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Part I

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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022064/00001

Material Information

Title: Part I The Role of Style in John Corigliano's Film Score to the Red Violin (1999) and Part II: White Shirts Suite for Symphonic Orchestra (2007)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (208 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Deall, Michael
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Red Violin 1999 is an important film that utilizes an original score by one of the most important American composers of the late 20th century, John Corigliano. This is one of the first films to utilize different stylistic cues in order to fit the time period in which the drama takes place. Corigliano was awarded the Oscar for best original musical score to The Red Violin at the 1999 Academy Awards. His score is truly a remarkable blend of old forms that are woven with his own sense of color, harmony and style. The inherent drama and theatrical flair of his music show him to be a natural and gifted film composer. The film spans a history of three hundred years, beginning in Italy in 1680, and ending in the present day city of Montreal. Corigliano?s score reflects the time periods in which the action takes place by adopting the thematic material to correspond to the musical styles used in specific moments in history. A detailed exploration of the relationship between the music and the image and a consideration of the part the music plays in the narrative structure of the film will highlight the techniques and styles the composer adopts for narrative purposes. This study will show where the music begins and ends in relation to the dialogue and action. It will also provide an analysis of the harmonic and motivic structure of the music, and compare it to the styles of the periods being reflected. The importance of this film and film score will be discussed by illustrating many critical responses to the work. Corigliano?s novel approach to time placement through his stylistic appropriations will be examined. This work will show his use of the same thematic material by means of variations throughout the entire picture. For the final composition portion of the dissertation, an original score from a new movie entitled White Shirts will be composed and then reworked into a suite for full orchestra.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Deall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.
Local: Co-adviser: Richards, Paul S.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022064:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022064/00001

Material Information

Title: Part I The Role of Style in John Corigliano's Film Score to the Red Violin (1999) and Part II: White Shirts Suite for Symphonic Orchestra (2007)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (208 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Deall, Michael
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Red Violin 1999 is an important film that utilizes an original score by one of the most important American composers of the late 20th century, John Corigliano. This is one of the first films to utilize different stylistic cues in order to fit the time period in which the drama takes place. Corigliano was awarded the Oscar for best original musical score to The Red Violin at the 1999 Academy Awards. His score is truly a remarkable blend of old forms that are woven with his own sense of color, harmony and style. The inherent drama and theatrical flair of his music show him to be a natural and gifted film composer. The film spans a history of three hundred years, beginning in Italy in 1680, and ending in the present day city of Montreal. Corigliano?s score reflects the time periods in which the action takes place by adopting the thematic material to correspond to the musical styles used in specific moments in history. A detailed exploration of the relationship between the music and the image and a consideration of the part the music plays in the narrative structure of the film will highlight the techniques and styles the composer adopts for narrative purposes. This study will show where the music begins and ends in relation to the dialogue and action. It will also provide an analysis of the harmonic and motivic structure of the music, and compare it to the styles of the periods being reflected. The importance of this film and film score will be discussed by illustrating many critical responses to the work. Corigliano?s novel approach to time placement through his stylistic appropriations will be examined. This work will show his use of the same thematic material by means of variations throughout the entire picture. For the final composition portion of the dissertation, an original score from a new movie entitled White Shirts will be composed and then reworked into a suite for full orchestra.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Deall.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.
Local: Co-adviser: Richards, Paul S.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022064:00001


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PART I: THE ROLE OF STYLE IN JOHN CORIGLIANO'S FILM SCORE TO THE RED
VIOLIN (1999) AND PART II. WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA
(2007)




















By

MICHAEL DANIEL DEALL


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

December 2008

































2008 Michael Daniel Deall



































To my parents. I love you.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank my parents. Their commitment, love, and

dedication is the reason I have succeeded. My father, Henry Charles Deall, was the one who

allowed me to begin accordion lessons at the age of seven. He taught me how to be creative,

never to quit, and always try to do my best. My mother, Elizabeth Prosceo Deall, always gave

me the reassurance and strength I needed to succeed in so many of life's circumstances.

I give my deepest gratitude and appreciate to my committee chair, Dr. James Paul Sain,

who has provided constant assistance throughout the dissertation process. Dr. Sain never gave up

hope when there seemed to be none and always reassured me that the best was still to come. His

confidence in my ability allowed me to continue. Thank you so much for everything you have

done.

I would like to thank my co-chair Dr. Paul Richards. Besides being a wonderful music

teacher, he has also allowed me to become his friend, and a wonderful composition mentor. Dr.

Richards understands and recognizes my music fluently and because of that we were able to

progress so far in my compositional studies. Thank you for working so hard and going beyond

the call of duty as a cochair throughout my dissertation.

I would like to thank Dr. Paul Koonce who helped me during my early stages of the

dissertation, especially through Chapters One and Two. You showed me that hard work is

invaluable and also helped me to become a much better writer.

I would like to thank Prof Mitch Estrin, Dr. Leslie Odom and Dr. Scott Nygren for taking

time out of their busy schedules to be a part of my committee. Thank you for all of your insight

throughout this long process.

My deepest gratitude goes to Dr. Dinu Ghezzo, Professor Emeritus, Department of Music

and Performing Arts at New York University. Before beginning work at NYU, I was just a









mediocre composer, but he opened so many windows for me to show me the light. I thank him

for his time, inspiration, and our numerous trips to Italy, Germany, and Romania to present my

music. He opened so many doors for me throughout the last ten years.

I thank to Prof John Corigliano who allowed an interview while he was very busy working

on a commission, his percussion concerto, at his beautiful New York City apartment. He

answered many questions, without which this document would not have been possible. He has

been such an inspiration to me for almost 20 years.

I thank my professors at Ithaca College who started my wonderful journey as a composer

and pianist, including Prof Mary Ann Covert, Dr. Greg Woodward, and Dr. Dana Wilson. It was

Dr. Wilson who first introduced me to John Corigliano; we watched the premiere live airing of

the Ghosts of Versailles at his home in 1992. I will never forget the day I first heard of John

Corigliano. Thank you to all!

I thank the School of Music administration, especially Dr. John Duff who gave me

numerous travel grants to attend many composition premieres around the world. I would also

like to thank the library staff, especially Robena Cornwell and Michele Wilbanks-Fox who

worked endlessly for many years to help me complete my research.

I thank my sisters (Elizabeth Moody and Linda Davitt) for showing me so much love

throughout my life. I thank Yoonjee Kim who worked tirelessly to complete numerous

transcriptions from the film The Red Violin. I thank my best friend Sueli Cavalcanti for helping

me get through the last hump before graduation. And, finally thank you to Chan Ji Kim who

helped me make sure everything went accordingly.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ............................................................................... 10

L IST O F FIG U R E S .................................... .. .... .............. .................. ............... 11

ABSTRAC T ................................................... ............... 13

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION .......................................................................... .. ... ... .. 15

John C origliano and The R ed V iolin ......................................................................... ...... 15
V a lu e o f S tu d y .................................................................................................................. 1 7
G o als o f S tu dy ................................................................18
B boundaries of D iscu ssion ............................................................................ ........... .......... 19
M e th o d o lo g y ..................................................................................................................... 1 9
F ilm M u sic ................... ...................2...................0..........
T e rm in o lo g y ..................................................................................................................... 2 3
N o te s ........... ...................................................................................2 4

2 L IT E R A T U R E ................................................................................ 26

In tro d u c tio n ....................................................................................................................... 2 6
The M music of John Corigliano ................................................................. 26
John C origliano: A M onograph .......................................................................... ........ .... 26
John C origliano ........................... .......... ..................................29
Altered States: A discussion of John Corigliano's film score: Part II of a
dissertation ................... .............. ...................................................29
The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John Corigliano ............30
Other Information Regarding John Corigliano .............................................................31
The Score: Interviews with Film Composers ........................................................ 31
Knowing the Score: Film Composers Talk About the Art, Craft, Blood, Sweat, and
T ears of W writing for C inem a ............................ ... .. ... ........................................ 32
The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak About the Creative Process ........................32
Success in Unity: John Corigliano's Score to The Red Violin ....................................33
F ilm M u sic .. ......... ... .......... .... ....... ...................... .............................. ......... 33
Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative .............................................................34
F ilm M u sic V olum e 1..........................................................................................35
Other Sources Pertaining to Film M music ................................................................... 35
N otes .................................... .... ................. 36





6









3 JOHN CORIGLIANO'S CREATIVE OUTPUT AND STYLE.........................................37

T h e E a rly Y e a rs ................................................................................................................ 3 8
E early W ork s ....................................................................................................39
Sonata for Violin and Piano (1962) ................................................... ..................39
Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1967).... ................... ..........................42
Other Early W works ......... ............ ...... .. ....... .. ...................... 43
E leg y .................. .. ..... ....... ....................................................4 3
T ournam ents (1965) .............................. .... ...................... .. ...... .... ..... ...... 45
G azebo D ances (1973) ...................................... ...... ... .. ............ 46
Creations (1972) ................................... ............................ ........ 48
Sum m ary of Early W works ........................................................................... 48
A architectural Structure......... .. ...................................... .. ............ ........ .......... .. .... 48
Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (1975) ........................................ .......................... 50
Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977) ....................................................... ... .......... 56
A altered States (1980) ...................................................................................................... 6 1
The Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1981)......................................65
The Shorter W works .............. ........... .............. ......... .......... .. .............. 70
The Prom enade Overture (1981) ...................................................................... 70
F antasia on an O stinato (1985) .......................................................................... .... ... 72
C am pane di R avello (1987).................................................. ............................... 74
R ev o lu tio n (19 8 5 ) ...............................................................................................7 4
String Quartet (1995) ..................................................... ............ .. ............ 75
Symphony No. 1 (1991) ..................... ......... .. ............ .......... .... ........... 78
Symphony No.1, third movement (Chaconne).....................................................79
The G hosts of V ersailles (1991) ............................................. ...... ............................... 81
The Ghosts of Versailles Plot Sum m ary .................................. .............. ..................82
Musical Styles in The Ghosts of Versailles ...................................... ...............83
A ria: Com e N ow M y D arling A ria........................................... ........................... 83
A ria: A s Sum m er Brings A W istful Breeze ........................................ .....................86
Aria: They W ish They Could Kill M e...................................... .......................... 87
The Ghosts of V ersailles Conclusions.................................... .......................... ......... 89
N o te s ........... ...................................................................................8 9

4 THE MUSICAL STYLES OF JOHN CORIGLIANO's THE RED VIOLIN .......................93

T he R ed V iolin P lot Sum m ary .................................................................... .....................93
Corigliano's Chaconne and Principal Theme.................................................................95
O their M anipulations of the Chaconne................................................................................101
D death of A nna Cue .................. .................. ................. .......... .............. .. 102
D eath of K asper W eiss cu e .......................................................................................... 104
Other Elements Found in the Baroque Section of the Film................. ................107
T h e M o n a ste ry ................................................................................................................ 1 0 9
Baroque Rhythm ............... ..................................................... 111
B aroque Im station ........................................................ .......... .. .......... .. .112
M o tiv e ..................................................................



7









B aro q u e T o n ality .................................................................................................1 12
O their B aroque Stylistic Features............................................................................... 114
G e n re ................... ...................1...................1.........4
T h e A u edition ................................................................................ 1 15
M e lo d y ................... ...................1...................1.........5
S ty le ................... ...................1...................1.........7
H a rm o n y .................................................................................................................. 1 1 9
Journey to Vienna ...................................................................... ......... 121
R h y th m .................................................................................................................... 1 2 3
M elody .................................123...............................................
Harmonic Implications ......................................... ................... .... ...... 124
Journey to V ienna C conclusions ......................................................................... ....... 125
The M etronome ......... ......... ......... ....... ....................... ............... 125
Melody ............ ................................... .........................126
H a rm o n y ........................................................................................................12 7
Style ......... ..... .................. ................. ......... 128
T he M etronom e C conclusions .................................................................................. 129
W walking to the P alace ......... ..... ................................................ ..........................129
R h y th m ........................................................................13 1
Melody ............ ................................... .........................131
H a rm o n y ........................................................................................................1 3 2
Style .................... ................ .. ................... ................... 132
Walking to the Palace Conclusions ................... ......... ..........133
The Gypsies Journey Across Europe .............. .............................. 133
Style ........................................................................................ 134
M elody ....... .... ........... ........................................................... ..... 138
The Gypsies Journey Across Europe Conclusions .............................. 142
F rederick P ope's C concert .................................................................. .................. ...........142
M e lo d y ................... .................................................................................14 5
H arm ony ............................... .................. ..... .................................. 146
Pope's Concert Conclusions ................................. .........148
C oitu s M u sicalis ...............................................................14 8
M e lo d y .............................. .. ........................................................................................... 1 4 9
Coitus M usicalis Conclusions .............................................. ............... 149
P o p e 's B etray al ............................................................................................... ................... 15 0
M elody ............ .. ... .. ......... .. ....... .................... ............... 152
Pope's Betrayal Style and Conclusions .................. .......................................... 154
Jo u rn ey to C h in a ............................................................................................15 4
M e lo d y .................. ..... .................. .. ............................................1 5 7
The Journey to China Conclusions ..... ............................. ........... ....... ......... 160
M ontreal .......... ............ .. ................... ......................... ........ 161
The Theft of the Red Violin .......... ............................... 163
M ontreal Sequence Conclusions ................. .................................165
Final Conclusion ............................................. 165
N o te s ........................ .. ....66.......... .. .............




8









5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ..................................................... ...... ......... 170

Style Characteristics in the Five Film Sequences from The Red Violin.........................170
First Sequence: Crem ona, Italy (1681)................ ......... .......................... ....170
Second Sequence: The Monastery and Vienna (1681-1795) ............................................171
1st Cue: "M onastery" (about 1681)........................................ ............................ 171
2nd Cue: "The A udition" (circa 1795) ........................................ ....................... 172
3rd Cue: "Journey to Vienna" (about 1795) .........................................................172
4th Cue: "M etronom e" (circa 1795)........................................ ........................... 173
5th Cue: "Walking to the Palace" (circal795).................. ..... ..................... 173
6th Cue: "Death of Kasper W eiss" (circa 1795)........................................ ...............174
Third Sequence: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe and Frederick Pope of England
(about 1800-1850) ............... ......................... ................ ............ ... ...... 174
1st Cue: "The Gypsies Journey Across Europe" (circa 1800-1850)...........................174
2nd Cue: "Pope's Concert" (circa 1850) ............................................. ............... 175
3rdCue: "Coitus M usicalis" (circa 1850) ............................................ ............... 175
4thCue: "Pope's Betrayal" (circa 1850) ...................... .......................... 176
Fourth Sequence: Journey Across China (about 1850-1950)..............................................176
Fifth Sequence: M ontreal (Present D ay) ........................................ ......................... 177
C o n c lu sio n ...................... .. .............. .. ...........................................................1 7 8
N o te s ....................... .. .............. .. ................................................................... 1 7 9

6 WHITE SHIRTS: A SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA............................... 180

WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA ............................................184

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......... ............ ................................................................................203

B IO G R A PH ICA L SK ETCH ................. ......... .......................................... ..................... .... 207























9









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

6-1 Form of White Shirts: A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra by Michael Deall...................182









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 Sonata for Violin and Piano, second movement measures 1-3 .............. .....................41

3-2 Concertofor Piano and Orchestra, first movement. Measures 11-14...........................43

3-3 E legy m measures 7-12 .......................... ...... ..................... .... ..................44

3-4 Tournaments (Introduction measures 1-2 -Chorale measures 8-12 -Scherzo
m measures 54-56) ...................................... ................................. ........... 46

3-5 Gazebo Dances, third movement "Adagio" measures 1-5 .............................................47

3-6 Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, second movement, "Song," measures 16-25 ............52

3-7 Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, third movement, "Scherzo," measures 33-36............54

3-8 Oboe Concerto fourth movement, "Aria," measures 1-6 ...............................................54

3-9 Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, first movement, principal chord..........................57

3-10 Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, second movement, measures 1-9 ........................58

3-11 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, "Pied Piper's Song," Rehearsal #4 ............................67

3-12 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, fourth movement, measures 1-10 ...........................68

3-13 Promenade Overture (Fanfare theme, measures 6-9, and Principal theme, Rehearsal
0 ) ........................................................................................... . .7 2

3-14 String Quartet, second movement, "Chaconne," measures 121-124.............................76

3-15 Symphony No. 1, third movement, "Chaconne," measures 1-8 .......................................80

3-16 The Ghosts of Versailles "Come Now My Darling" measures 38-49 ..............................84

3-17 Marriage ofFigaro "Voi che sapete" Aria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.....................85

3-18 The Ghosts of Versailles "As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze" measures 2-10............87

3-19 The Ghosts of Versailles "They Wish They Could Kill Me" measures 61-69 ..................88

4-1 The R ed Violin chaconne ......................................................................... ....................96

4-2 The Red Violin them e and the Chaconne................................. ........................ .. .......... 98









4-3 Chaconne in G minorfor Violin and Basso Continuo by Tommaso Vitali 1966
B arenreiter-V erlag, K assel ................................ ...................................... ..................... 100

4-4 The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne ............... .... .............. 101

4-5 D death ofAnna .............................. ................................ 103

4-6 A analysis of D death ofAnna ......... ........................ ............................ ............... 104

4-7 Analysis of Death ofKasper Weiss cue.................................. .... .................105

4-8 Example of [0268] pitch set from Schlafend Tragt Man Mich, No. 2, Op. 2 measures
1-2 by A lban B erg. ....................... .... .................. ................................106

4-9 The M monastery cue ........ .. ................... ............ .. .. ...... ...... .. ........ .. 110

4-10 Similarity between Baroque examples and Corigliano's rhythmic motive .................111

4-11 Descending circle of fifths progression in The Monastery measures 12-16....................113

6-1 "Love Theme" from the White ./ul/ it film score .................................. ............... 181









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PART I: THE ROLE OF STYLE IN JOHN CORIGLIANO'S FILM SCORE TO THE RED
VIOLIN (1999) AND PART II: WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA
(2007)

By

Michael Deall

December, 2008

Chair: James Paul Sain
Cochair: Paul Richards
Major: Music

The Red Violin (1999) is an important film that utilizes an original score by one of the most

highly regarded American composers of the late 20th century, John Corigliano. This is one of the

first films to utilize different stylistic cues in order to fit the time period in which the drama takes

place. Corigliano was awarded the Oscar for Best Original Musical Score to The Red Violin at

the 1999 Academy Awards. His score is truly a remarkable blend of old forms that are woven

with his own sense of color, harmony and style. The film spans a history of 300 years, beginning

in Italy in 1680, and ending in the present day city of Montreal. Corigliano's score reflects the

time periods in which the action takes place by adapting the thematic material to the historic

musical styles implied.

A detailed exploration of the relationship between the music and the image and a

consideration of the part the music plays in the narrative structure of the film will highlight the

techniques and styles the composer adopts for narrative purposes. This study will show where

the music begins and ends in relation to the dialogue and action. It will also provide an analysis

of the harmonic and motivic structure of the music, and compare it to the styles of the periods

being represented.









The importance of this film and its score will be discussed and many critical responses to

the work illustrated. Corigliano's novel approach to time placement through stylistic

appropriations will be examined. This work will further show his use of the same thematic

material by means of variations throughout the entire picture.

Part II of the dissertation, White .\lhl i A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra, is an original

composition drawn from my score to the film "White Shirts."









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

One of the things that I do that is not very appropriate for most films is developmental
architecture, which is designing the whole piece. Film writing usually means start-and-
stop-writing short little cues-but I'm interested in the large architecture. In film, it's the
film itself that controls that, and the music comes in now and then to support it, to
comment on it. So, for me, film music is less interesting as an art form because what I like
and what fascinates me is the big structure, and to plan that. 1 -John Corigliano

In Chapter 1 the methodology of the research will be discussed and the vocabulary and

terminology established. The boundaries of the dissertation and reasons for this study will also

be defined.

John Corigliano and The Red Violin

John Corigliano's third film score, The Red Violin (1999), is a blend of different historic

musical styles and his own personal compositional styles developed over more than four decades

of compositional activity. One of today's leading American composers, Corigliano's film

recognition began with an Academy Award nomination in 1980 for his first film score to

Altered States and the British Film Academy's Anthony Asquith Award for Best Score for the

Revolutionary War epic drama Revolution in 1985. In 1999, he was awarded the Oscar for

Distinguished Achievement in Film Scoring and the Canadian Genie Award for his music to The

Red Violin. Corigliano's score to The Red Violin reflects the time periods in which the action

takes place by adapting his original thematic material to the musical styles associated with each

period. As with his concert music, Corigliano planned the structure of the work before writing

the notes. This musical architecture, which will be discussed in Chapter 3, remains an important

component of The Red Violin. His score is a remarkable blend of historic styles that are

interwoven with his own sense of color, harmony, and rhythm.

Prior to composing The Red Violin in 1998, John Corigliano was already considered one of

the most important concert composers of his generation, having received numerous commissions









from the world's leading orchestras and performers. His Symphony No. 1 was commissioned in

1990 by The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, while he was their Composer-in-Residence. This

work of great emotional impact, inspired by the tragedy of the AIDS epidemic, went on to win

many awards, including two Grammy Awards. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the

Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra have recorded Symphony No. 1; both received Grammy

Awards for their recordings, the first time in history that this has happened with the same piece.

To date, Symphony #1 has been performed over 150 times by many of the leading orchestras

around the world.

Corigliano earned more critical acclaim for his opera, The Ghosts of Versailles (1990),

commissioned for the 100th Anniversary of the Metropolitan Opera. The initial run, as well as the

second Metropolitan Opera series, sold out. The opera was aired live on the Public Broadcast

Service and released on laser disc and videocassette. These recordings eventually completely

sold out. The Chicago Lyric Opera Company also produced The Ghosts of Versailles in 1995.

Corigliano's Symphony No. 1 and The Ghosts of Versailles will be examined in Chapter 3.

These two works utilize important compositional devices that are also employed in The Red

Violin. The Ghost of Versailles clearly illustrates Corigliano's ability to write in specific historic

musical styles. At times the music, which exhibits neoclassical tendencies, resembles opera from

the 18th and 19th Centuries. At other points within the opera, Corigliano quotes actual works from

composers such as Mozart and Rossini. Woven into the musical fabric alongside the traditional

tonal music are dark, dissonant passages, employing twelve tone and microtonal techniques.

The Red Violin is John Corigliano's biggest commercial success thus far. The movie was a

triumph within the film world, and the suite he extracted from the score has also been widely

accepted in the concert world. Stephen Holden's review of The Red Violin from the New York









Times, written after the film's release in 1999, gives a wonderful description of how the music of

Corigliano was one of the key elements of the film:

Whenever the music swells in this extravagant time-traveling costume drama tracing the
300-year life of a priceless handcrafted violin, The Red Violin begins to assume the intense
emotional colors of John Corigliano's ravishing score. As Joshua Bell's solo violin
pirouettes above the churning orchestrations, played by the London Philharmonic
Orchestra under Esa-Pekka Salonen, the actors' expressions begin to seem profound with
an atmosphere of romantic exaltation.2

An article written by Thomas May covers the soundtrack of The Red Violin, which

includes most of the music from the film:

Composer John Corigliano's richly eclectic and poetic score--encompassing classical
elegance, gypsy passion, and angst-ridden harmonies--etches vivid portraits of the film's
various epochs but also gives an overarching sense of unity to the episodic character of the
script. It's essentially a set of remarkably imaginative variations for violin and orchestra on
a theme of haunting pathos and is a substantial work of music in its own right.3

Value of Study

The score to The Red Violin is worthy of study as it is an important and successful work by

a pre-eminent composer. The unusually prominent music in this film was created using

techniques developed first in the concert hall. Corigliano's use of novel compositional features

point toward new directions and approaches possible in the creation of music for film that will

prove valuable for future generations.

The Red Violin is a wonderful movie that should be examined closely. According to critic

David Poole, "The Red Violin stands among the greatest music-oriented films, and Corigliano's

labor of love should be in everyone's collection."5 Many critics enjoyed the suspense, the flow of

the narrative, and Corigliano's music. This review comes from SPLICEDwired's Rob

Blackwelder:

Like a blending of a great symphony and great cinema, "The Red Violin" is a magnum
opus of musical-visual composition for French-Canadian director Francois Girard. The
biography of a masterpiece musical instrument and its globetrotting passage through
centuries of owners, this is a film overflowing with fervent movements of pathos,









seductive tempos of passion, tragic refrains of sorrow and a riveting, recurring chorus that
ties every measure beautifully together. Girard spent five years researching, writing and
filming this mesmerizing but understated epic, and every moment of his work paid off. The
Red Violin is magic.6

Corigliano's approach to the score was to combine his original thematic material with the

style of the specific eras, making this film unique when compared to other films that utilize

period music. The musical periods that will be examined in this dissertation range from the late

Baroque to present day Practice. What makes this score distinctive is that Corigliano connects

five different periods of history by employing the same thematic material. The connection of the

thematic material is accomplished using a seven-chord chaconne that is heard throughout the

film along with the principal theme, "The Red Violin Theme." Corigliano transforms this theme

by presenting it in different styles, creating the illusion that the music is from a specific time

period. Corigliano's connection of the five sequences into a complete story, through the use of

this thematic "glue, is the special feature.

The purpose of this study is to show how one can compose in many different historically

informed styles while still incorporating original musical material. Through reading this

document, composers can observe how Corigliano composes in a variety of period styles while

maintaining his own voice.

Goals of Study

Uncovering the techniques that Corigliano uses to make his music sound as if it were from

a specific stylistic period is the principal goal of this study. He takes disparate styles and

combines them into a unified score. During the periods represented in the film, spanning 310

years (1680-1990), the chaconne technique was often employed as a musical device. Corigliano

uses the chaconne technique as a unifying musical element, as it was utilized in all of the

historical periods visited in the film. Corigliano then alters the chaconne and The Red Violin









theme to fit the historical periods and the narrative of the film. Continuity is achieved by the

employment of the chaconne and principal theme throughout the score.

How the cues from the score relate to the film's narrative is also carefully examined.

Analysis was achieved by studying the score to The Red Violin Suite obtained from Corigliano's

publisher, G. Schirmer, as it contains many of the musical cues from the film. The cues in this

study not found in the suite score were transcribed from the film. It is important to note that

Corigliano scored the entire movie for an extended string section, one larger than the norm,

which he divided into two groups in the recording studio. Corigliano uses percussion (bass drum,

timpani, and marimba) at the film's climax to create dramatic tension. Other than the percussion

found in this unique moment, the bass drum to simulate the gun shot, and the Gypsy caravan

band, Corigliano limits his palette to this large group of strings.

Boundaries of Discussion

This study, concentrating only on Corigliano's film score to The Red Violin, looks at the

five different sequences, or time periods, from the film as well as the concert suite derived from

the film cues. The music of archetypal composers from the respective periods visited in the

movie are referenced in the examination of Corigliano's film cues to the extent the cues

correspond to these models. Other compositions by Corigliano that employ similar techniques as

those found in The Red Violin are also referenced to illustrate his use of historically informed

styles within this film score.

Methodology

This study will show similarities and differences between Corigliano's style and the music

of the different time periods. The analysis includes stylistic and harmonic analyses. Some of

Corigliano's music written prior to The Red Violin is also discussed in Chapter 3 as it relates to

his methods of stylistic appropriation.









For the film, Corigliano utilized an original seven-chord chaconne. The primary theme,

"Anna's Theme", otherwise known as the "Red Violin's Theme," was derived from the

harmonic outline used in the chaconne. This study shows how Corigliano's original theme is

manipulated and varied to fit the time periods of the film. His adaptations of the chaconne are

discussed in detail and demonstrate how they connect the different styles used.

On the surface, Corigliano's music strongly resembles the music of the periods and places

he was to depict. However, the following analysis shows otherwise. Through an analysis of his

music, this study shows that Corigliano is true to the period styles of the music he represents,

deviating from the respective time periods in part to keep the chaconne and themes clear. The

differences, consisting of minor adaptations and embellishments, tend to mollify the historic

accuracy in favor of an overall consistency. Therefore, this study discusses the differences

between Corigliano's cues and the historic models.

In his dissertation about the film composer Bernard Hermann, Graham Bruce employs a

methodology designed to illuminate the relationship between music and film. Bruce's

dissertation is an in-depth look at Hermann's film scores and how the music relates to the images

and the narrative. Bruce dissects, frame-by-frame, the interaction and coordination of the music

and visual images. He uses musical examples of the film scores to show the devices employed by

Hermann. Bruce's approach is adopted in select scenes throughout this dissertation which also

examines the music though different analytic approaches.

The author of this study interviewed John Corigliano about the film and his creative

process on April 30, 2007. His comments are included throughout the thesis.

Film Music

During the past twenty years, there has been an increasing interest in the academic study of

film composition. A large portion of the film music literature has only been written within the









last decade. The number of students studying film composition at universities has also greatly

increased in recent years.8

The art of film composition dates back to the first silent films of the late 19th and early 20th

Centuries. Film music was first employed to mask the loud noises produced by large film

projectors. As films became more elaborate, music was used to enhance the narrative. Production

studios sent musical scores to cinemas for use in accompanying the films. The theaters usually

employed a pianist or organist to perform the prepared scores that accompanied the silent reels.

In Hollywood's Golden Age of the 1930's and 40's, the film composer became an important

contributor to the filmmaking process. During this period, many of the most popular film

composers, such as Max Steiner and Eric Korngold, were emigres from Europe where they

received classical training in music. Famous American-born film composers during this period

who studied in the United States included Alfred Newman and later Bernard Hermann. The

studios utilized an entire "army" of composers, arrangers and copyists to finish the music

quickly.9 Many film composers in Hollywood's prolific period of the 1930's and 1940's had an

average of six weeks to score a feature length film. Credited with composing scores for over five

hundred films, Max Steiner was no doubt scoring one film after another.

By the 1960's, the use of orchestra in the recording of film music was reduced. Many

directors opted for smaller ensembles or simple prerecorded source music because it was an

inexpensive alternative. John Williams had great impact on 1970's film music by returning to

the use of large symphonic orchestra in his film scores. This reclaimed the historic orchestral

magnificence with his scores to films such as Jaws, Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third

Kind. Williams set a new standard for what the film composer should accomplish in their scores.

Today, as in the early days, many film composers receive a classical training, learning the craft









of scoring films for a full size orchestra. (A noteworthy exception would be the acclaimed film

composer Danny Elfman, who only writes the main thematic material and passes this material to

his orchestrators to complete the score).

As the earliest days of film illustrate, Corigliano is certainly not the first composer of

concert music to also write for film. Aaron Copland composed music for five films, including

The RedPony and the score to the 1940 film The Heiress, which won the Oscar for Best Original

Film Score. (Corigliano and Copland, who Corigliano strongly admired, are the only two concert

composers to ever win an Oscar for a film score.) Another well-known concert music composer

Leonard Bernstein, scored the music to the highly successful film On The Waterfront. Outside

the United States, Ralph Vaughn Williams scored many English World War II films. Sergei

Prokofiev and Dimitri Shostakovich, two great Russian composers of the 20th Century, wrote

successfully for the idiom, as did Toru Takemitsu, who scored many films for the Japanese

cinema.

The move from writing concert music to film scores was easy for Corigliano. He credits

this with planning every work using what he calls the "architectural structure."10 His versatility,

talent, and ability to work in all styles have made him an American icon in contemporary concert

and film music. Many film composers work their entire career without gaining much respect in

the film industry. John Williams scored fifty films, as well as numerous television series, before

he wrote the music to his first successful film, Jaws (1976). In contrast, all three of Corigliano's

film scores have been seen as highly successful. His beautifully scored second film, Revolution,

was a complete box office failure. The "War Lament" from the score was used in the first

movement of his Symphony No. Mark Adamo writes, "The centerpiece of the score is the third

theme, a "War Lament" of stunning emotional darkness composed by Corigliano to extend over









a scene of battlefield massacre."1 After the film Revolution, Corigliano decided to stay away

from film scoring. Fortunately, Francois Girard, The Red Violin's director, wanted Joshua Bell to

play the violin music for the film. Bell in turn recommended John Corigliano to be the project's

composer.

Terminology

Postmodernism is a term that can be defined in many different ways. John Corigliano has

sometimes been labeled as a postmodernist composer, even though he rejects the term himself. A

typical postmodern technique, employed by Corigliano in many of his works, is to use

contemporary devices and techniques to alter and personalize historic styles. Jonathan Kramer

attempts to define the postmodernism movement in music:

A postmodern work is unlikely to have any single overriding principle that applies
throughout. Thus, postmodern pieces may use aspects of tonality (diatonic tunes, triadic
verticalities, metric regularity) but will not be thoroughly tonal. A postmodern composer is
unlikely to be thoroughly twelve-tone either, as a modernist. The composer is unlikely to
use one technique as a sole means of musical organization. 13

Adapted quotations and traditional or popular forms and styles appear in many of

Corigliano's works; notable examples include the Haydn influenced Promenade Overture, the

classically operatic score to The Ghosts of Versailles, the Tarantella from his Symphony No.1,

and the troubadour-style music in his Concertofor Guitar and Chamber Orchestra. Corigliano is

not the first to use historic styles and materials in his music. This is a device that many

composers have used, including Mahler, Ives, Stravinsky, and Bernstein. Postmodernism is a

generic term that has been used to describe many styles of music, including concert music as

well as popular music.

Film Cue is a term that is used in the film scoring industry. It relates to a certain section of

the film, which is timed to the 1/100 of a second (using time code) enabling the composer to

synchronize music to the picture. The director, music editor, and composer all sit through a cut









of the film and decide which cues will contain music. Some films can have more than thirty cues,

others as few as five.

Poly-stylistic is a term that better defines Corigliano's music, as he uses an array of devices

incorporated into his music. Poly-stylistic is a more clear definition than postmodernism in

describing this aspect of John Corigliano's music.

Eclectic is another term that has been used to describe Corigliano's music, and is another

term he dislikes. Similar to postmodernism, it refers to the composer's use of an array of

different styles.

Notes


1 Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews i, ith Film Composers. Los Angeles: Silman-James
Press, 1999, pp. 159-160.
2 Holden, Stephen. That Old Fiddle Sure Got Around.
5COA96F958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2
c%20John&oref=slogin> (accessed December 10, 2006)

3 May, Thomas. Essential Recording. Soundtrack/dp/B00000J28V/ref=pd_sxp_f r/104-0414644-8768739?ie=UTF8> (accessed
December 20, 2006)

4 Poole, David. The Red Violin Review.
(accessed September 18, 2006)
16 Blackwelder, Rob. Orchestral Magnificence In The Dark. SpliceWired:
(accessed September 18, 2006)

8 Conversation with Dr. Dinu Ghezzo: Former Director of Composition at New York University.
Percentage is based on the amount of students who were composition students in 1998 and who
were enrolled in 2006 at NYU.

9 Prendergast, Roy M. Film Music: A Neglected Art. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,
1992, p.36.

10 Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews i/ ith Film Composers. Los Angeles: Silman-James
Press, 1999, p. 155.

11 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p.46.










13 Kramer, Jonathan D. Bernard Rands's...Body and Shadow...: Modernist, Postmodernist and
Antimodernist? Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4. pp. 29-43.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE

I don't really think I'm a great melodist. I don't think I have a particularly, quote, original
way of speaking from moment to moment. In fact I find it very hard to think of ideas, and I
don't know if...the momentary intervallic ideas are so wonderful. What it has maybe
forced me to do is make my architectural ideas more important than my musical ideas.1

-John Corigliano

Introduction

In this chapter, the available material about John Corigliano and The Red Violin referenced

throughout this thesis is discussed. Then, literature dedicated to film music, including works on

the methodology of previous film studies, is examined.

The books listed in this chapter include the limited number of sources pertaining to the life

and music of John Corigliano. These sources include dissertations and books on film that contain

interviews with Corigliano. A few of these sources are addressed in this chapter. In addition, a

book on film music, similar in approach to this document, is discussed.

The Music of John Corigliano

Fortunately, for this study, much of John Corigliano's print music is publicly available. In

addition to the numerous scores and recordings of his music, there are a few biographies in print.

John Corigliano: A Monograph

John Corigliano A Monograph, by Mark Adamo, is the most important document about

Corigliano's life and music. It is surprising that one of America's most distinguished composers

of the late twentieth-century did not have a book exclusively written about his music until this

brief monograph was published in 2000. This book, a collection of small essays, divides

Corigliano's works into different categories. It was commissioned by The Royal Northern

College of Music in England, who hosted John Corigliano for a weeklong residency in

December of 2000. The monograph was written solely by Adamo for release during the event.









Adamo acquired a great deal of information directly from Corigliano and states, "The book was

written in close collaboration with the composer himself."2

Since this is the only book dedicated completely to Corigliano, it plays a vital role in

learning about the composer and understanding his music. The book consists of five short

chapters that discuss selected works and aspects of Corigliano's career. The monograph's brief

introduction sets the tone for the work by describing Corigliano's role as a compositional

maverick writing in a mainstream environment.

Following the introduction, the author discusses Corigliano's large orchestral

compositions. This section is the most extensive, since his musical output consists primarily of

orchestral works. Corigliano's most noted scores are written for orchestra and include several

concert. Adamo looks at Corigliano's music in chronological order, beginning with the section

entitled "Early Works" in which the influences of Copland, Barber and Bernstein are noted.

The next section of the chapter, "The Medium As Message, discusses the compositional

direction that Corigliano has taken since 1975. In the first work of this period, Concertofor Oboe

and Orchestra (1975), Corigliano began to base his compositional process around what he calls

the "architectural structure." Creating an entire piece's shape in the initial planning stages has

been Corigliano's modus operandi in every work since these early days (including his three film

scores). Throughout this section, Adamo discusses the role of these techniques in the three

woodwind concertos, Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra

and his Pied Piper Fantasy: Concertofor Flute and Orchestra. Along with this change in

approach to form, his approach to harmony and rhythm also changed beginning with this period.

Mary Lou Humphrey elaborates:









Not only has his harmony become more complex, but he now occasionally avoids harmony
altogether in his work, or, as in his score to the film Altered States, uses sonority in place
of harmony.3

The second chapter, "The Politics OfMemory: The Opera And Oratorio Work, discusses

Corigliano's opera The Ghosts of Versailles (1990) along with his oratorio A Dylan Thomas

Trilogy (1999). The opera is important to study, as it reflects how Corigliano uses material from

other time periods to reflect certain historic musical styles within the context of a contemporary

opera. It is in this regard that Corigliano's opera is similar to the film score of The Red Violin.

Adamo explains how Corigliano combined Classical styles with his own musical language:

The world that Corigliano created was full of subtle, distorted images of Mozart and
Rossini, which would segue in and out of the abstract atonal and microtonal idiom he was
composing in during that period of his career.4

The last chapter in Adamo's book, "The Studio as Studio: The Film Work," examines

Corigliano's three film scores. Within this chapter Adamo discusses the compositional methods

Corigliano used for his first film score, Altered States, which includes textures the composer

calls "motion sonorities" and "cue beats." A section of this chapter also examines his little-

known score to the film Revolution and how an excerpt from the film, entitled "The War

Lament," was re-worked and incorporated into the first movement of his Symphony No. Adamo

also looks at the history of the Red Violin, including the conception and the compositional

background of the work. According to Adamo, Corigliano was intrigued from the beginning with

the film's concept, imagining a large architectural structure driven by a seven-chord chaconne.5

From this progression, all the harmonies and melodies for the entire score were derived,

including the modal "Red Violin Theme," which is first heard in the film when the violinmaker's

wife sings the tune a capella. Adamo supplies a short summary of Corigliano's score to The Red

Violin:









From the neo-Baroque to the neo-Classical, from the arch-Romantic to the provocative
solo etudes, played by the English virtuoso in the film's central sequence, from the
shimmering aleatoric mist of the opening titles to the driving crypto-passacaglia of the
final chase sequence, a masterly technique of variation is evident throughout the score.6

John Corigliano

John Corigliano, by Mary Lou Humphrey, is a promotional document by John

Corigliano's publisher G. Schirmer, Inc. Even though the thirty-two-page publication has not

been revised since 1994, it still contains useful information on a number of his compositions,

including techniques and devices featured in his scores. It also contains a list of works and a

discography of everything produced up to the date of the publication.

Altered States: A discussion of John Corigliano's film score: Part II of a dissertation

The second part of Daniel Joseph's dissertation focuses on the music to Altered States. The

author was unable to use the film score in his study; however, the author did have access to the

work Corigliano based on the film, the orchestral suite Three Hallucinationsfor Orchestra

(1981).

May begins with a discussion of Corigliano's early work Creations (1972). This work was

an important experiment for Corigliano, as he utilized such techniques as aleatory and

indeterminacy for the first time, focusing on texture and sonority rather than melody.

May gives a detailed explanation of "motion sonorities," a term coined by Corigliano,

using musical examples from Three Hallucinationsfor Orchestra. "Motion sonorities" is a term

coined by Corigliano. Within these sonorities, Corigliano uses extended techniques, some of

which are adopted from previous concert pieces. The "Rhieta Effect," first found in the Concerto

for Oboe and Orchestra, is a technique in which the solo oboist positions his or her lips

differently on the reed in order to create a rough, almost primitive sound. Corigliano employs

multiple oboes to create this effect in his Three Hallucinations. Replacing melody with texture









and sonority are techniques that Corigliano used many times, first appearing in association with

his "architectural structure" concept. Corigliano experiments with muting techniques for the

brass, flute buzzing, flute whistle tones, and many different string techniques. Flute buzzing is

accomplished by changing one's embouchure on the flute, which creates a major seventh pitch

below the given note. Only a limited number of flautists in the entire world can perform such a

7
technique.7

May gives a detailed analysis of all three movements of the suite. He discusses such

notable compositional devices as Corigliano's use of quotation, a technique that he has employed

many times, including in the opera Ghosts of Versailles. Corigliano was under a time constraint

to finish the score for Altered States. He therefore adopted new notational devices to complete

the score more quickly. For example, Corigliano begins to incorporate box notation within his

scores, giving the performer the notes to play and allowing them to improvise with them for an

allotted time. Corigliano continued using this technique in his Symphony No. 1 and in the film

score to The Red Violin.

The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John Corigliano

William Ladd Higgins wrote his dissertation on The Ghost of Versailles in 1995 at the

University of Oklahoma. Higgins first discusses the background of the French author

Beaumarchais, provides a synopsis of Beaumarchais' original play, describes other characters

from Corigliano's opera, and gives the background of Corigliano's opera. Higgins gives a brief

overview of Corigliano's musical styles throughout his career, including a separate chapter

dedicated to styles found in The Ghosts of Versailles. The opera is an important work in

Corigliano's catalog. Corigliano utilizes historic musical styles and quotations in a manner

similar to The Red Violin.









Higgins discusses the similarities between Corigliano's film music and The Ghosts of

Versailles. According to Higgins, "The influence of the film industry upon Corigliano's musical

style is most apparent in the opera The Ghosts of Versailles, which resembles a motion picture,

both musically and dramatically."8 In terms of the similarities with the opera and film, Higgins

discusses Corigliano's use of leitmotifs for the major characters of the opera. Corigliano also

utilized a similar technique in The Red Violin. Higgins analyzes musical examples from the

opera, including examples of motivic material, phrase content, instrumentation, and harmonic

content.

Other Information Regarding John Corigliano

Other sources on John Corigliano include short entries in selected books and on-line

articles. Much of the information is related to his opera The Ghost of Versailles or his Symphony

No.], due to the enormous success of these works since their premieres in 1991. Opera News

published two articles pertaining to the Ghost of Versailles, and The Oxford Dictionary of Music

includes two paragraphs about the composer's career. In addition, interviews with the composer

can now be found in various books on film scoring as a result of the critical acclaim of his three

film scores.

The Score: Interviews with Film Composers

Michael Schelle's The Score: Interviews n ith Film Composers, written in 1999, dedicates

twenty pages to an interview with John Corigliano, discussing his work on all three films. The

majority of the interview concerns his score to Altered States. This book is a very useful guide to

Corigliano's philosophy and approach to film scoring. Schelle discusses Corigliano's large plan,

or "architectural structure," for The Red Violin, his decision to use an extended string orchestra,

and his extraction of the concert piece from the film score. Corigliano also discusses his work on

the film Revolution. He explains his disappointment with how his music was edited out in places









in order to hear bomb strikes during war sequences, and the fact that no original sound recording

was released.

Knowing the Score: Film Composers Talk About the Art, Craft, Blood, Sweat, and Tears of
Writing for Cinema

David Morgan's book Knowing the Score, consists solely of interviews with many well-

known film composers, including Carter Burwell, Elliot Goldenthal (a student of Corigliano),

Elmer Bernstein, and John Corigliano. The Corigliano interview provides insight into his

thoughts about film composing. Morgan dedicates two separate chapters to Corigliano's

interview: Sounds ofApocalypse: John Corigliano On Altered States, and Provenance: John

Corigliano On The Red Violin. In the Altered States chapter Corigliano discusses how the

director approached him, and what interested him in composing for film, a medium for which he

had not previously composed. Corigliano discusses new techniques he used to score the film,

such as "motion sonorities" and "cue beats." He also speaks about prejudices that exist within the

musical community, such as disdain for film composers writing concert music and concert music

composers writing for film. In The Red Violin chapter, Corigliano gives a synopsis of the story

and discusses the chaconne he used as the underlying foundation for the score. Corigliano

discusses how the director originally wanted only underscoring for the picture. Corigliano later

convinced the director that the historical separation of the five visual sequences called for a

musical element that could connect them together. Corigliano also discusses his decision to score

the work for strings alone.

The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak About the Creative Process

Another interview-based book, The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak About the

Creative Process, written by Ann McCutchen, focuses on twenty-five living composers from the

late 20th Century who wrote concert music. Corigliano is the only composer McCutchen includes









who has written for film as well as the concert stage. Within Corigliano's interview, he discusses

his musical upbringing, style, approach to orchestration, and process of composing. This book is

also a valued source for understanding his thoughts about music.

Success in Unity: John Corigliano's Score to The Red Violin

Michael Glaser's 2003 senior thesis project at the College of William and Mary was written in

close collaboration with John Corigliano. Glaser writes a description of every music cue from the

film, including an analysis of the main motivic material. He discusses how the different styles of

the film correspond with the styles of music found in particular periods of musical history.

However, Glaser only touches the surface of Corigliano's stylistic features in the cues. For

example, he mentions that the "Monastery" cue is in the style of Vivaldi without discussing the

extent of its similarities. Other than the present document, Glaser's thesis is the only writing

solely about the music of The Red Violin. Glaser's paper helps verify many of the hypotheses

brought forward by this author. However, Glaser does not include a detailed description of the

musical styles of the cues or a comparative theoretical analysis, though he does make several

interesting observations as well as discussing motivic material in the score and the music in

relation to the picture. He explains the role of the music in underscoring each scene.

Film Music

As mentioned in Chapter One, the history of film music goes back only one hundred years.

During the early years, film music was not considered a critical element of the motion picture.

By the 1930's and 1940's, film studios were producing movies faster than the public could view

them, and film composers began to create wonderful scores that began to be synchronized with

the narrative, establishing or playing against elements in the films. Beginning with this era, the

underscoring music became a crucial part of the narrative structure of the film. Strangely, one of

the first books discussing film music, Composing for Films, was not written until 1947. Written









by Gerhart Eisler, the book discusses music for film, addressing orchestra scoring and the

author's preference for not incorporating Wagnerian-style leitmotifs in a score. With the

development of the film industry, film scoring came to be dominated by a select group of

composers. Early composers, such as Steiner and Newmann, and later, John Williams altered the

film scoring industry forever with his large orchestrations and electrifying scores to the biggest

Hollywood hits. By the 1980's film music was beginning to be recognized in the academic

world, creating a sudden boom in books written about the subject. In the 1990's film scoring in

education was a thriving enterprise and more composition students showed an interest in scoring

television and movie scores. In the twenty-five years since, many books have been written about

the history, theory, and practice of film music.

Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative

Film Music andNarrative, written by Graham Bruce, explains in detail the relationship of

music and picture in the films scored by legendary composer Bernard Hermann. Along with

discussing Hermann's contribution to the film music world, Bruce's book employs a

methodology useful to this study. He explains how the music of a film relates to the film's

narrative structure. Specific cues are discussed, and Bruce gives an analysis of the music that

Hermann provided for the scenes, elucidating the reason for its success. Bruce says, "One must

discuss why the composer's music functions so appropriately as film music, in particular how its

specific parts relate to the formal articulation of a given sequence."9 Bruce discusses the 19th-

Century Romantic composers' influence on early film composers and how they employed

leitmotifs to connect certain characters and places with the music. Bruce's final section

thoroughly discusses two of Hermann's most famous film scores, Vertigo and Psycho.









Film Music Volume 1

Film Music Volume 1, edited by Clifford McCarty, is a set of journals written by many

individuals who have worked in the film industry or taught film scoring and sound production. In

Stephen Wright's journal The Materials ofFilm Music: Their Nature and Accessibility, he

discusses the creation of the concert suite out of the original film score and how the suite relates

to the original film cues. He also discusses the locations where many of the original film scores

are stored by different studios. Eddy Lawrence Manson's The Film Composer In Concert and

The Concert Composer In Film is a journal about the difficulties concert composers sometimes

face when trying to write for film. In addition, there is a discussion on whether film music can be

considered "real music."

Other Sources Pertaining to Film Music

Many books addressing the subject of film music are now available. Some address historical

aspects of film music, while others discuss the theory and practice of composing for film. Roy

Prendergast's Film Music: A Neglected Art discusses the entire history of film music, from its

origins to contemporary practice. His book offers a comprehensive view of film music that

begins with the introduction of silent films and moves through and beyond Hollywood's Golden

Age of the 1930's and 1940's, when film music acquired the importance it has today. He also

discusses the phenomenon of concert composers who also write for film and the use of popular

Classical and Romantic melodies in films from the 1940's. By providing a thorough overview of

the history of film music, Prendergast's journal also includes discussions about stylistic features

uniquely found in the film scores of Aaron Copland, Jerry Goldsmith and David Raskin.

Annette Davison's journal Hollywood Theory, Non-Hollywood Practice, Cinema

Soundtracks in the 1980 's and 1990 's gives an account of the practices of current film

composers. She discusses classical scoring theory as well as new techniques currently in use,









giving examples of how present-day composers write for film. Davison argues for the

importance of music in film, explaining how music relates to the picture using the famous

Russian director Sergei Eisenstein's theories on how picture and music become bound together

through movement. She also examines the use of dissonance in film music, drawing on Eisler's

Composingfor Films (1947) as a source. Eisler discusses, in great detail, how there is no room

for tonality in film music and how this fact has driven film music to atonality.

Two of the books listed above, Michael Schelle's The Score. Interviews wi ith Film

Composers and David Morgan's Knowing The Score. Film Composers Talk About The Art,

Craft, Blood, Sweat, and Tears of Writing For Cinema not only include interviews with

Corigliano, but also many of the top film composers in the country. Schelle and Morgan give

insights into the devices employed in many important film scores, and their theories about

scoring music for film.

Notes


1 Dickson, John Howard. The Union of Poetry and Music in John Corigliano's A Dylan Thomas
Trilogy. Diss. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1985, p. 9.
2 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 8.

3 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1989 revised 1994, p. 6.

4 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 48.

5 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 47.
6 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 48.

7 Interview with John Corigliano at his home. April 30, 2007.
8 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the opera by John
Corigliano and William M. Hoffman. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, p. 39.

9 Bruce, Graham. Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1985, p.
3.









CHAPTER 3
JOHN CORIGLIANO'S CREATIVE OUTPUT AND STYLE

It has been fashionable recently for the artist to be misunderstood. I wish to be
understood. My generation of composers has been taught to write music by the book, and
not by the ear. Now we have schools of music, like we have schools of fish. I can't blame
audiences for feeling that modern music is a dirty word. The establishment that has to be
cracked these days is the establishment of incomprehensibility. The composer has to reach
and make his audience understand him with every means at his disposal.1

-John Corigliano

John Corigliano has been a prolific composer since the 1960's. Before writing the The

Red Violin at the age of 61, he had developed and perfected a number of compositional

techniques in previous works that would find their way into the film score. An understanding of

the compositional devices that he used in previous important works helps to better understand

how The Red Violin fits into his creative oeuvre.

The techniques that Corigliano utilizes has helped him to create a body of work that is

eclectic in style and dramatic in form. As Elliot Schwartz notes, "John Corigliano scores conjoin

functional tonality, lyrical diatonicism, and simple rhythmic structures with twelve-tone

passages, tone clusters, complex rhythmic gestures, and avant-garde performance techniques."2

Corigliano has repeatedly claimed that his music does not have a specific style. Fellow composer

Leonardo Balada pointed out to him the similarities in two different piano works, Fantasia on an

Ostinato (1985) and Etude Fantasy (1976), written many years apart. Corigliano was shocked,

not realizing the resemblances, and admitted that what he created was through subconscious

decisions. John Corigliano's music contains all of the characteristics that Schwartz cites, and, as

this chapter will show, there has been a steady evolution of these techniques and stylistic features

throughout his career.









The Early Years

Before illustrating Corigliano's compositional output, it is necessary to discuss his

musical upbringing. John Paul Corigliano Jr. was born on February 16, 1938 in New York City.

He has been surrounded by music his entire life. In 1942, his father was appointed concertmaster

of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, a position he would hold for more than twenty-three

years. His mother was an accomplished pianist who gave private lessons at home. After his

parents divorced, Corigliano alternated between living with his father in New York City and his

mother in Brooklyn. Throughout Corigliano's youth, his parents advised him not to become a

professional musician. As a member of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra for many years,

his father believed orchestras mistreated contemporary composers, so he discouraged his son

from ever writing music. However, Corigliano would eventually became one the leading

American composers of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries.

Corigliano did not dedicate too much of his time to listening to classical music

throughout his childhood and early teen years. His feelings changed when he first heard Aaron

Copland's Rodeo. He was mesmerized by this music, especially the percussion writing and the

compound rhythms. Corigliano soon became caught up in the Americana music of Copland,

Harris, Bernstein, and Barber. These formative influences found their way into Corigliano's

early compositions, as he would spend his teenage years listening to many recordings of music

by these composers. Americana was an important musical development throughout the United

States in the 19th and 20th Centuries as American folk idioms began to appear in concert music

beginning in the 1800's. The simple beauty of these nationalistic melodies intrigued audiences.

The term Americana, referenced by many people, is used to describe music that encompasses

American folk styles, such as bluegrass, Native American, and country and western. Americana

has taken on a broad meaning because of the many American cultural influences. One of









Corigliano's earliest works, Kaleidoscope, a neoclassic work for two pianos, incorporates

Ragtime and folk songs. According to author Mark Adamo:

The legacy from the Copland school is the distinctly American sound: consonance,
sweetness, melancholy are achieved in a fluid and unpredictable tonal framework.
Changes in meters could occur frequently, but smoothly, with few aural clues that that's
happening.3

Unlike most people of his generation, it is remarkable that Corigliano was never exposed

to the popular music of the 1960s, such as the Beatles and Bob Dylan. He attended Columbia

University to study composition with Otto Luening and at the Manhattan School of Music with

Vittorio Giannini. The impact of his pedigree remains in many of the lyrical melodies that he has

generated throughout his career.

Early Works

Sonata for Violin and Piano (1962)

John Corigliano's first internationally recognized work, Sonata for Violin andPiano, was

dedicated to his parents. This work won first prize at the 1964 Spoleto Festival Competition for

Chamber Music in Italy by a panel of judges that included Samuel Barber, Gian Carlo Menotti,

and Walter Piston. Though his father initially despised the work, Corigliano began to garner

recognition due to its success. Eventually, John Corigliano Sr. would become the work's top

interpreter. His recording of the work, along with his fingerings in the score, is now the standard

interpretation of the sonata. Many of the devices used in The Sonata for Violin and Piano can be

found in his later compositional output. According to a review from musicroom.com, "The work

augurs much to come in the development of his compositional style."4

The Sonata for Violin andPiano is a virtuoso work for both performers. Chris

Younghoon Kim, founder of a new music concert series in Ann Arbor, Michigan, describes the

piece as "a highly lyrical, nostalgic work, which effectively employs atonality, but is nonetheless









rooted in tonality."5 The piece is in four movements and employs traditional forms such as

sonata allegro and rondo. Corigliano has utilized such traditional forms throughout his career,

including using a chaconne as the premise in The Red Violin.

Kim describes the opening movement: "The first movement's feverish violin writing

coupled with a toccata-like piano part is extremely exciting"5. The movement, lasting two and a

half minutes, can be considered an introduction to the sonata.

The Andantino second movement, in the key of D major, is an example of Corigliano's

early ability to create a simple, diatonic melody repeated with an endless array of subtle

variations. This technique of melodic variation is also used in The Red Violin. The theme of the

Andantino is reminiscent of the late Romantic music of Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler.

According to Corigliano:

A gentle Andantino is in a modified sonata form. Three themes seem to intertwine in this
movement, which peaks and peaks again before quieting. A closer look at the second and
third themes shows that they are but variations of the first theme.6

The melody is melancholic in tone and simple in construction. Figure 3-1 shows the

opening three measures of the theme, a simple diatonic figure employing passing and neighbor

tones, centered around the key of D major. The use of simple diatonic melodies is a signature

feature that can be found in many of Corigliano's works throughout his career in works such as

the Pied Piper theme from the PiedPiper Fantasy: Concertofor Flute and Orchestra, the second

movement from Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, and the principal theme from The Red

Violin.










Sonata for Violin and Piano (Andantino)
John Corigliano
with simplicity J= 84

Violin
P V

Figure 3-1. Sonata for Violin and Piano, second movement measures 1-3

Sonata for Violin and Piano By John Corigliano
Copyright 1967 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The third movement, Lento, is a combination of another lyrical theme with harmonies

built upon the interval of the minor second (and its inversion), the primary intervals of the entire

sonata. Many of Corigliano's later works incorporate these intervals into their main motivic and

harmonic materials, such as his Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. The movement concludes

with a cadenza, recapitulating material taken from the movement's primary motivic material.

The final movement, Allegro, is another virtuoso display for both instrumentalists. It is

the culmination of everything that has occurred previously in the work, including thematic,

textural and harmonic ideas. The movement is full of technically demanding and aggressive

rhythms. Corigliano states, "The fourth movement is a rondo with a difference, which takes a

vivid polytriadic theme, an augmented variation on it, and accompanimental figures from

previous movements, and spins them all into a breathless and exuberant polymetric finale."7 The

highly energetic feeling of shifting rhythmic figures also occurs frequently in many of his later

works. This device stems from his admiration and interest in Americana music, especially that of

Leonard Bernstein, under whom he was working on the New York Philharmonic Orchestra's

Young People's Concert Series.









Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1967)

Corigliano's first concerto was written for the instrument he probably knows best.

Similar to the Sonata for Violin andPiano, a key center dominates the entire work. In this

concerto, the key area is Bb, which is blurred with different types of dissonances, including some

sections that are written using the 12-tone technique. The work is in four movements and

contains many stylistic features that are also present in his later compositions, including his three

wind concertos, such as the Classical forms of sonata-allegro, scherzo, and rondo.

The difficult rhythms, changing meters, and polyrhythms found in the Piano Concerto

are a trademark of many of his pieces, including his PiedPiper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and

Orchestra, The Promenade Overture, and Symphony #3 "Circus Maximus." These devices in his

music are attributable to his contact with Leonard Bernstein. Corigliano worked with Bernstein

from 1961 to 1972, producing the Young People 's Concerts by the New York Philharmonic

Orchestra for CBS television. Even though Corigliano usually cites the influences of Copland

and Barber, one can see Bernstein-esque metrical changes and melodies in Corigliano's

Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. According to Marc Adamo, "The Piano Concerto of 1967,

like his orchestra work Tournaments, accelerates and complicates to a striking degree the urban,

rhythmic swagger one associates with the Bernstein ballet and the theatre scores."8 This work

was commissioned by the San Antonio Symphony Orchestra. It premiered on April 7, 1968, with

Hilde Somer as the soloist. Figure 3-2 illustrates an excerpt from the first movement's piano part.

The first measure in Figure 3-2 shows a three-note motivic figure (Bb-B-C), which is

developed throughout the first movement. Corigliano's harmonic language in this example

incorporates the dissonances of the second and the tritone. These intervals are also a vital

ingredient in his Sonata for Violin andPiano. Within these four measures, it is possible to see

Corigliano's harmonic implications and the changing rhythms that are so prominent in the work.










Concerto for Piano and Orchestra
John Corigliano
> >


Piano





Figure 3-2. Concertofor Piano and Orchestra, first movement. Measures 11-14

Concerto for Piano and Orchestra by John Corigliano
Copyright 1971 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Other Early Works

Elegy, Tournaments, and Gazebo Dances are the other important compositions from

Corigliano's early career. All three have become standard repertoire for many orchestras. Their

popularity stems from the fact that these works have the natural simplicity of the Americana

style with memorable melodies that employ clear diatonic tonal centers. Elegy and Tournaments

were both composed in 1965. Gazebo Dances, composed originally in 1973 for two pianos four

hands and later arranged for both concert band and orchestra, is more rhythmically driven than

the other two works.

Elegy

Elegy was Corigliano's first published work for large ensemble. The work began as a trio

for flute, clarinet, and harp. It was originally written for a love scene that Corigliano composed

for an off-Broadway play written by Wallace Gray about Helen of Troy, entitled Helen. The

work uses clear tonal centers with simple harmonies that are in the Americana style. The simple

Bb minor opening, with its two descending perfect fifths, is reminiscent of Copland and

Bernstein. The work has three expressive themes that are developed and interwoven, culminating










in a full orchestral climax. This climax quickly recedes and the work ends with a final statement

of the opening motive.


Elegy
John Corigliano
Adagio J-60
^-h I ;t' --^ h-^ -P ?P ^ f rrf Prr P '6-` 'P.


BC1. I



B C1.2



Cb.


I ) 1I V I 1




p
dlv. arco unis arco
') I e, I I ,! ,! !


Figure 3-3. Elegy measures 7-12

Elegy by John Corigliano
Copyright 1969 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.



Figure 3-3 shows the opening motive, harmonized by the second clarinet, and

accompanied by the contrabasses. This example exemplifies the writing style that Corigliano

employed in his two early orchestral works. In the first measure, the melody is harmonized

exclusively with consonant intervals of thirds and sixths. The dissonances are heard between the

upper voices and the bass. As previously stated, one reason this work has seen such an

acceptance from audiences is the unabashed tonality. The preference for consonance and sparse

dissonance results in mild tension that is absorbed in the principally consonant harmony of the

work. The focus on diatonic consonances in the harmony reflects the influence of the Americana

composers.









Tournaments (1965)

Tournaments is an orchestra work that Corigliano composed without a commission. The

first performance of the work took place fifteen years later by the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra

in 1980, after Corigliano had already achieved fame. Corigliano describes the work in the

program notes of the score as a "contest piece, or a sort of concerto for orchestra."9 Virtuoso

passages for solo instruments and orchestral sections alternate throughout the work. This would

be a technique that he later developed in the third movement of his Concertofor Clarinet and

Orchestra. As in the opening movement of the Concertofor Piano and Orchestra, Tournaments

is largely based on the development of a three-note motive. The work begins with an

introductory fanfare in the brass section based upon this motive. The three-note figure is

expanded and presented in a chorale texture in the middle section of the piece.

Figure 3-4 shows the three-note opening fanfare motive (measure 1-2), the chorale style

theme that is derived from this (measure 8-12), and the scherzo-like section (measure 54-56).

The scherzo is played by the piccolo and double basses with the theme compressed into 16th

notes. Thus the entire work is based on the development of this simple motivic material. The

work combines Copland-like Americana harmony with the rhythmic energy of Bernstein's show

tunes. The composition is dedicated to Phillip Ramey who conducted the work's premiere.

During a rehearsal for the piece, Corigliano jokingly put the name Aaron Bernstein in place of

his own. Ramey and Corigliano both understood how much of an influence these composers had

on his early development as a composer.
















2 C Tpts.






Ob.






Pice.




D.B.


Tournaments
John Corigliano
Intrnductory Fanfare


f



Chlrale


mif



Scherzo
h 0/



divisi


/


Figure 3-4. Tournaments (Introduction measures 1-2 -Chorale measures 8-12 -Scherzo measures
54-56)

Tournaments by John Corigliano
Copyright 1980 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Gazebo Dances (1973)

Gazebo Dances is a four-movement piece for two pianos four hands that playfully depicts

scenes from rural America's town squares. The movements were written to be fun for the

performers and audience alike. Each movement is dedicated to a different pianist friend of the

composer. The first movement is what Corigliano calls an "Overture in the Rossini style." This is

one of the first pieces Corigliano composed that employs an older musical language. Corigliano

would eventually quote or use many stylistic devices from the Classical and Romantic periods.

The second movement is a Waltz, while the third movement, Adagio, contains long melodic

phrases. The final movement, Tarantella, was later revised and used as the second movement of











his Symphony No. 1. Figure 3-5, the opening measures of the third movement, again showcases


Corigliano's penchant for composing tonal melodies. The work begins with a Bb major triad in


Piano 2 while Piano 1 outlines a simple diatonic melody.


Gazebo Dances (Adagio)


John Corigliano


Adagio = 60


Piano 1








Piano 2


Pno. 1








Pno. 2


rh <


I 1


----- +


Figure 3-5. Gazebo Dances, third movement "Adagio" measures 1-5

Gazebo Dances by John Corigliano
Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.









Creations (1972)

Corigliano first experimented with indeterminacy in his 1972 work Creations. This work

was commissioned for a television program that told the story of Genesis. Though the television

project never aired, Corigliano later published the music under the present title including a part

for narrator. It took more than twenty years from its initial conception for Creations to be

performed. Within the work, Corigliano steers away from conventional notation in favor of

aleatoric notation resulting in unique sonorities and textures. This approach would later be used

in his Altered States film score. According to reviewer Anthony Tommasini:

Mr. Corigliano's richly orchestrated music is cinematic, with its pulseless shimmering,
ominous swellings and Hitchcockian frenzy. The dawn of time is evoked in quiet,
wheezy woodwinds. When God creates the fowl of the air, the clarinets squawk and the
flutes twitter. The day of rest is passed with wistful Coplandesque harmonies.10

Summary of Early Works

John Corigliano's early works contain lyrical melodies contrasted with sharp rhythms and

shocking dissonant harmonies. Compositional techniques first appear in this early period which

presage approaches used throughout his career, including in The Red Violin. At times

Corigliano's music in his early career is clearly tonal, contrasted at other points with an atonal

idiom. As Corigliano states, "this period is a tense, histrionic outgrowth of the clean American

sound of Barber, Copland, Harris and William Schuman, rather than a descendant of the highly

chromatic, super-Romantic German School."11 Corigliano favored the Americana style in his

youth, and always disliked the highly chromatic Romanticism of Richard Wagner and Richard

Strauss.

Architectural Structure

John Corigliano's philosophy of composing changed forever around the year 1975.

During his early years, along with many other composers of the time, such as Barber and









Bernstein, he concentrated on pitch content and motivic development. However, Corigliano had

a revelation that would change his entire thought process and concept of composing. In a

conversation with Yale University historian Eve Grimes, Corigliano describes this new

approach:

The Oboe Concerto, I think, is the piece that finally pushed me into another world of
composing. From then on I've composed using this method of writing. It's not a method;
it's just really making the big decisions first instead of the little ones. By that, I mean not
composing by extending an interval or a melody into a piece-which is how many people
do it, including Copland, who writes wonderful music. But to me the idea of the bigger
shape being governed by the smaller idea just seems backwards. I finally came to realize
that the most important thing about a piece of music ... is the shape, what a piece is from
beginning to end.12

John Corigliano's compositional output from this point forward would always involve

this structural approach. He would first think of the shape of the work, including each

movement's contour, style, and flow. Inserting the pitches would be the last step in his

compositional process. Corigliano would draw graphs that show what features would be in the

music, including the duration, shape, and dynamic levels. This graphing technique has been used

in each of his works since 1975. In an interview with the author, Corigliano claims he was not

inspired by other composers to begin each work with the architectural structure. He contends that

it was a natural development. These graphs, kept in a private collection, were not made available

to the author. However, Corigliano did display the graphs from his Concertofor Clarinet and

Orchestra and Symphony #3 "Circus Maximus" at two different lectures at which this author was

present.

The graph acts as a compositional tool, governing the work's content. It allows

Corigliano to conceptualize the form of the music before writing down any music. The process

also allows for the incorporation of the theatrics that are a part of many of this period's works,

including the Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra and the Pied Piper Fantasy: Concertofor









Flute and Orchestra. Macro-compositional decisions are all determined at the initial conception

and graphing stage. According to Mary Lou Humphrey, "He has approached each new work as a

unique world defined by specific compositional problems and shaped by the technical abilities

and personalities of the performers."13 Corigliano credits the success of his compositions to the

use of this procedure. He feels a work's overall structure is the most important aspect of a

composition. This technique is not used by many of today's composers, and Corigliano feels that

is why many new works are misunderstood and incoherent to the general public. Even though

Corigliano's music does not consist of a simple tonal language, and he uses many advanced

techniques and a wide array of compositional devices in his compositions, his architectural

process supplies his compositions with a clear and coherent structure. Through the use of

architectural structure, Corigliano's earlier, more traditional works evolved into a style that is

freer, more eclectic, and more dramatic.

Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (1975)

Corigliano quickly rose to the top of the profession in the 1970s. The first work that

earned him national attention was his most daring to date, the Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra.

The world premiere of the Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra took place at Carnegie Hall in New

York City with Bert Lucarelli as the soloist and Kazuyoshi Akiyama conducting the American

Composers Orchestra. Corigliano's initial composition process for the piece focused on

highlighting the characteristic timbral traits of the oboe. As Adamo notes, "he wanted a piece

precisely drawn from the unique capabilities of both the instrument and its soloist."14

The first movement, entitled "Tuning Game," begins with the soloist sustaining the pitch

"A" while the other sections of the orchestra "tune" to that note. The pitch center of the entire

movement is "A." The opening material is written ad lib as the instruments improvise warm-up

techniques. Similar improvisations can be found in many of his later works, including his









Symphony No. 1, and a section from the score to The Red Violin. Corigliano then switches to the

use of normal notation for the remainder of the movement. After tuning the orchestra, the soloist

begins to mistune the different groups, adding a comical twist to the old tradition of orchestral

tuning. During this playful section, the soloist begins to display his virtuoso skills, including

leaps from the lowest pitch, Bb3, to the higher ranges of the instrument. A secondary scalar

motive is then presented, continuing the parody rhetoric of the piece by mocking orchestral

musicians' use of scales to warm up. In the middle section of the movement, Corigliano uses a

dance theme with many meter changes. The oboe presents contrasting material against the

orchestra's motivic material. This energetic display is a recurring stylistic feature that is found in

many of his pieces. Planned during the design of the architectural structure, the climax of the

movement occurs when the soloist sustains a high A6. The last thirteen measures are a short

codetta where the oboe plays around the pitch "A," but does not reach the destination "A" until

the second to last measure.

In the second movement, entitled "Song," Corigliano capitalizes on the ability of the

oboe to play sustained notes by writing melodic lines that last for many measures. For example,

with a tempo of quarter note = 60, Corigliano has the oboe play one phrase that lasts for ten

measures, as illustrated in Figure 3-6. The lyrical melodies of this movement hearken back to the

lyricism of his early style. Romantic in character, these lengthy melodic phrases can also be in

found in Corigliano's The Red Violin (shown below in the discussion of the Frederick Pope

sequence).












con rubato J= 60
A -t


Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (Song)
John Corigliano
tie ~e *- **- tte te----------. "


Figure 3-6. Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, second movement, "Song," measures 16-25

Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano
Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The movement "Song" contains an understated climax, with a dynamic level not

exceeding mezzo-piano. Such restraint can also be found in later works, including the second

movement of his Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra. Within "Song", Corigliano consistently

establishes new key centers whenever a new statement of the theme occurs, whether in the

accompaniment or in the solo oboe. This technique is found in other works, including the "Pied

Piper Theme" from the Pied Piper Fantasy, Concertofor Flute and Orchestra.

The third movement, "Scherzo," begins with afortissimo gesture in a Presto tempo that

suddenly interrupts the work's lyrical second movement. This moment is orchestrated for tom

toms, bells, harp, and piano. Unlike many symphonic scherzo movements, Corigliano did not use

any woodwinds in the movement except for the soloist. This unique arrangement is a stylistic

trait he has used throughout his career, including writing for strings only in the second movement

of the Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, and writing the complete film score to The Red

Violin for a string ensemble. A stylistic feature first employed in the "Scherzo" and used in many

of his later compositions includes his notation using headless stems. His adoption of these

aleatoric devices is another stylistic appropriation, here drawn from composers such as


Oboe


,? r ,- ,i r ri ,^ fl'" ^f, I
~tl~I~FCI~WLLL'C9RigC

n; 4









Penderecki and Ligeti. Corigliano writes out the first few pitches, and then, using headless stems,

asks the performers to improvise on these pitches with the given rhythm. He gives the players

specific guidelines to follow, thus constraining the randomness. Corigliano describes the attack,

dynamics, and duration of the ad lib passages. He does not allow the performers complete

freedom, unlike other composers who utilize such aleatoric devices. This technique is utilized in

many of his concert pieces, as well as in the film scores for Altered States and The Red Violin.

The energy and sonorities of "Scherzo's" opening are similar to those in Bernstein's West

Side Story and Candide. As with many of Corigliano's works, seconds, sevenths and ninths are

primary intervals in his harmonic and melodic language. The movement's tonality is centered

around the lowest note on the oboe, Bb3. Robert Howe, in his article about the Concertofor Oboe

and Orchestra, noted that Corigliano used an extensive amount of Bb3s; totaling seventy-two

appearances.1 Corigliano writes quick leaps to the next octave, B4. He then embellishes this

figure with the pitch D, which then returns to the B natural. Corigliano created this movement

using a motive based on a collection of three notes, seen before in the Concertofor Piano and

Orchestra and Tournaments. The movement follows a simple ternary form. The contrasting

section is slow and lyrical, with an atmospheric sound created through the use of the celesta,

harp, and vibraphone. Very soft tom-toms (ppp) are used effectively to connect the two

contrasting moods. The main theme in this section is an ascending and descending 16th note

passage, shown in Figure 3-7. The original material returns, almost completely verbatim, except

for minor embellishments toward the conclusion of the movement.










Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (Scherzo)
John Corigliano
Andantino J = 132



Orch.





Figure 3-7. Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, third movement, "Scherzo," measures 33-36

Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano
Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The fourth movement, "Aria," begins with a chorale-style opening scored for strings alone.

Corigliano uses many sharp dissonances against diatonic intervals in his sonorities. Figure 3-8

illustrates how Corigliano expands his harmonic language from a simple three-note pitch set.

Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (Aria)
John Corigliano
Adagio J= 72



Orch. >





Figure 3-8. Oboe Concerto fourth movement, "Aria," measures 1-6

Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano
Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

In the lower voices in the first measure, Corigliano includes dissonances, employing an

augmented octave, a major seventh, and a tritone in three successive chords. Within the upper

voices, the consonances of sixths and a major third are used. The first two chords, (Eb-E-G & G-









Ab-B) are the same pitch set: [014]. The final sonority in the opening measure could be labeled a

nonfunctional major seventh chord (Db-A-D-F#). Figure 3-8 shows Corigliano's intricate

harmonic vocabulary. He frequently combines a sonorous interval with an added dissonant note

in the chord. This harmonic language is also illustrated in such works as the Concertofor

Clarinet and Orchestra, Symphony No. 1 and String Quartet. Within Figure 3-8, dissonances are

found on every beat of the first six measures, except the last two beats of measure six. It is

interesting to compare the dramatic changes in Corigliano's harmonic vocabulary in the

Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra with a work from his earlier period, such as Elegy.

The movement's cadenza begins in the darkest and loudest range of the oboe, slowly

ascending to the E6 with a dynamic level of piano. Corigliano uses the instrument's dynamic

envelope effectively, with its naturally louder tones in the lower register and its softer notes

above the staff

The final movement is titled "Rheita Dance." This movement was inspired by a trip to the

southwest Moroccan city of Marrakech in 1966. During this visit, Corigliano saw a man

serenading a cobra with a wooden instrument called a Raita, or Ghaytah. To mimic this sound,

Corigliano requires the oboist to play without using their lips and tongue against the reed,

creating an out-of-tune pitch and a decidedly different color from that of the traditional Western

oboe. Within this movement, Corigliano writes a fast, rhythmically driven dance with meter

changes occurring at almost every measure. The melody uses minor seconds, thirds, and

sevenths, along with augmented seconds and fourths to create a Middle-Eastern feel. Corigliano

described the movement as "an elegant 'orientale,' a satire of Orientalisms-via-Paris."16 This

movement also invites comparisons to Bernstein's Overture to Candide because of the frequent

mixed-meters and the high trumpets stating the main motivic material.









The Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra is only the first piece to be influenced by

Corigliano's visits to the Middle East. The last scene of the first act from his opera The Ghosts of

Versailles (1991) takes place in a Turkish embassy. There, an entire aria is sung with pitch

embellishments similar to those found in the Oboe Concerto. A third instance is found in his

String Quartet (1995), later revised and expanded to become his Symphony No.2 for string

orchestra. The second movement of this work suggests the sounds of the Middle East, as he was

influenced by the sound of the men chanting prayers. As more men sang different prayers

simultaneously, a collage of melodic lines was heard. The Middle Eastern influences in his music

throughout his career helped Corigliano compose the Gypsy cue for the film The Red Violin.

Some common characteristics are evident, including intervallic relationships (augmented

seconds) and meter changes.

During the writing of the Oboe Concerto a concept emerged; Corigliano began to design

the entire structure of the work at its conception, what he calls the "architectural structure." The

material and design of the entire Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra is inspired by the particular

abilities of the oboe itself, and the resulting piece is more dramatic and more varied than

anything the composer had written before.

Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977)

The Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra was the work that put Corigliano into the rare

category of an American celebrity composer. The three movement Concertofor Clarinet and

Orchestra was written for and dedicated to the New York Philharmonic Orchestra's principle

clarinetist, Stanley Drucker. Corigliano knew Drucker personally, studying with him in his

youth, and he wanted to highlight Drucker's playing style and virtuosity. It was Corigliano's

father who recommended Drucker for his position with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, a

post he has held since 1960. In addition to his relationship with Drucker, Corigliano also was









familiar with other members of the orchestra. Leonard Bernstein conducted the critically

acclaimed premiere. Not since Copland's Clarinet Concerto in 1947 has an American clarinet

concerto garnered so much recognition.

"Cadenzas" is the title of the opening movement, which incorporates two extensive

cadenzas. The work begins with the soloist playing quick and technically demanding passages

starting in the lowest register of the clarinet. This opening gesture contains the thematic material

for the entire movement. The principle harmonic content of the movement comes from the

primary chord from the opening clarinet cadenza, shown in Figure 3-9.

Clarinet Concerto "Cadenza" Primary Chord






Figure 3-9. Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, first movement, principal chord

This chord is also sustained under the rapid clarinet passages at the end of the movement.

The chord's intervallic content exemplifies how Corigliano uses spacing to explore divergent

potentialities of pitch groupings. When the pitches are placed in their prime form, the following

set is derived: (D-Eb-E-A). Corigliano creates a small, four-note cell consisting of the perfect

fourth and a group of three consecutive minor seconds. However, the voicing of the yields two

perfect fifths. The dissonance lies in the bottom pitch Eb, which is heard prominently because of

its position in the chord.

The primary pitch for the first movement is Bb. The movement is broken into three

sections: the opening cadenza, the development, which Corigliano labels the Interlude, and the

second cadenza. After the fast opening cadenza, the tempo and dynamic levels abruptly

decrease. What follows is a slower section, played by the bassoons, contrabassoons, and bass










clarinet. After this section, the clarinet restates and develops the thematic material from its initial

cadenza. The orchestral texture grows and the tempo accelerates with sweeping glissandi from

the soloist, building to the final cadenza. Imitation occurs in the lower winds and trombones. The

climax of the final cadenza consists of the clarinet playing feverishly over the principle chord

sustained in the strings. The principle chord in Figure 3-9 acts as the harmonic focus of the

movement, rather than as a traditional tonic chord.




Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (Elegy)
John Corigiano
Adagio 60 Bb is introduced in b minor passage

Violin
S p V -1 cadence


Violin II -
p cb rinor:


Figure 3-10. Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra, second movement, measures 1-9

Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra by John Corigliano
Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The second movement, "Elegy," is a haunting and beautiful creation that Corigliano

dedicates to the memory of his father, with interaction between the soloist and concertmaster.

For this movement, Corigliano uses an accompaniment of strings alone. Corigliano creates a bi-

tonal harmonic field, with the strings playing the melodic material in B minor, while the clarinet

solo is in B flat major. In the opening of the movement, the first violins begin the B minor theme.

However, toward the end of their phrase the violins introduce the pitch Bb before a clear

dominant to tonic cadence in B minor. Rather than functioning as an enharmonically spelled

leading tone, this Bb foreshadows the solo clarinet's key center. The opening, measures 1-9, is









shown in Figure 3-10. Throughout the development of the introduction, Corigliano implies

tonalities of E flat minor and C minor

When the soloist enters, at first almost completely inaudibly, a three-note motive (Bb-B-

C#) is introduced that stems from the opening material. Corigliano's use of bitonality obstructs

the tonal centers throughout the movement. As mentioned earlier in the discussion of the

Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra, no crescendo to a climax occurs within the slow movement,

as everything remains piano. This anticlimactic stasis adds tension, as the entire movement does

not reach an ascending peak, forcing the listener to wait until the last movement for any kind of

release.

The final movement of the work, "Antiphonal Toccata," was perhaps Corigliano's most

ambitious composition to date. "Antiphonal" (two or more groups performing alternate sections)

refers to Corigliano's placement of players (four horns, two trumpets and two clarinets) around

the perimeter of the concert hall. Corigliano does not use these extra players in the first two

movements, saving them for the finale. He also strategically places two timpani players on

opposite sides of the main stage to heighten the antiphonal effect. Corigliano was influenced by

the Renaissance composer Giovanni Gabrieli (1558-1613) for the third movement, who had at

his disposal separate ensembles on different sides of the Basilica San Marco in Venice, Italy,

creating an antiphonal spatial effect for the listeners below.

This theatrical, spatial technique in the final movement is the first instance where

Corigliano used such a dramatic arrangement of players. Mary Lou Humphrey states:

The idea of drawing upon the belief that hearing a live performance in a concert hall
should remain a special experience, different from that of listening to a record at home, is
something Corigliano believes strongly in.17

Many elements of the work support this statement, including the extreme virtuosity for

the soloist and the orchestra, the theatrics, and the large contrast between movements. The









energy and rhythm of the outer movements are contrasted with the lyrical melodies of the second

movement. According to critic Hubert Cutlot:

Corigliano's Clarinet Concerto may be one of his most popular works. Corigliano's music
is often overtly and deliberately eclectic, except when the composer manages to keep his
muse under control, as he brilliantly does in his Symphony #2 and the Clarinet Concerto.
Corigliano's sincerity and will to communicate as directly as possible are never in doubt,
which is why audiences generally react with enthusiasm to performances.18

Corigliano was well aware, given the distances from the back of the hall to the front, that

the two ensembles would not be synchronized. So he devised a plan to accommodate this

situation. Corigliano elaborates:

The relatively slow speed of sound can mean up to a one-second delay between the
sounding of the tone and its perception at a distance in the concert hall, making precisely
synchronized playing impossible. The solution, I found, was to write music that
specifically should not be synchronized.19

Corigliano, therefore, wrote small musical patterns for the antiphonal instruments placed around

the hall to play unsynchronized.

Corigliano's "Antiphonal Toccata" is based on a 12-tone row derived from Gabrieli's

work Sonata Pian e Forte, written in 1597. Corigliano split the 12-tone row into two sonorities

for the movement. After Corigliano quotes a segment of Gabrieli's work, he creates a repetitive,

pulsating chord progression from the 12-tone row, which continues to grow throughout the

movement until the final climax. An earlier example of musical quotation occurred in

Corigliano's Kaleidoscope, for two pianos, Quotation is a technique that has remained in

Corigliano's compositional style, and reached its peak in his poly-stylistic opera The Ghosts of

Versailles. Through the use of this and numerous other compositional devices, he generates an

amazing amount of energy in the closing movement. Some other techniques that are employed

include alternating time signatures, glissandi,fortissimo percussion hits, alternating passages

between the left and right timpani, and virtuosic clarinet writing.









By placing instruments around the hall, Corigliano had discovered a technique that he

would later employ in his Promenade Overture, Symphony No. 1, and Symphony No. 3.

Antiphony was also used in the recording of The Red Violin score at Abbey Road recording

studio in London, England, where he used two large string orchestras and had them recorded

separately before mixing them together. (Corigliano was well aware of microphone placement

techniques due to his twelve years at CBS television.)

A marked difference exists between Corigilano's music written before the Concertofor

Clarinet and Orchestra and every composition thereafter. Corigliano's planning decisions

(architectural structure) helped him to establish the specifics of the Concertofor Clarinet and

Orchestra. The first movement features the virtuosic abilities of Stanley Drucker, while the

second acts as a homage to Corigliano's father. The third is a celebratory movement, where

Corigliano features players of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra with soloistic passages.

This is also the first work by Corigliano to utilize a surround-sound effect by strategically

placing instruments around the perimeter of the concert hall.

Altered States (1980)

Director Ken Russell attended a concert in Los Angeles that included Corigliano's

Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra on the program. Impressed by the work, he asked the

composer to score the music to his most recent film Altered States. Corigliano used this

commission as an opportunity to channel his theatrical and architectural concerns into a new

medium. Many techniques he developed as a response to this challenge were then incorporated

into his subsequent concert pieces.

The film's plot centers around a scientist who tests the physiological limits of

hallucinatory drugs. Actor John Hurt's critically acclaimed performance of this "mad" scientist

combined with the plot's unusual turn of events created a uniquely dramatic cinema experience.









Corigliano had only composed commercial music for television prior to Altered States. His

interest in writing the score to his first film was heightened because of the long ten to twelve

minute hallucination sequences sans paroles for which Russell wanted music. Russell gave

Corigliano an open mandate in composing the scenes, encouraging him to "go as far as [he]

wanted" with the music.20 This approach, which diverged from the customary collaborative

relationship between director and composer, resulted in a score that was more liberal in its use of

extended techniques than most other Hollywood productions. Film composers rarely allow

musicians to improvise within a film score. Many of the studio musicians were not used to

playing this style of music, but were instead familiar with a more tuneful approach used by

mainstream film composers. Christopher Keene, conductor of the Altered States recording,

stated:

Generally, composers in Hollywood achieve complicated effects in a simple way; they
write music to be easy to play and easy to conduct, but yet sounds complicated. John's
case is quite the opposite. He made his score just as complex, abstruse and diffuse as he
possibly could. Since I have conducted many of his works I was familiar with those
techniques. However, many of the studio musicians had never seen some of these
techniques, either notational or acoustical, so there was a great deal of explanation and
experimentation that had to go on in the course of the recording sessions.21

The film's hallucinatory sequences are filled with strange lighting effects and rapid

changes in editing. Corigliano wanted to explore musical analogs to these effects in his musical

score, aiming to emulate the unusual and horrifying images of the film. Corigliano elaborated,

"What I wanted was to get a feeling of tension, disorientation, and hallucinatory wildness."22

Corigliano composed for a large orchestra, including an extended percussion battery, two pianos

that were tuned a quartertone apart from each other, and a Hammond organ. The size of the

project ran contrary to the desires of the producers, who felt that they could economize by

commissioning an electroacoustic composer to write a score that did not require performers.

Corigliano was reticent to accept this aesthetic, stating:









Electronic music in film is a cliche by now: it's been used too much. It is really a much
less exciting sound than an entire orchestra making the same sonorities. One of the things
Ken Russell wanted me to do was experiment-which is what I did, and I produced new
sounds that were done for orchestra-certainly in Hollywood-for the first time.23

Corigliano was under severe time constraints when composing the score. Russell needed

the completed score within six weeks. For such a complicated work, he could not afford to

compose and orchestrate a full-length conventional composition in the time allotted. Because of

the time constraints, Corigliano invented new notational devices. These notations are primarily

short hand for specific aleatoric techniques that are still in use today in his concert works. A

small section of The Red Violin also uses such devices in the score. Corigliano invented a

technique for the orchestra that he calls "motion sonorities." Some of these extended techniques

are explained in Michael Schelle's The Score: Interviews n ith Film Composers. The following

quote was extracted from Mark Adamo's Monograph.

I wrote the words "motion sonority" at the top of the Altered States score. And I said to
myself, I am going to develop symbols that will create extreme action in the players, but
will involve a single sound with simple notation that generates a lot of motion -just like a
trill or a tremolo. ... And I invented the symbol of the box with two notes in it playing in
between the notes, as fast as possible, which, for multiple instruments, gives you a
tremendous, boiling cluster of sound. And then the jagged line, like two bolts of lightning,
almost like the SS sign, meaning an irregular tremolo, like Morse code, instead of two
lines, meaning a sixteenth-note semiquaverr) tremolo, or three lines, meaning a measure
tremolo. So I could write a single note with a time value and a single symbol where
Penderecki would write out little motives with something like forty notes.24

These original techniques were also incorporated into his concert works, beginning with

the second movement, "The Battle of the Rats", from the PiedPiper Fantasy, Concertofor Flute

and Orchestra, which he had started to compose before the Altered States score. Some of these

techniques are also included in his score to Revolution. Interestingly, Corigliano did not extend

his tendency towards lyricism into the aleatoric domain, instead focusing on timbre as the

primary discursive parameter of Altered States. Continuing his exploration of new devices and

techniques, Corigliano continued with this piece the trend toward increasingly complex and









adventurous compositions. Corigliano was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original

Film Score in 1980. Surprisingly, neither this work nor the acclaimed score to John Williams's

The Empire Strikes Back received the award. The winner went to the original soundtrack to the

rock musical Fame. This would be the last year at the Oscars for such a controversy, as the

following spring the Academy separated film music into two categories: "Best Original Score"

and "Best Original Song in a Featured Film."

Corigliano arranged a three-movement concert work from the film score titled Three

Hallucinations for orchestra (which was later used as the music for a ballet). The outer

movements, "Sacrifice" and "Ritual," were extracted intact from the film. The inner movement,

"Hymn," based on a shorter cue, was developed and extended for the suite. Corigliano uses a

quotation from the popular hymn "Rock of Ages." Sometimes he utilizes a direct quotation;

other times he manipulates it so that the theme is blended in with a unique harmony comprised of

two motion sonorities. Daniel May elaborates upon the development of these sonorities:

In the second movement "Hymn," the central musical idea, continuing from the previous
movement, is the "Rock of Ages" hymn. The hymn melody fades in and out, alternating
literal, traditional fragments with very obscure and vague allusions of the hymn. The
hymn is accompanied by two motion sonorities. The first motion sonority is a plagal
cadence where the two chords are blurred together as a polychord. The second motion
sonority is a sustained quartertone oscillation that wafts in and out of the orchestral
texture. This oscillating background sonority serves to blur the tonal center altogether.25

Corigliano was not the first concert composer from the 20th Century to employ Christian hymns

in his concert music, and he began to employ quotations from a variety of sources in many of his

works. As previously mentioned, this technique manifests itself most ubiquitously in The Ghosts

of Versailles.

In Altered States, the listener is not able to clearly identify the cadences because of the

obscurity created by the presentation of inverted extended tertian harmonies. Corigliano also

blurs the sonorities by moving in between tonalities. This device is an extension of his









predilection for taking consonant pitches and rearranging them. A similar technique is found in

the third movement of his Symphony No. with the chaconne progression and the "Primary

Chord" from the first movement "Cadenza" of the Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra.

Corigliano's use of innovative notational devices, a wide array of extended techniques,

and a massive orchestra, made the Altered States score a milestone in film music.

The Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1981)

Corigliano's third woodwind concerto was written for and dedicated to the famous flutist

Sir James Galway. As mentioned previously, work on this concerto commenced before Altered

States. By the time Corigliano started work on Altered States he had already completed the first

movement of the flute concerto. After completion of the film score, Corigliano adopted the

aleatoric techniques he developed for Altered States, especially in the second movement, "Battle

of the Rats."

The Pied Piper Fantasy was successful because of the effectiveness of Corigliano's flute

and orchestra writing coupled with various theatrical components. This seven-movement

concerto is based upon The PiedPiper ofHamelin, the famous 1888 poem by Robert Browning.

Corigliano extracted events depicted or suggested in the poem to create a programmatic work. In

the following review from The New York Times, Jeremy Eichler discusses Corigliano's thematic

material portraying the sounds of the pesky rats:

Who knew a symphony orchestra could sound so frighteningly realistic in depicting a
horrific rat invasion? Mr. Corigliano did, apparently, as the composer used extended
techniques in the strings and woodwinds to conjure the high-pitched squeaks and the
sounds of incessant scurrying over dark sustained chords in the bass.26

The introduction by the orchestra depicts night turning into dawn, as mentioned in the

program notes from the score. This begins with an opening piano chord, D-Eb-A-Bb-B, which is

similar in construction to the opening "Cadenza chord" of the Concertofor Clarinet and









Orchestra. Repeated high "E's" with harmonics in the violins follow the opening chord with

harps tuned in quartertones and low brass sustaining pedal tones. This technique is similar to that

used in Altered States. Corigliano's uniqueness lies in the incorporation of these now familiar

techniques into a traditional narrative structure, which had been mostly abandoned after the

second war. According to Marc Adamo, "Sunrise is portrayed by a wash of ghostly instrumental

effects that blossom into a delirious burst of orchestral light and color."27 The flutist walks on

stage, fully costumed as the Pied Piper. The opening material in the flute is a slow, descending

line that alternates between falling half and whole steps. The "Pied Piper Song" is then

introduced, accompanied by simple sustained chords. Corigliano implies different harmonies

within the pitch collection of a D Mixolydian song. Figure 3-11 shows the opening of the "Pied

Piper Song." This simple theme is reminiscent of his early works, such as Elegy and the

Andantino from the Sonata for Violin andPiano, which utilize straightforward and effortless

diatonic melodies. Clark Rundell, who is the director of contemporary music at the Royal

Northern College of Music in England, comments on Corigliano's talent for composing beautiful

melodies:

Yet far from his melodies being romantic, post-Straussian outpourings, Corigliano seems
able to spin the most memorable tunes from the most simple of diatonic material. These
tunes abound in charm, subtlety and elegance and, above all, they are simple, whistleable,
but never banal. There is a quality about the bouncing 6/8 or 12/8 allegro tunes and the
gentle twisting lines of the ballads that is at once universal and unmistakably American,
evoking memories of summer concerts in the park-heat-hazed and carefree.28












The Pied Piper's Song
John Corigliano

--- f rI *t


= 92
/ U


Flute






Piano







Fl.






Pno.


P 3






EI pp


D Mixolydian








G W


Figure 3-11. Concertofor Flute and Orchestra, "Pied Piper's Song," Rehearsal #4

Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (Pied Piper Fantasy) by John Corigliano
Copyright 1982 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The movement ends as it had started, with the reiteration of the eerie, haunting sonic

images created by the orchestra.

The second movement, "Rats," acts as a prelude for the third movement, "Battle of the

Rats," where the soloist and orchestra are entwined in a bitter display of virtuosity. In the third

movement, Corigliano employs many extended techniques for the orchestra by using graphic

notation. These include instructing the strings to play dietro ilponticello, prolonged glissandi,

and staccato horn flourishes. Corigliano uses many extended techniques to create the sounds of


67


r t'r


I II


-7










the rats, such as rattling and thumping by the performers to suggest scurrying. The thematic

material of this movement is based upon the motion sonorities of the second movement.

The fourth movement, "War Cadenza," begins with a long and difficult passage for the

solo flute. Quick scalar passages combined with flutter tonguing constitute the majority of the

solo flute writing of this movement. The orchestra then states fragments of material, created with

aleatoric notation, which occurs again later in the movement.

The fifth movement, "The Piper's Victory," consists mainly of a recapitulation of the

"Piper's Song" material.



The Burgher's Chorale
John Corigliano
Fis Sus.-
I ,L A. J r -


v ------------------ 66

C is App.


Bb: I 19 V7V 1 ii7VI IV (no 3rd)/VI VI (I) (Stacked 5ths) I (bVll) V7!ii


iF sSiu


4A.- 7 j-


9) r (X) 3 1
iiadd6 (1) IV V7/vi VI ii7 V7/V I (add 6)


Figure 3-12. Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, fourth movement, measures 1-10

Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (Pied Piper Fantasy) by John Corigliano
Copyright 1982 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The sixth movement, "The Burgher's Chorale," is an example of Corigliano's ability to

create music that approximates an historic musical style. Corigliano would later use this device









in The Ghosts of Versailles, the Concertofor Guitar and Orchestra, and as the principle idea in

The Red Violin. His musical style in the sixth movement leans in the direction of Renaissance

music by using perfect intervals, instruments such as the horn and oboe that have Renaissance

antecedents, suspensions, simple rhythms, retrogressions, and sounds similar to their modern

counterparts.

Figure 3-12 shows the opening measures of "Burgher's Chorale," a movement based on

non-functional triadic chords using rhythms constructed of quarter and eighth notes. The opening

four measures are simple in their construction: However, marked in the score with (X),

Corigliano employs retrogressions, such as a secondary dominant that does not move where it

should. The repetitive low Bb sonorities, (drums, horns, and low winds) emphasize the tonic. In

the fourth measure, Corigliano creates a bi-tonal conflict with a Bb-F dyad beneath a G major

triad. Corigliano changes the harmonic content to again distort the movement's home key with

the appearance of a quintal harmony, where the lowered seventh scale degree suggests the

mixolydian mode. The distorted modality of this excerpt is accomplished with the use of non-

harmonic tones, illustrating Corigliano's ability to alter a characteristic borrowed from the

Renaissance. Corigliano does not write a full-blown copy of Renaissance music. He employs

frequent tonicizations of remote harmonies (G and D major), inclusion of non-triadic sonorities

(m.4, beat 4; m.6, beat 1), polytonality (m4), parallel fifths, and meter changes.

The final movement begins with an F major seventh and an Eb major seventh, which is a

tertian extension of the F. This section combines thematic material from previous movements. In

his portrayal of the Piper, the flutist attempts to lure the children away from their homes. The

work ends theatrically by introducing a group of children playing flutes, piccolos, tin whistles,

and drums. The soloist first leads them all onto the stage and then they depart off stage and









around the hall before exiting. In the score, Corigliano suggests that children may also join in

from the audience. The ending includes a number of different rhythmic and tempi elements

occurring simultaneously. Mark Adamo illustrates:

The orchestra concludes with the opening motivic material from the first movement
creating a grand display of emotion that has been released, similar to the slow movements
of the clarinet and oboe concertos by means of Corigliano's architectural planning.29

Corigliano uses a variety of means to tell the story, including special devices for the

soloist and orchestra, coupled with special theatrical lighting and costumes. Again, Corigliano's

work proceeds from a conceptual framework incorporating the Pied Piper poem into his

architectural structure. Alluding to pre-existing musical styles and incorporating a variety of

textural and theatrical effects, he creates a work in which all the material is governed by his

musical architecture.

The Shorter Works

After composing three extensive concertos and the Altered States film score, Corigliano

wrote a few noteworthy smaller works. Even though the length and scope of the orchestration

changed, he continued to utilize his new compositional devices, such as the motion sonorities,

graphic and box notation, and the pre-compositional planning of the "architectural structure."

The Promenade Overture (1981)

The Promenade Overture is an eight-and-a-half-minute work commissioned for the 100th

Anniversary of the Boston Pops Orchestra. John Williams premiered the work at Symphony Hall

in Boston on July 10, 1981. Corigliano's inspiration for this work was a performance of Haydn's

Farewell Symphony, a work that is often used at the conclusion of a concert program, as all the

members of the orchestra walk off the stage one by one during the last movement. The piece

ends with only two violins left on the stage. Since Corigliano wanted to write an overture, he









utilized the opposite idea as the premise for this work: players walking onto the stage rather than

leaving it.

The opening motive consists of the last five measures of Haydn's Farewell Symphony

played backwards. This idea, labeled in this study as the fanfare theme, is first stated in the

trumpets. The work has a neo-classical sound every time this opening gesture is presented. After

the trumpets present this fanfare theme, Corigliano introduces instruments from across the entire

timbral range of the orchestra, starting with the piccolo and ending with the tuba. He has the

players walk on the stage one by one, playing manipulated fragments.

This work is another example of Corigliano employing historical styles and quotations.

He combines elements of these past styles and quotations with his own harmonic vocabulary and

thematic material. In addition to the Haydn fragments, Corigliano uses contemporary techniques,

usually appearing in the strings, including aleatoric passages and his motion sonorities.

In addition to having the players entering the stage at different times during the opening,

Corigliano once again utilizes the entire hall as the stage to create dramatic effects and new

musical textures. For this work he puts horns and trumpets around the perimeter of the hall.

These instruments are primarily used in the restating of the opening fanfare theme throughout the

work.

Figure 3-13 shows the introductory fanfare theme the backwards Haydn motive in the

trumpets. The result is a simple diatonic passage in Eb major. The principle motive is also shown

in Figure 3-13. This motive does not appear in the work until the middle of the piece. Clearly,

this lyrical theme begins in C major, but Corigliano uses the entrance of chromaticism to extend

the harmonic field. Here, Corigliano hints at the original key ofEb major. Once again Corigliano

employs simultaneous tempi throughout the work











Promenade Overture
John Corigliano

Opening Fanfare 2 offstage trumpets


3 3 3
> > 3 3
ff

Principal Theme, first stated in the strings






Figure 3-13. Promenade Overture (Fanfare theme, measures 6-9, and Principal theme, Rehearsal
0)

Promenade Overture by John Corigliano
Copyright 1981 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Fantasia on an Ostinato (1985)

In 1985, The Seventh Van Cliburn International Piano Competition commissioned the

Fantasia on an Ostinato. Every four years, the Van Cliburn Foundation commissions a new

work to be played by the competition finalists. Corigliano's work is based upon a repeated

rhythmic figure from the second movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. 7. He describes this as

a unique work in Beethoven's output because the ostinato continues, unvaried except for a long

crescendo and added accompaniment, for more than four minutes. The following was extracted

from Adamo's book:

Beethoven's minimalist-like use of his material and Corigliano's own desire to write a
piece where the performer is responsible for decisions concerning the durations of simple
patterns led to his first, and evidently, only experiment in minimal techniques.30

After the opening chords, the note G sharp is repeated relentlessly over slowly changing

harmonies. Corigliano chooses to employ a special fingering for the repeating G sharp, called the









"Bebung Effect," that Beethoven also used in his Piano Sonata Op. 110, Adagio. In an unusual

passage, Beethoven wrote multiple repetitions of a single pitch, tying every two repetitions

together. The performer is supposed to strike the first key and half-strike the second, not

allowing the key to fully rise back to the top before replaying the second. The result, successful

to varying degrees depending upon the quality of the piano's regulation, produces an echo-like

effect.

The fantasy section demonstrates Corigliano's ability to invent new techniques. He writes

short motives, usually consisting of only a few notes, and then uses long dark lines in the score

along with repeat signs. The fantasy's length, form, and dynamic elements are completely left to

the performer's discretion. A similar aleatoric device was used in the Altered States score, but

not to the extent done in this work for piano. This section is full of colorful arpeggios that can be

rather tonal and at other times very dissonant. After the aleatoric middle section concludes,

Corigliano quotes the entire theme from the opening of the Beethoven. This is yet another

instance of Corigliano's incorporation of musical works from past centuries. Two years later, in

1987, Corigliano revisited this work by creating an orchestral version in which he extended and

modified the middle section of the work, writing out his intentions rather than asking for

improvisation.

In the Fantasia on an Ostinato, John Corigliano adopted minimalist devices and

transformed them for his own dramatic and architectural purposes. He also adopted material

from historic works, a technique that he had used previously. This work constitutes Corigliano's

only attempt at composing in the minimalist style, but is representative of his ability to adopt

techniques from any musical style and incorporate them into his larger musical concepts, which

is also accomplished in The Red Violin.









Campane di Ravello (1987)

Campane di Ravello is another short orchestral work, commissioned by the Chicago

Symphony Orchestra in honor of the 75th birthday of conductor Sir George Solti. The unique

feature in the opening of this four-minute work is the orchestration that imitates bell sounds

without using any bells. This is accomplished by having the strings and winds sustain pitches

from a bell's overtone series. The inspiration for this work was Corigliano's hearing of bells

ringing simultaneously on a trip to Italy. Throughout the piece, Corigliano quotes excerpts from

the song Happy Bit tihldy, creating variations on this theme throughout the work.

Revolution (1985)

After Corigliano's successful film score to Altered States, he composed his second score

for director Hugh Hudson's Revolutionary War movie Revolution (1985). The film score was

more traditionally composed with shorter cues and a more limited harmonic vocabulary. The

largest cues in the film include the opening credits, the gruesome war montage, and a chase

scene between the lead Al Pacino and a group of hunting hounds. Corigliano employed James

Galway for the flute and tin whistle sequences. The film was a failure at the box office, impeding

Corigliano's plans to publicly release a soundtrack. The New York Times wrote of Revolution:

Revolution is about the American War of Independence. It's also a mess, but one that's so
giddily misguided that it's sometimes a good deal of fun for all of the wrong reasons. It's
so bad that one suspects there must be a good story behind it. It's not easy to goof on this
scale, especially not for exclaimed director Hugh Hudson.31

The War Lament from this film was later incorporated in the Symphony #1, as Corigliano

describes:

I again wanted that feeling of great loss-the sorrow of the dead of AIDS. In a sense, it
was the same kind of massacre, so the music had the same tone. I think cross-pollination
happens all the time if you're a concert composer. It happens from piece to piece.32









Elsewhere in the film, the "War Montage" is transformed into a scherzo using in the

harmonic language of the 18th Century loosely reflecting the time period of the film. Al Pacino's

character is smeared with the remains of a fox and is forced to run for his life. The British

soldiers cheerfully use their hounds to chase their prisoner for recreational sport. Corigliano

explains why he wrote this cue as he did:

I took the same theme as the War Lament and I made it into an aristocratic
Mendelssohnian fox hunt. Completely effervescent. And then in the middle of the scene,
it goes into a kind of tarantella, so you get the idea that this is somewhat fun. ... I did this
because this is the grimmest film I've ever seen, and I desperately felt that it needed
something bright, even if it was ironic. I told Hugh Hudson that the film has only one
light moment in three and a half hours. You must have something to relieve the dark,
oppressive quality.33

Ingeniously, Corigliano fades in the melancholy "War Lament" over the scherzo. It

slowly supplants the scherzo completely, recalling the war's desolation. Corigliano was unhappy

with the final mix of the music in the sound track. For example, in the war montage, the volume

was lowered in order to hear the sounds of cannons firing. Corigliano was also angry that the

studio recording was never released to the public. The production company has denied

Corigliano from having access to the recording.

String Quartet (1995)

Corigliano's String Quartet was commissioned by the Lincoln Center for the Performing

Arts for the Cleveland Quartet's final tour in 1996. The work was later revised and expanded as

Symphony No.2 on a commission by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Symphony No.2 received

the Pulitzer Prize in 2001. Since Symphony No.2 is derived from the String Quartet, it will not be

discussed separately.

Corigliano was interested in writing a string quartet as he had yet to work in that medium.

According to the program notes, "Corigliano was fascinated with the idea of how a quartet could

breathe as one instrument, not requiring a conductor, creating an unmatched unity of sound."34









Throughout the work the string quartet relies on the agogic division of time, but the players

sometimes do not need to rely on beats or precise rhythms. Corigliano generated a five-

movement, thirty-five minute piece, which employed spatial notation in three of the movements.

Corigliano modeled the form for his work after that of Bela Bartok's (1881-1945) String Quartet

No.4 (1928): the first and last movements and the second and fourth are related while the middle

movement is separate, creating a palindromic formal scheme. The entire work is based upon

reoccurring motivic pitch material, incorporating numerous extended and unusual techniques for

the string players.

The work begins with an introductory movement, "Prelude." The movement gets its pitch

center from the initial D and G#. Throughout the entire first movement, the strings use either a

practice or regular mute. The effect of the mutes, along with Corigliano's fragmented motivic

material, creates a soft, eerie sonic world. Another interesting element of this movement is the

asynchronous spatial notation.

String Quartet (Scherzo)


Violin II


Viola


John Corigliano
=72


to: Op ,. J-t,

III, W H FI F F.


3-14. String Quartet, second movement, "Chaconne," measures 121-124


String Quartet by John Corigliano
Copyright 1995 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

The second movement, "Scherzo," is a Stravinsky inspired, rhythmically driven creation

that employs dense repeated chords with accented weak beats. After a section of "slashing









evenly repeated chords,"35 a chaconne is introduced. The chaconne is derived from the

fragments of the opening movement. The step-wise motion in this excerpt is a common

technique that Corigliano uses and can also be found in the chaconne of "The Red Violin." This

motion directs the voice-leading, as it creates the goal directed harmonies. It is interesting to note

that during this period in his career, Corigliano used chaconnes in many of his compositions,

including Symphony No. this String Quartet, and The Red Violin. The first appearance of the

chaconne is shown in Figure 3-14.

One of the most obvious distinguishing characteristics of this chaconne is that

Corigliano does not use the often-found ground bass. The bottom voice of the viola part plays a

G pedal throughout the entire excerpt. Another interesting feature is that the intervals in the

second violin are either a major or minor sixth. Corigliano counteracts the consonances with

dissonant notes in the viola. In the first two measures, Corigliano blends a G minor triad with a

G# pitch, perhaps suggesting an octatonic scale. (Corigliano utilizes an octatonic scale in the

Gypsy cue from The Red Violin.) The last beat of the first measure is an inverted Eb major

seventh chord, followed by the clear tonality of a simple G major triad in the second measure.

This seamless interplay of dissonant constructions and simple triads was seen earlier in works

such as the Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra and Pied Piper Fantasy, Concertofor Flute and

Orchestra. Another nontraditional feature is the change in the time signature in the middle of the

chaconne.

In the third movement, "Nocturne," Corigliano replicates the sound of Moroccan men

simultaneously chanting different prayers. This non-Western sonic image was influenced by the

sounds Corigliano heard during a trip to Morocco. Corigliano uses both spatial and repeat box









notation for this improvisatory movement. Both of these notational devices will later be used in

The Red Violin.

For the fourth movement, "Fugue," Corigliano presents four different voices that each

proceed at a different tempo. He used the same rhythms in each voice, but each has a different

time signature. Though Corigliano used a novel method of temporal disjunction, he still

incorporated the traditional surface structure of the fugue, presenting an exposition, a

development, and a recapitulation in stretto.

Corigliano again marries old and new styles together in the String Quartet. The use of a

chaconne without a ground bass, or a fugue in several simultaneous tempi, is evidence of his

interest in using old devices in new ways.

Symphony No.1 (1991)

The composition of Symphony No. 1 began while Corigliano was the composer-in-

residence for three years (1989-1991) with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Corigliano had

often preached that the world does not need a new symphony, and stated he would never write

one. According to Mark Adamo:

Corigliano had long resisted the notion of a contemporary symphony, both for its
apparent historical redundancy ("the repertoire already has more works than it can ever
play!") and for what he felt was its egotistical elevation of the composer's need to
express himself over the needs of performers or audiences.36

Two important events occurred that changed Corigliano's thinking: many of his friends

and colleagues (including pianist Sheldon Shkolnik, to whom the piece is dedicated) had died

from the AIDS epidemic and he also witnessed the large quilt that was handcrafted in

Washington D.C. by family and friends of deceased AIDS victims. Corigliano wanted to

musically depict the tragic loss that the AIDS epidemic had caused in the classical music world.

Combining his concern over the AIDS issue with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra commission,









Corigliano thought a symphony would be the most appropriate outlet for his personal response to

the crisis. Corigliano had avoided the symphony until a profound tragedy forced him to write

one.

The "quilt" would become a visual analog of Corigliano's symphony. In the third

movement he blended themes that are dedicated to his friends and associates into a collage of

colors, much like a musical quilt. Mark Adamo states:

It is in Symphony No. 1 that Corigliano's comprehensive architectural skills and acute
sense of event encountered-and rose to- an occasion of tragedy as societal as it was
personal .37

The work includes an extended brass section dramatically organized on stage in a semi-

circle of risers in order to create a "wave" effect analogous to the timelessness of the ocean,

memorializing his colleagues. Corigliano places timpani on both sides of the stage. Though

Corigliano did not place instruments throughout the concert hall in this work, the placement of

the brass and timpani allowed for antiphonal effects.

Symphony No.1, third movement (Chaconne)

As previously stated, Corigliano often uses traditional forms in his music. The opening of

the third movement begins with a chaconne, a form he employs in other works, including The

Red Violin. This movement is dedicated to a cellist friend from college, Giulio Sorrentino.

Corigliano found a tape recording of them improvising and he utilized the theme from that

recording as the principle material of the movement. This chaconne is by far the most unusually

constructed of the three chaconnes examined in this paper (String Quartet, Symphony No.1, The

Red Violin). Figure 3-15 presents the opening of the third movement with the first appearance of

the chaconne in its entirety.












In its initial appearance this excerpt may not immediately be recognizable as a chaconne.


Utilizing all twelve pitches of the chromatic scale, Corigliano has the chords dissolve into one


another. He elaborates in the program notes from the score:


Giulio's theme is preceded with a chaconne, based on 12 pitches and the chords they
produce, which runs through the entire movement. The first several minutes of this
movement are played by the violas, cellos, and basses alone. The chaconne chords are
immediately heard, hazily dissolving into each other, and the cello melody begins over
the final chord.38


Symphony No.1
3. Chaconne: Guilio's Song


John Corigliano


Adagio d= 50
Soli so rd
II -


SoSoi- sord



Sor U sordlo _


sor Sol 5. n n





sord.
soord
Soo6o Pi



n n


sord.




n -==--- p p flzv=n
SSoIo

rd ordW


_9_ .. :_I I I


n -==z nMp


n


Figure 3-15. Symphony No. third movement, "Chaconne," measures 1-8


Symphony No. 1 by John Corigliano
Copyright 1990 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)


Via. I




Vla. 2-3




Vic 3-4




Vlc. 5-6




Vc. 7-8




Cb. 1-2




Cb. 3




Cb. 4-5









International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

As in a traditional chaconne, these chords are repeated throughout the first part of the

movement. The chords fade in and out through pitch substitution and dynamic shaping, creating

a blend of different sonorities. As in the String Quartet, the most noticeable feature here is the

lack of a ground bass. Historically, a ground bass moves the chaconne forward and allows

harmonies to change and vary over time with the bass remaining unchanged. Corigliano presents

disparate themes (in addition to Giulio's Theme), each representing a different friend who has

died from AIDS, over the constantly recurring chaconne.

Corigliano uses an array of compositional devices throughout his Symphony No. 1.

During the first movement, he quotes Isaac Albeniz's Tango on an offstage piano. (Tango was

the favorite work of pianist friend Sheldon Shkolnik.) Corigliano also combines graphic and box

notation with traditional notation in many places throughout the symphony. He further continues

the trend of incorporating older musical forms into his work, as in the Tarantella that forms the

basis of the second movement, symbolizing his friend's insanity during the AIDS illness, and

the chaconne in the third movement that underpins the presentation of disparate themes.

The Ghosts of Versailles (1991)

James Levine, Artistic Director of the Metropolitan Opera, approached Corigliano to

compose an opera for the 100th Anniversary of the Metropolitan Opera in 1979. The librettist

chosen was William Hoffman, with whom Corigliano first collaborated in the 1965 song cycle,

The Cloisters. According to John Simon, "Corigliano had two requests for the writer Hoffman:

that the libretto lends itself to the use of melody, and that it contain a Turkish scene."39 Late 18th

and early 19th Century operas contained many Turkish settings, and Corigliano wanted to employ









such a setting in his opera. The work is an opera buffa, a style that Mozart and Rossini utilized

many times, and one that would allow Corigliano to compose melodious and humoresque music.

The Ghosts of Versailles Plot Summary

The original premise of The Ghosts of Versailles originated from a play by the famous

French dramatist Pierre Augustin Caron De Beaumarchais (1732-1799). The third of his plays to

include the Figaro character was "The Guilty Mother" (La Mere coupable, 1792). This

installment was popular, but was in no way as well known as the first two plays, Le Barbier de

Seville (1775), set to music by Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), and his Le Mariage de Figaro

(1778), which was set by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Hoffman incorporated

Beaumarchais' story into The Ghost of Versailles. Corigliano believed he could do a lot

musically with this setting, including borrowing from the styles of Mozart and Rossini, as well as

incorporating musical games into the score. According to John Simon:

What may have appealed to Corigliano, who, as Michael C. Nott has remarked in Opera
News, "tends...to draw on a wide range of styles-in his view techniques- rather than
making any single one the basis of his music. I can see where hermaphroditism, moral or
other, might appeal to Corigliano and Hoffman, who would perceive it as a justification
for trying out their wide range of styles- sorry, techniques. They could thus not only
allude to Mozart and Rossini, but also indulge in any verbal and musical hanky-panky to
which male heads with female hearts might be prone.40

Hoffman and Corigliano combined this plot idea with the story of Marie Antoinette and

King Louis XVI. The aristocrats are forever ghosts in the palace of Versailles where Marie is

eternally horrified by her beheading. The character Beaumarchais decided to write a play to

cheer her up. Beaumarchais has always loved Marie, who is in an apparent loveless marriage to

Louis. The ghosts watch the play come to life, but unexpectedly the character Figaro decides to

change the course of the story. Beaumarchais must then enter the play to fix what has been

changed. The opera ends showing the death of Marie, with Marie and Beaumarchais watching as









onlookers. Beaumarchais and Marie have the opportunity to change the past and avoid the

beheading, but decide against it.

Musical Styles in The Ghosts of Versailles

Corigliano combines an array of musical styles in this work, incorporating neo-classical

melodies for the soloists alongside dissonant harmonies used to depict the ghosts' after-lives.

This work is perhaps the most extensive example of Corigliano's poly-stylism. As in previous

compositions, Corigliano also quotes themes from his own previous works. Many of the devices

that Corigliano employs in the opera are also found in The Red Violin.

One of these characteristics found in both the opera and The Red Violin is Corigliano's

composition of new music that pays homage to the music of specific historical periods. Since the

characters existed during the end of the 18th Century, Corigliano composed a few arias in the

style of the late Classical and early Romantic periods. John Simon claims that Corigliano's

inspirations for many of the famous passages are from well-known operas, and that others are in

fact taken from the composer's own career, which Corigliano terms "cross-pollination":

The Act I quintet begins with the first strains of Voi che sapete. Susanna and Rosina's
memory duet in Act II is spun over an accompaniment of the Cosifan tutte Soave sia il
vento. Almaviva's palace band plays a minuet drawn from Se Vuol ballare. In the scene in
which Beaumarchais frightens the rebellious Figaro, he confronts him with the State music
from Don Giovanni. Figaro's entrance aria is an homage to Rossini's Largo alfactotum.
The first act finale contains some exchanges of the Barbiere quintet. Begearss's second
dull aria--in which he stirs up the tricoteuses of Paris to storm Almaviva's farewell party
by likening the aristocrats to rats to the accompaniment of musical scurrying and squealing
has origins in Corigliano's own flute concerto The PiedPiper Fantasy, and the tangy,
microtonal... sound of the oboes in the first finale...was also used in his Oboe Concerto.41

Aria: Come Now My Darling Aria

Come Now My Darling is a Mozartian moment from the first act, which replicates a

lyrical Italian style aria. Figure 3-16 presents the Come Now My Darling passage in the aria,

which occurs after a thirty-seven measure introductory dialogue between the soprano Rosina and










the mezzo-soprano Cherubino. The introduction is slow and free, utilizing simple harmonies, and

modulating through several different keys centers. This duet, which will eventually grow into a

quintet in the climatic section of the aria, changes key centers with every new verse, sometimes

modulating to very distant keys. The vocal and accompanimental lines are traditionally simple in

their construction. In this aria is a simple, straightforward, diatonic progression.



Come Now My Darling
John Corigliano


Sop.
Comenow my dar ling come widlime, Come totheroomi Ihave madeforthee. Let usstrewthe bed with flow ers There



Piano


I I m r J m-- m ,



we will spend the hours There we will spend the hours. There we will spend the hours










Figure 3-16. The Ghosts of Versailles "Come Now My Darling" measures 38-49

The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano
Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Traditional harmonic progressions are used throughout the excerpt. Chords follow

common practice norms, such as dominants resolving to their tonics, subdominant chords being










followed by dominants, and seventh scale degrees resolving properly. Corigliano uses two bar

phrases and uses an Alberti bass to mimic the Classical style.

"Come Now My Darling" bares similarities to the opening of the aria Voi, che sapete from

Mozart's The Marriage ofFigaro, shown in Figure 3-17. Corigliano claims that his music for the

arias in the opera was not directly taken from Mozart and Rossini's music, but rather that he

simply composed in their styles. This form of mimesis is also found in The Red Violin, as

Corigliano did not use specific models to work from; instead his cues are in the style of certain

musical periods.


Voi che sapete Mozart
Andante

Sop.



P.







don nc vc de te s1o 'ho ncl cor,








Figure 3-17. Marriage ofFigaro "Voi che sapete" Aria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano
Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.









The most striking similarity between the two works is the opening soprano line. The first

two measures are almost identical in their intervallic construction. The opening harmonic

progressions are similar as well. Both works begin on the tonic and move to the dominant chord

at the start of the second measure. They both then progress toward a half cadence on the

dominant: Corigliano using a secondary dominant and Mozart by means of a vi-ii-V progression.

Even though Corigliano did not actually quote Mozart's aria, they are both similar in their

construction, showing Corigliano's knowledge of the Italian Classical aria style. Anne Sheffler's

article in Contemporary Music Review discusses her research into the resemblance between the

two arias.

The associations (The Ghosts of Versailles) include the quotations from the Marriage of
Figaro and La ci darem la mano from Don Giovanni, the classic seduction duet whose
basic structure is closely followed. The audience is being offered the appearance of
familiarity and the ritual of remembering without a specific model or an authentic past to
remember. The dramatic strategy in Ghosts is: Reenacting events that had only been told
in the models42

Aria: As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze

The texture for this piece is also similar to a Mozart aria. Corigliano uses a very simple

diatonic harmonic language in this work. Figure 3-18 shows the opening measures of the aria,

illustrating Corigliano's I-IV-V-I chord progression. The F tonic pedal that lasts for the entire

excerpt helps solidify the tonality of the piece. After the opening F major harmony, Corigliano

quickly tonicizes the dominant before moving to the parallel minor (F minor) for three measures.

The F minor section serves as a transitory modal shift as the texture changes, with steady

repeated chords in the accompaniment. The A Section returns in the home key ofF major. An

eighth note figure in the orchestra is harmonized in thirds, another Mozartian trait.
















MeLLo





Orch


As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze
John Corigliano

Andante = 58


As sum mer bnngs a wist ful breeze,







I IV



Cool mg house cs blow mg Irci,

^ F\

J O


IV V I


Figure 3-18. The Ghosts of Versailles "As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze" measures 2-10

The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano
Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Aria: They Wish They Could Kill Me

The aria "They wish they could kill me" is sung by the main character of the play, Figaro.

He sings about the jealousy that surrounds him and the many characters he portrays in the

numerous novels written about him by the author Beaumarchais. In this aria Corigliano uses an

actual quotation from the Overture to the Marriage of Figaro in a style reminiscent of a baroque

da capo aria. This is another example of Corigliano's poly-stylism. William Ladd Higgins

discusses Figaro's character in The Ghosts of Versailles:











Figaro's aria "They wish they could kill me" is a unique adaptation of the Baroque da
capo aria form. Secco recitative (dry or unaccompanied recitative), a dramatic device
characteristic of nearly all opera from the time of Handel to Rossini is utilized.43

Figure 3-19 shows an excerpt from Figaro's aria. The tonality is clearly B major. The

pitting of staccato accompanimental chords against the moving vocal line is found in many

Baroque operas.


They Wish They Could Kill Me


= 144
(measure 62)


John Corigliano


Figaro
t?Nt?^\


A U- ittt I .


Bar. -
lye been dip lomat, ac ro bat, Teach er of et lquette, Student and swordsman, Spy and mu si -can-




Orch.








Bar.
I've been sat i-rist, pes sim-ist, Sur-geon and Cal-vin-ist, Span-ish e-con-o-mist,




Orch.

\- ^\ h ^j^


Figure 3-19. The Ghosts of Versailles "They Wish They Could Kill Me" measures 61-69

The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano
Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.








88









The Ghosts of Versailles Conclusions

Corigliano's Ghosts of Versailles combines many elements into a vast collection of styles.

Corigliano not only incorporates Baroque and Classical styles in the music, but also uses styles

from the Medieval, Renaissance, and Romantic periods along with his own contemporary style.

There are many periods throughout the opera that do not use antiquated styles and forms, such as

the ghost music and Maria's aria, "They Are Always With Me." He quotes actual music from the

operas of Mozart and Rossini. He writes arias in the Classical style, incorporating the important

Italian melodic sigh figure, and other typical features.

Corigliano uses the Baroque da capo style for his Figaro aria. Other sections of the opera

sound Middle Eastern, such as the Turkish embassy scene, as he alters the thematic material with

a mixture of different modal embellishes that feature lowered seconds, thirds, fifths, and the

augmented second. During this scene, he also places a small chamber ensemble on the stage (a

Mozartian technique). Corigliano also writes in his own contemporary voice, employing

atonality, tone clusters, and microtonal techniques for the Versailles ghosts characters.

Combining many different styles within the multiple layers of stories creates a large,

multifaceted work that has been acclaimed by the press and audiences alike.

This chapter has illustrated the compositional techniques John Corigliano has utilized

throughout his career. Many of these same devices are also found in his film score The Red

Violin, including diatonic and modal melodies, aleatory, quotation, allusions to pre-existing

styles, traditional genres, and poly-rhythms.

Notes

1 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles. A Character Study of the Opera by John
Corigliano and William F. Hoffman. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, p. 32.
2 Schwartz, Elliot, and Daniel Godfrey. Music Since 1945: Issues, Material, and Literature. New
York: Schirmer Books, 1993, p. 200.









3 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 10.

4 MusicRoom.com, John Corigliano Sonata for Violin andPiano.
(accessed November
20, 2006)

5 Kim, Chris Younghoon. University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory's Music 2002- On the
Road.

(accessed
December 1, 2006)

6John Corigliano. John Corigliano: Early Works. New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996, p. 2.

7 John Corigliano. John Corigliano: Early Works. New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996, p. 3.

8 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 17.

9 Corigliano, John. Tournaments. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1982, p. 1.
10 Tommasini, Anthony. Music In Review: Classical Music. The New York Times, January 31,
1996.
n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2c%20John>
(accessed September 27, 2006)

11 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.3.
12 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 17.

13 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.5.

14 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 18.

15 Howe, Robert. John Corigliano Concerto for Oboe and Concert.
(accessed October 13, 2006)
16 Corigliano, John. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1983, p. 1.

17 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.9.

18 Cutlot, Hubert. Classical CD Reviews.

(accessed, December 5, 2006)

19 Corigliano, John. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1992,
preface.
20 Schelle, Michael._The Score: Interviews in ith Film Composers. Los Angeles: Silman-James
Press, 2000, p. 200.









21 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo
Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States. A
Discussion of John Corigliano's Film Score. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, p. 2.
22 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.15.

23 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo
Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States. A
Discussion of John Corigliano's Film Score. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, p. 5.
24 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 44.

25 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo
Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States: A
Discussion of John Corigliano's Film Score. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, pp. 27-28.
26 Eichler, Jeremy. James Galway Pipes Away Swarms of Concertgoing Rats.
&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2c%20John>
(accessed December 3, 2006)
27 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 20.

28 Rundell, Clark. CORIGLIANO At The Royal Northern College of Music 12-15 December 2000
Programme. Todmorden: RNCM in association with Arc Publications, 2000, pp. 6-7.
29 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 20.

30 Corigliano, John Fantasia on an Ostinato. New York: Schirmer Inc., 1987, p. 1.

31Canby, Vincent. Children of the Revolution More On 'Children of the Revolution' THE
SCREEN: 1770'S EPIC, 'REVOLUTION.
%29&title2=&reviewer=Vincent%20Canby&pdate=19851225&vid=> (accessed October 1,
2006)
32 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 47.

33 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 46.

34 Corigliano, John._String Quartet WorldPremiere Recording. Cleveland: Telarc, CD 80415,
p.3.

35 Corigliano, John. String Quartet. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1998, p. 1.
36 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 21.

37Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 21.
38 Corigliano, John. Symphony No. 1 for Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1999, preface.









39 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the
Ti, einieli Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p.
153.
40 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the
Ti einieith Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p.
154.
41 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the
Ti einieith Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p.
161.
42 Shreffler, Anne. Historicism in New American Music, 1980-1995. Phantoms at the Opera: The
Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano and William Hoffman. Contemporary Music Review
2001, Vol. 20, Part 4, p. 126.

43 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John
Corigliano and William M. Hoffman. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, pp. 144-145.

44 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York: Schirmer
Books, 1980, p. 338.









CHAPTER 4
THE MUSICAL STYLES OF JOHN CORIGLIANO'S THE RED VIOLIN

Most people think that music is generated from melody, but I think that melody is actually
very difficult to remember. What's most important in a piece is shape and direction. What
people remember best is sonority, because it's vertical, not horizontal. Sometimes, if I
want something to be memorable in the sense that I want people to understand that I'm
recapitulating something, I will try and find a unique sonority that I can recapitulate.1

John Corigliano

This chapter explores and discusses the musical cues John Corigliano composed for the

film The Red Violin. Each cue is analyzed and compared to music from the epoch in which the

cue is set. Corigliano wrote the cues with his own interpretation of historic styles, deviating from

the act of mimesis. The cues cover styles from the Baroque, Classical, 19th century Gypsy music,

19th century Romanticism, and mid-20th century music of China. An analysis of Corigliano's

cues shows the degree to which his music is similar to and/or different from these historical

precedents. These findings further demonstrate that while Corigliano's music is superficially

similar to historic models, some elements are changed in each cue.

The Red Violin Plot Summary

Two scenes recur throughout the movie: "Cremona, Italy" and the "Auction in Montreal."

Both scenes are used as unifying segues between the five principal film sequences. Each

sequence begins with the narration of the fortuneteller from Cremona predicting the violin's

future. The auction is presented at the end of each sequence, providing more information with

each recurrence about the history of the violin and the people whose lives were changed through

contact with the instrument.

The first sequence takes place in Cremona, Italy. Viewers are introduced to the

violinmaker Nicola Busotti and his wife Anna. Busotti believes he has created the perfect violin,

which will be presented as a gift to his expected son. His pregnant wife and newborn son die









tragically from birth complications. The sequence ends with Busotti alone in his workshop

varnishing the violin.

The second sequence begins in an Austrian monastery. A young prodigy, Kasper Weiss,

is shown playing the mysterious violin, and, later in the sequence, auditioning for a Viennese

teacher, Monsieur Poussin. The teacher brings the boy to Vienna to study with him and to

prepare for an audition with a royal family. At this audition, the young boy dies. The violin is

buried with the boy.

In the third sequence Gypsy vandals steal the violin from the boy's grave, eventually

bringing it through their travels to England. Frederick Pope, a violin virtuoso, acquires the red

violin from the gypsies and performs with it at many concerts. His love and inspiration, Victoria,

temporarily leaves him to research a book that she has been writing about Russia. Pope falls into

a deep depression and Victoria finds him courting a young Gypsy woman upon her return. In her

anger, Victoria shoots the red violin with a pistol and runs away, leaving the broken violin and

Pope. Heartbroken, Pope tells of his decision to commit suicide. The sequence ends with his

servant taking the violin to China on a cargo vessel.

The fourth sequence begins with Pope's servant selling the instrument to a pawnshop in

China where the violin gathers dust for many years. It is finally sold to a mother who is

purchasing it for her young daughter. The scene changes to show a time lapse sequence of the

country in the midst of the 1960s Cultural Revolution. The little girl, now grown up, tries to

protect the violin from the violent, anti-Western, communist government. She must decide

between loyalty to her country or the precious instrument that was a gift from her mother. She

decides to present the instrument to the local music teacher Chou Yuan who hides the instrument









for the remainder of his life. At the teacher's death, the red violin, along with many other

valuable instruments, is found hidden in his attic.

The fifth and final sequence takes place in the present-day city of Montreal. The Chinese

government allows a Montreal auction house to sell the valuable instruments. After exhaustive

research, the violin appraiser, Charles Morritz, discovers that one of the violins being auctioned

is the long lost red violin. He uncovers the violin's mysterious past. The varnish of the

instrument contains the blood of Anna. Morritz decides to steal the instrument for himself and

present it to his daughter.

Corigliano's Chaconne and Principal Theme

To create unity between the five different sequences, Corigliano employs a chaconne

throughout the entire film score. He concluded that the music should create unity between the

sequences, each of which employed an entirely different set of characters in a different time and

place.2 As previously mentioned in Chapter 3, Corigliano also utilized a chaconne in earlier

concert pieces, such as Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 2. When asked about his use of the

chaconne, Corigliano states that the chaconne is a form he uses when he wants to unify disparate

elements.2 The chaconne was a logical device to use for the film, as it was utilized in musical

eras from the Baroque to the present. In an interview conducted by Amazon.com, Corigliano

explains why he chose the chaconne for the film in addition to the third movement of his

Symphony #1:

The chaconne idea fits with an emotional feeling of a form that needs to sound extremely
inevitable, like the idea of the fortuneteller. I wouldn't pick it ordinarily. But the
symphony (#1) and the film had things in common: the sense of fate, inevitability, and
the inability to stop it from moving--that it's like this giant machine that never can stop;
the travels of this violin are almost preordained.3

Corigliano's chaconne consists of many unusual features that distinguish it from the

traditional Baroque model. The principal theme, otherwise known as The Red Violin theme, is










derived from the harmonies of the chaconne. The chaconne and the principal theme will be

examined, as these two musical cues represent the majority of the music in the film. The Red

Violin theme and the chaconne are varied throughout all five film sequences. Figure 4-1 shows

the first appearance of the chaconne from the opening credits, which shows the violinmaker in

his workshop, set in the late 17th century.

Corigliano's chaconne deviates from the 18th century model in several fundamental ways:

1. lack of ground bass
2. use of non-harmonic tones
3. unusual orchestration
4. non-standard chord construction
5. double-dotted rhythm
6. non-standard voice leading


=o John Corigliano
Sn. 50
Vln.1 lFfi^ b I **..L, cil ff^^ jU-^ I r. bf~ ff0


Vln. II



Via.


o ,_ _____________ __ o


Figure 4-1. The Red Violin chaconne

Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

One of the most revealing metrics of Corigliano's chaconne is the degree to which it

comports with standard features of the historic chaconne. Perhaps the most striking aspect of

Corigliano's composition is its specious classification. One may expect Corigliano to have called

his minor-mode piece apassacaglia, which is a similar term to a chaconne in many respects, one


I1.---p1




ll = = =, i









of the major differences being that passacaglias are customarily in a minor key. The chaconne is

known for its repeated harmonic progression over a variation. Although there is no conclusive

evidence why Corigliano made this nomenclatural decision, it may be because he has used the

term in previous concert works, such as his Symphony #1 and a section in the second movement

of his Symphony #2 which are both used to unify disparate sections and do not include a ground

bass.

Another deviation from historical norms occurs in Corigliano's use of duple instead of the

customary triple meter in the chaconne. A further decision Corigliano makes is avoiding a

ground bass, which is the characteristic by which many pieces are labeled as chaconnes. The

ground bass is optional, but it is often found in most chaconnes. According to the Grove Online

Music Dictionary, the chaconne was simply a form that employed a variation technique.

However, in the 19th and 20th Centuries, composers used the chaconne as a set of ground bass or

ostinato variations, which had of a severe character.4 When asked why The Red Violin chaconne

lacked a ground bass, Corigliano replied that a ground would usually be found in apassacaglia,

not a chaconne.2 As the two terms have frequently been interchanged throughout history, the

forms have perhaps lost their distinct differences.

Corigliano employs an alternative technique to the ground bass. In its place, Corigliano

uses D and C# pedal tones in the bass voice (viola, Figure 4-1). While one could possibly

classify this as an inactive ground bass, such a reductive analytic approach is unprecedented

when defining a ground bass. However, this feature may give a clue to Corigliano's general

approach to the construction of the work. One sees several examples of a limited pitch palette.

The rhythmic domain is equally restrained, employing placid sonorities that are periodically









punctured by abrupt accents. Thus, one must view the work's deviation from historical norms as

an important subset of the composer's larger goal: distilled treatment of material.

The discursive purpose of this analytical approach is revealed when melody is

considered. The melodic content of the opening section implies a tonal harmonic framework that

is missing certain pitches. The opening seven bars alternate between functionally tonic and

dominant regions. The omitted notes in the chaconne harmony, such as A in the first minor "i"

(m.4) chord and E in the first dominant chord (m.7), is evidence of a reductive approach to

implying harmony. However, when the violin overlays the principal melody later in the work,

the missing pitches are filled in to complete the afore-implied triadic harmonies. (shown in

Figure 4-2)




John Corigliano


7
-) v I t8 *o P --



I ,, .._ 6...J ,- 6 IJ J


Figure 4-2. The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne

Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.


11


0^F LIU-jt jt t IC|









This information allows listeners to discern the purpose of Corigliano's restraint: by

proffering an incomplete entity in the chaconne, he can then make it whole with the addition of

seminal motivic material.

A common trait belonging to both the 17th and 18th Century chaconne and the

passacaglia is their metrical construction; usually consisting of two, four, eight, or sixteen

measures. The chaconne and passacaglia of this era conclude with half or authentic cadences

followed by the repetition of the progression without a break. A seven-measure chaconne

progression is uncommon and is not found in the Baroque or Classical periods.

To better understand Corigliano's chaconne, a comparison is made with a chaconne from

the early 18th Century. Figure 4-3 is a chaconne written by the Italian Baroque composer

Tommaso Vitali (1663-1745). Vitali was chosen as an example because he utilized an extended

Baroque harmonic language, and he was more adventurous than the norm. Vitali is known for his

sonatas and this particular chaconne is for violin with figured bass. This example shows a clear

descending ground bass in a four-measure sequence. Vitali begins on a minor tonic chord, and

he concludes on the dominant harmony before the sequence repeats. Corigliano utilizes a more

unorthodox approach at the conclusion of his chaconne by not employing a dominant (V) and

substituting a seven diminished (vii) triad. The realization of Vitali's chaconne shows that

complete chords are utilized, unlike Corigliano's chaconne. Vitali uses an even number of

measures, a ground bass, and a dominant half cadence in his chaconne, while Corigliano avoids

all these traditional characteristics.













Violin




Basso


Tommaso Vitali
Adagio




I '


Figure 4-3. Chaconne in G minorfor Violin and Basso Continuo by Tommaso Vitali 1966
Barenreiter-Verlag, Kassel

Corigliano's orchestration for his chaconne is unique. He employs only the violins and

violas in the chaconne's initial presentation during the opening credits, presenting the cellos and

double basses during the second statement of the progression, which play pizzicato at the

initiation of the D and C# pitches. Corigliano's initial orchestration is simple. It includes the

upper voice of violin one and a homophonic texture with highly unorthodox voice leading.

A repeated feature in Corigliano's chaconne is the rhythmic punctuation of the double-

dotted figure. The sixteenth note is followed by a double-dotted quarter in measures 4-6. Such a

rhythm was common in the Late Baroque period (1685-1750) and illustrates Corigliano

application of a Baroque characteristic within his chaconne. The double-dotted rhythm is

typically associated with the French Overture.

The Red Violin theme is heard simultaneously many times with the chaconne throughout

the score. Figure 4-4 shows the theme presented with the chaconne. The harmonies of the theme

originate from the chaconne, both sharing the key of D minor. The Red Violin theme fills in the

missing triadic pitches of the initial chaconne statement when the two are combined. Figure 4-4

is an example of Corigliano using goal directed voice leading. Corigliano begins the chaconne

after a three-measure unaccompanied introduction featuring The Red Violin theme.









Corigliano writes a highly unusual harmonic progression. For example, he has firmly

established D as the tonic, however at measure seven, he jumps to an E dominant 7th in third

inversion. The progression hints at modal inflections, such as beginning in D Dorian (raised sixth

scale degree.) Corigliano also suggests a C# minor resolution in measure eight. He then

progresses to a C# diminished 7 at measure eleven. There are bichordal implications in measure

nine, hinting at both f# minor and B major. Corigliano also uses unorthodox voice leading, as

seen in measure eleven in the bass.

John Corigliano












6n
-.J I -I, 8 ,I w '






K -o 6. 61 .JJ


Figure 4-4. The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne

Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Other Manipulations of the Chaconne

The following section explores Corigliano's alteration of the content of the chaconne in

two different sequences. He still maintains its harmonic structure, but also applies contemporary

techniques.









Death of Anna Cue

The Death ofAnna cue begins with music that is not historically tied to the time setting

of this sequence of the film. This cue uses gestures created by graphic notation and aleatoric

techniques. Corigliano deviates from the musical practices of the implied time period and utilizes

devices that create random dissonant sonorities. Corigliano employed these devices in his

Altered States score and in many of his concert works, his PiedPiper Fantasy, Concertofor

Flute and Orchestra and his symphonies. In The Red Violin, boxed notation is used when a

young boy and the violinmaker, Nicola Busotti, are running through the village to help the

craftsman's sick wife. Corigliano supplies a pitch collection within the box notation and above it

indicates the duration of the event. He writes thick, black slash lines in the measures following

the box notation, which instruct the performers to repeat the material, similar to that found in

jazz/popular lead sheet notation that instructs the performer to continue a specific harmony or

chord.

Corigliano also uses other notational devices, such as fast rhythmic passages followed by

headless notes (only stems and beams are present). The rhythms are retained, but the performers

improvise the pitch material. Above these measures he writes simile. Throughout this entire

section, he refrains from using traditional 18th Century techniques. Appendix A contains an

excerpt of Corigliano's aleatoric notation from this scene in The Red Violin.

In the scene where the luthier, Busotti, walks into the bedroom and witnesses his

deceased wife and newborn child, Corigliano introduces the Death ofAnna Theme, which is used

whenever a principal character passes away. Corigliano develops the "death motive" from a

variation of The Red Violin theme with the bass line of the chaconne. Example 4-5 shows the

first appearance of the "death motive."













Violin


Cello 1-2


John Corigliano
= 60 Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim




T '.. h' J.m J j i^

9---- ___- -r Bf--_-f- ---~-___-" i


Figure 4-5. Death ofAnna

The analysis of the Death ofAnna cue explores how Corigliano incorporates the

chaconne harmony into this variation. Corigliano begins the Death ofAnna cue in the original D

minor key of the chaconne. The cue uses the theme from the original chaconne contrapuntally.

The chromatic rise in the first cello (F-C; shown below in example 4-6) and the D and C# pedal

tones in the second cellos are identical to material from the original chaconne. A distinct

difference between the Death ofAnna theme and the original chaconne cue is the final cadence.

Corigliano ends the "death" chaconne in the distant tonal region of C.

Corigliano's progression involves non-standard chromatic voice leading. The C# in

measure 4 acts as an anticipation of the final cadence. Corigliano employs a direct modulation,

with no clear preparation of c minor. In example 4-6, the circled notes represent the chromatic

line in the cello 2 part. As previously shown in Corigliano's music, the voice leading creates the

impled harmonies.

Corigliano uses dissonance to distort the implied triadic harmony in the Death ofAnna

cue. For example, in the first measure there is a D pedal tone with a G and E in the upper voices.

Example 4-6 identifies the different harmonies Corigliano implies throughout the cue. In

measure four, Corigliano uses a C natural against the c# minor harmony, which anticipates the

resolution. The c# minor resolution on the third beat of measure two stands out just as much as

the final cadence in c minor.













John Corigliano


= 60
, A


Violin



Cello


Chromatic rise in upper voice


i D to G# (Tritone relationship) o
d minor # minor A Major 6 c minor c minor
d minor c# minor A Major 6 c# minor c minor


Figure 4-6. Analysis of Death ofAnna

Death of Kasper Weiss cue

The Death ofKasper Weiss cue is more dissonant than the previous scene. The analysis


of the Death ofKasper Weiss cue is shown in Figure 4-7. After beginning in the dominant a


minor tonal region Corigliano modulates to d minor in the second section, the original key of the


chaconne. Within the first a minor section, Corigliano omits the chromatic rise as well as the


pedal tones, which were found in both the original and the Death ofAnna chaconne. However,


both of these elements reappear in the second d minor section. (The D to C# pedal in the double


bass part and a chromatic ascent in the cellos, from F to C by half steps, is found in the second


section.) Identical to the Death ofAnna theme, Corigliano ends the cue with a C minor triad.
















= 60


-oue Nelghbb)


Violin I




Violin II




Viola




Cello




D.B.



Vln. I




Vln. 11




Via.




Vc.


d minor: din


E 7 b5 (Fr6) c#m A 6/5 F# 6/4 c# du


Figure 4-7. Analysis of Death ofKasper Weiss cue


In measure two Corigliano writes a D# and F (diminish 3rd) in the violin II and


viola parts. Corigliano implies a non-traditionally voiced French Augmented 6th chord. The voice


leading rules of the augmented sixth chord are correctly implemented, with the diminished


interval collapsing to a unison. By utilizing a non-traditionally voiced French Augmented 6th


chord, Corigliano introduces a common aural construct, but with a distinct difference.


John Corigliano
Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


Ij, r" I i I

(Dnuble Nighhori

















minor: am b half dim B 7 b5 (Fr6) E C7 b half dmn C7 B 6/5 E
6 AnL mubleNeigbol)




nomharanomc



ms TT



'):~ o ... .,Jj


D.B.










The second part of the Death ofKasper Weiss, (measures 6-9) in D minor, contains many

dissonant harmonies. The downbeat of measure seven consists of a vague sonority that includes

two sets of tritones (D-G#-Bb-E.) This pitch collection set is derived from a whole tone scale or

an unconventionally voiced French Augmented Sixth chord, reminiscent of such atonal

composers as Alban Berg (1885-1935). Figure 4-8 is an example of Berg's use of the [0268] set,

with extensive appearances in an early song for voice and piano. Berg uses many transpositions

of the set throughout the song. Within the first four chords in the piano part of the excerpt, three

contain the [0268] set. Unlike Berg, Corigliano uses the [0268] couched in an erstwhile tonal

context, whereas Berg's only tonal presence is found in the key signature, and the final

resolution to Eb at the end of this song.

Langsam Alban Berg



8-------------------- __
PP

Schla fend tragt man riich n mer







{0268} (0268) {0268}


Figure 4-8. Example of [0268] pitch set from Schlafend Tragt Man Mich, No. 2, Op. 2 measures
1-2 by Alban Berg

The two sets of tritones create tension that needs to be resolved. This repeated dissonance

in Corigliano's cue resolves to a C# minor harmony on the third beat of measure 7, only to

become distorted by the appearance of a G natural in the violin I part. With the C# pedal in the

basses, measure eight begins with an A major harmony in first inversion that is also blurred by

the dissonances of violin I. Corigliano again changes the original chaconne cadence that ends in

the home key of D minor before shifting to the final C minor tonality.









Besides the tritones, Corigliano utilizes non-traditionally voiced augmented sixths and

the ascending chromatic line in the cellos, which stems from the original chaconne, to build

tension. The imitation of the four-note turn figure creates a greater degree of dissonance

throughout the cue because it is not always consonant with the underlying harmonic foundation.

Corigliano blends the original chaconne with new melodic and harmonic material that is full of

dissonant sonorities.

Other Elements Found in the Baroque Section of the Film

Following the opening credits of the film, the scene changes briefly to the present-day

city of Montreal. This scene is reintroduced throughout the film, appearing in small segments

that become increasingly longer as the film progresses. This auction scene is only briefly

introduced at the beginning of the film, followed quickly by a flashback to Cremona, Italy, in

1681. During this initial flashback, the violinmaker's wife Anna meets with her servant, who is

also a fortuneteller, to have her future read. (This fortuneteller narrates over each of the film's

sequences, describing the red violin's journeys.) Anna chooses five cards from a deck of tarot

cards for the fortuneteller to read. The five cards come to represent the five different sequences

from the movie. At this point in the film, Corigliano restates the first three chords of the

chaconne at a slower tempo, sustaining the last chord when she picks up the first card.

It was not a coincidence that Cremona, Italy, was chosen for this sequence. Cremona was

considered the undisputed capital of the world for violin making during the middle to late

periods of the Baroque. The film's director, Francois Girard, researched early violin making,

trying to recreate an authentic and realistic feel for the movie. According to Manfred Bukofzer:

Cremona was the home of the celebrated workshops of Amati, Stradivari and Guarneri.
These masters made of their craft a consummate art, which coincides with the significant
development of violin music in the Bologna School.5









During the Cremona sequence, Corigliano briefly states The Morritz theme, while the

violinmaker Busotti and his wife are looking at the moon and talking about their futures. (The

Morritz theme is not completely stated until the last sequence, taking place in Montreal, which

features appraiser Charles Morritz.) Stating an incomplete version of this theme in the opening

section foreshadows the connection between the violinmaker's wife's blood contained in the

varnish of the instrument and the present-day violin appraiser's search to find the lost red violin

and the truth behind its unique color.

After the Death ofAnna scene, there is a period without music. (This is the longest period

sans music since the beginning of the film.) Corigliano and Girard wanted to aurally depict the

loss of life and feeling of absence.

The next scene, beginning once more without music, is in the workshop where the

violinmaker is preparing to varnish the wood of his instrument. A human voice is heard during

the scene where the blood is applied, and then the violin takes over the material, symbolizing the

transference of Anna's spirit to the violin. As the scene progresses, the theme is developed and

the harmonies of the chaconne are added for emotional intensity.

By the conclusion of the first film sequence, Corigliano's music has established a

Baroque setting. Baroque elements include the chaconne, the augmented sixths albeit in non-

traditional voicings, the tonal thematic material, and some traditional voice leading. However, he

also utilizes devices that are anachronistic to the period, such as graph, box, and aleatoric

notations, and deviations from the harmonic, melodic, textural, and rhythmic norms of the

Baroque period. These devices are found in an example from The Red Violin Suite for Violin and

String Orchestra in Appendix A. The following Baroque, Classic, Gypsy, and Romantic









sequences also utilize techniques that help portray specific musical periods, while also including

elements that separate Corigliano's imitations from their models.

The Monastery

The Monastery sequence also uses elements similar in style to music from the Baroque

period. This sequence takes place in the mountains of Austria. The scene begins with an ox

pulling a peddler and his cart towards a monastery for orphan boys. While riding toward the

monastery, Corigliano's cue begins, but without a solo violin line. However, after the monastery

elders purchase a violin from the peddler, Corigliano adds the solo violin melody. Throughout

the sequence, scenes of different orphan boys playing the violin with a string ensemble are used

to portray the passing of time. When the last soloist, Kasper Weiss, concludes his playing, we see

he is breathing abnormally. This is later explained to the viewer through the dialogue that Kasper

has a weak heart. Girard uses this health problem to imply a connection between Weiss and the

famous Baroque violinist and composer Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741). Vivaldi, originally trained

for the priesthood and ordained in 1703, ceased saying Mass soon after his ordination, possibly

due to ill health. (He is known to have suffered from chest pain, possibly asthma or angina.6)

Vivaldi later worked for many years at the Ospedale della Pieta, one of the Venetian girls'

orphanages.

The entire Monastery cue is shown in Figure 4-9. Corigliano successfully creates a

Baroque-like variation of the original Red Violin thematic material. The harmony and style of the

cue are different from anything previously heard in the movie. Corigliano uses the first three

notes of The Red Violin theme as the motive for the cue (D-E-F). Four important characteristics

are apparent in the Monastery cue, helping to establish the Baroque style: 1. driving rhythm, 2.

imitation, 3. "fortspinnung" (development of a short motive throughout the entire work), and 4.

movement from tonic to dominant after the exposition.


















John Corigliano
Transcnbed by Yoonjec Kim


J=120
Primary Motive


Violin 1




Violin 2




Violin 3



VIn. I




Vln.2




Vln. 3



Vln. I




Vhn.2




Vhn.3



Vln. 1




Vln. 2




Vln. 3



Vln. I




Vhn. 2




Vln.3


(Piecad Third)


Figure 4-9. The Monastery cue


1-- lm r 1 f ff F F m r





mj^ io =-= : .'^ 6-
nriiaon at Urnsoa





















dfa or V 4. ...z
































U i t
ZdrG r r,


i -Lr


. i.-:










Baroque Rhythm

The motus perpetua rhythm was an important characteristic of music throughout the

Baroque period. Corigliano's use of such rhythms helps suggest this musical period. Corigliano's

cue remains rhythmically active throughout, not stopping until the final cadence. The opening

rhythmic figure is similar to one typical of Baroque music. This rhythmic figure was not limited

to the Baroque, as it is featured in the works of Haydn, Mozart, and early Beethoven. Figure 4-10

compares familiar Baroque works that utilize the eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic figures with

that of Corigliano's Monastery cue.

Opening figure from Bach's Brandenburg Concerto #2



Opening figure from Vivaldi's "Spring" Op. 8, 1st movement


Bach's Concerto #13 in C major, BWV 984
Based on a violin concerto Duke Johann Ernst of Saxe-Weimar

Sr 1 1 F r

Opening figure from the Monastery by Corigliano




Figure 4-10. Similarity between Baroque examples and Corigliano's rhythmic motive

A different Baroque-like note sequence Corigliano employed in the Monastery cue is

found in measures 9-10. Like many other composers of the Baroque, this gesture is found in the

violin music of Vivaldi, as George Buelow elaborates:

Vivaldi's music had a harmonic regularity, and he also preferred a counterpoint with less
difficulty. He also delineated individual parts by a simpler and more audible means of
timbre. 7









Repetition is a stylistic feature used to make the music sound active while also

having slow harmonic rhythm. The constant repetition of the notes helps articulate the

harmony and keep the texture active.

Baroque Imitation

Another feature of Corigliano's Monastery cue is the use of melodic imitation.

Imitation was one of the key devices employed by Baroque composers. Corigliano

divides the violins for this cue into three parts. He has all three parts repeat the opening

measure in canon (without any alterations). Throughout the cue, Corigliano employs

imitation at the unison. Corigliano does not use a specific method of imitation, and this

excerpt is in a freely imitative style where only the opening material is imitated between

the voices.

Motive

Corigliano restates a simple motive that is spun out relentlessly throughout the

entire cue, typically identified asfortspinnung, (spinning out).

Late Baroque music was usually monothematic, often developing a short motive

continuously throughout the composition. This characteristic is also included in

Corigliano's cue, as he states a motive and employs thefortspinnung technique

throughout the entire cue.

Baroque Tonality

The beginning of the Late Baroque was defined in part by common-practice

tonality replacing any remaining vestiges of modality. As The Monastery sequence

begins, it can be assumed that the time frame is still in or near the 1680s. (It is mentioned

later in the film that the violinmaker died in 1681, the same year as his wife.) Manfred

Bukofzer explains the importance of this historic date:









The Late Baroque music is different from the earlier phases of the Baroque style
as the establishment of tonality was realized in Italy around 1680. The date marks
the decisive turning point in the history of harmony, which coincides with the
beginning of the Late Baroque period.10

Corigliano wrote the Monastery cue in the key of D minor, later modulating to the

relative major (measures 23-25 temporarily tonicize G major). Corigliano clearly

establishes the tonality of The Monastery cue in the opening measures and progresses to a

half cadence at measure eight. He emphasizes the dominant in measure four, and shifts to

a V7 of III, and then to the III chord (the relative major). Throughout the cue, Corigliano

clearly employs a traditional tonal scheme.

Another common 18th Century feature Corigliano uses is a circle of fifth

progression. Figure 4-11 shows Corigliano's employment of such a progression in the

Monastery cue. Interestingly, there is an appearance in every measure of a seventh, which

resolves correctly downward.

Vin.I
Vln. 1

2 I.3 J I '




Figure 4-11. Descending circle of fifths progression in The Monastery measures 12-16

Corigliano's ends the work in A major. This would not be common in the

Baroque period. Many compositions of the Baroque conclude on the tonic (minor mode

shifting to the tonic major). If Corigliano were following the Baroque tradition, he would

have certainly ended the work on the tonic. This was done to avoid the feeling of

conclusion to the cue for transitional purposes in the narrative of the film.









Other Baroque Stylistic Features

Another characteristic that helps establish the Baroque feeling of the cue is

Corigliano's use of little rhythmic variation. In Baroque music, the rhythms that were

introduced in the opening measures typically constitute the entire work's rhythmic

material.

Other missing elements common in the Baroque are ornamentation, and a basso-

continuo. The only ornament that Corigliano uses is the trill found in measure seven.

Genre

Corigliano's Monastery cue draws upon ideas and conventions from several

genres. The work begins with a tutti (Exposition) that is followed by the soloist over the

string ensemble accompaniment. The cue is a combination of both the Baroque concerto

and a concerto grosso. Corigliano's music is not an authentic concerto grosso because

the cue does not contain the two orchestral sections that make up this form, (ripieno and

concertino), as a group of soloists acting as a single player are not found. This cue is also

not a Baroque concerto because in such the orchestra would stop at times in order for the

instrumentalist to play solo passages. This cue does not exhibit such solo passages

without accompaniment. In the film, the cue is first introduced sans soloist and is then

repeated again with the solo line. Corigliano writes his cue in the style of Vivaldi.

Vivaldi's work is probably the most familiar Baroque music to the average movie going

audience. Corigliano wanted to emulate this Vivaldi-like style in his work, which would

immediately be heard as Baroque-like. Corigliano interweaves both of these two styles

together into a hybrid of the Baroque concerto and the concerto grosso; he does not

follow a specific, historically correct form to musically evoke the time period of the cue.









Despite the small liberties taken in genre, form, and orchestration, The Monastery

cue remains true to the Baroque model through the use of motor rhythms, motivic

saturation, and harmonic and textural practices typical of the era. Corigliano uses many

techniques in his Monastery cue to create a work that is Baroque-like. His music is a

combination of the Baroque German contrapuntal style with the virtuosity and scaler

passages found in the Italian Baroque school. However, Corigliano uses no

ornamentation, no basso continue, and concludes the work in the dominant A major.

The Audition

The Audition cue contains Baroque stylistic devices that are similar to J.S. Bach's

solo violin music, specifically his Sonata Number One in G minor for Unaccompanied

Violin (BWV 1001).

In the film, the monks make travel arrangements for the patron teacher Monsieur

Poussin to travel from Vienna to the Monastery to hear the boy prodigy Kasper Weiss.

Frustrated and tired from the long journey, Poussin is not expecting the timid boy, whose

violin is too big for his little hands, to have a lot of talent. Kasper begins to play a solo

violin work. The boy's talent immediately peaks the teacher's curiosity.

The monks explain to Poussin that the violin the boy is playing has been at the

orphanage for about one hundred years. (As the violin was created in 1681, this sequence

takes place after 1781, the period of Haydn and Mozart.) Figure 4-12 shows the entire

cue that Kasper Weiss plays.

Melody

The Adagio melody Corigliano creates is freely played, full of rhapsodic

passages. The style of the music is similar to the Adagio from Bach's suite (shown below










in example 4-14). Corigliano begins this cue using a transposition of The Red Violin

theme's main motive to g minor.


Kasper's Audition


John Corigliano
Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


= 68 (very free)


13
















S8 ,J ,
**- L


Figure 4-12. Kasper's Audition

Figure 4-13 illustrates the differences between the opening measures of The Red

Violin theme and Kapser 's Audition. The third measure, first beat ofKasper's Audition

has been reduced, showing only the principal pitches. Both cues use similar motivic

material. The first three measures of the themes are connected. At the end of the example,

both cues have a similar arching melodic shape. The Audition theme, however, is altered




116


Violin









by an ascent at the end. Corigliano uses similar melodies but changes the harmony in the

Audition cue.

Opening of Red Violin Theme





Opening of Kasper's Audition

------------------


Figure 4-13. A Comparison: Opening of the Red Violin theme and Kasper 's Audition cue

Style

Many composers throughout history have written solo works for the violin,

including J.S. Bach. Bach's most famous work for the instrument is The Sonatas and

Partitas for Unaccompanied Solo Violin BWV 1001-1006. According to theorist Joel

Lester, "Bach's sonatas and partitas for solo violin have been central to the violin

repertoire since the mid-eighteenth century."13 The set for unaccompanied violin was

used during the mid to late 18th century pedagogically, and therefore make sense as a

historical model for a scene taking place in the late 18th Century Joel Lester believes that

this set of pieces was studied during this time period: "There is evidence that Bach's solo

violin works have been a regular part of violin pedagogy since the eighteenth century."14

It is not surprising that Corigliano subconsciously based his own Baroque-like

solo violin cue on the Bach model. Corigliano says that the composition was not

influenced or adapted from Bach's music. He states that he was trying to compose a work

in the style of the violin solo repertoire utilizing The Red Violin theme.2









Corigliano relied upon his practical aural knowledge of period literature instead of

musicological research when composing the film score to The Red Violin. The audition

cue is a mix of many elements, including the stylistic features found in Bach's solo violin

works. A striking musical similarity occurs between Bach and Corigliano's opening

measures. Besides employing the same key of G minor, both opening chords are identical

in their construction. This was the first time in the film that Corigliano used this tonal

region, leaving behind for the first time the tonic key of D minor. This chord's sonority is

rich and thick because it uses the first two open strings of the violin. Lester discusses the

sound and the importance of Bach's opening chord:

Since this chord opens Bach's cycle of solo-violin works, in a larger sense it
alludes to the entire collection of unaccompanied sonatas and partitas. And from
the broadest perspective, it is an icon for all violin music--in part because these
Bach pieces have been so central to violin pedagogy for more than two centuries,
but even more because the chord, containing the two lower open strings, so
embodies violinistic sound and sonority.15

The sound of this chord has become etched into every violinist's psyche, and

Corigliano makes a subconscious decision to begin his work with a gesture similar to

Bach's. Both works also end with the same quadruple stop chord, however Corigliano

alters his final chord subtly, raising the third scale degree to create a major sonority

(Picardy Third).

Besides being in the same key, the melodic shape of Corigliano's first phrase is

also similar to Bach's. However, Bach's music is full of many flourishes and contains

multiple stops on almost every beat throughout the work. Figure 4-14 illustrates the

opening of Bach's Adagio and Corigliano's Kasper's Audition cue. Corigliano's cue does

bear some resemblances to Bach's Adagio.
























Sh


Adagio
A


Sonata Number One in G Minor (Adagio) BWV 1001


Ji IanI


JS Bach


ow, veryfree Kasper's Audition
John Corigliano


Figure 4-14. Opening of J.S. Bach's Adagio and opening ofKasper's Audition cue by
John Corigliano

After the initial quadruple stop, Corigliano's cue proceeds differently from Bach's

to showcase the opening motivic material of The Red Violin theme. Following the initial

presentation of the Red Violin theme in the manner of a Bach solo violin work,

Corigliano's music shows a similarity to Bach's opening melodic shape. For example,

after Bach's quadruple stop, there is a quick descending flourish, followed by a 7-6

suspension on the dominant seventh. After Corigliano states the opening of The Red

Violin motive, there is a fast descending flourish followed by a 4-3 suspension on the

dominant seventh.

Harmony

Besides the opening cue material, there are similarities in the harmonic

implications of the two works. Bach's Adagio is a larger work than Corigliano's cue.

Though the Bach work has more time to explore different harmonic regions and develop









motivic ideas, the Audition cue still contains its own interesting harmonic devices. Table

4-1 shows Corigliano's tonal loci in Kasper 's Audition.

4-1. Harmonic chart of the Audition cue
m. 1 m. 9-12 m. 14-16 m. 18 m. 20

gm cm Bb Aug 6 GM

Corigliano begins by using a conventional progression towards a D dominant

seventh half-cadence. (This is identical to Bach's Adagio opening.) Following this

section Corigliano moves to the Neapolitan Ab major. Unusual features in this section

include the passage from D7 to Ab, a backwards motion from a dominant sonority to a

Neapolitan chord. It is over this harmony that Corigliano states the second part of The

Red Violin theme.

Following the commonplace augmented sixth chord, Corigliano's cue breaks

more Baroque harmonic norms as he utilizes a more contemporary harmonic language in

the conclusion of the cue. For example, in measure eighteen Corigliano writes parallel

fifths (Eb-Bb and Db-Ab.) After the Bb major section, Corigliano suddenly moves to a D

dominant seventh chord. Corigliano in the next measure applies chromaticism using an

extended tertian harmony.

Unlike the Bach, Corigliano's cue is again devoid of ornamentation. Corigliano

could have made his cue more Baroque-like if he had included ornamentation. He instead

focuses on the rhapsodic feeling, another Bach characteristic.

During the middle of the cue, Corigliano uses a steady pulse of eighth notes

(measures 9-16) that enhance the Baroque style of his cue. Rhythm is an important

element that Corigliano uses to imitate music from an historic time period. Unlike in the









Baroque, however, he varies the harmonic rhythm, seen in the shifting meters in the

transcription.

Corigliano highlights specific elements of the Baroque style, still maintaining the

sense of period. He subconsciously chose only some elements from the Baroque period

because of his vast aural knowledge of the literature. He steps out of the style to fit the

needs of the film, specifically the employment of The Red Violin theme, the odd voice-

leading and the changes in the harmonic rhythm, which is the most distinguishing feature

of the cue.

Journey to Vienna

The Journey to Vienna cue draws its inspiration from the Viennese Classical

style. This section examines the similarities between Corigliano's cue and music from the

mid-18th Century. The Journey sequence begins directly after Kasper 's Audition cue.

Poussin decides to bring Kasper to Vienna to teach him the violin. Throughout

this ninety-second cue, Corigliano's score is slow and replete with secondary and

diminished chords, resembling the Classical style. Corigliano's cue was designed to

evoke melancholy through musical devices such as melodic sighs.

Figure 4-15 shows the cue Corigliano composed for the Journey to Vienna

sequence. This is the first time in the film that Corigliano utilizes a major key.

The Journey to Vienna cue shows Corigliano's ability to adapt the chaconne to

the style of the early Classical period. The original chaconne is cleverly embedded as the

cue's melody.












Journey to Vienna


-68


John Corigliano
Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3






Eb Major: I IV viio/V



2 | I I I I I. I







4
P) I- -









V6 V4/2 viio7 16 IV












7

16/4 V I (etc.)




a rI I L



3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3



9 ,,. r r F ,,.... --,,


Figure 4-15. Journey to Vienna cue









Rhythm

A steady triplet eighth note figure is employed throughout the entire cue. This

arpeggiation outlines the chordal structure and clarifies the harmonic progression.

Classical composers first used the arpeggiated triplet because it activated the

harmony over time. According to theorist William Duckworth, "Arpeggiated chords were

used rather than block chords to avoid directing the listener's attention toward the vertical

aspects of the harmony."19 The triplet figure is a device used throughout the Classical and

into the Romantic period. The arpeggiations can last for an entire composition.

Corigliano follows this Classical tendency with this cue.

Melody

Corigliano's melody for this cue comes from a variation of the original chaconne.

The chaconne is placed on top of the erstwhile classical cue, with an atypical emphasis

on the use of melodic retardations that highlight the features of the original chaconne.

He changes some elements of the melody in the Journey chaconne to fit this

Classical-like work. The changes to the chaconne include tonality, rhythm, and meter.

Figure 4-16 shows both the original chaconne and the Journey variation. Included

in this example is a reduction of both chaconnes to illustrate important pitches and

melodic shape. Corigliano changes the minor tonality of the original chaconne to major.

The double-dotted rhythm, a trademark of the original chaconne, is eliminated.

The duration of the Journey chaconne phrase is eight measures, comporting with

typical classical periodicity, while the original chaconne is only seven measures. A

further difference between the chaconne from the Journey cue and the original is the

overall shape. The original chaconne ascends throughout the entire statement, and the

Journey chaconne rises to the fifth measure, and then falls back towards the end. The










Journey and the original chaconne both end on the tonic sonority of its key. Other aspects

of the melody include Corigliano's use of grace notes within the melody at the beginning

of the sixth and thirteenth measures.

Original Chaconne
0 John Corigliano
S=50




Chaconne Reduction

nI I I, I I I



= 68 Journey Chaconne

V o I I I I


Journey Chaconne Reduction





Figure 4-16. Chaconne and Journey to Vienna chaconne

Harmonic Implications

The Journey cue is divided into two parts. The first part uses the chaconne

melody over a simple, straightforward harmonic progression. The second part repeats this

progression and chaconne melody, adding a descant in the highest violins. This

counterpoint helps embellish the simple harmonic progression.

Corigliano uses a slow harmonic rhythm that is also characteristic of the Classical

period. For example, the first four measures of the Journey cue contain only one chord

per measure. Leonard Ratner summarizes Classical harmonic rhythm:









Harmonic progressions in Late Baroque music, controlled by the active bass part,
had quick rates of chord change. The clearer symmetries of classic music made it
possible to achieve simple but attractive musical effects with slow regular changes
of chord within relatively simple cadential formulas.21

Corigliano's harmonic rhythm speeds up toward the end of the work in measure thirteen.

He keeps the same chaconne pitches from the first section; however, he changes the

rhythm from quarter to eighth notes. Speeding the harmonic rhythm at the conclusion of

the work was also a common technique within Classical works. An important violation of

the norm is the final pitch, F, correcting the non-standard and unresolved G from measure

seven. Ratner discusses the importance of the cadence in the Classical period:

A listener attuned to 18th century musical rhetoric accepts the authentic cadence,
which is the progression of dominant to tonic with both chords in root position.
This was a firm and proper conclusion to a period.22

Journey to Vienna Conclusions

The simplicity of this cue draws parallels to the early Classical period. The most

important element in this cue is the adaptation of the chaconne, and the manner in which

it is seamlessly adapted to fit the style. The slow moving harmonic rhythm, steady triplet

arpeggiation, small phrases, and traditional harmonic progression are all general stylistic

traits that are found in the cue and make it Classical in style.

The Metronome

Corigliano composed the Metronome cue before the music was synchronized to

the film. In the metronome sequence, Poussin introduces Kasper to a handmade

metronome. He demonstrates that the tempo of the etude he is learning will eventually

reach the fastest speed on the machine with practice. Corigliano's music is technically

demanding for the performer, and is thus used to demonstrate the boy's virtuosity. Figure











4-17 illustrates the metronome music heard within the film. This excerpt is repeated at


increasingly faster tempi throughout the film's sequence.




The Metronome


John Corigliano
Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


Violin

D MAJOR: I


I (viio) (vi) (V) V7


IV I V7 I V/IV IV V
I (over scale degree 4)





I





I (viio) (vi) (V) V7 IV I V7 I





V7/vi vi





V7/V V


Figure 4-17. The Metronome cue


Melody

Corigliano begins this cue by employing the opening pitches of The Red Violin


theme. He changes the original mode from D minor to D major, making corresponding


adjustments to the melody. After the first three pitches are stated, the Metronome cue


completely changes motivically and harmonically from the original cue while



126


4









maintaining the overall shape of the original theme's melody. Corigliano changes the first

leap of a perfect fifth in the original theme (F to C) to a minor sixth (F#-D) to establish

the tonic D (instead of the vague modal opening found in the original Red Violin theme).

Harmony

All the musical cues from the Vienna sequence are written in a major key,

including Journey to Vienna, the Metronome, and Walking to the Palace. According to

author Leonard Ratner, the Classical era is known for its abundant use of the major key.

Corigliano wanted to emulate the feeling of the period, which was enhanced by the

employment of the major key. Ratner discusses the shift of importance from minor to

major modes in the Classical period.

The cadential assertiveness of the major mode is one of the principal reasons for its
higher rank in classic music. Rousseau and others point out that its tonic triad
reinforces the harmonic series, an advantage not offered in the minor triad. The
major diatonic scale contains the tritone between 4 and 7; therefore it has the power
to make functional cadences. Progressions in the major mode have the authority
that supports periodic rhetoric. There was a shift to greater use of major keys
during the 18 century.23

The Metronome cue can be considered a learning piece in the context of the

narrative. The young prodigy is studying an etude for his future audition. Based on earlier

evidence cited by Lester, the boy would probably not play current works from his

Classical contemporaries, such as Mozart or Haydn, but rather might play that of Bach.

The music from this cue parallels the violin writing of the Baroque period, including

works by composers Corelli, Bach, and Vivaldi.

Within the cue, Corigliano uses a harmonic language that deviates from that of the

Baroque period. Corigliano's opening harmony consists of unusually placed non-

harmonic tones. For example, the second beat of the first measure begins with the pitch

E. As mentioned previously in the Melody section, the pitch E was used to maintain the








opening pitch collection of The Red Violin theme (D-E-F#). However, this non-harmonic

tone causes harmonic problems, which would have been avoided in the Baroque. The E

pitch could be considered a passing tone between the tonic's primary pitches of D and F#.

The pitch E is an accented non-harmonic tone on the downbeat of beat two. The unusual

feature in this section is how long the E is held before moving to the F#.

Corigliano blurs the harmony with non-harmonic tones on almost every beat

throughout the work. (Refer to Figure 4-17 for a complete analysis of the Metronome

cue.) The tonic remains prevalent in the second measure with the use of a pedal D

throughout. A retrogression occurs from measure 3-4 with a V moving to a IV. Also, a

bizarre pedal G below the tonic chord occurs in measure six. Otherwise, the

Metronome's primary chords consist of the progression I-IV-V.

Style
The Metronome cue has a driving rhythm, which lasts for the entire cue, with

constant sixteenth notes. This technique is strikingly similar to Corelli's Sonata for Violin

and Cello, Op. 5, No. Allegro (Figure 4-18). Corelli also uses only sixteenth notes in

the solo violin leading up to the final cadential half-note.

Sonata for Violin and Violone Op. 5, No.1


Violin


Ccllo


A. Corelli




K~~


Figure 4-18. Sonata for Violin and Violone Op.5, No. 1 measures 1-3









In terms of the violin's range, Corelli does not write a note over an E6

Corigliano's cue clearly shows signs of Romantic influence. The violin writing is

extremely difficult, requiring the violinist to play a D7, then jumping down four octaves.

This would never occur in a Baroque work. Vivaldi, for example, wrote passages in what

was thought of as a high tessitura for the time, but nothing approaches the range of

Corigliano's cue. Playing in such a high register did not occur until the great Italian violin

virtuoso Paganini in the early 19th Century.

The Metronome Conclusions

The Metronome cue evokes a pedagogical work. An important stylistic feature,

creating the impression that this work is from the Baroque, is again the rhythm. Similar to

the Monastery, Kasper's Audition, and Journey to Vienna cues, the listener does not

focus on the slight harmonic and melodic anomalies Corigliano employed.

Walking to the Palace

The Walking to the Palace Classical-like cue occurs at the end of the Vienna

sequence. After the boy prodigy has mastered the violin, he walks with his teacher

Poussin down the city streets to his destination--an audition for a prince who is looking

for a young prodigy to accompany him on his tour. While the two are walking, the boy

begins to hum a simple tune. The teacher then asks him to sing it backwards. After this

variation, Kasper restates the tune in its unvaried form while Poussin sings a bass line to

the piece, which implies the harmonic progression of the work. This short cue, which is

not included in the original movie soundtrack or suite, will be discussed because of its

Late Baroque and Classical stylistic traits.
















Walking to the Palace
John Corigliano
=4 Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


Boy -
Boy


Teacher


1, ,
Violins


Timpani



Boy -


Teacher


Violins -



Timp.



Boy


Teacher


Violins 4 .



Timp.







Teacher


Violins



Timp.










Figure 4-19. Walking to the Palace cue












130









Rhythm

The construction of Corigliano's motivic material is similar to the Monastery cue,

specifically the eighth and sixteenth note patterns. As illustrated previously, this rhythmic

device was used extensively in the Baroque period, but it was also utilized in the

Classical styles of such noted composers as Mozart, Haydn, and Muzio Clementi (1752-

1832), specifically in Clementi's didactic Sonatinas.

Similar to works of the Baroque period, Corigliano keeps the rhythm moving

between the principal cadential points. However, many Baroque composers did not

supply a resting point until the work's final measure. Taking more from the Classical

norm in this respect, Corigliano divides his cue into smaller phrases. Corigliano gives a

clear separation of phrase lengths, unlike the motor-like style from the Monastery cue.

According to Ratner:

The device of smaller phrases, employing dominant to tonic cadential points, was
more common in the Classical period. The symmetrical grouping of short phrases,
two, three or four measures in length, were clearly articulated by lesser points of
articulation.24

Melody

The melody is simple in its construction. For the first time in the film, the music

shows no overt connection to either the chaconne harmony or The Red Violin theme,

though the sequential treatment of materials that lifts everything by step creates a vague

impression of the original melody. The appearance of a large palace coincides with the

cue's conclusion. Corigliano adds strings to emulate a Mozart-like overture. The double-

dotted rhythm of the French overture and original chaconne theme is found in this

section. Another trait of the French overture in Corigliano's cue is the ending on the

dominant. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music, "Double-dotting is expected in









the opening section, and is expected to end in the dominant or relative major.'25 Figure 4-

20 shows the overture-like theme Corigliano wrote for the end of the Walking to the

Palace cue.


Overture-like Motive
John Corigliano






Figure 4-20. Overture style from Walking to the Palace cue

Harmony

Corigliano uses simple triads in his Walking to the Palace cue. The chords within

the work consist of the tonic, supertonic, and dominant triads. In 18th Century harmony,

the pre-dominant minor ii chord would usually be followed by the dominant. Skipping

this step and going directly to the tonic was unusual during this period. Corigliano

utilizes this retrogression in measure three, ii I.

Style

Given the context of the cue, its simplistic melodic and harmonic content, and

when it occurs in the movie, the work draws parallels to the instructional studies of the

era depicted. Corigliano's cue has a youthful feeling throughout. Corigliano wanted to

aurally evoke a young musician learning the fundaments of composition. The music is

simple in its construction, from the shape of the melody to the simple tonic and dominant

chords.

There is a resemblance here to the sonatinas of Clementi. Figure 4-21 represents

measures one through four of Clementi's famous C Major Sonatina. His melody is also

derived from its simple harmonies.










Sonatina
Muzio Clementi
Allegro


Piano




Figure 4-21. Sonatina, Op. 36 in CMajor, measures 1-4 by Muzio Clementi

Walking to the Palace Conclusions

Corigliano's cue is in a simple, 18th Century style. The shorter phrases,

concluding with half or authentic cadences, help establish the Classical style. The simple

diatonic Eb key, without using chromaticism and the overture-like theme at the end,

further gives the work a Classical feeling. In his book Music of the Classical Period,

Theodore E. Heger explains, "Harmony was kept simple so as not to intrude or detract

from the theme."28 The pedagogic style of the piece draws more parallels to the Classical

era.

The Gypsies Journey Across Europe

The music of this cue was inspired by the early 19th Century Romany music of

Eastern Europe. After the death of Kapser Weiss, the violin teacher Poussin is told by the

monks that the instrument was buried with the boy "so he can play the violin in heaven."

The teacher is dumbfounded, practically crying at this terrible news since he wanted the

valuable violin for himself. The next scene, showing the boy's grave dug up and the

instrument stolen from the coffin, is accompanied by Gypsy music. David Malvinni's

book Gypsy Caravan, discusses the looted grave scene from the film:

The Red Violin's possession by the Gypsies occurs as the result of theft, and in
terms of the supernatural, the worst kind--grave robbing. The film thus confirms









one of the West's main and most persistent stereotypes of Gypsies, that they are
grave robbers.29

Malvinni also discusses how the fortuneteller's vision set up the Gypsy theft: "And

then I see a time of life. A time of lust and energy. Loosed across mountains and oceans,

and time. "30 This confirms the stereotype of Gypsies as people free from government and

possession of land. Within the Gypsy sequence, the director Girard creates the illusion of

elapsed time by showing different people playing the red violin at various locations.

Style

By the time Kasper Weiss dies, it can be assumed that the date would be around

the beginning of the 19th Century. This chronology is reinforced as the violin teacher

Poussin mentions during the Vienna sequence that Mozart is deceased, which places that

scene after 1791. Much early 19th Century Gypsy music is poorly documented at best.

However, one form that began in this period and has lasted in Gypsy culture is the

Verbunkos. Many Gypsy musicians were improvisers, playing in a style passed on by

aural tradition. According to Malvinni:

Gypsy music is synonymous with the freedom of improvisation. Bohemian art
more than any other belongs to the domain of improvisation, without which it does
not exist. Because improvisation became so prominent, so fetishized, so ritualized
in the marketing of Gypsy music with and after Liszt.31

Malvinni states, "Gypsy music is usually unwritten, and when appropriated by

composers, this unwritten aspect survives in the notion of a Gypsy performance style, one

heavily laden with emotion."32 This emotional aspect is highlighted within Corigliano's

Gypsy cue. As there is no codified Gypsy music with which to compare Corigliano's cue,

concert music composers from the 19th Century who wrote works in a similar style will

be referenced and discussed.









This cue calls for a small group of caravan musicians playing the cymbalum,

accordion, clarinet, viola, and double bass to accompany the violin and not the usual

string orchestra accompaniment in the film. The cymbalum, a stringed instrument similar

to the dulcimer, originated in Turkey and was brought to Romania and Hungary in the

16th Century. It gained widespread popularity in the folk music of the 19th Century, and

has become synonymous with the Gypsy band. Corigliano used the cymbalum to create a

more authentic Gypsy sound. The other instruments mentioned were all used extensively

in Gypsy bands during the 19th Century. The Grove Music Online Dictionary documents

the use of some of these instruments with the following two entries:

The influence of 18th-century Viennese serenade ensembles is evident in the
instrumentation of the Gypsy bands, to which extra bowed instruments and, from
the third decade of the 19th century, one or two clarinets were sometimes added.
Gypsy bands also use the viola, cello and double bass (tuned to standard pitch).33

In Roma populated areas of Eastern Europe, the Taraf ensembles of Romania and
cigany banda of Hungarian areas (expanding to areas of the former Habsburg
empire), comprising violin, viola and double bass, may be combined with local
instruments. 34

Corigliano wanted to capture the feeling of Gypsy music in this cue, and did this

by ear alone. However, Corigliano's cue has similarities with Verbunkos. Verbunkos did

not originate with the Gypsies, but they made it popular. According to musicologist Leon

Plantinga, Verbunkos was a style of dance, originating with the indigenous folk from

Hungary in the mid- to late-18th Century, used for military recruiting. Verbunkos

characteristics include:

1. Alternating slow and fast sections
2. Sharply accentuated rhythms with many dotted figures and triplets
3. Colorful violinistic ornamentation and paraphrase
4. A distinctive cadential pattern, which includes a cambiata figure in dotted note
rhythms called the Bokazo35









The music of the Verbunkos has been associated with the Gypsies since they were

usually the musicians playing in the recruiting bands. These recruiting bands would

evolve into the Gypsy bands that would eventually define a part of Gypsy culture. The

Verbunkos was performed in full military uniform where the dancers even wore swords

and spurs.

During parties, the Verbunkos dance reflected the peak of entertainment. It must go
with spurs, whose ringing can be sharply distinguished from the major tunes of the
cymbalo.36

The Hungarian Gypsy composer Janos Bihari (1764-1827) was the first composer

to incorporate the Verbunkos into concert music. Bihari, who was also an accomplished

violinist, wrote over 80 compositions incorporating the Verbunkos. Later in the 19th

Century, Franz Liszt even used this style in his famous Hungarian Rhapsodies for solo

piano.

Figure 4-22 shows the first and second parts of the Gypsy cue from The Red

Violin. The opening slow, free section is contrasted with the Allegro that follows. In this

cue it can be seen how Corigliano maintains all four Verbunkos characteristics as earlier

defined by Plantiga.

The first Verbunkos characteristic Plantinga describes is the contrasting slow and

fast sections. Corigliano's cue begins with a slow solo violin passage, playing freely with

an improvisatory-like style. Again, according to Plantinga, the slow sections of the

Verbunkos usually contain long notes contrasted with faster, cadenza-like passages.

Corigliano begins his cue with sustained half notes in the first four measures, presenting

the principal pitch material. The cadenza-like section follows in Corigliano's fifth and

sixth measures, ending in measure seven with an accented pizzicato. Sarosi quotes a

German officer from 1791 about the opening style of the Verbunkos:











The true Hungarian dances have to begin really slowly and then they must be
continued faster. They are much more becoming to a serious mustached face than
to a young lad.37


The Gypsies Journey Across Europe


Slow and Freely

A j 1.'-


John Corigliano
Transcribed by Yoonjee Kim


freely


/iolir


F


arco
'p1 l I I l IIII 1 pizzr. m



Allegro















, d 0 N i
3 0 :







f----. I ,, -- I J I I l I


Figure 4-22. The Gypsies Journey across Europe cue


Similar musical forms were used in Pablo Sarasate's (1844-1908) Zigeunerweisen


(Gypsy Airs) and Maurice Ravel's (1875-1937) Tzigane (Gypsy). Both works, which







137


41, fl









were written for solo violin and orchestra, begin with a slower section, followed by

extended Allegro sections.

The slow, rhapsodic opening of Corigliano's cue is followed by an Allegro, which

includes a Gypsy band accompaniment. The Gypsy band is omitted in the cue's

transcription. Corigliano's also uses compound meters within the cue. He uses many

rhythms common to the Verbunkos as well as meter changes in the Allegro section.

However, the asymmetrical meters are not characteristic of the typical Verbunkos style.

Another key element is his use of ornamentation, which is usually improvised by the

performer.

The Allegro section of the cue fades out, repeating the last phrase as the film

shows a Gypsy man sailing away from the shore. The fortuneteller voice-over follows,

speaking of a man "who will seduce her with his talent." The man appears, walking

through the woods hearing the sound of the Gypsy motivic material, which is played on

the red violin. This twenty-second sequence can be considered the third-part of the Gypsy

cue, giving closure to the preceding section by ending with a fast ascending flourish and a

cadential figure. This musical cue employs the fourth device that musicologist Plantinga

describes as a characteristic of the Verbunkos, a clear cadential pattern. The techniques

that Corigliano omits from the Verbunkos are ending the work with a dotted note rhythm

and a cambiata.

Melody

As with most previous cues in the film, excluding Walking to the Place,

Corigliano is able to incorporate The Red Violin theme into the Gypsy cue. The opening

slow section begins in A harmonic minor. The sound of the harmonic minor scale has

become synonymous, to the point of being a cliche, with Gypsy music. Liszt and Bartok









utilized the augmented second often in their works to evoke the Gypsy style. Some

noteworthy 19th Century pieces characteristically in this style include Bihari Janos's

Dances in Hungarian Style and Pablo De Sarasate's Gypsy Airs. Interestingly, Hungarian

author Balint Sarosi claims that original folk and Gypsy scales did not incorporate this

interval often, but composers beginning with Liszt have incorrectly employed it in their

concert music.

The typical keys are major and minor, which may be combined with the
Mixolydian and Aeolian modes. Other modal keys may also appear, and indeed
occasionally even the scale, which is characteristic of the older Hungarian
folksongs "pentatony." Just as rare in the folk music of the Gypsies as in
Hungarian folk music: is the minor scale with two augmented seconds, the
"Hungarian scale" or Gypsy scale. The augmented second is in any case rare,
although our nineteenth century Gypsy musicians liberally peppered their playing
with it, and even Liszt himself felt it to be such a typically Gypsy feature.38

If one accepts the premise that the augmented second is evocative of Gypsy

music, then one can understand Corigliano's rationale for making these intervals

prominent in the opening section of this cue. By repeating the first two measures one

octave lower, Corigliano highlights the augmented second sound in the introduction. The

Allegro section also features the augmented second interval. This interval is a key

component of the principal motivic material for the second section.

Corigliano employs many embellishments and ornamentation within the melody

to establish the style of the cue. This is a key characteristic of Gypsy music, as musicians

playing in this style always add ornamentation as a form of personal expression. Balint

Sarosi elaborates on Gypsy musicians' playing style and the use of ornamentation in the

Verbunkos dance:

Since the time of Ferenc Verseghy (1757-1822), writer and linguist of German-
type culture, Gypsy musicians have been strongly reproached for tasteless
ornamentation. The Verbunkos style is precisely the opposite of everything which
we call Puritanism in music. Here it really is necessary to revel in ornaments and









in means, which create an effect. It was largely the Gypsy musicians who carried
out this style in practice, but naturally not only they--indeed, chiefly not the
Gypsies at all, determined what should be in the style. Among them, therefore, the
only ones who should be reproached because of ornamentation are those who did
not know how to use it properly.39

Sarosi declares that ornamentation was one the greatest devices employed in Gypsy

music. He claims there was an abundance of ornamentation in their songs. The ornaments

gave life to the music. Corigliano uses ornamentation within his cue to establish an

historical and cultural connection. His chief technique of ornamentation is the grace note.

Another ornamental inflection used in this cue is the quartertone. Recordings of

authentic Gypsy music showcase performers coloring the equal temperament Western

scale through the use of such inflections. The sound of the quartertones helps to reinforce

the character of the music in Corigliano's cue.

The Gypsies Journey Across Europe

.I L ,-t ,i _.-,



The Red Violin Theme





Figure 4-23. Adaptation of The Red Violin theme in the Gypsy cue

Corigliano's incorporation of The Red Violin theme from measures 24-29 unifies

the Gypsy music with the main motivic material of the film. Before this thematic material

appears at measure 24, the Gypsy cue sounds "new" in the context of the film. The

opening three pitches stem from The Red Violin theme, but since they are manipulated

and inverted, they are hard to distinguish. Figure 4-23 compares the original Red Violin

theme with the variation from the Gypsy cue.









Corigliano has changed the rhythmic value of the motivic material from half and

quarter notes to the quicker quarter and eighth notes. The first three measures of the

original Red Violin theme are reduced into two measures. However, he gives a varied

repeat in the second part to last the same duration as the original theme. Intervalically, the

Gypsy cue begins identically to the original (A-B, A-B-C). The leap that follows has been

inverted--a perfect fifth (F-C) has now become a perfect fourth (C-F). This leap is

followed by a descent of a second in both examples.

Corigliano begins in the same natural minor scale. However, in measure three of

the Gypsy cue, he alters it by raising the sixth scale degree, which makes it similar to the

melodic minor and utilizes the D# chromatic pitches instead of the dominant E. By

employing grace notes, augmented seconds, a quicker rhythmic value, and altering the

dominant pitch of E, Corigliano creates a variation of the principal thematic material in

the style of Gypsy music.

Corigliano utilizes melodic minor in the slow section, and a predominantly 20th

Century scale in the Allegro (the octatonic scale). Sarosi discussed previously that many

19th Century Gypsy songs were either in major or minor, and sometimes even Mixolydian

or Aeolian. Corigliano writes his Allegro section using an octatonic scale. The octatonic

is a scale that early 20th Century composers utilized to move away from the exhaustive

use of the major and minor modes from the previous centuries. First employed by Arab

musicians in the 7th Century, the scale was not utilized in Western music until the 19th

Century in works such as Franz Liszt's #5 Feux Follets from his Etude en douze

exercices (1826), the music of Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov(1844-1908), and his famous

student Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971).









Corigliano does not keep the octatonic scale for the remainder of the entire cue.

For example, he returns to a variation of the A melodic minor opening at measures 22-23.

From measures 24-29 Corigliano incorporates The Red Violin theme. He returns to the

octatonic material at measure thirty, and repeats this idea until the cue fades out. Figure

4-24 shows the principal theme of the Allegro that utilizes the octatonic scale. The

complete octatonic scale in the Allegro includes the following pitches:

(C#-D-E-F-G-Ab-Bb-B)

10




Figure 4-24. Principal Allegro octatonic theme in The Gypsies: Journey across Europe
cue

The Gypsies Journey Across Europe Conclusions

Corigliano's knowledge of Arabic music dates back many decades, specifically

the music of Morocco. Corigliano establishes a convincing Gypsy variation of the Red

Violin theme by using elements from the early 19th Century Verbunkos style, employing

the augmented second, utilizing compound meters and writing with a traditional Gypsy

caravan instrumentation. Anachronistic devices that Corigliano employed in the Gypsies

cue include the octatonic scale and the asymmetrical meters, which were not

characteristics of the 19th Century Verbunkos style.

Frederick Pope's Concert

The virtuoso violin works of the mid-19th Century, such as those played by Nicolo

Paganini, are the model for Corigliano's cue, Pope 's Concert. During the 19th Century,

beginning with Paganini, such virtuosi became headline performers throughout Europe.

The film's Frederick Pope character is loosely based on Paganini. Classical legend has









Paganini making a deal with the devil to gain his virtuosity. The film's fortuneteller

character predicts that Anna will meet the devil, and it is clear that director Girard wanted

to encourage this comparison of Pope's character with Paganini.

Pope, like Paganini, is a composer. Pope 's Concert is a composition that was

allegedly inspired by a sexual encounter with his girlfriend. This is in keeping with 19th

Century Romantic philosophy, which employs themes pertaining to self-expression

(emotion) and nature within a musical context.

During the Romantic Era, virtuosi often wrote compositions to showcase their own

unique performing abilities. Boris Schwarz elaborates on the 19th Century violin virtuoso

Paganini:

Paganini's concert music was limited to his own music, aside from a few concertos
by Viotti, Rode, and Kreutzer. But this was the case with Spohr, as well as with the
other traveling virtuosos. Paganini was aware that he wasn't at his best when he
played other people's music. As a rule the Romantic virtuosos were not ideal
interpreters of music by other composers; they were too egocentric to submerge
themselves. Paganini was the prototype of the Romantic virtuoso.41

Musicologist Leon Plantinga discusses the music a 19th Century virtuoso would

perform:

Paganini, like other concert givers, ordinarily played his own music, tailored to
display his special technical strengths. Concertos were a staple in the repertory, and
audiences could usually count on hearing one of his.42

Frederick Pope performs "original" works throughout the Oxford sequence. The

one time he was about to perform with an orchestra (a concerto is implied, as the violinist

is seen with an orchestra), he abruptly stops the group before they play their first note. He

instead decides to perform a composition for solo violin from his own pen.











Pope's Concert


John Corigliano


Presto, Pesante
II


fr ee ly
^- ^ F -* I


Violin


.- .t ,,.L. .". ,' py sy* ,
111 Ii .j 11^
|---- -- -- -- __ _. --- -- ----












7 7



7 .. : R.- .. .. "7 R 1 k' '
OI. sff '1f -ff f'--- f-ft- r-rf i'--f [f i' ff"- ,


Figure 4-25. Excerpt of Frederick Pope 's Concert cue

Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.

Figure 4-25 is the opening section of Pope's solo concert piece from the cue.

Corigliano begins the cue with the violin starting on its lowest note of the instrument, G3,

ascending quickly with a sixteenth note flourish to the highest range of the violin. The

Romantic period was the first where such a wide-ranging musical gesture would exist.

Starting with Paganini, violinists began displaying their virtuosity throughout the entire

range of the instrument.









Corigliano also uses third-related keys in this cue. Charles Rosen elaborates about

the destruction of the tonic-dominant polarity within the 19th Century by means of

substituting the third:

The attempt of the early nineteenth century to substitute third or mediant
relationships for the classical dominant amounted to the frontal attack on the
principals of tonality, and it eventually contributed to the ruin of triadic tonality.44

Melody

Pope 's Concert is another cue that Corigliano composed before filming

commenced. This allowed the actor to synchronize with the music during filming of the

sequence. Similar to the Monastery cue, Pope Concert's thematic material is clearly

derived from The Red Violin theme. Corigliano embeds the theme in the lowest voice in

the 16th note passages. Figure 4-26 consists of three excerpts: the original opening from

Pope's Concert, an outline of the principal theme from the cue, and the beginning of The

Red Violin theme.


Violin

Ssif s f > >> > > > >
fsff .sff Sff ssff ff sff sff sjffsff

Pope's Concert Theme






The Red Violin Theme






Figure 4-26. Pope 's Concert principal theme










Corigliano keeps the primary shape of the Red Violin theme at the beginning of

the cue. Of all the style variations Corigliano composed from the theme, Pope 's Concert

is the only one that maintains the original intervallic relationship.

Another similarity in the melodic construction between Pope 's Concert cue and

the original theme is shown in Figure 4-27. This fragment is labeled "the tail."


Violin


sif ff ff ff si

Pope's Concert Theme (Tail)

.The Red Volin T e (il


The Red Violin Theme (Tail)


Figure 4-27. Pope 's Concert and principal theme tail by John Corigliano

The melodic material in this fragment of the original theme is obscured.

Corigliano maintains the overall shape of the Red Violin theme, beginning with an ascent

followed by a descent after the arrival of the climax tone.

Harmony

Corigliano's harmonic implications in Pope's Audition are different from the

Baroque and Classical cues in The Red Violin, as this work is filled with a greater

abundance of dissonant inflections. Corigliano changes the style, diminishing the role of

tonality to support the change of period. According to Robert Morgan, the fall of tonality

was a gradual occurrence that lasted throughout the 19th Century.

Traditional tonality did not collapse at once. The entire nineteenth century--
arguably even the common-practice period as a whole--had witnessed a progressive









weakening of its constructive force, along with corresponding shifts in
compositional esthetic.44

Corigliano's cue is firmly based in G minor, however, he embellishes it with non-

harmonic tones. Figure 4-28 shows Corigliano's use of chromaticism in this cue and the

use of secondary leading tones.



-77
Violin

SO sf Sff Sfsff sif fsif sff sffff ,ff ,ff
(gin:) vii0/iv iv vii0/i i vii/IV IV viiOV V vii0/i


Figure 4-28. Example of chromaticism in Pope 's Audition cue

The second measure in the example contains a chromatic scale, which creates

harmonic ambiguity. However, Corigliano does maintain a pitch center by beginning

with a C minor triad. The third and fourth measures are also shown because of their

employment of chromaticism.

The music from the Classical era Vienna sequences is written in major keys.

Pope 's Concert, and the other two cues from the 19th Century sequence, Coitus Musicalis

and Pope 's Betrayal, are written in minor keys. As previously mentioned, the Classical

period is known for works written in the major mode. The opposite holds true for the

Romantic period, as a majority of works written in the 19th Century are in a minor key.

Musicologist Rey M. Longyear elaborates on this phenomenon:

The minor mode's increasing popularity between 1780 and 1800 is a major
harbinger of Romanticism, a mode that rose to a position of near-dominance in
Romantic music. Whereas approximately 5% of Classic symphonies are in the
minor mode, during the second half of the nineteenth century, 70% of the
symphonies are in minor.4










Pope's Concert Conclusions

In Pope 's Concert, Corigliano utilizes many techniques characteristic of the

Romantic period. The virtuoso solo violin writing, including the etude-like sixteenth note

patterns, shows a connection to the music of Paganini. Corigliano writes the work in a

minor mode, as was the norm throughout the 19th Century. Corigliano uses diminished

seventh chords to establish distant key areas throughout the cue. Extensive use of

chromaticism is also found throughout the Pope 's Concert cue.

Coitus Musicalis

The Coitus Musicalis is a Romantic style work first heard in the film's Oxford

sequence. This material is later revisited in the China and Montreal cues. The first

appearance of this music occurs when Frederick Pope disturbs his girlfriend Victoria

while she is writing her novel. Not seduced by his words, she continues to work at her

desk. Pope then begins to play the Coitus Musicalis melody; she finally gives in to his

carnal desires. The thematic material of Coitus Musicalis is a variation of The Red Violin

theme. Figure 4-29 shows the first appearance of the Coitus Musicalis material in the

film, and in Corigliano's Red Violin Suite.


Coitus Musicalis
John Corigliano
=42
Violin I


.1





Figure 4-29. Coitus Musicalis cue

Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.









This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.
Melody

Corigliano begins the cue with a variation of the motivic material from the second

part of The Red Violin theme. The second measure quotes the head of The Red Violin

theme. Both the Coitus Musicalis and The Red Violin themes are closely related.

Corigliano's Coitus melody is a six-measure, slow phrase at a tempo of quarter

note = 42. Rey M. Longyear discusses the stylistic design of Romantic melodies:

Most Romantic composers sought to write long melodic lines, constructed from
phrases, motives, or from a virtually seamless, unperiodic [sic], exuberant melodic
line. Instrumental themes especially tend to increase in length.48

Coitus Musicalis Conclusions

The Coitus Musicalis is an important cue within the dramatic framework of the

film. After its introduction in the Oxford sequence, it is heard several times throughout

the film. The Coitus cue is a manipulation of the original Red Violin theme. The Coitus

theme utilizes non-harmonic tones, that eventually resolve. The music modulates from A

major to the third related key of c# minor. The c# minor modulation is considered a

distant key, even by Romantic standards, and the approach (just jumping to it), is part of

Corigliano's neo-romantic style. This harmonic relationship is more closely linked to the

original presentation of the theme itself (where there is an analogous move from d minor

to f# minor, though the melodic framework is different.) There are also Romantic traits

present in the cue, for example the virtuoso writing for the violin and the long, lyrical

theme, but there are also post-Romantic traits, such as the unprepared jumps to new key

areas.









Pope's Betrayal

Pope 's Betrayal is the last cue from the Oxford sequence, and it also draws from

the 19th Century Romantic style. In the story, Victoria returns from her trip abroad and

finds her lover, Frederick Pope, courting a Gypsy woman. Angered by what she sees, she

aims a gun at Pope and then at the woman. Victoria finally decides to aim and fire at the

red violin. The next shot shows the violin falling to the ground in pieces while Victoria

runs out of the house.

Corigliano's music for this cue closely follows the narrative. The music begins

lyrically, symbolizing Victoria's return to her lover. When she realizes what Pope is

doing, she runs downstairs to look for a gun. During this section of the sequence, the solo

violin writing becomes more agitated, representing her anger. The music crescendos,

utilizing an adaptation of The Red Violin theme at the climax, during which the sound of

a gunshot is heightened by a bass drum hit.

Figure 4-30 shows Pope 's Betrayal cue. Measures one through six contain the

lyrical theme Corigliano derived from the original Red Violin theme. The tense

transformation of the cue begins at measure thirteen (faster, quarter note =80.)















Pope's Betrayal


Slowly con rubato J=.
FF,=-F


John Corigliano


- 3- -3


Violin


-l I IJ IJ Faster, J-80
r -J





'empo I I--
FaFaster, 80






fM7f
Faster,. 100




;80 J120 3 V




acce nf
P






Presto, J.156



V > V > V
3 3 3
accet







t>]J5J--3J r l _3- -

,, # ,
-3^ J LJ L,> L> ,J L3 3
oo~~



3 -> > -

> 3--J -


Figure 4-30. Pope 's Betrayal cue


Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano
Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.
International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved.
Used by Permission.









Melody

Corigliano varies The Red Violin theme throughout the entire cue. The piece

begins in the original Red Violin theme key of D minor. Figure 4-31 shows the opening

measure of the cue. The circled notes represent the notes from the original Red Violin

theme. In addition to utilizing a variation of the theme in this cue, the motivic idea found

in the first measure of Pope 's Betrayal is also employed in the opening credits sequence.





p -


Figure 4-31. Variation of three-note Red Violin Theme in Pope 's Betrayal cue

As shown in Figure 4-32, the three-note motive (the original theme begins D-E,

then D-E-F) found in the first measure of Pope 's Betrayal, originates from the third and

fourth measures from the Red Violin's second phrase. Corigliano states the three-note

motive in the first measure and again in the second measure, which is also similar in

shape to the original theme. In the original Red Violin theme, Corigliano begins the third

measure with the dominant sonority of A. Interestingly, the third measure in Pope 's

Betrayal begins in D major, thus Corigliano has altered the tonic from D minor and

changed it to D major (parallel major), altering the harmonic progression. The fourth

measures of both examples are in the subdominant, G Major.










Pope's Betrayal


J I I I I


The Red Violin (2nd part)

The Red Violin (2nd part)


John Corigliano
nII


Figure 4-32. Variation of the second phrase of The Red Violin Theme in Pope's Betrayal

Corigliano's variation of the principal thematic material throughout Pope's

Betrayal is meticulously linked to the narrative of the story. The agitated turmoil evoked

by the music Corigliano composed to heighten the suspense of the scene utilizes the Red

Violin theme in a new style. Figure 4-33 shows the motivic and rhythmic figures that are

found throughout Pope 's Betrayal.

Pope's Betrayal
John Corigliano
Beginning of Suspense (Victoria running)

J100 J80 J 120

Violin
> V V > V V


Figure 4-33. Suspenseful manipulation of The Red Violin theme in Pope's Betrayal by
John Corigliano

Beginning in measure thirteen of Figure 4-30, Corigliano combines elements of

the lyrical opening with a more suspenseful figure. The circled notes in Figure 4-33

represent imbedded appearances of the three-note Red Violin motive. This cue also

contains elements of the chaconne, including, for example the sustained pedal note on

top. Instead of the original whole step plus half step theme, he varies it by rearranging the

intervals. The first and third measures of Figure 4-33, are examples of thematic

extension.


Violin




Violin


Irnbr









Pope's Betrayal Style and Conclusions

The main objective for the music in Pope 's Betrayal is to enhance the film's

narrative. Corigliano utilizes the Red Violin thematic material to create unity between the

cue and the other sequences of the film. The opening measures of the cue are played with

rubato to enhance the Romantic feeling. Corigliano changes time signatures and tempo

frequently. These changes thus create a more Romantic quality in the music. According

to Rey M. Longyear, freedom and flexibility are the chief elements that separate

Romantic and Classical treatments of rhythm.o5

Within the cue, Corigliano capitalizes on the violin's wide range. The opening

lyrical section employs this vast range, from the low open D to a high A6, while the

suspenseful, dark section begins and focuses on the lowest G-string. The vast range and

large leaps are characteristics of Romantic music. Longyear elaborates on devices found

in the Romantic period, which Corigliano also uses within his cue:

Devices characteristic of Romantic melody include wide leaps for expressive
purposes, often leaps of sixths, sevenths, and other intervals, diminished or
augmented; this tendency becomes exaggerated in late-Romantic composers, for
example, the use of four or more octaves in the range, and the tendency toward
increasing the melodic range.

Corigliano's cue is written with a Romantic musical quality. The style is similar

to Pope 's Audition as it uses the violin's wide range. Pope 's Audition is written in the

style of an etude, while the Betrayal cue is a Romantic virtuosic solo work like a concerto

cadenza. Corigliano not only uses elements from the Red Violin theme, but also

incorporates a connection to the chaconne.

Journey to China

In the Journey to China, the principle thematic material is manipulated to give an

Asian-like feeling to the cue. While Corigliano was trying to emulate an Asian feel when














he composed the cue, he did not research traditional Chinese music. A pentatonic scale


that he derives from the Red Violin theme is, coincidentally, a traditional Japanese scale.


Journey to China

(measures 1-5)

'* *. r '


John Corigliano


J=60


Solo Vln



Vln. I

(div.)

Vln. I



VIn.I1

(div.)

Vn. II




Va.

(div.)

Va.




Vc.

(di.,

Vc.




Cb.

(div.)

Cb.


n
n p






Sp -- ---















n4
n p




't -- --- .I-"







n p


Figure 4-34. Journey to China measures 1-5


After Frederick Pope is caught having an affair with a Gypsy woman, he commits


suicide. Pope's servant, a Chinese man, decides to take the red violin back to his


homeland. The music for this cue begins when the Chinese man is on a cargo vessel


traveling across a vast ocean. The servant is shown in his quarters holding the violin. The




155


'i.'-.









music continues as the scene changes to a city in China where the servant brings the

instrument to a pawnshop. The cue to the Journey to China sequence is one of the longest

in the film, spanning more than four minutes. The opening of the cue uses a

compositional device also found in the third movement of Corigliano's Symphony No. 1.

As in the symphony, the orchestra plays chords that dissolve from one to another in the

first several minutes of sequence.

The harmonies of the Journey cue are derived from the chaconne progression,

which has now been colored with dissonance, making its origin less easily identifiable. It

is in this cue that Corigliano utilizes a real transformation of the chaconne material.

Above these dissonant sonorities the solo violin plays in a high register.

The Journey to China sequence begins with a verticalization of the scalar material

from the solo violin motive. Figure 4-34 shows measures one through five from the

Journey to China sequence.

The D pedal tone in the basses implies a tonal center in the opening of the cue,

which is identical to that of the original chaconne and The Red Violin theme. The

intervallic relationships of the pitches stacked above are consonant except for the major

second in the viola, which is identified as an added dissonance, creating a c-minor chord

over a D pedal. Corigliano maintains the chaconne progression, applying dissonant

pitches that stem from the solo violin's treatment of the original melody.

The manipulation in the Journey cue is one of the most interesting things

Corigliano does with the chaconne throughout the score. The unfolding process is slow

within this section. Corigliano changes pitches of the chaconne melody to coincide with

his harmony. Because of the constant change in meter, and rubato feeling, the cue does









not have a strong sense of pulse. As the cue grows in intensity, Corigliano adds to the

amount of pitches in the progression; beginning with five, then six, and then finally seven

pitches. The Journey chaconne is similar to the original because they both have the same

D-C# pedal tones. In the Journey cue however, Corigliano eliminates a strong sense of

meter, as he frequently alters the time signature. The original chaconne remains in the

same meter throughout.

Melody

Though Corigliano did not conduct any research into the particulars of Asian

music, he uses a pentatonic scale that happens to resemble the Miyakobushi scale from

traditional Japanese music. The Miyakobushi is one of four pentatonic scales found in

traditional Japanese music. Two of the Japanese scales, the Ritsu and Minyoh, are

anhemitonic pentatonic scales. The Miyakobushi and Okinawa scales contain half tones

(hemitonic pentatonic). Japanese scales do not have a clear concept of octave replication,

and players would normally change the middle notes within the given pentatonic scale.49

Journey to China
60 Principal Theme (measures 1-5) John Corigliano
J= o
Solo Vn -


Figure 4-35. Journey to China principal theme with Miyakobushi scale, measures 1-5

Figure 4-35 shows the opening five measures of the principal theme from the

Journey to China cue in the solo violin. The pitches in the opening consist of the

following pentatonic scale: C-D-Eb-G-Ab. The E natural in the fifth measure coincides

with a chord change, thus altering the original pitch group. The five-note pentatonic

theme begins the cue.










The melody from the Journey to China is another variation of the Red Violin

theme. The China theme is a transposed version of the Coitus transformation with altered

rhythms. Figure 4-36 illustrates similarities between the Journey to China and the Coitus

Musicalis.


Journey to China
Principle Theme


= 60 Chromatic Upper Neighbor m2
Violin' '
Pi



Coitus Musicalis
Principle Theme
= 42 Chromatic Upper Neighbor__N---_
Violin U L I


Figure 4-36. The Journey to China and Coitus Musicalis Principal Theme

Aside from the extra pitch used in the Journey to China motive at the conclusion of

the ascent, and the different pitch transpositions, the two themes are identical.

Throughout this section Corigliano never states the complete theme. The theme is

only presented in short fragments. As the dissolving chords occur, we see the Chinese

man sitting in a hammock below deck caressing the violin as his ship crosses the ocean.

When the man opens the case of the violin, The Red Violin theme is briefly reintroduced.

Girard then cuts to a view of the downtown streets of a Shanghai, as the travel of time in

the pawnshop is shown with an underscore of the Coitus variation. Figure 4-37 shows the

opening section of this variation.










Variation of Coitus Musicalis Theme in The Journey to China
John Corigliano

J-so
6a____ 'rf 7> --> LT. I .rr.^
Violin
= -
P

Figure 4-37. Variation of the Coitus Musicalis theme in the Journey to China sequence

The altered Red Violin theme, Coitus Musicalis, is extensively developed

throughout the Journey to China sequence, including a reintroduction of the original

version of The Red Violin theme. The section that is analyzed is a representative portion

of the cue showing minor variations, including transpositions of the opening. In many

cases, Corigliano manipulates the Coitus theme through intervallic augmentation of the

thematic material. For example, in Figure 4-38, the original descent in the Coitus

encompasses a minor third but has now been extended to a major seventh (BbCb.)

Another extension of the motivic material is illustrated in the fourth measure of Figure 4-

38.


Manipulations of the Coitus Musicalis Theme in The Journey Cue
John Corigliano
(Augmentation of descent)


Violin

(Repetition of Motive)


Figure 4-38. Examples of Manipulation in The Journey to China sequence by John
Corigliano

After the D pedal in the beginning, and the use of common practice tonality at the

beginning of the cue, sections of The Journey to China sequence lack a strong

establishment of tonic. For example, the opening section, using the previously mentioned









dissolving chords, avoids the establishment of traditional tonality. The pentatonic focus

throughout the cue also lacks a strong dominant to tonic polarity. Figure 4-38 shows the

theme beginning in Eb minor. An extreme modulation to a distant key results in a move to

c# minor. By the end of this figure, a secondary dominant harmony resolves to the

subdominant, instead of resolving back to tonic.

The Journey to China Conclusions

The Journey to China sequence is an example of Corigliano utilizing the Coitus

theme, which is a variation of the second half of the Red Violin theme, and manipulating

it into an extended cue that hints at Asian pentatonic scales. The romanticized theme

includes chromatic, dissonant, and pentatonic elements. Once the journey and the

narrative are over and a little girl with her mother acquires the instrument, the original

Red Violin theme is heard once again.

There is a sequence showing the 1960 Cultural Revolution, during which no

music is used, symbolizing the repression of Western influence that took place in China

during this time. The Journey to China sequence is followed by a Communist song sung

by a group of Chinese children (translated below), accompanied by accordions.

Corigliano did not write the music for this scene; it was completely recorded and filmed

in Shanghai, China. This was a dark period in the history of China, as all Western

influences were banned from everyday life, including music and instruments. To

symbolize the musical void of the revolution, the film is largely without music during this

sequence. After the longest period of no Western music in the film, Corigliano restates

the melody from the pro-Communist song during the death scene of the music teacher

Chou Yuan. Corigliano incorporates the theme with the initial chaconne progression.









Hold apen, as a sword or a gun. Fight the rebels, n iith all kinds ofweapons.

Follow Chairman Mao's lead all along. Use Cultural Revolution as the path breaker.

Be faithful to the Cultural Revolution. Be loyal to Communist Party.

Be brave to travel over the sword-mountain and through the fire-sea.

Who will dare oppose Chairman Mao? We will send him to see the Demon in hell.

Translated by Michelle Chang

Montreal

The last sequence occurs in present-day Montreal. John Corigliano's music

throughout the final sequence was written without stylistic restrictions. Corigliano

maintains consistency by utilizing the chaconne progression, The Red Violin theme, and

the Coitus Musicalis, along with a new theme for violin appraiser Charles Morritz. The

Morritz theme originates from the second half of the Red Violin theme, and is the final

manipulation of the melody found in the film. Michael Glaser illustrates the importance

of the Morritz theme in conjunction with the narrative,

Morritz's character represents the end of the red violin journey. Just as Bussotti
was the master who created the mysterious violin, Girard states that Morritz is the
master who uncovers the mystery behind the violin. It is therefore appropriate that
Morritz's theme bears much resemblance to the original Anna's theme.53

Figure 4-39 shows the Charles Morritz theme by Corigliano. This theme begins

after Morritz's discovery of the instrument, when he states in disbelief, "I never thought I

would find it." As seen in the first measure of Figure 4-39, Corigliano begins with a

melodic shape similar to that of the Coitus theme. Instead of an exact copy, the Morritz

theme changes, not going back to the starting pitch but instead descending to the leading

tone. The second measure of the Morritz theme is a stepwise ascent, as is the









corresponding measure in the Red Violin theme. In the third measure of the Morritz

theme, Corigliano takes the previous illustrated motivic cell and inverts it (G-F-E).

Red Violin Theme




Morritz Theme




Coitus Theme





Figure 4-39. The Red Violin theme, the Morritz, and the Coitus theme

During Morritz's search to identify the red violin, Corigliano again employs the

altered harmonies of the chaconne, using dissonance in the string orchestra over an

intervallically augmented variation of the original Red Violin theme. The theme is

presented in fragments before a complete statement is heard. Similar to the dissolving

chords from the opening of the Journey to China, Corigliano here creates an appropriate

backdrop to the appearance of the mysterious instrument. A reintroduction of the original

chaconne follows a section with more dissolving chords, but is continuously interrupted

by slow glissandos that heighten the drama. As Morritz is contemplating his fate,

deciding if he should keep the red violin for himself, Corigliano superimposes the entire

Morritz theme on top of the Red Violin theme. Here Corigliano musically represents the

entertwined fate of the violinmaker's wife Anna with that of Morritz. The Morritz Theme

was briefly suggested in the first sequence in Cremona, foreshadowing the future, with










Morritz discovering the truth of the red violin's varnish, but the theme is not completely

stated until this sequence.

The Theft of the Red Violin

In this climatic section of the film, Corigliano again utilizes the chaconne and The

Red Violin theme throughout the cue. Corigliano manipulates the order and the rhythm of

the chaconne chords at the beginning of the Theft sequence before presenting the

unaltered sustained version. Figure 4-40 shows the opening of the Theft cue and also

shows the hocketed version of the chaconne. The instrument playing this sequence is the

marimba, as Corigliano uses percussion in this cue to enhance the drama in the film score

because of its unique sound and sharp articulation. In Figure 4-40, Corigliano employs all

the pitches of the original chaconne, omitting the D pedal at the beginning. In all other

respects, the pitches are given in their order of appearance, with some octave

displacement.


Manipulation of chaconne in the Theft sequence
John Corigliano
J 60








The Chaconne
d= 50

-> 1 I F i



>: >- Ti> -- Ta -- - -- --


Figure 4-40. Manipulation of chaconne in the Theft cue










As the scene builds, a two-note fragment of The Red Violin motive is stated at

different pitch levels in a high register of the violin. Corigliano also arpeggiates the

chaconne pitches starting from the bottom D pedal through different registers of the

string orchestra. This begins slowly and, at the peak of the scene, the arpeggiation occurs

at an Allegro tempo until a final glissando. Figure 4-41 shows Corigliano's variation of

the chaconne progression, which is used to create a sense of terror as Charles Morritz

leaves the auction house with the stolen red violin. The pitch order and the rhythm are

again changed in this variation. The most important feature that creates tension in this

cue is the use of tremolos.



Chaconne Progression in The Theft
John Corigliano

In 2 = 60


Vin. I (divisi) f





Vln. II (divisi) f




Ve. (divisi)




Vc. (divisi)

if


Cb. (divisi) ff


ff


Figure 4-41. Variation of the chaconne progression in the Theft cue









Montreal Sequence Conclusions

Throughout the Montreal sequence, Corigliano maintains the thematic material that

has driven the entire film score. The Red Violin theme and the chaconne are utilized

many times to enhance the narrative. The chaconne is varied frequently and the original

identity is sometimes difficult to distinguish. However, the underlying foundation of the

chaconne remains throughout all five sequences, helping to unify the film. Corigliano

uses some extended performance techniques in the Montreal sequence (slow glissandos

in the string orchestra, for example). Interestingly, more extended techniques are

employed during the Death ofAnna cue in the Cremona sequence, set in the Late

Baroque, than in the late 20th Century Montreal sequence.

Final Conclusion

Musical cues from all five sequences have been analyzed and compared to the

music from the epoch in which the cue is set. Corigliano's cues contain parametric

features from the desired periods but also incorporate his own interpretations and

violations of the stylistic norms of their respective models. Every cue deviates from the

implied period with changes that include improper use of dissonances, excessive or non-

standard chromaticism, distant modulations, and non-standard rhythms. These analyses

have shown that Corigliano's music is similar to past historic models but that various

elements in each cue are incongruous with the style period in which they are set.

To create a sense of consistency throughout the disparate styles, Corigliano

manipulates his basic thematic and harmonic material to fit the styles being imitated. His

use of a limited number of symbolic themes, coupled with a variety of textures and

timbres, helps to convey the narrative thread and emotional intent of the film.









Notes


1 McCutchan, Ann. The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak about the Creative Process.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 38.

2 Interview at John Corigliano's home. April 30, 2007.

3 May, Thomas "Bow Ties John Corigliano, One of today's preeminent composers,
returns to the film medium with his haunting score for The Red Violin."

(accessed January 26, 2007)

4 Silbiger, Alexander. "Chaconne" Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy.
sion_searchid=467352225&hitnum=l§ion=music.05354> (Accessed April 20,
2007)

5 Bukofzer, Manfred. Music in the Baroque Era. From Monteverdi to Bach. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company, 1947, p. 408.

6 Sadie, Stanley. "Antonio Vivaldi Classical Musical Pages" berlin.mpg.de/cmp/vivaldi.html> (accessed September, 25, 2006)

7Buelow, George J. The Late Baroque Era. From 1680s to 1740. Englewood Cliffs:
Prentice Hall, 1993, p. 86.

8 Randel, Don, editor. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: The Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 389.

10 Bukofzer, Manfred. Music in the Baroque Era. From Monteverdi to Bach. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company, 1947, p. 210.

11 Borroff, Edith. The Music of the Baroque. Oxford: WM.C. Brown Company
Publishers, 1970, p. 42.

12 Stowell, Robin. "Violin." Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
161.1.5.3.1> (accessed May 24, 2007)

13 Lester, Joel. Bach's Work's for Solo Violin: Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The
Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 6.

14 Lester, Joel. Bach's Work's for Solo Violin: Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The
Oxford University Press, 1999, p. v.

15 Lester, Joel. Bach's Work's for Solo Violin: Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The
Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 3.









16 Grout, Donald Jay, Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music, 4th edition. New
York: W.W. Norton & Company,1988, p. 549.

17 Schulenberg, David. The Instrumental Music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Ann
Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 3.

18 Clark, Stephen L. C.P.E. Bach Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988, p. 44.

19 Duckworth, William. A Creative Approach to Music Fundamentals, 9th edition.
Belmont: L Thomson-Schirmer, 2007, p. 248.

20 Schulenberg, David. The Instrumental Music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Ann
Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 23.

21 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 65.

22 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 34.

23 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 56.

24 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 35.

25 Randel, Don, editor. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: The Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 602.

26 Plantinga, Leon. Clementi: His Life andMusic. New York: Oxford University Press,
1977, p. 165.

27 Plantinga, Leon. Clementi: His Life andMusic. New York: Oxford University Press,
1977, p. 163.

28 Heger, Theodore E. Music of the Classic Period. Dubuque: WM.C. Brown Company
Publishers, 1969, p. 57.

29 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in
Western Music andFilm. New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 252.

30 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in
Western Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 253.

31 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in
Western Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 43.

32 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in
Western Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 7.


167









33 Legany, Dezso, Balint Sarosi. "Hungary:Instrumental Music" Grove Music, ed. L.
Macy.
562#music.13562> (Accessed May 26, 2007)

34 Wilkinson, Ren Kertesz. "Gypsy Music" Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
427.5> (Accessed May 26, 2007)

35 Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music. A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century
Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984, p. 344.
36 "Csurg6 Band" (accessed January 24,
2007)

37 Sarosi, Balint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1978, p. 89.

38 Sarosi, Balint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1978, p. 27.

39 Sarosi, Balint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1978, pp. 106-107.

40 Frolova-Walker, Marina. "Rimsky-Korsakov" Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?section=music. 520
74#music.52074 (accessed May 26, 2007)

41 Schwarz, Boris. Great Masters of the Violin. From Corelli and Vivaldi to Stern,
Zukerman andPerlman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983, p. 199.

42 Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century
Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984, p. 174.

43 Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1995, p. 237.

44 Morgan, Robert P. Tii einieit-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern
Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991, p. 1

45 Morgan, Robert P. Tii eitieit-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern
Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991, p. 3

46 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 34.

47 Definitions from Dictionary.com.
(Accessed March 20, 2007)

48 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 20.









49 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 31.

50 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 25.

51 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 22.

52 Hughes, David W; Stephon Jones. "East Asia" Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy.
http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?from=search&sessi
on_searchid=596512687&hitnum=8§ion=music.08477.6 (accessed May 31, 2007)

53 Glaser, Michael. Success in Unity: John Corigliano 's Score to The Red Violin (1999)
Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and Mary, 2003, p. 34.













CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

If I have a style, it's unknown to me. Most people think of style as something to
latch onto and continue doing. I find that limiting, and I think it's a leftover of
that horrible 19th-century originality complex-the idea that the ultimate goal is
to sound like no one else...That's no goal. The goal is to write music, and good
material, not style, is what holds a piece of music together.1

-John Corigliano



Style Characteristics in the Five Film Sequences from The Red Violin

The Red Violin uses an array of compositional techniques that help establish the

desired epoch of each cue. The vital ingredient throughout the entire film score is

Corigliano's employment of a chaconne. The chaconne is used as the key element that

helps combine five different sequences-utilizing five different locations and five

different sets of characters-into a complete and unified score.

The chaconne is first presented, along with its derived melody, The Red Violin

theme, in the opening credits. Throughout the film, Corigliano manipulates the chaconne

and its principle theme to create variations similar to past musical styles. Corigliano

wrote the cues using his own interpretation of past styles, often deviating from a simple

act of mimesis. Hence, the music appears to be from previous epochs, but at a closer

look, there are elements that stray away from these historic styles.

First Sequence: Cremona, Italy (1681)

Within the first Cremona, Italy sequence, Corigliano utilizes techniques that are

not appropriate to the Baroque setting. Corigliano introduces an a cappella statement of









The Red Violin theme by the violinmaker's wife. The D Mixolydian modal context of the

theme is more characteristic of the Renaissance than that of the Late Baroque.

Corigliano employs the Baroque form of the chaconne but changes elements that

diminish the sense of authenticity. This includes the lack of a ground bass and resultant

chords, unorthodox voice leading, use of non-harmonic tones, and unusual orchestration.

(Derived chords appear when the Red Violin theme is played against the chaconne.) Of

course the use of aleatory, realized through graph and box notation, is a purely 20th

century device.

Besides employing the chaconne, other Baroque elements that Corigliano does

use include correct voice leading practices, such as sevenths resolving down and leading

tones resolving up, and proper employment of the augmented sixth chord. In Anna's

Death cue, Corigliano also employs period correct chromaticism, which is an important

characteristic from the Baroque period.

Second Sequence: The Monastery and Vienna (1681-1795)

1st Cue: "Monastery" (about 1681)

The Monastery sequence begins in the same era as the opening Cremona

sequence. Girard uses a segue showing different boys playing the red violin, finally

presenting the main character, Kasper Weiss. The music for this sequence is reminiscent

of the Late Baroque period. Corigliano incorporates the first three pitches from the Red

Violin theme (D-E-F) into the principle motivic material.

Some of the key features in this cue that help establish the Monastery 's style

period include imitation, fortspinnung, motor rhythms, and rhythmic homogeneity.

Corigliano utilizes techniques in the Monastery cue that would not be found in a

Baroque piece. The genre being imitated in the cue is vague, as it combines elements of









the Baroque concerto grosso and the Late Baroque/Classical solo concerto. Corigliano

does not use any ornamentation or basso continue, which were key elements found in the

Baroque period. Corigliano also ends the work in the dominant key due to the length of

the cue.

2nd Cue: "The Audition" (circa 1795)

The Audition cue occurs when the teacher Poussin arrives at the monastery to

listen to the young prodigy. The slow, rhapsodic solo cue is similar in style to the solo

works of J.S. Bach. Corigliano manipulates the Red Violin theme again, for the first time

in the film moving to the key area of G minor.

The most striking aspect of this cue is its similarity to Bach's Adagio from his

Sonata Number One in G minorfor unaccompanied violin. Not only does Corigliano

utilize the same key area as Bach, he begins and ends with the same quadruple stop,

consisting of the two lowest open strings. The cue also has the same melodic shape in the

opening-a fast chromatic descent to a suspension ending which leads to a half cadence.

The driving repetitive eighth note section (mm. 9-16) is also similar to the Baroque style.

Corigliano again avoids typical Baroque ornamentation in the cue. There is also a

tonicization to the key of the Neapolitan, which involves a harmonic retrogression.

3rd Cue: "Journey to Vienna" (about 1795)

The Journey to Vienna cue draws its inspiration from Viennese Classicism.

Instead of applying the Red Violin theme, Corigliano manipulates the chaconne

progression and creates a simple melodic motive. The Journey to Vienna is also the first

cue written in a major key (Eb major). Major keys were used significantly more than

minor keys throughout the Classical period.









Another feature in this cue is the constant triplet feature. The triplet rhythm

arpeggiation is a device that began in the Classical period, and the employment of it here

helps to establish the epoch of the cue. Corigliano's slow harmonic progression and use

of a faster harmonic rhythm at the cadence is also typical of the Classical period.

Deviating slightly from the classical model, ritardations are used on the downbeat of

nearly every measure, recalling the original presentation of the chaconne.

4th Cue: "Metronome" (circa 1795)

The Metronome cue occurs when Kasper Weiss is learning to play a pedagogical

work, increasing his ability to play the work faster through the use of a metronome.

Corigliano again employs the opening three pitches from the Red Violin theme, however

he alters the third pitch by raising it a half step to F# because of the D major tonality of

the work. The Metronome cue occurs in the Classical Vienna sequence, however its

multi-voice architecture, consisting of pedal tones and motor rhythms, are more

reminiscent of the Late Baroque. Corigliano's harmony is non-standard in its

employment of atypical pedal points and retrogressions. The violin writing is also not

characteristic of these periods, as Corigliano writes very high sections, utilizing large

leaps. Nicolo Paganini and his contemporaries of the early 19th Century would be the first

to use such techniques.

5th Cue: "Walking to the Palace" (circal795)

The Walking to the Palace music concludes the trio of cues that are written in a

major tonality (Eb major). The stepwise sequence in the first two bars relates to the

original chaconne progression.

The Palace cue uses devices that were found in both the Late Baroque and Classical

periods. The simple motor rhythms, similar to those found in the Monastery sequence, are









utilized again. Corigliano also uses a simple progression throughout the cue, consisting of

only I ii V harmonies. The simple style is most reminiscent of pedagogical works

from the Classical period, exemplified by Clementi. Corigliano also introduces a theme at

the conclusion of the cue that is similar to the French overture in its use of double-dotted

rhythms and its conclusion on the dominant.

6th Cue: "Death of Kasper Weiss" (circa 1795)

The final cue from the Vienna sequence is the Death ofKasper Weiss, which

utilizes a variation of Anna's Death theme. Both death sequences employ the original

chaconne progression. Kasper 's Death cue is twice as long as Anna's Death cue because

Corigliano first writes a section in the dominant key, which does not utilize the D and C#

pedal tones and the chaconne progression. The second section, in d minor, the original

key presented for the chaconne, reappears, containing both devices.

Corigliano uses chromaticism in order to create dissonance, and modulates by

thirds. He concludes the work in the distant key of C minor, which would not have

happened in either the Late Baroque or the Classical periods.

Third Sequence: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe and Frederick Pope of
England (about 1800-1850)

1st Cue: "The Gypsies Journey Across Europe" (circa 1800-1850)

Corigliano's Gypsy cue combines traditional 19th Century Gypsy devices with

20th Century techniques. Corigliano emulated the Gypsy sound by incorporating the

important augmented second melodic interval and changes in meter. He uses elements

from the 19th Century Hungarian Verbunkos style, including the use of a slow

introductory section followed by fast, virtuosic violin writing. This section also has a

highly improvisatory feel and uses extensive embellishments and ornaments. Corigliano









incorporates a Gypsy caravan band, featuring the violin, clarinet, accordion, dulcimer,

and double bass for this cue. All of these instruments were utilized in the Gypsy bands of

the 19th Century.

The Red Violin theme appears in the second Allegro section, adjusted to fit the

embellished minor scale and compound rhythms. The largest deviation from stylistically

correct writing appears in the second Allegro section, which contains an octatonic scale.

The octatonic scale would not have been found in traditional Gypsy music.

2nd Cue: "Pope's Concert" (circa 1850)

Pope's Concert is similar to the great virtuoso writing of Nicolo Paganini. The

work utilizes fast runs that cover the entire range of the violin. This cue also incorporates

the Red Violin theme, embedded within the lowest voice of the fast sixteenth note

passages.

Corigliano diminishes the role of tonic to dominant polarity by incorporating

extensive chromaticism, including chromatic scales.

3raCue: "Coitus Musicalis" (circa 1850)

The Coitus Musicalis is a variation of the Red Violin theme, which is first

presented in the Oxford, England, sequence and is revisited in the China and Montreal

sequences. The longer melodic lines present in the cue are further examples of romantic

style. There are dissonant non-harmonic tones on down beats that receive a delayed

resolution. Corigliano begins the work in A minor. The harmony in the Coitus Musicalis

is a neo-romantically adapted version of the original modal Red Violin theme, as

modulation is achieved by Corigliano simply jumping to the third related c# minor.

Though short in duration, the Coitus Musicalis is an important cue within the musical









framework of the film as Corigliano utilizes it frequently throughout the remainder of the

film.

4thCue: "Pope's Betrayal" (circa 1850)

The final cue from the Oxford, England sequence follows the narrative of the film,

which consists of Victoria, Pope's girlfriend, returning back to his estate. She finds Pope

courting a Gypsy woman and in her rage, she shoots the red violin. The cue begins

lyrical, full of rubato, symbolizing Victoria's return. However, when she finds Pope

cheating on her, the music begins to build with her rage and agitation, with rhythmic

transformations that step outside of Romantic conventions and emphasize the drama of

the scene. Throughout the entire cue Corigliano only uses variations of the Red Violin

theme.

Fourth Sequence: Journey Across China (about 1850-1950)

Journey Across China is a combination of the Coitus Musicalis and the Red Violin

themes. The scene begins with a cargo vessel sailing on a vast ocean. The passage of time

is depicted through images of the violin remaining in a pawnshop for many years. Nearly

five minutes long, this cue takes up a large portion of the China sequence.

The opening of the cue contains chords that dissolve into one another. The

dissolving harmonies are derived from a variation of the chaconne progression, which

has now been colored with many dissonant pitches, making its origin difficult to identify.

Corigliano's opening melody coincidentally uses an Asian pentatonic scale, the

Miyakobushi, helping to establish the locus of the scene in the Far East. The theme is

only presented in short fragments for the first section of the cue. Throughout the cue,

Corigliano manipulates the Coitus motive by augmentation of the thematic material.









Following the Journey to China cue, a short Communist song is sung by children

and accompanied with accordions. Corigliano did not write this song. This was written

and recorded in China and Corigliano did not have any say in the creation of this musical

element of the film. However, at the end of the China sequence, during the discovery of

the music teacher's death, Corigliano takes the song and slows the tempo, reintroducing it

in the cellos. The chaconne progression immediately follows the Chinese song. Other

than the opening Journey to China sequence and the Communist song, the sequence is

void of any music. Girard and Corigliano wanted to highlight the dark period of the

Cultural Revolution, which condemned the use of western music.

Fifth Sequence: Montreal (Present Day)

Within the last film sequence Corigliano was free to write music without stylistic

restrictions, as the period is set in the modern day. Corigliano provides musical

consistency by utilizing the chaconne progression, The Red Violin theme, the Coitus

Musicalis theme, and the newly presented Morritz theme. The Morritz theme is also a

variation of the Coitus theme, which in turn is a variation of the Red Violin theme.

The chaconne in this sequence is used beneath the Morritz Discovering the Red

Violin and The Theft cues. While Morritz discovers the violin, there are slow glissandi

and dissolving chords over the repetition of the chaconne harmonic changes. The Theft

contains a manipulation of the chaconne, augmenting its length. A slow crescendo and

rising orchestration, starting from the basses and extending up to the highest range of the

violins, create a dramatic climax to the score. When Morritz is contemplating obtaining

the violin for himself, Corigliano combines both his thematic leitmotifand the original

Red Violin theme.









Conclusion

Corigliano's cues in The Red Violin incorporate his own appropriations of past

styles. Each cue contains devices that were utilized in the historic periods shown in the

film. However, there are also elements of Corigliano's music that deviate from authentic

historic models. Thus, his music is not merely copies of historic work. The music written

for the cues throughout the film help establish the desired styles, thus aiding the narrative

in establishing specific points in history while also creating a sense of continuity though

the use of common musical elements.

The principle agent that establishes each epoch is rhythm. Even though Corigliano

frequently uses anachronistic dissonances, chromaticisms, modulations, and

orchestrations in the cues, the rhythmic profile in each case closely resembles the

standards of the time.

Several examples deserve mention. In the Monastery cue, Corigliano maintains a

simple eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic sequence. There is no variation in the rhythm

throughout the entire cue. He modulates to distant keys and uses chromaticism, but these

techniques do not stand out as incongruous to the listener because the motor-like rhythm

remains constant. The triplet figure in the Journey to Vienna cue creates the illusion of

Classical music. The constant sixteenth note rhythm that is found throughout the entire

Metronome is typically Baroque. Throughout the film, rhythm is the key ingredient to

creating music that appears to come from the desired epochs of the film.

John Corigliano, one of America's most prominent composers of the late 20th and

early 21st Centuries, has written a film score that will likely be revered for many

generations to come. He uses his keen intrinsic sense of historic knowledge and









overarching "architectural structure" to create a score that will be studied and used as a

model for future film composers.



Notes


1 Lee, Douglas. Masterworks of 20th Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the
Symphony Orchestra. New York: Routledge, 2002, p. 129.









CHAPTER 6
WHITE SHIRTS: A SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA

White .\/lm i Suitefor Symphonic Orchestra is a thirteen-minute composition based on

musical cues from the film "White Shirts." The film's duration is forty-five minutes and contains

twenty-five minutes of music. "White Shirts" was a student film created at the University of

Florida in 2005, directed by Zach Weissmueller. The story details the life of a college student,

with a preference for white shirts, who decides to rebel against the rules and norms of society. In

the process of his rebellion, he meets a girl who becomes fond of him and another who leads him

on a path to contemplating suicide. In the end his suicide attempt fails and the story concludes

with him in a hospital.

The music for the film was originally scored for piano solo inspired by Dave Grusin's

1993 film score to "The Firm," starring Tom Cruise. However, to create different sonorities and

effects, a small chamber orchestra was later added. The ensemble consisted of flute/piccolo, Bb

clarinet, bassoon, violin, double bass, piano, and one percussionist playing woodblocks, snare

drum, glockenspiel, cymbals, tom-toms, marimba, tambourine, and bass drum. Brass instruments

were not included in the group because much of the music occurs over dialogue. Throughout the

film, subsets of the ensemble were used for a total of sixteen cues.

Similar to the topic in part one of this dissertation, which traces the origins of the Red

Violin score from one source and transformed by the composer throughout the film, White

.\ni /, A Symphonic Suite stems from an assortment of short musical cues from the film that

were later transformed into the concert version. The focus of the White .\,lm / film score is one

simple theme, "The Love Theme." This theme is central to the symphonic concert suite. Figure

6-1 illustrates the first appearance of the "Love Theme" from the film score.














Figure 6-1. "Love Theme" from the White .lni i film score

The "Love Theme" is treated as a leimotif varied and transformed as the character

experiences a variety of emotions in his quest for love. The music in the film begins with dark,

dissonant overtones, but is tonal in its framework. The "Love Theme" is modal and follows the

characters conflicted experiences of love. As the film progresses the music becomes more

dissonant until the final climatic "Bedroom" sequence. Besides the principle "Love Theme," the

film also contains a less important opening theme, which is only heard in the opening and

closing credits.

One difference between the film score and the suite is its duration. The film score cues

are thirty to sixty seconds in length, except the "Bedroom" scene, which is over five minutes.

The suite's duration is approximately thirteen minutes. The film was scored for a small chamber

ensemble while the suite utilizes a symphonic orchestra. Throughout the film, the music is

presented in short segments, not allowing for any manipulation or variation. This is perhaps the

biggest difference between the film and orchestral suite. The thematic material presented in the

suite is manipulated, varied and developed.

The introduction presents three different themes, including the "Love Theme." (See

Table 6-1) These themes are developed throughout the work, especially the "Love Theme,"

which is heard in all three of the moderato sections. The two allegro sections utilize the opening

thematic material from the film. A vast difference between the film score and the suite is the

opening and ending material. Another difference between the Suite and the film score is that the

"Love Theme" begins and ends the Suite, however the "Opening" material begins and concludes









the film score. The "Opening" material's tempi are altered slightly; in the film it is at a moderato

(quarter note= 10) tempo, while it is at an allegro tempo (quarter note=120) in the suite. Table

6-1 outlines the form of the Suite and where the material is derived from the film score.

Table 6-1. Form of White Shirts: A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra by Michael Deall
Form White Shirts Film Score Measure Numbers

Introduction (Moderato) Love Theme (P.T.) mm. 1 -9

Montage from Playground mm. 10-17

The Swing mm. 18-24

A (Allegro) Opening mm. 25-61

B (Moderato) Love Theme (P.T.) mm. 62-73

P.T. Development mm. 73-87

Bedroom mm. 88-97

The Playground Theme mm. 98-114

Playground Development mm. 115-121

C (Adagio) The Grass mm. 122-145

Transition (Moderato) Bedroom Finale mm. 146-159

(Allegro) Opening & The Swing mm. 160-170



A' (Allegro) Closing mm. 171-197

Codetta (Moderato) Love Theme (P.T.) mm. 198-212



The experience of translating a film score to a symphonic suite was a difficult

assignment. John Corigliano's creation of suites for orchestra from his Red Violin and Altered

States film scores inspired the transformation of the 'White Shirts' score into a suite. The "White









Shirts" suite incorporates an array of themes. As many of the themes from the "White Shirts"

film score were vastly different in their construction, the job of incorporating them into a

coherent composition was challenging. Continuity was accomplished by utilizing the "Love

Theme" in an assortment of variations through the suite. Another challenge of translating the

film score to the suite was deciding which cues to incorporate. Music from the film was chosen

based upon its phrase structures, importance in the film, and how it would contrast with the

principal love theme.















APPENDIX

WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA




PART II: White Shirts: A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra

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Adorno, Theodor, and Hanns Eisler. Composingfor the Films. London: The Athlone Press,
1994.

Borroff, Edith. The Music of the Baroque. Oxford: WM.C. Brown Company Publishers,
1970.

Buelow, George J. The Late Baroque Era: From 1680s to 1740. Englewood Cliffs:
Prentice Hall, 1993.

Bukofzer, Manfred. Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company, 1947.

Clark, Stephen L. C.P.E. Bach Studies. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.

Corigliano, John. Concertofor Clarinet and Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1992.

Corigliano, John. Concertofor Oboe and Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1983.

Corigliano, John. Fantasia on an Ostinato. New York: Schirmer Inc., 1987.

Corigliano, John. Interview at his home. April 30, 2007.

Corigliano, John. John Corigliano: Early Works. New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996.

Corigliano, John. String Quartet. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1998.

Corigliano, John. String Quartet World Premiere Recording. Cleveland: Telarc, CD
80415, 1998.

Corigliano, John. Symphony No. 1 for Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1999.

Corigliano, John. Tournaments. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1982.


Davison, Annette. Hollywood Theory, Non-Hollywood Practice: Cinema Sountracks in the
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Dickson, John Howard. The Union of Poetry and Music in John Corigliano's A Dylan
Thomas Trilogy._Diss. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1985.

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Thomson-Schirmer, 2007.


Duncan, Dean. Charms That Soothe. Classical Music and the Narrative Film. New York:
Fordham University Press, 2003.

Glaser, Michael. Success in Unity: John Corigliano 's Score to The Red Violin (1999)
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Graham, Bruce. Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI,
1985.

Eisenstein, Sergei. The Film Sense. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1970.

Evans, Mark. Soundtrack. The Music of the Movies. New York: Da Capo Press, Inc, 1979.

Faulkner, Robert R. Music On Demand: Composers and Careers in the HollywoodFilm
Industry. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1983.

Flinn, Caryl. Strains of Utopia: Gender, Nostalgia, And Hollywood Film Music. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1992.


Grout, Donald Jay, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music. 4th ed. New York:
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Heger, Theodore E. Music of the Classic Period. Dubuque: WM.C. Brown Company
Publishers, 1969.

Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the opera by John
Corigliano and William M Hoffman. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000.


Howe, Robert. John Corigliano Concerto for Oboe and Concert.
(accessed October
13, 2006.)

Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1989 revised 1994.

Kalinak, Kathryn. Settling The Score: Music and the Classical Hollywood Film. Madison:
The University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Karlin, Fred. Listening to Movies. The Film Lover 's Guide to Film Music. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1994.

Kassabian, Anahid. Hearing Film: Tracking Identifications in Contempoary Hollywood
Film Music. New York: Routledge, 2001.










Kramer, Jonathan D. Bernard Rands's...Body and Shadow...: Modernist, Postmodernist
and Antimodernist? Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4
Lee, Douglas. Masterworks of 20th Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the
Symphony Orchestra. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Lester, Joel. Bach's Work's for Solo Violin: Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The
Oxford University Press, 1999.

Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-
Hall, Inc, 1973.

Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western
Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004.

May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo
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The Red Violin. DVD Universal City: Universal Studios, 1999.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Michael Deall, originally from Lindenhurst, New York, completed his BM at Ithaca

College, Ithaca, NY, with a double major in piano performance and music composition. At

Ithaca College, Michael studied composition at with Dana Wilson and piano with Mary Ann

Covert. Michael received his MA at New York University in composition studying with Dr.

Dinu Ghezzo. At NYU, Michael received The Jack Krieselman Award both years he was in

attendance. This annual award is given to one person in the Department of Music showing

enormous composition and performing abilities. Other awards include the Grafee Scholarship

from the University of Florida for the 2004-2005 academic year.

Michael's works have been performed overseas in Italy in such cities as Bari, Trani, Rome,

Florence and Assisi. His works have been performed in many New York venues, the University

of Florida, Southeastern Composition Conference at the University of Alabama, Society of

Composers Conference at Stetson University, Society of Composers Student National

Conference at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, American Composer's Alliance, The

University of Indiana at Bloomington and at the Mahidol College of Music in Salaya Thailand.

Michael's Overturefor Symphonic Orchestra received its premiere by the Sinfonia

Orchestra in Bucharest, Romania, in the fall of 2004. It was also a finalist with the Jacksonville

Symphony Orchestra's 2006 "Fresh Ink" Competition. His Distant Memories for quintet was

performed by the internationally renowned Anton Webern Ensemble in Berlin, Germany, in

March 2005 at the Konzert mit Werken zeitgenossischer Komponisten aus New York. His string

orchestra Falling Scenes received its premiere with the R20 String Orchestra in Wroclaw,

Poland, in March of 2006. Michael was a Composer-In-Residence at the Constansta, Romania

Music Festival in October 2006 where his String Quartet was premiered. His most recent

commission, by the Guido Arbonelli Quinet was premiered in Perugia, Italy, in November, 2007.









Michael has had master classes with such notable composers as Shulamit Ran, Jacob

Druckman, Dan Welcher, William Bolcolm, Samuel Adler, Roger Reynolds, James Tenney and

John Corigliano. Michael has had lessons with Dr. Dana Wilson, Dr. Greg Woodword, Dr. Dinu

Ghezzo, Dr. Paul Koonce, Dr. Paul Richards and Dr. James Paul Sain.





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1 PART I: THE ROLE OF STYLE IN JOHN CORIGLIANOS FILM SCORE TO THE RED VIOLIN (1999) AND PART II. WHITE SHIR TS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA (2007) By MICHAEL DANIEL DEALL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA December 2008

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2 2008 Michael Daniel Deall

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3 To my parents. I love you.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and forem ost, I would like to thank my parents. Their commitment, love, and dedication is the reason I have succeeded. My father, Henry Charles Deall, was the one who allowed me to begin accordion lessons at the ag e of seven. He taught me how to be creative, never to quit, and always try to do my best. My mother, Elizabeth Prosceo Deall, always gave me the reassurance and strength I needed to succeed in so many of lifes circumstances. I give my deepest gratitude and appreciate to my committee chair, Dr. James Paul Sain, who has provided constant assist ance throughout the diss ertation process. Dr. Sain never gave up hope when there seemed to be none and always reassured me that the best was still to come. His confidence in my ability allowed me to conti nue. Thank you so much for everything you have done. I would like to thank my co-c hair Dr. Paul Richards. Besi des being a wonderful music teacher, he has also allowed me to become hi s friend, and a wonderful composition mentor. Dr. Richards understands and recognizes my music fluently and because of that we were able to progress so far in my compositional studies. Thank you for working so hard and going beyond the call of duty as a cochair throughout my dissertation. I would like to thank Dr. Paul Koonce who helped me during my early stages of the dissertation, especially through Chapters One a nd Two. You showed me that hard work is invaluable and also helped me to become a much better writer. I would like to thank Prof. Mitch Estrin, Dr. Leslie Odom and Dr. Scott Nygren for taking time out of their busy schedules to be a part of my committee. Thank you for all of your insight throughout this long process. My deepest gratitude goes to Dr. Dinu Ghezz o, Professor Emeritus, Department of Music and Performing Arts at New Yo rk University. Before beginni ng work at NYU, I was just a

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5 mediocre composer, but he opened so many window s for me to show me the light. I thank him for his time, inspiration, and our numerous trips to Italy, Germany, and Romania to present my music. He opened so many doors for me throughout the last ten years. I thank to Prof. John Corigliano who allowed an interview while he was very busy working on a commission, his percussion concerto, at his beautiful New York City apartment. He answered many questions, without which this doc ument would not have been possible. He has been such an inspiration to me for almost 20 years. I thank my professors at Ithaca College who started my wonderful journey as a composer and pianist, including Prof. Mary Ann Covert, Dr. Greg Woodward, and Dr. Dana Wilson. It was Dr. Wilson who first introduced me to John Corig liano; we watched the premiere live airing of the Ghosts of Versailles at his home in 1992. I will never forg et the day I first heard of John Corigliano. Thank you to all! I thank the School of Music administration, especially Dr. John Duff who gave me numerous travel grants to attend many com position premieres around the world. I would also like to thank the library staff, especially Robena Cornwell and Michele Wilbanks-Fox who worked endlessly for many years to help me complete my research. I thank my sisters (Elizabeth Moody and Linda Davitt) for showing me so much love throughout my life. I thank Yoonjee Kim who worked tirelessly to complete numerous transcriptions from the film The Red Violin I thank my best friend Su eli Cavalcanti for helping me get through the last hump before graduati on. And, finally thank you to Chan Ji Kim who helped me make sure everything went accordingly.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................................................10LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................11ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... .............13 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 15John Corigliano and The Red Violin ...................................................................................... 15Value of Study ........................................................................................................................17Goals of Study ........................................................................................................................18Boundaries of Discussion ...................................................................................................... .19Methodology ................................................................................................................... ........19Film Music .................................................................................................................... ..........20Terminology ................................................................................................................... ........23Notes ......................................................................................................................... ..............242 LITERATURE .................................................................................................................... ....26Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........26The Music of John Corigliano ................................................................................................26John Corigliano: A Monograph ....................................................................................... 26John Corigliano ...............................................................................................................29Altered States: A discussion of John Coriglianos film score: Part II of a dissertation .................................................................................................................. .29The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John Corigliano .............30Other Information Regard ing John Corigliano ................................................................31The Score: Interviews with Film Composers .................................................................. 31Knowing the Score: Film Composers Talk About the Art, Craft, Blood, Sweat, and Tears of Writing for Cinema ........................................................................................32The Muse That Sings: Composers Sp eak About the Creative Process ........................... 32Success in Unity: John Corigliano s Score to The Red Violin .......................................33Film Music .................................................................................................................... ..........33Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative ................................................................. 34Film Music Volume 1 ......................................................................................................35Other Sources Pertaining to Film Music ......................................................................... 35Notes ......................................................................................................................... ..............36

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7 3 JOHN CORIGLIANOS CREATIVE OUTPUT AND STYLE ............................................ 37The Early Years ......................................................................................................................38Early Works ................................................................................................................... .........39Sonata for Violin and Piano (1962) ................................................................................. 39Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1967) ........................................................................ 42Other Early Works ............................................................................................................. .....43Elegy ......................................................................................................................... .......43Tournaments (1965) .................................................................................................45Gazebo Dances (1973) .............................................................................................46Creations (1972) ..............................................................................................................48Summary of Early Works ................................................................................................ 48Architectural Structure ............................................................................................................48Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (1975) ...............................................................................50Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977) ........................................................................... 56Altered States (1980) ..............................................................................................................61The Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1981) ......................................... 65The Shorter Works ............................................................................................................. .....70The Promenade Overture (1981) ..................................................................................... 70Fantasia on an Ostinato (1985) ........................................................................................ 72Campane di Ravello (1987) .............................................................................................74Revolution (1985) ............................................................................................................. ......74String Quartet (1995) ..............................................................................................................75Symphony No.1 (1991) .......................................................................................................... 78Symphony No.1, third movement (Chaconne) ................................................................79The Ghosts of Versailles (1991) .............................................................................................81The Ghosts of Versailles Plot Summary .........................................................................82Musical Styles in The Ghosts of Versailles ..................................................................... 83Aria: Come Now My Darling Aria .................................................................................. 83Aria: As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze .................................................................... 86Aria: They Wish They Could Kill Me ............................................................................. 87The Ghosts of Versailles Conclusions .............................................................................89Notes ......................................................................................................................... ..............894 THE MUSICAL STYLES OF JOHN CORIGLIANOs THE RED VIOLIN ....................... 93The Red Violin Plot Summary ...............................................................................................93Coriglianos Chaconne and Principal Theme .........................................................................95Other Manipulations of the Chaconne .................................................................................. 101Death of Anna Cue ........................................................................................................102Death of Kasper Weiss cue ............................................................................................ 104Other Elements Found in the Baroque Section of the Film ........................................... 107The Monastery ......................................................................................................................109Baroque Rhythm ............................................................................................................111Baroque Imitation .......................................................................................................... 112Motive ........................................................................................................................ ....112

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8 Baroque Tonality ...........................................................................................................112Other Baroque Stylistic Features ................................................................................... 114Genre ......................................................................................................................... ....114The Audition .................................................................................................................. .......115Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...115Style ......................................................................................................................... ......117Harmony ....................................................................................................................... .119Journey to Vienna ............................................................................................................. ....121Rhythm ........................................................................................................................ ..123Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...123Harmonic Implications .................................................................................................. 124Journey to Vienna Conclusions ..................................................................................... 125The Metronome .....................................................................................................................125Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...126Harmony ....................................................................................................................... .127Style ......................................................................................................................... ......128The Metronome Conclusions ........................................................................................ 129Walking to the Palace ......................................................................................................... ..129Rhythm ........................................................................................................................ ..131Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...131Harmony ....................................................................................................................... .132Style ......................................................................................................................... ......132Walking to the Palace Conclusions ............................................................................... 133The Gypsies Journey Across Europe ....................................................................................133Style ......................................................................................................................... ......134Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...138The Gypsies Journey Across Europe Conclusions ........................................................ 142Frederick Popes Concert .....................................................................................................142Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...145Harmony ....................................................................................................................... .146Popes Concert Conclusions ..........................................................................................148Coitus Musicalis ...................................................................................................................148Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...149Coitus Musicalis Conclusions .......................................................................................149Popes Betrayal .....................................................................................................................150Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...152Popes Betrayal Style and Conclusions .........................................................................154Journey to China ...................................................................................................................154Melody ........................................................................................................................ ...157The Journey to China Conclusions ................................................................................160Montral ...................................................................................................................... ..........161The Theft of the Red Violin ..........................................................................................163Montral Sequence Conclusions ...................................................................................165Final Conclusion ............................................................................................................165Notes ......................................................................................................................... ............166

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9 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................170Style Characteristics in the Five Film Sequences from The Red Violin ...............................170First Sequence: Cremona, Italy (1681) ................................................................................. 170Second Sequence: The Monast ery and Vienna (1681-1795) ............................................... 1711st Cue: Monastery (about 1681) ................................................................................1712nd Cue: The Audition (circa 1795) ........................................................................... 1723rd Cue: Journey to Vienna (about 1795) ................................................................... 1724th Cue: Metronome (circa 1795) ............................................................................... 1735th Cue: Walking to the Palace (circa1795) ................................................................ 1736th Cue: Death of Kasper Weiss (circa 1795)............................................................. 174Third Sequence: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe and Frederick Pope of England (about 1800-1850) .............................................................................................................1741st Cue: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe (circa 1800-1850) ..............................1742nd Cue: Popes Concert (circa 1850) ........................................................................1753rdCue: Coitus Musicalis (circa 1850) .......................................................................1754thCue: Popes Betrayal (circa 1850) .........................................................................176Fourth Sequence: Journey Ac ross China (about 1850-1950) ...............................................176Fifth Sequence: Montr al (Present Day) .............................................................................. 177Conclusion .................................................................................................................... ........178Notes ......................................................................................................................... ............1796 WHITE SHIRTS: A SUITE FO R SYMPHONIC ORCHEST RA ....................................... 180WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA .................................................. 184LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................203BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................207

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 6-1 Form of White Shirts: A Suite fo r Symphonic Orchestra by Michael Deall ................... 182

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Sonata for V iolin and Piano second movement measures 1-3 ......................................... 413-2 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra first movement. Measures 11-14 .............................. 433-3 Elegy measures 7-12 ..........................................................................................................443-4 Tournaments (Introduction measures 1-2 Chor ale measures 8-12 Scherzo measures 54-56) .................................................................................................................463-5 Gazebo Dances, third movement Adagio measures 1-5 ................................................ 473-6 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, second movement, Song, measures 16-25 ............. 523-7 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, third movement, Scherzo, measures 33-36 ............ 543-8 Oboe Concerto fourth movement, Aria, measures 1-6 .................................................. 543-9 Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra first movement, principal chord ............................ 573-10 Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, second movement. measures 1-9 .......................... 583-11 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, Pied Pipers Song, Rehearsal #4 ............................ 673-12 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, fourth movement, measures 1-10 .............................. 683-13 Promenade Overture (Fanfare theme, measures 6-9, and Principal theme, Rehearsal O) .......................................................................................................................................723-14 String Quartet, second movement, Chaconne, measures 121-124 ................................. 763-15 Symphony No.1 third movement, Chaconne, measures 1-8 .......................................... 803-16 The Ghosts of Versailles Come Now My Darling measures 38-49 ............................... 843-17 Marriage of Figaro Voi che sapete Aria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ..................... 853-18 The Ghosts of Versailles As Summer Brings A Wist ful Breeze measures 2-10 ............ 873-19 The Ghosts of Versailles They Wish They Could Kill Me measures 61-69 .................. 884-1 The Red Violin chaconne ................................................................................................... 964-2 The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne ........................................................................... 98

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12 4-3 Chaconne in G minor for Violin and Basso Continuo by Tomm aso Vitali 1966 Barenreiter~Verlag, Kassel ..............................................................................................1004-4 The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne ......................................................................... 1014-5 Death of Anna ..................................................................................................................1034-6 Analysis of Death of Anna ...............................................................................................1044-7 Analysis of Death of Kasper Weiss cue ...........................................................................1054-8 Example of [0268] pitch set from Schlafend Tragt Man Mich, No. 2, Op. 2 measures 1-2 by Alban Berg ............................................................................................................1064-9 The Monastery cue ........................................................................................................... 1104-10 Similarity between Baroque examples and Coriglianos rhythmic motive ..................... 1114-11 Descending circle of fifths progression in The Monastery measures 12-16 .................... 1136-1 Love Theme from the White Shirts film score ............................................................. 181

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13 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy PART I: THE ROLE OF STYLE IN JOHN CORIGLIANOS FILM SCORE TO THE RED VIOLIN (1999) AND PART II: WHITE SHIRTS : SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA (2007) By Michael Deall December, 2008 Chair: James Paul Sain Cochair: Paul Richards Major: Music The Red Violin (1999) is an important film that utilizes an original score by one of the most highly regarded American composers of the late 20th century, John Corigliano. This is one of the first films to utilize different stylistic cues in order to fit the time period in which the drama takes place. Corigliano was awarded the Oscar for Best Original Musical Score to The Red Violin at the 1999 Academy Awards. His score is truly a re markable blend of old forms that are woven with his own sense of color, harmony and style. The film spans a history of 300 years, beginning in Italy in 1680, and ending in the present day ci ty of Montreal. Coriglianos score reflects the time periods in which the action takes place by adap ting the thematic material to the historic musical styles implied. A detailed exploration of the relationship between the music and the image and a consideration of the part the music plays in the narrative structure of the film will highlight the techniques and styles the composer adopts for narrative purposes. This study will show where the music begins and ends in relation to the dialog ue and action. It will also provide an analysis of the harmonic and motivic structure of the musi c, and compare it to th e styles of the periods being represented.

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14 The importance of this film and its score will be discussed and many critical responses to the work illustrated. Coriglia nos novel approach to tim e placement through stylistic appropriations will be examined. This work w ill further show his use of the same thematic material by means of variations throughout the entire picture. Part II of the dissertation, White Shirts: A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra, is an original composition drawn from my score to the film White Shirts.

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15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the things that I do that is not very appropriate for most film s is developmental architecture, which is designing the whole piece. Film writing usually means start-andstopwriting short little cuesbut Im interested in the large architecture. In film, its the film itself that controls that, and the musi c comes in now and then to support it, to comment on it. So, for me, film music is less in teresting as an art form because what I like and what fascinates me is the bi g structure, and to plan that.1 John Corigliano In Chapter 1 the methodology of the research will be discussed and the vocabulary and terminology established. The boundaries of the di ssertation and reasons for this study will also be defined. John Corigliano and The Red Violin John Coriglianos third film score, The Red Violin (1999), is a blend of different historic musical styles and his own personal compositional styles developed over more than four decades of compositional activity. One of todays lead ing American composers, Coriglianos film recognition began with an Academy Award nomin ation in 1980 for his first film score to Altered States and the British Film Academys Anthony Asquith Award for Best Score for the Revolutionary War epic drama Revolution in 1985. In 1999, he was awarded the Oscar for Distinguished Achievement in Film Scoring a nd the Canadian Genie Award for his music to The Red Violin Coriglianos score to The Red Violin reflects the time periods in which the action takes place by adapting his original thematic material to the musical styles associated with each period. As with his concert music, Corigliano planned the structur e of the work before writing the notes. This musical architecture, which will be discussed in Chapter 3, remains an important component of The Red Violin His score is a remarkable ble nd of historic styles that are interwoven with his own sense of color, harmony, and rhythm. Prior to composing The Red Violin in 1998, John Corigliano was already considered one of the most important concert composers of his ge neration, having received numerous commissions

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16 from the worlds leading orch estras and performers. His Symphony No.1 was commissioned in 1990 by The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, while he was their Composer-in-Residence. This work of great emotional impact, inspired by the tr agedy of the AIDS epidemic, went on to win many awards, including two Grammy Awards. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra have recorded Symphony No.1; both received Grammy Awards for their recordings, the first time in hist ory that this has happened with the same piece. To date, Symphony #1 has been performed over 150 times by many of the leading orchestras around the world. Corigliano earned more critical acclaim for his opera, The Ghosts of Versailles (1990) commissioned for the 100th Anniversary of the Metr opolitan Opera. The initi al run, as well as the second Metropolitan Opera series, sold out. The opera was aired live on the Public Broadcast Service and released on laser di sc and videocassette. These recordings eventually completely sold out. The Chicago Lyric Opera Company also produced The Ghosts of Versailles in 1995. Coriglianos Symphony No.1 and The Ghosts of Versailles will be examined in Chapter 3. These two works utilize important compositi onal devices that are also employed in The Red Violin The Ghost of Versailles clearly illustrates Coriglianos ability to write in specific historic musical styles. At times the music, which exhibits neoclassical tendencies, resembles opera from the 18th and 19th Centuries. At other points within the ope ra, Corigliano quotes actual works from composers such as Mozart and Rossini. Woven in to the musical fabric alongside the traditional tonal music are dark, dissonant passages, employing twelve tone and mi crotonal techniques. The Red Violin is John Coriglianos bigge st commercial success t hus far. The movie was a triumph within the film world, and the suite he extracted from the score has also been widely accepted in the concert world. Stephen Holdens review of The Red Violin from the New York

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17 Times, written after the films release in 1999, give s a wonderful descriptio n of how the music of Corigliano was one of the key elements of the film: Whenever the music swells in this extravagant time-traveling costume drama tracing the 300-year life of a priceless handcrafted violin, The Red Violin begins to assume the intense emotional colors of John Corigliano's ravi shing score. As Joshua Bell's solo violin pirouettes above the churni ng orchestrations, played by the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Esa-Pekka Salonen, the acto rs' expressions begin to seem profound with an atmosphere of romantic exaltation.2 An article written by Thomas May covers the soundtrack of The Red Violin which includes most of the music from the film: Composer John Corigliano's richly eclectic and poetic score--e ncompassing classical elegance, gypsy passion, and angst-ridden harm onies--etches vivid portraits of the film's various epochs but also gives an overarching se nse of unity to the ep isodic character of the script. It's essentially a set of remarkably im aginative variations for violin and orchestra on a theme of haunting pathos and is a subs tantial work of music in its own right.3 Value of Study The score to The Red Violin is worthy of study as it is an important and successful work by a pre-eminent composer. The unusually prominen t music in this film was created using techniques developed first in the concert hall. Coriglianos use of novel compositional features point toward new directions and approaches possibl e in the creation of music for film that will prove valuable for future generations. The Red Violin is a wonderful movie that should be examined closely. According to critic David Poole, The Red Violin stands among the greatest music-or iented films, and Corigliano's labor of love should be in everyone's collection.5 Many critics enjoyed the suspense, the flow of the narrative, and Coriglianos mu sic. This review comes from SPLICEDwireds Rob Blackwelder: Like a blending of a great symphony and grea t cinema, "The Red Violin" is a magnum opus of musical-visual composition for French -Canadian director Francois Girard. The biography of a masterpiece musical instrume nt and its globetrotting passage through centuries of owners, this is a film overf lowing with fervent movements of pathos,

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18 seductive tempos of passion, tr agic refrains of sorrow and a riveting, recurring chorus that ties every measure beautifully together. Gira rd spent five years researching, writing and filming this mesmerizing but understated epic, and every moment of his work paid off. The Red Violin is magic.6 Coriglianos approach to the score was to combine his original thematic material with the style of the specific eras, making this film unique when compared to other films that utilize period music. The musical periods th at will be examined in this dissertation range from the late Baroque to present day Practice. What makes this score distinctive is that Corigliano connects five different periods of histor y by employing the same thematic material. The connection of the thematic material is accomplished using a seven-chord chaconne that is heard throughout the film along with the principal theme, The Red Vi olin Theme. Corigliano transforms this theme by presenting it in different styl es, creating the illusion that the music is from a specific time period. Coriglianos connection of the five sequences into a complete story, through the use of this thematic glue, is the special feature. The purpose of this study is to show how one can compose in many different historically informed styles while still in corporating original musical ma terial. Through reading this document, composers can observe how Corigliano composes in a variety of period styles while maintaining his own voice. Goals of Study Uncovering the techniques that Corigliano uses to m ake his mu sic sound as if it were from a specific stylistic period is th e principal goal of this study. He takes disparate styles and combines them into a unified score. During th e periods represented in the film, spanning 310 years (1680-1990), the chaconne technique was often employed as a musical device. Corigliano uses the chaconne technique as a unifying musical element, as it was utilized in all of the historical periods visited in the film. Corigliano then alters the chaconne and The Red Violin

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19 theme to fit the historical periods and the narra tive of the film. Continuity is achieved by the employment of the chaconne and principal theme throughout the score. How the cues from the score relate to the films narrative is also carefully examined. Analysis was achieved by studying the score to The Red Violin Suite obtained from Coriglianos publisher, G. Schirmer, as it contains many of the musical cues from the film. The cues in this study not found in the suite score were transcribed from the film. It is important to note that Corigliano scored the entire movie for an exte nded string section, one larger than the norm which he divided into two groups in the recordi ng studio. Corigliano uses percussion (bass drum, timpani, and marimba) at the films climax to create dramatic tension. Ot her than the percussion found in this unique moment, the bass drum to simulate the gun shot, and the Gypsy caravan band, Corigliano limits his palette to this large group of strings. Boundaries of Discussion This study, concentrating only on Coriglianos film score to The Red Violin looks at the five different sequences, or time periods, from the film as well as the concert suite derived from the film cues. The music of archetypal composer s from the respective periods visited in the movie are referenced in the examination of Cori glianos film cues to the extent the cues correspond to these models. Other compositions by Corigliano that employ similar techniques as those found in The Red Violin are also referenced to illustrate his use of historically informed styles within this film score. Methodology This study will show sim ilarities and differenc es between Coriglianos style and the music of the different time periods. The analysis incl udes stylistic and harm onic analyses. Some of Coriglianos music written prior to The Red Violin is also discussed in Chapter 3 as it relates to his methods of stylistic appropriation.

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20 For the film, Corigliano utili zed an original seven-chord chaconne. The primary theme, Annas Theme, otherwise known as the Red Violins Theme, was derived from the harmonic outline used in the chaconne This study shows how Coriglianos original theme is manipulated and varied to fit the time pe riods of the film. Hi s adaptations of the chaconne are discussed in detail and demostrate how th ey connect the different styles used. On the surface, Coriglianos music strongly re sembles the music of the periods and places he was to depict. However, the following analysis shows otherwise. Through an analysis of his music, this study shows that Corigliano is true to the period styles of the music he represents, deviating from the respective time periods in part to keep the chaconne and themes clear. The differences, consisting of minor adaptations a nd embellishments, tend to mollify the historic accuracy in favor of an overall consistency. Th erefore, this study discusses the differences between Coriglianos cues and the historic models. In his dissertation about the film composer Bernard Hermann, Graham Bruce employs a methodology designed to illuminate the relationship between music and film. Bruces dissertation is an in-depth look at Hermanns film scores and how the music relates to the images and the narrative. Bruce dissects, frame-by-frame, the interaction and co ordination of the music and visual images. He uses musical examples of the film scores to show the devices employed by Hermann. Bruces approach is adop ted in select scenes throughout this dissertation which also examines the music though different analytic approaches. The author of this study interviewed John Corigliano about the film and his creative process on April 30, 2007. His comments are included throu ghout the thesis. Film Music During the p ast twenty years, there has been an increasing interest in the academic study of film composition. A large portion of the film music lite rature has only been written within the

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21 last decade. The number of students studying film composition at universities has also greatly increased in recent years.8 The art of film composition dates back to the first silent films of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Film music was first employed to mask the loud noises produced by large film projectors. As films became more elaborate, musi c was used to enhance the narrative. Production studios sent musical scores to cinemas for use in accompanying the films. The theaters usually employed a pianist or organist to perform the prep ared scores that accompanied the silent reels. In Hollywoods Golden Age of the 1930s and 40 s, the film composer became an important contributor to the filmmaking process. During this period, many of the most popular film composers, such as Max Steiner and Eric Kor ngold, were migrs from Europe where they received classical training in music. Famous American-born film com posers during this period who studied in the United States included Al fred Newman and later Bernard Hermann. The studios utilized an entire army of composer s, arrangers and copyists to finish the music quickly.9 Many film composers in Hollywoods prolific period of the 1930s and 1940s had an average of six weeks to score a feature length fi lm. Credited with composing scores for over five hundred films, Max Steiner was no doubt scoring one film after another. By the 1960s, the use of orchestra in the recording of film mu sic was reduced. Many directors opted for smaller ensembles or simp le prerecorded source music because it was an inexpensive alternative. John Williams had grea t impact on 1970s film music by returning to the use of large symphonic orches tra in his film scores. This r eclaimed the historic orchestral magnificence with his scores to films such as Jaws, Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Williams set a new standard for what the film composer should accomplish in their scores. Today, as in the early days, many film composers receive a classi cal training, learning the craft

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22 of scoring films for a full size orchestra. (A noteworthy exception would be the acclaimed film composer Danny Elfman, who only writes the main th ematic material and pa sses this material to his orchestrators to complete the score). As the earliest days of film illustrate, Corigliano is certainly not the first composer of concert music to also write for film. Aaron Copland composed music for five films, including The Red Pony and the score to the 1940 film The Heiress, which won the Oscar for Best Original Film Score. (Corigliano and Copland, who Cori gliano strongly admired, are the only two concert composers to ever win an Oscar for a film score.) Another well-known concert music composer Leonard Bernstein, scored the music to the highly successful film On The Waterfron t. Outside the United States, Ralph Vaughn Williams scored many English World War II films. Sergei Prokofiev and Dimitri Shostakovich, two great Russian composers of the 20th Century, wrote successfully for the idiom, as did Toru Take mitsu, who scored many films for the Japanese cinema. The move from writing concert music to film scores was easy for Corigliano. He credits this with planning every work using what he calls the architectural structure.10 His versatility, talent, and ability to work in all styles have made him an American icon in contemporary concert and film music. Many film composers work their en tire career without ga ining much respect in the film industry. John Williams scored fifty films, as well as numerous television series, before he wrote the music to hi s first successful film, Jaws (1976). In contrast, all three of Coriglianos film scores have been seen as highly su ccessful. His beautifully scored second film, Revolution, was a complete box office failure. The War Lame nt from the score was used in the first movement of his Symphony No.1 Mark Adamo writes, The center piece of the score is the third theme, a War Lament of stunning emotional darkness composed by Corigliano to extend over

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23 a scene of battlefield massacre.11 After the film Revolution Corigliano decided to stay away from film scoring. Fortunately, Franois Girard, The Red Violins director, wanted Joshua Bell to play the violin music for the film. Bell in turn recommended John Corigliano to be the projects composer. Terminology Postmodernism is a term that can be defined in many different ways. John Corigliano has sometimes been labeled as a postmodernist compos er, even though he rejects the term himself. A typical postmodern technique, employed by Cori gliano in many of his works, is to use contemporary devices and techniqu es to alter and personalize hist oric styles. Jonathan Kramer attempts to define the postm odernism movement in music: A postmodern work is unlikely to have any single overriding principle that applies throughout. Thus, postmodern pieces may use asp ects of tonality (diat onic tunes, triadic verticalities, metric regularit y) but will not be thoroughly tonal. A postmodern composer is unlikely to be thoroughly twelve-tone either, as a modernist. The composer is unlikely to use one technique as a sole means of musical organization.13 Adapted quotations and traditional or popular forms and styles appear in many of Coriglianos works; notable examples include the Haydn influenced Promenade Overture, the classically operatic score to The Ghosts of Versailles, the Tarantella from his Symphony No.1 and the troubadour-style music in his Concerto for Guitar and Chamber Orchestra. Corigliano is not the first to use historic styles and materi als in his music. This is a device that many composers have used, including Mahler, Ives, Stravinsky, and Bernstein. Postmodernism is a generic term that has been used to describe ma ny styles of music, including concert music as well as popular music. Film Cue is a term that is used in the film scori ng industry. It relates to a certain section of the film, which is timed to the 1/100 of a second (using time code) enabling the composer to synchronize music to the picture. The director, music editor, a nd composer all sit through a cut

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24 of the film and decide which cues will contain musi c. Some films can have more than thirty cues, others as few as five. Poly-stylistic is a term that better defines Corigliano s music, as he uses an array of devices incorporated into his music. Poly-stylistic is a more clear definition than postmodernism in describing this aspect of John Coriglianos music. Eclectic is another term that has been used to de scribe Coriglianos music, and is another term he dislikes. Similar to postmodernism, it re fers to the composers use of an array of different styles. Notes 1 Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews with Film Composers Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1999, pp. 159-160. 2 Holden, Stephen. That Old Fiddle Sure Got Around < http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?_r=2&res=9C03E1DD1638F932A2575 5C0A96F958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2 c%20John&oref=slogin > (accessed December 10, 2006) 3 May, Thomas. Essential Recording < http://www.amazon.com/Red-Violin-Original-PictureSoundtrack/dp/B00000J28V/ref= pd_sxp_f_r/104-0414644-8768739?ie=UTF8 > (accessed December 20, 2006) 4 Poole, David. The Red Violin Review < http://www.musicolog.com/m_redviolin_rev1.asp > (accessed September 18, 2006) 16 Blackwelder, Rob. Orchestral Magnificence In The Dark. SpliceWired: < http://www.splicedonline.com/99reviews/redviolin.html > (accessed September 18, 2006) 8 Conversation with Dr. Dinu Ghezzo: Former Dire ctor of Composition at New York University. Percentage is based on the amount of students who were composition students in 1998 and who were enrolled in 2006 at NYU. 9 Prendergast, Roy M. Film Music: A Neglected Art. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992, p.36. 10 Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews with Film Composers Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1999, p. 155. 11 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p.46.

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25 13 Kramer, Jonathan D. Bernard RandssBody and Shadow: Modernist, Postmodernist and Antimodernist? Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4. pp. 29-43.

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26 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE I dont really think Im a great melodist. I dont think I have a particularly, quote, original way of speaking from moment to moment. In fact I find it very hard to think of ideas, and I dont know ifthe momentary intervallic id eas are so wonderful. What it has maybe forced me to do is make my architectural ideas more important than my musical ideas.1 John Corigliano Introduction In this chapter, the available m a terial about John Corigliano and The Red Violin referenced throughout this thesis is discussed. Then, literatu re dedicated to film music, including works on the methodology of previous film studies, is examined. The books listed in this chapter include the li mited number of sources pertaining to the life and music of John Corigliano. These sources include dissertations and books on film that contain interviews with Corigliano. A few of these sources are addressed in this chapter. In addition, a book on film music, similar in approach to this document, is discussed. The Music of John Corigliano Fortunately, for this study, m uch of John Coriglianos print music is pub licly available. In addition to the numerous scores and recordings of his music, there are a few biographies in print. John Corigliano: A Monograph John Corigliano A Monograph by Mark Adamo, is the m ost important document about Coriglianos life and music. It is surprising that one of America s most distinguished composers of the late twentieth-century di d not have a book exclusively writt en about his music until this brief monograph was published in 2000. This book, a collection of small essays, divides Coriglianos works into differe nt categories. It was commissioned by The Royal Northern College of Music in England, who hosted J ohn Corigliano for a weeklong residency in December of 2000. The monograph was written solely by Adamo for release during the event.

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27 Adamo acquired a great deal of information dire ctly from Corigliano and states, The book was written in close collaboration with the composer himself.2 Since this is the only book dedi cated completely to Corigliano, it plays a vital role in learning about the composer and understanding his music. The book consists of five short chapters that discuss selected works and asp ects of Coriglianos career. The monographs brief introduction sets the tone for the work by describing Coriglianos role as a compositional maverick writing in a mainstream environment. Following the introduction, the author disc usses Coriglianos large orchestral compositions. This section is the most extensive, since his musical output consists primarily of orchestral works. Coriglianos most noted scores are written for orchestra and include several concerti Adamo looks at Coriglianos music in chronological order, beginning with the section entitled Early Works in which the influences of Copla nd, Barber and Bernstein are noted. The next section of the chapter, The Medium As Message, discusses the compositional direction that Corigliano has taken sin ce 1975. In the first work of this period, Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (1975), Corigliano began to base his compositional process around what he calls the architectural structure. Creating an entire pieces shape in the init ial planning stages has been Coriglianos modus operandi in every work since these earl y days (including his three film scores). Throughout this section, Adamo discusse s the role of these techniques in the three woodwind concertos, Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, C oncerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and his Pied Piper Fantasy: Concerto for Flute and Orchestra Along with this change in approach to form, his approach to harmony and rhythm also changed beginning with this period. Mary Lou Humphrey elaborates:

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28 Not only has his harmony become more complex, but he now occasionally avoids harmony altogether in his work, or, as in his score to the film Altered States uses sonority in place of harmony.3 The second chapter, The Politics Of Memory: The Opera And Oratorio Work, discusses Coriglianos opera The Ghosts of Versailles (1990) along with his oratorio A Dylan Thomas Trilogy (1999). The opera is important to study, as it reflects how Coriglia no uses material from other time periods to reflect certain historic musical styles within the context of a contemporary opera. It is in this regard that Coriglia nos opera is similar to the film score of The Red Violin Adamo explains how Corigliano combined Classi cal styles with his own musical language: The world that Corigliano created was full of subtle, distorted images of Mozart and Rossini, which would segue in and out of the abstract atonal and microtonal idiom he was composing in during that period of his career.4 The last chapter in Adamos book, The Studio as Studio: The Film Work examines Coriglianos three film scores. Within this ch apter Adamo discusses the compositional methods Corigliano used for his first film score, Altered States which includes textures the composer calls motion sonorities and cue beats. A sect ion of this chapter al so examines his littleknown score to the film Revolution and how an excerpt from the film, entitled The War Lament, was re-worked and incorporated into the first movement of his Symphony No.1 Adamo also looks at the history of the Red Violin including the conception and the compositional background of the work. According to Adamo, Cori gliano was intrigued from the beginning with the films concept, imagining a large arch itectural structure driven by a seven-chord chaconne.5 From this progression, all the harmonies and me lodies for the entire score were derived, including the modal Red Violin Theme, which is first heard in the film when the violinmakers wife sings the tune a capella Adamo supplies a short summar y of Coriglianos score to The Red Violin :

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29 From the neo-Baroque to the neo-Classical, from the arch-Romantic to the provocative solo etudes, played by the English virtuoso in the films central sequence, from the shimmering aleatoric mist of the opening titles to the driv ing crypto-passacaglia of the final chase sequence, a masterly technique of variation is evident throughout the score.6 John Corigliano John Corigliano by Mary Lou Hum phrey, is a promotional document by John Coriglianos publisher G. Schirmer, Inc. Even though the thirty-two-p age publication has not been revised since 1994, it still contains useful information on a number of his compositions, including techniques and devices fe atured in his scores. It also contains a list of works and a discography of everything produced up to the date of the publication. Altered States: A discussion of John Coriglia n os film score: Part II of a dissertation The second part of Daniel Josephs dissertation focuses on the music to Altered States. The author was unable to use the film score in his study; however, the author did have access to the work Corigliano based on the film, the orchestral suite Three Hallucinations for Orchestra (1981). May begins with a discussion of Coriglianos early work Creations (1972). This work was an important experiment for Corigliano, as he utilized such techniques as aleatory and indeterminacy for the first time, focusing on texture and sonority rather than melody. May gives a detailed explanation of motion sonorities, a term coined by Corigliano, using musical examples from Three Hallucinations for Orchestra. Motion sonorities is a term coined by Corigliano. Within these sonorities, Corigliano uses ex tended techniques, some of which are adopted from previous concert piece s. The Rhieta Effect, first found in the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra is a technique in which the solo oboist positions his or her lips differently on the reed in order to create a rough, almost primitive sound. Corigliano employs multiple oboes to create this effect in his Three Hallucinations. Replacing melody with texture

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30 and sonority are techniques that Corigliano used many times, first appearing in association with his architectural structure conc ept. Corigliano experiments with muting techniques for the brass, flute buzzing, flute whistle tones, and ma ny different string techniques. Flute buzzing is accomplished by changing ones embouchure on the flute, which creates a major seventh pitch below the given note. Only a limited number of flautists in the entire world can perform such a technique.7 May gives a detailed analysis of all three movements of the suite. He discusses such notable compositional devices as Coriglianos use of quotation, a technique that he has employed many times, including in the opera Ghosts of Versailles. Corigliano was under a time constraint to finish the score for Altered States He therefore adopted new not ational devices to complete the score more quickly. For example, Corigliano begins to incorporate box notation within his scores, giving the performer the notes to play an d allowing them to improvise with them for an allotted time. Corigliano continue d using this technique in his Symphony No.1 and in the film score to The Red Violin. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John Co rigliano William Ladd Higgins wrote his dissertation on The Ghost of Versailles in 1995 at the University of Oklahoma. Higgins first disc usses the background of the French author Beaumarchais, provides a synopsis of Beaumarchais original play, describes other characters from Coriglianos opera, and give s the background of Coriglianos opera. Higgins gives a brief overview of Coriglianos musical styles throughout his career, including a separate chapter dedicated to styles found in The Ghosts of Versailles The opera is an important work in Coriglianos catalog. Corigliano ut ilizes historic musical styles and quotations in a manner similar to The Red Violin

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31 Higgins discusses the similarities between Coriglianos film music and The Ghosts of Versailles. According to Higgins, The influence of the film industry upon Coriglianos musical style is most apparent in the opera The Ghosts of Versailles which resembles a motion picture, both musically and dramatically.8 In terms of the similarities with the opera and film, Higgins discusses Coriglianos use of leitmotifs for the major characters of the opera. Corigliano also utilized a similar technique in The Red Violin Higgins analyzes musical examples from the opera, including examples of motivic material, phrase content, instrumentation, and harmonic content. Other Information Regarding John Corigliano Other sources on John Corigliano include shor t entries in selected books and on-line articles. Much of the inform ation is related to his opera The Ghost of Versailles or his Symphony No.1, due to the enormous success of thes e works since their premieres in 1991. Opera News published two articles pertaining to the Ghost of Versailles, and The Oxford Dictionary of Music includes two paragraphs about the composers career. In addition, interviews with the composer can now be found in various books on film scoring as a result of the critical acclaim of his three film scores. The Score: Interviews with Film Composers Michae l Schelles The Score: Interviews with Film Composers written in 1999, dedicates twenty pages to an interview with John Coriglian o, discussing his work on all three films. The majority of the interview concerns his score to Altered States This book is a very useful guide to Coriglianos philosophy and approach to film scor ing. Schelle discusses Co riglianos large plan, or architectural structure, for The Red Violin, his decision to use an ex tended string orchestra, and his extraction of the concert piece from the film score. Cori gliano also discusses his work on the film Revolution He explains his disappointment with how his mu sic was edited out in places

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32 in order to hear bomb strikes during war sequences, and the fact th at no original sound recording was released. Knowing the Score: Film Composers Talk About the Art, Craft, Blood, Sw eat, and Tears of Writing for Cinema David Morgans book Knowing the Score consists solely of interviews with many wellknown film composers, including Carter Burwell, Elliot Goldenthal (a student of Corigliano), Elmer Bernstein, and John Corigliano. The Co rigliano interview provi des insight into his thoughts about film composing. Morgan dedicate s two separate chapters to Coriglianos interview: Sounds of Apocalypse: John Corigliano On Altered States and Provenance: John Corigliano On The Red Violin In the Altered States chapter Corigliano discusses how the director approached him, and what interested h im in composing for film, a medium for which he had not previously composed. Corigliano discusse s new techniques he used to score the film, such as motion sonorities and cue beats. He al so speaks about prejudices that exist within the musical community, such as disdain for film composers writing concert music and concert music composers writing for film. In The Red Violin chapter, Corigliano gives a synopsis of the story and discusses the chaconne he used as the underlying foundation for the score. Corigliano discusses how the director orig inally wanted only underscoring fo r the picture. Corigliano later convinced the director that the historical separation of the five visual sequences called for a musical element that could connect them together. Corigliano also discusses his decision to score the work for strings alone. The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak About the Creative Process Another interview-based book, The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak About the Creative Pr ocess, written by Ann McCutchen, focuses on twenty-five living composers from the late 20th Century who wrote concert music. Coriglia no is the only composer McCutchen includes

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33 who has written for film as well as the concert stag e. Within Coriglianos interview, he discusses his musical upbringing, style, appr oach to orchestration, and process of composing. This book is also a valued source for understand ing his thoughts about music. Success in Unity: John Corigliano s Score to The Red Vi olin Michael Glasers 2003 senior thesis project at the College of William and Mary was written in close collaboration with John Cori gliano. Glaser writes a description of every music cue from the film, including an analysis of the main motivic ma terial. He discusses how the different styles of the film correspond with the styles of music f ound in particular periods of musical history. However, Glaser only touches the surface of Cori glianos stylistic features in the cues. For example, he mentions that the Monastery cue is in the style of Vivaldi without discussing the extent of its similarities. Othe r than the present document, Glasers thesis is the only writing solely about the music of The Red Violin Glasers paper helps verify many of the hypotheses brought forward by this author. However, Glaser does not include a detailed description of the musical styles of the cues or a comparative theoretical analysis, though he does make several interesting observations as well as discussing motivic material in the score and the music in relation to the picture. He e xplains the role of the music in underscoring each scene. Film Music As m entioned in Chapter One, the history of film music goes back only one hundred years. During the early years, film music was not consid ered a critical element of the motion picture. By the 1930s and 1940s, film studios were produc ing movies faster than the public could view them, and film composers began to create wonderful scores that began to be synchronized with the narrative, establishing or playing against elem ents in the films. Beginning with this era, the underscoring music became a crucial part of the narrative structure of the film. Strangely, one of the first books discussing film music, Composing for Films was not written until 1947. Written

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34 by Gerhart Eisler, the book discusses music fo r film, addressing orchestra scoring and the authors preference for not in corporating Wagnerian-style leitmotifs in a score. With the development of the film industry, film scoring came to be dominated by a select group of composers. Early composers, such as Steiner and Newmann, and later, John Williams altered the film scoring industry forever with his large orches trations and electrifying scores to the biggest Hollywood hits. By the 1980s film music was be ginning to be recogniz ed in the academic world, creating a sudden boom in books written about the subject. In the 1990s film scoring in education was a thriving enterpri se and more composition students s howed an interest in scoring television and movie scores. In the twenty-five years since, ma ny books have been written about the history, theory, and practice of film music. Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative Film Music and Narrative written b y Graham Bruce, explai ns in detail the relationship of music and picture in the films scored by le gendary composer Bernard Hermann. Along with discussing Hermanns contribution to the film music world, Bruces book employs a methodology useful to this study. He explains how the music of a film re lates to the films narrative structure. Specific cues are discussed, and Bruce gives an analysis of the music that Hermann provided for the scenes, elucidating the reason for its success. Bruce says, One must discuss why the composers music functions so appr opriately as film music, in particular how its specific parts relate to the formal articulation of a given sequence.9 Bruce discusses the 19thCentury Romantic composers influence on ea rly film composers and how they employed leitmotifs to connect certain characters and places with the music. Bruces final section thoroughly discusses two of Herman ns most famous film scores, Vertigo and Psycho

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35 Film Music Volume 1 Film Music Volume 1, edited by Clifford McCa rty, is a set of journals written by many individuals who have worked in the film industry or taught film scoring and sound production. In Stephen Wrights journal The Materials of Film Music: Their Nature and Accessibility he discusses the creation of the concer t suite out of the original film score and how the suite relates to the original film cues. He also discusses the locations where many of the original film scores are stored by different st udios. Eddy Lawrence Mansons The Film Composer In Concert and The Concert Composer In Film is a journal about the difficult ies concert composers sometimes face when trying to write for film. In addition, th ere is a discussion on whether film music can be considered real music. Other Sources Pertaining to Film Music Many books addressing the subject of film music are now available. Some address historical aspects of film music, while others discuss the theory and practice of composing for film. Roy Prendergasts Film Music: A Neglected Art discusses the entire history of film music, from its origins to contemporary practice. His book offers a comprehensive view of film music that begins with the introduction of silent films and moves through and beyond Hollywoods Golden Age of the 1930s and 1940s, when film music acquired the importance it has today. He also discusses the phenomenon of concert composers w ho also write for film and the use of popular Classical and Romantic melodies in films from the 1940s. By providing a thorough overview of the history of film music, Prendergasts journal al so includes discussions about stylistic features uniquely found in the film scores of Aaron Copland, Jerry Goldsmith and David Raskin. Annette Davisons journal Hollywood Theory, Non-Hollywood Practice, Cinema Soundtracks in the 1980s and 1990s gives an account of the pr actices of current film composers. She discusses classical scoring theory as well as new techniques currently in use,

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36 giving examples of how present-day compos ers write for film. Davison argues for the importance of music in film, e xplaining how music relates to the picture using the famous Russian director Sergei Eisens teins theories on how picture and music become bound together through movement. She also examines the use of dissonance in film music, drawing on Eislers Composing for Films (1947) as a source. Eisler discusses, in great detail, how there is no room for tonality in film music and how this fact has driven film music to atonality. Two of the books listed a bove, Michael Schelles The Score. Interviews with Film Composers and David Morgans Knowing The Score. Film Composers Talk About The Art, Craft, Blood, Sweat, and Tears of Writing For Cinema not only include interviews with Corigliano, but also many of the top film composers in the count ry. Schelle and Morgan give insights into the devices employe d in many important film scor es, and their theories about scoring music for film. Notes 1 Dickson, John Howard. The Union of Poetry and Music in John Coriglianos A Dylan Thomas Trilogy Diss. Ann Arbor: University Mi crofilms International, 1985, p. 9. 2 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 8. 3 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1989 revised 1994, p. 6. 4 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 48. 5 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 47. 6 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 48. 7 Interview with John Corigliano at his home. April 30, 2007. 8 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the opera by John Corigliano and William M. Hoffman Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, p. 39. 9 Bruce, Graham. Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1985, p. 3.

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37 CHAPTER 3 JOHN CORIGLIANOS CREATIVE OUTPUT AND STYLE It has been fashionab le recently for the ar tist to be misunderstood. I wish to be understood. My generation of composers has be en taught to write music by the book, and not by the ear. Now we have schools of music, like we have schools of fish. I cant blame audiences for feeling that mode rn music is a dirty word. The establishment that has to be cracked these days is the establishment of incomprehensibility. The co mposer has to reach and make his audience understand him with every means at his disposal.1 John Corigliano John Corigliano has been a prolific com poser since the 1960s. Before writing the The Red Violin at the age of 61, he had developed and perfected a number of compositional techniques in previous works that would find their way into the film score. An understanding of the compositional devices that he used in previous important works helps to better understand how The Red Violin fits into his creative oeuvre. The techniques that Corigliano utilizes has helped him to create a body of work that is eclectic in style and dramatic in form. As Ellio t Schwartz notes, John Corigliano scores conjoin functional tonality, lyrical diat onicism, and simple rhythmic structures with twelve-tone passages, tone clusters, complex rhythmic gest ures, and avant-garde performance techniques.2 Corigliano has repeatedly claimed that his music does not have a specific style. Fellow composer Leonardo Balada pointed out to him the si milarities in two different piano works, Fantasia on an Ostinato (1985) and Etude Fantasy (1976), written many years apar t. Corigliano was shocked, not realizing the resemblances, and admitted th at what he created was through subconscious decisions. John Coriglianos music c ontains all of the characteristics that Schwartz cites, and, as this chapter will show, there has been a steady evolution of these techniques and stylistic features throughout his career.

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38 The Early Years Before illus trating Coriglianos compositional output, it is necessary to discuss his musical upbringing. John Paul Corigliano Jr. wa s born on February 16, 1938 in New York City. He has been surrounded by music his entire life. In 1942, his father was appointed concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, a pos ition he would hold for more than twenty-three years. His mother was an accomplished pianist who gave private lessons at home. After his parents divorced, Corigliano altern ated between living with his father in New York City and his mother in Brooklyn. Throughout Coriglianos youth, his parents advised him not to become a professional musician. As a member of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra for many years, his father believed orchestras mistreated contem porary composers, so he discouraged his son from ever writing music. However, Corigliano would eventually became one the leading American composers of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries. Corigliano did not dedicate too much of his time to listening to classical music throughout his childhood and early teen years. His feelings changed when he first heard Aaron Coplands Rodeo He was mesmerized by this music, es pecially the percussion writing and the compound rhythms. Corigliano soon became caught up in the Americana music of Copland, Harris, Bernstein, and Barber. These formative influences found their way into Coriglianos early compositions, as he would spend his teenag e years listening to many recordings of music by these composers. Americana was an important musical development throughout the United States in the 19th and 20th Centuries as American folk idioms began to appear in concert music beginning in the 1800s. The simple beauty of th ese nationalistic melodies intrigued audiences. The term Americana, referenced by many people, is used to describe music that encompasses American folk styles, such as bluegrass, Native American, and country and western. Americana has taken on a broad meaning because of the many American cultural influences One of

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39 Coriglianos earliest works, Kaleidoscope, a neoclassic work for two pianos, incorporates Ragtime and folk songs. According to author Mark Adamo: The legacy from the Copland school is the distinctly American sound: consonance, sweetness, melancholy are achieved in a fluid and unpredictable tonal framework. Changes in meters could occur frequently, bu t smoothly, with few aura l clues that thats happening.3 Unlike most people of his gene ration, it is remarkable that Corigliano was never exposed to the popular music of the 1960s, such as the Beatles and Bob Dylan. He attended Columbia University to study composition with Otto Luening and at the Manhattan School of Music with Vittorio Giannini. The impact of his pedigree remain s in many of the lyrical melodies that he has generated throughout his career. Early Works Sonata for Violin and Piano (1962) John Coriglianos first intern ationally recognized work, Sonata for Violin and Piano, was dedicated to his paren ts. This work won first prize at the 1964 Spoleto Festival Competition for Chamber Music in Italy by a panel of judges that included Samuel Barber, Gian Carlo Menotti, and Walter Piston. Though his father initially despised the work, Corigliano began to garner recognition due to its success. Eventually, John Corigliano Sr. would become the works top interpreter. His recordin g of the work, along with his fingerings in the score, is now the standard interpretation of the sonata. Many of the devices used in The Sonata for Violin and Piano can be found in his later compositional output. According to a review from musicroom.com, The work augurs much to come in the development of his compositional style.4 The Sonata for Violin and Piano is a virtuoso work for both performers. Chris Younghoon Kim, founder of a new music concert seri es in Ann Arbor, Michigan, describes the piece as a highly lyrical, nostalgic work, which effectively employs aton ality, but is nonetheless

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40 rooted in tonality.5 The piece is in four movements and employs traditional forms such as sonata allegro and rondo Corigliano has utilized such tr aditional forms throughout his career, including using a chaconne as the premise in The Red Violin Kim describes the opening movement: The fi rst movement's feverish violin writing coupled with a toccata-like piano part is extremely exciting5. The movement, lasting two and a half minutes, can be considered an introduction to the sonata. The Andantino second movement, in the key of D major is an example of Coriglianos early ability to create a simple, diatonic mel ody repeated with an endless array of subtle variations. This techni que of melodic variati on is also used in The Red Violin The theme of the Andantino is reminiscent of the late Romantic mu sic of Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. According to Corigliano: A gentle Andantino is in a modified sonata form. Three themes seem to intertwine in this movement, which peaks and peaks again before quieting. A closer l ook at the second and third themes shows that they are but variations of the first theme.6 The melody is melancholic in tone and simp le in construction. Figure 3-1 shows the opening three measures of the theme, a simple diatonic figure empl oying passing and neighbor tones, centered around the key of D major. The use of simple diatonic me lodies is a signature feature that can be found in many of Corigliano s works throughout his career in works such as the Pied Piper theme from the Pied Piper Fantasy: Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, the second movement from Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and the principal theme from The Red Violin

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41 Figure 3-1. Sonata for Violin and Piano second movement measures 1-3 Sonata for Violin and Piano By John Corigliano Copyright 1967 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The third movement, Lento, is a combination of another lyrical theme with harmonies built upon the interval of the minor second (and its inversion), the primary intervals of the entire sonata. Many of Coriglianos later works incorpor ate these intervals into their main motivic and harmonic materials, such as his Concerto for Piano and Orchestra The movement concludes with a cadenza, recapitulating material taken fr om the movements primary motivic material. The final movement, Allegro, is another virtuoso display for both instrumentalists. It is the culmination of everything that has occurred previously in the work, including thematic, textural and harmonic ideas. The movement is full of technically demanding and aggressive rhythms. Corigliano states, The fourth movement is a rondo with a difference, which takes a vivid polytriadic theme, an augmented varia tion on it, and accompanimental figures from previous movements, and spins them all into a breathless and exuberant polymetric finale.7 The highly energetic feeling of shifti ng rhythmic figures also occurs frequently in many of his later works. This device stems from his admiration and interest in Americana music, especially that of Leonard Bernstein, under whom he was working on the New York Philharmonic Orchestras Young Peoples Concert Series.

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42 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1967) Coriglianos first concerto was written for the instrument he probably knows best. Similar to the Sonata for Violin and Piano a key center dominates the entire work. In this concerto, the key area is Bb, which is blurred with different types of dissonances, including some sections that are written usi ng the 12-tone technique. The work is in four movements and contains many stylistic features th at are also present in his late r compositions, including his three wind concertos, such as the Classical forms of sonata-allegro, scherzo, and rondo. The difficult rhythms, changing me ters, and polyrhythms found in the Piano Concerto are a trademark of many of his pieces, including his Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, The Promenade Overture, and Symphony #3 Circus Maximus These devices in his music are attributable to his c ontact with Leonard Bernstein. Co rigliano worked with Bernstein from 1961 to 1972, producing the Young Peoples Concerts by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra for CBS television. Even though Coriglia no usually cites the in fluences of Copland and Barber, one can see Bernstein-esque metrical changes and melodies in Coriglianos Concerto for Piano and Orchestra According to Marc Adamo, The Piano Concerto of 1967, like his orchestra work Tournaments, accelerates and complicates to a striking degree the urban, rhythmic swagger one associates with the Bernstein ballet and the theatre scores.8 This work was commissioned by the San Antonio Symphony Or chestra. It premiere d on April 7, 1968, with Hilde Somer as the soloist. Figure 3-2 illustrates an excerpt from the first movements piano part. The first measure in Figure 3-2 shows a three-note motivic figure (Bb-B-C), which is developed throughout the first movement. Corig lianos harmonic language in this example incorporates the dissonances of the second and the tritone. These interv als are also a vital ingredient in his Sonata for Violin and Piano. Within these four measures, it is possible to see Coriglianos harmonic implications and the changi ng rhythms that are so prominent in the work.

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43 Figure 3-2. Concerto for Piano and Orchestra first movement. Measures 11-14 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra by John Corigliano Copyright 1971 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Other Early Works Elegy Tournaments, and Gazebo Dances ar e the other important compositions from Coriglianos early career. All three have become standard repertoire for many orchestras. Their popularity stems from the fact that these works have the natural simplicity of the Americana style with memorable melodies that employ clear diatonic tonal centers. Elegy and Tournaments were both composed in 1965. Gazebo Dances, composed originally in 1973 for two pianos four hands and later arranged for both concert band and orchestra, is more rhythmically driven than the other two works. Elegy Elegy was Coriglianos first published work for la rge ensem ble. The work began as a trio for flute, clarinet, and harp. It was originally written for a love scene that Corigliano composed for an off-Broadway play written by Wa llace Gray about Helen of Troy, entitled Helen. The work uses clear tonal centers with simple harmonies that are in the Americana style. The simple Bb minor opening, with its two descending perfec t fifths, is reminiscent of Copland and Bernstein. The work has three expressive themes that are developed and interwoven, culminating

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44 in a full orchestral climax. This climax quickly recedes and the work ends with a final statement of the opening motive. Figure 3-3. Elegy measures 7-12 Elegy by John Corigliano Copyright 1969 (Renewed) by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Figure 3-3 shows the opening motive, harmonized by the second clarinet, and accompanied by the contrabasses. This example exemplifies the writing style that Corigliano employed in his two early orchestral works. In the first measure, the melody is harmonized exclusively with consonant interv als of thirds and sixths. The di ssonances are heard between the upper voices and the bass. As previously stated, one reason this work has seen such an acceptance from audiences is the unabashed tona lity. The preference for consonance and sparse dissonance results in mild tension that is abso rbed in the principally consonant harmony of the work. The focus on diatonic consonances in the harmony reflects the influence of the Americana composers.

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45 Tournaments (1965) Tournaments is an orchestra work that Corig liano com posed without a commission. The first performance of the work took place fifteen years later by the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra in 1980, after Corigliano had alr eady achieved fame. Corigliano describes the work in the program notes of the score as a contest piece, or a sort of concerto for orchestra.9 Virtuoso passages for solo instruments and orchestral sections alternate throughou t the work. This would be a technique that he later devel oped in the third movement of his Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra. As in the opening movement of the Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, Tournaments is largely based on the development of a thr ee-note motive. The work begins with an introductory fanfare in the brass section base d upon this motive. The three-note figure is expanded and presented in a chorale textur e in the middle section of the piece. Figure 3-4 shows the three-note opening fanfar e motive (measure 1-2), the chorale style theme that is derived from this (measure 8-12), and the scherzo-like section (measure 54-56). The scherzo is played by the piccolo and double ba sses with the theme compressed into 16th notes. Thus the entire work is based on the deve lopment of this simple motivic material. The work combines Copland-like Americana harmony with the rhythmic energy of Bernsteins show tunes. The composition is dedicated to Phill ip Ramey who conducted the works premiere. During a rehearsal for the piece, Corigliano joking ly put the name Aaron Bernstein in place of his own. Ramey and Corigliano both understood how much of an influence these composers had on his early development as a composer.

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46 Figure 3-4. Tournaments (Introduction measures 1-2 Chorale measures 8-12 Scherzo measures 54-56) Tournaments by John Corigliano Copyright 1980 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Gazebo Dances (1973) Gazebo Dances is a four-m ovement piece for two pianos four hands that playfully depicts scenes from rural Americas town squares. Th e movements were written to be fun for the performers and audience alike. Each movement is dedicated to a different pianist friend of the composer. The first movement is what Corigliano cal ls an Overture in the Rossini style. This is one of the first pieces Corigliano composed that employs an older musical language. Corigliano would eventually quote or use ma ny stylistic devices from the Classical and Romantic periods. The second movement is a Waltz, while the third movement, Adagio, contains long melodic phrases. The final movement, Tarantella was later revised and used as the second movement of

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47 his Symphony No. 1 Figure 3-5, the opening measures of the third movement, again showcases Coriglianos penchant for composing tona l melodies. The work begins with a Bb major triad in Piano 2 while Piano 1 outlines a simple diatonic melody. Figure 3-5. Gazebo Dances, third movement Adagio measures 1-5 Gazebo Dances by John Corigliano Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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48 Creations (1972) Corigliano first experimented with indeterm inacy in his 1972 work Creations. This work was commissioned for a television program that to ld the story of Genesis. Though the television project never aired, Corigliano la ter published the music under the present title including a part for narrator. It took more than twenty years from its initial conception for Creations to be performed. Within the work, Corigliano steers away from conventional notation in favor of aleatoric notation resulting in uni que sonorities and textures. This approach would later be used in his Altered States film score. According to reviewer Anthony Tommasini: Mr. Corigliano's richly orchestrated music is cinematic, with its pulseless shimmerings, ominous swellings and Hitchcockian frenz y. The dawn of time is evoked in quiet, wheezy woodwinds. When God creates the fowl of the air, the clarinets squawk and the flutes twitter. The day of rest is pass ed with wistful Coplandesque harmonies.10 Summary of Early Works John Coriglianos early works contain lyrical m e lodies contrasted wi th sharp rhythms and shocking dissonant harmonies. Compositional techni ques first appear in this early period which presage approaches used th roughout his career, including in The Red Violin At times Coriglianos music in his early career is clearly to nal, contrasted at other points with an atonal idiom. As Corigliano states, this period is a tens e, histrionic outgrowth of the clean American sound of Barber, Copland, Harris and William Schuman, rather than a descendant of the highly chromatic, super-Romantic German School.11 Corigliano favored the Americana style in his youth, and always disliked the highly chromatic Romanticism of Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss. Architectural Structure John Coriglianos philosophy of composi ng changed forever around the year 1975. During his early years, along with many other co mposers of the tim e, such as Barber and

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49 Bernstein, he concentrated on pitch content and motivic development. However, Corigliano had a revelation that would change his entire thought process and concept of composing. In a conversation with Yale University historia n Eve Grimes, Corigliano describes this new approach: The Oboe Concerto I think, is the piece that finally pushed me into another world of composing. From then on Ive composed usi ng this method of writing. Its not a method; its just really making the big de cisions first instead of the little ones. By that, I mean not composing by extending an interval or a melody into a piece-which is how many people do it, including Copland, who write s wonderful music. But to me the idea of the bigger shape being governed by the sm aller idea just seems backwards. I finally came to realize that the most important thing about a piece of mu sic is the shape, what a piece is from beginning to end.12 John Coriglianos compositional output from this point forward would always involve this structural approach. He would first th ink of the shape of the work, including each movements contour, style, and flow. Inserting the pitches would be th e last step in his compositional process. Corigliano w ould draw graphs that show what features would be in the music, including the duration, shape, and dynamic levels. This graphing technique has been used in each of his works since 1975. In an interview with the author, Corigliano claims he was not inspired by other composers to begin each work with the architectural structure. He contends that it was a natural development. These graphs, kept in a private collection, were not made available to the author. However, Corigliano did display the graphs from his Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and Symphony #3 Circus Maximus at two different lectures at which this author was present. The graph acts as a compositional tool, gove rning the works content. It allows Corigliano to conceptualize the form of the music before writing down any music. The process also allows for the incorporation of the theatrics that are a part of many of this periods works, including the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and the Pied Piper Fantasy: Concerto for

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50 Flute and Orchestra Macro-compositional decisions are all determined at the initial conception and graphing stage. According to Mary Lou Humphrey, He has approached each new work as a unique world defined by specific compositional pr oblems and shaped by th e technical abilities and personalities of the performers.13 Corigliano credits the success of his compositions to the use of this procedure. He feels a works overa ll structure is the most important aspect of a composition. This technique is not used by many of todays composers, and Corigliano feels that is why many new works are misunderstood and incoherent to the general public. Even though Coriglianos music does not consist of a simple tonal language, and he uses many advanced techniques and a wide array of compositional devices in his compositions, his architectural process supplies his compositions with a clear and coherent structur e. Through the use of architectural structure, Coriglianos earlier, more traditional works evolved into a style that is freer, more eclectic, and more dramatic. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra (1975) Corigliano quickly rose to the top of the pr ofession in the 1970s. The first work that earned him national attention was his most daring to date, the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra. The world premiere of the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra took place at Carnegie Hall in New York City with Bert Lucarelli as the solois t and Kazuyoshi Akiyama conducting the American Composers Orchestra. Coriglianos initial co mposition process for the piece focused on highlighting the characteristic timbral traits of the oboe. As Adamo notes, he wanted a piece precisely drawn from the unique capabilities of both the instrument and its soloist.14 The first movement, entitled Tuning Game, begins with the soloist sustaining the pitch A while the other sections of the orchestra tun e to that note. The pitch center of the entire movement is A. The opening material is written ad lib as the instruments improvise warm-up techniques. Similar improvisations can be found in many of his later works, including his

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51 Symphony No. 1 and a section from the score to The Red Violin Corigliano then switches to the use of normal notation for the remainder of the m ovement. After tuning the orchestra, the soloist begins to mistune the different groups, adding a co mical twist to the old tradition of orchestral tuning. During this playful section, the soloist be gins to display his virtuoso skills, including leaps from the lowest pitch, Bb3, to the higher ranges of the instrument. A secondary scalar motive is then presented, continuing the parody rhetoric of the piece by mocking orchestral musicians use of scales to warm up. In the mi ddle section of the movement, Corigliano uses a dance theme with many meter changes. The oboe presents contrasting material against the orchestras motivic material. This energetic displa y is a recurring stylistic feature that is found in many of his pieces. Planned during the design of th e architectural structur e, the climax of the movement occurs when the soloist sustains a high A6. The last thirteen measures are a short codetta where the oboe plays around the pitch A but does not reach the destination A until the second to last measure. In the second movement, entitled Song, Co rigliano capitalizes on the ability of the oboe to play sustained notes by wr iting melodic lines that last for many measures. For example, with a tempo of quarter note = 60, Corigliano has the oboe play one phrase that lasts for ten measures, as illustrated in Figure 3-6. The lyrical melodies of this movement hearken back to the lyricism of his early style. Romantic in characte r, these lengthy melodic phrases can also be in found in Coriglianos The Red Violin (shown below in the discussion of the Frederick Pope sequence).

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52 Figure 3-6. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, second movement, Song, measures 16-25 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The movement Song contains an unders tated climax, with a dynamic level not exceeding mezzo-piano Such restraint can also be found in later works, including the second movement of his Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra Within Song, Corigliano consistently establishes new key centers whenever a new statement of the theme occurs, whether in the accompaniment or in the solo oboe. This techniqu e is found in other works, including the Pied Piper Theme from the Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra. The third movement, Scherzo, begins with a fortissimo gesture in a Presto tempo that suddenly interrupts the works lyrical second move ment. This moment is orchestrated for tom toms, bells, harp, and piano. Unlike many symphonic scherzo movements, Corigliano did not use any woodwinds in the movement except for the so loist. This unique arrangement is a stylistic trait he has used throughout his career, including writing for strings only in the second movement of the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and writing the comp lete film score to The Red Violin for a string ensemble. A stylis tic feature first employed in the Scherzo and used in many of his later compositions includes his notation using headless stems. His adoption of these aleatoric devices is another st ylistic appropriation, here dr awn from composers such as

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53 Penderecki and Ligeti. Corigliano wr ites out the first few pitches, and then, using headless stems, asks the performers to improvise on these pitche s with the given rhythm. He gives the players specific guidelines to follow, thus constraining the randomness. Corigliano describes the attack, dynamics, and duration of the ad lib passages. He does not allow the performers complete freedom, unlike other composers who utilize such aleatoric devices. Th is technique is utilized in many of his concert pieces, as we ll as in the film scores for Altered States and The Red Violin The energy and sonorities of Scherzos opening are similar to those in Bernsteins West Side Story and Candide As with many of Coriglianos works, seconds, sevenths and ninths are primary intervals in his harmonic and melodic la nguage. The movements t onality is centered around the lowest note on the oboe, Bb3. Robert Howe, in his article about the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, noted that Corigliano used an extensive amount of Bb3s; totaling seventy-two appearances.15 Corigliano writes quick leap s to the next octave, B4. He then embellishes this figure with the pitch D, which then returns to the B natural. Corigliano created this movement using a motive based on a collection of three notes, seen before in the Concerto for Piano and Orchestra and Tournaments. The movement follows a simple ternary form. The contrasting section is slow and lyrical, with an atmos pheric sound created through the use of the celesta, harp, and vibraphone. Very soft tom-toms ( ppp) are used effectively to connect the two contrasting moods. The main theme in this section is an ascending and descending 16th note passage, shown in Figure 3-7. The original material returns, almost completely verbatim, except for minor embellishments toward the conclusion of the movement.

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54 Figure 3-7. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, third movement, Scherzo, measures 33-36 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The fourth movement, Aria, begins with a ch orale-style opening scor ed for strings alone. Corigliano uses many sharp dissonances against diatonic interval s in his sonorities. Figure 3-8 illustrates how Corigliano expands his harmonic la nguage from a simple three-note pitch set. Figure 3-8. Oboe Concerto fourth movement, Aria, measures 1-6 Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra by John Corigliano Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. In the lower voices in the first measure, Corigliano includes dissonances, employing an augmented octave, a major seventh, and a tritone in three successive chords. Within the upper voices, the consonances of sixths and a majo r third are used. The first two chords, (Eb-E-G & G-

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55 Ab-B) are the same pitch set: [014] The final sonority in the openi ng measure could be labeled a nonfunctional major seventh chord (Db-A-D-F#). Figure 3-8 shows Coriglianos intricate harmonic vocabulary. He frequently combines a s onorous interval with an added dissonant note in the chord. This harmonic language is also illustrated in such works as the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, Symphony No.1 and String Quartet Within Figure 3-8, dissonances are found on every beat of the first six measures, ex cept the last two beats of measure six. It is interesting to compare the dramatic change s in Coriglianos harmonic vocabulary in the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra with a work from his earlier period, such as Elegy The movements cadenza begins in the dark est and loudest range of the oboe, slowly ascending to the E6 with a dynamic level of piano. Corigliano uses the instruments dynamic envelope effectively, with its na turally louder tones in the lower register and its softer notes above the staff. The final movement is titled Rheita Dance. This movement was inspired by a trip to the southwest Moroccan city of Marrakech in 1966. During this visit, Corigliano saw a man serenading a cobra with a wooden instrument called a Raita, or Ghaytah. To mimic this sound, Corigliano requires the oboist to play without using their lip s and tongue against the reed, creating an out-of-tune pitch and a decidedly different color from that of the traditional Western oboe. Within this movement, Corigliano writes a fast, rhythmically driven dance with meter changes occurring at almost every measure. The melody uses minor seconds, thirds, and sevenths, along with augmented seconds and four ths to create a Middle-Ea stern feel. Corigliano described the movement as an elegant orien tale, a satire of Orientalisms-via-Paris.16 This movement also invites comparisons to Bernsteins Overture to Candide because of the frequent mixed-meters and the high trumpets stating the main motivic material.

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56 The Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra is only the first piece to be influenced by Coriglianos visits to the Mi ddle East. The last scene of the first act from his opera The Ghosts of Versailles (1991) takes place in a Turkish embassy. Ther e, an entire aria is sung with pitch embellishments similar to those found in the Oboe Concerto A third instance is found in his String Quartet (1995), later revised and expanded to become his Symphony No.2 for string orchestra. The second movement of this work suggests the sounds of the Middle East, as he was influenced by the sound of the men chanting prayers. As more men sang different prayers simultaneously, a collage of melodic lines was h eard. The Middle Eastern influences in his music throughout his career helped Corigliano compose the Gypsy cue for the film The Red Violin Some common characteristics are evident, in cluding intervallic relationships (augmented seconds) and meter changes. During the writing of the Oboe Concerto a concept emerged; Corigliano began to design the entire structure of the work at its conception, what he calls th e architectural structure. The material and design of the entire Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra is inspired by the particular abilities of the oboe itself, a nd the resulting piece is more dramatic and more varied than anything the composer had written before. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977) The Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra was the work that put Coriglia no into the rare category of an American celebrity composer. The three movement Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra was written for and dedicated to the Ne w York Philharmonic Orchestras principle clarinetist, Stanley Drucker. Corigliano knew Drucker personally, studying with him in his youth, and he wanted to highlight Druckers playing style and virtuosity. It was Coriglianos father who recommended Drucker for his position with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, a post he has held since 1960. In addition to his relationship with Drucke r, Corigliano also was

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57 familiar with other members of the orchestra. Leonard Bernstein conducted the critically acclaimed premiere. Not since Coplands Clarinet Concerto in 1947 has an American clarinet concerto garnered so much recognition. Cadenzas is the title of the opening m ovement, which incorporates two extensive cadenzas. The work begins with the soloist pl aying quick and technically demanding passages starting in the lowest register of the clarinet. This opening gesture contains the thematic material for the entire movement. The principle harmonic content of the movement comes from the primary chord from the opening clarinet cadenza shown in Figure 3-9. Figure 3-9. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra first movement, principal chord This chord is also sustained under the rapid cl arinet passages at the end of the movement. The chords intervallic content exemplifies how Corigliano uses spacing to explore divergent potentialities of pitch groupings. When the pitches are placed in their prime form, the following set is derived: (D-Eb-E-A). Corigliano creates a small, f our-note cell consisting of the perfect fourth and a group of three consecutive minor seconds. However, the voicing of the yields two perfect fifths. The dissonance lies in the bottom pitch Eb, which is heard prominently because of its position in the chord. The primary pitch for the first movement is Bb. The movement is broken into three sections: the opening cadenza, the development, which Corigliano labels the Interlude and the second cadenza. After the fast opening cadenza the tempo and dynamic levels abruptly decrease. What follows is a slower section, played by the bassoons, contrabassoons, and bass

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58 clarinet. After this section, the clarinet restates and develops the thematic material from its initial cadenza The orchestral texture grows and the tempo accelerates with sweeping glissandi from the soloist, building to the final cadenza. Imitation occurs in the lower winds and trombones. The climax of the final cadenza consists of the clarin et playing feverishly over the principle chord sustained in the strings. The principle chord in Figure 3-9 acts as the harmonic focus of the movement, rather than as a traditional tonic chord. Figure 3-10. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, second movement. measures 1-9 Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra by John Corigliano Copyright 1978 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The second movement, Elegy, is a haunti ng and beautiful creation that Corigliano dedicates to the memory of his father, with in teraction between the soloist and concertmaster. For this movement, Corigliano uses an accompanim ent of strings alone. Corigliano creates a bitonal harmonic field, with the st rings playing the melodic material in B minor, while the clarinet solo is in B flat major. In the opening of the movement, the first violins begin the B minor theme. However, toward the end of their ph rase the violins introduce the pitch Bb before a clear dominant to tonic cadence in B minor. Rather than functioning as an enharmonically spelled leading tone, this Bb foreshadows the solo clarinets ke y center. The opening, measures 1-9, is

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59 shown in Figure 3-10. Throughout the developm ent of the introduction, Corigliano implies tonalities of E flat minor and C minor When the soloist enters, at first almost completely inaudibly, a three-note motive (Bb-BC#) is introduced that stems from the opening material. Coriglianos use of bitonality obstructs the tonal centers throughout the movement. As mentioned earlier in the discussion of the Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra, no crescendo to a climax occurs w ithin the slow movement, as everything remains piano. This anticlimactic stasis adds te nsion, as the entire movement does not reach an ascending peak, forci ng the listener to wait until the last movement for any kind of release. The final movement of the work, Antiphonal Toccata, was perhaps Coriglianos most ambitious composition to date. Antiphonal (two or more groups performing alternate sections) refers to Coriglianos placement of players (four horns, two trumpets and two clarinets) around the perimeter of the concert hall. Corigliano doe s not use these extra players in the first two movements, saving them for the finale. He al so strategically places two timpani players on opposite sides of the main stage to heighten the antiphonal effect. Corigliano was influenced by the Renaissance composer Giovanni Gabrieli (1558-1613) for the third movement, who had at his disposal separate ensembles on diffe rent sides of the Basilica San Marco in Venice, Italy, creating an antiphonal spatial eff ect for the listeners below. This theatrical, spatial technique in the final movement is the first instance where Corigliano used such a dramatic arrangement of players. Mary Lou Humphrey states: The idea of drawing upon the belief that he aring a live performance in a concert hall should remain a special experience, different from that of listening to a record at home, is something Corigliano believes strongly in.17 Many elements of the work support this stat ement, including the extreme virtuosity for the soloist and the orchestra, the theatrics, and the large contrast between movements. The

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60 energy and rhythm of the outer movements are cont rasted with the lyrical melodies of the second movement. According to critic Hubert Cutlot: Coriglianos Clarinet Concerto may be one of his most popular works. Coriglianos music is often overtly and deliberatel y eclectic, except when the composer manages to keep his muse under control, as he brilliantly does in his Symphony #2 and the Clarinet Concerto Coriglianos sincerity and will to communicate as directly as possible are never in doubt, which is why audiences generally react with enthusiasm to performances.18 Corigliano was well aware, given the distances fr om the back of the hall to the front, that the two ensembles would not be synchronized. So he devised a plan to accommodate this situation. Corigl iano elaborates: The relatively slow speed of sound can m ean up to a one-second delay between the sounding of the tone and its perception at a di stance in the concert hall, making precisely synchronized playing impossible. The so lution, I found, was to write music that specifically should not be synchronized.19 Corigliano, therefore, wrote small musical patt erns for the antiphonal instruments placed around the hall to play unsynchronized. Coriglianos Antiphonal Toccata is based on a 12-tone row derived from Gabrielis work Sonata Pian e Forte written in 1597. Corigliano split th e 12-tone row into two sonorities for the movement. After Corigliano quotes a segmen t of Gabrielis work, he creates a repetitive, pulsating chord progression from the 12-tone ro w, which continues to grow throughout the movement until the final climax. An earlier example of musical quot ation occurred in Coriglianos Kaleidoscope, for two pianos, Quotation is a technique that has remained in Coriglianos compositional style, and reached its peak in his poly-stylistic opera The Ghosts of Versailles. Through the use of this and numerous other compositional devices, he generates an amazing amount of energy in the closing movement Some other techniques that are employed include alternating time signatures, glissandi fortissimo percussion hits, alternating passages between the left and right timpani and virtuosic clarinet writing.

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61 By placing instruments around the hall, Coriglia no had discovered a technique that he would later employ in his Promenade Overture, Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 3 Antiphony was also used in the recording of The Red Violin score at Abbey Road recording studio in London, England, where he used two larg e string orchestras and had them recorded separately before mixing them together. (Cor igliano was well aware of microphone placement techniques due to his twelve years at CBS television.) A marked difference exists between Co rigilanos music wr itten before the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and every composition th ereafter. Coriglianos planning decisions (architectural structure) helped him to establish the specifics of the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra. The first movement features the virtuosic abilities of Stanle y Drucker, while the second acts as a homage to Coriglianos father The third is a celebra tory movement, where Corigliano features players of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra with soloistic passages. This is also the first work by Corigliano to utilize a surr ound-sound effect by strategically placing instruments around the pe rimeter of the concert hall. Altered States (1980) Directo r Ken Russell attended a concert in Los Angeles that included Coriglianos Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra on the program. Impressed by the work, he asked the composer to score the music to his most recent film Altered States Corigliano used this commission as an opportunity to channel his thea trical and architectural concerns into a new medium. Many techniques he developed as a respons e to this challenge were then incorporated into his subsequent concert pieces. The films plot centers around a scientis t who tests the physio logical limits of hallucinatory drugs. Actor John Hurts critically acclaimed performance of this mad scientist combined with the plots unusual turn of events created a uniquely dramatic cinema experience.

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62 Corigliano had only composed commercia l music for television prior to Altered States His interest in writing the score to his first film was heightened because of the long ten to twelve minute hallucination sequences sans paroles for which Russell wanted music. Russell gave Corigliano an open mandate in composing the scenes, encouraging him to go as far as [he] wanted with the music.20 This approach, which diverged from the customary collaborative relationship between director and co mposer, resulted in a score that was more liberal in its use of extended techniques than most other Hollywood productions. Film composers rarely allow musicians to improvise within a film score. Many of the studio musicians were not used to playing this style of music, but were instead familiar with a more tuneful approach used by mainstream film composers. Chri stopher Keene, conductor of the Altered States recording, stated: Generally, composers in Hollyw ood achieve complicated effect s in a simple way; they write music to be easy to play and easy to conduct, but yet sounds complicated. Johns case is quite the opposite. He made his score ju st as complex, abstruse and diffuse as he possibly could. Since I have conducted many of his works I was familiar with those techniques. However, many of the studio mu sicians had never seen some of these techniques, either notational or acoustical, so there was a gr eat deal of explanation and experimentation that had to go on in the course of the recording sessions.21 The films hallucinatory sequences are fille d with strange lighting effects and rapid changes in editing. Corigliano wanted to explore musical analogs to these effects in his musical score, aiming to emulate the unusual and horrifyi ng images of the film. Corigliano elaborated, What I wanted was to get a feeling of tensi on, disorientation, and hallucinatory wildness.22 Corigliano composed for a large or chestra, including an extended percussion battery, two pianos that were tuned a quartertone apart from each other, and a Hammond organ. The size of the project ran contrary to the desires of the producers, w ho felt that they could economize by commissioning an electroacoustic composer to wr ite a score that did not require performers. Corigliano was reticent to accept this aesthetic, stating:

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63 Electronic music in film is a clich by now: its been used too much. It is really a much less exciting sound than an entire orchestra ma king the same sonorities. One of the things Ken Russell wanted me to do was experiment which is what I did, and I produced new sounds that were done for orchestracertainly in Hollywoodfor the first time.23 Corigliano was under severe time constraints when composing the score. Russell needed the completed score within six weeks. For such a complicated work, he could not afford to compose and orchestrate a full-length conventional composition in the time allotted. Because of the time constraints, Corigliano invented new notational devices. These notations are primarily short hand for specific aleatoric t echniques that are stil l in use today in his concert works. A small section of The Red Violin also uses such devices in th e score. Corigliano invented a technique for the orchestra that he calls moti on sonorities. Some of these extended techniques are explained in Michael Schelles The Score: Interviews with Film Composers The following quote was extracted from Mark Adamos Monograph. I wrote the words motion s onority at the top of the Altered States score. And I said to myself, I am going to develop symbols that will create extreme action in the players, but will involve a single sound with simple notation that generates a lot of motion just like a trill or a tremolo. And I inve nted the symbol of the box with two notes in it playing in between the notes, as fast as possible, which, for multiple instruments, gives you a tremendous, boiling cluster of sound. And then the jagged line, like two bolts of lightning, almost like the SS sign, meaning an irregula r tremolo, like Morse code, instead of two lines, meaning a sixteenth-note (semiquaver) tremolo, or three lines, meaning a measure tremolo. So I could write a single note with a time value and a single symbol where Penderecki would write out little motiv es with something like forty notes.24 These original techniques were also incorporated into his concert works, beginning with the second movement, The Battl e of the Rats, from the Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, which he had started to compose before the Altered States score. Some of these techniques are also incl uded in his score to Revolution Interestingly, Corigliano did not extend his tendency towards lyricism into th e aleatoric domain, instead focusing on timbre as the primary discursive parameter of Altered States Continuing his exploration of new devices and techniques, Corigliano continued with this pi ece the trend toward increasingly complex and

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64 adventurous compositions. Corigliano was nominate d for an Academy Award for Best Original Film Score in 1980. Surprisingly, neither this wo rk nor the acclaimed score to John Williamss The Empire Strikes Back received the award. The winner went to the original soundtrack to the rock musical Fame. This would be the last year at th e Oscars for such a controversy, as the following spring the Academy separated film music into two categories: Best Original Score and Best Original Song in a Featured Film. Corigliano arranged a three-movement conc ert work from the film score titled Three Hallucinations for orchestra (which was later used as the music for a ballet). The outer movements, Sacrifice and Ritual were extracted intact from the film. The inner movement, Hymn, based on a shorter cue, was developed and extended for the suite. Corigliano uses a quotation from the popular hymn Rock of Ages. Sometimes he utilizes a direct quotation; other times he manipulates it so that the theme is blended in with a uni que harmony comprised of two motion sonorities. Daniel May elaborates upon the development of these sonorities: In the second movement Hymn, the central musical idea, continuing from the previous movement, is the Rock of Ages hymn. The hymn melody fades in and out, alternating literal, traditional fragments with very obscu re and vague allusions of the hymn. The hymn is accompanied by two motion sonoritie s. The first motion sonority is a plagal cadence where the two chords are blurred together as a polychord. The second motion sonority is a sustained quartert one oscillation that wafts in and out of the orchestral texture. This oscillating b ackground sonority serves to blur the tonal center altogether.25 Corigliano was not the first conc ert composer from the 20th Cent ury to employ Christian hymns in his concert music, and he began to employ quota tions from a variety of sources in many of his works. As previously mentioned, this tech nique manifests itself most ubiquitously in The Ghosts of Versailles. In Altered States the listener is not able to clearl y identify the cadences because of the obscurity created by the presentation of inverted extended ter tian harmonies. Corigliano also blurs the sonorities by moving in between tona lities. This device is an extension of his

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65 predilection for taking consonant pitches and rearranging them. A similar technique is found in the third movement of his Symphony No.1 with the chaconne progression and the Primary Chord from the first m ovement Cadenza of the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra Coriglianos use of innovative notational devi ces, a wide array of extended techniques, and a massive orchestra, made the Altered States score a milestone in film music. The Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (1981) Coriglianos third woodwind concer to was written for and dedicated to the famous flutist Sir James Galway. As mentioned previously, work on this concerto commenced before Altered States By the time Corigliano started work on Altered States he had already completed the first movement of the flute concerto. After completi on of the film score, Corigliano adopted the aleatoric techniques he developed for Altered States especially in the second movement, Battle of the Rats. The Pied Piper Fantasy was successful because of the e ffectiveness of Coriglianos flute and orchestra writing coupled with various theatrical com ponents. This seven-movement concerto is based upon The Pied Piper of Hamelin the famous 1888 poem by Robert Browning. Corigliano extracted events depicted or suggested in the poem to create a programmatic work. In the following review from The New York Times Jeremy Eichler discusses Coriglianos thematic material portraying the sounds of the pesky rats: Who knew a symphony orchestra could sound so frighteningly realistic in depicting a horrific rat invasion? Mr. Co rigliano did, apparently, as the composer used extended techniques in the strings and woodwinds to conjure the high-pitched squeaks and the sounds of incessant scurrying over da rk sustained chords in the bass.26 The introduction by the orchestra depicts night turning into dawn, as mentioned in the program notes from the score. This be gins with an opening piano chord, D-Eb-A-Bb-B, which is similar in construction to the opening Cadenza chord of the Concerto for Clarinet and

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66 Orchestra. Repeated high Es with harmonics in the violins follow the opening chord with harps tuned in quartertones and low brass sustaining pedal tones. This technique is similar to that used in Altered States Coriglianos uniqueness lies in the incorporation of these now familiar techniques into a traditional narrative struct ure, which had been mostly abandoned after the second war. According to Marc Adamo, Sunrise is portrayed by a wash of ghostly instrumental effects that blossom into a delirious burst of orchestral light and color.27 The flutist walks on stage, fully costumed as the Pied Piper. The ope ning material in the flute is a slow, descending line that alternates between falling half and whole steps. The Pied Piper Song is then introduced, accompanied by simple sustained chor ds. Corigliano implies different harmonies within the pitch collection of a D Mixolydian song. Figure 3-11 shows the opening of the Pied Piper Song. This simple theme is remi niscent of his early works, such as Elegy and the Andantino from the Sonata for Violin and Piano, which utilize straightforward and effortless diatonic melodies. Clark Rundell, who is the director of contemporary music at the Royal Northern College of Music in England, comments on Coriglianos talent for composing beautiful melodies: Yet far from his melodies being romantic, post-Straussian outpour ings, Corigliano seems able to spin the most memorable tunes from the most simple of diatonic material. These tunes abound in charm, subtlety and elegance and, above all, they are simple, whistleable, but never banal. There is a quali ty about the bouncing 6/8 or 12/8 allegro tunes and the gentle twisting lines of the ballads that is at once universal and unmistakably American, evoking memories of summer concerts in the parkheat-h azed and carefree.28

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67 Figure 3-11. Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, Pied Pipers Song, Rehearsal #4 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (Pie d Piper Fantasy) by John Corigliano Copyright 1982 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The movement ends as it had started, with the reiteration of the eerie, haunting sonic images created by the orchestra. The second movement, Rats, acts as a prel ude for the third movement, Battle of the Rats, where the soloist and orchestra are entwined in a bitter display of virtuosity. In the third movement, Corigliano employs many extended t echniques for the orchestra by using graphic notation. These include instru cting the strings to play dietro il ponticello prolonged glissandi and staccato horn flourishes. Corigliano uses many ex tended techniques to cr eate the sounds of

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68 the rats, such as rattling and thumping by the performers to suggest scurrying. The thematic material of this movement is based upon the motion sonorities of the second movement. The fourth movement, War Cadenza, begins with a long and difficult passage for the solo flute. Quick scalar passages combined with flutter tonguing constitute the majority of the solo flute writing of this movement The orchestra then states frag ments of material, created with aleatoric notation, which occurs again later in the movement. The fifth movement, The Pipers Victory, consists mainly of a recapitulation of the Pipers Song material. Figure 3-12. Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, fourth movement, measures 1-10 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra (Pie d Piper Fantasy) by John Corigliano Copyright 1982 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The sixth movement, The Burghers Chorale, is an example of Coriglianos ability to create music that approximates an historic musi cal style. Corigliano woul d later use this device

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69 in The Ghosts of Versailles the Concerto for Guitar and Orchestra and as the principle idea in The Red Violin His musical style in the sixth movement leans in the direction of Renaissance music by using perfect intervals, instruments su ch as the horn and oboe that have Renaissance antecedents, suspensions, simple rhythms, retr ogressions, and sounds similar to their modern counterparts. Figure 3-12 shows the opening measures of Burghers Chorale, a movement based on non-functional triadic chords usi ng rhythms constructed of quarter and eighth notes. The opening four measures are simple in their constructio n: However, marked in the score with (X), Corigliano employs retrogressions, such as a se condary dominant that does not move where it should. The repetitive low Bb sonorities, (drums horns, and low winds) emphasize the tonic. In the fourth measure, Corigliano cr eates a bi-tonal conflict with a Bb-F dyad beneath a G major triad. Corigliano changes the harmonic content to again distort the movements home key with the appearance of a quintal harmony, where th e lowered seventh scale degree suggests the mixolydian mode. The distorted modality of this excerpt is accomplishe d with the use of nonharmonic tones, illustrating Coriglianos ability to alter a characteristic borrowed from the Renaissance. Corigliano does not write a full-blown copy of Re naissance music. He employs frequent tonicizations of remote harmonies (G and D major), inclusion of non-triadic sonorities (m.4, beat 4; m.6, beat 1), polytonality (m 4), parallel fifths, and meter changes. The final movement begins with an F major seventh and an Eb major seventh, which is a tertian extension of the F. This section combines thematic material from previous movements. In his portrayal of the Piper, the flutist attempts to lure the children away from their homes. The work ends theatrically by introducing a group of children playing flutes, piccolos, tin whistles, and drums. The soloist first leads them all onto the stage and then they depart off stage and

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70 around the hall before exiting. In the score, Coriglia no suggests that children may also join in from the audience. The ending includes a number of different rhythmic and tempi elements occurring simultaneously. Mark Adamo illustrates: The orchestra concludes with the opening motivic material from the first movement creating a grand display of emotion that has be en released, similar to the slow movements of the clarinet and oboe c oncertos by means of Corigl ianos architectural planning.29 Corigliano uses a variety of means to tell the story, including special devices for the soloist and orchestra, coupled with special thea trical lighting and costumes. Again, Coriglianos work proceeds from a conceptual framework incorporating the Pied Piper poem into his architectural structure. Alluding to pre-existing musical styles and incorporating a variety of textural and theatrical effects, he creates a work in which all the material is governed by his musical architecture. The Shorter Works After com posing three extensive concertos and the Altered States film score, Corigliano wrote a few noteworthy smaller works. Even tho ugh the length and scope of the orchestration changed, he continued to utilize his new compositional devices, such as the motion sonorities, graphic and box notation, and the pre-compositiona l planning of the architectural structure. The Promenade Overture (1981) The Promenade Overture is an eight-and-a-half-m inute work commissioned for the 100th Anniversary of the Boston Pops Orchestra. J ohn Williams premiered the work at Symphony Hall in Boston on July 10, 1981. Coriglianos inspiration for this work was a performance of Haydns Farewell Symphony, a work that is often used at the conc lusion of a concert program, as all the members of the orchestra walk off the stage one by one during the last movement. The piece ends with only two violins left on the stage. Since Corigliano wa nted to write an overture, he

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71 utilized the opposite idea as the premise for this work: players walking onto the stage rather than leaving it. The opening motive consists of th e last five measures of Haydns Farewell Symphony played backwards. This idea, labeled in this stud y as the fanfare theme, is first stated in the trumpets. The work has a neo-classical sound ever y time this opening gesture is presented. After the trumpets present this fanfare theme, Coriglia no introduces instruments from across the entire timbral range of the orchestra, starting with the piccolo and ending with the tuba. He has the players walk on the stage one by one playing manipulated fragments. This work is another example of Coriglia no employing historical styles and quotations. He combines elements of these past styles a nd quotations with his ow n harmonic vocabulary and thematic material. In addition to the Haydn frag ments, Corigliano uses contemporary techniques, usually appearing in the stri ngs, including aleatoric passag es and his motion sonorities. In addition to having the players entering the stage at different times during the opening, Corigliano once again utilizes the entire hall as the stage to create dramatic effects and new musical textures. For this work he puts horns and trumpets around the perimeter of the hall. These instruments are primarily us ed in the restating of the op ening fanfare theme throughout the work. Figure 3-13 shows the introducto ry fanfare theme the backwards Haydn motive in the trumpets. The result is a simple diatonic passage in Eb major. The principle motive is also shown in Figure 3-13. This motive does not appear in the work until the middle of the piece. Clearly, this lyrical theme begins in C major, but Cori gliano uses the entrance of chromaticism to extend the harmonic field. Here, Corigliano hints at the original key of Eb major. Once again Corigliano employs simultaneous tempi throughout the work

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72 Figure 3-13. Promenade Overture (Fanfare theme, measures 6-9, and Principal theme, Rehearsal O) Promenade Overture by John Corigliano Copyright 1981 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Fantasia on an Ostinato (1985) In 1985, The Seventh Van Cliburn Interna tional Piano Com petition commissioned the Fantasia on an Ostinato Every four years, the Van C liburn Foundation commissions a new work to be played by the competition finalists. Coriglianos work is based upon a repeated rhythmic figure from the second movement of Beethovens Symphony No.7 He describes this as a unique work in Beethovens output because the ostinato continues, unvaried except for a long crescendo and added accompaniment, for more than four minutes. The following was extracted from Adamos book: Beethovens minimalist-like use of his material and Coriglianos own desire to write a piece where the performer is re sponsible for decisions concerning the durations of simple patterns led to his first, and evidently, only experiment in minimal techniques.30 After the opening chords, the note G sharp is repeated relentlessly over slowly changing harmonies. Corigliano chooses to employ a special fingering for the repeating G sharp, called the

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73 Bebung Effect, that Beethoven also used in his Piano Sonata Op. 110, Adagio In an unusual passage, Beethoven wrote multiple repetitions of a single pitch, tying every two repetitions together. The performer is supposed to strike the first key and half-strike the second, not allowing the key to fully rise back to the top before replaying the second. The result, successful to varying degrees depending upon the quality of the pianos regulation, produces an echo-like effect. The fantasy section demonstrates Coriglianos ability to invent new techniques. He writes short motives, usually consisting of only a few notes and then uses long dark lines in the score along with repeat signs. The fant asys length, form, and dynamic elements are completely left to the performers discretion. A similar aleatoric device was used in the Altered States score, but not to the extent done in this work for piano. This section is full of colorful arpeggios that can be rather tonal and at other times very dissonant After the aleatoric mi ddle section concludes, Corigliano quotes the entire theme from the opening of the Beethoven. This is yet another instance of Coriglianos incorporation of musical works from past centuries. Two years later, in 1987, Corigliano revisited this work by creating an orchestral vers ion in which he extended and modified the middle section of the work, writi ng out his intentions rather than asking for improvisation. In the Fantasia on an Ostinato, John Corigliano adopted minimalist devices and transformed them for his own dramatic and arch itectural purposes. He also adopted material from historic works, a technique that he had used previously. This work constitutes Coriglianos only attempt at composing in the minimalist style, but is representative of his ability to adopt techniques from any musical styl e and incorporate them into his larger musical concepts, which is also accomplished in The Red Violin

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74 Campane di Ravello (1987) Campane di Ravello is another short orchestral work, comm issioned by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in honor of the 75th birthday of conductor Sir George Solti. The unique feature in the opening of this four-minute work is the orchestration that im itates bell sounds without using any bells. This is accomplished by having the st rings and winds sustain pitches from a bells overtone series. The inspiration for this work was Coriglianos hearing of bells ringing simultaneously on a trip to Italy. Throug hout the piece, Corigliano quotes excerpts from the song Happy Birthday, creating variations on this theme throughout the work. Revolution (1985) After Coriglianos succe ssful film score to Altered States he composed his second score for director Hugh Hudsons Revolutionary War movie Revolution (1985). The film score was more traditionally composed with shorter cu es and a more limited harmonic vocabulary. The largest cues in the film include the opening cr edits, the gruesome war montage, and a chase scene between the lead Al Pacino and a gr oup of hunting hounds. Corigliano employed James Galway for the flute and tin whistle sequences. Th e film was a failure at the box office, impeding Coriglianos plans to pub licly release a soundtrack. The New York Times wrote of Revolution : Revolution is about the American War of Independence. It's also a mess, but one that's so giddily misguided that it's sometimes a good d eal of fun for all of the wrong reasons. It's so bad that one suspects there must be a good st ory behind it. It's not easy to goof on this scale, especially not for ex claimed director Hugh Hudson.31 The War Lament from this film was later incorporated in the Symphony #1, as Corigliano describes: I again wanted that feeling of great lossthe sorrow of the dead of AIDS. In a sense, it was the same kind of massacre, so the music had the same tone. I think cross-pollination happens all the time if youre a concert composer. It happens from piece to piece.32

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75 Elsewhere in the film, the War Montage is transformed into a scherzo using in the harmonic language of the 18th Century loosely reflec ting the time period of the film. Al Pacinos character is smeared with the remains of a fox and is forced to run for his life. The British soldiers cheerfully use their hounds to chase their prisoner fo r recreational sport. Corigliano explains why he wrote th is cue as he did: I took the same theme as the War Lament and I made it into an aristocratic Mendelssohnian fox hunt. Completely effervescent. And then in the middle of the scene, it goes into a kind of tarantella, so you get the idea that this is somewhat fun. I did this because this is the grimmest film Ive ever seen, and I desperately felt that it needed something bright, even if it was ironic. I told Hugh Hudson that the film has only one light moment in three and a half hours. You must have so mething to relieve the dark, oppressive quality.33 Ingeniously, Corigliano fades in th e melancholy War Lament over the scherzo It slowly supplants the scherzo completely, recalling the wars desolation. Corigliano was unhappy with the final mix of the music in the sound track For example, in the war montage, the volume was lowered in order to hear the sounds of cannons firing. Cori gliano was also angry that the studio recording was never re leased to the public. The pr oduction company has denied Corigliano from having access to the recording. String Quartet (1995) Coriglianos String Quartet was com missioned by the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts for the Cleveland Quartets final tour in 1996. The work was later revised and expanded as Symphony No.2 on a commission by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Symphony No.2 received the Pulitzer Prize in 2001. Since Symphony No.2 is derived from the String Quartet it will not be discussed separately. Corigliano was interested in writing a string quartet as he had yet to work in that medium. According to the program notes, Corigliano was fa scinated with the idea of how a quartet could breathe as one instrument, not requiring a c onductor, creating an unm atched unity of sound.34

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76 Throughout the work the string quartet relies on the agogic division of time, but the players sometimes do not need to rely on beats or pr ecise rhythms. Corigliano generated a fivemovement, thirty-five minute pie ce, which employed spatial notati on in three of the movements. Corigliano modeled the form for his work after that of Bela Bartoks (1881-1945) String Quartet No.4 (1928): the first and last movements and the s econd and fourth are related while the middle movement is separate, creating a palindromic formal scheme. The entire work is based upon reoccurring motivic pitch materi al, incorporating numerous ex tended and unusual techniques for the string players. The work begins with an intr oductory movement, Prelude. The movement gets its pitch center from the initial D and G #. Throughout the entire first move ment, the strings use either a practice or regular mute. The effect of the mu tes, along with Coriglia nos fragmented motivic material, creates a soft, eerie sonic world. Anothe r interesting element of this movement is the asynchronous spatial notation. 3-14. String Quartet, second movement, Chaconne, measures 121-124 String Quartet by John Corigliano Copyright 1995 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. The second movement, Scherzo, is a Stravins ky inspired, rhythmically driven creation that employs dense repeated chords with accente d weak beats. After a section of slashing

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77 evenly repeated chords,35 a chaconne is introduced. The chaconne is derived from the fragments of the opening movement. The step -wise motion in this excerpt is a common technique that Corigliano uses and can also be found in the chaconne of The Red Violin. This motion directs the voice-leading, as it creates the goal directed harmoni es. It is interesting to note that during this period in his career, Corigliano used chaconnes in many of his compositions, including Symphony No.1, this String Quartet and The Red Violin The first appearance of the chaconne is shown in Figure 3-14. One of the most obvious distingui shing characteristics of this chaconne is that Corigliano does not use the often-found ground bass The bottom voice of the viola part plays a G pedal throughout the entire excerp t. Another interesting feature is that the intervals in the second violin are either a major or minor sixt h. Corigliano counteracts the consonances with dissonant notes in the viola. In the first two measures, Coriglia no blends a G minor triad with a G# pitch, perhaps suggesting an octatonic scale. (Corigliano utilizes an octatonic scale in the Gypsy cue from The Red Violin .) The last beat of the firs t measure is an inverted Eb major seventh chord, followed by the clear tonality of a simple G major triad in the second measure. This seamless interplay of dissonant constructions and simple triads was seen earlier in works such as the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra and Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra. Another nontraditional feature is the change in the time signature in the middle of the chaconne. In the third movement, Nocturne, Corigliano replicates the sound of Moroccan men simultaneously chanting different prayers. This non-Western sonic image was influenced by the sounds Corigliano heard during a trip to Morocc o. Corigliano uses both spatial and repeat box

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78 notation for this improvisatory movement. Both of these notational devices will later be used in The Red Violin For the fourth movement, Fugue, Corigliano presents four different voices that each proceed at a different tempo. He used the same rhythms in each voice, but each has a different time signature. Though Corigliano used a novel method of temporal disjunction, he still incorporated the traditional surface struct ure of the fugue, presenting an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation in stretto Corigliano again marries old and new styles together in the String Quartet The use of a chaconne without a ground bass or a fugue in several simultaneous tempi is evidence of his interest in using old devices in new ways. Symphony No.1 (1991) The com position of Symphony No. 1 began while Corigliano was the composer-inresidence for three years (1989-1991) with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Corigliano had often preached that the world does not need a new symphony, and stated he would never write one. According to Mark Adamo: Corigliano had long resisted the notion of a contemporary symphony, both for its apparent historical redundancy (the repertoire already has more works than it can ever play!) and for what he felt was its egotisti cal elevation of the composers need to express himself over the needs of performers or audiences.36 Two important events occurred that change d Coriglianos thinking: many of his friends and colleagues (including pianist Sheldon Shkolni k, to whom the piece is dedicated) had died from the AIDS epidemic and he also witne ssed the large quilt that was handcrafted in Washington D.C. by family and friends of deceas ed AIDS victims. Corigliano wanted to musically depict the tragic loss that the AIDS epidemic had caused in the classical music world. Combining his concern over the AIDS issue wi th the Chicago Symphony Orchestra commission,

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79 Corigliano thought a symphony would be the most a ppropriate outlet for his personal response to the crisis. Corigliano had avoided the symphony until a profound tragedy forced him to write one. The quilt would become a visual anal og of Coriglianos symphony. In the third movement he blended themes that are dedicated to his friends a nd associates into a collage of colors, much like a musical quilt. Mark Adamo states: It is in Symphony No. 1 that Coriglianos comprehensiv e architectural skills and acute sense of event encountered-and rose toan occasion of tragedy as societal as it was personal.37 The work includes an extended brass section dramatically organized on stage in a semicircle of risers in order to create a wave effect analogous to the timelessness of the ocean, memorializing his colleagues. Corigliano pla ces timpani on both sides of the stage. Though Corigliano did not place instruments throughout the concert hall in this work, the placement of the brass and timpani allowed for antiphonal effects. Symphony No.1, third movement (Chaconne) As previously stated, Corigliano often uses tr aditional form s in his music. The opening of the third movement begins with a chaconne, a form he employs in other works, including The Red Violin This movement is dedicated to a celli st friend from college, Giulio Sorrentino. Corigliano found a tape recording of them improvising and he utilized the theme from that recording as the principle mate rial of the movement. This chaconne is by far the most unusually constructed of the three chaconnes examined in this paper ( String Quartet, Symphony No.1, The Red Violin ). Figure 3-15 presents the ope ning of the third movement with the first appearance of the chaconne in its entirety.

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80 In its initial appearance this excerpt ma y not immediately be recognizable as a chaconne. Utilizing all twelve pitches of the chromatic scal e, Corigliano has the chords dissolve into one another. He elaborates in the program notes from the score: Giulios theme is preceded with a chaconne based on 12 pitches and the chords they produce, which runs through the entire movement. The first several minutes of this movement are played by the violas, cellos, and basses alone. The chaconne chords are immediately heard, hazily dissolving into ea ch other, and the cello melody begins over the final chord.38 Figure 3-15. Symphony No.1 third movement, Chaconne, measures 1-8 Symphony No. 1 by John Corigliano Copyright 1990 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP)

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81 International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. As in a traditional chaconne, these chords are repeated throughout the first part of the movement. The chords fade in and out through pitch substitution and dyn amic shaping, creating a blend of different sonorities. As in the String Quartet the most noticeable feature here is the lack of a ground bass Historically, a ground bass moves the chaconne forward and allows harmonies to change and vary over time with the bass remaining unchanged. Corigliano presents disparate themes (in addition to Giulios Them e), each representing a different friend who has died from AIDS, over the constantly recurring chaconne. Corigliano uses an array of co mpositional devices throughout his Symphony No. 1. During the first movement, he quotes Isaac Albnizs Tango on an offstage piano. (Tango was the favorite work of pianist friend Sheldon Shkol nik.) Corigliano also combines graphic and box notation with traditional notation in many places throughout the symphony. He further continues the trend of incorporating older musi cal forms into his work, as in the Tarantella that forms the basis of the second movement symbolizing his friends insanity during the AIDS illness, and the chaconne in the third movement that unde rpins the presentation of disparate themes. The Ghosts of Versailles (1991) Jam es Levine, Artistic Director of the Metr opolitan Opera, approached Corigliano to compose an opera for the 100th Anniversary of the Metropolita n Opera in 1979. The librettist chosen was William Hoffman, with whom Corigliano first collaborated in the 1965 song cycle, The Cloisters According to John Simon, Corigliano had two requests for the writer Hoffman: that the libretto lends itself to the use of melody, and that it contain a Tu rkish scene.39 Late 18th and early 19th Century operas contained many Turkish se ttings, and Corigliano wanted to employ

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82 such a setting in his opera. The work is an opera buffa a style that Mozart and Rossini utilized many times, and one that would allow Corigliano to compose melodious and humoresque music. The Ghosts of Versailles Plot Summary The origin al premise of The Ghosts of Versailles originated from a play by the famous French dramatist Pierre Augustin Caron De Beau marchais (1732-1799). The third of his plays to include the Figaro character was The Guilty Mother (La Mre coupable 1792). This installment was popular, but was in no wa y as well known as the first two plays, Le Barbier de Seville (1775), set to music by Gioach ino Rossini (1792-1868), and his Le Mariage de Figaro (1778), which was set by Wo lfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Hoffman incorporated Beaumarchais story into The Ghost of Versailles Corigliano believed he could do a lot musically with this setting, including borrowing from the styles of Mozart and Rossini, as well as incorporating musical games into the score. According to John Simon: What may have appealed to Corigliano, w ho, as Michael C. Nott has remarked in Opera News tendsto draw on a wide range of styl esin his view techni quesrather than making any single one the basis of his music. I can see where hermaphroditism, moral or other, might appeal to Corigliano and Hoffma n, who would perceive it as a justification for trying out their wide range of stylessorry, techniques. They could thus not only allude to Mozart and Rossini, but also indulge in any verb al and musical hanky-panky to which male heads with female hearts might be prone.40 Hoffman and Corigliano combined this plot id ea with the story of Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. The aristocrats are forever ghosts in the palace of Versailles where Marie is eternally horrified by her beheading. The characte r Beaumarchais decided to write a play to cheer her up. Beaumarchais has al ways loved Marie, who is in an apparent loveless marriage to Louis. The ghosts watch the play come to life, but unexpectedly the character Figaro decides to change the course of the story. Beaumarchais must then enter th e play to fix what has been changed. The opera ends showing the death of Ma rie, with Marie and Beaumarchais watching as

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83 onlookers. Beaumarchais and Marie have the oppo rtunity to change the past and avoid the beheading, but decide against it. Musical Styles in The Ghosts of Versailles Corigliano com bines an array of musical styles in this wor k, incorporating neo-classical melodies for the soloists alongside dissonant ha rmonies used to depict the ghosts after-lives. This work is perhaps the most extensive example of Coriglianos poly-stylism. As in previous compositions, Corigliano also quotes themes from his own previous works. Many of the devices that Corigliano employs in the opera are also found in The Red Violin. One of these characterist ics found in both the opera and The Red Violin is Coriglianos composition of new music that pays homage to the music of specific historic al periods. Since the characters existed during the end of the 18th Century, Corigliano composed a few arias in the style of the late Classical a nd early Romantic periods. John S imon claims that Coriglianos inspirations for many of the famous passages are from well-known operas, and that others are in fact taken from the composers own career, which Corigliano terms cross-pollination: The Act I quintet begins with the first strains of Voi che sapete Susanna and Rosinas memory duet in Act II is spun over an accompaniment of the Cosi fan tutte Soave sia il vento Almavivas palace band plays a minuet drawn from Se Vuol ballare In the scene in which Beaumarchais frightens the rebellious Fi garo, he confronts him with the State music from Don Giovanni Figaros entrance aria is an homage to Rossinis Largo al factotum The first act finale contains some exchanges of the Barbiere quintet. Begearsss second dull aria--in which he stirs up the tricoteuses of Paris to storm Al mavivas farewell party by likening the aristocrats to rats to the acco mpaniment of musical sc urrying and squealing has origins in Corigliano s own flute concerto The Pied Piper Fantasy, and the tangy, microtonalsound of the oboes in the fi rst finalewas also used in his Oboe Concerto .41 Aria: Come Now My Darling Aria Come Now My Darling is a Mozartian m oment from the first act, which replicates a lyrical Italian style aria. Figure 3-16 presents the Come Now My Darling passage in the aria, which occurs after a thirty-seven measure introdu ctory dialogue between the soprano Rosina and

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84 the mezzo-soprano Cherubino. The introduction is slow and free, utilizing simple harmonies, and modulating through several different keys centers. This duet, which will eventually grow into a quintet in the climatic section of the aria, cha nges key centers with every new verse, sometimes modulating to very distant keys. The vocal and a ccompanimental lines are traditionally simple in their construction. In this aria is a si mple, straightforward, diatonic progression. Figure 3-16. The Ghosts of Versailles Come Now My Darling measures 38-49 The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Traditional harmonic progressions are us ed throughout the excerpt. Chords follow common practice norms, such as dominants resolvi ng to their tonics, subdominant chords being

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85 followed by dominants, and seventh scale degrees resolving properly. Corigliano uses two bar phrases and uses an Alberti bass to mimic the Classical style. Come Now My Darling bares similarities to the opening of the aria Voi, che sapete from Mozarts The Marriage of Figaro shown in Figure 3-17. Corigliano claims that his music for the arias in the opera was not direct ly taken from Mozart and Rossinis music, but rather that he simply composed in their styles. This form of mimesis is also found in The Red Violin as Corigliano did not use specific models to work from ; instead his cues are in the style of certain musical periods. Figure 3-17. Marriage of Figaro Voi che sapete Aria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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86 The most striking similarity between the two works is the opening soprano line. The first two measures are almost identical in thei r intervallic construction. The opening harmonic progressions are similar as well. Both works be gin on the tonic and move to the dominant chord at the start of the second measure. They bot h then progress toward a half cadence on the dominant: Corigliano using a secondary dominant and Mozart by means of a vi-ii-V progression. Even though Corigliano did not ac tually quote Mozarts aria, th ey are both similar in their construction, showing Coriglianos knowledge of the Italian Classica l aria style. Anne Shefflers article in Contemporary Music Review discusses her research into the resemblance between the two arias. The associations ( The Ghosts of Versailles ) include the quotations from the Marriage of Figaro and La ci darem la mano from Don Giovanni the classic seduction duet whose basic structure is closely followed. The audi ence is being offered the appearance of familiarity and the ritual of remembering wit hout a specific model or an authentic past to remember. The dramatic strategy in Ghosts is : Reenacting events that had only been told in the models42 Aria: As Summer Brings A Wistful Breeze The textu re for this piece is also similar to a Mozart aria. Corigliano uses a very simple diatonic harmonic language in this work. Figur e 3-18 shows the opening measures of the aria, illustrating Coriglianos I-IV-V-I chord progression. The F tonic pedal that lasts for the entire excerpt helps solidify the tonal ity of the piece. After the opening F major harmony, Corigliano quickly tonicizes the dominant be fore moving to the parallel minor (F minor) for three measures. The F minor section serves as a transitory m odal shift as the texture changes, with steady repeated chords in the accompaniment. The A S ection returns in the home key of F major. An eighth note figure in the orchestra is harmoni zed in thirds, anothe r Mozartian trait.

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87 Figure 3-18. The Ghosts of Versailles As Summer Brings A Wist ful Breeze measures 2-10 The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Aria: They Wish They Could Kill Me The aria They wish they could kill me is s ung by the m ain character of the play, Figaro. He sings about the jealousy that surrounds him and the many characters he portrays in the numerous novels written about him by the author B eaumarchais. In this aria Corigliano uses an actual quotation from the Overture to the Marriage of Figaro in a style reminiscent of a baroque da capo aria This is another example of Coriglianos poly-stylism. William Ladd Higgins discusses Figaros character in The Ghosts of Versailles:

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88 Figaros aria They wish they could kill m e is a unique adaptation of the Baroque da capo aria form. Secco recitativ e (dry or unaccompanied recitative), a dramatic device characteristic of nearly all opera from the time of Handel to Rossini is utilized.43 Figure 3-19 shows an excerpt from Figaros ar ia. The tonality is clearly B major. The pitting of staccato accompanimental chords against the moving vocal line is found in many Baroque operas. Figure 3-19. The Ghosts of Versailles They Wish They Could Kill Me measures 61-69 The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano Copyright 1991 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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89 The Ghosts of Versailles Conclusions Coriglianos Ghosts of V ersailles combines many elements into a vast collection of styles. Corigliano not only incorporates Ba roque and Classical styles in th e music, but also uses styles from the Medieval, Renaissance, and Romantic periods along with his own contemporary style. There are many periods throughout th e opera that do not use antiquate d styles and forms, such as the ghost music and Marias aria, They Are Always With Me. He quotes actual music from the operas of Mozart and Rossini. He wr ites arias in the Classical styl e, incorporating the important Italian melodic sigh figure, a nd other typical features. Corigliano uses the Baroque da capo style for his Figaro aria. Other sections of the opera sound Middle Eastern, such as the Turkish embassy scen e, as he alters the thematic material with a mixture of different modal embellishes that feature lowered seconds, thirds, fifths, and the augmented second. During this scene, he also pl aces a small chamber ensemble on the stage (a Mozartian technique). Corigliano also writes in his own contemporary voice, employing atonality, tone clusters, and microtonal techniques for the Versailles ghosts characters. Combining many different styles within the mu ltiple layers of stories creates a large, multifaceted work that has been acclai med by the press and audiences alike. This chapter has illustrated the compositiona l techniques John Corigliano has utilized throughout his career. Many of these same de vices are also found in his film score The Red Violin including diatonic and modal melodies, al eatory, quotation, allusions to pre-existing styles, traditional genres, and poly-rhythms. Notes 1 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles. A Character Study of the Opera by John Corigliano and William F. Hoffman. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, p. 32. 2 Schwartz, Elliot, and Daniel Godfrey. Music Since 1945: Issues, Material, and Literature. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993, p. 200.

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90 3 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 10. 4 MusicRoom.com, John Corigliano Sonata for Violin and Piano < http://www.musicroom.com/se/ID_No/0042130/details.html?kbid=2487 > (accessed November 20, 2006) 5 Kim, Chris Younghoon University of Cincinnati College -Conservatorys Music 2002On the Road. < http://home.dc.lsoft.com/scripts/w a.exe? A2=ind0208&L=classical&P=3595 > (accessed December 1, 2006) 6John Corigliano. John Corigliano: Early Works New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996, p. 2. 7 John Corigliano. John Corigliano: Early Works New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996, p. 3. 8 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 17. 9 Corigliano, John. Tournaments New York: Schirmer Inc, 1982, p. 1. 10 Tommasini, Anthony. Music In Review: Classical Music The New York Times January 31, 1996. < http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04EEDF1739F932A05752C0A960958260& n=Top%2fReference%2f Times%20Topics%2 fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2c%20John > (accessed September 27, 2006) 11 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.3. 12 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 17. 13 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.5. 14 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 18. 15 Howe, Robert. John Corigliano Concerto for Oboe and Concert < http://www.idrs.org/publications/dr/DR8.3/DR8_3Howe.html > (accessed October 13, 2006) 16 Corigliano, John. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra New York: Schirmer Inc, 1983, p. 1. 17 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.9. 18 Cutlot, Hubert. Classical CD Reviews. < http://www.musicweb.uk.net/classRev/2005/July05/Corigliano_clarinet_2564619522.htm > (accessed, Decem ber 5, 2006) 19 Corigliano, John. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra New York: Schirmer Inc, 1992, preface. 20 Schelle, Michael The Score: Interviews with Film Composers Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 2000, p. 200.

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91 21 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States: A Discussion of John Coriglianos Film Score Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, p. 2. 22 Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano. New York: G. Schirmer Inc, 1994, p.15. 23 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States: A Discussion of John Coriglianos Film Score. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, p. 5. 24 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 44. 25 May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on Texts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Original Composition) Part 2. Altered States: A Discussion of John Coriglianos Film Score. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990, pp. 27-28. 26 Eichler, Jeremy. James Galway Pipes Away Swarms of Concertgoing Rats < http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage .htm l?res=9901E3DA113CF93BA15751C0A9629C8B63 &n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2 fPeople%2fC%2fCorigliano%2c%20John > (accessed December 3, 2006) 27 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 20. 28 Rundell, Clark CORIGLIANO At The Royal Northern College of Music 12-15 December 2000 Programme Todmorden: RNCM in association with Arc Publications, 2000, pp. 6-7. 29 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 20. 30 Corigliano, John Fantasia on an Ostinato. New York: Schirmer Inc., 1987, p. 1. 31Canby, Vincent. Children of the Revolution More On 'Children of the Revolution' THE SCREEN: 1770'S EPIC, 'REVOLUTION. < http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/rev iew.htm l?title1=REVOLUTION%20%28MOVIE %29&title2=&reviewer=Vincent%20Canby&pdate=19851225&v_id => (accessed October 1, 2006) 32 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 47. 33 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 46. 34 Corigliano, John. String Quartet World Premiere Recording Cleveland: Telarc, CD 80415, p.3. 35 Corigliano, John. String Quartet New York: Schirmer Inc, 1998, p. 1. 36 Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 21. 37Adamo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000, p. 21. 38 Corigliano, John. Symphony No. 1 for Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1999, preface.

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92 39 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chic ago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p. 153. 40 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chic ago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p. 154. 41 Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Kramer, Hilton, and Kimball. Chic ago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995, p. 161. 42 Shreffler, Anne. Historicism in New American Music, 1980-1995. Phantoms at the Opera: The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano and William Hoffman. Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4, p. 126. 43 Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Character Study of the Opera by John Corigliano and William M. Hoffman Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000, pp. 144-145. 44 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York: Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 338.

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93 CHAPTER 4 THE MUSICAL STYLES OF JOHN CORIGLIANOS T HE RED VIOLIN Most people think that music is generated from melody, but I think that melody is actually very difficult to remember. Whats most impor tant in a piece is sh ape and direction. What people remember best is sonorit y, because its vertical, not horizontal. Sometimes, if I want something to be memorable in the sens e that I want people to understand that Im recapitulating something, I will try and find a unique sonority that I can recapitulate.1 John Corigliano This chapter explores and discusses the mu sical cues John Corigliano composed for the film The Red Violin Each cue is analyzed and compared to music from the epoch in which the cue is set. Corigliano wrote the cu es with his own interpretation of historic styles, deviating from the act of mimesis. The cues cover styles from the Baroque, Classical, 19th century Gypsy music, 19th century Romanticism, and mid-20th century music of China. An analysis of Coriglianos cues shows the degree to which his music is sim ilar to and/or different from these historical precedents. These findings further demonstrate th at while Coriglianos music is superficially similar to historic models, some elements are changed in each cue. The Red Violin Plot Summary Two scenes recur throughout the m ovie: Cremona, Italy and the Auction in Montral. Both scenes are used as unifying segues betw een the five principal film sequences. Each sequence begins with the narra tion of the fortuneteller from Cremona predicting the violins future. The auction is presente d at the end of each sequence, providing more information with each recurrence about the history of the violin and the people whose lives were changed through contact with the instrument The first sequence takes place in Cremona Italy. Viewers are introduced to the violinmaker Nicola Busotti and his wife Anna. Busotti believes he has created the perfect violin, which will be presented as a gift to his expected son. His pregnant wife and newborn son die

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94 tragically from birth complications. The sequence ends with Busotti alone in his workshop varnishing the violin. The second sequence begins in an Austrian monastery. A young prodigy, Kasper Weiss, is shown playing the mysterious violin, and, la ter in the sequence, auditioning for a Viennese teacher, Monsieur Poussin. The teacher brings the boy to Vienna to study with him and to prepare for an audition with a royal family. At this audition, the young boy dies. The violin is buried with the boy. In the third sequence Gypsy vandals steal th e violin from the boys grave, eventually bringing it through their travels to England. Frederick Pope, a violin virtuoso, acquires the red violin from the gypsies and performs with it at many concerts. His love an d inspiration, Victoria, temporarily leaves him to research a book that sh e has been writing about Russia. Pope falls into a deep depression and Victoria finds him c ourting a young Gypsy woman upon her return. In her anger, Victoria shoots the red vi olin with a pistol and runs aw ay, leaving the broken violin and Pope. Heartbroken, Pope tells of his decision to commit suicide. The sequence ends with his servant taking the violin to China on a cargo vessel. The fourth sequence begins with Popes serv ant selling the instrument to a pawnshop in China where the violin gathers dust for many year s. It is finally sold to a mother who is purchasing it for her young daughter. The scene ch anges to show a time lapse sequence of the country in the midst of the 1960s Cultural Re volution. The little girl, now grown up, tries to protect the violin from the violent, anti-We stern, communist government. She must decide between loyalty to her country or the precious instrument that was a gift from her mother. She decides to present the instrument to the local music teacher Chou Yuan who hides the instrument

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95 for the remainder of his life. At the teacher s death, the red violin, along with many other valuable instruments, is found hidden in his attic. The fifth and final sequence takes place in the present-day city of Montral. The Chinese government allows a Montral auction house to se ll the valuable instrume nts. After exhaustive research, the violin appraiser, Charles Morritz, discovers that on e of the violins being auctioned is the long lost red violin. He uncovers the vi olins mysterious past. The varnish of the instrument contains the blood of Anna. Morritz d ecides to steal the instrument for himself and present it to his daughter. Coriglianos Chaconne and Principal Theme To create un ity between the five diffe rent sequences, Corigliano employs a chaconne throughout the entire film score. He concluded that the music should create unity between the sequences, each of which employed an entirely di fferent set of characters in a different time and place.2 As previously mentioned in Chap ter 3, Corigliano also utilized a chaconne in earlier concert pieces, such as Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 2 When asked about his use of the chaconne Corigliano states that the chaconne is a form he uses when he wants to unify disparate elements.2 The chaconne was a logical device to use for the film, as it was utilized in musical eras from the Baroque to the present. In an interview conducted by Amazon.com, Corigliano explains why he chose the chaconne for the film in addition to the third movement of his Symphony #1: The chaconne idea fits with an emotional fee ling of a form that needs to sound extremely inevitable, like the idea of the fortunetell er. I wouldn't pick it ordinarily. But the symphony (#1) and the film had things in co mmon: the sense of fa te, inevitability, and the inability to stop it from moving--that it's like this giant machin e that never can stop; the travels of this violin are almost preordained.3 Coriglianos chaconne consists of many unusual features that distinguish it from the traditional Baroque model. The prin cipal theme, otherwise known as The Red Violin theme, is

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96 derived from the harmonies of the chaconne. The chaconne and the principal theme will be examined, as these two musical cues represen t the majority of the music in the film. The Red Violin theme and the chaconne are varied throughout all five film sequences. Figure 4-1 shows the first appearance of the chaconne from the opening credits, which shows the violinmaker in his workshop, set in the late 17th century. Coriglianos chaconne deviates from the 18th century model in several fundamental ways: 1. lack of ground bass 2. use of non-harmonic tones 3. unusual orchestration 4. non-standard chord construction 5. double-dotted rhythm 6. non-standard voice leading Figure 4-1. The Red Violin chaconne Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. One of the most revealing metrics of Coriglianos chaconne is the degree to which it comports with standard features of the historic chaconne. Perhaps the most striking aspect of Coriglianos composition is its specious classifi cation. One may expect Corigliano to have called his minor-mode piece a passacaglia which is a similar term to a chaconne in many respects, one

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97 of the major differences being that passacaglias are customarily in a minor key. The chaconne is known for its repeated harmonic progression over a variation. Although there is no conclusive evidence why Corigliano made this nomenclatura l decision, it may be because he has used the term in previous concert works, such as his Symphony #1 and a section in the second movement of his Symphony #2 which are both used to unify disp arate sections and do not include a ground bass Another deviation from historical norms occurs in Coriglianos use of duple instead of the customary triple meter in the chaconne A further decision Corigliano makes is avoiding a ground bass which is the characteristic by which many pieces are labeled as chaconnes The ground bass is optional, but it is often found in most chaconnes According to the Grove Online Music Dictionary the chaconne was simply a form that employed a variation technique. However, in the 19th and 20th Centuries, composers used the chaconne as a set of ground bass or ostinato variations, which had of a severe character.4 When asked why The Red Violin chaconne lacked a ground bass Corigliano replied that a ground would usually be found in a passacaglia not a chaconne.2 As the two terms have frequently been interchanged throughout history, the forms have perhaps lost their distinct differences. Corigliano employs an alte rnative technique to the ground bass In its place, Corigliano uses D and C# pedal tones in the bass voice (viola, Figure 4-1). While one could possibly classify this as an inactive ground bass such a reductive analytic approach is unprecedented when defining a ground bass However, this feature may give a clue to Coriglianos general approach to the construction of the work. One sees several examples of a limited pitch palette. The rhythmic domain is equally restrained, empl oying placid sonorities th at are periodically

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98 punctured by abrupt accents. Thus, one must view the works deviation from historical norms as an important subset of the composers larg er goal: distilled trea tment of material. The discursive purpose of this analytical approach is revealed when melody is considered. The melodic content of the opening s ection implies a tonal harmonic framework that is missing certain pitches. The opening seven ba rs alternate between functionally tonic and dominant regions. The omitted notes in the chaconne harmony, such as A in the first minor i (m.4) chord and E in the first dominant chord (m .7), is evidence of a re ductive approach to implying harmony. However, when the violin over lays the principal melody later in the work, the missing pitches are filled in to complete the afore-implied triadic harmonies. (shown in Figure 4-2) Figure 4-2. The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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99 This information allows listeners to dis cern the purpose of Co riglianos restraint: by proffering an incomplete entity in the chaconne he can then make it wh ole with the addition of seminal motivic material. A common trait belonging to both the 17th and 18th Century chaconne and the passacaglia is their metrical construction; usually consisting of two, four eight, or sixteen measures. The chaconne and passacaglia of this era conclude with half or authentic cadences followed by the repetition of the progre ssion without a break. A seven-measure chaconne progression is uncommon and is not found in the Baroque or Classical periods. To better unders tand Coriglianos chaconne, a comparison is made with a chaconne from the early 18th Century. Figure 4-3 is a chaconne written by the Italia n Baroque composer Tommaso Vitali (1663-1745). Vitali was chosen as an example because he utilized an extended Baroque harmonic language, and he was more advent urous than the norm. Vitali is known for his sonatas and this particular chaconne is for violin with figured bass This example shows a clear descending ground bass in a four-measure sequence. Vitali begins on a minor tonic chord, and he concludes on the dominant harmony before the sequence repeats. Corigliano utilizes a more unorthodox approach at the conclusion of his chaconne by not employing a dominant (V) and substituting a seven diminished (viio) triad. The realization of Vitalis chaconne shows that complete chords are util ized, unlike Coriglianos chaconne Vitali uses an even number of measures, a ground bass and a dominant half cadence in his chaconne, while Corigliano avoids all these traditional characteristics.

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100 Figure 4-3. Chaconne in G minor for Violin and Basso Continuo by Tommaso Vitali 1966 Barenreiter~Verlag, Kassel Coriglianos orchestration for his chaconne is unique. He employs only the violins and violas in the chaconnes initial presentation during the openi ng credits, presenting the cellos and double basses during the second statemen t of the progression, which play pizzicato at the initiation of the D and C# pitches. Coriglianos initial orchestration is simple. It includes the upper voice of violin one and a homophonic te xture with highly unorthodox voice leading. A repeated feature in Coriglianos chaconne is the rhythmic punctuation of the doubledotted figure. The sixteenth note is followed by a double-dotted quarter in measures 4-6. Such a rhythm was common in the Late Baroque pe riod (1685-1750) and illustrates Corigliano application of a Baroque ch aracteristic within his chaconne The double-dotted rhythm is typically associated with the French Overture. The Red Violin theme is heard simultaneously many times with the chaconne throughout the score. Figure 4-4 shows the theme presented with the chaconne. The harmonies of the theme originate from the chaconne, both sharing the key of D minor. The Red Violin theme fills in the missing triadic pitches of the initial chaconne statement when the two are combined. Figure 4-4 is an example of Corigliano using goal dir ected voice leading. Corigliano begins the chaconne after a three-measure unaccompanied introduction featuring The Red Violin theme.

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101 Corigliano writes a highly unusual harmonic pr ogression. For example, he has firmly established D as the tonic, however at m easure seven, he jumps to an E dominant 7th in third inversion. The progression hints at modal inflections, such as begi nning in D Dorian (raised sixth scale degree.) Corigliano also suggests a C# minor resolution in m easure eight. He then progresses to a C# diminished 7 at measure eleve n. There are bichordal implications in measure nine, hinting at both f# minor and B major. Corigliano also uses unorthodox voice leading, as seen in measure eleven in the bass. Figure 4-4. The Red Violin theme and the Chaconne Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Other Manipulations of the Chaconne The following section explores Corigliano s alteration of the content of the chaconne in two dif ferent sequences. He still maintains its ha rmonic structure, but also applies contemporary techniques.

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102 Death of Anna Cue The Death of Anna cue begins with music that is not histo rically tied to the time setting of this sequence of the film. This cue uses ge stures created by graphi c notation and aleatoric techniques. Corigliano deviates fr om the musical practices of the implied time period and utilizes devices that create random di ssonant sonorities. Corigliano employed these devices in his Altered States score and in many of his concert works, his Pied Piper Fantasy, Concerto for Flute and Orchestra and his symphonies. In The Red Violin, boxed notation is used when a young boy and the violinmaker, Nicola Busotti, are running through the village to help the craftsmans sick wife. Corigliano supplies a pitc h collection within the box notation and above it indicates the duration of the event. He writes th ick, black slash lines in the measures following the box notation, which instruct the performers to repeat the material, similar to that found in jazz/popular lead sheet notation that instructs the performer to conti nue a specific harmony or chord. Corigliano also uses other not ational devices, such as fast rhythmic passages followed by headless notes (only stems and beams are present) The rhythms are retained, but the performers improvise the pitch material. Above these measures he writes simile Throughout this entire section, he refrains from using traditional 18th Century techniques. Appendix A contains an excerpt of Coriglianos aleatoric notation from this scene in The Red Violin. In the scene where the luthier, Busotti, walks into the bedroom and witnesses his deceased wife and newborn child, Corigliano introduces the Death of Anna Theme which is used whenever a principal character passes away. Corigliano develops the death motive from a variation of The Red Violin theme with the bass line of the chaconne. Example 4-5 shows the first appearance of the death motive.

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103 Figure 4-5. Death of Anna The analysis of the Death of Anna cue explores how Corigliano incorporates the chaconne harmony into this variation. Corigliano begins the Death of Anna cue in the original D minor key of the chaconne. The cue uses the theme from the original chaconne contrapuntally. The chromatic rise in the first cello (F-C; show n below in example 4-6) and the D and C# pedal tones in the second cellos are identical to material from the original chaconne. A distinct difference between the Death of Anna theme and the original chaconne cue is the final cadence. Corigliano ends the death chaconne in the distant tonal region of C. Coriglianos progression invol ves non-standard chromatic voice leading. The C# in measure 4 acts as an anticipation of the final cadence. Corigliano employs a direct modulation, with no clear preparation of c minor. In exampl e 4-6, the circled notes represent the chromatic line in the cello 2 part. As previously shown in Coriglianos music, the voice leading creates the impled harmonies. Corigliano uses dissonance to distort the implied triadic harmony in the Death of Anna cue. For example, in the first measure there is a D pedal tone with a G and E in the upper voices. Example 4-6 identifies the different harmonies Corigliano implies throughout the cue. In measure four, Corigliano uses a C natural agai nst the c# minor harmony, which anticipates the resolution. The c# minor resolution on the third beat of measure tw o stands out just as much as the final cadence in c minor.

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104 Figure 4-6. Analysis of Death of Anna Death of Kasper Weiss cue The Death of Kasper Weiss cue is more disson ant than the previous scene. The analysis of the Death of Kasper Weiss cue is shown in Figure 4-7. After beginning in the dominant a minor tonal region Corigliano modulates to d minor in the second section, th e original key of the chaconne Within the first a minor section, Coriglia no omits the chromatic rise as well as the pedal tones, which were found in both the original and the Death of Anna chaconne However, both of these elements reappear in the second d minor section. (The D to C# pedal in the double bass part and a chromatic ascent in the cellos, fro m F to C by half steps, is found in the second section.) Identical to the Death of Anna theme, Corigliano ends the cue with a C minor triad.

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105 Figure 4-7. Analysis of Death of Kasper Weiss cue In measure two Corigliano writes a D# a nd F (diminish 3rd) in the violin II and viola parts. Corigliano implies a non-tra ditionally voiced French Augmented 6th chord. The voice leading rules of the augmented sixth chord ar e correctly implemented, with the diminished interval collapsing to a unison. By utilizing a non-traditionally voiced French Augmented 6th chord, Corigliano introduces a common aural c onstruct, but with a distinct difference.

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106 The second part of the Death of Kasper Weiss (measures 6-9) in D minor, contains many dissonant harmonies. The downbeat of measure seve n consists of a vague sonority that includes two sets of tritones (D-G#-Bb-E.) This pitch collection set is de rived from a whole tone scale or an unconventionally voiced French Augmented Sixth chord, reminiscent of such atonal composers as Alban Berg (1885-1935). Figure 4-8 is an example of Bergs use of the [0268] set, with extensive appearances in an early song fo r voice and piano. Berg uses many transpositions of the set throughout the song. Within the first four chords in the pi ano part of the excerpt, three contain the [0268] set. Unlike Berg, Corigliano uses the [0268] couched in an erstwhile tonal context, whereas Bergs only tonal presence is found in the key signature, and the final resolution to Eb at the end of this song. Figure 4-8. Example of [0268] pitch set from Schlafend Tragt Man Mich, No. 2, Op. 2 measures 1-2 by Alban Berg The two sets of tritones create tension that ne eds to be resolved. Th is repeated dissonance in Coriglianos cue resolves to a C# minor harmony on the third beat of measure 7, only to become distorted by the appearance of a G natural in the violin I part. With the C# pedal in the basses, measure eight begins with an A major harmony in first inve rsion that is also blurred by the dissonances of violin I. Corigliano again ch anges the original chaconne cadence that ends in the home key of D minor before shifti ng to the final C minor tonality.

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107 Besides the tritones, Corigliano utilizes non-traditionally voiced augmented sixths and the ascending chromatic line in the ce llos, which stems from the original chaconne, to build tension. The imitation of the four-note turn fi gure creates a greater degree of dissonance throughout the cue because it is not always c onsonant with the underlying harmonic foundation. Corigliano blends the original chaconne with new melodic and harmoni c material that is full of dissonant sonorities. Other Elements Found in the Baroque Section of the Film Following the opening credits of the film the scene changes briefly to the present-day city of Montral. This scene is reintroduced throughout the film appearing in small segments that become increasingly longe r as the film progresses. This auction scene is only briefly introduced at the beginning of the film, followe d quickly by a flashback to Cremona, Italy, in 1681. During this initial flashback, the violinmakers wife Anna meets with her servant, who is also a fortuneteller, to have her future read. (This fortuneteller narrates over each of the films sequences, describing the red violin s journeys.) Anna chooses five cards from a deck of tarot cards for the fortuneteller to rea d. The five cards come to repres ent the five different sequences from the movie. At this point in the film, Co rigliano restates the first three chords of the chaconne at a slower tempo, sustaining the la st chord when she picks up the first card. It was not a coincidence that Cremona, Italy, was chosen for this sequence. Cremona was considered the undisputed capital of the worl d for violin making during the middle to late periods of the Baroque. The films director, Fr ancois Girard, research ed early violin making, trying to recreate an authentic a nd realistic feel for the movie. According to Manfred Bukofzer: Cremona was the home of the celebrated worksh ops of Amati, Stradivari and Guarneri. These masters made of their craft a consummate art, which coincides with the significant development of violin music in the Bologna School.5

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108 During the Cremona sequence, Corigliano briefly states The Morritz theme, while the violinmaker Busotti and his wife are looking at the moon and talking about their futures. ( The Morritz theme is not completely stated until the last sequence, taking place in Montral, which features appraiser Charles Morritz .) Stating an incomplete versi on of this theme in the opening section foreshadows the connection between the violinmakers wifes blood contained in the varnish of the instrument and the present-day violin appraisers search to find the lost red violin and the truth behind its unique color. After the Death of Anna scene, there is a period without music. (This is the longest period sans music since the beginning of the film.) Corigliano and Girard wanted to aurally depict the loss of life and fee ling of absence. The next scene, beginning once more wit hout music, is in the workshop where the violinmaker is preparing to va rnish the wood of his instrument. A human voice is heard during the scene where the blood is applied, and then th e violin takes over the ma terial, symbolizing the transference of Annas spirit to the violin. As the scene progresses, the theme is developed and the harmonies of the chaconne are added for emotional intensity. By the conclusion of the first film sequen ce, Coriglianos music has established a Baroque setting. Baroque elements include the chaconne, the augmented sixths albeit in nontraditional voicings, the tonal thematic material, and some traditional voice leading. However, he also utilizes de\vices that are anachronistic to the period, such as graph, box, and aleatoric notations, and deviations from the harmonic, me lodic, textural, and r hythmic norms of the Baroque period. These devices are found in an example from The Red Violin Suite for Violin and String Orchestra in Appendix A. The followi ng Baroque, Classic, Gypsy, and Romantic

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109 sequences also utilize techniques that help portray specific musical periods, while also including elements that separate Coriglianos imitations from their models. The Monastery The Monastery sequence also uses elem ents similar in style to music from the Baroque period. This sequence takes place in the mountains of Austria. The scene begins with an ox pulling a peddler and his cart towards a monast ery for orphan boys. While riding toward the monastery, Coriglianos cue begins, but without a solo violin line. However, after the monastery elders purchase a violin from the peddler, Co rigliano adds the solo violin melody. Throughout the sequence, scenes of different orphan boys playing the violin with a string ensemble are used to portray the passing of time. When the last soloist, Kasper Wei ss, concludes his playing, we see he is breathing abnormally. This is later explaine d to the viewer through the dialogue that Kasper has a weak heart. Girard uses this health pr oblem to imply a connection between Weiss and the famous Baroque violinist and composer Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741). Vivaldi, originally trained for the priesthood and ordained in 1703, ceased saying Mass soon after his ordination, possibly due to ill health. (He is known to have suffered from chest pain, possibly asthma or angina.6) Vivaldi later worked for many years at the Ospe dale della Piet, one of the Venetian girls' orphanages. The entire Monastery cue is shown in Figure 4-9. Co rigliano successfully creates a Baroque-like variation of the original Red Violin thematic material. The harmony and style of the cue are different from anything previously heard in the movie. Corigliano uses the first three notes of The Red Violin theme as the motive for the cue (D-E -F). Four important characteristics are apparent in the Monastery cue, helping to esta blish the Baroque style: 1. driving rhythm, 2. imitation, 3. fortspinnung (devel opment of a short motive throughout the entire work), and 4. movement from tonic to dominant after the exposition.

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110 Figure 4-9. The Monastery cue

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111 Baroque Rhythm The motus perpetua rhythm was an important charac teristic of music throughout the Baroque period. Coriglianos use of such rhythms helps suggest this musical period. Coriglianos cue remains rhythmically active throughout, not stopping until the final cadence. The opening rhythmic figure is similar to one typical of Ba roque music. This rhythmic figure was not limited to the Baroque, as it is featured in the wo rks of Haydn, Mozart, and early Beethoven. Figure 4-10 compares familiar Baroque works that utilize the eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic figures with that of Coriglianos Monastery cue. Figure 4-10. Similarity between Baroque ex amples and Coriglianos rhythmic motive A different Baroque-like note se quence Corigliano employed in the Monastery cue is found in measures 9-10. Like many other composers of the Baroque, this ge sture is found in the violin music of Vivaldi, as George Buelow elaborates: Vivaldis music had a harmonic regularity, and he also preferred a counterpoint with less difficulty. He also delineated individual pa rts by a simpler and more audible means of timbre. 7

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112 Repetition is a stylistic feature used to make the music sound active while also having slow harmonic rhythm The constant repetition of the notes helps articulate the harmony and keep the texture active. Baroque Imitation Another feature of Coriglianos Mon astery cue is the use of melodic imitation. Imitation was one of the key devices empl oyed by Baroque composers. Corigliano divides the violins for this cue into three part s. He has all three parts repeat the opening measure in canon (without any alterations). Throughout the cue, Corigliano employs imitation at the unison. Corigliano does not use a specific method of imitation, and this excerpt is in a freely imitative style where only the opening material is imitated between the voices. Motive Corigliano restates a simple m otive that is spun out relentlessly throughout the entire cue, typically identified as fortspinnung ( spinning out) Late Baroque music was usually monothe matic, often developing a short motive continuously throughout the composition. This characteristic is also included in Coriglianos cue, as he states a motive and employs the fortspinnung technique throughout the entire cue. Baroque Tonality The beginning of the Late Baroque was defined in part by common-practice tonality replacing any rem aini ng vestiges of modality. As The Monastery sequence begins, it can be assumed that the time frame is still in or near the 1680s. (It is mentioned later in the film that the vi olinmaker died in 1681, the same year as his wife.) Manfred Bukofzer explains the importan ce of this historic date:

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113 The Late Baroque music is different from the earlier phases of the Baroque style as the establishment of tonality was r ealized in Italy around 1680. The date marks the decisive turning point in the histor y of harmony, which coincides with the beginning of the Late Baroque period.10 Corigliano wrote the Monastery cue in the key of D minor, later modulating to the relative major (measures 23-25 temporarily tonicize G major). Corigliano clearly establishes the tonality of The Monastery cue in the opening measures and progresses to a half cadence at measure eight. He emphasizes the dominant in measure four, and shifts to a V7 of III, and then to the III chord (the relative major). Throughout the cue, Corigliano clearly employs a trad itional tonal scheme. Another common 18th Century feature Corigliano us es is a circle of fifth progression. Figure 4-11 shows Coriglianos employment of such a progression in the Monastery cue. Interestingly, there is an appearance in every measure of a seventh, which resolves correctly downward. Figure 4-11. Descending circle of fifths progression in The Monastery measures 12-16 Coriglianos ends the work in A major. This would not be common in the Baroque period. Many compositions of the Bar oque conclude on the tonic (minor mode shifting to the tonic major). If Corigliano were following the Baroque tradition, he would have certainly ended the work on the tonic. This was done to avoid the feeling of conclusion to the cue for transitional pur poses in the narrative of the film.

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114 Other Baroque Stylistic Features Another characteristic that helps establish the Baroque feeling of the cue is Coriglianos use of little rhyt hm ic variation. In Baroque music, the rhythms that were introduced in the opening measures typical ly constitute the entire works rhythmic material. Other missing elements common in the Ba roque are ornamentation, and a bassocontinuo. The only ornament that Corigliano us es is the trill found in measure seven. Genre Coriglianos Monastery cue draws upon ideas and conventions from several genres. The work begins with a tutti (Exposition) that is follo wed by the soloist over the string ensemble accompaniment. The cue is a combination of both the Baroque concerto and a concerto grosso. Coriglianos music is not an authentic concerto grosso because the cue does not contain the two orchestral sections that make up this form, ( ripieno and concertino ), as a group of soloists acting as a sing le player are not found. This cue is also not a Baroque concerto because in such the or chestra would stop at times in order for the instrumentalist to play solo passages. This cue does not exhibit such solo passages without accompaniment. In the f ilm, the cue is first introduced sans soloist and is then repeated again with the solo line. Coriglia no writes his cue in the style of Vivaldi. Vivaldis work is probably the most familiar Baroque music to the average movie going audience. Corigliano wanted to emulate this Vivaldi-like style in his work, which would immediately be heard as Baroque-like. Corigl iano interweaves both of these two styles together into a hybrid of th e Baroque concerto and the concerto grosso; he does not follow a specific, historically correct form to musically evoke the ti me period of the cue.

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115 Despite the small liberties taken in genre, form, and orchestration, The Monastery cue remains true to the Baroque model th rough the use of motor rhythms, motivic saturation, and harmonic and textural practices typical of the era. Corigliano uses many techniques in his Monastery cue to create a work that is Baroque-like. His music is a combination of the Baroque German contrapun tal style with the virtuosity and scaler passages found in the Italian Baroque school. However, Corigliano uses no ornamentation, no basso continuo, and concludes the work in the dominant A major. The Audition The Auditio n cue contains Baroque stylistic devices that are similar to J.S. Bachs solo violin music, specifically his Sonata Number One in G minor for Unaccompanied Violin (BWV 1001). In the film, the monks make travel arra ngements for the patron teacher Monsieur Poussin to travel from Vienna to the Monastery to hear the boy prodigy Kasper Weiss. Frustrated and tired from the long journey, Poussin is not expecting the timid boy, whose violin is too big for his little hands, to have a lot of talent. Kasper be gins to play a solo violin work. The boys talent immediat ely peaks the teach ers curiosity. The monks explain to Poussin that the vi olin the boy is playing has been at the orphanage for about one hundred years. (As the violin was created in 1681, this sequence takes place after 1781, the period of Haydn and Mozart.) Figure 4-12 shows the entire cue that Kasper Weiss plays. Melody The Adagio m elody Corigliano creates is freely played, full of rhapsodic passages. The style of the music is similar to the Adagio from Bachs suite (shown below

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116 in example 4-14) Corigliano begins this cu e using a transposition of The Red Violin themes main motive to g minor. Figure 4-12. Kaspers Audition Figure 4-13 illustrates the differences between the opening measures of The Red Violin theme and Kapsers Audition The third measure, first beat of Kaspers Audition has been reduced, showing only the principal pitches. Both cues use similar motivic material. The first three measur es of the themes are connected At the end of the example, both cues have a similar arching melodic shape. The Audition theme, however, is altered

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117 by an ascent at the end. Corigliano uses sim ilar melodies but changes the harmony in the Audition cue. Figure 4-13. A Comparison: Opening of the Red Violin theme and Kaspers Audition cue Style Many com posers throughout history have written solo works for the violin, including J.S. Bach. Bachs most fa mous work for the instrument is The Sonatas and Partitas for Unaccompanied Solo Violin BWV 1001-1006. According to theorist Joel Lester, Bach's sonatas and partitas for solo violin have been central to the violin repertoire since the mid-eighteenth century.13 The set for unaccompanied violin was used during the mid to late 18th century pedagogically, and th erefore make sense as a historical model for a scen e taking place in the late 18th Century Joel Lester believes that this set of pieces was studied during this time pe riod: There is evidence that Bachs solo violin works have been a regular part of violin pedagogy since the eighteenth century.14 It is not surprising that Corigliano su bconsciously based his own Baroque-like solo violin cue on the Bach model. Cori gliano says that the composition was not influenced or adapted from Bachs music. He states that he was trying to compose a work in the style of the violin solo repertoire utilizing The Red Violin theme.2

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118 Corigliano relied upon his practical aural know ledge of period literature instead of musicological research when composing the film score to The Red Violin. The audition cue is a mix of many elements, including the styl istic features found in Bachs solo violin works. A striking musical similarity occu rs between Bach and Coriglianos opening measures. Besides employing the same key of G minor, both opening chords are identical in their construction. This was the first time in the film that Corigl iano used this tonal region, leaving behind for the first time the toni c key of D minor. This chords sonority is rich and thick because it uses the first two open strings of the violin. Lester discusses the sound and the importance of Bachs opening chord: Since this chord opens Bach s cycle of solo-violin works, in a larger sense it alludes to the entire collection of unacco mpanied sonatas and partitas. And from the broadest perspective, it is an icon fo r all violin music--i n part because these Bach pieces have been so central to vio lin pedagogy for more than two centuries, but even more because the chord, containing the two lower open strings, so embodies violinistic sound and sonority.15 The sound of this chord has become etch ed into every violinists psyche, and Corigliano makes a subconscious decision to begin his work with a gesture similar to Bachs. Both works also end with the same quadruple stop chord, however Corigliano alters his final chord subtly, raising the third scale degree to create a major sonority ( Picardy Third). Besides being in the same key, the melodic shape of Coriglianos first phrase is also similar to Bachs. However, Bachs mu sic is full of many flourishes and contains multiple stops on almost every beat throughout the work. Figure 4-14 illustrates the opening of Bachs Adagio and Coriglianos Kaspers Audition cue. Coriglianos cue does bear some resemblances to Bachs Adagio

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119 Figure 4-14. Opening of J.S. Bachs Adagio and opening of Kaspers Audition cue by John Corigliano After the initial quadr uple stop, Coriglianos cue proc eeds differently from Bachs to showcase the opening motivic material of The Red Violin theme. Following the initial presentation of the Red Violin theme in the manner of a Bach solo violin work, Coriglianos music shows a similarity to B achs opening melodic shape. For example, after Bachs quadruple stop, there is a qui ck descending flourish, followed by a 7-6 suspension on the dominant seventh. Afte r Corigliano states the opening of The Red Violin motive, there is a fast descending flourish followed by a 4-3 suspension on the dominant seventh. Harmony Besides the opening cue m aterial, ther e are similarities in the harmonic implications of the two works. Bachs Adagio is a larger work than Coriglianos cue. Though the Bach work has more time to expl ore different harmonic regions and develop

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120 motivic ideas, the Audition cue still contains its own interesting harmonic devices. Table 4-1 shows Coriglianos tonal loci in Kaspers Audition 4-1. Harmonic chart of the Audition cue m. 1 m. 9-12 m. 14-16 m. 18 m. 20 gm cm B b Aug 6 GM Corigliano begins by using a conventi onal progression towards a D dominant seventh half-cadence. (This is identical to Bachs Adagio opening.) Following this section Corigliano moves to the Neapolitan Ab major. Unusual featur es in this section include the passage from D7 to Ab, a backwards motion from a dominant sonority to a Neapolitan chord. It is over this harmony that Corigliano states the second part of The Red Violin theme. Following the commonplace augmented sixth chord, Coriglianos cue breaks more Baroque harmonic norms as he utilizes a more contemporary harmonic language in the conclusion of the cue. For example, in measure eighteen Corigliano writes parallel fifths (Eb-Bb and Db-Ab.) After the Bb major section, Coriglia no suddenly moves to a D dominant seventh chord. Corigliano in the next measure applies chromaticism using an extended tertian harmony. Unlike the Bach, Coriglianos cue is agai n devoid of ornamentation. Corigliano could have made his cue more Baroque-like if he had included ornamentation. He instead focuses on the rhapsodic feeling, another Bach characteristic. During the middle of the cue, Coriglia no uses a steady puls e of eighth notes (measures 9-16) that enhance the Baroque st yle of his cue. Rhythm is an important element that Corigliano uses to imitate music from an historic time period. Unlike in the

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121 Baroque, however, he varies the harmonic rhyt hm, seen in the shif ting meters in the transcription. Corigliano highlights specific elements of the Baroque style, s till maintaining the sense of period. He subconsciously chose only some elements from the Baroque period because of his vast aural knowle dge of the literature. He step s out of the style to fit the needs of the film, specifi cally the employment of The Red Violin theme, the odd voiceleading and the changes in the harmonic rhythm, which is th e most distinguishing feature of the cue. Journey to Vienna The Journey to Vienna cue draws its inspiration from the Viennese Classical style. This section examines the similarities between Coriglianos cue and music from the mid-18th Century. The Journey sequence begins directly after Kaspers Audition cue. Poussin decides to bring Kasper to Vie nna to teach him the violin. Throughout this ninety-second cue, Coriglianos score is slow and replete with secondary and diminished chords, resembling the Cl assical style. Coriglianos cue was designed to evoke melancholy through musical devices such as melodic sighs. Figure 4-15 shows the cue Corigliano composed for the Journey to Vienna sequence. This is the first time in the film that Corigliano utilizes a major key. The Journey to Vienna cue shows Coriglianos ability to adapt the chaconne to the style of the early Classical period. The original chaconne is cleverly embedded as the cues melody.

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122 Figure 4-15. Journey to Vienna cue

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123 Rhythm A steady triplet eighth note figure is em ployed throughout the entire cue. This arpeggiation outlines the chordal structur e and clarifies the harmonic progression. Classical composers first used the arpe ggiated triplet because it activated the harmony over time. According to theorist W illiam Duckworth, Arpeggiated chords were used rather than block chords to avoid direc ting the listeners attention toward the vertical aspects of the harmony.19 The triplet figure is a device used throughout the Classical and into the Romantic period. The arpeggia tions can last for an entire composition. Corigliano follows this Classical tendency with this cue. Melody Coriglianos m elody for this cue comes from a variation of the original chaconne. The chaconne is placed on top of the erstwhile cla ssical cue, with an atypical emphasis on the use of melodic retardations that highlight the features of the original chaconne He changes some elements of the melody in the Journey chaconne to fit this Classical-like work. The changes to the chaconne include tonality, rhythm, and meter. Figure 4-16 shows both the original chaconne and the Journey variation. Included in this example is a reduction of both chaconnes to illustrate important pitches and melodic shape. Corigliano changes the minor tonality of the original chaconne to major. The double-dotted rhythm, a tr ademark of the original chaconne, is eliminated. The duration of the Journey chaconne phrase is eight measures, comporting with typical classical periodicity, while the original chaconne is only seven measures. A further difference between the chaconne from the Journey cue and the original is the overall shape. The original chaconne ascends throughout the entire statement, and the Journey chaconne rises to the fifth measure, a nd then falls back towards the end. The

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124 Journey and the original chaconne both end on the tonic sonority of its key. Other aspects of the melody include Coriglianos use of grace notes within the melody at the beginning of the sixth and thirteenth measures. Figure 4-16. Chaconne and Journey to Vienna chaconne Harmonic Implications The Journey cue is divided into two part s. The first part uses the chaconne m elody over a simple, straightforward harmonic progression. The second part repeats this progression and chaconne melody, adding a descant in the highest violins. This counterpoint helps embellish the simple harmonic progression. Corigliano uses a slow harmonic rhythm that is also characteris tic of the Classical period. For example, the firs t four measures of the Journey cue contain only one chord per measure. Leonard Ratner summarizes Classical harmonic rhythm:

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125 Harmonic progressions in Late Baroque mu sic, controlled by the active bass part, had quick rates of chord change. The clearer symmetries of classic music made it possible to achieve simple but attractive musical effects with slow regular changes of chord within relatively simple cadential formulas.21 Coriglianos harmonic rhythm speeds up toward the end of the work in measure thirteen. He keeps the same chaconne pitches from the first section; however, he changes the rhythm from quarter to eighth notes. Speedi ng the harmonic rhythm at the conclusion of the work was also a common technique within Classical works. An important violation of the norm is the final pitch, F, correcting th e non-standard and unresolved G from measure seven. Ratner discusses the importance of the cadence in the Classical period: A listener attuned to 18th century musical rhetoric accepts the authentic cadence, which is the progression of dominant to tonic with bot h chords in root position. This was a firm and proper conclusion to a period.22 Journey to Vienna Conclusions The sim plicity of this cue draws parallels to the early Classical period. The most important element in this cue is the adaptation of the chaconne and the manner in which it is seamlessly adapted to fit the style. Th e slow moving harmonic rhythm, steady triplet arpeggiation, small phrases, and traditional harmonic progression are all general stylistic traits that are found in the cue and make it Cl assical in style. The Metronome Corigliano com posed the Metronome cue before the music was synchronized to the film. In the metronome sequence, Poussin introduces Kasper to a handmade metronome. He demonstrates that the tempo of the etude he is lear ning will eventually reach the fastest speed on the machine with practice. Coriglianos music is technically demanding for the performer, and is thus used to demonstrate the boys virtuosity. Figure

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126 4-17 illustrates the metronome music heard with in the film. This excerpt is repeated at increasingly faster tempi th roughout the films sequence. Figure 4-17. The Metronome cue Melody Corigliano begins this cue by em ploying the opening pitches of The Red Violin them e. He changes the original mode from D minor to D major, making corresponding adjustments to the melody. After the first three pitches are stated, the Metronome cue completely changes motivically and harmonically from the original cue while

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127 maintaining the overall shape of the original themes melody. Coriglia no changes the first leap of a perfect fifth in the original theme (F to C) to a minor sixth (F#-D) to establish the tonic D (instead of the vague modal opening found in the original Red Violin theme). Harmony All the m usical cues from the Vienna sequence are written in a major key, including Journey to Vienna the Metronome and Walking to the Palace According to author Leonard Ratner, the Classical era is known for its abundant use of the major key. Corigliano wanted to emulate the feeling of the period, which was enhanced by the employment of the major key. Ratner discus ses the shift of importance from minor to major modes in the Classical period. The cadential assertiveness of the major mode is one of the principal reasons for its higher rank in classic music. Rousseau a nd others point out th at its tonic triad reinforces the harmonic series, an advant age not offered in th e minor triad. The major diatonic scale contains the tritone between 4 and 7; therefore it has the power to make functional cadences. Progressions in the major mode have the authority that supports periodic rhet oric. There was a shift to greater use of major keys during the 18th century.23 The Metronome cue can be considered a learning piece in the context of the narrative. The young prodigy is studying an etude for his future audition. Based on earlier evidence cited by Lester, the boy would proba bly not play current works from his Classical contemporaries, such as Mozart or Haydn, but rather might play that of Bach. The music from this cue parallels the violin writing of the Bar oque period, including works by composers Corelli, Bach, and Vivaldi. Within the cue, Corigliano uses a harmonic language that deviates from that of the Baroque period. Coriglianos opening harm ony consists of unusually placed nonharmonic tones. For example, the second beat of the first measure begins with the pitch E. As mentioned previously in the Melody se ction, the pitch E was used to maintain the

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128 opening pitch collection of The Red Violin theme (D-E-F#). Howe ver, this non-harmonic tone causes harmonic problems, which would have been avoided in the Baroque. The E pitch could be considered a passing tone betw een the tonics primary pitches of D and F#. The pitch E is an accented non-harmonic tone on the downbeat of beat two. The unusual feature in this section is how long the E is held before moving to the F#. Corigliano blurs the harmony with nonharmonic tones on almost every beat throughout the work. (Refer to Figure 417 for a complete analysis of the Metronome cue.) The tonic remains prev alent in the second measure with the use of a pedal D throughout. A retrogression occurs from measur e 3-4 with a V moving to a IV. Also, a bizarre pedal G below the tonic chord o ccurs in measure six. Otherwise, the Metronomes primary chords consist of the progression I-IV-V. Style The Metronome cue has a driving rhythm which lasts for the entire cue, with constant sixteenth notes. This technique is strikingly similar to Corellis Sonata for Violin and Cello, Op. 5, No.1 Allegro (Figure 4-18). Corelli also us es only sixteenth notes in the solo violin leading up to the final cadential half-note. Figure 4-18. Sonata for Violin a nd Violone Op.5, No. 1 measures 1-3

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129 In terms of the violins range, Corelli does not write a note over an E6. Coriglianos cue clearly shows signs of Romantic influence. The violin writing is extremely difficult, requiring the violinist to play a D7, then jumping down four octaves. This would never occur in a Baroque work. Vi valdi, for example, wrote passages in what was thought of as a high tessitura for the time, but nothing approaches the range of Coriglianos cue. Playing in such a high register did not occur until the great Italian violin virtuoso Paganini in the early 19th Century. The Metronome Conclusions The Metronome cue evokes a pedagogical work. An i mportant stylistic feature, creating the impression that this work is from the Baroque, is again the rhythm. Similar to the Monastery, Kaspers Audition, and Journey to Vienna cues, the listener does not focus on the slight harmonic and melodic anomalies Corigliano employed. Walking to the Palace The Walk ing to the Palace Classical-like cue occurs at the end of the Vienna sequence. After the boy prodigy has mastered the violin, he walks with his teacher Poussin down the city streets to his destination--an auditi on for a prince who is looking for a young prodigy to accompany him on his t our. While the two are walking, the boy begins to hum a simple tune. The teacher then asks him to sing it backwards. After this variation, Kasper restates the tune in its unva ried form while Poussin sings a bass line to the piece, which implies the harmonic progression of the work. This short cue, which is not included in the original movie soundtrack or suite, will be discussed because of its Late Baroque and Classical stylistic traits.

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130 Figure 4-19. Walking to the Palace cue

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131 Rhythm The constru ction of Coriglianos motivic material is similar to the Monastery cue, specifically the eighth and sixteenth note patter ns. As illustrated previously, this rhythmic device was used extensively in the Baroque period, but it was also utilized in the Classical styles of such noted composers as Mozart, Haydn, and Muzio Clementi (17521832), specifically in Clementis didactic Sonatinas Similar to works of the Baroque peri od, Corigliano keeps the rhythm moving between the principal cadential points. Ho wever, many Baroque composers did not supply a resting point until th e works final measure. Taking more from the Classical norm in this respect, Corigliano divides his cue into smaller phrases. Corigliano gives a clear separation of phrase lengths, un like the motor-like style from the Monastery cue. According to Ratner: The device of smaller phrases, employing dominant to tonic cadential points, was more common in the Classical period. Th e symmetrical grouping of short phrases, two, three or four measures in length, we re clearly articulated by lesser points of articulation.24 Melody The m elody is simple in its construction. Fo r the first time in the film, the music shows no overt connection to either the chaconne harmony or The Red Violin theme, though the sequential treatment of materials th at lifts everything by step creates a vague impression of the original melody. The appear ance of a large palace coincides with the cues conclusion. Corigliano adds strings to emulate a Mozart-like overture. The doubledotted rhythm of the French overture and original chaconne theme is found in this section. Another trait of the French overtu re in Coriglianos cue is the ending on the dominant. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music Double-dotting is expected in

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132 the opening section, and is expected to e nd in the dominant or relative major.25 Figure 420 shows the overture-like theme Co rigliano wrote for the end of the Walking to the Palace cue. Figure 4-20. Overture style from Walking to the Palace cue Harmony Corigliano uses sim ple triads in his Walking to the Palace cue. The chords within the work consist of the tonic, supe rtonic, and dominant triads. In 18th Century harmony, the pre-dominant minor ii chord would usually be followed by the dominant. Skipping this step and going directly to the toni c was unusual during this period. Corigliano utilizes this retrogression in measure three, ii I. Style Given the co ntext of the cue, its simp listic melodic and harmonic content, and when it occurs in the movie, the work draws parallels to the instructional studies of the era depicted. Coriglianos cue has a youthful feeling throughout. Corigliano wanted to aurally evoke a young musician learning the fundaments of composition. The music is simple in its construction, from the shape of the melody to the simple tonic and dominant chords. There is a resemblance here to the sona tinas of Clementi. Figure 4-21 represents measures one through four of Clementis famous C Major Sonatina His melody is also derived from its simple harmonies.

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133 Figure 4-21. Sonatina, Op. 36 in C Major, measures 1-4 by Muzio Clementi Walking to the Palace Conclusions Coriglianos cue is in a sim ple, 18th Century style. The shorter phrases, concluding with half or authentic cadences, he lp establish the Classical style. The simple diatonic Eb key, without using chromaticism and the overture-like theme at the end, further gives the work a Cl assical feeling. In his book Music of the Classical Period Theodore E. Heger explains, Harmony was kept simple so as not to intrude or detract from the theme.28 The pedagogic style of the piece draws more parallels to the Classical era. The Gypsies Journey Across Europe The m usic of this cue was inspired by the early 19th Century Romany music of Eastern Europe. After the death of Kapser Weiss, the violin teacher Poussin is told by the monks that the instrument was buried with the boy so he can play the violin in heaven. The teacher is dumbfounded, practically crying at this terrible news since he wanted the valuable violin for himself. The next s cene, showing the boys grave dug up and the instrument stolen from the coffin, is accompanied by Gypsy music. David Malvinnis book Gypsy Caravan discusses the looted grave scene from the film: The Red Violins possession by the Gypsies occurs as the result of theft, and in terms of the supernatural, the worst kind --grave robbing. The f ilm thus confirms

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134 one of the Wests main and most persistent stereotypes of Gypsies, that they are grave robbers.29 Malvinni also discusses how the fortune tellers vision set up the Gypsy theft: And then I see a time of life. A time of lust and energy. Loosed across mountains and oceans, and time.30 This confirms the stereotype of Gypsies as people free from government and possession of land. Within the Gypsy sequence, th e director Girard cr eates the illusion of elapsed time by showing different people play ing the red violin at various locations. Style By the tim e Kasper Weiss dies, it can be assumed that the date would be around the beginning of the 19th Century. This chronology is reinforced as the violin teacher Poussin mentions during the Vienna sequence that Mozart is deceased, which places that scene after 1791. Much early 19th Century Gypsy music is po orly documented at best. However, one form that began in this peri od and has lasted in Gypsy culture is the Verbunkos. Many Gypsy musicians were improvise rs, playing in a style passed on by aural tradition. Acco rding to Malvinni: Gypsy music is synonymous with the fr eedom of improvisation. Bohemian art more than any other belongs to the domain of improvisation, without which it does not exist. Because improvisation became so prominent, so fetishized, so ritualized in the marketing of Gypsy music with and after Liszt.31 Malvinni states, Gypsy music is usua lly unwritten, and when appropriated by composers, this unwritten aspect survives in the notion of a Gypsy performance style, one heavily laden with emotion.32 This emotional aspect is hi ghlighted within Coriglianos Gypsy cue. As there is no codified Gypsy musi c with which to compare Coriglianos cue, concert music composers from the 19th Century who wrote works in a similar style will be referenced and discussed.

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135 This cue calls for a small group of car avan musicians playing the cymbalum, accordion, clarinet, viola, and double bass to accompany the violin and not the usual string orchestra accompaniment in the film. The cymbalum, a stringed instrument similar to the dulcimer, originated in Turkey a nd was brought to Romania and Hungary in the 16th Century. It gained widespread po pularity in the folk music of the 19th Century, and has become synonymous with the Gypsy band. Co rigliano used the cymbalum to create a more authentic Gypsy sound. The other instrume nts mentioned were all used extensively in Gypsy bands during the 19th Century. The Grove Music Online Dictionary documents the use of some of these instrument s with the following two entries: The influence of 18th-century Viennese serenade ensembles is evident in the instrumentation of the Gypsy bands, to which extra bowed instruments and, from the third decade of the 19th century, one or two clarinets were sometimes added. Gypsy bands also use the viola, cello and double bass (tuned to standard pitch).33 In Roma populated areas of Eastern Europe, the Taraf ensembles of Romania and cigny banda of Hungarian areas (expanding to areas of the former Habsburg empire), comprising violin, viola and double bass, may be combined with local instruments. 34 Corigliano wanted to captur e the feeling of Gypsy music in this cue, and did this by ear alone. However, Corigliano s cue has similarities with Verbunkos. Verbunkos did not originate with the Gypsie s, but they made it popular. Ac cording to musicologist Leon Plantinga, Verbunkos was a style of dance, originati ng with the indigenous folk from Hungary in the midto late-18th Century, used for military recruiting. Verbunkos characteristics include: 1. Alternating slow and fast sections 2. Sharply accentuated rhythms with many dotted figures and triplets 3. Colorful violinistic or namentation and paraphrase 4. A distinctive cadential pattern, which includes a cambiata figure in dotted note rhythms called the Bokazo35

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136 The music of the Verbunkos has been associated with the Gypsies since they were usually the musicians playing in the recr uiting bands. These recruiting bands would evolve into the Gypsy bands that would even tually define a part of Gypsy culture. The Verbunkos was performed in full military uniform where the dancers even wore swords and spurs. During parties, the Verbunkos dance reflected the peak of entertainment. It must go with spurs, whose ringing can be sharply di stinguished from the major tunes of the cymbalo.36 The Hungarian Gypsy composer Jnos Bih ri (1764-1827) was th e first composer to incorporate the Verbunkos into concert music. Bihri, who was also an accomplished violinist, wrote over 80 compositions incorporating the Verbunkos Later in the 19th Century, Franz Liszt even used this style in his famous Hungarian Rhapsodies for solo piano. Figure 4-22 shows the first and second parts of the Gypsy cue from The Red Violin. The opening slow, free section is contrasted with the Allegro that follows. In this cue it can be seen how Cori gliano maintains all four Verbunkos characteristics as earlier defined by Plantiga. The first Verbunkos characteristic Plantinga describe s is the contra sting slow and fast sections. Coriglianos cue begins with a slow solo violin passage, playing freely with an improvisatory-like style. Again, according to Plantinga, the slow sections of the Verbunkos usually contain long notes contrasted with faster, cadenza -like passages. Corigliano begins his cue with sustained half notes in the fi rst four measures, presenting the principal pitch material. The cadenza-like section follows in Coriglianos fifth and sixth measures, ending in measure seven w ith an accented pizzicato. Sarosi quotes a German officer from 1791 a bout the opening style of the Verbunkos :

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137 The true Hungarian dances have to begin really slow ly and then they must be continued faster. They are much more b ecoming to a serious mustached face than to a young lad.37 Figure 4-22. The Gypsies Journey across Europe cue Similar musical forms were used in Pablo Sarasates (1844-1908) Zigeunerweisen ( Gypsy Airs ) and Maurice Ravels (1875-1937) Tzigane ( Gypsy ). Both works, which

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138 were written for solo violin and orchestra, begin with a slower section, followed by extended Allegro sections. The slow, rhapsodic opening of Cori glianos cue is followed by an Allegro which includes a Gypsy band accompaniment. The Gypsy band is omitted in the cues transcription. Coriglianos also uses com pound meters within the cue. He uses many rhythms common to the Verbunkos as well as meter changes in the Allegro section. However, the asymmetrical meters ar e not characteristic of the typical Verbunkos style. Another key element is his use of orname ntation, which is usually improvised by the performer. The Allegro section of the cue fades out, repeating the last phrase as the film shows a Gypsy man sailing away from the s hore. The fortuneteller voice-over follows, speaking of a man who will seduce her with his talent. The man appears, walking through the woods hearing the s ound of the Gypsy motivic mate rial, which is played on the red violin. This twenty-second sequence can be considered the third-part of the Gypsy cue, giving closure to the preceding section by ending with a fast ascending flourish and a cadential figure. This musical cue employs the fourth device that musicologist Plantinga describes as a characteristic of the Verbunkos a clear cadential pattern. The techniques that Corigliano omits from the Verbunkos are ending the work w ith a dotted note rhythm and a cambiata. Melody As with m ost previous cues in the film, excluding Walking to the Place Corigliano is able to incorporate The Red Violin theme into the Gypsy cue. The opening slow section begins in A harmonic minor. The sound of the harmonic minor scale has become synonymous, to the point of being a clich, with Gypsy music. Liszt and Bartok

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139 utilized the augmented second often in thei r works to evoke the Gypsy style. Some noteworthy 19th Century pieces characteristically in this style include Bihari Jnoss Dances in Hungarian Style and Pablo De Sarasates Gypsy Airs Interestingly, Hungarian author Blint Srosi claims that original folk and Gypsy scales did not incorporate this interval often, but composers beginning with Liszt have incorrectly employed it in their concert music. The typical keys are major and minor, which may be combined with the Mixolydian and Aeolian modes. Other moda l keys may also appear, and indeed occasionally even the scale, which is characteristic of the older Hungarian folksongs pentatony. Just as rare in the folk music of the Gypsies as in Hungarian folk music: is the minor scale with two augmented seconds, the Hungarian scale or Gypsy scale. The augmented second is in any case rare, although our nineteenth century Gypsy musi cians liberally peppered their playing with it, and even Liszt himself felt it to be such a typically Gypsy feature.38 If one accepts the premise that the au gmented second is evocative of Gypsy music, then one can understand Corigliano s rationale for making these intervals prominent in the opening section of this cu e. By repeating the fi rst two measures one octave lower, Corigliano highlights the augmented second sound in the introduction. The Allegro section also features the augmented se cond interval. This interval is a key component of the principal motivic material for the second section. Corigliano employs many embellishments and ornamentation within the melody to establish the style of the cue. This is a key characteristic of Gyps y music, as musicians playing in this style always add ornamentation as a form of personal expression. Blint Srosi elaborates on Gypsy musicians playing style and the use of ornamentation in the Verbunkos dance: Since the time of Ferenc Verseghy ( 1757-1822), writer and linguist of Germantype culture, Gypsy musicians have b een strongly reproached for tasteless ornamentation. The Verbunkos style is precisely the oppos ite of everything which we call Puritanism in music. Here it really is necessary to revel in ornaments and

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140 in means, which create an effect. It wa s largely the Gypsy mu sicians who carried out this style in practice, but naturally not only they--indeed, chiefly not the Gypsies at all, determined what should be in the style. Among them, therefore, the only ones who should be reproached because of ornamentation are those who did not know how to use it properly.39 Srosi declares that ornamentation was one the greatest devices employed in Gypsy music. He claims there was an abundance of ornamentation in their songs. The ornaments gave life to the music. Corigliano uses orna mentation within his cue to establish an historical and cultural connection. His chief technique of ornamentation is the grace note. Another ornamental inflection used in this cue is the quarterto ne. Recordings of authentic Gypsy music showcase performers coloring the equal temperament Western scale through the use of such inflections. The sound of the quartertones helps to reinforce the character of the music in Coriglianos cue. Figure 4-23. Adaptation of The Red Violin theme in the Gypsy cue Coriglianos incorporation of The Red Violin theme from measures 24-29 unifies the Gypsy music with the main motivic material of the film. Before this thematic material appears at measure 24, the Gypsy cue sounds new in the context of the film. The opening three pitches stem from The Red Violin theme, but since they are manipulated and inverted, they are hard to distin guish. Figure 4-23 compares the original Red Violin theme with the variation from the Gypsy cue.

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141 Corigliano has changed the rhythmic value of the motivic material from half and quarter notes to the quicker quarter and eighth notes. The first three measures of the original Red Violin theme are reduced into two measur es. However, he gives a varied repeat in the second part to la st the same duration as the orig inal theme. Intervalically, the Gypsy cue begins identically to the original (A -B, A-B-C). The leap that follows has been inverted--a perfect fifth (F-C ) has now become a perfect f ourth (C-F). This leap is followed by a descent of a second in both examples. Corigliano begins in the same natural minor scale. However, in measure three of the Gypsy cue, he alters it by raising the sixth sc ale degree, which makes it similar to the melodic minor and utilizes the D# chromatic pitches instead of the dominant E. By employing grace notes, augmented seconds, a qui cker rhythmic value, and altering the dominant pitch of E, Corigliano creates a variation of the pr incipal thematic material in the style of Gypsy music. Corigliano utilizes melodic minor in th e slow section, and a predominantly 20th Century scale in the Allegro (the octatonic scale). Srosi di scussed previously that many 19th Century Gypsy songs were either in majo r or minor, and sometimes even Mixolydian or Aeolian. Corigliano writes his Allegro section using an octato nic scale. The octatonic is a scale that early 20th Century composers utilized to m ove away from the exhaustive use of the major and minor modes from the previous centuries. First employed by Arab musicians in the 7th Century, the scale was not utili zed in Western music until the 19th Century in works such as Franz Liszts #5 Feux Follets from his tude en douze exercices (1826), the music of Nicolai Rims ky-Korsakov(1844-1908), and his famous student Igor Stra vinsky (1882-1971).

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142 Corigliano does not keep the octatonic scale for the remainder of the entire cue. For example, he returns to a variation of the A melodic minor opening at measures 22-23. From measures 24-29 Corigliano incorporates The Red Violin theme. He returns to the octatonic material at measure thirty, and repeats this idea until the cue fades out. Figure 4-24 shows the principal theme of the Allegro that utilizes the octatonic scale. The complete octatonic scale in the Allegro includes the following pitches: (C#-D-E-F-G-Ab-Bb-B) Figure 4-24. Principal Allegro octatonic theme in The Gypsies: Journey across Europe cue The Gypsies Journey Across Europe Conclusions Coriglianos knowledge of Arabic music da tes back m any decades, specifically the music of Morocco. Corigliano establis hes a convincing Gyps y variation of the Red Violin theme by using elements from the early 19th Century Verbunkos style, employing the augmented second, utilizing compound mete rs and writing with a traditional Gypsy caravan instrumentation. Anachronistic devi ces that Corigliano employed in the Gypsies cue include the octatonic scale and the asymmetrical meters, which were not characteristics of the 19th Century Verbunkos style. Frederick Popes Concert The virtuoso violin works of the m id-19th Century, such as those played by Nicolo Paganini, are the model for Coriglianos cue, Popes Concert During the 19th Century, beginning with Paganini, such virtuosi became headline performers throughout Europe. The films Frederick Pope character is l oosely based on Paganini. Classical legend has

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143 Paganini making a deal with the devil to ga in his virtuosity. The films fortuneteller character predicts that Anna will meet the devil, and it is clear that director Girard wanted to encourage this comparison of P opes character with Paganini. Pope, like Paganini, is a composer. Popes Concert is a composition that was allegedly inspired by a sexual encounter with his girlfriend. This is in keeping with 19th Century Romantic philosophy, which employs themes pertaining to self-expression (emotion) and nature within a musical context. During the Romantic Era, virtuosi often wrote compositions to showcase their own unique performing abilities. Bori s Schwarz elaborates on the 19th Century violin virtuoso Paganini: Paganinis concert music was limited to hi s own music, aside from a few concertos by Viotti, Rode, and Kreutzer. But this was the case with Spohr, as well as with the other traveling virtuosos. Paganini was awar e that he wasnt at his best when he played other peoples music. As a rule the Romantic virtuosos were not ideal interpreters of music by other composers; they were too egocentric to submerge themselves. Paganini was the prototype of the Romantic virtuoso.41 Musicologist Leon Plantinga discusses the music a 19th Century virtuoso would perform: Paganini, like other concer t givers, ordinarily played his own music, tailored to display his special technical strengths. Con certos were a staple in the repertory, and audiences could usually c ount on hearing one of his.42 Frederick Pope performs o riginal works throughout the Oxford sequence. The one time he was about to perform with an orches tra (a concerto is implied, as the violinist is seen with an orchestra), he abruptly stops the group before they play their first note. He instead decides to perform a composition for solo violin from his own pen.

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144 Figure 4-25. Excerpt of Frederick Popes Concert cue Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Figure 4-25 is the opening s ection of Popes solo con cert piece from the cue. Corigliano begins the cue with the violin st arting on its lowest note of the instrument, G3, ascending quickly with a sixteenth note flouris h to the highest range of the violin. The Romantic period was the first where such a wide-ranging musical ge sture would exist. Starting with Paganini, violin ists began displaying their vi rtuosity throughout the entire range of the instrument.

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145 Corigliano also uses third-related keys in this cue. Charles Rosen elaborates about the destruction of the tonic-dominant polarity within the 19th Century by means of substituting the third: The attempt of the early nineteenth ce ntury to substitute third or mediant relationships for the classical dominant amounted to the frontal attack on the principals of tonality, and it eventually c ontributed to the ruin of triadic tonality.44 Melody Popes Concert is another cue that Corigl iano composed before filming commenced. This allowed the actor to synchr onize with the music dur ing filming of the sequence. Similar to the Monastery cue, Pope Concerts thematic material is clearly derived from The Red Violin theme. Corigliano embeds the theme in the lowest voice in the 16th note passages. Figure 4-26 consists of th ree excerpts: the original opening from Popes Concert an outline of the principal theme from the cue, and the beginning of The Red Violin theme. Figure 4-26. Popes Concert principal theme

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146 Corigliano keeps the primary shape of th e Red Violin theme at the beginning of the cue. Of all the style variations Corigliano composed from the theme, Popes Concert is the only one that maintains th e original intervallic relationship. Another similarity in the melodic construction between Popes Concert cue and the original theme is shown in Figure 4-27. This fragment is labeled the tail. Figure 4-27. Popes Concert and principal theme ta il by John Corigliano The melodic material in this fragment of the original theme is obscured. Corigliano maintains the overall shape of the Red Violin theme, beginning with an ascent followed by a descent after the ar rival of the climax tone. Harmony Coriglianos harm onic implications in Popes Audition are different from the Baroque and Classical cues in The Red Violin as this work is filled with a greater abundance of dissonant inflections. Corigliano ch anges the style, diminishing the role of tonality to support the change of period. Acco rding to Robert Morgan, the fall of tonality was a gradual occurrence th at lasted throughout the 19th Century. Traditional tonality did not collapse at once. The entire nineteenth century-arguably even the common-pract ice period as a whole--had witnessed a progressive

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147 weakening of its constructive force, along with corresponding shifts in compositional esthetic.44 Coriglianos cue is firmly based in G minor, however, he embellishes it with nonharmonic tones. Figure 4-28 show s Coriglianos use of chromaticism in this cue and the use of secondary leading tones. Figure 4-28. Example of chromaticism in Popes Audition cue The second measure in the example contains a chromatic scale, which creates harmonic ambiguity. However, Corigliano doe s maintain a pitch center by beginning with a C minor triad. The third and fourth measures are also shown because of their employment of chromaticism. The music from the Classical era Vienna sequences is written in major keys. Popes Concert and the other two cues from the 19th Century sequence, Coitus Musicalis and Popes Betrayal are written in minor keys. As pr eviously mentioned, the Classical period is known for works wr itten in the major mode. Th e opposite holds true for the Romantic period, as a majority of works written in the 19th Century are in a minor key. Musicologist Rey M. Longyear elaborates on this phenomenon: The minor modes increasing populari ty between 1780 and 1800 is a major harbinger of Romanticism, a mode that rose to a position of near-dominance in Romantic music. Whereas approximately 5% of Classic symphonies are in the minor mode, during the sec ond half of the nineteenth century, 70% of the symphonies are in minor.46

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148 Popes Concert Conclusions In Popes C oncert Corigliano utilizes many tec hniques characteristic of the Romantic period. The virtuoso solo violin wri ting, including the etude -like sixteenth note patterns, shows a connection to the music of Paganini. Corigliano writes the work in a minor mode, as was the norm throughout the 19th Century. Corigliano uses diminished seventh chords to establish distant key areas throughout the cue. Extensive use of chromaticism is also found throughout the Popes Concert cue. Coitus Musicalis The Coitus Musica lis is a Romantic style work firs t heard in the films Oxford sequence. This material is later revisited in the China and Montral cues. The first appearance of this music occurs when Freder ick Pope disturbs hi s girlfriend Victoria while she is writing her novel. Not seduced by his words, she continues to work at her desk. Pope then begins to play the Coitus Musicalis melody; she finally gives in to his carnal desires. The th ematic material of Coitus Musicalis is a variation of The Red Violin theme. Figure 4-29 shows the first appearance of the Coitus Musicalis material in the film, and in Coriglianos Red Violin Suite Figure 4-29. Coitus Musicalis cue Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc.

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149 This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright Secured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Melody Corigliano begins the cue with a variation of the motivic m aterial from the second part of The Red Violin theme. The second measure quotes the head of The Red Violin theme. Both the Coitus Musicalis and The Red Violin themes are closely related. Coriglianos Coitus melody is a six-measure, slow phrase at a tempo of quarter note = 42. Rey M. Longyear discusses the st ylistic design of Romantic melodies: Most Romantic composers sought to write long melodic lines, constructed from phrases, motives, or from a virtually seamless, unperiodic [sic], exuberant melodic line. Instrumental themes especi ally tend to increase in length.48 Coitus Musicalis Conclusions The Coitus Musicalis is an important cue within th e dramatic framework of the film. After its introdu ction in the Oxford sequence, it is heard several times throughout the film. The Coitus cue is a manipulation of the original Red Violin theme. The Coitus theme utilizes non-harmonic tones, that eventu ally resolve. The music modulates from A major to the third related key of c# minor The c# minor modulation is considered a distant key, even by Romantic standards, and the approach (just jumping to it), is part of Coriglianos neo-romantic style. This harmoni c relationship is more closely linked to the original presentation of the th eme itself (where there is an analogous move from d minor to f# minor, though the melodic framework is di fferent.) There are also Romantic traits present in the cue, for example the virtuoso writing for the violin and the long, lyrical theme, but there are also post-Romantic traits such as the unprepared jumps to new key areas.

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150 Popes Betrayal Popes Betrayal is the last cue from the Oxford sequence, and it also draws from the 19th Century Romantic style. In the story, Vi ctoria returns from her trip abroad and finds her lover, Frederick Pope, courting a Gypsy woman. Angered by what she sees, she aims a gun at Pope and then at the woman. Victoria finally decides to aim and fire at the red violin. The next shot shows the violin fa lling to the ground in pieces while Victoria runs out of the house. Coriglianos music for this cue closely fo llows the narrative. The music begins lyrically, symbolizing Victorias return to he r lover. When she realizes what Pope is doing, she runs downstairs to look for a gun. Duri ng this section of th e sequence, the solo violin writing becomes more agitate d, representing her anger. The music crescendos utilizing an adaptation of The Red Violin theme at the climax, during which the sound of a gunshot is heightened by a bass drum hit. Figure 4-30 shows Popes Betrayal cue. Measures one through six contain the lyrical theme Corigliano de rived from the original Red Violin theme. The tense transformation of the cue begins at meas ure thirteen (faster, quarter note =80.)

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151 Figure 4-30. Popes Betrayal cue Suite From The Film The Red Violin by John Corigliano Copyright 1997 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. This arrangement 1999 by G. Schirmer, Inc. (ASCAP) and Sony Classical, Inc. International Copyright S ecured. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission.

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152 Melody Corigliano varies The Red Violin theme throughout the entire cue. The piece begins in the original Red Violin theme key of D minor. Figure 4-31 shows the opening measure of the cue. The circled notes represent the notes from the original Red Violin theme. In addition to utilizi ng a variation of the theme in this cue, the motivic idea found in the first measure of Popes Betrayal is also employed in the opening credits sequence. Figure 4-31. Variation of three-note Red Violin Theme in Popes Betrayal cue As shown in Figure 4-32, the three-note motive (the original theme begins D-E, then D-E-F) found in the first measure of Popes Betrayal originates from the third and fourth measures from the Red Violins s econd phrase. Corigliano states the three-note motive in the first measure and again in the second measure, which is also similar in shape to the original theme. In the original Red Violin theme, Corigliano begins the third measure with the dominant sonority of A. Interestingly, the third measure in Popes Betrayal begins in D major, thus Corigliano has altered the toni c from D minor and changed it to D major (parallel major), al tering the harmonic progr ession. The fourth measures of both examples are in the subdominant, G Major.

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153 Figure 4-32. Variation of the second phrase of The Red Violin Theme in Popes Betrayal Coriglianos variation of the princi pal thematic material throughout Popes Betrayal is meticulously linked to the narrative of the story. The agitated turmoil evoked by the music Corigliano composed to heighten the suspense of the scene utilizes the Red Violin theme in a new style. Figure 4-33 shows th e motivic and rhythmic figures that are found throughout Popes Betrayal Figure 4-33. Suspenseful manipulation of The Red Violin theme in Popes Betrayal by John Corigliano Beginning in measure thirteen of Figure 4-30, Corigliano combines elements of the lyrical opening with a more suspensefu l figure. The circled notes in Figure 4-33 represent imbedded appear ances of the three-note Red Violin motive. This cue also contains elements of the chaconne including, for example the sustained pedal note on top. Instead of the original whole step plus half step theme, he varies it by rearranging the intervals. The first and th ird measures of Figure 4-33, are examples of thematic extension.

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154 Popes Betrayal Style and Conclusions The m ain objective for the music in Popes Betrayal is to enhance the films narrative. Corigliano utilizes the Red Violin thematic material to create unity between the cue and the other sequences of the film. The opening measures of the cue are played with rubato to enhance the Romantic feeling. Co rigliano changes time signatures and tempo frequently. These changes thus create a more Romantic quality in the music. According to Rey M. Longyear, freedom and flexibility are the chief elements that separate Romantic and Classical treatments of rhythm.50 Within the cue, Corigliano capitalizes on the violins wide range. The opening lyrical section employs this vast range, from the low open D to a high A6, while the suspenseful, dark section begins and focuse s on the lowest G-string. The vast range and large leaps are characteristics of Romantic music. Longyear elabor ates on devices found in the Romantic period, which Corig liano also uses within his cue: Devices characteristic of Romantic melody include wide leaps for expressive purposes, often leaps of sixths, sevenths, and other intervals, diminished or augmented; this tendency becomes exaggerated in late-Romantic composers, for example, the use of four or more octa ves in the range, and the tendency toward increasing the melodic range.51 Coriglianos cue is written with a Roman tic musical quality. The style is similar to Popes Audition as it uses the vi olins wide range. Popes Audition is written in the style of an etude, while the Betrayal cue is a Romantic virtuosic solo work like a concerto cadenza. Corigliano not only uses elements from the Red Violin theme, but also incorporates a connect ion to the chaconne. Journey to China In the Journey to China the pr inciple thematic material is manipulated to give an Asian-like feeling to the cue. While Coriglia no was trying to emulate an Asian feel when

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155 he composed the cue, he did not research tr aditional Chinese music. A pentatonic scale that he derives from the Red Violin theme is, coincidentally, a tr aditional Japanese scale. Figure 4-34. Journey to China measures 1-5 After Frederick Pope is caught having an affair with a Gypsy woman, he commits suicide. Popes servant, a Chinese man, deci des to take the red violin back to his homeland. The music for this cue begins when the Chinese man is on a cargo vessel traveling across a vast ocean. The servant is shown in his quarters holding the violin. The

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156 music continues as the scene changes to a c ity in China where the servant brings the instrument to a pawnshop. The cue to the Journey to China sequence is one of the longest in the film, spanning more than four minutes. The opening of the cue uses a compositional device also found in th e third movement of Coriglianos Symphony No. 1 As in the symphony, the orchestra plays chords that dissolve from one to another in the first several minut es of sequence. The harmonies of the Journey cue are derived from the chaconne progression, which has now been colored with dissonance, ma king its origin less easily identifiable. It is in this cue that Corigliano uti lizes a real transformation of the chaconne material. Above these dissonant sonorities the so lo violin plays in a high register. The Journey to China sequence begins with a vertical ization of the scalar material from the solo violin motive. Figure 4-34 shows measures one th rough five from the Journey to China sequence. The D pedal tone in the basses implies a t onal center in the op ening of the cue, which is identical to that of the original chaconne and The Red Violin theme. The intervallic relationships of the pitches stack ed above are consonant except for the major second in the viola, which is identified as an added dissonance, creating a c-minor chord over a D pedal. Corigliano maintains the chaconne progression, applying dissonant pitches that stem from the solo violin s treatment of the original melody. The manipulation in the Journey cue is one of the most interesting things Corigliano does with the chaconne throughout the score. The unf olding process is slow within this section. Corig liano changes pitches of the chaconne melody to coincide with his harmony. Because of the cons tant change in meter, and rubato feeling, the cue does

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157 not have a strong sense of pulse. As the cue grows in intensity, Corigliano adds to the amount of pitches in the progression; beginning with five, then six, and then finally seven pitches. The Journey chaconne is similar to the original b ecause they both have the same D-C# pedal tones. In the Journey cue howev er, Corigliano eliminates a strong sense of meter, as he frequently alters the time signature. The original chaconne remains in the same meter throughout. Melody Though Corigliano did not conduct any resear ch into the particulars of Asian music, he uses a pentatonic scale that ha ppens to resem ble the Miyakobushi scale from traditional Japanese music. The Miyakobushi is one of four pentatonic scales found in traditional Japanese music. Two of the Japanese scales, the Ritsu and Minyoh are anhemitonic pentatonic scales. The Miyakobushi and Okinawa scales contain half tones (hemitonic pentatonic). Japanese scales do not have a clear co ncept of octave replication, and players would normally change the middle notes within the given pentatonic scale.49 Figure 4-35. Journey to China principal theme with Miyakobushi scale, measures 1-5 Figure 4-35 shows the opening five measur es of the principal theme from the Journey to China cue in the solo violin. The pitc hes in the openi ng consist of the following pentatonic scale: C-D-Eb-G-Ab. The E natural in the fifth measure coincides with a chord change, thus altering the orig inal pitch group. The fi ve-note pentatonic theme begins the cue.

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158 The melody from the Journey to China is another variation of the Red Violin theme. The China theme is a transposed version of the Coitus transformation with altered rhythms. Figure 4-36 illustrates similarities between the Journey to China and the Coitus Musicalis Figure 4-36. The Journey to China and Coitus Musicalis Principal Theme Aside from the extra pitch used in the Journey to China motive at the conclusion of the ascent, and the different pitch trans positions, the two themes are identical. Throughout this section Corigliano never st ates the complete theme. The theme is only presented in short fragments. As the dissolving chords occur, we see the Chinese man sitting in a hammock below deck caressing the violin as his ship crosses the ocean. When the man opens the case of the violin, The Red Violin theme is briefly reintroduced. Girard then cuts to a view of the downtown streets of a Shangha i, as the travel of time in the pawnshop is shown with an underscore of the Coitus variation. Figure 4-37 shows the opening section of this variation.

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159 Figure 4-37. Variation of the Coitus Musicalis theme in the Journey to China sequence The altered Red Violin theme, Coitus Musicalis, is extensively developed throughout the Journey to China sequence, including a reintroduction of the original version of The Red Violin theme. The section that is analyzed is a representative portion of the cue showing minor vari ations, including transposit ions of the opening. In many cases, Corigliano manipulates the Coitus theme through in tervallic augmentation of the thematic material. For example, in Fi gure 4-38, the original descent in the Coitus encompasses a minor third but has now been extended to a major seventh (Bb-Cb.) Another extension of the motivic material is illustrated in the four th measure of Figure 438. Figure 4-38. Examples of Manipulation in The Journey to China sequence by John Corigliano After the D pedal in the beginning, and the use of common practice tonality at the beginning of the cue, sections of The Journey to China sequence lack a strong establishment of tonic. For example, the ope ning section, using the previously mentioned

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160 dissolving chords, avoids the establishment of traditional tonality. The pentatonic focus throughout the cue also lacks a strong domina nt to tonic polarity. Figure 4-38 shows the theme beginning in Eb minor. An extreme modulation to a distant key results in a move to c# minor. By the end of this figure, a s econdary dominant harmony resolves to the subdominant, instead of reso lving back to tonic. The Journey to China Conclusions The Journey to China sequence is an example of Corigliano utilizing the Coitus theme, which is a variation of the second half of the Red Violin theme, and manipulating it into an extended cue that hints at Asian pentatonic scales. The romanticized theme includes chromatic, dissonant, and pentaton ic elements. Once the journey and the narrative are over and a little gi rl with her mother acquires the instrument, the original Red Violin theme is heard once again. There is a sequence showing the 19 60 Cultural Revolution, during which no music is used, symbolizing the repression of Western influence that took place in China during this time. The Journey to China sequence is followed by a Communist song sung by a group of Chinese children (translated below), accompanied by accordions. Corigliano did not write the musi c for this scene; it was completely recorded and filmed in Shanghai, China. This was a dark period in the history of China, as all Western influences were banned from everyday life, including music and instruments. To symbolize the musical void of the revolution, th e film is largely without music during this sequence. After the longest period of no West ern music in the film, Corigliano restates the melody from the pro-Communist song duri ng the death scene of the music teacher Chou Yuan. Corigliano incorporates the theme with the initial chaconne progression.

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161 Hold a pen, as a sword or a gun. Fight the rebels, with all kinds of weapons. Follow Chairman Mao's lead all along. Use Cu ltural Revolution as the path breaker. Be faithful to the Cultural Revolutio n. Be loyal to Communist Party. Be brave to travel over the sw ord-mountain and through the fire-sea. Who will dare oppose Chairman Mao? We will send him to see the Demon in hell. Translated by Michelle Chang Montral The last sequence occurs in presentday Montral. John Coriglianos music throughout the final sequence was written w ithout stylistic restrictions. Corigliano maintains consistency by utilizing the chaconne progression, The Red Violin theme, and the Coitus Musicalis along with a new theme for violin appraiser Charles Morritz. The Morritz theme originates from the second half of the Red Violin theme, and is the final manipulation of the melody found in the film Michael Glaser illustrates the importance of the Morritz theme in conjunction w ith the narrative, Morritzs character represents the end of the red violin journey. Just as Bussotti was the master who created the mysterious vi olin, Girard states that Morritz is the master who uncovers the myster y behind the violin. It is therefore appropriate that Morritzs theme bears much resemblance to the original Annas theme.53 Figure 4-39 shows the Charles Morritz th eme by Corigliano. This theme begins after Morritzs discovery of the instrument, when he states in disbelief, I never thought I would find it. As seen in the first measure of Figure 4-39, Corigliano begins with a melodic shape similar to that of the Co itus theme. Instead of an exact copy, the Morritz theme changes, not going back to the starting pitch but instead descending to the leading tone. The second measure of the Morritz theme is a stepwise ascent, as is the

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162 corresponding measure in the Red Violin theme. In the third measure of the Morritz theme, Corigliano takes the previous illustrated motivic cell and inverts it (G-F-E). Figure 4-39. The Red Violin theme, the Morritz, and the Coitus theme During Morritzs search to identify the red violin, Corigliano again employs the altered harmonies of the chaconne using dissonance in the string orchestra over an intervallically augmented variation of the original Red Violin theme. The theme is presented in fragments before a complete st atement is heard. Similar to the dissolving chords from the opening of the Journey to China Corigliano here crea tes an appropriate backdrop to the appearance of the mysterious instrument. A reintroduction of the original chaconne follows a section with more dissolving chords, but is continuously interrupted by slow glissandos that heighten the drama. As Mo rritz is contemplating his fate, deciding if he should keep the red violin for himself, Corigliano superimposes the entire Morritz theme on top of the Red Violin theme. Here Corigliano musically represents the entertwined fate of the violinmakers wife Anna with that of Morritz. The Morritz Theme was briefly suggested in the first sequence in Cremona, foreshadowing the future, with

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163 Morritz discovering the truth of the red violin s varnish, but the theme is not completely stated until this sequence. The Theft of the Red Violin In this clim atic section of the film, Corigliano agai n utilizes the chaconne and The Red Violin theme throughout the cue Corigliano manipulates the order and the rhythm of the chaconne chords at the beginning of the Theft sequence before presenting the unaltered sustained version. Figur e 4-40 shows the opening of the Theft cue and also shows the hocketed version of the chaconne. The instrument playing this sequence is the marimba, as Corigliano uses percussion in this cue to enhance the drama in the film score because of its unique sound and sharp articulation. In Figure 4-40, Corigliano employs all the pitches of the original chaconne omitting the D pedal at the beginning. In all other respects, the pitches are gi ven in their order of appearance, with some octave displacement. Figure 4-40. Manipulation of chaconne in the Theft cue

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164 As the scene builds, a two-note fragment of The Red Violin motive is stated at different pitch levels in a hi gh register of the violin. Corigliano also arpeggiates the chaconne pitches starting from the bottom D pedal through different registers of the string orchestra. This begins slowly and, at the peak of the scene, the arpeggiation occurs at an Allegro tempo until a final glissando. Figure 4-41 shows Corigl ianos variation of the chaconne progression, which is used to create a sense of terror as Charles Morritz leaves the auction house with the stolen red violin. The pitch order and the rhythm are again changed in this variation. The most im portant feature that creates tension in this cue is the use of tremolos Figure 4-41. Variation of the chaconne progression in the Theft cue

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165 Montral Sequence Conclusions Throughout the Montral sequenc e, Corigliano m aintains the thematic material that has driven the entire film score. The Red Violin theme and the chaconne are utilized many times to enhance the narrative. The chaconne is varied frequently and the original identity is sometimes difficult to distingui sh. However, the unde rlying foundation of the chaconne remains throughout all five sequences, helping to unify the film. Corigliano uses some extended performance techni ques in the Montral sequence (slow glissandos in the string orchestra, for example). Interestingly, more extended techniques are employed during the Death of Anna cue in the Cremona sequence, set in the Late Baroque, than in the late 20th Century Montral sequence. Final Conclusion Musical cues from all five sequences ha ve been analyzed and compared to the music from the epoch in which the cue is se t. Coriglianos cues contain parametric features from the desired periods but also incorporate his own interpretations and violations of the stylistic nor ms of their respective models. Every cue deviates from the implied period with changes that include im proper use of dissonances, excessive or nonstandard chromaticism, distant modulations, and non-standard rhythms. These analyses have shown that Coriglianos music is similar to past historic mode ls but that various elements in each cue are incongruous with the style period in which they are set. To create a sense of consistency thro ughout the disparate styles, Corigliano manipulates his basic thematic and harmonic mate rial to fit the styles being imitated. His use of a limited number of symbolic themes, coupled with a variety of textures and timbres, helps to convey the narrative thre ad and emotional intent of the film.

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166 Notes 1 McCutchan, Ann. The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak about the Creative Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 38. 2 Interview at John Corig lianos home. April 30, 2007. 3 May, Thomas Bow Ties John Corigliano, One of today's preeminent composers, returns to the film medium with hi s haunting score for The Red Violin. < http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html/002-8870933-7244007?docId=2890 > (accessed January 26, 20 07) 4 Silbiger, Alexander. Chaconne Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy. < http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?from=search&ses sion_search_id=467352225&hitnum =1§ion=music.05354 > (Accessed April 20, 2007) 5 Bukofzer, Manfred Music in the Baroque Era. From Monteverdi to Bach. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1947, p. 408. 6 Sadie, Stanley. Antonio Vivald i Classical Musical Pages < http://w3.rzberlin.m pg.de/cmp/vivaldi.html > (accessed September, 25, 2006) 7 Buelow, George J. The Late Baroque Era. From 1680s to 1740 Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993, p. 86. 8 Randel, Don, editor. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 389. 10 Bukofzer, Manfred Music in the Baroque Era. From Monteverdi to Bach. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1947, p. 210. 11 Borroff, Edith. The Music of the Baroque Oxford: WM.C. Brown Company Publishers, 1970, p. 42. 12 Stowell, Robin. Violin. Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. < http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?section=music.41 161.1.5.3.1> (accessed May 24, 2007) 13 Lester, Joel. Bachs Works for Solo Violin : Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 6. 14 Lester, Joel. Bachs Works for Solo Violin : Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The Oxford University Press, 1999, p. v. 15 Lester, Joel. Bachs Works for Solo Violin : Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: The Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 3.

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167 16 Grout, Donald Jay, Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music 4th edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,1988, p. 549. 17 Schulenberg, David. The Instrumental Music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 3. 18 Clark, Stephen L. C.P.E. Bach Studies Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988, p. 44. 19 Duckworth, William. A Creative Approach to Music Fundamentals 9th edition. Belmont: L Thomson-Schirmer, 2007, p. 248. 20 Schulenberg, David. The Instrumental Music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 23. 21 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style New York: Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 65. 22 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style New York: Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 34. 23 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style New York: Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 56. 24 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style New York: Schirmer Books, 1980, p. 35. 25 Randel, Don, editor. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 602. 26 Plantinga, Leon. Clementi: His Life and Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 165. 27 Plantinga, Leon. Clementi: His Life and Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 163. 28 Heger, Theodore E. Music of the Classic Period Dubuque: WM.C. Brown Company Publishers, 1969, p. 57. 29 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 252. 30 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 253. 31 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 43. 32 Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film New York: Routledge, 2004, p. 7.

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168 33 Legny, Dezs, Blint Srosi. Hungary:Ins trumental Music Grove Music, ed. L. Macy. < http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?section=music.13 562#m usic.13562> (Accessed May 26, 2007) 34 Wilkinson, Rn Kertsz. Gypsy Music Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. < http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/shared/views/article.html?section=music.41 427.5> (Accessed May 26, 2007) 35 Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music. A History of Musi cal Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984, p. 344. 36 Csurg Band (accessed January 24, 2007) 37 Srosi, Blint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvin a Press, 1978, p. 89. 38 Srosi, Blint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvin a Press, 1978, p. 27. 39 Srosi, Blint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1978, pp. 106-107. 40 Frolova-Walker, Marina. Rimsky-Korsa kov Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/sh ared/views/article.h tm l?section=music.520 74#music.52074 (accessed May 26, 2007) 41 Schwarz, Boris Great Masters of the Violin From Corelli and Vivaldi to Stern, Zukerman and Perlman New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983, p. 199. 42 Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music: A History of Musical Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984, p. 174. 43 Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 237. 44 Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991, p. 1 45 Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991, p. 3 46 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 34. 47 Definitions from Dictionary.com. < http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Coitus .> (Accessed March 20, 2007) 48 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 20.

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169 49 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 31. 50 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 25. 51 Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1973, p. 22. 52 Hughes, David W; Stephon Jones. East Asia Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/sh ared/views/article.h tm l?from=search&sessi on_search_id=596512687&hitnum=8§ion=music.08477.6 (accessed May 31, 2007) 53 Glaser, Michael. Success in Unity: John Coriglianos Score to The Red Violin (1999) Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and Mary, 2003, p. 34.

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170 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS If I have a style, its unknown to m e. Mo st people think of style as something to latch onto and continue doing. I find that limiting, and I think its a leftover of that horrible 19th-century originality complex-the idea that the ultimate goal is to sound like no one elseThats no goal. The goal is to write music, and good material, not style, is what holds a piece of music together.1 -John Corigliano Style Characteristics in the Five Film Sequences from The Red Violin The Red Violin uses an a rray of compositional techniques that help establish the desired epoch of each cue. The vital ingredient throughout the entire film score is Coriglianos employment of a chaconne. The chaconne is used as the key element that helps combine five different sequencesuti lizing five different locations and five different sets of charactersinto a complete and unified score. The chaconne is first presented, alo ng with its derived melody, The Red Violin theme, in the opening credits. Throughout the film, Corigliano manipulates the chaconne and its principle theme to create variations similar to past musical styles. Corigliano wrote the cues using his own in terpretation of past styles, of ten deviating from a simple act of mimesis. Hence, the music appears to be from previous epochs, but at a closer look, there are elements that stray aw ay from these historic styles. First Sequence: Cremona, Italy (1681) W ithin the first Cremona, Italy sequence, Corigliano utilizes techniques that are not appropriate to the Baroque se tting. Corigliano introduces an a cappella statement of

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171 The Red Violin theme by the violinmakers wife. Th e D Mixolydian modal context of the theme is more characteristic of the Rena issance than that of the Late Baroque. Corigliano employs the Baroque form of the chaconne but changes elements that diminish the sense of authenticit y. This includes the lack of a ground bass and resultant chords, unorthodox voice leading, use of non-harmonic tones, and unusual orchestration. (Derived chords appear when the Red Violin theme is played against the chaconne .) Of course the use of aleatory, realized th rough graph and box notation, is a purely 20th century device. Besides employing the chaconne, other Baroque elements that Corigliano does use include correct voice leadi ng practices, such as sevenths resolving down and leading tones resolving up, and proper employment of the augmented sixth chord. In Annas Death cue, Corigliano also employs period corre ct chromaticism, which is an important characteristic from the Baroque period. Second Sequence: The Monast ery and Vienna (1681-1795) 1st Cue: Monastery (about 1681) The Monastery sequence begins in the same era as the opening Cremona sequence. Girard uses a segue showing diffe rent boys playing the red violin, finally presenting the main character, Kasper Weiss. The music for this sequence is reminiscent of the Late Baroque period. Corigliano incor porates the first thr ee pitches from the Red Violin theme (D-E-F) into the pr inciple motivic material. Some of the key features in th is cue that help establish the Monasterys style period include imitation, fortspinnung, motor rhythms, and rhythmic homogeneity Corigliano utilizes techniques in the Monastery cue that would not be found in a Baroque piece. The genre being imitated in th e cue is vague, as it combines elements of

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172 the Baroque concerto grosso and the Late Baroque/Classica l solo concerto. Corigliano does not use any ornamentation or basso continuo which were key elements found in the Baroque period. Corigliano also ends the work in the dominant key due to the length of the cue. 2nd Cue: The Audition (circa 1795) The Audition cue occurs when the teacher Poussin arrives at the monastery to listen to the young prodigy. The slow, rhapsodic so lo cue is similar in style to the solo works of J.S. Bach. Corigliano manipulates the Red Violin theme again, for the first time in the film moving to th e key area of G minor. The most striking aspect of this cue is its similarity to Bachs Adagio from his Sonata Number One in G minor for unaccompanied violin. Not only does Corigliano utilize the same key area as Bach, he begi ns and ends with the same quadruple stop, consisting of the two lowest open strings. The cue also has the same melodic shape in the openinga fast chromatic descent to a suspension ending which leads to a half cadence. The driving repetitive eighth note section (mm. 9-16) is also similar to the Baroque style. Corigliano again avoids typical Baroque or namentation in the cue. There is also a tonicization to the key of the Neapolit an, which involves a harmonic retrogression. 3rd Cue: Journey to Vienna (about 1795) The Journey to Vienna cue draws its inspiration from Viennese Classicism. Instead of applying the Red Violin theme, Corigliano manipulates the chaconne progression and creates a simple melodic motive. The Journey to Vienna is also the first cue written in a major key (Eb major). Major keys were used significantly more than minor keys throughout the Classical period.

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173 Another feature in this cue is the consta nt triplet feature. The triplet rhythm arpeggiation is a device that began in the Cl assical period, and the employment of it here helps to establish the epoch of the cue. Co riglianos slow harmonic progression and use of a faster harmonic rhythm at the cadence is also typical of the Classical period. Deviating slightly from the classical model, ritardations are used on the downbeat of nearly every measure, recalling th e original presentation of the chaconne 4th Cue: Metronome (circa 1795) The Metronome cue occurs when Kasper Weiss is learning to play a pedagogical work, increasing his ability to play the wo rk faster through the use of a metronome. Corigliano again employs the opening three pitches from the Red Violin theme, however he alters the third pitch by raising it a half step to F# because of the D major tonality of the work. The Metronome cue occurs in the Classical Vienna sequence, however its multi-voice architecture, consisting of pedal tones and motor rhythms, are more reminiscent of the Late Baroque. Corigl ianos harmony is non-standard in its employment of atypical pedal points and retrogressions. The vi olin writing is also not characteristic of these periods, as Coriglia no writes very high sections, utilizing large leaps. Nicolo Paganini and his contemporaries of the early 19th Century would be the first to use such techniques. 5th Cue: Walking to the Palace (circa1795) The Walking to the Palace music concludes the trio of cues that are written in a major tonality (Eb major). The stepwise sequence in the first two bars relates to the original chaconne progression. The Palace cue uses devices that were f ound in both the Late Baroque and Classical periods. The simple motor rhythms, similar to those found in the Monastery sequence, are

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174 utilized again. Corigliano also uses a simp le progression throughout th e cue, consisting of only I ii V harmonies. The simple style is most reminiscent of pedagogical works from the Classical period, exemplified by Clementi. Corigliano also introduces a theme at the conclusion of the cue that is similar to the French overture in its use of double-dotted rhythms and its conclusion on the dominant. 6th Cue: Death of Kasper Weiss (circa 1795) The final cue from the Vienna sequence is the Death of Kasper Weiss which utilizes a variation of Annas Death theme. Both death sequences employ the original chaconne progression. Kaspers Death cue is twice as long as Annas Death cue because Corigliano first writes a sect ion in the dominant key, which does not utilize the D and C# pedal tones and the chaconne progression. The second section, in d mi nor, the original key presented for the chaconne, reappears, containing both devices. Corigliano uses chromaticism in order to create dissonance, and modulates by thirds. He concludes the work in the dist ant key of C minor, which would not have happened in either the Late Bar oque or the Classical periods. Third Sequence: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe and Frederick Pope of England (about 1800-1850) 1st Cue: The Gypsies Journey Across Europe (circa 1800-1850) Coriglianos Gypsy cue combines traditional 19th Century Gypsy devices with 20th Century techniques. Cori gliano emulated the Gypsy sound by incorporating the important augmented second melodic interval and changes in meter. He uses elements from the 19th Century Hungarian Verbunkos style, including the use of a slow introductory section followed by fast, virtuosic violin writing. This section also has a highly improvisatory feel and uses extensiv e embellishments and ornaments. Corigliano

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175 incorporates a Gypsy caravan band, featuri ng the violin, clarinet, accordion, dulcimer, and double bass for this cue. All of these instru ments were utilized in the Gypsy bands of the 19th Century. The Red Violin theme appears in the second Allegro section, adjust ed to fit the embellished minor scale and compound rhythms. The largest deviation from stylistically correct writing appears in the second Allegro section, which contains an octatonic scale. The octatonic scale would not have b een found in traditional Gypsy music. 2nd Cue: Popes Concert (circa 1850) Popes Concert is similar to the great virtuos o writing of Nicolo Paganini. The work utilizes fast runs that c over the entire range of the violin. This cue also incorporates the Red Violin theme, embedded within the lowest voice of the fast sixteenth note passages. Corigliano diminishes the role of tonic to dominant polarity by incorporating extensive chromaticism, including chromatic scales. 3rdCue: Coitus Musicalis (circa 1850) The Coitus Musicalis is a variation of the Red Violin theme, which is first presented in the Oxford, England, sequence and is revisited in the China and Montral sequences. The longer melodic lines present in the cue are further examples of romantic style. There are dissonant non-harmonic t ones on down beats that receive a delayed resolution. Corigliano begins the work in A minor. The harmony in the Coitus Musicalis is a neo-romantically adapted version of the original modal Red Violin theme, as modulation is achieved by Corigliano simply jumping to the third related c# minor. Though short in duration, the Coitus Musicalis is an important cue within the musical

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176 framework of the film as Corigliano utili zes it frequently throughout the remainder of the film. 4thCue: Popes Betrayal (circa 1850) The final cue from the Oxford, England se quence follows the narrative of the film, which consists of Victoria, Popes girlfriend, returning back to his estate. She finds Pope courting a Gypsy woman and in her rage, sh e shoots the red violin. The cue begins lyrical, full of rubato symbolizing Victorias return. However, when she finds Pope cheating on her, the music begins to build with her rage and agitation, with rhythmic transformations that step out side of Romantic conventions and emphasize the drama of the scene. Throughout the entire cue Co rigliano only uses va riations of the Red Violin theme. Fourth Sequence: Journey Across China (about 1850-1950) Journey Across China is a com bination of the Coitus Musicalis and the Red Violin themes. The scene begins with a cargo vessel sailing on a vast ocean. The passage of time is depicted through images of the violin rema ining in a pawnshop for many years. Nearly five minutes long, this cue takes up a large portion of the China sequence. The opening of the cue contains chords that dissolve into one another. The dissolving harmonies are derive d from a variation of the chaconne progression, which has now been colored with many dissonant pitc hes, making its origin difficult to identify. Coriglianos opening melody coincidentally uses an Asian pentatonic scale, the Miyakobushi, helping to establish the locus of the scene in the Far East. The theme is only presented in short fragments for the first section of the cue. Throughout the cue, Corigliano manipulates the Coitus motive by augmentation of the thematic material.

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177 Following the Journey to China cue, a short Communist song is sung by children and accompanied with accordions. Corigliano did not write this song. This was written and recorded in China and Corigliano did not have any say in the cr eation of this musical element of the film. However, at the end of the China sequence, during the discovery of the music teachers death, Corigliano takes the song and slows the tempo, reintroducing it in the cellos. The chaconne progression immediately follows the Chinese song. Other than the opening Journey to China sequence and the Communi st song, the sequence is void of any music. Girard and Corigliano wa nted to highlight the dark period of the Cultural Revolution, which condemned the use of western music. Fifth Sequence: Montral (Present Day) W ithin the last film sequence Corigliano was free to write music without stylistic restrictions, as the period is set in the modern day. Corigliano provides musical consistency by utilizing the chaconne progression, The Red Violin theme, the Coitus Musicalis theme, and the newly presented Morritz theme. The Morritz theme is also a variation of the Coitus theme, which in turn is a variation of the Red Violin theme. The chaconne in this sequence is used beneath the Morritz Discovering the Red Violin and The Theft cues. While Morritz discovers the violin, there are slow glissandi and dissolving chords over the repetition of the chaconne harmonic changes. The Theft contains a manipulation of the chaconne, augmenting its length. A slow crescendo and rising orchestration, starting from the basses an d extending up to the highest range of the violins, create a dramatic climax to the scor e. When Morritz is contemplating obtaining the violin for himself, Corigl iano combines both his thematic leitmotif and the original Red Violin theme.

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178 Conclusion Coriglianos cues in The Red Violin incorporate his own a ppropriations of past styles. Each cue contains devices that were utilized in the historic periods shown in the film. However, there are also elements of Coriglianos music that deviate from authentic historic models. Thus, his music is not merely copies of historic work. The music written for the cues throughout the film help establish the desired styles, thus aiding the narrative in establishing specific points in history while also creating a sense of continuity though the use of common musical elements. The principle agent that es tablishes each epoch is r hythm. Even though Corigliano frequently uses anachronistic disson ances, chromaticisms modulations, and orchestrations in the cues, the rhythmic profile in each case closely resembles the standards of the time. Several examples deserve mention. In the Monastery cue, Corigliano maintains a simple eighth and sixteenth note rhythmic seque nce. There is no variation in the rhythm throughout the entire cue. He modulates to di stant keys and uses chromaticism, but these techniques do not stand out as incongruous to the listener because the motor-like rhythm remains constant. The triplet figure in the Journey to Vienna cue creates the illusion of Classical music. The constant sixteenth note rhythm that is found throughout the entire Metronome is typically Baroque. Throughout the film rhythm is the ke y ingredient to creating music that appears to come fr om the desired epochs of the film. John Corigliano, one of Americas most prominent composers of the late 20th and early 21st Centuries, has written a film score that will likely be revered for many generations to come. He uses his keen intrinsic sense of hi storic knowledge and

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179 overarching architectural structur e to create a score that wi ll be studied and used as a model for future film composers. Notes 1 Lee, Douglas. Masterworks of 20th Century Music: The Mo dern Repertory of the Symphony Orchestra. New York: Routledge, 2002, p. 129.

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180 CHAPTER 6 WHITE SHIRTS: A SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA White Shirts: Suite for Symphonic Orchestra is a thirteen-m inute composition based on musical cues from the film White Shirts. The f ilms duration is forty-five minutes and contains twenty-five minutes of music. White Shirts wa s a student film created at the University of Florida in 2005, directed by Zach Weissmueller. Th e story details the life of a college student, with a preference for white shirts, who decides to rebel against the rules an d norms of society. In the process of his rebellion, he meets a girl w ho becomes fond of him and another who leads him on a path to contemplating suicide. In the end his suicide attempt fails and the story concludes with him in a hospital. The music for the film was originally scored for piano solo inspired by Dave Grusins 1993 film score to The Firm, starring Tom Cruise However, to create different sonorities and effects, a small chamber orchestra was later adde d. The ensemble consisted of flute/piccolo, Bb clarinet, bassoon, violin, double bass, piano, and one percussionist playing woodblocks, snare drum, glockenspiel, cymbals, tom-toms, marimba, tambourine, and bass drum. Brass instruments were not included in the group because much of the music occurs over dialogue. Throughout the film, subsets of the ensemble were used for a total of sixteen cues. Similar to the topic in part one of this dissertation, which traces the origins of the Red Violin score from one source and transfor med by the composer throughout the film, White Shirts: A Symphonic Suite stems from an assortment of shor t musical cues from the film that were later transformed into the concert version. The focus of the White Shirts film score is one simple theme, The Love Theme. This theme is central to the symphonic concert suite. Figure 6-1 illustrates the first appearance of the Love Theme from the film score.

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181 Figure 6-1. Love Theme from the White Shirts film score The Love Theme is treated as a leimotif varied and transformed as the character experiences a variety of emotions in his quest fo r love. The music in the film begins with dark, dissonant overtones, but is t onal in its framework. The Love Theme is modal and follows the characters conflicted experiences of love. As the film progresses the music becomes more dissonant until the final climatic Bedroom seque nce. Besides the principle Love Theme, the film also contains a less important opening th eme, which is only heard in the opening and closing credits. One difference between the film score and th e suite is its duration. The film score cues are thirty to sixty seconds in length, except th e Bedroom scene, which is over five minutes. The suites duration is approximate ly thirteen minutes. The film was scored for a small chamber ensemble while the suite utilizes a symphonic orchestra. Throughout the film, the music is presented in short segments, not allowing for any manipulation or variatio n. This is perhaps the biggest difference between the film and orchestral suite. The thematic material presented in the suite is manipulated, varied and developed. The introduction presents three different themes, including the Love Theme. (See Table 6-1) These themes are developed thr oughout the work, especially the Love Theme, which is heard in all three of the moderato sections. The two allegro sections utilize the opening thematic material from the film. A vast difference between the film score and the suite is the opening and ending material. Anothe r difference between the Suite and the film score is that the Love Theme begins and ends the Suite, however the Opening material begins and concludes

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182 the film score. The Opening materials tempi are altered slightly; in the film it is at a moderato (quarter note=110) tempo, while it is at an allegro tempo (quarter note=120) in the suite. Table 6-1 outlines the form of the Suite and where th e material is derived from the film score. Table 6-1. Form of White Shirts: A Suite for Symphonic Orchestra by Michael Deall Form White Shirts Film Score Measure Numbers Introduction ( Moderato ) Love Theme (P.T.) Montage from Playground The Swing mm. 1 -9 mm. 10-17 mm. 18-24 A ( Allegro ) Opening mm. 25-61 B ( Moderato ) Love Theme (P.T.) P.T. Development Bedroom The Playground Theme Playground Development mm. 62-73 mm. 73-87 mm. 88-97 mm. 98-114 mm. 115-121 C ( Adagio ) The Grass mm. 122-145 Transition ( Moderato ) ( Allegro ) Bedroom Finale Opening & The Swing mm. 146-159 mm. 160-170 A ( Allegro ) Closing mm. 171-197 Codetta ( Moderato) Love Theme (P.T.) mm. 198-212 The experience of translating a film sc ore to a symphonic suite was a difficult assignment. John Coriglianos creati on of suites for orchestra from his Red Violin and Altered States film scores inspired the transformation of the White Shirts score into a suite. The White

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183 Shirts suite incorporates an array of themes. As many of the themes from the White Shirts film score were vastly different in their cons truction, the job of inco rporating them into a coherent composition was challenging. Continui ty was accomplished by utilizing the Love Theme in an assortment of variations through the suite. Another challe nge of translating the film score to the suite was deciding which cues to incorporate. Music from the film was chosen based upon its phrase structures, importance in the film, and how it would contrast with the principal love theme.

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184 APPENDIX WHITE SHIRTS: SUITE FOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA

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203 LIST OF REFERENCES Ada mo, Mark. John Corigliano: A Monograph. Todmorden: Arc Music, 2000. Adorno, Theodor, and Hanns Eisler. Composing for the Films London: The Athlone Press, 1994. Borroff, Edith. The Music of the Baroque Oxford: WM.C. Brown Company Publishers, 1970. Buelow, George J. The Late Baroque Era: From 1680s to 1740 Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993. Bukofzer, Manfred Music in the Baroque Era: From Monteverdi to Bach. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1947. Clark, Stephen L. C.P.E. Bach Studies Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. Corigliano, John. Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra New York: Schirmer Inc, 1992. Corigliano, John. Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1983. Corigliano, John. Fantasia on an Ostinato New York: Schirmer Inc., 1987. Corigliano, John. Interview at his home. April 30, 2007. Corigliano, John. John Corigliano: Early Works New York: Cri, CD 659, 1996. Corigliano, John. String Quartet New York: Schirmer Inc, 1998. Corigliano, John. String Quartet World Premiere Recording Cleveland: Telarc, CD 80415, 1998. Corigliano, John. Symphony No. 1 for Orchestra. New York: Schirmer Inc, 1999. Corigliano, John. Tournaments New York: Schirmer Inc, 1982. Davison, Annette. Hollywood Theory, Non-Hollywood Practice: Cinema Sountracks in the 1980s and 1990s Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004. Dickson, John Howard. The Union of Poetry and Musi c in John Coriglianos A Dylan Thomas Trilogy Diss. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1985. Duckworth, William. A Creative Approach to Music Fundamentals 9th ed. Belmont: L

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204 Thomson-Schirmer, 2007. Duncan, Dean. Charms That Soothe. Classical Music and the Narrative Film New York: Fordham University Press, 2003. Glaser, Michael. Success in Unity: John Corigli anos Score to The Red Violin (1999) Senior Thesis. The College of William and Mary. 2003. Graham, Bruce. Bernard Hermann: Film Music and Narrative. Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1985. Eisenstein, Sergei. The Film Sense San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1970. Evans, Mark. Soundtrack. The Music of the Movies New York: Da Capo Press, Inc, 1979. Faulkner, Robert R. Music On Demand: Composers and Ca reers in the Hollywood Film Industry New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1983. Flinn, Caryl. Strains of Utopia: Gender, Nostalgia, And Hollywood Film Music. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992. Grout, Donald Jay, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music 4th ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,1988. Heger, Theodore E. Music of the Classic Period Dubuque: WM.C. Brown Company Publishers, 1969. Higgins, William Ladd. The Ghosts of Versailles: A Char acter Study of the opera by John Corigliano and William M. Hoffman Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2000. Howe, Robert. John Corigliano Concerto for Oboe and Concert < http://www.idrs.org/publications/dr/DR8.3/DR8_3Howe.html > (accessed Octobe r 13, 2006.) Humphrey, Mary Lou. John Corigliano New York: G. Schirmer, Inc, 1989 revised 1994. Kalinak, Kathryn. Settling The Score: Music and the Classical Hollywood Film Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1992. Karlin, Fred. Listening to Movies. The Film Lovers Guide to Film Music New York: Schirmer Books, 1994. Kassabian, Anahid. Hearing Film: Tracking Identificat ions in Contempoary Hollywood Film Music. New York: Routledge, 2001.

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205 Kramer, Jonathan D. Bernard RandssBody and Shadow: Modernist, Postmodernist and Antimodernist? Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4 Lee, Douglas. Masterworks of 20th Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the Symphony Orchestra. New York: Routledge, 2002. Lester, Joel. Bachs Works for Solo Violin : Style, Structure, Performance Oxford: The Oxford University Press, 1999. Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in Music Englewood Cliffs: PrenticeHall, Inc, 1973. Malvinni, David. The Gypsy Caravan: From Real Roma to Imaginary Gypsies in Western Music and Film. New York: Routledge, 2004. May, Daniel Joseph. Part 1: A Great Light: Cantata on T exts from Isaiah for Chorus, Solo Soprano, Solo Baritone, and Orchestra. (Ori ginal Composition) Part 2. Altered States: A Discussion of John Coriglianos Film Score Diss. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1990. McCarty, Clifford. Film Music 1. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc, 1989. McCutchan, Ann. The Muse That Sings: Composers Speak about the Creative Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Morgan, David. Knowing The Score: Film Composers Talk about the Art, Craft, Blood, Sweat, and Tears of Writing for Cinema New York: Harper Entertainment, 2000. Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music: A Histor y of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: Norton, 1991. Marmorstein, Gary. Hollywood Rhapsody. Movie Music and Its Makers 1900-1975. New York: Schirmer Books, 1997. Plantinga, Leon. Clementi: His Life and Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Prendergast, Roy M. Film Music A Neglected Art New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992. Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music: A History of Musi cal Style in Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984. Randel, Don, Editor. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986.

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206 Ratner, Leonard G. Classical Music: Expression, Form, and Style New York: Schirmer Books, 1980. Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Rundell, Clark Corigliano at the Royal Northern College of Music 12-15 December 2000 Programme Todmorden: RNCM in associ ation with Arc Publications, 2000. Srosi, Blint. Gypsy Music. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1978. Schelle, Michael. The Score: Interviews with Film Composers Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1999. Schulenberg, David. The Instrumental Music of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Diss. Ann Arbor: Diss. UMI Research Press, 1984. Schwarz, Boris Great Masters of the Violin: From Corelli and Vivaldi to Stern, Zukerman and Perlman. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. Schwartz, Elliot and Daniel Godfrey. Music Since 1945: Issues, Material, and Literature. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993. Simon, John. Against the Grain: The New Criterion on Art and Intellect at the End of the Twentieth Century. Edited by Kramer, Hilton, and Kimb all. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, 1995. Shreffler, Anne. Historicism in New American Music, 1980-1995. Phantoms at the Opera: The Ghosts of Versailles by John Corigliano and William Hoffman. Contemporary Music Review 2001, Vol. 20, Part 4. The Red Violin DVD Universal City: Universal Studios, 1999.

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207 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Michael Deall, originally from Lindenhurst New York, completed his BM at Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, with a double major in piano performance and music composition. At Ithaca College, Michael studied composition at with Dana W ilson and piano with Mary Ann Covert. Michael received his MA at New York University in composition studying with Dr. Dinu Ghezzo. At NYU, Michael received The Jack Krieselman Award both years he was in attendance. This annual award is given to one person in the Department of Music showing enormous composition and performing abilities. Other awards include the Grafee Scholarship from the University of Florida for the 2004-2005 academic year. Michael's works have been performed overseas in Italy in such cities as Bari, Trani, Rome, Florence and Assisi. His works ha ve been performed in many Ne w York venues, the University of Florida, Southeastern Composition Conference at the University of Alabama, Society of Composers Conference at Stetson Universit y, Society of Composers Student National Conference at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona, American Composer's Alliance, The University of Indiana at Bloomington and at the Mahidol College of Music in Salaya Thailand. Michael's Overture for Symphonic Orchestra received its premiere by the Sinfonia Orchestra in Bucharest, Romania, in the fall of 2004. It was also a finalist with the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestras 2006 Fresh Ink Competition. His Distant Memories for quintet was performed by the internationally renowned Anton Webern Ensemble in Berlin, Germany, in March 2005 at the Konzert mit Werken zeitgenssi scher Komponisten aus New York. His string orchestra Falling Scenes received its premiere with the R20 String Orchestra in Wroclaw, Poland, in March of 2006. Michael was a Composer -In-Residence at the Constansta, Romania Music Festival in October 2006 where his Stri ng Quartet was premiered. His most recent commission, by the Guido Arbonell i Quinet was premiered in Perugia, Italy, in November, 2007.

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208 Michael has had master classes with such notable composers as Shulamit Ran, Jacob Druckman, Dan Welcher, William Bolcolm, Samu el Adler, Roger Reynolds, James Tenney and John Corigliano. Michael has had lessons with Dr. Dana Wilson, Dr. Greg Woodword, Dr. Dinu Ghezzo, Dr. Paul Koonce, Dr. Paul Ri chards and Dr. James Paul Sain.