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1 LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR OF UNDERGRADUATES IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES (CAL S) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By BRYAN QUENNEL PATTERSON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008
2 2008 Bryan Quennel Patterson
3 To my son, Jaylen, and my loving family and friends
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many people have contributed to m y success in graduate school and the completion of my doctoral degree. I want to first thank my GOD and Savior Jesus Christ for without him none of this could be possible. I wish to thank my son, Jaylen, and my family and friends for being supportive throughout this life-changing process Thanks go to my committee members whose individual and collective input on assist me through this very rigorous dissertation process. A special thanks the chairman of my committee, Dr Glenn Israel, who guidance and direction have given me the tools teach and conduct research. Appreciation goes to Dr Irani for her guidance and wisdom throughout the process. I wish th ank Dr. Howard Ladewig for being a tremendous mentor and supporter of my academic pursuits. I thank Dr. W. Max Parker for being a mentor, role model, and advisor during the last seve ral years. Additionally, thank you to the non committee members Drs. Edward Osborne, Hann ah Carter, Nicole Stedman, and Rick Rudd. The following people contributed significantly to my personal and professional success. My mother, Betty, and my father, Harold, who have both always supported me through the good and bad times. My sister Kimberly served as my best friend, motivator, and personal cheerleader. I would like to thank my grandparent s for instilling the importance of education in my life. I would like to thank the special peopl e who have prayed and supported me through this process. I recognize the followi ng groups and organizations for th eir support of the following: Brothers of Alpha Phi Alpha Fr aternity INC., (D.O.C.), Xi Delta Chapter, Gamma Lambda Alpha Chapter, Theta Sigma Chapter, Nu Eta La mbda Chapter, University of Florida Career Resource Center, and University Athletic Association INC.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................9LIST OF DEFINITIONS ...............................................................................................................12ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... .............13 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURP OSE OF THE STUDY ......................................................... 15Leadership Development ........................................................................................................ 17Agricultural Leadership Programs .......................................................................................... 18Need for Agricultural Leadership Education in Higher Education ........................................ 22Benefits of Leadership Development in Agricultural Leadership Education .........................22Problem Statement ............................................................................................................. .....23Five Specific Research Obj ectives Were Identified ...............................................................252 REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................................................................27Nature of Leadership ..............................................................................................................27Leadership Defined ......................................................................................................... 28Trait ......................................................................................................................... ........29Behavior ...................................................................................................................... ....29Contingency ................................................................................................................... ..30Transformation ................................................................................................................ 30Summary ....................................................................................................................... ...31Major Leadership Theories .....................................................................................................31Trait ......................................................................................................................... ................31Trait Leadership Theory ..................................................................................................31Adaptability-Innovativeness Theory (KAI) .................................................................... 33Behavioral .................................................................................................................... ...........34Skills-Based Approach .................................................................................................... 34Contingency Theory ...............................................................................................................34Situational Approach ....................................................................................................... 34Path-Goal Theory ............................................................................................................35Leadership Member Exchange Theory ........................................................................... 36Positivist Psychology Approach ...................................................................................... 37Transformational Leadership Theory ..................................................................................... 38Leadership Styles ............................................................................................................. .......39Transformational Leadership ...........................................................................................40Transactional Leadership .................................................................................................41Leadership Practices Inventory ............................................................................................... 42
6 Leadership in College Students ..............................................................................................45Leadership vs. Management ............................................................................................ 46Agricultural Leadership ..........................................................................................................48Challenges in Agricultural Leadership ............................................................................ 49Leadership Behavior Theoretical Framework ........................................................................ 51Demographic Characteristics and Leadership ................................................................. 52Gender ...................................................................................................................... 53Ethnicity and Race ................................................................................................... 54Academic Leadership Experience ................................................................................... 55Organizational Leadership Experience ............................................................................56High School Organization Leadership .....................................................................56College Leadership ...................................................................................................57Community Leadership Experience ................................................................................ 59Summary ....................................................................................................................... ..........613 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS .............................................................................. 64Overview ...................................................................................................................... ...........64Research Objectives ........................................................................................................... .....64Research Design .....................................................................................................................64Population .................................................................................................................... ...........65Instrumentation ............................................................................................................... ........66Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) Instrument .............................................. 67Reliability for the LPI ......................................................................................................69Instrument Pilot Study ..................................................................................................... 70LPI Instrument Content ................................................................................................... 71Measures of Influence on Leadership Behavior .....................................................................72Dependent Variable Indexes ............................................................................................ 72Independent Variables ..................................................................................................... 72Demographic Characteristics ...................................................................................73Academic Leadership Experiences .......................................................................... 73Organizational Leadership Experiences ...................................................................74Community Leadership Experiences ....................................................................... 74Data Collection .......................................................................................................................74Procedure ..................................................................................................................... ....75Error in Survey Administration .......................................................................................77Non-response Bias ...........................................................................................................80Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................82Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 1 ................................................................... 83Method and Data Analysis Used for Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5 ............................................... 84Summary ....................................................................................................................... ..........864 RESULTS ....................................................................................................................... ........91Descriptive Analysis .......................................................................................................... .....91Objective 1: To determine self-perceived leadership behaviors of CALS students as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) ..................................................... 92
7 Modeling the Way ........................................................................................................... 93Inspiring a Shared Vision ................................................................................................ 93Challenge the Process ...................................................................................................... 93Enabling Others to Act ....................................................................................................93Encourage the Heart ........................................................................................................94Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5 .........................................................................................................95Demographic Characteristics ...........................................................................................95Academic Leadership Experience ................................................................................... 97Organizational Leadership Experience ............................................................................97Community Leadership Experience .............................................................................. 100Predictors of Leadership Behaviors using Multiple Regression Models ...................... 102Objective 2. To assess the influence of the demographic characteristics of current CALS students on leadership behaviors ................................................. 102Objective 3. To Assess the Influence that Community Leadership Experiences (at the Departmental, Universit y, and Community Levels) Have on Leadership Behaviors ......................................................................................... 104Objective 4. To Assess the Influence that Organizational Leadership Experiences (at the Departmental, Univ ersity, and Community Levels) Have on Leadership Behaviors .................................................................................... 105Objective 5. To Determine the Rela tionship between Undergraduate CALS Student Leadership Behavior and Pr evious High School Experiences. ............. 107Summary ....................................................................................................................... ........1085 DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................... ...137Summary of Study ................................................................................................................137Statement of the Problem .............................................................................................. 137Purpose and Objectives ................................................................................................. 138Methodology .................................................................................................................. 138Findings ...................................................................................................................... ..........139Findings 1: Leadership beha viors of CALS students as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) ....................................................................................139Findings 2: Demographic characteristics variables of current CALS students and their influence on leadership ......................................................................................140Findings 3: The influence of community leadership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on leadership behaviors .........................................................141Findings 4: The influence of organizational leadersh ip experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) on leadership behaviors ............... 142Findings 5: The relationship between unde rgraduate CALS student leadership behavior and previous high school experiences ......................................................... 142Conclusions and Discussion .................................................................................................143CALS students held moderate to high l eadership perceptions among all on areas of the five leadership practices. ...................................................................................... 143Characteristics Affect Leadership Behaviors ................................................................145Community Leadership Experiences Positiv ely Influence Leadership Behaviors. ....... 148Organizational Leadership Experiences May Influence Leadership Behaviors ............ 148Previous High School Experiences Aff ect Current Leadership Behaviors ...................150
8 Implications .................................................................................................................. ........150Recommendations ............................................................................................................... ..154Recommendations for Theory and Future Research ..................................................... 154Recommendations for Practitioners ..............................................................................155Limitations ................................................................................................................... .........156 APPENDIX A PRE-NOTICE LETTER ....................................................................................................... 158B E-MAIL CONTACTS ..........................................................................................................159C INSTRUMENT .................................................................................................................... .162D CORRELATIONS OF INDEPENTENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES .................... 173LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................186BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................195
9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Reliability Coefficients for the LPI .................................................................................... 873-2 Reliability for pilot study Coefficients for the LPI (N=27) ............................................... 873-3 Questions for the on LPI Lead ership Behaviors inventory ............................................ 883-4 CALS respondents and populati on characteristics for fall 2007 ....................................... 893-5 Non respondents and respondents characteristics for fall 2007 ....................................... 894-1 Descriptive Statistics for Reponses on LPI Leadership behaviors ................................. 1104-2 Inter-correlations betw een leadership behavior and overall leadership ........................... 1114-3 Characteristics of Undergraduate CALS Students ...........................................................1124-4 Other Characteristic s of CALS Students ......................................................................... 1134-5 Academic Majors ........................................................................................................... ..1144-6 Academic Leadership Characteristics .............................................................................. 1154-7 Central Tendency of CALS Students Leadership Education .........................................1164-8 Organizational Member ships within CALS ..................................................................... 1174-9 Membership/Leadership Level within CALS Or ganizations ..........................................1194-10 Number of Years in CALS Organizations ....................................................................... 1204-11 Organizational Leadersh ip Outside of CALS .................................................................. 1224-12 Current Organizational Leadership Level and Duration of Involvement ........................ 1234-13 High School Leadership Expe riences of CALS Students ................................................ 1244-14 High School Leadership Positions and Level Experiences .............................................. 1254-15 Frequency of CALS Students who part icipate in Community Leadership Experiences ................................................................................................................... ...1254-16 Pearson Product Moment Correlations of Leadership Measures by Personal Characteristics ............................................................................................................... ...1264-17 Regression models of Leadership Behaviors on personal characteristics. ...................... 127
10 4-18 Pearson Product Moment Correlations of Leaders hip Measures by Academic Leadership Experiences (n=1,036) .................................................................................. 1284-19 Regression models of Leadership Behavi ors on Academic Leadership Experiences. .... 1284-20 Pearson Product Moment Correlation s Leadership Measures on Community Leadership Experiences (n=1,084) .................................................................................. 1294-21 Regression of Leadership Measures on Community Leadership experiences. ................ 1294-22 Pearson Product Moment Correlations of Leadership Measures by Organizational Leadership Experiences (n=1,025) .................................................................................. 1304-23 Regression of Leadership Measures on Organizational Leadership Experiences. .......... 1304-24 Regression of Overall Leadership .................................................................................... 1314-27 Regression of Leadership Meas ures on Challenge the Process ....................................... 1344-28 Regression of Leadership Meas ures on Enable Others to Act ......................................... 1354-29 Regression of Leadership Measures Encourage the Heart .............................................. 136D-1 Pearson Product Moment Correlations of Independent and Dependent Variables with Personal Characteristics Variables Leadership ................................................................174
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2-1 CALS students conceptual model of f actors contributing to leadership behavior (LPI). ........................................................................................................................ ..........63
12 LIST OF DEFINITIONS Challenging the process Searching out challenging opportunities to change, grow, innovate, and improve, plus experimenting, taking risks, and learning from accompanying mistakes ((Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Enabling others to act A leadership practice that fosters collaboration with its followers by promoting cooperative goals and building trust. This practice is also about strengthening people by giving power away, providing choice, developing competence, assigning critical tasks, and offering visible support (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Encouraging the heart A leadership practice that recognizes individual contributions to the success of every project. A leader who encourages the heart celebrates team accomplishments regularly (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Follower An individual toward whom leadership is directed (Northouse, 2004). Leader A person who engages in leadership (Northouse, 2004). Leadership The process of influencing one or more individuals in an attempt to affect their choices of goals, and to inspire, organize, or direct their efforts to achieve the goals. The ability to see a problem, or opportunity and do something about it with other people (Northouse, 2004). Leadership behaviors The behaviors and acquired tasks related to leadership developed by an individual (Blanchard, 1995.; Northouse, 2004)). Leadership development A process that will include development of interpersonal relationships, understanding the social influence process and the team dynamics between the leader and his/her team at the dyad level and linkages between the team and other groups in the organization (Bass, 1985; Blanchard, 1995.; Northouse, 2004) Leadership styles The characteristic manner in which an individual leads other people; patterns of leadership behavior (Moore, 2003). Inspiring a shared vision Envisioning an uplifting and ennobling future as a leader, and enlisting others in a common vision by appealing to their values, interests, hopes, and dreams (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Modeling the way A leader sets the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared values. A leader who models the way loves to achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and builds commitment from followers (Kouzes & Posner, 2002).
13 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS OF UNDE RGRADUATES IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES (C ALS) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA By Bryan Quennel Patterson December 2008 Chair: Glenn Israel Major: Agricultural Edu cation and Communication This study identified leadership behaviors exhi bited by undergraduate students enrolled in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida in Gainesville. The study also examined the relationship be tween the current and previous leadership experiences of the students and their current leadership behavior. The study included 1,156 current undergraduate students randomly selected from a total populatio n of 3,429 undergraduate CALS students. This population represented 26 majors from 35 student organizations in CALS. A quantitative descriptive design was used to describe CALS students in terms of their personal characteristics, academic leadership expe riences, student leadership experiences, and community leadership experiences Study respondents completed an online survey that assessed their self-perceived leadership practices, as measured by the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). The LPI, developed by Kouzes and Posner (1998), measured the participants percei ved importance of and proficiency in five leadership behaviors (practices): challenging the process, enabling othe rs to act, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, and modeling the way This study examined CALS students past and present leadership experiences and personal character istics as predictors for leadership behavior.
14 Using the LPI, the CALS students at the University of Florida exhibited the following leadership behaviors most often: Enabling Others to Act, Encourage the Heart and Modeling the Way. The CALS students, however, did not self-rate as high on leadership behaviors of Inspiring a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process The results are consistent with previous rese arch of undergraduate st udents, where students often consider do not see themselves as trendsetters and visionaries. On average, CALS students self-rated themselves fairly ofte n as defined by the LPI scoring scale. The CALS students may have inflated self-perceptions of their leadership behavior when compared to normative data for undergraduate college students in ot her fields. Other findings indi cate that CALS students have been active in past community service opportunities and student clubs and organizations. The CALS students are very active in service and pa rticipate as officers a nd on the state/regional levels of their respective organizations. In va rious leadership experiences, CALS students are developing their leadership behaviors; conversely, they are not de veloping leadership behaviors through formal leadership course or leadership traini ng at the same frequency. Overall, the study indicates that CALS students are highly motivated and exhibit hi gh scores on the LPI leadership behavior index.
15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND PURP OSE OF THE STUDY Agricultura l leaders have traditionally played an important role in most rural communities and industries. With the agricultural field becoming more specialized and increasingly challenged, the need for leadership is greater today more than ever before (Kansas Agriculture and Rural Leadership, 2006). Beyond the agricultural industry, many agricultural communities also are being challenged. Many of the traditional agricultural communities are experiencing a decline in community developmen t activities as compared to their urban counterparts (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2004). Thus there is a need for leadership, not just in agriculture, but throughout rural America as it competes in th e global market place. Businesses and nonprofit organizations are finding it difficult to fill leadership positions due to a lack of properly trained leaders. Without capable leaders, agricultural firms and community orga nizations are prone to decay and failure (Hustedde, 1996) Researchers who have studied the concept of leadership have indentified hundreds of definitions. Northouse (2004) defines leadership as a process of influencing one or more individuals in an attempt to affect their choices of goals, and to inspire, or ganize, or direct their efforts to achieve the goals. Leadership is what gives an organization its vision and its ability to translate that vision into reality (Bass & Avolio, 1993). Leader s understand that organizations and communities change internally at a much sl ower pace than the external environments in which they function, and must continually evolve to keep pace. Further, these environments are in constant flux and challenge the assumpti on of continuity on which organizations and communities are created and function. Now more than ever, there is a clear need for a greater understanding of how to lead, manage, a nd change organizations (Burke, 2002).
16 Some leadership theorists (Bolt, 1996; Ga rdner, 1990; Kouzes & Posner, 1990) suggest future leaders need to be able to face complexities, volatility, and the new rules of the global marketplace. Other theorists believe the deficit already exists (Moreira, 2004). This sentiment was echoed by faculty and employers in a study by Bosshamer (1996) who reported that employers and faculty projected leadership as the important behavior needed by graduates of colleges of agriculture within five years of graduation. This finding was congruent with an earlier study by Litzenberg and Schneider (1988) who predicted a lack leadership, especially among younger professionals who fail to accept and ta ke on leadership positions. In particular, citizens must be educated and prepared with e ssential knowledge and skills such as competence in communication, adaptability, problem identif ication and problem-solving, self-management, and an understanding of levels of teamwork in order to assume leadership positions that concentrate on the concerns of rural America (Dhanakumar, Rossing, & Campbell, 1996). Industry seeks new leaders who can lead quickly after they join an organization. College graduates, who can exhibit leadersh ip early and often as new profe ssionals, are likely to be hired and advance quickly in their careers. Employe rs want and value competence in communication, adaptability, problem identification and problem-solving, self-management, teamwork, and leadership skills (Gilmore, et al., 1999). Industry also seeks leaders who possess a welldeveloped clear vision for the organization. The leaders vision needs to communicate what the organization stands for and the organizati ons plan for the future (Schieman, 2006). In exploring agricultural leadersh ip, it is not different from a ny other field. Agricultural business, organizations, nonprofit groups, and govern mental agencies need competent leaders who will provide direction and vision for the agricultural industry. Employers are seeking
17 leaders who can direct new initiatives and set goals essential to succe ssfully adapting to the challenges of this changing global society (Bra dner, 1999; Carter, 2004; Ke lsey & Wall, 2003). In many of todays socie ties, organizations are expe riencing limited resources and, therefore seek leadership that is more aggressive creative, entrepreneurial, and willing to accept and embrace change (Santora, Seaton, & Sarros, 1999). Studies indicated a growing need for leaders to understand and cope with the many changes that are currently and potentially impacting their community (Fredricks, 1998; Kelsey & Wall, 2003; Wilkinson, 1998). This lack of change management has also been described as a leadersh ip void (Burns, 1979; DeRuyver, 2001; Figura, 1999; Goldsmith, Greenberg, R obertson, & Hu-Chan, 2003; Ricketts & Rudd, 2001). This leadership void could also be more accurately described as lack of appropriate leadership training and development in areas that deal with change and chaos. Other leaders are not as prepared to effectively lead, mange change and adjust to demands of global society. This leadership void has become so serious that some now than contend that the success of the agricultural industry is depende nt upon new graduates becomi ng skilled leaders (Buus, 2005; Schieman, 2006). Effective agricultural lead ership development is necessary to prepare graduates to meet the challenges of their agri cultural communities and agricultural the industry (Brown & Fritz, 1994; Howell, Weir, & Cook, 1982). Leadership Development Leadership developm ent has been a major topi c in management and bus iness literature for the past two decades. The rapid change in business, technology, political issues and social factors has required the development of effective l eadership skills and competencies. As a result, leadership development programs have become an increasing priority for business and nonprofit organizations (Cacioppe, 1998). The interest surrounding leadership development in the business community has also been fueled in r ecent years by rapid cha nges in technology and
18 global communication. As with any change, lead ership is needed to guide individuals and organizations through the process of change. The speed of recent changes has contributed to the urgency of leadership development. New times demand new kinds of leaders. In a technological workplace that may be more virtual than phys ical, and where bytes of information and cyberspace need to be managed more than people, leaders will have to thrive in chaos and continuous change (Marquardt & Berger, 2000). C acioppe (1998) stated that the over managed and under led seems to provide the best summary of the reason for the growing interest in leadership" (p. 44). Effective leadership in key posit ions is critical to the succ ess of any organization. Leaders manage change, give vision, and work to position their organization for success in the fast-paced environment of a global information age (Conge r, 2004). Leadership is a complex process requiring talents and abilities of many people at various levels in an organization. Identifying potential leaders and providing s upport for their training are two ways organizations show they are interested in the welfare of their employees as well as making a commitment to their own well-being.(Rohs, 2004) stated an investment in development is an investment in the organization (p. 31). Agricultural Leadership Programs Agricultural leadership program s have a 60-pl us-year history in the United States, dating from post-World War II (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Ca rter, 1999). Strategic goals outlined by the Kellogg Farmers Program conducted at Michigan St ate University (1976) emphasized a need for increased leadership development initiatives in local cooperatives (Mille r, 1976). Agricultural leadership is needed today more than ever be fore (Kansas Agriculture and Rural Leadership, 2006). With the agricultural field becoming more specialized and increasingly challenged, the future success of the industry is dependent upon local leaders to guide efforts for advocacy and
19 change (Diem & Nikola, 2005; Howell, et al ., 1982; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2001) The traditional farming role of agriculture has changed to a more global perspective which now impacts agricultural communities. Feedback from stakeholders from all agricultu ral professions and orga nizations suggests a stronger need and desire for agri cultural leadership. The field of agricultural education added leadership to its mission to increase knowledge and community awareness (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Case, 2005; Case IH, 2005; Susan Fritz, Tracy Hoover, William Weeks, Christine Townsend, & Richard Carter, 2003). With this increased desire for leadership education, instructors have focused on teaching and learning new techniques designed to assist people as citizens and leaders to meet the challenges of their communities (Case IH, 2005; Fritz, Williams, & Barbuto, 2002). The current array of agricultural leadership programs demonstrates a significant societal investment toward the important goal of fost ering community particip ation by citizens (Buus, 2005). Therefore, America's greatest resource is its leaders, and agricultural leader ship must view change in a broad perspec tive and be prepared to provide the wise leadership that 21st century challenges demand (Buus, 2005; Marquardt & Berger, 2000). However, some would argue that limited opportunities have been presen ted to improving the qua lity of higher education in agriculture. This inability of leadership pr ograms to embrace this ch ange in environment and update curricula to is reflect ed in this global economy (Earnest, 2002). A lack of global cooperation, the limited frame of reference a ssociated with educational nationalism, underutilized sources of knowledge, and the need for globalization of educatio nal content have been identified as challenges in lead ership research (Buus, 2005).
20 In attempting to address the apparent lack of leadership in the global economy, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation (2000) presented the Grassroots Leadership Development Guide This guide was developed for grassroots leaders, support or ganizations, and funders of the foundation. The purpose of this guide was to provide a set of wri tten guidelines to leaders and their organizations to provide ongoing structure and promote successful outcomes (W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2001). With its long, rich histor y of involvement with grassroot s leadership and organizations, the underlying strategy of the Foundation was to grow grassroots leadership through foundationsupported programs that would find and nurture hidden talent, build trust, and encourage cooperation. For example, the foundation might support a program that organizes and trains young parents to help local school officials addr ess the problems of youth in a decaying urban environment. Leadership programs need to focu s on teaching citizens how to cope with the barrage of changes in their environment. In usi ng these approaches, programs would also lead to strong collaborations and ne tworking (Campbell, 1997). Campbell (1997) suggested an alternative approach to agricultural leadership by developing a grassroots guide with the vision of community-controlled economic development. A community-controlled approach to agricultural leadership is linked to the new paradigm in local economic development in wh ich sustainable agriculture is presented, along with practical examples from innovative netw orks promoted by the California Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture (CASA) (Campbell, 199 7). The experience of CASA organizations, both separately and as an alliance, suggests a new strategic vision of community-controlled economic development that can enable the movement to meet three difficult political challenges: holding those in power accountable unifying environmental and so cial agendas, and developing strong leadership accountable to the movement's commun ity base (Campbell, 1997).
21 As the Grassroots Leadership Development Guide points out, the number of people involved with grassroots lead ership development is growi ng. Organizations involved in leadership development vary widely in size and scope. They include schools, community leadership programs, intermediary organiza tions fostering commun ity organizing and/or community development, issue coalitions, a nd local colleges and hum an service agencies. Grassroots leaders affect many ar enas and provide the necessary support in or to organizations. The funders offer encouragement, training, and technical experience in many different ways (Campbell, 1997; Carter, 1999; Dhanakumar, et al., 1996; Townsend & Carter, 1983; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2000). As more undergraduate students enter the workfo rce and assume positions of leadership in agricultural industries, developing leadership behavior is of gr eat importance. Many employers and organizations, such as John De ere Inc. and FFA (formerly Future Farmers of America), have begun assisting and creating leadership programs a nd institutes within coll eges and universities agricultural and life sciences divisions in an effo rt to recruit and devel op successful and talented leaders for their organizations (International Association of Programs for Agricultural Leadership, 2004; Rudd, Stedman, & Kaufman, 2 004). The FFA Collegiate Life Knowledge Program was designed to assist students in developing leadersh ip skills and more effective leadership behaviors in their student organizations (Rudd, 2000; R udd, et al., 2004). Agricultural education programs at many land grant universities are also taking charge in this leadership development process by encouraging their student s to participate in activities that foster leadership behavior development (Rickett s & Rudd, 2001, 2004). Knowledge of undergraduate students perceived leadership ab ilities would be invaluable wh en faculty plan and implement future programs and curriculum for academic course and degree specializations. (Brown & Fritz,
22 1994; F. W. Brown & S. M. Fritz, 1994; S Frit z, T Hoover, W Weeks, C Townsend, & R Carter, 2003; Susan Fritz, Christine Townsend, et al., 2003; Rudd, et al., 2004; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2001). Need for Agricultural Leadership Education in Higher E ducation Current research supports the need fo r more awareness and acknowledgment of agricultural leadership education. Research on ag ricultural leadership has provided a stronger foundation for using leadership principles in th e public schools, vocational programs, and higher education environments (Fritz, et al., 2002; Meehan, 2002; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). Developing stronger and more productive communities is al so an underlying mission of agricultural leadership (Case IH, 2005). In addition, researchers continue to call for educators to take up the charge in developing new programs and more focused leadership training (Case IH, 2005; Howell, et al., 1982; Israel & Beaulieu, 1990; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2001; Wall, Pettibone, & Kelsey, 2005). Agricultural leadership knowledge systems play a central role in developing and disseminating knowledge, information, and technologi es, which are relevant to improving global food and other supplies. Formal agricultural ed ucation is one method of teaching and developing a leadership knowledge base of current agricultur al education systems. Many of the current leadership systems are in need of fundamental reform to support improvements in environmental sustainability studies especially to address the needs of this new global society (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Carter, 1999; Case IH, 2005; Fritz, et al., 2002). Benefits of Leadership Development in Agricultural Leadership Education Positive cha nges in leadership behavior, as a result of leadership development events in the colleges of agricultural and life sciences ha ve been assumed for years, but some specifics of this development have not been articulated. Many colleges and uni versities that offer
23 Agriculture and Related Sciences programs are constantly revamping leadership curricula to incorporate industry trends and requirements. In Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education, the National Research Council ( 1988) authors contended that agriculture leadership is too important a topic to be taught only to indi viduals pursuing careers in agriculture. Students who are in colleges of agricultu re are not traditional farmers who study and desire careers in agriculture; they are students who are pursuing careers that are in a variety of areas (Schumacher & Swan, 1993). The council further recommended: a leadership curriculum components must be developed and made available to teachers addr essing the science basic to agriculture, food, and natural resources, agribusiness, marketing, ma nagement, international productivity (Diem & Nikola, 2005). Problem Statement One goal of higher education is to prepare grad u ates (future leaders) for the professional world, yet few formal training opportunities are offe red to assist students in developing skills in personal leadership, organizati onal leadership, or community leadership (Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, & Burkhardt, 2001; Rick etts & Rudd, 2001; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). Teaching leadership through a collegiate experi ence is challenging, but industry seeks graduates who can lead teams, communicate, solve proble ms, make decisions, and provide motivation to others (Cacioppe, 1998; Goldsmith, et al., 2003; Hartmann, 2002; Rosen, Digh, Singer, & Phillips, 2000; Schieman, 2006). Today, in colleges of agricultural and life scie nces (CALS) there is a greater diversity of students (Schumacher & Swan, 1993). These stud ents are not the traditional agricultural students who had a farming background from rural America; but many of these students are from suburban homes and never been to a farm. CA LS students are coming from a more diverse family background where they are not the first in the immediate family to go to college, and they
24 are coming to college with numerous academic credits In terms of their ethnicity, they are more diverse representing many different cultures and backgrounds. The increased numbers of students of color and women are now becoming the majority of the population when a couple decades ago they were the minority. Many of th ese students are pursuing a variety of degrees and specializations. For an example, with ove r 25 different majors, CALS students at the University of Florida, students have an opportunity to pursue majors in variety of fields ranging from Family Youth and Community Sciences to a more traditional Animal Science. In addition, with the variety of majors there is a greater presence of stude nts, who are pursing degrees in agriculture who desire professi onal or advanced degrees. Recen tly trends in the colleges of agriculture reflect larger enrollments of students who are in these pre-professional majors such biology, chemistry, food science and human nutri tion, and animal sciences (Susan Fritz, Christine Townsend, et al., 2003). With this more diverse CALS student population, there is still greater a need to explore their leadership developm ent in efforts to prepare these future graduates for transition into the work place or professional field. In efforts to study leadership behavior, the researcher selected the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), deve loped by leadership researchers James Kouzes and Barry Posner. According to Kouzes & Posner (1998), leadership practices are measured behaviors, not measures of IQ, personality type, or ma nagement skills (p. 5). Although a succinct conceptualization of what set of leadership beha viors are viewed as the right behaviors, the LPI consistently shows that The more frequen tly you demonstrate the be haviors included in the LPI, the more likely you will be seen as an effect ive leader (p. 6). The LPI inventory has been tested and retested for reliab ility and validity through many studies with college students and leadership behavior.
25 In previous leadership studies, Posner and Brodsky (1993) also found that students, who practiced the five leadership pr actices most often, as compared to those who engaged in them less often, viewed themselves as more effective leaders. Research using the LPI has also found formal leadership education to be effective. Earnest (1996) discovered si gnificant increases from pre-test to post-test for each of the five lead ership behaviors of comm unity leadership program participants in Ohio. Brungardt (1997) also fou nd significant increases in leadership behaviors from the beginning to the end of the Leadersh ip Certificate Program at Fort Hays State University in working with CALS students. More recently, LPI research was conducted with college FFA leaders and reporting their lead ership behavior (Mullins & Weeks, 2006). Given that leadership can be developed through form al and informal training (Burns, 1979; Northouse, 2004); it can also be developed through properly designed lead ership projects. The purpose of this study was to describe the leadership behavior of CA LS students. Specifically, this study hoped to determine the self -perceived level of leadership behaviors using the Student Leadership Practice Inventory LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). The following two questions were posed: (a) What factors influence leadership behaviors in CALS st udents? (b) What leadership behaviors to CALS studen ts exhibit the most? Five Specific Research Ob jectives Were Identified 1. To determ ine self-perceived leadership behavi ors of CALS students, as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 2. To access the influence demographic char acteristics on leadership behaviors 3. To assess the influence of community leadersh ip experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on leadership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) have on leadership behaviors 5. To determine the relationship between undergradua te CALS student lead ership behavior and previous organizational and community experiences.
26 This study utilized quantitative m easures to identify leadership behaviors of undergraduate students enrolled in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida in Gainesville. The CALS students were described in terms of their personal characteristics, academic leadership experiences, student leadership experiences, and community leadership experiences. The study also examined the relationship between the students past and present leadership experiences in relationship to their leadership behavi or. Specifically, what leadership behaviors do CALS stude nts at the University of Florida exhibit the most? Are CALS students likely to insp ire a shared vision, model the wa y, or challenge the process? Characteristics of the colleges of agriculture stud ents were included to dr aw a clearer picture of the current students, what previous leadership training they have ha d, and where gaps exist between their perceptions of leadership beha vior. The importance a nd experience of prior leadership training was also e xpected to influence CALS stud ents leadership behavior.
27 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of this study was to identify and describe CALS student s past and present leadership experien ces and personal characteris tics as predictors for leadership behavior. Specifically, this study hoped to ach ieve the following five goals: 1. To determine self-perceived leadership behavi ors of CALS students, as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 2. To access the influence of demographic ch aracteristics on leadership behaviors 3. To assess the influence of community lead ership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on lead ership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) have on leadership behaviors 5. To determine the relationship between undergra duate CALS student le adership behavior and previous high school experiences This chapter will present a review of the relevant theories and concepts concerning leadership practices, behaviors, and theory. The chapter will focus on literature describing leadership behaviors and factors wh ich might influence leadership be haviors. The specific topics that will be covered in Chapter 2 will include a definition for the nature of leadership, leadership theories, leadership styles, Leadership Practi ces Inventory (LPI), agricultural leadership, leadership of college students, demographic ch aracteristics and leadersh ip, and the theoretical framework of leadership. Nature of Leadership The concept and phenom enon of leadership have been well researched, but no clear consensus of the definition of leadership has be en universally accepted. Several approaches have been used to accomplish an understanding of leadership. Through the years leadership has been
28 defined and conceptualized in many ways, with the common component is that leadership is an influence process. Leadership Defined Som e researchers generally define leadership according to their major areas of interests and personal perspectives (Locke, 2001). The definition of leadership used in this study states that leadership is a practice that occurs as one individual influences one or more persons in an effort to facilitate a desired outcome or goal (Locke, 2001; Northouse, 2004). Kouzes and Posner (1997) defined leadership as t he art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations. Gardner (1990) de fined leadership as the pro cess of persuasion or example by which an individual or leadership team induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader and his or her followers (p. 1). Rost (1991) defined leadership as an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real cha nges that reflect their mutual purposes (p. 102). Chemers (1997) characterized leadership as a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the ai d and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task (p. 1). A leader has the ability to expand anothe r persons capacity to be effective in leadership processes and roles that assist s groups of individuals towards a goal (Bass, 1985; Northouse, 2004). Northouse (2004) synthesized leadership theori es into three major conceptualizations: a process that involves influence, a process that occurs within a group context, and a process that involves goal attainment. Based on these concep ts, Northouse (2001) defined leadership as a process whereby one person influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Northouse (2004) explained that leadership must take on an active process that engages the followers to commit and execute a task or skill. In addition, he explained that leadership requires the individual to work with other individuals. Leaders must have individuals who are willing to
29 follow in order to complete the task or reach th e goal. Finally, Northouse (2004) stated that the aim or purpose of the leader and the group is to achieve a common goal. If the group of individuals does not see the need, relevance, or meaning of the task, the group will not be committed to accomplishing the task. Being that leaders and followers are both a part of the leadership process, it is important to understand and recognize the rela tionship and dynamics between the two. In prior research, many studies have focused on leadership as a trai t, however research has shown leadership to more complex and cover assigned and emergent leadership, the concept of power, and coercion (Northouse, 2004). In developing an understanding of the true na ture of the leadership, the researcher will address the nature of leadership in four categories which follow: trait, behavior, contingency, and transformation. Trait The tra it perspective suggests that certain people in our society have special inborn qualities or traits that make them leaders. This is a restrictive view of leadership; however this concept of leadership has been around since the mid 20th century when there was a basic premise that one possessed unique set of traits which defined leadership (Stogdill, 1974). Data from multitude studies have indicated that many tr aits contribute to leadership. Among the consistently identified are in telligence, self-confidence, determ ination, integrity, and sociability (Brungardt, 1996; Pernick, 2001). Behavior In contrast to the trait approach, the behavior or skills app roach explores leadership on the fact the leadership can be learned. The focus of leadership is largely fixed on skills and abilities that can be learned and developed (Bass, 1985). At the heart of the behavioral approach focuses on the leadership development in three competencies which are problem-solving skills,
30 social judgment skills, and knowledge (Northouse, 2004). The behavioral approach to defining leadership focuses on the actions between lead ers and followers. Rost (1991) offers that leadership is the process of doi ng something because it needs to be actively demonstrated. The modeling actions to the followers are important criter ia in this leadership definition. In order to be a leader, followers must wish to participat e voluntarily for good reas ons and not be coerced into following the leader. This behavioral leader ship approach is grounded in helping others to better themselves. Leadership has a learning component, and an individual will forever be changed by the experience. Contingency The contingency approach to leadership is based on the view that circum stances are the key determinants of leadership abilities. Leader s enable their followers during certain situations. In this approach, effective leadership occurs wh en a leader accurately diagnoses the development level of subordinates in a situa tion and then exhibits the prescribed leadership style (Brungardt, 1996). To understand the performan ce of leaders it is essential to understand the situation in which they lead. Contingency leadership emphasizes the balance between directive and supportive roles of a leader, but the leader is not a complete participant in the leadership process. The leaders task is to analyze a particular situation and determin e the appropriate degree of directive and/or supportive behaviors necessary to ad dress that challenge. In the context of a specific situation, leadership focuses on potential power to influen ce others to take action and from this action learning occurs (Bass & Avolio, 1993; Meehan, 1999). Transformation The transform ation approach is described as a broad-based perspectiv e that describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out sign ificant changes in the organization, community,
31 or society. This approach to leadership involves sharing a vision. Effective leaders can share the vision and are not afraid to jump in and participate with their followers (Flora & Flora, 1996; White, Castelloe, Butterworth, & Watson, 2003) Some researchers would call this leading by example or more of a participatory approach to leadership (DeRuyver, 2001) In this approach also involves leader participation is the process is just as important as reaching th e shared goals. Summary These four approaches describe the nature of leadership and provide a conceptual view of leadership. However, many leadership researcher s have developed their own view of leadership as it relates to the approach in which they follow. According to McCauley et al. (1998), belief is based on the assumptions that leadership developmen t evolves with the growth of an individual. This leadership behavior has an effect on life expe riences that cause people to take on leadership roles and participate in leadership processes to fulfill commitments to organizations, social groups, or neighborhoods. Major Leadership Theories In order to develop a deeper understanding of th e concept of leadership, it is necessary to understand the various leadership theories. Re searchers have conducted thousands of studies that have tried to explain leadership and effectiv e leadership using diffe rent approaches. Burns (1979) has classified modern leadership appr oaches into four areas: trait, behavioral, contingency, and more recently, transformation. Trait Trait Leadership Theory The tra it perspective suggests that certain people in our society have special inborn qualities or traits that make them leaders. Data from multitude studies have indicated that many traits contribute to leadership, including inte lligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity,
32 and sociability (Brungardt, 1996; Pernick, 2001). A strength of the trait approach is that it identifies potential leader by which traits th at leaders exhibit and who has them. Trait Leadership Theory suggests that leaders are endowed with certain personality traits which constitute their ab ilities to lead. Certain studies (B ass, 1960; Bird, 1940; Stogdill, 1948, 1974) investigated individual traits, such as intelligen ce, birth order, socioeconomic status, and childrearing practices. The trait approach to leadersh ip has emphasized a specific set of traits that only leaders possess (Brungardt, 1996; Bryant, 2003; Pernick, 2001; Veltmeyer & Petras, 2002). The trait approach states that l eaders are born and not made. The leaders personality is central to the leadership process. Using the trait appr oach, leaders analyze their traits to determine strengths and weaknesses and to ascertain how they fit into the organizational structure (Northouse, 2001). Using the Trait Leadership Theory can be us eful in agriculture by determining specific traits that distinguish leader s from followers (Bass, 1990). Identifying categories of personal factors of leadership, such as capacity, achievement, responsibilit y, participation, and status can be beneficial in leadership semi nars or developing a frame of re ference for students participating in Head, Heart, Hands, and Health (4-H) activities. The strengths of the trait approach to leadership have been appeal, research base, em phasis on leader, and benchmarks for effective leaders (Northouse, 2001; Smith & Peterson, 1988).On the other hand, only small samples of leadership traits have been studied, which pr ovided limited evidence wh y there were only a few traits was identified wi th leadership. The trait approach also fails to take situations into account. As Stogdill (1948) pointed out, it is difficult to isolat e a set of traits that are characteristic of leaders without factoring situational effects into the equation. Therefore, individuals who possess
33 certain traits that make them leaders in one si tuation may not be leaders in another situation (Northouse, 2004). Adaptability-Innovativeness Theory (KAI) The Adaptio n-Innovation (A-I) Theory is founde d on the assumption that all individuals solve problems crea tively (Kirton, 1989 ) The theory states that pe ople have different cognitive styles in which they are creative, solve problems, and make decisions. These style differences lie on a normally distributed continuum, ranging fr om high adaptation to high innovation. The theory also states that indivi duals with more adaptive cognitive styles prefer to solve their problems with more structured processes. In comparison, individuals who are more innovative are more comfortable solving prob lems with less structure. Th ey are less concerned that the structure be consensually agreed upon than are i ndividuals who are more adaptive. The Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI) approaches problems within the given terms of reference, theories, policies, precedents, and paradigms, and it strives to provide "better" solutions (Kirton, 1989). A key example from teaching the A-I Theory to groups is that the groups come to appreciate the value of diversity in problem-solving styles, and th ey become more tolerant and even appreciative of other diversities. The de velopment of the Adaptability-Innovation Theory was influenced by the results and observations of an earlier study in management initiative (Kirton, 1989). Personalities we re seen to have a characteri stic effect on the progress and success of initiative in organizations. While all ma nagers would assert that they were sensitive to the need for change and were willing to change, individuals were more willing to embark on changes involving a style close to their own rather than those i nvolving a very different style. The KAI has been an effective tool in buildi ng and enhancing individual leadership skills (Kirton, 1989).
34 Behavioral Skills-Based Approach According to Katz (1955), a skill can be defi ned as an ability which can be developed, to be necessarily inborn, an d which is manifested in performance, not merely in potential (pp. 3334). Nahavandi (2000) expanded on this defin ition by including a training dimension. He proposed that a skill is an acquired task a person develops and can change with training and experience. Katz (1955) identified three categorie s of skills needed by leaders: technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. Although the amount of human, technical, and conceptual skills may vary, depending on the position with in the organizational hierarchy, each skill is nevertheless important for successful leaders to possess. Technical skills, according to Katz (1955), are the most concrete type of skills, and they are associated with understanding and being able to complete specific activitie s. In other words, technical skill s are the how to do it skills and involve methods, processes, procedures, or techniques (G oleman, 1998; Hicks & Gullett, 1975; Katz, 1955). Leaders engage in technical skills when they perform the technical activities required of them. Contingency Theory Situational Approach The situational approach to leadership was developed by Hershey and Blanchard (1969) whose research was based on Reddins (1967) management style theory (Blanchard, 1995.) The situational approach to leadersh ip has addressed the situation as the determinant of leadership abilities. Hencley (1973) reviewed leadership theories and noted that "the situation approach maintains that leadership is determined not so much by the character of the individuals as by the requirements of social situation" (p. 38). According to this rese arch focus, a person could be a follower or a leader, depending upon circumstan ces. Situational lead ership emphasizes the
35 balance between directive and supp ortive roles of a leader (DeRuyver, 2001). The leaders task is to analyze a particular situation and determin e the appropriate degree of directive and/or supportive behaviors necessary to address empl oyee needs (Northouse, 2004). This approach has been widely used in training and devel oping leadership in or ganizations nationwide (Northouse, 2001). A part of the situational leadersh ip approach relates to the lead ers ability to direct tasks and address needs which is also the leaders power The concept of power in this leadership approach affects the potential to influence others to take action and from this action learning occurs (Bass & Avolio, 1993; Meehan, 1999). The term positional power is power in which the leader has the potential power to affect other individuals be liefs, attitudes, and course of action. Position power is the power that a person de rives from a particular office rank in a formal organizational system. This position power includes levels of legitimate, reward, and coercive power (Lloyd, 1996; Northouse, 2004). This affects situational leadership approach in terms of the leaders position and ability to influence ot hers to take action and make change occur. Path-Goal Theory Another le adership theory that is related to contingency theory is path-goal theory (House & Dessler, 2000). Path-goal theory focuses on a followers personal motivation, or what motivates the follower to accomplish a task (D eRuyver, 2001; Kelsey & Wall, 2003; Ladewig & Rohs, 2000; Northouse, 2004; Wall, Ferrazzi, & Schr yer, 1998). Leaders w ho are in accordance with the Path-Goal Theory offer rewards for achieving the goal. They assist in clarifying methods and removing obstacles that may hi nder an individual from reaching the goal (Northouse, 2004). Leaders motivate followers by in stilling feelings of competence and value. It is the leader's responsibility to help follo wers reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching (Northouse, 2004). An example of this model is a followers needs for achievement and
36 affiliation. Some students motivation is describe d as their wish to achieve good grades. The students intrinsic motivations fo r higher grades are primary motivat ors, and the instructors role as facilitator is the key in atta ining that goal. Path-Goal Theo ry places much responsibility on leaders and less responsibility on subordinates; therefore, this theory may promote dependency over a period of time and may fail to recogni ze the full abilities of the subordinates. Leadership Member Exchange Theory Leadersh ip member exchange (LMX) theory takes another approach to leadership: a process that is centered on th e interactions between leaders and followers (Dansereau, 1975). The LMX Theory makes the dyadic relationship be tween leaders and followers a focal point of the leadership process (Danse reau, 1975; Northouse, 2004). In the early studies of the LMX theory, a leaders relationship to the overall work unit is viewed as a series of vertical dyads, categorized as being two differe nt types. Leader-member dyads, based on expanded role relationships were called the le aders in-group, and those base d on formal job descriptions were called outgroups. It is believed that followers become in-group members based on how well they get along with the leader and whether or not that they are willing to expand their roles and responsibilities. Followers w ho maintain only formal hierarchical relationships with their leaders become out-group members. In-group me mbers receive extra influence, opportunities, and rewards; out-group members re ceive standard job benefits (D ansereau, 1975; Katz & Lazer, 2004; Northouse, 2004). Good leader-member exchanges result in followers feeling better, accomplishing more, and helping organizations pros per. Rather than having in-groups and outgroups, leaders should try to develop high-quality exchanges with all subordinates. Leadership develops over a period of time, including strange r, acquaintance, and partner phases (Northouse, 2004).
37 Positivist Psychology Approach Positiv ist psychology approach is another contin gency leadership theory that is closely related to path-goal and is rooted in themes of achievement motivation (Duke, 1998; Quaglia & Cobb, 1996). This positivist psychology approach helps people develop the ability to discern opportunities and options that they may confront in their day-to-day activ ities. One example of this approach is the Achievement Motivation Theo ry which postulates that individuals can learn to establish and acquire goals. The formation of educational and occupational aspirations is integral to education, enabli ng students to better understand w ho they are and how they can function effectively for their own wellbeing an d for the betterment of society (Blanchard, 1995.). The study of aspirations is also rooted in sociology and social comparison theory (Collier, 1994). People tend to co mpare themselves to groups with similar beliefs and abilities. Collier (1994) stated: The group serves as a power ful anchor that limits the level of aspiration, particularly when the group is cut off from other groups. People tend to use others who are similar or have similar levels of ability as a s ource of social comparison (p. 83). The leader and follower motivation has important implications fo r selection, promotion, design, implementation, and evaluation of education and developm ent activities (Dollisso & Martin, 1999). As agricultural educators, the understanding of the motivation techniques can be very beneficial to their target audiences (Swanson, 1984). As a 4-H or Future Farmers of America (FFA) youth leader, having a good understanding of what motivates youth is a key element in developing effective programming. Having knowle dge and information, enables educators in developing more effective educational programs. Several scholars have begun examining the motives or drives of individuals in rural commun ity settings (Bell, Reddy, & Rainie, 2004; Cole, 1947; Howell, et al., 1982; Kelsey & Wall, 2003) Motivation appears to be salient to agricultural educators and rural community leaders.
38 Transformational Leadership Theory In the previous leadership approaches, the l eader is the figu re w ho stands out from the rest and is the focus on the leadership theory; however transformation leadership is different because the focus is now on the followers. U nderstanding the importance of the leaders relationship with his/her followe rs and an interdependency of roles is the focus of the transformation theory. Transformation theory explor es the shift from the individual leaders to the team leaders. Transforming leadership is a process in which the leaders take actions to try to increase their followers' awareness of what is right and important, to raise their followers' motivational maturity and to move their followers to go beyon d their own self-interests and focus on what is good for the group or the organization (Burns, 1979). Leaders provide their followers with a sense of purpose that goes beyond a simple exch ange of rewards for effort provided. The transforming approach to leadership attempts to optimize development and not just performance. Development encompasses the maturation of abil ity, motivation, attitudes, and values (Burns, 1979). Such leaders want to elevate the maturity level of their followers, where the focus would shift from security needs to needs for achievement and self-development. Leaders would convince their followers to strive for a higher level of achievement as well as higher levels of moral and ethical standards. Through the deve lopment of their followers, they optimize the development of their organization as well. High performing followers build high performing organizations. According to Burns (1979) transforming leadersh ip is a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into lead ers and may convert leaders into moral agents. This transforming approach occurs when one or mo re persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. The
39 transforming leader shapes, alters, and elevates the motives, values and goals of followers achieving significant change in the process (Burns, 1979). In building on Burns concep t of transforming leadershi p, Bass, (1985) stated that transformational leadership where the lead er transforms followers deals with the transformational style of executive leadership that incorporates social change. This transforming approach is now more common in many of our teams and organiza tion where there is a desire not just makes the process better but to cha nge the culture of the entire organization. An example of this transforming leadership idea is found in servant leadership. Servant leadership is a practical philosophy which supports people who choose to serve first, and then lead as a way of expanding service to individu als and institutions. Serv ant-leaders may or may not hold formal leadership positions; however serv ant-leadership encourages collaboration, trust, foresight, listening, and the ethi cal use of power and empowerm ent (Greenleaf, 1970) This transforming leadership approach continues be a trend has for the last few decades, where more leadership theorists and researchers are incorpor ating concepts of this transforming leadership perspective into broader leader ship styles and behaviors. Leadership Styles The concept of leadersh ip style refers to the characteristic manner in which an individual leads others. Early conceptualizations categoriz ed leadership styles as either autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire (Blanchard, 1995.; No rthouse, 2004). During the past 20 years, a new paradigm for leadership has emer ged that has shifted emphasis from the traditional transactional model of leadership toward the study of transformational leader ship styles. The concept of transformational leadership was introduced by Burns (1979) and redefined by Bass (1985). The study of transactional versus transformational leadership style becomes an important aspect of overall study of leadership (Bass & Avolio, 1993; Bryant, 2003; Deluga, 1990).
40 Transformational Leadership Burns (1979) provided a com prehensive th eory to delineate transactional and transformational leaders (Ba ss, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1993). Tr ansformational leaders are individuals who motivate followers to do more than orig inally expected, based on their original level of confidence, toward acco mplishing desired outcomes. Transformational leadership occurs when a leader (a) raises the level of awareness about the importance and value of desired outcomes, (b) alters or expands the wants and n eeds of followers, and/or (c) gets followers to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the group (Bass, 1985). The first leadership behavior is the idealized influence, which describes the leaders conviction, trust, and willingness to take a stand on difficult issues and uphold his values and ethics. The leader serves as a role model and mentor for subordinates. The second leadership behavior is the inspirational motivation, which shows the leader as articu late, challenging, and encouraging in the accomplishment of the organizational vision. The th ird leadership behavior is the intellectual stimulation, which provides that the transfor mational leader question old and traditional assumptions and beliefs, such as the leader pr omoting creativity in the expression of ideas and reasons. The fourth leadership behavior is the individualized consideration, which presents the leader as appealing to the individualistic natu re of subordinates by pr oviding consideration of individual needs, abilities, and as pirations (Bryant, 2003; Deluga, 1990). Burns (1979) introduced the concep t of transformational leadersh ip noting that the result of transformational leadership is mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents (p. 23). A transformati onal leader is attuned to the needs and motives of followers, and he attempts to help followers reach their fullest potential (Bass & Avolio, 1993; Burns, 1979; Deluga, 1990; Riggio, Bass, & Orr, 2004). Working with Burns's theory, Bass (1985) assert ed that these leaders motivate followers by
41 appealing to strong emotions regardless of the u ltimate effect on the followers, and these leaders do not necessarily attend to positive moral valu es. Transformational leadership has also been described as going beyond individual needs, focusing on a common purpose, and addressing intrinsic rewards (Bass & A volio, 1993; Deluga, 1990; Gree n, 2004; Riggio, et al., 2004; Santora, et al., 1999). This transformational leadership style is pa rticularly relevant to leaders of nonprofit organizations because it helps build follower co mmitment to the cause. Followers emulate the leader's commitment and may view the leader as the embodiment of the organization's values and mission (Riggio, et al., 2004). This element is often associated with inspirational leadership and is particularly important for leaders of nonprofit organizations when inspiring and motivating volunteer workers and staff (Brungardt, 1996; Bryant, 2003; Deluga, 1990; Green, 2004; Riggio, et al., 2004; Santora, et al., 1999). Transactional Leadership Transac tional leadership contains two dis tinct styles of leadership: management by exception (active) and contingent reward. Leaders characterized through management by exception (active) are described as those who will intercede only in a situation if it is determined that an employee is not performing at the accepta ble standard. Contingent reward leaders utilize communication tools to clarify expe ctations, and they provide promises and negotiations to elicit the desired action or response behavior from subo rdinates. On the opposite end of the leadership spectrum is transformational leadership. Burns (1979) stated that tran sactional leaders approach followers with an eye to exchanging one value for another, such as jobs for votes or subs idies for campaign contributions. Such transactions comprise the bulk of the rela tionships among leaders and followers, especially in groups, legislatures, and parties (p. 23). Burn s (1979) classified tran sactional leaders as
42 opinion leaders, bargainers bureaucrats, party leaders, legislat ive leaders, and executive leaders (Bass & Avolio, 1993). The transactional leader, in c ontrast with the transformational leader, uses contingent rewards in whic h people receive a reward for a behavior or accomplishing a task. Transactional leaders use the t echnique of management by excepti on, which includes criticism, negative feedback and/or negative reinforcements. Finally, some transa ctional leaders use the non-leadership technique or la issez-faire leadership which is defined as a hands-off leadership style with the basi c philosophy of l etting it ride. When transactional leaders over-emphasize go als and policies, they discourage creative thought and problem-solving. Consequently, both transformational and tran sactional leadership styles are necessary to address the differences in knowledge processes at each level of an organization. In fact, transactional leadershi p, rather than transformational leadership, is extremely important in top management in orde r to achieve the competitive advantages that result from effective knowledge exploitation (Bryant, 2003; Deluga, 1990; Green, 2004; Riggio, et al., 2004; Santora, et al., 1999). Leadership Practices Inventory As m entioned with transformation leadership th eory, leaders provide their followers with a sense of purpose and are not just a simple exchan ge. The rewards of transformation leadership theory look at optimizing development and fost ering change to occur. Understanding the importance of the leaders relationship with his/her followers and an interdependency of roles is the focus of the transformation theory. This st udy utilized the LPI in measuring leadership behaviors, which incorporates key elements of transformation leadership theory into specific measures of leadership behavior. The LPI wa s developed from resear ch conducted by Kouzes and Posner during the 1980s; the re search represents th eir Leadership Challenge. The Leadership Challenge consists of five practices identified as exemplary leadership: (a) Challenge the
43 Process, (b) Inspire a Shared Vision, (c) Enab le Others to Act, (d) Model the Way, and (e) Encourage the Heart. Kouzes and Posner (1997 ) stated: The more fr equently you demonstrate the behaviors included in the LPI, the more likel y you will be seen as an effective leader (p.9) (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). Researcher s demonstrated the validity a nd reliability of the LPI as a measurement instrument. The leadership theo ry framework for this study began with the leadership behaviors (practices) research of Kouzes and Posner (1995). According to Kouzes and Posner (1997), leadership practices are measured behaviors--not measures of IQ, personality type, or management skills (p. 5). Specifically, participants who regularly exhibit LPI behaviors are seen as being more effective in meeting job-related demands and more successful in representing their units to upper management. After 25 years of research with a databa se involving more than 100,000 participants, Kouzes and Posner (1998) established five lead ership practices, which were commonly present in the leaders they observed. The LPI was create d by developing a set of statements describing each of the various leadership actions and behavior s. A higher value represents more frequent use of a leadership behavior. Other characteristics that LPI leadership behaviors may include are higher performing teams and fostering increased levels of loyalty and commitment. The LPI leadership behaviors have also shown increased motivational levels, willingness to work harder, and a reduction in absenteeism, turnover, and dropout rates (Kouzes and Posner, 1995, p. 6). In learning more about the five leadership practices, Kouzes and Po sner (1995) provided a detailed account for each lead ership practice (behavior):
44 1. Challenging the process searches for challe nging opportunities to grow and be innovative. This leadership behavior emphasizes the need for experimenting, taking risks, and learning from accompanying mistakes. 2. Inspiring a shared vision envisions an uplif ting and ennobling future as a leader. Creating a common vision appeals to their values, in terests, hopes, and dreams, and it is a cornerstone of this future behavior. 3. Enabling others to act promotes cooperative goals and building trust. This behavior strengthens followers by provi ding choice and developing competence in critical tasks objectives. 4. Modeling the way sets the example and behavior in ways that are consistent with those shared values. A leader promotes cons istent progress and builds commitment from followers. 5. Encouraging the heart is a leadership practi ce that recognizes individual contributions. A leader who encourages the heart celebrat es team accomplishments regularly (Kouzes & Posner, 1995, p. 18). In studying the leadership practices, two empirical studies determined that the five leadership practices accounted for 65% (Pos ner & Brodsky, 1992) and 80% of the variance (Posner & Brodsky, 1994) respectively, in asse ssments of chapter presidents leadership effectiveness. Posner and Brodsky (1993) also found that students, who practiced the five leadership practices most often, as compared to those who engaged in th em less often, viewed themselves as more effective leaders. Particip ants who regularly exhibit LPI behaviors are seen as: Being more effective in meeting job-related demands Being more successful in representi ng their units to upper management Creating higher-performing teams Fostering loyalty and commitment Increasing motivational levels and willingness to work hard Reducing absenteeism, turnover, and dropout rates Possessing high degrees of personal credibility Researchers using the LPI have also found formal leadership education to be effective. Earnest (1996) discovered significant increases from pretest to posttest for each of the five leadership behaviors of community leadership program participants in Ohio. In addition, Rudd
45 (2000) and Krill, Carter, and Williams (1997), along w ith other researchers, in have used Kouzes and Posners (1997) leadership pr actices in their respective studies. Rudd (2000) analyzed the leadership styles of extension directors, and de termined that these leaders self-reported that enabling others to act was their most frequent leadership behavior, while inspiring a shared vision was their least frequent behavior. Spotauski and Carter (1993) found that agricultural education executives were best at enabling others to act and needed help with inspiring a shared vision and challenging the process Woodrum and Safrit (2003) examined the leadership practices of West Virginia extensi on agents and determined again that enabling others to act was the behavior exhibited most frequently, and inspiring a shared vision was the leadership behavior used less often. Brungardt (1996) al so found significant increases in leadership behaviors from the beginning to the end of the Lead ership Certificate Program at Fort Hays State University in Hays, Kansas. Challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, and modeling the way behaviors were significantly great er on the last day of the program compared to the first day during a 60-day period. In both these studies, the reliability measure was greater than .80, which was considered moderate to high. Leadership in College Students Students with undergrad uate degree programs in the 21st century will be required to possess knowledge of concepts fundamental to lit eracy, critical thought, mathematics, history, science, values, art experience and appreciation, international perspectives and multicultural experience, in-depth study, how to learn and problem-solve, techni cal skills, practical psychology of interpersonal relati ons, relevant courses, and practical perspectives on careers (Knowles, Holton III, & Swanson, 2005; Nire nberg, 1998; J. C. Ricketts & Rudd, 2002; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). All these concepts have a relationship with leadership
46 Leadership vs. Management Leadersh ip ability determines effectiveness and the potential impact of the leaders organization (Maxwell, 2002). Until now, according to Bennis and Nanus (1985), the most difficult question has always been: How can one le arn to be an effective leader, not just a manager? In modern organizati ons, leadership and management roles are seldom separate, and the leader creates the atmosphere for the work environment. At times, a leader/manager may need to inspire his followers, creating commitment growth, and adaptation. In this instance, the individual is clearly exerti ng leadership (Howell, et al., 1982; Kloppenbog & Petrick, 1999; Schieman, 2006). Typically, college students come to their positions without leadership training, prior experience, and a clear unders tanding of the ambiguity and comp lexity of thei r roles (Cress, et al., 2001; Nirenberg, 1998). Northhouse (2001) described his leadership-member exchange theory as a leadership process that is centered on leaders and followers in which communication and personal relationships between leaders and followers are key elements. This leadershipmember exchange theory is just one example of leadership behavior that college graduates are expected to possess as they enter the workplace. As more undergraduate students enter the workplace and assume positions of leadership in industries, developing leadership be havior is of great importance. Leadership is not an innate characteristic, but it can be developed through formal and informal training (Burns, 1979). Leadership can be developed through properly designed leader ship projects. Through these leadership experiences, students can develop what is known as transformational leadership (Burns, 1979). Transformational leaders enable th eir followers to reach their full potential by tapping into the followers motivational needs and nurturing personal an d group relationships toward important organizational goals. Research has shown that transformational leadership results in high job satisfaction a nd greater satisfaction with the l eader (Bycio, Hackett, & Allen,
47 1995). Many of todays CALS st udents have a perceived expecta tion of leadership. Future employers view leadership development as ex tremely useful in personal and professional development activities (Graham, 2001). According to Love and Yoder (1989), much ev idence is available to support the conclusion that colleges of agriculture (COAs) in the Unite d States have contribut ed significantly to the achievements of their graduates. Love and Yode r (1989) noted that alt hough student leadership skill development in college was good, students felt that COAs contributed little to the students leadership skill development. As noted by Love and Yoder (1989), students perceived the development of their leadership abilities as an important part of their college education. Few departments, however, have required leadership development coursework as a part of their agriculture curricula. Representa tives from agri-business have voi ced their support of leadership skill development for prospective employees (Aldri ch, 1988). Love and Yoder (1989) suggested that COAs were not providing enough leadership development opportunities. A need has arisen to determine the leadership ab ilities of students enrolled in COAs because knowledge of leadership abilities would be useful as faculty in COAs encourage students to participate in activities that foster leadership skills developm ent. In addition, the knowledge of the students perceived leadership abilities w ould be helpful as faculty plan and implement future leadership skills development pr ograms for students enrolled in COAs. Traditionally, leadership education has been employed in the traditional classroom setting with face-to-face instruction, but web-based applications have provided venues to attract a wider clientele (Susan Fritz, Tracy Hoover, et al., 2003; Fritz & Brown, 1998). This example of teaching method delivery shows how social needs dictate leadership res ponse (J. C. Ricketts & Rudd, 2002).
48 Agricultural Leadership Agricultural leadership p rogram efficacy has been determined by a number of studies. Most of these studies, however, have not reported on the impact that participants have had on actual community leadership (Kelsey & Wall, 2003). More recently, studies on agricultural leadership have focused on the extent to which participants in agricultural leadership programs become community leaders and contribute to ru ral community development (RCD) processes. Hustedde and Woodward (1996a) examined the ke y questions and answers when preparing an effective community-based leadership program. According to Hustedde and Woodward (1996a), "capacity building" of local leaders is the ke y to addressing rural problems. This process engages citizens and organizations to identify needs, resources, and opportunities. Through servant leadership, people work to strengt hen and transform comm unities (Greenleaf, 1970). Other community-related factors, which are cons idered in creating a balanced curriculum, are discussed to show the importance of identifying a vision and goals for the community and in turn the leadership program. In an ideal setting, program participants would "learn about several local issues in-depth and devel op public behaviors in visioning, facilitation, team building, and conflict resolution." (Fri ck & Spears, 1996; Hustedde & Woodward, 1996a) Hustedde & Woodwards case study of agricu ltural leadership program participants focused on graduates who participated from 1982 to 2001. In this study, surveys were administered to selected student population a nd also interviews were conducted with eight selected subjects (Hustedde & Woodward, 1996b). In addition to the survey findings of selfreported changes in knowledge and behavior, qualitative findings re vealed that participants were aware of the importance of rural community development (RCD) processes. However, many participants were not serving in leadership positions, and they were taking a minimal role to improve their communities. Recommendations include incorporating a practicum into the
49 program that teaches needs assessment, project development, and change-agent behaviors so that participants have the knowledge and skills to serve as effective community leaders (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Duhl, 1997; Kels ey & Wall, 2003; Pigg, 2001). Similarly, researchers in organizational leadersh ip are examining the nature of leadership curricula in higher education programs (C rawford, Brungardt, Scott, & Gould, 2002). Approaches to leadership development include th e incorporation of the Adult Learning Theory (Crawford et al., 2002; Mitchell & Poutiatine, 2001), experientia l learning models (Mitchell & Poutiatine, 2001), and action research (Zimme rmann-Oster & Burckhardt, 1999). According to Crawford et al. (2002), major changes, such as f aculty cost and delivery m odel, will continue to impact degree program requirements for organizational leadership. Townsend (2002) reported that one-shot programs develop awareness, but was not effective in changing behavior. When an extend ed and sustained leadership class was provided, attitudes and leadership behavi ors changed after th e class (Kelsey & Wall, 2003). The program provides the long-term contact needed to change leadership behavi ors. There is potential for incorporating knowledge and behavior developmen t, but it is currently under-utilized. Program designers should integrate a leader ship project or practicum into the program.(Susan Fritz, Tracy Hoover, et al., 2003) Asking participants to create and implement a plan for community development within their home towns would serv e to develop leadership behaviors, needs assessment, change agent skills, and increase pa rticipant impact on comm unity development, at least in the short term. Challenges in Agricultural Leadership National reports have exam ined the knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies required to prepare society-ready graduates. The Am erican Society for Training and Development recently conducted a study titled Mapping the Future: Shaping New Workplace Learning and
50 Performance Competencies In this report, the competency model included competencies, areas of expertise, and workplace learning and perf ormance roles for training and developing professionals where the underlying theme again is leadership development (Davis, Naughton, & Rothwell, 2004). The Kellogg Commission, in its report titled the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities (2000) reported that todays university setting is ch anging. The commission stated that universities needed to reform public higher education in five areas: (a) student experiences, (b) student access, (c) engagement with society, (d) a learning society, and (e) campus culture. The commissions findings concluded that universiti es need to pay more attention to promoting lifelong learning, as well as paying more attentio n to student experiences and campus culture. The Kellogg Commission also found severa l key obstacles that would slow down university or institutional reform: lack of res ources, money, and time; inadequate facilities; organization of universities into decentralized, disciplinary depa rtments and colleges; lack of communication between academic units; personal at titudes; and a general resistance to change. One of the key aspects the commission alluded to throughout its report wa s the need for more specific leadership development at every level. Challenges and opportunities are presented re lative to improving the quality of higher education in agriculture. The Kellogg commission discussed the following challenges: the need for of global cooperation; the limite d frame of reference associated with educational nationalism; underutilized sources of knowledge the need for globalization of educational content; gender imbalances among students and faculty members narrow disciplinary approaches used in organizing learning; and the narrow definition of scholarship and its impact on recognition systems at institutions engaged in higher e ducation in agriculture (W.K. Kellogg Foundation,
51 2003). Advances in communication technology, coupled with a rebirth of global cooperation, make it possible to achieve significant advances in higher education in agriculture (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Carter, 1999). Another challenge in the agricultural leader ship field is the need for more evaluative research on the programs and courses being taught to address specific leadership skills. More qualitative and quantitative research needs to be conducted on agricultural l eadership to establish stronger validity and to provide measures for bench marking results (Carter, 1999; Kelsey & Wall, 2003; Petrea & Aherin, 1998). Valid measur es of leadership programs can show the importance and potential of agricu ltural leadership development programs that exist and operate across the nation (Carter, 1999; Kelsey & Wall, 2003; W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 2001). The current array of agricultural leadership programs has entailed a significant societal investment toward the important goal of fostering community participati on by citizens (Bolton, 2004; Rohs, 2004) Although the specific fields of agriculture, such as cooperative extension systems, have a long history of work in rural leadership develo pment, there is little widespread understanding of the range of knowledge and behavior taught or the amount of efforts directed toward leadership effectiveness (Dhanakumar, et al., 1996). Leadership Behavior Theoretical Framework Given the need to ascertain the extent of leadership behaviors attained by students in colleg es of agriculture and fact ors that may be associated w ith well-developed leadership behaviors, this section reviews potential influences and organizes these into a conceptual model. Conceptually, Figure 1 indentifies factors that influence leadersh ip behavior. According to the Theoretical Framework Model which resulted fro m a synthesis of youth leadership research conducted by Ricketts, Osborne, and Rudd (2004), family, school, self, community, agriculture
52 instructor, agriculture program, a nd students were identified as the key variables that may, in theory, explain leadership in these colleges (p. 43). Within this broad conceptual model, this study specifically focused on descri bing leadership behavior and how age, gender, or residential background has affected the prev alence of those behaviors. In addition, ethnicity, academic st atus, as well as number and t ypes of leadership positions held, have all been factors that may influence leadership behaviors (Flora & Flora, 2003; Rudd, et al., 2004). Other variables that have been noted to influence leader ship behavior include previous high school activities, community service activi ties, and civic organization memberships (Luloff & Bridger, 2003; Tolbert, Lyson, & Irwin, 1998). In addition, the academic backgrounds for trad itional four-year students versus community college transfer students have been identified in the literature as factors that may influence the leadership behavior of individuals (Burgraff, 1999). It is therefore possible that diverse populations are excluded from leadership positions based on their leadership style. The literature also suggested that variables related to an individuals age and/or experience can influence an individuals leadership beha viors (Duke, 1998; Kelsey & Wall, 2003; Nirenberg, 1998; Stedman, 2004). Characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, academic experience, organizational leadership experience, community leadership experience and the degree of formal training also are aspects of leadership that influence behavior (Golembiewski, 2001). Demographic Characteristics and Leadership Numerous studies have been conducted in the field of leadership to address the influence of selected characteristics of individuals on their l eadership behavior. Some studies have focused on the influence of the characteristics over the self perceived leadership behavior of the individual. Others have focuse d on the perceptions of followers related to the individuals
53 leadership style and the influence of these characteristics on leaders (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). Gender Leadership behaviors of men and women are pe rhaps one of the well-re searched aspects of leadership. The two major schools of thought on gender differences in lead ership are: distinct differences or no differences. Ervin (2005) conducted a study th at explored the leadership practices among student government leaders. The results of the study showed no significant differences were found on the five leadership pr actices between male and female participants, Similarly, no significant differences were found between men a nd women, whether or not the student held a leadership position within the student government (Ervin, 2005). In addition, no significant differences existed between elected and appointed leaders. Bardou (2003) using the Lead ership Practices Inventor y (LPI) conducted a study to examine the impact of prior student leadership experiences, gender, and perceived institutional support on student leaders self-efficacy. The study consisted of 532 undergraduate student leaders at Indiana University. It focused on how well individuals felt they could perform the leadership behavior rather than their actual frequency of engaging in the behavior. The results of the study indicated men and wome n did not significantly differ in their self-efficacy for leadership on challenging inspiring enabling or encouraging ; while for modeling the scores of women were significantly higher than those of men. Women tended to feel more supported by their advisor than men, and they were more likely to feel that their advisor encourages leadership development. The more an individual agrees th at his or her advisor encourages leadership development, the more capable that individual f eels he or she can inspire, enable and model (Bardou, 2003).
54 Rudd (2000) used the Leadership Practices I nventory (LPI), in which five observers participated in a 360-degree review of 38 me n and 16 women in County Extension Director positions differences. The observing participants reported significant differences between men and women on four of the five leadership prac tices measured. Women we re reported to use the practices of challenging the process, inspiring a s hared vision, enabling others to act, and e ncouraging the heart significantly more than their male peers. Using the self-evaluation component of their instrument Rudd found women often scored themselves lower than their observers, while men scored themselves higher than their observers. In this case, men scored themselves higher than observers in all practices, whereas the women in County Extension Directors (CED)s scored themselves lower in four of the five. Moores (2003) study of leadership within the Cooperative Ex tension Service found gender had no significant effect on leadership styles, other than in idealized influence where women scored higher. Gender may play a very impor tant role due to the nu mber of women at the county level working as 4-H faculty. For the purposes of this study, gender will be analyzed to further determine the relationship between gender and leadership. Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity, race, and issues relate d to diversity have played an im portant role in the history of the United States. Some leadership studies have provided empirical evidence showing a relationship between leadership and ethnicity. Characteristica lly, research has shown certain traits or characteristics could lend themselves to the opportun ity for leadership, but not to the success or ability to lead. Davi s (1982) found African-American leaders may differ from other races in their leadership behaviors. Using Bu rns (1979) definitions for transactional and transformational leadership, Davis concluded that African-American leaders use behaviors related to transformational leadership more so than those of transacti onal leadership because
55 African-American followers seek out and are more responsive to transformational leadership behaviors. Holder (1990) conc luded that no significant differences existed among ethnic origin and leadership style when comparing extension faculty and middle managers. In 1993, Kouzes and Posner studied 36,000 managers and subordinates, studying both Caucasian and non-Caucasian participants. They found non-White leaders reported engaging in two of the five leadership practices more than their White counterpart s, including inspiring a shared vision and modeling the way. However, use of the 360-degree technique revealed no significant differences between White and nonWhite participants. Sykes (1995), in studying leadership styles of CEDs, reported significant differences in the self -perceived leadership behaviors of African American CEDs compared to CEDs of other races. She concluded the African American CEDs perceived themselves to demonstrate more leadership behaviors. Other studies show no significant effect of race in leadership behavior (Moore, 2003; Holder, 1990). From the research, no conclusive evidence exists as to the relationship between race and leadership. Academic Leadership Experience Academ ic leadership experiences, which include such variables as academic status (freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior), form al leadership course work and leadership trainings have been noted as predictors on lead ership behavior. In a previous longitudinal study by Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, and Burhardt (2001), they found evidence that experiences in leadership education and training programs have a weak and non-significant effect on leadership outcomes. Their study indicated that leadership potential exists in every student and that college and universities can develop this potential thr ough leadership programs and activities. Previous notions that leadership is positional or an inherent characteristic were
56 unfounded. The more involved a student is in stud ent activities and leadership education the more a student will development effective leadership behaviors (Cress, et al., 2001). Organizational Leadership Experience Organizational leadership play s an important ro le in developing leadership within its membership. Knowledge creation, community and practical application promote a sharing of ideas, skills and that talents are reflective individualized a nd group leadership development (Locke, 2001). Previous research indicates the desire for leadership development is strong, especially among practitioners as well as the researchers of le adership theory (Day, 2001). Participating in organizational leadership pr ovides participants with the opportunity to interact with their peers in formal and non-fo rmal leadership training. This organizational leadership experience is different from leadersh ip programs and can provide a distinct advantage for leadership development. Kezar and Moriar ty (2000) found that being an officer in a collegiate organization was one of the strongest predictors of se lf-rating on leadership ability. Many civic leadership programs encourage particip ants to engage with the community and use what they have learned to work on or discus s solutions to problems facing the community (Locke, 2001). Azzam (2003) states this engageme nt process can facilita te the learning process by providing a relevant context, and can help establish social ne tworks between the participants and the community" (p. 57) High School Organization Leadership A students freshm an year in high school ha s been linked to positive connections with development of leadership behavior in the college population (Woodrum, 2003; Zielinski, 1999) For example, high school organizations, such as FF A, 4-H, Boy Scouts, and athletic teams, have been instrumental in developing and shaping lead ership behavior and att itudes In agricultural education, both 4-H and FFA have identified lead ership development as central to their mission.
57 Many Cooperative Extension Service and agricultu ral educators, members, and alumni think these organizations provide effective lead ership programming (Dormody, 1994; Seevers, Dormody, & Clason, 1995). The development of leadership skills was also important to the success of high school vocational ag riculture graduates. Accordi ng to Shelhamer (1990), adults who were active in leadership ac tivities were more likely to have completed their high school vocational agriculture curricu la (Schumacher & Swan, 1993). Ricketts and Rudd (2001) found that leadership experience aids personal de velopment for career and societal success. High schools students with leadership experience have a strong leadership capacity because they better understand the phenomena of leadership as a pe rsonal and attainable undertaking (Ricketts & Rudd, 2001). College Leadership Many College students experience organizational leadership am ong opportunities beyond the form al college classroom. Researchers have investigated how student s involvement with both learning communities and agricultural youth organizations influenced their academic performance, retention (Ball, Garton, & Dyer, 2001), and de gree completion (Ball & Garton, 2002).The results indicated that there is a posit ive relationship between student involvement and academic performance. On the other hand, Viegas, Brun, and Haus afus (1998) studied undergraduate women majoring in family and consumer sciences and found a weak relationship between the students GPA, the number of organizationa l memberships, the number of l eadership positions held in organizations and their total scores on the Leader ship Practices Inventory. As a result, Viegas, Brun, and Hausafus concluded that, leadership development may be atta ined irrespective of these attribute variables if students are sufficiently motivated and act proactively to pursue their leadership goals (p. 49). Si milarly, Kolb, Karau, Steven, and Eagly (1999) investigated the
58 effect of attitudes toward leadership de velopment among undergraduate students. The researchers reported that leadersh ip experience was a significant predictor of leader emergence. Kolb et al. (1999) concluded that, it can be said with some degree of confidence, th en, that selfreported leadership attitude and leadership expe rience can be used to predict those individuals who are likely to emerge as leaders (p. 316). Park and Dyer (2003) found that traditional agricultural college organizations FFA and 4H members provided most of the l eadership in agricultural colleges. FFA members, representing only one-third of student leaders, provided nearly half of the leadership to student organizations. The 4-H members contributed an additional 37% of the leadership. Due to leadership in multiple organizations, 4-H and FFA members represent cons iderable student leadership potential to a college, especially in traditional organizat ions (Dormody, 1994; Susan Fritz, Christine Townsend, et al., 2003; Mullins J. G., 2006 ; Ricketts & Rudd, 2004; Rudd, et al., 2004; Wingenbach, 1997). Most of these studies utilize survey research methods but th ere remains a need to collect personal opinions, attitudes, comments, and recommendations from recognized collegiate leaders. Insight into the beliefs, values, and attitudes of individuals will allow observers to gain a holistic in-depth understanding of the leadership phenomena st udied (Merriam & Caffarella, 1999). Connors, Velez, and Swan (2006) conducted a qualitative, semi-str uctured interview of 20 of the most outstanding seniors in the College of Food, Ag ricultural, and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University. Based on the comments of the subjects, leadership can be viewed as a process that develops over a period of time and is influenced by an individuals personal characteristics, experiences, and influe nces (Connors, 2006). Lead ership participation and aspirations can and does change as a student moves from high school to college and on to
59 adulthood. Students recognize the need for involvement in leadership development organizations to improve their personal leader ship and professional skills. It was clearly evident that the outstanding seniors were influenced more by their participation in collegiate organizations and personal influences than they were by fo rmal leadership coursework, books, or other instructional materials. This conclusion supports the findings of Kezar and Moriarty (2000) when they stated that involvement opportunities ar e clearly important for the development of leadership among groups (p. 67). These studie s add to the theory of the importance of leadership development within undergraduate students in colleges of agriculture. Community Leadership Experience Num erous studies have explored community leadership. Leadership development program outcomes were considered to have a direct im pact on student leadersh ip development. Along with the idea of community leadersh ip, "civic leadership is a term that has been used to describe these leadership programs (Azzam & Riggio, 2 003). Many of these leadership development programs are sponsored by local community agencies with the aim of trai ning current leaders in the skills necessary to serve their communities. These programs attempt to foster an understanding of the events, people, and organizational entities that shape a community, while providing skills and knowledge to be more effective leaders. An important aim of these programs is to inspire citizens to step forw ard and assume leadership roles within the community." (p. 55) (Azzam & Riggio, 2003). In addition, the development of specific leadership skills, and creating local leadership ar e viewed as a component of the broader concept of social capital that is require d to build other form s of capital within a community. Green and Haines (2002) identified human capital, physical capital, financial capit al, and environmental capital. These types of community capital are interrelated and in teract through leaders operating locally, regionally, and nationally. The effectiveness of these leader relationships is an indicator
60 of a communitys social capital (i.e., how well the leaders work with each other to identify local problems and issues and attain gr oup goals)" (p. 2) (Bolton, 2004). Earnest (1996) conducted a study of the Ohio St ate University Extension program and used "Project EXCEL" as the primary planning and teaching tool. Program participants were evaluated (pre-test and post-tes t) using Kouzes and Posner's (1993) Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). According to the study, "parti cipants (a) were more willing to challenge the status quo and take risks; (b) broadened a nd changed their perspective of leadership roles/responsibilities within the community and were encouraging others to accept some leadership responsibility; (c) de veloped a greater appreciation for teamwork and collaboration within their community and impr oved their problem solving skills; and (d) learned to adapt their leadership styles to fit different contexts within the community" (p. 7)(Earnest, 1996). In developing community leadership for high school and college students, the primary goal of community leadership programmi ng is to encourage them to take an active role of leadership within their communities, especial ly in addressing issues and concerns (Fredricks, 1998). Today, the number of community leadership programs is on the rise. Currently more than 700 community programs are operating in nearly all regions of the United States (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Fredricks, 2003; F. R. Rohs & Langone, 1993). Many of these programs were formed or were closely affiliated with the local chambers of commerce. A substantial number of these programs were started by individuals who have e ither participated in other civic leadership programs or who have had some informal contact with other leadership programs (p. 56). Over 85 percent of all leadership tr aining programs use formal cla ssroom instruction (Meehan, 2002). While many civic leadership programs use cla ssroom instruction, most also offer direct involvement of participants in th e community, as well as requiring participants to work on actual
61 community problems or issues. In this way ci vic leadership programs have much in common with "action learning" approach to leadersh ip development (Fredricks, 1998, 2003; Ladewig & Rohs, 2000; Rohs, 2004) In addition, these types of civic leadership programs appear to see leadership as a complex interaction between the leader, the organization, and the larger social environment the city /community (Azzam & Ri ggio, 2003). Leadership development could be seen as a process that requires both social a nd contextual interactions coupled with formal training. The use of social systems coupled with individual training can help to build commitments and establish a relational network among members of an organization or community (Rohs, 2004; Taylor, Jones, & Boles, 2004). Through this process, individuals will have the opportunity to learn through social in teraction in relevant contexts.(Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Rohs, 2004). Summary Chapter 2 provided the theoretical and concep tual fram ework for the study. Basss (1967) model of Transactional and Transformational L eadership supported the theoretical framework. The researcher included an appropriate literature review in each of the following areas:(a) nature of leadership defined (b) major leadership theories ; (c) leadership styles; (d) Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI); (e) agricultural leadership; (f) leadership in co llege students; (g) influence of characteristics on leadership; and (h) theore tical framework of leadership behavior. The literature review reveal ed that much research ha s been conducted on studying the concept of leadership. However, the literature review also indi cated very little consensus has been reached among the researchers. The number of definitions associated with leadership is one indicator of the various views a nd philosophies of leadership. One of the most represented views of leadership in the literature is the Leadership Practices Inve ntory (LPI) by Kouzes and Ponser where leadership practices or behaviors were id entified and provide a th eoretical framework for
62 this study. The LPI measures the role of the leader and facilitates analysis of the influence of organizational experience, community leadersh ip experience, and personal characteristics variables on leadership behavior.
63 Figure 2-1. Conceptual model of fa ctors contributing to leadership be havior (LPI) of CALS students. Academic Leadership Experience Academic status Leadership coursework Leadership training Personal Demographics Age Gender Ethnicity Living Environment Family (first generation) GPA Enrollment Organizational Leadership Experience # Student officer/leadership positions # Memberships in student organizations # Years of involvement Leadership Behavior Community Leadership Experience # types of leadership roles # of service acti vities performed # of role models and community leaders
64 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overview As reported in Chapter 1, the purpose of this study was to assess CALS students past and present lead ership experiences and personal charact eristics as predictors fo r leadership behavior. Specifically, this study aimed to measure the self-p erceived level of leadership behaviors using the Student Leadership Practice Inventory (LP I) (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). Chapter 2 discussed previous research related to this study and reviewed releva nt theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Chapter 3 will address the research design, target population, instrumentation, and data collection procedures and statis tical procedures for data analysis. Research Objectives Chapter 3 will explain th e methods used to accomplish the objectives of the study. The five specific research objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To determine self-perceived leadership beha viors of CALS students as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 2. To assess the influence of the demographic characteristics of current CALS students on leadership behaviors 3. To assess the influence of community leadersh ip experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on leadership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) have on leadership behaviors 5. To assess the relationship between undergradu ate CALS student leadership behavior and previous high school experiences. Research Design The design of the study wa s both descriptive and ex post fac to since the factors that were being identified were pre-existing (Ary, 1996). Th e design was employed to describe the present characteristics of undergraduate CA LS students and to identify thei r leadership behaviors. This
65 study used quantitative research methods to accomplish the specific research objectives. Descriptive research was used to accomplish re search Objective 1. According to Ary (1996), descriptive research is used to summarize, or ganize, and describe obser vations (p. 118). The descriptive statistics relevant to Objective 1 will be summarized by using measures of central tendency, dispersion and correlation. A correlation and causal-comparative or ex post facto design was employed to accomplish Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5. In the ex post facto design, the researcher does not have direct cont rol over the independent variables. Population The population for the study consisted of underg raduate students enrolled in the fall 2007 sem ester in the College of Agricultural and Life Sc iences (CALS) at the University of Florida. A CALS student is an undergradu ate student pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in the areas of pre-professional training, food, ag riculture, natural resources, and the life sciences. A list of CALS students representing 26 majors was provide d by the deans office of the College. The CALS students are defined as enrolled in the Co llege of Agricultural a nd Life Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Agri cultural and Biological Engineering, academic programs at Apopka (MFREC), Ft. Lauderdal e, Milton (WFREC), Ft. Pierce (IRREC), Homestead (TREC), Hillsborough Community College at Plant City (HCC-PC), the main UF campus in Gainesville, and distance education enrollment for the fall semester. These CALS students also included members fr om the School of Natural Resources and Environment (SNRE) and cover approximately 50 speci alizations and 23 minors ar e offered by the College. Many CALS students plan for professi onal studies in dentistry, law, medicine, and pharmacy and also for graduate study in science and technology. At the initiation of the study, CALS list ed 3,702 enrolled students. The accessible population was all 3,429 students CALS undergra duates who had registered active e-mail
66 addresses. Due to coverage e rror, 283 students were excluded from the initial e-mail invitation mailing. Coverage error is the di rect result of not allowing all members of the survey population to have a chance of being contacted for the surv ey (Dillman, 2000). Coverage error occurs when the list or frame in which a sample is drawn doe s not include all elements of the population that the researcher wishes to study. In this study, the coverage error is due to an incomplete and inaccurate database of current e-mail addresses of the respondents. To reduce coverage error, the researcher attempted to gather contact inform ation for the 283 students who were excluded from the initial e-mail invitation, but these efforts we re unsuccessful. The researcher was successful in getting contact information on 68 students and made contact with them through email. Of the 68 who was contacted, only 7 students responded. This contact occurred after the initial study had been administered. The researcher used ch aracteristics information which was available for the 283 students, and they were compared to the total population. The researcher concluded that this group of non-respondents is not di fferent from the total population. Instrumentation The instrumentation (which included the LP I leadership instrum ent and researcherdeveloped items) for this study was distributed via an online survey using Survey Monkey, which is an online tool used to create, deliver, and analyze online surveys. Dillman (2000) stated that online or Web surveys are the latest deve lopment in survey research where computer hardware and software make online surveys si mpler to construct and less expensive to administer. The researcher designed and admini stered the online survey (see Appendix C) to collect data for the study. A lead ership experience questionnaire was used as part of this survey to measure the leadership experiences of each CALS student. This leadership experience questionnaire measured each CALS student leadersh ip experience in that particular leadership experience area. For example, th e organizational leadership secti on of the survey asked about
67 the following: (a) the type of orga nization(s) (i.e., servic e, social, social service, fraternity, etc.) the student belongs to; (b ) the leadership position was held (i.e., president, vice president, secretary, etc.); (c) the membership level (i.e., chap ter, district, state, regi onal, national); and (d) the number of years of pa rticipation (i.e., 0-1, 2-3, 4-5, 5 or more years). Data were collected, categorized, and recoded to perform statistical an alysis. Sections of the leadership experience inst rument were adapted from a previous study (Park & Dyer, 2005). In Park and Dyers study, the leadership experi ence questionnaire was developed in the context of analysis of undergraduate student leaders in an agricultural college. The questionnaire asked about their prior leadership trai ning, participation in high school activities, involvement in FFA and 4-H, as well as current par ticipation in undergraduate studen t leadership in a land-grant college of agriculture Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) Instrument W ith the written permission of Kouzes a nd Posner (1998), the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) was also administered as a se ction of this online leadership behavior survey instrument. Five behaviors were identifie d with the LPI leadership behaviors model used to address Objective 1. Participants provided their self-perceived proficienc y level in each of the leadership practices, as described by the LPI leadership instrument. The LPI was used to determine the degree to which each CALS stude nt exhibited the leadership behaviors of challenging the process, enabling others to act, inspiring a shar ed vision, encouraging the heart and modeling the way as a part of his leadership behavior. After 25 years of research with a databa se involving more than 100,000 respondents, Kouzes & Posner (1998) established five leadership practices that might be present in the leaders they observed. The LPI was created by developi ng a set of statements describing each of the various leadership actions and be haviors. Each statement was or iginally cast on a 5-point Likert
68 scale, and reformulated in 1999 into a more r obust and sensitive 10-poin t Likert scale. The change in the response scale, fr om 5-point to 10-point, was made for the second edition of the LPI after a few statements were revised and ed itorial changes were made. With the goal of increasing the validity and reliabi lity of the instrument, the respons es from observers can now be further categorized by their relati onship to the leader (e.g., manager, direct report, co-worker or peer, and other)(Kouzes & Ponser, 2002). A higher value represents more frequent use of a leadership behavior. The result s described here are consistent with those reported earlier from the first edition of the LPI. According to (Brungardt, 1996), research using the LPI with college students and leadership development programs fo und scores to be signi ficantly higher on both pretest and posttests. According to Kouzes and Posner (1997), lead ership behaviors are measured behaviors, and not measures of IQ, personality type, or ma nagement skills (p. 5). The LPI consistently shows that the more frequently you demonstrat e the behaviors included in the LPI, the more likely you will be seen as an effective leader (p. 6). The instrument is composed of five competency area subscales, which su pport each of the identified processes. Thirty statements (with six statements making up each competency ar ea) were included in the LPI instrument. The participants responded to each statement by a ra ting on a scale ranging from (Almost Never) to (Almost Always) to determine the importa nce of the practice to st udent leadership. For example, the 30 question leadership inventory aske d questions such as: I set a personal example of what is expected from others where particip ants would rate themselves on a scale of 1 to 10. The possible scores calculated for each subscal e ranged from 1 (low) to 10 (high) for the perceived importance of each of the five skill areas.
69 For this study, the researcher created an average score from each leadership subscale by using CALS student responde nt data for the fall 2007 semester. Scores were calculated for the perceived importance of each of the five skill areas by summing the responses within each area. Dividing the sum of the responses by the number of items for each behavioral area resulted in a mean score for the behavior. These served as the scale score of importance for each of the five competency areas. Participants also complete d a second half of the survey, which explored questions of previous leadersh ip experiences and requested basic personal characteristics information. Reliability for the LPI Reliability a nd validity of the instrument s were important cons iderations for the researchers to make in determining (a) the se lection of the instrume nt and (b) the overall credibility of the study. Reliability, defined by Ary et al. (1996) is the extent to which a measure yields consistent results ; the extent to which scores ar e free of random error, (p. 24). Reliability was determined for each of the instruments included in the study. Validity is a term used to describe an instruments accuracy in measuring what it is supposed to measure. Validity is also the extent to which the data are gath ered and deemed appropriate for answering the research question (Ary, 1996). Cronbachs Alpha is an appropriate m eans for estimating internal-consistency reliability within a Likert scale (Is aac, 1995). Posner et al. (2002) have reported internal reliability scores for the self-rating of 0.80 for Challenging the Process, 0.87 for Inspiring a Shared Vision, 0.75 for Enabling Others to Act, 0.77 for Modeli ng the Way, and 0.87 for Encouraging the Heart ( Kouzes & Posner, 2002). The fewer errors cont ained, the more reliable the instrument, and instrument reliabilities above .80 are considered good (Penfield, 2002). Internal reliability, as measured by Cronbachs Alpha, continues to be strong, with all scales above the .75 level
70 (Kouzes & Posner, 1997) Test-retest reliability for the fi ve leadership behaviors has been consistently strong, generally at the .90 level and above which has been true for the Self version as well as for all Observers and for each Observer category (Posner, 1994). Other researchers reported reliability for the five leadership practices as being between 0.63 and 0.83 (Snyder, 1992) and between 0.83 and 0.92 (Levy, 1995). The reliabilities for the LPI tend to be above this criter ion. A tendency occurs for the reli ability coefficients from the LPI-Self (between .75 and .87) to be slightly lo wer than those for the LPI-Observer (ranging between .88 and .92); however, this is not pr oblematic. Table 3-1 re ports the associated Cronbachs Alpha for each competency area of th e Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) instrument. These estimates were appropriate an d the instrument was administered to the study participants. Although the reliabilities of some of the scales were low on the self-rating when compared to other observers, all had moderate to high reliabilities. The reliability of the scales, and instrument as a whole were therefore consid ered acceptable (see Table 3-1). To confirm the reliability of the instrument, the researcher conducted a post hoc analysis. Instrument Pilot Study Before conducting the study, a leadership behavi or survey w as reviewed and assessed by a panel of experts who evaluated the instruments for content and face validity. The panel consisted of individuals at various unive rsities (University of Florida, Cornell University, and North Carolina State University). These panel members were considered experts on leadership and/or research design and instrumenta tion. The instrument also was p ilot-tested with a group of undergraduate CALS students. Construct validity was established through the logical approach, which measures each concept within a theory using a set of questions to a ddress the objectives of the study.
71 In September 2007, the CALS Leadership Su rvey was pilot-tested prior to its administration to undergraduate CALS students in the study. The pilot study consisted of 30 students from the Colleges Ambassadors Pr ogram in which 28 of the 30 individuals participated. They completed the instrument with a response rate of 90%. Data were collected from the pilot study to determine reliability of the instrument (see Table 3-2). Internal consistency of the leadership beha vior was measured usi ng Cronbachs Alpha. Vogt (2005) contends that alpha is the appropriate measure of inte rnal consistency or reliability with items on an instrument or index. A reliabili ty that is greater than .90 is considered high. Reliabilities greater th an .80 are considered moderate to high, and those less than .70 are considered low. Since all of the leadership be havior scales on the in strument in Table 3-2 showed moderate to high reliability, the reliabilit y of the scales and instrument as a whole were considered acceptable. LPI Instrument Content The survey was the same for all sub jects where the participants were asked to provide a rating on questions on their leadersh ip behavior. The leadership inventory asked questions such as: I set a personal example of what is expected from others where participants would rate themselves. To measure leadership behavior, pa rticipants provided their responses to a 30 item inventory on a to Likert scale. Th e scale ranged from = Almost Never, = Rarely, = Seldom, = Once in While, = Occasionally, = Sometimes, =Fairly Often, =Usually, =Very Frequently, =Almost Always. As shown in Table 3-3, the final version used a set of 30 items.
72 Measures of Influence on Leadership Behavior Dependent Variable Indexes As previously stated, the dependent variable for this study was Leadership Behavior. On an individual level, perform ance was measured by th e LPI survey instrument as a self-rating. The leadership practice scores of CALS students were the dependent continuous variable in the study. A total score was created by summing from the indi vidual ratings of the five practices identified in the survey instrument and then averaged. Thus, a grand mean score for Leadership was calculated. This leadership measure was used in further analysis with th e independent variables in each of the four leadership experiences areas, as discussed in Chapter 2. Leadership subscale scores for each of the five leadership behavior s were also calculated. Although self-assessments of performance deserve some skepticism for their potential bias, they have been widely used in research with leadership beha vior (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Mean scores of each of the five leadership behaviors measured by the LPI are presented in Chapter 4. In order to minimize the effects of missing da ta on the LPI inventor y, an index score was calculated as an average of the ratings provided by the respondent. For example, if a respondent marked 6 = sometimes for practices and 7 =fair ly often for other practices but failed to provide a response to the remaining one item, the respondents average rating was used. If, however, a respondent failed to provide ratings for at least half of the practices, that respondents index score was coded as missing and not included in further analysis. Independent Variables Independent variables were collected on subs et areas of demographic characteristics, academic leadership experience, organizational leadership experi ence, and community leadership experience. Each of these subs ets were grouped into models where they were analyzed as predictors of leadership behaviors.
73 Demographic Characteristics A set of characteristics q uestions gathered personal data from participants. The characteristics information obtained from the CALS students included ag e, gender, ethnicity, living environment, and family college experien ce. Other personal characteristics information collected during this study, which included major, academic status, transfer versus non-transfer student, and leadership roles, we re nominal independent variables (Howell, et al., 1982). Age, grade point average, leadership coursewor k, number of leadership positions, number of organizations, number of years of involvement, number of service activities, and number of role models and community leaders were continuous independent variables (B urgraff, 1999). Other characteristics such as marital status, citizenshi p, and parental influence were collected but were not used in the study as predictors. The inde pendent variables used included: age, gender, ethnicity, living environment (rural, suburban, and urban), family co llege experience (whether or not they are first-generation college students), grade point average (GPA). Academic Leadership Experiences Independent variables for th e academic leadersh ip expe rience explored questions pertaining to the partic ipants academic leadership trai nings (Kelsey & Wall, 2003; Wall & Kelsey, 2004). According to the Wall and Kelesy (2004) academic leadership variables such as leadership course and academic status are important characteristics when measuring undergraduates. The academic items included ques tions pertaining to the participants academic status, leadership coursework, and leadership trainings. The previ ous experiences with leadership courses and leadership training totals were derived a nd totaled on the characteristics instrument.
74 Organizational Leadership Experiences This group of variables explored the influe nce of current and previous organizational activities on leadership behavior. Participants were asked to give inform ation about their current organizational leadership experi ence, including the frequency of many service activities (both inside the CALS college and outside the CALS college). Organizational leadership experience variables are meaningful because indicate that student organization has an association with leadership behavior. Previous studies have in dicated, student organizational involvement can influence and be instrumental in developing leadership behavior (B urke, 2002; Ervin, 2005; Komives, 1998; Rudd, et al., 2004) Another question asked the participant to give information a bout his or her organizational leadership experience (student leadership expe rience in college and high school). This question explored the number of leadership positions, the number of organizations, number of years of involvement, and previous high school activitie s (Howell, et al., 1982; Zielinski, 1999). Community Leadership Experiences Community leadership experien ce variables includ ed types of leadership roles, number of a current service activities, and number of role models and comm unity leaders (Barrett & Horner, 1989). This group of variables explored the infl uence current and previous community service activities on leadership behavior. Data Collection Prior to the collection of any data, a propos al to conduct each phase of the study was submitted to the University of Floridas Instit utional Review Board (IRB). The IRB-02 reviews non-medical research proposals for ethical soundness, and it grants approval for the research proposal. A copy of the informed consent form, along with the survey instrument, was submitted to the IRB. The informed consent form de scribed the study and the voluntary nature of
75 participation. It also informed participants of any potential risk/or compensations associated with participation in the study. In August 2007, th e proposal was approved (Protocol #2007-U-0727). Once given the approval to conduct the study by th e IRB, data were collected and analyzed by the researcher. Data were collected duri ng September, October, and November 2007. An online survey collected the data needed to m eet the objectives of the study. To accomplish the research objectives, the Tailored Design Method (TDM) was implemented (Dillman, 2000). In Dillmans TDM approach to electronic data collection, he describes a minimum of five contacts with each respondent: a pre-notice e-mail, first questionnaire i nvitation, a thank you e-postcard, a fourth contact, and a final contact (Dillman, 2000). Procedure To conduct the study, participants were sent an e-m ail with a link to the leadership survey. The leadership survey link was embedded in an e-mail message from the CALS dean's office. Administration of the survey followed Dillman's (2007) Tailored Design Method for an online questionnaire (instead of using the traditional mail questionnaire). A pre-notice e-mail letter was sent out advising participants th at in a week they would be re ceiving the following information: instructions for participating in the study, the URL address for the online survey, and instructions for completing online instrument (see Appendix B). This notice provided the participants an opportunity to access the survey immediately. The re searcher using this notice also was able to detect mistakes in the e-mail addresses provided by the deans office. The actual instrument was then delivered to the participants through an e-mail link to the questi onnaire, which provided access to the survey (see Appendix B). A database of 3,429 CALS students e-mail a ddresses was generated by the CALS deans office, and the pre-notice was sent to the popula tion of CALS students. This e-mail letter of introduction was sent by the College of Agricultu ral and Life Sciences (CALS) Assistant Dean
76 of Academics notifying students ab out the forthcoming survey and requesting their participation in the study. All e-mail corres pondence with the study was sent by the researcher with approval of the Assistant Dean of Academics in CALS. Within a week of the pre-noti ce, the participants were sent the first e-mail notice. The notice included the active link for the web-based survey. This e-mail notice directed students to go to the website link which opened a webpage host ed by Survey Monkey. On this web page, the researcher created a message from the Agricultur al and Life Sciences deans office requesting student participation. In addition to the request for participation, there was a link to an electronic version of the informed consent letter. This info rmed consent letter on the web-site provided the same information as in the e-mail letter. By entering the website, a student could choose to participate in the study and sele ct a confirmation response of I agree or I do not agree. Additionally, participants were provided an estimate of the approximate amount of time needed to complete the survey and any compensation received for being participants. No formal compensation was offered for participation, but by participating students e-mail addresses were entered into a drawing to win ticke ts to home athletic events foot ball and basketball games as an incentive. Following completion of the first step, students were then direct ed through the rest of the 38-question survey with a total consisting of about 250 items (if a student answered all possible items). Students who decided not to participate or ended their participation of the survey early were redirected to the CALS home website. Stude nts who agreed to participant then entered the survey and answered the questions. After collect ing data from about 200 participate during the first six hours of launching the survey, modifi cation was made to the survey to collect participants Gator link e-mail addresses. This procedure enabled the researcher to track
77 participants responses to the survey and not duplicate requests for participation. After making the modification to the survey, the researcher then attempted to identify participants by characteristics information provided by the CAL's dean's office. Characteristics information was collected and matched to all the participants surveys to address unit and item non-response error. Two weeks after the first quest ionnaire mailing, participants re ceived a postcard via e-mail, thanking those who had already completed the in strument and reminding those who had not done so to please complete the survey. The researcher recorded e-mails that were returned due to wrong e-mail addresses or some other reason. For th ese participants, the re searcher attempted to get the correct address through th e Internet or by contacting th e dean's office requesting the current e-mail address. By asking each participant to provide their e-mail address, the rese arch could monitor who had or had not completed the study instrument. Each completed instrument was date stamped, and the participant was removed from any furt her contact regarding completion of the study. Approximately two weeks after the thank-you e-mail, a third e-mail was sent to those participants who had not previously responded. This contact included all the information for completing the study. Participants received a fourth and fifth contact with in a two-period week, and then a final e-mail one week following as a final attempt to encourage response. Error in Survey Administration Survey errors can occur in adm inistration of online surveys. Four types of survey errors identified by Dillman (2000) are sampling error, coverage error, measurement error, and nonresponse error. In each of these forms of surv ey errors, each has a direct effect on the validity and reliability of conducting survey research. Th erefore, to reduce error in survey research, Dillmans Total Design Method (TDM) approach was used. The TDM uses social exchange
78 theory to guide and integrate specific techniques and procedur es. This theory states that questionnaire recipients are most likely to respond if they expect that the perceived benefits will outweigh the perceived costs (Dillman 2000, p. 233). The use of the TDM approach has been successful in reaching higher response rates for su rvey research. Each of the survey error types will be defined, and suggestions will be offered for overcoming each type of error. In this study, the researcher implemented several stra tegies to address survey error. Sampling error occurs when the researcher surveys only a subset or sample of all people in the population instead of conducting a survey in which all elements of the population are reflected. Sampling error is inevitable unless a su rvey is conducted in which every member of the population is contacted. Not having a good sample of the population makes it almost impossible to get a good or reliable estimate of the population that the researcher is measuring. Therefore, the researcher cannot prove that th e information gathered from the sample is consistent with the population and therefore it lacks statistical power for the researchers study. In an effort to eliminate sampling errors in th is study, the researcher attempted to survey the entire population (Dillman, 2000 p.11). As discussed earlier in this chapter, coverage error is the direct result of not allowing all members of the survey population to have an equal chance of being contacted the survey (Dillman, 2000, p.11). In this study, the survey did not reach all the pot ential population due to internal and external constraints. One internal constraint was the res earcher not being provided an accurate list of student contact e-mails for all of the CALS students in the college. In this study, participants university e-mail addresses we re used to participate in the study. The inability to have complete access to correct email addresses from the deans office was a
79 limitation to this study. Due to this fact, the researcher did not have access to accurate and complete contact information for the study. Measurement error-the third type of survey error-occurs when a respondent's answer to a given question is inaccurate, imprecise, or cannot be compared in any useful way to other participants' answers (Dillman, 2000). The lack of clear and concise quest ions creates measure error. When using a survey, the question mu st be detailed and easily understood for proper responses. The most effective way to avoid meas urement error would be proper construction and development of the research instrument. A resear cher would need to prov ide clear, concise, and unambiguous questions that would be asked so that participants are both capable of and motivated to answer correctly (Dillman, 2000). In some occurrences in measurement error, many participants would have di fficulty choosing an accurate res ponse from the choices given. To address this type of error, the researcher conducted a process to develop items in which participants had an accurate, r eady-made answer that did not elicit demands for time, thought, or variation (Dillman, 2000, p.37). These answers we re created and developed from a previous study of undergraduate student leaders in CALS (Park & Dyer, 2005). In addition, questions and responses were developed and generated from a pa nel of leadership experts who assisted in the study. Thus, using this ready-made answer procedure posed no considerab le reliability risk. The final type of error is non-response erro r. According to Dillman (2000), non-response error occurs when a significant number of peopl e in the survey sample do not respond to the questionnaire and have different characteristics from those who do respond, when these characteristics are important to the study(p. 10) Anytime a response rate falls below 100%, a non-response bias may exist and can be a threat to the external validity of a study (Lindner,
80 Murphy, & Briers, 2001). When evidence of non-res ponse bias exists, caution must be exercised in generalizing findings beyond those w ho fully participated in the study. The reasons for non-response vary, such as not at home refusals and not being able to answer the question. Some researchers ha ve assessed non-response error by conducting a comparison of early to late par ticipants. Studies and research have shown that non-respondents are often similar to late respondents (Ary, 1996; Witkin, 1984). If no significant difference in early and late respondents is found and late res pondents are believed ty pical of non-respondents, it can be assumed that non-respondents would respond in typically the same way as the respondents. Respondents would therefore be able to generalize to the total population (Ary, 1996). Non-response Bias When evidence of non-response bias exists, caution m ust be exercised in generalizing findings beyond those who fully participated in the study. The non-response can prevent observations from being included in the data anal ysis, which in turn reduces statistical power (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2000) and can introduce bias in the data (Israel, 1992; Miller & Smith, 1983). In this research study, non-response bias was addressed using three different methods. The first method the researcher performed wa s to compare respondents to the population. According to Miller and Smith (1983) if respond ents are typical of th e population, (statistical tests can be done) this similarity can be repor ted and the researcher can generalize from the respondents to the sample. If data collected of the sample were similar to those of the population, the assumption could be made that the respondents are a subpopulation of the total and are truly representative of the population. The researcher gath ered population data from the Deans office on the characteristics of the stude nt population for the Fall 2007 semester. Table 34 displays characteristics information on the res pondents and total students who were enrolled in
81 the fall 2007 semester. In order to test for un it non-response bias, the researcher identified differences in percentages between the data co llected from the respondents and data collected from the CALS dean office. Specific characteri stics variables considered in this comparison included gender, race and major. The researcher notes significance if there is a 5% or greater difference on each individual variable. In exploring the gender of the respondents, 72.3% females and 27.7% males were represented. In co mparison, there were 58.5% of the enrollment were females and 41.5% were male in 2007. Th e results indicated 13.8% more females were represented in the study than in the college. Table 3-4 also displays variables of race and ethnicity where comparisons were made between the participants and the enrolled CALS students in 2007. The researcher found only significant difference for Asian, who 5.2 % less stude nts participated than the total population and Whites (6.4 % more participated). The rese archer also conducted a comparison on academic major which showed there were no significan ce differences. Results indicate that the respondents majors were representative of the total population (see Table 3-6). The second method was to compare respondent s to the non-respondents. If they do not appear to be different, then the results can be generalized to the populatio n (Miller, 1983). Then the researcher gathered inform ation on the non-respondents from the deans office to match and compared characteristics of th e non respondents and respondents to make comparisons Table 3.5. In comparing the non-respondents and respondents, th ere were a couple of significant differences in terms of their race and ethnic ity. In terms of gender, females were represented a much greater percentage in the study where female were over 70 percent in comparison to non-respondents where females where as there were only about 53 percent. There also were significant differences for Asian respondents where Asia n students make up over 10 percent of the non-
82 respondents where only 3 percent of Asian respo ndents participated in the study. In addition, White respondents were represented a much gr eater percentage in the study where over 71 percent were White respondents in comparison where there were only about 62 percent of the non-respondents were White. The final method the researcher performed was ignoring non-responde nts. In following Dillmans 2000 TDM approach, the researcher conduc ted a series of contact procedures during the data collection period. The researcher sent a reminder emails to participants to log back in and requested them to complete the survey. This procedure was conducted for respondents who did not complete the entire survey. Among the 1363 responses in this study, 1156 (84.8%) were complete, while 207 (15.2%) were considered extrem e in that they failed to answer more than half of the questions. The missing data from th ese observations would have limited the practical value of including them in the data analysis. As a result, the 207 observations with extreme missing data were treated as unit non-response and omitted from additional analysis. Data Analysis This study u sed quantitative research me thods to accomplish the specific research objectives in describing CALS stude nts in terms of their characteris tics and leadership behaviors. Descriptive research was used to accomplish re search Objective 1. A correlational and causalcomparative or ex post facto design was employed to accomplish Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5. In an ex post facto design, the researcher does not have direct control over th e independent variable(s). Data analysis for this study was completed usi ng SAS and SPSS statis tical software package for Windows. Objective 1 were processed th rough SAS statistical software package for Windows. Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5 were pr ocessed through SPSS statistical software package for Windows.
83 Means and standard deviations of LPI scores were calculated. Co rrelation and regression procedures were conducted to iden tify differences in LPI scores as a function of independent variables such as gender, age, and GPA. Pear sons product moment (r) statistics were conducted to identify the magnitude of the relationship of le adership behavior to th e other variables in the study (e.g. age, GPA). An index of the proportion of variance in leadership behavior explained by the independent variables was computed using R2 and adjusted R2 (Ary, 1996). Finally, multiple regression analysis was performed to e xplore meaningful and significant predictors of the dependent variable in a model (Pedhazur, 1982). Regression analysis was used to predict total LPI scores and each of the individual cons tructs for the purposes of better understanding of which most frequent leadership behaviors are exhibited by an undergraduate CALS student. Method and Data Analysis Used for Objective 1 To accom plish research Objective 1 to determ ine self-perceived leadership behaviors of CALS students leadership behavi or (practice) participants co mpleted the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). Mean scores of each of five leadership behaviors measured by the LPI were calculated scores for the six questions were comput ed to get each a leader ship subscale for each participant. Since each behavior contained six qu estions, summated leadership subscale scores ranged from 6 (low) to 60 (high) for the percei ved importance on each the five leadership areas. An individual mean score were generated for eac h leadership area and reported on a rating scale ranging from (Almost Never) to (Almos t Always) to determine the importance of the leadership practice to their stude nt leadership behavior. In addition, overall grand individual mean score was generated for the dependent variab le of leadership behavior which was used in further analyses.
84 Method and Data Analysis Used for Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5 Objectiv es 2, 3, 4, and 5 assess the influence of demographic characteristics, academic leadership experiences, community leadersh ip experiences, organizational leadership experiences (student leadership positions at departmental, university, and community level) and the relationship between undergra duate CALS student leadership behavior and previous high school experiences on leadership behavior. The researcher conducte d a correlational and regression analysis to explore relationships between the leader ship behavior and independent variables. Correlational statistics analyzed the association of the independent variables with the dependent variables. Specifically, th e researcher used Pearson Correlation r to determine the relationship and strength of the relationship between indepe ndent and dependent variables. The magnitudes of the correlations were described using terms and classification appropriate for the context of so cial science research. A corre lation of 0.10 is described as a small effect size (weak relationship), a correlatio n of 0.30 is described as a medium effect size (moderate relationship), and a correlation of 0.50 is described as a large effect size (strong relationship) (Cohen, 1988, pp. 82-83; Penfield, 2003, p. 185). Regression analysis was used in an attempt to explain the in fluence of characteristics and leadership variables on leadership behavior. The researcher used multiple regressions to build explanatory models. According to Penfiel d, (2003) multiple regression is a method of analyzing the variance of a dependent variable. Important assumptions associated with the use of multiple regressions include independence, linearity, normality, and equal variances. An alpha level of 0.05 was set a priori for the statistical analysis. The usefulness of regression models is evaluated by the coefficient of determination, denoted by R-Square (R2). The coefficient of determination represents the prop ortion of information in the dependent variable
85 that is explained or accounted for by the independent variable (Penfield, 2003, p. 231). In the context of social science, researchers have pr ovided general standards fo r interpreting the value of R2. An R2 of 0.01 represents a weak relations hip (small effect size), an R2 of 0.09 represents a moderate relationship (medium effect size), and an R2 of 0.25 represents a strong relationship (large effect size) (Cohen, 1988, pp. 7981; Penfield, 2003, p. 232). This classification was applied in interpreting the coefficient of determination (R2) in this study. Adjusted R-Square values, rather than the raw coefficients, will be reported because they offer a less biased estimate for analyses with a small number of observati ons and numerous independent variables (Agresti & Finlay, 1997). To address Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5, the resear cher chose to use a series of regressions because it allowed the opportunity to build models In using the pre-existing leadership behavior framework, the researcher was able to evaluate the impact of incorporating sets of variables rather than investigating variables individually. For example, regression a llows for investigation of the personal characteristics variables in a mo del for each leadership behavior and to compared with other leadership behavi ors using the same model. The characteristics variables may be powerfu l predictors of lead ership behavior, but previous leadership theory suggests that lead ership behavior can be explained without the inclusion of characteristics information. Indivi dual characteristics and leadership experiences were explored in models one, two, three and four The fourth regression model investigated the full model with all of variables added together. The last model was the reduced model, which only the significant predictors from previous model were used in predicting Leadership behaviors.
86 The models for predicting Leadersh ip behaviors are as follows: Model 1: [Personal Characteristics+ Academic Leadership] Model 2: [Community Leadership] Model 3: [Organizational Leadership] Model 4: [Full Model] =[Personal Characteristics]+[Academic Leadership] + [Organizational Leadership] + [Community Leadership] Model 5: [Reduced Model] = [Personal Ch aracteristics]+[Acad emic Leadership] + [Organizational Leadership] + [Community Leadership] For all five sets of regression models, viola tions to the assumption of independence were addressed by dropping out highly correlated characteristics and leadership experiences. For example, the inclusion of pursing a leadership minor and leadership coursework was causing excessive collinearity. To correct this problem, leadership coursework was retained and the leadership minor was dropped out of the model. Summary This chapter described the research design, the population of study, the instrum entation, and data analysis procedures A descriptive study using expost facto and correlational design was used to reveal relationships and explain leader ship behaviors of undergra duate CALS students as they related to characteristics and leadership ex periences. An online instrument was used to gather information from the participants. Th e Student Leadership Pr actices Inventory and researcher-designed characteristics instrument were two sections of the instrument used in this study. Chapter 3 also included a description of the various data analysis procedures used for each objective. The quantitative study included the us e of descriptive statistics (frequencies and measures of central tendency), correlational statistics, and mu ltiple and regression. Chapter 4 will report the results of the study. Findings for each objective of the study will be provided.
87 Table 3-1. Reliability Coefficients for the LPI Practice Self All Model the Way .77 .88 Inspire a Shared Vision .86 .92 Challenge the Process .80 .89 Enable Others to Act .75 .88 Encourage the Heart .87 .92 Source:(Kouzes & Posner, 2002) Table 3-2. Reliability Coefficients for the LPI for pilot study (N=27) Practice Leader Self Combined 30 Question Leadership Measure .96 Model the Way .81 Inspire a Shared Vision .88 Challenge the Process .82 Enable Others to Act .81 Encourage the Heart .88 Source: (Pilot Study September 2007)
88 Table 3-3. Questions for the on LPI Leadership Beha viors inventory Model the Way Sets personal examples of what is expected Maintains a s y stem of standards Follows throu g h on promises and commitments Seeks feedback actions on performance Develops a common set of values Has a clear leadership philosoph y Inspiring a Shared Vision Talks about future trends Describes the ima g e of the future Shares dream of future with others Enlists a common vision Paints the bi g picture Speaks with conviction of the purpose Challenge the Process Seeks challen g in g opportunities Challen g es people to be innovative Looks outside the boundaries Asks What can we learn? Sets achievable and measurable g oals Takes risks and experiments Enabling Others to Act Develops relationships Listens to diverse points of view Treats people with respect Supports others decisions Freedom to choose y our work Ensures that others g row Encourage the Heart Praises people for job well done Expresses confidence in others abilities Rewards people for their contributions Reco g nizes commitment to values Finds wa y s to celebrate accomplishments Shows appreciation and support Note: Scale, 1=Almost Never, 2=Rarely, 3=Seldom, 4=Once in While, 5=Occasionally, 6=Sometimes, 7=Fairly Often, 8=Usually, 9=Very Frequently, 10=Almost Always
89 Table 3-4. CALS respondents and p opulation characteristics for fall 2007 Variable N =All Students n=Participants in the study Gender N % n % Female 2166 58.5 738 72.3 Male 1536 41.5 282 27.7 Total 3702 100 1020 100 Race & Ethnicity Asian or Asian American 305 8.2 32 3.0 American Indian or Native Alaskan 90 2.4 14 1.3 Black or African American 378 10.2 105 10.3 Hispanic or Latino 480 13.0 128 12.1 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 17 .4 8 0.7 WHITE 2401 64.8 750 71.2 Other 31 .8 17 1.6 Total 3702 100 1017 100 Table 3-5. Non-respondents and re spondents characteristics for fall 2007 Variable N =All Non Respondents n=Participants in the study Gender N % n % Female 1428 53.2 738 72.7 Male 1254 46.8 282 27.7 Total (N=3702) 2682 100 1020 100 Race & Ethnicity Asian or Asian American 273 10.3 32 3.0 American Indian or Native Alaskan 74 2.7 14 1.3 Black or African American 275 10.4 105 10.3 Hispanic or Latino 352 13.3 128 12.1 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 9 0.3 8 0.7 WHITE 1651 62.3 750 71.2 Other 14 0.7 17 1.6 Total 2648 100 1054 100
90 Table 3-6. All majors for CALS st udents characteristics for fall 2007 Majors of CALS Students N =All Students % n= all respondents % Agricultural Education and Communication 64 1.7 30 3.3 Agricultural Operations Management 115 3.1 11 1.2 Animal Sciences 558 15.0 155 17.0 Biology 167 4.5 45 4.9 Botany 17 0.4 4 0.4 Entomology and Nematology 28 0.7 11 1.2 Environmental Management in Agriculture 10 0.2 2 0.2 Environmental Science 114 3.0 36 3.9 Family, Youth, and Community Sciences 474 12.8 148 16.2 Food and Resource Economics 367 9.9 86 9.4 Food Science and Human Nutrition 859 23.2 197 21.6 Forest Resources and Conservation 38 1.0 11 1.2 Geomatics 78 2.1 17 1.9 Golf and Sports Turf Management 20 0.5 6 0.7 Horticultural Science 27 0.7 7 0.8 Landscape and Nursery Horticulture 60 1.6 12 1.3 Microbiology and Cell Science 333 9.0 61 6.7 Natural Resource Conservation 46 1.2 2 0.2 Packaging Science 32 .08 10 1.1 Plant Science Agronomy 22 .05 8 0.9 Plant Science Plant Pathology 22 .05 3 0.3 Soil and Water Science 8 .01 0 0.0 Statistics 8 .01 0 0.0 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation 161 4.3 43 4.7 Non-Degree Seeking 0 5.6 4 0.4 Total 3702 100 913 100
91 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 1 defined the purpose of the study: to assess CALS students past and present leadership experien ces and personal characteristics as predictors of leadership behavior. Chapter 2 discussed previous research related to this study and reviewed relevant theoretical and conceptual frameworks. Chapter 3 explained the research design, population, instrumentation, and data collection and analysis procedures. This chapter presents the research findi ngs of the study. Findings are organized by objectives. The five specific resear ch objectives were as follows: 1. To determine self-perceived leadership beha viors of CALS students as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 2. To assess the influence of the demographic characteristics of current CALS students on leadership behaviors 3. To assess the influence of community lead ership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on lead ership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) have on leadership behaviors 5. To assess the relationship between undergradu ate CALS student leadership behavior and previous high school experiences. Descriptive Analysis There were 1,363 responses from the total popul ation frame of 3,429 for a response rate of 39.70%. There were 207 responses which did not cont ain usable data or contained in incomplete data. These responses were omitted from the analysis. A total of 1,156 students completed the survey yielding a response rate of 33.7%. C oncerning the response ra te conducted through an electronic survey methodology, thes e response rates were not unr easonably low. In previous survey research, Grandcolas, Rettie, and Maruse nko (2003) stated that re sponse rates with a web survey methodology may be low when compared to traditional survey me thodologies. The article
92 provided a comparison of response rates for stud ies completed by traditional methodologies faceto-face and mail and web-based, or e-mail instru mentation as low as 6%, 7%, and 19.3%. Objective 1: To determine self-perceived leadership behaviors of CALS students as measured b y the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) All CALS student respondents we re instructed to complete the individual (Self) leader component portion of the LPI, which was used to assess the self-percepti ons of the respondents own actions within the five exemplary leadership behaviors. To measur e leadership behavior, respondents provided their responses to a 30 -item inventory on a to Likert scale.1 Mean scores and standard deviations were calcula ted for each of the leadership behaviors as well as for overall mean of leadership. Th e results are presented in Table 4-1. A grand mean score was computed to be 7.90, (SD=1.15) equating to usually with an alpha =.961 for all thirty items. This mean score became the dependent variable leadership for the 80.1% (n = 927) of the 1,156 respondents w ho completed the leadership inventory. Of the five scale scores, the highest mean was reported for the leadership behavior of Enabling Others to Act at ( M = 8.50) with a scale response of usually. Conversely, the leadership behavior Inspiring a Shared Vision reported the lowest mean score at (M = 7.44) with a scale response of fairly often. Table 4-1 shows standard deviations for items in this leadership index ranged from 1.06 to 1.51 for the i ndividual. These result s indicate that this sample of CALS students exhibite d the leadership behavior of Enabling Others to Act on high frequency and assisted others in developing and exhibiting leadersh ip. However, with setting a vision, CALS students exhibited this behavior on often but not on a frequent basis. A more thorough examination of each of the scales is provided is provided below. 1 The Likert scale ranged from 1=Almost Neve r, 2= Rarely, =Seldom, =Once in While, =Occasionally, =Sometimes, =Fairly Often, =Usually, =Ve ry Frequently, 0=Almost Always
93 Modeling the Way The leaders hip practice of Modeling the Way had an individual mean score of 8.05 and a standard deviation of 1.20. The individual standard deviations for individual items in this index ranged from 1.28 to 1.88. Develops a common set of values was the lowest mean (M=7.61), which equated to fairly often. The stat ement of Follows through on promises and commitments generated the highest mean (M=9.03) with a scale response of very frequently. Inspiring a Shared Vision The leadership behavior for Inspiring a Shared Vision had the lowest m ean score of (M=7.44) of the five leadership behaviors. Th e Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficient for Inspiring a Shared Vision was .886. The leadership phrase, Enlists a common vision obtained the lowest mean of (M=6.95, sometimes). In co mparison, the leadership statement of Speaks with conviction of the purpose had the grea test mean score (M =7.90, usually) among respondents (see Table 4-1). Challenge the Process Challenge the Process had a m ean score of M =7.60. The leadership phrase Challenges people to be innovative had the lowest rating of (M=7.16, SD= 1.93 fairly often). The leadership phrase Set achievable and measurable goals was rated as usually as the greatest mean score (M= 8.06, SD 1.71) among res pondents on the leadership behavior Challenge the Process. Enabling Others to Act The leaders hip practice of Enabling Others to Act had an individual mean of 8.50 standard deviation of 1.06. The individual standard deviations for indivi dual items in this index ranged from 1.11 to 1.73. The leadership statement of tre ats people with respect was the highest mean response ( M = 9.34, SD = 1.11very frequently). In cont rast, the leadership statement Ensures
94 that others grow generated the lowest mean response (M= 7.76, SD 1.73) with a scale response of (fairly often) (see Table 4-1) Encourage the Heart The final leadership behavior of Encourage the H eart, had a mean of 8.06 from six items. The leadership phrase, Praise people for job well done received a greatest mean score among respondents (M=8.68), scale rating of usually. Recognizes commitment to values obtained the lowest mean response of M=7.55, fairly often. In summary, the leadership behavior of Enabling Others to Act had the highest mean score, whereas the lowest individual mean scor e was for the leadership behavior of Inspiring a Shared Vision. The CALS students rated highest of the res ponse to the statement of Treats people with respect with a scale rating of very frequently These results indicating that CALS student exhibit this leadership behavior the most whereas treating people with respect is a very important characteristic of leadership for CALS students. In terms of leadership style this behavior exhibits a more transactional behavioral styl e. In comparison, CALS students responded statement of Enlists a common vision with a scale rating of sometimes, which indicates having a shared vision is not a leadership behavior that CALS students seem to exhibit with great frequency and constancy; that e xhibits a transformational leadership style. Overall CALS rated themselves relatively high on the LPI with an individual average mean of M =7.90. Intercorrelations between the LPI leadership behavior s and the overall leader ship behavior were calculated. Correlations between the leadership be haviors and the overall le adership variable had a range of .61 to .92. All leadership behaviors we re all scores were st atistically significant.05 level (see Table 4-2).
95 Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5 Objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5, are concerned w ith assessing the influence of leadership experiences (academic leadership experien ces, community leadership experiences, organizational leadership e xperiences, previous leadership experiences, and personal characteristics) on the dependent variable of Lea dership and the five l eadership behaviors, as measured by the LPI. In support of these objec tives, the researcher calculated an overall mean variable for leadership behavior Leadership in addition to the five individual leadership behaviors as defined by the LPI and used these in the correlation and regression analyses The five LPI leadership behaviors, were iden tified in the analyses as Challenge = Challenge the Process, (b) Inspire = Inspire a Shared Vision, (c) Enable = Enable Others to Act (d) Model = Model the Way and (e) Encourage = Encourage the Heart The distributions of predictors are shown in Tables 4-3 through Table 4-15. Correlation and regressions were calculated with variable of Lead ership for further analysis. Demographic Characteristics Objective 2 of the study was to describe select characteristic s of current C ALS students at the University of Florida and assess the influe nce of these on leadership behaviors. The characteristics collected in the survey included gender, age, racial background and ethnicity, and living environment. As reported in Tabl e 4-3, 88% of the 1,156 respondents provided characteristics information. Nearly three-fourths of the respondents were females. In terms of age, the respondents ages ranged from 17 to 23 year s old or older with median age of 21 years. Descriptive analysis on racial background a nd ethnicity of the respondents also are displayed in Table 4-3. Over two-thirds of the respondents (71.2%) were White, 12.1% were Hispanic or Latino, 10% were Black or African American, 3.1% we re Asian or Asian-American, 1.6% were classified as Other, and .7% were Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.
96 More than half (52.4%) of CALS students indi cated that they grew up in a suburban area. In terms of the study, the suburban area was desc ribed as a town or city with a population ranging from 2,500 to 50,000. One-third of the samp le, 32.5%, indicated they grew up in an urban area with a population of 50,000 or greater while 15.1% of the respondents were from a rural area of 2,500 or less. Nearly one-fourth of the re spondents (22.9%) responded that they were first in their immediate family to attend college (see Table 4-4). Other descriptive characteristics collected and examined in this study included marital status citizenship, and parental influence. In terms of marital status, 95% in dicated that they were single or not married and 5% were married (See Table 4-4). A large majority (97.4%) of the re spondents in the study were U.S. citizens, with 93.6% of that number being Florida residents. Thes e findings are similar to the citizenship status of all students currently enrolled in CALS wh ere more than 97% of the students are U.S. citizens. Table 4-4 also reports the pa rental influence where three-fourths of the respondents reported they came from a family with both parent s. About one-fifth (19.9%) were raised in single-parent homes and the remainder reported being reared in other circumstances such as grandparent or an extended family. The respondents in the study consisted of unde rgraduate students enro lled in the Fall 2007 semester in the College of Agricultural and Life Sc iences (CALS) at the University of Florida. These students are undergraduate students pursuing a Bachelor of Science degree in the areas of pre-professional training, food, agri culture, natural resources, and the life sciences. As reported in Table 4-5, CALS students selected their majors from a list of 26 majors provided by the deans office of the college. Of the total num ber of respondents, about one-fifth (21.6%) were
97 Food Science and Human Nutrition majors, followe d by Animal Sciences majors (17%), Family, Youth, and Community Sciences majors (16.2 %), and Food and Resource Economics majors (9.4%). These four majors are representative of th e majority of students in the college for the Fall 2007 semester. Respondents in the study also described thei r academic status. As reported in Table 4-6, three-fourths (77.4%) of the respond ents were labeled as uppercl assmen (junior and seniors). About one-third (33.6%) entered as freshmen into CALS, 28.8% entered other colleges at UF as freshmen, 32.4% entered the unive rsity as transfer students from a community college and 5.7% were transfers from another four-year university. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (63%) had a grade point average (GPA) of 3.26 or greater. Less than 4% had GPAs below 2.25, and nearly one-fourth (24.3%) had a GPA of 3.76 or greater. Academic Leadership Experience Leadership courses taken by res pondents are presented in Table 4-7. Less than 10% of the respondents have com pleted a formal leadership c ourse. Respondents also were asked if they had participated in any type of l eadership training. Leadership tr aining was defined as a course, seminar, or training session that lasted more th an three hours during thei r college career. As indicated in Table 4-7, nearly one-half (46.8%) of CALS st udents reported receiving no leadership training. Conversely, about 16% re ported attending multiple leadership training sessions, with 4.7% of the respondents indicating that they had completed five to six leadership trainings sessions. Organizational Leadership Experience Respondents in the study were asked to describe their organizational leadership experience. Inform ation was obtained for current organiza tional involvement (in CALS and outside of CALS), leadership positions, numbers of year s of involvement, and previous (high school)
98 leadership experiences. The results are repo rted in Tables 4-8 through 4-12. Of the 1,156 respondents, 86.2% responded to th e question about involvement in an organization during their college experience. As shown in Table 4-8, a total of 666 CALS students (57.6%) reported to being a part of an organization within CALS. Students were also involved in numerous organizations in CALS. Of orga nizations that CALS students have membership inside of the college, more than one-eighth of the responde nts (14%) were members of the Pre-Vet Club, 8.3% were members of the Family, Youth & Comm unity Sciences Club, 8% were members of Alpha Zeta (agricultural honor fr aternity), and 6.5% members of CALS Ambassadors (student representatives of the college) Table 4-8 also reported that of the student s who participate in organizations in CALS, one-third of the students held an officer posi tion where 3.7% were presidents, 3.8% were vicepresidents 3.0% served as secretaries, 2.1 % were treasurers and 7.1% held other leadership roles within their representative organizations within the college. In Table 4-9, students responded to the leve l of membership in organization. Of the 515 responses, the large majority of the respondents (94.5%) were involved on the local or chapter level. It is interesting to note that of those involved beyond the lo cal level, the ma jority 5.6% (n = 29) were involved on the national level. Based on the data reported in Table 4-10, 17.6% were involved for less than one year, almost one-half 45.8% have been involved in th eir organization for l east one year and 22.5% were involved with their organization for least two years. Finally, over 14% were involved in CALS organizations for three or more years. Table 4-11 indicates that almost 60% participan ts are members of at least one organization outside of CALS. The respondent s were asked what type of or ganization(s) (service, social,
99 social/service, fraternity/sorority, honorary, sports, other) outsid e of CALS that they were currently members of and if they held leadership positions. Service and social/service organizations were most frequently mentioned. About one-fourth (24.3%) were members of one service organization and 17.5% were members of a social/service organization. The same trend held true for those belonging to two or more organizations. Other organizations in which CALS students held membership outside of the college included being members in a fraternity/sorority (14.2%) and honorary societies (9.7 %). Of the 826 CALS students involved in an organization outside of the college, 27.4% were involved with two or ganizations, 10.5% with three organizations, and 2.4 % with f our or more organizations. As reported in Table 4-12, 558 CALS student s responded that they held a leadership position in one or more organizatio ns outside of CALS. The majority (62.1%) indicated that they held an officer or leadership position within one organization, 25.4% within two organizations, 9.6% and the remaining 12% holding an officer or leadership position within multiple organizations outside the college. In Table 4-12, CALS students reported to th e level of organizational leadership. Of the 616 responses, 7.7% (n = 48) were involved on the national/regiona l level, 3.6% were involved on the state/district level, and 88.4% were involved on the local chap ter level. The majority of respondents (53.9%) had participated in their orga nization exactly one year or less, while 6.5% participated four or more years in their organization. Previous leadership experiences are reported in Table 4-13. These responses related to high school activities. The results indi cated that more than 60% were members of the National Honor Society and 28.2% were in student government. Nearly two-thirds (64.6%) participated in one
100 of the following sports: baseball/softball, swim ming diving, basketball, football, volleyball, and cross-country/track & field. Membership in other organizations can be found in table 4-13. Respondents also were asked to indicate their previous leadersh ip roles in regard to being an officer or in a leadership position. Table 4-14 reports that of th e 1,200 respondents who were in previous leadership positions, 25.3% were presidents, 21.5% were vice-presidents, 17.6% were secretaries, 14.4% were treasurers, 16.3% were committee chairs, and 4.8% were membership coordinators. Almost three-fourths (73.1%) of previous lead ership activities of CALS students was performed on the club level wh ile another 15% of previous leadership activities were performed on the state level or higher. Community Leadership Experience Respondents also were asked to indicate their previous community leadership experience. As reported in Table 4-15, 88.1% of respondents re sponded yes if they participated in som e type of community service activity in high school. A total of 965 respondents reported how often they participated in se rvice activities in high school. The results indicated 5.6% participated once a year, 17.3% once every six months, 34.7 % at least once a month, 36.1% weekly, and 6.3% daily. In comparison, more than two-thirds of the respondents (72.3%) are involved in some type of community service or community outreach act ivity in college. Respondents reported how often they participated in service activities with 8.5% having partic ipated once a year, 16.5% participated once every six mont hs, 23.5% participated at least once a month, 19.3% participated weekly, and 2.3% participated daily. These results indicated that community service and outreach is an important activity of CALS students and would indicate the above normal leadership drive of these students in the sample. It would also appear th at community service and outreach may have an influence on leader ship behavior of CALS students.
101 In summary, the majority of the respondents was female, with the median age 21 years old, and was White and lives in a suburban environment. Most CALS students in this study are not the first in their family to attend college, are single, US citizens, and grew up in a home environment with both parents. The majority of the respondents were upperclassman (juniors and seniors status), with over 60% having a grade point average of 3.26 or greater. Food and Science and Human Nutrition, Animal Sciences and Fa mily, Youth, and Commun ity Science were the most common majors. About one-third of the respondents entered the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences as freshmen and other two-thirds entered the college as a transf er student from another college within the University or from a community coll ege. Over ninety percent had not completed a formal leadership course, while over fifty percen t had participated in some leadership training activity. Overall CALS students are active in regard s to organizational lead ership with over half involved in CALS student organization and more than 60% involved in a student organization outside of CALS. Respondents indicated that they held officer positions and were involved on the national level of their organizations. The mo st popular organizations were fraternities and sororities, honorary societies, and some type of sports organiza tion. Most CALS students have been involved in their organizations one year or less. Finally, res pondents where active in community service both in high scho ol and in college and most pa rticipated in some type of community service weekly routine. CALS student s in the study appear to be highly motivated students who participate in orga nizational leadership activitie s (local clubs and national organizations alike). Overall, respondents also have a high level or commitment to community service and pursue servant leader ship opportunities. CALS student s exhibit characteristics of
102 being high academic achievers and civic leaders which all are characteristics that have been reported to shape effectiv e leadership behavior. Predictors of Leadership Behaviors using Multiple Regression Models In Tables 4-16 thru 4-29 correlation and re gressions analysis was conducted on the new variab le of Leadership and each of the five lead ership behaviors with independent variables in the study. Regression analyses were performed in creating a reduced mode l which identified the statistically significant associa tion of independent variables with overall self-perceived leadership behavior of CALS students. Additional analysis explores similar models on the five leadership behaviors as defined by LPI. Objective 2. To assess the influence of the demographic characteri stics of current CALS students on leadership behaviors In considering correlations between personal ch aracteristics and leadership behavior, the researcher found low and weak relationships. T he Pearson product moment correlations were computed for selected personal characteristics an d the overall leadership variable and presented in Table 4-16. Two variables, Gender ( r = .104) and Hispanic (r = .073), were both shown to have a weak positive significant correlation with overall leadership and specific behaviors. Gender also shown weak significant relationships for each of the five individual leadership behaviors Model ( r = .110 ) Inspire (r = .061), Challenge (r = .043), Enable (r = .141), and Encourage ( r = .142), respectively. These statistics suggest that fema les are likely to report having higher leadership behavior scores than males (Table 4-16). Three of five leadership behaviors Model ( r = .041), Inspire (r = .093), and Encourage (r = .081 ) were also found to have positive statistical significance for Hispanic. Th ese statistics suggest th at CALS students who are Hispanic are more likely to report higher sc ores on selected leader ship behaviors than students who are not Hispanic.
103 Table 4-17 shows the results of the regr ession analysis which uses the personal characteristics as explanatory va riables for Leadership. This ha d an adjusted R-square of .01 reflecting a negligible relationship. In this model, variables Gender ( =.26) and Hispanic ( = .11) had a positive parameter estimate that was st atistically significant. This model was not significant, although the variable had a significant interaction on Gender and the variable of Hispanic in the study. Overall, this model only explained .011% (R2 =.01) of the overall variance in leadership beha viors and was significant. In regression analysis which uses personal ch aracteristics as explan atory variables for the five leadership behaviors, the variable Ge nder had a positive parame ter estimate that was statistically significant for Model ( = .31) Enable, ( = .34), and Encourage ( = .39). Overall, the variable Gender was significant in four of the six modes except Inspire a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process The variable of Hispanic also reported positive parameter estimate that was statistically significant for the fo llowing leadership behavior: Inspire ( = .46), Enable( = .22,), and Encourage ( = .37). Overall, this model only expl ained between (R2 =.4%-2 %) of the variance in the five leadership behaviors and was significant with the exception of Inspire (Table 4-17). Table 4-18 and 4-19 shows the results of the correlations and regression analysis which used the academic leadership variables as explanatory variables for Leadership and five leadership behaviors. All of the models had an adjusted R-square of .002 or less, reflecting a negligible relationship. In these models, there were no significant vari ables and each model was not significant.
104 Objective 3. To Assess the Influence that Community Lea dership Experiences (at the Departmental, University, and Community Le vels) Have on Leadership Behaviors In the community leadership model, respondent s were asked to indicate their level of involvement in community activities both in hi gh school and college. The respondents also were asked if they had a community role model that most influen ced their community leadership experiences. Finally respondents were asked to report the frequency of their participation in the community. The independent variables; HS COMMUNITY SERVICE (if you participated in community service in high school), HS COMMUNI TY PARTICIPATION (the frequency of an individuals participation in community service during high school) CURRENT COMMUNITY SERVICE (if an individual curr ently participates in community service in college); SERVICE PARTICIPATION (the frequency of an individuals particip ation in community service currently) and HAD A ROLE MODEL (person could be identified as community role model). Pearson Product Moment Correlations were computed for selected community leadership characteristics and leadership behavior. Among th e community leadership experience variables, the researcher found weak to mode rate relationships for all of th e independent variables in the model for the dependent variables of Leadership and also the five leadership behavior practices (Table 4-20). The variable HS COMMUNITY SERVICE (r = .09) and HS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION (r = .09) had weak positive but significant relationship. The relationships suggest that CALS students who participated in community service rout inely in high school are more likely to report higher scores on leadersh ip behavior. The researcher also found that current CALS students, who curren tly participate in some community service, also have reported having higher leadership behavior scores. The variables that explore current community service CURRENT COMMUNITY SERVICE (r = .19) and SERVICE PARTICIPATION (r = .16) were
105 weak to moderately significant. Additional corr elations among these constructs and leadership behaviors are outlined in Table 4-20 and show a similar pattern. In Table 4-21 displays the results of the regression analysis, which used Leadership behavior as the dependent vari able. In this model represen ts independent variables were statistically significant and mean ingful in the model. In th is model, CURRENT COMMUNITY SERVICE, the variable for current community se rvice, had a positive parameter estimate that was significant ( = .44). Overall the model is an adjusted R-Square of .03 represented a weak but statistically significant fit of the data. The regression analysis also uses community leadership experiences as explanatory variables for the five leadership behaviors. In five leadership behavi ors the variable Current Community Service had a positive parameter estimate that was statistically significant Model ( = .42), Inspire ( = .37), Challenge ( = .41), Enable ( = .41), and Encourage ( = .44). The variable of HAD A ROLE MODEL (r =.01) both had a weak, negative relationship that was significant ( = -.19) for the leadership behavior of M odeling the Way. The statistic suggests that CALS students who have community role models are also more likely to report lower scores on leadership behavior. Thus, CALS students who ha ve role models may not rate themselves high on leadership behaviors as being compared to thei r identified role model. Overall, the results from this community leadership experience model explained between (R2 =2% 4 %) of the variance in the five leadership behavi ors and was significan t (Table 4-21). Objective 4. To Assess the Influence that Or ga nizational Leadership Experiences (at the Departmental, University, and Community Le vels) Have on Leadership Behaviors Respondents were asked to indicate the t ype of organization(s) (service, social, social/service, fraternity, sorori ty, honorary, intramural sports, other) act ivities that they were a member. The respondents were also asked to pr ovide information on their highest leadership
106 position (i.e., president, vicepr esident, secretary, treasurer, membership coordinator, committee chair, other) and on what level in the organization they held an offi ce (i.e., chapter, district, state, regional, national). Finally respondents were asked to report the length of their participation in the organization. A multiple linear regression model was used for leadership behavior, with the independent variables of CALSLEADER (leader ship offices held in CALS), UFLEADER (UF leadership), and UFORG (membe r of a UF organization). Correlations among the organizational leader ship characteristics and Leadership are presented in Table 4-22. The UFORG variable was found to ha ve a weak positive significant interaction with overall leadership ( r = .09). The statistic suggests CALS students that who were members of organizations outside of CALS are al so likely to report higher scores on leadership behavior. This variable explored the current student leadership participation outside of the CALS college and at what level that CALS students are participat ing (chapter, regional, state, national). With respect to organi zational leadership behavior, the analysis suggests that students who were involved in organizati ons outside CALS students were more likely to report higher leadership behavior scores for overall leadersh ip, modeling the way and en couraging the heart. In the regression model for ove rall leadership, none of the organizational leadership variables was statistically significant and meaningf ul in the model (Table 4-23). The model had an adjusted R-Square of .02 representing a w eak relationship and but it was statistically significance. The regressions of each of the fi ve leadership behaviors on the organizational leadership experiences showed that no organiza tional variables were statistically significant. Overall, the results from this organizational le adership experience model explained between (R2 =1% 2 %) of the variance in the five l eadership behaviors and was significant.
107 Objective 5. To Determine the Relationship b etween Undergraduate CALS Student Leadership Behavior and Previous High School Experiences. Objective five of the study was to determin e the relationship of previous organizational leadership experiences scores, which are presente d in Tables 4-13 and 4-14, and shows measures that were collected. Respondents indicated various high school and other civic organizations in which they were involved. Of the 987 CALS students who responded, more than 60% were involved with the National Honor Society, 28% pa rticipated in student government, 29.5% were involved in a foreign language cl ub and more than 85% participated in some type of organized Athletics. Some of the trad itional leadership agricultural development programs had strong representation as previous organizational leadership activi ties totaling over 26.2%,which includes 11.6 % FFA membership, 8.2% Boy Scouts/ Girls Scouts and 6.4% were involved in 4H activities. Over 46.5% indicated that they had participated in ot her activities that were not preselected. These previous leader ship experiences included activities such as Key Club, Math Club, and DECA Club. Table 4-22 summarizes Pear son Product Moment Correla tions for the relationship between previous leadership experiences and lead ership. Correlations were calculated for the relationships between Leadership and independent variables that explored previous leadership activities and whether or not pa rticipates were in a leadersh ip position. The variable PRIOR OFFICER had a weak positive relati onship with overall leadership ( r =.16). Overall, the regression model shows an adjusted R-square of .02 percent for accounting for the variance of leadership behaviors (Table 4-23). These re sults suggest that CA LS students who have participated in high school organizational le adership activities will report higher scores on Leadership behavior. PRIOR OF FICER was significant had a positive parameter estimate that was significant ( = .24). In five leadership behavior s the variable PRIOR OFFICER had a
108 positive parameter estimate that was statistically significant ( = .24) Model, ( = .22) Inspire, ( = .32) Challenge, ( = .20) Enable, and Encourage ( = .24). Overall, the results from this organizational leadership experi ence model explained between (R2 =1% 2 %) of the variance in the five leadership behaviors a nd was significant (Table 4-23). Predictors of Leadership Behaviors using Multiple Regression Models Using regression models for explaining Leadersh ip behavior, the researcher found that the full model produced an adjusted R -square of .07, with a p value of .009 (Table 4-24). This is still a very weak relationship by social scien ce standards (Cohen, 1988, pp. 79-81; Penfield, 2003, p. 232). The influence of the variables of Gender, Prior Officer, Hispanic and Current Community Service, remained significant. In the reduced mo del, all four variables displayed statistical significance at the p =.05 level. Statistics from the full and reduced models are displayed in Tables 4-24, 4-25,4-26,-427,4-28, and 4-29, to allow for more direct interpreta tion of relationships. The researcher estimated reduced models that included only those parameters with a p-value less than .10. However, the reduced models did not display any substantive changes. The key findings from the regression models are as follows: The regression models generally were significa nt for reported leadersh ip behavior, and the amount of variance explained in creases with the addition of explanatory variables. GENDER has a positive relationship with overall leadership behavior, and that relationship remains significant when other variables are controlled. The variable Gender was significant in four of the six modes except Inspire a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process. Other variables that maintained a positive but weak relationship with the dependent variable of Leadership was Prio r Officer, Hispanic, and Current Community Service when other variables are controlled. Summary This chapter presented the findings on the study. The findings were organized and presented by the following objectives:
109 1. To determine characteristics vari ables of current CALS students 2. To determine self-perceived leadership behaviors, as measured by using the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 3. To assess the influence of community lead ership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on lead ership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) ha ve on leadership behaviors 5. To determine the relationship between undergra duate CALS student l eadership behavior and previous high school experiences Key findings from the regression models are as follows: Using regression models for explaining overall leadership behavior, the rese archer found that the full model produced an R square of .07, with ( R2 adj = .06), p value of .003. The results were statistically significant. The influence of the variables, Current Comm unity Service, Hispanic students and Prior Officer remained significant throughout all six m odels. The variable Gender was significant in four of the six modes excep t Inspire a Shared Vision a nd Challenge the Process. Chapter 5 offers a detailed discussion of th e studys findings, including conclusions drawn from the findings. In addition, Chapter five will prove recommendations for future implementation of leadership behavior devel opment and recommendations for future research.
110 Table 4-1. Descriptive Statistics fo r Reponses on LPI Leadership behaviors Leadership Behavior N M SD Grand Leadership Mean 927 7.90 1.15 Model the Way 1040 8.05 1.20 Sets personal examples of what is expected 1150 8.17 1.56 Maintains a system of standards 1143 7.77 1.66 Follows through on promises and commitments 1144 9.03 1.28 Seeks feedback actions on performance 1146 7.78 1.88 Develops a common set of values 1056 7.61 1.80 Has a clear leadership philosophy 1060 7.89 1.76 Inspiring a Shared Vision 1033 7.44 1.51 Talks about future trends 1145 7.17 1.89 Describes the image of the future 1146 7.08 1.97 Shares dream of future with others 1137 7.65 1.86 Enlists a common vision 1065 6.95 2.02 Paints the big picture 1062 7.85 1.81 Speaks with conviction of the purpose 1052 7.90 1.84 Challenge the Process 1034 7.60 1.35 Seeks challenging opportunities 1144 7.80 1.65 Challenges people to be innovative 1143 7.16 1.93 Looks outside the boundaries 1143 7.49 1.84 Asks What can we learn? 1143 7.48 1.84 Sets achievable and measurable goals 1056 8.06 1.71 Takes risks and experiments 1062 7.54 1.88 Enabling Others to Act 1029 8.50 1.06 Develops relationships 1049 8.66 1.37 Listens to diverse points of view 1144 8.47 1.46 Treats people with respect 1144 9.34 1.11 Supports others decisions 1048 8.03 1.48 Freedom to choose your work 1062 7.95 1.58 Ensures that others grow 1057 7.76 1.73 Encourage the Heart 1012 8.06 1.32 Praises people for job well done 1048 8.68 1.38 Expresses confidence in others abilities 1133 7.97 1.66 Rewards people for their contributions 1136 7.76 1.72 Recognizes commitment to values 1052 7.55 1.95 Finds ways to celebrate accomplishments 1059 8.06 1.70 Shows appreciation and support 1057 8.23 1.61
111 Table 4-2. Inter-correlations between leadership behavior and overall leadership Variable Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage Model .92* Inspire .89* .76* Challenge .91* .79*.81* Enable .85* .76*.61*.71* Encourage .89* .78*.71*.71*.77* Note p< .05
112 Table 4-3. Characteristics of Undergraduate CALS Students Gender n% Male 28227.7 Female 73872.3 Total 1020100 Age 17 year-old and younger 5.5 18 year-old 12111.9 19 year-old 11511.3 20 year-old 19819.4 21 year-old 24524.0 22 year-old 14914.6 23 year-olds and older 18718.3 Total 1020100 Race and Ethnicity of CALS Students n% Asian or Asian American 323.0 American Indian or Native Alaskan 141.3 Black or African American 10510.0 Hispanic or Latino 12812.1 Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 8.7 White 75071.2 Other 171.6 Total 1054100 Living Environment of CALS Students n% Rural 15415.1 Suburban 53352.4 Urban 33132.5 Total 1018100
113 Table 4-4. Other Characteri stics of CALS Students Family College Experience of CALS Students n% First Generation College Student 23422.9 Non-First Generation College Student 78877.1 Total 1022100.0 Marital Status of CALS Students n% Single 96695.0 Married 515.0 Total 1017100.0 Citizen of CALS Students n% U.S. Citizen 99497.4 Non-Citizen 5332.5 Florida Resident 95593.6 Total 1020100.0 Parental Influence n% Both Parent 77475.7 Single Parent 20319.9 Grand Parent/Extend Family 121.2 Other 333.2 Total 1022100.0
114 Table 4-5. Academic Majors Majors of CALS Students n % Agricultural and Biological Engineering 4 0.4 Agricultural Education and Communication 303.3 Agricultural Operations Management 11 1.2 Animal Sciences 15517.0 Biology 45 4.9 Botany 4 0.4 Entomology and Nematology 11 1.2 Environmental Management in Agriculture 2 0.2 Environmental Science 36 3.9 Family, Youth, and Community Sciences 14816.2 Food and Resource Economics 86 9.4 Food Science and Human Nutrition 19721.6 Forest Resources and Conservation 11 1.2 Geomatics 17 1.9 Golf and Sports Turf Management 6 0.7 Horticultural Science 7 0.8 Landscape and Nursery Horticulture 12 1.3 Microbiology and Cell Science 61 6.7 Natural Resource Conservation 2 0.2 Packaging Science 10 1.1 Plant Science Agronomy 8 0.9 Plant Science Plant Pathology 3 0.3 Soil and Water Science 0 0.0 Statistics 0 0.0 Wildlife Ecology and Conservation 43 4.7 Dual Major 4 0.4 Total 913100
115 Table 4-6. Academic Lead ership Characteristics Academic Status n% Freshman 14114.0 Sophomore 868.6 Junior 34334.1 Senior 43643.3 Total 1018100.0 Grade Point Averages of CALS Students n% 3.76-4.00 24324.3 3.26-3.75 38838.7 2.76-3.25 26926.9 2.26-2.75 676.7 2.00-2.25 272.7 Below-2.00 80.8 Total Note. GPA is based on 4.0 scale 1002100.0 First Enrolled in the University n% Freshman in CALS 34233.6 Freshman in Other College 28828.3 Transfer Student from Community College 33032.4 Transfer student from 4-Year University 585.7 Total 1018100.0
116 Table 4-7. Central Tendency of CALS Students Leadership Education Leadership Course Work n% College Leadership Course 96 9.2 No Leadership Course 94290.8 Total 1038100.0 Leadership Trainings of CALS Students n% None 49046.8 1-2 trainings 39037.2 3-4 trainings 11711.3 5-6 trainings 49 4.7 Total 1046100.0
117 Table 4-8. Organizational Memberships within CALS Organizations in CALS MemberPresident Vice PresidentSecretaryTreasurer Membership Coordinator Committee Chair Other N % Alpha Zeta 262210 1912538.0 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 300010004.6 Block & Bridle 121000111162.4 CALS Ambassadors 420000010436.5 CALS Student Council 81011022152.3 Dairy Science Club 8100000091.3 ENSO (Urban Ent. & Nematology Student Org.) 400000004.6 Environmental Horticulture Club 70020002111.7 Equestrian 131220005233.5 Ethnoecology Society 100000012.3 Family, Youth & Community Sciences Club 412110046558.3 Florida Water Environment Assoc. 0000000000 Food Sciences & Human Nutrition Club 300212002375.5 Forestry Club 121200001162.4 FRE-NAMA 232530053416.1 Gator Ch. of the Florida Assn. for Food Protect. 0000000000 Gator Citrus Club 100000001.1 Gator Collegiate Cattlewomen Assoc. 61012020121.8 International Gourmet Association 0000000000 Microbiology & Cell Science Student Org. 100000001111.7 MANRRS 6020000081.2
118 Table 4-8. Continued Organizations in CALS MemberPresident Vice PresidentSecretaryTreasurer Membership Coordinator Committee ChairOtherN% Marsport Greenhouse Project 00000 00000 Natural Resource & Environmental Coll. Council 410000005.8 Pre-Vet Club 8100021189314.0 School of Forest Res. & Cons. Student Council 400000004.6 Sigma Phi Alpha 3111000171.1 Society of American Foresters 6100000071.1 St. Ch. of the American Assn. of Bovine Pract. 0000000000 The Investigators 100000012.2 Urban Entomological Society 400100005.7 Wetlands Club 300000003.4 Wildlife Society 292000011335.0 Other 7689663211714621.9 Total 4642526201464764666100.0
119 Table 4-9. Membership/Leadership Level within CALS Organizations Membership/Leadership Level Answer Options Chapter District State Regional National n % Alpha Zeta 45 0 1 0 2 48 9.3 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 3 0 0 0 0 3 .5 Block & Bridle 12 0 0 0 1 13 2.5 CALS Ambassadors 31 0 3 0 0 34 6.6 CALS Student Council 9 0 0 0 0 9 1.7 Dairy Science Club 6 0 0 0 2 8 1.2 ENSO (Urban Ent. & Nematology Student Org.) 3 0 0 0 0 3 .5 Environmental Horticulture Club 9 0 0 0 0 9 1.7 Equestrian 14 0 0 1 1 16 3.1 Ethnoecology Society 1 0 0 0 0 1 .1 Family, Youth & Community Sciences Club 41 0 0 0 0 41 8.0 Florida Water Environment Assoc. St. Ch. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Food Sciences & Human Nutrition Club 26 0 3 0 1 30 5.8 Forestry Club 10 0 0 0 0 10 1.9 FRE-NAMA 33 0 0 0 4 37 7.2 Gator Ch. of the Florida Assn. for Food Pct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gator Citrus Club 1 0 0 0 0 1 .1 Gator Collegiate Cattlewomen 7 0 2 0 0 9 1.7 International Gourmet Association 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Microbiology & Cell Science Student Org. 8 0 0 0 0 8 1.2 MANRRS 7 0 0 0 1 8 1.2 Marsport Greenhouse Project 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Natural Resource & Environmental Coll. Council 4 0 0 0 0 4 .7 Pre-Vet Club 71 1 0 0 1 73 14.1 School of Forest Res. & Cons. Student Council 3 0 0 0 0 3 .5 Sigma Phi Alpha 6 0 0 0 1 7 1.3 Society of American Foresters Student Chapter 3 0 0 0 2 5 .9 St. Ch. of the American Assn. of Bovine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The Investigators 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Urban Entomological Society 4 0 0 0 0 4 .7 Wetlands Club 2 0 0 0 0 2 .3 Wildlife Society 28 0 1 0 2 31 6 Other 100 2 6 4 11 98 19.0 Total 487 3 16 5 29 515 100
120 Table 4-10. Number of Years in CA LS Organizations Years Organization Name 012 34Total Alpha Zeta 14277 1453 American Society of Agricultural Engineers 011 11 4 Block & Bridle 483 3018 CALS Ambassadors 12219 2044 CALS Student Council 162 7016 Dairy Science Club 181 0010 ENSO (Urban Ent. & Nematology Std.Org.) 041 00 5 Environmental Horticulture Club 253 1011 Equestrian 2163 3125 Ethnoecology Society 000 00 0 Family, Youth & Community Sciences Club 27232 2054 Florida Water Environment Assoc. St. Ch. 000 00 0 0Food Sciences & Human Nutrition Club 51512 5037 Forestry Club 364 1115 FRE-NAMA 61912 3141 Gator Ch. of the Florida Assn. for Food 000 00 0 Gator Citrus Club 010 00 1 Gator Collegiate Cattlewomen 423 3012 International Gourmet Association 000 00 0 Microbiology & Cell Science Student Org. 054 00 9 MANRRS 133 018 Marsport Greenhouse Project 000 00 0 Natural Resource & Environmental Coll. 021 20 5 Pre-Vet Club 123924 11692 School of Forest Res. & Cons. Student Con. 022 00 4
121 Table 4-10. Continued Years Organization Name 012 34Total Sigma Phi Alpha 021 40 7 Society of American Foresters Student 123 00 6 St. Ch. of the American A ssn. of Bovine 000 00 0 The Investigators 011 00 2 Urban Entomological Society 121 00 4 Wetlands Club 020 00 2 Wildlife Society 61113 2133 Other 146832 1411111 Total 116301148 6527657
122 Table 4-11. Organizational L eadership Outside of CALS Organizational leadership outside of CALS (n=826) Service Social Social/ Service Fraternity Sorority Honorary Sports Other % UFOrganization One 13.45.810.63.87.95.05.47.659.7 UFOrganization Two 184.108.40.206 .220.127.116.11.127.4 UFOrganization Three 18.104.22.168 .22.214.171.124.810.5 UFOrganization Four .7.1.2 .126.96.36.199.21.9 UFOrganization Five .10.1 00.1.10.5 Total 24.310.6188.8.131.52.78.814.7100.0
123 Table 4-12. Current Organizational Leadership Level and Duration of Involvement Leadership Position Outside of CALS PresidentVicePresident SecretaryTreasurer Membership Coordinator Committee Chair n% UFOrganization One 232371117 6420234762.1 UFOrganization Two 53657 308614225.4 UFOrganization Three 16321 734549.6 UFOrganization Four 20001 18122.1 UFOrganization Five 01000 0230.5 Total 3133161826 102334558100.0 Level of Involvement ChapterDistrictStateRegional National n% UFOrganization One 329757 26 37456.1 UFOrganization Two 147341 8 16324.4 UFOrganization Three 54120 5 629.3 UFOrganization Four 12010 1 142.1 UFOrganization Five 3000 0 30.4 Total 54511128 40 616 Number of Years of Involvement Years 0123 456n% UFOrganization One 5419510853 282244257.0 UFOrganization Two 22725923 140019024.5 UFOrganization Three 831248 200 739.4 UFOrganization Four 1644 100 162.0 UFOrganization Five 0210 100 4.05 Total 54511128 40 725
124 Table 4-13. High School Leadership Experiences of CALS Students Previous Leadership Experience (n=987) n% Student Government 278 28.2 BETA 165 16.7 SADD 77 7.8 FCA 149 15.1 JROTC 34 3.4 Class Officer 193 19.6 FBLA 70 7.1 Science Club 192 19.5 Band 157 15.9 Foreign Language Club 291 29.5 Baseball/Softball 119 12.1 Debate Team 54 5.5 Swimming/Diving 94 9.5 Pre-Health 89 9.0 Basketball 91 9.2 Boy Scouts/Girl Scouts 81 8.2 Football 86 8.7 National Honor Society 600 60.8 Volleyball 80 8.1 4-H member 63 6.4 Cross-Country/Track 168 17.0 Future Farmers of America (FFA) 114 11.6 Other Athletics 378 38.3 Other (please specify) 459 46.5
125 Table 4-14. High School Leadership Positions and Level Experiences Previous Officer Positions n% President 30425.3% Vice-President 25821.5% Secretary 21217.6% Treasurer 17314.4% Membership Coordinator 584.8% Committee Chair 19516.3% Total 1200100.0% Leadership Level None 9912.0% Club 64773.1% State 485.4% District 647.2% Region 161.8% National 101.1% Total 884100.0% Table 4-15. Frequency of CALS Students who participate in Community Leadership Experiences Frequency of Service High School College Once a year 545.6%85 8.5% Once six months 16717.3%164 16.5% Once a month 33534.7%234 23.5% Once every week 34836.1%192 19.3% Daily 616.3%23 2.3% Total 965100.0%698 100.0%
126 Table 4-16. Pearson Product Moment Correlati ons of Leadership Measures by Personal Characteristics Variable Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage AGE .02 .01-.01.02.01 -.02 GENDER .10* .11*.06*.04.14* .14* WHITE -.06* -.01-.07-.01-.08* -.07* OTHER .01 .03.01.00.01 .01 HISPANIC .07* .04*.09* .06.06 .08* BLACK -.01 -.04.00-.05.04 .01 LIVING ENVIRONMENT .01 -.01.00.00.06 .00 FAMILY .01 .00.01.01.03 .01 First Generation (first in family attend college -.02 -.01-.04-.03-.01 .003 G.P.A. (grade point average) -.02 .-.05-.03-.03-.02 .-02 Enrollment (Freshmen in CALS, Other College, or Community College) .03 .03.03.03.01 .02 Note p< .05
127 Table 4-17. Regression models of Leadersh ip Behaviors on personal characteristics Personal Characteristics Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage Source Est. a Est.aEst.aEst.aEst. a Est.a (Constant) 7.62 7.72 7.457.567.72 7.68 Age .02 .51 .04 .19-.03.35.02.36.05 .05 .01.78 Gender .26* .00 .31* .00.20.06.12.19.34 .00 .39*.00 Other (Asian American, Indian, ,Pacific Islander, Other) -.02 .47 .17 .34.10.63.03.84.15 .33 .14.46 Hispanic .11* .01 .17.18.46*.00.22.11.22* .04 .37*.00 Black .03 .83 -.10 .45.07.66-.15.32.18 .12 .14.33 Living Community (Rural, Suburban, Urban) -.01 .92 -.002 1.00-.04.57-.003.98.06 .18 -.04.43 Family Community (Single, both, extended parents) .03 .73 .01 .85.01.89.01.87.05 .41 .03.71 First Generation (first in family attend college) -.04 .69 -.01 .90-.11.33-.09.38.01 .85 .02.78 G.P.A. (Grade point ave.) -.03 .48 -.06 .13.04.40-.03.36-.04 .20 -.03.44 Enrollment (Freshmen in CALS, Other College, or Community College) .03 .52 .03 .59.07.27.01.73-.01 .90 .05.39 Adjusted R2 .01 .01.01.004.02 .02 F-Statistic 1.82 .05 1.99.031.62.09.90.053.21 .00 2.64.00 Note1 p< .05 Note2 Leadership is the grand mean leadership score
128 Table 4-18. Pearson Product Moment Correlati ons of Leadership Measures by Academic Leadership Experiences (n=1,036) Note p< .05 Table 4-19. Regression models of Leadership Behaviors on Acad emic Leadership Experiences Academic Leadership Experiences Leadership Model Insp ire Challenge Enable Encourage Source Est. a Est. aEst.aEst.aEst. a Est.a (Constant) 7.47 7.51 6.627.457.96 7.69 Leadership course .09 .49 .07 .59 .20.25 .03.84 .12 .32 .03.82 Leadership trainings .36 .48 .38 .47 .66.32 .02.96 .38 .42 .34.55 Academic year .03 .40 .04 .19 -.01.91 .06.19 .04 .21 .01.87 Adjusted R2 .001 .002 .001.000.002 .002 F-Statistic 1.38 .23 .75 .184.108.40.206 .46. 37 87 .15.92 Note p< .05 Variable Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage Leadership course .03 .02.04.02.03 .00 Leadership Trainings -.01 -.01-.01-.02-.01 -.21 Academic Year .03 .05.02.04.04 .01
129 Table 4-20. Pearson Product Moment Correla tions Leadership Measures on Community Leadership Experiences (n=1,084) Variable LeadershipModelInspireChallenge Enable Encourage Had a Role Model .01-.02.02-.02 -.01 -.01 HS Community Service .09*.12*.08*.07* .09* .09* HS Community Participation Frequency .09.08*.07*.10* .07* .06 Current Community Service .19*.19*.21*.19** .17* .16* Current Service Participation Frequency .16*.10*.09*.11* .13* .09* Note p< .05 Table 4-21. Regression of Leadership Meas ures on Community Lead ership experiences Academic Leadership Experiences Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage Source Est. a Est.aEst.aEst.aEst. a Est.a (Constant) 7.66 7.887.047.287.96 7.84 Had a Role Model -.11 .22 -.19.24-.12.33-.09.43 .12 .32 -.13.22 High school community service .10 .54 .20.25.03.88.04.85 .38 .42 .14.46 HS Community Participation Frequency .01 .95 -.07.62.08.68.08.66 .04 .21 .01.94 Current Community Service .44* .00 .42*.001.37*.02.41*.01.41* .003 .44*.002 Current Service Participation Frequency -.01 .95 -.02.87.27.12.08.59.07 .58 -.08.57 Adjusted R2 .03 .03.04.03.02 .02 F-Statistic 9.19 .00 7.96.0010.24.008.24.00.5.87 .00 5.85.00 Note p< .05
130 Table 4-22. Pearson Product Moment Correlation s of Leadership Measures by Organizational Leadership Experiences (n=1,025) Variable Leadership Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage UFLEADER .08 .08.11.09.05 .05 UFORG .09* .07*.11.09.06 .06* CALSLEADER .04 .03.05.04.03 .04 PRIOR OFFICER .16* .15*.14*.16*.13* .13* Note p< .05 Table 4-23. Regression of Leadership Measur es on Organizational Leadership Experiences Organizational Leadership Experiences Leadership Model Insp ire Challenge Enable Encourage Source Est. a Est.aEst.aEst.aEst. a Est.a (Constant) 7.73 7.917.197.368.28 7.90 UFLEADER .01 .92 .220.127.116.11.07.58.01 .96 .01.93 UFORG .007 .97 .05.63.22.11.16.18.09 .32 .13.26 CALSLEADER .20 .28 .0004.32.0006.09.0005.22.0002 .43 .0002.25 PRIOR OFFICER .24* .00 .24*.00.22*.02.32*.00.20* .00 .24*.00 Adjusted R2 .02 .01.02.02.01 .01 F-Statistic 4.65 .001 4.30.0015.39.0016.46.0012.78 .02 3.10.009 Note p< .05
131 Table 4-24. Regression of Overall Leadership Leadership Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst.a (Constant) 6.307.46 Age .03.43 Gender .17*.05.18 .03 Living Environment .01.74 First Generation -.04.62 Other Race .15.38 Hispanic .28*.02 .29.01 Black -.03.82 Year in College -.02.69 UF GPA -.01.85 Enrollment .06.18 Leadership Course .09.50 Leader Trainings .70.28 Prior Officer .004*.01 .002.00 UF Organization Member .03.80 UF Leader .05.65 CALS Leader .06.28 HS Community Service .27.15 HS Community Participation Frequency .04.78 Current Community Service .48*.00 .45.00 Current Service Participation Frequency .08.54 Had a Role Model .002.99 R2 .07.06 Adjusted R2 .06 .06 F-Statistic 3.87.0016.34.00 Note p< .05
132 Table 4-25. Regression of Modeling the Way Modeling the Way Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst.a (Constant) 6.32 7.46 Age .06 .43 Gender .20* .05.18* .03 Living Environment .003 .74 First Generation -.02 .62 Other Race .17 .38 Hispanic .17* .02 .29*.01 Black -.17 .82 Year in College -.01 .69 UF GPA -.03 .85 Enrollment .10 .18 Leadership Course .75 .50 Leader Trainings .004 .28 Prior Officer .05* .01 .002*.00 UF Organization Member .12 .80 UF Leader .45 .65 CALS Leader -.02 .28 HS Community Service .06 .15 HS Community Participation Frequency 44 .78 Current Community Service .39*.00.45*.00 Current Service Participation Frequency .14 .64 Had a Role Model -.002 .99 R2 .06.06 Adjusted R2 .05 .06 F-Statistic 6.32 .0016.34.00 Note p< .05
133 Table 4-26. Regression of Leadership Measures on Inspire a Shared Vision Inspire a Shared Vision Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst. a (Constant) 5.66 6.99 Age -.03.55 Gender .06.08 Living Environment -.01.93 First Generation -.11.32 Other Race .14.52 Hispanic .44*.01 .46* .00 Black -.01.96 Year in College -.02.79 UF GPA .07.17 Enrollment .08.19 Leadership Course .22.22 Leader Trainings 1.13.18 Prior Officer .003*.01 .003* .01 UF Organization Member .07.65 UF Leader .07.69 CALS Leader .001.07 HS Community Service .15.87 HS Community Participation Frequency .03.88 Current Community Service .46*.03 .60* .00 Current Service Participation Frequency .13.68 Had a Role Model -.05.75 R2 .07.06 Adjusted R2 .06 .06 F Statistic 3.86.0020.10 .00 Note p< .05
134 Table 4-27. Regression of Leadership Measures on Challenge the Process Challenge the Process Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst. a (Constant) 5.66 7.29 Age .03.55 Gender .05.07 Living Environment -.01.93 First Generation -.11.32 Other Race .14.52 Hispanic .44*.05 .34* .03 Black -.01.96 Year in College -.02.79 UF GPA .07.17 Enrollment .10.09 Leadership Course .22.22 Leader Trainings 1.13.18 Prior Officer .003*.01 .002* .00 UF Organization Member .07.65 UF Leader .06.71 CALS Leader .001.18 HS Community Service .15.87 HS Community Participation Frequency .03.54 Current Community Service .40*.01 .46* 00 Current Service Participation Frequency .15.71 Had a Role Model -.05.75 R2 .07.04 Adjusted R2 .06 .04 F Statistic 2.86.0023.59 .00 Note p< .05
135 Table 4-28. Regression of Leadership Measures on Enable Others to Act Enable Others to Act Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst. a (Constant) 6.69 8.02 Age .06.08 Gender .27*.00 .28* .00 Living Environment .08.10 First Generation -.001.97 Other Race .17.25 Hispanic .23*.03 .21* .00 Black .13.26 Year in College -.02.63 UF GPA -.02.50 Enrollment .02.55 Leadership Course .06.58 Leader Trainings .53.37 Prior Officer .002*.13 .003* .00 UF Organization Member .05.59 UF Leader .06.96 CALS Leader .009.41 HS Community Service .29.08 HS Community Participation Frequency .01.89 Current Community Service .55*.00 .50* .00 Current Service Participation Frequency .03.25 Had a Role Model .09.34 R2 .08.05 Adjusted R2 .06 .05 F-Statistic 3.76.0013.75 .00 Note p< .05
136 Table 4-29. Regression of Leadership Measures Encourage the Heart Encourage the Heart Full Model Reduced Model Source Est.aEst. a (Constant) 6.33 7.53 Age .01.41 Gender .29*.00 .31* .00 Living Environment -.02.64 First Generation .01.88 Other Race .16.38 Hispanic .37*.00 .35* .00 Black .11.46 Year in College -.04.45 UF GPA -.01.69 Enrollment .08.13 Leadership Course .02.90 Leader Trainings .77.29 Prior Officer .003*.01 003* .01 UF Organization Member -.00.97 UF Leader .04.73 CALS Leader .33.11 HS Community Service .04.81 HS Community Participation Frequency .01.43 Current Community Service .47*.00 .38* .00 Current Service Participation Frequency .01.96 Had a Role Model .002.99 R2 .07.06 Adjusted R2 .05 .05 F-Statistic 3.24.0013.92 .00 Note p< .05
137 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Summary of Study Statement of the Problem Throughout the United S tates and the rest of the world, businesses and government organizations are finding it difficult to fill leadership positions due to a lack of trained leaders. This situation has been described as a leadersh ip void; more accurately termed as a void in properly trained leaders (Bisoux, 2002; Burns, 19 79; Figura, 1999). Industry leaders seek new employees who can lead quickly after they jo in an organization. College graduates who can exhibit leadership and life skills early and often as new professionals are likely to be hired and advance quickly in their careers. One goal of higher education is to prepare graduates for the professional world, yet few formal training opport unities are offered to assist students in developing skills in personal leadership, organi zational leadership, or community leadership (Cress, et al., 2001; Ricketts & Rudd, 2001; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). A primary goal for leadership educators is to improve undergraduate students leadership development to fill this leadership void. Seve ral important questions ar e: Do potential graduates possess desired leadership behavior s? If not, what are the lead ership behaviors that future graduates possess? What previous leadership ex periences of CALS students are associated with personal development? What type of leadership education or leadership trainings have these undergraduate students completed? What type of leadership experiences are they currently participating in to develop de sired leadership behaviors? With an ex post facto study, it was not possible to directly measure ch ange and answer all of these questions. However, these inquiries lead to an important research questions: (a) What
138 factors influence leadership behaviors in CALS students? (b) What leadership behaviors do CALS students exhibit the most? Purpose and Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine CA LS students past and present leadership experiences and personal characteristics as predic tors for leadership behavior. The leadership behaviors of undergraduate CALS students were defined by the Student Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (Kouzes & Posner, 1998). The LPI can be used to determine the self-perceived level of leadership behaviors. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1. To determine self-perceived leadership behavi ors of CALS students, as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) 2. To access the influence demographic char acteristics on leadership behaviors 3. To assess the influence of community lead ership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on lead ership behaviors 4. To assess the influence that organizational l eadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) have on leadership behaviors 5. To determine the relationship between undergra duate CALS student le adership behavior and previous organizational and community experiences. Methodology The leadership theory fram ework for this study began with the leadership behaviors research of Kouzes and Posner (1995). A quant itative descriptive design was used to describe CALS students in terms of their personal character istics, academic leadersh ip experience, student leadership experience, and community leadership experience. All of the participants completed an online survey that assessed their self -perceived leadership practices. The LPI developed by Kouzes and Posner (1998) measured the particip ants perceived importance of and proficiency in five leadership behaviors: Challenging the Process ,Enabling Others to Act, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Encouraging the Heart and Modeling the Way.
139 The survey techniques applied in this study closely followed Dillmans (2000) Tailored Design Method for web-mail surveys. The procedures yiel ded an overall survey response rate of 33.7%, representing 1,156 of the to tal population of 3,429. Procedures for data analysis included descriptive statistics, correlational analysis, and multivariate regression. The first four regression models for leadership explaine d the significance of independent variables on subsets areas of personal characteristics, academic leadership expe rience, organizational leadership experience, and community leadership experience on the dependent variables of the five leadership behavior and overall measure variable of Leadership Behavi or. Other models inve stigated only selected personal characteristics, academic leadership experiences, and organizational leadership experiences offering a comparison with variables th at were predicted to have influence on the set of leadership measures. Findings A summ ary of the findings of this study were presented in rela tion to the objectives of the study. These findings were also presented in Chapter 4. Findings 1: Leadership behavior s of CALS students as measured by the Student LPI (Kouzes & Posner, 1998) In summary, the individual behavior mean scores ranged from (7.44 to 8.50) with an overall grand mean score of 7.90. The leadership behavior of Enabling Others to Act had the highest individual mean score high score ( M = 8.50), whereas the lowest individual mean score was M = 7.44 for the leadership behavior of Inspiring a Shared Vision. Overall Leadership behavior and the five leadership behavior s have high mean scores. CALS students had moderately to high leadership behavior scores with an overa ll response on the rating scale as often. The results on the five leadership be haviors rating indicated CA LS students were more
140 likely to Encourage the Heart, En able others to Act, and Modeli ng the Way more frequently than other leadership behaviors such as Inspire a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process. Using regression models for explaining overall leadership behavior the researcher found that the full model accounted for 7% of the total variance in the dependent variable. The variables Current Community Serv ice, Hispanic students and Prio r Officer (if the student had been an officer of a high school organization) remained statistica lly significant throughout all six models including the reduced model. The variab le Gender had a weak positive relationship with overall leadership behavior, and was significant in all of the m odels except Inspire a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process. Findings 2: Demographic char acteristics variables of cu rrent CALS s tudents and their influence on leadership As reported in Chapter 4, the profile of th e typical CALS undergr aduate student was a single White female, about 21 years old, who lives in a suburban environment with both parents. The majority of the respondents were upperclassme n (junior and senior st atus), with over 60% having a grade point average of 3.26 or greate r. Food Science and Human Nutrition, Animal Sciences, and Family, Youth, and Community Scie nce majors were the most common majors. One-third of the respondents entered college as freshmen and other-third entered the college as a transfer student from a community college. Over ninety percent indicated that they had not completed a formal leadership course, while over fifty percent had pa rticipated in some leadership training activity. Over all CALS students were active in regards to organizational leadership with over half are involved in CA LS student organization and more than 60% are involved in a student organi zation outside of CALS. Among the personal characteristics variables, the researcher found weak to moderate relationships for of the independent variables Gender and Hispanic. Gender had weak positive
141 correlation indicating that females have a highe r leadership behavior score than men. The variable representing Hispanic (Hispanic/ Latino American) had a weak positive relationship for dependent variable Leadership behavior indica ting Hispanic CALS students may score higher on leadership behavior than students who are not Hispanic. In the multiple regression model, the researcher noted that variable Gender continued to have a positive parameter estimate that was significant for dependent variable of Leadership behavior. In addi tion, the variable Hispanic had a positive parameter estimate that was significant Overall personal characteristics had a weak relationship and statistically no significance while accounting for 1% of the variance in the model for the dependent variab le of Leadership behavior. When exploring the academic leadership experi ences variables, the researcher found weak relationships for all of the inde pendent variables in the academic leadership model. In the regression models the researcher notes that acad emic leadership experiences had no significant variables and were not statistically significance wh ile accounting for less than 1% of the variance in the model for the dependent variable of Leadership behavior. Findings 3: The influence of community leadership experiences of undergraduate CALS student leaders on leadership behaviors Respondents participated in community serv ice with 82.2 % of participants responded yes that they participated in some type of community service activity in high school. In addition, 51.9% said yes that th ey currently participated in some type of community service or community outreach activity. On av erage, respondents participate in community service at least one month and performed an averag e of one hour per service activity. Among the community leadership experiences variables, th e researcher found weak to moderate relationships for all the independent va riables in the community leadership model for the dependent variables of leadersh ip. In this regression model, the researcher noted that being
142 currently involved in community service had a si gnificant positive parameter estimate. Overall, the variables for community leadership experience had weak relationships and accounted for 3 % of the variance in the model for the depe ndent variable of Leadership behavior. Findings 4: The influence of organizational leadership experiences (at the departmental, university, and community levels) on leadership behaviors About 50% students indicated that they have participated in some organizational leadership experience both in and outside the college. CALS organizations that stude nts participate in the most were Pre-Vet Club, Family, Youth & Community Sciences Club, and Alpha Zeta (Agricultural Honor Fraternity). Respondents participated in variet y of service related activities where over 20% were members of service organiza tions, 16.7% were involved in social/service organizations, and 12% were member s of a fraternity or sorority. Being a member of a CALS organization was found to have a weak to moderate positive correlation and had a positive, significant parameter estimate for the variable of Leadership behavior. The current student leadership par ticipation and the level that CALS students are participating (chapter, regional, st ate, national) levels were also positively associated with higher LPI scores for overall Leadership behavior. The regression model had a weak but statistically significant relationship and explained about 2% of the variance reported in Leadership behavior. Findings 5: The relationship between undergra duate CALS student leadership behavior and previous high school experiences Participants were involved in over more than 26 high school activities, ranging from athletics and academics to community service an d honorary clubs and organizations. More than 60% of CALS students had partic ipated in the National Honor So ciety. In addition to their participation, CALS students served in leadersh ip positions with these organizations. Over 50% of CALS students were officers and involved levels primarily the local or club level.
143 Having been an officer of an organizati on in high school has showed a low positive relationship with Leadership behavior. It had a statistically significance relationship ( = .03. p = .04). In this regression m odel, the researcher notes that the va riable Prior Officer was statically significant and the overall model also was statically significant. The model statistically showed significance with reporting less than 1% of the variance in the full model for the dependent variable of Leadership behavior. Conclusions and Discussion Being that this study was a census of CALS st udents at the University of Florida enrolled in Fall 2007 semester, the genera lizability of the conclusions and recommendations of the study beyond the population described should be carefully considered. With this point in mind, the following conclusions were derived from the fi ndings of the five re search objectives and previous research studies. Each conclusion is listed as a bold pa ragraph heading and is followed by a brief discussion of the conclusion. CALS students held moderate to high leadershi p perceptions among all on areas of the five leadership practices. Overall the research suggests that students in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) at the University of Florida in this study appear to possess strong leadership behaviors. In assessing leadership behavior, participants completed the individual (S elf) leader component portion of the LPI, which was used to assess the self-perceptions of the pa rticipants own actions within the five exemplary leadership behaviors. CALS students held moderate to high leadership perceptions among all on areas of the five leader ship practices. These perceptions remain consistent with the findings of Bass and Yamm arino (1989) and Krill, Carter and Williams (1997) who found that leaders tend to give th emselves moderate to high ratings on their individual leadership behaviors. Research using the LPI has also found formal leadership
144 education to be effective (Earnest, 1996; Meehan, 1999; Mullins & Weeks, 2006; J. C. Ricketts & Rudd, 2002). Earnest (1996) found increases for each of the five leadership behaviors of community leadership program participants in Ohio. Researchers in agricultural and extension educat ion have also utilized the LPI to evaluate leadership behaviors as well (R udd, 2000; Krill, Carter, & Williams 1997). Spotauski and Carter (1993) found that agricultural educ ation executives were best at Enabling Others to Act and needed help with Inspiring a Shared Vision and Challenging the process. Woodrum and Safrit (2003) examined the leadership practices of West Virginia ex tension agents and determined again that Enabling Others to Act was the behavior exhibi ted most frequently, and Inspiring a Shared Vision was the leadership beha vior used less often. In this study, the leadership behavior of Ena bling others to act ha d the highest individual mean score high score ( M = 8.50) whereas the lowest i ndividual mean score was ( M = 7.44) for the leadership behavior of Inspiring a Shared Vi sion. The results indicate having a shared vision is not a leadership behavior th at CALS students rate themselves as being strong. In comparison to the previous studies, respondents in this st udy rated themselves more involved with the group process, and less involved with developing the groups vision (Krill, Carter, & Williams, 1997; Mullins & Weeks, 2006; Rudd, et al., 2004; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). Inspiring a Shared Vision was also rated as one of the lowest am ong undergraduate students. The researcher concluded respondents were less likely to de velop and share a strong common vision. The findings of this study were consistent with pr evious leadership research, which was conducted within the five leadership practices with underg raduate college students using the LPI (Krill & Carter, 1997, Kouzes & Posner, 1998 Mullins & Weeks, 2006, Rickets, 2007).
145 Characteristics Affect Leadership Behaviors The characteristics make-up of respondents was a necessary component of this study because current literature indica tes characteristics influence on leadership behavior (Carless, 1998, Moore, 2003; Rosener, 2000; Rudd, 2000; Krishnan & Park, 1998; Kochamba and Murray, 1996, Kouzes & Posner, 1993; Bass, 1990). This study found evidence for a change in the gender distribution for CALS, where traditio nally men have been the majority and women minority. Currently, in the college, men ha ve a proportionally smaller population of the participants sampled at 41.5%, while women have 58.5% of the sampled population at the University of Florida. Carter and Rudd ( 2005) recognized that ther e was a trend toward increased female leadership in agricultural orga nizations and perhaps this change was a direct result of increased number of women in enrolled in the colleg e and pursuing more professional development opportunities. This national trend is to be considered as the changing the profile of undergraduate students in the colleg e of agricultural and life scienc es (Howell, et al., 1982; Israel & Beaulieu, 1990; Stedman, 2004). In this study, Gender was also reported to have a weak positive significant correlation with overall leadership and five leadership behaviors. The results of this study reported that the variable Gender showed weak signifi cant relationships for significant in four of the six measures (ex cept Inspire a Shared Vision and Challenge the Process). Thus females were likely to have higher leadership behavior scor es than males. Other studies of leadership, which explor ed gender as a variable report similar results whereas there is evidence of higher scores for women on leadership behaviors than men (Carter, 2006; Stedman, 2004). Along with a change in gender, there is a mo re evidence for more diversity of races and ethnicities. Being Hispanic or Latino was shown to have a weak positive correlation and association in the regression model with Leadership behaviors. The significance of this variable
146 would indicate some effect that is happening wi th Hispanic and Leadership behavior. Further research that should be conducted on the Hispanic CALS students a nd their leadership behaviors. Previous research indicated characteristics vari ables, such as an individuals age and living community, may also influence an individual s leadership behavior (Brannon, Holley, & Key, 1989; Kelly & Osborne, 2004; Luft, 1996). In additio nally variables of academic classification, academic major, family college experience, leader ship education, as well as number and types of leadership experiences, have all been factors that may influence leadership behaviors (Flora & Flora, 2003; Rudd, et al., 2004). The results of the study do not support previous studies were variables such as age, academic classificati on, leadership education, types of leadership experiences have influenced an individuals lead ership behavior. The study reported that these variables had little or no correlation and were not significant and, consequently, were not used in the regression models. The lack of associ ation may be due to the population where the participants in the study were more similar in academic and personal demographics than previous studies. When a CALS student first enrolled in coll ege, which compares traditional four-year students with community college transfer students, has been identified as a predictor that may influence the leadership behaviors (Brungardt, 1997; Graham, 2001). Burgraff (1999) argues the case for having the leadership de velopment in the community college setting. Many of these students continue on to further thei r education at 4-year instituti ons, where they have been noted as strong leaders and exhibit lead ership behaviors (Burgraff, 1999; Howell, et al., 1982) In this study, the results do not support pr evious studies were community college transfer students indicated stronger leadership scores than noncommunity college transfer students. The researcher suggested the results may be skewed because the population maybe more similar in
147 academic and personal demographics and therefore would not reflect much variance on this variable in this study. Academic characteristics variables were analyzed included academic classification, leadership coursework, and leader ship trainings. Academic leadership experiences included such variables as academic status (freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior), formal leadership course work and leadership trainings have also be noted as predictors on leader ship behavior. In a previous longitudinal study, Cr ess, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, and Burhardt (2001) found evidence that experiences in leadership educa tion and training programs have a non-significant affect on intended leadership outcomes. Their st udy implied that leadersh ip potential exists in every student and those colleges and universities can develop this potential through leadership programs and activities. Previous notions that leadership is positional or an inherent characteristic are unfounded. The mo re involved a student is in student activities rather than formal trainings the more a student will developmen t effective leadership behaviors (Cress, et al., 2001). Results of this study supported previous re search indicate no significant effect for the academic leadership experience variables. The re searcher does note in this study about 90% of the participants were had not take n a formal leadership course and less than half of participates indicated that they had participated in some lead ership trainings. Moreover, the analysis showed that students, who had a course or trainings, did not have higher scores on the LPI. In addition, the score on leadership behavior indicated th at most CALS students are still above average leaders. The need for more formal leadership courses does not seem be necessary for this group of students. However, the need for more lead ership training sessions wa s supported in previous leadership studies (F. W. Brown & S. M. Fritz 1994; Brungardt, 1996; J. C. Ricketts & Rudd, 2002; Schumacher & Swan, 1993). Therefore, the re searcher suggests addressing the need to
148 focus leadership training sessions on specific leadership behaviors wher e students scored lower on the LPI. Moreover, that employers are seeking new employees who are prepared and ready to take on change and have the necessary leadership skills and competencies required to effectively manage and operate their companies and organi zations. The implementation of more focused leadership trainings may be very beneficial for students as they prepare the transition into the workforce. Community Leadership Experiences Positi vely Influence L eadership Behaviors. To summarize, most respondents reported that they participated in some type of community service activity in high school. Over half also indicated that they currently participated in some type of community servi ce or community outreach activity. The results of this study indicate that current community service participation does a have a small significant association with Leadership behavior. In prev ious studies, community leadership development programs outcomes were considered to have a dir ect impact on leadership development. Along with the idea of community leadersh ip, "civic leadership is a term that has been used to describe these leadership programs (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Earnest, 1996; Pigg, 2001). In these civic leadership programs have much in common with "action learning" appr oach to leadership development (Fredricks, 1998, 2003; Ladewig & Rohs, 2000; Rohs, 2004). Many of these leadership development programs are sponsored by local community agencies with the aim of training leaders in the skills nece ssary to serve their communities. Previous studies also suggest experiential learning maybe influen tial in leadership development and this is consistent with the evidence in this study. Organizational Leadership Experiences May Influence Leadership Behaviors In previous leadership studies, the number a nd types of leadership positions have been predictors that influence lead ership behaviors. In additi on, the more hours spent per week
149 performing volunteer or stude nt organization activities, the more likely students show growth in leadership (Bardou, 2003; S. M. Fritz, et al., 2003; Nirenberg, 1998). In this study, organizational leadership is defined as current organizational involvement (in CALS and outside of CALS), leadership positions, numbers of years of involvement, and level of involvement. Just under half (48%), responded to being a part of an organizati on within the CALS. Of this population of CALS students who ar e involved outside of the college 21% of participants were in at least one organization. The diversity of current leadership experi ences indicates that the CALS students are highly motivated and seek opportunities for personal development through student and professional organization involveme nt. This involvement also is reflected the diversity of students attracted to a college of agriculture. Additionally, th is study reinforces leadership development through the culmination of many opportunities to practice leadership skills and behaviors. People accumulate organizational experi ences and influences of diverse activities to form perceptions of leadership (Cress, et al., 2001; Duke, 1998; Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Previous research by (Cress, et al., 2001) organizational leadersh ip behavior, analysis suggests that the more students are involve d in student organizations the mo re likely they are to develop strong leadership skills and behaviors. The resu lt of this study does not fully support the notion that student organization participation is importa nt and a positive factor having higher scores on the LPI leadership inventory. However, re spondents who were or ganizational leader in high school or did have higher leadership behavior scores on the LPI, as discussed below. Moreover, the researcher also suggests that involvement in these student organizational activities may result in higher rating on individual leadership skills and leadership competencies measures not measured by the LPI (Azzam & Riggio, 2003; Cress, et al., 2001).
150 Previous High School Experiences A ffect Current Leaders hip Behaviors Many of the CALS students who participated in this study serv ed as officers and were two and three-year members, and have served as pr esidents of their student organizations in high school. Holding a leadership position in high school was associated with leadership behaviors of the participants in the study. Th ese various leadership experiences have been shown to reinforce students commitment to the organization, deri vation of useful skills, and enjoyment in membership (Bardou, 2003; Sandmann & Vandenberg, 1995). This research asserts that these leadership behaviors began in high school. In a study by Ricketts and Rudd (2001) found that leadership experience aids pers onal development for career and so cietal success. High schools students with leadership experience have a str ong leadership capacity because they better understand the phenomena of leadership as a pe rsonal and attainable undertaking (Zielinski, 1999). Implications Although the im portance of student leadership behavior has been supported in previous research, the findings from this study have impli cations for the theory an d provide questions to guide additional research on the college student l eadership development practices. Much of the previous research involving leadership has focu sed on application in business or other academic settings not for students who ar e studying in the college of Ag riculture. This study provides some initial support for the use of leadership beha vior development in the field of agricultural leadership where there has been a lack of prepar edness in leadership skills development. With the changing global society, the literature indica tes that there is a great need for adequately trained agricultural leaders who ha ve developed effective leadership behaviors that can deal with change and provide service back to the community in which it serves.
151 It was clear that leadership development of undergraduate CALS students occurs over time and begins in high school. Duri ng their high school experiences fo r most CALS students holding an officer position and participation in community service are significant factors that influence developing their leadership beha vior. In high school, majority of CALS students were very activity involved in various ex tracurricular activities where le adership development was sought and valued. The findings of the study also indicate that CALS students were more influenced by their participation in collegiate organizations than th ey were by participating in a formal leadership course or seminars which indicates the impor tance of developing leadership among groups and organizations. Therefore if leadership behavior is developed among groups and organizations it important to study where leadership development is occurring or not occurring within these organizations and groups. Community leadership involvement was cl early important for the development of leadership behaviors whereas i nvolvement community service was a frequent activity of a CALS students college experience. By the majority of CALS students who have and still current participate in community service, CALS students see themselves as servant leaders who try to utilize their leadership for the be tterment of organizations or societ y. Previous research indicates that there is a positive relationship between le adership behavior and community service. However, the way leadership behavior works in these contexts may be different where community service is used to teach and further enhance leadership behaviors. The findings from this study have implica tions for the understanding the role of the leadership behavior theory, whic h may be less important than de veloping leadership skills or leadership competencies for CALS students. Previ ous literature and results of this study indicate
152 that CALS students are relatively strong leaders, but they may ha ve shortcomings in certain of leadership skills and competencies which result in leadership behaviors as defined by the LPI. CALS students who are not adequately prepared to fill these leadership positions should be a concern for faculty, staff and administrators. Upon graduation, these CALS students are expected to be capable and eff ective agricultural leaders who ar e ready to meet societal and organizational challenges. In addressing th ese shortcomings, agricultural colleges and universities should take a more proactive a nd holistic approach in student leadership development for its future graduates. This study provides support for the preparation and successful delivery of future leadership deve lopment programming. The development of these leadership programs will focus on preparing pr ofessional competencies of CALS students in effort to effectively prepare them to fill this leadership void in our global society. As mentioned previously, employers and organizations are seeking future leaders who understand and can manage effect change and can deal with chaos. These leadership competencies are necessary to address the needs of our changing society. Moreover, future graduates who practice transformational leadership behavior and possess desired leadership competencies are highly marketable and often actively sought for advanced leadership positions. The study can also be used to provide suppor t for professional development activities and leadership training for infusion in CALS courses. Using the leadership behaviors or practices outlined by the LPI, administers can begin structuring these leader ship development activities in special leadership training works hops or course curriculum. For an example, leadership behavior Inspiring a Shared Vision had the lowest individual leadership scores. Specific leadership tasks such as Enlists a common vision (received one of the lowest self-ratings) can be addressed with a specific group activity where students ar e engaged and work in teams to development a
153 mission statement for their group or organization. Fr om these experiences CALS students will be better equipped to understand and create a vision statement. As previously mentioned, CALS students would need to particip ated in activities that have develop and use critical thinking skills where they would effectiv ely learn how to ask questions and think outside of the normal parameters. In developing competencies in the leadership behavior of Challenging the Process CALS students would part icipate in activities and workshops where students learn how to take in itiative by experimenti ng with the way that organizations or groups normally operate to so lve an organizational problem. By becoming active participants in making decisions and taki ng risks, CALS will become better equipped to manage and handle change. By determining factors that influence CALS students leadership be haviors; pre-service programs could be tailored to motivate CALS st udents to enhance their overall leadership behaviors. In-service workshops for all CALS student organizations could be planned to specifically challenge CALS students in such a way that they may increase the level of personal leadership development as well as develop some understand of organizational leadership. By having CALS students participate in such as co mmunity service learning classroom activities faculty can begin enabling CALS student to develop specific leadership comp etencies inside that class that will be transferable to more real world activities. As faculty and staff, continue to infuse this student leadership initiative, a pre-me asure on leadership behavior can be collected to measure CALS student success beginn ing of their freshmen year, and again when they graduate. Using inventories such as the LPI, CALS st udents could benefit by receiving high quality leadership instruction through educational programs and classroom curriculum that has the
154 potential to broaden their leader ship behaviors which also promot es opportunity to increase their personal growth, and enhance their academic career success (Bolt, 1996). Finally, since leadership development is an important component of agricultural education, the findings of this study have re levance to it and other disciplines in which leadership is studied and practiced on a global basis. The findings of this study indicate the CALS students are developing leadership behaviors to become more situational c hange leaders, which is now greater trend for recent college graduates. Employment trends indicate a greater desire for its future employees to come in and create chang e. This element of change is the foundation where leadership and management meet and is transformed into making a new way of conducting business. Undergraduat es, who graduate and have a conceptual understanding of leadership theory, will be more, equipped to ma nage and adapt to the ever changing society. By defining leadership behaviors needed for future leadership positions, leadership educators are more knowledgeable about leadership theory and are able to incorporate it into application. Whereas it is necessa ry to have explanations for factors that influence leadership behaviors, the leadership educat or becomes more in tune with the learner(leader) needs and better equipped to be provide more effective and proficient leadership learning experiences. Recommendations Recommendations for Theory and Future Research Based upon the findings and conclusions of this study, the following suggestions for additional research were m ade: The results of the study indica ted that a large majority of CALS students who actively participated in community service seem to have high scores on the LPI leadership inventory. The researcher suggests that fu rther research should be conducted on the influence of current and previous community se rvice leadership activi ties and participation and its effects over all leadership behavior. Given that leadership develops in a variety of settings, community-based leader ship would appear to be a strong predictor and influence on leadership development.
155 Previous studies by Cress (2001) also indica ted the Hispanic stude nts have indicated higher leadership behavior ra tings. The researcher recomm ends that study be conducted on Hispanic CALS students to ascertain why Hispanic student score higher on the LPI and to indentify the specific leadership be haviors associated with higher scores. Further research is needed to determine a ssociations between lead ership behaviors and CALS student organizational involvement using the LPI. Because leadership development appears to occur in a variety of settings, there might be no one way that leadership is learned (Bennis, 1989; Kouzes & Posner, 2002). The finding of this study provided evidence to show that the stude nt group involvement is an impor tant characteristic of many CALS students. Whereas there is no ev idence of involvement in certain CALS organizations or types of CALS that may or may not have an influence on leadership behavior. Additionally the researcher recomm ends the study to determine if there is an association between specific CALS organizatio ns is specific lead ership behaviors. Being that a large percent of CALS students were in leadership positions in their high school student organizations, furt her research should be conducted to determine if what type of previous leadership positions may have an influence on current leadership behavior. In addition, there is a need to indentify whic h high school extracurricular activities may have influence on leader ship behavior of CALS students. Although, the results indicated that involve with student organizations were not statistically significant, previous literature has indicated student or ganization involvement may have influence on leadership behavior. The researcher recommends examine which student organization may influence leadership development and identify mechanisms for organizational effects. It also suggested by the research er to explore the leadership behaviors of graduate students in colleges of agricultural and life scien ces. Similarly to the undergraduate population there may be a void in leadership developmen t on the graduate level. This researcher suggests that the graduate stude nt population should be studie d to see what influence their leadership behavior and if th ere are differences between undergraduate and graduate CALS students. Recommendations for Practitioners Having thes e necessary leadership skills is esse ntial for new graduates as they prepare to work in global society. The researcher reco mmends an introductory lead Agricultural leadership course. As agricultural leaders, it is important to be proactive in developing leadership curriculum to addre ss change. While it is unlikely to create a uniform method of leadership development, the researcher acknowledges th at there are many methods in teaching leadership skills and competencies. It is recommended that leadership curriculum is incorporated into student development activ ities within the college. For an example as a part of an introductory cour se, all CALS students would pa rticipate in some type of organized community service activity as well as have some developmental workshop on goal setting and developing a vision statement. Th e researcher suggests th at these activities will further enhance and provide a foundation for further leadership development.
156 Being that a large percentage of CALS are i nvolved in student orga nizations within the college and the university. The researcher recommends that leadership trainings are required for all CALS student organizations to participate in as part of annual college student organization registration process. This leadership training would be view as an enrichment activity to promote more effectiv e leadership behaviors and requirement to apply for university funding and college suppor t. Leadership traini ng sessions would be part of the student organizations complian ce procedures to be active and recognized student organization. It is r ecommended to have these lead ership development activities conducted regularly in order to maximize oppor tunities for serving as many students as possible. In addition, the colle ge should conducted and evaluated surveys to see if students feel they are getting the leadership development that they need to assist their students in developing leadership competencies within thei r organizations. It is necessary to explore the relationship between student involvement in student activities personal characteristics and leadership behaviors. Based on the results of the results and conc lusions of the study, it is recommended that CALS organize a task force to research the leadersh ip development needs of undergraduates and the structure of the leader ship opportunities offere d to students. Across majors it is recommended to explore the types of leadership experien ces which are desired and necessary to meet challenges that em ployers are seeking. The results of the study indicate at CALS students are highly motivated in being involved in activities to development leadership skills a nd practices but not what specif ic leadership behaviors are being practiced. Therefore, havi ng a more education and specif ic leadership skills which are essential CALS can continue to further develop and enhance the leadership behaviors of its students. Thus high achieving and competent leaders. For an example, the researcher suggestions more specialized leadership development on goal setting and creating a vision. The results of the indicate CALS scored lower on this leadership behavior. Moreover in developing strong future leadership, the rese archer suggests using the LPI or other leadership measures to address area where their maybe leadership voids. Limitations As with any scholarly study, lim itations often restrict the ge neralizability of the study. The first lim itation of this study is related to the nature of the institution being studied. This study was conducted at the University of Florida (UF), which is one of the largest and oldest land grant universities in the United States Because this study was conducted at the University of Florida, the results may be used in comparing them only to similar universitie s. The study nevertheless will contribute useful information and recomme ndations for researchers and administrators at large Division I, public land grant institutions.
157 The second limitation of this study deals with the population sampled. Using college students, it was very difficult and time consuming to get a high response rate from the population. The response rate of 33.7% was low; a nd, it presented the pr oblem of non-response bias. Chapter 3 addressed the non-response bi as where the respondents did not answer the survey completely or did not answer it all. As noted earlier, a limitation with the populati on sampled was the inability to have full access of student contact information. The inabilit y to have full access made it difficult to make initial contact and conduct followup contacts with the students. Other variables not included in the study may influence individuals leadership behaviors, including measures of leadership style and leadership skills. The fourth limitation of this st udy is the fact that informati on may or may not be accurate because it is self-reported. The data gained might have been more accurate if the data were gained from observation of CALS students, or reports by peers and faculty, but the researcher assumes the information to be true and accurate. The final limitation of this study is the resear ch instrument. The researcher designed the survey to be as concise as possible, but the requi red time to complete the number of items for the survey may have been excessive for an online survey. Respondents from the pilot study and frequency on the drop in the tota l number of response indicate that the number of questions may have been excessive and should be limited. In rega rds to the survey desig n, the researcher notes the when dealing with student data, it is nece ssary to gather student ID information. This information should be collected to confirm student participation and used to compare respondents and non-respondents.
158 APPENDIX A PRE-NOTICE LETTER October 22, 2008 Dear CALS Student, The purpose of this study is to identify leadership styles and practices of students in the College of Agricultural and L ife Sciences and to determine the factors that influence your leadership development. You have been identified as a st udent leader in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. The information you provide on the survey will be used to establish justif ication for future support of agricult ural leadership education, career development and student development activities in College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. You have been selected to participate in this survey based upon your exemplary leadership in an organization within the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida. Your participation is voluntary; however we sincerely hope that you will help us with this project. We estimate that the survey should ta ke approximately 10 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer any question that you do not wish to answer, and you will not be penalized in any way for not participating in the study. We believe that there are no risks to you from participating in this study, nor is there a monetary incentive. If you have questions about your rights concerning this study, pleas e contact the UFIRB office, P.O. Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611-2250. Since your re sponses will represent student leadership in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida, we urge you to complete the questionnaire and as soon as possibl e. This is a good opportunity for you to help shape leadership opportunities in high schools and at the University of Florida, further demonstrating your leadership concern. Please note that your email address on the ques tionnaire will be used only to check your name off the mailing list when your questionnaire is return ed and will be deleted before data entry. A paper copy of your responses will be printed, wit hout the email address, and the electronic copy will be destroyed. Please be assured that a ll individual responses w ill be kept strictly confidential to the extent provided by law, and we will not release information that could identify individuals who partic ipate in the study. If you have any questions about this research st udy or the survey, please contact me by telephone (352) 392-0502, email (email@example.com), or Dr. Glen Israel by email (firstname.lastname@example.org). Thank you for your help and your leadership in th e College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Sincerely, Bryan Patterson Glen Israel Ed Osborne Doctoral Candidate Professor Professor
159 APPENDIX B E-MAIL CONTACTS MESSAGE TESTING E MAILS Survey contact e-mail Subject: Leadership Survey UPDATED LINK! WIN Tickets! (Please complete the survey) Thank you very much for beginning the CALS Leadersh ip survey. In an effort to better serve the students of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences we need your full input. Please take a few moments to complete the survey at the link below. You completed survey will register you for 2 random drawings for complimentary tickets to the UF vs. UGA football game in Jacksonville, FL on Oct 27, 2007 and Homecoming on Nov.3 UF vs. Vanderbilt. The raffle for UF vs. UGA ticke ts will be held on Wednesday, Oct. 24, 2007. So please take a few moments to complete the survey. https://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx Thank you again. Go Gators.
160 Text for Followup EmailWi n Tickets for Homecoming: Subject: Reminder: We Still would like get your feedback !! Leadership Survey WIN HOMECOMING Tickets! ) Make sure you are registered!!! Dear CALS Student, Thank you for logging in and beginning the leadersh ip survey. If you have completed the survey please disregard. Although we've already heard back from 878 of your peers, we'd like to know what YOU think about the issue of leadership and your previous leadership experiences! This is a topic that bridges all College of Agricultural and Life Sciences students, which is why we'd still like to hear from you. We have a less th an 2 weeks and we really need your input. Please take a few moments to log back and complete the survey at the link below; the process should only take less than 10 minutes. We ask you to complete the entire 38 question survey for an accurate response. You will be asked to input your UF gator link email address for verification purposes. As an incentive for your participation on this survey, we will conduct random drawings for complimentary tickets Homecoming on Nov.3 UF vs. Vanderbilt. Thanks for your participation! https://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx Please note: If you do not wish to receive further em ails from us, please click the link below, and you will be automatically removed from our mailing list. https://www.surveymonkey.com/optout.aspx
161 Text for follow up email Subject Last Notice for CALS Leadership Sur vey: We need your input. Dear CALS Student, Thank you for logging in and completing the CALS Leadership survey. If you have completed the survey please disregard. Student Leadership is a topic that bridges all College of Agricultu ral and Life Sciences students, which is why we'd still like to hear from you. This will be the last notice I will send you to please co mplete the UF Leadership survey. Currently, One thousand and twenty-one ( 1,021) students have responded to this survey, but it is still incomplete wit hout your response. The survey will be closed in one week as I need to report the results to the Deans Office, so please be sure to fill it out before this Friday,(Nov.9th). Please take a few moments to log back and complete the survey at the link below; the process should only take less than 10 minutes. We ask you to complete the entire 38 question survey for an accurate response. You will be asked to input your UF gator link email address for verification purposes. Thanks for your participation! http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=yweth6pahLXsaiNBue_2f7zA_3d_3d Please note: If you do not wish to receive further emails from us, please click the link below, and you will be automatically removed from our mailing list. http://www.surveymonkey.com/optout.a spx? sm=yweth6pahLXsaiNBue_2f7zA_3d_3d Bryan Patterson PhD Candidate email@example.com
162 APPENDIX C INSTRUMENT
173 APPENDIX D CORRELATIONS OF INDEPENTEN T AND DEPENDE NT VARIABLES
174 Table D-1. Pearson Product Moment Correlati ons of Independent and Dependent Variable s with Personal Characteristics Variables Leadership AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST PRIOR OFFICER Pearson Correlation 0.1813 0.157997 -0.01274 -0.00129 0.038817 0.05120 -0.08215 0.08462 -0.01767 Sig. (2-tailed) -6.3609 -4.447 0.69271 0.967975 0.228557 0.11213 0.010718 0.00715 0.57435 N 1011 1011 964 964 964 964 964 1009 1013 LEADERSHIP COURSE Pearson Correlation -0.15505 0.117502 0.01585 0.00396 0.020854 0.04505 -0.06988 0.01817 0.02661 Sig. (2-tailed) 7.56E-07 0.000185 0.62337 0.902385 0.518262 0.16263 0.030214 0.56484 0.39818 N 1008 1008 962 962 962 962 962 1006 1010 HS COMMUNITY SERVICE Pearson Correlation 0.23696 0.080363 0.02603 0.023165 -0.02449 0.01231 -0.02932 -0.0751 -0.06191 Sig. (2-tailed) 2.2E-14 0.010543 0.41927 0.472287 0.447284 0.70242 0.362931 0.01698 0.04873 N 1012 1012 965 965 965 965 965 1010 1014 HS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Pearson Correlation -0.20432 -0.16743 -0.0217 -0.03596 -0.01 0.01438 0.045533 -0.03077 -0.0354 Sig. (2-tailed) 1.74E-10 1.86E-07 0.51227 0.27752 0.762621 0.66402 0.169011 0.34173 0.27316 N 958 958 914 914 914 914 914 957 960 CURRENT COMMUNITY SERVICE Pearson Correlation -0.03573 0.113426 -0.00558 0.000627 0.023231 -0.00455 -0.0137 0.00998 -0.01458 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.26253 0.000361 0.86437 0.984699 0.477078 0.88917 0.675067 0.75444 0.64741 N 985 985 939 939 939 939 939 984 987 SERVICE PARTICIPATION Pearson Correlation -0.11301 -0.17025 -0.04098 -0.04224 -0.0013 -0.04475 0.114505 0.04827 0.01119 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00287 6.48E-06 0.29099 0.276389 0.973231 0.24875 0.003084 0.20436 0.76808 N 694 694 666 666 666 666 666 693 696
175 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST YEAR IN COLLEGE Pearson Correlation 0.76952 0.030394 0.012199 0.020715 -0.01971 -0.00601 -0.00949 0.003532 -0.03092 Sig. (2-tailed) 2.3E-197 0.336 0.706093 0.52192 0.542333 0.852725 0.76922 0.911077 0.327289 N 1004 1004 958 958 958 958 958 1002 1006 ENROLL Pearson Correlation 0.51796 0.108858 0.064007 0.051592 -0.03584 0.036046 -0.08794 -0.05446 -0.075 Sig. (2-tailed) 8.03E-71 0.000509 0.046378 0.108495 0.265024 0.262292 0.006158 0.083056 0.01669 N 1016 1016 969 969 969 969 969 1014 1018 UFGPA Pearson Correlation 0.25191 0.08489 -0.18515 -0.19064 0.05966 0.037616 0.199968 0.05757 -0.09767 Sig. (2-tailed) 6.12E-16 0.007232 8.2E-09 2.88E-09 0.065342 0.2455 4.53E-10 0.069075 0.001967 N 1000 1000 955 955 955 955 955 998 1002 AGE Pearson Correlation 1 0.152826 0.030892 0.037866 -0.01334 0.006847 -0.05376 0.006839 -0.08964 Sig. (2-tailed) 9.64E-07 0.336246 0.238465 0.678083 0.831256 0.094104 0.827636 0.004167 N 1020 1018 971 971 971 971 971 1016 1020 GENDER Pearson Correlation 0.15282 1 -0.00969 -0.00696 0.029044 -0.00146 -0.01028 0.015721 0.008832 Sig. (2-tailed) 9.64E-07 0.76298 0.828579 0.365965 0.963861 0.748945 0.616712 0.778143 N 1018 1020 971 971 971 971 971 1016 1020 MARITAL Status Pearson Correlation 0.26791 0.09012 0.040249 0.039738 -0.01325 0.008652 -0.05865 -0.06613 -0.03614 Sig. (2-tailed) 3.81E-18 0.00406 0.210879 0.216734 0.680485 0.788044 0.06817 0.035334 0.249572 N 1015 1015 968 968 968 968 968 1013 1017
176 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST ETHNIC Pearson Correlation 0.03089 -0.00969 1 0.8 97403 -0.69515 -0.28531 -0.48043 -0.14781 0.023424 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.33624 0.76298 0 1.2E-142 7.54E-20 7.59E-58 3.82E-06 0.465499 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 WHITE Pearson Correlation 0.03786 -0.00696 0.8974 03 1 -0.42959 -0.5827 -0.53818 -0.18566 0.062472 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.23846 0.828579 0 2.27E-45 2.32E-90 7.91E-75 5.79E-09 0.051404 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 OTHER Pearson Correlation -0.01334 0.029044 -0.695 15 -0.42959 1 -0.08827 -0.08153 0.008466 0.040981 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.67808 0.365965 1.2E-142 2.27E-45 0.005641 0.010596 0.792396 0.201524 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 HISPANIC Pearson Correlation 0.00684 -0.00146 -0. 28531 -0.5827 -0.08827 1 -0.11058 0.139829 -0.06946 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.83125 0.963861 7.54E-20 2.32E-90 0.005641 0.000518 1.25E-05 0.030278 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 BLACK Pearson Correlation -0.05376 -0.01028 -0.480 43 -0.53818 -0.08153 -0.11058 1 0.121507 -0.05073 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.09410 0.748945 7.59E-58 7.91E-75 0.010596 0.000518 0.00015 0.113778 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 LEADERSHIP TRAINING Pearson Correlation 0.01651 0.035625 0.012949 0.031882 0.02538 -0.03372 -0.03114 0.006562 0.026585 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.59930 0.257049 0.687097 0.321226 0.429779 0.294156 0.332664 0.834838 0.397282 N 1014 1014 970 970 970 970 970 1012 1016 FACTOM Pearson Correlation 0.00155 -0.1057 -0.0587 -0.05369 0.014844 0.073311 -0.00901 0.013559 -0.01552 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.96040 0.000731 0.067233 0.094165 0.643754 0.0222 0.779032 0.665968 0.620488
177 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 PRIORLEV Pearson Correlation 0.02129 0.008752 0.040819 0.043207 -0.01374 -0.02242 -0.02954 -0.02663 0.004798 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.55597 0.808659 0.269726 0.242675 0.710442 0.544458 0.424595 0.461386 0.89432 N 767 768 733 733 733 733 733 767 769 PRIOROFF Pearson Correlation -0.05922 -0.13466 0.044496 0.0516 05 -0.02273 -0.07363 0.011823 -0.05955 -0.00308 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.141399 0.000775 0.279752 0.209924 0.580928 0.073416 0.774058 0.139225 0.939037 N 618 620 592 592 592 592 592 618 620 UFYEAR Pearson Correlation -0.06712 -0.09329 -0.03757 -0.068 41 0.009682 0.065481 0.023139 -0.00221 0.08833 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.163715 0.052957 0.446975 0.165735 0.844666 0.184672 0.639562 0.963499 0.066314 N 432 431 412 412 412 412 412 431 433 UFLEVEL Pearson Correlation -0.08989 -0.11117 -0.06587 -0.10472 0.001503 0.093784 0.050934 0.018799 0.106548 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.084658 0.033006 0.216324 0.048977 0.977522 0.078039 0.339301 0.719274 0.040522 N 369 368 354 354 354 354 354 368 370 UFLEADER Pearson Correlation -0.0739 -0.08208 -0.05683 -0.085 72 -0.05613 0.088185 0.063016 0.010046 0.064398 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.1721 0.12979 0.305544 0.121848 0.311552 0.111462 0.255832 0.853139 0.233541 N 343 342 327 327 327 327 327 342 344 UFORG Pearson Correlation -0.0467 -0.10082 -0.03689 -0.066 98 -0.02265 0.089968 0.016083 0.012595 0.047432 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.307248 0.027351 0.432964 0.154177 0.630257 0.05542 0.732528 0.783364 0.299205 N 480 479 454 454 454 454 454 479 481 CALSLEAD Pearson Correlation 0.049095 0.00381 0.048543 0.070318 -0.00849 -0.04611 -0.05342 -0.13116 0.054479 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.313189 0.937582 0.324482 0.153234 0.863224 0.34932 0.278203 0.006973 0.262438 N 424 425 414 414 414 414 414 422 425 CALSMEM Pearson Correlation 0.044215 0.00965 0.061557 0.096261 -0.00273 -0.06692 -0.07532 -0.13093 0.075547 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.410928 0.857434 0.255551 0.07501 0.959758 0.216388 0.163999 0.014803 0.159048 N 348 349 343 343 343 343 343 346 349
178 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST CALSYEAR Pearson Correlation 0.051606 0.01748 0.047973 0.07383 -0.01456 -0.04858 -0.05183 -0.12072 0.045966 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.291935 0.720943 0.331966 0.13511 0.768517 0.325896 0.29453 0.013629 0.347363 N 419 420 411 411 411 411 411 417 420 HIGHSCH Pearson Correlation -0.08079 0.033373 0.006672 0.0237 44 0.07619 -0.02029 -0.07276 -0.11885 -0.00165 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.013321 0.307246 0.842098 0.478297 0.022715 0.544664 0.029606 0.000268 0.959786 N 938 938 894 894 894 894 894 936 940 HAD A ROLE MODEL Pearson Correlation -0.0983 -0.01657 -0.01728 -0.035 16 -0.0147 0.042415 0.018379 -0.02338 0.116291 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.001762 0.598983 0.592333 0.275659 0.648723 0.188468 0.568917 0.458434 0.000209 N 1010 1010 963 963 963 963 963 1008 1012 OFFICER IN COLLEGE Pearson Correlation 0.203125 0.020227 -0.05993 -0.07908 0.015456 0.041451 0.062154 -0.09665 -0.02903 Sig. (2-tailed) 6.65E-11 0.519977 0.062089 0.013758 0.630663 0.197091 0.052971 0.002085 0.355273 N 1014 1014 970 970 970 970 970 1012 1016 FACT1M Pearson Correlation 0.015356 -0.11 -0.03183 -0.01223 0.025215 0.039361 -0.04297 0.012493 0.000518 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.624584 0.000438 0.321238 0.703253 0.432082 0.219942 0.180506 0.690815 0.986829 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 FACT2M Pearson Correlation -0.01977 -0.06272 -0.0717 -0.073 06 0.008255 0.090744 0.006543 0.003787 -0.03577 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.528594 0.045446 0.025319 0.022654 0.79704 0.004614 0.838493 0.904027 0.253659 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 FACT3M Pearson Correlation 0.019124 -0.04735 -0.02026 -0.011 7 0.004068 0.056669 -0.04578 0.000376 -0.02333 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.542209 0.13109 0.527891 0.715399 0.89916 0.07726 0.153587 0.990461 0.456671 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 FACT4M Pearson Correlation 0.017121 -0.14429 -0.07112 -0.07742 0.018974 0.060576 0.036793 0.055709 -0.00471 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.585316 3.8E-06 0.026533 0.015708 0.554423 0.05891 0.251554 0.075915 0.880607 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020
179 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST FACT5M Pearson Correlation -0.01695 -0.12818 -0.07076 -0.06993 0.013195 0.07823 0.011325 0.000162 0.000711 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.589153 4.1E-05 0.027298 0.029164 0.681016 0.014654 0.724234 0.995875 0.981904 N 10181018973 97397397397310161020GREW Pearson Correlation 0.006839 0.015721 -0.14781 -0.18566 0.008466 0.139829 0.121507 1 0.012293 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.82763 0.616712 3.82E-06 5.79E-09 0.792396 1.25E-05 0.00015 0.69524 N 1016 1016 969 969 969 969 969 1018 1018 FAMILY Env. Pearson Correlation 0.04286 0.03548 -0.04509 -0.06039 0.000847 0.04296 0.043836 0.01317 -0.18118 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.17137 0.257593 0.15987 0.059701 0.978949 0.18057 0.171857 0.674686 5.43E-09 N 1020 1020 973 973 973 973 973 1018 1022 FIRST GEN Pearson Correlation -0.08964 0.008832 0.02342 0.062472 0.040981 -0.06946 -0.05073 0.012293 1 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00416 0.778143 0.46549 0.051404 0.201524 0.03027 0.113778 0.695242 N 1020 1020 973 973 973 973 973 1018 1022 HSLEAD Pearson Correlation -0.089 -0.03115 -0.00439 -0 .01448 0.011259 0.02917 -0.01737 -0.12961 0.00396 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00579 0.334973 0.89457 0.661849 0.733771 0.37810 0.59967 5.73E-05 0.90227 N 960 960 915 915 915 915 915 958 962 YEARLEAD Pearson Correlation -0.09958 -0.0723 0.04318 0.057836 -0.03218 -0.04962 -0.01061 -0.16038 0.02006 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00443 0.038936 0.22801 0.106294 0.369059 0.16594 0.767122 4.2E-06 0.56688 N 815 816 781 781 781 781 781 815 817 HSAGED Pearson Correlation 0.02288 -0.05413 -0.08901 -0.11752 -0.01023 0.06254 0.116199 0.28982 0.06972 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.46807 0.085875 0.00570 0.000257 0.751183 0.05236 0.000302 6.4E-21 0.02671 N 1008 1008 963 963 963 963 963 1006 1010 LEADMINOR Pearson Correlation 0.00213 0.084955 0.01068 0.028324 0.057724 -0.01734 -0.06805 -0.00874 0.05762 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.94574 0.006712 0.73945 0.377969 0.072193 0.58934 0.033985 0.78102 0.06595 N 1017 1017 971 971 971 971 971 1015 1019
180 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST PRIOR OFFICERPOS. Pearson Correlation 0.181337 0.157997 -0.01274 -0.00129 0.038817 0.051201 -0.08215 0.084629 -0.01767 Sig. (2-tailed) 6.36E-09 4.44E-07 0.692711 0.967975 0.228557 0.112131 0.010718 0.007151 0.574358 N 1011 1011 964 964 964 964 964 1009 1013 LEADERSHIP COURSE Pearson Correlation -0.15505 0.117502 0.015852 0.00396 0.020854 0.045054 -0.06988 0.018171 0.026613 Sig. (2-tailed) 7.56E-07 0.000185 0.623374 0.902385 0.518262 0.16263 0.030214 0.564846 0.398185 N 1008 1008 962 962 962 962 962 1006 1010 HS COMMUNITY SERVICE Pearson Correlation 0.236967 0.080363 0.02603 0.023165 -0.02449 0.012314 -0.02932 -0.0751 -0.06191 Sig. (2-tailed) 2.2E-14 0.010543 0.419272 0.472287 0.447284 0.702426 0.362931 0.016988 0.048731 N 1012 1012 965 965 965 965 965 1010 1014 HS COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Pearson Correlation -0.20432 -0.16743 -0.0217 -0.035 96 -0.01 0.014386 0.045533 -0.03077 -0.0354 Sig. (2-tailed) 1.74E-10 1.86E-07 0.512276 0.27752 0.762621 0.664027 0.169011 0.341731 0.273162 N 958 958 914 914 914 914 914 957 960 CURRPAR Pearson Correlation -0.03573 0.113426 -0.00558 0.0006 27 0.023231 -0.00455 -0.0137 0.009984 -0.01458 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.262536 0.000361 0.86437 0.984699 0.477078 0.889173 0.675067 0.754445 0.64741 N 985 985 939 939 939 939 939 984 987 CURRPART Pearson Correlation -0.11301 -0.17025 -0.04098 -0.042 24 -0.0013 -0.04475 0.114505 0.048272 0.011197 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.002871 6.48E-06 0.290995 0.276389 0.973231 0.248755 0.003084 0.204369 0.76808 N 694 694 666 666 666 666 666 693 696 YEAR IN COLLEGE Pearson Correlation 0.769524 0.030394 0.012199 0.020715 -0.01971 -0.00601 -0.00949 0.003532 -0.03092 Sig. (2-tailed) 2.3E-197 0.336 0.706093 0.52192 0.542333 0.852725 0.76922 0.911077 0.327289 N 1004 1004 958 958 958 958 958 1002 1006 ENROLLUF Pearson Correlation 0.517962 0.108858 0.064007 0.051592 -0.03584 0.036046 -0.08794 -0.05446 -0.075 Sig. (2-tailed) 8.03E-71 0.000509 0.046378 0.108495 0.265024 0.262292 0.006158 0.083056 0.01669
181 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST N 1016 1016 969 969 969 969 969 1014 1018 UFGPA Pearson Correlation 0.251911 0.08489 -0.18515 -0.19064 0.05966 0.037616 0.199968 0.05757 -0.09767 Sig. (2-tailed) 6.12E-16 0.007232 8.2E-09 2.88E-09 0.065342 0.2455 4.53E-10 0.069075 0.001967 N 1000 1000 955 955 955 955 955 998 1002 AGE Pearson Correlation 0.152826 0.030892 0.037866 -0.01334 0.006847 -0.05376 0.006839 -0.08964 Sig. (2-tailed) 9.64E-07 0.336246 0.238465 0.678083 0.831256 0.094104 0.827636 0.004167 N 1020 1018 971 971 971 971 971 1016 1020 GENDER Pearson Correlation 0.152826 1 -0.00969 -0.00696 0.029044 -0.00146 -0.01028 0.015721 0.008832 Sig. (2-tailed) 9.64E-07 0.76298 0.828579 0.365965 0.963861 0.748945 0.616712 0.778143 N 1018 1020 971 971 971 971 971 1016 1020 MARITAL Pearson Correlation 0.267914 0.09012 0.040249 0.039738 -0.01325 0.008652 -0.05865 -0.06613 -0.03614 Sig. (2-tailed) 3.81E-18 0.00406 0.210879 0.216734 0.680485 0.788044 0.06817 0.035334 0.249572 N 1015 1015 968 968 968 968 968 1013 1017 ETHNIC Pearson Correlation 0.030892 -0.00969 1 0.897403 -0 .69515 -0.28531 -0.48043 -0.14781 0.023424 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.336246 0.76298 0 1.2E-142 7.54E-20 7.59E-58 3.82E-06 0.465499 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 WHITE Pearson Correlation 0.037866 -0.00696 0.897403 1 -0 .42959 -0.5827 -0.53818 -0.18566 0.062472 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.238465 0.828579 0 2.27E-45 2.32E-90 7.91E-75 5.79E-09 0.051404 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 Other Pearson Correlation -0.01334 0.029044 -0.69515 -0. 42959 1 -0.08827 -0.08153 0.008466 0.040981 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.678083 0.365965 1.2E-142 2.27E-45 0.005641 0.010596 0.792396 0.201524 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 Hispanic Pearson Correlation 0.006847 -0.00146 -0.28531 -0. 5827 -0.08827 1 -0.11058 0.139829 -0.06946 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.831256 0.963861 7.54E-20 2.32E-90 0.005641 0.000518 1.25E-05 0.030278 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973
182 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST Black Sig. (2-tailed) 0.094104 0.748945 7.59E-58 7.91E-75 0.010596 0.000518 0.00015 0.113778 N 971 971 982 982 982 982 982 969 973 LEADTRAIN Pearson Correlation 0.016519 0.035625 0.012949 0.031882 0.02538 -0.03372 -0.03114 0.006562 0.026585 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.599305 0.257049 0.687097 0.321226 0.429779 0.294156 0.332664 0.834838 0.397282 N 1014 1014 970 970 970 970 970 1012 1016 FACTOM Pearson Correlation 0.001558 -0.1057 -0.0587 -0.053 69 0.014844 0.073311 -0.00901 0.013559 -0.01552 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.960401 0.000731 0.067233 0.094165 0.643754 0.0222 0.779032 0.665968 0.620488 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 PRIORLEV Pearson Correlation 0.021294 0.008752 0.040819 0.043207 -0.01374 -0.02242 -0.02954 -0.02663 0.004798 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.555976 0.808659 0.269726 0.242675 0.710442 0.544458 0.424595 0.461386 0.89432 N 767 768 733 733 733 733 733 767 769 PRIOROFF Pearson Correlation -0.05922 -0.13466 0.044496 0.0516 05 -0.02273 -0.07363 0.011823 -0.05955 -0.00308 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.141399 0.000775 0.279752 0.209924 0.580928 0.073416 0.774058 0.139225 0.939037 N 618 620 592 592 592 592 592 618 620 UFYEAR Pearson Correlation -0.06712 -0.09329 -0.03757 -0.068 41 0.009682 0.065481 0.023139 -0.00221 0.08833 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.163715 0.052957 0.446975 0.165735 0.844666 0.184672 0.639562 0.963499 0.066314 N 432 431 412 412 412 412 412 431 433 UFLEVEL Pearson Correlation -0.08989 -0.11117 -0.06587 -0.10472 0.001503 0.093784 0.050934 0.018799 0.106548 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.084658 0.033006 0.216324 0.048977 0.977522 0.078039 0.339301 0.719274 0.040522 N 369 368 354 354 354 354 354 368 370 UFLEADER Pearson Correlation -0.0739 -0.08208 -0.05683 -0.085 72 -0.05613 0.088185 0.063016 0.010046 0.064398 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.1721 0.12979 0.305544 0.121848 0.311552 0.111462 0.255832 0.853139 0.233541 N 343 342 327 327 327 327 327 342 344 UFORG Pearson Correlation -0.0467 -0.10082 -0.03689 -0.066 98 -0.02265 0.089968 0.016083 0.012595 0.047432 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.307248 0.027351 0.432964 0.154177 0.630257 0.05542 0.732528 0.783364 0.299205 N 480 479 454 454 454 454 454 479 481
183 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST CALSLEAD Pearson Correlation 0.049095 0.00381 0.048543 0.070318 -0.00849 -0.04611 -0.05342 -0.13116 0.054479 Sig. (2tailed) 0.313189 0.937582 0.324482 0.153234 0.863224 0.34932 0.278203 0.006973 0.262438 N 424 425 414 414 414 414 414 422 425 CALSMEM Pearson Correlation 0.044215 0.00965 0.061557 0.096261 -0.00273 -0.06692 -0.07532 -0.13093 0.075547 Sig. (2tailed) 0.410928 0.857434 0.255551 0.07501 0.959758 0.216388 0.163999 0.014803 0.159048 N 348 349 343 343 343 343 343 346 349 CALSYEA R Pearson Correlation 0.051606 0.01748 0.047973 0.07383 -0.01456 -0.04858 -0.05183 -0.12072 0.045966 Sig. (2tailed) 0.291935 0.720943 0.331966 0.13511 0.768517 0.325896 0.29453 0.013629 0.347363 N 419 420 411 411 411 411 411 417 420 High school activities Pearson Correlation -0.08079 0.033373 0.006672 0.0237 44 0.07619 -0.02029 -0.07276 -0.11885 -0.00165 Sig. (2tailed) 0.013321 0.307246 0.842098 0.478297 0.022715 0.544664 0.029606 0.000268 0.959786 N 938 938 894 894 894 894 894 936 940 HAD A ROLE MODEL Pearson Correlation -0.0983 -0.01657 -0.01728 -0.035 16 -0.0147 0.042415 0.018379 -0.02338 0.116291 Sig. (2tailed) 0.001762 0.598983 0.592333 0.275659 0.648723 0.188468 0.568917 0.458434 0.000209 N 1010 1010 963 963 963 963 963 1008 1012 Office in College Pearson Correlation 0.203125 0.020227 -0.05993 -0.07908 0.015456 0.041451 0.062154 -0.09665 -0.02903 Sig. (2tailed) 6.65E-11 0.519977 0.062089 0.013758 0.630663 0.197091 0.052971 0.002085 0.355273 N 1014 1014 970 970 970 970 970 1012 1016 FACT1M Pearson Correlation 0.015356 -0.11 -0.03183 -0.01223 0.025215 0.039361 -0.04297 0.012493 0.000518 Sig. (2tailed) 0.624584 0.000438 0.321238 0.703253 0.432082 0.219942 0.180506 0.690815 0.986829 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020
184 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST FACT2M Pearson Correlation -0.01977 -0.06272 -0.0717 -0.073 06 0.008255 0.090744 0.006543 0.003787 -0.03577 Sig. (2tailed) 0.528594 0.045446 0.025319 0.022654 0.79704 0.004614 0.838493 0.904027 0.253659 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 Table D-1 Continued. FACT3M Pearson Correlation 0.019124 -0.04735 -0.02026 -0.011 7 0.004068 0.056669 -0.04578 0.000376 -0.02333 Sig. (2tailed) 0.542209 0.13109 0.527891 0.715399 0.89916 0.07726 0.153587 0.990461 0.456671 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 FACT4M Pearson Correlation 0.017121 -0.14429 -0.07112 -0.07742 0.018974 0.060576 0.036793 0.055709 -0.00471 Sig. (2tailed) 0.585316 3.8E-06 0.026533 0.015708 0.554423 0.05891 0.251554 0.075915 0.880607 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 FACT5M Pearson Correlation -0.01695 -0.12818 -0.07076 -0.06993 0.013195 0.07823 0.011325 0.000162 0.000711 Sig. (2tailed) 0.589153 4.1E-05 0.027298 0.029164 0.681016 0.014654 0.724234 0.995875 0.981904 N 1018 1018 973 973 973 973 973 1016 1020 GREW Pearson Correlation 0.006839 0.015721 -0.14781 -0.18566 0.008466 0.139829 0.121507 1 0.012293 Sig. (2tailed) 0.827636 0.616712 3.82E-06 5.79E-09 0.792396 1.25E-05 0.00015 0.695242 N 1016 1016 969 969 969 969 969 1018 1018 FAMILY Pearson Correlation 0.042861 0.03548 -0.04509 -0.06039 0.000847 0.042962 0.043836 0.013171 -0.18118 Sig. (2tailed) 0.171373 0.257593 0.159878 0.059701 0.978949 0.180571 0.171857 0.674686 5.43E-09 N 1020 1020 973 973 973 973 973 1018 1022
185 Table D-1 Continued. AGE GENDER ETHNIC WHITE Other Hispanic Black GREW FIRST FIRST Pearson Correlation -0.08964 0.008832 0.023424 0.062472 0.040981 -0.06946 -0.05073 0.012293 1 Sig. (2tailed) 0.004167 0.778143 0.465499 0.051404 0.201524 0.030278 0.113778 0.695242 N 1020 1020 973 973 973 973 973 1018 1022 HSLEAD Pearson Correlation -0.089 -0.03115 -0.00439 -0.01448 0.011259 0.029172 -0.01737 -0.12961 0.003964 Sig. (2tailed) 0.00579 0.334973 0.894574 0.661849 0.733771 0.378101 0.59967 5.73E-05 0.902276 N 960 960 915 915 915 915 915 958 962 YEARLEAD Pearson Correlation -0.09958 -0.0723 0.043185 0.0578 36 -0.03218 -0.04962 -0.01061 -0.16038 0.020063 Sig. (2tailed) 0.004434 0.038936 0.228014 0.106294 0.369059 0.165941 0.767122 4.2E-06 0.566885 N 815 816 781 781 781 781 781 815 817 HSAGED Pearson Correlation 0.02288 -0.05413 -0.08901 -0.11752 -0.01023 0.062541 0.116199 0.289825 0.06972 Sig. (2tailed) 0.468079 0.085875 0.005708 0.000257 0.751183 0.05236 0.000302 6.4E-21 0.026713 N 1008 1008 963 963 963 963 963 1006 1010 LEADMINOR Pearson Correlation 0.002137 0.084955 0.010686 0.028324 0.057724 -0.01734 -0.06805 -0.00874 0.057625 Sig. (2tailed) 0.945743 0.006712 0.739456 0.377969 0.072193 0.589344 0.033985 0.781022 0.06595 N 1017 1017 971 971 971 971 971 1015 1019
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195 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bryan Patterson is a native of Lynchburg Virginia Bryan has been at UF for the past nine years. He began career as an assistan t director in career services at the Car eer Resource Center at UF where he was a career liaison to the athlet ic program. Bryan has served as the Career Counselor and CHAMPS/ Life Skills Coordinator for the University of Florid a. In this position, he provided student-athletes care er counseling and advising. He also serves as a mentor and manages all of the community service outreach. He coordinates the five developmental area of the NCAA CHAMPS/Life Skills program and co-facilitates three undergraduate courses through the college of education that are geared career and personal development. Additionally, he also advised the UFs Student Athlete Advisory Committee and serves as an advisor to other student groups on campus. Bryan has served as a NCAA CHAMPS/Life Skills orientation team leader and servers a volunteer mentor to new Life Skills coordinators. Prior to working at UF, Bryan worked at James Madison University where he worked in career development and student activities. Patterson received his underg raduate degree in psychology and masters degree in education from James Madison University. Curre ntly, he is completing his doctoral degree in Agricultural Educational Leadersh ip and Communication from the Un iversity of Florida. As of August 2008, Bryan will assume a teaching positi on at the University of Tennessee as an Assistant Professor of Agricultural L eadership Education and Communications.