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Characterization of Lightning Using Optical Techniques

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022004/00001

Material Information

Title: Characterization of Lightning Using Optical Techniques
Physical Description: 1 online resource (237 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Electrical and Computer Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Electrical and Computer Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: We analyzed optical (photodiode array) records for 31 lightning flashes obtained at Camp Blanding, Florida, in summer 2005. Of these 31 flashes, 8 (containing 11 strokes) were triggered-lightning flashes and the remaining 23 were natural lightning flashes. The overall return-stroke speeds and return-stroke speed profiles as a function of height were obtained for triggered lightning strokes. The slope-intercept point and the 20% of peak point were used as reference points in estimating return-stroke speeds. Based on higher resolution LeCroy data, the triggered-lightning return-stroke speeds are found to vary between 1.4^8 x 10^8 m/s and 1.59 x 10^8 m/s. The average return-stroke optical risetimes for 11 triggered-lightning events were found to be 0.81 ?s and 2.83 ?s at the bottom and top of the lightning channel, respectively. Leader speeds for 5 triggered-lightning strokes have been estimated. The leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 10^7 m/s and 2.5 x 10^7 m/s. All 23 natural lightning records acquired in 2005 at Camp Blanding using photodiodes viewing various heights are presented and characterized. An image converter camera was used at the University of Florida to obtain optical images of natural lightning processes in summer 2006. Only limited analysis of these images was possible due to lack of resolution. In order to improve the performance characteristics of the image converter camera, a new triggering circuit for this camera was designed, built, and successfully tested.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Rakov, Vladimir A.
Local: Co-adviser: Uman, Martin A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022004:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022004/00001

Material Information

Title: Characterization of Lightning Using Optical Techniques
Physical Description: 1 online resource (237 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Electrical and Computer Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Electrical and Computer Engineering thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: We analyzed optical (photodiode array) records for 31 lightning flashes obtained at Camp Blanding, Florida, in summer 2005. Of these 31 flashes, 8 (containing 11 strokes) were triggered-lightning flashes and the remaining 23 were natural lightning flashes. The overall return-stroke speeds and return-stroke speed profiles as a function of height were obtained for triggered lightning strokes. The slope-intercept point and the 20% of peak point were used as reference points in estimating return-stroke speeds. Based on higher resolution LeCroy data, the triggered-lightning return-stroke speeds are found to vary between 1.4^8 x 10^8 m/s and 1.59 x 10^8 m/s. The average return-stroke optical risetimes for 11 triggered-lightning events were found to be 0.81 ?s and 2.83 ?s at the bottom and top of the lightning channel, respectively. Leader speeds for 5 triggered-lightning strokes have been estimated. The leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 10^7 m/s and 2.5 x 10^7 m/s. All 23 natural lightning records acquired in 2005 at Camp Blanding using photodiodes viewing various heights are presented and characterized. An image converter camera was used at the University of Florida to obtain optical images of natural lightning processes in summer 2006. Only limited analysis of these images was possible due to lack of resolution. In order to improve the performance characteristics of the image converter camera, a new triggering circuit for this camera was designed, built, and successfully tested.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Rakov, Vladimir A.
Local: Co-adviser: Uman, Martin A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0022004:00001


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a1a01fe2bc6b96c3095b48139623d6f71709b99a







CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTNING USING OPTICAL TECHNIQUES


By

SANDIP NALLANI

















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008
































O 2008 Sandip Nallani






























To my parents, to whom I owe everything.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am deeply indebted to Dr. Rakov and Mr. Rob Olsen for their incredible patience and

tireless guidance. Dr. Rakov, is a brilliant scientist and researcher who introduced me to the field

of lightning. I cannot thank Rob Olsen enough for assisting me whenever possible, even on a

couple of weekends, when he had a family and a j ob to attend to. I would also like to thank Dr.

Uman and Dr. Doug Jordan for the brain storming sessions in the lightning lab meetings. I would

also like to thank Amitabh Nag, Jason Jerauld, Jens Schoene, and Dimitris Tsalikis for all those

fun lightning lab moments interspersed with serious technical discussions. Lastly, I would like to

acknowledge my family. Without them, graduate school would have been a mere fantasy dream.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............8............ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............14....


AB S TRAC T ......_ ................. ............_........2


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............25.......... ......


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............26................


2.2 Natural Lightning ............... ... .... ....... .. ...............26......
2.3 Artificially Initiated (Triggered) Lightning .............. ...............28....
2.4 Optical Studies of Lightning: An Overview ............... .. ........... ..... ........2
2.5 Leader and Return-Stroke Speeds and Light-Pulse Risetimes Obtained from
Optical Observations ............... ... ... ......._ ...............31......
2.6 Correlation Between Current and Light ......._..__ ...................._ ...........3


3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP .............. ...............45....


3.1 International Center of Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) Overview .............45
3.2 Rockets and Launchers ................. .. ...............46..
3.3 The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera............... ...............47.
3.4 The Photodiode Array .................... .. ......... .. .... ...................5
3.5 The Photodiode Experimental Setup used in 2005 and 2006 .............. ...................52
3.6 Modified Return-Stroke Speed Equation ................. ..........._.......54..... ...


4 DATA PRESENTATION .............. ...............67....


4.1 Triggered Lightning Events .............. ...............67....
4.1.1 Event F0501 .............. ...............67....
4. 1.2 Event F0503 .............. ...............68....
4. 1.3 Event F0510 .............. ...............69....
4. 1.4 Event F0512 ............ _...... ._ ...............69.
4. 1.5 Event F0514 .........._.__.......... ...............70.
4. 1.6 Event F0517 ............ _...... ._ ...............70.
4. 1.7 Event F0521 .............. ...............71....
4.2 Natural Lightning Events ............ _...... ._ ...............72...
4.2.1 Event NATO503 .............. ...............72....
4.2.2 Event NATO504 .............. ...............72....
4.2.3 Event NATO506 .............. ...............72....












4.2.4 Event NATO507 .............. ...............73....
4.2.5 Event NATO508 .............. ...............73....
4.2.6 Event NATO509 .............. ...............73....
4.2.7 Event NATOS510 ............. ......___ ...............74..
4.2.8 Event NATO5 11 .............. ...............74....
4.2.9 Event NATOS512 ............. ......___ ...............74..
4.2. 10 Event NATOS513 ............. ......___ ...............75.
4.2. 11 Event NATOS514 ............. ......___ ...............75.
4.2. 12 Event NATOS515 ............. ......___ ...............75.
4.2. 13 Event NATOS516 ............. ......___ ...............75.
4.2. 14 Event NATOS517 ............. ......___ ...............76.
4.2. 15 Event NATOS518 ........__......... ........._ ....__ ....__ ......76
4.2. 16 Event NATOS519 ............. ......___ ...............76.
4.2. 17 Event NAT0520 ............. ......___ ...............77..
4.2.18 Event NAT0521 .............. ...............77....
4.2. 19 Event NAT0522 ............. ......___ ...............77..
4.2.20 Event NAT0523 .............. ...............77....
4.2.21 Event NAT0524 .............. ...............78....
4.2.22 Event NAT0525 .............. ...............78....
4.2.23 Event NAT0526 .............. ...............78....


5 DATA AN ALY SIS AND RE SULT S .............. ............... 126...


5.1 Methodology ............... ... .... .._ ... ...............126.
5.2 Calibration of the Data Analysis Tools ...._ ......_____ .......___ ..............127
5.3 Filters Used for the Summer 2005 Data Analysis............... ...............12
5.4 Results of the Summer 2005 Data Analysis ......... ................. .........__.. ....12
5.4.1 Event F0501 .............. ...............130....
5.4.2 Event F0503 .............. ...............131....
5.4.3 Event F0510 ................. ...............134....... ....
5.4.4 Event F0512 ................. ...............135..............
5.4.5 Event F0514 ................ ...............135........... ..
5.4.6 Event F0517 ................ ...............136..............
5.4.7 Event F0521 .............. ...............138....

5.5 Summary ................ .. .. ...............139
5.5.1 Return-Stroke Speeds............... ...............139
5.5.2 Leader Speeds .............. ...............141....
5.5.3 Optical Risetimes ................. ...............141....... ....


6 DISCUS SION AND CONCLUSIONS .............. ...............212....


7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .............. ..... ............... 21


APPENDIX


A THE BIFO K004M IMAGES CAPTURED IN SUMMER 2006 IN GAINESVILLE. .......220











B FILTERS USED FOR PROCESSING THE SUMMER 2005 LIGHTNING DATA..........231

LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............235................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............237....










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Overall return stroke speeds for FO336. Adapted from Olsen (2003). ............. ................44

3-1 The ICLRT Summer 2005 avalanche photodiode array angles and viewed heights
along the lightning channel ................. ...............65................

3-2 Interscope delay or "Time Delay Between Scopes" (Ot) between the LeCroy DSOs
estimated using the Summer 2005 calibration data. ........___ ...._.. ........_........66

4-1 Optical Dataset for Natural Lightning, Summer 2005 ........................... ...............124

4-2 Optical Dataset for Triggered Lightning, Summer 2005 .............. ....................12

4-3 Event F0501 and F0503 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights .................. ...............125

4-4 Event F0510, F0512, F0514, F0517, F0520 and F0521 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed
Heights ...............125...........

5-1 Percent error in the RS speeds computed in this thesis relative to those obtained by
Olsen et. al. (2003) ................. ...............186...............

5-2 Overall retumn-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event
F0501, Stroke 1.............. ...............186...

5-3 Return-stroke speed profiles for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data
from two groups of channels ........._. .......___ ...............186..

5-4 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels shown in Table 5-3. ................... ...............18

5-5 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-4.........187

5-6 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data (see also Figure 5-14)............... ...............187.

5-7 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-6.....188

5-8 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, measured using LeCroy
data. ........... ..... .. ...............188..

5-9 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0501,
Stroke 1............................ ........188










5-10 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event
F0503. This event had four return strokes. ............. ...............189....

5-11 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........189

5-12 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ........._._.......___....... ...........8

5-13 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-12....._......190

5-14 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data ................. ...............190....._._. .....

5-15 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-14..............1 90

5-16 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 1. ............. ..................... 19 1

5-17 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........191

5-18 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ........._._.......___....... ...........9

5-19 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-18 .........._......192

5-20 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data ................. ...............192....._._. .....

5-21 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-20..............1 92

5-22 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, measured using LeCroy
data. ........._ ...... .. ...............193...

5-23 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 2. ............. ...............193....

5-24 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........193

5-25 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ........._._.......___....... ...........9










5-26 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-25....._......194

5-27 Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
Y okogawa d ata ................. ................. 194.._._. .....

5-28 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-27..............1 95

5-29 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 3.......... ................ ................... .................. ...............195

5-30 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........195

5-31 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels ........._._......._. ....___ ...........9

5-32 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-31 .........._......196

5-33 The Retumn-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503 Stroke 4, obtained
using Yokogawa data ................. ...............196....._.._ ....

5-34 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-33 .............197

5-35 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 4. ............. ...............197....

5-36 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event
F0510, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels. ............. ................197

5-37 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........198

5-38 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ................ ...............198........... ..

5-39 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-38 ................... 198

5-40 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0510,
Stroke 1. ............. .....................199

5-41 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0512, Stroke 1............................ ........199










5-42 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. ........................... ........199

5-43 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ........._._.......___....... ...........0

5-44 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-43 ............200

5-45 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy
data. .............. ...............200....

5-46 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0512,
Stroke 1. ............. ...............201....

5-47 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0514, Stroke 1. ............. ...............201....

5-48 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. .............. ...............201....

5-49 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels. ........._._.......___....... ...........0

5-50 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in 5-49 ......................202

5-51 The Retumn-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
using Yokogawa data. .............. ...............202....

5-52 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-51............. .203

5-53 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy
data. .............. ...............203....

5-54 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0514,
Stroke 1. ............. ...............203....

5-55 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0517, Stroke 1..................... ...............20

5-56 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. .............. ...............204....

5-57 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two LeCroy channels............... ...............20










5-58 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-57. ............205

5-59 The Retumn-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
using Yokogawa data. .............. ...............205....

5-60 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-59............. .205

5-61 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517,
Stroke 1. ............. ...............206....

5-62 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. .............. ...............206....

5-63 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data
from the two LeCroy channels............... ...............20

5-64 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of speeds shown in Table 5-63 ...................207

5-65 The Retumn-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained
using Yokogawa data. .............. ...............207....

5-66 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found computing the average of speeds shown in 5-65. ......................207

5-67 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy
data. .............. ...............208....

5-68 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517,
Stroke 2. ............. ...............208....

5-69 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0521, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels. ............. ....................20

5-70 Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. .............. ...............209....

5-71 Retumn-stroke speed profile for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two LeCroy channels............... ...............20

5-72 Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0521 Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-71 ............209

5-73 The optical retumn-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0521,
Stroke 1. ............. ...............210....










5-74 Return-stroke speed profiles based on data from the two groups of LeCroy channels
with differences exceeding 30%. ............. ...............210....

5-75 Return-stroke speed profile based on averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy
channels with percentage difference above 30%. ............. ...............210....

5-76 Return-stroke speed profiles based on averaging data from the LeCroy and
Yokogawa channels with percentage difference above 30%. ........._.._.. ............... ...211

6-1 Return-stroke speeds at various heights, obtained by computing the average of the
speeds based on LeCroy data for triggered-lightning events before July 13, 2005.........215

6-2 Return-stroke speeds at various heights obtained computing the average of the
speeds based on LeCroy data computed for triggered-lightning after July 13, 2005.. ....216

B-1 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0501,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ................ ...............231..............

B-2 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ................ ...............231..............

B-3 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............232....

B-4 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 3 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............232....

B-5 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 4 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............232....

B-6 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0510,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............233....

B-7 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0512,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............233....

B-8 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0514,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............233....

B-9 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............234....

B-10 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517,
Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............234....

B-11 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0521,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. ............. ...............234....










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1 The four types of cloud-to-ground flashes............... ...............36.

2-2 The various processes in a single lightning flash. .....__.___ .... ... ._._ ......._._........3

2-3 The classical rocket-triggered lightning process............... ...............37

2-4 The initial current variation stage in rocket triggered lightning. Adapted from Olsen
et. al. (2006). ............. ...............38.....

2-5 Upward lightning initiated from the Eiffel Tower. Photograph taken June 3, 1902, at
9.20 p.m., by M. G. Loppe.................. ...............39......_.._...

2-6 Diagram of improved Boys camera with moving film and stationary lenses. Adapted
from McEachron (1939). ............. ...............40.....

2-7 Luminosity of dart leaders and return strokes versus time. Adapted from Jordan
(1990).................. ...............40........... ....

2-8 Propagation speeds of two leaders analyzed by Wang et al. (1999). The events were
triggered on August 2, 1997 (a) 2117: 15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC. ............. ...... ..........41

2-9 Leader light pulses versus time waveforms at different heights above the ground for
events triggered on August 2 19971yzed by Wang et al. (1999) ................. ................ ..41

2-10 The propagation speeds versus heights for two return-strokes. The events were
triggered on August 2 1997,analyzed by Wang et al. (1999). ............. .....................4

2-11 The pin photodiode array used by Olsen et al. (2004). ................... ...............4

2-12 Correlation between the lightning discharge current Adapted from Olsen et al.
(2006). .............. ...............43....

2-13 Channel-base current and light waveforms of the return-stroke in the flash triggered
at Camp Blanding, Florida. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005)............... .................4

2-14 Comparison between the current and light waveforms shown in Figure 2-13 for the
initial 2.7 microseconds. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005). .............. ....................4

3-1 Overview of the ICLRT. Adapted from Olsen (2003) ................. .......... ...............56

3-2 Tower launcher .............. ...............56....

3-3 Bucket truck launcher at ICLRT .........___ ..... .__ ............ ..57










3-4 The K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display Patterns (a) 2-frame mode.(b) 4-frame
mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode. ............. ...............57.....

3-5 The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC). Adapted from K004M
Documentation ,BIFO Company (2002)............... ...............58.

3-6 The BIFO K004M trigger circuit. .............. ...............59....

3-7 The BIFO K004M trigger circuit printed circuit board (PCB).. ............. ....................60

3-8 Actively-coupled photodiode circuit used during the summer 2005 Camp Blanding
experiments as well as in the 2006 University of Florida experiments. ................... .........60

3-9 Block diagram of the 2005 Camp Blanding and 2006 University of Florida
experiments. (APD= Avalanche Photodiode) ................. ........___ ........ 61__. ....

3-10 The BIFO K004M and PS001 photosensor setup used in the summer 2006 cupola
lightning experiments............... ..............6

3-11 Complete experimental setup used during the summer 2006 experiments............._.._.. .....63

3-12 The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) array attached on the back side of the oscilloscope
rack ................. ...............64.................

3-13 Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) recorded on the LeCroy DSOs mounted
on the rack in summer 2005 .........__._..... ..__. ...............64..

3-14 Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) filtered, amplitude scaled, and shifted
using Matlab sub-routines until the best possible coincidence was achieved. ..................65

4-1 Event F0501, photodiode array waveforms recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ....................79

4-2 Event F0501, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa............... ...............80

4-3 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. .......................81

4-4 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ........................82

4-5 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ........................83

4-6 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ........................84

4-7 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. .............. ..... ..........85

4-8 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. .............. ..... ..........86

4-9 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. .............. ..... ..........87

4-10 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. .............. ..... ..........88











4-11 Event F0510, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ................ ................. .89

4-12 Event F0512, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ............ ....................90

4-13 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. .................. ...............91

4-14 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. ................... .....92

4-15 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ................... .....93

4-16 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ................... .....94

4-17 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. .........95

4-18 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. .........96

4-19 Event F0521, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. .................. ...............97

4-20 Event NATO503 photodiode array record............... ...............98.

4-21 Event NATO504 photodiode array record............... ...............99.

4-22 Event NATO506 photodiode array record............... ...............100

4-23 Event NATO507 photodiode array record............... ...............101

4-24 Event NATO508 photodiode array record............... ...............102

4-25 Event NATO509, stroke 1, photodiode array record. .........._.._. ......_. ................1 03

4-26 Event NATO509, stroke 2, photodiode array record. ....._._._ .......... ................1 04

4-27 Event NATOS510 photodiode array record. ....._____ ....... ___ .....__...........0

4-28 Event NATOS511 photodiode array record............... .................106

4-29 Event NATOS512, stroke 1, photodiode array record. ........._.._.. ......._ ................1 07

4-30 Event NATOS512, stroke 2, photodiode array record. ....._____ ........._ ................1 08

4-31 Event NATOS513 photodiode array record. ....._____ ....... ___ .....__.........10

4-32 Event NATOS514 photodiode array record. ........._._.. ....__.. ....._... ........10

4-33 Event NATOS515 photodiode array record. ........._._.. ....__.. ....._... ........11

4-34 Event NATOS516 photodiode array record. ........._._.. ....__.. ....._... ........12

4-3 5 Event NATOS517 photodiode array record. ........._._.. ....__.. ...............113.










4-36 Event NATOS518 photodiode array record ................. ...............114.............

4-37 Event NATOS519 photodiode array record ................. ...............115.............

4-3 8 Event NAT0520 photodiode array record ................. ...............116....._... ..

4-39 Event NAT0521 photodiode array record ................. ...............117....._... ..

4-40 Event NAT0522 photodiode array record ................. ...............118....._._. ...

4-41 Event NAT0523, stroke 1, photodiode array record ................. ......... ................11 9

4-42 Event NAT0523, stroke 2, photodiode array record ................. ........................_.120

4-43 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record............... ...............121

4-44 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record............... ...............122

4-45 Event NAT0526 photodiode array record............... ...............123

5-1 Illustration of the "slope-intercept" method. The beginning of the return-stroke is
taken to be inter-section of the two (red) dashed lines. ................ ................. .... 142

5-2 Calibration of the data analysis tools used in this thesis. N ................. ................. .. 143

5-4 Event FO336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above termination) from Summer 2003,
filtered using a moving average fi1ter (with window size of 11 samples).. .....................144

5-5 Event FO336, Stroke 5 (at a height of 117 m above termination) from Summer 2003,
filtered using Filter 1.............. ...............145...

5-6 Event F0504, Stroke 4 (at a height of 84 m above termination) from Summer 2005
filtered using Filter 2 ................. ...............145...............

5-7 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1.......... ............... ................ ........ ......... ........ ...._ _.146

5-8 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0501, Stroke 1. d blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8................146

5-9 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._.._.._ .... .._._. ...............147.

5-10 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ...............147....

5-11 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._...... .............148










5-12 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............148........... ..

5-13 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. .............. ...............149....

5-14 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data. ................... .......149

5-15 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 1. ............. .....................150

5-16 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 1.. ............ ...............150.....

5-17 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. ..........5

5-18 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 15

5-19 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._..... .............152

5-20 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503,
Strokeli, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............152........... ..

5-21 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Strokeli, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............153........... ..

5-22 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................153

5-23 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 2. ............. ...............154....

5-24 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 2.. ............ ...............154.....

5-25 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data ................ ....___ ...............155.

5-26 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 15

5-27 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-25 and 5-26, for event F0503, Stroke 2...........156










5-28 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............156 ...

5-29 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............157 ...

5-30 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................157

5-31 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 3.. ...................._ ...._ _....._ ...._ _....._ ..............158

5-32 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 3......................__ ....___.....__ ....._ ............158

5-33 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. .........15

5-34 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 16

5-35 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._..... ..............160

5-36 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503,
Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............161..............

5-37 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............161..............

5-38 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................162

5-39 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 4.. ............ ...............162.....

5-40 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 4. ............. ...............163....

5-41 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. .........16

5-42 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 16

5-43 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._..... ..............164










5-44 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503,
Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............165 ...

5-45 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............165 ...

5-46 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data. ................... .......166

5.47 Retumn-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0510,
Stroke 1.......... ......... _.... ....._........._. ...._........._. ...............166

5.48 Retumn-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0510, Stroke 1 ........... ..... ._ ...............167.

5-49 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0510,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. ..........6

5-50 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0510, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ........._._.......... ..............168

5-51 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data. ........._.... ..............168

5.52 Retumn-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0512,
Stroke 1.......... ............... ................... .................. ...............169

5-53 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0512, Stroke 1.. .......................... ........169

5-54 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0512,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. ..........7

5-55 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0512, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 170

5-56 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._..... ..............171

5-57 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0514,
Stroke 1. ............. .....................171

5-58 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0514, Stroke 1.. .......................... ........172

5-59 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0514,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. ..........7










5-60 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0514, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data .............. .....................173

5-61 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data. ........._.... ..............173

5-62 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0514,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............174........... ..

5-63 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0514,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data ................. ...............174........... ..

5-64 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................175

5-65 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 1.......... ............... .......................... .................. ....._ .175

5-66 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0517, Stroke 1. ................... ............... 176

5-67 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. ..........7

5-68 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0517, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ........._._.......... ..............177

5-69 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._..... .............177

5-70 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. .............. ...............178........... ...

5-71 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. .............. ...............178........... ...

5-72 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................179

5-73 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 2. ............. ...............179....

5-74 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0517, Stroke 2. ........... ..... ._ ...............180..

5-75 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data ...._. ......_._._ .......__. .........18










5-76 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0517, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data ........._.._......._... ................181

5-77 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data ........._...... .............181

5-78 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............182 ...

5-79 Retumn-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. ................ ...._.._ ...............182 ...

5-80 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................183

5-81 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0521,
Stroke 1.. ...................._ ...._ _....._ ...._ _....._ ................183

5-82 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0521, Stroke 1.. ............ ...............184.....

5-83 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0521,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data ...._.._.._ .... .._._. ...............184.

5-84 Retumn-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data .............. ..... ............... 18

5-85 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data. ........._..... ..............185

7-1 Recommended trigger circuit for the BIFO K004M camera. .............. ....................21

A-1 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
April 21, 2006. ............. ...............221....

A-2 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
April 21, 2006. ............. ...............221....

A-3 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............222....

A-4 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............222....

A-5 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............223....

A-6 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............223....











A-7 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............224....

A-8 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............224....

A-9 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............225....

A-10 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............225....

A-11 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............226....

A-12 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............226....

A-13 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............227....

A-14 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............227....

A-15 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............228....

A-16 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............228....

A-17 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006. .............. ...............229....

A-18 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
August 4, 2006. .............. ...............229....

A-19 Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
August 21, 2006 ................. ...............230....._... ...









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTNING USING OPTICAL TECHNIQUES

By

SANDIP NALLANI

May 2008

Chair: V.A. Rakov
Major: Electrical Engineering

We analyzed optical (photodiode array) records for 31 lightning flashes obtained at Camp

Blanding, Florida, in summer 2005. Of these 3 1 flashes, 8 (containing 11 strokes) were

triggered- lightning flashes and the remaining 23 were natural lightning flashes. The overall

return-stroke speeds and return-stroke speed profiles as a function of height were obtained for

triggered lightning strokes. The slope-intercept point and the 20% of peak point were used as

reference points in estimating return-stroke speeds. Based on higher resolution LeCroy data, the

triggered-lightning return-stroke speeds are found to vary between 1.48 x 10s m/s and 1.59 x 10s

m/s. The average return-stroke optical risetimes for 11 triggered-lightning events were found to

be 0.81 Cps and 2.83 Cps at the bottom and top of the lightning channel, respectively. Leader

speeds for 5 triggered-lightning strokes have been estimated. The leader speeds are found to vary

between 1.3 x 107 m/s and 2.5 x 107 m/s. All 23 natural lightning records acquired in 2005 at

Camp Blanding using photodiodes viewing various heights are presented and characterized. An

image converter camera was used at the University of Florida to obtain optical images of natural

lightning processes in summer 2006. Only limited analysis of these images was possible due to

lack of resolution. In order to improve the performance characteristics of the image converter

camera, a new triggering circuit for this camera was designed, built, and successfully tested.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

Lightning is one of the most beautiful displays in nature as well as one of the most

deadliest natural phenomena known to man. With lightning channel temperatures hotter than the

surface of the Sun, lightning is a lesson in science and humility.

In the Indian mythological story of Ramayana, written by a poet Valmiki some 2000 years

ago, Lord Hanuman ('pavan-putra' in Sanskrit) was the son of the wind god 'Vayu'. Hanuman

possessed immense physical strength with the power to fly and was capable of divine levels of

endurance .When the young immature Hanuman started tossing around the Sun playfully, the

distressed Sun called out to Lord Indira, the son of lightning, heaven, and Earth who carried

thunderbolts on his chariot. The skies grew dark and made way for Lord Indira who shot the

young mischievous Hanuman with a thunder bolt when he disagreed to let the Sun go, and so

goes the story. Thus, we see that lightning and thunder have always been feared and respected by

mankind and have played a significant role in the religions and mythologies of all but the most

modern of civilizations.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The first scientific study of lightning was carried out by Benj amin Franklin in the later half

of the eighteenth century. Much of Franklin' s reputation was as a result of his phenomenal

demonstration of intercepting lightning and bringing it safely to the Earth without harming

people of property. Franklin was the first to propose an experiment to prove that lightning was

electrical and thus so were the clouds that produced lightning, using an iron rod [Uman, 1987].

In this experiment a man on ground was to draw sparks between an iron rod and a grounded wire

held by an insulating handle. In France in May 1752, Thomas-Francois D'Alibard successfully

performed Franklin's suggested experiment and sparks were observed to jump from the iron rod

during a thunderstorm. It was proved that thunderclouds contained electrical charge [Uman,

1987]. In 1752, he thought of a better experiment where the kite was to take the place the rod,

since it could achieve greater elevation. In the same year, he was successful in drawing sparks

out of a key tied to the bottom of the kite string separated from his hand by an insulating silk

string [Uman, 1987]. He then proposed a version of the lightning rod that is still the primary

means of protecting structures against lightning [Franklin, 1774, p. 169].

2.2 Natural Lightning

Research into natural lightning was renewed because of the hazards faced by electrical

circuits, aircraft and spacecraft due to the voltages and currents by direct of nearby lightning

strikes. Very small voltages are capable of causing malfunction of electronics. Natural lightning

flashes are produced by thunderclouds which are formed when warm moist air rises and cools

via an adiabatic expansion, eventually condensing into water droplets which form the visible

cloud. It is usually assumed that there is net positive charge at the top, a negative charge in the

middle followed by an additional smaller positive charge at the bottom. The top two charges are









usually the main charges and are often specified to be equal in magnitude whereas the lower

positive charge may not always be present [Rakov 2002]. Lightning is a transient, high current

discharge whose path length is measured in kilometers. Well over half of all flashes occur wholly

within the cloud and are called IC discharges. However, we are mainly concerned with cloud-to-

ground (CG) lightning because of its practical importance and also because it can be relatively

easily studied. In Figure 2-1 below the four different categories of CG flashes are illustrated.

Category 1 lightning begins with a negatively charged leader moving downward, while Category

3 has a positively charged downward moving leader. Category 2 has a positively charged upward

moving leader while Category 4 has a negatively charged upward moving leader. In Categories 1

and 2, negative charge is effectively transported to ground and in Categories 3 and 4 positive

charge is lowered to ground.

Upward-initiated flashes (Categories 2 and 4) are relatively rare and generally occur from

tall man-made structures or moderate heights structures on mountain tops. Because of the nature

and unpredictability of natural lightning, there has been a growing interest in the use of rocket-

and-wire techniques (see Section 2.3) in lightning research.

Lightning discharge is composed of several distinct processes which occur in less than 1

second, mostly along the same spatial path. A schematic of these various distinct processes is

shown in Figure 2-2. The discharge begins with a preliminary electrical breakdown in the cloud,

which is not shown in this figure, followed by a stepped leader, followed by the first return

stroke. This first return stroke could then be followed by a series of dart leader and subsequent

return stroke combination events separated by intervals of several tens of milliseconds. During

these intervals, after some return strokes, steady currents of hundreds of amperes continue to

flow to ground, which are called continuing currents. During the continuing current phase,









discharges not shown in the Figure 2-2 brighten the channel and are called the M-components.

Continuing currents cease prior to a subsequent leader return stroke sequence.

2.3 Artificially Initiated (Triggered) Lightning

In rocket-and-wire lightning triggering technique, a small (~ lm) rocket trailing a

grounded wire is used to initiate a lightning flash. This allows the researcher to have advance

knowledge of the time and location of a lightning flash, and hence of the exact distance to the

termination point of the lightning channel. This allows one to measure currents and propagation

speeds of the leader/return-stroke sequences. The rocket is launched in the presence of a

sufficiently charged cloud overhead. When the wire is grounded, the triggering is called the

"classical" triggering and is illustrated in Figure 2-3. The electric Hield below the cloud is

measured, with -4 to -10 kV/m typically being the experimentally-determined critical Hield.

When this occurs, a rocket is launched. It ascends at a speed of about 200 m/s. When it is

typically 200-300 m high, the electric Hield enhancement near the upper end of the wire is

sufficient to trigger a positively charged leader propagating towards the cloud (in the

predominant case when there is negative charge at the bottom of the cloud).

The upward leader melts and vaporizes the trailing wire and establishes the so-called

"initial continuous current" of the order of some hundreds of amperes along the wire trace, which

effectively serves to transport negative charge from the cloud charge source to the ground via the

triggering facility and current-measuring instrumentation. After the cessation of the initial

continuation current, several downward leader/upward return stroke sequences often traverse the

same path to the triggering facility. The initial current variation stage is illustrated in Figure 2-4

adapted from Olsen et al. (2006). A typical initial current variation (ICV) waveform exhibits a

relatively slow increase in current magnitude to a maximum of some hundreds of amperes,

which generally but not always coincides with the beginning of current decay, shown here at









point A. The relatively rapid current reduction between points A and B1 is associated with the

explosion of the triggering wire. The interval between B1 and B2 can vary between some

hundreds of microseconds to some milliseconds, during which little or no current flows. There

may be small pulses (not seen in this figure) during this interval. At point C, a relatively large

and sharp pulse reestablishes current between the upward positive leader (UPL) and ground. For

the purposes of estimating charge and action integral (AI), current is integrated over the interval

between the beginning of the record (which is prior to the beginning of the initial stage, when no

current is flowing) and the time labeled B1 on the waveform. "'Peak before" denotes the peak

current prior to wire explosion, which is generally but not always observed at the onset of current

reduction at point A. "'Decay"' denotes the duration of the time interval during which the current

decays to or nearly to zero, between points A and B1 on the diagram. "'Zero current interval"'

denotes the duration of the time interval over which the current is equal to (or nearly equal to)

zero, represented by the interval between B1 and B2. "Peak after"' denotes the maximum current

in the pulse (shown at point C) associated with reconnection of the UPL to ground.

2.4 Optical Studies of Lightning: An Overview

The luminous features of lightning discharges to ground have been widely studied and

have provided considerable insights in to the physics of the lightning processes. Scientists first

studied the light intensity of the lightning flash late in the 19th century. Their main intention was

to determine the sequence of events in a lightning flash. Kayser (1884) was the first to observe

that the lightning process consisted of multiple strokes down the same spatial path or the channel

formed by the first leader and return stroke processes. Hoffert (1889) and Weber (1889) used

moving cameras to separate the individual lightning events on film. Photographs were obtained

by Walter (1902, 1903, 1910, 1912, 1918) which showed for the first time that the lightning

process was initiated by a branched initial process followed by a return stroke traveling up the









same channel. Therefore by the 20th century a coarse view of the lightning discharge had been

revealed.

Sir Charles V. Boys (1929) invented a camera system in 1900 which revolutionized the

study of lightning. The camera produced relative motion between the film and the lenses by

having the lenses rotate in front of the film. This system allowed the camera to remain stationary

but still allowed the camera to separate different events that occurred on the same path. The

investigation of optical properties of lightning during the period between 1930 and 1960 was

dominated by Schonland, Malan, Collens and coworkers in South Africa. Boys cooperated with

this team and loaned his camera to be used as a prototype. In their first experiments with Boys'

rotating lens camera design (Schonland, Malan and Collens, 1934), they verified previous

findings by Halliday (1933) which showed lightning intensity moving up and down the lightning

channel. They observed that the lightning intensity decreased as the return stroke front passed

each branch point and finally vanished after it passed the last branch before entering the cloud.

The Boys camera was later modified to have still lenses and a rotating film drum (Schonland,

Malan, and Collens, 1935), as shown in Figure 2-6. The apertures of the camera lenses were set

independently which allowed sufficient dynamic range to examine the processes whose light

intensity varied greatly. It was observed that the stepped leader paused for approximately 100

microseconds between steps. The authors also discovered that the effective stepped leader speeds

increased near the ground. Orville and Indone (1982) also showed that the stepped leader speed

increases near the ground.

In this way, optical lightning research in the early years mainly concentrated on the

subj ective analysis of film records to determine lightning properties. As technology improved, it

became possible to use calibrated photoelectric detectors to determine quantitative parameters of










lightning processes. Mackerras (1973) used photomultiplier tubes and a wide-angle camera

system to perform a quantitative study of the integrated lightning output of both cloud and

ground flashes.

2.5 Leader and Return-Stroke Speeds and Light-Pulse Risetimes Obtained from Optical
Observations

A parameter of great interest to researchers developing return stroke models, is the speed

of the return stroke front as it propagates up the channel. Return stroke is a fundamental

parameter of the cloud-to-ground flash and is also one of the two input parameters (channel base

current and return stroke speeds) in the transmission line model (TLM) of the return stroke for

calculating currents (Jordan 1989). Orville et al (1978) presented daytime lightning data acquired

with a streak camera system including measurements of return stroke speeds ranging from 1.2 x

10s to 1.4 x 10s m/s. The return stroke speed was computed using a still image from a 35 mm

camera as a reference image and measuring the displacement of the streaked image from the still

image. The displacement was a function of the height along the channel and the return stroke

speed.

Orville and Idone (1982) presented streak camera records for 21 dart leaders, 4 dart-

stepped leaders and 3 stepped leaders from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Socorro, New

Mexico, in mostly daylight conditions. Dart leader speeds were computed at two heights along

the channel with the mean speed in the bottom 800 meters being 11 x 106 m/Sec. They also found

a correlation between the dart leader luminous intensity and the resulting return stroke luminous

intensity. They found no correlation between the dart leader speed and luminous intensity of the

dart and little correlation between the luminous intensity of the dart and resulting return stroke

speed. Inconclusive results were found for dart leader speed versus return-stoke luminous









intensity as well. Idone, 1984 observed two-dimensional leader and return stroke speeds over the

same channel section, to be 1.7 x 107 m/s and 1.3 x 10s m/s respectively.

Jordan et al. (1992) examined dart leader speeds as a function of the initial electric field

peak, of the following return stroke current peak, and of the duration of the previous inter-stroke

interval (excluding the duration of continuing currents, if present). For 11 natural lightning

strokes in Florida they observed an average leader speed of 1.4 x 107 m/s, whereas for 36

triggered lightning strokes in Florida they observed an average leader speed of 1.6 x 107 m/s.

Jordan (1990) presented the luminosity of dart leaders and return strokes versus height (shown in

Figure 2-8) and observed average leader speeds of 1.2 x 107 m/sec.

Mach and Rust (1989) used data from a mobile photoelectric device and presented two-

dimensional return stroke velocities. Their return stroke velocity device (RSV) consisted of eight

levels solid state detectors, each with a 41 degree horizontal view and 0.1 degree vertical field

view. The velocity measurements were divided into two groups: "short channel" values with

channel segments starting near the ground and less than 500 m in length and "long-channel" that

start near the ground and exceed 500 m in length. The average long channel velocity was found

to be 1.3 1 0.3 x 10s m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 1 0.3 x 10s m/s for triggered return

strokes. In the case of"short-channel" the natural return strokes had an average velocity of 1.9

i 0.7 x 10s m/s and the triggered return strokes had an average velocity of 1.4 1 0.4 x 10s m/s.

Mach and Rust (1997) reported the velocities, rise-times and other optical measurements of a set

of 3 5 natural and 26 triggered dart leaders. All of the dart leaders were from negative strokes and

the data were collected using the same return stroke velocity (RSV) device. The average two-

dimensional speed for natural leaders was found to be 1.9 i 0.2 x 107 m/s, while for the

triggered dart leaders, average 2-D speed turned out to be 1.3 1 0.1 x 107 m/s. Also there was no









significant change in the dart leader 2-D speed with height. The mean 10-90% optical rise time

for the dart leaders was 2.6 i 0.4 microseconds. The optical rise-time for triggered leaders was

observed to be 1.4 1 0.4 microseconds. Mach and Rust (1993) reported the velocities and

optical rise-times for seven natural and positive return strokes using the same RSV device. The

average 2-D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of smaller than 500 m in length

was 0.8 1 0.3 x 10s m/s which was slower than the corresponding average velocity for natural

negative first return stroke, 1.7 i 0.7 x 10s m/s. In the case of long channels, greater than 500 m

in length, the average return stroke speed in the case of natural negative first stroke was 1.2 1

0.6 x 10s m/s while it was 0.9 i 0.4 x 10s m/s in the case of positive return strokes. They

observed no significant change of velocity for the positive return strokes with height. Further,

they observed rise times of 9.4 1 3.0 microseconds in the case of positive return strokes and 3.5

1 1.7 microseconds in the case of negative strokes.

Wang (1999) used a high speed digital optical system, to Eind the the propagation

characteristics of two leader/return stroke sequences in the bottom 400 m of the channel of two

lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida. The optical data were acquired using the

digital optical imaging system ALPS which consisted of a 256 (16xl6) pin photodiodes, each 1.3

x 1.3 mm2 Size, with a separation of 1.5 mm between the centers of individual diodes. Each of

the diodes operated at wavelengths from 400 to 1000 nm with response time of less than 3 ns.

The time resolution of the measuring system was 100 ns, and the spatial resolution was about 30

m. The leaders exhibited increasing speeds when propagating downwards over the bottom some

hundreds of meters, while the return strokes showed a decrease in speed when propagating

upwards over the same distance. Propagation speeds and luminosity pulses for two leaders are

shown in Figures 2-9 and 2-10. Their finding represents the first experimental evidence that the









luminosity pulses associated with the steps of a downward moving leader propagate upwards

with speeds ranging from 1.9 x 107 m/se to 1.0 x 10s m/s with a mean value of 6.7 x 107 m/s. The

return stroke speeds within the bottom 60 meters or so of the channel were 1.3 x 10s m/s and 1.5

x 10s m/s with a potential error of less than 20%.

Olsen et al. (2004) presented the return stroke propagation speeds of Hyve strokes from a

seven stroke triggered lightning flash, measured with a 2 ns sampling interval, using a vertical

array of photodiodes. Various reference points were used to determine the return stroke speed vs.

height for the captured flashes. The EG&G C30807 PINT photodiodes used here were arranged in

a vertical array, rated at 5 ns rise-time and 10 ns fall time. Each diode's amplifying circuit had a

10-90% rise-time of about 220 ns. The diodes were arranged in 7 x 1.9 x 30 cm3 rectangular

aluminum enclosure with interior painted matte black and were arranged at varying angles as

shown in the Figure 2-12. The overall (7-170 m) return stroke speeds for Flash FO336 and the

return stroke speeds versus height are shown in the Tables 2-1 and 2-2 below. There was an

interesting trend in the data which concerns the variation in the measured speed in the three

channel segments between 7-170 m. Specifically for strokes 2, 4 5 and 6 it was observed that

the measured speed was the greatest in the segment between 63 and 117 m, slightly lower in the

segment between 117 and 170 and lowest in the segment between 7 and 63 m.

2.6 Correlation Between Current and Light

Figure 2-12, adapted from Olsen et al (2006), shows an interesting correlation between the

lightning discharge currents and associated optical streak records for the ICV (initial current

variation) stage. Panels (a) and (b) show the optical streak film and the channel base current

records, respectively for flash FO348 showing two attempted reconnection pulses (ARP1 and

ARP2) and a reconnection pulse (RP). The streak record and the current record were manually










aligned. This was done by selecting the point of most rapid increase in optical streak record

luminosity at the channel base to be zero time for alignment with the current record.

Idone and Orville (1985) estimated dart-leader peak currents for 22 leaders in two rocket-

triggered flashes using two different optical techniques. In method (i), the ratio of the dart-leader

and retumn-stroke currents was taken as equal to the ratio of the dart-leader and retumn-stroke

speeds; this assumes a simple model in which an equal charge per unit length is involved in each

process. The speed ratio and the retumn-stroke current were measured, allowing a calculation of

the dart-leader current. In method (ii) the relation between return-stroke peak current IR and

return-stroke peak relative light intensity LR in each of two flashes (LR=1.5IR 1.6 LR =6.4 IR1.1)

was applied to the dart-leader relative light intensities in the flash to determine the dart-leader

current. The two techniques produced very similar results, a mean current of 1.8 KA for method

(ii) and 1.6 KA for method (i). Individual values ranged from 100 A to 6 kA. The ratio of dart-

leader to return-stroke current ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 with a mean of 0. 17 from method (ii) and

0.16 from method (i). The largest dart-leader to return-stroke current ratios were associated with

the largest return-stroke currents and relative light intensities. Idone and Orville (1985) discussed

the validity of the techniques used to find dart-leader currents, which, as they stated, are certainly

open to question.

Wang et al. (2005) performed a comparative analysis of channel-base current and light

waveforms for four different rocket-triggered lightning strokes. Their study supported the idea

of evaluating the variation of return-stroke current along the lightning return-stroke channel

using light signals, provided the evaluation was limited to the rising portions of those signals and

assuming that the light/current relationship observed at the bottom of the channel holds at other

heights. It was found that the current and light signals at the bottom of the channel exhibited a










linear relationship (direct proportionality) in their rising portions. However, just after the peaks

the linearity disappears, and the light signals usually decrease faster than the currents during the

next several microseconds as shown in Figure 2-13. From Figures 2-13 and 2-14, the relation

between the current and the light could be divided into four stages. In stage 1 (from t=0 to t=1.3

us), both the current and light increase sharply, and they exhibit a strong linear relationship. In

stage 2 (t=1.3 Cps to t=7 Cps), both the current and light signals decrease, but the decrease in the

light signal is much more pronounced than the decrease in the current. In stage 3 (t=7 Cps to t=55

Cps) the light signal remains at more or less constant level, but the current exhibits a continuing

decrease. In stage 4 (after t=55 Cps), both current and the light signals show a relatively slow

decay.














a) Downward Ne ative Uightning Ib) Upwnard Nega ive Lightn ng















(E D -wrnwrdd Positive Lightning (d) Upward Positive Lightning

Figure 2-1: The four types of cloud-to-ground flashes. Adapted from Rakov and Uman, 2003.





























(a) (b~)


Figure 2-2: The various processes in a single lightning flash. Adapted from Uman (1987).


Natural
channel /






Wire-
channel



(sItsas of [Ins


H 10" mis


1 m/s


1-2 a
| --~-r
Upward
positive
lieader


ofms)
Initial
cmijnC1uous
current


No-current Downwlard
interval negative ~
leader


UJpward
return
stroke


Figure 2-3: The classical rocket-triggered lightning process. Adapted from Rakov et. al. (1998).


2 msec

70Cpsac (10 sec
1 msecr
20 msec I; Qs ec (m3e $ -60 psac


Ascend n
rocke


ii















S U Peak Before -sa

~IR o oPeak After

-.5 -4 -3 -2 -1 I 1 2 3
T~ime [ms]

Figure 2-4: The initial current variation stage in rocket triggered lightning. Adapted from Olsen
et. al. (2006).






















































Figure 2-5: Upward lightning initiated from the Eiffel Tower. Photograph taken June 3, 1902, at
9.20 p.m., by M. G. Loppe. Published in the Bulletin de la Socidtd Astronomique de
France (May, 1905).







39




























Figure 2-6: Diagram of improved Boys camera with moving film and stationary lenses. Adapted
from McEachron (1939).


O 25 50
Time, ps


75 100


Figure 2-7: Luminosity of dart leaders
(1990).


and return strokes versus time. Adapted from Jordan











40> b--- 21 17: 15 UTC, Il -10 0 497
350-; 13-5 LT~' ''jl






O 4 6 8 0 12 1

Sped x 0 /s
Figure -8: Proagationspeeds ftwledranlzdbWagta.(19)Thevtsee
trggre onAgs 2 97(a 1715UCad b 17:4UC


21171 UT, 8 2199 2:7:4 icoumi
u1 40m











84 (9 m) !
33~~'pc (6 m)N. 106 mi I.





Figure 2-9: Leoadrlghtio pulses vesu tim eaer wnaveform at difernt heigt abov ( the grounds for
evnstriggered on August 2, 1997 at) (a):1 211:1 UTC and125 (b 22754UT


analyzed4 by"C Wang19 et l.(199)











--~- 21 17 15 UTC. 018KI2/1997






40 8 10 16 00 20
Speed (x 10' m/s) ---


I---4--- 21:27 54 UTC, 08/02099~7


40 80 120 160 200) 240
Speed (x 10'" m/s)


Figure 2-10: The propagation speeds versus heights for two return-strokes. The events were
triggered on August 2, 1997 (a) 2117: 15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC analyzed by
Wang et al. (1999). Each solid circle represents a value of the speed averaged over a
60 m section of the channel.


Side View


Figure 2-11: The pin photodiode array used by Olsen et al. (2004).


Photodaiode
Enclosures








V ewport







1-rrunt Un-w






















-2 -15Time [mE -0.5 0
-2 -1.5 -1 -0).5 0


-ARPI AP





00) RP


Figure 2-12: Correlation between the lightning discharge current (b) and associated optical streak
record (a) for the ICV (initial current variation) stage of rocket-triggered lightning.
Adapted from Olsen et al. (2006).




14
12 C 20:37:07. 26-Jun-97





21


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Tunre (ps)


a-
de
ous
vjy
a~l


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Time (ps)


Figure 2-13: Channel-base current and light waveforms of the return-stroke in the flash triggered
at 20:37:07, 6/26/1997 (event No. 4) at Camp Blanding, Florida. Adapted from Wang
et. al. (2005).


S400










-0.







--0.6













-No 4



-a- -a- Lightt signal
SCurrent


Figure 2-14: Comparison between the current and light waveforms shown in Figure 2-13 for the
initial 2.7 microseconds. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005).



Table 2-1: Overall return stroke speeds for FO336. Adapted from Olsen (2003).

Stroke Order
1 2 4 5 6

Reference Pairnr Speed, x O10" mS-
il"". 1.98g 1.7;3 1.81 2.21 1.81
20% 1.53 1.36 1.46 .5 1.41
90%B/ 0.774 0.621 0.653 0.62 8 0.63 0
100%~ 0.5 79 0.462 0.368 01.4498 0.493
MFax didt~ 1.29 1.27 0.609 1.32 1.45
Slorpe-inmterept 2.102 1.81 2.62.00 1.78

Table 2-2: Return stroke speed profile versus height for FO336 using the 20%

point and the slope point intercept as references. Adapted from Olsen (2003).


Strolke Rel[LICII Stroke Speed x Ilo' m7 r;-
O rder Referrence Paintl 7 mn-63 m 63 m-ll-17 m 1 7 11ni-170 tnl

1 20%i 1.34 1.62 1.70
slobpe-intercept 1.81 1.989 2.33
2 20%i 1.19 1.81 1.22
s;lope-int~ercept 1.94 2.59 13
4 20%,; 1.19 1.31.50
slope-intrtercpt 2.04 2.74 2.13
5 208i 2 1.78 1.61
sloupe-int~ercept 2.001 2.36 1.74
6 20% I 2 1.58 1.47
slope-int~ercept 1.94 2.109 1.44


1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400


- I


- -
-0


0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5
Time (ps~)


1.8 2.1 2.4









CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

3.1 ICLRT Overview

In this section, an overview of the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing

(ICLRT) is presented. The ICLRT is located at Camp Blanding, Florida, at coordinates 29056'

N, 820 02' W, 8 km east of Starke. It was constructed by Power Technologies under a contract

from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in 1993 to study the effects of lightning on

power lines. It has been operated by the University of Florida since 1994. The rocket-and-wire

technique (e.g., Rakov et al., 1998) was used to artificially initiate (trigger) lightning from

natural thunderclouds. The research facility extends over 1 square kilometer of sand, scrub and

young growth forest. Air space over the site is restricted and controlled by the Camp Blanding

range control, ensuring no air-borne vehicles are harmed by the rockets used in the experiments

performed at ICLRT. A variety of structures have been installed over the years at ICLRT, as

summarized below. A schematic of the Camp Blanding research facility is shown in Figure 3-1.

The Office Building (OB) contains office space for researchers, a conference room, a machine

shop / workshop area, and laboratory space for the operation of experiments and data gathering

apparatus. The Launch Control Trailer is a facility which contains experiment control equipment

such as rocket launcher control, a computer system for the control of measurement devices; data

digitization and storage equipment such as oscilloscopes; and various cameras.

During Summers 2002 and 2003, this was the primary control center for all rocket-

launching operations and data collection. The Launch Control Trailer is located near the center

of the research facility, to the north side of the Tower Launcher. SATTLIF is a self-contained

transportable launch facility built by Sandia National Laboratories for rocket-triggered lightning

experiments. It contains rocket launcher control equipment, experiment control equipment, data










storage instrumentation, and various cameras. The SATTLIF control equipment can be used

independently of the equipment in the Launch Control trailer.

3.2 Rockets and Launchers

Rockets used at the ICLRT are small, fiberglass, solid-fuel rockets approximately 1 meter

in length. The nose cone of the rocket contains a parachute which is released when the motor' s

fuel is exhausted. A spool of wire is mounted coaxially at the bottom of the rocket. The wire

used is copper, has a diameter of 0.2 mm, and is covered in Kevlar for mechanical strength. Total

length of wire on the spool is typically 750 m. Vertical velocity of the rocket is designed to be

about 100 m/sec to 200 m/sec when the rocket reaches a suitable height for triggering.

As stated above, the Tower Launcher, shown in Figure 3-2, is an 11-m tall wooden tower,

located near the center of the ICLRT grounds A platform located immediately below the top

level of the tower allows access to camera boxes located on the tower. A rocket launcher

consisting of several aluminum tubes is mounted on the top level of the tower. The unit is

mounted on fiberglass legs. The top of each tube is about 2 m above the platform atop the tower.

Each tube can contain a single rocket. The trailing end of the wire spool is connected

mechanically and electrically to the launcher frame. Operators located in the Launch Control

Trailer initiate the launch of a rocket by sending a pulse of high pressure air over a pneumatic

line. The pulse closes a contact, connecting a battery across the leads of a "squib" igniter placed

in the exhaust orifice of the rocket motor. This "squib" ignites the motor and the rocket

accelerates out of the tube.

The Bucket Truck Launcher, shown in Figure 3-3, is a transportable launching facility. Six

aluminum rocket launcher tubes, about 3 meters long, are mounted in the bucket at the end of the

articulated arm on a truck formerly used for power line maintenance. A pneumatic trigger

assembly similar to that employed on the Tower Launcher is used on the truck launcher as well.









In this case, however, the initiating high pressure air pulse is released from a high pressure air

tank mounted on the truck, and is initiated via computer control over a wireless radiofrequency

data link between the Launch Control Trailer and the Bucket Truck Launcher. The height of the

launcher above ground can be varied using the hydraulic power of the articulated arm. A

Hoffman box containing a current viewing resistor (CVR) and fiber-optic transmitter apparatus is

mounted next to the rocket tubes. The trailing wires are grounded to the aluminum launcher

tubes, which are in turn connected to the CVR with 2 cm copper braid. The other end of the CVR

is connected via copper braid to ground rods at the rear of the truck. Typically, three to four

ground rods are driven into the ground at each new location for the Bucket Truck Launcher.

3.3 The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera

The attachment process in lightning [Rakov and Uman 2003] is a very difficult process to

image. The process is very fast, occurs in a small volume, and is much less luminous than the

processes which immediately follow it. Some success has been made using Image Converter

cameras to image the attachment process in long sparks, which are thought to be similar in nature

to lightning discharges. The advantages of an image converter camera include very high

recording rates, immediate view ability of captured images, and very high sensitivity to light.

The K004M image converter camera made by BIFO Company in Moscow, Russia,

specifically for studying the attachment process in rocket-triggered lightning was deployed

during Summer 2003 and Summer 2005 at Camp Blanding and in 2006 at the University of

Florida Campus (2006 cupola experiments). The camera is capable of operating in framing mode

or in streak mode.

In streak mode, the camera can operate at a recording rate from 0.1 pus/cm to ms/cm over

the 3.55 cm wide rear phosphor readout. The fastest recording rate, 0.1 pus/cm, corresponds to

temporal resolution of about 1 ns. In framing mode, the camera can collect 1, 2, 4, 6, or 9 images









consecutively. Frame duration is adjustable from 0.1 pus to 10 pus, and inter-frame interval is

adjustable from 0.5 pus to 999.9 pus. The consecutive frames are arrayed across the readout screen

in a pattern shown in Figure 3-4.

An obj ective lens is used to construct an image upon the photocathode marked as 31 in

Figure 3-5. The photocathode converts the optical image to an electronic image. The electronic

image passes through an electronics focussing lens and is constructed upon the micro-channel

plate 1 (MCPl), designated as 38 in Figure 3-5. MCP1 and MCP 2 intensify the image and

proj ect it onto a phosphor screen (39 in Figure 3-5) which converts the electronic image into a

luminous image. A video camera attached to the rear of the K004M reads the image and sends

the video signal to a PC which digitizes the signal and stores it. The shut pulse generator enables

or disables the passage of images from the photocathode to the MCP's. The sweep generator

controls the position of the image on the MCP's, which effectively controls the position of the

image on the phosphor screen. The sweep generator is the mechanism by which consecutive

frames are arrayed on the rear phosphor in multi-framing mode and the mechanism by which the

image is swept across the phosphor in streak mode.

The camera is triggered by a two-channel photosensor (PS-001), also manufactured by

BIFO. One channel is used to initiate the exposure and the other channel engages a gain

reduction circuit which reduces the gain of the second MCP. The trigger threshold on each

channel is adjustable. Each channel of the PS-001 includes an adjustable slit for limiting the

viewable area, both in terms of altitude and width. This allows for high optical gain during the

early stages of the attachment process, and then when the return stroke is initiated the gain

should be reduced to avoid saturation. Initial testing of the K004M showed that operation was as










specified. Several images of sparks were obtained in every mode of operation. Additionally,

images were obtained for 5 to 30 mm long sparks.

As stated above, the unit was tested, along with other image converter cameras, using

long (up to 6 m) sparks at the high-voltage facility in Istra, Russia. The performance was good.

However, the unit did not operate properly during Summer 2003 when it was moved to Camp

Blanding for triggered lightning experiments. Internal arcing was observed, which required

repair procedures. After these had been corrected, false triggering of the unit was observed.

Finally, the K004M failed to power up at all. Dr. Vitali Lebedev of BIFO Company came to

Gainesville and repaired the K004M in September of 2003. After the repair was completed, the

camera was set up in a cupola atop the Engineering Building on the campus of the University of

Florida in Gainesville. A large, active thunderstorm passed through the area and several nearby

lightning flashes were observed. Under the direction of Dr. Lebedev, the camera was operated

during this storm. Several flashes triggered the camera and were recorded. None of these images

contained features which could be identified. Two images were captured with the K004M during

the summer 2003. During the camera' s functional period an insufficient number of events

occurred to allow proper calibration of the camera for capturing processes of interest.

The BIFO K004M trigger circuit was designed by the author in Fall 2007. The PS001

which was initially employed for triggering the BIFO K004M camera was found to be

insufficiently sensitive to luminosity of leader channels. The PS001 has a highly complex

schematic and so modifying the internal circuitary to achieve leader triggering was a non-trivial

task. This was the motivation behind prototyping a simple triggering circuit that would allow full

control over the triggering light levels. The triggering levels can be changed suitably to make

either leader or return-stroke as K004M trigger.









This newly-developed trigger circuit is shown in Figures 3.6 and 3.7. Two avalanche

photodiode circuits are employed to get correlated triggers based on either the leader or the

return-stroke optical intensity in the lightning channel. The avalanche photodiode circuits were

designed and manufactured by Rob Olsen. They were employed during summer 2005 at Camp

Blanding and in 2006 at the University of Florida for the characterization of lightning strokes.

This circuit is described in detail in section 3.4. Each sensor input channels is then compared to

two reference voltage levels (Vrenl and Vref2 via an AD8564, a high speed quad comparator with

a propagation delay of 7 ns. Vrenl corresponds to a voltage reference level to expected to be

exceeded by a leader optical pulse, whereas Vref2 corresponds to a voltage reference expected to

be exceeded by a return-stroke optical pulse. A facility has been provided to vary the levels of

Vrenl and Vren2 by the means of an on chip surface mount variable potentiometer. When both the

sensors observe the same leader optical pulse, voltage on both the input channels is above the

leader reference voltage levels (Vrenl). This produces a voltage pulse of approximately 3-4 volts

at the output of both the comparators, corresponding to Vrenl as the reference voltage level. These

two voltage pulses at the comparator output corresponding to a leader (leader trigger) are then

combined by means of 74LS00, a quad NAND logic gate (a NAND gate produces a low output

when all the inputs are high). The NAND gate produces a low output signal. This low output

signal is then inverted by employing another NAND gate, configured as an inverter, thus

producing a relatively high voltage pulse (approximately 3-4 V) at the output. This output is then

connected to the K004M trigger channels via a line driver octal buffer SCT25244 to avoid

loading the NAND gate by an output stage. The same process repeats if the sensors detect a

return-stroke. In this case, the comparators corresponding to VreB (the voltage reference level

expected to be exceeded when a return-stroke is observed by the sensors) provide the outputs for









the NAND gate and the line driver, which can then be used to trigger the gain reduction channel

of the K004M camera.

3.4 The Photodiode Array

A vertical array of 9 avalanche photodiode optical detectors designed and manufactured

by Rob Olsen was employed during summer 2005 at Camp Blanding and in 2006 at the

University of Florida for the characterization of lightning strokes. Each photo-diode was

mounted in a rectangular aluminum tube whose interiors were painted matte black to prevent

reflections. The inner cross-section dimensions of the tubes were measured to be 2.75 wide and

0.75 in tall. Each tube was 1 m in length.

All photodiodes were the C30737 type avalanche photodiodes that have high responsivity

between 400 nm and 1000 nm with a response time of 300 ps at all wavelengths with a

frequency response of up to 1.2 GHz. They have 0.5 mm active diameter, a breakdown voltage

of 160 volts, and very low noise floor of 0.2 pA/ A~. Signals from photodiodes were relayed

to the oscilloscope via an active amplifier whose circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3-8.

The active circuit was designed and manufactured by Rob Olsen around a high-speed

operational amplifier AD8066, configured in transimpedance mode. The impedance seen by the

photodiode was thus very close to zero thus moving the high frequency roll off higher in

frequency, and improved the risetime of the circuit. The first amplifier stage was set in the

inverting mode, therefore a second inverting gain stage was provided to restore the correct

waveform polarity. A 50 0Z resistor was placed in series with the output for impedance matching

with the co-axial cable and to provide the op amp with a higher load. On July 2, 2005, the

response of the actively coupled photodiode circuit was found, using a General Radio Strobotac

as the signal source, to be on the order of 600 ns.









Nine slit and tube assemblies were mounted in a shielded aluminum rack. The end of

each tube with the slit end cap was bolted to a frame which allowed the tube to rotate about a

horizontal axis roughly congruent with the slit itself. The nine tubes were arrayed vertically. The

uppermost tube was aimed nearly horizontally, with successively lower tube aimed higher as

shown in Figure 3-12. This resulted in all nine slits being very close and reduced the size of the

hole that had to be cut in the cabinet to allow light to enter. An additional vertical strut was

mounted in the rack and each tube was clamped to the strut using standard C-clamps. One meter

RG-223 cables with BNC connectors on both ends were used to connect the photodiode outputs

to the oscilloscope input channels. The breakdown (Avalanche breakdown is a current

multiplication process that occurs only in strong electric field. The breakdown voltage, is the

voltage that creates this high electric field across the in the photodiodes.) voltages for each of the

photodiode assemblies was supplied by a high voltage supply unit. The entire oscilloscopes,

power supply unit, and photodiode array assembly was thus enclosed in a shielded enclosure and

isolated from radiated and conducted interference. The aluminum tubes provided a second layer

of shielding for the very sensitive photodiode and preamplifier section.

3.5 The Photodiode Experimental Setup used in 2005 and 2006

The experimental setup that was used for the capture of the Summer 2005 data is is shown

in Figure 3-9. The same experimental setup was used for summer 2006 lightning captures at

University of Florida. The Avalanche Photo Diodes were arranged such that APD 1 looked at the

lower channel height and the highest part of the channel was seen by APD 9. These were then

assigned to the Yokogawa as well as the LeCroy digital oscilloscopes using appropriate

terminations.

Table 3-1 shown below summarizes the angles that each of the APDs was set to along

with the respective channel heights seen by them. Initially, the rockets were launched from the









Bucket launcher (July 2nd). In this case the experimental setup was at distance of 706 meters

from the lightning channel. Starting from July 13th onwards, the rockets were launched from the

Tower. In this case the experimental setup was at a distance of 476 meters from the lightning

channel .

In summer 2006 the APDs were setup at the same viewing angles. But since the distance

to channel termination is unknown the actual heights viewed by each sensor from the photodiode

array are unknown.

As stated previously, the BIFO K004M was used to record natural lightning events in

summer of 2006 at University of Florida. Figure 3-10 shows the setup used for the PS001

photosensor and the BIFO K004M image converter camera (ICC). A metal frame with a flat

surface on top was used in such a way that it was possible to mount the photosensor on top of the

ICC. This is because the photosensor was responsible for triggering the BIFO, which would then

record the event in streak mode. The photosensor and ICC setup (shown in Figure 3-10) was

mounted on a wooden tripod with wheels. This made the heavy apparatus sufficiently mobile in

the event that the pointing direction needed to be changed depending on the location of the

thunderstorm.

Figure 3-11 shows the complete setup along with the photodiode array and the

oscilloscopes. The LeCroys (scopes 16 and 6 in Figure 3-11) and Yokogawa (scope 7 in Figure

3-11) were mounted securely in a rack. The avalanche photodiodes were fixed onto this rack in

such a way that the lowermost channel height viewed was just above the tree line. The

photosensor and BIFO were also adjusted to view above the tree line. Figure 3-12 shows the

avalanche photodiode array that was fixed behind the oscilloscope rack. Inter-scope delays were










computed for the following scope pairs: Scope 16 -Scope 6, Scope 6 -Scope 17 and Scope 16-

Scope 17. These delays are presented in Table 3-2.

3.6 Modified Return-Stroke Speed Equation

In the summer 2005 experimental setup block diagram, shown in Figure 3-9, the LeCroy

Scope-16 was used to trigger the LeCroy Scope 6 which would then trigger the LeCroy Scope

17. The oscilloscopes had their own internal finite time delays which resulted in an inter-scope

delay when one scope was used to trigger another. It is therefore imperative to find time delays

between scopes and include them in the return-stroke speed calculations along the channel for

each of the rocket-triggered lightning event from summer 2005. For such a calibration, the

photodiode array, shown in Figure 3-12, was exposed to rapid flashes produced by a strobe light.

These flashes were recorded on the LeCroy DSOs via the array of photodiode sensors in the form

of pulses. Figure 3-13 shows an example of the calibration pulses recorded by LeCroy Scope 16

and LeCroy Scope 17. As seen in this Figure, there is a difference in amplitude as well as time

delay between these two waveforms. These waveforms were then filtered using a 11 ns window

moving average filter, amplitude-scaled and shifted to find the best possible time delay between

them. Automatic Matlab sub-routines were built for the above processing. The resulting shifted

and processed waveforms are shown in Figure 3-14. The time delay between LeCroy Scope 16

and LeCroy Scope 17 for CAL001, Stroke 2 was found to be 78 nanoseconds. The time delays

between the other LeCroy DSOs have been similarly computed using CAL001 and CALOO2 date

sets and are summarized in Table 3-2.

Accordingly, the new formula (modified relative to that used by Olsen et al. (2004) to

account for interscope delays) for the return-stroke speed calculation is given as follows:


h2 h,
t2 t1- At- 1









At = Time Correction
Ot = Time Delay Between Scopes
t2 = Higher Channel Time
tl = Lower Channel Time
h2 h, = Height Difference Between the two Channels

The above formula states that for each set of times, the return-stroke speeds, vRS WeTO

calculated by dividing the vertical distance between adjacent viewed heights, h2 hi, by the time

interval, t2 tl (obtained, using techniques explained in chapter 5). Assuming a vertical channel,

the light signal propagation path from the uppermost segment of the channel was some 133 m

(433 nanoseconds) longer than the propagation path from the lowermost segment before July 2,

2005 and some 80 m (266 nanoseconds) longer than the propagation path from the lowermost

segment after July 12, 2005. When measuring the time of arrival of the waveform, this time

correction factor, At, has to be accounted for in the return-stroke speed equation. Also, Ot, the

time delay between the LeCroy DSOs (explained in the previous paragraph), has been introduced

into the return-stroke speed equation.

There are three primary sources of measurement error: angle error, distance error, and

timing error [Olsen et al., 2004]. The angle error is due primarily to potential inaccuracy in the

measurement of the angle of the photodiode assembly relative to the ground and is expected to

be less than 0.35" which results in a height interval error of less than 15%. The distance error is a

function of the accuracy of the GPS measurement made at the observation point and the

lightning channel termination point, and is estimated to be no greater than +10 m, or less than

3%. Finally the error in the time intervals due to inaccuracy of the reference point, whether using

the "slope-intercept" method or the "percentage of peak" method, as explained in chapter 5, is

estimated to be about 25 nanoseconds. As these speed errors are uncorrelated, the total speed

error for each segment may be taken as the square root of the sum of squares of the three










individual error components. This results in a speed error of less than 20% for all lightning

segments along the return-stroke channel for the summer 2005 data.


Figure 3-1: Overview of the ICLRT. Adapted from Olsen (2003)


Intercepltar


Figure 3-2: Tower launcher















:( P~)


,


Figure 3-3: Bucket truck launcher at ICLRT


Figure 3-4: The K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display Patterns (a) 2-frame mode.(b) 4-frame
mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode.


~i~ii~sc


c 6


d













L_


(~RIG IN)


Figure 3-5: The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC) -Block Diagram. 1. Input
Obj ective Lens; 2. Slit, Frame Window or Test obj ect; 3. ICT (31 -Photocathode; 32
Focusing Electrode; 33 Anode; 34,35 Shutter Plates; 36, 37 Deflection Plates;
D1-D3 Shielding Diaphragms; 38 Two MCPs; 39 Luminescent Screen); 4 -
CU (41 Shut Pulse Generator; 42 Sweep Genetrator); 5 Power Supply Unit; 6 -
CCD TV camera; 7 Video Port; 8 PC System Unit; 9 PC Display. Adapted from
K004M Documentation BIFO Company (2002).













BIFO Trigger
Input Channel




144




44






BIFO Gain
Reduction Channel


Input Channel #1


Input Channel #2 AD8564 High Speed
Quad Comparator


Figure 3-6: The BIFO K004M trigger circuit.













Ingge~r
... On-chip potentiorneter
..r toJiust the return-stroke
triggr level


S~nsorr 2 Inpml
Channllcl


On-cihl ]ip polliL'ioinder
to adjust the leader
trigger level


Leadler Triger


Figure 3-7: The BIFO K004M trigger circuit printed circuit board (PCB). Two avalanche
photodiode circuits can be connected to the two BNC connectors on the left hand side
of the PCB. The two BNC connectors on the right hand side represent the correlated
leader and return-stroke triggers respectively. Also, seen are two potentiometers that
can be used to adjust the leader and return-stroke trigger levels. The rest of the PCB
components and the general circuit operation are described in section 3.3.1.




8 pF 2.2 pF
C30737




332
10 nH A06A06 To the
150 V r-I -r gp = ~-22 Oscilloscope








Figure 3-8: Actively-coupled photodiode circuit used during the summer 2005 Camp Blanding
experiments as well as in the 2006 University of Florida experiments.










Avalanche Photodiodes
(APDs) in an array


Figure 3-9: Block diagram of the 2005 Camp Blanding and 2006 University of Florida
experiments. (APD= Avalanche Photodiode).



























Figure 3-10: The BIFO K004M and PS001 photosensor setup used in the summer 2006 cupola
lightning experiments.



































Figure 3-11: Complete experimental setup used during the summer 2006 experiments. Shown in
the figure are the LeCroy and the Yokogawa oscilloscopes mounted into a rack. The
avalanche photo diodes (not visible in this image) were fixed behind this rack. The
BIFO K004M camera and photosensor setup was placed near the rack in such a way
that the photodiode array and the BIFO were focused at the same point.


rrr~,r rsrrrr arr~ rs,,rr

Ti~i~































Figure 3-12: The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) array attached on the back side of the
oscilloscope rack shown in Figure 3-10 and used for the summer 2005, rocket-
triggered and summer 2006, natural lightning experiments. The angles viewed by the
sensors are given in Table 3-1.





2.0
LeCro! Scope 16)


I I /rC, L~ LeCroy (Scope 17)









66 68 70 72 74 76 78
Time, us

Figure 3-13: Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) recorded on the LeCroy DSOs mounted
on the rack shown in Figure 3-10 in summer 2005. There is a delay between the
waveforms even though they were simultaneously captured by the avalanche
photodiode array. This is termed time delay between scopes (Ot) and is included in
the return-stroke speed calculation formula.


L


t~




















648 66osod 68if 70 72 7 7 0 8




Timne, us

Figure 3-14: Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) shown in Figure 3-12 but filtered,
amplitude scaled, and shifted using Matlab sub-routines until the best possible
coincidence was achieved. This time shift is the time delay between scopes (C~t)
which is included in the return-stroke speed calculation formula.



Table 3-1: The ICLRT Summer 2005 avalanche photodiode array angles and viewed heights
along the lightning channel.
Viewed Channel Viewed Channel
APDs Angles Heights (July 2nd1 Heights (July 13th
(Degrees)
2005 to July 12th) 2005 Onwards)
1 1.3 16 11

2 3.6 44 30

3 6.8 84 57

4 9.3 116 78

5 13.6 171 115

6 19.1 245 165

7 24.0 314 212

8 27.0 360 243










Table 3-2: Interscope delay or "Time Delay Between Scopes" (Ot) between the LeCroy DSOs
estimated using the Summer 2005 calibration data..
LeCroy DSO Delay, ns

Scope 16 Scope 17 62
Scope 16 Scope 6 69
Scope 6 Scope 17 11









CHAPTER 4
DATA PRESENTATION

Optical records for 3 1 lightning flashes were obtained in Summer 2005. Of these 3 1, 8

were triggered lightning and the remaining 23 were natural lightning. The natural lightning

optical records are listed in Table 4-1. A listing of all triggered lightning optical records is given

in Table 4-2.

4.1 Triggered Lightning Events

4.1.1 Event F0501

Event F0501 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:22:46 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the mobile launcher which was 706 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes.

Figure 4-1 shows the optical waveforms captured on the photodiode array at different

heights along the lightning channel on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. One stroke was

observed for this event on the photodiode array. The angles of the individual tubes in the

photodiode array relative to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed

by each sensor are given in Table 4-3. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel

imaged by each sensor was 1 m. The LeCroy's have sampling rate of 500 MHz (that is, a time

interval of 2 nanoseconds between adj acent data points).

Figure 4-2 shows the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the

Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time interval

of 100 nanoseconds between adj acent data points). The smallest channel height seen by the

photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 3 and 4), that is, a

time interval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light (3 x 10s m/s).

Typical rise times for lightning events are on the order of microseconds, and hence the










Yokogawa waveforms have at least ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return-stroke

waveform. So, even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer points as compared

to the waveforms captured on the LeCroy's, the Yokogawa data are also suitable for data

analysis.

4.1.2 Event F0503

Event F0503 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:37:27 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the mobile launcher which was 706 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes.

Figures 4-3, 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6 show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array

at on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for all four return-strokes. Four strokes were observed for

this event on the photodiode array. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array

relative to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are

given in Table 4-3. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor

was 1 m. The LeCroys have sampling rate of 500 MHz (that is, a time interval of 2 nanoseconds

between adj acent data points).

Figures 4-7, 4-8, 4-9 and 4-10 show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiodes on

the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time

interval of 100 nanoseconds between adj acent data points). The smallest channel height seen by

the photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 3 and 4), that

is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light (3x10s m/s).

Typical rise-times for lightning events are on the order of micro seconds, and hence the

Yokogawa waveforms have at least ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return-stroke. So,

even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer points as compared to the

waveforms captured on the LeCroy's, the Yokogawa data are also suitable for data analysis.









4.1.3 Event F0510

Event F0510 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:03:33 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The

photodiode array was operated during this event.

One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-11 shows the

optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy

Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the

horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in

Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m.

There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning

event.

4.1.4 Event F0512

Event F0512 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20: 14:47 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The

photodiode array was operated during this event.

One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-12 shows the

optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy

Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the

horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in

Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m.

There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning

event.









4.1.5 Event F0514

Event F0514 was triggered on Aug 4, 2005 at 18:44:38 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The

photodiode array was operated during this event.

One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-13 shows the

optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy

Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the

horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in

Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m.

Figure 4-14 shows the optical waveforms captured by the sensors on the Yokogawa

oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time interval of 100

nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light. between adjacent data points). The

smallest channel height seen by the photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters

(between sensors 2 and 3), that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds. Typical rise-times for

lightning events are on the order of micro-seconds, and hence the Yokogawa waveforms have at

least ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return-stroke. So, even though the rising portion

of the waveforms have fewer points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroy's, the

Yokogawa data are also suitable for data analysis.

4.1.6 Event F0517

Event F0517 was triggered on Aug 4, 2005 at 19:32:47 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The

photodiode array was operated during this event.









Two strokes were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-15 and 4-16

show the optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the

LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative

to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown

in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1



Figures 4-17 and 4-18 show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiodes at various

heights along the lightning channel, on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a

sampling rate of 10 1VHz (that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of

propagation of light. between adj acent data points). The smallest channel height seen by the

photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 2 and 3), that is, a

time interval of 100 nanoseconds. Typical rise-times for lightning events are on the order of

micro-seconds, and hence the Yokogawa waveforms have at least ten to fifteen points on the

rising portion of return-stroke. So, even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer

points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroy's, the Yokogawa data are also

suitable for data analysis.

4.1.7 Event F0521

Event F0521 was triggered on August 5, 2005 at 21:30:57 UTC. The triggering rocket was

launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a

distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The

photodiode array was operated during this event.

One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-19 shows the

optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy

Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the










horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in

Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m.

There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning

event.

4.2 Natural Lightning Events

4.2.1 Event NATO503

Event NATO503 occurred on July 2, 2005 at 23:29: 13 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-20 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event clearly. No

significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.2 Event NATO504

Event NATO504 occurred on July 2, 2005 at 23:33:24 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-21 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscope. Except for sensor 1 (which

viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event clearly. No

significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.3 Event NATO506

Event NATO506 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:05:37 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-22 shows the optical waveforms










captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.4 Event NATO507

Event NATO507 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:06:05 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-23 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event. No

significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.5 Event NATO508

Event NATO508 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:13:14 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-24 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event clearly. No

significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.6 Event NATO509

Event NATO509 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:14:02 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during these event. Two

strokes were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-25 and 4-26 show the

optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for

both return the return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all

the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.









4.2.7 Event NAT0510

Event NATOS510 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:14:23 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-27 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscope. Except for sensor 1 (which

viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No

significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.8 Event NATO511

Event NATO51 1 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:16: 17 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-28 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.9 Event NAT0512

Event NATOS512 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:28:37 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. Two strokes were observed by the photodiode array for this

event. Two strokes were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-29 and 4-30

show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital

Oscilloscopes for both the return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel

height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event

is possible.









4.2.10 Event NAT0513

Event NATOS513 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:16:59 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-31 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.11 Event NAT0514

Event NATOS514 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:3 1:25 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event. Figure 4-32 shows the optical waveforms captured by the

photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the

lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant

analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.12 Event NAT0515

Event NATOS515 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:13:58 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode. Figure 4-33 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3 and 4

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.13 Event NAT0516

Event NATOS516 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:19:46 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-34 shows the optical waveforms










captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.14 Event NAT0517

Event NATOS517 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:20:40 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-35 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, and 4

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.15 Event NAT0518

Event NATOS518 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:21:24 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-36 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.

is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

4.2.16 Event NAT0519

Event NATOS519 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 16:56:56 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-37 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.









4.2.17 Event NAT0520

Event NAT0520 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:06:22 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-38 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible

4.2.18 Event NAT0521

Event NAT0521 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:21:55 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-39 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.19 Event NAT0522

Event NAT0522 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:23:57 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-40 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1

(which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly.

No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.20 Event NAT0523

Event NAT0523 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:25:22 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. Two strokes










were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-41 and 4-42 show the optical

waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for both the

return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors

were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.21 Event NAT0524

Event NAT0524 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:54:45 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-43 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.22 Event NAT0525

Event NAT0525 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:59:3 1 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-44 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

4.2.23 Event NAT0526

Event NAT0526 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 18:01:10 UTC. The termination point of the

lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke

was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-45 shows the optical waveforms

captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5

were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

























0 10

0 10


l =171 m


h=116ml


TI~me, as

Figure 4-1: Event F0501, photodiode array waveforms recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The
vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


I I I I I
|h=451 m

-20 -10 0 10 20 30

04 h= 360 m

-20 -10 0 10 20 30
00 III
04 h=314 m

-20 -10 0 10 20 30


~20 3


20 30


-20 -10


-20 -10
cI I


-20-10 010 ;0 j0

0 h=84 m





-20 -10 0 `10 20 30


t


-


90.4
0

0,4
0.2
0

h 0.4


1 h=245 m I





















lh=313 mi
h=313


0 6 10----


]h=116 mi


0 6 10


Time, us
Figure 4-2: Event F0501, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope
input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance
amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the
photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket launcher.


o | lh=44 m


~~~


-------11~~ ~--~~---- ~1- --~Y--C I I I
S O 5 10
n -I .._1


-5 0 5 10


-5 0 5 10

1h=3245 mi

-5 0 5 10

i l=171 mi
-5 0 5 10


-1


|h=84 m |


II I I I I


-5


I


1


I I I


|h=451 m|


0.6~
t
0.2t-~


__


06~
02t


~0
0


__


~L-------~-~-1













-4 -2 0 2 8 8
o m



2 0 2 6 8


om -|h=245 m

-4 02 2 4 6 8


> a =11


-4 -2 0 2 4 6 6

> h=84 m

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

> i h=44 mi
-4 -2 o 2 4 6 8
Time, us
Figure 4-3 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


~~I I I II~C-~`
0 2 4 B B


lh=116 mi
116m













~-Id Ih45 I II
46.91 46.92 46.93 46.94 46.95

> 0.4t h=360 m

48.91 46.92 48.93 48.94 48.95
>06 lh=314 mi

-0 ? I I I I-
46.91 46.92 46.93 46.94 46.95


46.91 46.92 46.93 46.94 46.95

>~ 0: lh=171 m
46.91 46.92 46.93 46.94 46.95

~os~ -h=116 m

46.91 46.92 46.93 46.94 46.95


~---~----------~


" "


48 93


46.92



46.92


48 94


4B 95


46.94 46.95


46.93
Time, ms


Figure 4-4 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.




























82


o :4 lh=245 mi


> 0.F h= 84 m


46.91

'= 4 4 m













134.30 134 31 134.32 142
or h=360 mn

1 34.30 1 34.31 1 34.32 1 34.33


1 34.30 1 34.31 1 34.32 1 34.33
0.2
Sh=245 mn
1 34.30 1 34.31 1 34.32 1 34.33


> c h=171m

134.30 134 31 134.32 134.33
o D2 h=116 m

134.30 134.31 134.32 -134.33
> -~ h=84 m

134.30 134 31 134.32 134.33

0 :4 h=44 mn
134.30 134.31 134.32 134.33
Time, ms
Figure 4-5 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


























83


>2 l.h=451 mTl





0-h--45 m

205 12 205.13 205.14 205.15 205 1 6

> 01 h=171 m

20.1 20.1 2051420.1520.

205.12 205.13 205.14 205.15 205.16

> t lh= 84 m


>0. h=4
0 .1 .. .1
205.12 205.13 205.14 205.15 205.18


Time, ms
Figure 4-6 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.












>orj 0 h=451 mi




-469.44 -469.42 -489.40 -46938 -4 69 36 -469 341 -46932 -469 ?3

>~s l0h=?45 mi


U- --


|l h=44 m


> ooo


> a


-469.44 -469.42 -469.40 -469 38 -469.36 -469.34 -469.32 -469.30
Time, ms
Figure 4-7 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


-469.443 -69.412 -469.40 -469 ?9 -F46 36 -469 3l -469 ?2 -F46 30

lh=171 mi

-489.44 -489.42 489.40 -469 38 -469 38 -469.34 -469 32 -469.30

h=116 mi

-489.44 -489.42 489.40 -469 3B -469.38 -469.34 -469.32 -469.30

1 h= 84 m


-469 40 -469.38 -469 36 -469.34 -469.32 -469 30












> 4 h=451 mi

-10 -5 D 5 10 16
> 4 h=360 mi

10 6 D 5 10 15

S0.2 h=314 mi
O I


I I 1
-10 -5 D 5 10 15


> |h=245 m




-0 -5 0 5 10 15

> h=116 m
-10 -5 D 5 10 16
IL"'"~ ---2 I~
> a |t h=84 m I-


10 6 D 5 10 16
Time, us
Figure 4-8 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


h4h=44 m











>ol lh=451 m|

87.37 87 378


>ol h=314 m|

87.37 87.378
>o h=214 m|

87.37 87.378
>ol 1h=171 m|

87.37 BT 378

lh=1716m
B7.37 BT 378

02- h=84 m |
87.37 BT 378



~0.2 1h=44 m |
87.37 BT 378
Time, ms
Figure 4-9 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.





U.1 I
/h=451 mi
15918 5 .195181 5.9 5.21825192
0.1158.18 158.185 1 58.13 158.195 158.92 158.205 158.21


S- h=314 m
159.18 158.185 158.19 158.195 15B.92 158 205 158.21
0.1-
h=214 m
158.18 158.185 158 19 158.195 15B.92 158.205 158.21



01-h=116 mi
158.18 158.185 158.19 158.195 158.92 158.205 158.21
I. I

159.18 158.195 158.19 158.195 15B.92 188.205 158.21


~------------~


158.18 158.185 158.19 158.195 15B.92 158.205 158.21
Time, ms
Figure 4-10 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The lightning channel termination point was the bucket
launcher.


>L a h=44 m












ibi4 m
34.134.231.33474347

341.71 341.72 341.73 314.74 314.75

0.1 -h=212 m


341.71 341 .72 341.73 314.74 314.75

o ~ h=2115m


341.71 341 72 341.73 314.74 314.75


341.71 341 72 341. 3 314 74 314.75

Sh=57 m


U.CrL klc-~H~clkc---'-~,- ---- T I I I I I I


341.71 341.72 341.73 314.74 314.75

>: lh=30 m
341.71 341.72 341.73 314.74 314.75
Time, ms
Figure 4-11 Event F0510, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope
input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance
amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the
photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher

























89















I I I I I----cc-r"rrll~ I I
425.72 425.73 425.74 425.75


I I I


I I I I I I


_1_


425.73
I I



425.73


425.75
I 'I-


45 73 _

425.73


ni -


I I I


425.74 425.75



425.74 425.75


425.73



425.73


425.74


1_


1 7 I I -t
425.74 425.75



425 74 425.75

I I


425.74 425.75


425.72


425.73


425 74


425.75


Time, ms

Figure 4-12 Event F0512, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope
input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance
amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the
photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher


0 "" h=304 m


[1- Ih24 m
Sh=242 m

425.72

h=212 m

425.72

> h=165m

425.72

> a" h=1'15 mi

425.72

> D.4 -h=78 m

425.72

> .5t h= 57 m

425.72

>o; 0. h=30 m





































Tc~--~


2 4


Figure 4-13 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale
indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope
input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance
amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the
photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher.


-10 -8 -6 -4 -2
Time, s


h=242 m

.10 -8 4 .4 2z 0 2 4 6

- h=212 mi

-10 -8 -8 -4 -2 0 2 4 6


o I----------""U""""~~"~"wU"""" I I j


-10 -8 -


I _I I
-10 -8 -6

Sh-78 m


I III I I I
-10 -8 -8 -4 -2 0 2 4 8


I, IIIr IIII "
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 8


s- h= 30 m


I I I I I I 1 1


- lh=165m


> 0.2



> o z

>0


~"lrZCJ1-nL^~~


h=115m


-4 -2 0 2 4 6



-4 -2 0 2 4


>0- t


J


0.


h-57 m












-8 24 -6- 2024681


> 02~ -h=212 m

-8 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

h=165 mi

-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 d 6 8 10l

> 02 -h=115 mi

-8 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

od Ih=78 m

-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

> 04~ h=57 m

8 -6 -4 .2 0 2 d 6 8 10

0os h=30 m

-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time, us
Figure 4-14 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher.








































Time, us
Figure 4-15 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the
oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-
impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of
the photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher.


-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 6 6
0 h= 30 mi

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6


0.6 -llilI
> ~h-242 m


4 -3 -1 21 02 35






















































Figure 4-16 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical
scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the

oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-

impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of

the photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher.


119.71 119.72
0.3-

o h=212 m

119.71 119.72
0.3-

0l 1 -h=165 m

119.71 119.72


o ~ h=115 m

119.71 119.72


0 h=78m m


119.71 119.72


~04t -h=57 m

119.71 119.72


o0 h=30 m


I 1 I r I I 1


>on2 h=242 mi


_


__ _-^ -- _---- ---


119.76 119.77


I I I I I I


I


I 1_ I _


1


119.75 119.76 119.77


U


_ 1 1 1 _1 ~


__ __


U I


119.73


119.74


119.75


119.76


119.77


119.73


119.74


119.75


119.73


119.74


119.75


119.76


119.77


119.73


I


119.74


I


119.73


119.74


119.75


119.76


119.77


119.75 11976S 119.T7


119.73


119.74


119.73


119.74 119.76
Time, seconds


119.71


119.72


119.76


119.77












osh=242 m

-119.78 -119.756 -119.754 -119.752 -119.750 -119.748 -119.746 -119.44
h=22

o h=2165m
1111
-119.7B -119.756 -119.754 -119.752 -119.750 -119.748 -119.746 -119.44

o~h=115 mi

-118.76 -119.756 -118.754 -119.752 -119.750 -118.748 -119.746 -119.44

~ h=78 ml

-119.76 -110.756 -110.754 -119.752 -110.750 -119.748 -119.746 -119.44

1 h=57 m

-110.76 -119.756 -119.754 -119.752 -119.750 -119.748 -11374-6 -119.-44

II Ih=30 m



-119.76 -119.756 -119.764 -119.752 -119.750 -119.748 -119.746 -119.44
Time, ms


0


0.
0


>


Figure 4-17 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope.
The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at
the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a
trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achieving higher
gain) of the photodiode array. The termination point was the tower launcher.












-. h 2 0 15-1 5 51
h=212 m

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 '10

a h= 165 mi

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10



> h=78 m

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10

>z lh=157 mi

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10

>0.2 | h=30 m

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10
Tieu
Fiue41 vn F0=517,toe2 htdoe ra eoddo h Ykgw silsoe
The verica scal iniae reatv lih nest ndi ie ntrm fvlaea




Figue 4-gaivn) of05 the k2 photodiode array. Th trintone pointa the toogwer laucher.cpe


















-4 -2 0 2 4 6
0 0

-4C6 -2 0 2 4




-4 -2 0 2 4 6

~0~5t h=30 m



-4 -2 0 2 4 6
Tim u
Fiur 4-1 Evn 02,htdoe ra eore nte eryDBs h etia cl
inicte reatv lih inest an isgvni em fvltg tteoclocp
inu.Ti eodwa banduiga atv ofgrton( rn-meac
amlfe wa usdi hepooidecrutfo civnghge ai)o h




Fiue -9 vntF52,photodiode array. h temiaton e pontwa the toe~ro lauche. Tevria c


h=242 m

























so


60 40 20 0 20
[}.2 I1 I_~. ~ I I --


BO


-40 -20 0 20
Time, us


Figure 4-20 Event NATO503 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination

point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


0.2
0,1
O i ~CCI--------i
~O 40 29 O 20 40 FO BO


I


___





I I


U----- --------- -----


40 6 80


0- -d 20 0 20 I r




-9 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 0


I I I --I


~ b'iC
0.05 t
OL~1 ~`~


-40 -a, o m 40


E


0.2

o

o.z


so


-40 -20 O


















































Figure 4-21 Event NATO504 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination

point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


0 20 4] 60 8 1M 12


-9 -40 -20
1- II I


1
0.5


-9 -40 -20 0 20 40 808 10 120

-II -d i I 11 I li l 14 11

III II

-- III.I di: 1i 1YII1Il

SI I I ~ I _I I I



-9 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 8 1M 120
0.61 III il


_I


-93 -40i -7 O Ti 40 Ri 14 19X 17
4 --


1111111 1|


I I I
-ED -40 -20 0 20
un l I I II I---


9 9 103 120


-9 h


JE


40 83 M 100 120


TT r
-40 -20


0 20
Time, us










































0.02


I I


I


. .


-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time, us

Figure 4-22 Event NATO506 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.





"nF~ """F"~rll~alp~rPpr"~~Flnr ~I Irr~rl


U.UL $L~'.+~I. ~cr~l~Ullsrtl~ll.ll ~RYI *IIULL~LLL~~I*L~~I~UW. LL~Il~Ulk~L~, ~L~aLL~r .Ilrll~LL~h~LL+IL~I .Irl
---' -'--' -- -1~- -----
0' I II I


P 'I"P1Fn' '1~'1~7mlT~''~ ~'"T~'T1["PPI*~'~a'"r"'"' 7 ~'1('~''F'rl'"' r'"rarlr -7Flrr ay!
SC~ C~ C~ 1IX~


~~~I~**WWL *LL~r~Yu. *l~~.ryurliil- .il~~Yr
i50 O EO 100

> ,~,,~~... ..._.,..i "uu*v ~ -L~~"'J~"-- ~~~~L-yrl


50 0 2D 10

0.01R" rm~~wm


-YI~IULII'~- --ULI- Y--Y --~-~VIY_IY~~ --C-~1LllyY I YY--


n 111111111-~1111~11 1 11


-60 0 so 19

0.02Ea .-*.L.I*Y _YX

450 0 5] in
01




Time, us

Figure 4-23 Event NATO507 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


^_I


I~ULI I~ ___I ~ _I


I LI


~ 011111





'O



0.


-40 -20


001i--- : '*~~l"u"' ~l~~"rli*~~~~-~j'l' "''
s~ o all W3 80 153 11~1
?nd


I I I I I '-
-do -;a 0 20 40 00 00 1a3 120

i i .Y-` -' ---' -.r~l~U1y~LLI......_~_~


-40 -20 0 20 40 60 8 1W 120


U -
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120


Y---- I--------^----"'~P-~~ "


~0~1- ~


~O O
1 r ~ L- ---I__----I-


I I I I I II
20 40 00 80 rm Ira


I


I L ~~~~IYYIY~ -_ I 1


Time


II--


~clF~


I I I I I


0.


10 60 RC~ I~XI


~
-40 -20 o


40 60O 60 100 120
us


Figure 4-24 Event NATO508 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


~ nt. .~.~~ _- -...L." FF





~~~"~-- e -~nl~,_l~ -*7


~~rU.I.~*IY~CL*LYUIUUIYIIIIYYII~Y* YIJW**II
O 20 40 60 80

,~:. ._.. .. ...u~ii.~.~yi.L~wi*i~.;i
lj lil ril dj W


0 20 40 60 80
tl I ~~ ~ _IY~_c.yll-~ ~L-". -JIY---~~LLL~~y~_ I.--YL L~-l--_ _


0 20 40 00 80
O~~T I T r -I
t ~L~C~` 1
0 20 40 00 00

c4D~ IC- -----~---~I~
C -~3 10 W

0.2D
0 rO IjC~ 80

II ~' ~-~---- 1
0 20 40 80 80


Time, us
Figure 4-25 Event NATO509, stroke 1, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates
relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to
the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor
cannot be determined.











> 0,~_.~~i.*.IYIYY-II
1 629 1 6291 1 6292 1 5293 1 5294 1 6295 1.5296 1 5297 1 5298 1 6299 1 53


1.529 1.5291 1 5292 1 5293 1.5294 1 5295 1.5296 1 5297 1.5298 1 5299 1.53






1 529 1 6291 1.6292 1 5293 1 5294 1 6295 1.5298 1 5297 1 6298 1 6299 1 53


I, II1
1 529 1 5291 1 5292 1 5293 1 5294 1 5295 1 5295 1 5297 1 5298 1 5299 1 53


1 62 9 21 169 23 159 25 159 27 169 29 15

1.529 1.5291 1.5292 1 23 15294 1 5295 1.5295 1 5297 1.5298 1 5299 1.53

Ok I W~r~Il I I I I I I


1.529 1.5291 1.5292 1.5293 1.5294 1.5295 1.5296 1 5297 1.5298 1 5299 1.53
Time, us

Figure 4-26 Event NATO509, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates
relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to
the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor
cannot be determined.



























104











0.03 ~1-- :-w--~~rz~iJ~
o
1I:I u Id ;r~ lit W Q `Ir 6~
0.01~ 1 ~~ ~:~~~JIIL.~~L~LIYL 1 ~-Y~L~~WUUI~!~L~LL~..~CLI\Y-


10 0 10 20 30 40 50 M 70 U0




-10 0 10 20 30 AD 50 6 70 00


-10 0 10 20 30 40 53 M 70 80
04-



-10 0 101 2 30 40 50 6 70 80


06- 1 I l v~I ll


10 0 10 20 30 40 50 6 70 U0
Time, us


1


Figure 4-27 Event NATOS510 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


~. ilt-- ~~ 'rlLLI~(II~




































I*lf**l*LII11)llll**~IL~


0 5D 19r




0 2O 19
0~_...*""""~~---


01~ 1 ~ ~~.~. --~ ~ -y~-u~ ~LL 1 -1
,rrC*C~C~cc`-- '~~~IIWruC~llk~*yyI
Dr------ ------------~ ~~ --- I I I
O 5il IOi
-C-Y--~--=-I- .. _. T


k~umrrr~nywwr


IIL~L~mae~C~PLI~n ~' _I _'I _I 'I
O ~D 1M
" ~--- '-I--`- -' "-- -


Time, us
Figure 4-28 Event NATOS511 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


~,~_............ .~


C~ r II Il~r~rrrr
I


*L~wW~~










o~YrlL1.*1CY~u~ ~Y'W1(IU~ .lYLUY~-~L~UlrrY~L*rYklLiuu~)LLr~*1IY


O I~ rC bil
r I ~ 1~ ~ IluL. I..... r r -I


rrkhn*Al~~


-20 0 20 40 U0 8


.L~y l.l*I U IIIW Y*


-20 0 20 40 &3 80





cano b~edtemied










-20 0 20 1076


2 j~;L*ll*n*


~B~LLII'IY"YY -'1Y LYLUIII~~II


































O


7 442 7.444 7.448 7.448 7.45 7 452
Time, us
Figure 4-30 Event NATOS512, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates
relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to
the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor
cannot be determined,


7,442 7.444 7 446 7 448 7 45 7.452












7 442 7 444 7 446 7 448 7 45 7 452


Okn*r*wlkr*rrrrumrrM~~ I I I I I -I
7,442 7.444 7.446 7.448 7.45 7,452

.I..... .L;-C"~"~"~"I--C~~
7.442 7.444 7446 7.448 7.45 7.452
I.1C I ~_.,~a~-.-Y-LL-- -~B~-~~LL__~Ly; L-C~-L~y-L-LLI.-- ..-d


~CI~h~~-


.~~-











~E.,U-I-L.~.-YL..' --7~k~L~1IIJCY~Y~k~wrmy
~ o 40 arj

~ .~y;---rU1LY.I~
-a ~ 20 40 60 so


zo o to 40 a, so

0.04o~.~_.I,...... 1---w~--- '-'1IYrr~
-20 O 20 40 so so
0.06 I I I I I
..llu*lrmnC~Y-YYYIIluu~nrrl*l
OP~.". ~ -rr--- "~LT~j~ I I I I d
-m o m 40 so so
nl~c. L I I I ,- -~- ~~F~IrrrrCwuuvr,~,,I .. -I


V----------- ,.....~c-~~I I I I I


C r I I--- --- 1


It II I


-M 0 M 40 80 80
Time, us
Figure 4-31 Event NATOS513 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.
























109


`~t


b


-c~C~CC~


I _1


02
o


71llW7










~I I


r oY"'""""rll~~- I -I
so .40 9 o 20 40 60 so Im
OE~3~ I I I I I Ir..~Y, -~L-- '--l~l~_L---- -y~LI L.~ I
,~uFm~T~--"` ~-~rr~rrS
I I I I I 1 -I
so -40 -20 O 20 40 60 80 1CO
III
"~'
uL--,. .,.._~I*I~LII~P~~' I I I I I I -1
so -4a -20 o To 40 so so rm
?3EI- I I Ly ?+,,,,.~. .,~.~*l~~r--l---luuL YIIYI Y~~IL-~*~~L ~& ~C _I ~~
t....---- "~~~" --1
o------- I-""'; ~ I I I I I I -1
so -40 -;O o 20 40 50 80 rca
0.1~ I I I ,.. _.I
~- t ~cr"vc~~ ~' ~'' ....'~.r
OCk~drrr~rrrF I I I I I I I
-00 -40 -20 O 20 40 60 80 1M


01OF
b0 -40 -ro o m 40 so ~n, Im

~01OF ~ic~-- ---: -1-~
~9 -40 .20 0 20 40 60 80 1CO

O.rOi )-rC~-- II ~L-


0 04


-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Tirne, us
Figure 4-32 Event NATOS514 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.

























110






















~II
0 10 20 30 401 50 60 70 80 90 100



-/IICI


:0.04
0.02



0.08
0.06
0.04







0.05


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time, us
Figure 4-33 Event NATOS515 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.
















0.3-
> 0.2
0.1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120


0.3
S0.2-
0.1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
0.6

0.4

0.2-

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time, us

Figure 4-34 Event NATOS516 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


































0 20 40 60 80 100


0.05





0.15


Time, us

Figure 4-35 Event NATOS517 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


-

-















































Time, us

Figure 4-36 Event NATOS518 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
pomnt


> 01


---~--1 I I I I 1
o ZO as so so Im
zE ~C~L~I~-C~C

It ---1
or --I I I I ~
ii at a~j In lal
,L I -- ''~--I -------1 -I

;C I`
OI -' I I I I
O m 40 so 80 100
7L. I -I ,----I'~ Y~---IY_~LI I 1 7


0 20 40 80 80 100



0 20 40 SO 80 100












0 20 40 80 so in


n


~ll~rC


O
o


o


o


n


~-I-













020 5 10 15 0 25 30














-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30





















0115





~C~LC~,


30 40 so o 70 s


-10 0 10 20


-10 0 10 20


30l 40 2j 0 70 so


~cc~-


~ Si~ CJ3 iO 'O ao


-10 0 10 20




10 0 10 20


40 50 80 7 8


Figure 4-38 Event NAT0520 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination

point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.









































116


30 40

Time, us


I


_ _ ~_ ~~ r _


~C1~


I


-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 96 70 83







10 0 10 0 30 40 50 60 70 s


U ----


;I-


II ~~ I


n_


I


_ ~


C1~
r


O----- L


_


AIArrmL~


"j 80 70 s


O

~20

O





o

o



















10 20 301 40 50 0 70 80 90 19



10 20 30 40J 2O M0 90 90 10



010 20 30 40 50 a 70 80 90 100

















0.117






















I


50 a 70 8


0 60 70 80


1~ 20 30 0 I

10 20 30 40


0 Mj 70 M0


00 8 70 80


~ 0.2~


l.S


~i-~-~


0.' r~


I L I





I I I I I


II


~ 02F


0


I I


0 --


I


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70



0 10) 0 ~ 30 0] 50 Ea 70 80


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7 8



0 10 20 30 40 50 U 70 80
Time, us
Figure 4-40 Event NAT0522 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.
































118


I 1


0 10 0 30 40



0 10 20 30 40











0 10 30 40 50E 10
h i A a l ll I l l II H I a l salil li III


0.
10~- 20 30 0 50 6 70





0 10 20 30 40~e 50 60 70 80


Figure 4-41 Event NAT0523, stroke 1, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates
relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to
the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor
cannot be determined.





71.2 71.22 71.24 71.26 71 28 71.30


71. 7.22 71.24 71 26 71 28 71.3

71.2 71.22 71.24 71 26 71 28 71 30
rI I I


------ ~r


71.2 71.22 71.24 71 26 71 28 71 30

0.1-c~"
71.2 71.22 71.24 71.26 71 28 71 30


71.2 71.22 71.24 71.28 71 28 71.30


71.2 71.22 71.24 71 98 71 28 71 .30
Time, ms
Figure 4-42 Event NAT0523, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates
relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to
the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor
cannot be determined.






























120


71.2 71 22 71.24 71.26 71 28 71.30


17 2 71 22 71 24 71 26 71 28 71 30


.ol .-


B
O


. .


>o~ ~l.~_, a .---- I -















-20 0 20 40 60 80




-20 0 20 40 60 80


~uLu~ rrrl


0.1

> 0.05


"1


0.2


40
Time, us


Figure 4-43 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.


0.04

0.02-


0.1 c~*

0.012
-20 0 20 40












0.06-
0.04
0.02-
0c"l"~
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100


0.1






0.1





0.15



0


-20 0 20 40 60 80 100


-20 0 20 40 60 80 100


40
Time, us


Figure 4-44 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.















0.06-
S0.04-
0.02

0 20 40 60 80 100
0.15

0.1

0.05


0 20 40 60 80 100

0.15

S0.1-
0.05

0 20 40 60 80 100


0.2




0 20 40 60 80 100
Time, us


Figure 4-45 Event NAT0526 photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light
intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination
point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be
determined.









Table 4-1: Optical Dataset for Natural Lightning, Summer 2005


Number
of Return
Strokes
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1


Time
(UTC)
23:29:13
23:33:24
21:05:37
21:06:05
21:13:14
21:14:02
21:14:23
21:16:17
21:16:59
21:28:47
21:31:25
23:13:58
23:19:46
23:20:40
23 :31 :24
16:56:57
17:06:24
17:21:56
17:23:58
17:25:22
17:54:46
17:59:42


Photo-diode
K004M
Array


Flash ID

NATO503
NATO504
NATO506
NATO507
NATO508
NATO509
NATO5010
NATO5011
NATO5012
NATO5013
NATO5014
NATO5015
NATO5016
NATO5017
NATO5018
NATO5019
NATO5020
NATO5021
NATO5022
NATO5023
NATO5024
NATO5025
NATO5026


Date

July.2,2005
July.2,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July. 14,2005
July.22,2005
July.22,2005
July.22,2005
July.23,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005
July.29,2005


Table 4-2: Optical Dataset for Triggered Lightning, Summer 2005


Number
of Return
Strokes
1
4
1
1
1
2
1
1


Flash
ID
F0501
F0503
F0510
F0512
F0514
F0517
F0520
F0521


Time
(UTC)
23:22:46
23:37:27
20:03:33
20:14:47
18:44:38
19:32:47
21:24:50
21:30:57


Photodiode
Array
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES


Date

July 2,2005
July 2,2005
July 31,2005
July 31,2005
August 4,2005
August 4,2005
August 5,2005
August 5,2005


K004M

NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO










Table 4-3: Event F0501 and F0503 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights
Sensor No. Tube Angle, Height Above
Degrees Ground, m
9 32.6 451
8 27 360
7 24 314
6 19.1 245
5 13.6 171
4 9.3 116
3 6.8 84
2 3.6 44

Table 4-4: Event F0510, F0512, F0514, F0517, F0520 and F0521 Slit Tube Angles and
Viewed Heights
Sensor Tube Angle, Height Above
No. Degrees Ground, m
9 32.6 304
8 27 242
7 24 212
6 19.1 165
5 13.6 115
4 9.3 78
3 6.8 57
2 3.6 30









CHAPTER 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

5.1 Methodology

Olsen (2003) analyzed the return-stroke propagation speeds of five strokes from a seven

stroke triggered lightning flash using a vertical array of photodiodes with a 2 ns sampling

interval. The seven stroke lightning flash was triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida during the

summer of 2003. Using the photodiode array, the one-dimensional speeds of return-stroke

propagation were measured in the lowest 170 m of the lightning channel for five out of the seven

return strokes, all of which transported negative charge to ground. The triggering rocket was

launched from a mobile launcher located approximately 300 m from the photodiode array. At

this distance, each of the diodes was able to view a vertical section of lightning channel

approximately 1 m in length. Various methods to determine the reference points were explored,

and the speeds were observed to vary by an order of magnitude depending on chosen method.

Speeds computed using these different reference points are presented in Table 2. 1.

Usually, reference points to be tracked on the return-stroke waveforms are chosen to

represent as closely as possible the time at which the wave-front first passes the viewed area. The

choice of the reference points affects the measured speed, as the shape and the amplitude of the

waveform change as it propagates up the channel. Thus it is necessary to select a reference point

that is identifiable in all the waveforms and is independent of these waveform characteristics.

One reasonable method was to detect the time when the waveform reached 10% of the maximum

optical intensity level (Olsen, 2003). This area of initial deflection is usually covered with noise

and so was not considered by Olsen (2003), whereas, the 20% of the peak optical intensity is less

affected by noise and was hence was chosen as one of the reference points. The 90% and the

maximum peak optical intensity time points have also been chosen as reference points with the










drawback that, these points occur towards the peak of the waveform, usually characterized by

slower rise times (more affected by dispersion). As a result, when these points were chosen as

references the speeds computed were much lower than expected. Another reference point was

located at the peak of the time derivative of the rising portion of the retumn-stroke waveform.

Since the 20% point is apparently, the least affected by either waveform noise or dispersion, only

the 20% point was used as a reference when computing the return stroke propagation speed

profile along the lightning channel. The 10%, 90%, maximum peak intensity, and light intensity

derivative peak points were used to only compute the overall retumn-stroke propagation speeds.

Olsen (2003) also used another technique called the slope-intercept method, intended to

determine the reference point for the return-stroke reasonably well even in the presence of noise.

As illustrated in the Figure 5-1, a straight, horizontal line was drawn on the waveform. The

vertical level of this line was chosen to pass through the center of the noise amplitude in the

region of minimum signal intensity just prior to the return-stroke waveform. In waveforms which

exhibit leader signatures, the region of lowest signal intensity between the leader peak and return

stroke peak (not shown in Figure 5-1) was chosen to be the region of minimum signal intensity.

This line was labeled as the "Reference Level Line". Next, a slanted line was drawn parallel and

congruent with the slope of the return-stroke rising portion, approximating as closely as possible

the mean of the waveform front over as long an interval as possible. This line is labeled

"Average Slope Line" in Figure 5-1. The intersection of these two lines, marked "R. S

Beginning" was taken to be the beginning of the return stroke waveform for each segment of the

channel .

5.2 Calibration of the Data Analysis Tools

In order to "calibrate" the analysis tools that were used in the analysis of the summer 2005

data, I re-computed the overall return stroke speeds computed by Olsen et al. (2003) for FO336.









Table 5-1 shows the percentage errors relative to the return-stroke propagation speeds previously

computed by Olsen et. al. (2003). Most of the errors are within 10 percent, with a few

exceptions. Also, it is important to note that the errors were apparently random in nature, which

confirms the accuracy (absence of bias) of the data analysis tools used in this thesis. A

systematic error in the analysis would often be either always positive or always negative. Figure

5-2 shows that the errors found do not follow such patterns, thus suggesting the absence of

systematic errors.

5.3 Filters Used for the Summer 2005 Data Analysis

A typical lightning light waveform is noisy, which makes the analysis of data for the

purpose of return stroke speed measurements very difficult. Therefore, filtering the lightning data

was essential Also, as seen in the spectrum of a typical lightning return stroke light waveform

shown in Figure 5-3; there is not much useful information above 12 MHz or so. This corresponds

to a rise time of 30 nanoseconds, whereas return stroke waveforms have rise times typically of

the order a few microseconds. The spectrum of all light waveforms considered here was similar

to that shown in Figure 5-3. Hence, filtering out information above 12 MHz did not affect the

rise time portion of any of the analyzed retumn-strokes. The following three filters were used for

the lightning data analysis, applied depending on noisiness of the waveform.

A moving average filter with the window size of 11 samples was used to filter FO336,

stroke 1 (captured at a height of 7 m above termination, Olsen (2003)) lightning waveform as

illustrated in Figure 5-4.The unfiltered and filtered waveforms are compared to check for any

changes in the initial rising portion of the return stroke. As one can see, the moving average filter

works well in averaging out the noise and providing a smooth waveform, while preserving all the

salient features of the waveform.









A 47th order low pass filter (Filter 1) with the stop band (the filter response goes from 0 db

attenuation to 98 db attenuation) extending from 3.75 IVHz tol2 IVHz was used to filter same

FO336, stroke 1 lightning waveform described above. The filtered and unfiltered waveforms

were overlaid to nullify the gain provided by the filter and to check for faithful reproduction of

salient feature of the initial rising portion of the return stroke waveform, as shown in Figure 5-5.

This filter was used whenever the moving average filter failed to provide a sufficiently smooth

waveform .

A 1011th order low pass filter (Filter 2) with a stop band extending from 1 IVHz to 1.75

IVHz was also used to filter FO336, stroke 1 lightning waveform. This filter was used only for

smoothing especially noisy waveforms, an example of which is shown in Figure 5-6. The filtered

and unfiltered waveforms in all the cases were overlaid on top of each other to check the quality

of filtering.

When using the above mentioned low pass filters, I scaled down all the filtered
waveforms to the original amplitude to nullify the gains and shifted to nullify the delays
caused by the respective filters.
5.4 Results of the Summer 2005 Data Analysis

In this section, the return-stroke propagation speeds of all the 2005 triggered lightning

strokes are presented. Light profiles of a total of 1 1 triggered lightning strokes were recorded on

the LeCroy DSOs and those of a total of 8 strokes were recorded on both LeCroy DSOs and

Yokogawa oscilloscopes.

The overall return-stroke speeds were computed only using LeCroy data because of their

higher sampling rate of 500 MHz, which corresponds to 2 nanoseconds between data points.

The Yokogawa DSO has a sampling rate of 10 1VHz, which corresponds to a time interval of 100

nanoseconds between data points. As explained in Chapter 3, although the LeCroy Scope 6










trigger timing was somewhat uncertain, this leads to an inaccuracy of not more than 6% in the

overall return-stroke speeds in the case of F05 17, Stroke 1, F05 17, Stroke 2 and F0521, Stroke 1.

The LeCroy data were also used to compute the return-stroke speed profiles as a function of

height. Yokogawa data were compared to the LeCroy data.

In computing return-stroke speeds at different heights using the 2005 LeCroy data, the

following two groups of channels were considered for computing two separate speed profiles.

Sensor 2 to Sensor 3 (44 m to 84 m), Sensor 3 to Sensor 4 (84 m to 116 m), Sensor 4 to Sensor 6

(116 m to 245 m), and Sensor 6 to Sensor 9 (245 m to 451 m) comprised one profile set. Sensor

5 to Sensor 7 (171 m to 314 m) and Sensor 7 to Sensor 8 (314 m to 360 m) comprised the second

profile set. These two profiles were then overlapped onto each other for comparison.

5.4.1 Event F0501

Event F0501 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:22:46 UTC. One stroke was observed

for this event on the photodiode array following the initial stage The overall return-stroke speeds

for this event using the different reference points explained in section 5-1 is given in Table 5-2.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given

in Table 5-3. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-7 with the 20% point as reference and in

Figure 5-8 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profiles shown in Figures 5-7 and

5-8 in blue are based on data from channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red

are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-4.

The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-9 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure

5-10 using the slope intercept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in

Table 5-5 and in Figure 5-11.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-6. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-12 using the 20%










point as reference and in Figure 5-13 using the slope intercept point as reference. The average of

these two profiles is given in Table 5-7 and the corresponding average retumn-stroke speed profile

based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-14.

Table 5-8 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data

and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the retumn-stroke speeds, leader

speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups .We

notice that for the same event, the leader propagation speeds are an order of magnitude lower

than the observed two-dimensional retumn-stroke speeds.Table 5-9 gives the return stroke optical

risetimes at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.

5.4.2 Event F0503

Event F0503 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:37:27 UTC. Four strokes were observed

for this event on the photodiode array following the initial stage. The segments which were

recorded correspond to strokes 1, 2, 3 and 4. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using

the different reference points explained in Section 5-1 are given in Table 5-10. The return-stroke

speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0503, stroke 1 are given in

Table 5-11. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-16 with the 20% point as reference and in

Figure 5-17 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profiles shown in Figures 5-16

and 5-17 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles

in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table

5-12. The corresponding average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-18 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-19 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-13 and in Figure 5-19.

The retumn-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-14. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-20 using the










20% point as reference and in Figure 5-21 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-15. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-22. Table 5-16 gives the return

stroke optical risetimes at various heights for the event F0503, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy

oscilloscope.

The return-stroke speeds at different heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0503,

stroke 2 are given in Table 5-17. Te speed profile is shown in Figure 5-25 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-26 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profiles shown

in Figures 5-25 and 5-26 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the

overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles

is given in Table 5-18. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-27 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-28 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-19 and in Figure 5-27.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-20. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-28 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-29 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-21. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-30.

Table 5-22 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy

data and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds,

leader speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two

groups. We notice that for the same event, the leader propagation speeds are an order of

magnitude lower than the observed two-dimensional return-stroke speeds. Table 5-23 gives the









return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, recorded by the

LeCroy oscilloscope.

The return-stroke speeds at different heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0503,

stroke 3 are given in Table 5-24. The speed profie is shown in Figure 5-31 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-32 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profie shown in

Figures 5-31 and 5-32 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the

overlaid profies in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profies

is given in Table 5-25. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-33 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-34 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-26 and in Figures 5-3 5.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-26. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-36 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-37 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-28. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile using Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-38. Table 5-29 gives the return stroke

optical risetimes at various heights for the event F0503, Stroke 3, recorded by the LeCroy

oscilloscope.

The return-stroke speeds at different heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0503,

stroke 4 are given in Table 5-30. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-39 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-40 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in

Figures 5-39 and 5-40 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the

overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles

is given in Table 5-31. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-41 with the 20% point as









reference and in Figure 5-42 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-32 and inFigure 5-43.

The return-stroke speeds at different heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-33. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-44 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-45 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-34. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-46. Table 5-35 gives the return

stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, recorded by the LeCroy

oscilloscope.

5.4.3 Event F0510

Event F0510 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:03:33 UTC. One stroke was observed

for this event by the photodiode array following the initial stage. The overall return-stroke speeds

for this event using the different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-36. The

return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in

Table 5-37. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-47 with the 20% point as reference and in

Figure 5-48 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-47

and 5-48 in blue are based on data from channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in

red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-

38. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-49 with the 20% point as reference and in

Figure 5-50 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The average of these

two profiles is given in Table 5-39 and in Figure 5-51. Table 5-40 gives the return stroke optical

risetimes at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1 recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.









5.4.4 Event F0512

Event F0512 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20: 14:47 UTC. One stroke was observed

for this event by the photodiode array. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the

different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-41. The return-stroke speeds at

various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-42. The speed

profile is shown in Figure 5-52 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-53 with the slope

intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-52 and 5-53 in blue are based on

data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid plot in red are based on data from

channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-43. The average speed

profile is shown in Figure 5-54 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-55 using the

slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given

in Table 5-44 and in Figure 5-56.

Table 5-45 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data

and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader

speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups. We

notice that for the same event, the leader propagation speeds are an order of magnitude lower

than the observed two-dimensional return-stroke speeds.

Table 5-46 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0512,

Stroke 1 recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.

5.4.5 Event F0514

Event F0514 was triggered on August 4, 2005 at 18:44:38 UTC. One stroke was observed

for this event by the photodiode array. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the

different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-47. The return-stroke speeds at

various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-48. The speed










profile is shown in Figure 5-57 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-58 with the slope

intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-57 and 5-58 in blue are based on

data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from

channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-49. The corresponding

average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-59 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-60

using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles

is given in Table 5-50 and in Figure 5-61.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-51. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-62 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-63 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-52. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-64.

Table 5-53 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data

and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader

speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups. We

notice that for the same event, the leader propagation speeds are an order of magnitude lower

than the observed two-dimensional return-stroke speeds.

Table 5-54 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0514,
Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.
5.4.6 Event F0517

Event F0517 was triggered on August 4, 2005 at 19:32:47 UTC. Two strokes was observed

for this event by the photodiode array. The segments which were recorded correspond to strokes

1, and 2. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the various reference points

explained in section is given in Table 5-55. The return-stroke speeds at different heights,










measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-56. The speed profile is shown in

Figure 5-65 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-66 with the slope intercept point as

the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-65 and 5-66 in blue are based on data from

channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7,

and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-57. The average speed profile is shown in

Figure 5-67 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-68 using the slope intercept point as

reference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-58 and in

Figure 5-69.

The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-59. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-70 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-71 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-60. The corresponding average return-stroke

speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-72.

Table 5-61 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0514,
Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.
The return-stroke speeds at different heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0517,

stroke 2 are given in Table 5-62. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-73 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-74 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in

Figures 5-73 and 5-74 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the

overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles

is given in Table 5-63. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-75 with the 20% point as

reference and in Figure 5-76 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-64 and in Figure 5-77.









The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event

are given in Table 5-65. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Figure 5-78 using the

20% point as reference and in Figure 5-79 using the slope intercept point as reference. The

average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-66 and in Figure 5-80.

Table 5-67 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data

and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with return-stroke speeds, leader

speeds were estimated using all the LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups.

We notice that for the same event, the leader propagation speeds are an order of magnitude lower

than the observed two-dimensional return-stroke speeds.

Table 5-68 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0517,

Stroke 2, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.

5.4.7 Event F0521

Event F0521 was triggered on August 5, 2005 at 21:30:57 UTC. One strokes was observed

for this event by the photodiode array. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the

different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-69. The return-stroke speeds at

various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-70. The speed

profile is shown in Figure 5-81 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-82 with the slope

intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-81 and 5-82 in blue are based on

data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from

channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-71. The average speed

profile is shown in Figure 5-83 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-84 using the

slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given

in Table 5-72 and in Figure 5-85.










Table 5-73 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0521,

Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.

5.5 Summary

The results from the above data analysis have been summarized in this section.

5.5.1 Return-Stroke Speeds

The return-stroke speed profiles for different groups of LeCroy channels, but the same

reference point were compared. Specifically, the 'solid red line' LeCroy return-stroke speed

profile obtained using the 20% point as reference was compared to the 'dashed blue line'

LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% point as reference. The percentage

differences were found to be less than 30% in all the cases except for the cases listed in Table 5-

74. Similarly, the 'solid red line' LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope

intercept point as reference was compared to the 'dashed blue line' LeCroy return-stroke speed

profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference. The percentage differences were

found to be less than 30% in all the cases again, except for the cases listed in Table 5-74.

The averaged LeCroy return-stroke speed profiles, obtained by averaging the 'solid red

line' and the 'dashed blue line' return-stroke speed profiles, using the 20% point as reference

were compared to the return-stroke speed profiles, obtained by averaging the 'solid red line' and

the 'dashed blue line' return-stroke speed profiles, using the slope intercept point as reference.

The percentage differences were found to be less than 30% in all the cases except for the events

listed in Table 5-75.

The return-stroke speed profiles measured using Yokogawa data, with the 20% as

reference were compared with the return-stroke speed profiles measured using Yokogawa data,

with the slope intercept point as reference. The percentage differences were less than 30% in all

the cases.









The return-stroke speed profiles obtained by computing the average of the speeds from the

two groups of LeCroy channels with the 20% point as reference were compared to the

Yokogawa data with the 20% point as reference. The percentage difference was less than 30%

for all the events. Similarly, the return-stroke speed profiles obtained by computing the average

of the speeds measured using LeCroy data with the slope intercept point as reference were

compared to the Yokogawa data with the 20% point as reference. The percentage differences

were less than 30% in all the cases.

The return-stroke speed profiles obtained by computing the average of the speeds obtained

using LeCroy data, with the 20% point and slope intercept point as reference, were compared to

the average return-stroke speeds computed similarly using Yokogawa data. The percentage

difference was less than 30% for the all the cases except for the events listed in Table 5-76.

In the slope-intercept method, the starting point will be reported earlier in time as the

risetime of the waveform gets slower. For this reason, it is believed that the speeds measured

using the slope intercept method overestimate the actual speed whereas the 20% of peak method

is believed to underestimate the actual 1-D speed (Olsen et al., 2004). Accordingly, the lower

and upper bounds on the mean return-stroke speeds using LeCroy and Yokogawa data. The mean

return-stroke speeds obtained using LeCroy data are found to vary between 1.48 x 10s m/s and

1.59 x 10s m/s. Whereas, the mean return-stroke speeds obtained using the Yokogawa data are

found to vary between 1.53 x 10s m/s and 1.61 x 10s m/s.

The mean return-stroke speed, obtained by computing the average of the return-speeds

using the 20% and slope intercept reference points, was 1.5 1 x 10" m/s in the case of LecCroy

data and 1.57 x 10s m/s in the case of Yokogawa data.









The return-stroke speed profiles had non-monotonic profiles in all of the events analyzed

in this chapter. The return-stroke speeds found to be higher in the middle of the lightning channel

and lower in either the bottom or the top portions of the lightning channel. Accordingly the

speeds were seen to vary between 1 x 10s m/s and 2 x 10s m/s using the LeCroy data, whereas

the seeds were seen to vary between 1 x 10s m/s and 2.2 x 10s m/s using the Yokogawa data.

5.5.2 Leader Speeds

Four triggered lightning events, F0501-Stroke 1 (July 2), F0512-Stroke 1 (July 31), F0514-

Stroke 1 (August 4) and F0503-Stroke 2 (July 2) exhibited distinct leader pulses before the onset

of the return-stroke pulse. The leader propagation speeds in all the cases were found to follow

the trend of lower speeds in the top portion of the lightning channel (452 m before July 13, 2005,

and 304 m after that) and higher speeds at the bottom of the channel (44 m before July 13, 2005,

and 30 m after that). The mean leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 10' m/s and 2.5 x

10' m/s.

5.5.3 Optical Risetimes

Return-stroke optical risetimes were computed for the summer 2005 triggered lightning

events. The optical risetimes in all the cases were found to follow the trend of smaller risetimes

in the bottom of the lightning channel (44 m before July 13 2005, and 30 m after that) and larger

risetimes in the top (452 m before July 13 2005, and 304 m after that) of the lightning channel.

The mean optical rise times were found to vary from 0.81 Cps at the bottom to 2.83 Cps at the top

of the channel.
















0.8-

Av~erage Slope
0.6 -Line


Reference Level
S0.4- Le~ader Line
Beginning



SR.S. Be~ginining h=184 m

46.938 46.939 46.940 46.941 46,.942 46.943 465.944
Time, ms
Figure 5-1: Illustration of the "slope-intercept" method. The optical waveform of Flash F0503,
Stroke 2 at a height of 84 m above the termination point is shown on a 7-Cls time-
scale. The beginning of the return-stroke is taken to be inter-section of the two (red)
dashed lines. This intersection point was tracked in estimating the return stroke speed
by the "slope-intercept" method on unfiltered waveforms. Vertical axis represents the
optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope.
































: Calibration of the data analysis tools used in this thesis. None of the errors cross the
20% level. The analysis was carried out for the summer 2003 FO336 flash which had
5 return strokes for which speeds were measured. No data for stroke 3 are available.
The y-axis indicates the percentage error in the overall return-stroke propagation
speed values computed in this thesis relative to the corresponding values computed by
Olsen et. al. (2003).


B


Figure 5-2


2 3 4 5
Stroke Order













ar
7t


3
p
P
e
n


100 1JO


Figure 5-3: Spectrum of light waveform of flash FO336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above
termination) lightning waveform. The event was triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida during the
summer of 2003 and was subsequently analyzed by Olsen (2003).


Figure 5-4: Event FO336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above termination) from Summer 2003,
filtered using a moving average filter (with window size of 11 samples). The filtered
waveform is overlaid over the original waveform to check the quality of filtering.
Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope.












I lrII I II n


FO3361 Stroke 5


Onpnal Wardonn
-- Filtered Warelonnl


Time. ms


r.l II


Figure 5-5: Event FO336, Stroke 5 (at a height of 117 m above termination) from Summer 2003,
filtered using Filter 1. The filtered waveform is overlaid over the original waveform
to check the quality of filtering. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts
at the input of the oscilloscope.


0.
-;I


/ ,. ..



/ FIltered farefouln


FO503, Stroke: 4


1/\1


h= 84 m


205.132 205.134 20il36 h
Time. ms


201138g 205.140 205.142


Figure 5-6: Event F0504, Stroke 4 (at a height of 84 m above termination) from Summer 2005
filtered using Filter 2. The filtered waveform is overlaid over the original waveform
to check the quality of filtering. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts
at the input of the oscilloscope.


I =117 tu


























0.4-

LeCroy

0 50 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Heighit. m

Figure 5-7: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, and
dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


O 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height. m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-8: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0501, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels
2,3,4,6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.






















0o .5 -L




Le-Croy

0 100 200 300 400 500
Height, m

Figure 5-9: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-7).




2,5
F0501 Stroke I
Slope Intercept
2 -Reference Point









0.5-

LeCroyt

0 100 200 300 400 5)
Height, m

Figure 5-10: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of two profiles
shown in Figure 5-8).






















900.5 ----




0.

0 100 200 300 400 500
Height. m

Figure 5-11:. Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-9 and 5-10, for event F0501, Stroke 1.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height. m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-12: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.


F0501, Stroke 1
20% Reference Point













Yoko0gatia






























0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-13: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.


200 300
Height. m


Figure 5-14: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-12 and 5-13, for event F0501, Stroke 1.


FO50LStrk
Slope Intercept
Reference Point













Yokogawa









































0.2
Le9ro



0 50 00 15 200 50 30 350400 40 50

Hegt m.


Figure -15: Reurn-stokesedpoiesotie sn te2%rfrne on o vn









Figue F0503 ReunStroke 1.Solid proflsoted liecorsponds toe data from e~reoyhnnel 2,r 3,4,6


and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


F0103. Str~l\e

Slope Intercept

Reference Point


I I
I r
I I
I I
I I
I I

I I
i I
I I
I I
i I
r ------r
I I
I I
I I
i I
r r
r
I r
I I
I ,
i I
r
I r
r r
I I
I I
r
I I
LeCrov
I I
I I
I I


0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Heighit. m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-16: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for

event F0503, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,

4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.






























0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-17: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-15).


F0503, Stroke 1
Slope Intercept
Reference Point












Lee rov


ii





o


0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Heighit. m


350 400 450


Figure 5-18: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-16).
















1.6



1.41





0I 0.6

0.4

0.2


100 200 300 400
Height. m


Figure 5-19: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-17 and 5-18, for event F0503, Stroke 1.




2.5

FO0503. Srrolke I
20!' o Refernce: Point
2.0


200 250 300
Height. m


Figure 5-20: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Strokeli, based on Yokogawa data.


Point as Reference for Event F0503,






























Yokogawa

0 50 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Height, m

Figure 5-21: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Strokeli, based on Yokogawa data.



2.5

F0503. Stroke I











0CZ 10 00 30 40 0
Hegt

Fiue522 eunstoesed rfl otie y optn aeaeoftesedscmue
usn th 0 n lp necp ehdbsdo ooaadtsoni
Fiue -0ad52,freetF53 toe1




























LeCrov

050 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Height, m

Figure 5-23: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0503, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6,
and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


O 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-24: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.




























0 100 2(10 300 400
Height, m


Figure 5-25: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-23).


O 100 200 300 400 500
Height, m

Figure 5-26: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-24).

























0.5-

LeCroy

0 100 200 300 400 500
Height. m

Figure 5-27: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-25 and 5-26, for event F0503, Stroke 2.


O 100 200 300 400 500
H-eights, m

Figure 5-28: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.













F0503, Stroke 2
Slope Intercept
Reference Point


Yokogawa
350 400 450 500


0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


Figure 5-29: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.



2.5

FO503. Stroke 2






m 2-





0.5-



0 100 200 300 400 500
H-eight, m
Figure 5-30: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-28 and 5-29, for event F0503, Stroke 2.












































1.5












LeCroy



0 50 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Height, m




Figure 5-31: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event

F0503, Stroke 3. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6,

and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


Slope Intercept

Reference Point


~---------C-------i




I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
L
L
I
I
I
r
I
I
I
I
I
I

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Heinlit. m


Figure 5-32: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for

event F0503, Stroke 3. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,

4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


I
I
I
L
I
I
L
L
I
I
r
L
L
I
I
I
I
I
LeCrov
I
I

350 400 450 500

























Lerro
0.

0 100 200 300 400 0
Height, m


Figure 5-33: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-31).




























0 LeCrov
0 100( 200 300o 400 500
Height, m1



Figure 5-34: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-32).




2.5

FO503 Stro~ke 3








0.5 -5





LcC royr

0 100 200 300 400 500
H-eight, m

Figure 5-3 5: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-33 and 5-34, for event F0503, Stroke 3.



























0.5-


0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m

Figure 5-36: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data.





2.5



2.0 -


350 400 450 500


Point as Reference for Event F0503,


ept
,int


Yokgaw
350 400 450 500


0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


Figure 5-37: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data.


F0503. Stnro
Slope Interc~
Reference Po























0 .5-






Yokogawa

0 100 200 300 400 500
Height.. m

Figure 5-3 8: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-36 and 5-37, for event F0503, Stroke 3.



2.5
Fi0503, Stroke 4
20% Reference Point
2.0













LeCroy

0 50 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Height, m

Figure 5-39: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0503, Stroke 4. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6,
and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.




























LeCroy

050 100 1501 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Height, m

Figure 5-40: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0503, Stroke 4. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.



2.5
Fi0503, Stroke 4
20% Reference Point


2-1,








0.5-

LeCrov

0 100 200 300 400 500
H-eight, m

Figure 5-41: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503,
Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-39).




















000 1.5





0.5-

LeCrov

0 100 200 300 400 500
H-eight, m

Figure 5-42: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-40).




2.5

F0503. Stroke 4




2-t






0.5-

LeCroy

0 100 200 300 40)0 500
Height, m

Figure 5-43: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-41 and 5-42, for event F0503, Stroke 4.














20% Reference Point













Yokogawa


0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


350 400 450 500


Point as Reference for Event F0503,


Figure 5-44: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data.


O 50 100 150 200 250 300
Height, m


350 400 450 500


Figure 5-45: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503,
Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data.



















00 1.5






0.5-

Yokogawa

0 100 200 300 400 500
Heigrht. m
Figure 5-46: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-44 and 5-45, for event F0503, Stroke 4.


O 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Height, m


Figure 5.47: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0510, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6,
and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.






























0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Height, m

Figure 5.48: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0510, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.






F0510. Stroke 1
Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.5





Lero



0.


0 50 100 150 200 250 3010 3:40
H-eight, m

Figure 5-49: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0510,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-47).

















el.5 I






Lero



0,


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350r
H-eight, m

Figure 5-50: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F05 10, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-48).







1.8C I I 0).10, Stroke 1

1.6

1.4 -






0.6

0.4

0.2~ LeCroy

0 50 100 150 200 250
Height, m

Figure 5-51: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-54 and 5-55, for event F0510, Stroke 1.






























0 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5.52: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0512, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and
6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


O 50 100 150 200
Height. m


250 300 350


Figure 5-53: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0512, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

















00 1.5 L






0.5-

LeCrov

0 50 100 150 200 250r
H-eight, m

Figure 5-54: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0512,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-52).


Fc0512, Stroke 1
Slope Intercept
Reference Point












LeCrov


0.5 E


0 50 100 150 200 250
H-eight, m

Figure 5-55: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F05 12, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-53).

















































0 50 100 150 200

H-eight, m


Figure 5-56: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed

using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures

5-59 and 5-60, for event F0512, Stroke 1.


F051-I. Stluke

20% Rrfi~r~nci: Point





I -----I
I I
I I
I I
I I
1 I
I I
I I

I I i

I I
1 1
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I r
I I
I I
I I
I I

I LeCroy
I


0 50 100 150 200

Height. m


250 300 350


Figure 5-57: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event

F0514, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and

6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


















FliS IL~~ Strc~ke

Slope Intercept
Reference Point

I
I,,,,,,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
r
I
I
r
I
I
r
I
I

LcCrov


0 50 100 150 200

Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-58: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for

event F0514, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,

4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


F0514I. Stroke I
20% Refe~rence: Point





















LeCroy


0.5 E


0 50 100 150 200 250

H-eight, m


Figure 5-59: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0514,

Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in

Figure 5-57).













FliS 14L. Stro~ke 1
Slope Intercept
' Reference Point












LeCroy


0.5 E


0 50 100 150 200 250r
H-eight, m

Figure 5-60: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F05 14, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-58).




2.5

F0514-. Stroke



2-I~








0.5-

LeCroy

0 50 100 150 200 250
Height, m

Figure 5-61: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-59 and 5-60, for event F0514, Stroke 1.












L.V


F!Li 4 Stroke 1
20%'l Reference Point















Yokogaw~a


1.sk


0 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-62: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.





2, 5



2.0



S1.5


1.


Point as Reference for Event F0514,


150 200


Figure 5-63: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0514,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.




























0.5-


Yokogawa

0 50 100 150 200 250
Height. m

Figure 5-64: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-62 and 5-63, for event F0514, Stroke 1.




2.0

1.g. F0517, Stroke 1
20% Reference Point


1.4-





0.4
0 2Lero

S10 5 0 5 0 5 0 5
Hegt m,
Fiur 5-5 eun-toesee rflsobanduin h 0 efrnepin o vn
F01,Srk .Sldrdln orsod odt rmLao hnes2 ,4 n
6,addse lelnet aafo ery hnes5 ,ad8






























0 50 100 150 2001 250 300 350
Height, m

Figure 5-66: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0517, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.




1.8
F0517. Strokce 1
1.6C 20 Reference
Point
1.4






*ts 0.6


0.4


0.
0 50 100 150 200 2:40
H-eight, m

Figure 5-67: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-65).
























*t 0.6


0.4

0.2
LeCroy

0 50 100 150 200 250r
H-eight, m

Figure 5-68: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F05 17, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-66).







1.8C -~ F17. Stroke

1.6


1.4 .2





vi 0.6

0.4

0.2
LeCroy

0 50 100 150 200 200
Height, m

Figure 5-69: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-67 and 5-68, for event F0517, Stroke 1.






























0 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-70: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.


Point as Reference for Event F0517,


O 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-71: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517,
Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.





















0.5 -i




0.

0 50 100 150 200 250
Height. m

Figure 5-72: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-70 and 5-71, for event F0517, Stroke 1.



2.5
FO517, Stroke 2
20% Re~ference Point
2.0


ii








LeCroy

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Height, m

Figure 5-73: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0517, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and
6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.




























LeCrov

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Height, m

Figure 5-74: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0517, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


F(,5i17, Stroke 2
20% Reference Point













LeCroy


0.5 E


0 50 100 150 200 250
H-eight, m

Figure 5-75: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517,
Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two groups of channels
shown in Figure 5-73).



















000 1.5





0.5-

Leeroy

0 50 100 150 200 250r
H-eight, m

Figure 5-76: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F05 17, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two groups
of channels shown in Figure 5-74).


oo 1.






0.5


100 150
Height, m


Figure 5-77: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-75 and 5-76, for event F0517, Stroke 2.






























00 50 100 150 200
Height, m

Figure 5-78: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20%
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.


Point as Reference for Event F0517,


O 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-79: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517,
Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.



















r

oc 1.5
o

X
13
c 1
I,
a
vl


0 50 100 150 200 250

Height, m

Figure 5-80: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in
Figures 5-78 and 5-79, for event F0517, Stroke 2.


O 50 100 150 200
Heights, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-81: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event
F0521, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and
6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.






























0 50 100 150 200
Height, m


250 300 350


Figure 5-82: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for
event F0521, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3,
4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.


FO521, Stroke 1
20%a Reference
Point












LeCroy


100 150 200 250
Height. m


Figure 5-83: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0521,
Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles shown in
Figure 5-81).












FO52 L Stroke 1
Slope Intercept
Reference Point -












LeCroy


0.5 E


50 100 150
H-eight, m


200


Figure 5-84: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope intercept point as reference for
event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (combination of the two profiles
shown in Figure 5-82).


100 150 200 250
Height, m


Figure 5-85: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed
using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures
5-91 and 5-92, for event F0521, Stroke 1.


F0521, Stroke 1













LeCroy










Table 5-1: Percent error in the RS speeds computed in this thesis relative to those obtained by
Olsen et. al. (2003). The errors appear to be random in nature, suggesting that there is
no systematic bias introduced by the data analysis tools adopted in this thesis.
10% Point 20% Point 90% Point Max Point Slope Peak
(% Error) (% Error) (% Error) (% Error) Intercept dL/dt


Point
(% Error)
0.0
0.0
-1.3
0.0
0.0


(% Error)


Stroke 1
Stroke 2
Stroke 4
Stroke 5
Stroke 6


+13.0
-3.5
+7.2
+5.0
-7.7


-8.4
-3.0
+2.7
0.0
0.0


+8.1
-7.6
+7.0
+17.0
+15


-5.0
+5.4
-3.5
+11
-1.4


-13.0
0.0
0.0
-11.4
-7.6


Table 5-2: Overall return-stroke
F0501, Stroke 1.
Reference Speed,
Point x10" m/s
10% 2.39
20% 1.73
90% 1.07
Max 0.69
Slope Intercept 2.13
Max d/dt 1.37


speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event


Table 5-3: Return-stroke speed profiles for event F0501, Stroke
from two groups of channels.


1, obtained using LeCroy data


Speed, x 10s m/s

20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point


Graphical
representation
in Figures
5-7 and 5-8


Solid red line


Dashed blue
line


Height
Channels Range, m


44-84
84-116
116-245
245-451
171-314
314-360


0.99
1.18
1.91
1.39
1.71
1.35


1.11
1.25
2.17
1.49
1.97
1.32










Table 5-4: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels shown in Table 5-3.

.T:--- Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
0.99
1.18
1.91
1.81
1.55
1.37
1.39


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.11
1.25
2.17
2.07
1.73
1.41
1.49


Table 5-5: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-4 (see
also Figure 5-11).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s


44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


1.05
1.22
2.04
1.94
1.64
1.39
1.44


Table 5-6: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data (see also Figure 5-14).


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.02
1.15
1.88
1.90
2.29
1.71
1.45


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.11
1.05
1.94
2.09
2.26
1.86
1.63










Table 5-7: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-6.
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.07
84-116 1.10
116-171 1.91
171-245 2.00
245-314 2.28
314-360 1.79
360-451 1.54


Table 5-8: Leader speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, measured using LeCroy
data.
Height Leader Speed,
Range, m x106 m/S
44-84 29.40
84-116 33.10
116-171 28.20
171-245 21.10
245-314 12.00
314-360 13.40
360-451 14.70

Table 5-9: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0501,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
44 0.69
84 1.07
116 1.14
171 1.92
245 1.97
314 2.32
360 2.53
451 3.50










Table 5-10: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event
F0503. This event had four return strokes.
Stroke 1 Stroke 2 Stroke 3 Stroke 4
Refrene~ontSpeed, x10 m/s Speed, x10 m/s Speed, x10 m/s Speed, x10 m/s
10% 0.89 1.42 1.06 1.17
20% 0.79 1.08 0.93 0.97
90% 0.55 0.67 0.68 0.65
Max 0.38 0.38 0.51 0.57
Slope Intercept 0.99 1.34 1.26 1.39
Max d/dt 1.00 1.07 1.02 1.08


Table 5-11: Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Graphical
representation in
Figures 5-10 and
5-11


Solid red line



Dashed blue line


Height
Channel s
Range, m


20% Reference
Point


Slope Intercept
Reference Point


44-84
84-116
116-245
245-451
171-314
314-360


1.36
1.69
1.80
1.02
1.23
0.75


1.47
1.60
1.85
1.37
1.42
0.86


Table 5-12: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.36
1.69
1.80
1.52
1.13
0.89
1.02


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.47
1.60
1.85
1.64
1.40
1.11
1.37










Table 5-13: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-12 (see
also Figure 5-19).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.42
84-116 1.65
116-171 1.83
171-245 1.58
245-314 1.26
314-360 1.00
360-451 1.20

Table 5-14: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Height
Range, m 20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point
44-84 1.10 1.18
84-116 1.57 1.78
116-171 2.15 2.12
171-245 1.68 1.80
245-314 1.30 1.36
314-360 0.78 0.87
360-451 0.86 0.73


Table 5-15: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-14
(see also Figure 5-22).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.14
84-116 1.68
116-171 2.14
171-245 1.74
245-314 1.33
314-360 0.83
360-451 0.80











Table 5-16: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
44 1.05
84 1.62
116 1.59
171 1.72
245 2.16
314 2.84
360 2.71
451 3.63

Table 5-17: Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Graphical
Height
Chanel Range, m 20% Reference Slope Intercept representation in
Point Reference Point Figures 5-18 and
5-19
2-3 44-84 0.88 1.00
3-4 84-116 1.50 1.80
Solid line in red
4-6 116-245 2.05 2.03
6-9 245-451 1.27 1.53
5-7 171-314 1.70 2.05.
Dashed blue line
7-9 314-360 1.49 1.52


Table 5-18: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.

Speed, x 10s m/s
Height
Range, m 20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point
44-84 0.88 1.00
84-116 1.50 1.80
116-171 2.05 2.03
171-245 1.88 2.04
245-314 1.49 1.79
314-360 1.38 1.53
360-451 1.27 1.53























































1.92
2.13
1.75
1.65
1.70
1.56


Table 5-19: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-18 (see
also Figure 5-27).


Height
Range, m
44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


Speed,
x 10s m/s


0.94
1.65
2.04
1.96
1.64
1.46
1.39


Table 5-20: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.30
1.89
2.08
1.70
1.64
1.65
1.51


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.52
1.95
2.18
1.80
1.65
1.74
1.58


Table 5-21: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-20
(see also Figure 5-30).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.41


84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451










Table 5-22: Leader speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, measured using LeCroy
data.
Height Leader
Range, m Speed, x106 m/S
44-84 28.65
84-116 34.98
116-171 31.47
171-245 30.51
245-314 29.17
314-360 11.72
360-451 14.40


Table 5-23: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 2.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
44 0.63
84 1.01
116 1.33
171 1.57
245 2.06
314 2.55
360 2.59
451 3.66

Table 5-24: Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Graphical
representation
Channel s Heights 20% Reference Slope Intercept shown in
Range, m Point Reference Point Figures 5-26
and 5-27
2-3 44-84 1.43 1.50
3-4 84-116 1.93 1.97.
Solid red line
4-6 116-245 2.26 2.08
6-9 245-451 1.13 1.37
5-7 171-314 1.34 1.39 Dashed line in
7-8 314-360 1.07 1.38 blue










Table 5-25: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.

.,,~ Speed, x 10s m/s


gie t;"
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.43
1.93
2.26
1.80
1.23
1.10
1.13


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.50
1.97
2.08
1.74
1.38
1.38
1.37


Table 5-26: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-25 (see
also Figure 5-35).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.47


84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


1.95
2.17
1.77
1.31
1.24
1.10


Table 5-27: Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
Yokogawa data.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Heights
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.16
2.38
2.44
1.93
1.60
1.52
1.07


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.26
2.48
2.33
1.83
1.75
1.58
1.28










Table 5-28: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-27
(see also Figure 5-3 8).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s


44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360


1.21
2.43
2.39
1.88
1.68
1.55


360-451 1.33


Table 5-29: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 3.


Height Above
Ground, m
44
84
116
171
245
314
360
451


Return Stroke
Risetime, Cls
0.79
1.28
1.41
1.64
1.84
2.43
2.47
3.13


Table 5-30: Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Graphical
representation in
Figures 5-34
and 5-35


Solid line in red


Dashed blue hine


Heights
Channel s
Range, m


20% Reference
Point


Slope Intercept
Reference Point


44-84
84-116
116-245
245-451
171-314
314-360


1.40
1.79
2.22
1.22
1.27
0.90


1.55
1.85
2.07
1.21
1.31
1.20











Table 5-31: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels


Speed, x 108 m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.40
1.78
2.21
1.74
1.25
1.06
1.22


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.55
1.85
2.07
1.69
1.26
1.20
1.21


Table 5-32: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-3 1 (see
also Finure 5-43).


Height
Range, m
44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


Speed,
x 10s m/s
1.48
1.82
2.14
1.72
1.25
1.13
1.15


Table 5-33: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503 Stroke 4, obtained
using Yokogawa data.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
1.14
2.38
1.89
1.76
1.60
1.14
1.07


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.20
2.46
1.84
1.79
1.76
1.24
1.22










Table 5-34: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-33
(see also Figure 5-46).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
44-84 1.17


84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


2.42
1.87
1.78
1.68
1.19
1.22


Table 5-35: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503,
Stroke 4.


Height Above
Ground, m
44
84
116
171
245
314
360
451


Return Stroke
Risetime, Cls
0.98
1.34
1.50
1.75
2.20
3.41
3.13
3.63


Table 5-36: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event
F0510, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels.


Speed, x108 m/s

1.60
1.50
1.00
0.78
1.67
1.47


Reference Point

10%
20%
90%
Max
Slope Intercept
Max d/dt



























Table 5-38: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.


Table 5-37: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.
Speed, x 10 mXr/s Graphi cal


representation
in Figures 5-42
and 5-43


Solid line in red


Dashed blue
line


20% Reference
Point


Slope Intercept
Reference Point


Channels Heights, m


30-57
57-78
78-165
165-304
115-212
212-243


1.37
1.42
1.96
1.20
1.48
1.19


1.08
1.36
1.82
1.25
1.76
1.24


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243
243-304


20% Reference
Point
1.37
1.42
1.96
1.72
1.34
1.19
1.20


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.08
1.36
1.82
1.79
1.51
1.24
1.25


Table 5-39: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-3 8 (see
also Figure 5-51).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 1.23
57-78 1.39


78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243
243-304


1.89
1.76
1.42
1.22
1.23










Table 5-40: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0510,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 0.69
57 1.14
78 1.38
115 1.29
165 1.64
212 1.83
243 1.82
304 2.05

Table 5-41: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0512, Stroke 1.

Reference Point Speed, x10" m/s

10% 2.33
20% 2.26
90% 1.31
Max% 0.84
Slope Intercept 2.32
Max d/dt 2.23


Table 5-42: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Chnnls He.h Sl pe Graphical
Changes eiht20 Iterptrepresentation in
Rang, mReference Reference Figures 5-46 and
PitPoint 5-47
2-3 30-57 1.30 1.37
3-4 57-78 1.52 1.64 Solid line in red
4-6 78-165 2.07 2.18
5-7 115-212 1.82 2.16.
Dashed blue line
7-8 212-243 1.12 1.55










Table 5-43: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.

Speed, x 10s m/s
Height
Range, m 20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point
30-57 1.30 1.37
57-78 1.52 1.64
78-115 2.07 2.18
115-165 1.95 2.17
165-212 1.82 2.16
212-243 1.12 1.55


Table 5-44: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-43 (see
also Figure 5-56).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 1.34
57-78 1.58
78-115 2.13
115-165 2.06
165-212 1.99
212-243 1.34


Table 5-45: Leader speeds at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy
data.
Height Leader Speed,
Range, m x106 m/S
30-57 29.36
57-78 31.09
78-115 15.73
115-165 17.03
165-212 12.53
212-243 12.19
243-360 13.72










Table 5-46: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0512,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 0.71
57 0.99
78 1.21
115 1.41
165 1.88
212 1.90
243 2.16
304 2.38


Table 5-47 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0514, Stroke 1.
Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s
10% 1.46
20% 1.58
90% 0.50
Max% 0.75
Slope Intercept 2.18
Max d/dt 1.30

Table 5-48: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.

Speed, x 10s m/s.
Graphical
representation
Heights, m 20 Reference Slope Intercept.
Channels in Figures
Point Reference Point
5-50 and 5-51
2-3 30-57 1.04 1.21.
Solid line in
3-4 57-78 0.77 0.85
red
4-6 78-165 2.08 2.12
5-7 115-212 1.67 1.79 Dashed blue
7-8 212-243 1.63 1.56 line










Table 5-49 Return-stroke speed profile for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two groups of LeCroy channels.

.,, ~ Speed, x 10s m/s


HeightL
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


20% Reference
Point
1.04
0.77
2.08
1.86
1.67
1.63


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.21
0.85
2.12
1.96
1.79
1.56


Table 5-50: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-49 (see
also Figure 5-61).
Height Speed,
Range. m x 10s m/s


30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


1.13
0.81
2.10
1.92
1.73
1.60


Table 5-51: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
usinn Yokonawa data.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


20% Reference
Point
0.83
1.05
1.90
1.82
1.47
1.25


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
0.91
1.12
2.04
1.89
1.76
1.30











Table 5-52: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-5 1
(see also Figure 5-64).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 0.87
57-78 1.09
78-115 1.97
115-165 1.86
165-212 1.62
212-243 1.28


Table 5-53: Leader speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy
data.
Height Leader Speed,
Range, m x106 m/S
30-57 27.44
57-78 28.50
78-115 27.59
115-165 23.69
165-212 19.01
212-243 18.81


Table 5-54: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0514,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 0.69
57 1.13
78 1.13
115 1.34
165 1.68
212 1.91
243 2.02










Table 5-55: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0517, Stroke 1.
Stroke 1 Stroke 2
Reference Point ape~l~i Sedx0ms
10% 1.45 1.47
20% 1.37 1.35
90% 0.93 0.85
Max% 0.71 0.55
Slope Intercept 1.48 1.47
Max d/dt 1.21 1.35


Table 5-56: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Graphical
representation
shown in
Figures 5-58
and 5-59

Solid line in
red

Dashed blue
line


Channels Heights, m


20 Reference
Point


Slope Intercept
Reference Point


30-57
57-78
78-165
115-212
212-243


0.75
1.29
1.78
1.58
0.76


1.01
1.24
1.80
1.59
1.54


Table 5-57: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data
from the two LeCroy channels.

.P rh Speed, x 10s m/s


Ie gjll
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


20% Reference
Point
0.75
1.29
1.78
1.68
1.58
0.76


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.01
1.24
1.80
1.70
1.59
1.54










Table 5-58: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-57 (see
also Figure 5-69).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 0.88
57-78 1.27
78-115 1.79
115-165 1.69
165-212 1.59
212-243 1.15


Table 5-59: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained
using Yokogawa data.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Height
Range, m 20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point
30-57 0.90 1.12
57-78 2.33 2.41
78-115 1.84 2.00
115-165 1.47 1.51
165-212 1.08 1.11
212-243 0.97 0.99




Table 5-60: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-59
(see also Figure 5-72).
Height Speed,
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 1.01
57-78 2.37
78-115 1.92
115-165 1.49
165-212 1.10
212-243 0.91










Table 5-61: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 1.06
57 1.41
78 1.65
115 1.71
165 2.16
212 2.47
243 3.00


Table 5-62: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.


Speed, x 10s m/s


Graphical
representation
shown in
Figures 5-66
and 5-67

Solid line in
red

Dashed blue
line


Slope
Intercept
Reference
Point
0.65
1.85
2.10
1.63
1.52


Channels Heights, m


2-3 30-57
3-4 57-78
4-6 78-165
5-7 115-212
7-8 212-243


20 Reference
Point

0.53
1.62
2.11
1.37
1.48


Table 5-63: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data
from the two LeCroy channels.

.,,h Speed, x 10X m/s


LIe gll
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


20% Reference
Point
0.53
1.62
2.11
1.74
1.37
1.48


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
0.65
1.85
2.10
1.87
1.63
1.52










Table 5-64: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-63 (see
also Figure 5-77).
Height Speed
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 0.59
57-78 1.73
78-115 2.11
115-165 1.80
165-212 1.50
212-243 1.50


Table 5-65: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained
using Yokogawa data.
Speed, x 10s m/s
Heihts m 20% Reference Slope Intercept
Point Reference Point
30-57 0.56 0.63
57-78 1.71 1.90
78-115 2.16 2.23
115-165 1.84 1.87
165-212 1.30 1.42
212-243 0.85 0.88

Table 5-66: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using
Yokogawa data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-65
(see also Figure 5-80).
Height Speed
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 0.60
57-78 1.81
78-115 2.20
115-165 1.86
165-212 1.36
212-243 0.87










Table 5-67: Leader speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy
data.
Height Leader Speed,
Range, m x106 m/S
30-57 7.94
57-78 6.16
78-115 5.24
115-165 4.18
165-212 4.29
212-243 4.90


Table 5-68: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517,
Stroke 2.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 0.78
57 1.14
78 1.35
115 1.44
165 1.67
212 1.86
243 2.07

Table 5-69: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event
F0521, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels.
Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s
10% 1.80
20% 1.86
90% 0.91
Max% 0.69
Slope Intercept 2.11
Max d/dt 1.50










Table 5-70: Return-stroke speed profile at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained
using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.
Speed, x 10s m/s


Graphical
representation
n in Figures
5-74 and
5-75

Solid line in
red

Dashed blue
line


Channel s


Heights, m


20 Reference
Point


Slope Intercept
Reference Point


30-57
57-78
78-165
115-212
212-243


1.22
1.19
1.78
1.82
1.40


1.27
1.36
2.08
1.79
1.54


Table 5-71: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0521,
from the two LeCroy channels.


Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data


Speed, x 10s m/s


Height
Range, m

30-57
57-78
78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


20% Reference
Point
1.22
1.19
1.78
1.80
1.82
1.40


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
1.27
1.36
2.08
1.94
1.79
1.54


Table 5-72: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0521 Stroke 1, obtained using
LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-71 (see
also Figure 5-85).
Height Speed
Range, m x 10s m/s
30-57 1.25
57-78 1.28


78-115
115-165
165-212
212-243


1.93
1.87
1.81
1.47










Table 5-73: The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0521,
Stroke 1.
Height Above Return Stroke
Ground, m Risetime, Cls
30 0.80
57 1.35
78 1.67
115 1.88
165 1.88
212 1.94
243 2.02


Table 5-74: Return-stroke speed profiles based on data from the two groups of LeCroy channels
with differences exceeding 30%.


LeCroy Event


Channels Under
Compari son


Reference Point


20%
Slope Intercept
20%
Slope Intercept
20%
Slope Intercept
20%
20%


Percentage Difference
Between Two Profiles


46%
38%
69%
49%
74%
58%
32%
35 %


F0503, Stroke 1

F0503, Stroke 3

F0503, Stroke 4

F0510, Stroke 1
F0517, Stroke 2


Table 5-75: Return-stroke speed profile based on averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy
channels using the 20% and slope intercept points as references with percentage
difference above 30%.


Reference Points
Channel Under Comparison


Percentage
Difference


LeCroy Event


F0517, Stroke 1


20% and Slope Intercept
50%
Reference Points









Table 5-76: Return-stroke speed profiles based on averaging data from the LeCroy and
Yokogawa channels with percentage difference above 30%.

Percentage
Event Channel Difference

F0503, Stroke 1 8-9 51%
F0517, Stroke 1 3-4 47%
F0517, Stroke 2 7-8 73%









CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In the summer 2005 experimental setup block diagram, shown in Figure 3-8, the LeCroy

Scope 16 was used to trigger the LeCroy Scope 6 which would then trigger the LeCroy Scope

17. The oscilloscopes had their own internal finite time delays which resulted in an inter-scope

delay when one scope was used to trigger another. The time delays between the LeCroy DSOs

were computed as shown in Table 3-2. and the return-stroke speed equation was modified to take

the finite inter-scope time delays along with the time correction factors as described in section

3.6.

Optical records of 3 1 lightning flashes were obtained in Summer 2005. Of these 3 1, 8 were

triggered lightning and the remaining 23 were natural lightning events. The natural lightning

optical records could not be analyzed for return-stroke speeds because the distance to the channel

termination was unknown. But the natural-lightning light profiles (a light profile represents a set

of light waveforms recorded for each lightning event at various heights) have been presented for

visual analysis in chapter 4.

A novel trigger circuit (functional block diagram is shown in Figure 3-6) was prototyped

and designed by the author in Fall 2007. This simple trigger circuit allows full control over the

triggering light levels. The triggering levels can be changed suitably to use either leader or

return-stroke as trigger event for the K004M Image Converter Camera.

The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC) was operated in University of Florida

lightning experiments in 2006. The K004M and its original triggering device PS001 settings

along with the captured natural lightning streak images are shown in Appendix A. The record

length was 10.67 um for all the captured events. There were no avalanche photodiode records

that corresponded to the natural lightning recorded by the BIFO K004M camera. The height of









the channel could not be estimated, because the distance to the channel was unknown in all the

cases. Also, the images were either highly saturated or barely visible in most of the cases,

therefore rendering them not suitable for any sort of detailed data analysis or image processing

for characterization of the lightning channel. The shape of the lightning channel however was

identifiable in some of the cases.

Five triggered-lightning events, F0501-Stroke 1 (July 2, 2005), F0503-Stroke 2 (July 2,

2005), F0512-Stroke 1 (July 31, 2005), F0514-Stroke 1 (August 4, 2005) and F0517-Stroke2

(August 4, 2005) exhibited distinct leader pulses before the onset of the return-stroke pulse. The

leader propagation speeds in all the cases were found to follow the trend of lower values in the

top portion of the lightning channel (452 m before July,13 2005, and 304 m after that) and

higher values at the bottom (44 m before July,13 2005, and 30 m after that) of the lightning

channel. The mean leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 107 m/s and 2.5 x 107 m/s.

Return-stroke optical risetimes were measured for the summer 2005 triggered lightning

events. The optical risetimes in all the cases were found to follow the trend of smaller values in

the bottom section of the lightning channel (44 m before July, 13 2005, and 30 m after that) and

larger values in the top section (452 m before July, 13 2005, and 304 m after that) of the

lightning channel. The mean optical risetimes were found to vary from 0.81 Cps to 2.83 Cps at the

channel bottom and top, respectively.

The mean return-stroke speeds based on 11 triggered-lightning events in Summer 2005,

obtained by computing the average of the return-speeds based on the 20% and slope intercept

reference point methods, was 1.51 x 10s m/s in the case of LecCroy data and 1.57 x 10s m/s in

the case of Yokogawa data.









As explained in section 5.5.1, return-stroke speeds measured using the 20% and slope

intercept methods can be viewed as a lower bound and an upper bound, respectively.

Accordingly, the mean return-stroke speeds obtained using LeCroy data are found to vary

between 1.48 x 10s m/s and 1.59 x 10s m/s. Similarly, the mean return-stroke speeds obtained

using the Yokogawa data are found to vary between 1.53 x 10s m/s and 1.61 x 10s m/s.

Retumn-stroke speed profiles based on the 11 triggered-lightning events from Summer 2005

were computed using data captured using the LeCroy as well as the Yokogawa DSOs, as

explained in chapter 3, section 3.5. The LeCroy DSOs have a high sampling rate of 500 1VHz or

2 nanoseconds between data points, whereas the Yokogawa DSO has a lower sampling rate of

10 1VHz or 100 nanoseconds between data points, as explained in section 5.4,. Therefore, the

return-stroke speeds obtained using the LeCroy data have a higher degree of accuracy as

compared to the return-stroke speeds computed using the Yokogawa data. The only purpose of

computing the retumn-stroke speeds using Yokogawa data (presented in chapter 5) was to check

against the more accurate return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the LeCroy DSOs.

The percentage difference between the average return-stroke speed profiles based on the LeCroy

and Yokogawa data was found to be within 30% in all the cases, except for 3 cases shown in

Table-5-76.

Therefore, in the following we will only discuss the more accurate LeCroy retumn-stroke

speed profiles. An interesting trend was observed in the retumn-stroke speeds obtained by

computing the average of speeds. This trend concerns the variation in measured return-stroke

speeds in the seven channel segments between 44 m and 451 m (before July 13, 2005) and six

channel segments between 30 m and 243 m (after July 13, 2005), as listed in Tables 6-1 and 6-2.

The speed profile was non-monotonic with height in all the cases presented in Tables 6-1










and 6-2. This observation is consistent with the 2003 results previously published by Olsen et al.

(2004). For the strokes listed in Table 6-1, it was observed that the measured speed was greatest

in the 116-171 m segment, and lowest in 314-451 m and 44-84 m segments. This suggests that

the speed reaches a maximum value at a height between 116 m and 171 m in these five strokes.

The speed gradually increases with increasing height starting from the 84-116 m segment, and

gradually decreases with decreasing height starting from the 171-245 m segment.

For the strokes listed in Table 6-2, it was observed that the measured speed was greatest in

the third segment between 78-115 m, and lowest in the segments between 212-243 m and 30-57

m. This suggests that the speed reaches a maximum value at a height between 78-165 m in these

six strokes. The speed gradually increases from the second segment, between 57-78 m, and

gradually decreases from the fifth segment between 165-212 m and is the lowest in the

uppermost segment between 212-243 m.



Table 6-1: Return-stroke speeds at various heights, obtained by computing the average of the
speeds based on the 20% and slope intercept methods, found using the LeCroy data
for triggered-lightning events before July 13, 2005. The speeds listed for the various
events are to be multiplied by 10s m/s.
Event IDHeight Range, m
44-84 84-116 116-171 171-245 245-314 314-360 360-451
F0501,S1, 1.04 1.22 2.04 1.94 1.64 1.39 1.44
F0503,S1 1.42 1.65 1.83 1.58 1.26 1.00 1.20
F0503,S2 0.94 1.65 2.04 1.96 1.64 1.46 1.39
F0503,S3 1.47 1.95 2.17 1.77 1.31 1.24 1.10
F0503,S4 1.48 1.82 2.14 1.72 1.25 1.13 1.15










Table 6-2: Return-stroke speeds at various heights obtained by computing the average of the
speeds based on the 20% and slope intercept methods, found using the LeCroy data
computed for triggered-lightning events after July 13, 2005. The speeds listed for the
various events are to be multiplied by 108 m/s.
Event IDHeight Range, m
30-57 57-78 78-115 115-165 165-212 212-243 243-304
F0510,S1 1.23 1.39 1.89 1.76 1.42 1.22 1.23
F0512,S1 1.34 1.58 2.13 2.06 1.99 1.34
F0514,S1 1.13 0.81 2.10 1.92 1.73 1.60
F0517,S1 0.88 1.27 1.79 1.69 1.59 1.15
F0517,S2 0.59 1.73 2.11 1.80 1.50 1.50
F0521,S1 1.22 1.19 1.78 1.8 1.82 1.4









CHAPTER 7
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The primary purpose of the BIFO KO4M camera was to obtain images of the lightning

attachment process for natural lighting as well as triggered-lightning events. However, operating

the K004M camera was a non-trivial task during both the Summer 2006 natural-lightning

experiments at the University of Florida by the author and the Summer 2005 triggered-lightning

experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida, by Robert Olsen. This could mainly be attributed to the

inability of accurately determining the optimal exposure settings on the K004M camera during

triggered-lightning events in Summer 2005 at Camp Blanding, Florida. In the case of capturing

natural lightning events, this was further exacerbated by the variability of brightness in lightning

flashes as well as the variability of the distance to the channel terminations. Thus, the same gain

settings would not yield useful images for different natural lightning events. During the Summer

2006 lightning experiments, a triangular platform with wheels was prototyped and built by the

author upon which, PS001 photosensor was mounted on top of the K004M camera, as shown in

Figure 3-10. The platform made it possible to quickly re-orient the K004M camera depending on

the nature of the lightning storm in Summer 2006. The oscilloscopes were mounted on a

different rack and had to be repositioned near the K004M camera for easy access. In future, the

apparatus could be improved by providing a means of mounting the K004M camera, the

photosensor as well as the oscilloscopes onto the same platform so that the process of

reorientation would become less time consuming, thus yielding a higher number of natural

lightning captures.

During the summer 2006 lightning experiments, the PS001 was seen to be incapable of

triggering the K004M based on leader optical intensity irrespective of position of the gain setting

knobs. Modifying the internal circuitry of the PS001 was as a non-trivial j ob. Therefore the









author prototyped and build a simple and novel triggering circuit that has easy accessibility to the

on-chip potentiometers which provide flexibility of setting different reference voltages for the

leader and return-stroke channels. This provides the capability of triggering the K004M based on

the leader optical intensity. A detailed description of the circuit topology and its operation has

been given in section 3.3.1 and Figure 3-6. The circuit can now replace the PS001 photosensor

and can be set to trigger the K004M camera on leader (high gain) as well as return-stroke stage.

Deciding on appropriate lightning levels is not an easy task. Field testing of the new trigger

circuit is planned for Summer 2008.

This circuit could be further improved as shown in Figure 7.1. A microcontroller such as a

member of Microchip's PIC family (PICF816FFA) of low power, high speed microcontrollers

may be employed. An LCD keypad and a high-speed digital-to-analog controller (DAC) could

be interfaced with the microcontroller. The microcontroller could be programmed and configured

in such a way, that all the bias voltages for each of the avalanche photodiodes could be set

accurately via the keypad without having to adjust it manually. The bias voltages could then be

monitored via the LCD display instead of checking the bias voltage by manually probing with

the aid of a voltmeter/multi-meter. The reference voltage levels (Vrenl and Vref2) could also be set

accurately in a similar manner. These voltage reference levels can be quickly set with the aid of

the keypad to either increase or decrease the sensitivity of the triggering circuit (formed by the

avalanche photodiode and pre-amp stage). The above circuit could be integrated on-chip using

careful layout techniques to ensure proper symmetry. This could then be mounted into a case

upon which the keypad and LCD could be firmly mounted.

The spatial resolution of the K004M system is currently limited by the resolution of the

camera readout (640x480 pixels), which is lower than the K004M resolution in the vertical











dimension. Several commercially-available cameras have image resolution greater than the

K004M's inherent physical resolution, and many are available with digital connections such as

USB2 and FireWire (IEEE1394) which allow for the direct connection of the camera to a PC for

recording and archiving purposes. Also, the software used by the K004M camera, KLEN could

be replaced by a robust and easy to use graphical user interface using Labview. Additional

features like automatic triggering and simple image processing functionalities could be build into

such a graphical user interface.


v,. 4 0.6 pF 0.6 pF
C30807

170 [0~ 170 In
BIPO Trigger




and~I Line e


170 KG17 I


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VantWns2V Vm

Fiue -: eomedd rggrcici for the BFO K04 camera.









APPENDIX A
THE BIFO K004M IMAGES CAPTURED INT SUMMER 2006 INT GAINESVELLE.

The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC) was operated in University of Florida

lightning experiments in 2006. All the images of the lightning events captured by the K004M are

shown in figures below. The captions on each image indicate the date of the capture. The K004M

was operating in streak mode, with a linear sweep rate of 3 Cps/cm this corresponded with a

record length of 10.67 us. The objective lens was an Industar-61 50 mm, f2.8 lens. The focus was

adjusted for maximum resolution at the launch tower. The trigger level on the camera was set to

approximately 4.5. The MCP1 DYN GAIN knob was set to maximum. The MCP1 STAT GAIN

was set to an angle similar to the hour hand of a clock reading 3:30. The MCP2 STAT GAIN

knob was set to an angle similar to 3:30, and the MCP2 DYN GAIN knob was set fractionally

higher than zero. The PS001 trigger unit was adjusted so that both trigger level knobs were at

their minimum settings. Each photo-sensor on the PS001 was operated with a 28 mm lens, and

both slit adjusters were set to +1.5. There were no avalanche photodiode records that

corresponded to the natural lightning events captured on the K004M camera, therefore the time

range of the captured streak images could not be estimated. Also, the images were either highly

saturated or barely visible in most of the cases, therefore rendering them unsuitable for any sort

of detailed data analysis or image processing for characterization of the natural lightning

channel. The shape of the lightning channel, however was identifiable in some of the cases.





























Time


Figure A-1: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
April 21, 2006.


Time


Figure A-2: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
April 21, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-3: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Time


Figure A-4: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-5: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Time


Figure A-6: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-7: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Time


Figure A-8: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.






























Time


Figure A-9: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Tilme


Figure A-10: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-11: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


TIime


Figure A-12: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.




























Time


Figure A-13: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


~Time


Figure A-14: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-15: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Time


Figure A-16: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.





























Time


Figure A-17: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
July 17, 2006.


Time


Figure A-18: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
August 4, 2006.




















L


Time


Figure A-19: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in
August 21, 2006.










APPENDIX B
FILTERS USED FOR PROCESSING THE SUMMER 2005 LIGHTNING DATA

As mentioned in chapter 5, a typical lightning light waveform is noisy, which makes the

analysis of data for the purpose of return stroke speed measurements very difficult. Therefore,

filtering the lightning data without affecting the risetimes of the waveforms was essential.

Accordingly, three filters, the moving average filter, the low pass filter 1 and the low pass filter

2, were used when computing the return-stroke propagation speeds for the summer 2005 data

captured on the LeCroy and Yokogawa oscilloscopes at various heights along the lightning

channel as shown in the tables below.



Table B-1: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0501,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.
Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-2
Low Pass Filter-2
Low Pass Filter-2
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-2: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.
Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average










Table B-3:


Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


Height
Range, m 20% Reference
Point
44-84 Low Pass Filter-2
84-116 Low Pass Filter-2
116-171 Low Pass Filter-1
171-245 Low Pass Filter-1
245-314 Low Pass Filter-1
314-360 Low Pass Filter-1
360-451 Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-4: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 3 measured usinn LeCrov data.


Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451

Table B-5:



Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-2
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503,
Stroke 4 measured using LeCrov data.


Filter


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average










Table B-6:


Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0510,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


Height


Range, m 20% Reference
Point
44-84 Low Pass Filter-1
84-116 Low Pass Filter-1
116-171 Low Pass Filter-1
171-245 Low Pass Filter-1
245-314 Low Pass Filter-1
314-360 Low Pass Filter-1
360-451 Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-7:


Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0512,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


Height
Range, m 20% Reference
Point
44-84 Low Pass Filter-1
84-116 Low Pass Filter-1
116-171 Low Pass Filter-1
171-245 Low Pass Filter-1
245-314 Low Pass Filter-1
314-360 Low Pass Filter-1
360-451 Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-8:



Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0514,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average










Table B-9: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-10: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517,
Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data.


Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-2
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average


Table B-11: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0521,
Stroke 1 measured using LeCrov data.


Filter


Height
Range, m

44-84
84-116
116-171
171-245
245-314
314-360
360-451


20% Reference
Point
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1
Low Pass Filter-1


Slope Intercept
Reference Point
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average
Moving Average










LIST OF REFERENCES


BIFO Company, K004M Universal Image Converter Camera Documentation, BIFO Company,
Moscow, Russia, 2002.

Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orville (1984), Three Unusual strokes in a Triggered Lightning Flash, J.
Geophysis. Res.,89, 73 11-73 16.

Idone, V. P., R.E. Orville, Pierre Hubert, Louis Barret and Andre Eybert-Berard (1984),
Correlated Observations of Three Triggered Lightning Flashes, J. Geophysis. Res., 89, 1385-
1394.

Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orville (1987), The Propagation Speed of a Positive Lightning Retumn
Stroke, J. Geophysis. Res., 14, 1150-1153.

Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orville (1992), Return stroke velocities in the Thunderstorm Research
International Program (TRIP), J. Geophysis. Res., 87, 12, 23-28.

Jordan, D. M. (1990), Relative light intensity and electric field intensity of cloud to ground
lightning, Ph. D. thes~i\, Univ. ofFla., Gainesville.

Jordan, D. M., V. A. Rakov, William H. Beasley, and Marting A. Uman (1997), Luminosity
characteristics of dart leaders and return strokes in natural lightning, J. Geophysis. Res., 102,
22025-22032

Jordan, D. M., V. P. Idone, V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, W. H. Beasley and H. Jurenka (1992),
Observed Dart Leader Speed in Natural and Triggered Lightning, J. Geophysis. Res., 97, 9951-
9957.

Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1989a), Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current
estimates in natural and triggered lightning, J. Geophysis. Res., 94(D11), 13,237-13,247.

Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1989b), A photoelectric technique for measuring lightning-
channel propagation velocities from a mobile laboratory, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 439-
445.

Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1997), Two dimensional speeds and optical risetime estimates for
natural and triggered dart leaders, J.Geophys. Res., 102, 13,673-13,684.

McEachron, K. (1939), Lightning to the Empire State Building, J. Franklin Inst., 22 7, 149-217.

Olsen, R. C. III (2003), Optical Characterization of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Camp
Blanding, Florida, M~aster 's Thesis, Univ. ofFla., Gainesville.

Olsen, R. C. III, D. M. Jordan, V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, N. Grimes (2004), Observed one-
dimensional return stroke propagation speeds in the bottom 170 m of a rocket-triggered lightning
channel, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31, L1607.










Rakov V. A., and M. A. Uman (2003), Lightning: Physics and Effects, Cambridge University
Press, Camnbridge

Schonland, B. (1956), The Lightning Discharge, Handb. Phys.

Thomson, E. M., M. A. Uman and W. H. Beasley (1985), Speed and Current for Lightning
Stepped Leaders Near Ground as Determind From Electric Field Records, J. Geophysis. Res., 90,
8136-8142.

Uman, M. A. (1987), The Lightning Discharge, Academic, San Diego, Califonia.

Wang, D., N. Takagi, T. Watanabe, V. A. Rakov, and M. A. Uman (199b), Observed leader and
return stroke propagation characteristics in the bottom 400 m of a rocket-triggered lightning
channel, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 14,369-14,376.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Sandip Nallani C. was born in Mumbai, India, in 1983. He graduated with a Bachelor of

Science degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering from K. J. Somaiya Institute of

Engineering and Information Technology in India, in 2005. In Fall 2005, he went to the USA to

pursue a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering at the University of Florida,

Gainesville.





PAGE 1

1 CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTNING USING OPTICAL TECHNIQUES By SANDIP NALLANI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Sandip Nallani

PAGE 3

3 To my parents, to whom I owe everything.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am deeply indebted to Dr. Rakov and Mr. Rob Olsen for their in credible patience and tireless guidance. Dr. Rakov, is a brilliant scientis t and researcher who introduced me to the field of lightning. I cannot thank Rob Olsen enough for assisting me whenever possible, even on a couple of weekends, when he had a family and a job to attend to. I would also like to thank Dr. Uman and Dr. Doug Jordan for the brain storming sessions in the lightning lab meetings. I would also like to thank Amitabh Nag, Ja son Jerauld, Jens Schoene, and Dimitris Tsalikis for all those fun lightning lab moments interspersed with seri ous technical discussions. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge my family. Without them, graduate school would have been a mere fantasy dream. .

PAGE 5

` 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page 0ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................34 1LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........38 2LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................................314 3ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................324 CHAPTER 1 4INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................325 2 5LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................326 62.2 Natural Lightning.........................................................................................................326 72.3 Artificially Initiated (Triggered) Lightning..................................................................328 82.4 Optical Studies of Lightning: An Overview.................................................................329 92.5 Leader and Return-Stroke Speeds a nd Light-Pulse Risetimes Obtained from Optical Observations.....................................................................................................331 12.6 Correlation Between Current and Light........................................................................334 3 1EXPERIMENTAL SETUP....................................................................................................345 13.1 International Center of Lightning Re search and Testing (ICLRT) Overview..............345 13.2 Rockets and Launchers.................................................................................................346 13.3 The BIFO K004M Im age Converter Camera................................................................347 13.4 The Photodiode Array...................................................................................................351 13.5 The Photodiode Experimental Setup used in 2005 and 2006.......................................352 13.6 Modified Return-Stroke Speed Equation......................................................................354 4 1DATA PRESENTATION......................................................................................................367 14.1 Triggered Lightning Events.........................................................................................367 24.1.1 Event F0501.........................................................................................................367 24.1.2 Event F0503.........................................................................................................368 24.1.3 Event F0510........................................................................................................369 24.1.4 Event F0512.........................................................................................................369 24.1.5 Event F0514.........................................................................................................370 24.1.6 Event F0517.........................................................................................................370 24.1.7 Event F0521.........................................................................................................371 24.2 Natural Lightning Events..............................................................................................372 24.2.1 Event NAT0503...................................................................................................372 24.2.2 Event NAT0504...................................................................................................372 34.2.3 Event NAT0506...................................................................................................372

PAGE 6

` 6 34.2.4 Event NAT0507...................................................................................................373 34.2.5 Event NAT0508...................................................................................................373 34.2.6 Event NAT0509...................................................................................................373 34.2.7 Event NAT0510...................................................................................................374 34.2.8 Event NAT0511...................................................................................................374 34.2.9 Event NAT0512...................................................................................................374 34.2.10 Event NAT0513.................................................................................................375 34.2.11 Event NAT0514.................................................................................................375 34.2.12 Event NAT0515.................................................................................................375 44.2.13 Event NAT0516.................................................................................................375 44.2.14 Event NAT0517.................................................................................................376 44.2.15 Event NAT0518.................................................................................................376 44.2.16 Event NAT0519.................................................................................................376 44.2.17 Event NAT0520.................................................................................................377 44.2.18 Event NAT0521.................................................................................................377 44.2.19 Event NAT0522.................................................................................................377 44.2.20 Event NAT0523.................................................................................................377 44.2.21 Event NAT0524.................................................................................................378 44.2.22 Event NAT0525.................................................................................................378 54.2.23 Event NAT0526.................................................................................................378 5 5DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS..................................................................................3126 55.1 Methodology...............................................................................................................3126 55.2 Calibration of the Data Analysis Tools.......................................................................3127 55.3 Filters Used for the Summer 2005 Data Analysis.......................................................4128 55.4 Results of the Summer 2005 Data Analysis................................................................4129 55.4.1 Event F0501.......................................................................................................4130 55.4.2 Event F0503.......................................................................................................4131 55.4.3 Event F0510.......................................................................................................4134 55.4.4 Event F0512.......................................................................................................4135 65.4.5 Event F0514.......................................................................................................4135 65.4.6 Event F0517.......................................................................................................4136 65.4.7 Event F0521.......................................................................................................4138 65.5 Summary.....................................................................................................................4139 65.5.1 Return-Stroke Speeds.........................................................................................4139 65.5.2 Leader Speeds....................................................................................................4141 65.5.3 Optical Risetimes...............................................................................................4141 6 6DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS................................................................................4212 7 6RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH......................................................4217 APPENDIX A 6THE BIFO K004M IMAGES CAPTURED IN SUMMER 2006 IN GAINESVILLE........4220

PAGE 7

` 7 B 7FILTERS USED FOR PROCESSING THE SUMMER 2005 LIGHTNING DATA..........4231 7LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................4235 7BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................4237

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 7 2-1 Overall return stroke speeds for F0336. Adapted from Olsen (2003)...............................444 7 3-1 The ICLRT Summer 2005 avalanche phot odiode array angles and viewed heights along the lightning channel................................................................................................465 7 3-2 Interscope delay or Time Delay Between Scopes (t ) between the LeCroy DSOs estimated using the Summer 2005 calibration data...........................................................466 7 4-1 Optical Dataset for Natu ral Lightning, Summer 2005.....................................................4124 7 4-2 Optical Dataset for Triggered Lightning, Summer 2005.................................................4124 7 4-3 Event F0501 and F0503 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights.....................................4125 7 4-4 Event F0510, F0512, F0514, F0517, F0520 and F0521 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights .........................................4125 8 5-1 Percent error in the RS speeds computed in this thesis relative to those obtained by Olsen et. al. (2003)...........................................................................................................4186 8 5-2 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0501, Stroke 1................................................................................................................4186 8 5-3 Return-stroke speed profiles for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels............................................................................................4186 8 5-4 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0501, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels shown in Table 5-3........................................4187 8 5-5 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the averag e of the speeds shown in Table 5-4..........4187 8 5-6 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data (see also Figure 5-14).............................................................................4187 8 5-7 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the averag e of the speeds shown in Table 5-6.....4188 8 5-8 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, measured using LeCroy data...................................................................................................................................4188 8 5-9 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0501, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4188

PAGE 9

9 8 5-10 Overall return-stroke sp eeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0503. This event had four return strokes.......................................................................4189 9 5-11 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4189 9 5-12 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0503, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4189 9 5-13 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-12.............4190 9 5-14 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data.................................................................................................................4190 9 5-15 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-14..............4190 9 5-16 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4191 9 5-17 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4191 9 5-18 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0503, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4191 9 5-19 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the averag e of speeds shown in Table 5-18...................4192 9 5-20 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data.................................................................................................................4192 1 5-21 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-20..............4192 1 5-22 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, measured using LeCroy data...................................................................................................................................4193 1 5-23 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 2............................................................................................................................4193 1 5-24 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4193 1 5-25 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0503, Stroke 3, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4194

PAGE 10

10 1 5-26 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-25.............4194 1 5-27 Return-Stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using Yokogawa data.................................................................................................................4194 1 5-28 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-27..............4195 1 5-29 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 3............................................................................................................................4195 1 5-30 Return-stroke speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4195 1 5-31 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0503, Stroke 4, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4196 1 5-32 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the averag e of speeds shown in Table 5-31...................4196 1 5-33 The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503 Stroke 4, obtained using Yokogawa data.......................................................................................................4196 1 5-34 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-33..............4197 1 5-35 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 4............................................................................................................................4197 1 5-36 Overall return-stroke sp eeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0510, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels........................................4197 1 5-37 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4198 1 5-38 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0510, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4198 1 5-39 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the averag e of speeds shown in Table 5-38...................4198 1 5-40 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0510, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4199 1 5-41 Overall return-stroke sp eeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0512, Stroke 1................................................................................................................4199

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11 1 5-42 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4199 1 5-43 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0512, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4200 1 5-44 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-43.............4200 1 5-45 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data...................................................................................................................................4200 1 5-46 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0512, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4201 1 5-47 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0514, Stroke 1................................................................................................................4201 1 5-48 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4201 1 5-49 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0514, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels........................................................................4202 1 5-50 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the averag e of the speeds shown in 5-49......................4202 1 5-51 The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data.......................................................................................................4202 1 5-52 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-51..............4203 1 5-53 Leader speeds at various heights for ev ent F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data...................................................................................................................................4203 1 5-54 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0514, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4203 1 5-55 Overall return-stroke sp eeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0517, Stroke 1................................................................................................................4204 1 5-56 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4204 1 5-57 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0517, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels.........................................................................................4204

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12 1 5-58 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-57.............4205 1 5-59 The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data.......................................................................................................4205 1 5-60 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the aver age of speeds shown in Table 5-59..............4205 1 5-61 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4206 1 5-62 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4206 1 5-63 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0517, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels.........................................................................................4206 1 5-64 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the averag e of speeds shown in Table 5-63...................4207 1 5-65 The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data.......................................................................................................4207 1 5-66 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data, found computing the av erage of speeds shown in 5-65.......................4207 1 5-67 Leader speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data...................................................................................................................................4208 1 5-68 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517, Stroke 2............................................................................................................................4208 1 5-69 Overall return-stroke sp eeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0521, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels........................................4208 1 5-70 Return-stroke speed profile at variou s heights for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels.............................................................4209 1 5-71 Return-stroke speed profile for even t F0521, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels.........................................................................................4209 1 5-72 Return-stroke speeds at various heig hts for event F0521 Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-71.............4209 1 5-73 The optical return-stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0521, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................4210

PAGE 13

13 1 5-74 Return-stroke speed profiles based on data from the two groups of LeCroy channels with differences exceeding 30%......................................................................................4210 1 5-75 Return-stroke speed profile based on av eraging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels with percentage difference above 30%.............................................................5210 1 5-76 Return-stroke speed profiles based on averaging data from the LeCroy and Yokogawa channels with percen tage difference above 30%...........................................5211 1 6-1 Return-stroke speeds at various height s, obtained by computing the average of the speeds based on LeCroy data for triggered-lightning events before July 13, 2005.........5215 1 6-2 Return-stroke speeds at various heights obtained computing the average of the speeds based on LeCroy data computed for triggered-lightning after July 13, 2005......5216 1 B-1 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5231 1 B-2 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5231 1 B-3 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5232 1 B-4 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5232 1 B-5 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5232 1 B-6 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5233 1 B-7 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5233 1 B-8 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5233 1 B-9 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5234 1 B-10 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5234 1 B-11 Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data.............................................................................5234

PAGE 14

14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 2-1 The four types of cloud-to-ground flashes.........................................................................36 1 2-2 The various processes in a single lig htning flash. .............................................................37 1 2-3 The classical rocket-triggered lightning process...............................................................37 1 2-4 The initial current variation stage in ro cket triggered lightnin g. Adapted from Olsen et. al. (2006)................................................................................................................. ......538 1 2-5 Upward lightning initiated from the Ei ffel Tower. Photograph taken June 3, 1902, at 9.20 p.m., by M. G. Lopp.................................................................................................539 1 2-6 Diagram of improved Boys camera with moving film and stationary lenses. Adapted from McEachron (1939)....................................................................................................540 1 2-7 Luminosity of dart lead ers and return strokes versus time. Adapted from Jordan (1990).................................................................................................................................540 1 2-8 Propagation speeds of two leaders anal yzed by Wang et al. (1999). The events were triggered on August 2, 1997 (a) 2117:15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC..............................541 1 2-9 Leader light pulses versus time waveforms at different heights above the ground for events triggered on August 2 1997lyzed by Wang et al. (1999)........................................541 1 2-10 The propagation speeds versus heights for two return-strokes. The events were triggered on August 2 1997,analy zed by Wang et al. (1999)............................................542 1 2-11 The pin photodiode array used by Olsen et al. (2004).......................................................542 1 2-12 Correlation between the lightning discharge current Adapted from Olsen et al. (2006).................................................................................................................................543 1 2-13 Channel-base current and light waveforms of the return-stroke in the flash triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida. Adap ted from Wang et. al. (2005).........................................543 1 2-14 Comparison between the current and light waveforms shown in Figure 2-13 for the initial 2.7 microseconds. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005).............................................544 1 3-1 Overview of the ICLRT. Adapted from Olsen (2003).......................................................556 1 3-2 Tower launcher..................................................................................................................556 1 3-3 Bucket truck launcher at ICLRT........................................................................................557

PAGE 15

15 1 3-4 The K004M Multi-Framing Mode Display Patterns (a) 2-fram e mode.(b) 4-frame mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode......................................................................557 1 3-5 The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC). Adapted from K004M Documentation BIFO Company (2002)...........................................................................558 1 3-6 The BIFO K004M trigger circuit.......................................................................................559 1 3-7 The BIFO K004M trigger circuit printed circuit board (PCB)..........................................560 1 3-8 Actively-coupled photodiode circuit used during the summer 2005 Camp Blanding experiments as well as in the 2006 Un iversity of Florida experiments.............................560 1 3-9 Block diagram of the 2005 Camp Blanding and 2006 University of Florida experiments. (APD= Avalanche Photodiode)....................................................................561 1 3-10 The BIFO K004M and PS001 photosensor setup used in the summer 2006 cupola lightning experiments.........................................................................................................562 1 3-11 Complete experimental setup used during the summer 2006 experiments........................563 1 3-12 The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) array atta ched on the back side of the oscilloscope rack.....................................................................................................................................564 1 3-13 Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) recorded on the LeCroy DSOs mounted on the rack in summer 2005...............................................................................................564 1 3-14 Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) filtered, amplitude scaled, and shifted using Matlab sub-routines until the be st possible coincidence was achieved...................565 1 4-1 Event F0501, photodiode array waveforms recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.....................579 1 4-2 Event F0501, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa..............................................580 1 4-3 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. .......................581 2 4-4 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.........................582 2 4-5 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.........................583 2 4-6 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.........................584 2 4-7 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa...............................585 2 4-8 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa...............................586 2 4-9 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa...............................587 2 4-10 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa...............................588

PAGE 16

16 2 4-11 Event F0510, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs........................................589 2 4-12 Event F0512, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. ......................................590 2 4-13 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs........................................591 2 4-14 Event F0514, photodiode array reco rded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope.........................592 2 4-15 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.........................593 2 4-16 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs.........................594 2 4-17 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope..........595 2 4-18 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope..........596 2 4-19 Event F0521, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs........................................597 2 4-20 Event NAT0503 photodiode array record..........................................................................598 2 4-21 Event NAT0504 photodiode array record..........................................................................599 2 4-22 Event NAT0506 photodiode array record........................................................................5100 2 4-23 Event NAT0507 photodiode array record........................................................................5101 2 4-24 Event NAT0508 photodiode array record........................................................................5102 2 4-25 Event NAT0509, stroke 1, photodiode array record........................................................5103 2 4-26 Event NAT0509, stroke 2, photodiode array record........................................................5104 2 4-27 Event NAT0510 photodiode array record........................................................................5105 2 4-28 Event NAT0511 photodiode array record........................................................................5106 2 4-29 Event NAT0512, stroke 1, photodiode array record........................................................5107 2 4-30 Event NAT0512, stroke 2, photodiode array record........................................................5108 2 4-31 Event NAT0513 photodiode array record........................................................................5109 2 4-32 Event NAT0514 photodiode array record........................................................................5110 2 4-33 Event NAT0515 photodiode array record........................................................................5111 2 4-34 Event NAT0516 photodiode array record........................................................................5112 2 4-35 Event NAT0517 photodiode array record........................................................................5113

PAGE 17

17 2 4-36 Event NAT0518 photodiode array record........................................................................5114 2 4-37 Event NAT0519 photodiode array record........................................................................5115 2 4-38 Event NAT0520 photodiode array record........................................................................5116 2 4-39 Event NAT0521 photodiode array record........................................................................5117 2 4-40 Event NAT0522 photodiode array record........................................................................5118 2 4-41 Event NAT0523, stroke 1, photodiode array record........................................................5119 2 4-42 Event NAT0523, stroke 2, photodiode array record........................................................5120 2 4-43 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record........................................................................5121 2 4-44 Event NAT0524 photodiode array record........................................................................5122 2 4-45 Event NAT0526 photodiode array record........................................................................5123 2 5-1 Illustration of the slope-intercept method. The beginni ng of the return-stroke is taken to be inter-section of the two (red) dashed lines....................................................5142 2 5-2 Calibration of the data analysis tools used in this thesis. N.............................................5143 2 5-4 Event F0336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above termination) from Summer 2003, filtered using a moving average filter (with window size of 11 samples).......................5144 2 5-5 Event F0336, Stroke 5 (at a height of 117 m above termination) from Summer 2003, filtered using Filter 1........................................................................................................5145 2 5-6 Event F0504, Stroke 4 (at a height of 84 m above terminatio n) from Summer 2005 filtered using Filter 2........................................................................................................5145 2 5-7 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0501, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................5146 2 5-8 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1. d blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.................5146 2 5-9 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................5147 2 5-10 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................5147 2 5-11 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................5148

PAGE 18

18 2 5-12 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................5148 2 5-13 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data............................................................5149 2 5-14 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6149 2 5-15 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0503, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6150 2 5-16 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6150 2 5-17 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6151 2 5-18 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6151 2 5-19 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6152 2 5-20 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke1, based on Yokogawa data...................................................................................6152 2 5-21 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke1, based on Yokogawa data...................................................................................6153 2 5-22 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6153 2 5-23 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0503, Stroke 2............................................................................................................................6154 2 5-24 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 2......................................................................................................6154 2 5-25 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6155 2 5-26 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6155 2 5-27 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using LeCroy data, shown in Figures 525 and 5-26, for event F0503, Stroke 2............6156

PAGE 19

19 2 5-28 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6156 2 5-29 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6157 2 5-30 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6157 2 5-31 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0503, Stroke 3............................................................................................................................6158 2 5-32 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 3......................................................................................................6158 2 5-33 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6159 2 5-34 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6160 2 5-35 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6160 2 5-36 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6161 2 5-37 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6161 2 5-38 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6162 2 5-39 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0503, Stroke 4............................................................................................................................6162 2 5-40 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 4......................................................................................................6163 2 5-41 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6163 2 5-42 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6164 2 5-43 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6164

PAGE 20

20 2 5-44 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6165 2 5-45 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6165 2 5-46 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6166 2 5.47 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0510, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6166 2 5.48 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope in tercept reference point for event F0510, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6167 2 5-49 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0510, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6167 2 5-50 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0510, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6168 2 5-51 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6168 2 5.52 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0512, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6169 2 5-53 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0512, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6169 2 5-54 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0512, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6170 2 5-55 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0512, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6170 2 5-56 Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6171 2 5-57 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0514, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6171 2 5-58 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0514, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6172 2 5-59 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6172

PAGE 21

21 3 5-60 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6173 3 5-61 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6173 3 5-62 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0514, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6174 3 5-63 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6174 3 5-64 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6175 3 5-65 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0517, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6175 3 5-66 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0517, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6176 3 5-67 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6176 3 5-68 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6177 3 5-69 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6177 3 5-70 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6178 3 5-71 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6178 3 5-72 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6179 3 5-73 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0517, Stroke 2............................................................................................................................6179 3 5-74 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0517, Stroke 2......................................................................................................6180 3 5-75 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6180

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22 3 5-76 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6181 3 5-77 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6181 3 5-78 Return-stroke speed profile using th e 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6182 3 5-79 Return-stroke speed profile using th e slope point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data..................................................................................6182 3 5-80 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercep t methods, based on Yokogawa data...........................6183 3 5-81 Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% re ference point for event F0521, Stroke 1............................................................................................................................6183 3 5-82 Return-stroke speed prof iles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0521, Stroke 1......................................................................................................6184 3 5-83 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data............................................................................6184 3 5-84 Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope inte rcept point as reference for event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data......................................................6185 3 5-85 Return-stroke speed prof ile obtained by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods, based on LeCroy data................................6185 3 7-1 Recommended trigger circui t for the BIFO K004M camera...........................................6219 3 A-1 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in April 21, 2006..................................................................................................................6221 3 A-2 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in April 21, 2006..................................................................................................................6221 3 A-3 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6222 3 A-4 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6222 3 A-5 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6223 3 A-6 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6223

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23 3 A-7 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6224 3 A-8 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6224 3 A-9 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6225 3 A-10 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6225 3 A-11 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6226 3 A-12 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6226 3 A-13 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6227 3 A-14 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6227 3 A-15 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6228 3 A-16 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6228 3 A-17 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006....................................................................................................................6229 3 A-18 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in August 4, 2006.................................................................................................................6229 3 A-19 Natural lightning record captured on th e BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in August 21, 2006...............................................................................................................6230

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24 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTNING USING OPTICAL TECHNIQUES By SANDIP NALLANI May 2008 Chair: V.A. Rakov Major: Electrical Engineering We analyzed optical (photodiode array) reco rds for 31 lightning flashes obtained at Camp Blanding, Florida, in summer 2005. Of these 31 flashes, 8 (containing 11 strokes) were triggeredlightning flashes and the remaining 23 were natural lightning flashes. The overall return-stroke speeds and return-stroke speed prof iles as a function of height were obtained for triggered lightning strokes. The slope-intercept po int and the 20% of peak point were used as reference points in estimating return-stroke sp eeds. Based on higher resolution LeCroy data, the triggered-lightning return-stroke speeds are found to vary between 1.48 x 108 m/s and 1.59 x 108 m/s. The average return-s troke optical risetimes for 11 trigge red-lightning events were found to be 0.81 s and 2.83 s at the bottom and top of the light ning channel, respectively. Leader speeds for 5 triggered-lightning strokes have been estimated. The leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 107 m/s and 2.5 x 107 m/s. All 23 natural lightning records acquired in 2005 at Camp Blanding using photodiodes viewing various heights are presented and characterized. An image converter camera was used at the University of Florida to obtain optical images of natural lightning processes in summer 2006. Only limited an alysis of these images was possible due to lack of resolution. In order to improve the perf ormance characteristics of the image converter camera, a new triggering circuit for this camera was designed, built, and successfully tested.

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25 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Lightning is one of the most beautiful displays in nature as well as one of the m ost deadliest natural phenomena known to man. With lightning channel temperatures hotter than the surface of the Sun, lightning is a lesson in science and humility. In the Indian mythological story of Ramaya na, written by a poet Valmiki some 2000 years ago, Lord Hanuman (pavan-putra in Sanskrit ) was the son of the wind god Vayu. Hanuman possessed immense physical strength with the power to fly and was capable of divine levels of endurance .When the young immature Hanuman st arted tossing around the Sun playfully, the distressed Sun called out to Lord Indira, the s on of lightning, heaven, and Earth who carried thunderbolts on his chariot. The skies grew dark and made way for Lord Indira who shot the young mischievous Hanuman with a thunder bolt wh en he disagreed to let the Sun go, and so goes the story. Thus, we see that lightning and thu nder have always been feared and respected by mankind and have played a significant role in the religions and mythologies of all but the most modern of civilizations.

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26 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The first scientific study of lightning was carri ed out by Benjamin Franklin in the later half of the eighteenth century. Much of Franklins reputation was as a result of his phenomenal dem onstration of intercepting lightning and brin ging it safely to the Earth without harming people of property. Franklin was the first to propose an experime nt to prove that lightning was electrical and thus so were th e clouds that produced lightning, using an iron rod [Uman, 1987]. In this experiment a man on ground was to draw sparks between an iron rod and a grounded wire held by an insulating handle. In France in May 1752, Thomas-Francois DAlibard successfully performed Franklins suggested experiment and sparks were observed to jump from the iron rod during a thunderstorm. It was proved that t hunderclouds contained electrical charge [Uman, 1987]. In 1752, he thought of a better experiment wh ere the kite was to take the place the rod, since it could achieve greater elevation. In the sa me year, he was successful in drawing sparks out of a key tied to the bottom of the kite stri ng separated from his hand by an insulating silk string [Uman, 1987]. He then proposed a version of the lightning rod that is still the primary means of protecting structures ag ainst lightning [Franklin, 1774, p.169]. 2.2 Natural Lightning Research into natural lightning was renewe d because of the h azards faced by electrical circuits, aircraft and spacecraf t due to the voltages and curren ts by direct of nearby lightning strikes. Very small voltages are capable of cau sing malfunction of elect ronics. Natural lightning flashes are produced by thunderclouds which are fo rmed when warm moist air rises and cools via an adiabatic expansion, eventually condensin g into water droplets which form the visible cloud. It is usually assumed that there is net positive charge at the top, a negative charge in the middle followed by an additional smaller positive ch arge at the bottom. The top two charges are

PAGE 27

27 usually the main charges and are often specified to be equal in magnitude whereas the lower positive charge may not always be present [Ra kov 2002]. Lightning is a transient, high current discharge whose path length is m easured in kilometers. Well over half of all flashes occur wholly within the cloud and are called IC discharges. Ho wever, we are mainly concerned with cloud-toground (CG) lightning because of its practical impor tance and also because it can be relatively easily studied. In Figure 2-1 below the four different categorie s of CG flashes are illustrated. Category 1 lightning begins with a negatively charged leader moving downward, while Category 3 has a positively charged downward moving leader Category 2 has a positively charged upward moving leader while Category 4 ha s a negatively charged upward moving leader. In Categories 1 and 2, negative charge is effectively transported to ground and in Categories 3 and 4 positive charge is lowered to ground. Upward-initiated flashes (Cate gories 2 and 4) are relatively rare and generally occur from tall man-made structures or moderate heights st ructures on mountain tops. Because of the nature and unpredictability of natural lightning, there has been a growing interest in the use of rocketand-wire techniques (see Secti on 2.3) in lightning research. Lightning discharge is composed of several di stinct processes which occur in less than 1 second, mostly along the same spatial path. A sche matic of these various distinct processes is shown in Figure 2-2. The discharge begins with a preliminary electrical breakdown in the cloud, which is not shown in this figure, followed by a stepped leader, followed by the first return stroke. This first return stroke could then be followed by a series of dart leader and subsequent return stroke combination events separated by intervals of several tens of milliseconds. During these intervals, after some retu rn strokes, steady currents of hundreds of amperes continue to flow to ground, which are called continuing curre nts. During the continuing current phase,

PAGE 28

28 discharges not shown in the Figure 2-2 brighten the channel and are called the M-components. Continuing currents cease prior to a subse quent leader return stroke sequence. 2.3 Artificially Initiated (Triggered) Lightning In rocket-and-wire lightning triggering t echnique, a sm all (~1m) rocket trailing a grounded wire is used to initiate a lightning flash. This allows the researcher to have advance knowledge of the time and location of a lightning flash, and hence of the exact distance to the termination point of the lightning channel. This allows one to measur e currents and propagation speeds of the leader/return-stroke sequences. The rocket is launched in the presence of a sufficiently charged cloud overhead. When the wire is grounded, the tr iggering is called the classical triggering and is illustrated in Fi gure 2-3. The electric fi eld below the cloud is measured, with -4 to -10 kV/m typically bei ng the experimentally-determined critical field. When this occurs, a rocket is launched. It ascends at a speed of about 200 m/s. When it is typically 200-300 m high, the electric field enha ncement near the upper end of the wire is sufficient to trigger a positively charged l eader propagating towards the cloud (in the predominant case when there is negative charge at the bottom of the cloud). The upward leader melts and vaporizes the trailing wire and establishes the so-called initial continuous current of th e order of some hundreds of amperes along the wire trace, which effectively serves to transport negative charge from the cloud ch arge source to the ground via the triggering facility and current -measuring instrumentation. Afte r the cessation of the initial continuation current, several downward leader/upward return stroke sequences often traverse the same path to the triggering facili ty. The initial current variation stage is illustrated in Figure 2-4 adapted from Olsen et al. (2006). A typical initial current variation (ICV) waveform exhibits a relatively slow increase in current magnitude to a maximum of some hundreds of amperes, which generally but not always coincides with the beginning of current decay, shown here at

PAGE 29

29 point A. The relatively rapid current reduction be tween points A and B1 is associated with the explosion of the triggering wire. The interval between B1 and B2 can vary between some hundreds of microseconds to some milliseconds, during which little or no current flows. There may be small pulses (not seen in this figure) during this interval. At point C, a relatively large and sharp pulse reestablishes current between the upward positive leader (UPL) and ground. For the purposes of estimating charge and action integral (AI), current is integrated over the interval between the beginning of the record (which is prio r to the beginning of the initial stage, when no current is flowing) and the time labeled B1 on the waveform. Peak before denotes the peak current prior to wire explosion, which is generall y but not always observed at the onset of current reduction at point A. Decay denotes the duration of the time interval during which the current decays to or nearly to zero, be tween points A and B1 on the di agram. Zero current interval denotes the duration of the time interval over whic h the current is equal to (or nearly equal to) zero, represented by the interval between B1 and B2. Peak after denotes the maximum current in the pulse (shown at point C) associat ed with reconnection of the UPL to ground. 2.4 Optical Studies of Lightning: An Overview The lumi nous features of lightning discharg es to ground have been widely studied and have provided considerable insights in to the physi cs of the lightning processes. Scientists first studied the light intensity of the lightning flash late in the 19th century. Their main intention was to determine the sequence of events in a lightni ng flash. Kayser (1884) wa s the first to observe that the lightning process consisted of multiple st rokes down the same spatial path or the channel formed by the first leader and return stroke processes. Hoffert (1889) and Weber (1889) used moving cameras to separate the individual lightning events on f ilm. Photographs were obtained by Walter (1902, 1903, 1910, 1912, 1918) which showed for the first time that the lightning process was initiated by a branched initial pro cess followed by a return stroke traveling up the

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30 same channel. Therefore by the 20th century a coarse view of the lightning discharge had been revealed. Sir Charles V. Boys (1929) invented a cam era system in 1900 which revolutionized the study of lightning. The camera produced relative motion between the film and the lenses by having the lenses rotate in front of the film. This system allowed the camera to remain stationary but still allowed the camera to separate differe nt events that occurre d on the same path. The investigation of optical pr operties of lightning during th e period between 1930 and 1960 was dominated by Schonland, Malan, Collens and cowo rkers in South Africa. Boys cooperated with this team and loaned his camera to be used as a prototype. In their first experiments with Boys rotating lens camera design (Schonland, Malan and Collens, 1934), they verified previous findings by Halliday (1933) which showed lightning intensity moving up and down the lightning channel. They observed that the lightning intensity decreased as the return stroke front passed each branch point and finally vanished after it passed the last branch before entering the cloud. The Boys camera was later modified to have s till lenses and a rotati ng film drum (Schonland, Malan, and Collens, 1935), as shown in Figure 2-6. The apertures of the camera lenses were set independently which allowed sufficient dynamic range to examine the processes whose light intensity varied greatly. It wa s observed that the stepped lead er paused for approximately 100 microseconds between steps. The authors also discovered that the effective stepped leader speeds increased near the ground. Orville and Indone (1982) also showed that the stepped leader speed increases near the ground. In this way, optical lightning research in the early years mainly concentrated on the subjective analysis of film records to determine lightning properties. As technology improved, it became possible to use calibrated photoelectric dete ctors to determine quantitative parameters of

PAGE 31

31 lightning processes. Mackerras (1973) used photomultiplier tubes and a wide-angle camera system to perform a quantitativ e study of the integrated lig htning output of both cloud and ground flashes. 2.5 Leader and Return-Stroke Speeds and Light-P ulse Risetimes Obtained from Optical Observat ions A parameter of great interest to researchers developing return stroke models, is the speed of the return stroke front as it propagates up the channel. Return stroke is a fundamental parameter of the cloud-to-ground flash and is also one of the two input parameters (channel base current and return stroke speeds) in the transm ission line model (TLM) of the return stroke for calculating currents (Jordan 1989). Orville et al (1978) presented daytime lightning data acquired with a streak camera system in cluding measurements of return stroke speeds ranging from 1.2 x 108 to 1.4 x 108 m/s. The return stroke speed was com puted using a still image from a 35 mm camera as a reference image and measuring the disp lacement of the streaked image from the still image. The displacement was a function of the he ight along the channel an d the return stroke speed. Orville and Idone (1982) presented streak cam era records for 21 dart leaders, 4 dart stepped leaders and 3 stepped leaders from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Socorro, New Mexico, in mostly daylight conditions. Dart le ader speeds were computed at two heights along the channel with the mean speed in the bottom 800 meters being 11 x 106 m/sec. They also found a correlation between the dart l eader luminous intensity and the re sulting return stroke luminous intensity. They found no correlation between the dart leader speed and luminous intensity of the dart and little correlatio n between the luminous intensity of th e dart and resulting return stroke speed. Inconclusive results were found for dart leader speed versus return-stoke luminous

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32 intensity as well. Idone, 1984 observed two-dimensi onal leader and return stroke speeds over the same channel section, to be 1.7 x 107 m/s and 1.3 x 108 m/s respectively. Jordan et al. (1992) examined dart leader sp eeds as a function of the initial electric field peak, of the following return stroke current peak, and of the durati on of the previous inter-stroke interval (excluding the duration of continuing currents, if pr esent). For 11 natural lightning strokes in Florida they observed an average leader speed of 1.4 x 107 m/s, whereas for 36 triggered lightning strokes in Florida they observed an average leader speed of 1.6 x 107 m/s. Jordan (1990) presented the luminosity of dart le aders and return strokes versus height (shown in Figure 2-8) and observed average leader speeds of 1.2 x 107 m/sec. Mach and Rust (1989) used data from a mobile photoelectric device and presented twodimensional return stroke velocities. Their return stroke velocity device (RSV) consisted of eight levels solid state detectors, each with a 41 de gree horizontal view and 0.1 degree vertical field view. The velocity measurements were divided into two groups: short channel values with channel segments starting near the ground and less than 500 m in length and long-channel that start near the ground and exceed 500 m in length. The average long channel velocity was found to be 1.3 0.3 x 108 m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 0.3 x 108 m/s for triggered return strokes. In the case of short-ch annel the natural return stroke s had an average velocity of 1.9 0.7 x 108 m/s and the triggered return str okes had an average velocity of 1.4 0.4 x 108 m/s. Mach and Rust (1997) reported the velocities, rise-times and other optical measurements of a set of 35 natural and 26 triggered dart leaders. All of the dart leaders were from negative strokes and the data were collected using the same return stroke velocity (RSV) device. The average twodimensional speed for natural leaders was found to be 1.9 0.2 x 107 m/s, while for the triggered dart leaders, average 2-D speed turned out to be 1.3 0.1 x 107 m/s. Also there was no

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33 significant change in the dart leader 2-D speed with height. Th e mean 10-90% optical rise time for the dart leaders was 2.6 0.4 microseconds. The optical rise -time for triggered leaders was observed to be 1.4 0.4 microseconds. Mach and Rust (1993) reported the velocities and optical rise-times for seven natural and positive return strokes using the same RSV device. The average 2-D positive return stroke velocity for channel segments of smaller than 500 m in length was 0.8 0.3 x 108 m/s which was slower than the corre sponding average velocity for natural negative first return stroke, 1.7 0.7 x 108 m/s. In the case of long channels, greater than 500 m in length, the average return st roke speed in the case of natural negative first stroke was 1.2 0.6 x 108 m/s while it was 0.9 0.4 x 108 m/s in the case of positive return strokes. They observed no significant change of velocity for th e positive return strokes with height. Further, they observed rise times of 9.4 3.0 microseconds in the case of positive return strokes and 3.5 1.7 microseconds in the cas e of negative strokes. Wang (1999) used a high speed digital opt ical system, to find the the propagation characteristics of two leader/return stroke seque nces in the bottom 400 m of the channel of two lightning flashes triggered at Ca mp Blanding, Florida. The optical data were acquired using the digital optical imaging system ALPS which consisted of a 256 (16x16) pin photodiodes, each 1.3 x 1.3 mm2 size, with a separation of 1.5 mm between the centers of individual diodes. Each of the diodes operated at wavelengths from 400 to 1000 nm with response time of less than 3 ns. The time resolution of the measuring system wa s 100 ns, and the spatial resolution was about 30 m. The leaders exhibited increasing speeds when propagating downwards over the bottom some hundreds of meters, while the return strokes sh owed a decrease in speed when propagating upwards over the same distance. Propagation sp eeds and luminosity pulses for two leaders are shown in Figures 2-9 and 2-10. Their finding represen ts the first experimental evidence that the

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34 luminosity pulses associated with the steps of a downward moving lead er propagate upwards with speeds ranging from 1.9 x 107 m/se to 1.0 x 108 m/s with a mean value of 6.7 x 107 m/s. The return stroke speeds within the bottom 60 meters or so of the channel were 1.3 x 108 m/s and 1.5 x 108 m/s with a potential error of less than 20%. Olsen et al. (2004) presented the return stroke propagation sp eeds of five strokes from a seven stroke triggered lightning fl ash, measured with a 2 ns samp ling interval, using a vertical array of photodiodes. Various refe rence points were used to determine the return stroke speed vs. height for the captured flashes. The EG&G C308 07 PIN photodiodes used here were arranged in a vertical array, rated at 5 ns rise-time and 10 ns fall time. Each diodes amplifying circuit had a 10-90% rise-time of about 220 ns. The diodes were arranged in 7 x 1.9 x 30 cm3 rectangular aluminum enclosure with interior painted matte black and were arranged at varying angles as shown in the Figure 2-12. The overall (7-170 m) return stroke speeds for Flash F0336 and the return stroke speeds versus hei ght are shown in the Tables 21 and 2-2 below. There was an interesting trend in the data which concerns th e variation in the measured speed in the three channel segments between 7-170 m. Specifically fo r strokes 2, 4 5 and 6 it was observed that the measured speed was the greatest in the segmen t between 63 and 117 m, slightly lower in the segment between 117 and 170 and lowest in the segment between 7 and 63 m. 2.6 Correlation Between Current and Light Figure 2-12, adapted from Olsen et al (2006), shows an interesting correlation be tween the lightning discharge currents and associated optical streak records for the ICV (initial current variation) stage. Panels (a) a nd (b) show the optical streak film and the channel base current records, respectively for flas h F0348 showing two attempted reconnection pulses (ARP1 and ARP2) and a reconnection pulse (RP). The streak record and the current record were manually

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35 aligned. This was done by selecting the point of most rapid increase in optical streak record luminosity at the channel base to be zero time for alignment with the current record. Idone and Orville (1985) estimated dart-leader peak currents for 22 leaders in two rockettriggered flashes using two different optical techniques. In method (i), the ratio of the dart-leader and return-stroke currents was taken as equal to the ratio of the dart-leader and return-stroke speeds; this assumes a simple model in which an e qual charge per unit length is involved in each process. The speed ratio and the return-stroke current were measured, allowing a calculation of the dart-leader current. In method (ii) the relation between return-stroke peak current IR and return-stroke peak relative light intensity LR in each of two flashes (LR=1.5IR 1.6 LR =6.4 IR 1.1) was applied to the dart-leader relative light intens ities in the flash to determine the dart-leader current. The two techniques produced very simi lar results, a mean current of 1.8 KA for method (ii) and 1.6 KA for method (i). I ndividual values ranged from 100 A to 6 kA. The ratio of dartleader to return-stroke current ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 with a mean of 0.1 7 from method (ii) and 0.16 from method (i). The largest da rt-leader to return-stroke current ratios were associated with the largest return-stroke currents and relative light intensities. I done and Orville (1985) discussed the validity of the techniques used to find dart-leader currents, whic h, as they stated, are certainly open to question. Wang et al. (2005) performed a comparative an alysis of channel-base current and light waveforms for four different rocket-triggered lightning strokes. Their study supported the idea of evaluating the variation of return-stroke current along the lightning return-stroke channel using light signals, provided the ev aluation was limited to the rising portions of those signals and assuming that the light/current re lationship observed at the bottom of the channel holds at other heights. It was found that the cu rrent and light signals at the bo ttom of the channel exhibited a

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36 linear relationship (direct proporti onality) in their rising portions. However, just after the peaks the linearity disappears, and the light signals usually decrease fast er than the currents during the next several microseconds as shown in Figure 2-13. From Figures 2-13 and 2-14, the relation between the current and the light could be divided into four stages. In stage 1 (from t=0 to t=1.3 us), both the current and light increase sharply, and they exhibit a strong linear relationship. In stage 2 (t=1.3 s to t=7 s), both the current and light signals decrease, but the decrease in the light signal is much more pronounced than the decrease in the curren t. In stage 3 (t=7 s to t=55 s) the light signal remains at more or less cons tant level, but the curre nt exhibits a continuing decrease. In stage 4 (after t=55 s), both current and the light signals show a relatively slow decay. Figure 2-1: The four types of cloud-to-ground flashes. Adapted from Rakov and Uman, 2003.

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37 Figure 2-2: The various proce sses in a single lightning flash. Adapted from Uman (1987). Figure 2-3: The classical rocket -triggered lightning process. Ad apted from Rakov et. al. (1998).

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38 Figure 2-4: The initial current va riation stage in rocket triggere d lightning. Adapted from Olsen et. al. (2006).

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39 Figure 2-5: Upward lightning initiated from the Eiffel Tower. Photograph taken June 3, 1902, at 9.20 p.m., by M. G. Lopp. Published in the Bulletin de la Socit Astronomique de France (May, 1905).

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40 Figure 2-6: Diagram of improved Boys camera with moving film and stationary lenses. Adapted from McEachron (1939). Figure 2-7: Luminosity of dart leaders and return strokes versus time. Adapted from Jordan (1990).

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41 Figure 2-8: Propagation speeds of two leaders analyzed by Wang et al. (1999). The events were triggered on August 2, 1997 (a) 2117:15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC. Figure 2-9: Leader light pulses versus time waveforms at different heights above the ground for events triggered on August 2, 1997 at (a) 2117:15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC analyzed by Wang et al. (1999).

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42 Figure 2-10: The propagation speeds versus height s for two return-strokes. The events were triggered on August 2, 1997 (a) 2117:15 UTC and (b) 2127:54 UTC analyzed by Wang et al. (1999). Each solid circle repres ents a value of the speed averaged over a 60 m section of the channel. Figure 2-11: The pin photodiode arra y used by Olsen et al. (2004).

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43 Figure 2-12: Correlation between th e lightning discharge current (b) and associated optical streak record (a) for the ICV (initi al current variation) stage of rocket-triggered lightning. Adapted from Olsen et al. (2006). Figure 2-13: Channel-base current and light waveforms of the return -stroke in the flash triggered at 20:37:07, 6/26/1997 (event N o. 4) at Camp Blanding, Fl orida. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005).

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44 Figure 2-14: Comparison between the current and light waveforms shown in Figure 2-13 for the initial 2.7 microseconds. Adapted from Wang et. al. (2005). Table 2-1: Overall return stroke speeds for F0336. Adapted from Olsen (2003). Table 2-2: Return stroke speed profile versus height for F0336 using the 20% point and the slope point intercept as references. Adapted from Olsen (2003).

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45 CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 3.1 ICLRT Overview In this section, an overview of the Internationa l Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) is presented. T he ICLRT is located at Camp Blanding, Florida, at coordinates 29 N, 82 02 W, 8 km east of Starke. It was c onstructed by Power Technologies under a contract from the Electric Power Research Institute (E PRI) in 1993 to study the effects of lightning on power lines. It has been operated by the Univer sity of Florida since 1994. The rocket-and-wire technique (e.g., Rakov et al., 1998) was used to artificially initiate (t rigger) lightning from natural thunderclouds. The research facility ex tends over 1 square kilometer of sand, scrub and young growth forest. Air space over the site is re stricted and controlled by the Camp Blanding range control, ensuring no air-borne vehicles ar e harmed by the rockets used in the experiments performed at ICLRT. A variety of structures have been installe d over the years at ICLRT, as summarized below. A schematic of the Camp Bla nding research facility is shown in Figure 3-1. The Office Building (OB) contains office space fo r researchers, a conference room, a machine shop / workshop area, and laboratory space for the operation of experiments and data gathering apparatus. The Launch Control Trai ler is a facility which contains experiment control equipment such as rocket launcher control, a computer sy stem for the control of measurement devices; data digitization and storage equipment such as oscilloscopes; and various cameras. During Summers 2002 and 2003, this was the primary control center for all rocketlaunching operations and data collection. The Launch Control Traile r is located near the center of the research facility, to the north side of the Tower Launcher. SATTLIF is a self-contained transportable launch facility built by Sandia National Laboratories for rocket-triggered lightning experiments. It contains rocket launcher control equipment, expe riment control equipment, data

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46 storage instrumentation, and various cameras. The SATTLIF control equipment can be used independently of the equipment in the Launch Control trailer. 3.2 Rockets and Launchers Rockets used at the ICLRT are small, fiberg lass, solid-fuel rockets app roximately 1 meter in length. The nose cone of the rocket contains a parachute which is released when the motors fuel is exhausted. A spool of wire is mounted coaxially at the bottom of the rocket. The wire used is copper, has a diameter of 0.2 mm, and is covered in Kevlar for mechanical strength. Total length of wire on the spool is typically 750 m. Verti cal velocity of the rocket is designed to be about 100 m/sec to 200 m/sec when the rocket reaches a suitable height for triggering. As stated above, the Tower Launcher, shown in Figure 3-2, is an 11-m tall wooden tower, located near the center of the ICLRT grounds A platform located immediately below the top level of the tower allows access to camera boxes located on the tower. A rocket launcher consisting of several aluminum tubes is mounted on the top level of the tower. The unit is mounted on fiberglass legs. The top of each tube is about 2 m above the platform atop the tower. Each tube can contain a single rocket. The tr ailing end of the wire spool is connected mechanically and electrically to the launcher frame. Operator s located in the Launch Control Trailer initiate the launch of a rocket by sending a pulse of high pressure air over a pneumatic line. The pulse closes a contact, connecting a battery across the l eads of a squib igniter placed in the exhaust orifice of the rocket motor. This squib ignites the motor and the rocket accelerates out of the tube. The Bucket Truck Launcher, show n in Figure 3-3, is a transportable launching facility. Six aluminum rocket launcher tubes, about 3 meters long, are mounted in the bucket at the end of the articulated arm on a truck formerly used for power line maintenance. A pneumatic trigger assembly similar to that employed on the Tower Launcher is used on the tr uck launcher as well.

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47 In this case, however, the initia ting high pressure air pulse is re leased from a high pressure air tank mounted on the truck, and is initiated via co mputer control over a wireless radiofrequency data link between the Launch Cont rol Trailer and the Bucket Truc k Launcher. The height of the launcher above ground can be varied using the hydraulic power of the articulated arm. A Hoffman box containing a current viewing resistor (CVR) and fiber-optic transmitter apparatus is mounted next to the rocket tubes. The trailing wires are grounded to the aluminum launcher tubes, which are in turn connected to the CVR w ith 2 cm copper braid. Th e other end of the CVR is connected via copper braid to ground rods at the rear of the truck. Typically, three to four ground rods are driven into the ground at each new location for the Bucket Truck Launcher. 3.3 The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera The attachment process in lightning [Rakov a nd Uman 2003] is a very difficult process to image. The process is very fast, occurs in a small volume, and is much less luminous than the processes which immediately follow it. Some success has been made using Image Converter cameras to image the attachment process in long sp arks, which are thought to be similar in nature to lightning discharges. The advantages of an image converter camera include very high recording rates, immediate view ability of captured images, and very high sensitivity to light. The K004M image converter camera made by BIFO Company in Moscow, Russia, specifically for studying the attach ment process in rocket-triggered lightning was deployed during Summer 2003 and Summer 2005 at Camp Blanding and in 2006 at the University of Florida Campus (2006 cupola experiments). The cam era is capable of operating in framing mode or in streak mode. In streak mode, the camera can opera te at a recording rate from 0.1 s/cm to ms/cm over the 3.55 cm wide rear phosphor read out. The fastest recording rate, 0.1 s/cm, corresponds to temporal resolution of about 1 ns. In framing mo de, the camera can collect 1, 2, 4, 6, or 9 images

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48 consecutively. Frame duration is adjustable from 0.1 s to 10 s, and inter-frame interval is adjustable from 0.5 s to 999.9 s. The consecutive frames are arrayed across the readout screen in a pattern shown in Figure 3-4. An objective lens is used to construct an image upon the photocathode marked as 31 in Figure 3-5. The photocathode convert s the optical image to an elec tronic image. The electronic image passes through an electroni cs focussing lens and is cons tructed upon the micro-channel plate 1 (MCP1), designated as 38 in Figure 3-5. MCP1 and MCP 2 intensify the image and project it onto a phosphor screen (39 in Figure 3-5) which converts the electronic image into a luminous image. A video camera attached to the rear of the K004M reads the image and sends the video signal to a PC which di gitizes the signal and stores it. The shut pulse generator enables or disables the passage of images from the photocathode to the MCPs. The sweep generator controls the position of the image on the MCPs, which effectively controls the position of the image on the phosphor screen. The sweep generator is the mechanism by which consecutive frames are arrayed on the rear phosphor in mu lti-framing mode and the mechanism by which the image is swept across the phosphor in streak mode. The camera is triggered by a two-channel photosensor (PS-0 01), also manufactured by BIFO. One channel is used to initiate the exposure and the other ch annel engages a gain reduction circuit which reduces the gain of the second MCP. The trigger threshold on each channel is adjustable. Each channel of the PS-001 includes an adjustab le slit for limiting the viewable area, both in terms of altitude and width. This allows for high optical gain during the early stages of the attachment process, and then when the return stroke is initiated the gain should be reduced to avoid satura tion. Initial testing of the K004M showed that operation was as

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49 specified. Several images of sparks were obt ained in every mode of operation. Additionally, images were obtained for 5 to 30 mm long sparks. As stated above, the unit was tested, along with other image converter cameras, using long (up to 6 m) sparks at the high-voltage facility in Istra, Russia. The performance was good. However, the unit did not operate properly dur ing Summer 2003 when it was moved to Camp Blanding for triggered lightning experiments. Internal arcing was observed, which required repair procedures. After these had been correct ed, false triggering of the unit was observed. Finally, the K004M failed to power up at all. Dr. Vitali Lebedev of BIFO Company came to Gainesville and repaired the K 004M in September of 2003. After the repair was completed, the camera was set up in a cupola atop the Engineeri ng Building on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville. A larg e, active thunderstorm passed through the area and several nearby lightning flashes were observed. Under the dir ection of Dr. Lebedev, the camera was operated during this storm. Several flashe s triggered the camera and were recorded. None of these images contained features which could be identified. Tw o images were captured with the K004M during the summer 2003. During the cameras functional period an insufficient number of events occurred to allow proper calib ration of the camera for capturing processes of interest. The BIFO K004M trigger circuit was desi gned by the author in Fall 2007. The PS001 which was initially employed for triggering the BIFO K004M camera was found to be insufficiently sensitive to luminosity of l eader channels. The PS001 has a highly complex schematic and so modifying the in ternal circuitary to achieve l eader triggering was a non-trivial task. This was the motivation behind prototyping a simple triggering circuit that would allow full control over the triggering light levels. The triggering levels can be changed suitably to make either leader or return-s troke as K004M trigger.

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50 This newly-developed trigger circuit is shown in Figures 3.6 and 3.7. Two avalanche photodiode circuits are employed to get correlated triggers based on either the leader or the return-stroke optical intensity in the lightning ch annel. The avalanche photodiode circuits were designed and manufactured by Rob Olsen. They were employed during summer 2005 at Camp Blanding and in 2006 at the University of Florid a for the characterizati on of lightning strokes. This circuit is described in detail in section 3.4. Each sensor input channels is then compared to two reference voltage levels (Vref1 and Vref2) via an AD8564, a high speed quad comparator with a propagation delay of 7 ns. Vref1 corresponds to a voltage referen ce level to expected to be exceeded by a leader optical pulse, whereas Vref2 corresponds to a voltage reference expected to be exceeded by a return-stroke optical pulse. A faci lity has been provided to vary the levels of Vref1 and Vref2 by the means of an on chip surface mount variable potentiometer. When both the sensors observe the same leader optical pulse, voltage on both the input channels is above the leader reference voltage levels (Vref1). This produces a voltage pulse of approximately 3-4 volts at the output of both the co mparators, corresponding to Vref1 as the reference voltage level. These two voltage pulses at the comparator output corresponding to a leader (lea der trigger) are then combined by means of 74LS00, a quad NAND logi c gate (a NAND gate produces a low output when all the inputs are high). The NAND gate pr oduces a low output sign al. This low output signal is then inverted by employing another NAND gate, configured as an inverter, thus producing a relatively high voltage pulse (approximate ly 3-4 V) at the output. This output is then connected to the K004M trigge r channels via a line driver octal buffer SCT25244 to avoid loading the NAND gate by an output stage. The sa me process repeats if the sensors detect a return-stroke. In this case, the comparators corresponding to Vref2 (the voltage reference level expected to be exceeded when a return-stroke is observed by the sensors) provide the outputs for

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51 the NAND gate and the line driver, which can then be used to trigger the gain reduction channel of the K004M camera. 3.4 The Photodiode Array A vertical array of 9 avalanche photodiode optical detectors desi gned and manufactured by Rob Olsen was em ployed during summer 2005 at Camp Blanding and in 2006 at the University of Florida for the characterizati on of lightning strokes. Each photo-diode was mounted in a rectangular aluminum tube whose interiors were painted matte black to prevent reflections. The inner cross-secti on dimensions of the tubes were measured to be 2.75 wide and 0.75 in tall. Each tube was 1 m in length. All photodiodes were the C30737 type avalan che photodiodes that have high responsivity between 400 nm and 1000 nm with a response tim e of 300 ps at all wavelengths with a frequency response of up to 1.2 GHz. They have 0.5 mm active diameter, a breakdown voltage of 160 volts, and very low noise floor of 0.2 pA/ Hz. Signals from photodiodes were relayed to the oscilloscope via an active amplifier w hose circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3-8. The active circuit was designed and manu factured by Rob Olsen around a high-speed operational amplifier AD8066, configured in tran simpedance mode. The impedance seen by the photodiode was thus very close to zero thus moving the high frequency roll off higher in frequency, and improved the risetime of the circuit. The first amplifier stage was set in the inverting mode, therefore a sec ond inverting gain stage was pr ovided to restore the correct waveform polarity. A 50 resistor was placed in series with the output for impedance matching with the co-axial cable and to provide the op amp with a higher load. On July 2, 2005, the response of the actively coupled photodiode circuit was found, using a General Radio Strobotac as the signal source, to be on the order of 600 ns.

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52 Nine slit and tube assemblies were mounted in a shielded aluminum rack. The end of each tube with the slit end cap was bolted to a frame which allowed the tube to rotate about a horizontal axis roughly congruent with the slit itsel f. The nine tubes were arrayed vertically. The uppermost tube was aimed nearly horizontally, w ith successively lower tube aimed higher as shown in Figure 3-12. This resulted in all nine s lits being very close and reduced the size of the hole that had to be cut in the cabinet to allow lig ht to enter. An additional vertical strut was mounted in the rack and each tube was clamped to the strut using standard C-clamps. One meter RG-223 cables with BNC connectors on both ends were used to connect the photodiode outputs to the oscilloscope input channels. The breakdown (Avalanche breakdown is a current multiplication process that occurs only in str ong electric field. The breakdown voltage, is the voltage that creates this high el ectric field across the in the ph otodiodes.) voltages for each of the photodiode assemblies was supplied by a high voltage supply unit. The en tire oscilloscopes, power supply unit, and photodiode array assembly was thus enclosed in a shielded enclosure and isolated from radiated and c onducted interferences. The aluminum tubes provided a second layer of shielding for the very sensitiv e photodiode and preamplifier section. 3.5 The Photodiode Experimental Setup used in 2005 and 2006 The experimental setup that was used for the capture of the Summ er 2005 data is is shown in Figure 3-9. The same experimental setup was used for summer 2006 lightning captures at University of Florida. The Avalanche Photo Diode s were arranged such that APD 1 looked at the lower channel height and the highest part of the channel was seen by APD 9. These were then assigned to the Yokogawa as well as the LeCr oy digital oscilloscopes using appropriate terminations. Table 3-1 shown below summarizes the angl es that each of the APDs was set to along with the respective channel heights seen by them. Initially, the rockets were launched from the

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53 Bucket launcher (July 2nd). In this case the experimental setup was at distance of 706 meters from the lightning channel. Starting from July 13th onwards, the rockets were launched from the Tower. In this case the experimental setup wa s at a distance of 476 me ters from the lightning channel. In summer 2006 the APDs were setup at the same viewing angles. But since the distance to channel termination is unknown the actual heights viewed by each sensor from the photodiode array are unknown. As stated previously, the BI FO K004M was used to record natural lightning events in summer of 2006 at University of Florida. Fi gure 3-10 shows the setup used for the PS001 photosensor and the BIFO K004M image converter camera (ICC). A metal frame with a flat surface on top was used in such a way that it was possible to mount the photosensor on top of the ICC. This is because the photosensor was respons ible for triggering the BIFO, which would then record the event in streak mode. The photosen sor and ICC setup (shown in Figure 3-10) was mounted on a wooden tripod with wheels. This made the heavy apparatus su fficiently mobile in the event that the pointing direction needed to be changed depending on the location of the thunderstorm. Figure 3-11 shows the complete setup along with the photodi ode array and the oscilloscopes. The LeCroys (scopes 16 and 6 in Figure 3-11) and Yokogawa (scope 7 in Figure 3-11) were mounted securely in a rack. The aval anche photodiodes were fi xed onto this rack in such a way that the lowermost channel height viewed was just above the tree line. The photosensor and BIFO were also adjusted to vi ew above the tree line. Figure 3-12 shows the avalanche photodiode array that was fixed behind the oscilloscope rack. Inter-scope delays were

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54 computed for the following scope pairs: Scope 16 Scope 6, Scope 6 Scope 17 and Scope 16Scope 17. These delays are presented in Table 3-2. 3.6 Modified Return-Stroke Speed Equation In the summer 2005 experimental setup block diagram shown in Figure 3-9, the LeCroy Scope-16 was used to trigger the LeCroy Scope 6 which would then trigger the LeCroy Scope 17. The oscilloscopes had their own internal finite time delays which resulted in an inter-scope delay when one scope was used to trigger another. It is therefor e imperative to find time delays between scopes and include them in the return -stroke speed calculations along the channel for each of the rocket-triggered lightning event from summer 2005. For such a calibration, the photodiode array, shown in Figure 312, was exposed to rapid flashe s produced by a strobe light. These flashes were recorded on the LeCroy DSOs via the array of photodiode sensors in the form of pulses. Figure 3-13 shows an example of the calibration pulses recorded by LeCroy Scope 16 and LeCroy Scope 17. As seen in this Figure, there is a difference in amplitude as well as time delay between these two waveforms. These wave forms were then filtered using a 11 ns window moving average filter, amplitude-scaled and shifted to find the best possible time delay between them. Automatic Matlab sub-routin es were built for the above pr ocessing. The resulting shifted and processed waveforms are shown in Figure 3-14. The time delay between LeCroy Scope 16 and LeCroy Scope 17 for CAL001, Stroke 2 was found to be 78 nanoseconds. The time delays between the other LeCroy DSOs have been similarly computed using CAL001 and CAL002 date sets and are summarized in Table 3-2. Accordingly, the new formula (modified relative to that used by Olsen et al. (2004) to account for interscope delays) fo r the return-stroke speed calculation is given as follows: tttt hh vRS 12 12

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55 Channels twotheBetween Difference Heighthh Time Channel Lowert Time Channel Highert Scopes Between DelayTimet Correction Timet 12 1 2 The above formula states that for each set of times, the return-stroke speeds, RSv were calculated by dividing the ve rtical distance between ad jacent viewed heights, h2 h1, by the time interval, t2 t1 (obtained, using techniques explained in chapter 5). Assuming a vertical channel, the light signal propagation path from the uppe rmost segment of the channel was some 133 m (433 nanoseconds) longer than the propagation path from the lowermost segment before July 2, 2005 and some 80 m (266 nanoseconds) longer than the propagation path from the lowermost segment after July 12, 2005. When measuring the time of arriva l of the waveform, this time correction factor, t has to be accounted for in the return-stroke speed equation. Also,t the time delay between the LeCroy DSOs (explained in the previous paragraph), has been introduced into the return-str oke speed equation. There are three primary sources of measuremen t error: angle error, distance error, and timing error [Olsen et al., 2004]. The angle error is due primarily to potential inaccuracy in the measurement of the angle of the photodiode assembly relative to the grou nd and is expected to be less than 0.35 which results in a height interval error of less than 15%. The distance error is a function of the accuracy of th e GPS measurement made at the observation point and the lightning channel termination point, and is estimated to be no gr eater than m, or less than 3%. Finally the error in the time intervals due to inaccuracy of the reference point, whether using the slope-intercept method or the percentage of peak method, as explained in chapter 5, is estimated to be about 25 nanoseconds. As these speed errors are uncorre lated, the total speed error for each segment may be taken as the squa re root of the sum of squares of the three

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56 individual error components. This results in a speed error of less th an 20% for all lightning segments along the return-stroke channel for the summer 2005 data. Figure 3-1: Overview of the ICLRT. Adapted from Olsen (2003) Figure 3-2: Tower launcher

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57 Figure 3-3: Bucket tr uck launcher at ICLRT Figure 3-4: The K004M Multi-Framing Mode Disp lay Patterns (a) 2-fr ame mode.(b) 4-frame mode. (c) 6-frame mode. (d) 9-frame mode.

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58 Figure 3-5: The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC) Block Diagram. 1. Input Objective Lens; 2. Slit, Frame Wi ndow or Test object; 3. ICT (31 Photocathode; 32 Focusing Electrode; 33 Anode; 34 ,35 Shutter Plates; 36 37 Deflection Plates; D1-D3 Shielding Diaphragms; 38 Two MCPs; 39 Luminescent Screen); 4 CU (41 Shut Pulse Generator; 42 Sweep Genetrator); 5 Power Supply Unit; 6 CCD TV camera; 7 Video Port; 8 PC System Unit; 9 PC Display. Adapted from K004M Documentation BIFO Company (2002).

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59 Figure 3-6: The BIFO K 004M trigger circuit. VREF2 VREF1 74LS37 NAND 74LS37 NAND BIFO Gain Reduction Channel BIFO Trigger Input Channel SN64BCT25244 Octal Buffer SN64BCT25244 Octal Buffer 74LS37 NAND 74LS37 NAND AD8564 High Speed Quad Comparator Input Channel #2 Input Channel #1

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60 Figure 3-7: The BIFO K004M tr igger circuit printed circui t board (PCB). Two avalanche photodiode circuits can be connected to th e two BNC connectors on the left hand side of the PCB. The two BNC connectors on the right hand side represent the correlated leader and return-stroke triggers respectively. Also, seen are two potentiometers that can be used to adjust the leader and return -stroke trigger levels. The rest of the PCB components and the general circuit oper ation are described in section 3.3.1. Figure 3-8: Actively-coupled phot odiode circuit used during the summer 2005 Camp Blanding experiments as well as in the 2006 Univ ersity of Florida experiments.

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61 Figure 3-9: Block diagram of the 2005 Camp Blanding and 2006 University of Florida experiments. (APD= Avalanche Photodiode).

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62 Figure 3-10: The BIFO K004M and PS001 photos ensor setup used in the summer 2006 cupola lightning experiments.

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63 Figure 3-11: Complete experime ntal setup used during the su mmer 2006 experiments. Shown in the figure are the LeCroy and the Yokogawa oscilloscopes mounted into a rack. The avalanche photo diodes (not visible in this image) were fixed behind this rack. The BIFO K004M camera and photosensor setup wa s placed near the rack in such a way that the photodiode array and the BIFO were focused at the same point.

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64 Figure 3-12: The Avalanche Photodiode (APD) array attached on the back side of the oscilloscope rack shown in Figure 310 and used for the summer 2005, rockettriggered and summer 2006, natural lightning ex periments. The angles viewed by the sensors are given in Table 3-1. Figure 3-13: Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Stroke 2) recorded on the LeCroy DSOs mounted on the rack shown in Figure 3-10 in su mmer 2005. There is a delay between the waveforms even though they were simultaneously captured by the avalanche photodiode array. This is termed time delay between scopes (t ) and is included in the return-stroke speed calculation formula.

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65 Figure 3-14: Calibration waveforms (CAL001, Str oke 2) shown in Figure 3-12 but filtered, amplitude scaled, and shifted using Matla b sub-routines unti l the best possible coincidence was achieved. This time shift is the time delay between scopes ( t ) which is included in the return-s troke speed calculation formula. Table 3-1: The ICLRT Summer 2005 avalanche photodiode array angles and viewed heights along the lightning channel. APDs Angles (Degrees) Viewed Channel Heights (July 2nd 2005 to July 12th) Viewed Channel Heights (July 13th 2005 Onwards) 1 1.3 16 11 2 3.6 44 30 3 6.8 84 57 4 9.3 116 78 5 13.6 171 115 6 19.1 245 165 7 24.0 314 212 8 27.0 360 243

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66 Table 3-2: Interscope delay or Time Delay Between Scopes ( t ) between the LeCroy DSOs estimated using the Summer 2005 calibration data.. LeCroy DSO Delay, ns Scope 16 Scope 17 62 Scope 16 Scope 6 69 Scope 6 Scope 17 11

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67 CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION Optical records for 31 lightning flashes we re obtained in Summer 2005. Of these 31, 8 were triggered lightning and the remaining 23 were natural lightning. The natural lightning optica l records are listed in Table 4-1. A listing of all triggered lightning optical records is given in Table 4-2. 4.1 Triggered Lightning Events 4.1.1 Event F0501 Event F0501 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:22:46 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the mobile launcher which was 70 6 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. Figure 4-1 shows the optical waveforms cap tured on the photodiode array at different heights along the lightning channel on the LeCr oy Digital Oscillosc opes. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the ho rizontal along with the corr esponding channel height viewed by each sensor are given in Table 4-3. The appr oximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. The LeCroys have sampling rate of 500 MHz (that is, a time interval of 2 nanoseconds between adjacent data points). Figure 4-2 shows the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds between adjacent data points ). The smallest channel height seen by the photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 3 and 4), that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light (3 x 108 m/s). Typical rise times for lightning events are on the order of microseconds, and hence the

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68 Yokogawa waveforms have at leas t ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return-stroke waveform. So, even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroys, th e Yokogawa data are also suitable for data analysis. 4.1.2 Event F0503 Event F0503 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:37:27 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the mobile launcher which was 70 6 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maximize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. Figures 4-3, 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6 show the optic al waveforms captured by the photodiode array at on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for all four return-strokes. Four strokes were observed for this event on the photodiode array. The angles of the individual tube s in the photodiode array relative to the horizontal along w ith the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are given in Table 4-3. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. The LeCroys have sampling rate of 500 MHz (that is, a time interval of 2 nanoseconds between adjacent data points). Figures 4-7, 4-8, 4-9 and 4-10 show the optic al waveforms captured by the photodiodes on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds between adjacent data points). The smallest channel height seen by the photodiode array for this even t was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 3 and 4), that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds assu ming the speed of propagation of light (3x108 m/s). Typical rise-times for lightning events are on the order of micro seconds, and hence the Yokogawa waveforms have at least ten to fifteen points on the risi ng portion of return-stroke. So, even though the rising portion of the wavefo rms have fewer points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroys, the Yokogawa data are also suitable for data analysis.

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69 4.1.3 Event F0510 Event F0510 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:03:33 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maxim ize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-11 shows the optical waveforms at various channel height s, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in th e photodiode array relative to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lig htning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning event. 4.1.4 Event F0512 Event F0512 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:14:47 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maxim ize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-12 shows the optical waveforms at various channel height s, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in th e photodiode array relative to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lig htning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning event.

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70 4.1.5 Event F0514 Event F0514 was triggered on Aug 4, 2005 at 18 :44:38 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maxim ize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-13 shows the optical waveforms at various channel height s, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in th e photodiode array relative to the horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lig htning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. Figure 4-14 shows the optical waveforms captured by the sensors on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light. between adjacent data points). The smallest channel height seen by the photodiode ar ray for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 2 and 3), that is, a time inte rval of 100 nanoseconds. Ty pical rise-times for lightning events are on the order of micro-second s, and hence the Yokogawa waveforms have at least ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return-stroke. So, even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroys, the Yokogawa data are also su itable for data analysis. 4.1.6 Event F0517 Event F0517 was triggered on Aug 4, 2005 at 19 :32:47 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maxim ize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The photodiode array was operated during this event.

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71 Two strokes were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-15 and 4-16 show the optical waveforms at various channel heights, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in the photodiode array relative to the horizontal along with th e corresponding channel height view ed by each sensor are shown in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lightning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. Figures 4-17 and 4-18 show the optical wave forms captured by the photodiodes at various heights along the lightning channel, on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The Yokogawa has a sampling rate of 10 MHz (that is, a time in terval of 100 nanoseconds assuming the speed of propagation of light. between adjace nt data points). The smalle st channel height seen by the photodiode array for this event was on the order of 30 meters (between sensors 2 and 3), that is, a time interval of 100 nanoseconds. Typical rise-tim es for lightning events are on the order of micro-seconds, and hence the Yokogawa waveform s have at least ten to fifteen points on the rising portion of return -stroke. So, even though the rising portion of the waveforms have fewer points as compared to the waveforms captured on the LeCroys, the Yokogawa data are also suitable for data analysis. 4.1.7 Event F0521 Event F0521 was triggered on August 5, 2005 at 21:30:57 UTC. The triggering rocket was launched from the tower launcher which was 476 m away from the photodiode array. Such a distance was chosen to maxim ize the viewable height of the channel for the photodiodes. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-19 shows the optical waveforms at various channel height s, captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. The angles of the individual tubes in th e photodiode array relative to the

PAGE 72

72 horizontal along with the corresponding channel height viewed by each sensor are shown in Table 4-4. The approximate vertical length of lig htning channel imaged by each sensor was 1 m. There were no records on the Yokogawa oscilloscope for this particular triggered-lightning event. 4.2 Natural Lightning Events 4.2.1 Event NAT0503 Event NAT0503 occurred on July 2, 2005 at 23: 29:13 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-20 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of th is event is possible. 4.2.2 Event NAT0504 Event NAT0504 occurred on July 2, 2005 at 23: 33:24 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-21 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscope. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sens ors were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of th is event is possible. 4.2.3 Event NAT0506 Event NAT0506 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:05:37 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-22 shows the optical waveform s

PAGE 73

73 captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.4 Event NAT0507 Event NAT0507 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:06:05 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-23 shows the optical waveform s captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event. No significant analysis of th is event is possible. 4.2.5 Event NAT0508 Event NAT0508 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:13:14 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-24 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the event clearly. No significant analysis of th is event is possible. 4.2.6 Event NAT0509 Event NAT0509 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:14:02 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode ar ray was operated during these event. Two strokes were observed for this event on the phot odiode array. Figures 425 and 4-26 show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for both return the return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

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74 4.2.7 Event NAT0510 Event NAT0510 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:14:23 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array.Figure 4-27 shows the optical waveform s captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscope. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sens ors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of th is event is possible. 4.2.8 Event NAT0511 Event NAT0511 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:16:17 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-28 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all th e sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.9 Event NAT0512 Event NAT0512 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:28:37 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. Tw o strokes were observed by th e photodiode array for this event. Two strokes were observed for this even t on the photodiode array. Figures 4-29 and 4-30 show the optical waveforms captured by th e photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscillos copes for both the return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

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75 4.2.10 Event NAT0513 Event NAT0513 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:16:59 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-31 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all th e sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.11 Event NAT0514 Event NAT0514 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 21:31:25 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event. Figure 4-32 s hows the optical wave form s captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscope s. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were ab le to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.12 Event NAT0515 Event NAT0515 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:13:58 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode Figure 4-33 shows the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Di gital Oscilloscopes. On ly sensors 2, 3 and 4 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.13 Event NAT0516 Event NAT0516 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:19:46 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-34 shows the optical wa veforms

PAGE 76

76 captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.14 Event NAT0517 Event NAT0517 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:20:40 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-35 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Di gital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, and 4 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.15 Event NAT0518 Event NAT0518 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 23:21:24 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-36 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined. 4.2.16 Event NAT0519 Event NAT0519 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 16:56:56 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-37 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible.

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77 4.2.17 Event NAT0520 Event NAT0520 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:06:22 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-38 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible 4.2.18 Event NAT0521 Event NAT0521 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:21:55 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-39 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.19 Event NAT0522 Event NAT0522 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:23:57 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-40 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest channel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.20 Event NAT0523 Event NAT0523 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:25:22 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. Two strokes

PAGE 78

78 were observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figures 4-41 and 4-42 show the optical waveforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Digital Oscilloscopes for both the return-strokes. Except for sensor 1 (which viewed the lowest ch annel height), all the sensors were able to view the events clearly. No significant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.21 Event NAT0524 Event NAT0524 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:54:45 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode ar ray. Figures 4-43 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.22 Event NAT0525 Event NAT0525 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 17:59:31 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-44 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible. 4.2.23 Event NAT0526 Event NAT0526 occurred on July 14, 2005 at 18:01:10 UTC. The termination point of the lightning channel is unknown. The photodiode array was operated during this event. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array. Figure 4-45 shows the optical wa veforms captured by the photodiode array on the LeCroy Dig ital Oscilloscopes. Only sensors 2, 3, 4 and 5 were able to view the event clearly. No signi ficant analysis of this event is possible.

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79 Figure 4-1: Event F0501, photodi ode array waveforms recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relati ve light intensity and is give n in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

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80 Figure 4-2: Event F0501, photodiode array reco rded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circ uit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning channel termin ation point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 81

81 Figure 4-3 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode arra y recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

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82 Figure 4-4 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode arra y recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 83

83 Figure 4-5 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode arra y recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 84

84 Figure 4-6 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode arra y recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 85

85 Figure 4-7 Event F0503, stroke 1, photodiode ar ray recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

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86 Figure 4-8 Event F0503, stroke 2, photodiode ar ray recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

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87 Figure 4-9 Event F0503, stroke 3, photodiode ar ray recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 88

88 Figure 4-10 Event F0503, stroke 4, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The lightning cha nnel termination point was the bucket launcher.

PAGE 89

89 Figure 4-11 Event F0510, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circ uit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termination poi nt was the tower launcher

PAGE 90

90 Figure 4-12 Event F0512, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circ uit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termination poi nt was the tower launcher

PAGE 91

91 Figure 4-13 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circ uit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termination poi nt was the tower launcher.

PAGE 92

92 Figure 4-14 Event F0514, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The terminatio n point was the tower launcher.

PAGE 93

93 Figure 4-15 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on th e LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The terminatio n point was the tower launcher.

PAGE 94

94 Figure 4-16 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on th e LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtain ed using an active configuration (a transimpedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circuit for achievi ng higher gain) of the photodiode array. The terminatio n point was the tower launcher.

PAGE 95

95 Figure 4-17 Event F0517, stroke 1, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The vertical scale indicates re lative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in th e photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termin ation point was the tower launcher.

PAGE 96

96 Figure 4-18 Event F0517, stroke 2, photodiode array recorded on the Yokogawa oscilloscope. The vertical scale indicates re lative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in th e photodiode circuit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termin ation point was the tower launcher.

PAGE 97

97 Figure 4-19 Event F0521, photodiode array recorded on the LeCroy DSOs. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity and is given in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. This record was obtained using an active configuration (a trans-impedance amplifier was used in the photodiode circ uit for achieving higher gain) of the photodiode array. The termination poi nt was the tower launcher.

PAGE 98

98 Figure 4-20 Event NAT0503 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 99

99 Figure 4-21 Event NAT0504 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 100

100 Figure 4-22 Event NAT0506 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 101

101 Figure 4-23 Event NAT0507 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 102

102 Figure 4-24 Event NAT0508 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 103

103 Figure 4-25 Event NAT0509, stroke 1, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 104

104 Figure 4-26 Event NAT0509, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 105

105 Figure 4-27 Event NAT0510 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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106 Figure 4-28 Event NAT0511 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 107

107 Figure 4-29 Event NAT0512, stroke 1, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

PAGE 108

108 Figure 4-30 Event NAT0512, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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109 Figure 4-31 Event NAT0513 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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110 Figure 4-32 Event NAT0514 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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111 Figure 4-33 Event NAT0515 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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112 Figure 4-34 Event NAT0516 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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113 Figure 4-35 Event NAT0517 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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114 Figure 4-36 Event NAT0518 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point

PAGE 115

115 Figure 4-37 Event NAT0519 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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116 Figure 4-38 Event NAT0520 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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117 Figure 4-39 Event NAT0521 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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118 Figure 4-40 Event NAT0522 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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119 Figure 4-41 Event NAT0523, stroke 1, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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120 Figure 4-42 Event NAT0523, stroke 2, photodiode array record. The vertical scale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscilloscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and ther efore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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121 Figure 4-43 Event NAT0524 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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122 Figure 4-44 Event NAT0524 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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123 Figure 4-45 Event NAT0526 photodiode ar ray record. The vertical s cale indicates relative light intensity in terms of voltage at the oscill oscope input. The distance to the termination point is unknown, and therefore the height viewed by each sensor cannot be determined.

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124 Table 4-1: Optical Dataset fo r Natural Lightning, Summer 2005 Flash ID Date Time (UTC) Number of Return Strokes Photo-diode Array K004M NAT0503 July.2,2005 23:29:13 1 Y N NAT0504 July.2,2005 23:33:24 1 Y N NAT0506 July.14,2005 21:05:37 1 Y N NAT0507 July.14,2005 21:06:05 1 Y N NAT0508 July.14,2005 21:13:14 1 Y N NAT0509 July.14,2005 21:14:02 2 Y N NAT05010 July.14,2005 21:14:23 1 Y N NAT05011 July.14,2005 21:16:17 1 Y N NAT05012 July.14,2005 21:16:59 2 Y N NAT05013 July.14,2005 21:28:47 1 Y N NAT05014 July.14,2005 21:31:25 1 Y N NAT05015 July.22,2005 23:13:58 1 Y N NAT05016 July.22,2005 23:19:46 1 Y N NAT05017 July.22,2005 23:20:40 1 Y N NAT05018 July.23,2005 23 :31 :24 1 Y N NAT05019 July.29,2005 16:56:57 1 Y N NAT05020 July.29,2005 17:06:24 1 Y N NAT05021 July.29,2005 17:21:56 1 Y N NAT05022 July.29,2005 17:23:58 1 Y N NAT05023 July.29,2005 17:25:22 2 Y N NAT05024 July.29,2005 17:54:46 1 Y N NAT05025 July.29,2005 17:59:42 1 Y N NAT05026 July.29,2005 18:01:11 1 Y N Table 4-2: Optical Dataset for Triggered Lightni ng, Summer 2005 Flash ID Date Time (UTC) Number of Return Strokes Photodiode Array K004M F0501 July 2,2005 23:22:46 1 YES NO F0503 July 2,2005 23:37:27 4 YES NO F0510 July 31,2005 20:03:33 1 YES NO F0512 July 31,2005 20:14:47 1 YES NO F0514 August 4,2005 18:44:38 1 YES NO F0517 August 4,2005 19:32:47 2 YES NO F0520 August 5,2005 21:24:50 1 YES NO F0521 August 5,2005 21:30:57 1 YES NO

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125 Table 4-3: Event F0501 and F0503 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights Sensor No. Tube Angle, Degrees Height Above Ground, m 9 32.6 451 8 27 360 7 24 314 6 19.1 245 5 13.6 171 4 9.3 116 3 6.8 84 2 3.6 44 Table 4-4: Event F0510, F0512, F0514, F0517, F0520 and F0521 Slit Tube Angles and Viewed Heights Sensor No. Tube Angle, Degrees Height Above Ground, m 9 32.6 304 8 27 242 7 24 212 6 19.1 165 5 13.6 115 4 9.3 78 3 6.8 57 2 3.6 30

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126 CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 5.1 Methodology Olsen (2003) analyzed the retu rn-stroke propagation speeds of five strokes from a seven stroke triggered lightning flas h using a vertical array of photodiodes with a 2 ns sam pling interval. The seven stroke lightning flash was triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida during the summer of 2003. Using the photodiode array, th e one-dimensional speeds of return-stroke propagation were measured in the lowest 170 m of the lightning cha nnel for five out of the seven return strokes, all of which transported nega tive charge to ground. Th e triggering rocket was launched from a mobile launcher located appr oximately 300 m from the photodiode array. At this distance, each of the diodes was able to view a vertical section of lightning channel approximately 1 m in length. Various methods to determine the reference points were explored, and the speeds were observed to vary by an or der of magnitude depending on chosen method. Speeds computed using these different re ference points are presented in Table 2.1. Usually, reference points to be tracked on the return-stroke waveforms are chosen to represent as closely as possible the time at which the wave-front first passes the viewed area. The choice of the reference points affects the measured speed, as the shape and the amplitude of the waveform change as it propagates up the channel. Thus it is necessary to select a reference point that is identifiable in all the waveforms and is independent of these waveform characteristics. One reasonable method was to detect the time when the waveform reached 10% of the maximum optical intensity level (Olsen, 2003). This area of initial deflection is usually covered with noise and so was not considered by Olsen (2003), whereas, the 20% of the peak optic al intensity is less affected by noise and was hence was chosen as one of the reference points. The 90% and the maximum peak optical intensity ti me points have also been chosen as reference points with the

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127 drawback that, these points occur towards the pe ak of the waveform, usually characterized by slower rise times (more affected by dispersion). As a result, when these points were chosen as references the speeds computed were much lower than expected. Another reference point was located at the peak of the tim e derivative of the rising portion of the return-stroke waveform. Since the 20% point is apparentl y, the least affected by either waveform noise or dispersion, only the 20% point was used as a reference when computing the return stroke propagation speed profile along the lightning channel. The 10%, 90% maximum peak intensity, and light intensity derivative peak points were used to only com pute the overall return-stroke propagation speeds. Olsen (2003) also used a nother technique called the slop e-intercept method, intended to determine the reference point for the return-strok e reasonably well even in the presence of noise. As illustrated in the Figure 5-1, a straight, horizontal line was drawn on the waveform. The vertical level of this line wa s chosen to pass through the cente r of the noise amplitude in the region of minimum signal intensity just prior to the return-stroke waveform. In waveforms which exhibit leader signatures, the regi on of lowest signal intensity betw een the leader peak and return stroke peak (not shown in Figur e 5-1) was chosen to be the re gion of minimum signal intensity. This line was labeled as the Reference Level Lin e. Next, a slanted line was drawn parallel and congruent with the slope of th e return-stroke rising portion, approximating as closely as possible the mean of the waveform front over as long an interval as possible. This line is labeled Average Slope Line in Figure 5-1. The in tersection of these tw o lines, marked R.S Beginning was taken to be the be ginning of the return stroke wave form for each segment of the channel. 5.2 Calibration of the Data Analysis Tools In order to calibrate the analysis tools that were used in the analysis of the summer 2005 data, I re-computed the overall return stroke speeds computed by Olsen et al. (2003) for F0336.

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128 Table 5-1 shows the percentage e rrors relative to the return-stroke propagation speeds previously computed by Olsen et. al. (2003). Most of the errors are within 10 percent, with a few exceptions. Also, it is important to note that the errors were appa rently random in nature, which confirms the accuracy (absence of bias) of the data analysis tools used in this thesis. A systematic error in the analysis would often be either always positive or always negative. Figure 5-2 shows that the erro rs found do not follow such patterns, thus suggesting the absence of systematic errors. 5.3 Filters Used for the Summer 2005 Data Analysis A typical lightning light waveform is noisy, which m akes the analysis of data for the purpose of return stroke speed measurements very difficult. Therefore, filte ring the lightning data was essential Also, as seen in the spectrum of a typical lightni ng return stroke light waveform shown in Figure 5-3; there is not much useful information above 12 MHz or so. This corresponds to a rise time of 30 nanoseconds, whereas return stroke waveforms have rise times typically of the order a few microseconds. The spectrum of all light waveforms considered here was similar to that shown in Figure 5-3. Hence, filtering out information above 12 MHz did not affect the rise time portion of any of the analyzed return-str okes. The following three filters were used for the lightning data analysis, applied depending on noisiness of the waveform. A moving average filter with the window size of 11 samples was used to filter F0336, stroke 1 (captured at a height of 7 m above termination, Olsen (2003)) lightning waveform as illustrated in Figure 5-4.The unfiltered and filtered waveforms are compared to check for any changes in the initial rising portion of the return stroke. As one can see, the moving average filter works well in averaging out the noise and provi ding a smooth waveform, while preserving all the salient features of the waveform.

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129 A 47th order low pass filter (Filter 1) with the stop band (the filter response goes from 0 db attenuation to 98 db attenuation) extending from 3.75 MHz to12 MHz was used to filter same F0336, stroke 1 lightning waveform described above. The filtered and unfiltered waveforms were overlaid to nullify the gain provided by the filter and to check for faithful reproduction of salient feature of the initial rising portion of the return stroke waveform, as shown in Figure 5-5. This filter was used whenever the moving average filter failed to provide a sufficiently smooth waveform. A 1011th order low pass filter (Filter 2) with a stop band extending from 1 MHz to 1.75 MHz was also used to filter F0336, stroke 1 li ghtning waveform. This filter was used only for smoothing especially noisy waveforms, an exampl e of which is shown in Figure 5-6. The filtered and unfiltered waveforms in all the cases were over laid on top of each other to check the quality of filtering. When using the above mentioned low pass filters, I scaled down all the filtered waveforms to the original amplitude to nullif y the gains and shifted to nullify the delays caused by the respective filters. 5.4 Results of the Summer 2005 Data Analysis In this section, the return-stroke propaga tion speeds of all the 2005 triggered lightning strokes are presented. Light profile s of a total of 11 trigg ered li ghtning strokes were recorded on the LeCroy DSOs and those of a total of 8 st rokes were recorded on both LeCroy DSOs and Yokogawa oscilloscopes. The overall return-stroke speeds were comput ed only using LeCroy data because of their higher sampling rate of 500 MHz, which corresponds to 2 nanoseconds between data points. The Yokogawa DSO has a sampling rate of 10 MHz, which corresponds to a time interval of 100 nanoseconds between data points. As explai ned in Chapter 3, although the LeCroy Scope 6

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130 trigger timing was somewhat uncertain, this leads to an inaccuracy of not more than 6% in the overall return-stroke speeds in the case of F0517, Stroke 1, F0517, Stroke 2 and F0521, Stroke 1. The LeCroy data were also used to compute the return-stroke speed prof iles as a function of height. Yokogawa data were co mpared to the LeCroy data. In computing return-stroke speeds at diffe rent heights using the 2005 LeCroy data, the following two groups of channels were considered for computing two separate speed profiles. Sensor 2 to Sensor 3 (44 m to 84 m), Sensor 3 to Sensor 4 (84 m to 116 m), Sensor 4 to Sensor 6 (116 m to 245 m), and Sensor 6 to Sensor 9 (245 m to 451 m) comprised one profile set. Sensor 5 to Sensor 7 (171 m to 314 m) and Sensor 7 to Sensor 8 (314 m to 360 m) comprised the second profile set. These two profiles were then overlapped onto each other for comparison. 5.4.1 Event F0501 Event F0501 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23:22:46 UTC. One stroke was observed for this event on the photodiode array following the initia l stage The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the different reference points explained in section 5-1 is given in Table 5-2. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, meas ured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-3. The speed profile is shown in Fi gure 5-7 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-8 with the slope intercep t point as the reference. The pr ofiles shown in Figures 5-7 and 5-8 in blue are based on data fr om channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-4. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-9 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-10 using the slope intercept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-5 and in Figure 5-11. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-6. The corresponding speed profiles are shown in Fi gure 5-12 using the 20%

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131 point as reference and in Figure 513 using the slope intercept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-7 and the corresponding average retu rn-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-14. Table 5-8 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups .We notice that for the same event, the leader prop agation speeds are an order of magnitude lower than the observed two-dimensional return-stroke speeds.Table 5-9 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0501, St roke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.4.2 Event F0503 Event F0503 was triggered on July 2, 2005 at 23 :37:27 UTC. Four strokes were observed for this even t on the photodiode array following the initial stage. The segments which were recorded correspond to strokes 1, 2, 3 and 4. The overa ll return-stroke speeds for this event using the different reference points explained in Sec tion 5-1 are given in Table 5-10. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data for event F0503, stroke 1 are given in Table 5-11. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-16 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-17 with the slope inter cept point as the reference. Th e profiles shown in Figures 5-16 and 5-17 in blue are based on data from channe ls 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-12. The corresponding average sp eed profile is shown in Figur e 5-18 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-19 using the slope intercept point as re ference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-13 and in Figure 5-19. The return-stroke speeds at va rious heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-14. The corresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-20 using the

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132 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-21 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-15. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is show n in Figure 5-22. Table 5-16 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at vari ous heights for the event F0503, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. The return-stroke speeds at di fferent heights, measured us ing LeCroy data for event F0503, stroke 2 are given in Table 5-17. Te speed profile is shown in Figure 5-25 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-26 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profiles shown in Figures 5-25 and 5-26 in blue are based on da ta from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are base d on data from channels 5, 7, a nd 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-18. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-27 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-28 using the slope intercept point as re ference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-19 and in Figure 5-27. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-20. The co rresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-28 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-29 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-21. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-30. Table 5-22 gives the leader propagation speed s at various heights based on the LeCroy data and computed using the 20% point as referen ce. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups. We notice that for the same event, the leader propagation spee ds are an order of magnitude lower than the observed two-dimensi onal return-stroke speeds Table 5-23 gives the

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133 return stroke optical risetimes at various hei ghts for event F0503, Stroke 2, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. The return-stroke speeds at di fferent heights, measured us ing LeCroy data for event F0503, stroke 3 are given in Table 5-24. The speed profile is shown in Fi gure 5-31 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-32 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-31 and 5-32 in blue are based on da ta from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are base d on data from channels 5, 7, a nd 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-25. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-33 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-34 using the slope intercept point as re ference using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is give n in Table 5-26 and in Figures 5-35. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-26. The co rresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-36 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-37 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-28. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile using Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-38. Table 5-29 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for th e event F0503, Stroke 3, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. The return-stroke speeds at di fferent heights, measured us ing LeCroy data for event F0503, stroke 4 are given in Table 5-30. The speed profile is shown in Fi gure 5-39 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-40 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-39 and 5-40 in blue are based on da ta from channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are base d on data from channels 5, 7, a nd 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-31. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-41 with the 20% point as

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134 reference and in Figure 5-42 using the slope intercept point as refe rence using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is gi ven in Table 5-32 and inFigure 5-43. The return-stroke speeds at di fferent heights, measured usi ng Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-33. The corresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-44 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-45 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-34. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is show n in Figure 5-46. Table 5-35 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at va rious heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.4.3 Event F0510 Event F0510 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:03:33 UTC. One stroke was observed for this event by the photodiode array following the initial stag e. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-36. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data for this event are given in Table 5-37. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-47 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-48 with the slope inter cept point as the reference. Th e profile shown in Figures 5-47 and 5-48 in blue are based on data from channe ls 2,3,4,6, and 9, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 538. The average speed profile is shown in Figur e 5-49 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-50 using the slope inter cept point as reference using Le Croy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 539 and in Figure 5-51. Table 5-40 gi ves the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0510, St roke 1 recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope.

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135 5.4.4 Event F0512 Event F0512 was triggered on July 31, 2005 at 20:14:47 UTC. One stroke was observed for this event by the photodiode array. The overa ll return-stroke speeds f or this event using the different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-41. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data fo r this event are given in Table 5-42. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-52 with the 20% point as reference a nd in Figure 5-53 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile show n in Figures 5-52 and 5-53 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid plot in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profile s is given in Table 543. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-54 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-55 using the slope intercept point as referen ce using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-44 and in Figure 5-56. Table 5-45 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups. We notice that for the same event, the leader prop agation speeds are an order of magnitude lower than the observed two-dimens ional return-stroke speeds. Table 5-46 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1 recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.4.5 Event F0514 Event F0514 was triggered on August 4, 2005 at 18:44:38 UTC. One stroke was observed for this event by the photodiode array. The overa ll return-stroke speeds f or this event using the different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-47. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data fo r this event are given in Table 5-48. The speed

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136 profile is shown in Figure 5-57 with the 20% point as reference a nd in Figure 5-58 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile show n in Figures 5-57 and 5-58 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two prof iles is given in Tabl e 5-49. The corresponding average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-59 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-60 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. Th e average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-50 and in Figure 5-61. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured usi ng Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-51. The corresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-62 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-63 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-52. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-64. Table 5-53 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with the return-stroke speeds, leader speeds were estimated using all LeCroy channels without segregating them into two groups. We notice that for the same event, the leader prop agation speeds are an order of magnitude lower than the observed two-dimens ional return-stroke speeds. Table 5-54 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.4.6 Event F0517 Event F0517 was triggered on August 4, 2005 at 19:32:47 UTC. Two strokes was observed for this event by the photodiode array. The segm ents which were recorded correspond to strokes 1, and 2. The overall return-stroke speeds for this event using the various reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-55. Th e return-stroke speeds at different heights,

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137 measured using LeCroy data for this event are gi ven in Table 5-56. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-65 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-66 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-65 and 5-66 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profile s in red are based on da ta from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-57. The average spee d profile is shown in Figure 5-67 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-68 using the slope intercept point as reference using LeCroy data. The average of thes e two profiles is given in Table 5-58 and in Figure 5-69. The return-stroke speeds at va rious heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-59. The corresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-70 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-71 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Ta ble 5-60. The corresponding average return-stroke speed profile based on Yokogawa data is shown in Figure 5-72. Table 5-61 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. The return-stroke speeds at di fferent heights, measured us ing LeCroy data for event F0517, stroke 2 are given in Table 5-62. The speed profile is shown in Fi gure 5-73 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-74 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile shown in Figures 5-73 and 5-74 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are base d on data from channels 5, 7, a nd 8. The average of two profiles is given in Table 5-63. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-75 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-76 using the slope intercept point as refe rence using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-64 and in Figure 5-77.

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138 The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using Yokogawa data for this event are given in Table 5-65. The co rresponding speed profiles are s hown in Figure 5-78 using the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-79 using the slope inter cept point as reference. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-66 and in Figure 5-80. Table 5-67 gives the leader propagation speeds at various heights based on the LeCroy data and computed using the 20% point as reference. In contrast with return-stroke speeds, leader speeds were estimated using all the LeCroy channe ls without segregating them into two groups. We notice that for the same event, the leader pr opagation speeds are an order of magnitude lower than the observed two-dimens ional return-stroke speeds. Table 5-68 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.4.7 Event F0521 Event F0521 was triggered on August 5, 2005 at 21:30:57 UTC. One strokes was observed for this event by the photodiode array. The overa ll return-stroke speeds f or this event using the different reference points explained in section is given in Table 5-69. The return-stroke speeds at various heights, measured using LeCroy data fo r this event are given in Table 5-70. The speed profile is shown in Figure 5-81 with the 20% point as reference a nd in Figure 5-82 with the slope intercept point as the reference. The profile show n in Figures 5-81 and 5-82 in blue are based on data from channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, whereas the overlaid profiles in red are based on data from channels 5, 7, and 8. The average of two profile s is given in Table 571. The average speed profile is shown in Figure 5-83 with the 20% point as reference and in Figure 5-84 using the slope intercept point as referen ce using LeCroy data. The average of these two profiles is given in Table 5-72 and in Figure 5-85.

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139 Table 5-73 gives the return stroke optical risetimes at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1, recorded by the LeCroy oscilloscope. 5.5 Summary The results from the above data analysis have been summ arized in this section. 5.5.1 Return-Stroke Speeds The return-stroke speed profile s for different groups of Le Croy channels, but the same reference point were compared. Specifically, th e solid red line LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% poi nt as reference was compared to the dashed blue line LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obtained usin g the 20% point as reference. The percentage differences were found to be less than 30% in all the cases except for the cases listed in Table 574. Similarly, the solid red line LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obt ained using the slope intercept point as reference was compared to th e dashed blue line LeCroy return-stroke speed profile obtained using the slope in tercept point as reference. The percentage differences were found to be less than 30% in a ll the cases again, ex cept for the cases listed in Table 5-74. The averaged LeCroy return-stroke speed prof iles, obtained by aver aging the solid red line and the dashed blue line return-stroke sp eed profiles, using the 20% point as reference were compared to the return-stroke speed profiles, obtained by averaging th e solid red line and the dashed blue line return-stroke speed profiles, using the slope intercep t point as reference. The percentage differences were found to be less than 30% in a ll the cases except for the events listed in Table 5-75. The return-stroke speed profiles measured using Yokogawa data, with the 20% as reference were compared with the return-stroke speed profiles measured using Yokogawa data, with the slope intercept point as reference. The percentage differen ces were less than 30% in all the cases.

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140 The return-stroke speed profiles obtained by computing the aver age of the speeds from the two groups of LeCroy channels with the 20% point as reference were compared to the Yokogawa data with the 20% point as reference. The percentage difference was less than 30% for all the events. Similarly, the return-stroke speed profiles obtained by computing the average of the speeds measured using LeCroy data with the slope intercept point as reference were compared to the Yokogawa data with the 20% po int as reference. The percentage differences were less than 30% in all the cases. The return-stroke speed profile s obtained by computing the av erage of the speeds obtained using LeCroy data, with the 20% point and slope intercept point as reference, were compared to the average return-stroke speed s computed similarly using Yokogawa data. The percentage difference was less than 30% for the all the cases except for the events listed in Table 5-76. In the slope-intercept method, the starting poin t will be reported earl ier in time as the risetime of the waveform gets slower. For this reason, it is believed that the speeds measured using the slope intercept method overestimate th e actual speed whereas th e 20% of peak method is believed to underestimate the actual 1-D sp eed (Olsen et al., 2004). Accordingly, the lower and upper bounds on the mean return-stroke speeds using LeCroy and Yokogawa data. The mean return-stroke speeds obtained using LeCroy data are found to vary between 1.48 x 108 m/s and 1.59 x 108 m/s. Whereas, the mean return-stroke sp eeds obtained using the Yokogawa data are found to vary between 1.53 x 108 m/s and 1.61 x 108 m/s. The mean return-stroke speed, obtained by co mputing the average of the return-speeds using the 20% and slope intercep t reference points, was 1.51 x 108 m/s in the case of LecCroy data and 1.57 x 108 m/s in the case of Yokogawa data.

PAGE 141

141 The return-stroke speed profiles had non-monotonic profiles in all of the events analyzed in this chapter. The return-stroke speeds found to be higher in the middle of the lightning channel and lower in either the bottom or the top porti ons of the lightning channel. Accordingly the speeds were seen to vary between 1 x 108 m/s and 2 x 108 m/s using the LeCroy data, whereas the seeds were seen to vary between 1 x 108 m/s and 2.2 x 108 m/s using the Yokogawa data. 5.5.2 Leader Speeds Four triggered lightning events, F0501-Stroke 1 (July 2), F0512-St roke 1 (July 31), F0514Stroke 1 (August 4) and F0503-Stroke 2 (July 2) e xhibited distinct leader pulses before the onset of the return-stroke pulse. The leader propagation speeds in all the cases were found to follow the trend of lower speeds in the top portion of the lightning channel (452 m before July 13, 2005, and 304 m after that) and higher speeds at the bottom of the channel (44 m before July 13, 2005, and 30 m after that). The mean leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 107 m/s and 2.5 x 107 m/s. 5.5.3 Optical Risetimes Return-stroke optical risetimes were com puted for the summer 2005 triggered lightning events. The optical risetimes in all the cases we re found to follow the tren d of smaller risetimes in the bottom of the lightning channel (44 m before July 13 2005, and 30 m after that) and larger risetimes in the top (452 m before July 13 2005, and 304 m after that) of the lightning channel. The mean optical rise times were found to vary from 0.81 s at the bottom to 2.83 s at the top of the channel.

PAGE 142

142 Figure 5-1: Illustration of the slope-intercept method. The optical waveform of Flash F0503, Stroke 2 at a height of 84 m above th e termination point is shown on a 7-s timescale. The beginning of the return-stroke is taken to be inter-section of the two (red) dashed lines. This intersection point was tr acked in estimating the return stroke speed by the slope-intercept method on unfiltered wa veforms. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope.

PAGE 143

143 Figure 5-2: Calibration of the data analysis tools used in this thes is. None of the errors cross the 20% level. The analysis was carried out for the summer 2003 F0336 flash which had 5 return strokes for which speeds were measur ed. No data for stroke 3 are available. The y-axis indicates the per centage error in the overall return-stroke propagation speed values computed in this thesis rela tive to the corresponding values computed by Olsen et. al. (2003).

PAGE 144

144 Figure 5-3: Spectrum of light waveform of flash F0336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above termination) lightning waveform. The event was triggered at Camp Blanding, Florida during the summer of 2003 and was subsequently analyzed by Olsen (2003). Figure 5-4: Event F0336, Stroke 1 (at a height of 7 m above termination) from Summer 2003, filtered using a moving average filter (with window size of 11 samples). The filtered waveform is overlaid over the original wa veform to check the quality of filtering. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope.

PAGE 145

145 Figure 5-5: Event F0336, Stroke 5 (at a height of 117 m above termination) from Summer 2003, filtered using Filter 1. The filtered waveform is overlaid over the original waveform to check the quality of filteri ng. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope. Figure 5-6: Event F0504, Stroke 4 (at a height of 84 m above termination) from Summer 2005 filtered using Filter 2. The filtered waveform is overlaid over the original waveform to check the quality of filteri ng. Vertical axis represents the optical intensity in volts at the input of the oscilloscope.

PAGE 146

146 Figure 5-7: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to da ta from LeCroy channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-8: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1. Solid red line corre sponds to data from LeCroy channels 2,3,4,6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 147

147 Figure 5-9: Return-stroke speed profile obtained using the 20% reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-7). Figure 5-10: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on all the Le Croy data (combination of two profiles shown in Figure 5-8).

PAGE 148

148 Figure 5-11: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-9 and 5-10, for event F0501, Stroke 1. Figure 5-12: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 149

149 Figure 5-13: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0501, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-14: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-12 and 5-13, for event F0501, Stroke 1.

PAGE 150

150 Figure 5-15: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-16: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 151

151 Figure 5-17: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-15). Figure 5-18: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-16).

PAGE 152

152 Figure 5-19: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-17 and 5-18, for event F0503, Stroke 1. Figure 5-20: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke1, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 153

153 Figure 5-21: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke1, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-22: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-20 and 5-21, for event F0503, Stroke 1.

PAGE 154

154 Figure 5-23: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-24: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 2. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 155

155 Figure 5-25: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-23). Figure 5-26: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-24).

PAGE 156

156 Figure 5-27: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-25 and 5-26, for event F0503, Stroke 2. Figure 5-28: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 157

157 Figure 5-29: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-30: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-28 and 5-29, for event F0503, Stroke 2.

PAGE 158

158 Figure 5-31: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 3. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-32: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 3. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 159

159 Figure 5-33: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-31).

PAGE 160

160 Figure 5-34: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-32). Figure 5-35: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-33 and 5-34, for event F0503, Stroke 3.

PAGE 161

161 Figure 5-36: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-37: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 3, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 162

162 Figure 5-38: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-36 and 5-37, for event F0503, Stroke 3. Figure 5-39: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 4. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 163

163 Figure 5-40: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0503, Stroke 4. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-41: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-39).

PAGE 164

164 Figure 5-42: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-40). Figure 5-43: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-41 and 5-42, for event F0503, Stroke 4.

PAGE 165

165 Figure 5-44: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0503, Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-45: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0503, Stroke 4, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 166

166 Figure 5-46: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-44 and 5-45, for event F0503, Stroke 4. Figure 5.47: Return-stroke speed profiles obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0510, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to da ta from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 167

167 Figure 5.48: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0510, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-49: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0510, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-47).

PAGE 168

168 Figure 5-50: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0510, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-48). Figure 5-51: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-54 and 5-55, for event F0510, Stroke 1.

PAGE 169

169 Figure 5.52: Return-stroke speed profiles obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0512, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-53: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0512, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 170

170 Figure 5-54: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0512, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-52). Figure 5-55: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0512, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-53).

PAGE 171

171 Figure 5-56: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-59 and 5-60, for event F0512, Stroke 1. Figure 5-57: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0514, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 172

172 Figure 5-58: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0514, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-59: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-57).

PAGE 173

173 Figure 5-60: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-58). Figure 5-61: Return-stroke speed profile obtained by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-59 and 5-60, for event F0514, Stroke 1.

PAGE 174

174 Figure 5-62: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0514, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-63: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0514, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 175

175 Figure 5-64: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-62 and 5-63, for event F0514, Stroke 1. Figure 5-65: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 176

176 Figure 5-66: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0517, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-67: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-65).

PAGE 177

177 Figure 5-68: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-66). Figure 5-69: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-67 and 5-68, for event F0517, Stroke 1.

PAGE 178

178 Figure 5-70: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-71: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 1, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 179

179 Figure 5-72: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-70 and 5-71, for event F0517, Stroke 1. Figure 5-73: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 2. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 180

180 Figure 5-74: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0517, Stroke 2. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-75: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on all the LeCroy data (com bination of the two groups of channels shown in Figure 5-73).

PAGE 181

181 Figure 5-76: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on all the Le Croy data (combination of the two groups of channels shown in Figure 5-74). Figure 5-77: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-75 and 5-76, for event F0517, Stroke 2.

PAGE 182

182 Figure 5-78: Return-stroke speed profile using the 20% Point as Reference for Event F0517, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data. Figure 5-79: Return-stroke speed profile using the slope point as reference for event F0517, Stroke 2, based on Yokogawa data.

PAGE 183

183 Figure 5-80: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing average of the speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept met hods, based on Yokogawa data, shown in Figures 5-78 and 5-79, for event F0517, Stroke 2. Figure 5-81: Return-stroke speed profiles obtai ned using the 20% reference point for event F0521, Stroke 1. Solid red line corresponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8.

PAGE 184

184 Figure 5-82: Return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the slope intercept reference point for event F0521, Stroke 1. Solid red line corres ponds to data from LeCroy channels 2, 3, 4, and 6, and dashed blue line to data from LeCroy channels 5, 7, and 8. Figure 5-83: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d using the 20% reference point for event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCroy data (c ombination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-81).

PAGE 185

185 Figure 5-84: Return-stroke speed profile obtained us ing the slope intercept point as reference for event F0521, Stroke 1, based on all the LeCr oy data (combination of the two profiles shown in Figure 5-82). Figure 5-85: Return-stroke speed profile obtaine d by computing the average of speeds computed using the 20% and slope intercept methods based on LeCroy data, shown in Figures 5-91 and 5-92, for event F0521, Stroke 1.

PAGE 186

186 Table 5-1: Percent error in the RS speeds computed in this thesis relative to those obtained by Olsen et. al. (2003). The errors appear to be random in natu re, suggesting that there is no systematic bias introduced by the data analysis tools adopted in this thesis. 10% Point (% Error) 20% Point (% Error) 90% Point (% Error) Max Point (% Error) Slope Intercept Point (% Error) Peak dL/dt (% Error) Stroke 1 +13.0 -8.4 +8.1 -5.0 0.0 -13.0 Stroke 2 -3.5 -3.0 -7.6 +5.4 0.0 0.0 Stroke 4 +7.2 +2.7 +7.0 -3.5 -1.3 0.0 Stroke 5 +5.0 0.0 +17.0 +11 0.0 -11.4 Stroke 6 -7.7 0.0 +15 -1.4 0.0 -7.6 Table 5-2: Overall return-str oke speeds (estimated using LeCr oy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0501, Stroke 1. Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s 10% 2.39 20% 1.73 90% 1.07 Max 0.69 Slope Intercept 2.13 Max d/dt 1.37 Table 5-3: Return-stroke speed profiles for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-7 and 5-8 2-3 44-84 0.99 1.11 3-4 84-116 1.18 1.25 4-6 116-245 1.91 2.17 6-9 245-451 1.39 1.49 Solid red line 5-7 171-314 1.71 1.97 7-8 314-360 1.35 1.32 Dashed blue line

PAGE 187

187 Table 5-4: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels shown in Table 5-3. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 0.99 1.11 84-116 1.18 1.25 116-171 1.91 2.17 171-245 1.81 2.07 245-314 1.55 1.73 314-360 1.37 1.41 360-451 1.39 1.49 Table 5-5: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-4 (see also Figure 5-11). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.05 84-116 1.22 116-171 2.04 171-245 1.94 245-314 1.64 314-360 1.39 360-451 1.44 Table 5-6: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data (see also Figure 5-14). Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.02 1.11 84-116 1.15 1.05 116-171 1.88 1.94 171-245 1.90 2.09 245-314 2.29 2.26 314-360 1.71 1.86 360-451 1.45 1.63

PAGE 188

188 Table 5-7: Return-stroke speeds at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-6. Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.07 84-116 1.10 116-171 1.91 171-245 2.00 245-314 2.28 314-360 1.79 360-451 1.54 Table 5-8: Leader speeds at va rious heights for event F0501, St roke 1, measured using LeCroy data. Height Range, m Leader Speed, x106 m/s 44-84 29.40 84-116 33.10 116-171 28.20 171-245 21.10 245-314 12.00 314-360 13.40 360-451 14.70 Table 5-9: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCr oy measurements for event F0501, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 44 0.69 84 1.07 116 1.14 171 1.92 245 1.97 314 2.32 360 2.53 451 3.50

PAGE 189

189 Table 5-10: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0503. This event had four return strokes. Reference Point Stroke 1 Speed, x108 m/s Stroke 2 Speed, x108 m/s Stroke 3 Speed, x108 m/s Stroke 4 Speed, x108 m/s 10% 0.89 1.42 1.06 1.17 20% 0.79 1.08 0.93 0.97 90% 0.55 0.67 0.68 0.65 Max 0.38 0.38 0.51 0.57 Slope Intercept 0.99 1.34 1.26 1.39 Max d/dt 1.00 1.07 1.02 1.08 Table 5-11: Return-strok e speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-10 and 5-11 2-3 44-84 1.36 1.47 3-4 84-116 1.69 1.60 4-6 116-245 1.80 1.85 6-9 245-451 1.02 1.37 Solid red line 5-7 171-314 1.23 1.42 7-8 314-360 0.75 0.86 Dashed blue line Table 5-12: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.36 1.47 84-116 1.69 1.60 116-171 1.80 1.85 171-245 1.52 1.64 245-314 1.13 1.40 314-360 0.89 1.11 360-451 1.02 1.37

PAGE 190

190 Table 5-13: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-12 (see also Figure 5-19). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.42 84-116 1.65 116-171 1.83 171-245 1.58 245-314 1.26 314-360 1.00 360-451 1.20 Table 5-14: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.10 1.18 84-116 1.57 1.78 116-171 2.15 2.12 171-245 1.68 1.80 245-314 1.30 1.36 314-360 0.78 0.87 360-451 0.86 0.73 Table 5-15: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-14 (see also Figure 5-22). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.14 84-116 1.68 116-171 2.14 171-245 1.74 245-314 1.33 314-360 0.83 360-451 0.80

PAGE 191

191 Table 5-16: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 44 1.05 84 1.62 116 1.59 171 1.72 245 2.16 314 2.84 360 2.71 451 3.63 Table 5-17: Return-strok e speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channel Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-18 and 5-19 2-3 44-84 0.88 1.00 3-4 84-116 1.50 1.80 4-6 116-245 2.05 2.03 6-9 245-451 1.27 1.53 Solid line in red 5-7 171-314 1.70 2.05 7-9 314-360 1.49 1.52 Dashed blue line Table 5-18: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 0.88 1.00 84-116 1.50 1.80 116-171 2.05 2.03 171-245 1.88 2.04 245-314 1.49 1.79 314-360 1.38 1.53 360-451 1.27 1.53

PAGE 192

192 Table 5-19: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-18 (see also Figure 5-27). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 0.94 84-116 1.65 116-171 2.04 171-245 1.96 245-314 1.64 314-360 1.46 360-451 1.39 Table 5-20: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.30 1.52 84-116 1.89 1.95 116-171 2.08 2.18 171-245 1.70 1.80 245-314 1.64 1.65 314-360 1.65 1.74 360-451 1.51 1.58 Table 5-21: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-20 (see also Figure 5-30). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.41 84-116 1.92 116-171 2.13 171-245 1.75 245-314 1.65 314-360 1.70 360-451 1.56

PAGE 193

193 Table 5-22: Leader speeds at va rious heights for event F0503, St roke 2, measured using LeCroy data. Height Range, m Leader Speed, x106 m/s 44-84 28.65 84-116 34.98 116-171 31.47 171-245 30.51 245-314 29.17 314-360 11.72 360-451 14.40 Table 5-23: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 2. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 44 0.63 84 1.01 116 1.33 171 1.57 245 2.06 314 2.55 360 2.59 451 3.66 Table 5-24: Return-strok e speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation shown in Figures 5-26 and 5-27 2-3 44-84 1.43 1.50 3-4 84-116 1.93 1.97 4-6 116-245 2.26 2.08 6-9 245-451 1.13 1.37 Solid red line 5-7 171-314 1.34 1.39 7-8 314-360 1.07 1.38 Dashed line in blue

PAGE 194

194 Table 5-25: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.43 1.50 84-116 1.93 1.97 116-171 2.26 2.08 171-245 1.80 1.74 245-314 1.23 1.38 314-360 1.10 1.38 360-451 1.13 1.37 Table 5-26: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-25 (see also Figure 5-35). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.47 84-116 1.95 116-171 2.17 171-245 1.77 245-314 1.31 314-360 1.24 360-451 1.10 Table 5-27: Return-Stroke speeds at various he ights for event F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Heights Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.16 1.26 84-116 2.38 2.48 116-171 2.44 2.33 171-245 1.93 1.83 245-314 1.60 1.75 314-360 1.52 1.58 360-451 1.07 1.28

PAGE 195

195 Table 5-28: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 3, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-27 (see also Figure 5-38). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.21 84-116 2.43 116-171 2.39 171-245 1.88 245-314 1.68 314-360 1.55 360-451 1.33 Table 5-29: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 3. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 44 0.79 84 1.28 116 1.41 171 1.64 245 1.84 314 2.43 360 2.47 451 3.13 Table 5-30: Return-strok e speed profiles at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-34 and 5-35 2-3 44-84 1.40 1.55 3-4 84-116 1.79 1.85 4-6 116-245 2.22 2.07 6-9 245-451 1.22 1.21 Solid line in red 5-7 171-314 1.27 1.31 7-8 314-360 0.90 1.20 Dashed blue line

PAGE 196

196 Table 5-31: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0503, Stroke 4, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.40 1.55 84-116 1.78 1.85 116-171 2.21 2.07 171-245 1.74 1.69 245-314 1.25 1.26 314-360 1.06 1.20 360-451 1.22 1.21 Table 5-32: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-31 (see also Figure 5-43). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.48 84-116 1.82 116-171 2.14 171-245 1.72 245-314 1.25 314-360 1.13 360-451 1.15 Table 5-33: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0503 Stroke 4, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 1.14 1.20 84-116 2.38 2.46 116-171 1.89 1.84 171-245 1.76 1.79 245-314 1.60 1.76 314-360 1.14 1.24 360-451 1.07 1.22

PAGE 197

197 Table 5-34: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0503, Stroke 4, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-33 (see also Figure 5-46). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 44-84 1.17 84-116 2.42 116-171 1.87 171-245 1.78 245-314 1.68 314-360 1.19 360-451 1.22 Table 5-35: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0503, Stroke 4. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 44 0.98 84 1.34 116 1.50 171 1.75 245 2.20 314 3.41 360 3.13 451 3.63 Table 5-36: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 9) for Event F0510, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels. Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s 10% 1.60 20% 1.50 90% 1.00 Max 0.78 Slope Intercept 1.67 Max d/dt 1.47

PAGE 198

198 Table 5-37: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-42 and 5-43 2-3 30-57 1.37 1.08 3-4 57-78 1.42 1.36 4-6 78-165 1.96 1.82 6-9 165-304 1.20 1.25 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.48 1.76 7-8 212-243 1.19 1.24 Dashed blue line Table 5-38: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0510, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 1.37 1.08 57-78 1.42 1.36 78-115 1.96 1.82 115-165 1.72 1.79 165-212 1.34 1.51 212-243 1.19 1.24 243-304 1.20 1.25 Table 5-39: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0510, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-38 (see also Figure 5-51). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 1.23 57-78 1.39 78-115 1.89 115-165 1.76 165-212 1.42 212-243 1.22 243-304 1.23

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199 Table 5-40: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0510, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 0.69 57 1.14 78 1.38 115 1.29 165 1.64 212 1.83 243 1.82 304 2.05 Table 5-41: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0512, Stroke 1. Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s 10% 2.33 20% 2.26 90% 1.31 Max% 0.84 Slope Intercept 2.32 Max d/dt 2.23 Table 5-42: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Height Range, m 20 Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-46 and 5-47 2-3 30-57 1.30 1.37 3-4 57-78 1.52 1.64 4-6 78-165 2.07 2.18 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.82 2.16 7-8 212-243 1.12 1.55 Dashed blue line

PAGE 200

200 Table 5-43: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0512, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 1.30 1.37 57-78 1.52 1.64 78-115 2.07 2.18 115-165 1.95 2.17 165-212 1.82 2.16 212-243 1.12 1.55 Table 5-44: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0512, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-43 (see also Figure 5-56). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 1.34 57-78 1.58 78-115 2.13 115-165 2.06 165-212 1.99 212-243 1.34 Table 5-45: Leader speeds at va rious heights for event F0512, St roke 1, obtained using LeCroy data. Height Range, m Leader Speed, x106 m/s 30-57 29.36 57-78 31.09 78-115 15.73 115-165 17.03 165-212 12.53 212-243 12.19 243-360 13.72

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201 Table 5-46: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0512, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 0.71 57 0.99 78 1.21 115 1.41 165 1.88 212 1.90 243 2.16 304 2.38 Table 5-47 Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0514, Stroke 1. Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s 10% 1.46 20% 1.58 90% 0.50 Max% 0.75 Slope Intercept 2.18 Max d/dt 1.30 Table 5-48: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights, m 20 Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation in Figures 5-50 and 5-51 2-3 30-57 1.04 1.21 3-4 57-78 0.77 0.85 4-6 78-165 2.08 2.12 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.67 1.79 7-8 212-243 1.63 1.56 Dashed blue line

PAGE 202

202 Table 5-49 Return-stroke speed profile for ev ent F0514, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 1.04 1.21 57-78 0.77 0.85 78-115 2.08 2.12 115-165 1.86 1.96 165-212 1.67 1.79 212-243 1.63 1.56 Table 5-50: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-49 (see also Figure 5-61). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 1.13 57-78 0.81 78-115 2.10 115-165 1.92 165-212 1.73 212-243 1.60 Table 5-51: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 0.83 0.91 57-78 1.05 1.12 78-115 1.90 2.04 115-165 1.82 1.89 165-212 1.47 1.76 212-243 1.25 1.30

PAGE 203

203 Table 5-52: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-51 (see also Figure 5-64). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 0.87 57-78 1.09 78-115 1.97 115-165 1.86 165-212 1.62 212-243 1.28 Table 5-53: Leader speeds at va rious heights for event F0514, St roke 1, obtained using LeCroy data. Height Range, m Leader Speed, x106 m/s 30-57 27.44 57-78 28.50 78-115 27.59 115-165 23.69 165-212 19.01 212-243 18.81 Table 5-54: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0514, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 0.69 57 1.13 78 1.13 115 1.34 165 1.68 212 1.91 243 2.02

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204 Table 5-55: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0517, Stroke 1. Reference Point Stroke 1 Speed, x108 m/s Stroke 2 Speed, x108 m/s 10% 1.45 1.47 20% 1.37 1.35 90% 0.93 0.85 Max% 0.71 0.55 Slope Intercept 1.48 1.47 Max d/dt 1.21 1.35 Table 5-56: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights, m 20 Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation shown in Figures 5-58 and 5-59 2-3 30-57 0.75 1.01 3-4 57-78 1.29 1.24 4-6 78-165 1.78 1.80 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.58 1.59 7-8 212-243 0.76 1.54 Dashed blue line Table 5-57: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 0.75 1.01 57-78 1.29 1.24 78-115 1.78 1.80 115-165 1.68 1.70 165-212 1.58 1.59 212-243 0.76 1.54

PAGE 205

205 Table 5-58: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-57 (see also Figure 5-69). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 0.88 57-78 1.27 78-115 1.79 115-165 1.69 165-212 1.59 212-243 1.15 Table 5-59: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 0.90 1.12 57-78 2.33 2.41 78-115 1.84 2.00 115-165 1.47 1.51 165-212 1.08 1.11 212-243 0.97 0.99 Table 5-60: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0517, Stroke 1, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-59 (see also Figure 5-72). Height Range, m Speed, x 108 m/s 30-57 1.01 57-78 2.37 78-115 1.92 115-165 1.49 165-212 1.10 212-243 0.91

PAGE 206

206 Table 5-61: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 1.06 57 1.41 78 1.65 115 1.71 165 2.16 212 2.47 243 3.00 Table 5-62: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights, m 20 Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representation shown in Figures 5-66 and 5-67 2-3 30-57 0.53 0.65 3-4 57-78 1.62 1.85 4-6 78-165 2.11 2.10 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.37 1.63 7-8 212-243 1.48 1.52 Dashed blue line Table 5-63: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 0.53 0.65 57-78 1.62 1.85 78-115 2.11 2.10 115-165 1.74 1.87 165-212 1.37 1.63 212-243 1.48 1.52

PAGE 207

207 Table 5-64: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-63 (see also Figure 5-77). Height Range, m Speed x 108 m/s 30-57 0.59 57-78 1.73 78-115 2.11 115-165 1.80 165-212 1.50 212-243 1.50 Table 5-65: The Return-Stroke speeds at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data. Speed, x 108 m/s Heights, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 0.56 0.63 57-78 1.71 1.90 78-115 2.16 2.23 115-165 1.84 1.87 165-212 1.30 1.42 212-243 0.85 0.88 Table 5-66: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0517, Stroke 2, obtained using Yokogawa data, found by computing the aver age of the speeds shown in Table 5-65 (see also Figure 5-80). Height Range, m Speed x 108 m/s 30-57 0.60 57-78 1.81 78-115 2.20 115-165 1.86 165-212 1.36 212-243 0.87

PAGE 208

208 Table 5-67: Leader speeds at va rious heights for event F0517, St roke 2, obtained using LeCroy data. Height Range, m Leader Speed, x106 m/s 30-57 7.94 57-78 6.16 78-115 5.24 115-165 4.18 165-212 4.29 212-243 4.90 Table 5-68: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0517, Stroke 2. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 0.78 57 1.14 78 1.35 115 1.44 165 1.67 212 1.86 243 2.07 Table 5-69: Overall return-stroke speeds (estimated using LeCroy channels 2 and 8) for Event F0521, Stroke 1, measured using data from LeCroy channels. Reference Point Speed, x108 m/s 10% 1.80 20% 1.86 90% 0.91 Max% 0.69 Slope Intercept 2.11 Max d/dt 1.50

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209 Table 5-70: Return-strok e speed profile at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data from two groups of channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Channels Heights, m 20 Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point Graphical representatio n in Figures 5-74 and 5-75 2-3 30-57 1.22 1.27 3-4 57-78 1.19 1.36 4-6 78-165 1.78 2.08 Solid line in red 5-7 115-212 1.82 1.79 7-8 212-243 1.40 1.54 Dashed blue line Table 5-71: Return-stroke speed profile for event F0521, Stroke 1, obtained by averaging data from the two LeCroy channels. Speed, x 108 m/s Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 30-57 1.22 1.27 57-78 1.19 1.36 78-115 1.78 2.08 115-165 1.80 1.94 165-212 1.82 1.79 212-243 1.40 1.54 Table 5-72: Return-stroke speed s at various heights for even t F0521 Stroke 1, obtained using LeCroy data, found by computing the average of the speeds shown in Table 5-71 (see also Figure 5-85). Height Range, m Speed x 108 m/s 30-57 1.25 57-78 1.28 78-115 1.93 115-165 1.87 165-212 1.81 212-243 1.47

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210 Table 5-73: The optical return -stroke risetimes based on LeCroy measurements for event F0521, Stroke 1. Height Above Ground, m Return Stroke Risetime, s 30 0.80 57 1.35 78 1.67 115 1.88 165 1.88 212 1.94 243 2.02 Table 5-74: Return-stroke speed profiles based on data from the two groups of LeCroy channels with differences exceeding 30%. LeCroy Event Channels Under Comparison Reference Point Percentage Difference Between Two Profiles 4-6 5-7 20% 46% F0503, Stroke 1 6-9 7-8 Slope Intercept 38% 4-6 5-7 20% 69% F0503, Stroke 3 4-6 5-7 Slope Intercept 49% 4-6 5-7 20% 74% F0503, Stroke 4 4-6 5-7 Slope Intercept 58% F0510, Stroke 1 4-6 5-7 20% 32% F0517, Stroke 2 4-6 5-7 20% 35 % Table 5-75: Return-strok e speed profile based on averaging data from the two groups of LeCroy channels using the 20% and slope intercep t points as references with percentage difference above 30%. LeCroy Event Channel Reference Points Under Comparison Percentage Difference F0517, Stroke 1 7-8 20% and Slope Intercept Reference Points 50%

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211 Table 5-76: Return-stroke speed profiles based on averaging data from the LeCroy and Yokogawa channels with per centage difference above 30%. Event Channel Percentage Difference F0503, Stroke 1 8-9 51% F0517, Stroke 1 3-4 47% F0517, Stroke 2 7-8 73%

PAGE 212

212 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In the summer 2005 experimental setup block diagram shown in Figure 3-8, the LeCroy Scope 16 was used to trigger the LeCroy Scope 6 which would then trigger the LeCroy Scope 17. The oscilloscopes had their own internal finite time delays which resulted in an inter-scope delay when one scope was used to trigger anot her. The time delays between the LeCroy DSOs were computed as shown in Table 3-2. and the re turn-stroke speed equation was modified to take the finite inter-scope time delays along with the time correction factors as described in section 3.6. Optical records of 31 lightning flashes were obtained in Summer 2005. Of these 31, 8 were triggered lightning and the remaining 23 were natural lightning events. The natural lightning optical records could not be analyzed for return-s troke speeds because the distance to the channel termination was unknown. But the natural-lightning light profiles (a light prof ile represents a set of light waveforms recorded for each lightning event at various heights) have been presented for visual analysis in chapter 4. A novel trigger circuit (functiona l block diagram is shown in Figure 3-6) was prototyped and designed by the author in Fall 2007. This simp le trigger circuit allo ws full control over the triggering light levels. The triggering levels can be changed suitably to use either leader or return-stroke as trigge r event for the K004M Image Converter Camera. The BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera (ICC) was operated in University of Florida lightning experiments in 2006. The K004M and its original triggering device PS001 settings along with the captured natural li ghtning streak images are shown in Appendix A. The record length was 10.67 um for all the captured events. There were no avalanche photodiode records that corresponded to the natural lightning recorded by the BIFO K004M camera. The height of

PAGE 213

213 the channel could not be estimated, because th e distance to the channel was unknown in all the cases. Also, the images were either highly satura ted or barely visible in most of the cases, therefore rendering them not suitabl e for any sort of detailed data analysis or image processing for characterization of the lightning channel. The shape of the lightning channel however was identifiable in some of the cases. Five triggered-lightning events, F0501-Str oke 1 (July 2, 2005), F0503-Stroke 2 (July 2, 2005), F0512-Stroke 1 (July 31, 2005), F0514-St roke 1 (August 4, 2005) and F0517-Stroke2 (August 4, 2005) exhibited distinct leader pulses before the onset of the return-stroke pulse. The leader propagation speeds in all th e cases were found to follow the trend of lower values in the top portion of the lightning ch annel (452 m before July,13 2005, and 304 m after that) and higher values at the bottom (44 m before July,13 2005, and 30 m after that) of the lightning channel. The mean leader speeds are found to vary between 1.3 x 107 m/s and 2.5 x 107 m/s. Return-stroke optical risetimes were measur ed for the summer 2005 triggered lightning events. The optical risetimes in all the cases were found to follow the trend of smaller values in the bottom section of the lightning channel (44 m before July,13 2005, and 30 m after that) and larger values in the top s ection (452 m before July, 13 2005, and 304 m after that) of the lightning channel. The mean optical ri setimes were found to vary from 0.81 s to 2.83 s at the channel bottom and top, respectively. The mean return-stroke speeds based on 11 tr iggered-lightning even ts in Summer 2005, obtained by computing the averag e of the return-speeds based on the 20% and slope intercept reference point methods, was 1.51 x 108 m/s in the case of LecCroy data and 1.57 x 108 m/s in the case of Yokogawa data.

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214 As explained in section 5.5.1, return-stroke speeds measured using the 20% and slope intercept methods can be viewed as a lower bound and an upper bound, respectively. Accordingly, the mean return-stroke speeds obtained using LeCroy data are found to vary between 1.48 x 108 m/s and 1.59 x 108 m/s. Similarly, the mean return-stroke speeds obtained using the Yokogawa data are f ound to vary between 1.53 x 108 m/s and 1.61 x 108 m/s. Return-stroke speed profiles based on the 11 triggered-lightning events from Summer 2005 were computed using data captured using th e LeCroy as well as the Yokogawa DSOs, as explained in chapter 3, section 3.5. The LeCroy DS Os have a high sampling rate of 500 MHz or 2 nanoseconds between data points, whereas the Yokogawa DSO has a lower sampling rate of 10 MHz or 100 nanoseconds between data points, as explained in section 5.4,. Therefore, the return-stroke speeds obtained using the LeCroy data have a higher degree of accuracy as compared to the return-stroke speeds computed using the Yokogawa data. The only purpose of computing the return-stroke speeds using Yokogawa data (presented in chapter 5) was to check against the more accurate return-stroke speed profiles obtained using the LeCroy DSOs. The percentage difference between the average return-stroke speed profiles based on the LeCroy and Yokogawa data was found to be within 30% in all the cases, except for 3 cases shown in Table-5-76. Therefore, in the following we will only discuss the more accurate LeCroy return-stroke speed profiles. An interesting trend was obs erved in the return-stroke speeds obtained by computing the average of speeds. This trend conc erns the variation in measured return-stroke speeds in the seven channel segments between 44 m and 451 m (before July 13, 2005) and six channel segments between 30 m and 243 m (after Ju ly 13, 2005), as listed in Tables 6-1 and 6-2. The speed profile was non-monoton ic with height in all the cases presented in Tables 6-1

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215 and 6-2. This observation is consistent with th e 2003 results previously published by Olsen et al. (2004). For the strokes listed in Table 6-1, it was observed that the measured speed was greatest in the 116-171 m segment, and lo west in 314-451 m and 44-84 m se gments. This suggests that the speed reaches a maximum value at a height between 116 m and 171 m in these five strokes. The speed gradually increases with increasing height starting from th e 84-116 m segment, and gradually decreases with d ecreasing height starting from the 171-245 m segment. For the strokes listed in Table 6-2, it was observed that the m easured speed was greatest in the third segment between 78-115 m, and lowest in the segments between 212-243 m and 30-57 m. This suggests that the speed reaches a maximum value at a height between 78-165 m in these six strokes. The speed gradually increases fr om the second segment, between 57-78 m, and gradually decreases from the fifth segment between 165-212 m and is the lowest in the uppermost segment between 212-243 m. Table 6-1: Return-stroke speeds at various hei ghts, obtained by computing the average of the speeds based on the 20% and slope inter cept methods, found using the LeCroy data for triggered-lightning events before July 13, 2005. The speeds listed for the various events are to be multiplied by 108 m/s. Height Range, m Event ID 44-84 84-116 116-171 171-245 245-314 314-360 360-451 F0501,S1, 1.04 1.22 2.04 1.94 1.64 1.39 1.44 F0503,S1 1.42 1.65 1.83 1.58 1.26 1.00 1.20 F0503,S2 0.94 1.65 2.04 1.96 1.64 1.46 1.39 F0503,S3 1.47 1.95 2.17 1.77 1.31 1.24 1.10 F0503,S4 1.48 1.82 2.14 1.72 1.25 1.13 1.15

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216 Table 6-2: Return-stroke speeds at various hei ghts obtained by computing the average of the speeds based on the 20% and slope inter cept methods, found using the LeCroy data computed for triggered-lightning events afte r July 13, 2005. The speeds listed for the various events are to be multiplied by 108 m/s. Height Range, m Event ID 30-57 57-78 78-115 115-165 165-212 212-243 243-304 F0510,S1 1.23 1.39 1.89 1.76 1.42 1.22 1.23 F0512,S1 1.34 1.58 2.13 2.06 1.99 1.34 F0514,S1 1.13 0.81 2.10 1.92 1.73 1.60 F0517,S1 0.88 1.27 1.79 1.69 1.59 1.15 F0517,S2 0.59 1.73 2.11 1.80 1.50 1.50 F0521,S1 1.22 1.19 1.78 1.8 1.82 1.4

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217 CHAPTER 7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The primary purpose of the BIFO K04M camer a was to obtain im ages of the lightning attachment process for natural lighting as well as triggered-lightning ev ents. However, operating the K004M camera was a non-trivial task during both the Summer 2006 natural-lightning experiments at the University of Florida by th e author and the Summer 2005 triggered-lightning experiments at Camp Blanding, Florida, by Robert Olsen. This could mainly be attributed to the inability of accurately determining the optimal exposure settings on the K004M camera during triggered-lightning events in Summer 2005 at Ca mp Blanding, Florida. In the case of capturing natural lightning events, this was further exacerbated by the variab ility of brightness in lightning flashes as well as the variability of the distance to the channel terminations. Thus, the same gain settings would not yield useful images for different natural li ghtning events. During the Summer 2006 lightning experiments, a triangular platfo rm with wheels was prototyped and built by the author upon which, PS001 photosensor was mounted on top of the K004M camera, as shown in Figure 3-10. The platform made it possible to quickly re-orient the K 004M camera depending on the nature of the lightning storm in Summ er 2006. The oscilloscopes were mounted on a different rack and had to be repositioned near the K004M camera for easy access. In future, the apparatus could be improved by providing a means of mounting the K004M camera, the photosensor as well as the oscilloscopes onto th e same platform so that the process of reorientation would become less time consuming, thus yielding a higher number of natural lightning captures. During the summer 2006 lightning experiments, the PS001 was seen to be incapable of triggering the K004M based on leader optical intens ity irrespective of position of the gain setting knobs. Modifying the internal circuitry of th e PS001 was as a non-trivial job. Therefore the

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218 author prototyped and build a simple and novel trig gering circuit that has eas y accessibility to the on-chip potentiometers which provide flexibility of setting different reference voltages for the leader and return-stroke channe ls. This provides the capability of triggering the K004M based on the leader optical intensity. A de tailed description of the circu it topology and its operation has been given in section 3.3.1 and Figure 3-6. Th e circuit can now repl ace the PS001 photosensor and can be set to trigger the K004M camera on lead er (high gain) as well as return-stroke stage. Deciding on appropriate lightning levels is not an easy task. Fi eld testing of the new trigger circuit is planned for Summer 2008. This circuit could be further improved as show n in Figure 7.1. A microc ontroller such as a member of Microchips PIC family (PICF816FFA ) of low power, high speed microcontrollers may be employed. An LCD keypad and a high-speed digital-to-analog c ontroller (DAC) could be interfaced with the microcontroller. The mi crocontroller could be pr ogrammed and configured in such a way, that all the bias voltages for each of the avalanche photodiodes could be set accurately via the keypad without having to adjust it manually. The bias voltages could then be monitored via the LCD display instead of check ing the bias voltage by manually probing with the aid of a voltmeter/multi-meter The reference voltage levels (Vref1 and Vref2) could also be set accurately in a similar manner. These voltage refere nce levels can be quickly set with the aid of the keypad to either increase or decrease the sensitivity of the triggering circuit (formed by the avalanche photodiode and pre-amp stage). The above circuit could be integrated on-chip using careful layout techniques to ensure proper symme try. This could then be mounted into a case upon which the keypad and LCD could be firmly mounted. The spatial resolution of the K004M system is currently limited by the resolution of the camera readout (640x480 pixels), which is lower than the K004M resolution in the vertical

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219 dimension. Several commercially-available cameras have image resolu tion greater than the K004Ms inherent physical resolu tion, and many are available with digital connections such as USB2 and FireWire (IEEE1394) which allow for the direct connection of the camera to a PC for recording and archiving purposes Also, the software used by the K004M camera, KLEN could be replaced by a robust and easy to use graphical user interface usi ng Labview. Additional features like automatic triggering and simple imag e processing functionalitie s could be build into such a graphical user interface. Figure 7-1: Recommended trigger circuit for th e BIFO K004M camera.

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220 APPENDIX A THE BIFO K004M IMAGES CAPTURED IN SUMMER 2006 IN GAINESVILLE. The BIFO K004M Im age Converter Camera (ICC) was operated in University of Florida lightning experiments in 2006. All th e images of the lightning even ts captured by the K004M are shown in figures below. The captions on each imag e indicate the date of the capture. The K004M was operating in streak mode, with a linear sweep rate of 3 s/cm this corresponded with a record length of 10.67 us. The obj ective lens was an Industar-61 50 mm, f2.8 lens. The focus was adjusted for maximum resolution at the launch towe r. The trigger level on the camera was set to approximately 4.5. The MCP1 DYN GAIN knob was set to maximum. The MCP1 STAT GAIN was set to an angle similar to the hour ha nd of a clock reading 3:30. The MCP2 STAT GAIN knob was set to an angle similar to 3:30, and the MCP2 DYN GAIN knob was set fractionally higher than zero. The PS001 trigger unit was adjust ed so that both trigge r level knobs were at their minimum settings. Each photo-sensor on th e PS001 was operated with a 28 mm lens, and both slit adjusters were se t to +1.5. There were no aval anche photodiode records that corresponded to the natural light ning events captured on the K 004M camera, therefore the time range of the captured streak images could not be estimated. Also, the images were either highly saturated or barely visible in most of the cases therefore rendering them unsuitable for any sort of detailed data analysis or image processing for characterization of the natural lightning channel. The shape of the lightning channel, how ever was identifiable in some of the cases.

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221 Figure A-1: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in April 21, 2006. Figure A-2: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in April 21, 2006.

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222 Figure A-3: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-4: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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223 Figure A-5: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-6: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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224 Figure A-7: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-8: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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225 Figure A-9: Natural lightning r ecord captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-10: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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226 Figure A-11: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-12: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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227 Figure A-13: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-14: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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228 Figure A-15: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-16: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006.

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229 Figure A-17: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in July 17, 2006. Figure A-18: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in August 4, 2006.

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230 Figure A-19: Natural lightning record captured on the BIFO K004M Image Converter Camera in August 21, 2006.

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231 APPENDIX B FILTERS USED FOR PROCESSING THE SUMMER 2005 LIGHTNING DATA As mentioned in chapter 5, a typical lightni ng light waveform is noisy, which m akes the analysis of data for the purpose of return stro ke speed measurements very difficult. Therefore, filtering the lightning data without affecting the risetimes of the waveforms was essential. Accordingly, three filters, the moving average filt er, the low pass filter 1 and the low pass filter 2, were used when computing the return-stroke propagation speeds for the summer 2005 data captured on the LeCroy and Yokogawa oscillosc opes at various heights along the lightning channel as shown in the tables below. Table B-1: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0501, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-2: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average

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232 Table B-3: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-4: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 3 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-5: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0503, Stroke 4 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average

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233 Table B-6: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0510, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-7: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0512, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-8: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0514, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average

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234 Table B-9: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-10: Filters used for re turn-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0517, Stroke 2 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-2 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average Table B-11: Filters used for return-stroke speed calculation at various heights for event F0521, Stroke 1 measured using LeCroy data. Filter Height Range, m 20% Reference Point Slope Intercept Reference Point 44-84 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 84-116 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 116-171 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 171-245 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 245-314 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 314-360 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average 360-451 Low Pass Filter-1 Moving Average

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235 LIST OF REFERENCES BIFO Company, K004M Universal Image Convert er Cam era Document ation, BIFO Company, Moscow, Russia, 2002. Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orvill e (1984), Three Unusual strokes in a Triggered Lightning Flash, J. Geophysis. Res. ,89, 7311-7316. Idone, V. P., R.E. Orville, Pierre Hubert, Louis Barret and Andre Eybert-Berard (1984), Correlated Observations of Thr ee Triggered Lightning Flashes, J. Geophysis. Res. 89, 13851394. Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orville (1987), The Pr opagation Speed of a Positive Lightning Return Stroke, J. Geophysis. Res., 14, 1150-1153. Idone, V. P., and R.E. Orville (1992), Return stroke velocities in the Thunderstorm Research International Program (TRIP), J. Geophysis. Res. 87, 12, 23-28. Jordan, D. M. (1990), Relative light intensity and electric field intensity of cloud to ground lightning, Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Fla. Gainesville. Jordan, D. M., V. A. Rakov, William H. Beasley, and Marting A. Uman (1997), Luminosity characteristics of dart leaders and return strokes in natural lightning, J. Geophysis. Res. 102 22025-22032 Jordan, D. M., V. P. Idone, V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, W. H. Beasley and H. Jurenka (1992), Observed Dart Leader Speed in Natural and Triggered Lightning, J. Geophysis. Res. 97, 99519957. Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1989a), Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current estimates in natural and triggered lightning, J. Geophysis. Res. 94(D11) 13,237-13,247. Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1989b), A phot oelectric technique fo r measuring lightningchannel propagation velocities from a mobile laboratory, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 439445. Mach, D. M., and W. D. Rust (1997), Two dimens ional speeds and optical risetime estimates for natural and triggered dart leaders, J.Geophys. Res. 102, 13,673-13,684. McEachron, K. (1939), Lightning to the Empire State Building, J. Franklin Inst., 227 ,149-217. Olsen, R. C. III (2003), Optical Characteriza tion of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Camp Blanding, Florida, Masters Thesis Univ. of Fla. Gainesville. Olsen, R. C. III, D. M. Jordan, V. A. Rakov, M. A. Uman, N. Grim es (2004), Observed onedimensional return stroke propagation speeds in the bottom 170 m of a rocket-triggered lightning channel, Geophys. Res. Letters 31, L1607.

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236 Rakov V. A., and M. A. Uman (2003), Lightning: Physics and Effects, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Schonland, B. (1956), The Lightning Discharge, Handb. Phys. Thomson, E. M., M. A. Uman and W. H. Be asley (1985), Speed and Current for Lightning Stepped Leaders Near Ground as Determind From Electric Field Records, J. Geophysis. Res. 90 8136-8142. Uman, M. A. (1987), The Lightning Discharge, Academic, San Diego, Califonia. Wang, D., N. Takagi, T. Watanabe V. A. Rakov, and M. A. Uman (199b), Observed leader and return stroke propagation characteristics in th e bottom 400 m of a rocket-triggered lightning channel, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,369-14,376.

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237 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sandip Nallani C. was born in Mumbai, India, in 1983. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering from K. J. Som aiya Institute of Engineering and Information Technology in Indi a, in 2005. In Fall 2005, he went to the USA to pursue a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering at the University of Florida, Gainesville.