renaissance Workshops London: Victoria and Albert Museum Anonymous (2005) Westword January 06, n.p. Anonymous (2004) A Pearler of a Life : Norman Lindsays Original Siren Australian Broadcasting Company. Anonymous (1993) The Fine Art of Keeping Still, for a Price New York Times 142 (49,446): 9, 13. Anonymous (1890) Interesting to Ladies The Independent London March 22: 3. Anonymous (1887a) Talks with Artists: Recollections of Mr. W.A. Coffin of Bonnats Life School Art Amateur 17 (4), September: 75. Anonymous (1887b) Talks with Artists; 1 The Life Class Art Amateur 16 (2), January: 30-31. Anonymous (1885) Artists Models The Artist November: 334. Archives of American Art (1975) Artists and Models Washington, D.C.: Gallery of the Archives of American Art. Bailey, Anthony (1978) Rembrandts House Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Barnes, Djuna (1985) Interviews Washington, D.C.: Sun & Moon Press. Barzman, K.-E. (1989) The Florentine Academia Del Disegno: Liberal Education and the Renaissance Artist, pp. 14-32 in Anton Boschl oo, Elwin J. Hendrikse, Laetitia C. Smit, Gert Jan van der Sman (eds.) Academies of Art Between Renaissance and Romanticism s Gravenhage: SDU Uitgeverij. Bauer, Denise (1994) Alice Neels Female Nudes Womans Art Journal Fall/Winter. Beachboard, Robert (1965) Valadon, the Myst ifier: Is a Credible Biography Possible? Western Humanities Review. 19 (2). Spring: 135-150.

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221 Beaumont, Mary Rose (1986) Studies of the Nude Arts Review 38 (6), March. Beaux, Cecilia (1930) Background with Figures Au tobiography of Cecilia Beaux. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Berman, Douglas (1987) Model an d Muse: Sculptors Wives Sculpture Review 36 (1-2). Blaugrund, Annett, Joanne W. Bowie and Alice D. Kellogg (1988) Alice D. Kellogg: Letters from Paris, 1887-1889" Archives of American Art Journal 28 (3): 11-19. Blumer, Herbert (1969) Symbolic Interactionism: Perspectives and Method Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Boime, Albert (1982) American Culture and th e Revival of the French Academic Tradition Arts Magazine 56 (9), May: 95-101. Boime, Albert (1977) The Teaching Reforms of 1863 and the Origins of Modernism in France The Art Quarterly 1 (1): 1-39. Boime, Albert (1971) The Academy and French Painting in the Nineteenth Century London: Phaidon. Bolger, Doreen (1976) The Educat ion of the American Artist in In This Academy: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1805-1976. PA: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Borel, France (1990) The Seduction of Venus: Artists and Models. Geneva: Editions dArt Albert Skira S.A. Bourgeois, Louise (1992) Obsession Artforum April. Brassai (1982) The Artists of My Life (trans. by Richard Miller) NY: The Viking Press. Brown, Roger (2002) William Stott of Oldham 1857-1900 A Comet Raising to the Sun London: Paul Holberston in association with Gallery Oldham. Brownell, William C. (1879) The Art Schools of Philadelphia Scribners Monthly 18 (5), September: 737-750. Bulliet, C.J. (1930) The Courtezan Olympia: An Intimate Survey of Artists and Their MistressModels NY: Covici, Friede. Burke, Mary Alice Heekin (1983) Elizabeth Nourse, 1859-1938, A Salon Career Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Carline, Richard (1968) Draw They Must: A History of th e Teaching and Examining of Art. Chatham, England: Edward Arnold.

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222 Carco, Francis (1928) The Last Bohemia From Montmartre to the Quartier Latin (trans. by Madeleine Boyd) NY: Henry Holt. Cassou, Jean and Geoffrey Grigson (1953) The Female Form in Painting NY: Harcourt, Brace and Co. Champa, Paula (1994) Painting From the Model American Artist 58: 628, November: 70-78. Charon, J. (1992) Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction An Interpretation, and Integration Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Cody, Morrill and Hugh Ford (1984) The Women of Montparnassee. New York: Cornwall Books. Cole, Alphaeus P. (1976) An A dolescent in Paris: The Adventure of Being an Art Student Abroad in the Late 19th Century American Art Journal 8 (2), November: 111-115. Craven, Thomas (1962) Famous Artists and Their Models NY: Washington Square Press. Danto, Ginger (1991) Homage to Jacqueline ArtNews 90 (3), February: 53-54. Davidson, Jo (1951) Between Sittings NY: The Dial Press. Day, Barclay (1882) LAtelier-Bonnat Magazine of Art 5: 138-140. Deghy, Guy and Keith Waterhouse (1956) Caf Royal: Ninety Years of Bohemia London:Hutchinson. Delectorskaya, Lydia (1988) With Apparent Ease: Henri Matisse Translated by Olga Tourkoff. Paris: Adrien Maeght. Denzin, Norman (1989) The Research Act Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Denzin, Norman K. and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.) (1998) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Dewey, J. (1922) Human Nature and Conduct New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Douglas, Charles (1941) Artist Quarter: Reminescences of M ontmartre and Montparnasse in the First Two Decades of the Twentieth Century London: Faber and Faber. Epstein, Jacob (1975) Epstein: An Autobiography New York: Arno Press. Forbes, Cleaver (1990) A Sultan and a Prince ART news 89 (3), May: 41. Foster, Kathleen A. And Cheryl Leibold (1989) Writing About Eakins: The Manuscripts in Charles Breglers Thomas Eakins Collection. Philadelphia: Univer sity of Pennsylvania Press.

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223 Fox, Shirley (1909) An Art Students Reminiscences of Paris in the Eighties London: Mills and Boon Ltd. Fraser, Flora (1987) Painted Lady Art & Antiques December. Frith, W.P. (1888) My Autobiography and Reminiscences vol.1. New York: Harper & Brothers. Garb, Tamar (1991) The Fobidden Gaze Art in America 79: 5, May: 147-151. Gill, Michael (1989) Image of the Body NY: Doubleday. Gorokhoff, Galina, ed. (1982) Love Locked Out: The Memoirs of Anna Lea Merritt with a Checklist of Her Works Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. Grimberg, Salomon (1986) Adele: Private Love and Public Betrayal in Turn-of-the-Century Vienna: A Tale Hidden in the Paintings of Gustav Klimt Art & Antiques Summer. Grotmol, Kirsti (1991) Edvard Munch: The Artist From the Models Point of View Scandinavian Review 79: 3, Winter: 57-62. Guidroz, Kathleen (1996) Im More Than My Private Parts Off Our Backs 21 (6). June. Hassell, Geoff (1995) Camberwell School of Arts and Cra fts: Its Students and Teachers, 19431960. London. Hoebel, E. (1958) Anthropology: The Study of Man New York: McGraw Hill. Hollander, Elizabeth (1991) Subject Matter: Models for Different Media Representations 36, Fall: 133-146. Homer, William Innes (1969) Robert Henri and His Circle Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Hooker, Denise (1986) Nina Hamnett Queen of Bohemia. London: Constable. Huber, Christine Jones (1973) The Pennsylvania Academy and Its Women 1850-1920. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Huddleston, Sisley (1931) Back to Montparnasse London: George G. Harrap and Co. Hutchison, Sidney C. (1968) The History of the Royal Academy 1768-1968 NY: Taplinger. Jacomb-Hood, George Percy (1925) With Brush and Pencil London: John Murray. James, William (1975) Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. London: Longmans. Jesser, Clinton and Louis Donovan (1969) Nudity in the Art Training Process: An Essay with Reference to a Pilot Study Sociological Quarterly 10 (4). September.

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224 Jevnikar, Jana (1985) Finding O pportunities for Life Drawing American Artist 49, February. Jopling, Louise (1925) Twenty Years of My Life 1867 to 1887 London: John Lane The Bodley Head. Katz, Alan (1991) Model Comes to Life Denver Post January 19: 1E. Kennedy, H. Arthur (1888) In the Studio of Carolus Duran Contemporary Review 53, Jan/June: 703-718. Kiki (1962) Kikis Memoirs The Educ ation of a French Model NY: Belmont Kluver, Billy and Julie Martin (199 1) A Short History of Modeling Art in America 79: 5, May: 156-163. Kluver, Billy and Julie Martin (1989) Kikis Paris: Artists and Lovers, 1900-1930 NY: Harn Abrams. Knight, Laura (1965) The Magic of a Line London: William Kimber. Lago, Mary, ed. (1978) Men and Memories Recollections, 1872-1938, by William Rothstein. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Lauer, Robert H. And Warren H. Handel (1977) Social Psychology: The Theory and Application of Symbolic Interactionism Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Laughton, Bruce (1971) Philip Wilson Steer 1860-1942 London: Oxford University Press. Lawner, Lynne (1987) Lives of the Courtesans NY: Rizzoli. Lee, Dave (1986) Artist and Model Arts Review, 38 (12), June 20: 331. Leslie, George Dunlop (1914) The Inner Life of the Royal Academy London: John Murray. Levine, Steven Z. (1993) Manets Olympia Art Journal 52 (4), Winter. Lewinski, Jorge (1987) Portrait of the Artist Manchester: Carcaret Press. Lippincott, Louise (1976) Thomas Eakins and the Academy in In This Academy: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1805-1976. PA: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Lipton, Eunice (1990) Representing Sexuality in Women Artists Biogra phies: The Cases of Suzanne Valadon and Victorine Meurent The Journal of Sex Research 27 (1). Lofland, John (1971) Analyzing Social Settings Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Low, Will H. (1908) A Chronicle to Friendships 1873-1900 New York: Charles Scribners Sons.

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225 Macdonald, Stuart (1970) The History and Philosophy of Art Education NY: American Elsevier. Massey, Gertrude (1934) Kings, Commoners and Me. London: Blackie & Sons, Ltd. Mathews, Patricia (1991) Returning the Gaze: Diverse Representations of the Nude in the Art of Suzanne Valadon Art Bulletin 73 (3), September: 415-430. May, Betty (1929) Tiger-Woman, My Story London: Duckworth. Mayer, R.R. and E. Greenwood (1980) The Design of Social Policy Research Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. McCall, M. and Becker, H (1990) Introducti on. In H. Becker & M. McCall (eds.) Symbolic Interaction and Cultural Studies Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1-15. Mead, George Herbert (1934) Mind, Self and Society Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Meder, Joseph (1978) The Mastery of Drawing vol. 1 (trans by Winslow Ames) NY: Abaris Books Meltzer, B., Petras, J. and Reynolds, L. (1975) Symbolic Interactionism : Genesis, Varieties and Criticism London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Miles, Matthew B and A. Michael Huberman (1984) Qualitative Data Analysis Bevery Hills, CA: Sage. Milner, John (1988) The Studios of Paris. New Haven, Yale University Press. Nilson, Lisbet (1990) Body and Soul ARTnews 89 (3): 32. Nobili, M. Riccardo (1890) The Academie Julian The Cosmopolitan 8 (6), April: 746-752. Ormond, Leonee and Richard (1975) Lord Leighton. London: Yale University Press. Pacheco, Patrick (1988) The Naked Truth Art & Antiques December: 55-60. Patton, Michael Quinn (2002) Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Perlman Bennard B. (1998) The Lives, Loves and Art of Arthur B. Davies NY: State University of New York Press. Perlman, Bennard B. (1991) Robert Henri: His Life and Art NY: Dover. Peterson, Alice Fessenden (1890) The American Art Student in Paris The New England Magazine 22 (6), August: 669-676. Pevsner, Nikolaus (1973) Academies of Art Past and Present New York: De Capo Press.

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226 Pitts, Priscilla (1983) Evelyn Page : Reflecting the Human Presence Art New Zealand 26, Autumn. Postle, Martin & William Vaughn (1999) The Artists Model.London: Merrell Holberton. Rappoport, Angelo S. (1918) Famous Artists and Their Models London: Stanley Paul. Renoir, Jean (1962) Renoir: My Father (trans. by Randolph and Dorothy Weaver) Boston: Little, Brown. Rhodes, Albert (1873) A Day With the French Painters The Galaxy A Magazine of Entertaining Reading 16 (1), July: 5-15. Richardson, Joanna (1967) The Courtesan: The Demi-Monde in Nineteenth Century France London: Phoenix. Rose, Matthew (1993) Sketchbook: Modeling History Art & Antiques April. Rounding, Virginia (2003) Grandes Horizontales: The Lives and Legends of Marie Duplessis, Cora Pearl, La Paiva, and La Presidente. New York: Bloomsbury. Rutherston, Albert (1943) From Orpen and Gore to the Camden Town Group The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 83 (485), August: 200-205. Schwartz, Howard and Jerry Jacobs (1979) Qualitative Sociology: A Method to the Madness New York: The Free Press. Schutt, R.K. (1999) Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Scudder, Janet (1925) Modeling My Life New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. Segal, Muriel (1972) Painted Ladies: Models of the Great Artists. New York: Stein and Day. Shaman, Sanford Sivitz (1981) An In terview with Philip Pearlstein Art in America September: 120126, 213-215. Shawe-Taylor, Desmond (1991) Out on a Limb? The Artists Model Apollo 134: 354, August:21-124. Shenker, Israel (1985) Maillols Muse ARTnews April: 108-113. Simmons, Edward (1922) From Seven to Seventy: Memori es of a Painter and a Yankee NY: Harper & Brothers. Sleigh, Sylvia (1968) Slyvia Sleigh Art International 12 (9). November: 59. Smith, F. Berkeley (19010 The Real Latin Quarter NY: Funk & Wagnalls Co.

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227 Soby, James Thrall (1957) Modern Art and the New Past Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Sorel, Nacy Caldwell (1994) Auguste Rodin and Gwen John Atlantic Monthly 274 (5), November: 127. Sorel, Nancy Caldwell (1990) Suz anne Valadon and Erik Satie Atlantic Monthly 265 (3), March: 73. Stroude, Caroline and Adrian Stroude (1988) L otte Laserstein and the German Naturalist Tradition Womens Art Journal 9 (1), Spring/Summer. Sutherland, Edwin (1942) Development of the Theory In Karl Schuessler (ed.) Edwin H. Sutherland on Analyzing Crime Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 13-29. Sutherland, J. (1895) An Art Students Year in Paris Art Amateur. 32 (2), January: 52 Sutton, Denys (1966) Triumphant Satyr: The Wo rld of Auguste Rodin NY: Hawthorn. Swanson, Pamela (1985) A Classica l Approach to Figure Drawing American Artist 49: 518: 85-88. Szabo, George (1989) A Study in Jealousy: A Drawing by Amedeo Modigliani Drawing 10 (5), January-February:105-107. Tanner, H.O. (1909) The Story of an Artists Life The Worlds Work 58 (3), July: 1176911775. Taylor, S.J. and R. Bogdan (1984) Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods New York: Wiley. Turner, Bryan (1989) The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory New York: Blackwell. Turner, J. (1982) The Structure of Sociological Theory Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press. Viola, Jerome (1982) The Painting and Teaching of Philip Pearlstein NY: Watson Gupfill Publ. von Herkomer, Hubert (1908) My School and My Gospel New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. Wainwright, David and Catherine Dunn (1989) Henry Scott Tuke 1858-1929 Under Canvas London: Sarema Press. Warshawsky, Abel G. (1980) The Memories of an American Impressionist Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press.

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228 Warnod, Jeanine (1981) Suzanne Valadon (trans. by Shirley Jennings) New York: Crown. Watts, M. F. (1912) George Frederick Watts: Annals of an Artists Life vol 2. London: Macmillan and Co. Weeks, Charlotte J. (1883) Women at Work: The Slade Girls The Magazine of Art 6: 324-329. Weller, Allen Stuart (1985) Lorado in Paris: The Letters of Lorado Taft 1880-1885. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Wesley, Jennifer K. (2003) Exotic Dancing and the Negotiation of Identity Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 32 (6). December: 643-669. Woolf, Felicity and Michael Cassin (1987) Bodylines: The Human Figure in Art. London: The National Gallery. Yeldham, Charlotte (1984) Women Artists in Nineteenth-Century France and England New York: Garland Publ. Young, Dorothy Weir (1960) The Life and Letters of J. Alden Weir New Haven: Yale University Press.

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229 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Clay Arden Hipke was born in 1960 in Gainesvi lle, Texas. T he middle child, he grew up mostly in Tyler, Texas, graduating from Robert E. Lee High School in 1978. He earned his B.A. in business administration from Vanderbilt Univer sity in 1982. He next earned an M.B.A. from Baylor University in 1984. He went on to comple te two years in the study of law at St. Marys College of Law and sixty hours of graduate study in sociology at the University of Texas at Austin before turning to teaching sociology co urses at colleges and universities in North Carolina, Illinois, and Florida. He earned an M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Florida in 2004.