<%BANNER%>

I. Planes of Discourse in Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021995/00001

Material Information

Title: I. Planes of Discourse in Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music A Comparative Study and Application of Representative Approaches and II. Three Movements for String Orchestra
Physical Description: 1 online resource (115 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analysis, electroacoustic, music
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Part I of this study presents a comparative examination and application of representative approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Electroacoustic works for fixed media present particular challenges for analysis, thereby warranting a specific analytical approach. Although there are a number of identifiable elements that can be said to distinguish fixed media electroacoustic music from other types of music, this study is conducted from the perspective that most fundamental is the potential for multiple planes of discourse. There have been numerous analytical strategies published by scholars in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. However, while many of these strategies effectively illuminate activity within certain planes of discourse, none deal comprehensively with the interconnection between these planes. The present study combines elements of several representative analytical methodologies in a multi-layered approach. The purpose of analysis (as considered in this study) is to explore the relationship between the listener/analyst?s subjective perspective and the musical ?object.? Therefore, rather than seeking to produce an authoritative analytical product, this study seeks to develop an overall strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. In this way, this study fills a gap in the existing scholarship dealing with electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 1 outlines the intentions of this study and considers the state of scholarship in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 2 is comprised of the comparative study itself, which is followed in Chapter 3 by the application of elements of the approaches considered in this study to four contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works. Chapter 4 considers the findings in Chapters 2 and 3, addressing the potential for (and ramifications of) interconnection between planes of discourse and also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Part II of this study is comprised of a three movement composition for string orchestra.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021995:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021995/00001

Material Information

Title: I. Planes of Discourse in Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music A Comparative Study and Application of Representative Approaches and II. Three Movements for String Orchestra
Physical Description: 1 online resource (115 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: analysis, electroacoustic, music
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Part I of this study presents a comparative examination and application of representative approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Electroacoustic works for fixed media present particular challenges for analysis, thereby warranting a specific analytical approach. Although there are a number of identifiable elements that can be said to distinguish fixed media electroacoustic music from other types of music, this study is conducted from the perspective that most fundamental is the potential for multiple planes of discourse. There have been numerous analytical strategies published by scholars in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. However, while many of these strategies effectively illuminate activity within certain planes of discourse, none deal comprehensively with the interconnection between these planes. The present study combines elements of several representative analytical methodologies in a multi-layered approach. The purpose of analysis (as considered in this study) is to explore the relationship between the listener/analyst?s subjective perspective and the musical ?object.? Therefore, rather than seeking to produce an authoritative analytical product, this study seeks to develop an overall strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. In this way, this study fills a gap in the existing scholarship dealing with electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 1 outlines the intentions of this study and considers the state of scholarship in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 2 is comprised of the comparative study itself, which is followed in Chapter 3 by the application of elements of the approaches considered in this study to four contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works. Chapter 4 considers the findings in Chapters 2 and 3, addressing the potential for (and ramifications of) interconnection between planes of discourse and also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Part II of this study is comprised of a three movement composition for string orchestra.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Sain, James P.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021995:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II V iola Cello Contrabass V iolin F F 180 190 Lively > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 > j Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 > > > > > > J > > J > > > > & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 7 > J # > J # > > > > J J > > J > > J ! > J # > J # > J > j 1 Three Movements for String Orchestra I. T im Reed

PAGE 2

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 14 > J > J > > # > J > J > J # # > J # > # > > > > # > > > & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 21 > > J # # > > J # > > # > > p div > j > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m.61 > J # > j > j > J # > J > J > > # > n > > > j > > J > # # > J n > > J 2

PAGE 3

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F 28 > > > > " j J j # J > j > J n > J # > j > > > > # > n > > > j # J J # J > > > # > & & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 34 > j > J > # J # > n j > j > J # > J > J # n # > > > # > > j > J > j # # n > J > > # > > n > # > > > 3

PAGE 4

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 40 > j > J # > j # # n > J > > n > # > > j J # > J n # > J > J > > > # > f f f p p > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 > j > J > # J n # # > n J # # > j Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 # # n # > # > # # > > > > # & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 47 > > # > # > # n # > n # > > # > J > > j > > J > # > J # > > J # > > j f f > > > # # > n > > # # J # j # # J # n J # n J # j > # J > j > J # > # J # # > j > # j # > # > > n > # > n # > # # > # > J > > j # > # > J # > > J > > J # > > j 4

PAGE 5

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 54 > # # > > > > > # > # # n > > > > # > # > > > # > # # > n # > # > # J > b j > J # > # J > # J # > j # > # b > n > > # # > > # # > # > > # > n # > n # > # & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 59 # > # > J # > > j > > J > # > j # > > J # > n > j > # # > > n > > > (normale) (normale) (normale) (normale) (normale) # > # > > # > # > > F F F sul ponticello sul ponticello solo solo solo > # > J > # > j > > J # > J # > j # > p > J # > # > n # # > J > # > j > F f solo # > n J > J # > j # > 5

PAGE 6

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F 66 # b > # > J > > b > b > # > j > > # J > J # > b > b j # > p > # J > > # > J > > # # > > # > j > p f f # > n # # n > # > J # > j > # j # > p p p b > b # > J > > b > # > # > j > > J > J # > > # j b > & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 72 b > J > J # > j > > # j n > b > # > # > # > J > > J > > # # n b > j # > F P f F f # > J > J # > > n > b j > P P P # b > # > J > # > # > > b # > j > > J b > J # > J > > j # > > J b > J # > j > > j # > 6

PAGE 7

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 78 b > # > # J # > > > b j # > f f f f J ^ J # ^ J # ^ j # ^ sul ponticello tutti tutti tutti tutti unis. sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello # > > > # # > > > > > > > # > J # > # J # > J # > J # > J # # # # # > > # # > # > # > # # # > > & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 85 # > J # > J # # n > J > J > J # > > # > # n > > # > # > # > # # > # > # # > J > # # j n > j # n > j > j # > > # > # > > # J # J # n J J J # # n 7

PAGE 8

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 92 # n pizz. col legno battuto normale $ p solo solo solo P > # j > > J > J > j b > # j > J > j b > b > b # j > > J > J normale p F solo # # b > J > # > j > J p > # > # b > # j > > J > J & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 98 > > # j > # j > J F # > # > > > > # J > > # j > > J > J p F b > J > # > n # # n n > # > # > j > J p pizz. $ solo > # J > > b > # j > > J > J > b > b > > j b > # j > J > b > b b > b b # j > > J > J > 8

PAGE 9

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F p 104 b b J n > b n > b b > b > # > j > J > F p P J > J > b > b b > n > # > j > J > F F F F F > b > # > # # > b # j > > J > J > p p p p p b > n > j # j # j # > # b > b j # j # j # > n b b > j # j # j & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. % % f f f f f 1 10 > # > # > # > # # j > > J > J F tutti > J ! > ! > > ! > J ! p tutti > J > J > J > J 9

PAGE 10

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 1 17 > > F > > > > > > ! J J & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 124 > J > J ! > J > J ! > J > J > J > J > > 10

PAGE 11

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 131 > > J > > J ! & p tutti > > b > b > > b > > > b > F b & & & ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 138 > > b > > > b > > > > > J b > J b > J cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 p tutti > J > J b b > b J > J > b > b > > > > b > > 1 1

PAGE 12

& & & ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 145 > > J > b > J b > b > J > > J F > b > b > > > b > b b > # > cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 > j > J b > J # > J b b # n > > b b > > & & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 152 b > J > J b > J b > J div > > > > > > > b > > > b b > j > J > J b > J # > J b b # > > > b > b > # 12

PAGE 13

& & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 159 b > > > b > b # > > > > > > > > > # # > > > > > # # > > > > b b > # # > b # # & & & ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) p tutti 166 > > > b > b > > > j > J > J > b b J # > # J > j > > > b > b # # > > F cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 div b b b # # > j > J > j b > J > J b > J > j > j > J > J b > j # > J # > j > > > > b > > 13

PAGE 14

& & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 173 > > > b > # > # > > > > b b > # > # > b b # > > > > # > > > > # > b b > # > # > # b b > # & & & ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 180 > > # > > # > # > > > > > > > > > j > > J > # > J b > > j # > # > J # > > j > > > > b # > > b # # # # > j n > J b > J > J b # > J > j > j b > J > J # > j > J # # > j 14

PAGE 15

& & & ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 187 b j n J b J b j n J # j > > > b > # > > b n > > > > # > b > > > b > b > > p sul tasto legato sub. > ! ! > ! P B > & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. p legato sul tasto 195 ! > > > > P ! > > > p ! ! > ! 15

PAGE 16

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 204 J > J b > > b > J b > J b > P p p 3 > # 3 > > > f f b J b > # J > > > > > F F J > J b > > > & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 213 b J b > J b > > > p p 3 > # 3 > # > 3 b b > 3 # > # # > f f # J > j n > # # > r > r > # r n > r > F F J > J b > b b # > b 16

PAGE 17

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 222 J b > J > # > b > f f 3 n b 3 # # # b > p p b > n b > # b 3 # # 3 # > b > f f j > j > b > r b > b r n b > F F # J # > # j # > n > p p > > 3 # 3 # # & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. f f 231 3 # > n 3 > b # > p p 3 > 3 b > b # > > b b b b n # n f f 3 > # 3 b > n > > n b > b b > > # # # # # # # > J > j b > # > # r > r # n > r # > r # n > 17

PAGE 18

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 240 3 # # 3 # # # > > b J n > n j > # > > # > > J > j > 3 # > # 3 > # # > > f f J > j # > > ! r # n > r > p p # # # & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 249 b J > j > > > f f 3 b 3 > > J > j > > p p 3 # > # 3 > b b > > 3 > 3 n # > > > f f J # > # j n # > > > > > > p F p F # b # # > > 18

PAGE 19

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 258 J > j > J > j # > # > > 3 # 3 b n # # > b n > > # > # p p 3 b n # 3 b b b # > # > f f b J b > # J b > # # # > # > r # > r > r # > r > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 266 # # J > b b n J > # n > P P # # # > p 3 # 3 # # > > 3 n > b 3 # > # # > > > f f 3 > b b b 3 > b b # > > b # # > p p 3 b b b 3 n b # > > > f f f f f b J b > J b > # > j > > j > B > j > 19

PAGE 20

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello $ $ $ $ solo solo solo solo 274 > j > j > J > J " > > > > " # # > > > > & & B B ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 281 n " # > > > # > # > j > j > J > J # # > > > # > p p p p # # # > # > # > # # n > # 20

PAGE 21

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 288 " # # > # > # > # n > # " > # j > j > J > # J n # > # > # > # # n > # P P P P P div tutti tutti tutti tutti sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello # # # # > # > # n > > > > & & B B ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 295 # n # # n # > # > > # # > # > # > # > > # n > > # > > solo solo solo solo # # # > J # # > j # # > J # # > J # # # # # # # n 21

PAGE 22

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. P P P P 302 # # # n # # # # # n # tutti tutti tutti tutti # # # # # # n > # n > # > # > # > # > n # # # # > # j n > # J n # > j n > J # > J # n > J # # > # > # > # n > > # n > & & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 309 n # > j n # > J > J # > J # # > J # > J # # # # # n # # n > > # > # > # > # > j j # j J J # J j # J J J # J n J J # J n J J # J n J # j # J J J J J j j # > J J # > j # J > J # J > J # J n > J # J > 22

PAGE 23

& & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F F F F div 315 j > j J > J j > j J > J J # n > J J > J J # n > J j > j > j > J > J > J > j > j > j > J > J > J > J > J > J > J > J # > J > J > J > J > j # J # j J J # J J f f f f f j # j > b J # J n > b j j > J J > J J > J # J n > J J > $ $ $ $ solo solo solo solo # > J > J > J # > J n # n # > > > > # & & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. tutti tutti tutti tutti 322 > b > > # > # ? # # n f f f f > # J # > J # # > J # > n J normale normale normale normale # n > # n > # # > # # > # # # # n # n # > > # b n > > # # # # # # n 23

PAGE 24

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 329 # # > J > J # n > J # > J sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # # n # # # normale normale normale normale f f f f # # > b > # n # > b > # # b # n b # > > b b # > > b J J J J n J b J J # J J j # j n j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p b # # n b # # & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f 336 J J > J J > J b J n b > n j j # > j j # > J # # J J J J j j n j j n j J n # J J J J j j j j j > b # > > > > J J j # j b j b sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # b b b b normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f J # J # > J n J # # > J j # > j n j > b j n j > b 24

PAGE 25

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 343 # > > J # > n > J > # > j > # > j n > # > j n J J # # J J J J J J # # j # j n j j # j # j n j j b j # j n j j b > > > b > b b > b J J J # J j # j j j # j j # J # J J J J # J J # j j # j # j n j j # j n j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p b b b # # n # # b b n b b n normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f # # n # # & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 350 > # # # # > b n # n > # > b b # > b b sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # n # # n b b n b b n normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f n > # # > > # > # > # > b > > # > # # > # # # # # # # n # n sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p n # # b b # # n # # # b n b n 25

PAGE 26

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. normale normale normale normale normale 357 # > n # > # n > # > # > # n # # # # # # n n # n # n # # > # > # > # b > b > # # j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # # n # n # b b b b b b normale normale normale normale normale # # # # # n & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. % 364 # # # # # # # n # # n n # # n # > > > > > # " sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # n # # # # # # # n # # # # # # normale normale normale normale normale # > n n > > # > > # # 26

PAGE 27

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello 371 b # # n # # # # n # # # n # # # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # n # # # # n # # # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale n n # # # & & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) 378 # # # > > # # > # > > sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # n # # # n # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > J > J # # > j # > j > j 27

PAGE 28

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) sul ponticello p sul ponticello p sul ponticello p sul ponticello p 384 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # n # # # n # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > & & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) 390 # # # J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j > J > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > 28

PAGE 29

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II V iola Cello Contrabass V iolin F F F F q = approx. 90 w # w w # # w w w w w w w p p p p w w w w w w w w w w F F F F w w w w w 1 [ 2 [ w w w w w sul ponticello div w w w w # w w w w w w w w w w w w w w " w w w w w w w w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F 10 w w w w ! w w w w ! w w w w ! " sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello w w w w w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w w F F F F to normale to normale to normale to normale w w w w w w w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. w w p p p p w w normale normale normale normale w w w # # w b w b 29 II.

PAGE 30

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 20 w w w # # w b w b gliss. gliss. w w w # # w b w b w w b w w w w n w b gliss. p normale w w w w w n w b w w w w n w b gliss. w w w w w n w b div w w w w w n w b gliss. gliss. div w w w w n w b w w w w w b & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. div 30 w w w w w n w # w b w w w w w n w # w b w w w w w w w n w # w b . # b f f f f f w # w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w 30

PAGE 31

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 41 w w w w w w w w " w w w w w w w w F P sul tasto solo solo expressively # # # # # P w # w w sul tasto P solo w w w F solo expressively # w w w # # # sul ponticello sul ponticello solo # w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 50 w w w w . normale F expressively # # # # sul tasto P w # # # # # w # # 3 3 P w w f f w w F F F normale w w # # 31

PAGE 32

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F F F p p p div tutti 58 w w w # 1. w w w w w w ! p div tutti w w w w 2. w w w w 2. w p tutti w w w w # p w w w w 1. w p w w w w w P P p normale gliss. w w w w w F F w # w w w w w w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 67 # w w w w w # # w w w w # w " gliss. F F w w w w w w w w gliss. 3 w gliss. # 3 w subito p # # w w # # # sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello solo solo solo w # w w # w w 32

PAGE 33

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 75 . F F F F F tutti tutti tutti tutti div div w # w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. " gliss. w w w w w w w w U U U U U P ! # # P w # gliss. gliss. w # w w # & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. P 85 b w gliss. w b gliss. w w w b P P P w w w F solo # 3 w w b w w div sul ponticello # # # 3 # # w w w w w w w 33

PAGE 34

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F solo 93 # 3 P P tutti o # # 3 b # # # w o w b w P P P o F F F F F normale tutti div w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w " w w w w w w w F F F b w w w b & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. sul ponticello sul ponticello 102 w w w w b w w w b F F w w w w w w w w b gliss. gliss. gliss. F F F w w w b w w w w w w w # 1 [ 2 [ w w w w w w w w w w w w w w F F div w w w w w w w w w 34

PAGE 35

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 1 10 b w # w # w w w w w w w # w # w w w w F F w w w w w # w # w w w w gliss. gliss. w w w w w # w # b w w w w w w w w # w w w b w # w w w w w w # w w w w b w w # f f f f f w w w w w w # w w w w b w w # & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F solo 1 17 # ! F F F F normale w w # w w # # w w w w w w w w " # F F F F w w # w w # # w w gliss. w w w w w w 35

PAGE 36

& & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F 123 w # 123 w # w # w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. w w # w # w w w w w " w w w w w w # # w b w b F F F F F F w w w w w w w w & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. $ 128 ! # # # # # sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto w # w w n w w # w w p w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w U w U w u w U w w U w U w U 36

PAGE 37

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 V iolin 1 V iolin 2 V iola Cello Contrabass sul tasto solo q = 120 > " > " > " > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. sul tasto solo 5 > > > > > > > > > > 37 III.

PAGE 38

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f f f normale normale 14 > > (tutti) > > > (tutti) > > > > > f f f f > > > > > & > sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto solo > > > 38

PAGE 39

& & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 18 > > > > > > P P P P sul tasto solo > > > > > > > > # > # > > > & & B & ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 23 # > # > > > # > # > > > sul ponticello # # > # > > > # > # > > > F F F F F # > > # > > > > > > 39

PAGE 40

& & B & ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. p p normale normale normale normale normale solo 28 > O # O # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > O # O # O > > > > O O # O # > & & B & ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 33 > O O O O # O O # # > F F F > O O # O > > O # O # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > > O # O # O ? > 40

PAGE 41

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f f f tutti tutti tutti tutti tutti 38 > > > > > > > > > > > > > & > > > > > > > > > & & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. sul ponticello sul ponticello # # 42 > > > > > > > > > > > > P P P P P > r > $ > R > > R > $ > r > $ p p normale normale > O # O # # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > O # O # # O > 41

PAGE 42

& & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. P P P P 48 > > > > > > > > # > # > > > # > # > > > # > # > > > & & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 53 # > # > > > # > # > > > # > > # > > > > > > ? f f f f f > > > > > > > 42

PAGE 43

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 57 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > p p p p p > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % f f f f f f solo 62 > r > $ > R > > r > $ > R > R > $ > R > $ > r > $ " " F " # " o 43

PAGE 44

& & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % ( % ) 67 " o F " o " o # # # (tutti) O # o O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F F 72 O # O o # # O O o F O o F O o # O O # o 44

PAGE 45

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # # 78 O # O O F sul ponticello O O # F O O O # F O O O # F O O O # # > O O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # F 84 > O # O O sul ponticello O O # F # O O O F O O F > O O O # O O O 45

PAGE 46

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F 90 O O O sul tasto sul tasto solo solo > > > > > > & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % F # 94 > > > > O # sul ponticello # # > > > > O # F O F tutti O # O # # tutti O O # O 46

PAGE 47

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # F 99 O O F O O O # sul ponticello # O O O # # F O O F O # O # O O # O F O O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F 106 O O O # # # # O O O F O " O " O " O " O " O 47

PAGE 48

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 1 14 O " O " O f f f f f div div > > > b > > > b > p p > > > > > > b > > > > b > > > > > > > b > > > > > > b > > b & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 121 b f f f f f > > > > > > b > > > > > > > > > > > > > > b > p p > > > > > > > > > > b > > > b > 48

PAGE 49

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f p p p 126 > > > > p p f f f > > > > f f > # > > > # > > > & & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 130 > > > > # > > > > > > # > # # > > > # # > > > 49

PAGE 50

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 134 # # > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > # > > # > > > > > > > > > > > > # > > # > > > > > > > > > > > > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. hand damped hand damped hand damped hand damped hand damped 138 > q A Little Slower = 1 10 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > 50

PAGE 51

? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. F 144 # > > > > > > > > > > F > > > > > > > > > > > > > > F # > > > > ? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 150 > > > > F > > > > > > > > # > > > > > > > F > > > 51

PAGE 52

? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 156 > > > P solo P > > # > # > > # > > > P P > > sul tasto solo sul tasto sul tasto # > # # ? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 162 . . . . . . 52







Three Movements for String Orchestra

J=180-190 Lively I.


Violin
Holm



II







Viola






Cello






Contrabass


Tim Reed


I I-


p)


Gradually move from
sul tasto to normal
at m. 61



mf
Gradually move from
sul tasto to normal
at m. 61


> >

























4


> >


1 6 -


> > V


-

i v


I" 5 "7 ,. t- .- P. p ,. "- .--
5 !1 14 -0 ff N-* z 4F F0 F) is s- ^- F I-I V 14 -I F I S-


I I r


>
































> > V







V

























4

Gradually move from
sul tasto to normal
at m.61

div.>


I


P


n
> a >


Via I


Vc I


2n


7;


C~N


>- 7 > >


n
> >


>i >C-:,I


>L. N


> > v


7 > V


n
I"I


I >


D Ii D D Ii D II D


m I r& -*- -- 4 Fr Ir O i -- s I p-


S"n































> >


> 4 > >




> > k> -.


N, O,"- r i s" ~~-",I r ,v T r


A)




n n
J9 >


mf


M











n .>


>u


> >
n .n


- I


7;


nM M


7 >


LL


> ? 1


> ;



















n n
> >


U A1U #nU lp Is00 11 1 4 J -1gii4


>
f


:> V


Gradually move from sul tasto to normal at m. 61


-p*


Gradually move from sul tasto to nornale at m. 61


i 0 7 w w7 7
> ~ ~ H


> > > > > > >


M
> >l> -


H~~ >' t-H

f


n n
> >


1 r I


> V'


ifR V 1 1 m^ I p T I if 1


- 5-Ow


:


V


- 4W W


> : >


>__ >


> >
Z


U> > >-


UIU


V ~' V


6 I1 r


1~












54 n
-n ~.


C) -


k07 -


normall) solo
>/-. >


Nt > t


solo
normall) sul ponticello


> (
ff

normall)


normall) solo
sul ponticello


normall)
normall)


solo
solo


>


S>


59
SJu4> >


> >
I I L


> > >


>


1ja 1, 7 i i Ti -A .?
m si I is^ ^ ^ s --- ----- ^ f


I r


TT-






I ..F


I u> HI >.f r










66
A 4. io- 14 1,


.) f
mf


>-


"r "r
> > >


> >


f




7,


> > >


bN


P


--- f


__ __ f


~mf


I > 7 1 L 71 1

,. .. i


P



^.,


U -^[3 -










78 > >--
~ -u~d


-I ,-


n n> v >
85 > > > > > > >
^ A tt A w 0 1w Iff t 0 A, A, t tii


V) I


tutti
sul ponticello

H it it t ftlt t t


n
> > > > >


V


ff
tutti
sul ponticello
uns





tutti
sul ponticello



ff
tutti
sul ponticello


>

ff
sul ponticello
n"1 > >


> >V


V


- V> v n


S> V n


v
V-


- >


> >


V


V
V-
do.-r


2 '7 17t~t~t-ttttf~-t~t~


'I s ;o 1F 4r g 1I !i ir 9-r1i 0r P ii iIr 1 1 1 1 1 II


I Y


;. I F









solo
normal

PI"


solo
normal




-P

solo
col legno battuto






solo
pizz. > >



> >


>



- = mf


P-.> )


p


mff


>

p


-~ _
~ ~ --


^_ >


5 i if i i ^I I ,ij


92
|Q^
< T) t


C) '- >


>-- >


"^ ^ ^
:>


"~ j


. .> 7. ;












104 A- h >i


tutti


w I& da p I I


t) > "> :

If








f


>P


> >
^ ^


Sf






f


> r

^^


Via I


u~HI b r k~


-P ~-----


-p


-p







P
*>


"> > >33 mf3


mf


r-


tutti


-p


"3


9












AM) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A a Www


Vln
(8 ) ------




























Cb










(8w)---
124 >





Vln
(8"- ------

h


> > >


m ii v ~ i ~ is ~
NO s 4 i


> > >


f f












(8 )- -
131 > >







(8" ------







































(8w)---
138







(8w)
Aff


-P


cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189


> > >


cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189


cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189

tutti





-P


Via I


tutti

-Z > >


f f f f f t' f f f f f f fff f f f


> >


> > >



















> >


cresc. to fortissimo
at m. 189


:~


152 div.
A la r p d: n ; ;


S4 i i 1 i i s I 1 1


145

A l


>).










. B


> >


> >


> >


> > >
f II





> >b>.


z z

~FFR




z
b~ b~~~ '


22
fbrr


i >


fi~~








































(A ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

166 m


div.>
<7>


> > > > >
p mf cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189
13


r ~


> -


f > -


tutti


: 1


nm


-- I 6 i i p i i i i I


J h


0) b^ *1


J J


r


,,, r


~a, 1~~


I I


-U-r


c~3 f
> >


^Hff ^











A3 n A m A A A


(8")


:z


rrrr


1 (80
180 ) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --


> A. A A A A A A A


rr >


> ~


rrr~


Ar Ar ~Ar Ar Ar ~Ar


> >


,o 6r s 1 r i
^l^^ ^g '= l^^ -^^^ ^^^ ^ 1' 1


> :



> >


>r

> >


> > >


> > >


> >


> > :>


(8V"y
S


*>


I >


; r 7 >


^ ^ >


'> '> '>


>
S9 --


'~~Cf-T


~rT









(81)T

187


()










A I I L


V ;:


V V,


> -

> >


> >


> 5>


ff




ff


7 : > >

ff


S;: > >
ff


sul tasto
legato


ff sub.


sul tasto
legato
11 ^ 7 7-7 / ^ /n */ / * ---
II . . . . .


U U


S-


U U


U U


U U

Iltp _


L L











204 #


m3
mf ;P _^^ ^ y OT


3 3


3 3


3 f


el F 1111


riri

tlt,


>


"7 W d d 7














3


' /


u3
Yf


> >


f


3



f


I P1-


2 .2


3


mf






mf


A--3


I I L I I I I I I I I> I I>III


u


n_^


3




P--


231




































































3P 3


12


3-1


f


_249 f


)


3


> > >


P2 mf


> >


> >


I I 1n 11 1 i ii" i 1


-3












258 -
_ A I A >


V)


#i~ wi~ b f+~h~>-


3 3


^ f 3


;ii;


12 ff


-3 rZ7


.. I


f >
Y^=


> > >


3
p


Via I


^- f


f-^ ^ ^ f


> > > >


> >


266


V)




A IRn- >


mp -


NO wrn nn wn nn-n n wi I oJ.JJ14 ..I.I IId'


t1."'----"".


. _7


"WWW >


~-~b>
~ h f











solo
274 sul ponticello




pp

solo
sul ponticello

solo
sul ponticello
> .. 7;

pp





solo
sul ponticello

P)
solo
sul ponticello






pp


281


n
h


el I r ri rt r r r


n> >
. www


7;:;:;


n
> > >


7; 7


> >


7; 7;:


> > >


* *


* *


n
> > >


V


> \ 7 >


7>


7 7 >





> > V


> > v













288



















E 4 :


n
V







V m







V >



n



V >


> > >
-u--; .r


mn
> > > > V > > > sl
solo
295 S O


7> ;> >


solo







solo
> > >


div. sul ponticello
tutti >

L I I:


> V















>---V.
: > >








> > V


n
> > V


sul ponticello
tutti


sul ponticello
tutti






sul ponticello
tutti

>sul p




sul ponticello
> > >


RR I Ii I P I R r r I g I l ll LIF


> >


3- >


n
z I[>


II .












tutti:


302
3^ > > > >


op






4
t- > e > )> *>


: > > > > >


>> > > > > I
|t2 2 2 2


tutti
V


> >


309 >


) >
*>


> V


> V


n
> L>


> >


1 I I I I 7 I
8 U 8 V' 'V U


:> := :


L > >


.> > >


> > >


> > >


n


> > >


n


:> r r I r












.15 solo
315
A>
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ Y }r L -B ^ ^J; s


> >


>. >. > > > > >


- r -
:; :; :; f


f


> > >


f.


mf


div. >


pp

solo
>


solo



pp

solo
>


normal
n n
' u 22' tt /- t


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f


f


S f


f


normal
n
.> .> >


normal
n
> > >


normal


V


> > >


y r
> > >




> > >






> > >






> > >


:t~

f


mf


> >



mf


> >


tutti
322 >
A ir


tutti
f >


tutti


tutti
>ls


l I ii R m I I I I r Ir 2 14 ii "
|P4 v 4 2 P ^ -- P -t i H & 4- 5


> .> .> .>
> *
i i











sul ponticello normal


329







I > N
0 7 7
tj


f


normal


f

normal


sul ponticello
-P










sul ponticello
sul ponticello


sul ponticello




P

sul ponticello
-p


4. t~


>
r


> > >


5. 5. 5.


sul ponticello normal
> > >7 >
: .<7> p


sul p


sul ponticello




-p


sul ponticello


su p

sul ponticello




-p

sul ponticello


f

normal





f


normal

> i


7; ,>


normal





normal
normal
n


f

normal




f


> >


Via I


sul ponticello







sul ponticello
-P










sul ponticello




sul ponticello
-P


sul ponticello




-P


normal
336


f


normal




f


normal
> >


f

normal




f

normal




f
/e


> r i


n






n
7;> ^- -


n
7; 7;


f


mul N 1 '15 1 1 r r- 1 4 W IJw i s L


L


r r


n
z z














































> > 7;


m I
fM


tJ
C)



>


sul ponticello normal

1> > > >
,C


> > > ,,>
- >







d d k r




I> II I > L. III >


p


sul pontic




P


sul ponti




P

sul ponti




P

sul ponti


f


cello normal








f
:eINo normal







cello normal




S/
c-
cello normal


> >
350






n n
o7 r^


7; "> >


" >.-


sul ponticello




-P


sul ponticello






sul ponticello
sul ponticello
ZN -


-P

sul ponticello




Sp

sul ponticello


normal





f

normal




f



normal


. Jt b. u I L I -r ;- J ~>m "
11l .


>
f

normal




f

normal


%; 7 >~- K 5j ~-"
-P f


n
> > >


>77


sul ponticello
nm


-p


sul ponticello
I


-po
sul ponticello
n


sul ponticello


> > > >

_ A 0 4


r



n






n






n
M> *


> *>


> ".>


Via I


7; "7


Tr r> *


n


"> :>


sul ponticello










normal normal
> > n > > > sul ponticello > >

_35 t,,5 I-o.


>
> > > >


> >


ffn


normal
A L_ >- -


5; >x~ ee


-p


sul ponticello


_p


sul ponticello

Ip -II-l




sul ponticello
m


sul ponticello
n


p


sul ponticello


ff

normal





ff


normal




ff

normal




ff
normal


normal


S L



n > -


> > ^_^


A A l


ek -




:> < v--


7>





7- i


Via I


normal




ff

normal




ffnormale

normal




ff


u 4.~ a


sul ponticello






sul ponticello
sul ponticello


sul ponticello




sul ponticello
sul ponticello


ff

normal





f


normal
--


*.. I Ij I *, r*r C


ff

normal





normal
normal


" nH >
^---^ ^ if


7;9 7 9


S-9 -9 -
7;7;7;7;


9
7;


9 9;


9
7;


n


~~~~


n


~~~~


22> z
#f~ ~ ~~~


n


n n 8---------


A 1^ 1


7-









(8M) -
normale
sul ponticello
371
_- A L


sul ponticello
A


sul ponticellc







sul ticello


normal
n n

t ^


normal
n n


7;>


normal
n n

.. a


:; >


> >sul ponticello
? ??? W-^


;do2_


-p


sul ponticello
Vc --


-p~


sul ponticello






sul ponticello
V-p 1=1t~


3>7
378 *


>2


> >


n






n


sul ponticello
n I


~- -
-p


sul ponticello
I'I,


sul ponticello
I'I


-2 st. d#t tl


- u J4.ftt


normal
n n





ff
normal
n n








normal
n n


,. Q .i. i i


sul ponticello
rl --,


ff

normal
n n


> a
7; >


normal


Via I


, _(t *


NC#


ff

normal





ff


normal







normal




if
>




IIII


C)


> 7;>


ai i ij







#s > *


> 7;









efle :



7;>:;


04 4 4


10 10 10










sul ponticello


;P -~-- ~-


sul ponticello


P-p


sul ponticello

#tk~t~a'^


sul ponticello
sul ponticello


-P


(8390 -

39


n M




S> > > > 5 > ->


,-' u_ It- tt


normal
M M
- .>. > >-~l .> ?


Via I


ff
normal
n n







normal
n n




ff
normal
n n





n n


f/f


n
> > > > >


n
> z z > z


I L v





























p -mf


sul ponticello
_3 _


p11


I



Violin



II







Viola






Cello






Contrabass


mf _1 pmf


mf L p mf


mf p mf-



10 ----- ---------


sul ponticello


pp -==== mf


sul ponticello


to normal -


PW Ip =f


1 "mf


sul ponticello


P = mf


S~ PPP


__ PPP


to normal -- --- -- ss --- normal


- 1P


:: I


to normale- -,----- ----------
aliss


:o normal ----------- ----
__ ghliss


fpnormale
normal
J


--------- Inormale


[P


______ P


fpnormale
normal




fp


J= approx. 90


mf


- -~ ~I I -


- ------


S\-P1


- PPP


PPP


- ------- --


mf


sul ponticello
































































0 1~ 0 1


C 8 I 1I


nllss


I


Vln.


II







Via.






Vie.






Cb.


C C C


normal


aliss


-d


gliss
-^zzz/P


30


fp






fp





fp
o



dlv




fp


I



Vln.



II






Via.





Vie.






Cb.


f






f


f






f


o rI '.


I I I I


tl~~


0 0


- --------- I,,- -













I



Vln.



II







Via.







Vic.






Cb.













I



Vln.



II







Via.






Vic.






Cb.


sul tasto


nmp pp nMP


-I f


-= f


mf

normal




<,mf


z PPP 1P :z PP -= p PP


expressively
normal


3f
ff


fp


C/


I


-:----+-^-












58


tutti

divy -
1 ---


I



Vln.



II








Via.






Vie.







Cb.













I




Vln.




II






Via.







Vie.





Cb.


---


P-cmf


_ pPP


--^


PPp p


- 1


2 -
Ppp p


p -Of


App p


:: =ppp pp


fp -:c-f


e I ~ o T T T0


-p

C


pp p


normal









tutti
div
g ---- liss
-OL 9



tP"


Vln.



II







Vla.







Vic. -
:s





Cb.











85





Vln.



II






Via.







Vic.






Cb.


====- PPP


mf 1=W- PPP


nlis I ~


^===--- vp


,, gl".s


alIss


I l


I gllhs









tutti div


II







Via.






Vic.






Cb.

















Vln.



II







Via.






Vic.





Cb.


sul ponticello
102
S -

(m ZcZ

sul ponticello


I~z mf


~Z==wv


Pup


qliss


aliss


ir mf
-f<


nlice


1 ---- ^ --m-- C

P1=W mf


P1 mf


Smf


::==~ pp M=rp mf r=== ppp mf











= ----- -


p1W \- f


A 4


I


Vln.


II







Via.






Vic.






Cb.











V1. 1- 1






I


Vln.


II






Via.





Vic.






Cb.


pMP mf


I i -


nliss


gliss


f


p f


f


4 f


- f


solo


mf p mf


110


- I















V1. 1-1






I


Vin.


II






Via.





Vic.







Cb.


PPP -== mf


V1. 1-1






I


Vin.









Via.





Vie.







Cb.


--------------------------------------------
128
"_ -_


sul tasto








sul tasto





sul tasto





sul tasto







sul tasto


I Ia In In In I~





















































































L I E______ Hf


J =120


Violin 1






Violin 2







Viola





Cello


Contrabass


solo
sul tasto




pp
i\.- ._rrrrrrrrr~ ~.rrrrrrr r _~r r rr r r _rrr~~~~ ~.i
ll-t "1 "1 -"1-^ ^ = ~


L I I In


solo
sul tasto



> > > > >

"''VPr r r r rr r r ..' .


- lI E__________




















































f fp f
normal sul tasto





f fp f i
normal sul tasto











(tutti)
solo
sul tasto





(tutti)


f


fp f











solo
sul tasto














































2
pp zmpn





] > > >
mmp















ccnmp




























sul pontl> > ello





> > > > > >









- > > > > >





S*> .... > > > | = | >
.- -.. ... ... ..-,, -.. .. .. ... ." .-.. .. ....4.


-p' =, m

Pmf


,,%












28 normal


'> > >i > >
P


normal
I----------






normale




PP ol lf PP ==-

normale




pp mfr

solo
normal
V .2; F=F..... F
4 ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', ', F .' '. ', ', ', -.. . . .-


p


33
"?9"" f ----I--- ----I--- ----I---- --I---------- -f-------------------- ---- ------------- -----I---- ----------------- -

S> > > > > >








f pp omf















mf pp mf




I'l I'


==


M


==


i


==


==











38tutt


> >


tutti


= -JJJ- -JJ -JJ I


f p
tutti



f

tutti






tutti



f





sul ponticello
normal










> > > > >






-pp mf
I u BI 4 Vormal






-mp pp mf


sul ponticello normal >


I'l


I'l


p1 m
ppp MP-_ t~


' ' '













48
- 6 >


ppc mp







pp- nMp



> > >









3> > > > >






















f

















..... ;;;;;; ;;;;


u- -- >














V1. 1






V1. 2







Via.





Vic.






Cb.









V1. 1- 1






V1. 1





V1. 2






Via.





Vie.





Cb.


p























p










------------------- --- --- --- --- ------- --- -- ---- --- --- ------------ -
solo
62


























^ J p --------------
) >
f

























App
? PP














V1. 1- 1






V1. 1






V1. 2






Via.





Vic.






Cb.


67



(tutti)
-~-------------------------------







































72
m-ff




(....---.-------..-- .--8~------------ ...---
I I I Io
()- m ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = ^ = ^ = ^ p


72 ttttttttttttt.tttt tttttttt


Cf









6f 6
m:f





PPf -
F w F -3


ppp ippP












78



















Sf
P PP -------------





in= f --- ppp



sul ponticello

S- I -
S,,I ppp


A- -------------------------------------------------------------
(8")
84 > >











mf















umf pont-Pe


sul ponticello


*w-m if


iy


iy













90





solo
sul tasto




PP

solo
sul tasto




pp

















mf













tutti










I9 2 1 1' 1 1
tututttt














sul ponticello



































. ^^i)---------- __^---------






sul pontlellb


A- ) I-- ------- ------ I--- I-- -









106























Pmf -- -pp- -f









div= =


> > > > >
f






f > > > > p

f fp









> > > >


f P


2diddd- d d dJi J ffd






= == f > > >



f


= eI =i jj =
fo10 -


h kff kff kff ~A ~A










126


f f




f rp f










f f













pk n R n RR























>R R R R


>f


++ ++>


+++


>+


++++


~A ~ ~A ~R R


AA












n __ > ____


= =l l
> > > > > >
ff































A Little Slower

=110
> > > > > > > >




























138 hand damped






> > > > > >







hand damped
> > > > > > > >


































hand damped


hand damped
hand damped











>.. .> .. .. .. ..
J T :.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



































1 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i


.tt~f~t A










1/1C


Vic. 1





V1. 1




V1. 2




Via.




Vic.




Cb.











ViC. 1




V1. 1




V1. 2




Via.




Vic.




Cb.


Mf= PP- mf mf
































15i0












> > ^ P "





,. .., -:. . ..,, -, ,, -: , -
,______ ? .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. , , ,_? ?____.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ...,, , , , _.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. , , __ ? ?





--, =,, pppp ,zz

>_________^_______ ___ ^ ____ ________ ___________ ^ ____


7P 1 I I I a I I


/ #F~.









sul tasto





pp Mp pp


O=======


I = C= C= Z= = C= r= C= C=


: lpp I nmp


solo
sul tasto


pp

sul tasto


PP~


1?1l


162 2*






I .. .. I
...- ===.. .==== ===== ===== ====


ViC. 1


ViC. 1




V1. 1





V1. 2





Via.





Vie.





Cb.


cl ~' I ~ I ~





PAGE 1

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II V iola Cello Contrabass V iolin F F 180 190 Lively > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 > j Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 ! > > ! > > ! > > J > > J ! > > ! > > & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 7 ! > J # > J # ! > > > > ! J J ! > > J > > J ! ! ! > J # > J # ! > J > j 1 Three Movements for String Orchestra I. T im Reed

PAGE 2

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 14 ! > J > J ! > > ! # > J > J ! > J # # > J # ! > # > " ! > > ! > # > > > & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 21 ! > > J # # > > J # ! > > ! # > > p div > j > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m.61 > J # > j ! > j > J # > J > J ! > > # > n > ! > > j > > J > # # > J n > > J 2

PAGE 3

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F 28 > " > > " > " ! " j J j # J ! > j > J n > J # > j ! > > > > # > n > > > ! j # J J # J ! > > > # > & & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 34 > j > J > # J # > n j ! > j > J # > J > J ! " # n # " ! > > > # > ! > j > J > j # # n > J ! > > # > > n > # > > > 3

PAGE 4

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 40 > j > J # > j # # n > J ! > > n > # > ! > j J # > J n # > J > J ! > > > # > f f f p p > J Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 > j > J > # J n # # > n J # # > j Gradually move from sul tasto to normale at m. 61 . # # n # > # > # # > > > > # & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 47 > > # > # > # n # > n # > > # > J > > j > > J > # > J # > > J # > > j f f > " > " > # # > n > " > # " # J # " j # # J # n J # n J # " j > # J > j > J # > # J # # > j > # j # > # > > n > # > n # > # # > # > J > > j # > # > J # > > J > > J # > > j 4

PAGE 5

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 54 > # # > > > > > # > # # n > > > > # > # > > > # > # # > n # > # > # J > b j > J # > # J > # J # > j # > # b > n > > # # > > # # > # > > # > n # > n # > # & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 59 # > # > J # > > j > > J > # > j # > > J # > n > j > # # > > n > > > (normale) (normale) (normale) (normale) (normale) # > # > > # > # > > F F F sul ponticello sul ponticello solo solo solo > # > J > # > j > > J # > J # > j # > p > J # > # > n # # > J > # > j > F f solo # > n J > J # > j # > 5

PAGE 6

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F 66 # b > # > J > > b > b > # > j > > # J > J # > b > b j # > p > # J > > # > J > > # # > > # > j > p f f # > n # # n > # > J # > j > # j # > p p p b > b # > J > > b > # > # > j > > J > J # > > # j b > & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 72 b > J > J # > j > > # j n > b > # > # > # > J > > J > > # # n b > j # > F P f F f # > J > J # > > n > b j > P P P # b > # > J > # > # > > b # > j > > J b > J # > J > > j # > > J b > J # > j > > j # > 6

PAGE 7

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 78 b > # > # J # > > > b j # > f f f f J ^ J # ^ J # ^ j # ^ sul ponticello tutti tutti tutti tutti unis. sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello # > > > # # > > > > > > > # > J # > # J # > J # > J # > J # # # # " # > > # # > # > # > # # # > > & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 85 # > J # > J # # n > J > J > J # > > # > # n > > # > # > # > # # > # > # # > J > # # j n > j # n > j > j # > " > # > " # > " > " # J # J # n J J J # # n 7

PAGE 8

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 92 # n pizz. col legno battuto normale $ p solo solo solo P > # . j > . > J > J ! > j b > # . j > J ! > j b > b > b # . j > . > J > J normale p F solo # # b > J > # > j > J p > # > # b > # . j > . > J > J & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 98 > > # j > # . j > J F # > # > > > > # J > > # . j > . > J > J p F b > J > # > n # # n n > # > # > j > J p pizz. $ solo > # J > > b > # . j > . > J > J > b > b > > j b > # . j > J > b > b b > b b # . j > . > J > J > 8

PAGE 9

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F p 104 b b J n > b n > b b > b > # > j > J > F p P J > J > b > b b > n > # > j > J > F F F F F > b > # > # # > b # . j > . > J > J > p p p p p b > n > j # j # j # > # b > b j # j # j # > n b b > j # j # j & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. % % f f f f f 1 10 > # > # > # > # # . j > > J > J F tutti > J ! ! > ! ! > > ! ! > J ! ! p tutti > J > J ! > J > J ! 9

PAGE 10

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 1 17 > > ! F ! > > ! > > ! > > ! ! ! J J ! & & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 124 > J > J ! ! ! > J > J ! ! ! > J > J ! > J > J ! > > ! 10

PAGE 11

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 131 > > J > > J ! ! & ! p tutti > > b > ! b ! > > b > ! > > b > ! F b ! & & & ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 138 > > b > ! > > b > ! > > > ! > J b > J b > J ! cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 p tutti > J > J b b > b J > J > b > b > > > > b > > 1 1

PAGE 12

& & & ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 145 > > J > b > J b > b > J > > J F > b > b > > > b > b b > # > cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 > j > J b > J # > J b b # n > > b b > > & & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 152 b > J > J b > J b > J div > > > > > > > b > > > b b > j > J > J b > J # > J b b # > > > b > b > # 12

PAGE 13

& & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 159 b > > > b > b # > > > > > > > > > # # > > > > > # # > ! > > > b b > # # > b # # & & & ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) p tutti 166 > > > b > b > > > j > J > J > b b J # > # J > j > > > b > b # # > > F cresc. to fortissimo at m. 189 div b b b # # > j > J > j b > J > J b > J > j > j > J > J b > j # > J # > j > > > > b > > 13

PAGE 14

& & & ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 173 > > > b > # > # > > > > b b > # > # > b b # > > > . > # > > > > # > b b > # > # > # b b > # & & & ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 180 > > # > > # > # > > > > > > > > > j > > J > # > J b > > j # > # > J # > > j > > > > b # > > b # # # # > j n > J b > J > J b # > J > j > j b > J > J # > j > J # # > j 14

PAGE 15

& & & ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) ( % ) 187 b j n J b J b j n J # j > > > b > # > > b n > > > > # > b > > > b > b > > p sul tasto legato sub. ! > ! ! ! ! > ! ! P ! B > & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. p legato sul tasto 195 ! ! > ! > > > P ! ! > > > p ! ! ! ! ! > ! ! 15

PAGE 16

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 204 J > J b > > b > J b > J b > P p p 3 > # 3 > > > f f b J b > # J > > ! > ! > ! > F F J > J b > > > & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 213 b J b > J b > > > p p 3 > # 3 > # > 3 b b > 3 # > # # > f f # J > j n > # ! # > r > r > ! # r n > r > F F J > J b > b b # > b 16

PAGE 17

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 222 J b > J > # > b > f f 3 n b 3 # # # b > p p b > n b > # b 3 # # 3 # > b > f f j > j > b > ! r b > b r n b > F F # J # > # j # > n > p p > > 3 # 3 # # & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. f f 231 3 # > n 3 > b # > p p 3 > 3 b > b # > > b b b b n # n f f 3 > # 3 b > n > > n b > b b > > # # # # # # # > J > j b > # > ! # r > r # n > ! r # > r # n > 17

PAGE 18

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 240 3 # # 3 # # # > > b J n > n j > # > > # > > J > j > 3 # > # 3 > # # > > f f J > j # > > ! ! ! r # n > r > p p # . # # . & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F 249 b J > j > > > f f 3 b 3 > > J > j > > p p 3 # > # 3 > b b > > 3 > 3 n # > > > f f J # > # j n # > ! > ! > > > > p F p F # b # # > > 18

PAGE 19

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 258 J > j > J > j # > # > > 3 # 3 b n # # > b n > > # > # p p 3 b n # 3 b b b # > # > f f b J b > # J b > # # ! # > # > ! r # > r > r # > r > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 266 # # J > b b n J > # n > P P # # # > p 3 # 3 # # > > 3 n > b 3 # > # # > > > f f 3 > b b b 3 > b b # > > b # # > p p 3 b b b 3 n b # > > > f f f f f b J b > J b > # > j > > j > B > j > 19

PAGE 20

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello $ $ $ $ solo solo solo solo 274 > j > j > J > J " " > > > > " " ! # # > > > > & & B B ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 281 n " " # > > > # > # > j > j > J > J # # > > > # > p p p p # # # > # > # > # # n > # 20

PAGE 21

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 288 " " # # > # > # > # n > # " " > # j > j > J > # J n # > # > # > # # n > # P P P P P div tutti tutti tutti tutti sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello # # # # > # > # n > > > > & & B B ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 295 # n # # n # > # > > # # > # > # > # > > # n > > # > > solo solo solo solo # # # > J # # > j # # > J # # > J # # # # " # # # n 21

PAGE 22

& & B B ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. P P P P 302 # # # n # # # # # n # tutti tutti tutti tutti # # # # " # # n > # n > # > # > # > # > n # # # # > # j n > # J n # > j n > J # > J # n > J # # > # > # > # n > > # n > & & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 309 n # > j n # > J > J # > J # # > J # > J # # # # # n # # n > > # > # > # > # > j j # j J J # J j # J J J # J n J J # J n J J # J n J # j # J J J J J j j # > J J # > j # J > J # J > J # J n > J # J > 22

PAGE 23

& & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. F F F F F div 315 j > j J > J j > j J > J J # n > J J > J J # n > J j > j > j > J > J > J > j > j > j > J > J > J > J > J > J > J > J # > J > J > J > J > j # J # j J J # J J f f f f f j # j > b J # J n > b j j > J J > J J > J # J n > J J > $ $ $ $ solo solo solo solo # > J > J > J # > J n # n # > > > > # & & B B ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. tutti tutti tutti tutti 322 > b > > # > # ? # # n f f f f > # J # > J # # > J # > n J normale normale normale normale # n > # n > # # > # # > # # # # n # n # > > # b n > > # # # # # " # n 23

PAGE 24

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 329 # # > J > J # n > J # > J sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # # n # # # normale normale normale normale f f f f # # > b > # n # > b > # # " b # n b # > > b b # > > b J J J J n J b J J # J J j # j n j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p b # # n b # # & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f 336 J J > J J > J b J n b > n j j # > j j # > J # # J J J J j j n j j n j J n # J J J J j j j j j > b # > > > > J J j # j b j b sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # b b b b normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f J # J # > J n J # # > J j # > j n j > b j n j > b 24

PAGE 25

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 343 # > > J # > n > J > # > j > # > j n > # > j n J J # # J J J J J J # # j # j n j j # j # j n j j b j # j n j j b > > > b > b b > b J J J # J j # j j j # j j # J # J J J J # J J # j j # j # j n j j # j n j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p b b b # # n # # b b n b b n normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f # # n # # & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. 350 " > # # # # " > b n # n > # " > b b # " > b b sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # n # # n b b n b b n normale normale normale normale normale f f f f f n > # # > > # > # > # > b > > # > # # > # # # # # # # n # n sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p " n # # b b # # n # # # b n b n 25

PAGE 26

& & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. normale normale normale normale normale 357 # > n # > # n > # > # > # n # # # # # # n n # n # n # # > # > # > # b > b > # # j sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # " # n # n # b b b b b b normale normale normale normale normale # # # # # n & & B ? ? 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. % 364 # # # # # # # n # # n n # # n " # > > > > > # " " sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p p # # # # n # # # # # # # n # # # # # # normale normale normale normale normale # > n n > > # > > # # 26

PAGE 27

& & B ? ? 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello 371 b # # n # # # # n # # # n # # # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # n # # # # n # # # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale n n # # # & & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) 378 # # # > > # # > # > > sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello p p p p # # # n # # # n # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > J > J # # > j # > j > j 27

PAGE 28

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) sul ponticello p sul ponticello p sul ponticello p sul ponticello p 384 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # n # # # n # # # # # # n # # # # # normale normale normale normale > J n n > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > & & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 I II Vla. Vc. Cb. Vln. ( % ) 390 " # # # " J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j J J j # # j # j > J > J # # > j # > j > j > > # # > # > > 28

PAGE 29

& & B ? ? 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 I II V iola Cello Contrabass V iolin F F F F q = approx. 90 w # w w # # w w w w w w w p p p p w w w w w w w w w w F F F F w w w w w 1 [ 2 [ w w w w w sul ponticello div w w w w # w w w w w w w w w w w w w w " " w w w w w w w w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F 10 w w w w ! ! w w w w ! ! w w w w ! ! " " sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello w w w w w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w w F F F F to normale to normale to normale to normale w w w w w w w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. w w p p p p w w normale normale normale normale w w w # # w b w b 29 II.

PAGE 30

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 20 w w w # # w b w b gliss. gliss. w w w # # w b w b w w b w w w w n w b gliss. p normale w w w w w n w b w w w w n w b gliss. w w w w w n w b div w w w w w n w b gliss. gliss. div w w w w n w b w w w w w b & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. div 30 w w w w w n w # w b w w w w w n w # w b w w w w w w w n w # w b . . . # . b f f f f f w # w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w 30

PAGE 31

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 41 w w w w w w w w " " w w w w w w w w F P sul tasto solo solo expressively # # ! # # # ! P w ! # ! w w sul tasto P solo w ! w w F solo expressively # w w w # # # sul ponticello sul ponticello solo # w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 50 ! w w w w ! . . normale F expressively ! # # # # sul tasto P w # # # # # w # # 3 3 P w w f f w w ! F F F normale w w # # 31

PAGE 32

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F F F p p p div tutti 58 w w w # 1. w w w w w w ! ! p div tutti w w w ! w 2. ! " w w w w 2. w ! p tutti w w w w # p w w w w 1. w p w w w w w P P p normale gliss. w w w w w F F w # w w w w w w w & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 67 # w w w w w # # w w w w # w " " gliss. F F w w w w w w w w gliss. 3 ! w gliss. # 3 ! w subito p # # ! w w # # # sul ponticello sul ponticello sul ponticello solo solo solo w # ! w w # w w 32

PAGE 33

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. 75 . . . F F F F F tutti tutti tutti tutti div div w # w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. " " gliss. w w w w w w w w U U U U U P ! ! ! # # P ! w # gliss. gliss. ! w # w ! w # & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. P 85 ! b w gliss. ! w b gliss. ! w w w b P P P ! w w w F solo # 3 w w b w w div sul ponticello # # # 3 ! # # ! w w w " w ! w w w 33

PAGE 34

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F solo 93 ! # 3 ! P P tutti o # # 3 b # # # w o w b w P P P o . F F F F F normale tutti div w # w # w # w w # # w w w w w w w w w " " w w w w w w w F F F ! b w w w b & & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. sul ponticello sul ponticello " 102 w w w w b w w w b F F w w w w ! " w w w w b gliss. gliss. gliss. F F F w w w b w w w " w w w w # 1 [ 2 [ w w w w w w w w w w w w w w F F div w w w w w w w w w 34

PAGE 35

& & B ? ? I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. " 1 10 b w # w # w w w w w w w # w # w w w w F F w w w w w # w # w w w w gliss. gliss. w w w w w # w # b w w w w w w w w # w w w b w # w w w w w w # w w w w b w w # f f f f f w w w w w w # w w w w b w w # & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F solo 1 17 # ! ! F F F F normale w w # w w # # w w w w w w w w " " # F F F F w w # w w # # w w gliss. w w w w w w 35

PAGE 36

& & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. F 123 w # 123 w # w # w w w w w gliss. gliss. gliss. gliss. w w w w w w w w gliss. gliss. w w # w # w w w w w " " " w w w w w w # # w b w b F F F F F F w w w w w w w w & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 I II Vla. Vlc. Cb. Vln. $ 128 ! ! ! # # # # # sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto w # w w n w w # w w p w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w U w U w u w U w w U w U w U 36

PAGE 37

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 V iolin 1 V iolin 2 V iola Cello Contrabass sul tasto solo q = 120 > " " > " " > " " > " & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. sul tasto solo 5 > > " > > " > > " > > > > " 37 III.

PAGE 38

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 9 > > " > > " > > " > > " > > > > " & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f f f normale normale 14 > > (tutti) > > > (tutti) > > > > > f f f f > > > > > & > ! sul tasto sul tasto sul tasto solo > > > 38

PAGE 39

& & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 18 > > > " > > > P P P P sul tasto solo > > > > > > > > " # > # > > > & & B & ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 23 # > # > > > # > # > > > sul ponticello # # > # > > > # > # > > > F F F F F # > > # > > > > > > 39

PAGE 40

& & B & ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. p p ! normale normale normale normale normale solo 28 > O # O # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > . O # . O # . O > > " > ! > O O # O # > & & B & ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 33 > O O O O # O O # # > F F F > . O . O # . O > ! > O # O # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > > . O # . O # . O ? > 40

PAGE 41

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f f f tutti tutti tutti tutti tutti 38 > > > > > > > > > > > > > & > ! > > > > " > > > > & & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. sul ponticello sul ponticello # # 42 > > > > > > > > > > > > P P P P P > r > $ > R > > R > $ > r > $ ! p p normale normale > O # O # # O > > O O # O O # # O O > F F F > . O # . O # # . O > 41

PAGE 42

& & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. P P P P ! 48 > > > > > > > > " # > # > > > # > # > > > # > # > > > & & B & ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 53 # > # > > > # > # > > > # > > # > > > > > > ? f f f f f > > > > > > > 42

PAGE 43

& & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 57 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > p p p p p > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > & & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % f f f f f f solo 62 > r > $ > R > > r > $ > R > R > $ > R > $ > r > $ " " " " " F " " # " " o 43

PAGE 44

& & & B ? ? Vl. 1 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % ( % ) 67 " " o F " " o " " o # # # (tutti) " O # o " O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F F 72 " O # " O o # # O O o F O o F O o # O O # o 44

PAGE 45

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # # 78 O # O O F sul ponticello O O # F O O O # F O O O # F O O O # # > O O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # F 84 > O # O O sul ponticello O O # F # O O O F O O F > O O O # O O O 45

PAGE 46

& & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F 90 O O O ! sul tasto sul tasto solo solo > > " > > " > > " & & B ? ? 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. % F # 94 > > > > O # sul ponticello # # > > > > O # F " O F tutti O # O # # tutti O O # O 46

PAGE 47

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) # F 99 O O F O O O # sul ponticello # O O O # # F O O F O # O # O O # O F O O & & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. ( % ) F 106 O O O # # # # O O O F " O " " O " " O " " O " " O " " O 47

PAGE 48

& & B ? ? Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 1 14 " O " " O " " O f f f f f div div > > > b > > > b > p p > > > > > > b > > > > b > > > > > > > b > > > > > > b > > b & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 121 b f f f f f > > > > > > b > > > > > > > > > > > > > > b > p p > > > > > > > > > > b > > > b > 48

PAGE 49

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. f f p p p 126 > > > > p p f f f > > > > f f > # > > > # > > > & & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 130 > > > > # > > > > > > # > # # > > > # # > > > 49

PAGE 50

& & B ? ? 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 8 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 134 # # > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > # > > # > > > > > > > > > > > > # > > # > > > > > > > > > > > > & & B ? ? 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. hand damped hand damped hand damped hand damped hand damped 138 > q A Little Slower = 1 10 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > 50

PAGE 51

? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. F 144 # > > > > > > > > > > F > > > > > > > > > > > > > > F # > > > > ? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 150 > > > > F > > > > > > > > # > > > > > > " > F > > " > 51

PAGE 52

? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 156 > > " > P solo P . > > # > # > > # > ! > " > P P > " > sul tasto solo sul tasto sul tasto . # > # # ? & & B ? ? Vlc. 1 Vl. 1 Vl. 2 Vla. Vlc. Cb. 162 . . " . . " . . " . . " . . " . . " 52







I.PLANES OF DISCOURSE IN FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC: A
COMPARATIVE STUDY AND APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL APPROACHES
AND
II. THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA




















By

TIM REED


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008



































2008 Tim Reed










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Dr. James Paul Sain for his support and mentoring throughout this process. I would

also like to thank Dr. Paul Richards, Dr. Paul Koonce, Dr. Larry Crook and Dr. Scott Nygren for

all of their support and feedback.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN TS ................................................................. ........... ............. 3

LIST O F TA BLE S ............................................................................................. .............

L IST O F FIG U R E S ............................................................................... 8

L IST O F O B JE C T S ............................................................................... 9

ABSTRAC T ................................................... ............... 10

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N ................................................................................ 12

D definition of T erm s ............................................................................ 13
D definition of Electroacoustic M usic ..................................................................... ......... ...13
D definitions ...................................................................................................... 14
A sk in g ..............................................................................1 5
Observing ....................................... ................................17
Definition of "Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music"....................................................17
Individual Listening Context .............................................................................17
Study O objectives and Purpose .................................................. ................. ............. 18
Specific Challenges Presented by Fixed Media Electroacoustic Works .........................18
M multiple Planes of D discourse ................................... .... .. .... .. .... .. .......... .... 21
M ultiplicity of Existing Analytical Approaches ...........................................................22
W hy A analyze This M music? .................................................................... ...... .. .. .... .... ..... 23
Potential Goals in the Analysis of Fixed Media Electoacoustic Music ...................23
Personal A anecdote ..................................... ................. ........ .. .............24
Esthesic Analysis: Poietic Analysis ....................................................25
N ote on Term inology .......................... ........................................... 27
S u m m ary ..................................................................................................................... 2 7

2 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REPRESENTATIVE APPROACHES TO THE
ANALYSIS OF FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC ............................28

Introduction ............................ ................................................ .... 28
William David Moylan: An Analytical System for Electronic Music .................................28
D enis Sm alley's Spectrom orphology .............................................................................. 33
S p ectral T y p es ..........................................................................................3 6
M orphological M models ........................................................................................37
M option T y p es.......................................... .................... 3 8
Spectral-space Settings ................................ ................ ................ ........... ........ ..39
Gesture-carried and Texture-carried Structuring ................................... ..................... ....40
Stru ctural F u n action s......................................................... .................................. 4 1


4









Critique of Morphological Analysis.................................42
Stephane Roy's "Functional and Implicative" Approach.....................................................44
Category of O rientation............................................................................. 47
C category of Strafication .......................................... ................... ........ 48
Rhetorical Category ..................................................... .............. .. ... ..... 48
R hythm ic C ateg ory ............ ................................................................... .. ...... ........... 4 9
Am brose Field: Landscape M orphology ........................................ .......................... 50
A m brose F field: Sonic R rhetoric ..................................................................... ...................54
D enis Sm alley : Space F orm .......................................................................... ....................58
Katharine Norman: Listening Journal ..............................................................................62
C o n c lu sio n ........................................................................................................................ 6 6

3 APPLICATION OF THE APPROACHES CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY ....................70

In tro d u c tio n ....................................................................................................................... 7 0
O ln ,i Offset by P ete Stollery ......... .............................................................. ............... 71
P itch C ontour G raph ........ .......................................................... .......... .... .... ... .. 72
Spectrom orphological D escription...................................................................... 72
Landscape M orphology ........................................................... .................... 74
S o n ic R h eto ric ......................................................................... 7 6
P private P lay by Scott W yatt .............. .... ..................................................................77
Roy's Functional and Implicative Approach........................................ ............... 78
Sp ace-form ..............................................................................79
Spectrom orphology ............... ........................................................... ..... .. 80
England (G & TSwimmers) by Antti Saario............................................... ............... 81
L landscape M orphology ..................................................................... ... .....................8 1
S o n ic R h eto ric ........................................................................................................... 8 3
Spectrom orphology .................................. .. .......... .. ............84
N eight Traffic by P aul L ansky ................................................................................ ...... ... 85
S p ace-fo rm ................................................................8 5
L landscape M orphology ............................ .............................................. ...................87
Sonic Rhetoric ...................................................... ......... 87
Norman's Discussion of Night Traffic ............................... ................................... 88
C o n clu sio n ................... ...................8...................8..........

4 CON CLU SION .......... ................................................................. ............. ... 92

Introdu action ............................................................................................92
Interconnection of Planes of D iscourse ...............................................................................94
P la n e ......................................................... ................................... 9 4
In terc o n n e ctio n ....................................................................................................9 5
Com prehensive Strategy ....................................................... ..... .............. 97
Search for pertinences ............................................ .. .. ............. ......... 99
A application of descriptive tools............................................................ .....................99
Interconnection betw een planes ............................................................................. 100
Interpretation ........................................................................... 10 1
E ngland (G & T Sw im m ers) ........................................................................ ...................102









Search for P ertinences ............................................................................ .......... .... ... 102
Application of Descriptive Tools ............................................................... ...............103
Interconnection Between Planes........................................................... ...............103
Interp rotation ...............................................................104
C o n clu sio n ................... ...................1...................0.........5

5 THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA.................... ..................................107

APPENDIX: RESPONSES FROM COMPOSERS ........................................... ....................108

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................... .................... 110

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... .................... 115










LIST OF TABLES


Table


3-1. Spectromorphological Description of Oie, Offset (excerpt) ............................................73


page









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

2-1. M oylan Pitch Contour G raph ................................................. ................................ 68

2-2. M oylan Attack Density Graph Type 2 ........................................ .......................... 69

3-1. Oi,'e Offset (excerpt) Attack Density Graph Type 2 .................................................. 90

3-2. Oliet Offset (excerpt) -Pitch Contour Graph 0:10 to 0:36 .................... ....... ............91

3-3. Oi,'e Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:46 to 1:20 ............................................91










LIST OF OBJECTS


Object


5-1. Three Movements for String Orchestra Score ............... ........................................... 107


page









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

I. PLANES OF DISCOURSE IN FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC: A
COMPARATIVE STUDY AND APPLICATION OF ANALYTICAL APPROACHES

AND

II. THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA

By

Tim Reed

May 2008
Chair: James Paul Sain
Major: Music

Part I of this study presents a comparative examination and application of representative

approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Electroacoustic works for fixed

media present particular challenges for analysis, thereby warranting a specific analytical

approach. Although there are a number of identifiable elements that can be said to distinguish

fixed media electroacoustic music from other types of music, this study is conducted from the

perspective that most fundamental is the potential for multiple planes of discourse.

There have been numerous analytical strategies published by scholars in the area of

electroacoustic music analysis. However, while many of these strategies effectively illuminate

activity within certain planes of discourse, none deal comprehensively with the interconnection

between these planes. The present study combines elements of several representative analytical

methodologies in a multi-layered approach.

The purpose of analysis (as considered in this study) is to explore the relationship

between the listener/analyst's subjective perspective and the musical "object." Therefore, rather

than seeking to produce an authoritative analytical product, this study seeks to develop an overall









strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. In this way, this study fills a gap

in the existing scholarship dealing with electroacoustic music analysis.

Chapter 1 outlines the intentions of this study and considers the state of scholarship in the

area of electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 2 is comprised of the comparative study itself,

which is followed in Chapter 3 by the application of elements of the approaches considered in

this study to four contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works. Chapter 4 considers the findings

in Chapters 2 and 3, addressing the potential for (and ramifications of) interconnection between

planes of discourse and also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive strategy

for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music.

Part II of this study is comprised of a three movement composition for string orchestra.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This study presents a comparative examination and application of representative

approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music and combines elements of these

approaches in multi-layered descriptions of four fixed media electroacoustic works: Oiei Offset

by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt, England (G & TSwimmers) by Antti Saario, and

Night Traffic by Paul Lansky. Chapter 1 outlines the intentions for this study and considers the

state of scholarship in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 2 comprises the

comparative study itself, which is followed in Chapter 3 by a multi-layered application of the

approaches studied to the four above-mentioned works. Chapter 4 considers the findings in

Chapters 2 and 3 and addresses the potential for (and ramifications of) interconnection between

planes of discourse. Chapter 4 also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive

strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music.

Electroacoustic works for fixed media present specific challenges for analysis. There have

been many analytical approaches published by scholars in the field and each addresses these

challenges differently. As there is a multiplicity of aesthetics represented within the medium, no

single analytical strategy can be applied to all fixed media electroacoustic music. This study

focuses on the potential in fixed media electroacoustic music for multiple planes of discourse.

One of the qualities unique to fixed media electroacoustic music is its potential to accommodate

various levels of discourse simultaneously and, in particular, the potential ambiguities between

them. This study examines ways in which existing analytical approaches treat these planes and

argues for a comprehensive approach guided by a search for pertinences. 1



1 The phrase "search for pertinences" is borrowed from Delalande and further discussed below. Francois Delalande,
"Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry," Journal oJ ... i Music Research 27 (1998).









Although this dissertation could conceivably provide a starting point for the development

of an analytical methodology, the intention in this study is not to put forward a universally

applicable analytical framework. The selection of an analytical approach is best determined by

the specific piece in question. Therefore, the primary purpose of the descriptions in Chapter 3 is

to illustrate ways in which the approaches studied deal with certain planes of discourse. While

the result of these analyses might prove to be fruitful, or in some ways illuminating, the approach

taken in Chapter 3 is not offered as a step-by-step analytical method. It is, however, the

contention in this study that multiple analytical tools should be considered in any analysis, and

the descriptions in Chapter 3 illustrate ways in which some of these might be applied.

Definition of Terms

As this dissertation deals with analytical approaches to fixed media electroacoustic

music, a working definition of the material studied is needed. 2

Definition of Electroacoustic Music

The term "electroacoustic music" has a wide range of meanings and usages. It is

therefore necessary to consider the meaning of the term as it is applied in this study and to

establish a working definition. The following discussion is not intended to be exhaustive, but

merely to be illustrative of the variety of existing ideas regarding the meaning of the term

"electroacoustic music" and to establish a working definition.

In The Study ofEthnomusicology, Bruno Nettl advances a framework for establishing

definitions:

In a complex society one may find definitions in at least three ways: by asking the
society's own 'expert,' who has thought about it long and hard (that is, perhaps, by looking
in the dictionary); by asking members of the society at large in order to determine whether


2 This preliminary discussion of the term, "electroacoustic music," while admittedly lengthy, is necessary in order to
illustrate the various ways in which the term is used.









there is a consensus (possibly using a questionnaire and distributing it widely); and by
observing what people do and listening to what they say without imposing one's self on
their thoughts by asking questions... 3

In the following paragraphs, this framework is applied to electroacoustic music.

Beginning with the first component ofNettl's framework, examples of definitions taken

from music dictionaries are presented.4 For the second part of Nettl's framework, definitions of

the term "electroacoustic music" were solicited from a number of individuals active within the

field. Continuing with part three, additional observations are added.

Definitions

In the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Simon Emmerson and Denis

Smalley define "electroacoustic music" in the following way:

Music in which electronic technology, now primarily computer-based, is used to access,
generate, explore and configure sound materials, and in which loudspeakers are the prime
medium of transmission. There are two main genres. Acousmatic music is intended for
loudspeaker listening and exists only in recorded tape form (tape, compact disk, computer
storage). In live electronic music the technology is used to generate, transform or trigger
sounds (or a combination of these) in the act of performance; this may include generating
sound with voices and traditional instruments, electroacoustic instruments, or other devices
and controls linked to computer-based systems. Both genres depend on loudspeaker
transmission, and an electroacoustic work can combine acousmatic and live elements.

The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music provides no discrete entry for "electroacoustic

music." Instead, the listener is directed to "see acousmatic music," which is given the following

definition:






3 Bruno Nettl, The Study oj i rli. i,,n .I. ./.- (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 16.

4 In the case of electroacoustic music, the distinction between the first two parts of Nettl's framework is blurred by
the fact that the electroacoustic music soc i is largely comprised of specialists (composers, teachers, researchers,
etc.) in the field.

5 Simon Emmerson and Denis Smalley, "Electro-acoustic Music," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians, SecondEdition, ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Grove, 2001) 59-87.









music in which the composer uses electronic or computer-based means to shape sounds
directly, without the use of notation or performers. The original sounds may be recorded or
synthesized, or both. More or less synonymous with electroacoustic music. 6

In The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Fourth Edition, Jon Appleton also offers a definition:

Electro-acoustic music. Music that is produced, modified or reproduced by electronic
means, including computer hardware and software, and that makes creative use of those
technologies. The character of electro-acoustic music depends to some degree on the
technology employed, but the term refers to the medium and not a specific style of
music.... 7

The above definitions suggest that "electroacoustic music" refers more to a medium than a

particular style, aesthetic, or approach to composition. In the case of Appleton's definition, this is

stated explicitly. 8Although this is a legitimate view, its scope is too broad for a useful analytical

approach. However, attempting to narrow this definition creates problems. Therefore, while its

broad scope is recognized, the first of the above definitions (that of Simon Emmerson and Denis

Smalley) forms the basis of the definition of the term "electroacoustic music" as it is applied in

this study.

Asking

For part two ofNettl's scheme, individuals active within the field (such as composers,

curators of radio programs, reviewers or directors of websites which feature electroacoustic

music) were asked to define the term "electroacoustic music." 9 As mentioned above, this small

sampling is not intended to be an exhaustive survey. The present objective is simply to illustrate

the wide range of prevailing conceptions of the meaning of the term "electroacoustic music."



6 Barrie Jones, ed., The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999) 4.

7 Jon Appleton, "Electro-acoustic Music," in The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Fourth Edition, ed. Don Michael
Randel (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003) 287-288.

8 In the remainder of his entry, Appleton goes on to discuss specific styles and genres within electroacoustic music.

9 Individuals were asked to briefly describe their idea of the meaning of the term "electroacoustic music." It was
specified that informal and spontaneous responses were preferred.









Don Campau, curator of the San Francisco-based radio program No Pigeonholes'o, which

regularly features electroacoustic music, provides the following definition:

To me, "electroacoustic music" means electronic music derived from acoustic means or
acoustic music derived from electronic means (and of course, any combination of the two).
It's a broad scope that can cover Xenakis' "Persepolis" and the works of Francisco Lopez
to so-called "laptoppers" such as Fennesz, Chris Watson and Greg Davis.11

Bryce Moore, co-host of the radio program Difficult Litening. 12 also responded:

I have always thought of the term "electroacoustic" as covering a rather generic area of
sound produced by electricity, as the term might suggest. To me, it has always described a
technique of producing sound, rather than a stylistic definition. There are many
overlapping and often interlocking areas of new music that forestall any rigid definition of
"electroacoustic."

I think the term "electroacoustic" predated "electronic", but is probably now
interchangeable with it. When you actually listen to the music, it is so varied and
multifaceted that it is impossible to have an overarching definition apart from one that
refers to the technique, which may in the end not mean much. Electroacoustic music
includes the ear-torturing hard feedback of Merzbow as well as the delicate sonic filigrees
of some of Robert Normandeau's work, and what do they have in common? 13

The above responses evidence the diversity of ideas regarding the meaning of the term

"electroacoustic music." Both Campau and Moore refer to the broad range of potential meanings

in their responses. However, while both Campau and Moore cite specific artists, suggesting a

stylistic range of what they regard as "electroacoustic music," neither is prepared to offer a

specific definition. 14 Several additional responses are included in the Appendix to this

dissertation.



10 No Pigeonholes is broadcast on KKUP 91.5 FM in San Francisco

11 Don Campau, e-mail message to author, July 3, 2007.

12 Difficult Listening is broadcast on RTRFM in Perth, Australia.

13 Bryce Moore, e-mail message to author, July 4, 2007.

14 Laura Zattra also notes the variety of subgenres within electroacoustic music: "from tape music to computer
music, from concrete music to mixed music, live electronic music, laptop music, etc." Laura Zattra, "Analysis and
Analyses of Electroacoustic Music," http://smc.afimasso.org/smc05/papers/LauraZattra/LZanalysis.pdf.









Observing

Continuing with the third part of Nettl's framework, one observation is added. As

considered in this study, electroacoustic music generally exists in relation to the western "art

music" tradition. Although this relation may be tangential in some cases, composers of

electroacoustic music almost invariably have some connection to the university system and have

a background and training in the western "art music" tradition.

In this way, "electroacoustic music" as considered in this dissertation is differentiated

from music that is often referred to as electroacoustic music but is more closely related to

popular music genres (such as Intelligent Dance Music). The motivation for making this

distinction is to focus this study and avoid an overly broad approach. The intention is not to

exclude these forms of music from consideration as electroacoustic music, or to in any way

discount them. In addition, this differentiation is a very general one, however, and there is a

great deal of overlap.

Definition of "Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music"

Having established a working definition of"electroacoustic music," the term "fixed

media electroacoustic music" simply refers to electroacoustic works that are experienced through

playback from a fixed source, such as analog tape, compact disc, or any of a variety of digital

formats. The motivation for using this term and not the better established "acousmatic music" is

simply to avoid confusion with a single school of composition.

Individual Listening Context

The scope of this project is limited to works that are intended for individual listening in

stereo. The performance of fixed media electroacoustic works in concert and their diffusion over

multiple loudspeakers presents a wide range of analytical issues and is best dealt with elsewhere.

In addition, the individual listening context is a valid and generally accepted way of experiencing










fixed media electroacoustic music. The individual listening context considered in this project

consists of stereo playback over near-field monitors. 15

Study Objectives and Purpose

Specific Challenges Presented by Fixed Media Electroacoustic Works

Many authors have noted specific analytical challenges presented by electroacoustic

music, 16 and in the following paragraphs, some examples of these are given. For example, Jan

Morthenson draws a clear separation between electronic and "traditional" music stating that

"electronic music has no natural connection to ordinary music whatsoever; its sound-material did

not develop from traditional music and is consequently not from the beginning conceived with

musical elements." 17 In addition, David Hirst refers to the distinctive nature of the acousmatic

medium saying that, while traditional musical relationships may be found in acousmatic music,

"there can also be unique abstract relationships between the sonic attributes of sounds and the

perceiver of those sonic attributes that we don't find in traditional instrumental music." 18

Various writers identify surface elements that distinguish electroacoustic music from

other musical types. For example, in his Analytical System for Electronic Music, William David

Moylan's primary argument is that electronic music has a "new topography" (a new set of

surface features and constructional conceptions) and that a "new" analytical approach is

15 In this study, analysis and analytical approaches are considered in terms of an idealized listening situation,
although this is not always practical. Denis Smalley discusses ramifications of varying listening perspectives in his
"Space Form and the Acousmatic Image." Denis Smalley, "Space-form and the Acousmatic Image," Organised
Sound 12 (2007): 35-58.

16 For example, Mary H. Simoni, Benjamin Broening, Christopher Rozell, Colin Meek and Gregory H. Wakefield
state that analysis of electro-acoustic music, "presents an array of problems not present in the analysis of Western
tonal and post-tonal music." Mary H. Simoni et al.,"A Theoretical Framework for Electro-acoustic Music" (paper
presented at the 1999 International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, October 22-26, 1999).

17 Jan Morthenson, "Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music," in On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of
Electroacoustic Music, ed. Robin Julian Heifetz (London: Associated University Presses, 1989), 61.

18 David Hirst, "An Analytical Methodology for Acousmatic Music" (paper presented at the 2004 International
Symposium on Music Information Retrieval, Barcelona, Spain, October 10-15, 2004).










necessary. 19 Moylan identifies four primary characteristics of the "new topography" in

electronic music: "(1) An increased aural complexity...(2)...an equal emphasis of all musical

parameters...(3) 'unfamiliar' sounds, resources and origins, and (4)...a decentralization of

structural goals."20 One of the most readily apparent elements of this "new topography" is a

relative emphasis placed on timbre in electroacoustic music. Simon Emmerson notes that timbre

has taken on an increasingly "emic" role over time particularly for the composer of

electroacoustic music. 21

Much of Denis Smalley's theoretical work also deals with the "new topography" 22 in fixed

media electroacoustic music. In an early article, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring

Processes," he portrays the development of western music in the twentieth century in terms of a

"historic bifurcation in musical language," with tonality on one side and the other half

represented by spectro-morphology. 23

Smalley notes the lack of sufficient analytical concepts and terminology as "the most

serious problem in discussing the structure of electro-acoustic music." 24 In several articles,

Smalley has formulated an involved system of morphological archetypes, spectral typologies,

motion types, etc. These concepts deal with identifying and classifying elements and

relationships in the structure of electroacoustic music. Smalley puts forth a set of concepts (using



19 William David Moylan, "An Analytical System for Electronic Music" (PhD diss., Ball State University,1983), 2.

20 Ibid., 9.
21 Simon Emmerson, "Crossing Cultural Boundaries Through Technology," inMusic, Electronic Media and
Culture, ed. Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2000), 127.
22 Smalley, of course, does not use this term.

23 Denis Smalley, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed.
Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 61.
24 Denis Smalley, "Problems of Materials and Structure in Electro-Acoustic Music," EA4S 1 (1981): 1.










Schaeffer's solfege as a point of departure) that approach the composition and analysis of

electroacoustic music from a spectral and morphological perspective.

Other writers cite the lack of a prescriptive score for fixed media electroacoustic works.

Norman Adams states that traditional analysis is based on a notated score (using traditional

western notation) and that the score "assumes that the music can be abstracted to a sequence of

isolated events, or notes." 25 Adams argues that this kind of abstraction cannot be applied to the

bulk of fixed media electroacoustic music. John Young also addresses this point, stating that the

electroacoustic medium "has to a considerable extent obviated the need for traditional or even

non-traditional scores" and that analytical strategies must be based solely on aural perception.26

In addition, Thomas Licata cites the lack of a traditionally notated score as a primary challenge

in the analysis of electroacoustic music.27

A contrasting view refers to the lack of an established canon or historical tradition for the

relatively young electroacoustic medium. Bruno Bossis states that, "While the analytic

methodology of older or better-referenced music benefits from a large corpus and numerous

studies, the same cannot be said for music linked to electronic instruments." 28 Jan Morthenson

echoes this, attributing many of the issues discussed in his "Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic

Music" to the lack of an established historical tradition in electronic music. Morthenson states


25 Norman Adams, "Visualization of Musical Signals" in Analytical Methods ofElectroacoustic Music.Mary
Simoni, Editor. (New York: Routledge, 2006), 2.
26 John Young, "Practice, Process and Aesthetic Reflection in Electroacoustic Music," Organised Sound 12 (2007):
1.

27 A desire for a score is represented by the suggested use of a "surrogate score" (a time-frequency representation of
the audio signal) as an aid for listening analysis by Mary H. Simoni, Benjamin Broening, Christopher Rozell, Colin
Meek, Gregory H. Wakefield in "A Theoretical Framework for Electro-Acoustic Music." Mary H. Simoni et al.,"A
Theoretical Framework for Electro-acoustic Music" (paper presented at the 1999 International Computer Music
Conference, Beijing, China, October 22-26, 1999).

28 Bruno Bossis, "The Analysis of Electroacoustic Music: From Sources to Invariants," Organised Sound 11(2006):
101.









that, "We encounter important aesthetic dilemmas in electronic music just because so little has

amalgamated with it in its relatively short time of existence." 29

The views expressed in the preceding paragraphs support the notion that fixed media

electroacoustic music presents the analyst with an array of specific challenges. However these

statements fail to address a more central underlying issue. 30 It is the contention in this study that

the most fundamental (potential) difference between fixed media electroacoustic music and other

types, such as instrumental music, is in the potential for both representation and abstraction. This

potential in fixed media electroacoustic music affords multiple levels of discourse.

Multiple Planes of Discourse

Because a wide range of types of sound materials can be used in fixed media

electroacoustic music, things and events that would otherwise be outside of the scope of

traditional musical discourse can be directly referenced. For example, an unaltered recording of a

door being unlocked or the sound of a baby crying become potential materials in a fixed media

electroacoustic work. In instrumental music, however, this kind of direct reference is much more

difficult. For example, Mendelssohn's imitation of the sound of a donkey braying in his music

for A Midsummer Night's Dream or Beethoven's imitation of bird sounds in his Pastoral

Symphony are indirect references. This is quite different than Hildegard Westerkamp's use of

relatively un-manipulated recordings of rain in her piece Talking Rain, or Pete Stollery's

inclusion of recordings of street noise in his One, Offset. While the Mendelssohn and Beethoven





29 Jan Morthenson, "Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music," in On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of
Electroacoustic Music, ed. Robin Julian Heifetz (London: Associated University Presses, 1989), 66.

30 Moreover, a number of these issues are also applicable to approaches to the analysis of examples of post-tonal
instrumental music. For example, the criteria of Moylan's iinc topography" could certainly be applied to
instrumental compositions by Kaija Saariaho.









cases make indirect reference through resemblance, the electroacoustic medium allows

Westerkamp and Stollery to reference these sounds/events in a direct way.

These sounds can also be altered and/or combined in a virtually unlimited number of

ways so that any sound that can be captured or created becomes potential material for fixed

media electroacoustic music. Because of this, a wide range of relationships is possible in fixed

media electroacoustic music. In addition, many of these relationships can occur simultaneously,

resulting in multiple planes of discourse. Of course, which of these types of relationships might

be found in a piece will vary, giving rise to the need for multiple analytical tools.

Multiplicity of Existing Analytical Approaches

As stated above, many writers have noted the range of specific analytical challenges

presented by fixed media electroacoustic music. As a result, it is not surprising that a diverse

collection of analytical approaches has emerged. Although the body of scholarship dealing with

the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music is not fully developed, a number of contrasting

analytical approaches have been published.

Following a survey of this literature, it is immediately clear that the scholarship in this

area is fragmented and most of the analytical approaches are narrowly focused. Most of the

existing analytical strategies for fixed media electroacoustic music focus on one plane of

discourse. For example, Denis Smalley's spectromorphological approach focuses on imagined

intrinsic qualities, attempting to ignore all "external" or referential signification. At the same

time, Ambrose Field proposes an analytical strategy that focuses on rhetorical analysis of

referential meanings in fixed media electroacoustic music. Each of these approaches reduces a

work differently.

In itself, this situation does not necessarily present a problem. All analysis involves

reduction, and any analytical tool will inevitably reduce a work in a certain way. A universally









applicable analytical framework is probably not possible, or desirable. The fact that existing

analytical approaches are narrowly focused is not a drawback if they are viewed as providing a

set of descriptive tools.

Why Analyze This Music?

Potential Goals in the Analysis of Fixed Media Electoacoustic Music

There are various potential goals for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music.

Laura Zattra lists six categories:

the preservation of a musical heritage;

the drawing of graphical scores for helping the listening [sic];

the production of automatic scores for helping the musicologist in the investigation of
structural dimensions

automatic classification of electroacoustic music for web searches;

definition of analytical details...in order to define [the music's] human and technological
dimensions;

aesthetical definition of the electroacoustic arborescent object, its dimensions and inner
associations. 31

The above categories are only a partial representation of the numerous potential goals for

the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Additional examples include Leigh Landy's

"Intention/Reception" project, which incorporates analysis as part of reception studies for the

purpose of investigating the accessibility of electroacoustic music as well as William David

Moylan's stated goal of increasing accessibility.

While not in conflict with the above goals, the purpose of analysis as considered in this

dissertation is concerned more with the relationship between the listener/analyst's subjective

perspective and the musical "object." The primary purpose of analyzing music is to explore this

31 Laura Zattra, "The Identity of the Work: Agents and Processes of Electroacoustic Music," Organised Sound 11
(2006): 113.









relationship. This exploration must also be guided by a search for pertinences. The phrase

"search for pertinences" is taken from Francois Delalande's "Music Analysis and Reception

Behaviours." 32 From Delalande's perspective, pertinent information is information that is

relevant to the explanation or exploration of either poietic or esthesic processes (discussed

below).

Personal Anecdote

As an extra credit question on a recent exam, I asked my undergraduate music theory

students to respond to the question, "What is the point of analyzing music?" The majority of the

answers essentially stated that the purpose of analysis is to better "understand" the music. But

when I followed up with the question, "What does it mean to "understand" music?" the

responses were less clear. In the case of traditional Western tonal music, do we better

understand the music after completing a roman numeral analysis? Or, similarly, do we better

understand Ligeti's Artikulation after studying Wehringer's listening score? What do these

analytical tools tell us?

The question, "What does analysis tell us?" is perhaps too broad to be dealt with

adequately in this dissertation. But whether or not analysis can tell us anything specifically, the

perspective from which this study is conducted identifies one primary purpose in the analysis of

fixed media electroacoustic music. While again not opposing many of the potential goals

identified above by Zattra and others, it is argued in this study that the primary purpose of music

analysis is to explore the relationship between the subjective perspective and the musical

"object."




32 Francois Delalande, "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry," Journal oJ ... '
Music Research 27 (1998): 19.









A similar viewpoint can be found in the scholarship of Mladen Milicevic. Milicevic

"deconstructs the belief that the meaning of music lies within its structure" and argues that, "the

meaning is not located in the musical object (the piece), nor is it exclusively in the mind of the

perceiver (human), but rather lies in the relationship between the two." 33

Although she does not propose an analytical model, Katharine Norman makes a statement

that is compatible with the idea that the purpose of analysis lies in exploring the relationship

between the subjective experience and the object. She argues that the listener's "creative"

listening is as essential as the composer's own interpretation and that, in "realworld" music, "this

creativity of reception is encouraged by the experiential quality of the material." 34

These statements are also applicable to the analysis of instrumental music. The

fundamental goal of analysis is the same for both instrumental and electroacoustic music. The

difference, however, lies in what tools are appropriate. As suggested earlier (and by various other

writers), there are many cases in which the application of traditional analytical approaches to a

fixed media electroacoustic work is either inappropriate or incomplete. 35 Although different

"tools" are needed, the fundamental goal of analysis is the same.

Esthesic Analysis: Poietic Analysis

The distinction between esthesic and poietic analysis is a particularly important element

in the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Poietic analysis focuses on the processes of

creation and on internal structure. This is in opposition to esthesic analysis, which focuses on

aural perception. An example of a poietic analysis is Pascal Decroupet and Elena Ungeheuer's



33 Maden Milicevic, "Deconstructing Musical Structure," Organised Sound 3 (1998): 27.
34 Katherine Norman, "Telling Tales," Contemporary Music Review 10 (1994): 107.

35 However, there are also many cases where traditional analytical approaches (such as those focusing on pitch or
counterpoint) should not be excluded from analysis of a fixed media electroacoustic work.









analysis of Stockhausen's Gesang der Jinglinge. Marc Battier also takes a poietic approach in

"A Constructivist Approach to the Analysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art Between

Instruments and Faktura." He states that, "analysis can be carried out through knowledge of the

sound-producing systems and by the close study of the manner in which they are embedded in

the composing..." 36

Lelio Camilleri is critical of poietic approaches to analysis of electroacoustic music:

It has been stated that not the score but the scores, in much of synthetic music for example,
represent an important source because they contain sonological information on the work
itself. This statement seems a bit rash to me because scores contain acoustic data which
often do not coincide with the performance of the sound phenomena as our ears perceive
it" 37

Simon Emmerson also finds fault with overemphasis on the poietic side of analysis. In

"Composing Strategies and Pedagogy," he argues that a change in the poietic model is only

significant if it results in a change in the esthesic model.

Although poietic analysis may be informative and useful in some contexts, this study

focuses on esthesic analysis because, for the most part, fixed media electroacoustic music is

intended for listening without the aid, frame, or shadow cast by the composer's creative process

and statements of intent, motivation, or inspiration. Many analyses of computer music in

particular emphasize the computer "score," and others often focus on the composer's sketches.

These materials provide certain information, but these poietic "texts" do not necessarily reflect

the phenomenological experience.






36 Marc Battier, "A Constructivist Approach to the Analysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art Between
Instruments and Faktura," Organised Sound 8 (2003): 252.

37 Lelio Camilleri, "Electroacoustic Music: Analysis and Listening Processes," Sonus Contemporary Music
Materials 1 (1993): 3.









Note on Terminology

As this study deals with multiple approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic

music, multiple terms for the "abstract" and "concrete" elements of sound are encountered. To

avoid confusion and to avoid becoming entangled in continual discussion of terms, the terms

"abstract" and "concrete" will be used throughout this study to designate what is often referred to

as "intrinsic "extrinsic", "musical extramusical," "aural mimetic," etc. Where these and

other sets of terms are encountered, they will be replaced with "abstract" and "concrete" in this

study. None of these sets of terms (including the pair used in this study) is without problems, and

it is not suggested here that there are not subtle differences between them. However, the essential

meaning of all of these pairs of terms is the same, and the consistency afforded by adhering to

one of these pairs is needed in a study such as this.

Summary

The above discussion has attempted to show that fixed media electroacoustic music

presents specific challenges for analysis and that its primary distinguishing feature is the

potential for multiple planes of discourse. While there are many existing analytical approaches,

none of them, on their own, provide a complete picture. Multiple descriptive tools should be

considered in any analysis, and this dissertation provides a starting point through a comparative

study of several representative approaches. In the following chapters, the analytical approaches

discussed above will be considered in more detail and applied in Chapter 3 to four contrasting

fixed media electroacoustic works.









CHAPTER 2
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REPRESENTATIVE APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS
OF FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC

Introduction

This chapter is comprised of a comparative examination of seven sets of concepts for the

analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. An overview of each is given, and comparative

and critical discussion is included as well. As each successive approach is introduced,

similarities and differences between it and the previously discussed approaches will be

considered. Elements of the approaches considered here are applied in Chapter 3.

The approaches discussed in this chapter cover a range of possible analytical strategies.

Although they do not include every conceivable approach to the analysis of fixed media

electroacoustic music, they are representative of the primary approaches carried out or proposed

by scholars in this field. It is argued here that an understanding of the range of analytical

strategies and concepts considered in this study can provide a solid foundation for consideration

of the multiple planes of discourse possible in fixed media electroacoustic music.

As this chapter consists of a comparative study, a significant amount of information and

concepts from other sources will be duplicated. This document is intended to be useful to readers

who are not necessarily familiar with the details of each of the approaches considered here,

making necessary an overview and exposition of each.

William David Moylan: An Analytical System for Electronic Music

In his Analytical System for Electronic Music, 1 William David Moylan argues that

electroacoustic music has a "new topography" (a new set of surface features and constructional


1 Although Moylan uses the term "electronic music," he states that his usage of the term is synonymous with the
term "electro-acoustic" and includes genres such as musique concrete and tape music. Therefore, the term
"electroacoustic" will be used in this discussion. William David Moylan, "An Analytical System for Electronic
Music" (PhD diss., Ball State University,1983), 1.









conceptions) and that a new analytical approach is necessary. 2 He identifies four primary

characteristics of this "new topography":

an increased aural complexity...
an equal emphasis of all musical parameters
'unfamiliar' sounds, resources and origins
a decentralization of structural goals 3

Moylan's solution is a parametric approach, focusing on five parameters and methods for

their graphic representation. These five parameters are pitch, duration, loudness, timbre and

sonic location. Moylan states that these parameters can be analyzed on any structural level in a

piece, and that in the analysis of electroacoustic music, constant shifts in focus (between micro

and macro levels of structure) are necessary. The term "structural focus" is applied to this

continual shifting of concentration. In addition, he introduces the term parametricc focus" to

describe the process of shifting attention to and between individual parameters. 4

Also central to Moylan's system is the contention that each of the parameters has an

equal potential for change, and therefore an equal potential to be the central component of a

musical idea. 5 Moylan terms this parametricc equivalence." He devotes a chapter to each of the

five parameters identified above and presents methods for graphically representing each.

For the representation of pitch, Moylan presents "pitch contour" and "vertical density"

graphs. 6 The pitch contour graph plots the movement (in terms of frequency) of a melodic

gesture over time and is designed for application to music in which discrete pitch is undefined.


2 Ibid., 2.

3 Ibid., 9.
4 Ibid., 45.

5 Ibid., 40.
6 Moylan states that he does not intend for these graphing methods to replace traditional techniques for the analysis
of pitch, only to augment them where necessary. Ibid., 49.









Moylan states "When fixed referential levels are not present, the succession of pitches is most

readily perceived by its overall shape." 7 This can range from specific designation of frequency

to more relative registral terms (high, very high, etc.). If a metric grid is perceived, it might also

be indicated in the graph. In addition, the thickness of the graphing line itself might be adjusted

to indicate the degree of pitch specificity. An example of a pitch contour graph is included in the

Appendix.

The vertical density graph can show a variety of types of information (depending on the

context) including vertical spacing of discrete pitches, the number of simultaneous sounds and

contour of the changes in registral density. 8 The exact form of the graph will vary depending on

the musical context. For example, if discrete pitches can be identified, they might be indicated on

the y-axis. Or, in other cases, more general relative terms for frequency might be employed.

For the representation of duration, Moylan's solution is the "attack density graph" which

displays the number of attacks 9 occurring within a given time frame. Moylan notes that an

underlying metric pulse is often absent in electroacoustic music and that methods of analysis

must be adapted accordingly. 10 He also states "Without a metric grid, the ability to quickly

compare durations is lost." 1 In the absence of a metric grid, Moylan argues that rhythm is more

often perceived in terms of attack density.

Moylan presents two types of"attack density graph." The first simply records the points

in time where attacks occur as well as their approximate durations. The second type records the

SIbid., 80.

8 Ibid., 74.
9 By "attack," Moylan is referring to the onset of a sonic event. The problematic nature of applying this approach to
music in which events are not easily segmented or do not carry equivalent perceptual weights is discussed below.

10 Ibid., 82.

1 Ibid., 90.









number of attacks within a given time frame or unit. An example of this type is included as

Figure 2 in the Appendix to this study. This might be applied to a single sound source or "voice"

or to the combined events in a musical texture. This graph type might be used to determine the

contour of the number of attacks as well as the registral boundaries of the attack densities. 12

For the representation of loudness, Moylan proposes the use of a "dynamic contour

graph" which plots changes in loudness in general and relative terms using the traditional

symbols, p, mp, mf,f, etc. Moylan notes that loudness is difficult to measure and cannot be

described in precise terms. The graphing method that Moylan applies here is, in its essentials,

identical to that of the previously discussed graphs and may be applied either to single sound

events or to the texture as a whole.

Moylan attempts to apply his approach to sound location, identifying three categories for

considering space relative to the listener: direction, distance and elevation.

Moylan restricts his initial treatment of sound location to direction, and presents two graph

types: the "stereo sound-location graph" and the "multi-channel sound-location graph." 13 In the

stereo sound-location graph, time is represented on the horizontal axis and placement within the

stereo field is represented on the vertical axis. This is only possible for a small number of sounds

and only applicable to sounds that can be localized. It would prove to be less effective, however,

when applied to complex textures occupying a range within the stereo image. Moylan does not

attempt to adapt his graphs to consider the vertical plane.

Moylan also presents "distance-location graphs" as a means for the representation of

perceived distance from a sound source. The approach here is similar to that of the other


12 Ibid., 95.

13 As this study is limited to works intended for stereo listening, Moylan's multi-channel sound-location graph will
not be discussed here.









proposed graph types. Time is represented horizontally, and perceived distance of the sound is

represented vertically. As precise increments of distance are not usually perceivable, Moylan

uses the relative terms "near" and "distant."

Moylan states that, of all of the parameters identified, the analysis of timbral

characteristics is the most difficult and complex, and that consideration of all of the information

necessary for a complete description of timbre requires too much detail to be applied in practice.

Moylan's approach presents a compromise, plotting three characteristics of timbre (vertical

density of harmonics, dynamic envelope and pitch definition) over time on a multi-level graph.

This approach to timbre is problematic. Because of the complexity of the information, this

method of graphing can only be applied to single sound objects. The information displayed in

this graph type includes change in perceived density of harmonics over time, perceived changes

in dynamic level and perceived changes in the overall bandwidth of the spectrum of a sound

object. Moylan acknowledges that this approach is an oversimplification.

Moylan is correct in his recognition of a need for new analytical strategies for

electroacoustic music, and if applied as a purely descriptive tool, his Analytical System can

potentially provide certain information about a fixed media electroacoustic work. For example,

Moylan's pitch contour graphs present one possible way of representing gestural shapes (in

terms of pitch) that might not be well represented by standard notation. There might also be

cases in which the "attack density" graphs could be useful for consideration of the spacing of

events over time.

However, there are multiple problems with Moylan's approach. First, Moylan's approach

is dependent on the notion that an electroacoustic work can be segmented into perceptually

discrete units. Although, as Delalande points out, "It is not impossible that a music has been









imagined and realized as an assemblage of sound objects," 14 this is not always the case, and

even so, is not necessarily of perceptual relevance. Analysis based on such segmentation is often

problematic in fixed media electroacoustic music both for practical reasons (a fixed media

electroacoustic work cannot always be easily segmented) and because it relies on taxonomicc

listening" (discussed below). These difficulties (particularly in the case of "attack density") are

further illustrated in Chapter 3.

In addition, Moylan's system relies on the separating out of the abstract and concrete (and

therefore "musical" and "extra-musical"). For example, conspicuously absent from Moylan's set

of parameters is any consideration of what a sound event or the relationships between sound

events might signify. Although he does not use this term, Moylan's approach is an extreme

example of the "reduced listening" employed in the spectromorphological approach discussed

below. Moreover, while the separation of an object of analysis into constituent parts for the

purpose of examination is a legitimate strategy, Moylan's system does not consider the

relationships between the parameters. Moylan is primarily interested in identifying and

measuring the densities and registral limits of changes within parameters.

Denis Smalley's Spectromorphology

Denis Smalley's spectromorphological approach is the most well-known and frequently

discussed approach to electroacoustic music analysis. In several articles published between 1981

and 2000, Smalley has set out his approach in detail. The discussion here centers on

spectromorphology as it is described in two of Smalley's publications: "Spectromorphology and

Structuring Processes" and "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-shapes."




14 Francois Delalande, "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry," Journal oJ ... '
Music Research 27 (1998): 20.









Like Moylan, Smalley is concerned with the "new topography" in electroacoustic music.

But Smalley's approach is more far-reaching and is not as rigidly parametric in orientation.

Smalley describes spectromorphology as "an approach to sound materials and musical structures

which concentrates on the spectrum of available pitches and their shaping in time," 15 and

presents it as a descriptive tool and listening aid.

There are certainly parallels that can be drawn between Moylan's system and Smalley's

spectromorphological approach. Both are descriptive tools, and both attempt to systematically

approach the analysis of electroacoustic music. Like Moylan's system, Smalley's

spectromorphology is based in aural perception. He describes aural perception and

discrimination as "supreme musical tools" and states "It is not a scientific knowledge which is

required but an experiential knowledge." 16

Some loose parallels can also be observed between Moylan's separating out of the

parameter of timbre and Smalley's treatment of spectral types. In addition, Smalley's "note-

noise" continuum (discussed below) is virtually identical to the "pitch-definition" component of

Moylan's treatment of the parameter of timbre. Moreover, both Moylan and Smalley state that

their descriptive approaches can be applied to multiple levels of structure. 17

However, beyond this (and a few additional minor similarities discussed below),

Smalley's spectromorphology is quite distinct from Moylan's Analytical System. Moylan's

approach can be seen as representing an extreme example of the "absolutist" view of musical


15 Denis Smalley, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed.
Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 61.
16 Ibid., 81.

17 For an example of application of Smalley's morphological archetypes to multiple structural levels see Joseph
Harchanko's "Spectro-morphology and Structure: An Analysis of Gilles Gobeil's 'Le Vertige Inconnu.'" Joseph
Harchanko, "Spectro-morphology and Structure: An Analysis of Gilles Gobeil's 'Le Vertige Inconnu,'" eContact! 6
(2003).









meaning. 18 Moylan's system does not attempt to account for what the sounds in an

electroacoustic work might refer to, and only considers quantifiable change within the five

parameters discussed above. While spectromorphology certainly focuses on abstract (what

Smalley refers to as "intrinsic") qualities, it does not altogether ignore concrete (or "extrinsic")

attributes.

As stated above, spectromorphology attempts to describe sounds and events in

electroacoustic music separately from their concrete meanings or by ignoring their source. This

involves the Schaefferian concept of "reduced listening."

... to find out what happens in the life of a sound or sound structure, or what attracts us
about a sound quality or shape, we must temporarily ignore how the sound was made or
what caused it, and concentrate on charting its spectro-morphological progress. 19

However, Smalley also acknowledges the importance of the concrete aspects of sound. He

describes all sounds as possessing a dual potential both "abstract" and "concrete." 20

Smalley states that while listeners have a pre-developed familiarity with the concrete

aspects of sound from daily life, an awareness of the abstract elements has to be acquired.

Spectromorphology attempts to provide a set of concepts for discussion of the abstract elements.

However, Smalley asserts that a categorical distinction between abstract and concrete

elements of sound is too simple:

Music is always related in some way to human experience, which means that mimesis is
always at work even in music regarded as abstract, though such mimesis is notoriously
difficult to explain.21

Conversely, Smalley notes that the reverse is also true:

18 The term "absolutist" is employed here in the same way used by Leonard B. Meyer in his Emotion and Meaning
in Music.

19 Ibid., 63.
20 Ibid., 64.

21 Ibid., 64.









On the other hand, a musical context which appears to depend entirely on mimetic impact
is equally deceptive. 22

Smalley also cites a lack of established terminology as a major problem for

electroacoustic music analysis. Spectromorphology attempts to address this problem. But in its

totality, Smalley's extensive system of lists of vocabulary and analytical concepts is prohibitive

to practical application. However, selected concepts from Smalley's spectromorphological

approach can be well applied to fixed media electroacoustic music.

This is not an exhaustive discussion the objective here is to examine the primary

elements of spectromorphology. The spectromorphological concepts considered here are:

Spectral types
Morphological models (and their variants)
Motion types
Spectral-space settings
Gesture-carried and texture-carried structuring
Structural Functions 23


Spectral Types

One of the primary spectromorphological concepts is the "note to noise continuum"

which involves a continuum between sound events which carry a clearly defined fundamental

pitch and those which do not. This continuum involves the "spectro" part of the term,

spectromorphology, or what is often referred to as the vertical dimension in music. Smalley

identifies three categories of sound spectra, which divide the "note to noise continuum": "note,

node and noise." 24 Smalley further subdivides the "note" category into "note proper, harmonic




22 Ibid., 64.

23 Although Smalley introduces some concepts for consideration of space as part of his spectromorphological
approach, his later formulation of "space-form" is more refined and will be considered separately.

24 Ibid., 65.









spectrum and inharmonic spectrum." 25 These categories are relative and the boundaries between

them are not clearly defined. He defines the first as "concerned with the perception of a discrete

pitch or pitches," the second as "a band or knot of sound which resists pitch identification" and

describes the third saying that "the density of a noise spectrum is so compressed that it is

impossible to hear any internal pitch structure." 26

Morphological Models

Having established the elemental concepts for the consideration of sound spectra,

Smalley turns to the "morphology" part of the term, spectromorphology.

For the discussion of morphology (temporal shaping), Smalley identifies what he refers

to as the "three linked temporal phases" (roughly equivalent to the concept of envelope) of a

sound object/event. These three phases are "onset, continuant and termination," 27 and there is a

virtually limitless range of possible ways that these phases might be articulated. Smalley

produces a set of "morphological models" that are drawn from instrumental sounds: 28

attack-impulse archetype
closed attack-decay archetype (and its reversed form)
open attack-decay archetype (and its reversed form)
linear attack-decay (and its reversed form)
linear graduated continuant
swelled graduated continuant
graduated continuant archetype 29

The distinction between "open" and "closed" attack-decay archetypes refers to the length

of decay. Sound events with more substantial decay are of the "open" type.


25 Ibid.

26 Ibid., 67.
27 Ibid., 69.

28 Smalley represents these archetypes graphically.

29 Ibid., 70.









Smalley states that the archetypes above may be joined and extended in order to generate

a "wide and subtle variety of temporal articulations," and he uses the term "morphological

string" to describe the combination of these archetypes. 30 In the case of a morphological string

of attack-impulse events, Smalley's concept of the "attack-effluvium continuum" comes into

play. 31 As the density of attacks increases, we move through the following stages iteration,

grain and effluvial state. Smalley also asserts that these concepts are not solely applicable to

individual sound objects/events and that they can extend to larger scale processes and structural

levels.

Motion Types

Another primary element of spectromorphology is "motion typology." Smalley notes that

the morphological models discussed above merely represent relatively primitive dynamic

outlines, and he presents a set of five categories ("unidirectional, bi-directional, reciprocal,

centric/cyclic, and eccentric/multi-directional" 32) of motion in order to provide more detailed

description. Smalley further divides these into subcategories, which results in a sizable collection

of terms for the description of motion. Although absorption of this set of terms might be initially

tedious, they present a means for describing motion that is not present in other approaches.

Smalley also considers the implicative nature of motion. In "Spectromorphology:

Explaining Sound-Shapes," Smalley states that "Motion and growth have directional tendencies

which lead us to expect possible outcomes, and they are helpful guides in attributing structural






30 Ibid., 71.

31 Ibid., 72.
32 Ibid., 73.









functions." 33 Like the morphological models, Smalley states that these categories of motion may

be applied to multiple structural levels.

Smalley states that all motion in electroacoustic music is implicative, concerned with

fulfillment and frustration of expectation. These concepts for the consideration of motion types

could provide an initial framework for discussion of the implicative characteristics of motion in a

work.

In addition, Smalley introduces a set of concepts for the consideration of internal motion

style. These take the form of several continue:

synchrony asynchrony
continuity discontinuity
conjunction disjunction
periodicity aperiodicity
flocked motion streamed motion contorted motion
monomorphology polymorphology 34

Spectral-space Settings

While Smalley's morphological models and motions types are concerned with active

morphology, he also introduces a set of concepts for consideration of more stable textures and

sound events. These are three divisions of "spectral space" contained within a "pitch-space

frame." 35 Smalley describes spectral space as the distance between the lowest and highest

sounds and divides it into three parts:

Canopy
Centre
Root 36


3 Denis Smalley, "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes," Organised Sound 2 (1997): 115.
34 Denis Smalley, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed.
Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 77.

35 Ibid., 79.

36 Denis Smalley, "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes," Organised Sound 2 (1997): 121.









Gesture-carried and Texture-carried Structuring

Noting that there is no "consistent low-level unit" in electroacoustic music, Smalley states

that consideration of structural level and focus becomes particularly important. 37 Smalley

identifies "gesture" and "texture" as two primary structuring principles. He describes "gesture"

saying, "Gesture is concerned with the action directed away from a previous goal or towards a

new goal..." 38 Smalley describes "texture" as "concerned with internal behaviour patterning,

energy directed inwards or reinjected, self-propagating; once instigated it is seemingly left to its

own devices...." 39

Smalley proposes the identification of structures as either gesture-carried or texture-carried

depending on which is most dominant. However, like many of Smalley's spectromorphological

concepts, the distinction between gesture-carried and texture-carried structuring is more of a

continuum than clearly defined divisions. Smalley asserts that the relationship between gesture

and texture is, "more one of collaboration than antithesis" but that this collaboration isn't always

equal. 40

Although spectromorphology is primarily concerned with abstract qualities of sound, in the

case of gesture, Smalley considers the connection between musical gesture and source cause

relationships. To do this, Smalley introduces the concept of gestural surrogacy to deal with the

relative degrees of perceptual distance between a gesture and its source. Smalley introduces four

categories of gestural surrogacy: "first-order surrogacy, second-order surrogacy, third-order



37 Denis Smalley, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed.
Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 80.

38 Ibid., 82.

39 Ibid., 82.
40 Ibid., 83.










surrogacy and remote surrogacy." 41 First-order surrogacy involves clearly recognizable source

and cause. Second-order surrogacy involves "instrumentalisation." Third-order surrogacy

involves inferred gesture the cause of the gesture is not clear in this case. In the case of remote-

surrogacy, source and cause are completely unknown. 42

Structural Functions

As stated above, Smalley argues that spectromorphology can be applied to multiple levels

of structure. To do this, Smalley returns to the three linked temporal phases onset, continuant

and termination. In the initial introduction of these concepts they were only applied to sound

events or objects. However, Smalley states that these concepts can be expanded to higher levels

of structure as well. In this more expanded consideration, Smalley introduces subcategories of

each phase and proposes the interpretive application of these concepts by identifying series of

"function chains." 43

Onset:
approach
emergence
insurgence
anacrusis
downbeat
Continuant:
maintenance
statement
prolongation
transition
Termination
plane
immersion
release


41 Denis Smalley, "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes," Organised Sound 2 (1997): 112.

42 Ibid.

4 Denis Smalley, "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed.
Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 86.









resolution
closure 44

In "Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electroacoustic Music," John

Young also argues that morphological analysis can be extended to multiple structural levels.

Young proposes an adaptation of reductive analytical methods to electroacoustic music,

suggesting that acousmatic music that "uses environmental/natural sounds as recognisable

referents within a network of morphological transformations" contains "reducible structural

levels." 45

If treated as a descriptive tool, spectromorphology can provide a framework for discussing

aspects of fixed media electroacoustic music that might be otherwise difficult to describe. For

example, Smalley's terminology for the description of motion types is potentially useful for the

description of the behavior of abstract sounds (or the abstract qualities of sounds). 46Although

their application is potentially cumbersome, the "morphological archetypes" also provide a

means of discussing the basic morphology of sounds. Smalley's distinction between "gesture-

carried" and "texture-carried" structures as well as the levels of "gestural surrogacy" are also

useful descriptive tools.

Critique of Morphological Analysis

In "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours," Francois Delalande offers a critique of

morphological analysis and raises several issues. Delalande's primary criticism of morphological

analysis is that it involves taxonomicc listening" which involves an attempt to isolate perceptual




44 Ibid., 85.

45 JohnYoung, "Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electroacoustic Music," Organised Sound 9
.46 Te tm : 9.
46 The term "abstract" is used here in a relative sense.









units. 47 Although Delalande indicates practical problems with applying this approach, his

primary criticism involves the question of pertinence. He asks, "What is the pertinence of a

morphological analysis?" 48

The morphological analysis of electroacoustic music (based on a resolution into sound
objects) is a syllabicc' analysis, which does not provide the means of highlighting pertinent
configurations either poietically.. .or esthesically. Thus we do not consider a
morphological analysis to be a music analysis. 49

However, Delalande also makes a crucial distinction. He is critical of morphological

analysis but is explicit in his differentiation between morphological analysis and morphological

description. Delalande states that description of morphological characteristics is useful (in some

cases essential) when guided by a search for pertinences. 50

.. I would say that a morphological analysis which is not guided by a search for
pertinences either does not contribute a great deal or gets lost in absurdity. 5

Delalande's point is an important one. An analysis that simply describes a work according

to spectromorphological characteristics will likely be of little value. 52 But this warning can be

also extended to most of the analytical approaches considered in this study. For the most part, the

approaches considered in this study are useful descriptive tools, but if description is treated as an

end in itself, it will be of little value. This is particularly important to bear in mind regarding

fixed media electroacoustic music, which affords multiple planes of discourse.



47 David Hirst also proposes an analytical methodology based on the segmentation of a work into "sonic objects."
48 Francois Delalande, "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry," Journal oJ ...
Music Research 27 (1998): 19.
49 Ibid., 20.
50 "As a last resort the description of pertinent units, whatever they may be, always hinges on the description of such
characteristics." Ibid.
51 Ibid., 21.

52 It should also be noted that Smalley does not suggest such an approach.









It is initially tempting to criticize spectromorphology for attempting to ignore the concrete

characteristics of sound. But Smalley makes it clear that as he views spectromorphology as a set

of conceptual tools for considering the more abstract qualities of sound, it is intended as a tool

with a specific purpose. Smalley states that spectromorphology is (among other things) "more

concerned to account for sounds whose sources are relatively mysterious or ambiguous rather

than blatantly obvious." 53

A spectromorphological approach cannot deal adequately with electroacoustic music
which is very strongly anecdotal or programmatic, that is, music where a very wide palette
of sonic references may be employed.... In this type of electroacoustic music, meaning is
closely allied to recognizing the sources, identifying with them, knowing which context
they have been drawn from, and reinterpreting their meaning in their new musical context.
Such music is therefore transcontextual or intertextual. 54

He adds that in most cases, a combination of spectromorphological and transcontextual elements

55
is necessary. 5

Stephane Roy's "Functional and Implicative" Approach

In an analysis of Francois Bayle's Ombres Blanches, Stephane Roy puts forth what he

refers to as a "functional and implicative" approach to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic

music. Drawing on and adapting the writing of Leonard B. Meyer, Roy approaches the analysis

of this piece through a description of the functional and implicative qualities of sound events and

their interrelationships. Roy gives an account of Bayle's work in terms of a substantial lexicon of

potential functions, giving priority to the relationships between events (as opposed to the

individual events themselves). For both Roy and Meyer, the meaning of a sound or event comes

from its relation to other events in a work (as well as the stylistic context). A central theme in



53 Denis Smalley, "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes," Organised Sound 2 (1997): 109.

54Ibid., 110.

5 Ibid.









Roy's approach is the idea that "the role of one semantic unit can change according to its

location in the syntactic flow" 56

In his approach, the segmentation of events originates in aural perception, and this

information is then "mapped" onto a listening score. Of the approaches considered in this study,

Roy's is the only one that specifically involves graphic representation or transcription. Roy

explicitly states, however, that this listening score is intended as an aid during the process of

analysis and is not meant to stand for the work itself. Roy clarifies this distinction in semiotic

terms, stating that the listening score is merely a representation of esthesic processes, not the

"neutral" level. 7 Lelio Camilleri also addresses the problem of the creation of listening scores

in relation to the "neutral level" noting that analysis of electroacoustic music can only be based

on perception "the only text that we can analyze is the sound text." 58 While Moylan's

approach does involve the creation of graphs, he is more concerned with the plotting of data than

transcription or representation. Transcription of fixed media electroacoustic music presents a

host of issues that are beyond the scope of this study. 59

Roy characterizes his approach as reliant on the intuition of the analyst and positions it in

contradistinction to that of Schaeffer, which he describes as "a descriptive method investigating

the morphology of isolated sounds without taking into account their contextual






56 Ibid., 166.

57 St6phane Roy, "Functional and Implicative Analysis of Ombres Blanches," Journal oJ ... i Music Research 27
(1998): 166.
58 Lelio Camilleri, "Electroacoustic Music: Analysis and Listening Processes," Sonus Contemporary Music
Materials 1 (1993): 2.

59 The visual representation of electroacoustic music is discussed by (among others) Norman Adams (2006) and
Evelyne Gayou (2006).









relationships... ."60 Roy describes his own approach as "analytical and interpretative" and states

that his analysis is inspired by functionalism in language.

As can be seen from the above discussion, Smalley's spectromorphological approach

does include a consideration of "structural function" (although it is clearly not the focus of his

approach). Smalley's treatment of "structural function" is an extension of his "three linked

temporal phases" and their grouping into "function chains." Smalley's proposed interpretation of

"function chains" is, to a degree, similar to Roy's approach. Both approaches are concerned with

the relationships between events and the ways that they are linked together and interact. But

Roy's approach is distinct from Smalley's in its focus on the role of "implication" (discussed

below).

In addition to function, Roy's framework also considers implicative relationships,

employing an adaptation of Leonard B. Meyer's implicative method for the analysis of tonal

melodies. A central idea in Meyer's writing is the notion that meaning arises from connections

between stimuli and does not lie in the stimulus alone. 61 Following from this, Meyer argues that

the expectations (particularly the frustration of these expectations) resulting from these

connections form "the basis of the affective and the intellectual aesthetic response to music." 62

An implicative relationship is one in which an event...is patterned in such a way that
reasonable inferences can be made both about its connections with preceding events and
about how the event itself might be continued and perhaps reach closure and stability. 63

Roy presents a set of symbols for the graphic representation of both functional and

implicative relationships. As the focus of this study is on the concepts themselves, the specific

60 Ibid., 166.

61 Leonard B. Meyer, Emotion andMeaning in Music (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1956), 34.
62 Ibid., 43.

63 Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973),
110.









symbols employed by Roy are not discussed here. Roy does not present a complete framework

for analysis in this article. Instead, he illustrates his approach through a detailed analysis of

Bayle's piece.

One drawback to Roy's approach, as manifested in this analysis of Bayle's work, is not in

the approach itself but in the fact that a complete exposition of the functions comprising his

approach is not provided. Roy includes a comprehensive lexicon of terms and concepts, but only

those applied in his analysis of Ombres Blanches. The complete lexicon is not available in

English. 64 However, this does not present a serious problem for the purpose of this study. In

combination with a basic understanding of Meyer's work (as manifested in his Emotion and

Meaning in Music and Explaining Music), the lexicon provided in the article discussed here

provides a sufficient outline of Roy's methodology. The concepts discussed here could easily be

expanded or adapted by an analyst.

Roy identifies five categories of functions: "orientation, stratification, process, rhetoric

and rhythm." 65 Although the meaning of many of these terms is evident from their names,

Roy's definitions are reproduced here to avoid misapplication. Although the following pages

simply replicate directly material from Roy's article, the inclusion of this information here will

be helpful to the reader who is not familiar with Roy's approach and is also necessary for the

sake of clarity.

Category of Orientation

Begetting: "This function is usually ascribed to a brief morphological unit that prepares
and furthers the immediate arrival of another event or group of events."

Conclusion: "This function closes without any ambiguity a syntactic unit."

64. The article considered here is Roy's only English-language publication on this subject. Additional functions and
other terms are included in Roy's other articles (in French).
65 Ibid., 181.









Interruption: "Interruption is a function of morphological rupture. Unlike trigger, an
interruption does not have any consequent."

Introduction: "An event plays the role of an introduction when it progressively initiates a
musical discourse or part of it by using a dynamic crescendo, an increase in density, or any
kind or gradual morphological progression that does not generate surprise in the listening
process."

Suspension: "Like the conclusion, this function is located at the final part of a syntactic
progression. It occurs when a syntactic progression seems to be directed toward a
conclusion but does not reach it because it remains too unstable; it is thus a weak form of
conclusion."

Trigger: "The trigger function abruptly and suddenly introduces an event, a group of
events, a musical phrase, a section or the complete work." 66

Category of Strafication

Background, Figure and Foreground: Roys usage of the terms "foreground" and
"background" correspond to the usual definitions of these terms. Of "figure," Roy states
that, "Among the layers of a stratified texture, the function of figure is located in the
extreme foreground of the auditory field. A figure is usually represented by a short and
well-articulated unit." 67

Rhetorical Category

Affirmation: "The function of affirmation is one of the resources of musical eloquence. It
is usually the final step in a process of repetition."

Call and Answer: "This couple is based on a local rhetorical relationship (within the limits
of the musical phrase), and is articulated through the repetition of an expressive
antecedent/consequent pair."

Deflection: "A process whereby the continuity of a main process is interrupted by another
process which aims toward a new goal."

Parenthesis: "This function is represented by an encrustation, that is to say by a sound
unit or a group of sound units that temporarily break into a musical progression without
having any causal motive."

Reiteration: "a function that intensifies the expressive character of an event by repeating it
frequently within the limits of a phrase."



66 Ibid.

67 Ibid., 182.









Sign: "a sound unit that plays the role of a sign, channeling the listening process toward an
extra-musical referent." 68

Rhythmic Category

Pedal: "This function is represented by a long sound unit that influences the perception of
the tempo." 69

Like both Moylan and Smalley, Roy suggests that functional and implicative analysis can

be applied to multiple structural levels. Meyer also makes this point regarding hierarchical

structuring of implication. 70 However, in his analysis of Ombres Blanches, Roy focuses on the

phrase level. In music where hierarchical structuring can be perceived, the functions described

by Roy could certainly be expanded to consider various levels of structure.

In adapting Meyer's concepts of function and implication from the analysis of tonal

melodies, Roy implies that a similar brand of syntax can be found and examined in fixed media

electroacoustic music. But is this necessarily the case? Can functional and implicative

relationships really be found in fixed media electroacoustic music, particularly that which is not

tonal? It is one thing to state that a melody outlining a dominant seventh chord in a Beethoven

piano sonata is implicative, but can this concept be transferred to fixed media electroacoustic

music?

The answer to this question is simply that the relevance of this approach is dependent on

the piece in question certainly Roy's approach (or any of the approaches considered in this

study) is not applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic works. For example, it would be

difficult to argue that an analysis of implicative relationships using Roy's approach would be



68 Ibid., 183.

69 Ibid.

70 Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973),
120.









particularly illuminating when applied to Paul Lansky's Table 's Clear. However, on the other

hand, Roy's approach could be well applied (as is illustrated in Chapter 3) in an analysis of Scott

Wyatt' s Private Play.

While the relatively common stylistic contexts found in many types of tonal music often

provide more easily analyzable implicative relationships than some fixed media electroacoustic

music, the tonal system is not the only setting in which implication can be found. Meyer states

that, "Implications arise because patterns are incomplete or unstable in some respect." 71

Accordingly, any musical context involving patterning or expectation can potentially involve

implication as a pertinent feature of analysis.

Ambrose Field: Landscape Morphology

Ambrose Field identifies a need for concepts for the analysis and discussion of

electroacoustic music that consider the concrete aspects of sound. 72 In "Simulation and Reality:

The New Sonic Objects," Field's stated purpose is to "set-out methods and compositional

devices that might be used by composers who manipulate recorded sounds." 73 Noting the

electroacoustic medium's potential for the inclusion of sounds from the "real" world, he states

that "the representation of reality is now a compositional parameter..." and that his intention is

to consider ways in which this idea can co-exist with a concern for timbral manipulation. 74 To

this end, Field introduces two sets of concepts: "landscape morphology" and "sonic rhetoric."





1 Ibid., 118.
72 Ambrose Field, "Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects," inMusic Electronic Media and Culture, ed.
Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 36.

73 Ibid.

74 Ibid., 37.









Field invokes semiotics (referencing Nattiez) in order to provide "a clear way to

conceptually separate concrete meanings from abstract (spectromorphological) structures."7

Field references Saussure's two-fold division of the sign stating that the signifier is made up of

abstract structures while the concrete (Field uses the term "extramusical") meaning of those

structures comprises the signified.

Field's approach is exclusively concerned with analysis of concrete elements. He states

that while his approach focuses on this separation between abstract and concrete, it allows the

coexistence of both elements. This implies that one might combine Field's concepts with

spectromorphological ideas in analysis.

Of the approaches considered thus far, "landscape morphology" is the only approach that

focuses on space from a concrete perspective. Although Moylan does consider "sonic location"

in his Analytical System, he is only concerned with plotting the location and movement of sound

objects. His "stereo sound location graph," for example, simply plots perceived location of sound

objects within the stereo field. Moylan's system also ignores the concrete aspects of space. While

Smalley does consider space as part of spectromorphology (he uses the term "spatio-

morphology), it is not a major feature of his approach (his more recent use of "space-form" is

discussed below). In addition, beyond labeling events in terms of "foreground" or "background,"

space is not considered in Roy's functional and implicative approach.

By contrast, Field's "landscape morphology" does not deal with sonic location or

movement. Instead, Field presents a set of concepts for classifying the overall character of a

"landscape" in a fixed media electroacoustic work according to the degree to which it involves

"representation of reality." Field introduces four general categories of "landscape morphology"


75 Ibid., 41.










and their application to the creation of simulated environments in fixed media electroacoustic

music.

Hyper-real
Real
Virtual
Non-real


Field provides the following definitions for each of these categories:

"Most commonly, the term hyper-reality refers to a situation where events appear to be
more real than real." 76 Field also states that in hyper-real environments, "it is not
possible for the audience to tell the difference between simulation and recorded reality
itself."

"A real environment is one that has not been simulated in any way."

"Virtual reality is pure simulation, and is ultimately intended to be perceived as such."

Non-real environments are "environments that are not surreal, nor are they identifiable as
", 77
real in any way. 77



In a perceptually based analytical approach, the distinction between a real and hyper-real

environment is often difficult the difference is not always clear. Field cites Luc Ferrari's

Presque rien no. 1 as an illustration of a work containing hyper-real landscapes. In the course of

this work, Ferrari compresses the time scale of events occurring within "real" landscapes.

Although the work is clearly the product of extensive editing processes, the end result is
the aural impression of a heightened reality. 78

While a "virtual" landscape is "pure simulation," once the abstraction of concrete sound

events and spaces is introduced, the landscape may begin to take on surreal qualities. Field cites

the environments created in Trevor Wishart's RedBird as examples of "surreal" landscapes. In

76 Ibid. 43.

SIbid.

8 Ibid.









these cases, while the co-existing sounds and spatial cues are, for the most part, plausible, "tiny

details in the sounds suggest that we might not be listening to a recording of reality." 79 Although

it is not completely clear from his brief discussion, Field seems to consider "surreal" landscapes

to be a subcategory of "virtual" landscapes.

"Non-real" environments might be comprised of sounds whose co-existence within the

same space is not plausible, or of sounds that carry conflicting spaces. For example, if in a fixed

media electroacoustic work, the recorded sound of an audience applauding in a concert-hall were

super-imposed on top of a recording of the sounds of ocean waves crashing, the effect created

would be that of an obviously non-real landscape. The utter implausibility of the coexistence of

these sounds within the same space would make it clear that the composer is not attempting to

create a realistic soundscape. But Field also notes that "non-real" environments can be created

through the use of sounds that are "remote surrogates" (Smalley's term). In this case the listener

is "directed to concentrate on the timbral evolution of the work" as opposed to the "real world"

or concrete elements.

Trevor Wishart puts forth a similar set of concepts for the consideration of landscape in

electroacoustic music. In "Sound Symbols and Landscapes," Wishart assigns the term

"landscape" to the characteristics of a sound which are related to the recognition of its source and

identifies several subcategories of sound-objects in relation to space:

real objects/real space
unreal objects/real space
real objects/unreal space
real sounds/real space "surrealist" 80



79 Ibid., 46.
0s Trevor Wishart, "Sound Symbols and Landscapes," in The Language ofElectroacoustic Music, ed. Simon
Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 48.









When considered in contrast to the extensive sets of concepts put forth in the other

approaches considered in this study, these concepts for discussing landscape morphology appear

relatively uncomplicated and general. But much can be said about a work using these general

categories, and (as is shown in Chapter 3) they can be augmented with additional descriptive

terms. Field does not present a specific framework for the application of these terms they might

be adapted by the analyst in a variety of ways. These terms might be employed to further refine

those proposed by Field.

Ambrose Field: Sonic Rhetoric

The second set of concepts that Field presents is his "sonic rhetoric" which adapts

standard rhetorical devices for the consideration of electroacoustic music. Field argues that a

sound's contextual information can be used as a compositional parameter and introduces "sonic

rhetoric" as a tool for making connections between musical processes and "extrinsic" contextual

information. 81

Field sets out five basic archetypes of"sonic rhetoric":

sonic metaphor
sonic simile
sonic hyperbole
sonic personification
sonic synecdoche


Field's adaptation of these terms for music analysis, while congruent with their standard

meanings, warrants brief explanation.

Field's conception of "sonic metaphor" does not diverge from the conventional view of

metaphor (a figure of speech representative or symbolic of something else), but he also states



81 Ambrose Field, "Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects," inMusic Electronic Media and Culture, ed.
Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000). 47.









that a sonic metaphor can be found "where sounds with clear extramusical contexts suggest

musical functions or processes." 82 John Young also identifies the creation of sonic metaphor as

one of the most powerful potentials of the concrete elements of electroacoustic sound. His

"Imagining the Source: The Interplay of Realism and Abstraction in Electroacoustic Music"

includes thorough discussion of the role of sonic metaphor in Trevor Wishart's Red Bird. Field

notes that as in literature, film and other rhetorical contexts, overuse of sonic metaphor can result

in euphemism.

Field's concept of "sonic simile" is particularly useful in the analysis of fixed media

electroacoustic music. He states that a sonic simile "gives new meaning to an existing sound by

juxtaposing it with new material." 83 This is not quite the same as a simile in language. In

language, simile typically involves the comparison of two things using a connector (such as

"like" or "as") that points directly and unambiguously to the object of comparison. In the case of

a sonic simile, however, the comparison is invited simply by juxtaposition (either by vertical

superimposition, linear/temporal proximity or through a transformation process). This creates a

potentially rich ambiguity in interpretation.

By "sonic hyperbole," Field is referring to "a sound that possesses deliberately overstated

extramusical connotations." 84 Field illustrates this by referring to Christian Calon's La

disparition in which a jungle scene is overstated by "a Tarzan-like vocal sample that appears to

swing through some imaginary trees." 85 Overstatement of this type can serve (among other

things) to make the listener aware of an active compositional presence. In this example, Calon

82 Ibid.

83 Ibid., 48.
84 Ibid., 49.

85 Ibid.









changes the listener's focus from the landscape to the composer's presence through

overstatement: "Such exaggeration of a monkey's call into this Tarzan-like utterance is clearly

not meant to be taken as being a 'real' event." 86

"Sonic personification" occurs "where a sound has highly personal and human

extramusical connotations." 87 As in the case of the sonic simile, sonic personification is more

vague than the concept of personification in language. Field refers to Andrew Lewis's Scherzo as

an example of sonic personification. Field states that the superimposition of Lewis's child's

voice onto more abstract materials imbues them with a human quality. As the more abstract

materials are drawn from the original recordings of the child's voice, this particular example

might be interpreted as abstraction rather than personification. However, whether one hears

Scherzo in terms of sounds abstracted from the recordings of Lewis's children, or the reverse (as

sonic personification) is a matter of interpretation. Regardless, this concept is potentially useful

as a descriptive and interpretive tool.

Field states that a "sonic synecdoche" can be found "when only partial aural cues are

given to an extramusical context." 88 In more traditional rhetorical analysis, synecdoche involves

cases when the audience is expected to be able to fill in the blanks. For example, if a proud

parent says of his/her child, "My child will be president someday," it is understood (assuming

that they are United States citizens) that "president" refers to "President of the United States"

although there are many other possible types of "president." But Field's concept of "sonic

synecdoche" involves more ambiguity. He states that in the case of sonic synecdoche, "listeners



86 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

88 Ibid.









must generate their own extramusical meanings from deliberately ambiguous sonic

information."89

Field asserts that the widespread understanding of rhetorical concepts affords the creative

use of"sonic rhetoric" in sorting out concrete meanings in fixed media electroacoustic music. 90

In addition to the examples discussed here, other rhetorical devices can be adapted (where

appropriate) in analysis.

By invoking rhetoric, Field implies the existence of syntax in fixed media electroacoustic

music, although in this case, syntax is considered more loosely than in Roy's approach. As with

the other approaches discussed in this study, the applicability of these concepts will be

determined by the work in question. Where elements of sonic rhetoric might be identified,

Field's terms will provide a useful descriptive tool for analysis. They will not, however, be

applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic works.

A parallel between Field's "sonic rhetoric" and Roy's "functional and implicative"

approach can be found in Roy's "rhetorical category" of functions. However, with the exception

of the "sign" function, Roy's functions do not deal specifically with the concrete elements of

sound. For example, Roy's description of the "call" and "answer" functions as being concerned

with antecedent/consequent relationships underlines his concern for more traditionally "musical"

analytical concepts such as phrasing. As the above discussion makes clear, Field's "sonic

rhetoric," on the other hand, is almost solely concerned with the concrete.







89 Ibid., 50.
90 Ibid.









Denis Smalley: Space Form

In his 2007 article, "Space-form and the Acousmatic Image," Smalley takes an approach

that is very different from that of his spectromorphology. In this article, he puts forth a set of

concepts for the investigation of space in acousmatic music. Like Field in his "landscape

morphology," Smalley focuses on the concrete (although Smalley uses his term, "source-

bonded") elements of sounds and spaces. Field's "landscape morphology," however, is much

more general than Smalley's approach. While Field is concerned solely with the ways in which

sonic landscapes represent "reality," Smalley considers (in addition to identifying types of

spaces) a range of issues including gesture, transmodality of perception, perspective and spectral

space.

Smalley notes the importance of considering space in fixed media electroacoustic music,

"the only sonic medium that concentrates on space and spatial experience as aesthetically

central." 91 He describes the scholarship on this subject as "scattered" and puts forward a

framework for the consideration of space in fixed media electroacoustic music. As he does in his

previous articles dealing with spectromorphology, Smalley presents an extensive catalog of

concepts and terminology.

An important element of Smalley's space-form is that it requires a holistic view of space in

which temporal progress is ignored:

The temporal disposition of, and relations among, sounds serve to articulate and shape
spectral and perspectival space, but even though my perception of sound is the product of
time, I ultimately sideline time's formative role. So space can be more significant than
time, or at least we can profit by starting with the idea that time can be placed at the service
of space rather than the reverse.92



91 Denis Smalley, "Space-form and the Acousmatic Image," Organised Sound 12 (2007): 35.
92 Ibid., 38.









Consequently, in a consideration of "space-form," the events that occur within a soundscape or

environment become collapsed into a single moment. Although this is not stated explicitly,

Field's "landscape morphology" also requires a holistic view of space. In order to identify a

soundscape as real, non-real, virtual, etc., a listener must group sounds and events together.

"Source-bonded spaces" are a primary component of Smalley's consideration of space-

form. He notes that recorded sounds are carriers of the spaces they inhabit and that source-

bonded spaces play an important role in many fixed media electroacoustic works. This statement

applies to spaces which are carried by realistic source-bonding as well as those in which source-

bonding may be imagined or artificially constructed. Hence, any case in which sounds' source-

cause may be detected or inferred involves source-bonded space.

Smalley makes a distinction between source-bonded spaces that are "nature-based" and

those that are "culture-based." Because they are produced by human activity, Smalley refers to

culture-based spaces as "enacted spaces". He further partitions "enacted spaces" into two main

types, "utterance spaces" (those articulated by vocal sound) and "agential spaces" (those

produced by human movement).

While Smalley suggests that a variety of kinds of enacted spaces are possible, he

specifically discusses two types. One is "mechanised space," which involves any type of sound

emitting machine or technology. Another is "mediatic space," which is the space occupied by

mass media and communication technology. Smalley notes that these two types often overlap

with other types of enacted spaces.

Another idea central to Smalley's space-form is the "transmodality" of perception. He

argues that, although they are not directly affected, acousmatic listening invokes reactions in all

of the senses:









Although acousmatic music may be received via a single sensory mode, this does not mean
that the other senses lie dormant; in fact they spill over into sonic experience. 93

This transmodality, according to Smalley, contributes to the richness of association and meaning

in fixed media electroacoustic music that involves source-bonded sounds and spaces.

Having discussed transmodality, Smalley offers a definition of "space-form":

Space-form in acousmatic music is an aesthetically created 'environment' which
structures transmodal perceptual contingencies through source-bondings and
spectromorphological relations. 94

Smalley devotes considerable attention to one type of enacted space "performed space."

He states that performed space is gesturallyy rooted" and identifies three zones (adapted from

Edward Hall): "gestural, ensemble and arena space." 95 Although Smalley discusses each zone in

detail, his definitions are sufficient for the purpose of this discussion:

Gestural space is the intimate space of individual performer and instrument.

Ensemble space, within which individual gestural spaces are nested, is the personal and
social space among performers.

Arena space is the whole public space inhabited by both performers and listeners. 96

Smalley also identifies an additional specific type of performed space that is particularly

significant in fixed media electroacoustic music "microphone space." Microphone space is a

primary compositional tool for creating proximate spaces which beam to us small and

microscopic presence and details of spectral space. As such it will be recognized if source-

bonded magnification seems to be taking place. 97



93 Ibid., 39.
94 Ibid., 40.
95 Ibid., 41.
96 Ibid., p. 42.

97 Ibid., 43.









Smalley considers "spectral space" saying that in this context the term simply refers to

space in the vertical dimension. A primary concept in his consideration of spectral space is

"gravitation" which refers in this context to attractive poles within the dimension of spectral

space. These ideas are drawn from Francois Bayle and Stephane Roy's discussions of tendencies

and attractions within spectral and pitch space. Smalley's conception of gravitation is more

concerned, however, with attractions and motions between relatively stable regions or planes

within spectral space. Smalley considers these motions and attractions in terms of "diagonal

forces" and states that the expansion and contractions of these forces define the scale of spectral

space.

The final primary concept of Smalley's space-form considered here is "perspectival space"

which he defines as "the relations of position, movement and scale among spectromorphologies,

viewed from the listener's vantage point." 98 Smalley identifies three views in perspectival space

- "prospective space, panoramic space and circumspace."

Prospective space is the frontal image, which extends laterally to create a panoramic space
within the range of vision; circumspace space around the listener extends panoramic
space to encompass the listener... 99

Smalley also advances two pairs of concepts regarding prospective space. One pair

involves movement in relation to the proximate center of prospective space by either approach or

recession. The other pair involves "ouverture" (opening out) and "enclosure" (closing in) of

prospective space. Smalley provides a glossary including additional terms and concepts not

discussed here, some of which will be encountered in the example analyses in Chapter 3.





98 Ibid., 48.

99 Ibid.









These concepts could potentially be combined with Ambrose Field's more general

"landscape morphology." The two approaches, while distinct from one another, are not

incompatible. In certain cases, a description of "landscape morphology" might be enriched by

the specificity of Smalley's terms. For example, a sonic landscape identified as surreal might be

furthered described according to the types of "agential" spaces it contains or in terms of the

listener's perspective (such as the way that a particular type of"oeverture" or "enclosure"

contributes to the landscape's surreal qualities). At the same time, the emphasis on degrees of

"representation of reality" in Field's "landscape morphology" provides a perspective that is not

accounted for in Smalley's approach.

Katharine Norman: Listening Journal

Although Katharine Norman does not attempt to put forth an analytical model, the

approach taken in her recent book, Sounding Art, is one that should be taken into account in a

study such as this. Norman describes her book as an "unashamedly personal response" to a

selection of electroacoustic works. 100 Each chapter of Sounding Art is essentially a listening

journal, and each is contrasting in its organization. Norman states that each chapter "reflects its

subject in the way that it is written and structured."101

As Norman's approach in Sounding Art is not explicitly analytical, one might initially call

into question its inclusion in this study. However, recalling Delalande's assertion that a search

for pertinences should be a primary element in analysis, the argument could be made that

Norman's responses to the pieces considered in Sounding Art generally provide more pertinent

information than those analytical approaches that impose a preset methodology on a musical


100 Katharine Norman, Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions ;i, -'ioli Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate
Publishing Limited, 2004), xi.
101 Ibid.









work. Although Norman does not specifically employ this terminology, her responses to the

works attended to in Sounding Art seem to be guided by a search for pertinences.

For example, Chapter 4 addresses Hildegard Westerkamp's Talking Rain, not by

attempting to describe or analyze the work's structure, or by subjecting the work to a preset

analytical model or system, but instead through a transcription of an interview between Norman

and Westerkamp walking through Lighthouse Park, where the sounds used in Talking Rain were

recorded. This is not altogether different from a poeitic analysis. Norman and Westerkamp

discuss the ways in which the work was created and the connection between these poeitic

elements and the ways in which the work is perceived.

Is this analysis? And, what exactly is Norman's approach? Norman's treatment of Talking

Rain is one of the parts of Sounding Art that is the most unlike traditional music analysis. But

what analytical approach could be more appropriate to a work like Talking Rain? a

spectromorpholgocial description? an implicative analysis? If we accept Delalande's search for

pertinences as a primary element in the object of analysis, Norman's method of addressing this

work is fitting.

Unlike the approaches considered above, Norman does not put forth any sets of terms or

concepts for the consideration of this music. Each work or topic is approached differently, as a

response to the work (not an imposition on it). Perhaps this is not analysis in a formal sense, but

it is analysis nonetheless. To provide a sense of Norman's approach, the discussion here will

briefly focus on two examples from Sounding Art. The first is Norman's consideration of Petit

jardin by Magali Babin, and the second is that of untitled #90 by Francisco Lopez.

In the first chapter of Sounding Art, Norman briefly addresses Magali Babin's Petit

jardin. Norman describes the work in a very personal way, using such phrases as "I imagine", "I









can hear", "I listen," etc. In the course of this brief "analysis," Norman considers the role of the

performer in fixed media electroacoustic music such as this, where intentional performative

gesture is clearly present.

Norman also addresses the transmodality of perception (a primary feature of Smalley's

"space-form") discussing a personal connection between the sounds in Petitjardin and her own

memories of physical sensations of touch:

I'm finding that 'swirling hand' sound especially satisfying and immediate, probably
because it reminds me of that pleasurable sensation of plunging a hand deep into a sack of
grain, or whatever, and scrunching around for the pure enjoyment of the physical
sensation. I'm not sure I have any specific memory of a precise instance of doing that, but I
certainly seem to remember how it feels. 102

... there's a tactile quality to these sounds. Listening even becomes a proxy for touching.
When I listen to Babin's 'metallic sounds' my mind is reinhabited with sensory images of
quite specific kinds, and these are memories derived from touch. 103

Norman also considers an excerpt from Francisco Lopez's untitled #90. As in all of the

explorations of pieces in Sounding Art, Norman's response to the work is conducted from a very

personal perspective. This work, in stark contrast to Petitjardin, resists any attempt to identify

concrete sound sources or causes, occupying the domain of what Smalley refers to as remote

surrogacy. This is reflected in Norman's consideration of this piece. She begins her discussion

with an account of her initial attempt to find tangible connections between the sounds in this

piece to her own prior experience.

I don't know what any of these sounds are. And I don't know what I mean by that- what
are they 'of, 'for', 'about', 'doing'? Behind a screen of processing there are glimpses of-
I think, for a while waves breaking, insects calling, birds singing. For a few minutes I am
straining my ears to hear connections. I can't hear them. I can't use them. But there is this
loud, insistent, high-pitched tone not superimposed, but part of it (whatever 'it' is) that



102 Ibid., 9.

103 Ibid., 10.









blasts through like...no- no similes please. It is not a sound to identify, or to care to
identify... 104

Following this initial discussion, Norman considers the process of listening to a work that

is dominated by abstract sound. She adds that, "the material that makes this piece is empty of

associations and full of substance." 105

The analytical approaches discussed above all present new specific sets of terminology or

concepts. Norman, on the other hand, does not do this. Of course, Norman is not attempting to

put forth an analytical framework, but her overall approach can be taken as a model for effective

analysis. What Norman is doing in Sounding Art is exploring her own perceptions and

experiences of listening to electroacoustic music.

Where appropriate, however, Norman incorporates many of the concepts that are included

in the other approaches considered in this study. 106 For example, in the interview between

Norman and Westerkamp, "microphone space" and its relation to "perspectival space" are

discussed throughout (although not using Smalley's terms). 107

Norman's consideration of Birds by Luigi Ceccarelli also includes examples of ways in

which she incorporates concepts addressed in the approaches considered in this study. While

again not using the same terms, Norman discusses the forces between different regions in

spectral space as well as the 'effort' involved in navigating them.

In Norman's account, this also involves a metaphor for flight. She uses the discussion of

spatial planes as a way of illustrating how in Birds this metaphor moves beyond the obvious and


104 Ibid., 70.

105 Ibid., 71.

106 An example of this has already been encountered in Norman's discussion of perceptual transmodality in her
treatment of Petitjardin.
107 Ibid., 78-79.









is carefully constructed and subtle. In the course of this discussion, Norman also briefly

describes the "landscape morphology" of part of this piece. Again, she does not use the same

terms, but identifies the non-real landscape. 108

Conclusion

This chapter has reviewed seven sets of concepts for the analysis of fixed media

electroacoustic music. The primary purpose of this chapter has been to examine ways in which

existing analytical approaches might be used as descriptive tools in the consideration of the

multiple planes of discourse afforded by fixed media electroacoustic music. As has been argued

in the first chapter of this study, one of the most unique qualities of fixed media electroacoustic

music is its potential to accommodate various levels of discourse simultaneously and, in

particular, a potential ambiguity between them. While connections and parallels have been drawn

between many of these approaches, each is distinct and supplies the analyst with conceptual tools

(although some are more useful than others) for electroacoustic music analysis.

Although the approaches considered here do not deal with every possible approach to the

analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music, they are representative of the range of the

predominant analytical strategies typically implemented or proposed by scholars in this field. It

is the contention in this study that a grasp of the range of analytical strategies and ideas

considered in this study can provide a solid foundation for consideration of the multiple planes of

discourse possible in fixed media electroacoustic music.

In Chapter 3, concepts drawn from the approaches considered above, will be applied to

four fixed media electroacoustic works: O, 'e Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott

Wyatt, Paul Lanksy's Night Traffic and England (G & TSwimmers) by Antti Saario. These


108 Norman's approach is revisited in the analytical discussion of Paul Lansky's. I;, Traffic in Chapter 3.









analytical descriptions illustrate ways in which these concepts might be applied in the analysis of

contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works.














H



M

LM

L

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Time in Seconds
Figure 2-1. Moylan Pitch Contour Graph











The vertical axis represents the number of attacks recorded and the horizontal axis represents time in
seconds.

16


14


12


10


8-


6-


4-
16 ---------------------------------------



















- Time in Seconds -
Figure 2-2. Moylan Attack Density Graph Type 2









CHAPTER 3
APPLICATION OF THE APPROACHES CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY

Introduction

In this chapter, elements of the approaches considered in Chapter 2 are applied in multi-

layered descriptions of four fixed media electroacoustic works: O'r,, Offset by Pete Stollery,

Private Play by Scott Wyatt, England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario and Night Traffic by

Paul Lansky. The intention for the descriptions in this chapter is to illustrate ways in which the

descriptive tools examined in this study might be applied. The discussion of this small sampling

of examples is also illustrative of the need for multiple descriptive tools in the analysis of fixed

media electroacoustic music. It is shown here that each descriptive approach provides a different

type of information, and that none is applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic music.

The description and discussion in this chapter is purely illustrative and should not be

mistaken for analysis. The objective here is not to analyze these pieces. As stated in both

Chapters 1 and 2, music analysis should be guided by a search for pertinences, and descriptive

tools such as those considered here should only be applied in support of this search and in order

to serve interpretive purposes.

The nature of this study restricts the majority of this discussion to the local level, and the

examples considered here are relatively brief (between 2 and 3 minutes each). Of course, in an

actual analysis, the complete work (and whatever pertinent relationships might be uncovered)

should be considered. As the emphasis of this chapter is on the illustration of ways in which the

analytical approaches considered in this study might be applied as descriptive tools, the brevity

of these excerpts does not hinder the present discussion.

While some of the descriptions here are interesting or illuminating, many would be of little

use in an analytical context. However, illustration of the areas in which certain descriptive tools









are not appropriate is also worthwhile in the context of this study. As discussed in the preceding

chapters, fixed media electroacoustic music affords multiple planes of discourse. While the

descriptions in this chapter focus on these planes separately (in order to demonstrate how

particular descriptive approaches might be applied), these planes are often interconnected. This

potential interconnection will be explored in Chapter 4.

Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery

The first example considered in this chapter is the initial 2 minutes and 45 seconds of Pete

Stollery's On 'e Offset. This piece contains a diversity of types of spaces, textures and sound

sources, inviting the use of multiple descriptive tools. The first approach applied here is

Moylan's Analytical System for Electronic Music. Moylan's "attack density" and "pitch contour"

graphs were created for this excerpt. Below is a representation of this excerpt employing

Moylan's second type of attack density graph. As discussed in Chapter 2, this graphing method

shows the contour of the number of "attacks" occurring within the given time frame. Figure 3-1

is an Attack Density Graph Type 2 for this excerpt of O, 'er Offset.

The creation of this type of graph presents several problems. First, Moylan's approach

requires that a work be segmented into perceptually discrete units, but works such as

Oln'i Offset which include "concrete" sounds, often resist this type of segmentation. The

opening of the work, for example, consists of a sound event (a door apparently being unlocked)

that is difficult to describe in terms of attack density. Should the entire event be labeled as one

"attack"? If so, a complex sound event will be reduced to its onset alone. Conversely, attempting

to represent this sound event's complexity by recording multiple attacks within this event is also

problematic. At what level of detail does one segment a sound event such as this?









Pitch Contour Graph

Application of Moylan's "pitch contour graph" to this excerpt from Oi',i Offset also

presents difficulties. While "pitch contour" can certainly be identified in parts of this excerpt,

there are also many sections that are not pitch-based. There are also portions that are more

"texture-carried" than "gesture carried." While a "pitch contour" may be identifiable in these

parts, this does not necessarily reveal pertinent information. Figures 3-2 and 3-3 are examples of

pitch contour graphs representing parts of this excerpt.

As the above examples show, these types of graphs present multiple problems. In each of

these excerpts, the texture is much more complex than its representation in these graphs.

However, the above graphs do reflect a connection between overall gestural shapes in the two

excerpts. Although the applicability of Moylan's approach is limited, there are certainly

conceivable situations in which it might reveal information useful to analysis.

Spectromorphological Description

A spectromorphological description is also applied to this excerpt from Oi0/l Offset. The

description here is, again, purely illustrative, and is merely an attempt to show how

spectromorphological terminology might be used to describe individual sound events. This is

presented in the form of a chart, simply listing the sound events in this excerpt and describing

their basic spectromorphological characteristics. This chart is a simplistic version of a

spectromorphological description and these concepts can naturally be applied more precisely and

in much greater detail. However, as this chapter is concerned with illustration of the application

of descriptive approaches, an exhaustive description is not necessary here. The sound events in

this excerpt were primarily described in terms of Smalley's morphological archetypes as well as

motion types.









Table 3-1. S ectromorphological Description of Oiei Offset (excerpt)
Time Event
0:00 A series of Attack-Decay (AD) events, noise type
0:11 0:29 A Graduated Continuant (GC) event lasting 18 seconds containing two
primary layers. The first layer is of the note type moving in linear descent
from the approximate pitches F to A with a brief reciprocal motion (at 28
seconds) in linear ascent by a 1/2 step to the approximate pitch B-flat. The
second layer consists of a granular texture of the node type in the canopy of
the spectral space.
0:28 A series of AD events, noise type
0:34 0:36 A Graduated Continuant with Decay (GCD) event lasting 2 seconds, node
type, moving in an ascending/descending parabolic motion.
0:36 0:40 A series of AD events, noise type
0:40 1:16 A GC event (granular texture), noise type, moving erratically in an
irregular undulation in the upper centre and canopy of spectral space.
0:47 1:16 A GC event, note/node type, containing a mostly linear reciprocal
ascent/descent beginning on F#, rising to B and then falling again.
1:17 1:20 A GCD event, noise type, moving in ascending/descending parabolic
motion
1:17- 1:56 A GC texture in the canopy of spectral space. This is a granular texture
articulated by internal, endogenic undulating motion. 1 The internal motion
could be further described as "flocked" motion.
1:33 1:48 A staggered series of Attack-Impulse (AI) and AD events, noise type
1:59 An AI event, noise type
1:59 2:01 A GC event, noise type
2:00 2:01 A GC event, noise type moving in a linear descent.
2:01 An AD event, noise type
2:07 2:45 A series of staggered AD events, mostly of the note type. These events
have a flutter decay. These events converge in a flocked motion.
(AD = Attack Decay, GC = Graduated Continuant, GCD = Graduated Continuant with Decay,
AI = Attack Impulse)

The above description, while preliminary and admittedly inelegant, reveals several

difficulties. While spectromorphological concepts are attractive in theory, their practical

application is often problematic. Spectromorphological description quickly becomes tedious and

difficult to interpret. Even a limited description such as that above is cumbersome and likely

indecipherable by the reader unschooled in spectromorphology. Moreover, while a more




1 These are subcategories of Smalley's "motion typology."









thorough spectromorphological description of this excerpt might provide more specific

information, the reader may also soon become lost in the details.

Another shortcoming of spectromorphology is that it is not particularly well suited for the

description of sound transformations. While Smalley's terminology for describing various types

of motion is useful and detailed, these spectromorphological concepts are not adequate for the

description of sound transformations. For example, the transformation of the texture from 1:17 to

1:56 is not well-described using spectromorphological terms alone.

However, the shortcomings of this abstracted descriptive example only demonstrate the

inadequacy in seeking to analyze a work such as O,,iet Offset (or any work that contains both

concrete and abstract elements) relying solely on spectromorphological description, and the

above description by itself is an unfair representation of spectromorphology. At no time does

Smalley suggest that the analyst simply list events in the manner shown above. The purpose of

the above description is simply to show how the terms might be applied on a local level. In many

cases, a combination of spectromorphological description and other descriptive approaches (if

guided by a search for pertinences) will be most appropriate. The combination of descriptive

approaches and the interconnection between multiple planes of discourse is discussed further in

Chapter 4.

Landscape Morphology

Ambrose Field's "Landscape Morphology" is also applied to this excerpt. As noted in

Chapter 2, these terms are quite flexible, leaving a good deal of room for freedom in application.

This flexibility affords adaptation and allows for a broad application.

The opening of this piece (the first 10 seconds) takes place in a real environment. The

sounds of what seems to be a door being unlocked carry a plausible interior space and there are









no other sounds present that contradict this realistic landscape. The sounds of movement in the

background also seem to belong to and strengthen the sense of an interior space.

However, beginning at 10 seconds (and continuing until approximately 29 seconds) the

landscape shifts abruptly to a non-real environment. A processed texture is presented that is

clearly not intended to be perceived as real. The sounds presented in this section (a granular,

filtered texture) would not normally be found within the real interior environment presented in

the opening of this piece. The listener is no longer in the same place the scene has changed.

Following this (at 34 seconds), Stollery changes the landscape once again. At this point,

the sounds from the opening of the piece (or very similar ones) are presented again, but they no

longer carry a plausible realistic space. These sounds now carry a reverberated non-real space.

This introduces the effect of a surreal landscape the sounds presented here are still

recognizable as real, but the space in which they are presented is not realistic.

At 40 seconds, a landscape similar to the non-real environment introduced at 10 seconds

returns. While this continues, at 1:00, the sounds of what seems to be crumbling paper (or

something similar) are added. By themselves, these sounds might suggest a real landscape, but in

this context, the landscape remains an unreal one.

At 1:20, another shift in landscape occurs. This new environment is still a non-real one, but

the space is now larger, with a deeper sense of foreground and background. The sounds

contained within this space (while apparently abstracted from "real" sounds), are non-real.

At 1:58, the landscape shifts again and the sounds of what seem to be opening doors carry

realistic spaces, but only briefly. We only remain in this potentially realistic environment for a

few seconds before the scene changes to another non-real landscape.









As in the above applications of Moylan's graphing techniques and spectromorphological

descriptions, this description of landscape morphology is in no way interpretive. In an actual

analysis, these descriptive tools should be used (where appropriate) to interpret (not simply

describe) a work.

Because of its flexibility, landscape morphology seems to be quite suitable to this excerpt.

But again, this single method of description does not provide a complete picture in itself. The

overall landscape or environment is described well using these concepts, but in most cases, the

events taking place within the landscape need to be considered. Depending on the work,

description of events (or relationships between them) in terms of spectromorphology, sonic

rhetoric, or other means might be combined with landscape morphology.

Sonic Rhetoric

Similar to the other approaches considered in this study, Field's sonic rhetoric can be

applied to virtually any fixed media electroacoustic work, particularly those which make use of

concrete sound material. However, the relevance of these concepts to analysis will be determined

by the work in question. Just as one might be able to identify a particular spectromorphological

characteristic that is of little value in analysis, sonic metaphors, sonic similes, sonic hyperboles,

etc. might be identified that are not relevant to analysis. As in the application of other approaches

above, description of sonic rhetoric in this excerpt is purely illustrative and is not guided by a

search for pertinences. Therefore, the elements of sonic rhetoric identified may be but are not

necessarily relevant to analysis.

As in any work involving identifiable sound sources, there is potential for description of

sonic metaphor in this excerpt. Obvious sonic metaphors can be drawn in connection with the

sound of a door being unlocked at the opening of this work. This could be taken to represent









transition (into a new space, into the work itself, etc.) or many other concepts associated with

doors, keys or locks.

Field's conception of sonic simile can also be applied to this excerpt. As discussed in

Chapter 2, Field's idea of sonic simile is less direct and less restricted than simile in language.

For Field, a sonic simile invites comparison simply through juxtaposition, and this conception

affords a potentially rich ambiguity in interpretation. However, if this notion is taken to the

extreme, it would follow that one could interpret all sounds or events in a fixed media

electroacoustic work as being in simile relationships. Again, this involves questions of

interpretation, and is left to the individual analyst.

For example, one might identify a simile relationship between two of the sound events in

the opening of this excerpt (the first beginning at 0:10 and ending at 0:29 and the second

occurring between 0:34 and 0:36). The first is a granular texture that contains a strand of pitch

moving in a linear descent. The second is the sound of a sliding door (or could at least be

interpreted as such). This sliding door, while noise based, also contains an overall linear descent.

One might interpret a simile relationship between this sliding door (which is immediately

followed by the sounds of a door being unlocked that are very similar to the sounds that open the

piece) and the more abstract granular texture. However, whether or not this relationship is

pertinent is interpretive and reliant on the analyst's perspective as well as the context of the

work.

Private Play by Scott Wyatt

Unlike O, 'e Offset, Scott Wyatt's Private Play is comprised primarily of relatively

abstract sound material and events. However, most of these abstract elements also have a degree

of referential potential. As in the above discussion of O, 'er Offset, multiple descriptive









approaches are applied to the first three minutes of Private Play. The first approach applied is

Roy's functional and implicative approach.

Roy's Functional and Implicative Approach

The first 19 seconds of this work comprise a single figure function, which also carries an

introduction function. This event begins abruptly, almost as a trigger, but in this case the trigger

is the beginning of the event itself. 2 This is followed, at 23 seconds, by the initiation of a

contrasting sound event. This contrast, and the apparent lack of association between the two

events, lends a sense of incompleteness to the first. This new event carries an introduction

function, initiating a downward motion (in terms of pitch).

These two events are followed, at 45 seconds, by a series of figures that set up a gradual

ascension that continues until approximately 1:16. This might be interpreted as being in an

antecedent/consequent (or "call and response") relationship with the preceding event.

At 1:36 a high intensity event (in terms of loudness) with an interruption function occurs

and is reiterated by a similar event at 1:44. However, these events are only interruptions on a

local level. On a larger scale they serve as an introduction to similar events that are reiterated

throughout the work. As the piece progresses they begin to be perceived less as interruptions as

they become more expected and lend to the work a forward motion.

Relatively unaffected by these interruptions, the gradual ascension continues (in both pitch

and density of activity) until approximately 2:10. At this point a plateau is reached and followed

by a descent beginning at 2:26. At 2:43 the figure function from the beginning of the work

returns. This functions as a reiteration and recontextualizes the opening of the work. On a more




2 This is a slight adaptation of Roy's description of "trigger." In this case, this function is not triggering another
event but is the beginning of a longer event of which it is a part.









local level, there are several "begetting" functions in this excerpt. For example, at 1:19, there is a

brief event (a high, pitched event) that prepares a brief outburst.

There is a clear sense of forward motion in this work, inviting a functional and implicative

analysis. However, attributing specific functions in this work is difficult. One could apply these

same concepts to the same excerpt in many different ways, and there are many interpretive

possibilities. If nothing else, however, these concepts provide a basis for discussion of functional

and implicative relationships. The fact that an event in this excerpt might be identified by one

analyst as an interruption and by another as having a "begetting" function is an issue of

interpretation.

Space-form

Next, this excerpt from Private Play is described in terms of Denis Smalley's space-form.

Although a sense of space is articulated and well crafted in this example (and in this work as a

whole), a conception of space according to Smalley's idea of space-form does not seem to be a

significant feature of this work. Once the space is established in Private Play, it does not change

significantly. The focus seems to be on what happens within this space. Wyatt is careful in

establishing a space, but it seems to function primarily as an arena for discourse to take place in.

The features of the space itself are not the focus of the discourse in this piece.

A large reverberant space is articulated at the beginning of this example and we (the

listeners) remain in a similar space for the entirety of this excerpt. This space is established in the

initial sixteen seconds by a moving sound (like a rolling marble) that creates the illusion of

encircling the listener. This event begins in the left side of the panoramic space, moves to the

right side and then in a circle around the listener, finally returning to its original position. The

course of this circular motion articulates a relatively sizable range between proximate and distal

space. The sounds in this example are heavily reverberated creating the sense of a soundscape









that, while unreal, is large. The vantage point in this excerpt is fixed. There is a good deal of

motion of sound events in this excerpt, but there is no sense of a shift in perspectival space.

Wyatt seems to have carefully considered spectral space in this work. As the sounds in this

example are all "abstract," the listener is more likely to become aware of spectral space. The

initial "marble rolling" event sets up a plane in the upper middle level of spectral space, and the

bulk of the activity in the first minute of this excerpt takes place above this plane. This plane is

gradually forced downward throughout this example. By three minutes into the excerpt, the

"root" of spectral space has been reached, completing the gradual downward extension of the

spectral space frame in this excerpt.

Spectromorphology

A spectromorphological description such as that applied to O/,i't Offset above would be

repetitive and unnecessary. This brief application to this excerpt from Private Play will focus on

Smalley's motion typology and structural functions.

Smalley's terminology for describing motion can be applied to parts of this excerpt. For

example, the opening event can be described as involving a long circular reciprocal motion. The

following event (beginning at 0:22) contains a unidirectional motion, in descent, and this is

followed by a longer series of events moving collectively in ascent. On a larger scale, the excerpt

as a whole (excepting the first 20 seconds) contains an internal contorted motion, with layers of

sound folding in on one another.

An attempt to apply Smalley's concepts for description of structural functions immediately

presents problems. While these ideas might be initially attractive, their application is difficult.

How might the initial sound event (the first 19 seconds) be described according to Smalley's

structural functions, for example? Which of the subcategories of the three linked temporal phases

could be used to describe this event? Smalley does not provide examples of their application, so









these, while affording interpretive freedom, remain vague in terms of practice. One potential

interpretation might be that on the more local level (this event alone), the onset is that of

"emergence," the continuant is that of "prolongation," and the termination is that of "resolution."

Attempting to apply Smalley's expansion of the three linked temporal phases to the

gradual ascension that takes place between 0:45 and approximately 2:20 is again problematic.

One could again say that the three phases at work here are "emergence," "prolongation" and

"resolution." But, whether or not this might be pertinent to an analysis is doubtful. However,

these concepts could conceivably be applied to other fixed media electroacoustic works.

England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario

The opening two minutes and five seconds of Antti Saario's England (G & T Swimmers)

will also be used to illustrate the application of the descriptive approaches considered in this

study. This excerpt presents difficulties for each of the approaches. A prominent element of this

piece is the presentation of recordings of intelligible speech. This should not be ignored in

analysis. However, as the analytical approaches considered in this study do not consider speech

or text, it will not be dealt with in these descriptions. Similarly, there are pitch relationships in

this work that would be best dealt with by other analytical tools. Again, this is not to suggest that

these relationships are of less analytical pertinence.

Landscape Morphology

Considered as a whole, this excerpt takes place within a surreal landscape. However, on a

more local level, both "real" and "non-real" landscapes can be identified. There are also

moments in which real landscapes are presented, but which are altered or interfered with.

Saario's frequent use of abrupt transitions between spaces (much like "jump cutting" in film)

contributes to the overall surreal quality of the landscape in this work.









In the opening seconds of the work, "electronic" glissandi are followed by a chordal pad

texture (suggesting G major). A sense of foreground and background space is established, but a

real environment is not suggested this is clearly intended to be perceived as a non-real

environment.

At 23 seconds there is an abrupt and jarring transition. The listener is suddenly inside a

realistic interior space. This is a small, dry space in which someone is casually playing a cello

and several people are talking and having drinks. But, very quickly (within 10 seconds) Saario

begins to disturb this perceived reality. This begins subtly as one of the people in this space

begins to hum a melody, this is harmonized very softly in the background by an unidentifiable

sound. Shortly after this, the disruption of the sense of reality becomes more pronounced as

recordings of the words and phrases spoken by people in this space are repeated (through literal

copying).

At 45 seconds into the work, the landscape shifts once again. The listener has been taken

out of the interior space previously presented, and is now in another surreal landscape. The

sound of ice clinking in a glass is retained from the previous "scene," but it is now being rattled

around in the glass in a more unnatural way, with a seemingly performative intention. This sound

is no longer simply part of the scene; it is now something to be listened to. The presence of a

pitch-based background texture lends this new landscape a more non-real quality than that of the

previous scene.

For the remainder of this excerpt, the sounds of the interior scene are juxtaposed and

combined with non-real or abstracted sounds. This creates an overall surreal landscape. For

example, when the interior scene returns (with people talking about the "G's" and Gs sounded at









the same time in the background texture), the realistic interior space is presented simultaneously

with processed sounds that contradict that space.

Varying degrees of representation of reality seem to be an important aspect of this work.

Therefore, landscape morphology seems to be an appropriate descriptive tool. However, even in

a preliminary description such as this, Field's very general concepts need to be augmented with

additional description. This does not present a difficulty, however; the flexibility of these

concepts makes them applicable to a wider variety of works.

Sonic Rhetoric

As this work is concerned in large part with varying degrees of representation of reality, it

presents opportunities for the application of elements of Field's "sonic rhetoric." Saario uses

pitch connections to link events and spaces in this excerpt. As stated above, this work might be

interpreted in terms of varying degrees of reality and abstraction. One way to view this work is

as presenting a multi-dimensional reality in which the dimensions are connected in various ways.

From this perspective, Field's concept of sonic simile comes into play.

One of the ways in which sonic similes can be identified is in the pitch connections in

this work. These pitch connections can be interpreted as inviting comparison between otherwise

unrelated events. 3 For example, between 0:25 and 0:36, Saario uses pitch to link three different

dimensions. First, the cello in the "real" interior space plays A and D pizzicatos. At the same

time, a female voice casually hums a melody in D major, but this voice does not quite fit into the

scene. Although a person humming would not be implausible in this space, something about the

spatial placement doesn't seem to match the context. Two different dimensions seem to be

connected by this pitch connection. Also at the same time, a chordal background suggests D


3 This concept of sonic simile is slightly expanded from that explicitly described by Field.









major. However, the source of this sound is unclear and suggests something "non-real". The

pitch connection creates a "sonic simile" between three otherwise separate dimensions.

A comparable simile connection can be identified after 1:20 when the plucked open

strings of the cello in the interior space are anticipated (and later echoed) by the "non-real"

background. In this example, the pitches of the cello's open strings are sounded by a processed

and sustained background texture. This background continues through the end of the excerpt,

drawing ambiguous simile connections along the way.

From another perspective, the literal repetitions of sounds in this excerpt could also be

interpreted as sonic hyperbole. The first of these begins at 0:36 when the sounds from the interior

space are exactly copied, creating a literal echo. This literal overstatement of reality contributes

to the sense of surreal landscape mentioned above.

At the same time, sonic synecdoche could also be viewed as playing a major role in this

work. This can be found on the local level and in the work as a whole. In the excerpt discussed

here, a scene is represented. Although there are strong connections to reality, much is left to the

listener's imagination. In the standard conception of synecdochee," a part of something is

representative of the whole. But, as Field suggests, in sonic synecdoche, exactly what the whole

is that is represented is often unclear. This is the case in this excerpt from England (G & T

Swimmers). Something is clearly being represented, but exactly what that is could be interpreted

in many different ways. Again, it is not completely clear whether this interpretation is entirely in

line with Field's concepts as outlined in his article. Field's exposition of these ideas is relatively

brief, leaving matters of interpretation such as this to the analyst.

Spectromorphology

An attempt to apply spectromorphology to this excerpt would support the argument that no

descriptive approach can be successfully applied to all fixed media electroacoustic works.









Although morphology, motion types or other spectromorphological attributes could be described

in this excerpt, this would be of little value in analysis. For example, one might attempt to

describe the motion types in the opening seconds of this excerpt in spectromorphological terms,

as a sort of erratic reciprocal motion. However, as the work unfolds it becomes clear that this

sound is simply representing radio signals. Just as it would be of little value to describe space

form in a work where this is not pertinent, a description of the spectromorphological features that

do not carry any esthesic relevance would also be unproductive.

Similarly, Moylan's Analytical System reveals little pertinent information about this

excerpt. As discussed above, Moylan's approach is parameter based and its application to this

excerpt would be problematic. For example, application of the attack density graph to this

excerpt would be incredibly problematic. The ambiguity in this piece defies any such simplistic

segmentation.

Night Traffic by Paul Lansky

The final work addressed here is Paul Lansky's Night Traffic. As with the other pieces

considered, discussion focuses on an excerpt. The first three minutes of the work are considered.

Space-form

As stated above, Smalley's "space-form" approach requires a holistic view of space.

Therefore, in a general sense, the analyst must attempt to set aside the progression of time and

consider the soundscape as a whole. However, as soundscapes frequently shift in fixed media

electroacoustic music, this is not always possible. For example, in Antti Saario's England (G & T

Swimmers), an attempt to apply Smalley's concepts such as "zoned spaces" or "nested spaces"

within an overall soundscape would be problematic. Smalley's space-form works best when it is

applied to works in which the listener has a relatively fixed vantage point and in which there is a









sense of overall soundscape. This is partially the case with Night Traffic, but this attempt to

describe it in terms of space-form also presents problems.

This excerpt unfolds in a source-bonded space. The listener can deduce from the title (and

program notes) that literal recordings of "night traffic" are being presented. However, these

sounds have been altered this is not a literal presentation of reality. 4 In spectromorphological

terms, this primarily involves third order and remote surrogacy.

This is a distinctly "enacted" ("culture based") space. Within the category of "enacted"

spaces, this is an "agential space" these sounds here are produced by human activity.

This excerpt also provides an opportunity for the consideration of "perspectival space."

The listener's vantage point in this excerpt seems to be stationary. Beginning in the opening

seconds, perspectival space is expanded (ouverture) to encompass a wide panoramic space

through what Smalley refers to as a "vectorial wipe." 5 Perspectival space remains broad for the

entire excerpt. These vectorial wipes also articulate a range of proximate to distal space through

approach and recession. However, because these sounds are on a third order or remote level of

surrogacy, they do not carry specific spatial cues. It is difficult to acquire a precise awareness of

the dimensions of this space. Virtually all of the activity in this excerpt involves these vectorial

wipes. Therefore, while the outer edges and range of panoramic space are defined, neither a

"distal" or "proximate" center of prospective space is articulated.

From Smalley's perspective, the more that sounds have an abstract nature, the more they

invite a consideration of spectral space. This is the case in this section of Night Traffic. Smalley

states that, "we are not always aware of how spectral factors contribute to our sense of space," 6


4 This is an area where Field's landscape morphology might come into play.

5 Denis Smalley, "Space-form and the Acousmatic Image," Organised Sound 12 (2007): 49.
6 Ibid.









particularly in the case of spaces which have a high degree of source-bonding. However, Smalley

states that the listener's attention will be more drawn to spectral space (he states that "thinking

spectrally requires a certain level of abstraction") as abstraction is introduced.

Spectral space is mostly filled in this example, using the full audio spectrum. There are not

clearly separated spectral planes in this example. Rather the relatively monolithic vectorial traffic

sounds weave in and out of spectral levels. There is an emphasis on the upper "centre" of the

audio spectrum, but the overall spectral range is quite wide.

Immediately apparent in attempting to describe this excerpt according to Smalley's "space-

form" terminology, is the lack of a means for considering how "real" or "unreal" the space is.

This is an important part of this piece. Are the sounds interfered with? This is a case where an

adaptation of Field's terms might be successfully combined with Smalley's space form.

Landscape Morphology

This is a surreal landscape, which (as discussed in Chapter 2), can be assumed to fall

within Field's "virtual" landscape category. It is clear from the title (and program notes) that the

sounds in this work are recordings of the sound of highway traffic. Knowing this, the sounds in

this example are quite recognizable as manipulations of these recordings. The listener knows of

the "real" landscape of the original unaltered sounds. But the abstractions of these sounds create

a surreal landscape. A "reality" is presented and contradicted at the same time.

Sonic Rhetoric

This piece provides an opportunity for description of sonic synecdoche, in which a part

stands for a whole. As discussed above, Field's concept of sonic synecdoche is more ambiguous.

In this work, "night traffic" is partially represented. By bringing out and exaggerating

resonances in these sounds, Lansky obscures their specificity. But, the overall morphology

(Doppler shifts, characteristic envelope) still represents traffic. This can be interpreted in at least









two ways. This synecdoche can represent the larger concept of "traffic" or can partially represent

a specific scene. The sounds, combined with the added descriptor "night," invite a listener to

conjure up a scene on the side of a highway at night. But the rest of the details are up to the

listener. This partial representation creates a fruitful ambiguity.

Norman's Discussion of Night Traffic

In Sounding Art, Katharine Norman briefly addresses Night Traffic. In her brief

description, a clear contrast can be seen between her approach and the others considered in this

study. As discussed in Chapter 2, Norman does not have a preset descriptive methodology that

she applied to all works. Norman's discussion of the work is centered on the character of the

work itself, on the questions that it raises.

In her address of works in Sounding Art, Norman typically identifies what she views as

central to a work's identity, or what distinguishes it. In the case of Night Traffic, Norman

identifies an ambiguous fusion of the representation of traffic and abstract musical processes.

Norman notes that, considered separately, neither the representation of traffic or the abstract

musical processes in this work are particularly interesting on their own. Norman states that the

effectiveness of this work lies in the fusion itself:

Neither of these would work alone; it is in their (literal) confusion that the lyric simile
resides. An epic field-recording of untouched traffic sounds would be too literally a
'picture' of a sound. An abstract musical work that presented a slow, aimless voice-leading
harmony would be a pleasant diversion. But the two together, offer a mutual confusion. 7

Conclusion

The above descriptions illustrate some of the ways in which the approaches considered in

this study might be applied to contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works. It has been shown



SKatharine Norman, SoundingArt: Eight Literary Excursions ;ih,. 'ili Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate
Publishing Limited, 2004), 69.









that each descriptive approach provides a different type of information, and that while each has

the potential to provide relevant information when applied to certain fixed media electroacoustic

works, none can be effectively applied to all.

A persistent feature of the above descriptions is their incompleteness. Although this is

exaggerated by the nature of this study, it highlights the inadequacy of attempting to blindly

apply analytical approaches. The incompleteness of the descriptions in this chapter also calls

attention to the need for analysis to be guided by a search for pertinences. As discussed above,

the focus of this chapter is on the illustration of ways in which the analytical approaches

considered in this study might be applied as descriptive tools. The descriptions in this chapter are

therefore purely illustrative and are not to be regarded as analyses.

As stated above, interconnection between multiple planes of discourse is often a salient

feature of fixed media electroacoustic works. It is also important to the consideration of listening

strategies. This interconnection, as well as the possibility of a comprehensive analytical approach

is considered further in Chapter 4.






The vertical axis represents the number of attacks recorded and the horizontal axis represents time in seconds.


III
11 MT III LIIFInI "' "' 1 17kinlruIMII
1 ^ 7 T M __III II


Figure 3-1. Olni Offset (excerpt) Attack Density Graph Type 2














H



M



LM

L


0:10 0:12 0:14 0:16 0:18 0:20 0:22 0:24 0:26 0:28 0:30 0:32

Time in Seconds



Figure 3-2. Olei Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:10 to 0:36


VH

H



M



LM

L


Time in Seconds


Figure 3-3. Oi,'e Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:46 to 1:20


0:34 0:36


IIIIIIIIIIII


I -\









CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION

Introduction

In this study a comparative examination and application of representative approaches to the

analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music has been presented. Elements of each of the

approaches considered in this study have been applied in multi-layered descriptions of four fixed

media electroacoustic works: O, 'ei Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt,

England (G & TSwimmers) by Antti Saario, and Night Traffic by Paul Lansky. While many

topics and analytical approaches have been addressed in this study, one important question has

yet to be considered that of the interconnection of planes of discourse in fixed media

electroacoustic music. In the following paragraphs, the principal themes of the preceding

chapters of this study are retraced. This is followed by discussion of the interconnection of

planes of discourse in fixed media electroacoustic music.

In Chapter 1 it was argued that one of the most unique qualities of fixed media

electroacoustic music lies in its potential for the accommodation of various levels of discourse

and, in particular, a possible ambiguity between these levels. It was also stated that the intention

in this study is not to put forward a universally applicable analytical framework and that the

selection of an analytical approach is best determined by the specific piece in question. In

addition, it was also asserted that an analyst should consider multiple descriptive tools.

Chapter 1 made the point that fixed media electroacoustic music presents the analyst with

specific challenges. While various writers have cited many of these challenges, this study

identifies one as being most fundamental the potential for varying degrees of representation

and abstraction and the resulting possibility for multiple levels of discourse. It was also noted

that, although a number of analytical approaches have been published, scholarship in the area of









electroacoustic music analysis is currently fragmented and that the majority of existing

approaches are narrowly focused. With the exception of Katharine Norman's approach in her

book Sounding Art, each of the approaches considered in this study are concerned with a single

plane of discourse. The approach taken in this study has been to view each of these approaches

as descriptive tools that might be employed within a comprehensive approach guided by a search

for pertinences.

The purpose of music analysis was also addressed in Chapter 1. While several possibilities

were considered, it was established that the primary purpose of analysis, as considered in this

study, lies in the exploration of the relationship between the listener/analyst's subjective

perspective and the musical "object". The descriptive approaches considered in this study can

provide a potential starting point for this exploration. This idea of "exploration" raises several

questions and a more thorough consideration of these and related issues is beyond the scope of

this study. The present objective is to present a comparative study of existing analytical

approaches and to illustrate how they might be applied as descriptive tools. Therefore for the

purpose of this study, it will simply be stated that the relationship to be explored in music

analysis is that between the "neutral level" and "esthesic processes" (as outlined by Nattiez). 1

In Chapter 2, seven sets of concepts for the description of fixed media electroacoustic

music were presented. These approaches were considered critically and were measured against

one another. It was shown that, while parallels can be drawn between many of these approaches,

each is distinct and supplies the analyst with conceptual and descriptive tools (although some

may be more useful than others) for fixed media electroacoustic music analysis.




1 Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1990).









In Chapter 3, elements of the approaches considered in Chapter 2 were applied in multi-

layered descriptions of four fixed media electroacoustic works. It was shown that each

descriptive approach yields a different type of information, and that while relevant to certain

pieces, will likely provide little or no pertinent information when applied to others. As stated

previously, a persistent feature of the descriptions in Chapter 3 is their partiality. Although the

nature of this study accentuates this partiality, it also highlights the inadequacy of an

indiscriminate application of analytical approaches. This further calls attention to the need for

analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music to be guided by a search for pertinences.

What has yet to be considered, however, is the interconnection between planes of

discourse. In order to examine existing analytical approaches in a comparative and critical

manner, it has been necessary to consider them separately up to this point. However, this

separation is only useful in terms of considering these analytical approaches as individual

descriptive tools. In the section that follows, the interconnection of planes of discourse is

considered.

Interconnection of Planes of Discourse

Plane

Before discussing the interconnection of these planes, the use of the term "plane" should

itself be considered. While the usage of this term requires some clarification, it is the most

appropriate term for a study such as this. In this study, the term "plane" concerns the various

ways in which different analytical approaches reduce a fixed media electroacoustic work. As this

study is primarily concerned with esthesic processes, these planes can also be viewed as modes

of listening or, in a sense, as esthesic "filters." For example, Smalley's spectromorphology and

Field's sonic rhetoric each consider a work from different perspectives, each reducing a work in

its own way and providing a distinct view. The term "plane" is employed here in the sense that,









as each analytical approach filters out a certain type of discourse, a certain segment of the total

possible discourse is emphasized. In the case of Smalley's space-form, for example, discourse

involving relationships within "source-bonded" spaces such as "zones" within a soundscape or of

"prospective" or "panoramic" space is filtered out.

One potential drawback of the term "plane" is that (like "level") it may imply a potential

for hierarchical ordering. This is not the intention in this study. In an analytical approach guided

by a search for pertinences, the work in question should determine what planes (if any) are

considered to be primary carriers of discourse. In this way, the term "plane" is more closely

related to the word "dimension" than to the word "level."

Interconnection

Having discussed the usage of the term "plane" in this study, and having argued for the

view that planes of discourse can be identified in fixed media electroacoustic music,

interconnection of planes of discourse can be considered. 2 The focus of this comparative study

has been on separating out planes of discourse and considering how different analytical

approaches deal with these planes. However, while the planes can often be considered separately,

there is some degree of interconnection in most cases. This is illustrated in the brief

consideration of Saario's England (G & TSwimmers) below.

While it is not so difficult to declare that planes of discourse in fixed media electroacoustic

music are often interconnected, the application of this idea is more precarious. One difficulty in

approaching the interconnection of planes of discourse is that it is problematic to attempt to

discuss this interconnection in a way that is applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic music.



2 The use of the term "interconnection" is not meant to imply that there is always a literal connection between planes
of discourse. The selection of this term is intended to reflect the relational quality of planes of discourse in most
fixed media electroacoustic music.









As stated above, application of the descriptive tools considered in the previous chapters is

possible for most fixed media electroacoustic works, but each does not always reveal relevant

information about a specific work. For example, all sounds possess spectromorphological

characteristics, and these can usually be described utilizing spectromorphological concepts and

terminology. However, this particular mode of description is not always relevant to an analysis.

For example, although a spectromorphological description of the initial ten seconds of Stollery's

Olie'r Offset would be possible (while difficult), it is doubtful that such a description would

reveal much useful information in this case. However, consideration of the potential "concrete"

significance of these opening sounds (perhaps employing concepts from Field's "sonic rhetoric"

or "landscape morphology") might be of value to analysis (illuminating elements of esthesic

processes).

As discourse is often framed by the individual fixed media electroacoustic work (instead of

by a stylistic context) 3, consideration of the interconnection between planes of discourse is

contingent on the work in question. Depending on the specific work, this interconnection might

primarily be interactive, or interdependent, or a lack of connection itself might be a primary

feature of the work. 4 For this reason, a preset step-by-step method for analysis of this music is

neither feasible nor desirable.

An awareness of the interconnection of planes of discourse (as well as an intuitive search

for pertinences) can be found in Katharine Norman's address of works in Sounding Art. In this

process, she often touches on the interconnection between planes of discourse. For example, in





3 A combination of these is often the case.
4 Other degrees or types of interconnection are, of course, also possible.









her consideration of Birds by Luigi Ceccarelli, she notes connections between morphologies and

metaphors of flight:

What was the role of that strange opening section, which started in the stratosphere but
didn't explore any flighty connections with birds, and was brief and introductory? I would
suggest that it triggered our awareness of the ground that followed. This difference
between 'up' and 'down' prepares us for a subsequent difference between 'above' and
'below.' It does so through metaphoric images from pitch, timbre and also 'effort.' 5

Norman also addresses the interconnection of planes of discourse in Lansky's Night

Traffic, noting their interdependence and its centrality to her interpretation of the work:

The sounds of traffic appear recognizable in contour, shape, pace. The representation of
traffic is transparent. Similarly the musical framework is a clear 'representation' that is
recognizable pitches, rhythm and so on. Neither of these would work alone; it is in their
(literal) confusion that the lyric simile resides. An epic field-recording of untouched traffic
sounds would be too literally a 'picture' of a sound. An abstract musical work that
presented a slow, aimless voice-leading harmony would be a pleasant diversion. But the
two together offer a mutual confusion. 6

Of course, there are other planes of discourse that might be considered. This study only

selects a few which, taken together, are representative of the mainstream of published analytical

strategies for fixed media electroacoustic music. Other planes of discourse might include the

mediation of technology, reception data (such as that in Leigh Landy's Intention/Reception

Project) or traditional concepts such as pitch and rhythm. Poietic processes (while not considered

in this study) present a range of potential planes of discourse.

Comprehensive Strategy

Is a comprehensive strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music possible?

This question has been underlying much of the discussion in this study and it has been responded

to both indirectly and in fragments. This study has dedicated significant space to criticism of


5 Katharine Norman, SoundingArt: Eight Literary Excursions ;i,, 'ili Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate
Publishing Limited, 2004), 37.
6 Ibid., 69.









analytical approaches as well as to separate consideration of individual planes of discourse.

However, while a more comprehensive approach has been suggested, it has not been discussed in

depth. In this section, the question of the plausibility of a comprehensive analytical strategy is

examined further.

As may be gleaned from the above discussion and from previous chapters, it is the

contention in this study that a single universal methodology for the analysis of fixed media

electroacoustic music is not possible or even desirable. This has been illustrated throughout this

study. It has been argued that fixed media electroacoustic music affords a range of degrees of

representation and abstraction and that this creates the potential for multiple planes of discourse.

Because such a wide range is possible, no single analytical tool (or "filter") can be applicable to

all of this music. For example, it has been illustrated that Smalley's spectromorphology (while it

is an extensive system) only focuses on certain types of discourse. While this may be relevant to

a particular work, it has been illustrated in Chapter 3 that this is not always the case. In many of

these cases, other methods of describing or conceptualizing a particular piece (such as those

concerned with "concrete" signification) are more applicable. Conversely, spectromorphology

may reveal pertinent information for another work in which other approaches such as Field's

landscape morphology might be irrelevant.

However, as has also been suggested throughout this study, a more general approach is

proposed here. This is more an overall approach than a specific methodology or model. The

overall approach suggested here has four main stages. 7 The organization of this into stages is for





7 This division into stages should not be interpreted as presenting a preset or step-by-step approach. It has been
argued above that such an approach to analysis is neither feasible or desirable. This division is intended to illustrate
aspects of a general approach to analysis which overlap in practice and are often themselves interactive.









illustration, not to necessarily prescribe a four-step process or formula for fixed media

electroacoustic music analysis. Some of these "stages" may also take place simultaneously.

Search for pertinences

The necessity of a search for pertinences has been emphasized throughout this study. As

previously stated, Francois Delalande argues that analysis should be guided by a "search for

pertinences" meaning that the analyst should be led by an attempt to uncover information that

explains or illuminates either poietic or esthesic processes. Delalande states "The specific

features of the object which are considered pertinent are those explained through compositional

strategies and choices, or those which contribute to explain certain listener responses." 8

However, in this study, no attempt is made to offer a specific method as to how exactly this

search should be conducted. This study is primarily concerned with the esthesic level and,

although Delalande suggests that there may be some consistencies between listeners, it is not

possible to prescribe precisely what elements of a piece will be esthesically pertinent to an

individual listener/analyst. Esthesic processes vary between individuals as well as between

listening. As Delalande points out, "one of the difficulties of describing music as heard is that

we never hear it twice the same way." 9

Application of descriptive tools

Guided by a search for pertinences, the appropriate descriptive tools can be employed.

Examples of application of the descriptive approaches considered in this study have been

discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. However, these descriptive approaches might be adapted or




8 Francois Delalande, "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry," Journal oJ ... '
Music Research 27 (1998): 10.

9 Ibid., 11.









applied in different ways. The discussion and application in this study is intended solely as a

starting point for analysis.

In addition, the descriptive tools appropriate to any given analytical situation are not

necessarily limited to those considered in this study. Other approaches to description of fixed

media electroacoustic are certainly possible. In addition, traditional concepts such as pitch,

rhythm, counterpoint, etc., should be employed where appropriate. The absence of these

concepts from the discussion in this study does not suggest that they are less important to fixed

media electroacoustic music analysis. However, as much has been written on the subject of

traditional analytical techniques, discussion of them here would be extraneous to the purpose of

this study.

Interconnection between planes

Depending on the nature of the piece, interconnection between planes of discourse may (in

most cases) warrant consideration. As stated above however, the way in which this is approached

is contingent on the work in question. The types of interconnection (interactive, interdependent,

juxtaposed, parallel or any other type) will vary, and the evaluation of this interconnection is also

interpretive.

It should also be added that the idea of interconnection should not be imposed on a work.

Just as it would be inappropriate to assume that all fixed media electroacoustic works should be

described using spectromorphological (or any other) concepts, it would also be inappropriate to

force the notion of interconnection between planes of discourse onto all fixed media

electroacoustic works. Interconnection should be discussed only when it is judged to be a

pertinent feature of the work. It is also argued, however, that this interconnection is a primary

distinguishing feature of much fixed media electroacoustic music and should therefore not be

disregarded.









Interpretation

Ultimately, an analysis of a fixed media electroacoustic work should illuminate something

about esthesic processes and how these processes distinguish it. In light of this study's emphasis

on esthesic processes, the interpretive process does not aim to merely represent the structure (or

"neutral level") of a work. Alternatively, the relationship between the perspective of the analyst

and the work itself is represented. Again turning to Katharine Norman's Sounding Art, her

interpretation of Talking Rain, for example, does not seek to simply represent the work itself. It

is instead a representation of her relationship to the work (her perceptions, associations,

emotional responses, and her reaction to it).

This perspective on interpretation is not atypical, but rather reflects any interpretive

situation. A pianist's interpretation of a Mozart sonata, for example, is not only a reflection of

the performer and it is not only a reflection Mozart; it is a reflection of the relationship between

both. Similarly, Katharine Norman's interpretation of Talking Rain is not a representation of

Talking Rain nor is it a representation of Katharine Norman; it is instead a representation of the

relationship between the two. Moreover, even something so ostensibly objective as a

spectrogram image is actually an interpretation. In order to obtain a "satisfactory" spectrogram

image, one must adjust analysis parameters to acquire an image to reflect what is perceived

aurally (often in an attempt to obtain "objective" verification of what is heard). Only when the

image reflects what one either wants to or actually does hear (which is really a search for

pertinences) is a spectrogram image useful.

Therefore, it is argued in this study that an analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music

should not attempt to say what a certain piece is (in terms of the neutral level), but it should

instead shed light on the esthesic processes. This is not to suggest that a work does not have a

"structure" or that structure is not important, but rather that what is important is the esthesic









processes which result from the relationship between that structure and the listener/analyst's

experience of that structure.

England (G & T Swimmers)

For a brief illustration of the stages discussed above, Antti Saario's England (G & T

Swimmers) is revisited. This analysis is partial and preliminary, focusing on the excerpt

considered in Chapter 3 (the opening two minutes and five seconds). The objective here is not to

produce a complete analysis itself, but simply to illustrate a potential application of the overall

approach described in the preceding pages.

Search for Pertinences

In initial listening, Saario's piece gives the impression of being one that involves multiple

levels of discourse. The apparent overlapping of different planes of activity (and spaces) in this

excerpt was discussed in Chapter 2 and seems to involve multiple types of interconnection. At

times these planes seem to be interactive. For example, at 1:20, when a male voice says the letter

"G!" the pitch G is sounded in a background layer. At some points however, sound events

operating on one plane carry over into another. For example, leading up to 0:45, the sounds of

ice clinking in a glass are part of the interior scene (accompanied by spoken phrases such as

"Would you like some ice in your wine?" or "Nice drink"). But following this, the "scene"

changes and these clinking sounds take on a more abstract quality. At other times, disparate

realities or planes of discourse seem to occur simultaneously but without affecting each other, as

if they are simply layered onto one another. For example, between 1:35 and 2:00 there seem to

be multiple layers, including a pitched texture, fragments of the interior scene (such as group

laughter and conversation) and layers of interior sounds. Some of these sounds, while seeming to

belong to the same scene or space, are separated from it through an unnatural presentation. For

example, the sound of someone swallowing (at 1:59) is unnaturally magnified by microphone









placement. There are also abrupt shifts in these planes. For example, at 1:30, there is an abrupt

transition in which pitched based material (similar to that previously making up the background)

is suddenly placed in the foreground. A similar example occurs at 0:45. It seems from this initial

exploration (and as was shown in Chapter 3) that activity on multiple planes of discourse and the

interconnection between these planes warrants further exploration.

Application of Descriptive Tools

In Chapter 3, several of the descriptive tools considered in this study were applied to this

excerpt and that discussion will not be duplicated here. As was illustrated in Chapter 3, the

approaches dealing with concrete meanings such as landscape morphology and sonic rhetoric

seem to be better applied to this work than those that emphasize abstract elements such as

spectromorphology or Moylan's Analytical System. In a more complete analysis, descriptive

tools dealing with pitch relationships would be employed and the intelligible speech in this

excerpt should also be considered. However, in an initial consideration, the pitch relationships in

this excerpt do not seem to be primary carriers of the discourse in themselves. Although pitch is

relatively prominent in this excerpt and is organized in a relatively logical manner, it does not

develop in a way that is of analytical significance. Returning to the search for pertinences, I

sense (subjectivity is inescapable here) that something is, in fact, quite interesting about this

piece. This leads me to consider something other than the pitch relationships alone. The

significance of the pitched material in this excerpt seems also to be more connected with the

concrete events and seems also to link planes of discourse.

Interconnection Between Planes

The interconnection between planes of discourse has been briefly considered in the above

paragraphs. Similar interconnection can be identified in other parts of this piece, and a few









additional examples are included here. In a more complete analysis however, this discussion

would be more exhaustive.

Between 2:45 and 2:52, the sounds of ice clinking in a glass (from the interior scene

presented earlier) reappear. But they have now been altered. They have been pitch-shifted and

now comprise a texture made up of densely packed iterations. Yet, they are still recognizable as

the sounds of ice clinking. They are now lying in an ambiguous area between the abstract and

concrete. It now seems more appropriate to use spectromorphological terms such as graduated

continuant or to identify an internal motion typology. But, the concrete element of these sounds

is also clear. This type of interconnection is particularly typical of fixed media electroacoustic

music.

Interconnection of this type continues to occur when soon after (at 3:06), the sound of

liquid being poured into a vessel is unambiguously presented. This is immediately followed by

varying degrees of abstraction of this sound as well as of the clinking ice sounds presented

before (continuing until approximately 3:55).

Interpretation

In this preliminary address of this excerpt, the assumptions initially stated in the search for

pertinences seem to be confirmed by further exploration. It appears that after further

consideration, there are multiple types of interconnection between planes of discourse and that

this seems to be a significant element in this piece.

This work could certainly be interpreted differently, however. The work seems to be

intended as a representation of a particular place in England (as the title suggests). This might be

interpreted in terms of dialectal montage (in some ways similar to Katharine Norman's London).

In addition, as the work unfolds, it is framed by a radio broadcast, and this invites a narrative

interpretation.









These multiple interpretive possibilities raise the notion of these four stages of analysis as

being in constant feedback with one another. A hypothetical example of the analytical process

might unfold as follows: An initial search for pertinences might lead an analyst in a particular

direction and this might yield insufficient results, leading to an unsatisfactory interpretation. At

this point, the exploration in the descriptive tools phase might lead to another idea of pertinences

to be considered. This process might continue until an interpretation is reached.

Conclusion

In the course of this comparative study, many questions pertaining to the analysis of fixed

media electroacoustic music analysis have been raised. In addition to comparison and criticism

of existing scholarship, questions of analytical objectives and methodology have been

considered. By focusing on the potential for multiple planes of discourse, this study is intended

to fill a gap in the scholarship regarding electroacoustic music analysis. There are however,

topics which cannot be dealt with sufficiently within the scope of this dissertation and warrant

further consideration.

While a thorough examination is outside of the scope of this study, the objective of

analysis should be considered further. Some views regarding the objective of analysis (such as

the argument for the importance of a search for pertinences, and the consideration of multiple

planes of discourse) have been put forth. It has been stated that the primary purpose of music

analysis lies in the exploration of the relationship between the listener/analyst's perspective and

the musical object (esthesic processes). This is another area that warrants further consideration

A preliminary overall approach has been put forth in this chapter. This is something that

should also be considered further in a future study. It should be emphasized that the four-stage

model presented in this chapter is intended merely to illustrate four main stages in analysis of

fixed media electroacoustic music. In practice they will not always be quite so separated and it is









not necessarily recommended that they be applied in a step-by-step way or in a particular order

(although interpretation will always form the final stage). These are decisions that are left to the

individual analyst and will be determined in large part by the specific work being analyzed.

While this dissertation is primarily a comparative study and is focused on the

representative approaches considered within it, it can also serve a secondary purpose. It is hoped

that this dissertation might be of use as a user's guide to electroacoustic music analysis (or as a

basic toolbox for analysis). As has been stated previously, the analytical approaches considered

here (while representing the main stream of the spectrum of published approaches) do not cover

all possibilities. There are many other possibilities. Most importantly, however, it is hoped that

the comparative examination and additional discussion in this study has provided a starting point

for further exploration.









CHAPTER 5
THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA

Three Movementsfor String Orchestra is a three movement work that explores musical

time. Each of the three movements explores this in a different way. Movement I is dominated by

an incessant and irregular ostinato that never completely establishes itself. Movement II is

characterized by both stasis and slow transformations. Movement III is rhythmically energetic

and takes the form of an irregular dance. All three movements are also characterized by the

interplay of a small group within the ensemble and the group as a whole.



Object 5-1. Three Movements for String Orchestra Score









APPENDIX
RESPONSES FROM COMPOSERS

Several additional responses to the question, "What is electroacoustic music?" are included

here. The first is from Mike McFerron, composer and director of the annual Electronic Music

Midwest festival.

"Electroacoustic" to me is simply music where electricity is a major component in the
creative process. In other words, electroacoustic music for me is music that is written
idiomatically for an electronic medium similar to [the way in which] orchestral music is
music written for the orchestra. I take the view that electroacoustics is just another
instrumental medium (that is very large and diverse). For me, the definition is broad --
narrowing the definition is really a definition of style (ie., pop vs. concert music --jazz vs.
techno -- etc....) 1

Composer Erdem Helvacioglu also provided a definition.

Electroacoustic music seems to mean the genre that is created by the processing of
recorded analog sounds, but I think it is so much more than this very general definition. I
think it is the only form of music where both the composer and the listener are urged to
listen to the very fine details of every imaginable sound. This could be the sound of a
marble rolling right near to a microphone, or the sound of a jet motor recorded from ten
meters away. All of the innovative timbre processing techniques and the wild imagination
of the composers combined with these details of sound creates the core of one of the most
exciting musical genres of the 20th and 21st century : electroacoustic music. 2

Scott Wyatt of the University of Illinois also provides this definition, which he describes as a

combination of definitions from multiple sources.

Generally speaking, electroacoustic music is music that is produced, changed or
reproduced by electronic means (as distinguished from acoustic music). However,
electroacoustic music, within the context of contemporary concert art music, refers to a
genre of music, whose compositional idea is specifically composed to require specialized
electronic means for its sonic creation, assemblage and presentation that could not be
created in any other manner.

Electroacoustic music is distinct and quite different from: electronic realizations of
traditionally performed music, any form of acoustical music receiving electronic
amplification, and any recording of traditionally performed music using electronic
amplification for playback. It incorporates the subcategories of Musique Concrete,

SMike McFerron, email message to author, April 4, 2008.
2 Erdem Helvacioglu, email message to author, April 15, 2008.










Elektronische Musik, Tape music, Synthesizer music, Computer music and various
combinations of these subcategories created for either fixed media, interactive and/or live
performance. 3


















































3 Scott Wyatt, email message to author, April 15, 2008.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Adams, Norman. "Visualization of Musical Signals." In AnalyticalMethods ofElectroacoustic
Music, edited by Mary Simoni, 13-28. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Appleton, Jon. "Electro-acoustic Music." In The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Fourth Edition,
edited by Don Michael Randel, 287-288. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press
of Harvard University Press, 2003.

Battier, Marc. "A Constructivist Approach to the Analysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art -
Between Instruments and Faktura." Organised Sound 8 (2003): 249-255.

Boehmer, Konrad. "Koenig Sound Composition -Essay." In Electroacoustic Music:
Analytical Perspectives, edited by Thomas Licata, 59-71, Wesport, Connecticut:
Greenwood Press, 2002.

Bossis, Bruno. "The Analysis of Electroacoustic Music: From Sources to Invariants." Organised
Sound 11 (2006): 101-112.

Camilleri, Lelio. "Electroacoustic Music: Analysis and Listening Processes." Sonus
Contemporary Music Materials 1 (1993): 1-13.

Couprie, Pierre. "(Re)Presenting Electroacoustic Music." Organized Sound 2 (2003): 119-123.

Decroupe, Pascal and Elena Ungeneur. "Through the Sensory Looking Glass: The Aesthetic and
Serial Foundations of Gesang der Jinglinge." In Electroacoustic Music: Analytical
Perspectives, edited by Thomas Licata, 1-39, Westport, Connecticut; Greenwood Press,
2002.

Delalande, Francois. "Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry."
Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 13-67.

Emmerson, Simon. "Composing Strategies and Pedagogy." Contemporary Music Review 3
(1989): 133-144.

Emmerson, Simon. "Crossing Cultural Boundaries Through Technology." In Music, Electronic
Media and Culture, edited by Simon Emmerson, 115-137. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing
Limited, 2000.

Emmerson, Simon, and Denis Smalley. "Electro-acoustic Music." In The New Grove Dictionary
ofMusic and Musicians, Second Edition, edited by Stanley Sadie, 59-87. London: Grove,
2001.

Emmerson, Simon. "The Relation of Language to Materials." In The Language of
Electroacoustic Music, edited by Simon Emmerson, 17-40, London: Macmillan, 1986.









Field, Ambrose. "Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects." In Music, Electronic Media
and Culture, edited by Simon Emmerson, 37-52. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited,
2000.

Gayou, Evelyne. "Analysing and Transcribing Electroacoustic Music: The Experience of the
Portraits Polychromes of GRM." Organised Sound 11 (2006): 125-129.

Hansen, Finn Egeland. Layers of Musical Meaning. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press,
2006.

Harchanko, Joseph. "Spectro-morphology and Structure: An Analysis of Gilles Gobeil's 'Le
Vertige Inconnu.'" eContact! 6 (2003): 1-16.

Hirst, David. "An Analytical Methodology for Acousmatic Music." Paper presented at the 2004
International Symposium on Music Information Retrieval, Barcelona, Spain, October 10-
15, 2004.

Hirst, David. "Developing Analysis Criteria Based on Denis Smalley's Timbre Theories." Paper
presented at the 2002 Australasian Computer Music Conference, Melbourne, Australia,
July 6-8, 2002.

Jones, Barrie, ed. The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn
Publishers, 1999.

Kane, Brian. "L Objet Sonore Maintenant: Pierre Schaeffer, Sound Objects and the
Phenomenological Reduction." Organised Sound 12 (2007): 15-24.

Kasdan, Leonard and Jon H. Appleton. "Tradition and Change: The Case of Music." In On the
Wires of Our Nerves: The Art ofElectroacoustic Music, edited by Robin Julian Heifetz,
17-27. London: Associated University Press, 1989.

Keane, David. "At the Threshold of an Aesthetic." In The Language ofElectroacoustic Music,
edited by Simon Emmerson, 98-114. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Landy, Leigh. "The Intention/Reception Project." In Analytical Methods ofElectroacoustic
Music, edited by Mary Simoni, 29-53. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Landy, Leigh. "Reviewing the Musicology of Electroacoustic Music: A Plea for Greater
Triangulation." Organised Sound 4 (1999): 61-70.

Laske, Otto. "Subscore Manipulation as a Tool for Compositional and Sonic Design." In
Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives, edited by Thomas Licata, 119-150.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002.

McNabb, Michael. "Computer Music: Some Aesthetic Considerations." In The Language of
Electroacoustic Music, edited by Simon Emmerson, 141-150. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Meyer, Leonard B. Emotion andMeaning in Music. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1956.









Meyer, Leonard B. Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1973.

Milicevic, Mladen. "Deconstructing Musical Structure." Organised Sound 3 (1998): 27-35.

Morthenson, Jan. "Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music." In On the Wires of Our Nerves:
The Art ofElectroacoustic Music, edited by Robin Julian Heifetz, 57-68. London:
Associated University Presses, 1989.

Moylan, William David. "An Analytical System for Electronic Music." PhD diss., Ball State
University, 1983.

Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music. Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Nettl, Bruno. The Study ofEthnomusicology. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Newcomb, Robert Spalding. "Music in the Air: A Theoretical Model and Software System for
Music Analysis and Composition."Organised Sound 3 (1998): 3-16.

Norman, Katharine. Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music.
Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004.

Norman, Katharine. "Telling Tales." Contemporary Music Review 10 (1994): 103-109.

Pope, Stephen Travis. "A Taxonomy of Computer Music." Contemporary Music Review 13
(1996): 137-145.

Risset, Jean-Claude. "Real-world Sounds and Simulacra in My Computer Music." Contemporary
Music Review 15 (1996): 29-47.

Roy, Stephane. "Functional and Implicative Analysis of Ombres Blanches." Journal of New
Music Research 27 (1998): 166-192.

Rudy, Paul. "Spectromorphological Diatonicism: Unlocking Style and Tonality in the Works of
Denis Smalley Through Aural Analysis." SEAMUS 16 (2003): 18-27.

Rudy, Paul. "Timbral Praxis: When a Tree Falls in the Forest is it Music?" Organised Sound 12
(2007): 5-13.

Simoni, Mary. Introduction to Analytical Methods ofElectroacoustic Music, edited by Mary
Simoni, 1-9. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Simoni, Mary H., Benjamin Broening, Christopher Rozell, Colin Meek, and Gregory H.
Wakefield. "A Theoretical Framework for Electro-acoustic Music." Paper presented at
the 1999 International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, October 22-26,
1999.









Slawson, Wayne. "Sound Structure and Musical Structure: The Role of Sound Color." In
Structure and Perception ofElectroacoustic Sound and Music, edited by Soren Nielzon,
13-23. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1989.

Sloboda, John A. "Music Psychology and the Composer." In Structure andPerception of
Electroacoustic Sound andMusic, edited by Soren Nielzon, 3-12. Amsterdam: Excerpta
Medica, 1989.

Smalley, Denis. "Problems of Materials and Structure in Electro-Acoustic Music." EMAS 1
(1981): 1-16.

Smalley, Denis. "Space-form and the Acousmatic Image." Organised Sound 12 (2007): 35-58.

Smalley, Denis. "Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes." OrganisedSound2 (1997):
107-127.

Smalley, Denis. "Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes." In The Language of
Electroacoustic Music, edited by Simon Emmerson, 61-93. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Truax, Barry. "Soundscape, Acoustic Communication and Environmental Sound Composition."
Contemporary Music Review 15 (1996): 49-65.

Windsor, William Luke. "A Perceptual Approach to the Description and Analysis of Acousmatic
Music." PhD diss., City University, 1995.

Windsor, William Luke. "Through and Around the Acousmatic: The Interpretation of
Electroacoustic Sounds." In Music Electronic Media and Culture, edited by Simon
Emmerson, 7-32. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000.

Wishart, Trevor. "Sound Symbols and Landscapes." In The Language ofElectroacoustic Music,
edited by Simon Emmerson, 41-60. London: Macmillan, 1986.

Young, John. "Imagining the Source: The Interplay of Realism and Abstraction in
Electroacoustic Music." Contemporary Music Review 15 (1992): 73-93.

Young, John. "Practice, Process and Aesthetic Reflection in Electroacoustic Music." Organised
Sound 12 (2007): 1-3.

Young, John. "Reflections on Sound Image Design in Electroacoustic Music." Organised Sound
12 (2007): 25-33.

Young, John. "Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electroacoustic Music."
Organised Sound 9 (2004): 7-14.

Zattra, Laura. "Analysis and Analyses of Electroacoustic Music."
http://smc.afimasso.org/smc05/papers/LauraZattra/LZanalysis.pdf (accessed October 16,
2007).









Zattra, Laura. "The Identity of the Work: Agents and Processes of Electroacoustic Music."
Organised Sound 11 (2006): 113-118.

Zattra, Laura. "Searching for Lost Data: Outlines of Aesthetic Poeitic Analysis." Organised
Sound 9 (2004): 35-46.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Tim Reed graduated with a B.A. in creative music technologies from LaGrange College

in 1999 and subsequently attended the Dallas Sound Lab School for the Recording Arts in the

Fall of 2000. Tim completed his M.M. in composition/theory at Illinois State University in 2004.

Tim has received awards in the Goliard Ensemble Composition Competition, the LaGrange

Symphony Young Artist Composition Competition, and the 2004 Pedrick-Hutson Guitar Duo

Commission Contest. His music has been performed at various festivals and concerts including

Music '04 (Cincinnati Conservatory), the University of Nebraska at Kearney New Music Festival

2004, the 2005 Nong Project, SEAMUS, Electronic Music Midwest, the International Double

Reed Society Conference, the Kentucky New Music Festival, FEASt, CHASM, and the Florida

Electroacoustic Music Festival. Tim's works have also been programmed by the string orchestra,

R20 in Wroclaw, Poland, and by the 2007 60 x 60 Project. In October of 2003, Tim composed a

score for the WIP Studios film, "Prison-a-Go-Go!", which has received several awards including

"Best Feature Film" in the Backseat Film Festival. His compositions have been featured on

numerous radio programs including Foldover (Oberlin, Ohio), Difficult Listening (Perth,

Australia), Furthernoise Radio (Bristol, UK) and No Pigeonholes (San Francisco, California).

Tim's compositions have been published by Trevco Music and Lonely Whistle.





PAGE 1

1 I.PLANES OF DISCOURSE IN FIXE D MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AND APPLICAT ION OF ANALYTICAL APPROACHES AND II. THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA By TIM REED A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Tim Reed

PAGE 3

3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Dr. Jam es Paul Sain for his support a nd mentoring throughout th is process. I would also like to thank Dr. Paul Ri chards, Dr. Paul Koonce, Dr. Larry Crook and Dr. Scott Nygren for all of their support and feedback.

PAGE 4

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................3LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................8LIST OF OBJECTS.........................................................................................................................9ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12Definition of Terms................................................................................................................13Definition of Electroacoustic Music................................................................................ 13Definitions................................................................................................................14Asking......................................................................................................................15Observing.................................................................................................................17Definition of Fixed Media Electroacoustic Music....................................................... 17Individual Listening Context........................................................................................... 17Study Objectives and Purpose................................................................................................ 18Specific Challenges Presented by Fi xed Media Electroacoustic Works......................... 18Multiple Planes of Discourse........................................................................................... 21Multiplicity of Existing Analytical Approaches.............................................................. 22Why Analyze This Music?.............................................................................................. 23Potential Goals in the Analysis of Fixed Media Electoacoustic Music...................23Personal Anecdote.................................................................................................... 24Esthesic Analysis: Poietic Analysis......................................................................... 25Note on Terminology...............................................................................................27Summary.................................................................................................................................272 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REPRESENTATIVE APPROACHES TO THE ANAL YSIS OF FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC....................................... 28Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........28William David Moylan: An Analytical System for Electronic Music................................... 28Denis Smalleys Spectromorphology..................................................................................... 33Spectral Types.................................................................................................................36Morphological Models.................................................................................................... 37Motion Types...................................................................................................................38Spectral-space Settings....................................................................................................39Gesture-carried and Textur e-carried Structuring............................................................. 40Structural Functions......................................................................................................... 41

PAGE 5

5 Critique of Morphological Analysis................................................................................ 42Stphane Roys Functional and Implicative Approach....................................................... 44Category of Orientation................................................................................................... 47Category of Strafication.................................................................................................. 48Rhetorical Category......................................................................................................... 48Rhythmic Category.......................................................................................................... 49Ambrose Field: Landscape Morphology................................................................................ 50Ambrose Field: Sonic Rhetoric.............................................................................................. 54Denis Smalley: Space Form....................................................................................................58Katharine Norman: Listening Journal.................................................................................... 62Conclusion..............................................................................................................................663 APPLICATION OF THE APPROACHES CONSIDERED I N THIS STUDY.................... 70Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........70Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery.................................................................................................. 71Pitch Contour Graph........................................................................................................72Spectromorphological Description.................................................................................. 72Landscape Morphology................................................................................................... 74Sonic Rhetoric.................................................................................................................76Private Play by Scott Wyatt................................................................................................... 77Roys Functional and Implicative Approach................................................................... 78Space-form......................................................................................................................79Spectromorphology......................................................................................................... 80England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario.......................................................................... 81Landscape Morphology................................................................................................... 81Sonic Rhetoric.................................................................................................................83Spectromorphology......................................................................................................... 84Night Traffic by Paul Lansky..................................................................................................85Space-form......................................................................................................................85Landscape Morphology................................................................................................... 87Sonic Rhetoric.................................................................................................................87Normans Discussion of Night Traffic ............................................................................88Conclusion..............................................................................................................................884 CONCLUSION..................................................................................................................... ..92Introduction................................................................................................................... ..........92Interconnection of Planes of Discourse..................................................................................94Plane................................................................................................................................94Interconnection................................................................................................................95Comprehensive Strategy.........................................................................................................97Search for pertinences..................................................................................................... 99Application of descriptive tools....................................................................................... 99Interconnection between planes.................................................................................... 100Interpretation................................................................................................................. 101England (G & T Swimmers) .................................................................................................102

PAGE 6

6 Search for Pertinences................................................................................................... 102Application of Descriptive Tools.................................................................................. 103Interconnection Between Planes....................................................................................103Interpretation................................................................................................................. 104Conclusion............................................................................................................................1055 THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA...................................................... 107 APPENDIX: RESPONSES FROM COMPOSERS.................................................................... 108LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................110BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................115

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1. Spectromorphologi cal Description of Onset/Offse t (excerpt)...............................................73

PAGE 8

8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1. Moylan Pitch Contour Graph.............................................................................................682-2. Moylan Attack Density Graph Type 2............................................................................... 693-1. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Attack Density Graph Type 2........................................................903-2. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:10 to 0:36............................................... 913-3. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:46 to 1:20............................................... 91

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF OBJECTS Object page 5-1. Three Movements for String Orchestra Score ...................................................................... 107

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy I. PLANES OF DISCOURSE IN FIXE D MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AND APPLICAT ION OF ANALYTICAL APPROACHES AND II. THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA By Tim Reed May 2008 Chair: James Paul Sain Major: Music Part I of this study presents a comparative examination and applica tion of representative approaches to the analysis of fixed media elect roacoustic music. Electroacoustic works for fixed media present particular challenges for analys is, thereby warranting a specific analytical approach. Although there are a number of identifiabl e elements that can be said to distinguish fixed media electroacoustic music from other t ypes of music, this study is conducted from the perspective that most fundamental is the potential for multiple planes of discourse. There have been numerous analytical stra tegies published by scholars in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. However, while many of these strategies effectively illuminate activity within certain planes of discourse, none deal comprehe nsively with the interconnection between these planes. The present study combines el ements of several representative analytical methodologies in a multi-layered approach. The purpose of analysis (as considered in this study) is to explore the relationship between the listener/analysts subjective perspec tive and the musical object. Therefore, rather than seeking to produce an authoritative analytic al product, this study seek s to develop an overall

PAGE 11

11 strategy for the analysis of fixe d media electroacoustic music. In this way, this study fills a gap in the existing scholarship dealing with electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 1 outlines the intentions of this study and considers the state of scholarship in the area of electroacoustic music analysis. Chapter 2 is comprised of the comparative study itself, which is followed in Chapter 3 by the application of elements of the approaches considered in this study to four contrasting fixed media electro acoustic works. Chapter 4 considers the findings in Chapters 2 and 3, addressing the potential fo r (and ramifications of) interconnection between planes of discourse and also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Part II of this study is comprised of a th ree movement composition for string orchestra.

PAGE 12

12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This study presents a comparative examin ation and application of representative approaches to the analysis of fixed media elect roacoustic music and combines elements of these approaches in multi-layered descriptions of four fixed media electroacoustic works: Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt, England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario, and Night Traffic by Paul Lansky. Chapter 1 outlines the inte ntions for this study and considers the state of scholarship in the ar ea of electroacoustic music anal ysis. Chapter 2 comprises the comparative study itself, which is followed in Chapter 3 by a multi-layere d application of the approaches studied to the four above-mentioned works. Chapter 4 considers the findings in Chapters 2 and 3 and addresses the potential fo r (and ramifications of) interconnection between planes of discourse. Chapter 4 also considers the benefits and drawbacks of a comprehensive strategy for the analysis of fi xed media electroacoustic music. Electroacoustic works for fixed media present specific challenges for analysis. There have been many analytical approaches published by sc holars in the field and each addresses these challenges differently. As there is a multiplicity of aesthetics represented within the medium, no single analytical strategy can be applied to all fixed media el ectroacoustic music. This study focuses on the potential in fixed media electroaco ustic music for multiple planes of discourse. One of the qualities unique to fi xed media electroacoustic music is its potential to accommodate various levels of discourse simultaneously and, in particular, the potential ambiguities between them. This study examines ways in which existing analytical approaches treat these planes and argues for a comprehensive approach guided by a search for pertinences. 1 1 The phrase search for pertinences is borrowed from Delalande and further discussed below. Franois Delalande, Music Analysis and Reception Beha viours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry, Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998).

PAGE 13

13 Although this dissertation could conceivably pr ovide a starting point for the development of an analytical methodology, the intention in th is study is not to put forward a universally applicable analytical framework. The selection of an analytical approach is best determined by the specific piece in question. Ther efore, the primary purpose of the descriptions in Chapter 3 is to illustrate ways in which the approaches stud ied deal with certain pl anes of discourse. While the result of these analyses might prove to be fr uitful, or in some ways illuminating, the approach taken in Chapter 3 is not offered as a step-b y-step analytical met hod. It is, however, the contention in this study that multiple analytical tools should be considered in any analysis, and the descriptions in Chapter 3 illustrate ways in which some of these might be applied. Definition of Terms As this dissertation deals with analytical approaches to fixed media electroacoustic music, a working definition of th e material studied is needed. 2 Definition of Electroacoustic Music The term electroacoustic music has a wide range of meanings and usages. It is therefore necessary to consider the meaning of the term as it is applied in this study and to establish a working definition. The following disc ussion is not intended to be exhaustive, but merely to be illustrative of the variety of existing ideas regarding the meaning of the term electroacoustic music and to es tablish a working definition. In The Study of Ethnomusicology Bruno Nettl advances a framework for establishing definitions: In a complex society one may find definitions in at least three ways: by asking the societys own expert, who ha s thought about it long and hard (that is, perhaps, by looking in the dictionary); by asking me mbers of the society at large in order to determine whether 2 This preliminary discussion of the term, electroacoustic music, while admi ttedly lengthy, is necessary in order to illustrate the various ways in which the term is used.

PAGE 14

14 there is a consensus (possibly using a questi onnaire and distributing it widely); and by observing what people do and listening to what they say without imposing ones self on their thoughts by asking questions 3 In the following paragraphs, this framework is applied to electroacoustic music. Beginning with the first component of Nettl s framework, examples of definitions taken from music dictionaries are presented.4 For the second part of Nettl s framework, definitions of the term electroacoustic music were solicited fr om a number of indivi duals active within the field. Continuing with part three, additional observations are added. Definitions In the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Simon Emmerson and Denis Smalley define electroacoustic music in the following way: Music in which electronic tec hnology, now primarily compute r-based, is used to access, generate, explore and co nfigure sound materials, and in which loudspeakers are the prime medium of transmission. There are two main genres. Acousmatic music is intended for loudspeaker listening and exists only in recorded tape form (tape, compact disk, computer storage). In live electronic music the technology is used to generate, transform or trigger sounds (or a combination of these) in the act of performance; this may include generating sound with voices and traditional instruments, electroacoustic instruments, or other devices and controls linked to com puter-based systems. Both genres depend on loudspeaker transmission, and an electroacoustic work can combine acousmatic and live elements. 5 The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music provides no discrete en try for "electroacoustic music." Instead, the listener is directed to "see acousmatic music," which is given the following definition: 3 Bruno Nettl, The Study of Ethnomusicology (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 16. 4 In the case of electroacoustic music, the distinction betw een the first two parts of Ne ttls framework is blurred by the fact that the electroacoustic music society is largely comprised of specialists (composers, teachers, researchers, etc.) in the field. 5 Simon Emmerson and Denis Smalley, Electro-acoustic Music, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Second Edition ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Grove, 2001) 59-87.

PAGE 15

15 music in which the composer uses electroni c or computer-based means to shape sounds directly, without the use of not ation or performers. The origin al sounds may be recorded or synthesized, or both. More or less synony mous with electroacoustic music. 6 In The Harvard Dictionary of Music Fourth Edition, Jon Appleton also offers a definition: Electro-acoustic music Music that is produced, modifi ed or reproduced by electronic means, including computer hardware and soft ware, and that makes creative use of those technologies. The character of electro-acoustic music depends to some degree on the technology employed, but the term refers to the medium and not a specific style of music.... 7 The above definitions suggest that electroacoustic music refers more to a medium than a particular style, aesthetic, or approach to compos ition. In the case of Appletons definition, this is stated explicitly. 8Although this is a legitimate view, its scop e is too broad for a useful analytical approach. However, attempting to narrow this de finition creates problems. Therefore, while its broad scope is recognized, the first of the above definitions (that of Simon Emmerson and Denis Smalley) forms the basis of the definition of th e term electroacoustic music as it is applied in this study. Asking For part two of Nettls scheme, individuals act ive within the field (such as composers, curators of radio programs, reviewers or dire ctors of websites which feature electroacoustic music) were asked to define th e term electroacoustic music. 9 As mentioned above, this small sampling is not intended to be an exhaustive survey. The present objective is simply to illustrate the wide range of prevailing conceptions of th e meaning of the term electroacoustic music. 6 Barrie Jones, ed., The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999) 4. 7 Jon Appleton, Electro -acoustic Music, in The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Fourth Edition ed. Don Michael Randel (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003) 287-288. 8 In the remainder of his entry, Appleton goes on to discu ss specific styles and genres within electroacoustic music. 9 Individuals were asked to briefly describe their idea of the meaning of the term electroacoustic music. It was specified that informal and spontaneous responses were preferred.

PAGE 16

16 Don Campau, curator of the San Francisco-based radio program No Pigeonholes10, which regularly features electroacoustic music, provides the following definition: To me, "electroacoustic music" means electr onic music derived from acoustic means or acoustic music derived from electronic means (a nd of course, any combination of the two). It's a broad scope that can cover Xenakis "Persepolis" and the work s of Francisco Lopez to so-called "laptoppers" such as Fennesz, Chris Watson and Greg Davis.11 Bryce Moore, co-host of the radio program Difficult Listening, 12 also responded: I have always thought of the term "electroac oustic" as covering a rather generic area of sound produced by electricity, as the term might suggest. To me, it has always described a technique of producing sound, rather than a stylistic definition. There are many overlapping and often interlocking areas of new music that forestall a ny rigid definition of "electroacoustic." I think the term "electroacoustic" pred ated "electronic", but is probably now interchangeable with it. When you actually list en to the music, it is so varied and multifaceted that it is impossibl e to have an overarching definition apart from one that refers to the technique, which may in th e end not mean much. Electroacoustic music includes the ear-torturing hard feedback of Merzbow as well as the delicate sonic filigrees of some of Robert Normandeau's wor k, and what do they have in common? 13 The above responses evidence the diversity of ideas regarding the meaning of the term electroacoustic music. Both Campau and Moore refer to the broad rang e of potential meanings in their responses. However, while both Campau and Moore cite specifi c artists, suggesting a stylistic range of what they regard as electroa coustic music, neither is prepared to offer a specific definition.14 Several additional responses are included in the Appendix to this dissertation. 10 No Pigeonholes is broadcast on KKUP 91.5 FM in San Francisco 11 Don Campau, e-mail message to author, July 3, 2007. 12 Difficult Listening is broadcast on RTRFM in Perth, Australia. 13 Bryce Moore, e-mail message to author, July 4, 2007. 14 Laura Zattra also notes the variety of subgenres within electroacoustic music: fro m tape music to computer music, from concrete music to mixed mu sic, live electronic music, laptop musi c, etc. Laura Zattra, Analysis and Analyses of Electroacoustic Music, http://smc.afi masso.org/smc05/papers/LauraZattra/LZanalysis.pdf.

PAGE 17

17 Observing Continuing with the third part of Net tls framework, one observation is added. As considered in this study, electroacoustic music generally exists in relation to the western art music tradition. Although this relation may be tangential in some cases, composers of electroacoustic music almost invariably have some connection to the university system and have a background and training in the western art music tradition. In this way, electroacoustic music as consid ered in this dissertation is differentiated from music that is often referred to as electr oacoustic music but is more closely related to popular music genres (such as Intelligent Da nce Music). The motivation for making this distinction is to focus this study and avoid an overly broad approach. Th e intention is not to exclude these forms of music from consideration as electroacous tic music, or to in any way discount them. In addition, this differentiation is a very general one, however, and there is a great deal of overlap. Definition of Fixed Medi a Electroacoustic Music Having established a working definition of electroacoustic music, the term fixed media electroacoustic music simply refers to el ectroacoustic works that are experienced through playback from a fixed source, su ch as analog tape, compact disc, or any of a variety of digital formats. The motivation for using this term and not the better established acousmatic music is simply to avoid confusion with a single school of composition. Individual Listening Context The scope of this project is limited to works that are intended for i ndividual listening in stereo. The performance of fixe d media electroacoustic works in concert and their diffusion over multiple loudspeakers presents a wide range of analyt ical issues and is best dealt with elsewhere. In addition, the individual listen ing context is a valid and genera lly accepted way of experiencing

PAGE 18

18 fixed media electroacoustic music. The individua l listening context considered in this project consists of stereo playback over near-field monitors.15 Study Objectives and Purpose Specific Challenges Presented by Fixed Media Electroacoustic Works Many authors have noted specific analyti cal challenges presented by electroacoustic music, 16 and in the following paragraphs, some exam ples of these are given. For example, Jan Morthenson draws a clear separati on between electronic and tra ditional music stating that electronic music has no natural connection to ordinary music what soever; its sound-material did not develop from traditional music and is conseq uently not from the beginning conceived with musical elements. 17 In addition, David Hirst refers to the distinctive nature of the acousmatic medium saying that, while traditional musical re lationships may be found in acousmatic music, there can also be unique abstra ct relationships between the soni c attributes of sounds and the perceiver of those sonic attri butes that we dont find in traditional instrumental music. 18 Various writers identify surface elements th at distinguish electr oacoustic music from other musical types. For example, in his Analytical System for Electronic Music William David Moylan's primary argument is that electronic music has a n ew topography (a new set of surface features and constructi onal conceptions) and that a "n ew" analytical approach is 15 In this study, analysis and analytical approaches are considered in terms of an idealized listening situation, although this is not always practical. Denis Smalley discus ses ramifications of varying listening perspectives in his Space Form and the Acousmatic Image. Denis Sm alley, Space-form and the Acousmatic Image, Organised Sound 12 (2007): 35-58. 16 For example, Mary H. Simoni, Benjamin Broening, Christopher Rozell, Colin Meek and Gregory H. Wakefield state that analysis of electro-acoustic music, presents an array of problems not present in the analysis of Western tonal and post-tonal music. Mary H. Simoni et al.,A Th eoretical Framework for Elec tro-acoustic Music (paper presented at the 1999 International Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, October 22-26, 1999). 17 Jan Morthenson, Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music, in On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music ed. Robin Julian Heifetz (London: Associ ated University Pr esses, 1989), 61. 18 David Hirst, An Analytical Methodology for Acousmat ic Music (paper presented at the 2004 International Symposium on Music Information Retrieval, Barcelona, Spain, October 10-15, 2004).

PAGE 19

19 necessary. 19 Moylan identifies four primary characteristics of the "new topography" in electronic music: "(1) An increased aural complexity...(2)...an equal em phasis of all musical parameters...(3) 'unfamiliar' sounds, resources and origins, and (4)...a decentralization of structural goals."20 One of the most readily apparent el ements of this new topography is a relative emphasis placed on timbre in electroacoustic music. Sim on Emmerson notes that timbre has taken on an increasingly emic role ove r time particularly for the composer of electroacoustic music. 21 Much of Denis Smalley's theoretical work also deals with the "new topography" 22 in fixed media electroacoustic music. In an early article, Spectro-mor phology and Structuring Processes, he portrays the development of western musi c in the twentieth century in terms of a historic bifurcation in musical language, with tonality on one side and the other half represented by spectro-morphology. 23 Smalley notes the lack of sufficient analyt ical concepts and terminology as "the most serious problem in discussing the structure of electro-acoustic music." 24 In several articles, Smalley has formulated an involved system of morphological archetypes, spectral typologies, motion types, etc. These concepts deal with identifying and cla ssifying elements and relationships in the structure of electroacoustic music. Smalley put s forth a set of concepts (using 19 William David Moylan, An Analytical System for Electronic Music (PhD diss., Ball State University,1983), 2. 20 Ibid., 9. 21 Simon Emmerson, Crossing Cultural Boundaries Through Technology, in Music, Electronic Media and Culture, ed. Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2000), 127. 22 Smalley, of course, does not use this term. 23 Denis Smalley, Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 61. 24 Denis Smalley, Problems of Materials and Structure in Electro-Acoustic Music, EMAS 1 (1981): 1.

PAGE 20

20 Schaeffers solfege as a point of departur e) that approach the co mposition and analysis of electroacoustic music from a spectra l and morphological perspective. Other writers cite the lack of a prescriptiv e score for fixed media electroacoustic works. Norman Adams states that traditional analysis is based on a notated score (using traditional western notation) and that the score assumes that the music can be abstracted to a sequence of isolated events, or notes." 25 Adams argues that this kind of abstraction cannot be applied to the bulk of fixed media electroacousti c music. John Young also addresses this point, stating that the electroacoustic medium has to a considerable ex tent obviated the need for traditional or even non-traditional scores and that analytical strategies must be based solely on aural perception.26 In addition, Thomas Licata cites th e lack of a traditionally notate d score as a primary challenge in the analysis of electroacoustic music.27 A contrasting view refers to the lack of an established canon or historical tradition for the relatively young electroacousti c medium. Bruno Bossis states that, While the analytic methodology of older or better-referenced music benefits from a large corpus and numerous studies, the same cannot be said for mu sic linked to electronic instruments. 28 Jan Morthenson echoes this, attributing many of th e issues discussed in his Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music to the lack of an estab lished historical tradition in elec tronic music. Morthenson states 25 Norman Adams, Visualizati on of Musical Signals in Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music .Mary Simoni, Editor. (New York: Routledge, 2006), 2. 26 John Young, Practice, Process and Aest hetic Reflection in Electroacoustic Music, Organised Sound 12 (2007): 1. 27 A desire for a score is represented by the suggested use of a surrogate score (a time-frequency representation of the audio signal) as an aid for listening analysis by Mary H. Simoni, Benjamin Broeni ng, Christopher Rozell, Colin Meek, Gregory H. Wakefield in A Th eoretical Framework for Electro-Acoustic Music. Mary H. Simoni et al.,A Theoretical Framework for Electro-acoustic Music (paper presented at the 1999 Inte rnational Computer Music Conference, Beijing, China, October 22-26, 1999). 28 Bruno Bossis, The Analysis of Electroacoustic Music: From Sources to Invariants, Organised Sound 11(2006): 101.

PAGE 21

21 that, We encounter important aesthetic dilemmas in electronic music just because so little has amalgamated with it in its relative ly short time of existence. 29 The views expressed in the preceding para graphs support the notion that fixed media electroacoustic music presents the analyst with an array of specific challenges. However these statements fail to address a more central underlying issue. 30 It is the contenti on in this study that the most fundamental (potential) difference between fixed media electroacoustic music and other types, such as instrumental music, is in the po tential for both representati on and abstraction. This potential in fixed media electroacoustic musi c affords multiple levels of discourse. Multiple Planes of Discourse Because a wide range of types of sound materials can be used in fixed media electroacoustic music, things and events that would otherwise be outside of the scope of traditional musical discourse can be directly refe renced. For example, an unaltered recording of a door being unlocked or the sound of a baby crying become potential materials in a fixed media electroacoustic work. In instrument al music, however, this kind of direct refe rence is much more difficult. For example, Mendelssohns imitatio n of the sound of a donkey braying in his music for A Midsummer Nights Dream or Beethovens imitation of bird sounds in his Pastoral Symphony are indirect references. This is quite di fferent than Hildegard Westerkamps use of relatively un-manipulated record ings of rain in her piece Talking Rain, or Pete Stollerys inclusion of recordings of street noise in his Onset/Offset While the Mendelssohn and Beethoven 29 Jan Morthenson, Aesthetic Dilemmas in Electronic Music, in On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music ed. Robin Julian Heifetz (London: Associ ated University Pr esses, 1989), 66. 30 Moreover, a number of these issues ar e also applicable to approaches to th e analysis of examples of post-tonal instrumental music. For example, the criteria of Moylans new topography could certainly be applied to instrumental compositions by Kaija Saariaho.

PAGE 22

22 cases make indirect reference through resemblance, the electroacoustic medium allows Westerkamp and Stollery to reference these sounds/events in a direct way. These sounds can also be altered and/or co mbined in a virtually unlimited number of ways so that any sound that can be captured or created becomes poten tial material for fixed media electroacoustic music. Because of this, a wi de range of relationships is possible in fixed media electroacoustic music. In addition, many of these relationships can occur simultaneously, resulting in multiple planes of discourse. Of c ourse, which of these types of relationships might be found in a piece will vary, giving rise to the need for multiple analytical tools. Multiplicity of Existing Analytical Approaches As stated above, many writers have noted the range of specific analytical challenges presented by fixed media electro acoustic music. As a result, it is not surprising that a diverse collection of analytical approaches has emer ged. Although the body of schol arship dealing with the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music is not fully developed, a number of contrasting analytical approaches have been published. Following a survey of this literature, it is immediately clear that the scholarship in this area is fragmented and most of the analytical approaches are narrowly focused. Most of the existing analytical strategies for fixed medi a electroacoustic music focus on one plane of discourse. For example, Denis Smalleys spec tromorphological approach focuses on imagined intrinsic qualities, attempting to ignore all external or referen tial significati on. At the same time, Ambrose Field proposes an analytical st rategy that focuses on rh etorical analysis of referential meanings in fixed media electroacous tic music. Each of these approaches reduces a work differently. In itself, this situation does not necessar ily present a problem. All analysis involves reduction, and any analytical tool will inevitably reduce a work in a certain way. A universally

PAGE 23

23 applicable analytical framework is probably not possible, or desirable. The fact that existing analytical approaches are narrowly focused is not a drawback if they are viewed as providing a set of descriptive tools. Why Analyze This Music? Potential Goals in the Analysis of Fixed Media Electoaco ustic Music There are various potential goals for the anal ysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. Laura Zattra lists six categories: the preservation of a musical heritage; the drawing of graphical scores for helping the listening [ sic ]; the production of automatic scores for helping the musicologist in the investigation of structural dimensions automatic classification of electro acoustic music for web searches; definition of analytical detailsin order to define [the musics] human and technological dimensions; aesthetical definition of the electroacoustic arborescent object, its dimensions and inner associations. 31 The above categories are only a partial repres entation of the numer ous potential goals for the analysis of fixed media el ectroacoustic music. Additional examples include Leigh Landys Intention/Reception project, which incorporates analysis as part of reception studies for the purpose of investigating the accessibility of electroacoustic music as well as William David Moylans stated goal of increasing accessibility. While not in conflict with the above goals, the purpose of anal ysis as considered in this dissertation is concerned more with the relatio nship between the listener/analysts subjective perspective and the musical object. The primar y purpose of analyzing music is to explore this 31 Laura Zattra, The Identity of the Work: Ag ents and Processes of Electroacoustic Music, Organised Sound 11 (2006): 113.

PAGE 24

24 relationship. This exploration must also be guided by a search for pertinences. The phrase search for pertinences is taken from Franois Delalandes Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours. 32 From Delalandes perspective, pertinent information is information that is relevant to the explanation or exploration of either poietic or esthesic processes (discussed below). Personal Anecdote As an extra credit ques tion on a recent ex am, I asked my undergraduate music theory students to respond to the question, What is the poi nt of analyzing music? The majority of the answers essentially stated that the purpose of analysis is to better understand the music. But when I followed up with the question, Wha t does it mean to understand music? the responses were less clear. In the case of traditional Western tonal music, do we better understand the music after completing a roman num eral analysis? Or, similarly, do we better understand Ligetis Artikulati on after studying Wehringers lis tening score? What do these analytical tools tell us? The question, What does analysis tell us? is perhaps too broad to be dealt with adequately in this dissertation. But whether or not analysis can tell us anything specifically, the perspective from which this study is conducted id entifies one primary purpos e in the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. While ag ain not opposing many of the potential goals identified above by Zattra and ot hers, it is argued in this study that the primary purpose of music analysis is to explore the relationship betw een the subjective perspective and the musical object. 32 Franois Delalande, Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry, Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 19.

PAGE 25

25 A similar viewpoint can be found in the sc holarship of Mladen Milicevic. Milicevic deconstructs the belief that the meaning of musi c lies within its structure and argues that, the meaning is not located in the mu sical object (the piece), nor is it exclusively in the mind of the perceiver (human), but rather lies in the relationship between the two. 33 Although she does not propose an analytical m odel, Katharine Norman makes a statement that is compatible with the id ea that the purpose of analysis li es in exploring the relationship between the subjective experience and the object. She argues that the listener's "creative" listening is as essential as the composer's own in terpretation and that, in realworld music, "this creativity of reception is encouraged by the experiential quality of the material." 34 These statements are also applicable to the analysis of instrumental music. The fundamental goal of analysis is the same for bot h instrumental and electroacoustic music. The difference, however, lies in what tools are appropriate. As suggested earlier (and by various other writers), there are many cases in which the application of traditional analytical approaches to a fixed media electroacoustic work is either inappropriate or incomplete. 35 Although different tools are needed, the fundamental goal of analysis is the same. Esthesic Analysis: Poietic Analysis The distinction between esthes ic and poietic analysis is a particularly important element in the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic musi c. Poietic analysis focuses on the processes of creation and on internal structure. This is in opposition to esthesic analysis, which focuses on aural perception. An example of a poietic analysis is Pascal Decroupet and Elena Ungeheuers 33 Mladen Milicevic, Deconstructing Musical Structure, Organised Sound 3 (1998): 27. 34 Katherine Norman, Telling Tales, Contemporary Music Review 10 (1994): 107. 35 However, there are also many cases where traditional anal ytical approaches (such as those focusing on pitch or counterpoint) should not be excluded from an alysis of a fixed media electroacoustic work.

PAGE 26

26 analysis of Stockhausens Gesang der Jnglinge Marc Battier also take s a poietic approach in A Constructivist Approach to the Analysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art Between Instruments and Faktura. He states that, analys is can be carried out through knowledge of the sound-producing systems and by the close study of the manner in which they are embedded in the composing 36 Lelio Camilleri is critical of poietic approaches to analysis of electroacoustic music: It has been stated that not the score but the sc ores, in much of synthetic music for example, represent an important source because they contain sonological information on the work itself. This statement seems a bit rash to me because scores contain acoustic data which often do not coincide with the performance of the sound phenomena as our ears perceive it 37 Simon Emmerson also finds fault with overemp hasis on the poietic side of analysis. In Composing Strategies and Pedagogy, he argues th at a change in the poietic model is only significant if it results in a ch ange in the esthesic model. Although poietic analysis may be informative and useful in some contexts, this study focuses on esthesic analysis because, for the mo st part, fixed media electroacoustic music is intended for listening without the aid, frame, or shadow cast by the composers creative process and statements of intent, motiviation, or insp iration. Many analyses of computer music in particular emphasize the computer score, and others often focus on the composers sketches. These materials provide certain information, but these poietic texts do not necessarily reflect the phenomenological experience. 36 Marc Battier, A Constructivist Approach to the An alysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art Between Instruments and Faktura, Organised Sound 8 (2003): 252. 37 Lelio Camilleri, Electroacoustic Musi c: Analysis and Listening Processes, Sonus Contemporary Music Materials 1 (1993): 3.

PAGE 27

27 Note on Terminology As this stud y deals with multiple approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music, multiple terms for the abstract and concrete elements of sound are encountered. To avoid confusion and to avoid becoming entangled in continual discussion of terms, the terms abstract and concrete w ill be used throughout this study to de signate what is often referred to as intrinsic extrinsic, musical extramus ical, aural mimetic, etc. Where these and other sets of terms are encountered, they will be replaced with abstract and concrete in this study. None of these sets of terms (including the pair used in this study) is without problems, and it is not suggested here that there are not subtle differences between them. However, the essential meaning of all of these pairs of terms is the same, and the consistency afforded by adhering to one of these pairs is needed in a study such as this. Summary The above discussion has attempted to show that fixed media electroacoustic music presents specific challenges for analysis and that its primary disti nguishing feature is the potential for multiple planes of discourse. While there are many existing analytical approaches, none of them, on their own, provide a complete pi cture. Multiple descriptive tools should be considered in any analysis, and this dissertation provides a starting po int through a comparative study of several representative approaches. In th e following chapters, the analytical approaches discussed above will be considered in mo re detail and applied in Chapter 3 to four contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works.

PAGE 28

28 CHAPTER 2 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REPRESENTATI VE AP PROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF FIXED MEDIA ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC Introduction This chapter is com prised of a comparative ex amination of seven sets of concepts for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. An overview of each is given, and comparative and critical discussion is included as well. As each successive approach is introduced, similarities and differences between it and th e previously discussed approaches will be considered. Elements of the approaches c onsidered here are applied in Chapter 3. The approaches discussed in this chapter cove r a range of possible an alytical strategies. Although they do not include every conceivable approach to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music, they are representative of the primary a pproaches carried out or proposed by scholars in this field. It is argued here that an understanding of th e range of analytical strategies and concepts consider ed in this study can provide a solid foundation for consideration of the multiple planes of discourse possible in fixed media electroacoustic music. As this chapter consists of a comparative study, a significa nt amount of information and concepts from other sources will be duplicated. Th is document is intended to be useful to readers who are not necessarily familiar with the detail s of each of the approaches considered here, making necessary an overview and exposition of each. William David Moylan: An Analytic al System for Electro nic Music In his Analytical System for Electronic Music 1 William David Moylan argues that electroacoustic music has a new topography (a new set of surface features and constructional 1 Although Moylan uses the term electronic music, he stat es that his usage of the term is synonymous with the term electro-acoustic and includes genres such as musique concrete and tape music. Therefore, the term electroacoustic will be used in this discussion. William David Moylan, An Analytical System for Electronic Music (PhD diss., Ball State University,1983), 1.

PAGE 29

29 conceptions) and that a new anal ytical approach is necessary. 2 He identifies four primary characteristics of th is "new topography": an increased aural complexity... an equal emphasis of al l musical parameters 'unfamiliar' sounds, resources and origins a decentralization of structural goals 3 Moylans solution is a parametric approac h, focusing on five parameters and methods for their graphic representation. These five parame ters are pitch, duration, loudness, timbre and sonic location. Moylan states that these parameters can be analyzed on any structural level in a piece, and that in the analysis of electroacoustic music, constant shifts in focus (between micro and macro levels of structure) are necessary. Th e term "structural focus" is applied to this continual shifting of concentra tion. In addition, he introduces th e term parametric focus to describe the process of shifting attenti on to and between individual parameters. 4 Also central to Moylans system is the c ontention that each of the parameters has an equal potential for change, and therefore an equa l potential to be the central component of a musical idea. 5 Moylan terms this parametric equivalen ce. He devotes a chap ter to each of the five parameters identified above and presents methods for graphically representing each. For the representation of pitch, Moylan pres ents "pitch contour" and "vertical density" graphs. 6 The pitch contour graph plots the movement (in terms of frequency) of a melodic gesture over time and is designed for application to music in which discrete pitch is undefined. 2 Ibid., 2. 3 Ibid., 9. 4 Ibid., 45. 5 Ibid., 40. 6 Moylan states that he does not intend for these graphi ng methods to replace traditional techniques for the analysis of pitch, only to augment them where necessary. Ibid., 49.

PAGE 30

30 Moylan states When fixed referential levels are not present, the successi on of pitches is most readily perceived by its overall shape. 7 This can range from specif ic designation of frequency to more relative registral terms (high, very high, et c.). If a metric grid is perceived, it might also be indicated in the graph. In a ddition, the thickness of the graphing line itself might be adjusted to indicate the degree of pitch specificity. An exam ple of a pitch contour gr aph is included in the Appendix. The vertical density graph can show a vari ety of types of information (depending on the context) including vertical spaci ng of discrete pitches, the num ber of simultaneous sounds and contour of the changes in registral density. 8 The exact form of the graph will vary depending on the musical context. For example, if discrete pitches can be identif ied, they might be indicated on the y-axis. Or, in other cases, more general re lative terms for frequency might be employed. For the representation of duration, Moylan's solution is the "attack density graph" which displays the number of attacks 9 occurring within a given time frame. Moylan notes that an underlying metric pulse is often absent in electr oacoustic music and that methods of analysis must be adapted accordingly. 10 He also states Without a metr ic grid, the ability to quickly compare durations is lost. 11 In the absence of a metric grid, M oylan argues that rhythm is more often perceived in terms of attack density. Moylan presents two types of attack density graph. The first simply records the points in time where attacks occur as well as their a pproximate durations. The second type records the 7 Ibid., 80. 8 Ibid., 74. 9 By attack, Moylan is referring to the onset of a sonic event. The problematic nature of applying this approach to music in which events are not easily segmented or do not carry equivalent perceptual weights is discussed below. 10 Ibid., 82. 11 Ibid., 90.

PAGE 31

31 number of attacks within a give n time frame or unit. An exampl e of this type is included as Figure 2 in the Appendix to this study. This might be applied to a single sound source or voice or to the combined events in a musical texture. This graph type might be used to determine the contour of the number of attacks as well as th e registral boundaries of the attack densities. 12 For the representation of loudness, Moylan proposes the use of a "dynamic contour graph" which plots changes in loudness in general and relative terms using the traditional symbols, p, mp mf, f etc. Moylan notes that loudness is difficult to measure and cannot be described in precise terms. The graphing method th at Moylan applies here is, in its essentials, identical to that of the previously discussed gr aphs and may be applied either to single sound events or to the texture as a whole. Moylan attempts to apply his approach to sound location, identifying three categories for considering space relative to the listener: direction, distance and elevation. Moylan restricts his initial treatment of sound location to dire ction, and presents two graph types: the "stereo sound-location graph" and the "multi-channel sound-location graph." 13 In the stereo sound-location graph, time is represented on the horizontal axis and placement within the stereo field is represented on the vertical axis. This is only possible for a small number of sounds and only applicable to sounds that can be localized. It would prove to be less effective, however, when applied to complex textures occupying a ra nge within the stereo image. Moylan does not attempt to adapt his graphs to consider the vertical plane. Moylan also presents distance-location gr aphs as a means for the representation of perceived distance from a sound source. The appro ach here is similar to that of the other 12 Ibid., 95. 13 As this study is limited to works intended for stereo listening, Moylans multi-channel sound-location graph will not be discussed here.

PAGE 32

32 proposed graph types. Time is represented horiz ontally, and perceived distance of the sound is represented vertically. As precise increments of distance are no t usually perceivable, Moylan uses the relative terms near and distant. Moylan states that, of all of the parame ters identified, the analysis of timbral characteristics is the most difficult and complex, and that consideration of all of the information necessary for a complete descrip tion of timbre requires too much de tail to be applied in practice. Moylan's approach presents a compromise, plot ting three characteristics of timbre (vertical density of harmonics, dynamic envelope and pitch definition) over time on a multi-level graph. This approach to timbre is problematic. Because of the complexity of the information, this method of graphing can only be applied to singl e sound objects. The information displayed in this graph type includes change in perceived density of harmon ics over time, perceived changes in dynamic level and perceived changes in the over all bandwidth of th e spectrum of a sound object. Moylan acknowledges that this approach is an oversimplification. Moylan is correct in his r ecognition of a need for new analytical strategies for electroacoustic music, and if applied as a purely descriptive tool, his Analytical System can potentially provide certain information about a fixed media electroacoustic work. For example, Moylans pitch contour graphs present one possi ble way of representing gestural shapes (in terms of pitch) that might not be well repres ented by standard notation. There might also be cases in which the attack density graphs could be useful for consideration of the spacing of events over time. However, there are multiple problems with Moylans approach. First, Moylans approach is dependent on the notion that an electroacous tic work can be segmen ted into perceptually discrete units. Although, as Delalande points out, It is not impossible that a music has been

PAGE 33

33 imagined and realised as an assemblage of sound objects, 14 this is not always the case, and even so, is not necessarily of perceptual releva nce. Analysis based on such segmentation is often problematic in fixed media electroacoustic musi c both for practical reasons (a fixed media electroacoustic work cannot always be easil y segmented) and because it relies on taxonomic listening (discussed below). These difficulties (particularly in the case of attack density) are further illustrated in Chapter 3. In addition, Moylans system relies on the separating out of the abstra ct and concrete (and therefore musical and extra-mu sical). For example, conspicuous ly absent from Moylans set of parameters is any consideration of what a sound event or the relationships between sound events might signify. Although he does not use th is term, Moylans approach is an extreme example of the reduced listening employed in the spectromorphological approach discussed below. Moreover, while the separation of an object of analysis into constituent parts for the purpose of examination is a legitimate strate gy, Moylans system does not consider the relationships between the parameters. Moylan is primarily interested in identifying and measuring the densities and registral lim its of changes within parameters. Denis Smalleys Spectromorphology Denis Smalleys spectromorphological appro ach is the most well-known and frequently discussed approach to electroac oustic music analysis. In several articles published between 1981 and 2000, Smalley has set out his approach in detail. The discussion here centers on spectromorphology as it is described in two of Smalleys publications: Spectromorphology and Structuring Processes and Spectromo rphology: Explaining Sound-shapes. 14 Franois Delalande, Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry, Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 20.

PAGE 34

34 Like Moylan, Smalley is concerned with th e new topography in electroacoustic music. But Smalleys approach is more far-reaching and is not as rigidly parametric in orientation. Smalley describes spectromorphology as an approach to sound materials and musical structures which concentrates on the spectrum of available pitches and their shaping in time, 15 and presents it as a descriptiv e tool and listening aid. There are certainly parallels that can be drawn between M oylans system and Smalleys spectromorphological approach. Both are descriptiv e tools, and both attempt to systematically approach the analysis of electroacoustic music. Like Moylans system, Smalleys spectromorphology is based in aural percep tion. He describes aural perception and discrimination as supreme musical tools and states It is not a scientific knowledge which is required but an experiential knowledge. 16 Some loose parallels can also be observe d between Moylans separating out of the parameter of timbre and Smalleys treatment of spectral types. In addition, Smalleys notenoise continuum (discussed below) is virtually identical to the pitch-definition component of Moylans treatment of the parameter of timbre. Moreover, both Moylan and Smalley state that their descriptive approaches can be applied to multiple levels of structure. 17 However, beyond this (and a few additional minor similarities discussed below), Smalleys spectromorphology is quite distinct from Moylans Analytical System Moylans approach can be seen as representing an extr eme example of the absolu tist view of musical 15 Denis Smalley, Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music, ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 61. 16 Ibid., 81. 17 For an example of application of Smalleys morphological archetypes to multiple st ructural levels see Joseph Harchankos Spectro-morphology and Structure: An Anal ysis of Gilles Gobeils Le Vertige Inconnu. Joseph Harchanko, Spectro-morphology and Structure: An Analysis of Gilles Gobeils Le Vertige Inconnu, eContact! 6 (2003).

PAGE 35

35 meaning. 18 Moylans system does not attempt to account for what the sounds in an electroacoustic work might refer to, and only c onsiders quantifiable cha nge within the five parameters discussed above. While spectromo rphology certainly focuses on abstract (what Smalley refers to as intrinsic) qualities, it does not al together ignore concre te (or extrinsic) attributes. As stated above, spectromorphology attempts to describe sounds and events in electroacoustic music separately from their concre te meanings or by ignor ing their source. This involves the Schaefferian con cept of reduced listening. to find out what happens in the life of a s ound or sound structure, or what attracts us about a sound quality or shape, we must te mporarily ignore how the sound was made or what caused it, and concentrate on charting its spectro-morphological progress. 19 However, Smalley also acknowledges the importa nce of the concrete aspects of sound. He describes all sounds as possessing a dual pot ential both abstract and concrete. 20 Smalley states that while listeners have a pre-developed familiarity with the concrete aspects of sound from daily life, an awareness of the abstract elements has to be acquired. Spectromorphology attempts to provid e a set of concepts for discussion of the abstract elements. However, Smalley asserts that a categorical distinction between abstract and concrete elements of sound is too simple: Music is always related in some way to hum an experience, which means that mimesis is always at work even in music regarded as abstract, though such mimesis is notoriously difficult to explain.21 Conversely, Smalley notes that the reverse is also true: 18 The term absolutist is employed here in the same way used by Leonard B. Meyer in his Emotion and Meaning in Music. 19 Ibid., 63. 20 Ibid., 64. 21 Ibid., 64.

PAGE 36

36 On the other hand, a musical context which appe ars to depend entirely on mimetic impact is equally deceptive. 22 Smalley also cites a lack of established terminology as a major problem for electroacoustic music analysis. Spectromorphology a ttempts to address this problem. But in its totality, Smalleys extensive system of lists of voc abulary and analytical concepts is prohibitive to practical application. Howe ver, selected concepts from Smalleys spectromorphological approach can be well applied to fixed media electroacoustic music. This is not an exhaustive discussion th e objective here is to examine the primary elements of spectromorphology. The spectromor phological concepts considered here are: Spectral types Morphological models (and their variants) Motion types Spectral-space settings Gesture-carried and text ure-carried structuring Structural Functions 23 Spectral Types One of the primary spectromorphological c oncepts is the note to noise continuum which involves a continuum between sound events which carry a clearly defined fundamental pitch and those which do not. This continuum involves the spectro part of the term, spectromorphology, or what is often referred to as the vertical dimension in music. Smalley identifies three categories of s ound spectra, which divide the not e to noise continuum: note, node and noise. 24 Smalley further subdivides the note category into note proper, harmonic 22 Ibid., 64. 23 Although Smalley introduces some concepts for consideration of space as part of his spectromorphological approach, his later formulation of space-form is more refined and will be considered separately. 24 Ibid., 65.

PAGE 37

37 spectrum and inharmonic spectrum. 25 These categories are relati ve and the boundaries between them are not clearly defined. He defines the first as concerned with the pe rception of a discrete pitch or pitches, the second as a band or knot of sound which resists pitch identification and describes the third saying that the density of a noise spectrum is so compressed that it is impossible to hear any internal pitch structure. 26 Morphological Models Having established the elemental concepts for the consideration of sound spectra, Smalley turns to the morphology pa rt of the term, spectromorphology. For the discussion of morphology (temporal shap ing), Smalley identifies what he refers to as the three linked temporal phases (roughly equivalent to the concept of envelope) of a sound object/event. These three phases are onset, continuant and termination, 27 and there is a virtually limitless range of possible ways that these phases might be articulated. Smalley produces a set of morphological models th at are drawn from instrumental sounds: 28 attack-impulse archetype closed attack-decay archetype (and its reversed form) open attack-decay archetype (and its reversed form) linear attack-decay (and its reversed form) linear graduated continuant swelled graduate d continuant graduated continuant archetype 29 The distinction between open and closed attack-decay ar chetypes refers to the length of decay. Sound events with more substantial decay are of the open type. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid., 67. 27 Ibid., 69. 28 Smalley represents these archetypes graphically. 29 Ibid., 70.

PAGE 38

38 Smalley states that the archetypes above may be joined and extended in order to generate a wide and subtle variety of temporal articulations, and he uses the term morphological string to describe the combination of these archetypes. 30 In the case of a morphological string of attack-impulse events, Sma lleys concept of the attack-e ffluvium continuum comes into play. 31 As the density of attacks increases, we move through the follo wing stages iteration, grain and effluvial state. Smalley also asserts that these concepts are not solely applicable to individual sound objects/events and that they can extend to larger scale processes and structural levels. Motion Types Another prim ary element of spectromorphology is motion typology. Smalley notes that the morphological models discussed above merely represent relatively primitive dynamic outlines, and he presents a set of five categorie s (unidirectional, bi-directional, reciprocal, centric/cyclic, and eccentric/multi-directional 32) of motion in order to provide more detailed description. Smalley further divide s these into subcategories, which results in a sizable collection of terms for the description of motion. Although absorption of this se t of terms might be initially tedious, they present a means for describing moti on that is not present in other approaches. Smalley also considers the implicative nature of motion. In Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes, Smalley states that M otion and growth have directional tendencies which lead us to expect possible outcomes, and th ey are helpful guides in attributing structural 30 Ibid., 71. 31 Ibid., 72. 32 Ibid., 73.

PAGE 39

39 functions. 33 Like the morphological models, Smalley st ates that these categories of motion may be applied to multiple structural levels. Smalley states that all motion in electroac oustic music is implicative, concerned with fulfillment and frustration of expectation. These concepts for the consideration of motion types could provide an initial framework for discussion of the implicative characteristics of motion in a work. In addition, Smalley introduces a set of concepts for the cons ideration of internal motion style. These take the form of several continua: synchrony asynchrony continuity discontinuity conjunction disjunction periodicity aperiodicity flocked motion streamed motion contorted motion monomorphology polymorphology 34 Spectral-space Settings While Smalleys morphological models and mo tions types are concerned with active morphology, he also introduces a set of concepts for consideration of more stable textures and sound events. These are three divisions of sp ectral space contained within a pitch-space frame. 35 Smalley describes spectral space as the distance between the lowest and highest sounds and divides it into three parts: Canopy Centre Root 36 33 Denis Smalley, Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes, Organised Sound 2 (1997): 115. 34 Denis Smalley, Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music, ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 77. 35 Ibid., 79. 36 Denis Smalley, Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes, Organised Sound 2 (1997): 121.

PAGE 40

40 Gesture-carried and Texture-carried Structuring Noting tha t there is no consistent low-level un it in electroacoustic music, Smalley states that consideration of structural level and focus becomes particularly important. 37 Smalley identifies gesture and texture as two primar y structuring principles. He describes gesture saying, Gesture is concerned with the act ion directed away from a pr evious goal or towards a new goal 38 Smalley describes texture as concer ned with internal behaviour patterning, energy directed inwards or reinject ed, self-propagating; once instigated it is seemingly left to its own devices. 39 Smalley proposes the identificati on of structures as either gesture-carried or texture-carried depending on which is most do minant. However, like many of Smalleys spectromorphological concepts, the distinction between gesture-carried and texture-carri ed structuring is more of a continuum than clearly defined divisions. Smalley asserts that the relationship between gesture and texture is, more one of collaboration than ant ithesis but that this collaboration isnt always equal. 40 Although spectromorphology is primarily concerned with abstract qualities of sound, in the case of gesture, Smalley considers the connect ion between musical gesture and source cause relationships. To do this, Smalley introduces the concept of gestural surrogacy to deal with the relative degrees of perceptual distance between a gesture and its source. Smalley introduces four categories of gestural surrogacy: first-order surrogacy, second-order surrogacy, third-order 37 Denis Smalley, Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music, ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 80. 38 Ibid., 82. 39 Ibid., 82. 40 Ibid., 83.

PAGE 41

41 surrogacy and remote surrogacy. 41 First-order surrogacy involves clearly recognizable source and cause. Second-order surrogacy involves i nstrumentalisation. Third-order surrogacy involves inferred gesture the cause of the gesture is not clear in this case. In the case of remotesurrogacy, source and cause are completely unknown. 42 Structural Functions As stated ab ove, Smalley argues that spectro morphology can be applied to multiple levels of structure. To do this, Smalley returns to th e three linked temporal phases onset, continuant and termination. In the initial in troduction of these concepts they were only applied to sound events or objects. However, Smalley states that these concepts can be expanded to higher levels of structure as well. In this more expanded c onsideration, Smalley intro duces subcategories of each phase and proposes the interpretive applicat ion of these concepts by identifying series of function chains. 43 Onset: approach emergence insurgence anacrusis downbeat Continuant: maintenance statement prolongation transition Termination plane immersion release 41 Denis Smalley, Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes, Organised Sound 2 (1997): 112. 42 Ibid. 43 Denis Smalley, Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music, ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 86.

PAGE 42

42 resolution closure 44 In Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electro acoustic Music, John Young also argues that morphologica l analysis can be extended to multiple structural levels. Young proposes an adaptation of reductive analytical methods to electroacoustic music, suggesting that acousmatic music that uses en vironmental/natural sounds as recognisable referents within a network of morphological transformations c ontains reducible structural levels. 45 If treated as a descriptive tool, spectrom orphology can provide a framework for discussing aspects of fixed media electroacoustic music that might be otherwise difficult to describe. For example, Smalleys terminology for the description of motion types is potentially useful for the description of the behavior of abstract sounds (or the ab stract qualities of sounds). 46Although their application is po tentially cumbersome, the morphologi cal archetypes also provide a means of discussing the basic morphology of sounds. Smalleys distinction between gesturecarried and texture-carried structures as well as the levels of gestural surrogacy are also useful descriptive tools. Critique of Morphological Analysis In Music Analysis and Reception B ehaviours, Franois Delalande offers a critique of morphological analysis and raises several issues. Delalandes pr imary criticism of morphological analysis is that it involves ta xonomic listening which involves an attempt to isolate perceptual 44 Ibid., 85. 45 JohnYoung, Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electroacoustic Music, Organised Sound 9 (2004): 9. 46 The term abstract is used here in a relative sense.

PAGE 43

43 units. 47 Although Delalande indicates practical problems with a pplying this approach, his primary criticism involves the question of pertin ence. He asks, What is the pertinence of a morphological analysis? 48 The morphological analysis of electroacous tic music (based on a resolution into sound objects) is a syllabic analys is, which does not provide the m eans of highlighting pertinent configurations either poie ticallyor esthesically. T hus we do not consider a morphological analysis to be a music analysis. 49 However, Delalande also makes a crucial di stinction. He is crit ical of morphological analysis but is explicit in his differentiation between morphological analysis and morphological description Delalande states that desc ription of morphological charact eristics is useful (in some cases essential) when guided by a search for pertinences. 50 I would say that a morphol ogical analysis which is not guided by a search for pertinences either does not contribute a gr eat deal or gets lost in absurdity. 51 Delalandes point is an importa nt one. An analysis that simply describes a work according to spectromorphological characteristics will likely be of little value. 52 But this warning can be also extended to most of the anal ytical approaches considered in this study. For the most part, the approaches considered in this study are useful descri ptive tools, but if descri ption is treated as an end in itself, it will be of little value. This is particularly important to bear in mind regarding fixed media electroacoustic music, which affords multiple planes of discourse. 47 David Hirst also proposes an analytical methodology based on the segmentation of a work into sonic objects. 48 Franois Delalande, Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry, Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 19. 49 Ibid., 20. 50 As a last resort the description of pertinent units, whatev er they may be, always hinges on the description of such characteristics. Ibid. 51 Ibid., 21. 52 It should also be noted that Smalley does not suggest such an approach.

PAGE 44

44 It is initially tempting to cr iticize spectromorphology for atte mpting to ignore the concrete characteristics of sound. But Smalley makes it clea r that as he views spectromorphology as a set of conceptual tools for considering the more abst ract qualities of sound, it is intended as a tool with a specific purpose. Smalley states that spectromorphology is (among other things) more concerned to account for sounds whose sources ar e relatively mysterious or ambiguous rather than blatantly obvious. 53 A spectromorphological approach cannot deal adequately with electroacoustic music which is very strongly anecdotal or programmatic, that is, musi c where a very wide palette of sonic references may be employed. In this type of electroacoustic music, meaning is closely allied to recognising the sources, identifying with them, knowing which context they have been drawn from, and reinterpreting their meaning in their new musical context. Such music is therefore transcontextual or intertextual. 54 He adds that in most cases, a combination of spectromorphological and transcontextual elements is necessary. 55 Stphane Roys Functional and Implicative Approach In an analysis of Franois Bayles Ombres Blanches, Stphane Roy puts forth what he refers to as a functional and implicative approach to the analysis of fi xed media electroacoustic music. Drawing on and adapting the writing of Leona rd B. Meyer, Roy approaches the analysis of this piece through a description of the functional and implicative qualities of sound events and their interrelationships. Roy gives an account of Ba yles work in terms of a substantial lexicon of potential functions, giving prio rity to the relationships betw een events (as opposed to the individual events themselves). For both Roy a nd Meyer, the meaning of a sound or event comes from its relation to other events in a work (as well as the stylistic context). A central theme in 53 Denis Smalley, Spectromorphology: Explaining Sound-Shapes, Organised Sound 2 (1997): 109. 54 Ibid., 110. 55 Ibid.

PAGE 45

45 Roys approach is the idea that the role of one semantic unit can change according to its location in the syntactic flow 56 In his approach, the segmentation of events originates in aural perception, and this information is then mapped ont o a listening score. Of the appro aches considered in this study, Roys is the only one that specifically involve s graphic representation or transcription. Roy explicitly states, however, that this listening score is intended as an aid during the process of analysis and is not meant to stand for the work itself. Roy clarifies this distinction in semiotic terms, stating that the listening score is merely a representation of esthesic processes, not the neutral level. 57 Lelio Camilleri also addresses the problem of the creation of listening scores in relation to the neutral level noting that anal ysis of electroacoustic music can only be based on perception the only text that we can analyze is the sound text. 58 While Moylans approach does involve the creation of graphs, he is more concerned with the plotting of data than transcription or representation. Transcription of fixed media el ectroacoustic music presents a host of issues that are beyond the scope of this study. 59 Roy characterizes his approach as reliant on the intuition of the analyst and positions it in contradistinction to that of Sch aeffer, which he describes as a descriptive method investigating the morphology of isolated sounds without taking into account their contextual 56 Ibid., 166. 57 Stphane Roy, Functional and Implicative Analysis of Ombres Blanches Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 166. 58 Lelio Camilleri, Electroacoustic Musi c: Analysis and Listening Processes, Sonus Contemporary Music Materials 1 (1993): 2. 59 The visual representation of elect roacoustic music is discussed by (a mong others) Norman Adams (2006) and velyne Gayou (2006).

PAGE 46

46 relationships.60 Roy describes his own approach as anal ytical and interpre tative and states that his analysis is inspired by functionalism in language. As can be seen from the above discussion, Smalleys spectromorphological approach does include a consideration of s tructural function (a lthough it is clearly not the focus of his approach). Smalleys treatment of structural function is an extens ion of his three linked temporal phases and their grouping into functi on chains. Smalleys proposed interpretation of function chains is, to a degree, similar to Roys approach. Both approaches are concerned with the relationships between events and the ways th at they are linked toge ther and interact. But Roys approach is distinct from Smalleys in its focus on the role of implication (discussed below). In addition to function, Roys framework also considers impli cative relationships, employing an adaptation of Leonard B. Meyers implicative method for the analysis of tonal melodies. A central idea in Meyers writing is th e notion that meaning arises from connections between stimuli and does not lie in the stimulus alone. 61 Following from this, Meyer argues that the expectations (particularly the frustration of these expectations) resulting from these connections form the basis of the affective a nd the intellectua l aesthetic response to music." 62 An implicative relationship is one in which an event...is patterned in such a way that reasonable inferences can be made both about its connections with preceding events and about how the event itself might be continued and perhaps reach cl osure and stability. 63 Roy presents a set of symbols for the gr aphic representation of both functional and implicative relationships. As the focus of this study is on the concepts themselves, the specific 60 Ibid., 166. 61 Leonard B. Meyer, Emotion and Meaning in Music (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1956), 34. 62 Ibid., 43. 63 Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973) 110.

PAGE 47

47 symbols employed by Roy are not discussed here Roy does not present a complete framework for analysis in this article. In stead, he illustrates his approach through a detailed analysis of Bayles piece. One drawback to Roys approach, as manifested in this analysis of Bayles work, is not in the approach itself but in the fact that a comp lete exposition of the functions comprising his approach is not provided. Roy in cludes a comprehensive lexicon of terms and concepts, but only those applied in his analysis of Ombres Blanches. The complete lexicon is not available in English. 64 However, this does not present a serious problem for the purpose of this study. In combination with a basic understanding of Meyers work (as manifested in his Emotion and Meaning in Music and Explaining Music), the lexicon provided in the article discussed here provides a sufficient outline of Roys methodology. Th e concepts discussed here could easily be expanded or adapted by an analyst. Roy identifies five categories of functions: orientation, stra tification, process, rhetoric and rhythm. 65 Although the meaning of many of these terms is evident from their names, Roys definitions are reproduced here to avoid misapplication. Although the following pages simply replicate directly material from Roys arti cle, the inclusion of this information here will be helpful to the reader who is not familiar with Roys approach and is also necessary for the sake of clarity. Category of Orientation Begetting: This function is usually ascribed to a brief m orphological unit that prepares and furthers the immediate arrival of another event or group of events. Conclusion: This function closes without a ny ambiguity a syntactic unit. 64. The article considered here is Roys only English-language publication on this subject. Additional functions and other terms are included in Roys other articles (in French). 65 Ibid., 181.

PAGE 48

48 Interruption: Interruption is a function of morphological rupture. Unlike trigger, an interruption does not have any consequent. Introduction: An event plays the role of an introduction when it progressively initiates a musical discourse or part of it by using a dynamic crescendo, an increase in density, or any kind or gradual morphological pr ogression that does not genera te surprise in the listening process. Suspension: Like the conclusion, this function is lo cated at the final part of a syntactic progression. It occurs when a syntactic pr ogression seems to be directed toward a conclusion but does not reach it because it remain s too unstable; it is thus a weak form of conclusion. Trigger: The trigger function abruptly and s uddenly introduces an event, a group of events, a musical phrase, a section or the complete work. 66 Category of Strafication Background, Figure and Foreground: Roys usage of the term s foreground and background correspond to the us ual definitions of these term s. Of figure, Roy states that, Among the layers of a stratified text ure, the function of figure is located in the extreme foreground of the auditory field. A fi gure is usually represented by a short and well-articulated unit. 67 Rhetorical Category Affirma tion: The function of affirma tion is one of the resource s of musical eloquence. It is usually the final step in a process of repetition. Call and Answer: This couple is based on a local rhetor ical relationship (within the limits of the musical phrase), and is articulated through the repetition of an expressive antecedent/consequent pair. Deflection: A process whereby the continuity of a main process is interrupted by another process which aims toward a new goal. Parenthesis: This function is represented by an en crustation, that is to say by a sound unit or a group of sound units that temporarily break into a musical progression without having any causal motive. Reiteration: a function that intensifies the expressi ve character of an event by repeating it frequently within the limits of a phrase. 66 Ibid. 67 Ibid., 182.

PAGE 49

49 Sign: a sound unit that pl ays the role of a sign, channeling the listening process toward an extra-musical referent. 68 Rhythmic Category Pedal: This function is represen ted by a long sound unit that in fluences the perception of the tem po. 69 Like both Moylan and Smalley, Roy suggests th at functional and implicative analysis can be applied to multiple structural levels. Meyer also makes this point regarding hierarchical structuring of implication. 70 However, in his analysis of Ombres Blanches, Roy focuses on the phrase level. In music where hierarchical struct uring can be perceived, the functions described by Roy could certainly be expanded to cons ider various levels of structure. In adapting Meyers concepts of function and implication from th e analysis of tonal melodies, Roy implies that a similar brand of s yntax can be found and examined in fixed media electroacoustic music. But is this necessarily the case? Can functional and implicative relationships really be found in fixed media electroacoustic music, particular ly that which is not tonal? It is one thing to st ate that a melody outlining a domin ant seventh chord in a Beethoven piano sonata is implicative, but can this concep t be transferred to fixe d media electroacoustic music? The answer to this question is simply that the relevance of this appr oach is dependent on the piece in question certainly Roys approach (or any of the a pproaches considered in this study) is not applicable to all fixed media el ectroacoustic works. For example, it would be difficult to argue that an analysis of implicativ e relationships using R oys approach would be 68 Ibid., 183. 69 Ibid. 70 Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973) 120.

PAGE 50

50 particularly illuminating when applied to Paul Lanskys Tables Clear. However, on the other hand, Roys approach could be well applied (as is illu strated in Chapter 3) in an analysis of Scott Wyatts Private Play While the relatively common stylistic contexts found in many types of tonal music often provide more easily analyzable implicative rela tionships than some fixed media electroacoustic music, the tonal system is not the only setting in which implication can be found. Meyer states that, "Implications arise because patterns are incomplete or unstable in some respect. 71 Accordingly, any musical context involving patte rning or expectation can potentially involve implication as a pertinent feature of analysis. Ambrose Field: Landscape Morphology Am brose Field identifies a need for concep ts for the analysis and discussion of electroacoustic music that consider the concrete aspects of sound. 72 In Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects, Fields stated purpos e is to set-out methods and compositional devices that might be used by compos ers who manipulate recorded sounds. 73 Noting the electroacoustic mediums potential for the inclus ion of sounds from the real world, he states that the representation of reality is now a co mpositional parameter and that his intention is to consider ways in which this idea can co-e xist with a concern for timbral manipulation. 74 To this end, Field introduces two sets of concepts : landscape morphology and sonic rhetoric. 71 Ibid., 118. 72 Ambrose Field, Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects, in Music Electronic Media and Culture ed. Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000), 36. 73 Ibid. 74 Ibid., 37.

PAGE 51

51 Field invokes semiotics (referencing Nattiez) in order to provide a clear way to conceptually separate concrete meanings fr om abstract (spectromorphological) structures.75 Field references Saussures two-fo ld division of the sign stating th at the signifier is made up of abstract structures while the concrete (Field uses the term extramusical) meaning of those structures comprise s the signified. Fields approach is exclusivel y concerned with analysis of concrete elements. He states that while his approach focuses on this separati on between abstract and concrete, it allows the coexistence of both elements. This implies that one might combine Fi elds concepts with spectromorphological id eas in analysis. Of the approaches considered thus far, landscape morphology is the only approach that focuses on space from a concrete perspective. Although Moylan does consider sonic location in his Analytical System, he is only concerned with plotting the locati on and movement of sound objects. His stereo sound location graph, for ex ample, simply plots perceived location of sound objects within the stereo field. Moylans system al so ignores the concrete aspects of space. While Smalley does consider space as part of sp ectromorphology (he uses the term spatiomorphology), it is not a major featur e of his approach (his more recent use of space-form is discussed below). In addition, beyond labeling ev ents in terms of for eground or background, space is not considered in Roys f unctional and implicative approach. By contrast, Fields landscape morphology does not deal with sonic location or movement. Instead, Field presents a set of concep ts for classifying the overall character of a landscape in a fixed media electroacoustic work according to the degree to which it involves representation of reality. Field introduces four general cate gories of landscape morphology 75 Ibid., 41.

PAGE 52

52 and their application to the cr eation of simulated environments in fixed media electroacoustic music. Hyper-real Real Virtual Non-real Field provides the following definitions for each of these categories: Most commonly, the term hyper-reality refers to a situation where events appear to be more real than real. 76 Field also states that in hy per-real environments, it is not possible for the audience to tell the differe nce between simulation and recorded reality itself. A real environment is one that ha s not been simulated in any way. Virtual reality is pure simula tion, and is ultimately intended to be perceived as such. Non-real environments are environments that are not surreal, nor are they identifiable as real in any way. 77 In a perceptually based analyt ical approach, the distinction between a real and hyper-real environment is often difficult the difference is not always clear. Field cites Luc Ferraris Presque rien no. 1 as an illustration of a work containing hyper-real landscapes. In the course of this work, Ferrari compresses the time scale of events occurring with in real landscapes. Although the work is clearly the product of extensive editing pr ocesses, the end result is the aural impression of a heightened reality. 78 While a virtual landscape is pure simulati on, once the abstracti on of concrete sound events and spaces is introduced, the landscape may begin to take on surrea l qualities. Field cites the environments created in Trevor Wisharts Red Bird as examples of surreal landscapes. In 76 Ibid. 43. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid.

PAGE 53

53 these cases, while the co-existing sounds and spatial cues are, for the most part, plausible, tiny details in the sounds suggest that we might not be listening to a r ecording of reality. 79 Although it is not completely clear from his brief discussi on, Field seems to consid er surreal landscapes to be a subcategory of virtual landscapes. Non-real environments might be comprise d of sounds whose co-existence within the same space is not plausible, or of sounds that ca rry conflicting spaces. For example, if in a fixed media electroacoustic work, the recorded sound of an audience applauding in a concert-hall were super-imposed on top of a recording of the sounds of ocean waves crashing, the effect created would be that of an obviously non-real landscape. The utter implaus ibility of the coexistence of these sounds within the same space would make it clear that the composer is not attempting to create a realistic soundscape. But Field also no tes that non-real environments can be created through the use of sounds that are remote surrogates (Smalleys term ). In this case the listener is directed to concentrate on the timbral evolution of the work as opposed to the real world or concrete elements. Trevor Wishart puts forth a similar set of c oncepts for the consider ation of landscape in electroacoustic music. In Sound Symbols a nd Landscapes, Wishart assigns the term "landscape" to the characteristics of a sound which are related to the recognition of its source and identifies several subcategories of sound-objects in relation to space: real objects/real space unreal objects/real space real objects/unreal space real sounds/real space "surrealist" 80 79 Ibid., 46. 80 Trevor Wishart, Sound Symbols and Landscapes, in The Language of Electroacoustic Music ed. Simon Emmerson (London: Macmillan, 1986), 48.

PAGE 54

54 When considered in contrast to the extensiv e sets of concepts put forth in the other approaches considered in this study, these conc epts for discussing landscape morphology appear relatively uncomplicated and gene ral. But much can be said a bout a work using these general categories, and (as is shown in Chapter 3) they can be augmented with additional descriptive terms. Field does not present a specific framework for the application of these terms they might be adapted by the analyst in a variety of ways. These terms might be employed to further refine those proposed by Field. Ambrose Field: Sonic Rhetoric The second set of concepts that Field pres ents is his sonic rhetoric which adapts standard rhetorical devices for the considerati on of electroacoustic music. Field argues that a sounds contextual information can be used as a compositional parameter and introduces sonic rhetoric as a tool for making connections between musical processes and extrinsic contextual information. 81 Field sets out five basic ar chetypes of sonic rhetoric: sonic metaphor sonic simile sonic hyperbole sonic personification sonic synecdoche Fields adaptation of these terms for music an alysis, while congruent with their standard meanings, warrants brief explanation. Fields conception of sonic metaphor does not diverge from the conventional view of metaphor (a figure of speech representative or sym bolic of something else), but he also states 81 Ambrose Field, Simulation and Reality: The New Sonic Objects, in Music Electronic Media and Culture ed. Simon Emmerson (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000). 47.

PAGE 55

55 that a sonic metaphor can be found where sound s with clear extramusical contexts suggest musical functions or processes. 82 John Young also identifies the creation of sonic metaphor as one of the most powerful potentials of the c oncrete elements of electroacoustic sound. His Imagining the Source: The Interplay of Realis m and Abstraction in Electroacoustic Music includes thorough discussion of the role of sonic metaphor in Trevor Wisharts Red Bird Field notes that as in literature, film and other rhetorical contexts, ov eruse of sonic metaphor can result in euphemism. Fields concept of sonic simile is particul arly useful in the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. He states that a sonic simile gives new meaning to an existing sound by juxtaposing it with new material. 83 This is not quite the same as a simile in language. In language, simile typically involves the comparis on of two things using a connector (such as like or as) that points direc tly and unambiguously to the object of comparison. In the case of a sonic simile, however, the comparison is invite d simply by juxtapositio n (either by vertical superimposition, linear/temporal proximity or th rough a transformation process). This creates a potentially rich ambiguity in interpretation. By sonic hyperbole, Field is referring to a sound that possesses de liberately overstated extramusical connotations. 84 Field illustrates this by re ferring to Christian Calons La disparition in which a jungle scene is overstated by a Tarzan-like vocal sample that appears to swing through some imaginary trees. 85 Overstatement of this type can serve (among other things) to make the listener awar e of an active compositional pres ence. In this example, Calon 82 Ibid. 83 Ibid., 48. 84 Ibid., 49. 85 Ibid.

PAGE 56

56 changes the listeners focus from the la ndscape to the composers presence through overstatement: Such exaggeration of a monkeys call into this Ta rzan-like uttera nce is clearly not meant to be taken as being a real event. 86 Sonic personification occurs where a sound has highly personal and human extramusical connotations. 87 As in the case of the sonic sim ile, sonic personification is more vague than the concept of personification in language. Field refers to Andrew Lewiss Scherzo as an example of sonic personification. Field states that the superimposition of Lewiss childs voice onto more abstract materials imbues them with a human quality. As the more abstract materials are drawn from the original recordings of the childs voice, th is particular example might be interpreted as abstra ction rather than personificati on. However, whether one hears Scherzo in terms of sounds abstracted from the reco rdings of Lewiss children, or the reverse (as sonic personification) is a matter of interpretation. Regardless, this concep t is potentially useful as a descriptive and interpretive tool. Field states that a sonic synecdoche can be found when only partial aural cues are given to an extramusical context. 88 In more traditiona l rhetorical analysis synecdoche involves cases when the audience is expected to be able to fill in the blanks. For example, if a proud parent says of his/her child, My child will be president someday, it is understood (assuming that they are United States citizens) that presi dent refers to Preside nt of the United States although there are many other possible types of president. But Fields concept of sonic synecdoche involves more ambiguit y. He states that in the case of sonic synecdoche, listeners 86 Ibid. 87 Ibid. 88 Ibid.

PAGE 57

57 must generate their own extramusical meanings from deliberately ambiguous sonic information.89 Field asserts that the widespread understanding of rhetorical concepts affords the creative use of sonic rhetoric in sorting out concrete meanings in fixed media electroacoustic music. 90 In addition to the examples discussed here, ot her rhetorical devices can be adapted (where appropriate) in analysis. By invoking rhetoric, Field implies the existe nce of syntax in fixed media electroacoustic music, although in this case, syntax is considered more loosely than in Roys approach. As with the other approaches discussed in this study, the applicability of these concepts will be determined by the work in question. Where elemen ts of sonic rhetoric might be identified, Fields terms will provide a useful descriptive tool for analysis. They will not, however, be applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic works. A parallel between Fields sonic rhet oric and Roys func tional and implicative approach can be found in Roys rhetorical catego ry of functions. However, with the exception of the sign function, Roys func tions do not deal specifically w ith the concrete elements of sound. For example, Roys description of the cal l and answer functions as being concerned with antecedent/consequent relationships underlines his concern for more traditionally musical analytical concepts such as phrasing. As the above discussi on makes clear, Fields sonic rhetoric, on the other hand, is almost solely concerned with the concrete. 89 Ibid., 50. 90 Ibid.

PAGE 58

58 Denis Smalley: Space Form In his 2007 article, Space-form and the Acous matic Image, Smalley takes an approach that is very different from that of his spectromorphology. In this article, he puts forth a set of concepts for the investigation of space in ac ousmatic music. Like Fi eld in his landscape morphology, Smalley focuses on the concrete (although Smalley uses his term, sourcebonded) elements of sounds and spaces. Field s landscape morphology, however, is much more general than Smalleys approach. While Fiel d is concerned solely with the ways in which sonic landscapes represent reality, Smalley considers (in addition to identifying types of spaces) a range of issues including gesture, transmodality of perception, perspective and spectral space. Smalley notes the importance of considering space in fixed media electroacoustic music, the only sonic medium that co ncentrates on space and spatial experience as aesthetically central. 91 He describes the scholarship on this su bject as scattered and puts forward a framework for the consideration of space in fixed media electroacoustic music. As he does in his previous articles dealing with spectromorphology, Smalley presen ts an extensive catalog of concepts and terminology. An important element of Smalleys space-form is that it requires a holis tic view of space in which temporal progress is ignored: The temporal disposition of, and relations among, sounds serve to articulate and shape spectral and perspectival space, but even t hough my perception of sound is the product of time, I ultimately sideline times formative ro le. So space can be more significant than time, or at least we can profit by starting with th e idea that time can be placed at the service of space rather than the reverse.92 91 Denis Smalley, Space-form and the Acousmatic Image, Organised Sound 12 (2007): 35. 92 Ibid., 38.

PAGE 59

59 Consequently, in a consideration of space-form, the events that occur within a soundscape or environment become collapsed into a single mo ment. Although this is not stated explicitly, Fields landscape morphology also requires a ho listic view of space. In order to identify a soundscape as real, non-real, virt ual, etc., a listener must gr oup sounds and events together. Source-bonded spaces are a primary component of Smalleys consideration of spaceform. He notes that recorded sounds are carriers of the space s they inhabit and that sourcebonded spaces play an important role in many fi xed media electroacoustic works. This statement applies to spaces which are carried by realistic source-bonding as well as those in which sourcebonding may be imagined or artificially construc ted. Hence, any case in which sounds sourcecause may be detected or inferred involves source-bonded space. Smalley makes a distinction between sourcebonded spaces that are nature-based and those that are culture-based. Because they ar e produced by human activity, Smalley refers to culture-based spaces as enacted spaces. He furt her partitions enacted spaces into two main types, utterance spaces (thos e articulated by vocal sound) and agential spaces (those produced by human movement). While Smalley suggests that a variety of ki nds of enacted spaces are possible, he specifically discusses two types. One is mech anised space, which involves any type of sound emitting machine or technology. Another is media tic space, which is the space occupied by mass media and communication t echnology. Smalley notes that th ese two types often overlap with other types of enacted spaces. Another idea central to Smalleys space-form is the transmodality of perception. He argues that, although they are not directly affected, acousmatic lis tening invokes reactions in all of the senses:

PAGE 60

60 Although acousmatic music may be received via a single sensory mode, this does not mean that the other senses lie dormant; in fact they spill over into sonic experience. 93 This transmodality, according to Smalley, contributes to the richness of association and meaning in fixed media electroacoustic music that involves source-bonded sounds and spaces. Having discussed transmodality, Smalley o ffers a definition of space-form: Space-form in acousmatic music is an aes thetically created environment which structures transmodal perceptual co ntingencies through source-bondings and spectromorphological relations. 94 Smalley devotes considerable attention to one type of enacted space performed space. He states that performed space is gesturally r ooted and identifies thr ee zones (adapted from Edward Hall): gestural, ensemble and arena space. 95 Although Smalley discusses each zone in detail, his definitions ar e sufficient for the purpose of this discussion: Gestural space is the intimate space of individual performer and instrument. Ensemble space, within which individual gest ural spaces are nested, is the personal and social space among performers. Arena space is the whole public space i nhabited by both performers and listeners. 96 Smalley also identifies an additional specific type of performed space that is particularly significant in fixed media electroacoustic music microphone space. Microphone space is a primary compositional tool for creating proximate spaces wh ich beam to us small and microscopic presences and details of spectral spa ce. As such it will be recognised if sourcebonded magnification seems to be taking place. 97 93 Ibid., 39. 94 Ibid., 40. 95 Ibid., 41. 96 Ibid., p. 42. 97 Ibid., 43.

PAGE 61

61 Smalley considers spectral space saying that in this context the term simply refers to space in the vertical dimension. A primary concep t in his consideration of spectral space is gravitation which refers in this context to at tractive poles within the dimension of spectral space. These ideas are drawn from Franois Bayle and Stphane Roys discussions of tendencies and attractions within spectral and pitch space. Smalleys conception of gravitation is more concerned, however, with attractions and motions between relatively stable regions or planes within spectral space. Smalley considers thes e motions and attractions in terms of diagonal forces and states that the expans ion and contractions of these for ces define the scale of spectral space. The final primary concept of Smalleys space-f orm considered here is perspectival space which he defines as the relations of positi on, movement and scale among spectromorphologies, viewed from the listeners vantage point. 98 Smalley identifies three vi ews in perspectival space prospective space, panoramic space and circumspace. Prospective space is the frontal image, which ex tends laterally to create a panoramic space within the range of vision; circumspace sp ace around the listener extends panoramic space to encompass the listener 99 Smalley also advances two pairs of concep ts regarding prospective space. One pair involves movement in relation to the proximate cen ter of prospective space by either approach or recession. The other pair involves ouverture (o pening out) and enclosure (closing in) of prospective space. Smalley provides a glossary including additional terms and concepts not discussed here, some of which will be encounter ed in the example analyses in Chapter 3. 98 Ibid., 48. 99 Ibid.

PAGE 62

62 These concepts could potentially be comb ined with Ambrose Fields more general landscape morphology. The two approaches, while distinct from one another, are not incompatible. In certain cases, a description of landscape morphology might be enriched by the specificity of Smalleys terms. For example, a sonic landscape identifie d as surreal might be furthered described according to the types of ag ential spaces it contains or in terms of the listeners perspective (such as the way that a pa rticular type of oev erture or enclosure contributes to the landscapes surreal qualities). At the same time, the emphasis on degrees of representation of reality in Fields landscape mo rphology provides a perspective that is not accounted for in Smalleys approach. Katharine Norman: Listening Journal Although Katharine Norm an does not attempt to put forth an analytical model, the approach taken in her recent book, Sounding Art is one that should be taken into account in a study such as this. Norman describes her book as an unashamedly personal response to a selection of electroacoustic works. 100 Each chapter of Sounding Art is essentially a listening journal, and each is contrasting in its organization. Norman states that each chapter reflects its subject in the way that it is written and structured.101 As Normans approach in Sounding Art is not explicitly analytical, one might initially call into question its incl usion in this study. Howeve r, recalling Delalandes assertion that a search for pertinences should be a primary element in analysis, the argument could be made that Normans responses to th e pieces considered in Sounding Art generally provide more pertinent information than those analytical approaches that impose a preset methodology on a musical 100 Katharine Norman, Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004), xi. 101 Ibid.

PAGE 63

63 work. Although Norman does not specifically em ploy this terminology, her responses to the works attended to in Sounding Art seem to be guided by a search for pertinences. For example, Chapter 4 addresses Hildegard Westerkamps Talking Rain not by attempting to describe or analyze the works st ructure, or by subjecting the work to a preset analytical model or system, but instead through a transcription of an in terview between Norman and Westerkamp walking through Lighthous e Park, where the sounds used in Talking Rain were recorded. This is not altogether different fr om a poeitic analysis. Norman and Westerkamp discuss the ways in which the work was crea ted and the connection between these poeitic elements and the ways in which the work is perceived. Is this analysis? And, what exactly is No rmans approach? Norm ans treatment of Talking Rain is one of the parts of Sounding Art that is the most unlike traditional music analysis. But what analytical approach could be more appropriate to a work like Talking Rain ? a spectromorpholgocial description? an implicativ e analysis? If we accept De lalandes search for pertinences as a primary element in the object of analysis, Normans method of addressing this work is fitting. Unlike the approaches consider ed above, Norman does not put forth any sets of terms or concepts for the consideration of this music. Each work or topic is appr oached differently, as a response to the work (not an imposition on it). Perhap s this is not analysis in a formal sense, but it is analysis nonetheless. To provide a sense of Normans approach, th e discussion here will briefly focus on two examples from Sounding Art The first is Normans consideration of Petit jardin by Magali Babin, and the second is that of untitled #90 by Francisco Lopez. In the first chapter of Sounding Art Norman briefly addr esses Magali Babins Petit jardin Norman describes the work in a very personal way, using such phrases as I imagine, I

PAGE 64

64 can hear, I listen, etc. In the course of this brief analysis, Norman considers the role of the performer in fixed media electroacoustic music such as this, where in tentional performative gesture is clearly present. Norman also addresses the transmodality of perception (a primary feature of Smalleys space-form) discussing a persona l connection between the sounds in Petit jardin and her own memories of physical sensations of touch: Im finding that swirling hand sound esp ecially satisfying and immediate, probably because it reminds me of that pleasurable sens ation of plunging a hand deep into a sack of grain, or whatever, and sc runching around for the pure enjoyment of the physical sensation. Im not sure I have any specific memo ry of a precise instance of doing that, but I certainly seem to remember how it feels. 102 theres a tactile quality to these sounds. Listening even becomes a proxy for touching. When I listen to Babins metallic sounds my mind is reinhabited with sensory images of quite specific kinds, and these ar e memories derived from touch. 103 Norman also considers an excerpt from Francisco Lopezs untitled #90 As in all of the explorations of pieces in Sounding Art Normans response to the work is conducted from a very personal perspective. This work, in stark contrast to Petit jardin resists any attempt to identify concrete sound sources or causes, occupying the do main of what Smalley refers to as remote surrogacy. This is reflected in Normans consid eration of this piece. She begins her discussion with an account of her initial attempt to find tangible connections between the sounds in this piece to her own prior experience. I dont know what any of these sounds are. And I dont know what I mean by thatwhat are they of, for, about, doing? Behind a screen of proc essing there are glimpses of I think, for a while waves breaking, insects calling, birds singing. For a few minutes I am straining my ears to hear connections. I cant he ar them. I cant use them. But there is this loud, insistent, high-pitched tone not superimpos ed, but part of it (wha tever it is) that 102 Ibid., 9. 103 Ibid., 10.

PAGE 65

65 blasts through likenono similes please. It is not a sound to identify, or to care to identify 104 Following this initial discussion, Norman consider s the process of listening to a work that is dominated by abstract sound. She adds that, the material that makes th is piece is empty of associations and full of substance. 105 The analytical approaches discussed above al l present new specific sets of terminology or concepts. Norman, on the other hand, does not do this. Of course, Norman is not attempting to put forth an analytical framewor k, but her overall approach can be taken as a model for effective analysis. What Norman is doing in Sounding Art is exploring her own perceptions and experiences of listening to electroacoustic music. Where appropriate, however, Norman incorporat es many of the concepts that are included in the other approaches considered in this study. 106 For example, in the interview between Norman and Westerkamp, microphone space and its relation to perspectival space are discussed throughout (although not using Smalleys terms). 107 Normans consideration of Birds by Luigi Ceccarelli also includes examples of ways in which she incorporates concepts addressed in the approaches considered in this study. While again not using the same terms, Norman discusses the forces between different regions in spectral space as well as the e ffort involved in navigating them. In Normans account, this also involves a me taphor for flight. She uses the discussion of spatial planes as a way of illustrating how in Birds this metaphor moves beyond the obvious and 104 Ibid., 70. 105 Ibid., 71. 106 An example of this has already been encountered in Normans discussion of perceptual transmodality in her treatment of Petit jardin 107 Ibid., 78-79.

PAGE 66

66 is carefully constructed and subtle. In the c ourse of this discussion, Norman also briefly describes the landscape morphology of part of this piece. Again, she does not use the same terms, but identifies the non-real landscape. 108 Conclusion This chapter has reviewed seven sets of concepts for the analysis of fixed m edia electroacoustic music. The primary purpose of this chapter has been to examine ways in which existing analytical approaches might be used as descriptive tools in the consideration of the multiple planes of discourse afforded by fixed media electroacoustic music. As has been argued in the first chapter of this study, one of the mo st unique qualities of fi xed media electroacoustic music is its potential to accommodate various levels of discourse simultaneously and, in particular, a potential ambiguity between them. Wh ile connections and parallels have been drawn between many of these approaches, e ach is distinct and supplies th e analyst with conceptual tools (although some are more useful than others) for electroacoustic music analysis. Although the approaches considered here do not deal with every possible approach to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music, they are representative of the range of the predominant analytical strategies typically impl emented or proposed by schol ars in this field. It is the contention in this study th at a grasp of the range of an alytical strategies and ideas considered in this study can provide a solid founda tion for consideration of the multiple planes of discourse possible in fixed me dia electroacoustic music. In Chapter 3, concepts drawn from the approaches considered above, will be applied to four fixed media electroacoustic works: Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt, Paul Lanksys Night Traffic and England (G & T Swimmers ) by Antti Saario. These 108 Normans approach is revisited in the analytical discussion of Paul Lanskys Night Traffic in Chapter 3.

PAGE 67

67 analytical descriptions illustrate ways in which these c oncepts might be applie d in the analysis of contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works.

PAGE 68

68 VH H M LM L 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time in Seconds Figure 2-1. Moylan Pitch Contour Graph

PAGE 69

69 The vertical axis represents the number of attacks recorded and the horizontal axis represents time in seconds. Time in Seconds Figure 2-2. Moylan Att ack Density Graph Type 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

PAGE 70

70 CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION OF THE APPROACHES CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY Introduction In this chapter, elem ents of the approaches considered in Chapter 2 are applied in multilayered descriptions of four fi xed media electroacoustic works: Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt, England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario and Night Traffic by Paul Lansky. The intention for the descriptions in this chapter is to illustrate ways in which the descriptive tools examined in th is study might be applied. The di scussion of this small sampling of examples is also illustrative of the need for multiple descriptiv e tools in the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. It is shown here th at each descriptive approach provides a different type of information, and that none is applicable to all fixed media electroacoustic music. The description and discussion in this chap ter is purely illustrative and should not be mistaken for analysis. The objective here is not to analyze these piece s. As stated in both Chapters 1 and 2, music analysis should be gui ded by a search for per tinences, and descriptive tools such as those considered he re should only be applied in suppor t of this search and in order to serve interpretive purposes. The nature of this study restricts the majority of this discussion to the local level, and the examples considered here are relatively brief (bet ween 2 and 3 minutes each). Of course, in an actual analysis, the complete work (and whatever pertinent relationships might be uncovered) should be considered. As the emphasis of this chap ter is on the illustration of ways in which the analytical approaches considered in this study might be applied as descriptive tools, the brevity of these excerpts does not hinder the present discussion. While some of the descriptions here are interesting or illuminating, many would be of little use in an analytical context. However, illustrati on of the areas in which certain descriptive tools

PAGE 71

71 are not appropriate is also wort hwhile in the context of this study. As discussed in the preceding chapters, fixed media electroacoustic music affords multiple planes of discourse. While the descriptions in this chapter focus on these planes separately (in or der to demonstrate how particular descriptive ap proaches might be applied), these pl anes are often interconnected. This potential interconnection will be explored in Chapter 4. Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery The first example considered in this chapter is the initial 2 m inutes and 45 seconds of Pete Stollerys Onset/Offset This piece contains a diversity of types of spaces, textures and sound sources, inviting the use of multiple descriptive tools. The first approach applied here is Moylans Analytical System for Electronic Music Moylans attack density and pitch contour graphs were created for this excerpt. Below is a representation of this excerpt employing Moylans second type of attack density graph. As discussed in Chapter 2, this graphing method shows the contour of the number of attacks occurring within the given time frame. Figure 3-1 is an Attack Density Graph Type 2 for this excerpt of Onset/Offset. The creation of this type of graph presents several problems. First, Moylans approach requires that a work be segmented into perc eptually discrete units, but works such as Onset/Offset which include concrete sounds, often re sist this type of segmentation. The opening of the work, for example, consists of a sound event (a door apparently being unlocked) that is difficult to describe in terms of attack density. Should the entire event be labeled as one attack? If so, a complex sound event will be re duced to its onset alone. Conversely, attempting to represent this sound events complexity by record ing multiple attacks within this event is also problematic. At what level of detail does one segment a sound event such as this?

PAGE 72

72 Pitch Contour Graph Application of Moylans pitch cont our graph to this excerpt from Onset/Offset also presents difficulties. While pitch contour can ce rtainly be identified in parts of this excerpt, there are also many sections that are not pitch-based. There are also portions that are more texture-carried than gesture carried. While a pitch contour may be identifiable in these parts, this does not necessarily reveal pertinen t information. Figures 3-2 and 3-3 are examples of pitch contour graphs represen ting parts of this excerpt. As the above examples show, these types of graphs present multiple problems. In each of these excerpts, the texture is much more comp lex than its representation in these graphs. However, the above graphs do reflect a connectio n between overall gestural shapes in the two excerpts. Although the applicabil ity of Moylans approach is limited, there are certainly conceivable situations in which it might re veal information useful to analysis. Spectromorphological Description A spectromorphological description is al so applied to this excerpt from Onset/Offset The description here is, again, pur ely illustrative, and is mere ly an attempt to show how spectromorphological terminology mi ght be used to describe i ndividual sound events. This is presented in the form of a char t, simply listing the sound events in this excerpt and describing their basic spectromorphological characteristics This chart is a si mplistic version of a spectromorphological description an d these concepts can naturally be applied more precisely and in much greater detail. However, as this chapter is concerned with illust ration of the application of descriptive approaches, an e xhaustive description is not nece ssary here. The sound events in this excerpt were primarily described in terms of Smalleys morphological archetypes as well as motion types.

PAGE 73

73 Table 3-1. Spectromorphol ogical Description of Onset/Offset (excerpt) Time Event 0:00 A series of Attack-Decay (AD) events, noise type 0:11 0:29 A Graduated Continuant (GC) event lasting 18 seconds containing two primary layers. The first layer is of the note type moving in linear descent from the approximate pitches F to A with a brief reciprocal motion (at 28 seconds) in linear ascent by a 1/2 step to the approximate pitch B-flat. The second layer consists of a granular te xture of the node t ype in the canopy of the spectral space. 0:28 A series of AD events, noise type 0:34 0:36 A Graduated Continuant with Decay (GCD) event lasting 2 seconds, node type, moving in an ascending/descending parabolic motion. 0:36 0:40 A series of AD events, noise type 0:40 1:16 A GC event (granular texture) noise type, moving erratically in an irregular undulation in the upper centre and canopy of spectral space. 0:47 1:16 A GC event, note/node type, containing a mostly linear reciprocal ascent/descent beginning on F#, rising to B and then falling again. 1:17 1:20 A GCD event, noise type, m oving in ascending/descending parabolic motion 1:17 1:56 A GC texture in the canopy of sp ectral space. This is a granular texture articulated by internal, endogenic undulating motion. 1 The internal motion could be further described as flocked motion. 1:33 1:48 A staggered series of Attack -Impulse (AI) and AD events, noise type 1:59 An AI event, noise type 1:59 2:01 A GC event, noise type 2:00 2:01 A GC event, noise type moving in a linear descent. 2:01 An AD event, noise type 2:07 2:45 A series of staggered AD events mostly of the note type. These events have a flutter decay. These even ts converge in a flocked motion. (AD = Attack Decay, GC = Graduated Continua nt, GCD = Graduated Continuant with Decay, AI = Attack Impulse) The above description, while preliminary a nd admittedly inelegant, reveals several difficulties. While spectromorphol ogical concepts are attractive in theory, their practical application is often problematic. Spectromorphol ogical description quickly becomes tedious and difficult to interpret. Even a lim ited description such as that above is cumbersome and likely indecipherable by the reader unschooled in spectromorphology. Moreover, while a more 1 These are subcategories of Smalleys motion typology.

PAGE 74

74 thorough spectromorphological description of this excerpt might provide more specific information, the reader may also s oon become lost in the details. Another shortcoming of spectromorphology is that it is not particularly well suited for the description of sound transformations. While Sma lleys terminology for describing various types of motion is useful and detailed, these spectromorphological concepts are not adequate for the description of sound transformations. For example, the transformation of th e texture from 1:17 to 1:56 is not well-described using spectromorphological terms alone. However, the shortcomings of this abstract ed descriptive example only demonstrate the inadequacy in seeking to analyze a work such as Onset/Offset (or any work that contains both concrete and abstract elements) relying sole ly on spectromorphologica l description, and the above description by itself is an unfair representation of spectromorphology. At no time does Smalley suggest that the analyst simply list ev ents in the manner show n above. The purpose of the above description is simply to show how the terms might be applied on a local level. In many cases, a combination of spectromorphological description and other descriptive approaches (if guided by a search for pertinences) will be most appropriate. The combination of descriptive approaches and the interconnection between multiple planes of discourse is discussed further in Chapter 4. Landscape Morphology Am brose Fields Landscape Morphology is also applied to this excerpt. As noted in Chapter 2, these terms are quite flexible, leaving a good deal of room for freedom in application. This flexibility affords adaptation and allows for a broad application. The opening of this piece (the first 10 sec onds) takes place in a real environment. The sounds of what seems to be a door being unlocked carry a plausible interior space and there are

PAGE 75

75 no other sounds present that cont radict this realistic landscape. The sounds of movement in the background also seem to belong to and streng then the sense of an interior space. However, beginning at 10 seconds (and con tinuing until approximately 29 seconds) the landscape shifts abruptly to a non-real environment. A processed texture is presented that is clearly not intended to be percei ved as real. The sounds presented in this section (a granular, filtered texture) would not normally be found within the real interior environment presented in the opening of this piece. The listener is no l onger in the same place the scene has changed. Following this (at 34 seconds), Stollery change s the landscape once agai n. At this point, the sounds from the opening of the piece (or very similar ones) are presented again, but they no longer carry a plausible realistic space. These sounds now carry a reverberated non-real space. This introduces the effect of a surreal la ndscape the sounds presented here are still recognizable as real, but the space in whic h they are presented is not realistic. At 40 seconds, a landscape similar to the nonreal environment introduced at 10 seconds returns. While this continues, at 1:00, the s ounds of what seems to be crumbling paper (or something similar) are added. By themselves, these sounds might suggest a real landscape, but in this context, the landscape remains an unreal one. At 1:20, another shift in landscap e occurs. This new environment is still a non-real one, but the space is now larger, with a deeper sense of foreground and background. The sounds contained within this space (while apparently abstracted from real sounds), are non-real. At 1:58, the landscape shifts ag ain and the sounds of what s eem to be opening doors carry realistic spaces, but only briefl y. We only remain in this poten tially realistic environment for a few seconds before the scene changes to another non-real landscape.

PAGE 76

76 As in the above applications of Moylans graphing techniques and spectromorphological descriptions, this description of landscape morphol ogy is in no way interpretive. In an actual analysis, these descriptive tools should be used (where appropriate) to interpret (not simply describe) a work. Because of its flexibility, landscape morphology s eems to be quite suitable to this excerpt. But again, this single method of description does not provide a complete picture in itself. The overall landscape or environment is described well using these concepts, but in most cases, the events taking place within the landscape n eed to be considered. Depending on the work, description of events (or relationships betw een them) in terms of spectromorphology, sonic rhetoric, or other means might be combined with landscape morphology. Sonic Rhetoric Sim ilar to the other approaches considered in this study, Fi elds sonic rhetoric can be applied to virtually any fixed me dia electroacoustic work, particul arly those which make use of concrete sound material. However, the relevance of these concepts to analysis will be determined by the work in question. Just as one might be able to identify a particular spectromorphological characteristic that is of little value in analysis, sonic metaphors, sonic similes, sonic hyperboles, etc. might be identified that are not relevant to analysis. As in the application of other approaches above, description of sonic rhetor ic in this excerpt is purely il lustrative and is not guided by a search for pertinences. Therefore, the elements of sonic rhetoric identified may be but are not necessarily relevant to analysis. As in any work involving identifiable sound sources, there is potential for description of sonic metaphor in this excerpt. Obvious sonic metaphors can be drawn in connection with the sound of a door being unlocked at the opening of this work. This could be taken to represent

PAGE 77

77 transition (into a new space, into the work itself, etc.) or many other concepts associated with doors, keys or locks. Fields conception of sonic sim ile can also be applied to th is excerpt. As discussed in Chapter 2, Fields idea of sonic simile is less direct and less restricted than simile in language. For Field, a sonic simile invite s comparison simply through juxt aposition, and this conception affords a potentially rich ambiguity in interpretation. However, if this notion is taken to the extreme, it would follow that one could interp ret all sounds or events in a fixed media electroacoustic work as being in simile rela tionships. Again, this involves questions of interpretation, and is left to the individual analyst. For example, one might identify a simile rela tionship between two of the sound events in the opening of this excerpt (the first begi nning at 0:10 and ending at 0:29 and the second occurring between 0:34 and 0:36). Th e first is a granular texture th at contains a strand of pitch moving in a linear descent. The second is the so und of a sliding door (o r could at least be interpreted as such). This sliding door, while noise based, also contains an overall linear descent. One might interpret a simile relationship betw een this sliding door (w hich is immediately followed by the sounds of a door being unlocked that are very similar to the sounds that open the piece) and the more abstract granular texture. However, whether or not this relationship is pertinent is interpretive and reliant on the anal ysts perspective as well as the context of the work. Private Play by Scott W yatt Unlike Onset/Offset Scott Wyatts Private Play is comprised primarily of relatively abstract sound material and events However, most of these abstract elements also have a degree of referential potential. As in the above discussion of Onset/Offset, multiple descriptive

PAGE 78

78 approaches are applied to the first three minutes of Private Play The first approach applied is Roys functional and im plicative approach. Roys Functional and Implicative Approach The first 19 seconds of this work comprise a single figure function, which also carries an introduction function. This event begi ns abruptly, almost as a trigger, but in this ca se the trigger is the beginning of the event itself. 2 This is followed, at 23 seconds, by the initiation of a contrasting sound event. This contrast, and the apparent lack of asso ciation between the two events, lends a sense of incompleteness to the first. This new event carries an introduction function, initiating a downward motion (in terms of pitch). These two events are followed, at 45 seconds, by a series of figures that set up a gradual ascension that continues until approximately 1:16. This might be interpreted as being in an antecedent/consequent (or call and response ) relationship with the preceding event. At 1:36 a high intensity event (in terms of loudness) with an interr uption function occurs and is reiterated by a similar ev ent at 1:44. However, these events are only interruptions on a local level. On a larger scale th ey serve as an introduction to si milar events that are reiterated throughout the work. As the piece progresses they begin to be perceived less as interruptions as they become more expected and lend to the work a forward motion. Relatively unaffected by these interruptions, th e gradual ascension cont inues (in both pitch and density of activity) until approximately 2:10. At this point a plateau is reached and followed by a descent beginning at 2:26. At 2:43 the figur e function from the beginning of the work returns. This functions as a re iteration and recontextualizes th e opening of the work. On a more 2 This is a slight adaptation of Roys description of trigge r. In this case, this function is not triggering another event but is the beginning of a longer event of which it is a part.

PAGE 79

79 local level, there are several beget ting functions in this excerpt. For example, at 1:19, there is a brief event (a high, pitched event) that prepares a brief outburst. There is a clear sense of forward motion in th is work, inviting a functional and implicative analysis. However, attributing specific functions in this work is difficult. One could apply these same concepts to the same excerpt in many di fferent ways, and there are many interpretive possibilities. If nothing else, howev er, these concepts provide a basis for discussion of functional and implicative relationships. The fact that an ev ent in this excerpt might be identified by one analyst as an interruption and by another as having a begetting function is an issue of interpretation. Space-form Next, this excerpt from Private Play is described in terms of Denis Smalleys space-form. Although a sense of space is articu lated and well crafted in this example (and in this work as a whole), a conception of space according to Smalle ys idea of space-form does not seem to be a significant feature of this work. Once the space is established in Private Play it does not change significantly. The focus seems to be on what happe ns within this space. Wyatt is careful in establishing a space, but it seems to function primarily as an arena for discourse to take place in. The features of the space itself are not the focus of the discourse in this piece. A large reverberant space is articulated at the beginning of this example and we (the listeners) remain in a similar space for the entirety of this excerpt. This space is established in the initial sixteen seconds by a m oving sound (like a rolling marble) that creates the illusion of encircling the listener. This event begins in the left side of the panoramic space, moves to the right side and then in a circle around the listener, finally return ing to its original position. The course of this circular motion articulates a relatively sizable ra nge between proximate and distal space. The sounds in this example are heavily reverberated creating th e sense of a soundscape

PAGE 80

80 that, while unreal, is large. Th e vantage point in this excerpt is fixed. There is a good deal of motion of sound events in this excerpt, but there is no sense of a shift in perspectival space. Wyatt seems to have carefully considered spectral space in this work. As the sounds in this example are all abstract, the listener is more likely to become aware of spectral space. The initial marble rolling event sets up a plane in the upper middle le vel of spectral space, and the bulk of the activity in the first minute of this exce rpt takes place above this plane. This plane is gradually forced downward throughout this exampl e. By three minutes into the excerpt, the root of spectral space has been reached, comp leting the gradual downw ard extension of the spectral space frame in this excerpt. Spectromorphology A spectromorphological descripti on such as that applied to Onset/Offset above would be repetitive and unnecessary. This brie f application to this excerpt from Private Play will focus on Smalleys motion typology and structural functions. Smalleys terminology for describing motion can be applied to parts of this excerpt. For example, the opening event can be described as involving a long circular reciprocal motion. The following event (beginning at 0:22 ) contains a unidirec tional motion, in descent, and this is followed by a longer series of events moving collectively in ascent. On a larger scale, the excerpt as a whole (excepting the first 20 seconds) contains an internal contorted motion, with layers of sound folding in on one another. An attempt to apply Smalleys concepts for de scription of structural functions immediately presents problems. While these ideas might be ini tially attractive, their application is difficult. How might the initial sound even t (the first 19 seconds) be described according to Smalleys structural functions, for example? Which of the subcategories of the thr ee linked temporal phases could be used to describe this event? Smalley does not provide examples of their application, so

PAGE 81

81 these, while affording interpretive freedom, rema in vague in terms of practice. One potential interpretation might be that on the more local level (this event alone), the onset is that of emergence, the continuant is that of prolongation, and the termination is that of resolution. Attempting to apply Smalleys expansion of the three linked temporal phases to the gradual ascension that takes pl ace between 0:45 and approximate ly 2:20 is again problematic. One could again say that the three phases at work here are emergence, prolongation and resolution. But, whether or not this might be pertinent to an analysis is doubtful. However, these concepts could conceivably be applied to other fixed media electroacoustic works. England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario The opening two minutes and fi ve seconds of Antti Saarios England (G & T Swimmers) will also be used to illustrate the application of the descriptive approaches considered in this study. This excerpt presents difficulties for each of the approaches. A prominent element of this piece is the presentation of recordings of intelligible speech. This should not be ignored in analysis. However, as the analytical approaches considered in this study do not consider speech or text, it will not be dealt with in these descript ions. Similarly, there are pitch relationships in this work that would be best dea lt with by other analytical tools. Ag ain, this is not to suggest that these relationships are of less analytical pertinence. Landscape Morphology Considered as a whole, this excerpt takes pl a ce within a surreal landscape. However, on a more local level, both real and non-real la ndscapes can be identified. There are also moments in which real landscapes are presente d, but which are altered or interfered with. Saarios frequent use of abrupt transitions between spaces (much like jump cutting in film) contributes to the overall surreal qual ity of the landscape in this work.

PAGE 82

82 In the opening seconds of the work, electronic glissandi are followed by a chordal pad texture (suggesting G major). A sense of fore ground and background space is established, but a real environment is not suggested this is clearly intended to be perceived as a non-real environment. At 23 seconds there is an abrupt and jarring transition. The listener is suddenly inside a realistic interior space. This is a small, dry sp ace in which someone is casually playing a cello and several people are talking and having drinks. But, very quickly (with in 10 seconds) Saario begins to disturb this perceived reality. This be gins subtly as one of the people in this space begins to hum a melody, this is harmonized very softly in the backgr ound by an unidentifiable sound. Shortly after this, the disruption of the sense of real ity becomes more pronounced as recordings of the words and phrases spoken by pe ople in this space are re peated (through literal copying). At 45 seconds into the work, the landscape sh ifts once again. The listener has been taken out of the interior space previ ously presented, and is now in another surreal landscape. The sound of ice clinking in a glass is retained from the previous scene, but it is now being rattled around in the glass in a more unna tural way, with a seemingly perf ormative intention. This sound is no longer simply part of the scene; it is now something to be listened to. The presence of a pitch-based background texture lend s this new landscape a more non-real quality than that of the previous scene. For the remainder of this excerpt, the sounds of the interior scen e are juxtaposed and combined with non-real or abstracted sounds. This creates an overall surreal landscape. For example, when the interior scen e returns (with people talking about the Gs and Gs sounded at

PAGE 83

83 the same time in the background texture), the real istic interior space is presented simultaneously with processed sounds that contradict that space. Varying degrees of representation of reality seem to be an im portant aspect of this work. Therefore, landscape morphology seems to be an a ppropriate descriptive t ool. However, even in a preliminary description such as this, Fields very general concepts need to be augmented with additional description. This does not present a difficulty, howev er; the flexibility of these concepts makes them applicable to a wider variety of works. Sonic Rhetoric As this work is concerned in large part with varying degrees of representation of reality, it presents opportunities for the app lication of elem ents of Fields sonic rhetoric. Saario uses pitch connections to link events and spaces in this excerpt. As stated above, this work might be interpreted in terms of varying degrees of reality and abstraction. One way to view this work is as presenting a multi-dimensional reality in which the dimensions are connected in various ways. From this perspective, Fields concep t of sonic simile comes into play. One of the ways in which sonic similes can be identified is in the pitch connections in this work. These pitch connections can be interpreted as inviting comparison between otherwise unrelated events. 3 For example, between 0:25 and 0:36, Saar io uses pitch to link three different dimensions. First, the cello in the real inte rior space plays A and D pizzicatos. At the same time, a female voice casually hums a melody in D majo r, but this voice does not quite fit into the scene. Although a person humming would not be implausible in th is space, something about the spatial placement doesnt seem to match the c ontext. Two different dimensions seem to be connected by this pitch connection. Also at the same time, a chordal background suggests D 3 This concept of sonic simile is slightly expanded from that explicitly described by Field.

PAGE 84

84 major. However, the source of this sound is unclear and suggests something non-real. The pitch connection creates a sonic simile betw een three otherwise separate dimensions. A comparable simile connection can be id entified after 1:20 when the plucked open strings of the cello in the interior space are anticipated (and later echoed) by the non-real background. In this example, the pitches of th e cellos open strings are sounded by a processed and sustained background texture. This background continues through the end of the excerpt, drawing ambiguous simile connections along the way. From another perspective, the literal repetitions of sounds in this excerpt could also be interpreted as sonic hyperbole. The first of these begins at 0:36 wh en the sounds from the interior space are exactly copied, creating a literal echo. This literal overstatement of reality contributes to the sense of surreal landscape mentioned above. At the same time, sonic synecdoche could also be viewed as playing a major role in this work. This can be found on the local level and in the work as a whole. In the excerpt discussed here, a scene is represented. Although there are str ong connections to reality, much is left to the listeners imagination. In the standard concepti on of synecdoche, a part of something is representative of the whole. But, as Field suggests, in sonic s ynecdoche, exactly what the whole is that is represented is often unclear. This is the case in this excerpt from England (G & T Swimmers ). Something is clearly being represented, but exactly what that is could be interpreted in many different ways. Again, it is not completely clear whether this interpretation is entirely in line with Fields concepts as outlined in his article. Fields expos ition of these ideas is relatively brief, leaving matters of interpretati on such as this to the analyst. Spectromorphology An attem pt to apply spectromorphology to this excerpt would support the argument that no descriptive approach can be successfully app lied to all fixed media electroacoustic works.

PAGE 85

85 Although morphology, motion types or other spectromorphological attr ibutes could be described in this excerpt, this would be of little value in analysis. For example, one might attempt to describe the motion types in the opening seconds of this excerpt in spectromorphological terms, as a sort of erratic reciprocal motion. However, as the work unfolds it becomes clear that this sound is simply representing radio signals. Just as it would be of little value to describe space form in a work where this is not pertinent, a description of the spectromo rphological features that do not carry any esthesic releva nce would also be unproductive. Similarly, Moylans Analytical System reveals little pertinent information about this excerpt. As discussed above, Moylan s approach is parameter base d and its application to this excerpt would be problematic. For example, app lication of the attack density graph to this excerpt would be incredibly problematic. The ambi guity in this piece defies any such simplistic segmentation. Night Traffic by Paul Lansky The final work addressed here is Paul Lanskys Night Traffic. As with the other pieces considered, discussion focuses on an excerpt. The firs t three m inutes of the wo rk are considered. Space-form As stated ab ove, Smalleys space-form approach requires a holistic view of space. Therefore, in a general sense, the analyst must attempt to set aside the progression of time and consider the soundscape as a whole. However, as soundscapes frequently shift in fixed media electroacoustic music, this is not always possible. For example, in Antti Saarios England (G & T Swimmers) an attempt to apply Smalleys concepts such as zoned spaces or nested spaces within an overall soundscape woul d be problematic. Smalleys space-form works best when it is applied to works in which the listener has a relati vely fixed vantage point and in which there is a

PAGE 86

86 sense of overall soundscape. This is partially the case with Night Traffic, but this attempt to describe it in terms of space-form also presents problems. This excerpt unfolds in a source-bonded space. The listener can deduce from the title (and program notes) that literal recordings of ni ght traffic are being presented. However, these sounds have been altered this is not a literal presentation of reality. 4 In spectromorphological terms, this primarily involves third order and remote surrogacy. This is a distinctly enacted (culture ba sed) space. Within the category of enacted spaces, this is an agential space these s ounds here are produced by human activity. This excerpt also provides an opportunity fo r the consideration of perspectival space. The listeners vantage point in this excerpt s eems to be stationary. Beginning in the opening seconds, perspectival space is expanded ( ouverture ) to encompass a wide panoramic space through what Smalley refers to as a vectorial wipe. 5 Perspectival space remains broad for the entire excerpt. These vectorial wipes also articu late a range of proximate to distal space through approach and recession. However, because these s ounds are on a third order or remote level of surrogacy, they do not carry specific spatial cues. It is difficult to acquire a precise awareness of the dimensions of this space. Virtually all of th e activity in this excerp t involves these vectorial wipes. Therefore, while the outer edges and range of panoramic space are defined, neither a distal or proximate center of prospective space is articulated. From Smalleys perspective, the more that s ounds have an abstract nature, the more they invite a consideration of spectral space. This is the case in this section of Night Traffic. Smalley states that, we are not always aware of how spectral factors contri bute to our sense of space, 6 4 This is an area where Fields landsca pe morphology might come into play. 5 Denis Smalley, Space-form and the Acousmatic Image, Organised Sound 12 (2007): 49. 6 Ibid.

PAGE 87

87 particularly in the case of spaces which have a high degree of source-bonding. However, Smalley states that the listeners attention will be more drawn to spectral space (he states that thinking spectrally requires a certain level of abst raction) as abstract ion is introduced. Spectral space is mostly filled in this exampl e, using the full audio spectrum. There are not clearly separated spectral planes in this example. Rather the relatively monolithic vectorial traffic sounds weave in and out of spectral levels. Ther e is an emphasis on the upper centre of the audio spectrum, but the overall sp ectral range is quite wide. Immediately apparent in attemp ting to describe this excerpt according to Smalleys spaceform terminology, is the lack of a means for c onsidering how real or unreal the space is. This is an important part of this piece. Are th e sounds interfered with? This is a case where an adaptation of Fields terms might be successfully combined with Smalleys space form. Landscape Morphology This is a surreal landscape, which (as discus sed in Chapter 2), can be assum ed to fall within Fields virtual landscape category. It is clear from the ti tle (and program notes) that the sounds in this work are recordings of the sound of highway traffic. Knowing this, the sounds in this example are quite recognizable as manipulat ions of these recordi ngs. The listener knows of the real landscape of the original unaltered sounds. But the abstra ctions of these sounds create a surreal landscape. A reality is presen ted and contradicted at the same time. Sonic Rhetoric This piece provides an opportunity for description of sonic synecdoche, in which a part stands for a whole. As discussed above, Field s concept of sonic synecdoche is m ore ambiguous. In this work, night traffic is partially represented. By bringing out and exaggerating resonances in these sounds, Lansky obscures their specificity. But, the overall morphology (Doppler shifts, characterist ic envelope) still represen ts traffic. This can be interpreted in at least

PAGE 88

88 two ways. This synecdoche can represent the larger concept of traffic or can partially represent a specific scene. The sounds, comb ined with the added descriptor night, invite a listener to conjure up a scene on the side of a highway at ni ght. But the rest of the details are up to the listener. This partial representati on creates a fruitful ambiguity. Normans Discussion of Night Traffic In Sounding Art Katharine Norm an briefly addresses Night Traffic. In her brief description, a clear contrast can be seen between her approach and the others considered in this study. As discussed in Chapter 2, Norman does not have a preset descriptive methodology that she applied to all works. Normans discussion of the work is centered on the character of the work itself, on the questions that it raises. In her address of works in Sounding Art Norman typically identif ies what she views as central to a works identity, or what distinguishes it. In the case of Night Traffic Norman identifies an ambiguous fusion of the representation of traffic a nd abstract musical processes. Norman notes that, considered separately, neither the representation of traffic or the abstract musical processes in this work are particularly interesting on their own. Norman states that the effectiveness of this work lies in the fusion itself: Neither of these would work alone ; it is in their (literal) confusion that the lyric simile resides. An epic field-recording of untouched traffic sounds would be too literally a picture of a sound. An abstract musical work that presented a slow aimless voice-leading harmony would be a pleasant diversion. But th e two together, offer a mutual confusion. 7 Conclusion The above descriptions illustrate som e of the ways in which the approaches considered in this study might be applied to contrasting fixed media electroacoustic works. It has been shown 7 Katharine Norman, Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004), 69.

PAGE 89

89 that each descriptive approach provides a differe nt type of information, and that while each has the potential to provide relevant information when applied to certain fixe d media electroacoustic works, none can be effectively applied to all. A persistent feature of the a bove descriptions is their incompletene ss. Although this is exaggerated by the nature of th is study, it highlights the inadequacy of attempting to blindly apply analytical approaches. The incompleteness of the descriptions in this chapter also calls attention to the need for analysis to be guided by a search for pertinences. As discussed above, the focus of this chapter is on the illustration of ways in which the analytical approaches considered in this study might be applied as descri ptive tools. The descripti ons in this chapter are therefore purely illustrative and are not to be regarded as analyses. As stated above, interconnection between multiple planes of discourse is often a salient feature of fixed media electroacoustic works. It is also important to the consideration of listening strategies. This interconnection, as well as the possibility of a co mprehensive analytical approach is considered further in Chapter 4.

PAGE 90

90 The vertical axis represents the number of attacks reco rded and the horizontal axis represents time in seconds. Figure 3-1. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Attack Density Graph Type 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

PAGE 91

91 VH H M LM L 0:10 0:12 0:14 0:16 0:18 0:20 0:22 0:24 0:26 0:28 0:30 0:32 0:34 0:36 Time in Seconds Figure 3-2. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:10 to 0:36 VH H M LM L 0:46 0:50 0:54 0:58 1:02 1:06 1:10 1:14 1:18 Time in Seconds Figure 3-3. Onset/Offset (excerpt) Pitch Contour Graph 0:46 to 1:20

PAGE 92

92 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION Introduction In this study a comparative examination and appl ication of representative approaches to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music has been presented. Elements of each of the approaches considered in this study have been applied in multi-layered desc riptions of four fixed media electroacoustic works: Onset/Offset by Pete Stollery, Private Play by Scott Wyatt, England (G & T Swimmers) by Antti Saario, and Night Traffic by Paul Lansky. While many topics and analytical approaches have been addressed in this study, one important question has yet to be considered that of the interconnection of planes of discourse in fixed media electroacoustic music. In the following paragr aphs, the principal themes of the preceding chapters of this study are retraced. This is followed by discussion of the interconnection of planes of discourse in fixe d media electroacoustic music. In Chapter 1 it was argued that one of the most unique qualiti es of fixed media electroacoustic music lies in its potential for th e accommodation of various levels of discourse and, in particular, a possible ambigui ty between these levels. It was also stated that the intention in this study is not to put fo rward a universally app licable analytical framework and that the selection of an analytical appr oach is best determined by the specific piece in question. In addition, it was also asserted that an analyst should consider multiple descriptive tools. Chapter 1 made the point that fixed media el ectroacoustic music presents the analyst with specific challenges. While various writers have cited many of these challenges, this study identifies one as being most fundamental the potential for varying de grees of representation and abstraction and the resulting possibility for multiple levels of discourse. It was also noted that, although a number of analytic al approaches have been publis hed, scholarship in the area of

PAGE 93

93 electroacoustic music analysis is currently fr agmented and that the majority of existing approaches are narrowly focused. With the excep tion of Katharine Normans approach in her book Sounding Art each of the approaches considered in this study are concerned with a single plane of discourse. The approach taken in this st udy has been to view each of these approaches as descriptive tools that might be employed within a comprehensive approach guided by a search for pertinences. The purpose of music analysis was also addres sed in Chapter 1. While several possibilities were considered, it was establis hed that the primary purpose of an alysis, as considered in this study, lies in the exploration of the relationshi p between the listener/a nalysts subjective perspective and the musical object. The descrip tive approaches considered in this study can provide a potential starting point fo r this exploration. This idea of exploration raises several questions and a more thorough consideration of th ese and related issues is beyond the scope of this study. The present objective is to presen t a comparative study of existing analytical approaches and to illustrate how they might be applied as descriptive tools. Therefore for the purpose of this study, it will simply be stated th at the relationship to be explored in music analysis is that between the neutral level and esthesic processes (as outlined by Nattiez). 1 In Chapter 2, seven sets of concepts for the description of fixed media electroacoustic music were presented. These approaches were c onsidered critically and were measured against one another. It was shown that, while parallels can be drawn between many of these approaches, each is distinct and supplies the analyst with conceptual and descriptive tools (although some may be more useful than others) for fi xed media electroacoustic music analysis. 1 Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990).

PAGE 94

94 In Chapter 3, elements of the approaches considered in Chapter 2 were applied in multilayered descriptions of four fixed media el ectroacoustic works. It was shown that each descriptive approach yiel ds a different type of information, and that while rele vant to certain pieces, will likely provide little or no pertinent information when a pplied to others. As stated previously, a persistent feature of the descriptions in Chapter 3 is their partiality. Although the nature of this study accentuates this partial ity, it also highlights the inadequacy of an indiscriminate applicatio n of analytical approaches. This furt her calls attention to the need for analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music to be guided by a search for pertinences. What has yet to be considered, however, is the interconnection between planes of discourse. In order to examine existing analytic al approaches in a comparative and critical manner, it has been necessary to consider them separately up to this point. However, this separation is only useful in terms of considering these analytical approaches as individual descriptive tools. In th e section that follows, the interconn ection of planes of discourse is considered. Interconnection of Planes of Discourse Plane Before discussing the interconnec tion of these planes, the use of the term plane should itself be considered. While the usage of this te rm requires some clarif ication, it is the most appropriate term for a study such as this. In this study, the term plan e concerns the various ways in which different analytic al approaches reduce a fixed medi a electroacoustic work. As this study is primarily concerned with esthesic processe s, these planes can also be viewed as modes of listening or, in a sense, as esthesic filte rs. For example, Smalleys spectromorphology and Fields sonic rhetoric each consid er a work from different persp ectives, each reducing a work in its own way and providing a distinct view. The te rm plane is employed here in the sense that,

PAGE 95

95 as each analytical approach filters out a certain type of discourse, a certain segment of the total possible discourse is emphasized. In the case of Smalleys space-form, for example, discourse involving relationships within source-bonded spaces such as zones within a soundscape or of prospective or panoramic space is filtered out. One potential drawback of the te rm plane is that (like level) it may imply a potential for hierarchical ordering. This is not the intention in this study. In an analytical approach guided by a search for pertinences, the work in quest ion should determine what planes (if any) are considered to be primary carriers of discourse. In this way, the term plane is more closely related to the word dimension than to the word level. Interconnection Having discussed the usage of the term pla ne in this study, and having argued for the view that planes of discourse can be identified in fixed media electroacoustic music, interconnection of planes of discourse can be considered. 2 The focus of this comparative study has been on separating out planes of discourse and considering how different analytical approaches deal with these planes. However, while the planes can often be considered separately, there is some degree of interconnection in mo st cases. This is illustrated in the brief consideration of Saarios England (G & T Swimmers) below. While it is not so difficult to declare that plan es of discourse in fixed media electroacoustic music are often interconnected, th e application of this idea is more precarious. One difficulty in approaching the interconnection of planes of discourse is that it is problematic to attempt to discuss this interconnection in a wa y that is applicable to all fi xed media electroacoustic music. 2 The use of the term interconnection is not meant to im ply that there is always a literal connection between planes of discourse. The selection of this term is intended to re flect the relational quality of planes of discourse in most fixed media electroacoustic music.

PAGE 96

96 As stated above, application of the descriptive tools considered in the previous chapters is possible for most fixed media electroacoustic work s, but each does not al ways reveal relevant information about a specific work. For exam ple, all sounds possess spectromorphological characteristics, and these can usually be desc ribed utilizing spectromo rphological concepts and terminology. However, this particular mode of desc ription is not always re levant to an analysis. For example, although a spectromorphological descrip tion of the initial ten seconds of Stollerys Onset/Offset would be possible (while difficult), it is doubtful that such a description would reveal much useful information in this case. However, consideration of the potential concrete significance of these opening sounds (perhaps employing concepts fr om Fields sonic rhetoric or landscape morphology) might be of value to analysis (illuminating elements of esthesic processes). As discourse is often framed by the individual fixed media electroacoustic work (instead of by a stylistic context) 3, consideration of the interconnecti on between planes of discourse is contingent on the work in question. Depending on the specific work, this interconnection might primarily be interactive, or in terdependent, or a lack of conn ection itself might be a primary feature of the work. 4 For this reason, a preset step-by-step method for analysis of this music is neither feasible nor desirable. An awareness of the interconnec tion of planes of discourse (a s well as an intuitive search for pertinences) can be found in Katharine Normans address of works in Sounding Art. In this process, she often touches on the interconnection between planes of discourse. For example, in 3 A combination of these is often the case. 4 Other degrees or types of interconnection are, of course, also possible.

PAGE 97

97 her consideration of Birds by Luigi Ceccarelli, she notes connections between morphologies and metaphors of flight: What was the role of that strange opening se ction, which started in the stratosphere but didnt explore any flighty conn ections with birds, and was brief and introduc tory? I would suggest that it triggered our awareness of the ground that followed. This difference between up and down prepares us for a subsequent difference between above and below. It does so through metaphoric imag es from pitch, timbre and also effort. 5 Norman also addresses the interconnecti on of planes of discourse in Lanskys Night Traffic noting their interdependence and its central ity to her interpretation of the work: The sounds of traffic appear recognizable in contour, shape, pace. The representation of traffic is transparent. Similarly the musical fr amework is a clear rep resentation that is recognizable pitches, rhythm and so on. Neither of these would work alone; it is in their (literal) confusion that the lyric simile resides. An epic field-recording of untouched traffic sounds would be too literally a picture of a sound. An abstract musical work that presented a slow, aimless voice-leading harm ony would be a pleasant diversion. But the two together offer a mutual confusion. 6 Of course, there are other planes of discourse that might be considered. This study only selects a few which, taken together, are representa tive of the mainstream of published analytical strategies for fixed media electr oacoustic music. Othe r planes of discourse might include the mediation of technology, reception data (such as that in Leigh Landys Intention/Reception Project ) or traditional concepts such as pitch and rhythm. Poietic pr ocesses (while not considered in this study) present a range of potential planes of discourse. Comprehensive Strategy Is a com prehensive strategy for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music possible? This question has been underlying much of the discussion in this study and it has been responded to both indirectly and in fragments. This st udy has dedicated significant space to criticism of 5 Katharine Norman, Sounding Art: Eight Literary Excursions through Electronic Music (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004), 37. 6 Ibid., 69.

PAGE 98

98 analytical approaches as well as to separate consideration of individua l planes of discourse. However, while a more comprehensive approach ha s been suggested, it has not been discussed in depth. In this section, the question of the plausib ility of a comprehensive analytical strategy is examined further. As may be gleaned from the above discussi on and from previous chapters, it is the contention in this study that a single universal methodology for the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music is not possibl e or even desirable. This has been illustrated throughout this study. It has been argued that fi xed media electroacoustic music affords a range of degrees of representation and abstraction and that this creates the potential for multiple planes of discourse. Because such a wide range is possible, no single anal ytical tool (or filter ) can be applicable to all of this music. For example, it has been il lustrated that Smalleys spectromorphology (while it is an extensive system) only focuses on certain type s of discourse. While this may be relevant to a particular work, it has been illu strated in Chapter 3 that this is not always the case. In many of these cases, other methods of describing or con ceptualizing a particular piece (such as those concerned with concrete sign ification) are more applicab le. Conversely, spectromorphology may reveal pertinent information for another work in which other approaches such as Fields landscape morphology might be irrelevant. However, as has also been suggested thr oughout this study, a more general approach is proposed here. This is more an overall appro ach than a specific methodology or model. The overall approach suggested here has four main stages. 7 The organization of this into stages is for 7 This division into stages should not be interpreted as presenting a preset or step-by-step approach. It has been argued above that such an approach to analysis is neither f easible or desirable. This division is intended to illustrate aspects of a general approach to analysis which over lap in practice and are often themselves interactive.

PAGE 99

99 illustration, not to necessarily prescribe a f our-step process or formula for fixed media electroacoustic music analysis. Some of these stages may also take place simultaneously. Search for pertinences The necessity of a search for pertinences has been emphasized throughout this study. As previously stated, Franois Delalande argues th at analysis should be guided by a search for pertinences meaning that the an alyst should be led by an attempt to uncover information that explains or illuminates either poietic or esthesic processes. Delalande states "The specific features of the object which are considered pe rtinent are those explained through compositional strategies and choices, or those which contri bute to explain certain listener responses." 8 However, in this study, no attempt is made to offer a specific method as to how exactly this search should be conducted. This study is prim arily concerned with the esthesic level and, although Delalande suggests that there may be some consistencie s between listene rs, it is not possible to prescribe precisely what elements of a piece will be esthesically pertinent to an individual listener/analyst. Es thesic processes vary between individuals as well as between listenings. As Delalande points out, "one of the di fficulties of describing music as heard is that we never hear it twice the same way. 9 Application of descriptive tools Guided by a search for p ertinences, the appr opriate descriptive t ools can be employed. Examples of application of the descriptive ap proaches considered in this study have been discussed in Chapters 2 and 3. However, these descriptive approaches might be adapted or 8 Franois Delalande, Music Analysis and R eception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry, Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 10. 9 Ibid., 11.

PAGE 100

100 applied in different ways. The discussion and app lication in this study is intended solely as a starting point for analysis. In addition, the descriptive t ools appropriate to any given analytical situation are not necessarily limited to those considered in this study. Other approaches to description of fixed media electroacoustic are certainly possible. In addition, traditional concepts such as pitch, rhythm, counterpoint, etc., should be employe d where appropriate. The absence of these concepts from the discussion in this study does not suggest that they are le ss important to fixed media electroacoustic music analysis. However, as much has been written on the subject of traditional analytical techniques, discussion of th em here would be extraneous to the purpose of this study. Interconnection between planes Depending on the nature of the piece, interconn ection between planes of discourse may (in most cases) warrant consideration. As stated above however, the way in which this is approached is contingent on the work in question. The types of interconnection (inter active, interdependent, juxtaposed, parallel or any other type) will vary, and the evaluation of this interconnection is also inte rpretive. It should also be added that the idea of in terconnection should not be imposed on a work. Just as it would be inappropriate to assume that all fixed medi a electroacoustic works should be described using spectromorphologica l (or any other) concepts, it woul d also be inappropriate to force the notion of interconnection between planes of discourse onto all fixed media electroacoustic works. Interconn ection should be discussed only when it is judged to be a pertinent feature of the work. It is also argued, however, that this interconnection is a primary distinguishing feature of much fixed media elect roacoustic music and should therefore not be disregarded.

PAGE 101

101 Interpretation Ultim ately, an analysis of a fixed media elect roacoustic work should illuminate something about esthesic processes and how these processes distinguish it. In light of this studys emphasis on esthesic processes, the interp retive process does not aim to me rely represent the structure (or neutral level) of a work. Alternatively, the re lationship between the perspective of the analyst and the work itself is represented. Again turning to Katharine Normans Sounding Art her interpretation of Talking Rain for example, does not seek to simply represent the work itself. It is instead a representation of her relationshi p to the work (her perceptions, associations, emotional responses, and her reaction to it). This perspective on interpreta tion is not atypical, but rath er reflects any interpretive situation. A pianists interpretati on of a Mozart sonata, for exampl e, is not only a reflection of the performer and it is not only a reflection Moza rt; it is a reflection of the relationship between both. Similarly, Katharine Normans interpretation of Talking Rain is not a representation of Talking Rain nor is it a representation of Katharine Norman; it is instead a representation of the relationship between the two. Moreover, even something so ostensibly objective as a spectrogram image is actually an interpretation. In order to obtain a satisfactory spectrogram image, one must adjust analysis parameters to acquire an image to reflect what is perceived aurally (often in an attempt to obtain objective verification of what is heard). Only when the image reflects what one either wants to or actu ally does hear (which is really a search for pertinences) is a spectrogram image useful. Therefore, it is argued in this study that an analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music should not attempt to say what a certain piece is (in terms of the neutral level), but it should instead shed light on the esthesic processes. This is not to sugg est that a work does not have a structure or that structure is not important, but rather that what is important is the esthesic

PAGE 102

102 processes which result from the relationship betw een that structure and the listener/analysts experience of that structure. England (G & T Swimmers) For a brief illustration of the stages discussed above, Antti Saarios England (G & T Swimmers) is revisited. This analysis is partia l and preliminary, focusing on the excerpt considered in Chapter 3 (the opening two minutes and five seconds). The obj ective here is not to produce a complete analysis itself, but simply to illustrate a potential application of the overall approach described in the preceding pages. Search for Pertinences In initial listenings, Saarios piece g ives the impression of be ing one that involves multiple levels of discourse. The apparent overlapping of different planes of activity (and spaces) in this excerpt was discussed in Chapter 2 and seems to involve multiple types of interconnection. At times these planes seem to be inte ractive. For example, at 1:20, wh en a male voice says the letter G! the pitch G is sounded in a background layer. At some points however, sound events operating on one plane carry over into another. For example, leading up to 0:45, the sounds of ice clinking in a glass are part of the interior scene (accomp anied by spoken phrases such as Would you like some ice in your wine? or Nic e drink). But following this, the scene changes and these clinking sounds take on a more abstract quality. At other times, disparate realities or planes of discourse seem to occur si multaneously but without a ffecting each other, as if they are simply layered onto one another. For example, between 1:35 and 2:00 there seem to be multiple layers, including a pitched texture, fragments of the interior scene (such as group laughter and conversation) and layers of interior sounds. Some of these sounds, while seeming to belong to the same scene or space, are separa ted from it through an unnatural presentation. For example, the sound of someone swallowing (at 1:59) is unnaturally magnified by microphone

PAGE 103

103 placement. There are also abrupt shifts in these planes. For example, at 1:30, there is an abrupt transition in which pitched base d material (similar to that previously making up the background) is suddenly placed in the foreground. A similar exampl e occurs at 0:45. It seems from this initial exploration (and as was shown in Chapter 3) that activity on multiple planes of discourse and the interconnection between these plan es warrants further exploration. Application of Descriptive Tools In Chapter 3, several of the descriptive tools considered in this study were applied to this excerp t and that discussion will not be duplicated here. As was illustrated in Chapter 3, the approaches dealing with concrete meanings such as landscape morphology and sonic rhetoric seem to be better applied to this work than those that emphasize abstract elements such as spectromorphology or Moylans Analytical System In a more complete analysis, descriptive tools dealing with pitc h relationships would be employed a nd the intelligible speech in this excerpt should also be considered. However, in an initial consideration, th e pitch relationships in this excerpt do not seem to be primary carriers of the discourse in themselves. Although pitch is relatively prominent in this excerpt and is orga nized in a relatively l ogical manner, it does not develop in a way that is of an alytical significance. Returning to the search for pertinences, I sense (subjectivity is inescapable here) that something is, in fact, quite interesting about this piece. This leads me to consider something other than the pitch relationships alone. The significance of the pitched material in this excerpt seems also to be more connected with the concrete events and seems also to link planes of discourse. Interconnection Between Planes The interconnection between planes of discourse has been briefly considered in the above paragraphs. Sim ilar interconnection can be identif ied in other parts of this piece, and a few

PAGE 104

104 additional examples are included here. In a more complete analysis however, this discussion would be more exhaustive. Between 2:45 and 2:52, the sounds of ice cli nking in a glass (fro m the interior scene presented earlier) reappear. But they have now b een altered. They have been pitch-shifted and now comprise a texture made up of densely packed iterations. Yet, they are still recognizable as the sounds of ice clinking. They are now lying in an ambiguous area between the abstract and concrete. It now seems more appropriate to us e spectromorphological terms such as graduated continuant or to identify an in ternal motion typology. But, the c oncrete element of these sounds is also clear. This type of interconnection is pa rticularly typical of fi xed media electroacoustic music. Interconnection of this type continues to occur when soon after (at 3:06), the sound of liquid being poured into a vessel is unambiguously presented. This is immediately followed by varying degrees of abstraction of this sound as well as of the clinking ice sounds presented before (continuing until approximately 3:55). Interpretation In this prelim inary address of this excerpt, the assumptions initially stated in the search for pertinences seem to be confirmed by furthe r exploration. It appear s that after further consideration, there are multiple types of interco nnection between planes of discourse and that this seems to be a significant element in this piece. This work could certainly be interpreted differently, however. The work seems to be intended as a representation of a pa rticular place in England (as the title suggests). This might be interpreted in terms of dialectal montage (in some ways similar to Katharine Normans London). In addition, as the work unfolds, it is framed by a radio broadcast, and this invites a narrative interpretation.

PAGE 105

105 These multiple interpretive possibilities raise the notion of these four stages of analysis as being in constant feedback with one another. A hypothetical example of the analytical process might unfold as follows: An initial search for per tinences might lead an analyst in a particular direction and this might yield in sufficient results, leading to an unsatisfactory interpretation. At this point, the exploration in the descriptive tools phase might lead to another idea of pertinences to be considered. This process might con tinue until an interp retation is reached. Conclusion In the course of this comparative study, m any que stions pertaining to the analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music analysis have been raised. In addition to comparison and criticism of existing scholarship, questions of analytical objectives and methodology have been considered. By focusing on the potential for multiple planes of discourse, this study is intended to fill a gap in the scholarship regarding electroacoustic music analysis. There are however, topics which cannot be dealt with sufficiently within the scope of this dissertation and warrant further consideration. While a thorough examination is outside of the scope of this study, the objective of analysis should be considered further. Some views regarding the objective of analysis (such as the argument for the importance of a search for pertinences, and the consideration of multiple planes of discourse) have been put forth. It ha s been stated that the primary purpose of music analysis lies in the exploration of the relationship between the listener/analysts perspective and the musical object (esthesic proce sses). This is another area that warrants further consideration A preliminary overall approach has been put fort h in this chapter. This is something that should also be considered further in a future st udy. It should be emphasized that the four-stage model presented in this chapter is intended merely to illustrate four main stages in analysis of fixed media electroacoustic music. In practice they will not always be quite so separated and it is

PAGE 106

106 not necessarily recommended that th ey be applied in a step-by-step way or in a particular order (although interpretation will always form the final st age). These are decisions that are left to the individual analyst and will be determined in la rge part by the specific work being analyzed. While this dissertation is primarily a comparative study and is focused on the representative approaches considered within it, it can also serve a secondary purpose. It is hoped that this dissertation might be of use as a users guide to electroacoustic music analysis (or as a basic toolbox for analysis). As has been stated previously, the analytical approaches considered here (while representing the main stream of the spectrum of published approaches) do not cover all possibilities. There are many other possibiliti es. Most importantly, however, it is hoped that the comparative examination and additional discu ssion in this study has provided a starting point for further exploration.

PAGE 107

107 CHAPTER 5 THREE MOVEMENTS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA Three Movements for String Orchestra is a three move ment work that explores musical time. Each of the three movements explores this in a different way. Movement I is dominated by an incessant and irregular ostin ato that never completely establishes itself. Movement II is characterized by both stasis and slow transforma tions. Movement III is rhythmically energetic and takes the form of an irre gular dance. All thre e movements are also characterized by the interplay of a small group within the ensemble a nd the group as a whole. Object 5-1. Three Movements for String Orchestra Score

PAGE 108

108 APPENDIX RESPONSES FROM COMPOSERS Several additional responses to the question, What is electr oacoustic m usic? are included here. The first is from Mike McFerron, composer and director of the annual Electronic Music Midwest festival. Electroacoustic to me is simply music wher e electricity is a ma jor component in the creative process. In other words, electroacous tic music for me is music that is written idiomatically for an electronic medium similar to [the way in which] orchestral music is music written for the orchestra. I take the view that electroacous tics is just another instrumental medium (that is very large a nd diverse). For me, the definition is broad -narrowing the definition is really a definition of style (ie., pop vs. concert music -jazz vs. techno -etc....) 1 Composer Erdem Helvacioglu also provided a definition. Electroacoustic music seems to mean the ge nre that is created by the processing of recorded analog sounds, but I think it is so much more than this very general definition. I think it is the only form of music where both the composer a nd the listener are urged to listen to the very fine details of every im aginable sound. This could be the sound of a marble rolling right near to a microphone, or the sound of a jet motor recorded from ten meters away. All of the innovative timbre pro cessing techniques and the wild imagination of the composers combined with these details of sound creates the core of one of the most exciting musical genres of the 20th a nd 21st century : electroacoustic music 2 Scott Wyatt of the University of Illinois also provides this definition, which he describes as a combination of definitions from multiple sources. Generally speaking, electroacoustic music is music that is produced, changed or reproduced by electronic means (as distinguished from acoustic music) However, electroacoustic music, within the context of contemporary concert art music, refers to a genre of music, whose compositional idea is sp ecifically composed to require specialized electronic means for its sonic creation, assemblage and presen tation that could not be created in any other manner. Electroacoustic music is distinct and quite different from: electronic realizations of traditionally performed music, any form of acoustical music receiving electronic amplification, and any recording of traditionally performed music using electronic amplification for playback. It incorporates the subcateg ories of Musique Concrete, 1 Mike McFerron, email message to author, April 4, 2008. 2 Erdem Helvacioglu, email message to author, April 15, 2008.

PAGE 109

109 Elektronische Musik, Tape music, Synthesi zer music, Computer music and various combinations of these subcategories created fo r either fixed media, interactive and/or live performance. 3 3 Scott Wyatt, email message to author, April 15, 2008.

PAGE 110

110 LIST OF REFERENCES Ada ms, Norman. Visualization of Musical Signals. In Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music edited by Mary Simoni, 13-28. New York: Routledge, 2006. Appleton, Jon. Electro-acoustic Music. In The Harvard Dictionary of Music, Fourth Edition edited by Don Michael Randel, 287-288. Camb ridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003. Battier, Marc. A Constructivist Approach to th e Analysis of Electronic Music and Audio Art Between Instruments and Faktura. Organised Sound 8 (2003): 249-255. Boehmer, Konrad. Koenig Sound Composition Essay In Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives edited by Thomas Licata, 59-71, Wesport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002. Bossis, Bruno. The Analysis of Electroacous tic Music: From Sources to Invariants. Organised Sound 11 (2006): 101-112. Camilleri, Lelio. Electroacoustic Music: Analysis and Listening Processes. Sonus Contemporary Music Materials 1 (1993): 1-13. Couprie, Pierre. (Re)Present ing Electroacoustic Music. Organized Sound 2 (2003): 119-123. Decroupe, Pascal and Elena Unge neur. Through the Sensory Looking Glass: The Aesthetic and Serial Foundations of Gesang der Jnglinge In Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives edited by Thomas Licata, 1-39, Westport, Connecticut; Greenwood Press, 2002. Delalande, Franois. Music Analysis and Reception Behaviours: Sommeil by Pierre Henry. Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 13-67. Emmerson, Simon. Composing Strategies and Pedagogy. Contemporary Music Review 3 (1989): 133-144. Emmerson, Simon. Crossing Cultural Boundaries Through Technology. In Music, Electronic Media and Culture, edited by Simon Emmerson, 115-137. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2000. Emmerson, Simon, and Denis Smalley. Electro-acoustic Music. In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Second Edition edited by Stanley Sadie, 59-87. London: Grove, 2001. Emmerson, Simon. The Relation of Language to Materials. In The Language of Electroacoustic Music edited by Simon Emmerson, 17-40, London: Macmillan, 1986.

PAGE 111

111 Field, Ambrose. Simulation and Re ality: The New Sonic Objects. In Music, Electronic Media and Culture, edited by Simon Emmerson, 37-52. Alde rshot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2000. Gayou, velyne. Analysing and Transcribing Elect roacoustic Music: The Experience of the Portraits Polychromes of GRM. Organised Sound 11 (2006): 125-129. Hansen, Finn Egeland. Layers of Musical Meaning Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2006. Harchanko, Joseph. Spectro-morphology and Structur e: An Analysis of Gilles Gobeils Le Vertige Inconnu. eContact! 6 (2003): 1-16. Hirst, David. An Analytical Methodology for Acousmatic Music. Paper presented at the 2004 International Symposium on Music Informati on Retrieval, Barcelona, Spain, October 1015, 2004. Hirst, David. Developing Anal ysis Criteria Based on Denis Sma lleys Timbre Theories. Paper presented at the 2002 Australasi an Computer Music Conferen ce, Melbourne, Australia, July 6-8, 2002. Jones, Barrie, ed. The Hutchinson Concise Dictionary of Music Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999. Kane, Brian. L Objet Sonore Maintenant : Pierre Schaeffer, Sound Objects and the Phenomenological Reduction. Organised Sound 12 (2007): 15-24. Kasdan, Leonard and Jon H. Appleton. Tradi tion and Change: The Case of Music. In On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music edited by Robin Julian Heifetz, 17-27. London: Associated University Press, 1989. Keane, David. At the Threshold of an Aesthetic. In The Language of Electroacoustic Music edited by Simon Emmerson, 98-114. London: Macmillan, 1986. Landy, Leigh. The Intention/Reception Project. In Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music edited by Mary Simoni, 29-53. New York: Routledge, 2006. Landy, Leigh. Reviewing the Musicology of El ectroacoustic Music: A Plea for Greater Triangulation. Organised Sound 4 (1999): 61-70. Laske, Otto. Subscore Manipulation as a T ool for Compositional and Sonic Design. In Electroacoustic Music: Analytical Perspectives, edited by Thomas Licata, 119-150. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002. McNabb, Michael. Computer Music: Some Aesthetic Considerations. In The Language of Electroacoustic Music edited by Simon Emmerson, 141-150. London: Macmillan, 1986. Meyer, Leonard B. Emotion and Meaning in Music Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1956.

PAGE 112

112 Meyer, Leonard B. Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. Milicevic, Mladen. Deconstruc ting Musical Structure. Organised Sound 3 (1998): 27-35. Morthenson, Jan. Aesthetic Dile mmas in Electronic Music. In On the Wires of Our Nerves: The Art of Electroacoustic Music edited by Robin Julian Heifetz, 57-68. London: Associated University Presses, 1989. Moylan, William David. An Analytical System for Electronic Music. PhD diss., Ball State University, 1983. Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990. Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology Urbana, Illinois: Universi ty of Illinois Press, 1983. Newcomb, Robert Spalding. Music in the Air: A Theoretical Model and Software System for Music Analysis and Composition. Organised Sound 3 (1998): 3-16. Norman, Katharine. Sounding Art: Eight Literary E xcursions through Electronic Music Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2004. Norman, Katharine. Telling Tales. Contemporary Music Review 10 (1994): 103-109. Pope, Stephen Travis. A Ta xonomy of Computer Music. Contemporary Music Review 13 (1996): 137-145. Risset, Jean-Claude. Real-world Sounds and Simulacra in My Computer Music. Contemporary Music Review 15 (1996): 29-47. Roy, Stphane. Functional and Implicative Analysis of Ombres Blanches. Journal of New Music Research 27 (1998): 166-192. Rudy, Paul. Spectromorphological Diatonicism: Unlo cking Style and Tonali ty in the Works of Denis Smalley Through Aural Analysis. SEAMUS 16 (2003): 18-27. Rudy, Paul. Timbral Praxis: When a Tr ee Falls in the Forest is it Music? Organised Sound 12 (2007): 5-13. Simoni, Mary. Introduction to Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music edited by Mary Simoni, 1-9. New York: Routledge, 2006. Simoni, Mary H., Benjamin Broening, Christ opher Rozell, Colin Meek, and Gregory H. Wakefield. A Theoretical Framework for El ectro-acoustic Music. Paper presented at the 1999 International Computer Music C onference, Beijing, China, October 22-26, 1999.

PAGE 113

113 Slawson, Wayne. Sound Structure and Musical St ructure: The Role of Sound Color. In Structure and Perception of Electroacoustic Sound and Music edited by Soren Nielzon, 13-23. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1989. Sloboda, John A. Music Psychology and the Composer. In Structure and Perception of Electroacoustic Sound and Music edited by Soren Nielzon, 3-12. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1989. Smalley, Denis. Problems of Materials and Structure in Elec tro-Acoustic Music. EMAS 1 (1981): 1-16. Smalley, Denis. Space-form and the Acousmatic Image. Organised Sound 12 (2007): 35-58. Smalley, Denis. Spectromorphol ogy: Explaining Sound-Shapes. Organised Sound 2 (1997): 107-127. Smalley, Denis. Spectro-morphology and Structuring Processes. In The Language of Electroacoustic Music edited by Simon Emmerson, 61-93. London: Macmillan, 1986. Truax, Barry. Soundscape, Acoustic Communica tion and Environmental Sound Composition. Contemporary Music Review 15 (1996): 49-65. Windsor, William Luke. A Perceptual Approach to the Description and Analysis of Acousmatic Music. PhD diss., City University, 1995. Windsor, William Luke. Through and Around the Acousmatic: The Interpretation of Electroacoustic Sounds. In Music Electronic Media and Culture edited by Simon Emmerson, 7-32. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000. Wishart, Trevor. Sound Symbols and Landscapes. In The Language of Electroacoustic Music edited by Simon Emmerson, 41-60. London: Macmillan, 1986. Young, John. Imagining the Source: The Inte rplay of Realism and Abstraction in Electroacoustic Music. Contemporary Music Review 15 (1992): 73-93. Young, John. Practice, Process and Aestheti c Reflection in Electroacoustic Music. Organised Sound 12 (2007): 1-3. Young, John. Reflections on Sound Image Design in Electroacoustic Music. Organised Sound 12 (2007): 25-33. Young, John. Sound Morphology and the Articulation of Structure in Electroacoustic Music. Organised Sound 9 (2004): 7-14. Zattra, Laura. Analysis and Analyses of Electroacoustic Music. http://smc.afimasso.org/smc05/papers/Laura Zattra/LZanalysis.pdf (accessed October 16, 2007).

PAGE 114

114 Zattra, Laura. The Identity of the Work: Agents and Processes of Electroacoustic Music. Organised Sound 11 (2006): 113-118. Zattra, Laura. Searching for Lost Data: Outlines of Aesthetic Poeitic Analysis. Organised Sound 9 (2004): 35-46.

PAGE 115

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Tim Reed graduated with a B.A. in creative music technologies from LaGrange College in 1999 and subsequently attended the Dallas So und Lab School for the Recording Arts in the Fall of 2000. Tim completed his M.M. in composition /theory at Illinois State University in 2004. Tim has received awards in the Goliard Ense mble Composition Competition, the LaGrange Symphony Young Artist Composition Competiti on, and the 2004 Pedrick-Hutson Guitar Duo Commission Contest. His music has been performed at various festivals and concerts including Music '04 (Cincinnati Conservatory), the Univers ity of Nebraska at Kearney New Music Festival 2004, the 2005 Nong Project, SEAMUS, Electronic Music Midwest, the International Double Reed Society Conference, the Kentucky New Musi c Festival, FEASt, CHASM, and the Florida Electroacoustic Music Festival. Tims works have also been programmed by the string orchestra, R20 in Wroclaw, Poland, and by the 2007 60 x 60 Project. In October of 2003, Tim composed a score for the WIP Studios film, Prison-a-Go-Go!, which has received se veral awards including Best Feature Film in the Backseat Film Festival. His compositions have been featured on numerous radio programs including Foldover (O berlin, Ohio), Difficult Listening (Perth, Australia), Furthernoise Radio (Bristol, UK) and No Pigeonholes (San Francisco, California). Tims compositions have been published by Trevco Music and Lonely Whistle.