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Affordable Energy Efficiency Practices for New Single Family Homes in Alachua County

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022056/00001

Material Information

Title: Affordable Energy Efficiency Practices for New Single Family Homes in Alachua County
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Energy efficiency practices are generally ignored in affordable housing because of the additional upfront costs for better materials, designs, and components. However, savings in energy often offsets the higher initial costs and can add value to the home, be cheaper to maintain, and reduce utility bills. Our objective was to explore best practices in energy efficiency for the Florida climate in an effort to create a net zero energy home and compare the additional costs to energy savings. Upgrades to the roof and overhangs, windows, insulation, hot water heater, paint, lights, major appliances, and adding solar panels were all looked at to determine if the added costs were worthwhile investments. Results show that all of the upgrades individually, with the exception of the roof and overhangs, windows, and washing machine, proved to be a good investment. Results of my study could help homeowners, contractors, and subcontractors justify additional costs in energy efficiency upgrades.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Ellis, Ralph D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022056:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022056/00001

Material Information

Title: Affordable Energy Efficiency Practices for New Single Family Homes in Alachua County
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, M.E.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Energy efficiency practices are generally ignored in affordable housing because of the additional upfront costs for better materials, designs, and components. However, savings in energy often offsets the higher initial costs and can add value to the home, be cheaper to maintain, and reduce utility bills. Our objective was to explore best practices in energy efficiency for the Florida climate in an effort to create a net zero energy home and compare the additional costs to energy savings. Upgrades to the roof and overhangs, windows, insulation, hot water heater, paint, lights, major appliances, and adding solar panels were all looked at to determine if the added costs were worthwhile investments. Results show that all of the upgrades individually, with the exception of the roof and overhangs, windows, and washing machine, proved to be a good investment. Results of my study could help homeowners, contractors, and subcontractors justify additional costs in energy efficiency upgrades.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.E.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Ellis, Ralph D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022056:00001


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AFFORDABLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES FOR NEW SINGLE FAMILY HOMES
IN ALACHUA COUNTY





















By

CHRISTOPHER S. HUDSON


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































2008 Christopher S. Hudson

































To my family; Mom, Dad, and Sarah
For your support and encouragement in all of my academic endeavors









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. Ralph Ellis for his assistance and supporting my topic. Your

open door policy helped more than you know. My gratitude to Dr. Charles Kibert for his

expertise and guidance in green building construction. Finally, I thank my family and friends for

their encouragement.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

LIST O F TA BLE S ......... .... ........................................................................... 8

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. .... ...... ................... 10

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... ............................................................ 1 1

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... .............................. ............................. 12

Statement of Problem/Importance of Energy Efficient Homes ...........................................12
O bjectiv e ................... ..... ............................. ........................ ................13
Contribution to Alachua County H om es ........................................ .......................... 13

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W ........................................................................ .. ....................... 14

Net Zero Energy Homes ................... .......................................14
Passive Solar D esign........................... ......... .................. ........ .. ..... ............ 15
Individual Traditional End-Use Components and Design................... .....................................16
R oof D design and M materials .............................................................................. ........ 16
Overhangs and Shading ........................................................ ............... 17
W in dow s ...............................................................................................18
In su latio n ...................................... .......................................................1 9
H V A C ................... ...................1...................9..........
H e a tin g ..............................................................................2 0
A ir c o n d itio n in g ................................................................................................. 2 0
A ir d u cts ............................................................................. 2 1
V ventilation ............................................................................................... ....... 22
H ot W after H eater ............................................................................... 22
T y p es ...............................................................................22
E n ergy ty p es an d co sts ....................................................................................... 2 3
Reducing hot water demand .................................. ......................... ...... 24
O their E nd-U se C om ponents .............................................................................. 24
L ig h tin g ...........................................................................................................................2 5
M aj o r A p p lian ce s .................................................................. ..................................2 5
D ish w a sh e r .....................................................................................................2 5
C loth es w a sh ers ................................................................................ 2 6
D ry e r s ................................................................................................................. 2 6
R refrigerators .................................................................................................. .......26
O v en /sto v e ......................................................................................2 7
E le c tro n ic s ................................................................................................................. 2 7
P h a n to m L o a d s ................................................................................................................. 2 7









S o lar P an els .........................................................................2 8
M counting the arrays ...................... ............................ .. .. .. ......... ......... 29
G geographic location ............ .... .............................................................. ......... ....... 29
R e sid e n ts H ab its ............................................................................................................... 3 0
C o n clu sio n ................................30.............................

3 M E T H O D O L O G Y ........................................................................................................... 34

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS........................................................................................35

Section 1: Model House Plans ............... .......... .............. 35
Section 2: C om ponents ............................................. ............... ........ ......... 36
Low -End Com ponents ................ .......................................................... .. 36
H V A C sy stem ............................................................................................. 3 6
Lights ................... .......................... ..................36
R oof and ov erhang s .... .......................................................... .... ................ .. 36
W in d ow s ............................ ............................................................. 3 7
R o o f in su latio n ................................................................................................... 3 7
E exterior paint ............................................................................................................ 37
H o t w after h e ate r ................................................................................................. 3 7
A appliances ...................................................................................................... 37
H igh-E nd C om ponents .............................................................. 38
H V A C sy stem ................................................................3 8
L rights ................... .....................................................................................................38
Roof and overhangs ............................... ......... ........ 39
W in d o w s ................................ ...................................................3 9
Roof Insulation ............. ..... .............. ......... .............. ... ..... 39
E exterior paint ............................................................................................................ 39
Solar hot w ater heater................................................... 39
The PV System ........... ............. ................. 40
A p p lian ces ...... .. ..................................................................... ..............4 0
Section 3: Household Energy Consumption Analysis................................ ...............41
Model House with Low-End Components Energy Summary ......................................41
Model House with Effects of Upgrading Individual Components Energy
Sum m aries...........................................................4 1
All High-End Components Energy Summary ........... ............ ......................... .......42
Section 4: Component and Appliance Simple Payback Period and SIR Analysis .................42
Individual Com ponents Analysis ............................................................................. 43
ENERGY STAR Appliances Analysis.................................................... .. ....44
Section 5: Favorable Com ponents A analysis ..................................................... ............... 44
Favorable Components and Appliances Energy Summary ................................44
SIR and Payback Sum m ary for Upgrades .................. ............ .............. ...............45
Section 6: Life Cycle Cost Analysis with Financing...................... ............................. 45

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................... ............... 61
C o n c lu sio n s ............................................................................................................................. 6 1
Conclusions............... .. ...................................61









Recommendations.................. ..... .. .. ..... .... ..................62

APPENDIX

A COMPONENTS LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS...................... ..... ............... 63

B BAPPLIANCE LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS..................................... ...............82

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................... .....................85

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................88












































7









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Best Practices List........... ..... ......................... ......... 33

4-1 Low-End Components Summary...... ........ ............ .. ..... ............... 51

4-2 High-End Components Summary ............................................... 52

4 -3 R eb ates S u m m ary ........................................ .......................................... ................. .. 52

4-4 Electricity End Use Summary for Model Home and Individual Upgraded
C o m p o n e n ts ................................................................................................................. 5 3

4-5 Hot W ater Gas Consumption Summary ........................................ ........................ 53

4-6 M odel House Florida Building Code Sum m ary ........................................ .....................54

4-7 Individual High-End vs. Low-End Components SIR and Payback Summary ..................54

4-8 ENERGY STAR vs. Non-ENERGY STAR Appliances SIR and Payback Summary......54

4-9 E energy E nd U se C om prisons ........................................ .............................................55

4-10 SIR, Simple Payback Period, and Cost Premium of All Upgrades and Favorable SIR
Upgrades without Financing ........................................................................56

4-11 LCC for Financing All Upgrades vs. None ............................................ ............... 57

4-12 LCC for Financing Favorable SIR Upgrades vs. None ............................................. 59

A-i Low-E W windows Life Cycle Cost Analysis................................... ........................ 63

A -2 CFL Life Cycle Cost A nalysis................................................ ............................... 64

A-3 Solar Hot W ater Heater Life Cycle Cost Analysis ................................. ..................... 66

A-4 Insulation Life Cycle Cost Analysis ............................................................................ 68

A-5 Light Colored Exterior Paint Life Cycle Cost Analysis ......................................... 70

A-6 White Metal Roof and Large Overhangs Life Cycle Cost Analysis..............................72

A-7 HVAC System Life Cycle Cost Analysis.......................................... ...............74

A -8 PV System Life Cycle Cost Analysis ........................................... ......................... 76

A-9 Favorable SIR Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis..........................................78









A-10 All Upgraded Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis...................................................80

B-l ENERGY STAR Washing Machine Life Cycle Cost Analysis.............................82

B-2 ENERGY STAR Dishwasher Life Cycle Cost Analysis........................................83

B-3 ENERGY STAR Refrigerator Life Cycle Cost Analysis ..............................................84









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

2-1 Exam ple of Properly Sized Overhang......................................... ........................... 31

2-2 Factors for Overhang Equation............................ ............... .................. ............... 32

4-1 F loor P lan ............. .. ....... ............................................... 46

4-2 Elevation V iew .......... .. .... ............................... ......... .............. 47

4-3 M odel H om e E energy Sum m ary .............................................................. .....................48

4-4 All High-End Components and Appliances Energy Summary.......................................49

4-5 Favorable SIR Components and Appliances Energy Summary .....................................50





































10









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering

AFFORDABLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTICES FOR NEW SINGLE FAMILY HOMES
IN ALACHUA COUNTY

By

Christopher S. Hudson

May 2008

Chair: Ralph D. Ellis
Major: Civil Engineering

Energy efficiency practices are generally ignored in affordable housing because of the

additional upfront costs for better materials, designs, and components. However, savings in

energy often offsets the higher initial costs and can add value to the home, be cheaper to

maintain, and reduce utility bills.

Our objective was to explore best practices in energy efficiency for the Florida climate in

an effort to create a net zero energy home and compare the additional costs to energy savings.

Upgrades to the roof and overhangs, windows, insulation, hot water heater, paint, lights, major

appliances, and adding solar panels were all looked at to determine if the added costs were

worthwhile investments. Results show that all of the upgrades individually, with the exception

of the roof and overhangs, windows, and washing machine, proved to be a good investment.

Results of my study could help homeowners, contractors, and subcontractors justify additional

costs in energy efficiency upgrades.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In today's construction industry it is quite common for contractors to complete a job for

the lowest cost possible, especially when the project is affordable housing. There is a misbelief

that higher initial costs in energy efficient designs, materials, and appliances are not worth the

additional costs. There are many energy efficient designs and components that cost little to

nothing up front. Residents in affordable housing are the ones most in need of lowering their

utility bills and with a fast payback period of the additional costs associated with energy efficient

practices.

Statement of Problem/Importance of Energy Efficient Homes

"Florida's per capital residential electricity demand is among the highest in the country"

(Energy Information Administration, 2008). The climate in Florida is unlike most of the United

States and promotes higher electricity consumption (through a cooling end use) for two reasons:

(1) humidity and (2) high temperatures during the long summer.

Affordable homes are notorious for consuming high amounts of electricity because of a

lower quality of design, poor construction practices, components, and appliances. With

mortgage payments, one knows what they are getting into before moving into a home. However,

utility bills vary month to month and come in second (behind mortgage) on the amount spent on

a home. The "affordable" home may not be quite what it seemed because of poor energy

efficiency. Residents may not be able to afford the cost of utilities along with their low monthly

mortgages. With the cost of energy rising, energy efficiency in the residential sector needs to be

addressed.









Objective

Our objective was to determine combinations of affordable housing components and

appliances that are energy and cost efficient with a short payback period. Energy consumption

will be estimated by the software "EnergyGauge USA FlaRes 2007" for a three bedroom, two

bathroom home based on housing plans obtained from Habitat for Humanity. Energy saving

comparisons will be made for high-end vs. low-end roofs, insulation levels, HVAC systems, hot

water heaters, lights, windows, and appliances. Solar hot water heaters and photovoltaic (PV)

systems will also be considered. Finally, the payback periods and savings-to-investment ratio

(SIR) from electricity and natural gas savings for the upgrades will be determined.

Contribution to Alachua County Homes

The contribution of this research is developing a list of energy efficient upgrades for homes

that have short payback periods and a positive SIR. Contractors and homeowners looking to

determine which upgrades are worthwhile if keeping initial costs low is an issue could use this

list. It could also assist local utility companies in determining what types of energy efficiency

upgrades to give rebates for. Since many of the assumptions made are specific to Alachua

County, energy savings would vary for other areas of Florida.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Net Zero Energy Homes

When looking at best practices for residential energy efficiency, a whole house concept

referred to as a net zero energy home(ZEH) comes up. ZEH use the latest technologies,

construction practices, and engineering/architectural designs to construct a home that is ideally

energy self sufficient or near self sufficient. With a tight building envelope, energy efficient

appliances, the proper construction techniques, and solar panels, a ZEH is able to put power back

in the grid(i.e. have their electricity meter spin backwards) during the day and buy back energy

when the sun goes down. With battery backups, although not necessary, a ZEH home is able to

be disconnected from the utility grid and function normally during peak power demand and have

full electricity throughout the night. There are numerous advantages for building a ZEH;

1. Improved comfort: an energy-efficient building envelope reduces temperature fluctuations.
2. Reliability: a ZEH can be designed to continue functioning even during blackouts.
3. Security: a home that produces energy protects its owner from fluctuations in energy prices.
4. Environmental sustainability: a ZEH saves energy and reduces pollution.
(Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2003, p. 1)

There is no one solution to building a ZEH. Every area is different in climate and

geography, making it necessary to design to the specific location. The data currently being

collected is changing the approaches of every aspect(insulation, roofing, appliances, ect.). Even

though each ZEH is different, they all achieve zero energy usage by following these seven steps;

1. Decrease the energy requirements for space heating, cooling, and water heating;
a. Orient the home with smaller walls facing west and include overhangs and porches
b. Increase foundation, wall, and ceiling insulation.
c. Use low U-value, low-E windows in all climates and low solar heat gain(low SHGC)
windows in cooling climates
d. Seal all holes, cracks, and penetrations through the floor, walls, and ceiling to
unconditioned spaces
e. Install adequate ventilation, especially from kitchens and baths.
2. Increase the efficiency of the furnace(or heat pump), and the air-conditioner.
a. Buy as high-efficiency equipment as affordable for the climate.









b. Design the supply and return duct system appropriately and seal tightly using approved
tapes or mastic.
c. Consider ground-source heat pump technology where space and cost conditions permit.
d. Where climate-appropriate consider alternative cooling systems such as ventilation only or
evaporative coolers.
3. Install a solar hot water pre-heat system, an efficient backup water heater, and an efficient
distribution system:
a. Consider a parallel, small diameter piping system for the hot water outlets.
b. Install low-flow fixtures.
c. Choose water heating equipment with a high Energy Factor.
d. Look for a knowledgeable solar hot water installation company.
e. Evaluate solar systems using the "Solar Rating and Certification Corporation(SRCC)".
4. Install efficient lighting fixtures:
a. Consider permanent fluorescent fixtures in as many locations as possible.
b. Look for the ENERGY STAR label.
5. Install efficient appliances:
a. Include the refrigerator, dishwasher, and laundry appliances.
b. Look for the ENERGY STAR label.
c. Compare appliance efficiencies.
6. Install a properly sized photovoltaic(PV) system:
a. Look for a knowledgeable solar PV installation company.
b. Evaluate tax and other incentives.
c. Use PVWATTS for a quick estimate ofPV output.
d. Find a Certified Solar PV Installer form the North American Board of Certified Energy
Practitioners.
7. Turn off lights, computers, and appliances when not in use.
(Toolbase Services, 2008)

Ultimately the occupants determine if the home uses no net energy. They must be aware

of usage patterns(number seven on the list), perform all routine maintenance on appliances and

equipment, and have a good understanding on all the energy saving features of the home. Even

though an owner might have a ZEH, if they waste energy, the home will not perform as

designed.

Passive Solar Design

Properly designed homes can use geometry, overhangs, technology, the sun, and wind to

help reduce energy demands. Humans have used this technique, called passive solar design, for

thousands of years. Passive solar design is climate and site specific. There is an increase in









initial costs for design and materials but decreases the amount of energy consumed and the size

of A/C and heating units needed.

Different passive solar design techniques are used for reducing the need for cooling and

heating but the design needs to account for both. A tight building envelope and proper

insulation holds in heat during the winter and cold air during the summer. Overhangs are

designed to lower solar heat gain on windows during the summer months and allow for it during

the winter. The sun's path is different during the summer and winter allowing for this to

happen. Although not always possible, the building should be oriented with the long axis

running east/west within 30 degrees. Passive solar heating techniques are much further

developed and wider known to designers than cooling techniques, but it can be accomplished.

Homes can be designed to be cooler by taking advantage of shading(overhangs and natural

vegetation), special ventilation, dehumidifying equipment, and solar cooling.

Individual Traditional End-Use Components and Design

Cooling, heating, and hot water are considered the traditional end-use energy consumers.

This section will discuss best practices in proper selection, designs, and reducing the demand

created by these systems. While some of the components and ideas discussed can be used for

either heating or cooling end use dominated climates, this section is meant to address the later.

Roof Design and Materials

Roofs play one of the largest roles in lowering cooling costs. With most of the roof

exposed to the sun nearly all day, it is the area of the house responsible for the most solar heat

gain. This heat gain is transferred to the attic and from there to the inside of a home, causing the

air conditioner to cycle more often to maintain a cool temperature. There are numerous ways to

minimize this solar gain caused by the roof, options include; properly selecting roof material and

color, adding a radiant barrier, adequate ventilation, and insulation.









The most significant improvement in lowering solar heat gain caused from the roof is the

color and materials used. Light colors and reflective materials can lower attic temperatures by

more than 30 degrees Fahrenheit over the traditional dark colored asphalt roofs that are in-place

on most homes(Parker and Sherwin, 1998). Popular material choices include tile, metal, and

asphalt shingles. White tile followed by white painted metal are the two best choices for

materials.

Overhangs and Shading

While shading the entire building is important, it is essential to properly shade areas with

windows. Windows are a major contributor to solar heat gain. Because of Florida's long

summer and need for cooling, the optimal design for overhangs is larger than most other places

in the country. The Florida Solar Energy Center(FSEC) has performed a study and gives an

equation for the optimal roof overhang design as; Length of Overhang (L) = Distance from sill to

soffit(D) Factor(F). The factor is determined by latitude. See figures 2-1 and 2-2 for an

example equation and the factors (Fairey, 1981, p. 3).

Placing a long porch on the south side of the home is a better option than overhangs in the

same location.

In cooling climates, particularly effective strategies include preferential use of north-facing
windows along with generously shaded south-facing windows. Shading from landscaping,
overhangs, shutters, and solar window screens helps lower heat gain on windows that
receive full sun (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2000, p. 2).

Windows should be placed where trees and buildings will shade them, preventing the full solar

heat gain caused by the sun. Using trees for shade also allows for wind to blow more freely on a

home and through windows, further cooling it.









Windows

Window type, size, and placement are all very important in determining which ones to use.

The window's U-value(measurement of heat transfer through a material) should be carefully

selected. A low U-value loses less heat than a higher value. The Solar Heat Gain

Coefficient(SHGC) measures how much solar radiation is absorbed and transferred inside, the

higher the value the more heat is allowed inside. SHGC can also be referred to as Shading

Coefficient(SC). To convert SC to SHGC, multiply SC by 0.87(SHGC=0.87*SC). Visible

Transfer(VT) is a measurement of how much visible light passes through a window, a low value

will let in less light. Choosing the proper VT rating is site specific rather than climate. If there

are tree's, buildings, ect. near the window, a higher VT rating would be desirable otherwise

interior lights would have to be turned on to be able to see comfortably. The National

Fenestration Rating Council(NFRC) places stickers with the U-value, SHGC, and VT ratings on

many new windows to help buyers make the best decision.

Picking out windows is not just an issue of efficiency, owners want them to be

aesthetically pleasing, allow little sound to transfer in or out, have low glare, and allow enough

light inside to name a few features. But to generalize, windows should have both a low U-Value

and SGHC for Florida's climate. Having too low of a SGHC value lowers the VT, causing the

windows to be very dark. An occupant would have to use interior lighting during the day to be

able to see comfortably, so a site-specific median must be found. A higher VT value is needed

for windows shaded by trees and buildings than a window that is not. High efficiency frames

must accompany these windows for them to function at their full potential. The clear conclusion

by McCluney and Gueymard (1993) was:

The lower the shading coefficient of the glazing system, the lower the energy cost of the
window. Increasing the resistance of the glass and frame to conductive heat
transfers(lower the U-factor), has little or in some cases small negative impacts on the









energy efficiency of the glazing system. Lowered U-factors can lower peak electric
demands... (McCluney and Gueymard, 1993, p. 2)

Insulation

Thermal resistance(R-value) is how insulation is rated. The higher the R-value, the better

the insulation is as long as it has been installed properly with no gaps or holes. Insulation is

placed in both the walls and attic. For new construction there are numerous choices available for

insulation, but loose-fill and batt insulation are the most common. Loose-fill is usually installed

by spraying it in place with special equipment. Batt insulation comes in large rolls that are rolled

out and trimmed to fit. For both types, the thickness determines the R-value obtained.

Obviously higher R-values work better, but the whole design must be looked at to determine the

necessary R-value needed for a ZEH.

Careful installation procedures are necessary for the insulation to function properly.

Insulation coverage should be uniform and leave no gaps. All holes and cracks should be sealed

that lead from inside the home to the attic with the proper caulk or expanding foam. Vents

should not be obstructed by insulation. Attic insulation works very well when combined with a

radiant barrier.

HVAC

HVAC is an acronym for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. HVAC systems can

improve comfort by controlling the temperature and humidity inside of a building. With heating

accounting for 7% and A/C accounting for 33% of the energy consumed in existing Florida

homes, a properly designed HVAC is a necessity for a ZEH (Parker, 2002). A heater or A/C unit

that is too large or small wastes energy and air ducts need to be the properly sized. Professionals

are capable of designing a system that is specific to heating and cooling loads, insulation levels,

and room sizes.









Heating

Although only accounting for 7% of residential energy usage in Florida, heating systems

can not be ignored completely (Parker, 2002). It would be very uncomfortable during the winter

to not have heat in northern Florida. A higher initial investment in energy efficient heating

equipment might be beneficial in the northern parts of Florida. Furnaces, boilers, and heat pumps

are common heating systems. Heat pumps should be considered for homes in the Southern part

of the country because of their numerous advantages:

* Cleaner energy-heat pumps use coolant and run on electricity, furnaces and boilers use oil
or natural gas for fuel

* Also functions as an A/C unit-the process can be reversed and a heat pump can cool air
during the summer.

* Heat pumps can function very quietly.

* Winter temperatures-heat pumps start to loose efficiency at low temperatures(30-40
degrees Fahrenheit), which is not really a problem in Florida.

Heating efficiency can be measured in either coefficient of performance(COP), energy

efficiency ratio(EER), or heating season performance factor(HSPF). While each of these values

mean something a little different, a higher value indicates a more efficient unit.

Air conditioning

There are two types of air conditioning(A/C), central and single room units. Central A/C

uses one unit to cool the air and ducts to deliver it. Single room units do not require ducts and

will only cool one room. Central A/C is more common in new homes and provides uniform

temperatures throughout a home if everything is installed properly. Two things must be

considered when selecting an A/C unit, the efficiency and the size.

An air conditioners efficiency is rated in seasonal energy efficiency rating(SEER). SEER

is calculated from the total number of British Thermal Units (BTU) of heat removed from the air









divided by the total amount of energy used by the unit. The higher a SEER value is, the more

efficient the unit is. Currently SEER values range from 13 to 21, with 13 being the minimum

value allowed for new units mandated by the federal government.

Air conditioners are sized in tons. One ton is equal to 12,000 Btu's per hour. To be

energy efficient, a professional must properly size an A/C unit. If the unit is too small, it will

waste energy by running more often, if the unit is too large it will lose energy efficiency. Sizing

is based upon the necessary cooling loads, not a home's square footage.

Air ducts

A properly designed and sized air-duct system can improve efficiency of a central heater

and A/C unit. One of the easiest ways to improve efficiency is to place the air-ducts inside the

air-conditioned space. Common practice is to place the in the attic and walls. Ducts in the

conditioned space offers the advantage of delivering the cooled/heated air through the interior

and not the hot/freezing attic or walls, reducing the cycle time necessary of the unit. Also, any

leaks from the ducts will be leaked into where it should be going in the first place. Air-duct

sizing is determined after the heater and A/C unit is selected because the blower helps determine

the necessary size. Return ducts should be placed high on walls and grilles or jumper ducts

placed above door-frames to help increase air flow and keep pressures balanced. The duct

system should be designed at the same time as the rest of the house to keep the supply ducts

length to a minimum and avoid any interference from wires, pipes, frames, ect.

The objectives of good design are occupant comfort, proper air distribution, economical
heating and cooling system operation, and economical duct installation. The outcome of
the duct design process will be a duct system(supply and return plenums, ducts, fittings,
boots, grilles, and registers) that
1. Provides conditioned air to meet all room heating and cooling loads
2. Is properly sized so that the pressure drop across the air handler is within manufacturer
and design specifications
3. Is sealed to provide proper air flow and to prevent air from entering the house or duct
system from polluted zones









4. Has balanced supply and return air flows to maintain a neutral pressure in the house.
5. Minimizes duct air temperature gains or losses between the air handler and supply
outlets, and between the return register and air handler (Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, 2003, p.1).


Ventilation

Ventilation is very important to the indoor air quality and the overall comfort level. Since a

tight envelope is very desirable, ventilation is necessary to control humidity levels and to get

fresh outdoor air inside. There are many design approaches and different technologies available

depending upon the location, square footage, ceiling heights, wall locations, ect.

Either the cooling coils of an A/C unit or separate dehumidification devices can control

humidity levels inside. Because of the high outside temperatures and humidity in Florida, it is

generally more cost effective to use the A/C unit for dehumidification. Properly sizing the heater

and A/C unit has a large impact on humidity.

Whether operating with continuous fan operation, as is common in commercial
applications, or in the AUTO fan mode, as most residential systems do, dehumidification
performance degrades at part-load conditions. Over sizing air-conditioning equipment
increases the times spent at part load and results in higher space humidity levels (Shirey,
Henderson, and Raustad, 2006, p. 4).

Hot Water Heater

When selecting a proper and efficient hot water heater, numerous options must be factored

into the decision. Besides the different types of heaters, one must take into consideration the

type of energy it uses, the size, energy efficiency, and annual operating costs.

Types

Five types of water heaters are available: conventional storage, demand heaters, heat pump

water heaters, solar water heaters, and tank-less coil heaters.

1. Conventional storage: water is constantly heated and stored in a tank. Since the tank is kept
full, energy can be lost through constant heating. "However, you can find some storage water









heater models with heavily insulated tanks, which significantly reduce standby heat losses,
lowering the annual operating costs." (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005).

2. Demand heaters: water is heated when needed. There is no storage tank and energy
consumption can be lowered because there are no standby energy losses. Shortages can
occur if there is a high demand for the hot water(i.e. taking a shower and doing laundry
simultaneously). Demand heaters can be used throughout a home or assist a solar water
heater. "For homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily, demand water heaters can
be 24%-34% more energy efficient than conventional storage tank water heaters" (Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005).

3. Heat pump: uses the heat pump to provide hot water. Can use either tanks to store hot water
or be heated on demand if using a geothermal system. This system costs more than a
conventional storage hot water heater, but should have lower operating costs (Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005).

4. Solar water heaters: separated into two types, active(contains circulating pumps) and
passive(no pumps). Both types contain a storage tank and solar collector. Active systems
cost more but have efficiency. Passive systems require less maintenance and usually have
longer life spans. The goal for both systems is to use the sun to heat all or most of the water
needed. It is not uncommon to have a demand heater to help during peak demands and
during cloudy days (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005).

5. Tank-less coil: very similar to demand heaters, tank-less coil systems use the heating system
to provide hot water when needed. These can be very efficient if used in the north during the
heating season, but should not be used in Florida, thus they will not be discussed in detail.

Energy types and costs

Hot water heaters can run on electricity, natural gas, propane, solar, geothermal, or fuel oil.

Depending upon the utilities provided in the area and heater type, only some of these energy

options will be available. Storage, demand, and heat pump systems use an Energy Factor (EF) to

determine efficiency. The manufacturer provides the EF for the unit.

The energy factor (EF) indicates a water heater's overall energy efficiency based on the
amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. This includes
the following:
Recovery efficiency how efficiently the heat from the energy source is transferred to
the water
Standby losses the percentage of heat loss per hour from the stored water compared to
the heat content of the water (water heaters with storage tanks)
Cycling losses the loss of heat as the water circulates through a water heater tank,
and/or inlet and outlet pipes. (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005)









Operating costs are determined by the amount of energy consumed multiplied by the unit

cost of that type of energy. While having an efficient unit reduces the amount of energy needed,

it does not necessarily result in lower operating costs if the unit cost of energy is high in the area.

Example, an efficient system that is powered by propane(high unit cost) might cost more to

operate than an inefficient system that is powered by electricity(low unit cost).

Reducing hot water demand

One of the easiest ways to reduce the energy needed for water heating is to reduce the

amount consumed. Installing low flow pipes, faucets, and shower heads throughout the home

can have a large impact on the amount of water used. Using cold water for laundry and having a

dishwasher that heats its own water saves on consumption as well. The U.S. Department of

Energy suggests insulating the storage tank and pipes, lowering the hot water temperature, using

a drain-water heat recovery system, or installing a timer to the system to turn on and off when

needed will all reduce operating costs. All of these options can be added to existing systems, but

are less expensive if installed initially. Finally, placing the water heater in the middle of a home

lowers energy consumption by reducing the length of pipe that the hot water travels through.

Other End-Use Components

Other end-uses are anything other than cooling, heating, or hot water that consumes

energy.

Historically, most of the energy consumed by the U.S. residential sector has been for space
heating, cooling, and water heating- what we call the 'traditional' end-uses. The 'Other'
end-uses(appliances, lighting, electronics, and miscellaneous equipment), however, have
grown to the point that they account for over half of residential electricity use (Brown,
Rittelmann, Parker, and Homan, 2006, p. 9-37).

This is due to the growing number of items being plugged in. Energy efficient appliances and

user conservation efforts must be taken to reduce the demand caused by these other end-uses.









Lighting

Energy efficient lighting is easy to install, just select the proper wattage bulbs. Every

light in the house should be a Compact Fluorescent Light(CFL). Chose ENERGY STAR

certified CFL bulbs over non-certified.

CFL's are far superior to the cheaper incandescent bulbs currently being used because:
1. ENERGY STAR qualified bulbs use about 75 percent less energy than standard
incandescent bulbs and last up to 10 times longer
2. Save about $30 or more in electricity costs over each bulb's lifetime
3. Produce about 75 percent less heat, so they're safer to operate and can cut energy costs
associated with home cooling
4. Are available in different sizes and shapes to fit in almost any fixture, for indoors and
outdoors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy,
2008)

CFL bulbs have one downside over incandescent bulbs, they contain mercury. Mercury levels

vary in different bulbs. When disposing of CFL's, it is best to take the bulbs directly to a

recycling center instead of putting them in a bin. This practice ensures the bulb is not broken en

route. If one were to break in the home, the EPA clean up procedures for mercury can be seen at

http://www.epa.gov/mercury/spills/index.htm#flourescent.

Major Appliances

Although every appliance is important; dishwashers, clothes washers, dryers and

refrigerators are the largest energy consumers in this category. Most units will have a yellow

"Energy Guide" sticker that estimates the amount of kilowatts(kW) the appliance uses in a year.

Again, look for the ENERGY STAR certified models and compare efficiencies of different

models to select the best unit one can afford. Also, using the proper settings/modes saves energy

consumption. Refer to the ENERGY STAR website for lists of approved appliances.

Dishwasher

New ENERGY STAR dishwashers have better energy and water efficiency than standard

models. Most of the energy they consume is in the form of hot water. Use the air-dry option









instead of the heat-drying option to save further energy. Finally, only operate the dishwasher

with a full load.

Clothes washers

New clothes washers have statistics provided by the manufacturer that include the amount

of water used per year, amount of electricity used per year, Modified Energy Factor(MEF), and a

water factor. "The Modified Energy Factor (MEF) measures the energy used during the washing

process, including machine energy, water heating energy, and dryer energy. The higher the MEF,

the more efficient the clothes washer is." (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S.

Department of Energy, 2008). The water factor is the amount of water used in gallons per load

divided by the cubic feet of the unit. A low water factor is desirable. To conserve energy, use

cold water, only wash full loads, and use a longer spin cycle to remove more moisture before

drying.

Dryers

Clothes dryers for the most part use about the same amount of energy. ENERGY STAR

does not put a sticker on any dryer unit. All a dryer really does is remove moisture from wet

clothes, so to lower the energy consumption reduce the moisture by using the spin cycle in the

washer. Most new units have a moisture sensor option that will shut the dryer off when the

clothes are dry instead of running for a set amount of time. Use this feature over setting a timer

to conserve energy.

Refrigerators

Select only refrigerators with the ENERGY STAR sticker on it, they are at least 15% more

efficient than the minimum requirements. Gains in efficiency are from more insulation, better

compressors, and more efficient defrosting settings. Placing the unit where cool air can circulate

to condensers, correctly setting the temperatures, and keeping the unit full can conserve energy.









The most efficient models are compact, have the freezer above the refrigerator, have door access

ice and filtered water, moisture control settings, and a manual defroster.

Oven/stove

These units are all about the same in efficiency. Users are able to improve efficiency by

using the correct size burner, keeping burners and oven clean, and covering pots with lids to

reduce cooking time.

Electronics

ENERGY STAR rates nearly every type of electronic device(telephones, TV's, DVD

players, sound systems, ect.). The main difference in most of these vs. non-ENERGY STAR

certified is they contain a feature that consumes much less energy when the unit is off. Also, use

only ENERGY STAR power adaptors, they save an average of 30% more energy(U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Finally, occupants

should be aware of turning off electronics when not in use.

Phantom Loads

Many appliances still consume energy when turned off. This small amount of energy is

called a "phantom load" or standby loss. Devices such as TVs, DVD/VCRs, microwaves, coffee

makers, answering machines, ect. will add up quickly in wasting unnecessary energy. "The

average U.S. household has about 40 to 60 W of continuous phantom loads running day in and

day out. On average, this amounts to approximately 1,200 WH per day or 1.2 KWH per day"

(Schwartz, 2007, p. 64).

Eliminating these loads can be fairly easy. Simply unplugging everything after it is

through being used or having all plugs go into a power strip with an on/off button is the easiest

for existing homes. A switch next to the light switch in every room that turns the power on or

off into the outlets for the room is another option. The most difficult phantom load to reduce is









the TV. If it is completely turned off, a TV will lose it's channel memory and take a bit longer to

turn on when desired. A battery could be installed into a TV that stores the channel memory

when shut off and charges when in use.

Solar Panels

Photovoltaic(PV), more commonly known as solar panels are absolutely necessary for a

ZEH. They collect energy from the sunlight and turns it into electricity. PV systems consist of

numerous solar cells connected together to form a PV module. Many modules are then

connected together to form a PV array. Arrays are rated by the maximum amount of watts they

can produce. The electricity produced is Direct Current(DC) and inverters can be used to

convert this from DC to Alternating Current(AC).

There are two types of systems, grid tied or off-grid. Grid tied systems use an inverter and

a two-way power meter to put electricity directly into the power grid. These systems do not

require any battery backups, are cheaper, and smaller. The disadvantage is if the grid is turned

off (a blackout), the PV system will not supply any electricity. Grid tied systems can be a hybrid

system with a battery back up that will supply electricity during blackouts. Off-grid systems use

a charge controller and battery back-ups. The charge controller keeps the batteries from

overcharging and the batteries store extra "emergency" electricity. If the batteries are fully

charged, the extra electricity then goes to the home. Inverters are optional, but if one is not

going to be used every appliance must use DC (most use AC) electricity. Off-grid systems are a

bit more complicated to install, do not use any electricity from a grid, and are more expensive,

but are able to function during blackouts.

The amount of electricity generated by the PV array depends upon the geographical

location, time of day, season, local landscape, and local weather (Energy Efficiency and

Renewable Energy, 2005). More electricity is produced the longer the sun is out each day









(summer is better than winter), if it is a clear day (not overcast), and if there is no shade

obstructing the PV array (trees, buildings, ect.). Sizing the system should be done after

determining how much electricity is consumed during a typical hot summer day to ensure zero

net energy is used.

After a system is installed an independent contractor should test it to determine how it is

functioning. This ensures it is working properly and gives data on how much electricity the PV

system is producing. http://www.dsireusa.org/ contains a list of all the rebates that can be applied

to qualified PV systems.

Mounting the arrays

The arrays will collect the most energy if the sun is always at a 90-degree angle. There

are two ways to mount the arrays, directly to the roof or use a mechanical system that changes

the angle. The first option is much cheaper to install and maintain but not as efficient.

Mechanical trackers can be used to tilt the arrays at the optimum angle the entire time the sun is

out. These trackers are expensive and the moving parts will have some maintenance issues. If

trackers are not going to be used, the panels should be properly angled for the summer and

winter to get the most out of the mid day sun. The optimum angles are determined by the

latitude and tilt of the earth. A specialist should be used to install and determine the angle. Here

in Florida, it is best to have as much of the PV system facing south as possible.

Geographic location

A different amount of solar radiation reaches the ground depending upon the geographic

location, angle of panels, and direction they are facing. A study with 2kW systems in the U.S.,

showed the South-West (Arizona, Nevada, ect.) to have the highest solar potential(up to 8.5

kWh/day), but Florida has a solar potential between 7 to 7.5 kWh/day(Lombardi, Parker, Vieira,









and Fairey, 2004). Florida's high solar potential means that they are more economical to use

than in most other areas of the U.S.

Residents Habits

The resident's electricity consumption and maintenance ultimately determines if the house

uses no net energy. Often, ZEH do not achieve zero net consumption because of the resident's

habits, lack of understanding the technology, and not keeping up with maintenance. Simple

things such as turning off lights, appliances, and electronics when leaving a room, or closing

exterior doors and the refrigerator quickly all add up. Programmable thermostats should be used

to raise the interior temperature when no one will be home. Any routine maintenance for major

appliances, A/C and heating units, P/V system, and the exterior of the home(to keep envelope

tight) should be performed as scheduled. Professionals are available to train owners on how to

keep the home up, reduce wasted electricity usage, and use the technology available to achieve a

true ZEH.

Conclusion

ZEH provide wonderful examples of best practices for residential energy efficiency. New

construction should look at these homes as models and choose as many of these components and

design features as affordable to lower energy consumption. Table 2-1 gives a best practices list

for Florida's climate.



















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L -15 oi g 1 .








Figure 2-1. Example of Properly Sized Overhang (Fairey, 1981, p. 3)


RHAu
LANpg











altitude
25 r --- - -
25 ............

27 .. ...........
28"LP ...............
3 9 0 ..............
30" ..............
3 1 I -. .- .


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PaPama C4V ......... 5
.Gracevime .. I.-.54


Figure 2-2. Factors for Overhang Equation (Fairey, 1981, p. 3)









Table 2-1. Best Practices List

Orient long-axis as close to East-West as possible. Shade East and
Passive Solar Design South walls/roof with vegetation if possible. Keep envelope tight
Reduce solar heat gain by selecting light colors and reflective
Roof materials
Properly size overhangs based on window locations and latitude of
Overhangs home
Select as low a U-value and SHGC that still allows adequate light in
Windows to see comfortably
Insulation Properly install with no gaps or holes. Select high R-values
Get as high SEER/HSPF unit as possible. Minimize duct length and
place in the conditioned space. Use professional to size system,
HVAC System ducts, and supplies/return locations.

Reduce demand using low-flow fixtures and pipes. Centrally locate
Hot Water Heater unit. Use a tank-less demand and solar water heater in combination
Lights Use CFL bulbs in every socket
Select ENERGY STAR when available. Clean when necessary, only
do full loads, and turn off when not in use. Use energy saving
Appliances features if available
Have array face South. Make sure sun hitting array is not obstructed
Solar Panels by buildings or vegetation









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

The goal of this thesis is to determine cost effective energy upgrades for a new home with

a short payback period that can justify the additional upfront costs. For the analysis period, 30-

years was selected based upon the common mortgage for a new home. The research contained

six steps.

1. Habitat for Humanity provided plans for a three bedroom, two bathroom 1,288 square foot
home. The plans were then altered slightly to maximize the south facing roof area to allow
for a large photovoltaic array and solar hot water heater to face the ideal direction.

2. Prices for individual components were researched. Quotes from local contractors were
obtained for HVAC systems, roofs, solar hot water systems, PV arrays, and windows. Two
quotes were obtained from each of the contractors with the exception of the PV arrays and
solar hot water heater. The purpose of the two quotes was to be able to compare prices for
top-of-the-line to low-end components. For small appliances, comparisons were made
between ENERGY STAR and non-ENERGY STAR approved units. Prices and energy
consumption were obtained for similar sized units from stores such as Home Depot, Lowe's,
and Sears.

3. Data for a model house was entered into Energy Gauge using the low-end components to get
a baseline of the energy consumed per year. Next, the household energy consumption was
obtained for upgrading each of the following individually: (1) HVAC system (2) lights (3)
roof and overhangs (4) windows (5) using light colored exterior paint (6) adding more
insulation (7) adding a PV system and (8) adding a solar hot water heater. These components
were all looked at together in an attempt to create a ZEH and individually to see what their
independent contributions to energy savings were.

4. The energy savings in step three were compared to the additional initial cost of the
component. A simple payback period and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) was determined
for each of the components. The discount rate and inflation percentage used were obtained
from the White House's Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Inflation for utilities
was determined by averaging GRU's 5-year rate projections.

5. An analysis of the components with a favorable SIR and short payback period were looked at
together to determine if they were still beneficial. When energy saving components are
combined, the total amount of energy saved diminishes. The upgraded combinations were
examined in Energy Gauge and another SIR and payback period for the combinations was
determined.

6. Finally, an analysis was performed to determine if all of the upgraded components and all of
the upgrades with favorable SIR's were still beneficial if financed fully. The loan rate was
obtained from Bank of America on January 29t, 2008.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The findings of this study are presented below in six sections.

1. The model house plans and alterations made to them.

2. All of the individual high-end and low-end components selected. Also included are their
costs, characteristics, and rebates if applicable.

3. A household energy consumption analysis of the model house, the model house with each of
the eight upgrades individually, and all eight upgrades combined with ENERGY STAR
appliances were performed.

4. A 30-year life cycle cost analysis to determine the SIR and simple payback period of the
energy savings for the eight individual components vs. the model house. For the appliances,
a 10-year life cycle cost analysis of the ENERGY STAR appliances vs. non-ENERGY
STAR was performed.

5. The individual components and appliances that had favorable SIR and payback periods were
analyzed in combination and household energy consumption determined again with Energy
Gauge. A SIR and simple payback period was determined for this combination and all eight
upgrades combined with ENERGY STAR appliances.

6. Finally, a life cycle cost analysis for financing all of the upgrades vs. none of the upgrades
and the favorable SIR upgrades vs. none was performed.

Section 1: Model House Plans

Housing plans were obtained from Habitat for Humanity. The floor plans provided were

still in permit review and none of these models have been built at the time of writing. Plans were

for a 1288 square foot three bedroom, two bathroom home. The only modifications to the floor

plan were the windows, as the original plans contained none. The researcher added six 4' by 3',

two 5' by 3', and two 6' by 3' windows for a total area of 138 square feet. Windows were placed

3'-8" from the ground to allow the south facing windows the best passive solar shading during

the summer and solar heat gain during the winter when overhangs were upgraded to 3'.

The plans contained no elevation views and the researcher designed the roof. The roof is

hipped with two different slopes of 5/12 and 12/12. The reason why the later slope is much









higher was to get enough south facing roof area to accommodate a 3.6 kW PV system along with

a solar hot water heater. Floor plans can be seen in figure 4-1 and elevation views in figure 4-2.

Section 2: Components

This section is divided into two for the low-end components selected for the model house

and the high-end components selected for the attempted ZEH.

Low-End Components

For the low-end components an effort was made to select the cheapest available.

Contractors were asked to give a quote for the lowest cost items they would install. Appliances

were selected based on low cost and the ability to get a comparable sized one that was ENERGY

STAR certified. A summary of the low-end components can be seen in table 4-1.

HVAC system

A 2.5-ton Goodman heat pump was quoted at $4,884.00 from Bertie Heating & Air

Conditioning, Inc. located in Gainesville. The heat pump is rated at SEER 13 and HSPF 7.7.

The quote includes the installation cost of the ductwork located in the attic. The duct system has

8 supplies and 4 returns and is adequately sized for the heating and cooling needs of the home.

Ducts were assumed to have average leakage.

Lights

Incandescent light bulbs were chosen throughout the model house. Cost was assumed to

be $0.20 for each 60-watt bulb with a life of 1,000 hours. 16 fixtures were designed for

throughout the home. Each fixture was assumed to be used for 1,000 hours each year.

Roof and overhangs

For the roof, a simple dark composite shingle roof with 1' overhangs was chosen. Because

of the high humidity in Florida, these roofs generally last about 15 years before needing to be

replaced. In Energy Gauge the estimated solar absorbance level for the material type and color









was 0.96. The cost of materials and labor was quoted at $3,860.00 with a 5-year warranty from

Perry Roofing Contractors, located in Gainesville.

Windows

All ten windows in the model house are clear single pane with metal frames. National

Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) rates all ten with a U-Factor of 1.13 and a SHGC of 0.71.

A quote was obtained from Windowman in Gainesville for $1,301.44 for the materials and labor

to install all ten.

Roof insulation

R19 batt roles were chosen for the roof insulation at a price of $681.45 from Lowe's. The

installation was assumed to be uniform with no area missing insulation.

Exterior paint

A light gray colored paint was chosen for the exterior color. It was in the median of values

for solar absorbance level in Energy Gauge with 0.75.

Hot water heater

A 40-gallon gas Whirlpool hot water heater was selected with an energy factor of 0.59.

The price was $289.00 from www.lowes.com. The location of the tank was assumed to be in the

interior (in the laundry room) with a set temperature of 120 degrees. Energy Gauge estimates a

four-person household uses 60 gallons of hot water a day.

Appliances

The following were assumed for the major appliances and miscellaneous loads in the

house:

* 3.2 ft3 Whirlpool washing machine for $350.00 from Home Depot. Uses 418 kWh/year
* 18.2 ft3 Kenmore refrigerator for $430.00 from www.sears.com. Uses 479 kWh/year
* 24 inch Tappan dishwasher for $198.00 from www.lowes.com. Uses 432 kWh/year
* Range was assumed to use 530 kWh/year









* Ceiling fans were assumed to use 59 kWh/year
* Dryer was assumed to use 624 kWh/year
* Miscellaneous loads were assumed to use 2773 kWh/year

High-End Components

For the high-end components, contractors were asked to give quotes on the most energy

efficient systems they could install. All appliances selected were ENERGY STAR certified and

similar in size as the one's for the low-end model house. The goal of selecting the high-end

components was to make the total energy consumed in the household as low as possible and

attempt a ZEH. A summary of the high-end components can be seen in table 4-2 and rebates in

table 4-3.

HVAC system

A 2-ton Carrier heat pump was quoted at $8,245.00 from Bertie Heating & Air

Conditioning, Inc. It was rated at SEER 17 and HSPF 8.5 and is eligible for a $300.00 rebate

from GRU. The ductwork (for $500.00, included in the quote) for this system was sealed better

and located in the interior space of the home. For an additional $195.00, a programmable

thermostat was selected to automatically raise or lower the temperature at set times to conserve

energy. Due to the high level of insulation and interior ductwork, this system is oversized and

could have been a 1.5-ton unit. Unfortunately, high SEER heat pumps start at 2-ton units. All of

the 1.5-ton units available were SEER 13, the minimum allowed by the government.

Lights

CFL lights were selected for every fixture. The CFL equivalent of a 60-watt incandescent

bulb is 13-watts. Price was assumed at $1.66 per bulb and a life span of 8,000 hours. Each

fixture was assumed used for 1,000 hours a year.









Roof and overhangs

A white metal roof with 3' overhangs was quoted from Perry Roofing Contractors for

$12,850.00. Energy Gauge estimated the solar absorbance level for the material and color roof at

0.3. Metal roofs last generally between 40-60 years and this one came with a 25-year

manufacturer's warranty.

Windows

All ten windows are low-e double pane with vinyl frames. National Fenestration Rating

Council (NFRC) rates all ten with a U-Factor of 0.56 and a SHGC of 0.32. Windowman quoted

these windows for $2,324.40 for the materials and labor.

Roof Insulation

R30 batt roles were chosen for the roof insulation at a price of $835.12 from Lowe's. The

installation was assumed to be uniform with no area missing insulation.

Exterior paint

Any light colored paint will have a lower solar absorbance than darker colors. For this

home, a blue color was chosen with a solar absorbance of 0.51 from Energy Gauge. The only

absorbance levels lower were shades of white, green, and gravel exteriors.

Solar hot water heater

A ProgressivTube passive solar hot water heater with backup tank-less demand heater was

quoted for $6,000.00 from www.solardirect.com for materials and installation. This system is

eligible for total of $3,000.00 in rebates from the federal government, state of Florida, and GRU.

Rebates from the federal government are in the form of a tax credit. GRU and Florida will issue

the rebate in the form of a check. The solar system is 8' x 4'-2" and collects hot water into a 50-

gallon tank. The panels for the system rest directly on the roof facing south with no added angle.

The loss coefficient was obtained from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation. Included









in the package was a Takagi Flash T-K Jr. natural gas tank-less heater to provide any additional

hot water needed. The tank-less system has an energy factor of 0.83 and capable of delivering

up to 5.8 gallons per minute of hot water.

The PV System

A 3.6 kW PV array package from www.solardirect.com was quoted for $33,000.00 for

materials and installation and is eligible for $21,800.00 in rebates. Forms of rebates are the same

as they are for the solar hot water heater. The system contains 18 Sanyo 200-watt modules and a

Fronius IG4000 grid-tie inverter with 94.4% efficiency in converting DC electricity to AC. Each

module is 51.9" x 35.2", weighs 30.86 lbs. faces south, and are at the same angle as the roof. All

of the specifications for the modules were obtained from the manufacturer.

Appliances

The following were assumed for the major appliances and miscellaneous loads in the

house:

* 3.1 ft3 ENERGY STAR Frigidaire washing machine for $600.00 from www.sears.com.
Uses 210 kWh/year

* 18.2 ft3 ENERGY STAR Kenmore refrigerator for $500.00 from www.sears.com. Uses
407 kWh/year

* 24" ENERGY STAR Whirlpool dishwasher for $228.00 from www.lowes.com. Uses 371
kWh/year

* Range was assumed to use 530 kWh/year

* Ceiling fans were assumed to use 59 kWh/year

* Dryer was assumed to use 624 kWh/year

* Miscellaneous loads were assumed to use 2335 kWh/year

ENERGY STAR does not rate ranges, ceiling fans, or dryers and the assumed kWh/year

didn't change during any analysis. Miscellaneous loads dropped 438 kWh/year (365 1.2









kWh/day) if power strips were used for appliances and turned off when not in use to eliminate

phantom loads (Schwartz, 2007, p. 64).

Section 3: Household Energy Consumption Analysis

Energy Gauge allows the user to enter data that is very site and component specific to

determine the energy usage. The following assumptions were made:

* Location: Gainesville
* No shading trees or adjacent buildings
* Slab is on grade
* Full attic, hipped roof with a slope of 5/12 and radiant barrier
* 10' exterior wood framed walls with R-11 insulation
* Insulated exterior doors
* Air handler and hot water heater located in the interior
* No garage, sunspace, or added mass to the home

When all of the high-end upgrades were looked at together, the only different assumption

made in Energy Gauge was the house had "good" envelope tightness. The model home used

"average" for the energy analysis.

Model House with Low-End Components Energy Summary

Energy Gauge estimated the model house consumed 9,884 kWh/year and 148 Therms/year

for hot water heating. Interior temperatures were assumed to be 76 degrees when cooling and 68

degrees when heating. This home passes building code by a marginal score of 30.21, anything

over 31.25 is a failing score. The electricity end use summary can be seen in table 4-4, the gas

summary in table 4-5, and the building code summary in table 4-6. The Energy Gauge energy

summary can be seen in figure 4-3.

Model House with Effects of Upgrading Individual Components Energy Summaries

As expected, the largest electricity savings were from upgrading the HVAC system, which

reduced total consumption by 13.8%. Next came upgrading the lights to CFL (7.94%), using

low-e windows (3.16%), white metal roof and 3' overhangs (2.67%), R30 insulation (1.7%), and









finally changing the color (0.71%). The solar hot water system reduced natural gas consumption

by 68.92%. The electricity end-use summary for all of the upgrades can be seen in table 4-4 and

the gas summary in table 4-5.

All High-End Components Energy Summary

When all of the high-end components were used along with ENERGY STAR appliances

and better envelope tightness, Energy Gauge estimated the home consumed 6,300 kWh of

electricity and 46 Therms of natural gas per year. The PV system produced 5,428 kWh to drop

the net total electricity consumption to 872 kWh. Energy end use summary of all the high-end

components can be seen in table 4-9. The Energy Gauge energy summary can be seen in figure

4-4.

Section 4: Component and Appliance Simple Payback Period and SIR Analysis

For sections 4, 5, and 6 the following assumptions were made:

* Current electricity rate of $0.10/kWh
* Current natural gas rate of $1.72/therm
* Electricity inflation of 4.1%
* Natural gas inflation of 6.0%
* A 30 year discount rate of 4.9%
* A 10 year discount rate of 4.6%
* A 30 year general inflation rate of 2.1%
* A 10 year general inflation rate of 2.0%

Utility inflation rates were determined by averaging GRU's 5-year utility rate projections.

Discount rates and general inflation rates were taken from the 2008 projections from the White

House Office of Management and Budget. Components were looked at for a 30-year period and

ENERGY STAR appliances for a 10-year period. A simple payback and SIR table for all the

individual components is in table 4-7 and all the appliances in table 4-8. For components, the

30-year life cycle cost analysis can be seen in appendix A and the 10-year life cycle cost analysis

for appliances in appendix B.









Individual Components Analysis

Of all the components, upgrading the lights to CFL's had the shortest payback period (0.33

years) and highest SIR (79.171). These bulbs use less than a quarter of the energy consumed by

incandescent bulbs, last 8 times as long before burning out, and cost just a bit more than

incandescent bulbs after having to pay for replacement. Furthermore, CFL's reduce cooling

demands by putting out less heat than incandescent bulbs. Next came upgrading the insulation

from R19 to R30 with payback period of 8.79 years and an SIR of 2.919. Changing the paint

color to one with a lower solar absorbance saved 70 kWh a year, amounting to roughly $7.00 in

energy savings the first year. Over the 30-year period with electricity inflation, the paint color

saved over $400. These three upgrades would be very easy to perform in new or existing houses.

Both the PV system and solar hot water heater had favorable SIR's (1.039 and 1.565) and

payback periods of 19.82 years and 14.58 years respectively. These numbers are largely

influenced by the amount of rebates available for them. If the rebates were not available, the PV

system would have an unfavorable SIR and the solar hot water heater's SIR would drop to 1.088.

Both of these systems would be favorable to install if one had the means for a large down

payment and not finance for a long time.

Upgrading to the high SEER/HSPF heat pump and interior ducts had a favorable SIR of

1.101 and payback period of 22.93 years. These numbers would have been better if the system

was properly sized. Upgrading the insulation, HVAC system, and placing the ducts in the

interior not only saves energy, but also reduces the size of the heat pump necessary, further

reducing initial costs. When these upgrades were used, the heat pump only needed to be a 1.5

ton unit. Without any of these upgrades a 2.5 ton unit was required. While the HVAC upgrades

are favorable, they would have better results in a larger home.









The roof with large overhangs and low-e windows were the only two components with an

unfavorable SIR of 0.365 and 0.814 respectively. The payback period for the roof came at 45

years, which was the time the composite shingles needed to be replaced for a third time. By this

time, the metal roof would be getting close to needing to be replaced as well. Payback period for

the windows was 31.50 years. Double pane windows offer an advantage of reducing the sound

transmitted from outside to inside and vise versa. This is usually considered as a benefit even

though there is no monetary amount associated with it.

ENERGY STAR Appliances Analysis

Of the three appliances looked at, only two of them had a favorable SIR. The ENERGY

STAR dishwasher had an SIR of 3.013 and a payback period of 4.08 years. The refrigerator had

an SIR of 1.407 and payback of 9.34 years. The upgraded washing machine had an SIR of 0.844

and payback period of 11.04 years, over the 10-year analysis period. Water usage was not taken

into account for the dishwasher or washing machine, which would have improved the SIR and

payback periods slightly for both.

Section 5: Favorable Components Analysis

As determined in section 4, the upgraded HVAC system, lights, insulation, paint, solar hot

water heater, and PV system had favorable SIR's when looked at individually. All six of these

components, a lighter colored exterior paint, and an ENERGY STAR dishwasher and refrigerator

were looked at in combination. Envelope tightness was assumed to be "good" in Energy Gauge

and the miscellaneous loads without the phantom loads were used in this analysis.

Favorable Components and Appliances Energy Summary

When the favorable SIR components and appliances looked at in combination, the house

consumed 6,783 kWh of electricity, produced 5,428 kWh from the PV panels, and consumed 46

Therms of natural gas per year. Of the electricity, 1,297kWh was used for cooling, 573 kWh for









heating, 210 kWh for lighting, and 4703 kWh for all other loads. The price premium for the

upgrades with favorable SIR's was $42,543.16 vs. $52,807.12 for all the upgrades. The

favorable SIR components and appliance house consumed 483 kWh more than all of the

upgraded features and 8,529 kWh less than the model home. Table 4-9 shows the energy end

use for the model, all high-end upgrades, and the favorable SIR upgrades. The Energy Gauge

energy summary can be seen in figure 4-5.

SIR and Payback Summary for Upgrades

For the performing all the favorable SIR upgrades, the simple payback period was 16.24

years and had an SIR of 1.217. For performing all of the upgrades, the simple payback period

was 24.65 years and had and SIR of 1.053. These numbers show both options are favorable if

the additional costs can be paid upfront. Table 4-10 shows a summary of the SIR, simple

payback period, cost premium and total energy savings. Appendix A shows the detailed 30-year

life cycle cost analysis.

Section 6: Life Cycle Cost Analysis with Financing

Most people would be unable to come up with the additional $42,534.16 for the favorable

SIR upgrades or the $52,807.12 for all the upgrades upfront and need to finance it as part of the

30-year mortgage. For both analyses, the rebates received in year 2 were put toward the

principle to end the loan payments early associated with the upgrades. An estimated 30-year

financing rate of 5.875% was obtained from Bank Of America. SIR equaled 0.830 for financing

the favorable SIR upgrades and equaled 0.555 for financing all of the upgrades. Table 4-11

shows the LCC for performing all of the upgrades vs. none and table 4-12 shows the LCC for

performing upgrades with favorable SIR vs. none.

















DROD' 2 REOM ,
S, KITC-I CN M







L LIVING R OD1 M TER
? .E D II


Figure 4-1. Floor Plan




















mmr


318'


E!8


H


Figure 4-2. Elevation View


. -12-


wI


,~1ic
13'


i4

L3.


wl


-3.


IKI


3"48"











End-use


Cooling (30 kBlufir)
Cooling -an
Mechanical Vent Fan
Total Cooling

Heating (30 kBluilir)
Heating Fan/Pump
Mechanical Vent Fan
Total Healing
Hot Water
Ho4 Waler Pump
Total Hd Waler


Energy
consumption
2211 kWh
547 kWh
0 kWh
2758 kWh


733 kWh
116 kWh
0 kWh
B49 kWI


148 Therms
0 kWh


Ceiling Fans
Clothes Washer
Dishwasher
Dryur
Lighting
Miscellaneous
Pool Pump
Range
Refrigerator


Total (kWh}
Total (Theims)
Total {Oil Galloa s
Total (Propane Gallons)
PV Produced (kWh)'
SAsL l:W S rdw l .'I' 'il'g


9884 kWh
148 Therms
0 G alons
0 Galons
0 kWh


Figure 4-3. Model Home Annual Energy Summary


59
418
432
624
962
2773
0
530
479


kWh
kWh
kWh
kWII
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh
kWh











End-Use
Cooling (24 kBl/hr)
Cooling Fan
Mechanical Vent Fan
Toal Cooling

Heating (24 kBluhr)
Heating Fan/Pump
Mecanical Vent [-an
Total Healing

Hot Waler
I lot Water Pump
Total Hot Water


Ceiling Fans
Clothes Washer
Dihwasher
Dryer
Ughting
M aeltEanui uu
Pool Pump
Range
Refrigeralor


Energy
Consumption
774 kWh
223 kWh
0 kWh
997 kWh


527 kWh
71 kWh
IU kWh
598 kWh

46 Therms
3 kWh


53 kWh
213 kWh
33) kWh
624 kWh
21) kWh
2335 kWlI
) kWh
53) kWh
407 kWh


Total (kWh) 6303 kWh
Total (Therms) 46 Thenns
Tulal (Oil Caluluin) 0 GaFIjriu
Total (Prooane Gallons) 0 Galons
PY Produce [(kWh)' -5423 kWh
Aswrrte no rr Etng
Figure 4-4. All High-End Components and Appliances Annual Energy Summary











End-Use

Cooling (24 kBtuLhr)
Cooling Fan
Mechanical VenI Fan
Total Cooling

Heating (24 kBtufhr)
Healing Fan/Pump
Mechanical Veni Fan
Total Heating
Hot Water
Hot Wate" Pump
Total Hot Water


Ceiling Fans
Clothes Washer
Dishwasher
Dryer
Lghling
Miscellaneous
Pool Pump
Range
Refrigerator


Total (kWh)
Total {Therns)
Total (Oil Gallons)
I total Propane taillons)
PV Produced (kWh)"
SASSurMes I'L niterri'


Energy
Consumption
1012 Wh
285 KWh
0 kWh
1297 kWh


504 kWh
69 kWh
0 kWh
573 kWh
46 Therms
0 kWh


59 kWh
418 kWh
330 kWh
624 KWY
210 kWh
2335 kWh
0 kWh
530 kWh
407 kWh


6783 kWh
46 Therms
0 Gallons
0 iallrns
-5428 kWh


Figure 4-5. Favorable SIR Components and Appliances Annual Energy Summary









Table 4-1. Low-End Components Summary
Description Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
2.5 ton Goodman heat pump. SEER
13, HSPF 7.7. Air-ducts in attic
HVAC with average leakage 1 $4,884.00 $4,884.00
Digital Thermostat 1 $0.00 $0.00
Lights Incandescent, 60-watts 16 $0.20 $3.12
Roof and
Overhangs Dark Composition Shingles, 1' O.H. 1 $3,860.00 $3,860.00
Clear Single Pane, U-factor=1.13,
Windows SHGC=0.71. Metal frames 1 $1,301.44 $1,301.44
Roof
Insulation Batt R-19 1 $681.45 $681.45
Exterior
Paint 0.75 solar absorbance on all walls 0 $0.00 $0.00
Gas Whirlpool
Hot Water #BFG1F4040S3NOV. 40 gallon
Heater tank 1 $289.00 $289.00
Washing
Machine 3.2 ft3 Whirlpool #WTW5200S 1 $350.00 $350.00
Refrigerator 18.2 ft3 Kenmore #6580 1 $430.00 $430.00
Dishwasher 24" Tappan #TDB210RFS 1 $198.00 $198.00
Total Cost $11,997.01









Table 4-2. High-End Components Summary
Description Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
2 ton Carrier heat pump. SEER
17, HSPF 8.5. Leak-free ducts in
HVAC conditioned space. 1 $8,245.00 $8,245.00
Programmable Thermostat 1 $195.00 $195.00
Lights CFL, 13-watts 16 $1.66 $26.61
Roof and
Overhangs White Metal, 3' O.H. 1 $12,850.00 $12,850.00
Double Pane Low-E, U-Factor=
0.56
Windows SHGC= 0.32. Vinyl frames 1 $2,324.40 $2,324.40
Roof
Insulation Batt R-30 1 $835.12 $835.12
Exterior 0.51 solar absorbance on all
Paint walls 0 $0.00 $0.00
Solar Hot ProgressivTube system with 50
Water gallon tank. Backup gas tank-
Heater less Takaji T-K Jr. 1 $6,000.00 $6,000.00
3.6 kW Sanyo system. Fronius
PV System IG14000 inverter 1 $33,000.00 $33,000.00
Washing 3.1 ft3 ENERGY STAR
Machine Frigidaire #GLTR1670FS 1 $600.00 $600.00
18.2 ft3 ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator Kenmore #6787 1 $500.00 $500.00
24" ENERGY STAR Whirlpool
Dishwasher #DU811SWPQ 1 $228.00 $228.00


Table 4-3. Rebates Summary
Federal


Florida


GRU


Total Cost


$64,804.13


Totals


PV Array $2,000.00 $14,400.00 $5,400.00 $21,800.00

Solar HWH $2,000.00 $500.00 $500.00 $3,000.00

Heat Pump $0.00 0 $300.00 $300.00
Totals $4,000.00 $14,900.00 $6,200.00 $25,100.00









Table 4-4. Electricity End Use Summary for Model Home and Individual Upgraded
Components


Cooling
(kWh/vr)


Heating
(kWh/vr)


Lighting
(kWh/vr)


Other
(kWh/vr)


Total
(kWh/vr)


Reduction
(kWh/vr)


Model
Home 2,758 849 962 5,315 9,884 N/A
Percentage 27.90% 8.59% 9.73% 53.77% 100.00%
Upgraded
HVAC 1,649 594 962 5,315 8,520 1,364
Percentage 19.35% 6.97% 11.29% 62.38% 100.00% 13.80%
Upgraded
Lights 2,654 920 210 5,315 9,099 785
Percentage 29.17% 10.11% 2.31% 58.41% 100.00% 7.94%
Upgraded
Roof and
OH 2,376 967 962 5,315 9,620 264
Percentage 24.70% 10.05% 10.00% 55.25% 100.00% 2.67%
Upgraded
Windows 2,499 796 962 5,315 9,572 312
Percentage 26.11% 8.32% 10.05% 55.53% 100.00% 3.16%
Upgraded
Insulation 2,657 782 962 5,315 9,716 168
Percentage 27.35% 8.05% 9.90% 54.70% 100.00% 1.70%
Upgraded
Exterior
Paint
Color 2,622 915 962 5,315 9,814 70
Percentage 26.72% 9.32% 9.80% 54.16% 100.00% 0.71%


Table 4-5. Hot Water Gas Consumption Summary
Hot Water
(Therms/yr)


Reduction


Model Home 148 N/A
Solar w/ Tankless
Demand 46 102
Percentage 68.92%









Table 4-6. Model House Florida Building Code Summary
Baseline As Built
Home Model e-Ratio
Heating 6.21 5.28 0.85
Cooling 16.75 16.66 0.99
Hot Water 8.29 8.27 1
Totals 31.25 30.21 0.97

Table 4-7. Individual High-End vs. Low-End Components SIR and Payback Summary


HVAC


Solar Hot
Roof and Water
Lights Overhang Windows Insulation Heater


PV System


SIR 1.101 79.171 0.364 0.814 2.919 1.565 1.04
Simple
Payback
Period(years) 22.93 0.33 45 31.5 8.79 14.58 19.82
Cost
Premium $3,256.00* $23.49 $8,990.00 $1,022.96 $153.67 $2,711.00* $11,200.00*
Life Energy
Savings $8,097.98 $4,660.49 $1,567.35 $1,852.32 $997.40 $14,702.17 $32,225.67
After
Rebates

Table 4-8. ENERGY STAR vs. Non-ENERGY STAR Appliances SIR and Payback Summary


Dishwasher


Refrigerator


Washing
Machine


SIR 3.013 1.42 0.844
Simple Payback
Period(years) 4.08 9.34 11.04
Cost Premium $30.00 $70.00 $250.00
Life Energy
Savings $118.50 $128.95 $272.53









Table 4-9. Energy End Use Comparisons
Favorable
All High-End SIR
Model Home Upgrades Upgrades
Cooling(kWh) 2,758 997 1,297
27.90% 15.83% 19.12%
Heating(kWh) 849 598 573
8.59% 9.49% 8.45%
Lighting(kWh) 962 210 210
9.73% 3.30% 3.11%
Other(kWh) 5,315 4,495 4,703
53.77% 71.35% 69.34%
SubTota(kWh) 9,886 6,300 6,783
100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
PV System(kWh) 0 5,428 5,428
0 86.16% 80.02%
Net Total(kWh) 9,886 872 1,355

Hot Water(Therms) 148 46 46









Table 4-10. SIR, Simple Payback Period, and Cost Premium of All Upgrades and Favorable SIR
Upgrades without Financing


All Upgrades


Favorable SIR
Upgrades


SIR 1.079 1.246
Simple Payback
Period 25.73 16.96
Cost Premium* $27,707.12 $17,433.16
Life Energy
Savings $68,205.81 $65,338.27
After Rebates









Table 4-11. LCC for Financing All Upgrades vs. None


Payment Info

Loan Amount
Down Payment

Interest Rate
Time
Yearly Payment

Discount Rate


$52,807.12
$5,280.71

5.875%
30
$3,406.69


4.90%


Electricity Info
kWh
Difference
10.00% kWh rate
Natural Gas
Difference
years Gas rate
year Gas inflation
Electricity
inflation
General
Inflation
Misc. Cost
New Roof
Rebates


9,014
$0.10

102
$1.72
6.00%


kWh/year
/kWh

Therms/year
/Therm


4.10%

2.10%

$3,860.00
-$25,100.00


Loan Payment


$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69
$3,406.69


Misc. Cost
$5,280.71

-$25,100.00


Interest
$0.00
$2,792.18
$2,756.07
$1,243.23
$1,116.12
$981.55
$839.07
$688.23
$528.52
$359.43


Principal


$614.51
$25,750.61
$2,163.46
$2,290.57
$2,425.14
$2,567.61
$2,718.46
$2,878.17
$3,047.26


Balance
$47,526.41
$46,911.90
$21,161.28
$18,997.82
$16,707.26
$14,282.12
$11,714.51
$8,996.05
$6,117.88
$3,070.62


Energy Savings Net Savings


$1,124.32
$1,173.95
$1,225.83
$1,280.06
$1,336.75
$1,396.02
$1,457.98
$1,522.77
$1,590.52


-$2,282.36
$22,867.27
-$2,180.86
-$2,126.63
-$2,069.94
-$2,010.67
-$1,948.70
-$1,883.91
-$1,816.17


NPV Net Savings


-$2,175.75
$20,780.85
-$1,889.30
-$1,756.26
-$1,629.59
-$1,508.99
-$1,394.17
-$1,284.86
-$1,180.80


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


"









Table 4-11
Year
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR


Continued
Loan Payment
$3,251.01
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$33,911.20
0.555


Misc. Cost






-$5,271.98

















-$25,091.26


Interest
$180.40
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Principal
$3,070.62
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Balance
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Energy Savings
$1,661.36
$1,735.45
$1,812.93
$1,893.97
$1,978.73
$2,067.39
$2,160.15
$2,257.18
$2,358.70
$2,464.92
$2,576.07
$2,692.38
$2,814.10
$2,941.49
$3,074.82
$3,214.39
$3,360.48
$3,513.43
$3,673.55
$3,841.21
$4,016.76
$68,217.68


Net Savings
-$1,589.65
$1,735.45
$1,812.93
$1,893.97
$1,978.73
$7,339.37
$2,160.15
$2,257.18
$2,358.70
$2,464.92
$2,576.07
$2,692.38
$2,814.10
$2,941.49
$3,074.82
$3,214.39
$3,360.48
$3,513.43
$3,673.55
$3,841.21
$4,016.76
$64,678.45


NPV Net Savings
-$985.25
$1,025.37
$1,021.12
$1,016.93
$1,012.81
$3,581.18
$1,004.79
$1,000.88
$997.04
$993.27
$989.57
$985.94
$982.38
$978.88
$975.46
$972.10
$968.81
$965.59
$962.44
$959.35
$956.34
$29,326.13









Table 4-12. LCC for Financing Favorable SIR Upgrades vs. None


Payment Info
Loan Amount
Down Payment
Interest Rate
Time
Yearly Payment
Discount Rate





Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12


$42,543.16
$4,254.32
5.875%
30
$2,744.54
4.90%




Loan
Payment

$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$2,744.54
$801.72
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Electricity Info
kWh Difference
10.00% kWh rate
Natural Gas Difference
years Gas rate
year Gas inflation
Electricity inflation
General Inflation
Misc. Cost
Rebates


Misc. Cost
$4,254.32

-$25,100.00


Interest
$0.00
$2,249.47
$2,220.38
$714.97
$595.73
$469.48
$335.83
$194.31
$44.49
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


8,531
$0.10
102
$1.72
6.00%
4.10%
2.10%


kWh/year
/kWh
Therms/year
/Therm


-$25,100.00


Principal


$495.07
$25,624.16
$2,029.57
$2,148.81
$2,275.06
$2,408.71
$2,550.23
$757.23
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Balance
$38,288.84
$37,793.77
$12,169.62
$10,140.04
$7,991.23
$5,716.18
$3,307.46
$757.23
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


Energy Net NPV Net
Savings Savings Savings


$1,074.04
$1,121.61
$1,171.34
$1,223.34
$1,277.70
$1,334.55
$1,394.00
$1,456.16
$1,521.18
$1,589.18
$1,660.30
$1,734.70


-$1,670.50
$23,477.07
-$1,573.20
-$1,521.20
-$1,466.84
-$1,409.99
-$1,350.54
$654.44
$1,521.18
$1,589.18
$1,660.30
$1,734.70


-$1,592.47
$21,335.02
-$1,362.88
-$1,256.27
-$1,154.79
-$1,058.19
-$966.23
$446.34
$989.01
$984.96
$980.97
$977.06









Table 4-12 Continued
Year Loan Payment
13 $0.00
14 $0.00
15 $0.00
16 $0.00
17 $0.00
18 $0.00
19 $0.00
20 $0.00
21 $0.00
22 $0.00
23 $0.00
24 $0.00
25 $0.00
26 $0.00
27 $0.00
28 $0.00
29 $0.00
30 $0.00
Totals $20,013.50
SIR 0.830


Misc. Cost


Interest Principal Balance Energy Savings


$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00
$0.00


-$20,845.68


$1,812.53
$1,893.96
$1,979.15
$2,068.28
$2,161.55
$2,259.15
$2,361.29
$2,468.18
$2,580.07
$2,697.19
$2,819.78
$2,948.13
$3,082.50
$3,223.18
$3,370.50
$3,524.76
$3,686.32
$3,855.52
$65,350.14


Net Savings
$1,812.53
$1,893.96
$1,979.15
$2,068.28
$2,161.55
$2,259.15
$2,361.29
$2,468.18
$2,580.07
$2,697.19
$2,819.78
$2,948.13
$3,082.50
$3,223.18
$3,370.50
$3,524.76
$3,686.32
$3,855.52
$70,436.64


NPV Net Savings
$973.21
$969.42
$965.71
$962.06
$958.48
$954.96
$951.51
$948.13
$944.81
$941.56
$938.38
$935.26
$932.21
$929.23
$926.31
$923.46
$920.67
$917.95
$35,315.85









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This thesis has shown which energy efficiency upgrades to a home are better investments

than others for Gainesville's hot climate. Some components did not provide a favorable return

on the investment and can not currently be justified. Others proved to be great investments and

easy to incorporate into any new or existing home.

Conclusions

The 1,288 square foot model home consumed 9,886 kWh of electricity and 148 Therms of

natural gas per year if low-end components were selected and narrowly passed building code.

With all of the proposed upgrades at an additional cost of $52,807.12 before rebates, net

electricity consumption dropped to 872 kWh and natural gas consumption to 46 Therms. When

only upgraded components with favorable SIR's were selected, at an additional cost of

$42,543.16 before rebates, net electricity consumption was 1355 kWh and natural gas

consumption 46 Therms. It was determined that both of these options were unfavorable if they

needed to be fully financed in a mortgage, but if not, then they were both worthwhile.

When all of the component options were looked at individually, most proved to be cost

efficient when financing wasn't an issue. The only three options that had unfavorable SIR's

were upgrading to a white metal roof with large overhangs, low-e windows, and an ENERGY

STAR washing machine.

The positive results for the solar hot water heater and PV system were heavily influenced

by the amount of rebates available for them. The federal rebates are available until the end of

2008, GRU rebates until September 30, 2008, and the Florida rebates until the middle of 2010.

If these rebate programs are not renewed these results will change significantly.









Recommendations

The future of this research should be reexamined with different assumed values for

discount rates and utility inflation rates. The results obtained in this thesis are highly dependent

upon the expected rise in cost for electricity and natural gas. A slight change in any of these

three assumptions would influence many of the components that had SIR values near 1.00.

Another recommendation is to perform the study with a larger home or when 1.5-ton high

SEER units become available. The cooling cost per square foot would drop with a properly

sized HVAC system and have a better SIR ratio. Furthermore, owners of a larger home would

be more likely to have the financial means for many of the energy efficiency upgrades.









APPENDIX A
COMPONENTS LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS


Table A-1. Low-E Windows Life Cycle Cost


Analysis
Energy Info


$0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity


4.10%
4.90%


Windows Elect.


9884 kWh/year

9572 kWh/year


2.10%


$1,022.96


Financial Info
Electricity
Rate
Electricity
Inflation
Discount Rate
General
Inflation
Low-E
Window
Premium
Analysis
Period
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22


years
Premium
$1,022.96


$32.48
$33.81
$35.20
$36.64
$38.14
$39.71
$41.33
$43.03
$44.79
$46.63
$48.54
$50.53
$52.60
$54.76
$57.01
$59.34
$61.78
$64.31
$66.95
$69.69
$72.55
$75.52


Net Savings
-$1,022.96
$32.48
$33.81
$35.20
$36.64
$38.14
$39.71
$41.33
$43.03
$44.79
$46.63
$48.54
$50.53
$52.60
$54.76
$57.01
$59.34
$61.78
$64.31
$66.95
$69.69
$72.55
$75.52


NPV Net Savings


$30.96
$30.73
$30.49
$30.26
$30.03
$29.80
$29.57
$29.35
$29.12
$28.90
$28.68
$28.46
$28.24
$28.03
$27.82
$27.60
$27.39
$27.18
$26.98
$26.77
$26.57
$26.36


VI


30.00
Energy Savings









Table A-i Continued
Year Energy Savings
23 $78.62
24 $81.84
25 $85.20
26 $88.69
27 $92.33
28 $96.11
29 $100.05
30 $104.15
Totals $1,852.32
SIR 0.814397512
Simple
Payback
Period 31.50


Premium


$1,022.96


Net Savings
$78.62
$81.84
$85.20
$88.69
$92.33
$96.11
$100.05
$104.15
$829.36


NPV Net Savings
$26.16
$25.96
$25.77
$25.57
$25.37
$25.18
$24.99
$24.80
$833.10


years


Table A-2. CFL Life
Financial Info
Electricity
Rate
Electricity
Inflation
Discount
Rate
General
Inflation
CFL Cost
Incandescent
Cost
Light Use
Analysis


Cycle Cost Analysis


$0.10 $/kWh

4.10%


Energy Info
Model
Electricity
With CFL
Electricity


9884 kWh/year

9099 kWh/year


4.90%

2.10%
$26.61 8,000 hours


$3.12
1000


1,000 hours
hours/year


Period 30.00 years
Year Energy Savings Misc. Cost Net Savings NPV Net Savings
0 $23.49 -$23.49
1 $81.72 -$3.19 $84.90 $80.94
2 $85.07 -$3.25 $88.32 $80.26
3 $88.56 -$3.32 $91.88 $79.59
4 $92.19 -$3.39 $95.58 $78.93










Table A-2
Year
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR
Simple
Payback
Period


Continued
Energy Savings
$95.97
$99.90
$104.00
$108.26
$112.70
$117.32
$122.13
$127.14
$132.35
$137.78
$143.43
$149.31
$155.43
$161.80
$168.44
$175.34
$182.53
$190.01
$197.80
$205.91
$214.36
$223.15
$232.29
$241.82
$251.73
$262.05
$4,660.49
79.17095901



0.33


Misc. Cost
-$3.46
-$3.53
-$3.61
$27.74
-$3.76
-$3.84
-$3.92
-$4.00
-$4.09
-$4.17
-$4.26
$32.76
-$4.44
-$4.54
-$4.63
-$4.73
-$4.83
-$4.93
-$5.03
$38.68
-$5.25
-$5.36
-$5.47
-$5.58
-$5.70
-$5.82
$4.57


Net Savings
$99.43
$103.44
$107.61
$80.52
$116.46
$121.16
$126.05
$131.14
$136.44
$141.95
$147.69
$116.55
$159.87
$166.34
$173.07
$180.07
$187.36
$194.94
$202.84
$167.23
$219.60
$228.50
$237.76
$247.40
$257.43
$267.87
$4,655.93


years


NPV Net Savings
$78.28
$77.63
$76.99
$54.92
$75.72
$75.10
$74.48
$73.86
$73.26
$72.66
$72.06
$54.21
$70.89
$70.31
$69.74
$69.17
$68.61
$68.05
$67.50
$53.05
$66.41
$65.88
$65.34
$64.82
$64.29
$63.78
$2,106.74


_I









Table A-3. Solar Hot Water Heater Life Cycle
Financial Info


Cost Analysis
Energy Info


Gas Rate $1.72 /therm Model Gas 148 Therm/year
With Solar
Gas Inflation 6.00% HWH Gas 46 Therm/year
Discount Rate 4.90%
General
Inflation 2.10%
Solar HWH
Premium $5,711.00
Solar Rebate $3,000.00
Analysis Period 30.00 years
Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25


$185.97
$197.12
$208.95
$221.49
$234.78
$248.86
$263.80
$279.62
$296.40
$314.19
$333.04
$353.02
$374.20
$396.65
$420.45
$445.68
$472.42
$500.77
$530.81
$562.66
$596.42
$632.20
$670.14
$710.35
$752.97


$5,711.00

-$3,000.00


-$5,711.00
$185.97
$3,197.12
$208.95
$221.49
$234.78
$248.86
$263.80
$279.62
$296.40
$314.19
$333.04
$353.02
$374.20
$396.65
$420.45
$445.68
$472.42
$500.77
$530.81
$562.66
$596.42
$632.20
$670.14
$710.35
$752.97


$177.28
$2,905.42
$181.02
$182.92
$184.83
$186.77
$188.73
$190.71
$192.71
$194.73
$196.77
$198.84
$200.92
$203.03
$205.16
$207.31
$209.48
$211.68
$213.90
$216.14
$218.41
$220.70
$223.01
$225.35
$227.71









Table A-3 Continued
Year Energy Savings
26 $798.14
27 $846.03
28 $896.79
29 $950.60
30 $1,007.64
Totals $14,702.17
SIR 1.565118946


Simple
Payback
Period*


14.58
*Includes rebate


Premium Net Savings
$798.14
$846.03
$896.79
$950.60
$1,007.64
$2,711.00 $11,991.17


NPV Net Savings
$230.10
$232.51
$234.95
$237.42
$239.91
$8,938.39


years









Table A-4. Insulation Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info Energy Info
Model
Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Electricity 9884 kWh/year
With R30
Insulation
Electricity Inflation 4.10% Elect. 9716 kWh/year
Discount Rate 4.90%
General Inflation 2.10%
Insulation
Premium $153.67
Analysis Period 30.00 years


Energy Savings


Premium
$153.67


$17.49
$18.21
$18.95
$19.73
$20.54
$21.38
$22.26
$23.17
$24.12
$25.11
$26.14
$27.21
$28.32
$29.49
$30.70
$31.95
$33.26
$34.63
$36.05
$37.53
$39.06
$40.67
$42.33
$44.07
$45.88
$47.76


Net Savings
-$153.67
$17.49
$18.21
$18.95
$19.73
$20.54
$21.38
$22.26
$23.17
$24.12
$25.11
$26.14
$27.21
$28.32
$29.49
$30.70
$31.95
$33.26
$34.63
$36.05
$37.53
$39.06
$40.67
$42.33
$44.07
$45.88
$47.76


NPV Net Savings


$16.67
$16.54
$16.42
$16.29
$16.17
$16.05
$15.92
$15.80
$15.68
$15.56
$15.44
$15.33
$15.21
$15.09
$14.98
$14.86
$14.75
$14.64
$14.53
$14.41
$14.31
$14.20
$14.09
$13.98
$13.87
$13.77


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26









Table A-4 Continued
Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings
27 $49.71 $49.71 $13.66
28 $51.75 $51.75 $13.56
29 $53.87 $53.87 $13.46
30 $56.08 $56.08 $13.35
Totals $997.40 $153.67 $843.73 $448.59
SIR 2.919178735
Simple
Payback
Period 8.79 years









Table A-5. Ligi
Financial Info

Electricity Rate

Electricity
Inflation
Discount Rate
General
Inflation
Paint Premium
Analysis
Period
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27


ht Colored Exterior Paint Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Energy Info
Model
$0.10 /kWh Electricity
With Light
Colored Paint
4.10% Elect.
4.90%


9884 kWh/year


9814 kWh/year


2.10%
$0.00


30.00 years
Energy Savings Premium
$0.00
$7.29
$7.59
$7.90
$8.22
$8.56
$8.91
$9.27
$9.65
$10.05
$10.46
$10.89
$11.34
$11.80
$12.29
$12.79
$13.31
$13.86
$14.43
$15.02
$15.64
$16.28
$16.94
$17.64
$18.36
$19.11
$19.90
$20.71


Net Savings
$0.00
$7.29
$7.59
$7.90
$8.22
$8.56
$8.91
$9.27
$9.65
$10.05
$10.46
$10.89
$11.34
$11.80
$12.29
$12.79
$13.31
$13.86
$14.43
$15.02
$15.64
$16.28
$16.94
$17.64
$18.36
$19.11
$19.90
$20.71


NPV Net Savings


$6.95
$6.89
$6.84
$6.79
$6.74
$6.69
$6.63
$6.58
$6.53
$6.48
$6.43
$6.39
$6.34
$6.29
$6.24
$6.19
$6.15
$6.10
$6.05
$6.01
$5.96
$5.91
$5.87
$5.83
$5.78
$5.74
$5.69









Table A-5 Continued
Year Energy Savings
28 $21.56
29 $22.45
30 $23.37


Totals
Save 70 kWh/year
Payback is immediate


$415.59


Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings
$21.56 $5.65
$22.45 $5.61
$23.37 $5.56
$0.00 $415.59 $186.91









Table A-6. White Metal Roof and Large Overhangs Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info Energy Info
Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884
Electricity With White Roof
Inflation 4.10% Elect. 9620
Discount Rate 4.90%
General Inflation 2.10%
White Roof
Premium $8,990.00
Composite Roof
Cost $3,860.00 15 year life span
Analysis Period 30.00 years


Energy Savings


$27.48
$28.61
$29.78
$31.00
$32.27
$33.60
$34.98
$36.41
$37.90
$39.46
$41.07
$42.76
$44.51
$46.34
$48.24
$50.21
$52.27
$54.41
$56.65
$58.97
$61.39
$63.90
$66.52
$69.25
$72.09
$75.05
$78.12
$81.33
$84.66


Premium
$8,990.00


-$5,271.98


Net Savings
-$8,990.00
$27.48
$28.61
$29.78
$31.00
$32.27
$33.60
$34.98
$36.41
$37.90
$39.46
$41.07
$42.76
$44.51
$46.34
$5,320.21
$50.21
$52.27
$54.41
$56.65
$58.97
$61.39
$63.90
$66.52
$69.25
$72.09
$75.05
$78.12
$81.33
$84.66


NPV Net Savings


$26.20
$26.00
$25.80
$25.60
$25.41
$25.21
$25.02
$24.83
$24.64
$24.45
$24.27
$24.08
$23.90
$23.72
$2,595.95
$23.36
$23.18
$23.00
$22.83
$22.65
$22.48
$22.31
$22.14
$21.97
$21.80
$21.64
$21.47
$21.31
$21.14


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29









Table A-6 Continued
Year
30
Totals
SIR
Simple Payback
Period


Energy Savings
$88.13
$1,567.35
0.364554274


Premium

$3,718.02


Net Savings
$88.13
-$2,150.67


NPV Net Savings
$20.98
$3,277.34


45.00 years
*with 3 Composite Roof replacements









Table A-7. HVAC System Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info


Energy Info


Electricity Rate
Electricity
Inflation
Discount Rate
General
Inflation
Heat Pump
Premium
Rebate
Analysis
Period


$0.10 $/kWh

4.10%
4.90%


Model Electricity
With Heat Pump
Elect.


9884 kWh/year

8520 kWh/year


2.10%


$3,556.00
$300.00


after 1 year


30.00 years


Energy Savings


$141.99
$147.81
$153.87
$160.18
$166.75
$173.59
$180.70
$188.11
$195.83
$203.86
$212.21
$220.91
$229.97
$239.40
$249.22
$259.43
$270.07
$281.14
$292.67
$304.67
$317.16
$330.16
$343.70
$357.79
$372.46
$387.73


Premium
$3,556.00

-$300.00


Net Savings
-$3,556.00
$141.99
$447.81
$153.87
$160.18
$166.75
$173.59
$180.70
$188.11
$195.83
$203.86
$212.21
$220.91
$229.97
$239.40
$249.22
$259.43
$270.07
$281.14
$292.67
$304.67
$317.16
$330.16
$343.70
$357.79
$372.46
$387.73


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


NPV Net
Savings

$135.36
$406.96
$133.30
$132.29
$131.28
$130.28
$129.28
$128.30
$127.32
$126.35
$125.38
$124.43
$123.48
$122.54
$121.60
$120.68
$119.75
$118.84
$117.94
$117.04
$116.14
$115.26
$114.38
$113.51
$112.64
$111.78









Table A-7 Continued


Energy Savings
$403.63
$420.18
$437.41
$455.34
$8,097.98
1.100886685


Simple
Payback Period


25.04


Premium


$3,256.00


Net Savings
$403.63
$420.18
$437.41
$455.34
$4,841.98


years


Year
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR


NPV Net
Savings
$110.93
$110.08
$109.24
$108.41
$3,914.75









Table A-8. PV System Life Cycle Cost
Financial Info
Electricity
Rate $0.10 /kWh
Electricity
Inflation 4.10%
Discount Rate 4.90%
General
Inflation 2.10%
PV System
Premium $33,000.00
PV System
Rebate $21 800.00 after 2


Analysis
Energy Info
Model
Electricity
With PV
Elect.


9884 kWh/yr

4456 kWh/yr


ears


30.00
Energy
Savings

$565.05
$588.22
$612.34
$637.45
$663.58
$690.79
$719.11
$748.59
$779.29
$811.24
$844.50
$879.12
$915.16
$952.69
$991.75
$1,032.41
$1,074.74
$1,118.80
$1,164.67
$1,212.42
$1,262.13
$1,313.88
$1,367.75
$1,423.83
$1,482.20


years

Premium
$33,000.00

-$21,800.00


Net Savings
-$33,000.00
$565.05
$22,388.22
$612.34
$637.45
$663.58
$690.79
$719.11
$748.59
$779.29
$811.24
$844.50
$879.12
$915.16
$952.69
$991.75
$1,032.41
$1,074.74
$1,118.80
$1,164.67
$1,212.42
$1,262.13
$1,313.88
$1,367.75
$1,423.83
$1,482.20


Analysis
Period


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25


NPV Net
Savings

$538.66
$20,345.51
$530.48
$526.43
$522.42
$518.43
$514.48
$510.55
$506.66
$502.80
$498.96
$495.16
$491.38
$487.63
$483.91
$480.22
$476.56
$472.93
$469.32
$465.74
$462.19
$458.66
$455.17
$451.70
$448.25









Table A-8 Continued


Energy
Savings
$1,542.97
$1,606.24
$1,672.09
$1,740.65
$1,812.01
$32,225.67
1.039536226


Premium Net Savings
$1,542.97
$1,606.24
$1,672.09
$1,740.65
$1,812.01
$11,200.00 $21,025.67


Year
26
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR
Simple
Payback
Period*


19.82 years
*includes rebate


NPV Net
Savings
$444.83
$441.44
$438.07
$434.73
$431.42
$34,304.70









Table A-9. Favorable SIR Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info Energy Info
Electricity
Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9,884 kWh/year
Gas Rate $1.72 $/therm Model Gas 148 Therm/year


Electricity
Inflation


Gas Inflation
Discount
Rate
General
Inflation
Premium
Rebates
Analysis
Period
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


4.10%


6.00%


With Upgraded
Components
Elect.

With Upgraded
Components Gas


1,355 kWh/year


46 Therm/year


4.90%

2.10%
$42,543.16
$25,100.00


30.00
Energy Savings


$1,073.84
$1,121.40
$1,171.12
$1,223.10
$1,277.46
$1,334.30
$1,393.73
$1,455.89
$1,520.89
$1,588.88
$1,659.99
$1,734.38
$1,812.20
$1,893.61
$1,978.78
$2,067.90
$2,161.15
$2,258.73


years
Costs
$42,543.16

-$25,100.00


Net Savings
-$42,543.16
$1,073.84
$26,221.40
$1,171.12
$1,223.10
$1,277.46
$1,334.30
$1,393.73
$1,455.89
$1,520.89
$1,588.88
$1,659.99
$1,734.38
$1,812.20
$1,893.61
$1,978.78
$2,067.90
$2,161.15
$2,258.73


NPV Net Savings


$1,023.68
$23,828.95
$1,014.55
$1,010.09
$1,005.70
$1,001.38
$997.13
$992.94
$988.82
$984.77
$980.79
$976.87
$973.02
$969.24
$965.53
$961.88
$958.30
$954.79









Table A-9
Year
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR


Continued
Energy Savings
$2,360.86
$2,467.74
$2,579.61
$2,696.70
$2,819.28
$2,947.60
$3,081.95
$3,222.62
$3,369.91
$3,524.15
$3,685.68
$3,854.85
$65,338.27
1.217491719


Costs Net Savings
$2,360.86
$2,467.74
$2,579.61
$2,696.70
$2,819.28
$2,947.60
$3,081.95
$3,222.62
$3,369.91
$3,524.15
$3,685.68
$3,854.85
$17,443.16 $47,895.11


Simple Payback Period


NPV Net Savings
$951.34
$947.96
$944.64
$941.40
$938.21
$935.10
$932.05
$929.06
$926.15
$923.29
$920.51
$917.79
$51,795.95


16.24 years









Table A-10. All Upgraded
Financial Info


Electricity Rate
Gas Rate



Electricity Inflation


Gas Inflation
Discount Rate
General Inflation
Premium
Rebates
New Roof
Analysis Period
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19


Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Energy Info
Model
$0.10 $/kWh Electricity
$1.72 $/therm Model Gas
With
Upgraded
Components
4.10% Elect.
With


6.00%
4.90%
2.10%
$52,807.12
$25,100.00
$3,860.00
30.00
Energy Savings


$1,124.12
$1,173.74
$1,225.61
$1,279.83
$1,336.51
$1,395.77
$1,457.72
$1,522.50
$1,590.23
$1,661.06
$1,735.14
$1,812.61
$1,893.63
$1,978.38
$2,067.03
$2,159.77
$2,256.78
$2,358.29
$2,464.49


Upgraded
Components
Gas


9884 kWh/year
148 Therm/year



872 kWh/year


46 Therm/year


at 15 years
years


Costs Net Savings
$52,807.12 -$52,807.12
$1,124.12
-$25,100.00 $26,273.74
$1,225.61
$1,279.83
$1,336.51
$1,395.77
$1,457.72
$1,522.50
$1,590.23
$1,661.06
$1,735.14
$1,812.61
$1,893.63
$1,978.38
-$5,163.54 $7,230.57
$2,159.77
$2,256.78
$2,358.29
$2,464.49


NPV Net Savings


$1,071.61
$23,876.51
$1,061.76
$1,056.94
$1,052.19
$1,047.51
$1,042.91
$1,038.37
$1,033.91
$1,029.51
$1,025.19
$1,020.93
$1,016.75
$1,012.63
$3,528.10
$1,004.61
$1,000.71
$996.87
$993.10









Table A-10
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Totals
SIR


Simple Payback Period


Continued
$2,575.62
$2,691.91
$2,813.61
$2,940.98
$3,074.30
$3,213.84
$3,359.91
$3,512.84
$3,672.94
$3,840.57
$4,016.09
$68,205.81
1.052985803


$22,543.58

24.65


$2,575.62
$2,691.91
$2,813.61
$2,940.98
$3,074.30
$3,213.84
$3,359.91
$3,512.84
$3,672.94
$3,840.57
$4,016.09
$45,662.23


$989.40
$985.77
$982.21
$978.72
$975.29
$971.93
$968.65
$965.43
$962.28
$959.19
$956.18
$55,605.15


years









APPENDIX B
APPLIANCE LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

Table B-1. ENERGY STAR Washing Machine Life Cycle Cost Analysis


Financial Info
Electricity
Rate


Electricity
Inflation
Discount Rate


Energy Info


$0.10 /kWh



4.10%
4.60%


Model
Electricity
ENERGY
STAR
Appliance
Elect.


418 kWh/year


210 kWh/year


2.00%


$250.00


10.00


years


Energy Savings Premium
$250.00


$21.65
$22.65
$23.65
$24.65
$25.65
$26.65
$27.65
$28.65
$29.65
$30.65
$261.53
0.812


General
Inflation
ENERGY
STAR
Premium
Analysis
Period
Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Totals
SIR
Simple
Payback
Period


Net Savings
-$250.00
$21.65
$22.65
$23.65
$24.65
$25.65
$26.65
$27.65
$28.65
$29.65
$30.65
$11.53


NPV Net Savings


$20.70
$20.70
$20.67
$20.59
$20.49
$20.35
$20.18
$19.99
$19.78
$19.55
$203.01


11.55 years


$250.00


I









Table B-2. ENERGY STAR Dishwasher Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info Energy Info
Model
Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Electricity 432 kWh/year
ENERGY
STAR
Electricity Inflation 4.10% Elect. 371 kWh/year
Discount Rate 4.60%
General Inflation 2.00%
ENERGY STAR
Premium $30.00
Analysis Period 10.00 years


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Totals
SIR
Simple Payback
Period


Energy Savings

$6.35
$7.35
$8.35
$9.35
$10.35
$11.35
$12.35
$13.35
$14.35
$15.35
$108.50
2.750721268


I


Premium Net Savings
$30.00 -$30.00
$6.35
$7.35
$8.35
$9.35
$10.35
$11.35
$12.35
$13.35
$14.35
$15.35
$30.00 $78.50


NPV Net Savings


$6.07
$6.72
$7.30
$7.81
$8.27
$8.67
$9.01
$9.32
$9.57
$9.79
$82.52


4.72 years









Table B-3. ENERGY STAR Refrigerator Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Financial Info Energy Info
Model
Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Electricity 479 kWh/year
ENERGY
STAR
Electricity Inflation 4.10% Elect. 407 kWh/year
Discount Rate 4.60%
General Inflation 2.00%
ENERGY STAR
Premium $70.00
Analysis Period 10.00 years


Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Totals
SIR
Simple Payback
Period


Energy Savings

$7.50
$8.50
$9.50
$10.50
$11.50
$12.50
$13.50
$14.50
$15.50
$16.50
$119.95
1.307687223


I


Premium Net Savings
$70.00 -$70.00
$7.50
$8.50
$9.50
$10.50
$11.50
$12.50
$13.50
$14.50
$15.50
$16.50
$70.00 $49.95


NPV Net Savings


$7.17
$7.76
$8.30
$8.77
$9.18
$9.54
$9.85
$10.12
$10.34
$10.52
$91.54


9.34 years









LIST OF REFERENCES


Brown, R., Rittelmann, W., Parker, D., and Homan, G. 2006. Appliances, Lighting,
Electronics, and Miscellaneous Equipment Electricity Use in New Homes. Florida Solar
Energy Society: FSEC-CR-1675-06. Cocoa, FL.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2003. Air Distribution System Design. U.S.
Department ofEnergy: DOE/G0102002-0782. Washington, DC.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2000. Passive Solar Design. U.S.
Department ofEnergy: DOE/GO 10099-790. Washington, DC.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Conventional Storage Water Heaters.
U.S. Department ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at
http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your home/waterheating/index.cfm/mytopic=12
980. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous)
Water Heaters. U.S. Department ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at
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820. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Determining Energy Efficiency of
Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters. U.S. Department ofEnergy.
Washington, DC. Available at
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000. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Heat Pump Water Heaters. U.S.
Department ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at
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840. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2003. Moving Toward Zero Energy Homes.
U.S. Department ofEnergy: DOE/GO-102003-1828. Washington, DC.

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Department ofEnergy: DOE/GO 10099-790. Washington, DC.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Solar Radiation Basics. U.S.
Department ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at
http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/renewableenergy/solar/index.cfm/mytopic=5001
2. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Solar Water Heaters. U.S. Department
ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at









http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your home/waterheating/index.cfm/mytopic=12
850. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Energy Information Administration. 2008. State Energy Profiles: Florida. U.S.
Department ofEnergy. Washington, DC. Available at
http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=FL. Accessed on February
5, 2008.

Fairey, P.W. 1981. Concepts in Passive Design #1 Roof Overhangs. Florida Solar
Energy Center: FSEC-DN-1. Cocoa, FL.

Lombardi, M., Parker, D., Vieira, R., and Faiery, P. 2004. Geographic Variation in
Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United
States. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Washington, DC. Available
at http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/html/FSEC-PF-380-04/. Accessed on
February 5, 2008.

McCluney, R., and Gueymard, C. 1993. Selecting Windows for South Florida
Residences. Florida Solar Energy Society Contract Report: F SEC-CR-1691-93.
Cocoa, FL.

Parker, D., and Sherwin, J. 1998. Monitored Summer Peak Attic Air Temperatures in
Florida Residences. Presented at The 1998 ASHRAE Annual Meeting. Toronto, Canada.
Available at http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/html/FSEC-PF-336-98/index.htm.
Accessed on February 5, 2008.

Parker, D. 2002. Research Highlights From A Large Scale Residential Monitoring Study
In A Hot Climate. Florida Solar Energy Society: FSEC-PF-369-02. Cocoa, FL.

Parker, D., and Sherwin, J. 1998. Monitored Summer Peak Attic Air Temperatures in
Florida Residences. Florida Solar Energy Society. Cocoa, FL. Available at
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/html/FSEC-PF-336-98/index.htm. Accessed on
February 5, 2008.

Schwartz, J. 2007. Finding the Phantoms: Eliminate Standby Energy Loss. Home
Power: 117, 64. Ashland, OR.

Shirey III, D., Henderson Jr., H., and Raustad, R. 2006. Understanding the
Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions.
Florida Solar Energy Society: FSEC-CR-1537-05. Cocoa, FL.

Toolbase Services. 2008. Seven Steps to a ZEH. NAHB Research Center. Upper
Marlboro, MD. Available at
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Accessed on February 5, 2008.









U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. Clothes
Washers. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.prcfls. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. Compact
Fluorescent Light Bulbs. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.prcfls. Accessed on February 5, 2008.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. External
Power Adapters. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at
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Accessed on February 5, 2008.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Christopher S. Hudson received his high school diploma from Hollywood Hills High

School in Hollywood, Florida, in 2001. Immediately after graduating high school, he was

accepted to the University of Florida, Gainesville, in August 2001 and received his Bachelor of

Science in civil engineering in May 2006. In August 2006, Christopher started his Master of

Engineering in civil engineering focusing in construction management at the University of

Florida where he graduated in May 2008. As a graduate student he worked as a teaching

assistant for his friend Dr. Fazil Najafi. Upon graduating Christopher accepted a position with

the Los Angeles County Public Works Department in Alhambra, California.





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1 AFFORDABLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTI CES FOR NEW SINGLE FAMILY HOMES IN ALACHUA COUNTY By CHRISTOPHER S. HUDSON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Christopher S. Hudson

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3 To my family; Mom, Dad, and Sarah For your support and encouragement in all of my academic endeavors

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Ral ph Ellis for his assistance and supporting m y topic. Your open door policy helped more th an you know. My gratitude to Dr. Charles Kibert for his expertise and guidance in green building constructi on. Finally, I thank my family and friends for their encouragement.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................. ..........8 LIST OF FI GURES.......................................................................................................................10 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .12 Statem ent of Problem/Importance of Energy Efficient Homes.............................................. 12 Objective .................................................................................................................................13 Contribution to Alachua County Hom es................................................................................ 13 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................14 Net Zero Energy Hom es.........................................................................................................14 Passive Solar Design........................................................................................................... ....15 Individual T raditional EndUse Components and Design...................................................... 16 Roof Design and Materials .............................................................................................. 16 Overhangs and Shading ...................................................................................................17 W indows..........................................................................................................................18 Insulation .........................................................................................................................19 HVAC ..............................................................................................................................19 Heating .....................................................................................................................20 Air conditioning .......................................................................................................20 Air ducts ................................................................................................................... 21 Ventilation ................................................................................................................ 22 Hot W ater Heater............................................................................................................. 22 Types ........................................................................................................................22 Energy types and costs ............................................................................................. 23 Reducing hot water demand .....................................................................................24 Other End-Use Com ponents................................................................................................... 24 Lighting ...........................................................................................................................25 Major Appliances ............................................................................................................25 Dishwasher ...............................................................................................................25 Clothes washers ........................................................................................................26 Dryers .......................................................................................................................26 Refrigerators .............................................................................................................26 Oven/stove ................................................................................................................27 Electronics .................................................................................................................... ...27 Phantom Loads.................................................................................................................. .....27

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6 Solar Panels................................................................................................................... .........28 Mounting the arrays ......................................................................................................... 29 Geographic location ......................................................................................................... 29 Residents H abits............................................................................................................... ......30 Conclusion ..............................................................................................................................30 3 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 34 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................................................................................................. 35 Section 1: Model House Plans ................................................................................................ 35 Section 2: Com ponents.......................................................................................................... .36 Low-End Com ponents..................................................................................................... 36 HVAC system ..........................................................................................................36 Lights ........................................................................................................................36 Roof and overhangs ..................................................................................................36 W indows...................................................................................................................37 Roof insulation .........................................................................................................37 Exterior paint ............................................................................................................37 Hot water heater .......................................................................................................37 Appliances ................................................................................................................ 37 High-End Com ponents.................................................................................................... 38 HVAC system ..........................................................................................................38 Lights ........................................................................................................................38 Roof and overhangs ..................................................................................................39 W indows...................................................................................................................39 Roof Insulation .........................................................................................................39 Exterior paint ............................................................................................................39 Solar hot water heater ...............................................................................................39 The PV System .........................................................................................................40 Appliances ................................................................................................................ 40 Section 3: Household Energy Consumption Analysis ............................................................41 Model House with Low-End Com ponents Energy Summary......................................... 41 Model House with Effects of Upgr ading Individual Com ponents Energy Summaries....................................................................................................................41 All High-End Com ponents Energy Summary................................................................. 42 Section 4: Com ponent and Appliance Simp le Payback Period and SIR Analysis................. 42 Individual C omponents Analysis....................................................................................43 ENERGY STAR Appliances Analysis ............................................................................44 Section 5: Favorable Components Analysis ........................................................................... 44 Favorable C omponents and Appliances Energy Summary.............................................44 SIR and Payback Summary for Upgrades ....................................................................... 45 Section 6: Life Cycle Cost Analysis with Financing .............................................................. 45 5 CONCLUSI ONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................. 61 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................61

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7 Recommendations................................................................................................................ ...62 APPENDIX A COMPONENTS LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS.............................................................. 63 B BAPPLIANCE LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS................................................................ 82 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................85 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................88

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Best Practices List........................................................................................................ ......33 4-1 Low-End Components Summary....................................................................................... 51 4-2 High-End Com ponents Summary...................................................................................... 52 4-3 Rebates Summary............................................................................................................ ..52 4-4 Electricity End Use Summary for M odel Home and Individual Upgraded Components..................................................................................................................... ..53 4-5 Hot Water Gas Consumption Summary............................................................................ 53 4-6 Model House Florida Building Code Summary................................................................ 54 4-7 Individual High-End vs. Low-End Components SIR and Payback Summary.................. 54 4-8 ENERGY STAR vs. Non-ENERGY STAR A ppliances SIR and Payback Summary...... 54 4-9 Energy End Use Comparisons...........................................................................................55 4-10 SIR, Simple Payback Period, and Cost Pr emium of All Upgrades and Favorable SIR Upgrades without Financing..............................................................................................56 4-11 LCC for Financing All Upgrades vs. None.......................................................................57 4-12 LCC for Financing Favora ble SIR Upgrades vs. None..................................................... 59 A-1 Low-E Windows Life Cycle Cost Analysis....................................................................... 63 A-2 CFL Life Cycle Cost Analysis........................................................................................... 64 A-3 Solar Hot Water Heater Life Cycle Cost Analysis............................................................ 66 A-4 Insulation Life Cycle Cost Analysis..................................................................................68 A-5 Light Colored Exterior Paint Life Cycle Cost Analysis.................................................... 70 A-6 White Metal Roof and Large Overhangs Life Cycle Cost Analysis.................................. 72 A-7 HVAC System Life Cycle Cost Analysis..........................................................................74 A-8 PV System Life Cycle Cost Analysis................................................................................ 76 A-9 Favorable SIR Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis...................................................... 78

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9 A-10 All Upgraded Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis....................................................... 80 B-1 ENERGY STAR Washing Machin e Life Cycle Cost Analysis......................................... 82 B-2 ENERGY STAR Dishwasher Life Cycle Cost Analysis................................................... 83 B-3 ENERGY STAR Refrigerator Life Cycle Cost Analysis.................................................. 84

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 Example of Properly Sized Overhang................................................................................ 31 2-2 Factors for Overhang Equation..........................................................................................32 4-1 Floor Plan................................................................................................................. ..........46 4-2 Elevation View............................................................................................................. ......47 4-3 Model Home Energy Summary.........................................................................................48 4-4 All High-End Components and Appliances Energy Summary..........................................49 4-5 Favorable SIR Components and Appliances Energy Summary........................................ 50

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Engineering AFFORDABLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRACTI CES FOR NEW SINGLE FAMILY HOMES IN ALACHUA COUNTY By Christopher S. Hudson May 2008 Chair: Ralph D. Ellis Major: Civil Engineering Energy efficiency practices are generally i gnored in affordable housing because of the additional upfront costs for better materials, de signs, and components. However, savings in energy often offsets the higher initial costs a nd can add value to the home, be cheaper to maintain, and reduce utility bills. Our objective was to explore best practices in energy efficiency for the Florida climate in an effort to create a net zero energy home and compare the additional costs to energy savings. Upgrades to the roof and overhangs, windows, in sulation, hot water heater, paint, lights, major appliances, and adding solar panels were all looked at to determine if the added costs were worthwhile investments. Results show that al l of the upgrades individually, with the exception of the roof and overhangs, windows, and washing machine, proved to be a good investment. Results of my study could help homeowners, cont ractors, and subcontractors justify additional costs in energy efficiency upgrades.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In todays construction industry it is quite common for contractors to complete a job for the lowest cost possible, especially when the pr oject is affordable housing. There is a m isbelief that higher initial costs in energy efficient design s, materials, and appliances are not worth the additional costs. There are many energy efficien t designs and components that cost little to nothing up front. Residents in affordable housing are the ones most in need of lowering their utility bills and with a fast payb ack period of the additional costs associated with energy efficient practices. Statement of Problem/Importan ce of Energy Efficient Ho mes Floridas per capita residen tial electricity demand is among the highest in the country (Energy Information Administration, 2008). The clim ate in Florida is unlike most of the United States and promotes higher elect ricity consumption (through a coo ling end use) for two reasons: (1) humidity and (2) high temper atures during the long summer. Affordable homes are notorious for consumi ng high amounts of electricity because of a lower quality of design, poor construction pract ices, components, and appliances. With mortgage payments, one knows what they are getting into before moving into a home. However, utility bills vary month to month and come in second (behind mortgage) on the amount spent on a home. The affordable home may not be qu ite what it seemed because of poor energy efficiency. Residents may not be able to afford the cost of ut ilities along with th eir low monthly mortgages. With the cost of energy rising, energy efficiency in the residen tial sector needs to be addressed.

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13 Objective Our objective was to determ ine combinati ons of affordable housing components and appliances that are energy and cost efficient wi th a short payback period. Energy consumption will be estimated by the software EnergyGauge USA FlaRes 2007 for a three bedroom, two bathroom home based on housing plans obtained from Habitat for Humanity. Energy saving comparisons will be made for high-end vs. low-end roofs, insulation levels, HVAC systems, hot water heaters, lights, windows, and appliances Solar hot water heat ers and photovoltaic (PV) systems will also be considered. Finally, the payback periods and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) from electricity and na tural gas savings for the upgrad es will be determined. Contribution to Alachua County Homes The contribution of this research is developing a list of energy efficient u pgrades for homes that have short payback periods and a positive SIR. Contract ors and homeowners looking to determine which upgrades are worthwhile if keepi ng initial costs low is an issue could use this list. It could also assist local utility companies in determining what types of energy efficiency upgrades to give rebates for. Since many of the assumptions made are specific to Alachua County, energy savings would vary fo r other areas of Florida.

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14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Net Zero Energy Homes When looking at best practices for residential energy efficiency, a whole house concept referred to as a net zero energy home(ZEH) co mes up. ZEH use the latest technologies, construction practices, and engineer ing/architectural designs to c onstruct a hom e that is ideally energy self sufficient or near se lf sufficient. With a tight building envelope, energy efficient appliances, the proper construction techniques, and solar panels, a ZEH is able to put power back in the grid(i.e. have their elec tricity meter spin backwards) during the day and buy back energy when the sun goes down. With battery backups, although not necessary, a ZEH home is able to be disconnected from the utility grid and function normally during peak power demand and have full electricity throughout the night. There are numerous advantages for building a ZEH; 1. Improved comfort: an energy-efficient building envelope reduces temperature fluctuations. 2. Reliability: a ZEH can be designed to contin ue functioning even during blackouts. 3. Security: a home that produces energy protects its ow ner from fluctuations in energy prices. 4. Environmental sustainability: a ZEH saves energy and reduces pollution. (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2003, p. 1) There is no one solution to building a ZEH. Every area is different in climate and geography, making it necessary to design to the specific location. The data currently being collected is changing the approach es of every aspect(insulation, r oofing, appliances, ect.). Even though each ZEH is different, they all achieve zer o energy usage by following these seven steps; 1. Decrease the energy requirements for sp ace heating, cooling, and water heating; a. Orient the home with smaller walls faci ng west and include overhangs and porches b. Increase foundation, wall, and ceiling insulation. c. Use low U-value, low-E windows in all clim ates and low solar he at gain(low SHGC) windows in cooling climates d. Seal all holes, cracks, and penetrati ons through the floor, walls, and ceiling to unconditioned spaces e. Install adequate ventilation, especially from kitchens and baths. 2. Increase the efficiency of the furnace (or heat pump), and the air-conditioner. a. Buy as high-efficiency equipment as affordable for the climate.

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15 b. Design the supply and return duct system appropriately and seal tig htly using approved tapes or mastic. c. Consider ground-source heat pump technology where space and cost conditions permit. d. Where climate-appropriate consid er alternative cooling systems such as ventilation only or evaporative coolers. 3. Install a solar hot water pre-heat system, an ef ficient backup water heater, and an efficient distribution system: a. Consider a parallel, small diameter pi ping system for the hot water outlets. b. Install low-flow fixtures. c. Choose water heating equipment with a high Energy Factor. d. Look for a knowledgeable solar hot water installation company. e. Evaluate solar systems using the Solar Ra ting and Certification Corporation(SRCC). 4. Install efficient lighting fixtures: a. Consider permanent fluorescent fixtures in as many locations as possible. b. Look for the ENERGY STAR label. 5. Install efficient appliances: a. Include the refrigerator, dish washer, and laundry appliances. b. Look for the ENERGY STAR label. c. Compare appliance efficiencies. 6. Install a properly sized photovoltaic(PV) system: a. Look for a knowledgeable solar PV installation company. b. Evaluate tax and other incentives. c. Use PVWATTS for a quick estimate of PV output. d. Find a Certified Solar PV Installer form the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners. 7. Turn off lights, computers, and appliances when not in use. (Toolbase Services, 2008) Ultimately the occupants determine if the hom e uses no net energy. They must be aware of usage patterns(number seven on the list), perform all routine maintenance on appliances and equipment, and have a good understanding on all th e energy saving features of the home. Even though an owner might have a ZEH, if they waste energy, the home will not perform as designed. Passive Solar Design Properly designed hom es can use geometry, overhangs, technology, the sun, and wind to help reduce energy demands. Humans have used this technique, called passive solar design, for thousands of years. Passive solar design is climat e and site specific. Th ere is an increase in

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16 initial costs for design and mate rials but decreases the amount of energy consumed and the size of A/C and heating units needed. Different passive solar design techniques are used for reducing the need for cooling and heating but the design needs to account for bot h. A tight building envelope and proper insulation holds in heat during the winter and cold air during the summer. Overhangs are designed to lower solar heat ga in on windows during the summer months and allow for it during the winter. The suns path is different dur ing the summer and winter allowing for this to happen. Although not always possible, the build ing should be oriented with the long axis running east/west within 30 degrees. Passive solar heating techniques are much further developed and wider known to designers than co oling techniques, but it can be accomplished. Homes can be designed to be cooler by taking advantage of shading(overhangs and natural vegetation), special ventilation, dehumidifying equipment, and solar cooling. Individual Traditional End-Us e Components and Design Cooling, heating, and hot water are considered the traditional end-use energy consum ers. This section will discuss best practices in proper selection, designs, and reducing the demand created by these systems. While some of the components and id eas discussed can be used for either heating or cooling end use dominated climates, this section is meant to address the later. Roof Design and Materials Roofs play one of the largest roles in lowering cooling costs. With most of the roof exposed to the sun nearly all day, it is the area of the house responsible for the most solar heat gain. This heat gain is transferred to the attic and from there to the inside of a home, causing the air conditioner to cycle more often to maintain a cool temperature. There are numerous ways to minimize this solar gain caused by the roof, options include; properly selec ting roof material and color, adding a radiant barrier, ad equate ventilation, and insulation.

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17 The most significant improvement in lowering so lar heat gain caused from the roof is the color and materials used. Light colors and refl ective materials can lowe r attic temperatures by more than 30 degrees Fahrenheit over the traditio nal dark colored asphalt roofs that are in-place on most homes(Parker and Sherwin, 1998). Popular material choices include tile, metal, and asphalt shingles. White tile followed by white painted metal are the two best choices for materials. Overhangs and Shading While shading the entire building is important, it is essential to pr operly shade areas with windows. Windows are a major contributor to solar heat gain. Becau se of Floridas long summer and need for cooling, the op timal design for overhangs is la rger than most other places in the country. The Florida Solar Energy Cent er(FSEC) has performed a study and gives an equation for the optimal roof overhang design as; Length of Overhang (L) = Distance from sill to soffit(D) Factor(F). The factor is determin ed by latitude. See figures 2-1 and 2-2 for an example equation and the f actors (Fairey, 1981, p. 3). Placing a long porch on the south side of the hom e is a better option th an overhangs in the same location. In cooling climates, particularly effective strategies include preferential use of north-facing windows along with generously shaded south-facing windows. Shading from landscaping, overhangs, shutters, and solar window screens helps lower heat gain on windows that receive full sun (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2000, p. 2). Windows should be placed where trees and buildi ngs will shade them, preventing the full solar heat gain caused by the sun. Using trees for shad e also allows for wind to blow more freely on a home and through windows, further cooling it.

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18 Windows W indow type, size, and placement ar e all very important in dete rmining which ones to use. The windows U-value(measurement of heat tran sfer through a material ) should be carefully selected. A low U-value loses less heat th an a higher value. The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient(SHGC) measures how much solar radi ation is absorbed and transferred inside, the higher the value the more heat is allowed inside SHGC can also be referred to as Shading Coefficient(SC). To convert SC to SHGC multiply SC by 0.87(SHGC=0.87*SC). Visible Transfer(VT) is a measurement of how much vi sible light passes through a window, a low value will let in less light. Choosing the proper VT rating is site specific rather than climate. If there are trees, buildings, ect. near the window, a higher VT rating would be desirable otherwise interior lights would have to be turned on to be able to see comfortably. The National Fenestration Rating Council(NFRC) places stickers with the U-value, SHGC, and VT ratings on many new windows to help buyers make the best decision. Picking out windows is not just an issue of efficiency, owners want them to be aesthetically pleasing, allow little sound to transf er in or out, have low glare, and allow enough light inside to name a few feat ures. But to generalize, windows should have both a low U-Value and SGHC for Floridas climate. Having too lo w of a SGHC value lowe rs the VT, causing the windows to be very dark. An occupant would have to use interior lightin g during the day to be able to see comfortably, so a site-specific medi an must be found. A higher VT value is needed for windows shaded by trees and buildings than a window that is not. Hi gh efficiency frames must accompany these windows for them to function at their full potential. The clear conclusion by McCluney and Gueymard (1993) was: The lower the shading coefficient of the glazi ng system, the lower the energy cost of the window. Increasing the resistance of the glass and frame to conductive heat transfers(lower the U-factor), has little or in some cases small negative impacts on the

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19 energy efficiency of the glazing system. Lowered U-factors can lower peak electric demands... (McCluney and Gueymard, 1993, p. 2) Insulation Thermal resistance(R-value) is how insulation is rated. The higher the R-value, the better the insulation is as long as it has been installe d properly with no gaps or holes. Insulation is placed in both the walls and attic. For new construction there are numerous choices available for insulation, but loose-fill and batt insulation are th e most common. Loose-f ill is usually installed by spraying it in place with special equipment. Batt insulation comes in large rolls that are rolled out and trimmed to fit. For both types, the thickness determines the R-value obtained. Obviously higher R-values work better, but the w hole design must be looked at to determine the necessary R-value needed for a ZEH. Careful installation procedures are necessa ry for the insulation to function properly. Insulation coverage should be uniform and leave no gaps. All holes and cracks should be sealed that lead from inside the home to the attic with the proper caulk or expanding foam. Vents should not be obstructed by insula tion. Attic insulation works very well when combined with a radiant barrier. HVAC HVAC is an acronym for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. HVAC systems can improve comfort by controlling the temperature and humidity inside of a building. With heating accounting for 7% and A/C accounting for 33% of the energy consumed in existing Florida homes, a properly designed HVAC is a necessity fo r a ZEH (Parker, 2002). A heater or A/C unit that is too large or small wastes energy and air ducts need to be the properly sized. Professionals are capable of designing a system that is specifi c to heating and cooling loads, insulation levels, and room sizes.

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20 Heating Although only accoun ting for 7% of residential energy usage in Florida, heating systems can not be ignored completely (Parker, 2002). It would be very uncomfortable during the winter to not have heat in northern Fl orida. A higher initial investme nt in energy efficient heating equipment might be beneficial in the northern parts of Florida. Furnaces, boilers, and heat pumps are common heating systems. Heat pumps should be considered for homes in the Southern part of the country because of their numerous advantages: Cleaner energy-heat pumps use coolant and run on electricity, furnaces and boilers use oil or natural gas for fuel Also functions as an A/C unit-the process can be reversed and a h eat pump can cool air during the summer. Heat pumps can function very quietly. Winter temperatures-heat pumps start to l oose efficiency at low temperatures(30-40 degrees Fahrenheit), which is not really a problem in Florida. Heating efficiency can be measured in eith er coefficient of performance(COP), energy efficiency ratio(EER), or hea ting season performance factor(HSPF). While each of these values mean something a little different, a highe r value indicates a more efficient unit. Air conditioning There are tw o types of air conditioning(A/C), ce ntral and single room units. Central A/C uses one unit to cool the air and ducts to delive r it. Single room units do not require ducts and will only cool one room. Central A/C is mo re common in new homes and provides uniform temperatures throughout a home if everything is installed properly. Two things must be considered when selecting an A/C un it, the efficiency and the size. An air conditioners efficiency is rated in s easonal energy efficiency rating(SEER). SEER is calculated from the total number of British Thermal Units (BTU) of heat removed from the air

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21 divided by the total amount of energy used by th e unit. The higher a SEER value is, the more efficient the unit is. Currently SEER values range from 13 to 21, with 13 being the minimum value allowed for new units mandated by the federal government. Air conditioners are sized in tons. One ton is equal to 12,000 Btus per hour. To be energy efficient, a professional must properly size an A/C unit. If the unit is too small, it will waste energy by running more often, if the unit is too large it will lose energy efficiency. Sizing is based upon the necessary cooling load s, not a homes square footage. Air ducts A properly designed and sized airduct system can improve efficiency of a central heater and A/C unit. One of the easiest ways to improve efficiency is to place the air-ducts inside the air-conditioned space. Common pract ice is to place the in the at tic and walls. Ducts in the conditioned space offers the advantage of deliver ing the cooled/heated air through the interior and not the hot/freezing attic or walls, reducing the cycle time neces sary of the unit. Also, any leaks from the ducts will be leaked into wher e it should be going in the first place. Air-duct sizing is determined after the he ater and A/C unit is selected b ecause the blower helps determine the necessary size. Return ducts should be pl aced high on walls and grilles or jumper ducts placed above door-frames to help increase air flow and keep pressures balanced. The duct system should be designed at the same time as the rest of the house to keep the supply ducts length to a minimum and avoid any interfer ence from wires, pipes, frames, ect. The objectives of good design are occupant co mfort, proper air distribution, economical heating and cooling system operation, and econo mical duct installation. The outcome of the duct design process will be a duct system(supply and return plenums, ducts, fittings, boots, grilles, and registers) that 1. Provides conditioned air to meet all room heating and cooling loads 2. Is properly sized so that the pressure drop across the air handler is within manufacturer and design specifications 3. Is sealed to provide proper air flow and to prevent air from entering the house or duct system from polluted zones

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22 4. Has balanced supply and return air flows to maintain a neutral pressure in the house. 5. Minimizes duct air temperature gains or losses between the air handler and supply outlets, and between the return register and air handler (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2003, p.1). Ventilation Ventilation is very im portant to the indoor air quality and the overall comfort level. Since a tight envelope is very desirabl e, ventilation is necessary to co ntrol humidity levels and to get fresh outdoor air inside. There are many design approaches and di fferent technologies available depending upon the location, square footage, ceiling heights, wall locations, ect. Either the cooling coils of an A/C unit or separate dehumidificati on devices can control humidity levels inside. Because of the high outsi de temperatures and humidity in Florida, it is generally more cost effective to use the A/C unit for dehumidification. Prope rly sizing the heater and A/C unit has a large impact on humidity. Whether operating with continuous fan operation, as is common in commercial applications, or in the AUTO fan mode, as most residential systems do, dehumidification performance degrades at part-load conditions Over sizing air-conditioning equipment increases the times spent at part load and results in higher space humidity levels (Shirey, Henderson, and Raustad, 2006, p. 4). Hot Water Heater When selecting a proper and efficient hot wate r heater, num erous options must be factored into the decision. Besides the different types of heaters, one must take into consideration the type of energy it uses, the size, energy efficiency, and annual operating costs. Types Five types of water heaters ar e available: conventional storag e, dem and heaters, heat pump water heaters, solar water heater s, and tank-less coil heaters. 1. Conventional storage : water is constantly heated and stored in a tank. Since the tank is kept full, energy can be lost through constant hea ting. However, you can find some storage water

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23 heater models with heavily insulated tanks, which significantly reduce standby heat losses, lowering the annual operating costs. (Ener gy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005). 2. Demand heaters : water is heated when needed. There is no storage tank and energy consumption can be lowered because there ar e no standby energy losses. Shortages can occur if there is a high demand for the hot water(i.e. taking a show er and doing laundry simultaneously). Demand heaters can be used throughout a home or assist a solar water heater. For homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily, demand water heaters can be 24%% more energy efficient than conventional storage tank water heaters (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005). 3. Heat pump : uses the heat pump to provide hot water. Can use either tank s to store hot water or be heated on demand if using a geothermal system. This system costs more than a conventional storage hot water heater, but should have lower operating costs (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005). 4. Solar water heaters : separated into two types, active(contains circulating pumps) and passive(no pumps). Both types contain a storage tank and solar collector. Active systems cost more but have efficiency. Passive systems require less maintenance and usually have longer life spans. The goal for both systems is to use the sun to heat all or most of the water needed. It is not uncommon to have a dema nd heater to help during peak demands and during cloudy days (Energy Effici ency and Renewable Energy, 2005). 5. Tank-less coil: very similar to demand heaters, tank-le ss coil systems use the heating system to provide hot water when needed. These can be very efficient if used in the north during the heating season, but should not be used in Florida, thus they will not be discussed in detail. Energy types and costs Hot water h eaters can run on electricity, natural ga s, propane, solar, geothermal, or fuel oil. Depending upon the utilities provided in the area and heater type, only some of these energy options will be available. Storage, demand, and heat pump systems use an Energy Factor (EF) to determine efficiency. The manufacturer provides the EF for the unit. The energy factor (EF) indica tes a water heater's overall en ergy efficiency based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. This includes the following: Recovery efficiency how efficiently the heat from the energy source is transferred to the water Standby losses the percentage of heat loss per hour from the stored water compared to the heat content of the water (w ater heaters with storage tanks) Cycling losses the loss of heat as the water circulates thr ough a water heater tank, and/or inlet and outlet pipes. (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005)

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24 Operating costs are determined by the amount of energy consumed multiplied by the unit cost of that type of energy. While having an efficient unit re duces the amount of energy needed, it does not necessarily result in lower operating costs if the unit cost of energy is high in the area. Example, an efficient system that is powere d by propane(high unit cost) might cost more to operate than an inefficient system that is powered by electric ity(low unit cost). Reducing hot water demand One of the easiest ways to reduce the energy need ed for water heating is to reduce the amount consumed. Installing low flow pipes, faucets, and shower heads throughout the home can have a large impact on the amount of water used. Using cold water for laundry and having a dishwasher that heats its own water saves on consumption as well. The U.S. Department of Energy suggests insulating the storage tank and pipes, lowering the hot water temperature, using a drain-water heat recovery syst em, or installing a timer to the system to turn on and off when needed will all reduce operating co sts. All of these options can be added to existing systems, but are less expensive if installed initially. Finally, placing the water heater in the middle of a home lowers energy consumption by reducing the length of pipe that the hot water travels through. Other End-Use Components Other end-uses are anything other than coo ling, heating, or hot water that consum es energy. Historically, most of the energy consumed by th e U.S. residential sector has been for space heating, cooling, and water heatin gwhat we call the traditi onal end-uses. The Other end-uses(appliances, lighting, electronics, an d miscellaneous equipment), however, have grown to the point that they account for over half of residential el ectricity use (Brown, Rittelmann, Parker, and Homan, 2006, p. 9-37). This is due to the growing number of items be ing plugged in. Energy efficient appliances and user conservation efforts must be taken to reduce the demand caused by these other end-uses.

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25 Lighting Energy efficient lighting is easy to install, ju st select the proper wattage bulbs. Every light in the house should be a Compact Fluor escent Light(CFL). Chose ENERGY STAR certified CFL bulbs over non-certified. CFLs are far superior to the cheaper incandescent bulbs currently being used because: 1. ENERGY STAR qualified bulbs use about 75 percent less energy than standard incandescent bulbs and last up to 10 times longer 2. Save about $30 or more in electricity costs over each bulb's lifetime 3. Produce about 75 percent less heat, so they're safer to opera te and can cut energy costs associated with home cooling 4. Are available in different sizes a nd shapes to fit in almost any fixture, for indoors and outdoors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agen cy and U.S. Department of Energy, 2008) CFL bulbs have one downside over incandescent bul bs, they contain mercury. Mercury levels vary in different bulbs. When disposing of CFL s, it is best to take the bulbs directly to a recycling center instead of putti ng them in a bin. This practice ensures the bulb is not broken en route. If one were to break in the home, the EPA clean up procedures for mercury can be seen at http://www.epa.gov/mercury/spills/index.htm#flourescent Major Appliances Although every appliance is im portant; dishwashers, clot hes washers, dryers and ref rigerators are the largest energy consumers in this category. Most units will have a yellow Energy Guide sticker that estimates the amount of kilowatts(kW) the appliance uses in a year. Again, look for the ENERGY STAR certified mode ls and compare efficiencies of different models to select the best unit one can afford. Also, using the proper settings/modes saves energy consumption. Refer to the ENERGY STAR webs ite for lists of approved appliances. Dishwasher New ENE RGY STAR dishwashers ha ve better energy and water efficiency than standard models. Most of the energy they consume is in the form of hot water. Use the air-dry option

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26 instead of the heat-drying option to save furt her energy. Finally, only operate the dishwasher with a full load. Clothes washers New clothes washers have sta tistics provided by the m anufactu rer that include the amount of water used per year, amount of electricity us ed per year, Modified Energy Factor(MEF), and a water factor. The Modified En ergy Factor (MEF) measures the energy used during the washing process, including machine ener gy, water heating energy, and drye r energy. The higher the MEF, the more efficient the clothes washer is. (U .S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). The water factor is the amount of water used in gallons per load divided by the cubic feet of the unit. A low wate r factor is desirable. To conserve energy, use cold water, only wash full loads, and use a longer spin cycle to remove more moisture before drying. Dryers Clothes dryers for the most part use about the sam e amount of energy. ENERGY STAR does not put a sticker on any dryer unit. All a dryer re ally does is remove moisture from wet clothes, so to lower the energy consumption redu ce the moisture by using the spin cycle in the washer. Most new units have a moisture sensor option that will shut the dryer off when the clothes are dry instead of running for a set amount of time. Use this feature over setting a timer to conserve energy. Refrigerators Select on ly refrigerators with the ENERGY STAR sticker on it, they ar e at least 15% more efficient than the minimum requirements. Gains in efficiency are from more insulation, better compressors, and more efficient defrosting settings Placing the unit where cool air can circulate to condensers, correctly setting the temperatures, and keeping th e unit full can conserve energy.

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27 The most efficient models are compact, have th e freezer above the refrigerator, have door access ice and filtered water, moisture control settings, and a manual defroster. Oven/stove These units are all abou t the same in efficien cy. Users are able to improve efficiency by using the correct size burner, keeping burners and oven clean, and covering pots with lids to reduce cooking time. Electronics ENERGY STAR rates nearly every type of electronic device(telephones, TVs, DVD players, sound system s, ect.). The main diffe rence in most of thes e vs. non-ENERGY STAR certified is they contain a feature that consumes much less energy when the unit is off. Also, use only ENERGY STAR power adaptors, they save an average of 30% more energy(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. De partment of Energy, 2008) Finally, occupants should be aware of turning off electronics when not in use. Phantom Loads Many appliances still consum e en ergy when turned off. This small amount of energy is called a phantom load or standby loss. Device s such as TVs, DVD/VCRs, microwaves, coffee makers, answering machines, ect. will add up qu ickly in wasting unnecessary energy. The average U.S. household has about 40 to 60 W of continuous phantom loads running day in and day out. On average, this amounts to approximately 1,200 WH per day or 1.2 KWH per day (Schwartz, 2007, p. 64). Eliminating these loads can be fairly easy. Simply unplugging everything after it is through being used or having all pl ugs go into a power strip with an on/off button is the easiest for existing homes. A switch next to the light switch in every room that turns the power on or off into the outlets for the room is another opti on. The most difficult phantom load to reduce is

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28 the TV. If it is completely turned off, a TV w ill lose its channel memory and take a bit longer to turn on when desired. A battery could be instal led into a TV that stores the channel memory when shut off and charges when in use. Solar Panels Photovoltaic(PV), m ore commonly known as sola r panels are absolutely necessary for a ZEH. They collect energy from the sunlight and tu rns it into electricity. PV systems consist of numerous solar cells connected together to form a PV module. Many modules are then connected together to form a PV array. Arrays are rated by th e maximum amount of watts they can produce. The electricity produced is Direct Current(DC) and inverters can be used to convert this from DC to Alternating Current(AC). There are two types of systems, grid tied or o ff-grid. Grid tied systems use an inverter and a two-way power meter to put electricity direc tly into the power grid. These systems do not require any battery backups, are chea per, and smaller. The disadvant age is if the grid is turned off (a blackout), the PV system will not supply any electricity. Grid tied systems can be a hybrid system with a battery back up that will supply electricity during blackouts. Off-grid systems use a charge controller and battery back-ups. Th e charge controller keeps the batteries from overcharging and the batte ries store extra emergency electri city. If the batteries are fully charged, the extra electricity then goes to the home. Inverters are optional, but if one is not going to be used every appliance must use DC (most use AC) electricity. Off-grid systems are a bit more complicated to install, do not use any el ectricity from a grid, and are more expensive, but are able to function during blackouts. The amount of electricity generated by the PV array depends upon the geographical location, time of day, season, local landscape, and local weather (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2005). More electricity is produced the longer the sun is out each day

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29 (summer is better than winter), if it is a clear day (not overcast), a nd if there is no shade obstructing the PV array (trees buildings, ect.). Sizing the system should be done after determining how much electricity is consumed during a typical hot summer day to ensure zero net energy is used. After a system is installed an independent c ontractor should test it to determine how it is functioning. This ensures it is working properly and gives data on how much electricity the PV system is producing. http://www.dsireusa.org/ contains a list of all the rebates that can be applied to qualified PV system s. Mounting the arrays The arrays will collect the most energy if the sun is always at a 90-degree angle. There are two ways to mount the arrays, directly to the roof or use a mechanical system that changes the angle. The first option is much cheaper to install and maintain but not as efficient. Mechanical trackers can be used to tilt the arrays at the optimum a ngle the entire time the sun is out. These trackers are expensive and the moving parts will have some maintenance issues. If trackers are not going to be use d, the panels should be properl y angled for the summer and winter to get the most out of the mid day sun. The optimum angles are determined by the latitude and tilt of the earth. A specialist should be used to install and determine the angle. Here in Florida, it is best to have as much of the PV system facing south as possible. Geographic location A different amount of solar radiation reaches the ground depending upon the geographic location, angle of panels, and dire ction they are facing. A study with 2kW systems in the U.S., showed the South-West (Arizona, Nevada, ect.) to have the highest so lar potential(up to 8.5 kWh/day), but Florida has a sola r potential between 7 to 7.5 kWh/day(Lombardi, Parker, Vieira,

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30 and Fairey, 2004). Floridas high solar potential means that they are more economical to use than in most other areas of the U.S. Residents Habits The residents electricity consum ption and ma intenance ultimately determines if the house uses no net energy. Often, ZEH do not achieve zer o net consumption because of the residents habits, lack of understanding the technology, and not keeping up with maintenance. Simple things such as turning off lights, appliances, and electronics when leav ing a room, or closing exterior doors and the refrigerat or quickly all add up. Programmable thermostats should be used to raise the interior temperature when no one wi ll be home. Any routine maintenance for major appliances, A/C and heating units, P/V system, a nd the exterior of the home(to keep envelope tight) should be performed as scheduled. Professionals are available to train owners on how to keep the home up, reduce wasted electricity usage, and use the technology available to achieve a true ZEH. Conclusion ZEH provide wonderful exam ples of best practices for residential en ergy efficiency. New construction should look at these homes as models and choose as many of these components and design features as affordable to lower energy consumption. Table 2-1 gives a best practices list for Floridas climate.

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31 Figure 2-1. Example of Properly Si zed Overhang (Fairey, 1981, p. 3)

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32 Figure 2-2. Factors for Overha ng Equation (Fairey, 1981, p. 3)

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33 Table 2-1. Best Practices List Passive Solar Design Orient long-axis as close to East-W est as possible. Shade East and South walls/roof with vegetation if possible. Keep envelope tight Roof Reduce solar heat gain by selec ting light colors and reflective materials Overhangs Properly size overhangs based on window locations and latitude of home Windows Select as low a U-value and SHGC th at still allows adequate light in to see comfortably Insulation Properly install with no gaps or holes. Select high R-values HVAC System Get as high SEER/HSPF unit as possi ble. Minimize duct length and place in the conditioned space. Us e professional to size system, ducts, and supplies/return locations. Hot Water Heater Reduce demand using low-flow fixtures and pipes. Centrally locate unit. Use a tank-less demand and so lar water heater in combination Lights Use CFL bulbs in every socket Appliances Select ENERGY STAR when availabl e. Clean when necessary, only do full loads, and turn off when not in use. Use energy saving features if available Solar Panels Have array face South. Make sure sun hitting array is not obstructed by buildings or vegetation

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34 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The goal of this thesis is to determine cost effective energy upgrades for a new home with a short payback period that can justify the additi onal upfront costs. For the analysis period, 30years was selected based upon the common mortgage for a new home. The research contained six steps. 1. Habitat for Humanity provided plans for a th ree bedroom, two bathroom 1,288 square foot home. The plans were then altered slightly to maximize the south facing roof area to allow for a large photovoltaic array and solar hot water heater to face the ideal direction. 2. Prices for individual components were research ed. Quotes from local contractors were obtained for HVAC systems, roofs, solar hot water systems, PV arrays, and windows. Two quotes were obtained from each of the contractor s with the exception of the PV arrays and solar hot water heater. The purpose of the two quotes was to be able to compare prices for top-of-the-line to low-end components. For small appliances, comparisons were made between ENERGY STAR and non-ENERGY STAR approved units. Prices and energy consumption were obtained for similar sized units from stores such as Home Depot, Lowes, and Sears. 3. Data for a model house was entered into Ener gy Gauge using the low-end components to get a baseline of the energy consumed per year Next, the household energy consumption was obtained for upgrading each of the following in dividually: (1) HVAC system (2) lights (3) roof and overhangs (4) windows (5) using light colored exterior pa int (6) adding more insulation (7) adding a PV system and (8) adding a solar hot water heater. These components were all looked at together in an attempt to create a ZEH and individually to see what their independent contributions to energy savings were. 4. The energy savings in step three were compar ed to the additional initial cost of the component. A simple payback period and savi ngs-to-investment ratio (SIR) was determined for each of the components. The discount rate and inflation percentage used were obtained from the White Houses Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Inflation for utilities was determined by averaging GRU s 5-year ra te projections. 5. An analysis of the components with a favorable SIR and short payback period were looked at together to determine if they were still beneficial. When ener gy saving components are combined, the total amount of energy saved diminishes. The upgraded combinations were examined in Energy Gauge and another SIR and payback period for the combinations was determined. 6. Finally, an analysis was performed to determin e if all of the upgraded components and all of the upgrades with favorable SIRs were still bene ficial if financed full y. The loan rate was obtained from Bank of America on January 29th, 2008.

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35 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The findings of this study are pr esented below in six sections. 1. The m odel house plans and alterations made to them. 2. All of the individual high-end and low-end components selected. Also included are their costs, characteristics, and rebates if applicable. 3. A household energy consumption analysis of th e model house, the model house with each of the eight upgrades individually, and all ei ght upgrades combined with ENERGY STAR appliances were performed. 4. A 30-year life cycle cost analysis to determ ine the SIR and simple payback period of the energy savings for the eight individual compone nts vs. the model house. For the appliances, a 10-year life cycle cost analysis of th e ENERGY STAR appliances vs. non-ENERGY STAR was performed. 5. The individual components and appliances that had favorable SIR and payback periods were analyzed in combination and household energy consumption determined again with Energy Gauge. A SIR and simple payback period was de termined for this combination and all eight upgrades combined with ENERGY STAR appliances. 6. Finally, a life cycle cost analysis for financi ng all of the upgrades vs. none of the upgrades and the favorable SIR upgrades vs. none was performed. Section 1: Model House Plans Housing plans were obtained from Habitat fo r Humanity. The floor plans provided were still in permit review and none of these models ha ve been built at the time of writing. Plans were for a 1288 square foot three bedroom, two bathroom home. The only modifications to the floor plan were the windows, as the or iginal plans contained none. The researcher added six 4 by 3, two 5 by 3, and two 6 by 3 windows for a tota l area of 138 square feet. Windows were placed 3-8 from the ground to allow the south facing windows the best passive solar shading during the summer and solar heat gain during the wint er when overhangs were upgraded to 3. The plans contained no elevation views and the researcher designed the roof. The roof is hipped with two different slopes of 5/12 and 12/12. The reason why the later slope is much

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36 higher was to get enough south facing roof area to accommodate a 3.6 kW PV system along with a solar hot water heater. Floor plans can be seen in figure 4-1 and elevation views in figure 4-2. Section 2: Components This section is divided into two for the low-end com ponents selected for the model house and the high-end components sele cted for the attempted ZEH. Low-End Components For the low-end com ponents an effort was made to select the cheapest available. Contractors were asked to give a quote for the lowest cost items th ey would install. Appliances were selected based on low cost and the ability to get a comparable sized one that was ENERGY STAR certified. A summary of the low-e nd components can be seen in table 4-1. HVAC system A 2.5-ton Goodm an heat pump was quoted at $4,884.00 from Bertie Heating & Air Conditioning, Inc. located in Gainesville. Th e heat pump is rated at SEER 13 and HSPF 7.7. The quote includes the installation co st of the ductwork located in the attic. The duct system has 8 supplies and 4 returns and is adequately sized for the heating a nd cooling needs of the home. Ducts were assumed to have average leakage. Lights Incandescent light bulbs were chosen throughout the m odel house. Cost was assumed to be $0.20 for each 60-watt bulb with a life of 1,000 hours. 16 fixtures were designed for throughout the home. Each fixture was assu med to be used for 1,000 hours each year. Roof and overhangs For the roof, a sim ple dark composite shingle roof with 1 overhangs was chosen. Because of the high humidity in Florida, these roofs gene rally last about 15 years before needing to be replaced. In Energy Gauge the es timated solar absorbance level fo r the material type and color

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37 was 0.96. The cost of materials and labor was quoted at $3,860.00 with a 5-year warranty from Perry Roofing Contractors, lo cated in Gainesville. Windows All ten windows in the model house are clear single pane with m etal frames. National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) rates all ten with a U-Fact or of 1.13 and a SHGC of 0.71. A quote was obtained from Window man in Gainesville for $1,301.44 for the materials and labor to install all ten. Roof insulation R19 batt roles were chosen for the roof insulation at a price of $681.45 from Lowes. The installation was assumed to be unifo rm with no area missing insulation. Exterior paint A light gray colored paint was chosen for the exte rior co lor. It was in the median of values for solar absorbance level in Energy Gauge with 0.75. Hot water heater A 40-gallon gas W hirlpool hot wa ter heater was selected with an energy factor of 0.59. The price was $289.00 from www.lowes.com The location of the tank was assum ed to be in the interior (in the laundry room) w ith a set temperature of 120 degrees. Energy Gauge estimates a four-person household uses 60 ga llons of hot water a day. Appliances The f ollowing were assumed for the major a ppliances and miscellaneous loads in the house: 3.2 ft 3 Whirlpool washing machine for $350.00 fr om Home Depot. Uses 418 kWh/year 18.2 ft 3 Kenmore refrigerator for $430.00 from www.sears.com Uses 479 kW h/year 24 inch Tappan dishwasher for $198.00 from www.lowes.com Uses 432 kW h/year Range was assumed to use 530 kWh/year

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38 Ceiling fans were assumed to use 59 kWh/year Dryer was assumed to use 624 kWh/year Miscellaneous loads were assumed to use 2773 kWh/year High-End Components For the high-end com ponents, contractors were asked to give quotes on the most energy efficient systems they could inst all. All appliances selected were ENERGY STAR certified and similar in size as the ones fo r the low-end model house. The goal of selecting the high-end components was to make the total energy consum ed in the household as low as possible and attempt a ZEH. A summary of the high-end compone nts can be seen in table 4-2 and rebates in table 4-3. HVAC system A 2-ton Carrier heat pump was quoted at $8,245.00 from Bertie Heating & Air Conditioning, Inc. It was rated at SEER 17 and HSPF 8.5 and is eligible for a $300.00 rebate from GRU. The ductwork (for $500.00, included in th e quote) for this system was sealed better and located in the interior space of the hom e. For an additional $195.00, a programmable thermostat was selected to automatically raise or lower the temperature at set times to conserve energy. Due to the high level of insulation and interior ductwork, this system is oversized and could have been a 1.5-ton unit. Unfortunately, high SEER heat pumps start at 2-ton units. All of the 1.5-ton units available were SEER 13, the minimum allowed by the government. Lights CFL lights were selected for every fixture. The CFL equivalent of a 60-watt incandescent bulb is 13-w atts. Price was assumed at $1.66 pe r bulb and a life span of 8,000 hours. Each fixture was assumed used for 1,000 hours a year.

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39 Roof and overhangs A white m etal roof with 3 overhangs was quoted from Perry Roofing Contractors for $12,850.00. Energy Gauge estimated the solar absorbance level for the material and color roof at 0.3. Metal roofs last generally between 4060 years and this one came with a 25-year manufacturers warranty. Windows All ten windows are low -e double pane with vinyl frames. Nationa l Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) rates all ten with a U-Factor of 0.56 and a SHGC of 0.32. Windowman quoted these windows for $2,324.40 for the materials and labor. Roof Insulation R30 batt roles were chosen for the roof insulation at a price of $835.12 from Lowes. The installation was assumed to be unifo rm with no area missing insulation. Exterior paint Any light co lored paint will have a lower sola r absorbance than darker colors. For this home, a blue color was chosen with a solar absorbance of 0.51 from Energy Gauge. The only absorbance levels lower were shades of white, green, and gravel exteriors. Solar hot water heater A ProgressivTube passive solar hot water heater with backup tank-less dem and heater was quoted for $6,000.00 from www.solardirect.com for m aterials and installation. This system is eligible for total of $3,000.00 in rebates from the federal government, state of Florida, and GRU. Rebates from the federal government are in the fo rm of a tax credit. GRU and Florida will issue the rebate in the form of a check. The solar system is 8 x 4-2 and collects hot water into a 50gallon tank. The panels for the syst em rest directly on the roof fa cing south with no added angle. The loss coefficient was obtained from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation. Included

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40 in the package was a Takagi Flash T-K Jr. natura l gas tank-less heater to provide any additional hot water needed. The tank-less system has an energy factor of 0.83 and capable of delivering up to 5.8 gallons per minute of hot water. The PV System A 3.6 kW PV array package from www.solardirect.com was quoted for $33,000.00 for m aterials and installation and is eligible for $21,800.00 in rebates. Forms of rebates are the same as they are for the solar hot water heater. The system contains 18 Sanyo 200-watt modules and a Fronius IG4000 grid-tie inverter with 94.4% efficiency in converti ng DC electricity to AC. Each module is 51.9 x 35.2, weighs 30.86 lbs. faces south, and are at the same angle as the roof. All of the specifications for the modules we re obtained from the manufacturer. Appliances The f ollowing were assumed for the major a ppliances and miscellaneous loads in the house: 3.1 ft 3 ENERGY STAR Frigidaire washing machine for $600.00 from www.sears.com Uses 210 kWh/year 18.2 ft 3 ENERGY STAR Kenm ore refr igerator for $500.00 from www.sears.com Uses 407 kW h/year 24 ENERGY STAR Whirlpoo l dishwasher for $228.00 from www.lowes.com Uses 371 kW h/year Range was assumed to use 530 kWh/year Ceiling fans were assumed to use 59 kWh/year Dryer was assumed to use 624 kWh/year Miscellaneous loads were assumed to use 2335 kWh/year ENERGY STAR does not rate ranges, ceiling fa ns, or dryers and the assumed kWh/year didnt change during any analysis. Misce llaneous loads dropped 438 kWh/year (365 1.2

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41 kWh/day) if power strips were used for applianc es and turned off when not in use to eliminate phantom loads (Schwartz, 2007, p. 64). Section 3: Household Ener gy Co nsumption Analysis Energy Gauge allows the user to enter data th at is very site and component specific to determine the energy usage. The following assumptions were made: Location: Gainesville No shading trees or adjacent buildings Slab is on grade Full attic, hipped roof with a sl ope of 5/12 and radiant barrier 10 exterior wood framed walls with R-11 insulation Insulated exterior doors Air handler and hot water heat er located in the interior No garage, sunspace, or added mass to the home When all of the high-end upgrades were look ed at together, the only different assumption made in Energy Gauge was the house had good envelope tightness. The model home used average for the energy analysis. Model House with Low-End Components Energy Summary Energy Gauge estim ated the model house consumed 9,884 kWh/year and 148 Therms/year for hot water heating. Interior temperatures we re assumed to be 76 degrees when cooling and 68 degrees when heating. This home passes build ing code by a marginal score of 30.21, anything over 31.25 is a failing score. The electricity end use summary can be seen in table 4-4, the gas summary in table 4-5, and the building code su mmary in table 4-6. The Energy Gauge energy summary can be seen in figure 4-3. Model House with Effects of Upgrading Individual Components Energy Summaries As expected, the largest elec tricity savings were from upgrading the HVAC system, which reduced total consumption by 13.8%. Next cam e upgrading the lights to CFL (7.94%), using low-e windows (3.16%), white metal roof and 3 overhangs (2.67%), R30 insulation (1.7%), and

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42 finally changing the color (0.71%). The solar ho t water system reduced natural gas consumption by 68.92%. The electricity end-use su mmary for all of the upgrades can be seen in table 4-4 and the gas summary in table 4-5. All High-End Components Energy Summary When all of the high-end com ponents were used along with ENERGY STAR appliances and better envelope tightness, Energy Ga uge estimated the home consumed 6,300 kWh of electricity and 46 Therms of natural gas per year. The PV system produced 5,428 kWh to drop the net total electricity consum ption to 872 kWh. Energy end use summary of all the high-end components can be seen in table 4-9. The Ener gy Gauge energy summary can be seen in figure 4-4. Section 4: Component and Appliance Si mple Payback Period and SIR Analysis For sections 4, 5, and 6 the following assum ptions were made: Current electricity rate of $0.10/kWh Current natural gas rate of $1.72/therm Electricity inflation of 4.1% Natural gas inflation of 6.0% A 30 year discount rate of 4.9% A 10 year discount rate of 4.6% A 30 year general inflation rate of 2.1% A 10 year general inflation rate of 2.0% Utility inflation rates were determined by aver aging GRUs 5-year utility rate projections. Discount rates and general inflation rates were taken from the 2008 projections from the White House Office of Management and Budget. Comp onents were looked at fo r a 30-year period and ENERGY STAR appliances for a 10-year period. A simple payback and SIR table for all the individual components is in tabl e 4-7 and all the appliances in table 4-8. For components, the 30-year life cycle cost analysis can be seen in a ppendix A and the 10-year li fe cycle cost analysis for appliances in appendix B.

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43 Individual Components Analysis Of all the components, upgradi ng the lights to CFLs had the shortest payback period (0.33 years) and highest SIR (79.171). These bulbs use less than a quart er of the energy consum ed by incandescent bulbs, last 8 times as long before burning out, and cost just a bit more than incandescent bulbs after having to pay for replacement. Furthermore, CFLs reduce cooling demands by putting out less heat than incandesc ent bulbs. Next came upgrading the insulation from R19 to R30 with payback period of 8.79 y ears and an SIR of 2.91 9. Changing the paint color to one with a lower solar absorbance saved 70 kWh a year, amounting to roughly $7.00 in energy savings the first year. Ov er the 30-year period with electricity inflation, the paint color saved over $400. These three upgrades would be ve ry easy to perform in new or existing houses. Both the PV system and solar hot water he ater had favorable SI Rs (1.039 and 1.565) and payback periods of 19.82 years and 14.58 years re spectively. These numbers are largely influenced by the amount of rebates available for th em. If the rebates were not available, the PV system would have an unfavorable SIR and the solar hot water heaters SIR would drop to 1.088. Both of these systems would be favorable to install if one had the means for a large down payment and not finance for a long time. Upgrading to the high SEER/HSPF heat pump a nd interior ducts had a favorable SIR of 1.101 and payback period of 22.93 years. These numbe rs would have been better if the system was properly sized. Upgrading the insulation, HVAC system, and placing the ducts in the interior not only saves energy, but also reduces the size of the heat pump necessary, further reducing initial costs. When these upgrades were used, the heat pump only needed to be a 1.5 ton unit. Without any of these upgrades a 2.5 ton unit was required. While the HVAC upgrades are favorable, they would have bett er results in a larger home.

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44 The roof with large overhangs and low-e wi ndows were the only two components with an unfavorable SIR of 0.365 and 0.814 respectively. The payback pe riod for the roof came at 45 years, which was the time the composite shingles needed to be replaced for a third time. By this time, the metal roof would be getting close to ne eding to be replaced as well. Payback period for the windows was 31.50 years. Double pane window s offer an advantage of reducing the sound transmitted from outside to inside and vise versa. This is usually considered as a benefit even though there is no monetary amount associated with it. ENERGY STAR Appliances Analysis Of the three appliances looke d at, only two of them had a favorable SIR. The ENERGY STAR dishwasher had an SIR of 3.013 and a payback period of 4.08 years. The refrigerator had an SIR of 1.407 and payback of 9.34 years. The upgraded washing m achine had an SIR of 0.844 and payback period of 11.04 years, over the 10-year analysis period. Water usage was not taken into account for the dishwasher or washing m achine, which would have improved the SIR and payback periods slightly for both. Section 5: Favorable Components Analysis As determ ined in section 4, the upgraded HVAC system, lights, insulati on, paint, solar hot water heater, and PV system had favorable SIRs when looked at individually. All six of these components, a lighter colored exterior paint, a nd an ENERGY STAR dishwa sher and refrigerator were looked at in combination. Envelope tight ness was assumed to be good in Energy Gauge and the miscellaneous loads without the phantom loads were used in this analysis. Favorable Components and Appliances Energy Summary When the favorable SIR com ponents and appl iances looked at in combination, the house consumed 6,783 kWh of electricity, produced 5,4 28 kWh from the PV panels, and consumed 46 Therms of natural gas per year. Of the elec tricity, 1,297kWh was used for cooling, 573 kWh for

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45 heating, 210 kWh for lighting, and 4703 kWh for a ll other loads. The price premium for the upgrades with favorable SIRs was $42,543.16 vs. $52,807.12 for all the upgrades. The favorable SIR components and appliance house consumed 483 kWh more than all of the upgraded features and 8,529 kWh less than the model home. Ta ble 4-9 shows the energy end use for the model, all high-end upgrades, and the favorable SIR upgrades. The Energy Gauge energy summary can be seen in figure 4-5. SIR and Payback Summary for Upgrades For the perf orming all the favorable SIR upgrades, the simple payback period was 16.24 years and had an SIR of 1.217. For performing a ll of the upgrades, the simple payback period was 24.65 years and had and SIR of 1.053. These num bers show both options are favorable if the additional costs can be paid upfront. Ta ble 4-10 shows a summary of the SIR, simple payback period, cost premium and total energy savings. Appendix A shows the detailed 30-year life cycle cost analysis. Section 6: Life Cycle Cost Analysis with Financing Most people would be unable to com e up with the additional $42,534.16 for the favorable SIR upgrades or the $52,807.12 for all the upgrades upfront and need to finance it as part of the 30-year mortgage. For both analyses, the reba tes received in year 2 were put toward the principle to end the loan paymen ts early associated with the upgrades. An estimated 30-year financing rate of 5.875% was obtained from Bank Of America. SIR equaled 0.830 for financing the favorable SIR upgrades and equaled 0.555 for financing all of the upgrades. Table 4-11 shows the LCC for performing all of the upgrad es vs. none and table 4-12 shows the LCC for performing upgrades with favorable SIR vs. none.

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46 Figure 4-1. Floor Plan

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47 Figure 4-2. Elevation View

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48 Figure 4-3. Model Home Annual Energy Summary

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49 Figure 4-4. All High-End Components a nd Appliances Annual Energy Summary

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50 Figure 4-5. Favorable SIR Components and Applianc es Annual Energy Summary

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51 Table 4-1. Low-End Components Summary Description Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost HVAC 2.5 ton Goodman heat pump. SEER 13, HSPF 7.7. Air-ducts in attic with average leakage 1 $4,884.00 $4,884.00 Digital Thermostat 1 $0.00 $0.00 Lights Incandescent, 60-watts 16 $0.20 $3.12 Roof and Overhangs Dark Composition Shingles, 1' O.H. 1 $3,860.00 $3,860.00 Windows Clear Single Pane, U-factor=1.13, SHGC=0.71. Metal frames 1 $1,301.44 $1,301.44 Roof Insulation Batt R-19 1 $681.45 $681.45 Exterior Paint 0.75 solar absorbance on all walls 0 $0.00 $0.00 Hot Water Heater Gas Whirlpool #BFG1F4040S3NOV. 40 gallon tank 1 $289.00 $289.00 Washing Machine 3.2 ft3 Whirlpool #WTW5200S 1 $350.00 $350.00 Refrigerator 18.2 ft3 Kenmore #6580 1 $430.00 $430.00 Dishwasher 24" Tappan #TDB210RFS 1 $198.00 $198.00 Total Cost $11,997.01

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52 Table 4-2. High-End Components Summary Description Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost HVAC 2 ton Carrier heat pump. SEER 17, HSPF 8.5. Leak-free ducts in conditioned space. 1 $8,245.00 $8,245.00 Programmable Thermostat 1 $195.00 $195.00 Lights CFL, 13-watts 16 $1.66 $26.61 Roof and Overhangs White Metal, 3' O.H. 1 $12,850.00 $12,850.00 Windows Double Pane Low-E, U-Factor= 0.56 SHGC= 0.32. Vinyl frames 1 $2,324.40 $2,324.40 Roof Insulation Batt R-30 1 $835.12 $835.12 Exterior Paint 0.51 solar absorbance on all walls 0 $0.00 $0.00 Solar Hot Water Heater ProgressivTube system with 50 gallon tank. Backup gas tankless Takaji T-K Jr. 1 $6,000.00 $6,000.00 PV System 3.6 kW Sanyo system. Fronius IG14000 inverter 1 $33,000.00 $33,000.00 Washing Machine 3.1 ft3 ENERGY STAR Frigidaire #GLTR1670FS 1 $600.00 $600.00 Refrigerator 18.2 ft3 ENERGY STAR Kenmore #6787 1 $500.00 $500.00 Dishwasher 24" ENERGY STAR Whirlpool #DU811SWPQ 1 $228.00 $228.00 Total Cost $64,804.13 Table 4-3. Rebates Summary Federal Florida GRU Totals PV Array $2,000.00 $14,400.00 $5,400.00 $21,800.00 Solar HWH $2,000.00 $500.00 $500.00 $3,000.00 Heat Pump $0.00 0 $300.00 $300.00 Totals $4,000.00 $14,900.00 $6,200.00 $25,100.00

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53 Table 4-4. Electricity End Use Summary for Model Home and Individual Upgraded Components Cooling (kWh/yr) Heating (kWh/yr) Lighting (kWh/yr) Other (kWh/yr) Total (kWh/yr) Reduction (kWh/yr) Model Home 2,758 849 962 5,315 9,884 N/A Percentage 27.90% 8.59% 9.73% 53.77% 100.00% Upgraded HVAC 1,649 594 962 5,315 8,520 1,364 Percentage 19.35% 6.97% 11.29% 62.38% 100.00% 13.80% Upgraded Lights 2,654 920 210 5,315 9,099 785 Percentage 29.17% 10.11% 2.31% 58.41% 100.00% 7.94% Upgraded Roof and OH 2,376 967 962 5,315 9,620 264 Percentage 24.70% 10.05% 10.00% 55.25% 100.00% 2.67% Upgraded Windows 2,499 796 962 5,315 9,572 312 Percentage 26.11% 8.32% 10.05% 55.53% 100.00% 3.16% Upgraded Insulation 2,657 782 962 5,315 9,716 168 Percentage 27.35% 8.05% 9.90% 54.70% 100.00% 1.70% Upgraded Exterior Paint Color 2,622 915 962 5,315 9,814 70 Percentage 26.72% 9.32% 9.80% 54.16% 100.00% 0.71% Table 4-5. Hot Water Gas Consumption Summary Hot Water (Therms/yr) Reduction Model Home 148 N/A Solar w/ Tankless Demand 46 102 Percentage 68.92%

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54 Table 4-6. Model House Flor ida Building Code Summary Baseline Home As Built Model e-Ratio Heating 6.21 5.28 0.85 Cooling 16.75 16.66 0.99 Hot Water 8.29 8.27 1 Totals 31.25 30.21 0.97 Table 4-7. Individual High-End vs. LowEnd Components SIR and Payback Summary HVAC Lights Roof and Overhang Windows Insulation Solar Hot Water Heater PV System SIR 1.101 79.171 0.364 0.814 2.919 1.565 1.04 Simple Payback Period(years) 22.93 0.33 45 31.5 8.79 14.58 19.82 Cost Premium $3,256.00* $23.49 $8,990.00 $1,022.96 $153.67 $2,711.00* $11,200.00* Life Energy Savings $8,097.98 $4,660.49 $1,567.35 $1,852.32 $997.40 $14,702.17 $32,225.67 After Rebates Table 4-8. ENERGY STAR vs. Non-ENERGY STAR Appliances SIR and Payback Summary Dishwasher Refrigerator Washing Machine SIR 3.013 1.42 0.844 Simple Payback Period(years) 4.08 9.34 11.04 Cost Premium $30.00 $70.00 $250.00 Life Energy Savings $118.50 $128.95 $272.53

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55 Table 4-9. Energy End Use Comparisons Model Home All High-End Upgrades Favorable SIR Upgrades Cooling(kWh) 2,758 997 1,297 27.90% 15.83% 19.12% Heating(kWh) 849 598 573 8.59% 9.49% 8.45% Lighting(kWh) 962 210 210 9.73% 3.30% 3.11% Other(kWh) 5,315 4,495 4,703 53.77% 71.35% 69.34% SubTota(kWh) 9,886 6,300 6,783 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% PV System(kWh) 0 5,428 5,428 0 86.16% 80.02% Net Total(kWh) 9,886 872 1,355 Hot Water(Therms) 148 46 46

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56 Table 4-10. SIR, Simple Payback Period, and Cost Premium of All Upgrades and Favorable SIR Upgrades without Financing All Upgrades Favorable SIR Upgrades SIR 1.079 1.246 Simple Payback Period 25.73 16.96 Cost Premium* $27,707.12 $17,433.16 Life Energy Savings $68,205.81 $65,338.27 After Rebates

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57Table 4-11. LCC for Financi ng All Upgrades vs. None Payment Info Electricity Info Loan Amount $52,807.12 kWh Difference 9,014 kWh/year Down Payment $5,280.71 10.00% kWh rate $0.10 /kWh Interest Rate 5.875% Natural Gas Difference 102 Therms/year Time 30 years Gas rate $1.72 /Therm Yearly Payment $3,406.69 year Gas inflation 6.00% Discount Rate 4.90% Electricity inflation 4.10% General Inflation 2.10% Misc. Cost New Roof $3,860.00 Rebates -$25,100.00 Year Loan Payment Misc. Cost Interest Principal Balance E nergy Saving s Net SavingsNPV Net Saving s 0 $5,280.71 $0.00 $47,526.41 1 $3,406.69 $2,792.18 $614.51 $46,911.90 $1,124.32 -$2,282.36 -$2,175.75 2 $3,406.69 -$25,100.00 $2,756.07 $25,750.61 $21,161.28 $1,173.95 $22,867.27 $20,780.85 3 $3,406.69 $1,243.23 $2,163.46 $18,997.82 $1,225.83 -$2,180.86 -$1,889.30 4 $3,406.69 $1,116.12 $2,290.57 $16,707.26 $1,280.06 -$2,126.63 -$1,756.26 5 $3,406.69 $981.55 $2,425.14 $14,282.12 $1,336.75 -$2,069.94 -$1,629.59 6 $3,406.69 $839.07 $2,567.61 $11,714.51 $1,396.02 -$2,010.67 -$1,508.99 7 $3,406.69 $688.23 $2,718.46 $8,996.05 $1,457.98 -$1,948.70 -$1,394.17 8 $3,406.69 $528.52 $2,878.17 $6,117.88 $1,522.77 -$1,883.91 -$1,284.86 9 $3,406.69 $359.43 $3,047.26 $3,070.62 $1,590.52 -$1,816.17 -$1,180.80

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58Table 4-11 Continued Year Loan Payment Misc. Cost Interest Principal Balance Energy Savings Net Savings NPV Net Savings 10 $3,251.01 $180.40 $3,070.62 $0.00 $1,661.36 -$1,589.65 -$985.25 11 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,735.45 $1,735.45 $1,025.37 12 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,812.93 $1,812.93 $1,021.12 13 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,893.97 $1,893.97 $1,016.93 14 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,978.73 $1,978.73 $1,012.81 15 $0.00 -$5,271.98 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,067.39 $7,339.37 $3,581.18 16 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,160.15 $2,160.15 $1,004.79 17 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,257.18 $2,257.18 $1,000.88 18 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,358.70 $2,358.70 $997.04 19 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,464.92 $2,464.92 $993.27 20 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,576.07 $2,576.07 $989.57 21 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,692.38 $2,692.38 $985.94 22 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,814.10 $2,814.10 $982.38 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,941.49 $2,941.49 $978.88 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,074.82 $3,074.82 $975.46 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,214.39 $3,214.39 $972.10 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,360.48 $3,360.48 $968.81 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,513.43 $3,513.43 $965.59 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,673.55 $3,673.55 $962.44 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,841.21 $3,841.21 $959.35 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $4,016.76 $4,016.76 $956.34 Totals $33,911.20 -$25,091.26 $68,217.68 $64,678.45 $29,326.13 SIR 0.555

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59Table 4-12. LCC for Financing Fa vorable SIR Upgrades vs. None Payment Info Electricity Info Loan Amount $42,543.16 kWh Difference 8,531 kWh/year Down Payment $4,254.32 10.00% kWh rate $0.10 /kWh Interest Rate 5.875% Natural Gas Difference 102 Therms/year Time 30 years Gas rate $1.72 /Therm Yearly Payment $2,744.54 year Gas inflation 6.00% Discount Rate 4.90% Electricity inflation 4.10% General Inflation 2.10% Misc. Cost Rebates -$25,100.00 Year Loan Payment Misc. Cost Interest Principal Balance Energy Savings Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $4,254.32 $0.00 $38,288.84 1 $2,744.54 $2,249.47 $495.07 $37,793.77 $1,074.04 -$1,670.50 -$1,592.47 2 $2,744.54 -$25,100.00 $2,220.38 $25,624.16 $12,169.62 $1,121.61 $23,477.07 $21,335.02 3 $2,744.54 $714.97 $2,029.57 $10,140.04 $1,171.34 -$1,573.20 -$1,362.88 4 $2,744.54 $595.73 $2,148.81 $7,991.23 $1,223.34 -$1,521.20 -$1,256.27 5 $2,744.54 $469.48 $2,275.06 $5,716.18 $1,277.70 -$1,466.84 -$1,154.79 6 $2,744.54 $335.83 $2,408.71 $3,307.46 $1,334.55 -$1,409.99 -$1,058.19 7 $2,744.54 $194.31 $2,550.23 $757.23 $1,394.00 -$1,350.54 -$966.23 8 $801.72 $44.49 $757.23 $0.00 $1,456.16 $654.44 $446.34 9 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,521.18 $1,521.18 $989.01 10 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,589.18 $1,589.18 $984.96 11 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,660.30 $1,660.30 $980.97 12 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,734.70 $1,734.70 $977.06

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60Table 4-12 Continued Year Loan Payment Misc. Cost Interest Principal Balance Energy Savings Net Savings NPV Net Savings 13 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,812.53 $1,812.53 $973.21 14 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,893.96 $1,893.96 $969.42 15 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,979.15 $1,979.15 $965.71 16 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,068.28 $2,068.28 $962.06 17 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,161.55 $2,161.55 $958.48 18 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,259.15 $2,259.15 $954.96 19 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,361.29 $2,361.29 $951.51 20 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,468.18 $2,468.18 $948.13 21 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,580.07 $2,580.07 $944.81 22 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,697.19 $2,697.19 $941.56 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,819.78 $2,819.78 $938.38 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,948.13 $2,948.13 $935.26 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,082.50 $3,082.50 $932.21 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,223.18 $3,223.18 $929.23 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,370.50 $3,370.50 $926.31 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,524.76 $3,524.76 $923.46 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,686.32 $3,686.32 $920.67 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,855.52 $3,855.52 $917.95 Totals $20,013.50 -$20,845.68 $65,350.14 $70,436.64 $35,315.85 SIR 0.830

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61 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This thesis has shown which energy efficiency upgrades to a hom e are better investments than others for Gainesvilles hot climate. So me components did not provide a favorable return on the investment and can not currently be justif ied. Others proved to be great investments and easy to incorporate into any new or existing home. Conclusions The 1,288 square foot model hom e consumed 9,8 86 kWh of electricity and 148 Therms of natural gas per year if low-end components were selected and narrowly passed building code. With all of the proposed upgrades at an a dditional cost of $52,807.12 before rebates, net electricity consumption dropped to 872 kWh and natural gas consumption to 46 Therms. When only upgraded components with favorable SIRs were selected, at an additional cost of $42,543.16 before rebates, net electricity consumption was 1355 kWh and natural gas consumption 46 Therms. It was determined that both of these options were unfavorable if they needed to be fully financed in a mortgage, but if not, then they we re both worthwhile. When all of the component options were looke d at individually, most proved to be cost efficient when financing wasnt an issue. Th e only three options that had unfavorable SIRs were upgrading to a white metal roof with large overhangs, low-e windows, and an ENERGY STAR washing machine. The positive results for the solar hot water heat er and PV system were heavily influenced by the amount of rebates available for them. Th e federal rebates are av ailable until the end of 2008, GRU rebates until September 30, 2008, and the Florida rebates until the middle of 2010. If these rebate programs are not renewed these results wi ll change significantly.

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62 Recommendations The future of this research should be reex am ined with different assumed values for discount rates and utility inflation rates. The results obtained in this thesis are highly dependent upon the expected rise in cost for electricity and natural gas. A slight change in any of these three assumptions would influence many of the components that had SIR values near 1.00. Another recommendation is to perform the st udy with a larger home or when 1.5-ton high SEER units become available. The cooling co st per square foot would drop with a properly sized HVAC system and have a better SIR ratio. Furthermore, owners of a larger home would be more likely to have the financial means for many of the energy efficiency upgrades.

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63 APPENDIX A COMPONENTS LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Table A-1. Low-E W indows Li fe Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% Windows Elect. 9572 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Low-E Window Premium $1,022.96 Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $1,022.96 -$1,022.96 1 $32.48 $32.48 $30.96 2 $33.81 $33.81 $30.73 3 $35.20 $35.20 $30.49 4 $36.64 $36.64 $30.26 5 $38.14 $38.14 $30.03 6 $39.71 $39.71 $29.80 7 $41.33 $41.33 $29.57 8 $43.03 $43.03 $29.35 9 $44.79 $44.79 $29.12 10 $46.63 $46.63 $28.90 11 $48.54 $48.54 $28.68 12 $50.53 $50.53 $28.46 13 $52.60 $52.60 $28.24 14 $54.76 $54.76 $28.03 15 $57.01 $57.01 $27.82 16 $59.34 $59.34 $27.60 17 $61.78 $61.78 $27.39 18 $64.31 $64.31 $27.18 19 $66.95 $66.95 $26.98 20 $69.69 $69.69 $26.77 21 $72.55 $72.55 $26.57 22 $75.52 $75.52 $26.36

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64 Table A-1 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 23 $78.62 $78.62 $26.16 24 $81.84 $81.84 $25.96 25 $85.20 $85.20 $25.77 26 $88.69 $88.69 $25.57 27 $92.33 $92.33 $25.37 28 $96.11 $96.11 $25.18 29 $100.05 $100.05 $24.99 30 $104.15 $104.15 $24.80 Totals $1,852.32 $1,022.96 $829.36 $833.10 SIR 0.814397512 Simple Payback Period 31.50 years Table A-2. CFL Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With CFL Electricity 9099 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% CFL Cost $26.61 8,000 hours Incandescent Cost $3.12 1,000 hours Light Use 1000 hours/year Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Misc. Cost Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $23.49 -$23.49 1 $81.72 -$3.19 $84.90 $80.94 2 $85.07 -$3.25 $88.32 $80.26 3 $88.56 -$3.32 $91.88 $79.59 4 $92.19 -$3.39 $95.58 $78.93

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65 Table A-2 Continued Year Energy Savings Misc. Cost Net Savings NPV Net Savings 5 $95.97 -$3.46 $99.43 $78.28 6 $99.90 -$3.53 $103.44 $77.63 7 $104.00 -$3.61 $107.61 $76.99 8 $108.26 $27.74 $80.52 $54.92 9 $112.70 -$3.76 $116.46 $75.72 10 $117.32 -$3.84 $121.16 $75.10 11 $122.13 -$3.92 $126.05 $74.48 12 $127.14 -$4.00 $131.14 $73.86 13 $132.35 -$4.09 $136.44 $73.26 14 $137.78 -$4.17 $141.95 $72.66 15 $143.43 -$4.26 $147.69 $72.06 16 $149.31 $32.76 $116.55 $54.21 17 $155.43 -$4.44 $159.87 $70.89 18 $161.80 -$4.54 $166.34 $70.31 19 $168.44 -$4.63 $173.07 $69.74 20 $175.34 -$4.73 $180.07 $69.17 21 $182.53 -$4.83 $187.36 $68.61 22 $190.01 -$4.93 $194.94 $68.05 23 $197.80 -$5.03 $202.84 $67.50 24 $205.91 $38.68 $167.23 $53.05 25 $214.36 -$5.25 $219.60 $66.41 26 $223.15 -$5.36 $228.50 $65.88 27 $232.29 -$5.47 $237.76 $65.34 28 $241.82 -$5.58 $247.40 $64.82 29 $251.73 -$5.70 $257.43 $64.29 30 $262.05 -$5.82 $267.87 $63.78 Totals $4,660.49 $4.57 $4,655.93 $2,106.74 SIR 79.17095901 Simple Payback Period 0.33 years

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66 Table A-3. Solar Hot Water Heat er Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Gas Rate $1.72 /therm Model Gas 148 Therm/year Gas Inflation 6.00% With Solar HWH Gas 46 Therm/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Solar HWH Premium $5,711.00 Solar Rebate $3,000.00 Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $5,711.00 -$5,711.00 1 $185.97 $185.97 $177.28 2 $197.12 -$3,000.00 $3,197.12 $2,905.42 3 $208.95 $208.95 $181.02 4 $221.49 $221.49 $182.92 5 $234.78 $234.78 $184.83 6 $248.86 $248.86 $186.77 7 $263.80 $263.80 $188.73 8 $279.62 $279.62 $190.71 9 $296.40 $296.40 $192.71 10 $314.19 $314.19 $194.73 11 $333.04 $333.04 $196.77 12 $353.02 $353.02 $198.84 13 $374.20 $374.20 $200.92 14 $396.65 $396.65 $203.03 15 $420.45 $420.45 $205.16 16 $445.68 $445.68 $207.31 17 $472.42 $472.42 $209.48 18 $500.77 $500.77 $211.68 19 $530.81 $530.81 $213.90 20 $562.66 $562.66 $216.14 21 $596.42 $596.42 $218.41 22 $632.20 $632.20 $220.70 23 $670.14 $670.14 $223.01 24 $710.35 $710.35 $225.35 25 $752.97 $752.97 $227.71

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67 Table A-3 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 26 $798.14 $798.14 $230.10 27 $846.03 $846.03 $232.51 28 $896.79 $896.79 $234.95 29 $950.60 $950.60 $237.42 30 $1,007.64 $1,007.64 $239.91 Totals $14,702.17 $2,711.00 $11,991.17 $8,938.39 SIR 1.565118946 Simple Payback Period* 14.58 years *Includes rebate

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68 Table A-4. Insulation Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With R30 Insulation Elect. 9716 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Insulation Premium $153.67 Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $153.67 -$153.67 1 $17.49 $17.49 $16.67 2 $18.21 $18.21 $16.54 3 $18.95 $18.95 $16.42 4 $19.73 $19.73 $16.29 5 $20.54 $20.54 $16.17 6 $21.38 $21.38 $16.05 7 $22.26 $22.26 $15.92 8 $23.17 $23.17 $15.80 9 $24.12 $24.12 $15.68 10 $25.11 $25.11 $15.56 11 $26.14 $26.14 $15.44 12 $27.21 $27.21 $15.33 13 $28.32 $28.32 $15.21 14 $29.49 $29.49 $15.09 15 $30.70 $30.70 $14.98 16 $31.95 $31.95 $14.86 17 $33.26 $33.26 $14.75 18 $34.63 $34.63 $14.64 19 $36.05 $36.05 $14.53 20 $37.53 $37.53 $14.41 21 $39.06 $39.06 $14.31 22 $40.67 $40.67 $14.20 23 $42.33 $42.33 $14.09 24 $44.07 $44.07 $13.98 25 $45.88 $45.88 $13.87 26 $47.76 $47.76 $13.77

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69 Table A-4 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 27 $49.71 $49.71 $13.66 28 $51.75 $51.75 $13.56 29 $53.87 $53.87 $13.46 30 $56.08 $56.08 $13.35 Totals $997.40 $153.67 $843.73 $448.59 SIR 2.919178735 Simple Payback Period 8.79 years

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70 Table A-5. Light Colore d Exterior Paint Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With Light Colored Paint Elect. 9814 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Paint Premium $0.00 Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $0.00 $0.00 1 $7.29 $7.29 $6.95 2 $7.59 $7.59 $6.89 3 $7.90 $7.90 $6.84 4 $8.22 $8.22 $6.79 5 $8.56 $8.56 $6.74 6 $8.91 $8.91 $6.69 7 $9.27 $9.27 $6.63 8 $9.65 $9.65 $6.58 9 $10.05 $10.05 $6.53 10 $10.46 $10.46 $6.48 11 $10.89 $10.89 $6.43 12 $11.34 $11.34 $6.39 13 $11.80 $11.80 $6.34 14 $12.29 $12.29 $6.29 15 $12.79 $12.79 $6.24 16 $13.31 $13.31 $6.19 17 $13.86 $13.86 $6.15 18 $14.43 $14.43 $6.10 19 $15.02 $15.02 $6.05 20 $15.64 $15.64 $6.01 21 $16.28 $16.28 $5.96 22 $16.94 $16.94 $5.91 23 $17.64 $17.64 $5.87 24 $18.36 $18.36 $5.83 25 $19.11 $19.11 $5.78 26 $19.90 $19.90 $5.74 27 $20.71 $20.71 $5.69

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71 Table A-5 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 28 $21.56 $21.56 $5.65 29 $22.45 $22.45 $5.61 30 $23.37 $23.37 $5.56 Totals $415.59 $0.00 $415.59 $186.91 Save 70 kWh/year Payback is immediate

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72 Table A-6. White Metal Roof and Large Overhangs Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 Electricity Inflation 4.10% With White Roof Elect. 9620 Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% White Roof Premium $8,990.00 Composite Roof Cost $3,860.00 15 year life span Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $8,990.00 -$8,990.00 1 $27.48 $27.48 $26.20 2 $28.61 $28.61 $26.00 3 $29.78 $29.78 $25.80 4 $31.00 $31.00 $25.60 5 $32.27 $32.27 $25.41 6 $33.60 $33.60 $25.21 7 $34.98 $34.98 $25.02 8 $36.41 $36.41 $24.83 9 $37.90 $37.90 $24.64 10 $39.46 $39.46 $24.45 11 $41.07 $41.07 $24.27 12 $42.76 $42.76 $24.08 13 $44.51 $44.51 $23.90 14 $46.34 $46.34 $23.72 15 $48.24 -$5,271.98 $5,320.21 $2,595.95 16 $50.21 $50.21 $23.36 17 $52.27 $52.27 $23.18 18 $54.41 $54.41 $23.00 19 $56.65 $56.65 $22.83 20 $58.97 $58.97 $22.65 21 $61.39 $61.39 $22.48 22 $63.90 $63.90 $22.31 23 $66.52 $66.52 $22.14 24 $69.25 $69.25 $21.97 25 $72.09 $72.09 $21.80 26 $75.05 $75.05 $21.64 27 $78.12 $78.12 $21.47 28 $81.33 $81.33 $21.31 29 $84.66 $84.66 $21.14

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73 Table A-6 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 30 $88.13 $88.13 $20.98 Totals $1,567.35 $3,718.02 -$2,150.67 $3,277.34 SIR 0.364554274 Simple Payback Period 45.00 years *with 3 Composite Roof replacements

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74 Table A-7. HVAC System Li fe Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With Heat Pump Elect. 8520 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Heat Pump Premium $3,556.00 Rebate $300.00 after 1 year Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $3,556.00 -$3,556.00 1 $141.99 $141.99 $135.36 2 $147.81 -$300.00 $447.81 $406.96 3 $153.87 $153.87 $133.30 4 $160.18 $160.18 $132.29 5 $166.75 $166.75 $131.28 6 $173.59 $173.59 $130.28 7 $180.70 $180.70 $129.28 8 $188.11 $188.11 $128.30 9 $195.83 $195.83 $127.32 10 $203.86 $203.86 $126.35 11 $212.21 $212.21 $125.38 12 $220.91 $220.91 $124.43 13 $229.97 $229.97 $123.48 14 $239.40 $239.40 $122.54 15 $249.22 $249.22 $121.60 16 $259.43 $259.43 $120.68 17 $270.07 $270.07 $119.75 18 $281.14 $281.14 $118.84 19 $292.67 $292.67 $117.94 20 $304.67 $304.67 $117.04 21 $317.16 $317.16 $116.14 22 $330.16 $330.16 $115.26 23 $343.70 $343.70 $114.38 24 $357.79 $357.79 $113.51 25 $372.46 $372.46 $112.64 26 $387.73 $387.73 $111.78

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75 Table A-7 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 27 $403.63 $403.63 $110.93 28 $420.18 $420.18 $110.08 29 $437.41 $437.41 $109.24 30 $455.34 $455.34 $108.41 Totals $8,097.98 $3,256.00 $4,841.98 $3,914.75 SIR 1.100886685 Simple Payback Period 25.04 years

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76 Table A-8. PV System Li fe Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/yr Electricity Inflation 4.10% With PV Elect. 4456 kWh/yr Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% PV System Premium $33,000.00 PV System Rebate $21,800.00 after 2 years Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $33,000.00 -$33,000.00 1 $565.05 $565.05 $538.66 2 $588.22 -$21,800.00 $22,388.22 $20,345.51 3 $612.34 $612.34 $530.48 4 $637.45 $637.45 $526.43 5 $663.58 $663.58 $522.42 6 $690.79 $690.79 $518.43 7 $719.11 $719.11 $514.48 8 $748.59 $748.59 $510.55 9 $779.29 $779.29 $506.66 10 $811.24 $811.24 $502.80 11 $844.50 $844.50 $498.96 12 $879.12 $879.12 $495.16 13 $915.16 $915.16 $491.38 14 $952.69 $952.69 $487.63 15 $991.75 $991.75 $483.91 16 $1,032.41 $1,032.41 $480.22 17 $1,074.74 $1,074.74 $476.56 18 $1,118.80 $1,118.80 $472.93 19 $1,164.67 $1,164.67 $469.32 20 $1,212.42 $1,212.42 $465.74 21 $1,262.13 $1,262.13 $462.19 22 $1,313.88 $1,313.88 $458.66 23 $1,367.75 $1,367.75 $455.17 24 $1,423.83 $1,423.83 $451.70 25 $1,482.20 $1,482.20 $448.25

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77 Table A-8 Continued Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 26 $1,542.97 $1,542.97 $444.83 27 $1,606.24 $1,606.24 $441.44 28 $1,672.09 $1,672.09 $438.07 29 $1,740.65 $1,740.65 $434.73 30 $1,812.01 $1,812.01 $431.42 Totals $32,225.67 $11,200.00 $21,025.67 $34,304.70 SIR 1.039536226 Simple Payback Period* 19.82 years *includes rebate

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78 Table A-9. Favorable SIR Components Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9,884 kWh/year Gas Rate $1.72 $/therm Model Gas 148 Therm/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With Upgraded Components Elect. 1,355 kWh/year Gas Inflation 6.00% With Upgraded Components Gas 46 Therm/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Premium $42,543.16 Rebates $25,100.00 Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Costs Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $42,543.16 -$42,543.16 1 $1,073.84 $1,073.84 $1,023.68 2 $1,121.40 -$25,100.00 $26,221.40 $23,828.95 3 $1,171.12 $1,171.12 $1,014.55 4 $1,223.10 $1,223.10 $1,010.09 5 $1,277.46 $1,277.46 $1,005.70 6 $1,334.30 $1,334.30 $1,001.38 7 $1,393.73 $1,393.73 $997.13 8 $1,455.89 $1,455.89 $992.94 9 $1,520.89 $1,520.89 $988.82 10 $1,588.88 $1,588.88 $984.77 11 $1,659.99 $1,659.99 $980.79 12 $1,734.38 $1,734.38 $976.87 13 $1,812.20 $1,812.20 $973.02 14 $1,893.61 $1,893.61 $969.24 15 $1,978.78 $1,978.78 $965.53 16 $2,067.90 $2,067.90 $961.88 17 $2,161.15 $2,161.15 $958.30 18 $2,258.73 $2,258.73 $954.79

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79 Table A-9 Continued Year Energy Savings Costs Net Savings NPV Net Savings 19 $2,360.86 $2,360.86 $951.34 20 $2,467.74 $2,467.74 $947.96 21 $2,579.61 $2,579.61 $944.64 22 $2,696.70 $2,696.70 $941.40 23 $2,819.28 $2,819.28 $938.21 24 $2,947.60 $2,947.60 $935.10 25 $3,081.95 $3,081.95 $932.05 26 $3,222.62 $3,222.62 $929.06 27 $3,369.91 $3,369.91 $926.15 28 $3,524.15 $3,524.15 $923.29 29 $3,685.68 $3,685.68 $920.51 30 $3,854.85 $3,854.85 $917.79 Totals $65,338.27 $17,443.16 $47,895.11 $51,795.95 SIR 1.217491719 Simple Payback Period 16.24 years

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80 Table A-10. All Upgraded Compone nts Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 $/kWh Model Electricity 9884 kWh/year Gas Rate $1.72 $/therm Model Gas 148 Therm/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% With Upgraded Components Elect. 872 kWh/year Gas Inflation 6.00% With Upgraded Components Gas 46 Therm/year Discount Rate 4.90% General Inflation 2.10% Premium $52,807.12 Rebates $25,100.00 New Roof $3,860.00 at 15 years Analysis Period 30.00 years Year Energy Savings Costs Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $52,807.12 -$52,807.12 1 $1,124.12 $1,124.12 $1,071.61 2 $1,173.74 -$25,100.00 $26,273.74 $23,876.51 3 $1,225.61 $1,225.61 $1,061.76 4 $1,279.83 $1,279.83 $1,056.94 5 $1,336.51 $1,336.51 $1,052.19 6 $1,395.77 $1,395.77 $1,047.51 7 $1,457.72 $1,457.72 $1,042.91 8 $1,522.50 $1,522.50 $1,038.37 9 $1,590.23 $1,590.23 $1,033.91 10 $1,661.06 $1,661.06 $1,029.51 11 $1,735.14 $1,735.14 $1,025.19 12 $1,812.61 $1,812.61 $1,020.93 13 $1,893.63 $1,893.63 $1,016.75 14 $1,978.38 $1,978.38 $1,012.63 15 $2,067.03 -$5,163.54 $7,230.57 $3,528.10 16 $2,159.77 $2,159.77 $1,004.61 17 $2,256.78 $2,256.78 $1,000.71 18 $2,358.29 $2,358.29 $996.87 19 $2,464.49 $2,464.49 $993.10

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81 Table A-10 Continued 20 $2,575.62 $2,575.62 $989.40 21 $2,691.91 $2,691.91 $985.77 22 $2,813.61 $2,813.61 $982.21 23 $2,940.98 $2,940.98 $978.72 24 $3,074.30 $3,074.30 $975.29 25 $3,213.84 $3,213.84 $971.93 26 $3,359.91 $3,359.91 $968.65 27 $3,512.84 $3,512.84 $965.43 28 $3,672.94 $3,672.94 $962.28 29 $3,840.57 $3,840.57 $959.19 30 $4,016.09 $4,016.09 $956.18 Totals $68,205.81 $22,543.58 $45,662.23 $55,605.15 SIR 1.052985803 Simple Payback Period 24.65 years

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82 APPENDIX B APPLIANCE LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Table B-1. ENERGY STAR Washing M achine Life Cycle Cost Analys is Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Model Electricity 418 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% ENERGY STAR Appliance Elect. 210 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.60% General Inflation 2.00% ENERGY STAR Premium $250.00 Analysis Period 10.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $250.00 -$250.00 1 $21.65 $21.65 $20.70 2 $22.65 $22.65 $20.70 3 $23.65 $23.65 $20.67 4 $24.65 $24.65 $20.59 5 $25.65 $25.65 $20.49 6 $26.65 $26.65 $20.35 7 $27.65 $27.65 $20.18 8 $28.65 $28.65 $19.99 9 $29.65 $29.65 $19.78 10 $30.65 $30.65 $19.55 Totals $261.53 $250.00 $11.53 $203.01 SIR 0.812 Simple Payback Period 11.55 years

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83 Table B-2. ENERGY STAR Dishwash er Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Model Electricity 432 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% ENERGY STAR Elect. 371 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.60% General Inflation 2.00% ENERGY STAR Premium $30.00 Analysis Period 10.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $30.00 -$30.00 1 $6.35 $6.35 $6.07 2 $7.35 $7.35 $6.72 3 $8.35 $8.35 $7.30 4 $9.35 $9.35 $7.81 5 $10.35 $10.35 $8.27 6 $11.35 $11.35 $8.67 7 $12.35 $12.35 $9.01 8 $13.35 $13.35 $9.32 9 $14.35 $14.35 $9.57 10 $15.35 $15.35 $9.79 Totals $108.50 $30.00 $78.50 $82.52 SIR 2.750721268 Simple Payback Period 4.72 years

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84 Table B-3. ENERGY STAR Refrigerat or Life Cycle Cost Analysis Financial Info Energy Info Electricity Rate $0.10 /kWh Model Electricity 479 kWh/year Electricity Inflation 4.10% ENERGY STAR Elect. 407 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.60% General Inflation 2.00% ENERGY STAR Premium $70.00 Analysis Period 10.00 years Year Energy Savings Premium Net Savings NPV Net Savings 0 $70.00 -$70.00 1 $7.50 $7.50 $7.17 2 $8.50 $8.50 $7.76 3 $9.50 $9.50 $8.30 4 $10.50 $10.50 $8.77 5 $11.50 $11.50 $9.18 6 $12.50 $12.50 $9.54 7 $13.50 $13.50 $9.85 8 $14.50 $14.50 $10.12 9 $15.50 $15.50 $10.34 10 $16.50 $16.50 $10.52 Totals $119.95 $70.00 $49.95 $91.54 SIR 1.307687223 Simple Payback Period 9.34 years

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85 LIST OF REFERENCES Brown, R., Rittelm ann, W., Pa rker, D., and Homan, G. 2006. Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous Equipmen t Electricity Use in New Homes. Florida Solar Energy Society : FSEC-CR-1675-06. Cocoa, FL. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2003. Air Distribution System Design. U.S. Department of Energy: DOE/G0102002-0782. Washington, DC. Energy Efficiency and Renewable En ergy. 2000. Passive Solar Design. U.S. Department of Energy: DOE/GO10099-790. Washington, DC. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Conventional Storage Water Heaters. U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_ho m e/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12 980. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_ho m e/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12 820. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Determining Energy Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_ho m e/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=13 000. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Heat Pump Water Heaters. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_ho m e/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12 840. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2003. Moving Toward Zero Energy Homes. U.S. Department of Energy : DOE/GO-102003-1828. Washington, DC. Energy Efficiency and Renewable En ergy. 2000. Passive Solar Design. U.S. Department of Energy: DOE/GO10099-790. Washington, DC. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Ener gy. 2005. Solar Radiation Basics. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/c onsumer/renewable_energy/solar/index.cfm/m ytopic=5001 2. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2005. Solar Water Heaters U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC. Available at

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86 http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/your_ho m e/water_heating/index.cfm/mytopic=12 850. Accessed on February 5, 2008. Energy Information Administration. 2008. State Energy Profiles: Florida. U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, DC. Available at http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/sta te_energy_profiles.cfm ?sid=FL Accessed on February 5, 2008. Fairey, P.W. 1981. Concepts in Passive Design #1 Roof Overhangs. Florida Solar Energy Center : FSEC-DN-1. Cocoa, FL. Lombardi, M., Parker, D., Vi eira, R., and Faiery, P. 2004. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovolta ic Electric Power Production in the United States. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/html/FSEC-PF-380-04/ Accessed on February 5, 2008. McCluney, R., and Gueym ard, C. 1993. Selecting Windows for South Florida Residences. Florida Solar Energy Society Contract Report : FSEC-CR-1691-93. Cocoa, FL. Parker, D., and Sherwin, J. 1998. Monitored Summer Peak Attic Air Temperatures in Florida Residences. Presented at The 1998 ASHRAE Annual Meeting. Toronto, Canada. Available at http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/htm l/FSEC-PF-336-98/index.htm Accessed on February 5, 2008. Parker, D. 2002. Research Highlights From A Large Scale Reside ntial Monitoring Study In A Hot Climate. Florida Solar Energy Society : FSEC-PF-369-02. Cocoa, FL. Parker, D., and Sherwin, J. 1998. Monitored Summer Peak Attic Air Temperatures in Florida Residences. Florida Solar Energy Society Cocoa, FL. Available at http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/publications/htm l/FSEC-PF-336-98/index.htm Accessed on February 5, 2008. Schwartz, J. 2007. Finding the Phanto ms: Eliminate Standby Energy Loss. Home Power : 117, 64. Ashland, OR. Shirey III, D., Henderson Jr., H., and Raustad, R. 2006. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions. Florida Solar Energy Society : FSEC-CR-1537-05. Cocoa, FL. Toolbase Services. 2008. Seven Steps to a ZEH NAHB Research Center. Upper Marlboro, MD. Available at http://www.toolbase.org/Home-Building-T opics/zero-energy-ho mes/seven-steps-zeh Accessed on February 5, 2008.

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87 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. Clothes Washers. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.pr_cfls Accessed on February 5, 2008. U.S. Environm ental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=cfls.pr_cfls Accessed on February 5, 2008. U.S. Environm ental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. 2008. External Power Adapters. ENERGY STAR. Washington, DC. Available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ext _power_supplies.power_supplies_consum ers Accessed on February 5, 2008.

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88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Christopher S. Hudson received h is high school diploma from Hollywood Hills High School in Hollywood, Florida, in 2001. Immedi ately after graduating high school, he was accepted to the University of Florida, Gainesville, in August 2001 and received his Bachelor of Science in civil engineering in May 2006. In August 2006, Christopher started his Master of Engineering in civil engineering focusing in c onstruction management at the University of Florida where he graduated in May 2008. As a graduate student he worked as a teaching assistant for his friend Dr. Fazil Najafi. U pon graduating Christopher a ccepted a position with the Los Angeles County Public Works Department in Alhambra, California.