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Fatal Construction Accidents Categorized as Other

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021982/00001

Material Information

Title: Fatal Construction Accidents Categorized as Other
Physical Description: 1 online resource (136 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: asphyxiation, burns, construction, drowning, explosion, fire, hyperthermia, lightning, natural, osha
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The construction industry has a high rate of worker fatalities and considerable efforts are expended to find ways increase safety and curb the high death toll in the construction industry. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is mandated to monitor the causes of fatalities as one way of identifying the areas that pose the greatest risk to construction workers. Whenever fatalities are investigated by OSHA, a determination is made about the cause of the fatality. There are five broad categories of causes of fatalities, including falls from elevation, electrocutions, struck by accidents, caught in/between accidents and other accidents. While most causes have been extensively examined, those fatalities attributed to ?other? causes have received minimal attention. This is despite the fact that nearly ten percent of the construction worker fatalities are categorized as other accidents. This paper describes the results of a study of 795 incidents of construction worker fatalities occurring from 1990-2003 and attributed to 'other' causes by OSHA. The incident data were analyzed for cause, frequency, and general circumstances surrounding the incidents. Fatalities classified as 'other' were organized under the categories of natural causes, asphyxiation, drowning, burns, explosion-fire, hyperthermia, chemical exposure, lightning and other. Rigorous statistical analysis was not applied due to the limited number of incidents. Results show that ?other? fatalities are attributed to various events or tasks, many of which appear to be unrelated when the aggregate of a given type of incidents is examined. Certain types of incidents such as hyperthermia and lightning incidents are associated with certain times of the year. Fatalities from natural causes were mainly related to heart problems while other types of incidents had a diverse set of causes. Many incident reports had incomplete data. Standardization of categories in both government and academic analysis will aid in comparative analysis and tracking trends, potentially leading to more effective safety measures. Adding categories of deaths due to natural causes; asphyxiation/chemical exposure; explosion/fire/burns; drowning; hyperthermia and lightning would reduce the category of 'other' from 795 incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data studied, to 48 incidents, 0.49% of total incidents.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021982:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021982/00001

Material Information

Title: Fatal Construction Accidents Categorized as Other
Physical Description: 1 online resource (136 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: asphyxiation, burns, construction, drowning, explosion, fire, hyperthermia, lightning, natural, osha
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The construction industry has a high rate of worker fatalities and considerable efforts are expended to find ways increase safety and curb the high death toll in the construction industry. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is mandated to monitor the causes of fatalities as one way of identifying the areas that pose the greatest risk to construction workers. Whenever fatalities are investigated by OSHA, a determination is made about the cause of the fatality. There are five broad categories of causes of fatalities, including falls from elevation, electrocutions, struck by accidents, caught in/between accidents and other accidents. While most causes have been extensively examined, those fatalities attributed to ?other? causes have received minimal attention. This is despite the fact that nearly ten percent of the construction worker fatalities are categorized as other accidents. This paper describes the results of a study of 795 incidents of construction worker fatalities occurring from 1990-2003 and attributed to 'other' causes by OSHA. The incident data were analyzed for cause, frequency, and general circumstances surrounding the incidents. Fatalities classified as 'other' were organized under the categories of natural causes, asphyxiation, drowning, burns, explosion-fire, hyperthermia, chemical exposure, lightning and other. Rigorous statistical analysis was not applied due to the limited number of incidents. Results show that ?other? fatalities are attributed to various events or tasks, many of which appear to be unrelated when the aggregate of a given type of incidents is examined. Certain types of incidents such as hyperthermia and lightning incidents are associated with certain times of the year. Fatalities from natural causes were mainly related to heart problems while other types of incidents had a diverse set of causes. Many incident reports had incomplete data. Standardization of categories in both government and academic analysis will aid in comparative analysis and tracking trends, potentially leading to more effective safety measures. Adding categories of deaths due to natural causes; asphyxiation/chemical exposure; explosion/fire/burns; drowning; hyperthermia and lightning would reduce the category of 'other' from 795 incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data studied, to 48 incidents, 0.49% of total incidents.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Hinze, Jimmie W.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021982:00001


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FATAL CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS CATEGORIZED AS "OTHER"


By

PAUL L. BALLOWE















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE INT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008





































O 2008 Paul L. Ballowe




































To my wife, Rebecca Ballowe, and my mother, Shirley Ballowe, who have encouraged me more
than they know and who have prayed for me more than I know.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Jimmie Hinze for allowing me to work on this project and

for his guidance, patience and contributions to this proj ect. I would also like to thank my

committee members, Dr. R. Raymond Issa and Dr. Robert C. Stroh, Sr. for their support and

contributions to this proj ect.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page


ACKNOWLEDGMENT S ................. ...............4.._.__ ......


LIST OF TABLES ........._... ......___ ...............8....


LIST OF FIGURES ........._... ......___ ...............11....


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........._... ...... ._._ ...............13...


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 14...


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............16.......... ......


2 LITERATURE SEARCH ............... ...............18.


Introduction............... ..............1

Category Studies ................. ...............18.................
General Risk .............. .... ...............20..

Equipment/Situation Specific .............. ...............21....
Coding Method s............... ...............22
Dem graphics ................... ... ......... ...............24.......
Accidents Classified as "Other" ............. ...............26.....


3 METHODOLOGY .............. ...............32....


4 RE SULT S AND DI SCU SSION ............... ..............3


All Incidents............... ...... ............3
Incidents Classified as Other ................. ...............40.......... ....
Classifications of "Other" Incidents ................ ......................... .................42
Deaths due to Natural Causes ................. ...............43........... ...

Frequency of Occurrence ................. ...............43........... ....
Sub categories of Natural Causes .............. ...............44....
Examples of Incident Descriptions ................. ...............44................
Deaths from Asphyxiation ................. ...............45........... ....
Frequency of Occurrence ................. ...............45........... ....
Incident Conditions .............. ...............47....
Chemical Agents .............. ... ...............48...

Examples of Incident Descriptions ................. ...............49................
Deaths From Drowning .............. ...............50....

Frequency of Occurrence ................. ...............50........... ....
Incident Conditions .............. .. ...............53...

Examples of Incident Descriptions ................. ...............54................












Deaths From Burns ................. ...............55................

Frequency of Occurrence ................. ...............55........... ....
Incident Location ................. ...............56.................

Ignition Source .............. ...............57....
Combustible Agent ............... ... ...............57.......... ......
Examples of Incident Descriptions ................. ...............58................
Deaths in an Explosion or Fire .............. ...............60....
Frequency Of Occurrence ................. ...............60........... ....
Incident Location ................. ...............62.................
Source of Ignition ................. .......... ...............62......
Explosive or Combustible Agent............... ...............63.
Examples of Incident Descriptions ................. ...............63................
Deaths from Hyperthermia .............. ...............65....
Frequency of Occurrence ................. ...............65......_......
Work or Trade Performed............... ...............6
Conditions or Location Cited .............. ...............66....
Discussion.................... .. ............6

Examples of Incident Descriptions ........._.. ...._._..... ...............67...
Deaths from Chemical Exposure ........._.._.. ...._... ...............68...
Frequency Of Occurrence. ........._.._.. ...._... ...............68....
Work or Trade Performed............... ...............7
Incident Location ........._..... ...._... ...............70.....
Chemical Agents Cited ............... ...............70.
Examples of Incident Descriptions ........._.. ...._._..... ...............71...
Deaths From Lightning ........._..... ...._... ...............72....
Frequency of Occurrence ........._..... ...._... ...............72....
Incident Location ........._..... ...._... ...............73.....
Discussion.................... .. ............7

Examples of Incident Descriptions ........._.. ...._._..... ...............73...
Additional Causes and Unknown Causes ...._.._.._ ..... .._._. ....._.._..........7
Findings ....................... .. .. ............7
Examples of Incident Descriptions ........._.. ...._._..... ...............75...

5 CONCLUSIONS .............. ...............122....


Incidents Classified as Other ........._.._.. ...._... ...............122...
Incidents Classified as Natural Causes ...._.._.._ ........... ...............122..
Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation............... .............12
Incidents Classified as Drowning ........._..... ...._... ...............123...
Incidents Classified s Burns........._..... ...._... ...............123...
Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire .............. ...............124....
Incidents Classified as Hyyperthermia ........................_. ...............124 ....
Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ....__. ................. ........._.._ ....... 12
Incidents Classified as Lightning .............. ...............125....












6 RECOM1VENDATIONS ................. ...............127................


Incidents Classified as Other ................ ...............127...............
Incidents Classified as Natural Causes ................. ...............127........... ...
Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation............... .............12
Incidents Classified as Drowning ................. ...............129......... .....
Incidents Classified as Burns ................ ...............129...............
Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire .............. ...............130....
Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia ................. ...............130...............
Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ................. ...............130........... ...
Incidents Classified as Lightning .............. ...............131....
Incidents Classified as Unknown .............. ...............131....
Incident Reporting ................. ...............13. 1..............

LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............133...............


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............136......... ......











LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Categories suggested by Hinze et al. ............. ...............28.....

2-2 Categories used by Jackson and Loomis .............. ...............28....

2-3 Categories used by Ore and Stout ................. ...............28........... ..

2-4 Categories used by Chen et al ................. ...............29.......... ...

2-5 Categories used by CIRPC in 2004 data report .............. ...............30....

4-1 Frequency of All Incidents by Year..........__......... __ .......__ ...._ .........76

4-2 Frequency of All Incidents by Month ........._._. ....__ ... ...............77

4-3 Frequency of All Incidents by Day ........._. ........_. ...............77..

4-4 Causes of Fatalities from Three Studies (Percentages)............... .............7

4-5 Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Year ....._._._ ........... ..............78

4-6 Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Month ....._____ ........___ ..............79

4-7 Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Day .........___ ...... __. ................80

4-8 Annual Frequency of Other Incidents ...........__.......___..... ...........8

4-9 Monthly Frequency of Other Incidents ....__ ......_____ .......___ ...........8

4-10 Daily Frequency of Other Incidents ..........._ .....___ ...............82.

4-11 CIRPC Daily Percentages of Incidents .....__.....___ ..........._ ...........8

4-12 Frequency of Occurrence of Categories of Incidents Classified "Other"..............._.. .......83

4-13 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Year ..........._.. ........_... .....85

4-14 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Month ..........._.. ........_... ....86

4-15 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Day ..........._... ........_. ........87

4-16 Cause of Death Cited for Incidents Classified as "Natural Causes" ................ ...............88

4-17 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Year ................. ............. .......89

4-18 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Month ................ ............... ....90











4-19 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Day ...........__... .....__..........91

4-20 Frequency of Incidents of Asphyxiation ....._ .....___ .........__ ...........9

4-21 Conditions Cited in Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation............... ..... .........9

4-22 Chemical Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation. ..........._..........._.....92

4-23 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Year ........... ......_ ..............93

4-24 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Month ..........__.... ..._ ............94

4-25 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Day ..........._... ....._._ ...............95

4-26 Frequency of Incidents of Drowning ................ ...................... ..................96

4-27 Conditions Cited in Incidents Classified as Drowning ....._____ ... .....___ ..............96

4-28 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Year ......___ .... ... ..__ ................. 97

4-29 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Bums by Month ....._____ ... ......_ ..............98

4-30 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Day ................. ............... ........ ...99

4-31 Locations Cited in Incidents Classified as Bums .............. ...............100....

4-32 Ignition Sources Cited in Incidents Classified as Bums ....._____ .... ... .. ..............101

4-33 Combustible Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns .............. .....................0

4-34 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Year ................. ................ ..103

4-36 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Day. ................ .............. .....105

4-37 Frequency of Incidents of Explosion-Fire ................. ...............106..............

4-38 Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire .............. .....................0

4-39 Source of Ignition Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire .............. ..... ........._.107

4-40 Explosive or Combustible Agent Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire........108

4-41 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Year ................. ..........___.....109

4-42 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyyperthermia by Month ................. ................. .110

4-43 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Day ................. ............... .....111

4-44 Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia..............._._. .....1 12










4-45 Relevant Conditions or Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia ........112

4-46 Frequency of Incidents of Hyperthermia ................. ...............112..............

4-47 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Year ................. ...............113

4-48 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Month .............. ..... ..........114

4-49 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Day .............. ... ........._....115

4-50 Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ...............1 16

4-51 Location Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ................. ................. .116

4-52 Chemical Agents Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ................... ......117

4-53 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Year ................. ........... ...........118

4-54 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Month ................. ......................119

4-55 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Day ................. ........................120

4-56 Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Lightning................ ..............12

4-57 Frequency of Fatal Incidents due to Lightning ................. ...............121.............

4-58 M inor Categories .............. ...............121....










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

4-1 Percent of All and Other Incidents by Year ................. ...............79........... .

4-2 Percent of All and Other Incidents by Month ................. ...............80........... .

4-3 Percent of All and Other Incidents by Day ................. ...............81........... .

4-4 Daily Distribution of All Fatal Construction Incidents. ................ ..........................83

4-6 Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Year .............. .....................8

4-7 Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Month............... ...............86.

4-8 Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Day............... ...............87..

4-9 Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Year ................. .......... ...............89

4-10 Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Month .............. .....................9

4-11 Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Day .............. ...............91....

4-12 Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Year ................. .............................93

4-13 Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Month ................. ............................94

4-14 Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Day ................. ..............................95

4-15 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Year ................. ...............97..............

4-16 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Month .............. ...............98....

4-17 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Day .............. ...............99....

4-18 Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Year ................. ........................103

4-19 Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Month ................. ............ .........104

4-20 Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Day ..........._. ......... .............._.105

4-21 Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Year ........._..._... ......_._. ........._..109

4-22 Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Month ................. ........... ...........110

4-23 Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Day ........................... ...............111

4-24 Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Year ................. ................ ...113










4-25 Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Month ........._.._.. ................ 114

4-26 Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Day ........._.._.. .............. ....115

4-27 Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Year ................. ...._.._ ................. 118

4-28 Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Month ...._.._ ................ ................11 9

4-29 Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Day ....__ ................ ..........._..__..120









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFOI National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

CIRPC Construction Industry Research and Policy Center at the University of
Tennessee, Knoxville

CO Carbon Monoxide

CV Coefficient of Variation

DOL Department of Labor

IMIS Integrated Management Information System

NCHS National Centers for Health Statistics

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NTOF National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities

02 Oxygen

OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PMR Proportionate Mortality Ratios

PPE Personal Protective Equipment

SIC Standard Industry Classification

a Standard Deviation

CL Mean









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction

FATAL CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS CATEGORIZED AS "OTHER"


By

Paul L. Ballowe

May 2008

Chair: Jimmie Hinze
Cochair: R. Raymond Issa
Major: Building Construction

The construction industry has a high rate of worker fatalities and considerable efforts are

expended to find ways increase safety and curb the high death toll in the construction industry.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is mandated to monitor the causes

of fatalities as one way of identifying the areas that pose the greatest risk to construction

workers. Whenever fatalities are investigated by OSHA, a determination is made about the

cause of the fatality. There are five broad categories of causes of fatalities, including falls from

elevation, electrocutions, struck by accidents, caught in/between accidents and other accidents.

While most causes have been extensively examined, those fatalities attributed to "other" causes

have received minimal attention. This is despite the fact that nearly ten percent of the

construction worker fatalities are categorized as other accidents.

This paper describes the results of a study of 795 incidents of construction worker fatalities

occurring from 1990-2003 and attributed to "other" causes by OSHA. The incident data were

analyzed for cause, frequency, and general circumstances surrounding the incidents. Fatalities

classified as "other" were organized under the categories of natural causes, asphyxiation,










drowning, burns, explosion-fire, hyperthermia, chemical exposure, lightning and other. Rigorous

statistical analysis was not applied due to the limited number of incidents.

Results show that "other" fatalities are attributed to various events or tasks, many of which

appear to be unrelated when the aggregate of a given type of incidents is examined. Certain

types of incidents such as hyperthermia and lightning incidents are associated with certain times

of the year. Fatalities from natural causes were mainly related to heart problems while other

types of incidents had a diverse set of causes. Many incident reports had incomplete data.

Standardization of categories in both government and academic analysis will aid in

comparative analysis and tracking trends, potentially leading to more effective safety measures.

Adding categories of deaths due to natural causes; asphyxiation/chemical exposure;

explosion/fire/burns; drowning; hyperthermia and lightning would reduce the category of "other"

from 795 incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data studied, to 48 incidents, 0.49% of total

incidents.









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

According to the Federal Department of Labor (DOL) National Census of Fatal

Occupational Injuries (CFOI), in 2005 the construction industry accounted for the second largest

number of fatal occupational injuries by maj or occupation groups. Construction ranked third in

the fatality rate per 100,000 workers employed when sorted by maj or occupation groups.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the DOL was established

in 1971 as a result of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. The mission of OSHA, stated on

their web site, is

to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards;
providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging
continual improvement in workplace safety and health.

As part of their efforts to fulfill that mission, OSHA conducts inspections of workplaces.

Inspection priorities are listed on the OSHA "Frequently Asked Questions" web page as follows:

Top priority are reports of imminent dangers-accidents about to happen; second are
fatalities or accidents serious enough to send three or more workers to the hospital. Third
are employee complaints. Referrals from other government agencies are fourth. Fifth are
targeted inspections-such as the Site Specific Targeting Program, which focuses on
employers that report high injury and illness rates, and special emphasis programs that zero
in on hazardous work such as trenching or equipment such as mechanical power presses.
Follow-up inspections are the final priority.

OSHA inspection reports of construction accidents include a short narrative of the accident

and also include the categorization of accidents into one of five standard categories: falls (from

elevation), electrical shock, struck-by, caught-in-between, and other. OSHA collects the

inspection results then catalogs them electronically in the Integrated Management Information

System (IMIS). According to the OSHA web site used to search IMIS data, IMIS was designed

as an information resource for in-house use by OSHA staff and management, and by state

agencies which carry out federally-approved OSHA programs.









Part of accident prevention includes understanding the nature and causes of accidents.

While many types of construction accidents have been analyzed, published research does not

include analysis of those accidents classified as "other". The primary research obj ective of this

study was to examine construction accidents categorized as "other", looking for commonalities

and contrasts among those factors associated with the accidents. Identifying commonalities and

causes among these accidents may assist accident prevention efforts in the future.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SEARCH

Introduction

Previous research published about construction fatalities used data from several sources,

including OSHA accident investigations, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal

Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

(NIOSH) National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Some studies

have focused on specific kinds of events, while other studies focused on fatalities within a

specific segment the industry, such as a given demographic segment, specific equipment use, or

specific circumstances. Some studies focused on risk analysis and others examined the systems

used for categorizing fatal events.

Category Studies

Derr et al. (2001) examined OSHA data in the IMIS system from 1990 to 1999 to analyze

construction fatalities due to falls. The purpose of the study was to analyze risk factors in fatal

falls and to analyze trends in fall rates to assess the impact of changes in fall protection

regulations made by OSHA in February 1995. While the authors reported a downward trend in

fatal falls during the study period, they stated that regression analysis showed no significant

effect from the new regulations. They also noted that without a control group for the study their

data analysis was unable to detect effects from the new regulations. The authors reported that for

OSHA Regions 9 and 10 the IMIS database contained 82% of the number of fatal falls recorded

in NTOF data. They also reported that CFOI counted more fatalities from falls than did NTOF.

Huang and Hinze (2003) analyzed construction fall accidents from January 1990 through

October 2001 using data from OSHA investigations. They reported that the highest number of

falls occurred on proj ects involving commercial buildings and also on proj ects costing less that









$50,000. Over 25% of falls were between 10 and 20 feet. Over 70% of falls were 30 feet or less.

They stated that two-thirds of the accidents involving falls were fatal and that 30% of the falls

involved inadequate or inappropriate use of fall protection personal protective equipment (PPE).

Huang and Hinze noted that in 1996 after changes were made to the OSHA regulations for fall

prevention the proportion of incidents involving falls increased.

McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data from 1992 to 1998 for electrical deaths and

injuries among construction workers. They reported 7,489 construction industry fatalities, of

which 1,002 (13.4%) were from electrical current and 17 (0.2%) were from arc flash/blasts. Of

these fatalities, 351 (34.4%) involved electrical workers and 668 (65.6%) were workers in other

trades. They reported that nearly 75% of the electrical worker fatalities involved the installation

or repair of light fixtures, such as florescent lights, airport runway lights, neon signs and street

lights. For non-electrical workers, 55.2% of the fatalities resulted from contact with overhead

power lines. The authors noted that many electrical workers were injured while working on

energized wires and/or equipment and suggested that this practice was usually unnecessary. The

authors recommended the use of personal locks for lockout/tagout procedures to ensure that

equipment stays de-energized, recommended better education for electrical workers concerning

working with energized lines and equipment, and recommended better education for non-

electrical workers concerning electrical safety.

Hinze et al. (2005) used data from the OSHA IMIS database from 1997 to 2000 to report

on construction related struck-by accidents. The authors reported that the work commonly

associated with these events included work involving wood assemblies, block walls, soil/rock

and steel/rebar/pipe. The age group of workers most frequently injured or killed was between 3 5

and 39 years of age, followed by workers aged 30 to 34 years and workers aged 40 to 44 years.









The most frequently reported contributing environmental factor, in 30.8% of the cases, was an

overhead moving or falling obj ect. The most frequently cited overhead-falling obj ects were rock

or soil (29%), steel/rebar/pipe (21%), and timber (13%). That study concluded that many

incidents resulted from failure to comply with existing OSHA regulations for signaling, materials

handling, crane use, and trenching. They also reported that OSHA compliance officers included

prevention methods in their reports in 66% of the cases and noted that compliance officers felt

that over 60% of the accidents would have been prevented with adherence to the applicable

OSHA standards. It was recommended that improved data collection and data entry were needed,

specifically including clarification of environmental factors with respect to movement of

materials.

General Risk

Wang et al. (1999) examined NIOSH data from 1988 to 1994 concerning construction

workers in North Carolina to analyze proportionate mortality patterns. They compared the

proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for male construction workers to the expected mortality

rates of the general populations of North Carolina and of the United States. They found that

construction workers in North Carolina had higher PMRs than the general population for

malignant tumors in the mouth, throat, and lungs; for alcoholism; for pneumonoconiosis and

other respiratory diseases; and for accidental falls, poisonings, and homicides. They reported a

lower risk than the general population for malignant tumors of the rectum; biliary system and

liver; and the lymphatic tissues. They also reported a reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, heart

diseases, and disorders of the nervous system and sense organs.

Chen et al.(1999) analyzed data from four previous studies of unionized construction

workers. The data represented studies on 13,224 ironworkers, 11,683 construction laborers,

14,496 sheet metal workers and 15,842 operating engineers. From the death certificates, the









authors established the cause of death and up to three contributing factors. The authors utilized a

system with 33 categories of injuries based on the NTOF Surveillance System. Chen el al.

reported that at least one of the four groups of unionized construction workers had elevated

PMRs compared to the general population for falls, motor vehicle crashes, electrocutions,

explosions, suffocations, water transport incidents, machinery incidents and being struck by

falling or flying obj ects.

In a review of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Supplementary Data System for

1985 and 1986, Leigh and Miller (1998) reported on job related diseases and occupations. They

noted that among the causes of occupational deaths, "heart conditions includes heart attacks"

was the cause in over 72% of the cases. "Cerebrovascular and other conditions of the circulatory

system" ranked fourth at 2.9%. When combined, these two categories accounted for over 75% of

the occupational deaths in that study. The second and third ranked causes listed in the Leigh and

Miller study were Asbestosis (6%) and Silicosis (4.8%).

Equipment/Situation Specific

Hinze and Bren (1996) reported on incidents involving power line contacts using data in

the OSHA IMIS system for 1985-1995. The authors found that 447 of 509 incidents of power

line contacts had at least one fatality and noted an increase in the frequency of incidents in

October. The authors reported that riggers or spotters had the highest frequency of fatalities

involving equipment contacts with power lines. The age group with the highest percentage of

power line contacts was aged 25-29 years followed by workers with ages of 20 to 24 years. The

authors recommended improved training for spotters as well as other occupations with high risk

of power line contacts. They also recommended more uniform training for compliance officers

for writing OSHA reports to ensure reports are written with complete details and proper use of

construction terminology.









Beavers et al. (2006) examined causes of crane related fatalities using data in the IMIS

database from 1997-2003. They reported that over 84% of the fatalities related to cranes and

derricks were associated with the use of mobile cranes with lattice and telescopic booms. They

noted that OHSA listed the maj or causes of crane related fatalities as contact with power lines,

overturns, falls, and mechanical failures. They also noted that OSHA did not include categories

for victims struck by the crane's cab or counterweight, victims crushed during assembly or

disassembly, or victims struck by the load in cases other than a failure of the boom or cable.

Beavers et al. found that most workers who die in crane related incidents are not crane operators,

but specialty trade workers such as ironworkers, carpenters and laborers. They recommended

more training for workers required to perform tasks near cranes. They recommended that OSHA

continue to improve information collection systems through fatality investigations and add an

emphasis on intervention strategies. They also recommend that OSHA needs to capture all

relevant data concerning fatalities to ensure data accuracy.

Coding Methods

Hinze et al. (1998) reviewed construction fatality data from 1994 and 1995 in the OSHA

IMIS system to examine root causes and developed a revised coding system based on accident

causation. The authors developed a system of 19 event categories including two types of falls,

Hyve types of electrocutions, three types of struck-by accidents, two types of caught in/between

accidents, and also included cave-in, explosion, fire, asphyxiation, drowning, natural causes, and

other. The authors noted that 91% of the accidents typically classified as "other" would be more

specifically classified using the revised categories.

Layne (2003) examined differences in the data from the NTOF surveillance system and

CFOI for work related fatalities from 1992 to 1997. NIOSH used the information from death

certificates as source data for the NTOF surveillance system. Civilians and military personnel









who died at work while in the United States were included in the NTOF system data; however,

United States military personnel and United States citizens who died abroad were not included in

the NTOF system data. The BLS gathers information for CFOI from a number of sources

including death certificates, medical examiner reports, workers' compensation claims, police

reports and the news media. Layne noted that while the coding schemes for some events such as

homicides and falls were similar, there were some categories of fatalities that the classification

systems were sufficiently different to compromise valid comparisons of the two surveillance

systems. Incidents involving tractors or other agricultural machinery were coded as

transportation incidents in the CFOI data but they were coded as machinery incidents in the

NTOF. Layne recommended that future efforts in data collection should include obtaining more

complete information concerning the circumstances leading to a fatality.

Bondy et al. (2005) examined methods for codifying factors leading to accidents. In their

report, the authors reviewed several injury coding schemes including the system used by BLS,

the MAIM system, and Haddon's matrix. In their analysis, the authors used an adaptation of

Haddon's matrix, a system originally developed to classify factors that contributed to motor

vehicle injuries. The three general categories of contributing factors in Haddon's matrix were

human, equipment and environment. The authors adapted the matrix to include a fourth general

category, "organization". The authors examined 4, 146 injury events at Denver International

Airport between December 1990 and August 1994. In developing the matrix for recording

incidents, the authors included 110 categories. They reported difficulty in establishing when

individual incidents began, and subsequently, difficulty in identifying what factors were in place

before the given incident began. The authors concluded that the use of a highly structured

classification system might not provide for capturing all relevant information and that a










complicated system may lead to mistakes by inexperienced coders. They suggested that the use

of accident investigation reports which guide investigators to consider a number of contributing

factors would lead to more complete reports of factors contributing to accidents.

Calls for changes in the coding system used for incident classification were found in a

number of articles. Hinze et al. (1996) suggested a more descriptive system with 19 categories.

In an analysis of fatalities among unionized construction workers, Chen et al. (1999) suggested

the use of 33 categories of injuries. Bondy et al. (2005) reviewed several injury coding schemes

and reported that they had derived a matrix of over 100 categories to classify contributing

factors. Categories suggested by Hinze et al. are listed in Table 2-1. Categories used by Jackson

and Loomis are listed in Table 2-2. Categories used by Ore and Stout are listed in Table 2-3.

Categories used by Chen et al. are listed in Table 2-4. Categories used by CIRPC are listed in

Table 2-5.

Demographics

Ore and Stout (1997) used NTOF data from 1980 1992 to examine fatal occupational

injuries among construction laborers. The authors reported that laborers constitute 1 1.6% of the

construction workers but had 26.6% of the total number of construction fatalities. The 10 most

frequently cited fatal events among construction laborers accounted for 91.5% of the fatalities.

The categories included falls (20.3%); motor vehicles (17.1%): machinery (13.1%);

electrocutions (12.8%); struck by falling objects (10.7%); suffocations (7.8%); struck by/against

objects (3.1%); natural and environmental factors (2.8%); homicides (2.3%); and explosions

(1.5%). Of these ten types of fatalities, five categories accounted for 41.5% of the fatalities

among construction laborers: motor vehicles, struck by falling objects, suffocations, struck

by/against objects, and natural and environmental factors. In comparison, these same categories










accounted for 3 1.7% of the fatalities among all construction workers. The authors reported the

average fatality rate per 100,000 workers as 17.4 for female construction laborers and 36.9 for

male construction laborers. The average fatality rate per 100,000 workers for all construction

workers was 1.8 for females and 17.3 for males. Over the study period, fatality rates among

construction laborers declined at an annual rate of 3.1%. The authors stated that more complete

data concerning fatalities, including worker tasks and event circumstances, would help in future

studies. The authors noted that because laborers perform a wide range of tasks, fatality rates

might be more meaningful in the future if they were associated with specific tasks. The authors

also noted that in many cases, the death certificate data were incomplete concerning the

circumstances of deaths.

Fabrega and Starkey (2001) used data from the CFOI to report on fatalities of Hispanic

construction workers in Texas from 1997 to 1999. The authors reported the fatality rate per

100,000 workers was 21.2 for non-Hispanic workers and 23.5 for Hispanic workers. They found

that common characteristics of fatally injured Hispanic construction workers included foreign

birthplace, low skill level and over half were under 3 5 years in age. They authors reported that

among Hispanic workers there were fewer than average fatalities in skilled occupations and

higher than average fatalities among low skilled laborers and helpers. The authors recommended

continued research and called for safety policies that target lower-skilled Hispanic construction

workers.

Jackson and Loomis (2002) examined medical examiner's records for construction

industry fatalities in North Carolina from January 1978 to December 1994. The authors reviewed

525 deaths and found that the maj or causes of death were falls (26.7%), electrocutions (20.4%),

and motor vehicle accidents (18.9%). The workers with the highest mortality rates per 100,000









workers were laborers (49.5), truck drivers (43.2), operating engineers (37.2), and electricians

(29.0). The authors recommended safety training for laborers that would take into account the

variances in the levels of experience and levels of hazards present on the j ob site.

Suruda et al. (2003) used OSHA incident data from April 1984 through 1998 to examine

construction fatalities among teenaged workers in the United States. Their study showed that the

fatality rate per 100,000 workers for adults in the US construction industry was 12.9 and the rate

for teenagers was 12.1 but suggested that the actual rate for teenagers was probably higher due to

poor youth employment reporting methods. The authors noted that 76 fatalities involved workers

less than 18 years of age. In those incidents, 37 cases involved work prohibited by existing

hazardous orders (for teenagers) including trenching work and roofing. The authors noted that

better employment data for teenagers and adults in construction trades would yield more accurate

risk analysis.

Accidents Classified as "Other"

A search of peer reviewed j ournals yielded no articles specific to the analysis of the causes

of construction accidents classified by OSHA as "other". Information concerning these fatalities

may be found in articles specific to a category event, but these articles are not specific to

construction. Examples of this include articles on lightning deaths, burn fatalities, and hydrogen

sulfide exposure.

Adekoya and Nolte (2005) used data from the CFOI and the National Centers for Health

Statistics (NCHS) to analyze lightning deaths from 1995 2000. The authors used data from the

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to calculate fatality rates for lightning deaths.

The authors reported 374 fatalities from lightning giving an annual fatality rate of 2.3 deaths per

100,000 persons. They reported 129 work related fatalities from lightning from 1995 2002,

including 44 fatalities in the agricultural industry and 39 fatalities in the construction industry.









The fatality rate per 100,000 workers was higher for construction workers at 5.9, than for

agricultural workers at 4.5. Work related lightning fatalities were highest in Florida (22), Texas

(11), Georgia (9) and Tennessee (8). The authors noted that there were no OSHA regulations

concerning lightning accident prevention. They recommended focused prevention and education

efforts among agricultural and construction workers.

Quinney et al. (2002) examined work related burn fatalities using the CFOI data. They

reported 1,189 fatalities from work related thermal bums from 1992 1999. The annual fatality

rate due to thermal bums per 100,000 workers was 0. 11. The occupations with the highest

fatality rates per 100,000 workers were Mining (0.77), Transportation and Public Utilities (0.38),

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (0.24), and Construction (0.22). The authors noted that the

coding of CFOI data was not always sufficiently specific for meaningful analysis.

Fuller and Suruda (2000) examined work related deaths from 1984 to 1994 due to

hydrogen sulfide exposure using OSHA data in the IMIS database. The authors reported 57

incidents of hydrogen sulfide exposure resulting in 80 fatalities. The authors reported 22

fatalities in the petroleum industry, but did not list the frequency of fatalities for other industries.

Of the 80 fatalities, 69 occurred within a confined space. Nineteen workers died attempting to

rescue coworkers. The authors recommended accident prevention training for workers and rescue

personnel as well as hazardous gas monitoring systems in sewer, industrial and petroleum work

sites.










Table 2-1. Categories suggested by Hinze et al.
1. Asphyxiation
2. Drowning
3. Electrocution (faulty const. tools/wiring)
4. Caught In or between equipment
5. Electrocution (power lines)
6. Cave-in (excavation)
7. Electrocution (faulty existing wiring)
8. Electrocution (other)
9. Cave-in (trench)
10. Caught In or between materials
11. Electrocution (building power)
12. Fall from elevation
13. Explosion/Fire
14. Fall from ground level
15. Natural Causes
16. Struck by equipment
17. Struck by falling materials
18. Struck by material being handled
19. Other

Table 2-2. Categories used by Jackson and Loomis
1. Asphyxiation
2. Cave-in
3. Drown
4. Electrocutions
5. Explosion, Fire
6. Falling Objects
7. Falls
8. Fight, blunt, stab, gun
9. Machinery (excluding tractors)
10. Motor Vehicle Accidents
11. Tractor
12. Transport, air
13. Transport, train

Table 2-3. Categories used by Ore and Stout
1) Falls
a) Building or other structure
b) Scaffold
c) Ladder
d) Hole or other opening in surface
2) Motor Vehicle
a) Collision with pedestrian
b) Collision with motor vehicle









Table 2-3. Continued
c) Loss of control without collision on the highway
d) Non-traffic
3) Machinery
a) Lifting machines and appliances
b) Earth moving, scraping and excavating machines
c) Mining and earth drilling machines
4) Electrocution
a) Electric Power generating plants
b) Industrial wiring, appliances and electrical machinery
c) Domestic wiring and appliances
5) Struck by Falling Objects
6) Suffocation
a) Falling Earth
7) Struck by/Against Objects
8) Natural/Envi ronmental
a) Excessive heat due to weather conditions
b) Excessive heat of unspecified origin
c) Lightning
9) Homicide
a) Firearms and explosives
b) Cutting and piercing instrument
10) Explosion
a) Explosive gasses
b) Pressure vessel
11) Other

Table 2-4. Categories used by Chen et al
1) Railway transport
2) Motor Vehicles
a) MV Traffic
i) Occupants
ii) Pedestrian
iii)Unspecified
b) MV non-traffic
3) Water Transport
4) Air Transport
5) Poisoning
6) Falls
a) Stairs or steps
b) Ladders or scaffolding
c) Building or structure
d) Into hole
e) One level to another
f) To same level









Table 2-4. Continued
g) Unspecified falls
7) Fire
a) In private dwelling
b) Other places
8) Nature/Environment
9) Drowning
10) Suffocation
1 1) Struck by falling obj ects
12) Struck by flying obj ects
13) Machine
14) Explosion
15) Electrocution
16) Suicide
17) Homicide
18) Intent Undetermined
19) Other Incidents

Table 2-5. Categories used by CIRPC in 2004 data report
1) Asphyxiation/Inhalation of toxic vapor
2) Caught in/struck by stationary equipment
3) Crushed from collapse of structure
4) Crushed/run-over of non-operator by operation construction equipment
5) Crushed/run-over/trapped of operator by operation construction equipment
6) Crushed/run-over by construction equipment during maintenance/modification
7) Crushed/run-over by highway vehicle
8) Drown, non-lethal fall
9) Electric shock by touching exposed wire
10) Electric shock by equipment contacting power source
a) Ladder
b) Scaffold
c) Crane/lifting equipment/boom/dump truck
d) Contact while handling materials such as gutters, iron rods, etc.
11) Electric shock from equipment installation/tool use
12) Electric shock, other
13) Elevator (struck/crushed by elevator or counter weights)
14) Fall from/with ladder: includes collapse/fall of ladder
15) Fall from/through roof
a) Fall off of roof
b) Fall through roof other than skylight
c) Fall through skylight or other opening
16) Fall from highway vehicle/construction equipment
17) Fall from/with scaffold
18) Fall from /with bucket (aerial lift/basket)
19) Fall from/with structure (other than roof)









Table 2-5. Continued
a) Fall with collapse of structure
20) Fall from/with platform or catwalk
21) Fall through opening (other than roof)
22) Fall, other or unknown
23) Fire/Explosion/Scalding
24) Hyperthermia/Hypothermia
25) Hit, crushed, fall during lifting operations
26) Struck by falling obj ect/proj ectile (including tip-overs)
27) Crushed/suffocation from trench collapse
28) Crushed while unloading-loading equipment/material (except by crane)
29) Shock/burn from lightning
30) Crushed other
31) Unknown cause or other
a) Other









CHAPTER 3
IVETHODOLOGY

The obj ective of this research was to develop an understanding of the nature of those

construction fatalities categorized as "other". Since this category of fatalities is not descriptive

of the circumstances surrounding these types of accidents, this research was designed to devise

additional categories that more clearly indicate the nature of the situation resulting in these

construction worker deaths. By understanding the nature of fatalities and by identifying possible

trends in their occurrence, preventative measures might be more effectively developed.

Two data sets were obtained from OSHA containing incident reports extracted from

OSHA Accident Investigation Form 170. OSHA Directive CPL 02-00-137 issued April 14, 2005

includes the following information concerning the investigation of fatalities:

XVI. Recording and Tracking

B. Investigation Summary Report (OSHA 170). The OSHA-170 is used to summarize the
results of investigations of all events that involve fatalities, catastrophes, amputations,
hospitalizations of two or more days, have generated significant publicity and/or have
resulted in significant property damage. An OSHA-170 must be opened and logged into
IMIS at the beginning of the fatality or catastrophe investigation. The information on this
form enables the Agency to track fatalities and summarized the circumstances surrounding
the event.

2. The OSHA-170 narrative should not be a copy of the summary provided on the
OSHA-36 pre-inspection form. The OSHA-170 narrative must comprehensively describe
the characteristics of the worksite; the employer and its relationship with other employers,
if relevant; the employee task/activity being performed; the related equipment used; and
other pertinent information in enough detail to provide a third party reader of the narrative
with a mental picture of the fatal incident and the factual circumstances surrounding the
event.

The data sets obtained from OSHA were contained in an electronic document as a

spreadsheet. The data requested included construction related incidents with Standard Industry

Classification (SIC) numbers 15xx, 16xx, and 17xx which represent general building contractors,

heavy construction contractors and special trade contractors respectively.









The first data set contained 8,537 entries dated from 1/2/1990 through 10/1/2001. The data

sets included both serious injuries and fatalities and had one entry per person injured or deceased

in each incident. The data included the inspection number, the summary report number, the SIC

code, the event date, the inspection date, a headline summary of the incident, a descriptive

abstract of the incident, company data, an event categorization, and demographic data on the

deceased including gender, age and union status, if known.

The second set of data contained 2061 entries dated from 12/16/2000 through 5/28/2004.

This data set included information on incidents involving fatalities. Unlike the first data set that

showed one entry per victim, the second data set had one entry per incident. The data set

included the inspection number, the summary report number, the SIC code, the event date, the

inspection date, a headline summary of the incident, and a descriptive abstract of the incident.

This data set did not include demographic data on the deceased or information on the company.

Additionally, not included was an event categorization for any of the accidents.

The data analysis performed was based on fatal incidents rather than individual deaths or

injuries because the second data set was organized on a per incident basis and because it was not

always clear how many people died in a given incident. Also, if the analysis was to be conducted

on the number of victims, some accidents would be counted more than once. The elimination of

those accidents that resulted in dual entries (more than one victim) reduced the combined data set

to 9600 incidents. Analysis was performed on copies of the original files so the untouched data

could be accessed as necessary. Microsoft Excel 2002 with Service Pack 3 was used to perform

sorting, counting, statistical calculations and to generate tables and charts. The standard

deviation function used in Excel was STDEVP which calculates the standard deviation for an

entire population using the formula shown in Equation 3-1.











cr= 2Y-Y (3-1)


Because the second set of data did not include an event categorization, the first step in data

analysis involved creating an event categorization for each incident using one of the five maj or

categories. Through this effort, the 2061 incidents in the second data set yielded 796 (38.62%)

falls, 483 (23.44%) struck-bys, 307 (14.90%) caught-in/betweens, 276 (13.39%) shocks and 199

(9.66%) other incidents.

After the event categorization for the second data set was completed, the data categorized

as "other" from both data sets were combined in a separate spreadsheet for further analysis.

Upon inspection of the combined data set, it was discovered that some of the event

categorizations in the first data set were incorrect with several incidents erroneously categorized

as "other". The incidents which were improperly categorized as "other" were discarded from the

combined data set of "other" incidents.

Further review of the first data set also revealed that there were several categories used for

event categorization that extended beyond the standard five event categories including:

"Bite/Sting/Scratch"; "Cardio-Vascular/Respiratory System Failure"; "Ingestion"; "Inhalation";

"Repeated Motion/Pressure"; and "Rubbed/Abraded". The incidents categorized under these

extraneous categories were reviewed and the incidents which would otherwise be categorized as

"other" were included the combined data set of"other" incidents. Incidents in the first data set

classified as fall, shock, struck by, and caught-in/between were not analyzed for reclassification

with the exception of deaths due to lightning which had all been categorized as struck-by.

The complete data set of "other" incidents was purged of duplicate entries using the

incident investigation number as the unique identifier. This eliminated any double counting of

incidents.










The next step was to gather information on a total data set, representing a combination of

the two initial sets of data. The total number of unique events was tallied for each year, each

calendar month and for each day of the week. Averages and standard deviations for days of the

week were calculated without weekends because most construction proj ects are idle on

weekends. Annual averages and their standard deviations were calculated based on data from

1990-2003 but do not include 2004 because the data set is limited to the first five months of

2004.

The standard deviation was calculated using Equation 3.1. The standard deviation was

reported in the format o=X (Y %), where X was the standard deviation for the population and Y

was the Coefficient of Variation (CV). The CV was defined as the ratio of the standard deviation

to the mean, CL, and was reported as a percentage as shown in Equation 3-2.


CV = x100 (3 -2)


The CV has been commonly known as the Relative Standard Deviation. While rigorous

statistical analysis was not performed for this report, calculation of a and CV were included

because these values indicate the dispersion of the data in relation to CL. The closer the data points

are to CL, the lower the values of a and CV. As the data points increase in their dispersion from CL,

the values of a and CV increase. In this report, calculated values of CV ranged from under 6%

for data grouped relatively close to the mean to over 100% for widely disperse data.

The next step in analysis was to examine the descriptive abstracts of the "other" accidents

to determine the type of death, conditions or circumstances at the time of the accident and a

cause or agent of death. The results were then inspected to identify conditions or agents which

were more prevalent than others for a given type of incident. This step was designed to give a

further level of detail to these "other" incidents. The categories utilized were those identified in










the literature and additional categories were developed when incidents were found that did not

"fit" well into the existing categories. Not all incident abstracts included complete information in

these areas. Coded information was included in the final analysis to the extent that the

information was available. Investigation of the descriptions of construction accidents classified

as "other" yielded 8 major categories including: Natural Causes, Asphyxiation, Drowning,

Burns, Explosion-Fire, Hyperthermia, Chemical Exposure, and Lightning.

Determining the exact nature of the cause of death involved a certain amount of

interpretation. For example, the distinction drawn between the categories Burns and Explosion-

Fire was the timing of the death rather than other factors. If a person died in the explosion or in

the fire, the incident was counted under Explosion-Fire. The incident was counted under Burns if

the person was burned in a fire and did not die in the accident, but died as a result of the accident

some time later. This distinction was made to see if there were characteristics common to either

type of accident and if there were characteristics that distinguished one type from the other.

Some injuries which may often be considered burns, such as scalding injuries from hot liquids or

steam, were counted under Chemical Exposure because the burn was not caused by fire or an

electrical arc.

Some incidents were difficult to classify due to a multitude of causes of death. For

example, a person in a manhole may have been exposed to high levels of chemicals common to

sewer gas such as hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide, and at the same time be in an environment

with low levels of oxygen. Deaths from low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide

could be classified under Asphyxiation, while deaths from high levels of carbon dioxide and

hydrogen sulfide could be classified under Chemical Exposure. In the following example, three

workers entered an underground utility vault where there were high levels of carbon dioxide, and









low levels of oxygen. The victims collapsed into three feet of water at the bottom of the vault

and drowned. The incident was classified under Asphyxiation because that was stated as the

cause of death in the description. Examples from the data sets quoted in this paper are generally

unedited with the exception of correcting any obvious grammatical errors.

Inspection Number 100562032, 7/24/1991

Employees #1, #2, and #3, two backhoe operators and one surveyor, were locating
underground utilities in preparation for a road construction proj ect. Apparently (since there
were no witnesses) employees #1, #2, and #3 entered a 20 foot deep utility vault to survey
the water and gas lines at the bottom of the vault. They were overcome by high levels of
carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen, and ultimately drowned in the 3 feet of water at
the bottom of the vault. The official cause of death was cited as "drowning due to
asphyxiation due to acute stagnant air syndrome."

Under the category of Natural Causes, a number of cardiovascular related issues were

aggregated under "Heart Problems". These were listed in the descriptions in a number of

different ways including heart attack, coronary disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,

coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia,

and heart aneurysm.

This approach in the analysis was followed for all incidents classified as "other". Most of

the information for determining the cause of the accident was gleaned directly from the

descriptive abstracts. To help clarify the types of circumstances surrounding certain types of

accidents, the essential portions of the abstracts were quoted. Since the study was of an

exploratory nature and since the numbers of incidents included in each of the different categories

tended to be small, rigorous statistical analysis was not conducted.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

All Incidents

The data examined in this study contained 9600 unique fatality incidents from two data

sets. There were 795 (8.28%) fatality incidents classified as "other". The first data set contained

7539 incidents with 596 (7.91%) incidents classified as "other". The second data set contained

2061 total incidents with 199 (9.66%) incidents classified as "other".

The number of incidents was tallied for each year. The results are displayed in Table 4-1.

The average number of incidents per year was 672.50 with 0=59.79 (8.89%). Two years (1992

and 1993) had fewer incidents than CL-c. Four years (1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003) had more

incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of pi20. The annual distribution of incidents

is shown in Figure 4-1.

The number of incidents was tallied for each calendar month. The results are displayed in

Table 4-2. The average number of incidents per month was 800 with 0=126.57 (15.82%). The

months of January, February and December had fewer incidents than CL-o. July, August and

October had more incidents than of CL+o. All months were within the range of pi20. The

monthly distribution of incidents is shown in Figure 4-2.

The number of incidents was tallied for each day of the week. The results are displayed in

Table 4-3. The average number of incidents per weekday was 1752 with o=1 13.04 (6.45%).

Friday had fewer incidents than CL-c. Wednesday had more incidents than CL+o. All weekdays

were within the range of pi20. The daily distribution of incidents was shown in Figure 4-3.

Comparisons of the results of this study and other studies of OSHA construction incident

reports yield similar trends in the ranking of incident types (see Table 4-4). Hinze et al. (1998)

analyzed fatality data reported to OSHA for 1994 1995 and compared the results to published









OSHA statistics on construction fatalities for 1985 1989. The ranking of each type of incident

for the 1985 1989 data was similar to the data from 2000-2004 with the highest percentage of

incidents being falls, followed by struck by's, caught in/between' s, electric shocks, and others.

The data from 1994-1995 had a higher percentage of incidents of electric shock than either

struck by's or caught in/between's. The largest difference in percentage was the decrease in

electric shocks from 20% (1994-1995) to 13% (2000-2004). The next largest difference was the

increase in the percentage of falls by 6% from 33% (1985-1989) to 39% (2000-2004).

While the trends in percentages are somewhat consistent among these reports, other reports

using data resources other than OSHA report different trends. In a study of fatal construction

injuries among Hispanic workers in Texas from 1997 to 1999, Fabrega and Starkey (2001) used

CFOI data and reviewed 370 fatalities. They reported that for companies with one to nine

employees 22. 1% of the incidents were classified as "other" and for companies with 100 or more

employees 42.3% of the incidents were classified as "other." Differences in the percentage of

"other" incidents may be explained in that the data collection methods for CFOI and OSHA are

different, and the study was specific to one state over three years.

Difficulties in comparing studies arise not only from the different sources of data but from

the differences of causal categories used. There has not been a specific list of categories

consistently used to report the frequency of incidents across government agencies or in academic

analysis. Additionally, some studies included incidents that were not necessarily job related. Ore

and Stout (2006) studied fatal occupational injures among construction laborers from 1980-1992

using data from NIOSH and NTOF. Categories listed by Ore and Stout included the standard

categories used by OSHA as well as "Motor Vehicle", "Machinery", "Nature/Environmental"

and "Homicide". The DOL press release for the National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries










(CFOI) in 2005 included maj or categories for "Transportation incidents", "Assaults and violent

acts", "Contacts with obj ects and equipment", "Falls", "Exposure to harmful substances or

environments", and "Fires and explosions." Each of those categories had several subcategories in

the full data package posted on the DOL web site. Data analysis prepared for the OSHA Office

of Statistics by the Construction Industry Research and Policy Center (CIRPC) at the University

of Tennessee, Knoxville has included as many as 3 1 maj or categories and nine subcategories.

Incidents Classified as Other

The 9600 unique incidents contained 795 (8.28%) incidents classified as "other". The

number of "other" incidents was tallied for each year, for each calendar month, and for each day

of the week. The results are shown in Table 4-5. The average number of "other" incidents per

year was 55.93 with 0=10.94 (19.57%). Two years, 1992 and 1996, had fewer incidents than CL-

o. Two years, 2002 and 2003, had more incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of

pi20, except 2002. The annual distribution of incidents was shown in Figure 4-1.

Variations the annual number of incidents and/or incident types may be influenced by a

wide range of factors including changes in the number of hours worked, changes in construction

methods, changes in safety regulations, changes in reporting on either the state or federal levels,

and changes in workforce demographics.

The average number of "other" incidents per month was 66.25 with o= 24.46 (36.92%).

Two months, July and August, had more incidents than CL+o. August had more incidents than

CL+20. The lowest frequency of "other" incidents was in February, with 43 incidents. Figure 4.2

shows the monthly distribution of incidents classified as "other" and for all incidents. With the

notable exceptions of July and October, the trends in the distributions of incidents are similar.

While there were an above average number of total incidents in the summer months, there was a

noticeable increase in the number of "other" incidents in July. In the data set of all incidents









October had the third highest frequency of incidents following July and August. For "other"

incidents, October had fewer incidents than the three summer months and had the same number

of incidents as September. The monthly distribution of incidents is shown in Figure 4-2.

Studies have reported peaks in fatalities for months other than July. In their study of

struck-by accidents from 1997 2000, Hinze et al. (2005) found a monthly peak of accidents in

October. In a study of injuries and fatalities due to power line contacts, Hinze and Bren (1996)

reported a peak of incidents in October. Other studies typically provided annualized statistics but

not statistics on the monthly frequency of incidents.

The average number of 'other" incidents per weekday was 143.20 with 0=8.52 (5.95%).

Monday had fewer incidents than CL-c. Wednesday had more incidents than CL+o. All weekdays

were within the range of pt20. Sunday had the lowest frequency of all and "other" incidents the

daily distribution of incidents is shown in Figure 4-3.

The annual frequencies of incidents per year for all and "other" incidents are listed in

Table 4-8 along with the percentage of "other" incidents with respect to all incidents. The

average annual percentage of "other" incidents with respect to all incidents was 8.32%. The

largest difference in annual percentages was between 2002, at 10.84% of all incidents and 2001,

at 6.34% of all incidents, a difference of 4.50%.

The monthly frequencies of all and "other" incidents were listed in Table 4-9 along with

the percentage of "other" incidents with respect to all incidents. Incidents categorized as "other"

accounted for the 13.0% of all incidents in July and 6.28% of all incidents in November.

The daily frequency of all and "other" incidents are listed in Table 4-10 along with the

percentage of "other" incidents with respect to all incidents. Sunday had the highest percentage

"other" incidents with respect to the number of total incidents at 1 1.71%. Monday had the lowest










percentage of "other" incidents with respect to the number of all incidents at 7.46%. The

variations in the number of incidents through the week may be explained with more information

about a typical work week.

The frequency of occurrence by day of the week is not typically included in fatality

reports; however it was included in CIRPC reports for data from 2003 and 2004 (see Table 4-

11). The 2003 CIRPC data reported a high incident rate on Monday, followed by Wednesday and

Thursday. The 2004 CIRPC data reported a high incident rate on Tuesday, followed by Monday

and Wednesday. When the total number of incidents was averaged for the two years, Monday

had the highest frequency of events, with 20. 11% of the incidents. The CIRPC reports for both

2003 and 2004 noted that conclusions concerning the hazardous nature of one day versus the

next were not possible without data for the total number of hours worked each day.

Classifications of "Other" Incidents

A review of the narrative descriptions of incidents classified as "other" yielded eight maj or

categories: Natural Causes, Asphyxiation, Drowning, Burns, Explosion-Fire, Hyperthermia,

Chemical Exposure, and Lightning. The frequencies of occurrence of the categories of "other"

incidents are listed in Table 4-12 and the percentage of "other" incidents is shown in Figure 4-5.

The maj or categories each accounted for more than 3% of "other" incidents and at least 1/4 of

1% of the total number of incidents in the data examined. The additional categories listed each

accounted for less than 1% of "other" incidents and less than 1/10 of 1% of the number of total

incidents. The low number of incidents of these categories represented numbers too small to

warrant further analysis, i.e., further analysis was restricted to the eight maj or categories. Some

incidents were classified as "unknown". In these incident reports, the type of death was either not

clearly specified in the description or the cause of death was specifically noted as either being

unknown or not determined at the time of the report..










Deaths Due To Natural Causes


Frequency of Occurrence

There were 243 incidents classified as deaths due to natural causes which accounted for

30.57% of the "other" incidents and 2.53% of all incidents. The tallies for annual, monthly and

daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-13, Table 4-14, and Table 4-15 respectively.

The average number of deaths due to natural causes per year was 17.14 with 0=4.47

(26.07%). Two years, 1992 and 1996, had fewer incidents than CL-c. Four years, 1993, 1995,

2002 and 2003, had more incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of pi20. Figure 4-

6 shows the annual distribution of fatalities related to natural causes along with "other" incidents

and all incidents.

The average number of deaths due to natural causes per month was 20.25 with 0=5.78

(28.52%). Two months, March and November, had fewer incidents than CL-o. One month, July,

had more incidents than CL+o. All months except July were within the range of pk+20. Figure 4-7

shows the monthly distribution of incidents with fatalities due to natural causes, "other" incidents

and all incidents.

The average number of deaths due to natural causes per weekday was 45.60 with 0=3.01

(6.59%). Monday had fewer incidents than CL-0, and Wednesdays had more incidents than CL+0.

The frequency of incidents for each weekday was within the range of pi20. Figure 4-8 shows the

daily distribution of incidents of fatalities due to natural causes, "other" incidents and all

incidents.

The annual variation in the number fatality incidents from ranged from 10 incidents

reported in 1992 to 24 incidents 1994. The variations in the annual number of events may be due

to differences in reporting among the states over the years sampled. The two months with the

highest frequency of deaths from natural causes were July (34) and December (26). July(34) and










August (24) accounted for 23.8% of reported deaths due to natural causes. One factor in this high

percentage may include weather related factors as elevated temperatures which increase stress on

biological systems; however the OSHA fatality reports do not provide this type of information.

Analysis of weekday numbers reveals a peak in frequency on Wednesday. A number of factors,

including the average number of hours worked on a given weekday, may influence the number of

incidents on a given day.

Many studies of worker fatalities, including OSHA data analysis by CIRPC, have not

included deaths due to natural causes because they were not considered job related. This

increases the difficulty of conducting a comparative analysis between studies.

Subcategories of Natural Causes

Incidents classified as death due to natural causes were reviewed and the frequency of

occurrence was tallied for each stated cause of death. The results are listed in Table 4-16. The

cause of death most frequently cited was some type of heart problem, often listed in the report as

"heart attack". Incidents counted as "Heart Problems" included causes of death such as heart

attack, coronary disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, coronary atherosclerosis,

coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, and heart aneurysm. Heart

Problems were cited in 210 (86.42%) of the 243 incidents. Other types of deaths due to natural

causes listed in the table did not reoccur with sufficient frequency to warrant further

investigation.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths due to natural causes.

Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 102764040

Employee #1 was working in an excavation with two other employees. They were j ack
hammering and removing granite. Employee #1 suddenly collapsed. Emergency medical
personnel were summoned and Employee #1 was transported to the nearest hospital where









he was pronounced dead. The preliminary cause of death was a heart attack caused by
acute coronary disease.

Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 306368861

The employee died of an aortic rupture.

Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 106230956

Employee #1 was mixing a three part epoxy to be applied to concrete. At approximately
3:15 PM, Employee #1 was instructed to take several empty boxes to the company truck
before the crew left the work site at 3:30 p.m. Employee #1 asked the foreman and the
superintendent to help him load the boxes. He was told to go to the truck and rest while the
crew cleaned up and got ready to leave. Employee #1 told the superintendent that he was
quitting and wanted a ride home. The superintendent told Employee #1 to wait until the
crew was ready and then everyone would go home. Employee #1 went to another
construction trailer to ask for a ride home. Employee #1 got into a truck and started driving
very erratically. He crashed into two parked trucks, ran over curbs, and went through two
fences. Someone called the police. When the police arrived, they went to where Employee
#1 had finally stopped the truck. Employee #1 had locked both doors, would not open them
for the police, and tried to restart the truck and leave the scene. The police broke through
the window, handcuffed Employee #1, and took him to jail. Soon after, Employee #1 was
unresponsive to any verbal inquiries made by the police. He was taken by an ambulance to
the hospital and was treated for convulsions and a temperature of 107 degrees. The
physicians thought that Employee #1 had encephalitis or meningitis. Employee #1 was
later taken to another hospital, where he was diagnosed as suffering from a brain aneurism.
Employee #1 died in the hospital.

Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 126960103

Employee died of a heart attack just as he was about to start his duties as a welder.

Deaths from Asphyxiation

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 110 incidents classified as deaths due to asphyxiation. Deaths from

asphyxiation accounted for 13.84% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 1.15% of total

incidents reported. The tallies for annual, monthly and daily frequency of occurrence are listed in

Table 4-17, Table 4-18 and Table 4-19 respectively.

The average number of incidents with deaths from asphyxiation per year was 7.86 with

0=2.82 (35.95%). Two years, 1997 and 2000, had fewer incidents than CL-c. Two years, 1992 and










2002, had more incidents than CL+o. One year, 2000, had fewer incidents than CL-20. Figure 4-9

shows the distribution of annual incidents of asphyxiation, "other" incidents and all incidents.

The average number of incidents with deaths from asphyxiation per month was 9. 17 with

0=4.74 (51.71%). May was the only month with fewer incidents than CL-c. Two months, July and

September, had more incidents than CL+o. All months except July were within the range of pi20.

Figure 4-10 shows the monthly distribution of incidents of asphyxiation, "other" incidents and all

incidents.

The average number of incidents with deaths from asphyxiation per weekday was 19.60

with 0=2.06 (10.51%). Thursday had fewer incidents than CL-o. Tuesday had more incidents

than CL+o. All weekdays were within the range of pi20. Figure 4-11 shows the daily distribution

for incidents of asphyxiation, "other" incidents, and all incidents.

The number of incidents with asphyxiation varied annually from two incidents in 2000 to

13 incidents in 1997. The number of incidents varied monthly from two in May to 21 in July.

Four months, June through September, accounted for 52.7% of the asphyxiation incidents with

30.0% of the asphyxiation incidents occurring in July and August. Other than weather related

phenomena, factors influencing monthly variations are not obvious. Weekday variation in the

number of incidents was not as extreme as the monthly numbers. The frequency of incidents

ranged from 17 on Thursday to 23 on Tuesday. Monday and Wednesday each had 20 incidents.

Other studies report similar percentages of deaths from asphyxiation with respect to all

fatalities. In their study of construction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from

1978-1994, Jackson and Loomis (2002) attributed 1.3% of the deaths to asphyxiation. That study

examined data from only one state which may or may not be typical of the national trends.









Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages of

asphyxiation deaths for 1991-1998 and annual data for subsequent years (see Table 4-20).

Incidents of asphyxiation were categorized under "asphyxiation /inhalation of toxic vapor". The

definition given in the appendices was "lack of oxygen and/or inhalation of toxic gas, (excluding

asphyxiation resulting from fire/explosion)". Differences between the CIRPC report and this

report may be partially due to the difficulty of classifying accidents with multiple apparent

causes. While an attempt was made to distinguish deaths from asphyxiation from deaths due to

chemical exposure in this report, those categories were combined in the CIRPC reports.

Incident Conditions

Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as deaths due to asphyxiation were reviewed

for recorded data on working environments and general conditions surrounding the events. The

categories of conditions noted are listed in Table 4-21. In the descriptions of the 1 10 incidents,

90 (81.82%) reports either stated that the incident occurred in a confined space, or it was

determined from the narrative description that the incident occurred in a confined space.

Although not specifically stated in the description of the incident, it can be concluded from some

narrative descriptions that workers were not following safety procedures for confined spaces.

According to OSHA' s General Safety and Health Provisions standard number 1926.21:

1926.21(b)(6)(i)

All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to
the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of
protective and emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply with any
specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas.

1926.21(b)(6)(ii)

For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, "confined or enclosed space" means any
space having a limited means of egress, which is subj ect to the accumulation of toxic or
flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed
spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers,









ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and
open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.

Descriptions of 40 (36.36%) incidents revealed that the events occurred either in manholes

or in utility vaults. Two incidents occurred in basements, one incident occurred inside an

underground pipe, and one incident occurred inside a sewer conduit.

Three incident reports specifically noted that one of the workers involved in the event was

using some sort of welding equipment or a cutting torch. One incident involved a ruptured gas

line.

Six of the asphyxiation incident descriptions specifically mentioned that the decedents

were wearing respirators. In five of these six incidents, the supply air line contained nitrogen

rather than breathable air. The sixth respirator incident involved carbon monoxide (CO)

poisoning due to supply air contamination by exhaust from a generator.

Chemical Agents

The reports of 76 of the 1 10 incidents classified as asphyxiations attributed the fatality to

one or more chemical agents. The chemical agents cited are listed in Table 4-22. A high

concentration of CO was listed as the chemical agent present in 17 (15.45%) incidents. Fourteen

of the 17 incidents attributed to CO were in a confined space.

Low levels of oxygen (02) were noted in 16 (14.55%) incidents. Fifteen of these 16

incidents occurred in a confined space. Thirteen of the 16 low 02 incidents were either in

manholes or were sewer system related.

Sewer gas was noted in seven incidents. The composition of air in sewers varies depending

on what is in the sewer. Gasses generated by decomposition of matter in sewers contain various

constituents such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane and









nitrogen oxides. In addition to the presence of the chemicals listed, sewer gas is also

characterized by low levels of 02.

Watanabe and Morita (1998) noted that asphyxiation could include suffocation,

strangulation and chemical exposure. In cases of asphyxiation involving toxic gasses, there often

is a corresponding decrease of oxygen in the air. Some of the incident descriptions specifically

mention that the cause of death was asphyxiation. In some cases, such as those involving toxic

gasses in confined spaces, there are difficulties in determining if the individuals died from

exposure to toxic chemicals, the lack of oxygen, or a combination of factors. While high levels

of some gasses may imply low levels of 02, it may not actually mean that the gasses displaced

the 02.

Six incidents involved smoke inhalation. In these six incidents, the decedents died in a fire

related event from asphyxia due to smoke inhalation rather than from burns or the impact of an

explosion or flash fire.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths due to asphyxiation.

Example of an incident involving a Manhole: Inspection Number 106444995

Employee #2 entered an underground pit through a manhole at the termination of a water
utility conduit system. The system was undergoing a tracer gas leak test using an
argon/methane gas mixture. Employee #2 was unaware of the testing and entered the pit to
replace a drain plug on the conduit. Employee #2 was about to install the plug when he
passed out. Employee #1 witnessed this from the top of the manhole and alerted employees
#6 and #7. Employee #1 entered the pit to rescue Employee #2 and passed out. Employee
#7 radioed the contractor's onfce for help. Employee #3 arrived at the pit site and entered
the pit through the manhole to attempt a rescue. Employee #3 was able to pull Employee
#1's face out of the water at the bottom of the pit before almost passing out. Employee #3
was helped up the ladder by employees #4 and #5. Employee #4 grabbed a rope and
entered the pit. Employee #4 tied the rope around Employee #2. Employees at ground
level hoisted Employee #2 to the surface. Employee #1 was retrieved the same way. CPR
was initiated. Employees #1 and #2 were transported to the hospital. Employee #1 was
pronounced dead at the hospital.










Example of an incident involving a Respirator: Inspection Number 106620800

Employee #1 connected the fresh air line of his respirator to the facility's compressed air
lines and began abrasive blasting. The plant operators, unaware that their air system was
being used for breathing air, shut down the fresh air compressor for routine, scheduled
maintenance and pumped nitrogen into the system. The employee was overcome by the
nitrogen in the air lines and died of nitrogen asphyxia.



Example of an incident involving Carbon Monoxide: Inspection Number 109025429

Employee #1 was using a portable gasoline-powered generator inside a room with
inadequate ventilation. The room measured 11 feet 4 inches by 12 feet by 11 feet 4 inches.
The doors were closed and the vent for the permanent generator was blocked. Employee #1
was finishing the electrical work inside the room. The cause of employee #1's death was
asphyxiation due to carbon monoxide poisoning.



Example of an incident involving Smoke: Inspection Number 1 10352499

Employee #1 was changing a circuit breaker in a 208-volt, three-phase panel board. An
electrical fault occurred. The ensuing electric arc started a fire. The fire produced a large
amount of smoke. Employee #1 tried to escape but became confused. Employee #1 was
asphyxiated by the smoke.



Example of an incident involving multiple causes low 02 and Nitrogen: Inspection

Number 111683660

Employee #1 was assigned to clean the header bolts at the top of a reactor. The reactor was
under a nitrogen purge. The vent port for the nitrogen was the header. A plastic cover was
placed over the top of the reactor. Employee #1 crawled under the plastic cover and died of
asphyxia in the oxygen-deficient atmosphere.

Deaths from Drowning

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 98 incidents classified as deaths from drowning. Deaths from drowning accounted

for 12.33% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 1.02% of all incidents. The tallies for









annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-23, Table 4-24 and

Table 4-25 respectively.

The average number of incidents with deaths by drowning per year was 6.86 with 0=2.47

(36.08%). Two years, 1998 and 2001, had fewer incidents than CL-o. Three years, 1994, 1995 and

2002, had more incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of pi20. Figure 4-12 shows

the trends in the annual distribution of incidents of drowning did not follow the trends of "other"

incidents. Because of the low number of incidents, these trends are not statistically significant.

The number of incidents varied annually from three incidents in 1998 and 2001 to 1 1

incidents in 2002. Variations in the annual number of incidents may be due to differences in

reporting from various agencies. Other factors may include variability in the amount of work

performed in or around water as well as changes in work methods and safety protocols.

The average number of incidents of death by drowning per month was 8. 17 with 0=2.51

(30.75%). March was the only month with fewer incidents than CL-0 and fewer incidents than CL-

20. The months of July and August had more incidents that CL+o. Figure 4-13 shows the monthly

distribution of incidents of drowning, "other" incidents and all incidents.

The monthly distribution of drowning incidents ranged from only two incidents in March

to the highest frequencies of occurrence in July (12), August (11i), and June (10) and October

(10). June, July and August accounted for 33.7% of the drowning incidents. Monthly variations

may be related to weather phenomenon, however that would not explain why eight incidents

were recorded for the winter months of December and January while the early spring month of

March had two recorded incidents.

The average number of incidents of death by drowning per weekday was 17.20 with

0=3.97 (23.08%). Tuesday had fewer incidents than the range of CL-c. Wednesday had more









incidents than CL+o. All weekdays were within the range of pt20. Figure 4-14 shows the daily

distribution of incidents of drowning, "other" incidents and all incidents.

Weekday frequency of incidents ranged from 12 incidents on Tuesday to 23 on

Wednesday. Factors influencing this variation are not obvious.

In their study of construction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from

1978-1994, Jackson and Loomis (2002) attributed 1.5% of the deaths to drowning. Hinze et al.

(1998) reported that drowning comprised 1 1.00% of the accidents classified as "other" for

OSHA data from 1994 1995, percentages that are similar to the results of this report.

The total number of incidents involving drowning may be higher than reported as some

deaths involving drowning may have been categorized as different types of events. Incidents

involving individuals falling into water may be considered "struck-by" incidents as the worker

was pushed off balance or knocked into the water. Incidents involving equipment rolling or

sliding into water may have been categorized as "caught-in/between"' as the operator was

"caught" in the cab and drowned. Additional drowning fatalities may not have been included in

some data analysis as the event may not have been considered job related.

Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for

incidents of drowning from 1991-1998 and annual data for subsequent years (see Table 4-26).

Incidents of drowning were categorized under "drown, non-lethal fall". The definition given in

the appendices was "non-lethal falls into water and flooding of container, trenches, etc."

Differences in the results may be due to the inclusion in this report of non-work related drowning

that were reported to OSHA, as well as other drowning incidents which may have been otherwise

classified as caught-in-between.









Incident Conditions

Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as death due to drowning were reviewed for

recorded data about event conditions or the nature of the event. The categories of incidents noted

are listed in Table 4-27. The narrative description of one of the 98 drowning incidents stated that

the victim was wearing a personal protective equipment (PPE) flotation device when the

drowning occurred. Several reports noted that PPE was not being worn.

The category cited most frequently, in 28 (28.57%) incidents, involved the decedent either

slipping or falling into a body of water. The second most cited event was an aggregate category,

"Equipment/Vehicle Related", which included three categories, "Equipment slid/rolled in",

"Drove equipment/vehicle in", and "Backed equipment/vehicle in". The equipment/vehicle

related incidents totaled 26 (26.53%) incidents. In each of these categories the equipment

operator drowned after that equipment entered a body of water and the operating cabin was

submersed.

Nineteen (19.3 8%) drowning incidents involved workers purposefully entering a body of

water. Of these 19 incidents, eight descriptions stated that a worker decided to go for a

recreational swim and drowned. Six of these 19 incidents involved divers employed to work

underwater at the j ob site, and in three of these incidents workers died while swimming to

retrieve boats that had drifted away from them. Two incidents involved workers jumping off of a

boat or barge to escape other impending circumstances.

Flooded pipes, tunnels and excavations were noted in 9 (9. 18%) incidents. The event

descriptions of four of these nine incidents noted that the water source was a broken or burst

municipal water supply line. In three of these incidents the water source was rain, while in two

incidents the water was released from a storm drain after having been intentionally blocked by an

inflatable plug.










Examples of Incident Descriptions


The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths due to drowning.

Example of an incident involving a fall into water: Inspection Number 106949340

Employee #1 was climbing to his work area beneath a bridge and fell into the river.
Employee #1 was not wearing a life jacket or fall protection. The company co-owner threw
a rope to Employee #1, but he refused it, saying that he would swim to the river bank
approximately 240 ft away. Employee #1 yelled for help approximately 10 ft away from
the bank and submerged. He drowned before help arrived. Employee #1's body was
recovered the next day.

Example of an incident involving equipment sliding or rolling in: Inspection Number

302137724

Employee #1 was operating a track-mounted backhoe to dig a retention pond. Employee
#1 was working on a sloped area at the edge of the water. The backhoe had been observed
to slide at least one time prior to the accident. The backhoe either slid again or moved into
the edge of the water, where the ground was soft. The backhoe tipped over into the pond,
with the door side down, trapping Employee #1 inside the cab. The cab filled with water
and Employee #1 drowned.

Example of an incident involving driving equipment or a vehicle in: Inspection Number

305503948

Employee #1 was operating a bulldozer with an enclosed cab. The operation was to
backfill a pit measuring approximately 300 feet long by 100 feet wide and 30 feet deep.
The work area had flooded, up to 4 feet deep in some places, after several days of rain. The
pit's perimeter was under several feet of water and was not marked. As Employee #1 drove
the bulldozer through the water along the edge of the pit, the dozer went off the edge and
quickly sank. Employee #1 was trapped in the dozer. Two witnesses dove into the water
but could not locate the dozer. Rescue divers removed the victim approximately 4 hours
after the incident.

Example of an incident involving a flooded pipe or tunnel: Inspection Number 1 15985194

Employees #1, #2, #3, and #4 were working in a sewer, relining it with sprayed concrete.
At 1:00 p.m., rain began to fall. The aboveground superintendent gave orders to shut down
operations, clear the hose of concrete, and leave the sewer. A few minutes later the
intensity of rainfall increased. The superintendent ordered an immediate exit. Water
entering the manhole above the employees slowed them from exiting through the manhole.
A rush of water carried away Employee #1. Employee #2 grabbed reinforcing wires and
climbed out of the manhole. Employees #3 and #4 grabbed reinforcing wires and a pipe










and were able to reach a manhole where they were rescued. Employee #1 was presumed
drowned. Employees #2 and #3 suffered bruises. Employee #4 suffered cuts and bruises.

Deaths from Burns

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 97 incidents classified as deaths from burns. These incidents accounted for

12.20% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 1.01% of all incidents.. The tallies for

annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-28, Table 4-29 and

Table 4-30 respectively. The distinction drawn between the category "Burns" and "Explosion-

Fire" was the timing of the death. If a person died in the explosion or in the fire, the incident was

counted under Explosion-Fire. The incident was counted under Burns if the person was burned in

a fire and did not die in the event, but died as a result of their burns some time later. Only burns

from a fire were included in this category. Some events often considered burns, such as either

chemical burns or scalding from hot water or steam, were categorized as "Chemical Exposure".

The average number of incidents with deaths from burns per year was 6.86 with 0=2.23

(32.54%). Two years, 1993, and 1995 had fewer incidents than CL-o. One year, 1998, had more

incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of pt20 except 1995 which had fewer

incidents. The annual distributions of incidents with deaths from burns, "other" incidents and all

incidents are shown in Figure 4-15

The annual frequency of incidents ranged from two in 1995 to 11 in 1998. Variation in the

annual frequency of burn incidents may be related to changes in reporting, changes in work

methods and changes in safety protocols. It should be noted that the four years with the lowest

reported deaths were 1993-1996. The subsequent years, 1997-2003, each had higher frequencies

of incidents.










The average number of incidents with deaths from burns per month was 8.08 with 0=2.69

(33.29%). Three months, February, April, and September, had fewer incidents than CL-O. Three

months, March, July and October had more incidents than CL+O. All months were within the

range of pi20. The monthly distributions of incidents with burns, "other" incidents and all

incidents are shown in Figure 4-16. The monthly frequency of incidents ranged from four in

February to 13 in July. Factors influencing monthly variations in the frequency of incidents are

not readily apparent.

The average number of incidents with deaths from burns per weekday was 16.40 with

0=6.15 (37.51%). Tuesday had more incidents than CL+O. All weekdays were within the range of

pi20. The daily distributions of incidents with burns, "other" incidents and all incidents are

shown in Figure 4-17. Weekday variations in frequency peaked at 28 incidents on Tuesday,

followed by 17 on Wednesday, 14 on Thursday and 12 on Friday. Factors influencing daily

variations in the frequency of incidents are not readily obvious.

Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site did not include a section for

burns that was separate from fires and explosions. The CFOI includes "Fires and explosions" as

a major category of "event or exposure". Subcategories include Hyve classifications of fires and

three classifications of explosions. "Burns" is a maj or category in the CFOI section on the

"nature" of the incident with subcategories of "chemical burns", "electrical burns", "heat burns,

scalds", "multiple burns", and "burns, not elsewhere classified".

Incident Location

Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as deaths due to burns were reviewed for

information about the locations of the incidents. The stated locations are listed in Table 4-31i.

The descriptions of 20 (20.62%) of the incidents gave sufficient information to conclude that the

event occurred outside of a building, but did not include further details on the location. Ten










(10.3 1%) incidents occurred inside some type of factory or plant. Thirty four (35.05%)

descriptions did not give sufficient information to specify the location of the incident. One

incident report specifically noted that the event occurred within a confined space.

Ignition Source

The descriptions of incidents with deaths from bums were reviewed to determine the

ignition source in the incidents (see Table 4-32). The ignition source noted most frequently was

an electrical arc, cited in 34 (35.05%) of the incidents. Of these 34 incidents, 27 involved an

electrical distribution panel or switchgear, six involved high voltage power lines and one

description was not clear about the nature of the energized wires. In a study of causes of

electrical deaths among construction workers, McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data for

1992-1998 and reported that an arc flash or blast caused less than 2% of the electrical related

deaths but caused 3 1% of the electrical related injuries.

Six (6. 19%) incidents with deaths from bums had ignition from a pilot light. Six (6. 19%)

incidents had ignition from activities involving welding. Nineteen (19.59%) of the 97 bum

incident descriptions did not include information on a specific source of ignition. Twenty two of

the 29 cited sources of ignition were noted in one incident each, and three sources were each

cited twice.

The large diversity of ignition sources and combustible materials may suggest that many of

the incidents were truly accidents that may not have been readily preventable. However, the six

incidents started by pilot lights and the six incidents started by welding may have been prevented

with proper precautions.

Combustible Agent

The descriptions of incidents with deaths from bums were reviewed to determine the

ignition source in the incidents (see Table 4-33). The ignition source noted most frequently was









an electrical arc, cited in 34 (35.05%) of the incidents. Of these 34 incidents, 27 involved an

electrical distribution panel or switchgear, six involved high voltage power lines and one

description was not clear about the nature of the energized wires. In a study of causes of

electrical deaths among construction workers, McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data for

1992-1998 and reported that an arc flash or blast caused less than 2% of the electrical related

deaths but caused 3 1% of the electrical related injuries.

Six (6. 19%) incidents with deaths from burns had ignition from a pilot light. Six (6. 19%)

incidents had ignition from activities involving welding. Nineteen (19.59%) of the 97 burn

incident descriptions did not include information on a specific source of ignition. Twenty two of

the 29 cited sources of ignition were noted in one incident each, and three sources were each

cited twice.

The large diversity of ignition sources and combustible materials may suggest that many of

the incidents were truly accidents that may not have been readily preventable. However, the six

incidents started by pilot lights and the six incidents started by welding may have been prevented

with proper precautions.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from burns.

Example of an incident involving an Electrical Arc Fire: Investigation number 1 12166673

Three electrical workers, Employees #1 and #2 and #3, were seriously burned by an
electrical arc flash. They were installing of a new 400-amp, 480-volt circuit breaker into a
distribution switchboard at a frozen food manufacturing plant. This activity was part of a
maj or plant expansion program. The switchboard was a 3000-amp 480y/277 volt unit. The
work was being done during a normal plant production shift and the switchboard was
energized. At the time of the accident, Employee #2 was standing inside the switchboard
frame holding the wired (new) circuit breaker. Employees #1 and #3 were believed to be
connecting or preparing to connect the breaker wiring to the switchboard. It was at this
point that the arc occurred. It is not known exactly what tools, obj ects, or work activity
caused or contributed to this accident. Employee #3 died.










Example of an incident involving arc welding: Investigation 1 10326279


Employees #1, #2 and #3 were part of a welding contractor's crew in a petroleum storage
facility. A clogged section of pipeline blew out a plug, spraying the employees with crude
petroleum. The petroleum was ignited by the arc welding operation, and Employees #1, #2
and #3 were fatally burned. Two roustabout employees were also injured while attempting
to rescue the welding crew. Employee #4 was hospitalized with bums to his back and
Employee #5 was treated and released for bums to his hands. Although no definite cause
for this accident could be determined, it was found that blind flanges were not used to
isolate the pipeline segment the crew was working on. A vacuum truck had been connected
to the same segment just prior to the fire. Residual petroleum may have been left in the
section of pipeline and the crew was not given appropriate warning of a potentially
hazardous situation.

Example of an incident involving a worker and flammable substance: Investigation number

302658521

A construction worker was killed after spaying lacquer on woodwork on the first floor of a
2- story house. The worker was burned on 100 percent of his body. There was an
overturned halogen lamp and an unplugged extension cord. The vapors may have been
ignited by sparks produced when the lamp was overturned or when the light was
disconnected from the extension cord.

Example of an incident involving a ruptured pipeline: Investigation 120023 841

The work performed involved sewer repair work. Employee #1 was operating a backhoe
and hit a gas line that was not marked on the city drawings. About 2 minutes later,
Employee #1 and Employee #2 smelled what they believed to be residual gas and stopped
the operation. There were no signs commonly associated with a live gas line break. The
two employees believed the gas line was abandoned. The owner came and told the
employees to stop. At approximately 11:45 there was a sudden gas surge which ignited,
engulfing the backhoe, Employee #1 and Employee #2 in flames. One month later
Employee #1 died due to burn complications. Both employees were treated for 2nd & 3rd
degree bums. After review of the drawings provided by the city, it was noted that the gas
line had been labeled as an abandoned line and was flanged off prior to the intersection.
There was no marking on the street to show the live 4" gas line. The gas line burned for
approximately 3 hours before a valve was found by the utility to cut off the gas.

Example of an incident involving butane: Investigation 108534439

Employee #1 was cutting seized bolts when a red-hot piece of slag flew into his pocket.
The slag melted through one or two plastic disposable cigarette lighters that contained
butane. The butane ignited, burning Employee #1's clothing and body. He died.










Example of an incident involving an unspecified solvent and an unspecified cutting tool:

Investigation 108575812

Employee #1 was dismantling a large fan and cleaning the parts with a solvent. He
apparently spilled some of the solvent on to his clothing. Although Employee #1 had sent
another employee to obtain a fire extinguisher, Employee #1 apparently started cutting
before it was brought to his location. Employee #1 was on fire when the assistant returned
with the fire extinguisher. Employee #1 was immediately transported to a hospital, and
then to a burn center. Employee #1 died from the burns about two weeks later.

Example of an incident involving an unspecified electric lines and an unknown source of

hydraulic fluid: Investigation 300498284

Employee #1 burned to death when contact with energized lines resulted in fire fueled by
hydraulic fluid.

Deaths in an Explosion or Fire

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 75 incidents classified as deaths in an explosion or fire. Deaths from explosion-

fire accounted for 9.43% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 0.78% of all incidents.

The tallies for annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-34,

Table 4-3 5 and Table 4-36 respectively. The average number of incidents with deaths in an

explosion or fire per year was 5.21 with 0=2.34 (44.79%). Two years, 2000, and 2001 had fewer

incidents than CL-c. Two years, 1990 and 1992, had more incidents than CL+o. All years were

within the range of pd-20 except 1990. The distribution of annual incidents with deaths in an

explosion or fire, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-18.

The annual frequency of incidents ranged from 10 incidents in 1990 to two incidents in

2000 and 2001. Factors influencing the variation in the annual frequency of incidents may

include changes in reporting on the state and federal level. The 73 incidents of explosion-fire

over 14 years may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual

variations.









The average number of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire per month was 6.25

with 0=2.45 (39.26%). December was associated with fewer incidents than CL-c. Two months,

July and August, had more incidents than CL+o. All months were within the range of pi20. The

monthly distribution of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire, "other" incidents and all

incidents is shown in Figure 4-19.

The monthly frequency of occurrence of explosion-fire incidents was highest in the

summer months of June, July, and August, which accounted for 38.7% of incidents. Factors

influencing variations of monthly frequencies of incidents are not readily apparent.

The average number of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire per weekday was

14.00 with 0=3.58 (25.56%). Monday had fewer incidents than CL-c. Friday had more incidents

than CL+o. All weekdays were within the range of pi20. The daily distribution of incidents with

deaths in an explosion or fire, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-20.

Frequency of occurrence for weekdays was highest for Friday with 19, Wednesday with

16, and Tuesday with 15. Factors influencing variations of daily frequencies of incidents are not

readily apparent.

Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 1991-

1998 and annual data for subsequent years (see Table 4-37). Incidents were categorized under

"fire/explosion/scalding". The definition given in the appendices was "fire/explosion/scalding,

excluding electrical burns/explosions", although there was no separate category or subcategory

for "electrical burns/explosions". In this report incidents of scalding were classified under

chemical exposure.

In their study of construction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from

1978-1994, Jackson and Loomis (2002) attributed 3.0% of the deaths to explosion-fire incidents.









This is a higher percentage than the results published by both the CIRPC and this study; however

the study by Jackson and Loomis is for one state and covers different years. Differences in the

reported percentages may result from the differences in the types of construction in that state

versus the entire nation, as well as regulatory changes that may have been enacted to affect

prevention efforts in years subsequent to the data analyzed by Jackson and Loomis.

Incident Location

The descriptions of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire were reviewed for

information about the location of the incident (see Table 4-3 8). A general category of "Large

Tank" was used for any kind of large storage container. Storage facilities in the category "Large

Tank" included a 20,000 gallon water storage tank, a 10,000 gallon gasoline tank, and a 55,000

gallon crude oil tank. Large Tanks were cited in 13 (17.33%) of the incidents.

Six (8.00%) incidents of deaths by explosion or fire occurred in a factory or a plant. Six

(8.00%) incidents were listed as occurring "Outside" because the narrative description was not

specific concerning a location, but included sufficient information to ascertain that the incident

did not occur within a building. Seventeen of the 21 locations were cited once. The descriptions

of 3 1 (41.33%) incidents did not give specific details on the location of the event. One

description noted that the incident occurred in a confined space.

Source of Ignition

Descriptions of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire were reviewed for information

concerning a source of ignition (see Table 4-39). The descriptions of 28 (37.33%) incidents

either stated or implied that the source of ignition involved the use of welding equipment or a

torch. The descriptions of each of the 4 (5.33%) incidents with a ruptured gas line noted that the

line contained Natural Gas. Electrical switches were implicated in 3 (4.00%) incidents.









In 11 (14.67%) incidents, common tools created sparks either through their use or when

their electrical switch was thrown. The tools included three kinds of saws, a grinder, a drill, and a

shop vacuum.

Of the 16 sources cited, Hyve sources were each noted twice and eight sources were each

noted once. In 19 (25.33%) incident descriptions the source of ignition was not specified. In 3

(4.00%) incident descriptions the source of ignition was specifically stated to be unknown.

Explosive or Combustible Agent

Descriptions of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire were reviewed for information

about the explosive or combustible agents (see Table 4-40). Of the 33 different items specified as

the explosive or combustible agent, eight were noted in more than one incident. Twenty fiye

agents were each indicated one time. Natural Gas was identified in 10 (13.33%) incidents.

Gasoline and Propane were each identified in 5 (6.67%) incidents. Acetylene and Crude Oil were

each identified in 4 (5.33%) incidents. Two incidents had explosions involving a "gas flow line"

that either was connected, or would be connected to a "separator unit". In both of these cases the

gas in the line and the source of ignition were not identified. Descriptions of 15 (20.00%)

incidents did not include information as to what specifically exploded or burned.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths in an explosion or a fire.

Example of an incident involving welding or torch cutting: Inspection Number 200880581

One employee was killed and two employees were injured after a tank exploded. The
employees were performing tank removal work. The tank exploded while the employees
were performing a torch cutting operation.

Example of an incident involving Natural Gas: Inspection Number 1 14639065

Employee #1 was operating a bulldozer. Employee #2 was operating a scraper. The
bulldozer ruptured a high pressure, 10-inch natural gas collector line. The escaping natural










gas contacted an ignition source and exploded. Employees #1 and #2 were incinerated and
killed by the resulting fireball.

Example of an incident involving Gasoline: Inspection Number 3 023 83 518

Employee #1 and Employee #2 were attempting to remove the manhole cover from an
underground, 8,000 gallon, gasoline tank. The employees were working in a 4 foot deep
excavation to access the manhole cover. The employer had worked on the tank a few
months before and a leak had recently been discovered at the manhole cover. Employee #1
and Employee #2 were at the j obsite to repair the leak by removing the manhole cover,
then replacing and resealing the cover. The employees had removed several bolts and nuts
that held the cover in place but were having difficulty removing the remaining bolts and
nuts. Employee #1 borrowed an electric right-angle grinder from the station owner to cut
the remaining bolts and nuts. According to Employee #2, Employee #1 had removed two
bolts with the grinder and had pushed the hot bolts into the tank. Employee #2 stated that
the grinder was creating a lot of sparks. While Employee #1 was using the grinder on the
3rd bolt, there was an explosion in the tank. Employee #1 was blown 228 feet from the
tank by the explosion. The employees were using an air blower to remove vapors from the
gasoline tank. Employee #1 was using an electric grinder that was not appropriate for the
task. The explosion was most likely caused by sparks and/or hot bolts igniting the
explosive vapors in the tank.

Example of an incident involving Propane: Inspection Number 121980320

A residential home was nearing final completion when a gas (propane) leak occurred. The
homeowner's wife, two children, and one friend of the children were present at the home
when two plumbers arrived. The plumbers, Employee #1 and #2, were notified of the leak
and they tried to find its origin. Upon smelling propane gas in the basement and main
living areas of the home, the owner of the plumbing company advised Employee #1 to shut
off the main electrical disconnect to the house. When Employee #1 shut off the electricity,
the gas exploded and completely destroyed the home. The homeowner's wife and the three
children present were injured along with the owner of the plumbing company. Employee
#1 died from his injuries. The propane gas leak apparently came from a connection at or
near the gas fireplace on the main floor. The gas settled in the basement where the main
disconnect was located. The leak preceded the plumbers' arrival to the site, although
actions taken by them at the scene contributed to the events leading to the explosion.



Example of an incident involving Acetylene: Inspection Number 304479868

Employee #2 was using acetylene and oxygen to cut a piece of sheet metal. Employee #1
was standing next to Employee #2 waiting to use the oxygen/acetylene torch to cut a piece
of sheet metal. Sparks ignited acetylene gas leaking from a storage container in a box built
into the side of the contractor's work trailer. The resulting explosion blew the doors off of
the box. One of the doors and the sheet metal struck and killed Employee #1. Employee #2
was struck by a small piece of metal and received minor to moderate injuries.












Example of an incident involving no specified location, explosive agent, or ignition source:

Inspection Number 123630725

A flash explosion caused two employees to be burned and fall. The employees were
hospitalized. One employee expired as a result of his injuries.

Deaths from Hyperthermia

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 58 incidents classified as deaths from hyperthermia. Deaths from hyperthermia

account for 7.30% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 0.60% of all incidents. These

incidents were described in the incident reports in a number of ways including: heat stroke, heat

stress, heat exhaustion, and hyperthermia. The tallies for annual, monthly and daily frequencies

of occurrence are listed in Table 4-41, Table 4-42 and Table 4-43 respectively.

The average number of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia per year was 4. 14 with

0=2.33 (56.13%). One year, 1990 had fewer incidents than CL-c. Two years, 2002 and 2003, had

more incidents than CL+o. All years were within the range of pt20 except 2003. The annual

distribution of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia, "other" incidents and all incidents is

shown in Figure 4-21.

The annual frequency of occurrence ranged from nine in 2003 to two in 1992, 1995, and

1996. No incidents were reported in 1990. Variations in reporting may account for the

fluctuation in annual incidents. The 58 incidents of hyperthermia occurring over 14 years may

not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual variations.

The average number of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia per month was 4.83 with

0=7.03 (145.45%). No incidents occurred in the late fall and winter months. Forty seven

(81.03%) of the 58 incidents occurred in the summer months of June, July and August. The









monthly distribution of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia, "other" incidents and all

incidents is shown in Figure 4-22.

The monthly frequency of occurrence ranged from no incidents reported from October

through March, to 12 incidents in June, 14 incidents in August and 21 incidents in July. This

correlates with typical increases in temperatures during the summer months.

The average number of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia per weekday was 1 1.00

with 0=1.26 (11.50%). Monday had more incidents than CL+o. All weekdays were within the

range of pt20. No incidents were reported on Sundays. The daily distribution of incidents with

deaths from hyperthermia, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-23.

The weekday frequency of occurrence ranged from 13 incidents on Monday to 10 incidents

on Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. The peak on Monday is unusual compared to several

"other" categories and may be related to the activities of workers on the weekend.

Work or Trade Performed

Descriptions of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia were reviewed for information

about each decedent' s task (see Table 4-44). Seven of the 13 different types of work specified

were noted once. In 13 (22.41%) incidents the decedent was performing site work. In 8 (13.79%)

incidents the decedent was involved in various stages of concrete work. In 8 (13.79%) incidents

the decedent was not identified with a specific trade or was identified simply as general labor.

Seven (12.07%) incidents involved roofing. Descriptions of 9 (15.52%) incidents did not specify

the type of work being performed.

Conditions or Location Cited

Descriptions of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia were reviewed for information

about the location of the incident (see Table 4-45). In 27 (46.55%) incidents the description

included sufficient information to note that the worker was working at ground level. In 9










(15.52%) incidents the decedent was working on a rooftop. One (1.72%) incident occurred in an

attic. One (1.72%) incident occurred underground. In 18 (31.03%) incident reports the location

of the work was not specified.

Discussion

Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 1991-

1998 and annual data for subsequent years. Incidents were categorized under

"hyperthermi a/hypothermi a" including b oth heat and cold (see Table 4-46). The definiti on given

in the appendices was "heat/hypothermia".

While the number of fatalities from hyperthermia in this report is low compared to other

causes, they should be preventable. McKinnon and Utley (2005) reported that in 2002 BLS

statistics, 40% of the occupational deaths from exposure to environmental heat were in the

construction industry. Adelakun et al. (1999) noted that the criteria for defining a heat-related

death are different among states; medical examiners and coroners; and individual physicians.

They studied data from the NTOF surveillance system from 1979 through 1995 and reported that

by industry, construction had the most heat related fatalities (34%), followed by

agriculture/forestry/fi shing (18.8%) and manufacturing (11.9%). Wan (2004) reported that

NIOSH recommended the promulgation of standards on occupational exposure to hot

environments in 1972 and revised them in 1986. The OSHA Standards Advisory Committee on

Heat Stress was established in 1973 and recommended a standard similar to that proposed by

NIOSH. However, OSHA has adopted no specific standards concerning heat stress.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from hyperthermia.

Example of an incident involving Hyperthermia on the ground: Inspection Number

107430316










Employee #1 was shoveling dirt from a shallow trench formed by a backhoe. The trench
was being prepared for foundation work at a construction site. This was the employee's
first day of work. On this day the heat index ranged from 95 degrees Fahrenheit at 10:00
AM to 102 degrees at 2:00 PM. At lunch time, Employee #1 stated that he felt weak and
sick, but after lunch he continued to work. After several hours, Employee #1 again
reported feeling ill and quit working. Another employee found him lying in a storage
trailer about one hour later. The trailer had no ventilation system. Employee #1 did not
respond to emergency CPR. He was pronounced dead at the hospital. The autopsy report
revealed that Employee #1 had died as a result of hyperthermia. The employer had not
provided heat stress training for the employees or allowed a period of acclimatization for
new workers.



Example of an incident involving Hyperthermia on a roof: Inspection Number 18540716

Employee #1 worked on a roof. He worked at the chute throwing "tear-off" from the roof.
Between 6:00 AM and 9:00 AM Employee #1 became nauseated and vomited. Employee
#1 was allowed to rest and drink some water. Employee #1 was given a lighter task,
supplying foam board to other roofers. Employee #1 continued to vomit and drink water
throughout the day and left the roof at the end of his shift. Employee #1 collapsed outside
his hotel room and died from heat exhaustion. His core temperature was 107 degrees
Fahrenheit.



Example of an incident involving Hyperthermia in an Attic: Inspection Number

303388540

Employee #1 was working in the attic of a duplex home. Employee #1 was installing
baffles and preparing the attic for blown fiberglass insulation. Employee #1 was found
dead lying on top of an attic fan. The autopsy stated that the cause of death was heat stroke
from exposure to high temperatures.

Deaths from Chemical Exposure

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 39 incidents with deaths from chemical exposure. Deaths from chemical

exposure accounted for 4.91% of the fatal incidents classified as "other" and 0.41% of all

incidents. Difficulty in determining the cause of death and the limited number of cases have led

others to include deaths from chemical exposure in other categories. Examples include counting









incidents of "inhalation of toxic vapors" with "asphyxiations" and counting "scalding" with "fire

and explosions". These incidents were included as "chemical exposure" in this report to examine

trends and commonalities among these incidents.

The tallies for annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-

47, Table 4-48 and Table 4-49 respectively. The average number of incidents with deaths from

chemical exposure per year was 2.57 with 0=1.92 (74.54%). Four years, 1990, 1993, 1998, and

1999, had no reported incidents. Of the years with incidents, 1992 and 2002 had more incidents

than CL+o. All years with incidents were within the range of pd-20. The annual distribution of

incidents with deaths from chemical exposure, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in

Figure 4-24. The annual frequency of occurrence varied from six incidents in 1992 to no reported

incidents in four years. Factors influencing the variation in frequencies of fatalities may include

reporting methods, changes in regulations, and methods of classifying the cause of an incident.

The 39 incidents of chemical exposure over 14 years may not be sufficient to draw significant

statistical conclusions on annual variations.

The average number of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure per month was 3.25

with 0=1.92 (59.09%). No incidents were reported for the month of June and one incident was

reported in the month of July. Of the months with incidents, July had fewer incidents than CL-c.

Two months, January and April, had more incidents than CL+o. January equaled the upper limit of

the range of pt20. The monthly distribution of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure,

"other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-25. The monthly frequency of

occurrence varied with seven reported incidents in January and no reported incidents in June.

The average number of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure per weekday was

6.60 with 0=3.26 (49.42%). Friday had fewer incidents than CL-o. Monday and Thursdays had









more incidents than CL+o. All weekdays were within the range pt20. The daily distribution of

incidents with deaths from chemical exposure, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in

Figure 4-26. Weekday frequency varied from eleven incidents on Thursday and ten incidents on

Monday to four incidents on Tuesday and three incidents on Friday. Factors influencing the

increase in frequency of incidents on Thursday and Monday are not readily apparent.

Work or Trade Performed

The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for

information about the trade or type of work engaged in by the decedent (see Table 4-50). Pipe

installation or repair was reported as the type of work being performed in 12 (30.77%) incidents.

Boiler repair, sewer repair and bathtub refinishing were each noted in 3 (7.69%) incident reports.

Eleven of the 16 types of work listed were cited once. In 5 (12.82%) incident descriptions the

type of work was not specified.

Incident Location

The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for

information about the location of the incident (see Table 4-51). Thirteen (33.33%) incidents of

chemical exposure occurred in a factory or plant. Four (10.26%) incidents occurred in manholes.

Nine of the 13 specified locations were noted once. Nine (23.08%) incident descriptions did not

specify the event location.

Three incident descriptions specifically noted that the event occurred in a confined space.

Two of the three confined space incidents were in manholes and one was in a factory or plant.

Chemical Agents Cited

The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for

information about the chemical agent involved in the event (see Table 4-52). Five of the 23









chemicals noted were each identified in multiple incidents. Eighteen chemicals were each noted

once. One incident listed multiple primary chemicals nickel and cadmium.

Hot water and steam, listed separately in the table, were cited in a total of 11 incidents

(28.21%). Hydrogen Sulfide was noted in 6 (15.3 8%) incidents. One incident noted that the

workers were using a "stripper" and listed a number of components in the stripper, but did not

cite the toxic concentration of any specific component or combination of components.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from chemical exposure.

Example of an incident involving Steam: Inspection Number 305206252

Employee #1 entered a manhole, a confined space, without initiating any lock out tag out
procedures. Employee #1 attempted to repair a high pressure, high temperature, steam trap
line. Employee #1 apparently tried to remove the trap and was moving within the manhole.
Employee #1 apparently struck an internally deteriorated blow down line, causing it to
separate from the steam line, releasing 700 800 degree, 250 PSI steam. The release of
steam blew Employee #1 out of the manhole. Employee #1 received third degree, full
thickness bums over 95 percent of his body. Employee #1 died approximately ten hours
later at the hospital.

Example of an incident involving Hot Water: Inspection Number 1 11615555

Employees #1, #2, and #3 were severely burned when they opened a vessel containing
approximately 15,000 gallons of water. The water temperature was between 200 and 289
degrees Fahrenheit. Employees #1, #2, and #3 thought the vessel had been drained.
Employee #1 died of his injuries three weeks later. Employee #2 sustained bums to his
face, upper body, and respiratory system. Employee #3 sustained bums to his upper body,
back, and legs.

Example of an incident involving Hydrogen Sulfide: Inspection Number 123652505

Employees #1, #2, and #3 were conducting maintenance activities in a medical center. The
employees were replacing a blind flange on a pipeline. As the flange was opened by
Employee #2, the hydrogen sulfide unit alarm sounded. The employees stopped their work.
Employee #1 tried to remove his full face respirator. Employee #1 was overcome by
hydrogen sulfide gas, lost consciousness, and died. Employee #2 had previously loosened
his strap to test the atmosphere for hydrogen sulfide in their work area. Employee #3, at
ground level, went up to the work area where his 30 minute air-pack hung up, exposing
him to the gas. Employees #2 and #3 were hospitalized.










Example of an incident involving Methylene Chloride: Inspection Number 302940762

Employee #1 was stripping and re-glazing a bathtub in an apartment. Employee #1 was
using a stripper with methylene chloride. In the evening, the apartment owner found
Employee #1 dead in the bathroom. The investigation revealed inadequate respiratory
protection was in place and low ventilation in the work area. Employee #1 was overcome
by methylene chloride vapors. The medical examiner's report stated the cause of death to
be acute intoxication of methylene chloride.

Example of an incident involving Carbon Monoxide: Inspection Number 307226837

Employee #1 died from exposure to carbon monoxide.

Deaths from Lightning

Frequency of Occurrence

There were 27 incidents with deaths from lightning which accounted for 3.40% of the fatal

incidents classified as "other" and 0.28% of total incidents. The tallies for annual, monthly and

daily frequency of occurrence are listed in Table 4-53, Table 4-54 and Table 4-55 respectively.

The average number of incidents with deaths from lightning per year was 1.93 with 0=1.67

(86.46%). Three years, 1990, 1994, and 2000 had no recorded incidents. Two years, 1997 and

2002 had more incidents than CL+o and 1997 had more incidents than pi20. The annual

distribution of incidents of deaths from lightning, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in

Figure 4-27. Factors influencing the variations in annual frequencies of occurrence are not

readily apparent.

The average number of incidents with deaths from lightning per month was 2.25 with

0=3.39 (150.85%). There were no reports from October through April. Most incidents occurred

in June (22.22%), July (40.74%) and August (18.52%). All lightning related incidents occurred

from May through September. The monthly distribution of incidents of deaths from lightning,

"other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-28. The most apparent reasons for










monthly variation in frequencies of occurrence are a combination of weather phenomenon and

the increased number of hours people spend outdoors in warmer weather.

The average number of incidents with deaths from lightning per weekday was 4.60 with

0=1.02 (22. 17%). Friday had fewer incidents than CL-c. Wednesday had more incidents than

CL+o. All days were within the range of pd-20. The daily distribution of incidents of deaths from

lightning, "other" incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-29. The 27 incidents of

lightning deaths over 14 years may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on

annual or weekday variations.

Incident Location

Descriptions of incidents with deaths from lightning were reviewed for information about

the location of the decedent when lightning struck (see Table 4-56). In 11 (40.74%) incidents the

workers were on roofs. In 7 (25.93%) incidents the workers were on the ground. The location of

the workers was not specified in 4 (14.81%) incident reports. Because of the low number of

incidents, these do not necessarily represent statistically significant trends.

Discussion

Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 1991-

1998 and annual data for subsequent years. Incidents were categorized under "shock/burn from

lightning" (see Table 4-57). Differences in the data in Table 4-57 may be due to differences in

analysis or possibly differences in the data obtained from OSHA.

Examples of Incident Descriptions

The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from lightning.

Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person on a roof: Inspection Number

109003236










Employee #1 was laying tile on a roof. Because of an approaching storm, the crew began
to end the day's work. Before he could get off the roof, Employee #1 was struck and killed
by lightning.

Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person on the ground: Inspection

Number 301019709

Four employees had poured concrete sidewalks at a lake area. Minutes before the storm hit,
the foreman told the employees to seek shelter in a trailer about 500 feet from their work.
They employees did not think the storm would be severe and did not immediately go to the
trailer. The foreman came back to check on the employees and observed them leaving for
the trailer. Employee #1 was struck by lightning while walking to the trailer. The other
three employees felt tingles, but were not affected by the lightning. CPR was immediately
given to Employee #1. Employee #1 died from the lightning strike.

Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person in a house: Inspection

Number 108621947

Employee #1 was working on the ground, assisting other workers who were installing a
roof on a house. A thunderstorm approached the area and the employees moved inside the
covered garage. Employee #1 was standing in the center of the garage when lightning
struck the house. It came down the gable of the house, under the garage header, and struck
Employee #1. Employee #1 was electrocuted.

Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person at an unspecified location:

Inspection Number 127314870

Employee #1 was struck by lightning and killed instantly.

Additional Causes and Unknown Causes

Findings

Of the 795 fatality incidents classified as "other", 48 (6.05%) do not have causes which

reoccur with significant frequency. Twenty nine of the incidents classified as "other" were listed

as "unknown" (see Table 4-58). In 19 of these incidents the type of death was not specified in the

incident description. In ten of these incidents the cause of death was specifically noted as either

being unknown or not determined. Inferences might be made about the cause of death from the

description, but this would be conj ecture.










Examples of Incident Descriptions


The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths categorized as unknown.

Example of an incident with an unspecified cause of death: Inspection Number 106170566

Employee #1 was a laborer lying on a man-made cart. Employee #1 entered a new water
pipe approximately 36 in. in diameter by 350 ft long. Employee #1 was ahead of a cement
spray machine, which was spraying the interior of the pipeline. The machine was pulled
through the pipeline by an electrically-operated winch. The laborer pulled the cart they
were on as the spreader machine is pulled through. The laborer watched the operation and
called out to the winch operator when to stop and go. Employee #1 died. At this time, the
medical examiner has not determined the cause of death.

Example of an incident with an unspecified cause of death: Inspection Number 125665836

The employer was a small roofing contractor. Employee #1, a roofer, collapsed while
picking up his tools and preparing to go home. Employee #2 heard Employee #1 make a
noise and checked on Employee #1. Employee #2 observed Employee #1 falling to the
roof deck. Employee #2 called 911. The specific cause of death has not been determined at
this point.

Example of an incident with an unspecified cause of death: Inspection Number 1 10056652

Employee #1 was doing yard work. Employee #1 complained of light headaches and
dizziness. Employee #1 laid down about noon. Another employee checked on Employee
#1 about 2:30 PM. Employee #1 was transported to the hospital where he died.

Example of an incident with an unspecified cause of death: Inspection Number 1 15064693

Employee #1 went to the work trailer. Employee #1 and Employee #2 picked up supplies
for painting and walked approximately two blocks to their work site. They climbed several
flights of stairs. Employee #2 left Employee #1 to begin painting on one flight and went
up another flight to paint there. Employee #2 turned, looked down, and saw Employee #1
with his hard hat off, rubbing his forehead and face. Employee #1 then sat down, held onto
a railing, and laid his head on his arm. Employee #2 went to Employee #1 to help, but
Employee #1 was not coherent. Employee #2 called for help to move Employee #1
outside. Employee #2 requested medical aid. Medical aid arrived in approximately 2
minutes, about 4 minutes after the start of the incident. Employee #1 was taken to a
regional medical center where he was pronounced dead.

Example of an incident with an unspecified cause of death: Inspection Number 306202052

Employee was found face down on the ground.










Table 4-1. Frequency of All Incidents by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 686 7.15
1991 648 6.75
1992 571 5.95
1993 598 6.23
1994 626 6.52
1995 631 6.57
1996 637 6.64
1997 656 6.83
1998 672 7.00
1999 736 7.67
2000 671 6.99
2001 773 8.05
2002 766 7.98
2003 744 7.75
2004 185 1.93

Totals 9600 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 672.50 7.01
o 59.79 8.89
CL +/- a 732.29 612.71










Table 4-2. Frequency of All Incidents by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 673 7.01
Feb 629 6.55
Mar 742 7.73
Apr 760 7.92
May 776 8.08
Jun 859 8.95
Jul 1023 10.66
Aug 987 10.28
Sep 828 8.63
Oct 954 9.94
Nov 716 7.46
Dec 653 6.80


Total s



CL +/- a


9600
800.00
126.57
926.57


100.00
8.33
15.82
673.43


Table 4-3
Day
Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Sat


Frequency of All Incidents by Day
Frequency Percentage
222 2.31
1770 18.44
1830 19.06
1881 19.59
1731 18.03
1551 16.16
615 6.41


Totals 9600
CL (weekday)* 1,752.60
o 113.04
y +/- a 1,865.64
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
18.26
6.45
1,639.56










Table 4-4. Causes of Fatalities from Three Studies (Percentages)
OSHA Hinze et al. This report-Second data
Incident Typ
ype1985 -1989* 1994-1995* set (12/2000 -5/2004)
Falls 33 34 39
Struck By 22 18 23
Caught in/between 18 15 15
Electric Shock 17 20 13
Other 10 13 10
Totals 100 100 100
*(Hinze et al. 1998)


Table 4-5. Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 47 5.91
1991 61 7.67
1992 42 5.28
1993 60 7.55
1994 59 7.42
1995 55 6.92
1996 41 5.16
1997 57 7.17
1998 50 6.29
1999 58 7.30
2000 49 6.16
2001 49 6.16
2002 83 10.44
2003 72 9.06
2004 12 1.51

Totals 795 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 55.93 7.04
o 10.94 19.57
CL +/- a 66.87 44.98











--*-- All~ Other


12.00%

10.00%

8.00% -.

6.00% -*

4.00%

2.00%

0.00%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002


Figure 4-1. Percent of All and Other Incidents by Year

Table 4-6. Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 53 6.67
Feb 43 5.41
Mar 48 6.04
Apr 59 7.42
May 57 7.17
Jun 79 9.94
Jul 133 16.73
Aug 94 11.82
Sep 65 8.18
Oct 65 8.18
Nov 45 5.66
Dec 54 6.79


Totals 795 100.00
CL 66.25 8.33
o 24.46 36.92
CL +/- a 90.71 41.79













- +-- All ~- Other


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%'
12.00%


60.00% e
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 4-2. Percent of All and Other Incidents by Month



Table 4-7. Frequency of Incidents Classified as "Other" by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 26 3.27
Mon 132 16.60
Tue 148 18.62
Wed 155 19.50
Thu 146 18.36
Fri 135 16.98
Sat 53 6.67

Totals 795 100.00
CL (weekday)* 143.20 18.01
o 8.52 5.95
CL +/- a 151.72 134.68
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday













- All ~- Other


16.00%
14.00% .'-
12.00%/ p
10.00% 1 '/
82.00%
60.00%
4.00% 4
2.00%
0.00%

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat


Figure 4-3. Percent of All and Other Incidents by Day


Table 4-8. Annual Frequency of Other Incidents
Frequency of Frequency of Other
Year
All Incidents Incidents
1990 686
1991 648
1992 571
1993 598
1994 626
1995 631
1996 637
1997 656
1998 672
1999 736
2000 671
2001 773
2002 766
2003 744
2004 185
CL (1990-2003) 672.50 55.S


"Other" Percent of
Total Incidents
6.85
9.41
7.36
10.03
9.42
8.72
6.44
8.69
7.44
7.88
7.30
6.34
10.84
9.68
6.49
8.32


47
61
42
60
59
55
41
57
50
58
49
49
83
72
12
93






















































2.29
19.36
20.38
17.96
16.82
15.16
8.03
100.00


Table 4-9. Monthly Frequency of Other Incidents
MonthFrequency of All Frequency of
Incidents Other Incidents
Jan 673 53
Feb 629 43
Mar 742 48
Apr 760 59
May 776 57
Jun 859 79
Jul 1023 133
Aug 987 94


"Other" Percent of
Total Incidents
7.88
6.84
6.47
7.76
7.35
9.20
13.00
9.52
7.85
6.81
6.28
8.27
8.28


Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
C


828
954
716
653
800.00


65
65
45
54
66.25


Table 4-10. Daily Frequency of Other Incidents
Frequency of Frequency of "Other" Percent of
Dy All Incidents Other Incidents Total Incidents
Sun 222 26 11.71
Mon 1770 132 7.46
Tue 1830 148 8.09
Wed 1881 155 8.24
Thu 1731 146 8.43
Fri 1551 135 8.70
Sat 615 53 8.62
CL 1371.43 113.57 8.28


Table 4-11. CIRPC Daily Percentages of Incidents
CIRPC 2003 Percentage CIRPC 2004 Percentage
Day of All Events of All Events


CIRPC CL
(2003 2004)
1.87
20.11
19.17
19.24
17.69
14.41
7.51
100.00


Sun
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Sat
Total s


1.42
20.93
17.82
20.65
18.67
13.58
6.93
100.00











25. 00%


20. 00%
O Percent of Incidents All


15.00% CIRPC 2003 Percentage of All
Events
SCIRPC 2004 Percentag of All
10.00%Events

SCIRPC Average 2003 2004
5. 00%-


0. 00%
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
Day

Figure 4-4. Daily Distribution of All Fatal Construction Incidents


Table 4-12. Frequency

Classification

Natural Causes
Asphyxiation
Drowning
Burns
Explosion-Fire
Hyperthermia
Chemical Exposure
Lightning
Not Work Related
Murder
Drug related
Animal Bites
Helicopter Crash
Injury Complications
Mesothelioma
Suicide
Unknown
Total


of Occurrence of Categories of Incidents Classified "Other"
Percent of Percent of Total
Frequency..
Other Incidents Incidents
243 30.57 2.53
110 13.84 1.15
98 12.33 1.02
97 12.20 1.01
75 9.43 0.78
58 7.30 0.60
39 4.91 0.41
27 3.40 0.28
6 0.75 0.06
4 0.50 0.04
3 0.38 0.03
2 0.25 0.02
1 0.13 0.01
1 0.13 0.01
1 0.13 0.01
1 0.13 0.01
29 3.65 0.30
795 100.00 8.28










































Figure 4-5. Categories of Other Incidents










Table 4-13. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 13 5.35
1991 16 6.58
1992 10 4.12
1993 22 9.05
1994 19 7.82
1995 24 9.88
1996 11 4.53
1997 14 5.76
1998 13 5.35
1999 20 8.23
2000 18 7.41
2001 15 6.17
2002 23 9.47
2003 22 9.05
2004 3 1.23

Totals 243 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 17.14 7.05
o 4.47 26.07
CL +/- a 21.61 12.67






*-- All~ Other -- -A- -NaturalCauses


12.00%

10.00% .


4.00% ~~--

2.00%



0.00%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002


Figure 4-6. Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Year










Table 4-14. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 15 6.17
Feb 15 6.17
Mar 14 5.76
Apr 22 9.05
May 23 9.47
Jun 20 8.23
Jul 34 13.99
Aug 24 9.88
Sep 19 7.82
Oct 18 7.41
Nov 13 5.35
Dec 26 10.70


Total s



CL +/- a


243
20.25
5.78
26.03


100.00
8.33
28.52
14.47


~-Other


-- -A- -Natural Causes


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 4-7. Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Month










Table 4-15. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 4 1.65
Mon 42 17.28
Tue 48 19.75
Wed 50 20.58
Thu 45 18.52


17.70
4.53


100.00
18.77
6.59
42.59


Total s
CL (weekday)*


243
45.60


0 ~3.01
CL +/- a 48.61
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


- Al Other


-- -A- -Natural Causes


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat


Figure 4-8. Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Day










Table 4-16. Cause of Death Cited for Incidents Classified as "Natural Causes"
Cause of Death Frequency Percentage
Heart Problems 210 86.42
Cerebral aneurysm 5 2.06
Asthma 3 1.23
Legionella Pneumophila 3 1.23
Pulmonary Edema 3 1.23
Aneurism 2 0.82
Subarachnoid hemorrhage 2 0.82
Acute Renal Failure 1 0.41
Bacterial infection 1 0.41
Emphysema 1 0.41
Hemorrhagic pancreatitis 1 0.41
Leptospirosis 1 0.41
Lung Cancer 1 0.41
Pneumonia 1 0.41
Seizures 1 0.41
Sepsis 1 0.41
Stroke 1 0.41
Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage
secondary to chronic esophagitis 1 0.41
Not Specified 4 1.65
Totals 243 100.00










Table 4-17. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 7 6.36
1991 9 8.18
1992 3 2.73
1993 10 9.09
1994 9 8.18
1995 8 7.27
1996 6 5.45
1997 13 11.82
1998 9 8.18
1999 6 5.45
2000 2 1.82
2001 8 7.27
2002 11 10.00
2003 9 8.18
2004 0 0.00
Totals 110 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 7.86 7.14
o 2.82 35.95
y +/- a 10.68 5.03


r.


. ..
,.-~-- -~-- -c' --~'


- *-- All ~-Other


-- -A- -Asphyxiation


14.00%
12.00%
10.00%


4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


1990 1992


1994


1996


1998 2000 2002


Figure 4-9. Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Year












Table 4-18. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 7 6.36
Feb 7 6.36
Mar 8 7.27
Apr 5 4.55
May 2 1.82
Jun 11 10.00
Jul 21 19.09
Aug 12 10.91
Sep 14 12.73
Oct 10 9.09
Nov 6 5.45
Dec 7 6.36


Total s



CL +/- a


110
9.17
4.74
13.91


100.00
8.33
51.71
4.43


- +-- All ~- Other -- -r- -- Asphyxiation


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr


May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 4-10. Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Month












Table 4-19. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 6 5.45
Mon 20 18.18
Tue 23 20.91
Wed 20 18.18
Thu 17 15.45
Fri 18 16.36
Sat 6 5.45


Totals 110
CL (weekday)* 19.60
0 ~2.06
y +/- a 21.66
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
17.82
10.51
17.54


- + All Other A- Asphyxiatio~


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%


Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat


Figure 4-11. Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Day










Table 4-20. Frequency of Incidents of Asphyxiation
This rprt CIRPC -Asphyxiatio
Year ~(AssphyPxiation) /Inhalation o~f toxic vapor
1991-1998 average 8.4 6.5
1999 6 5
2000 2 5
2001 8 11
2002 11 14
2003 9 10


Table 4-21. Conditions Cited in Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation
Conditions Cited in Incident Reports Frequency* Percent of Asphyxiation Incidents
Confined Space 90 81.82
Manhole 40 36.36
Sewer Conduit 1 0.91
Inside Underground Pipe 1 0.91
Basement 2 1.82
Wearing Respirator 6 5.45
Welding/Torch 3 2.73
Ruptured gas line 1 0.91
*Note: Many incidents reports cited multiple conditions listed above.


Table 4-22. Chemical Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation
Chemical Agent Frequency Percent of Asphyxiation Incidents
Carbon Monoxide 17 15.45
Low 02 16 14.55
Nitrogen 11 10.00
Sewer Gas 7 6.36
Hydrogen Sulfide 6 5.45
Smoke 6 5.45


Paint/Primer
Argon
Gasoline
Methane
Methylene Chloride
SunflexTM polymer
Waterproofing
Total


3.64
2.73
1.82
1.82
0.91
0.91


69.09










Table 4-23. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 5 5.10
1991 6 6.12
1992 8 8.16
1993 9 9.18
1994 10 10.20
1995 10 10.20
1996 5 5.10
1997 6 6.12
1998 3 3.06
1999 8 8.16
2000 7 7.14
2001 3 3.06
2002 11 11.22
2003 5 5.10
2004 2 2.04

Totals 98 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 6.86 7.00
o 2.47 36.08
y +/- a 9.33 4.38






--*--- All ~ Other -- -A- -Drowning


12.00%

10.00%-.

8.00% -*-. .--: *





2.00%

0.00%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002


Figure 4-12. Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Year










Table 4-24. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Month
Month Frequency Percentage


--


Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


8.16
7.14
2.04
8.16
7.14
10.20
12.24
11.22
6.12
10.20
9.18
8.16


100.00
8.33
30.75
5.66


Total s



CL +/- a


98
8.17
2.51
10.68


~-Other


- -- Drowning


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%

4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 4-13. Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Month










Table 4-25. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 4 4.08
Mon 14 14.29
Tue 12 12.24
Wed 23 23.47
Thu 20 20.41


17.35
8.16

100.00
17.55
23.08
13.23


Totals 98
CL (weekday)* 17.20
o 3.97
y +/- a 21.17
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


- Al Other


- -- Drowning


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri


Figure 4-14. Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Day









Table 4-26. Frequency of Incidents of Drowning
Year This report CIRPC
1991-1998 average 7.2 5.5
1999 8 10
2000 7 5
2001 3 3
2002 11 8
2003 5 2


Table 4-27. Conditions Cited in Incidents Classified as Drowning
Condition or Nature of Incident Frequency Percent
Fell/slipped in to water 28 28.57
Equipment/Vehicle Related 26 26.53
Equipment slid/rolled in 12 (12.24%)
Drove equipment/vehicle in 11 (11.22%)
Backed equipment/vehicle in 3 (3.06%)
Flooded pipe/tunnel or excavation 9 9.18
Waded/jumped in for a swim & drowned 8 8.16
Boat/barge overturned 6 6.12
Diver accident 6 6.12
Swam after drifting boat 3 3.06
Jumped off barge/boat in fear 2 2.04
Knocked off bridge 1 1.02
Overcome by current 1 1.02
Sucked into water by plumbing system 1 1.02
Working in retention pond 1 1.02
Other 6 6.12
Totals 98 100.00










Table 4-28. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 8 8.25
1991 9 9.28
1992 7 7.22
1993 4 4.12
1994 5 5.15
1995 2 2.06
1996 5 5.15
1997 6 6.19
1998 11 11.34
1999 9 9.28
2000 8 8.25
2001 7 7.22
2002 8 8.25
2003 7 7.22
2004 1 1.03

Totals 97 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 6.86 7.07
o 2.23 32.54
CL +/- a 9.09 4.63






-- All~ Other -- -A- -Burns


12.00%

10.00%


6.00% ..-*


4.00%

2.00%

0.00%
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002


Figure 4-15. Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Year










Table 4-29. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 7 7.22
Feb 4 4.12
Mar 11 11.34
Apr 5 5.15
May 9 9.28
Jun 8 8.25
Jul 13 13.40
Aug 8 8.25
Sep 5 5.15
Oct 12 12.37
Nov 8 8.25
Dec 7 7.22


Total s



CL +/- a


97
8.08
2.69
10.77


100.00
8.33
33.29
5.39


- Al Other


- -- Burns


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00% ,


40.00% ~

2.00%


0.00%
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 4-16. Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Month










Table 4-30. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 4 4.12
Mon 11 11.34
Tue 28 28.87
Wed 17 17.53
Thu 14 14.43
Fri 12 12.37
Sat 11 11.34


Totals 97
CL (weekday)* 16.40
o 6.15
y +/- a 22.55
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
16.91
37.51
10.25


- Al Other -- -A- -Burns


35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri


Figure 4-17. Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Day










Table 4-31. Locations Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns
Location Frequency Percent
Outside 20 20.62
Factory/Plant 10 10.31
House 5 5.15
Apartment 3 3.09
Basement 3 3.09
Excavation 2 2.06
Hospital 2 2.06
Van/Truck 2 2.06
Bar 1 1.03
Boiler Room 1 1.03
Ditch 1 1.03
Electrical Closet 1 1.03
Gym 1 1.03
High Rise 1 1.03
Manhole 1 1.03
Office Building 1 1.03
Petroleum Storage Facility 1 1.03
Private Residence 1 1.03
Quarry 1 1.03
Roof 1 1.03
Single Family Residence 1 1.03
Swimming Pool 1 1.03
Underground Pipe 1 1.03
Underground Vault 1 1.03
Not Specified 34 35.05
Total 97 100.00










Table 4-32. Ignition Sources Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns
Ignition Source Frequency Percent
Electric Arc 34 35.05
Pilot Light 6 6.19
Welding 6 6.19
Electrical Switch/Light 4 4.12
Burning Trees/Plants 2 2.06
Heater 2 2.06
Tar Kettle 2 2.06
Boiler Ignition 1 1.03
Chemical Reaction 1 1.03
Cigarette 1 1.03
Cigarette Lighter 1 1.03
Drilling 1 1.03
Electric Fan 1 1.03
Explosion 1 1.03
Fire Pot/Pit 1 1.03
Flashback 1 1.03
Floor Buffer 1 1.03
Furnace 1 1.03
HVAC 1 1.03
Bulldozer Manifold 1 1.03
Metal Slag 1 1.03
Open Flame 1 1.03
Pneumatic Chipping Hammer 1 1.03
Portable Quartz Light 1 1.03
Propane Torch 1 1.03
Shop Vacuum 1 1.03
Torch 1 1.03
Vehicle Accident 1 1.03
Water Heater 1 1.03
Not Specified 19 19.59
Total 97 100.00










Table 4-33. Combustible Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns
Combustible Agent Frequency Percent
Gasoline 5 5.15
Paint/Primer 5 5.15
Hydraulic Fluid 4 4.12
Lacquer Thinner 4 4.12
Natural Gas 4 4.12
Clothing 3 3.09
Crude Oil 2 2.06
Diesel 2 2.06
Fuel Oil 2 2.06
Kerosene 2 2.06
Oil 2 2.06
Propane 2 2.06
Solvent 2 2.06
Acetone 1 1.03
Asphalt 1 1.03
Butane 1 1.03
Cobalt Solution 1 1.03
Contact Adhesive 1 1.03
Duct Liner Adhesive 1 1.03
Ethylene Glycol 1 1.03
Floor Refinishing Material 1 1.03
Hardwood Floor Sealer 1 1.03
Insulating Oil 1 1.03
Lacquer 1 1.03
Lacquer Finish 1 1.03
Methane 1 1.03
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 1 1.03
Naphtha 1 1.03
Petroleum Products 1 1.03
Roofing Cement 1 1.03
Thermoplastic 1 1.03
Transformer Oil 1 1.03
Varsol 1 1.03
White Lacquer Undercoating 1 1.03
Not Specified 10 10.31










Table 4-34. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Year
Year Frequency Percentage


Ii ~;
*.
= ~~---*---
I .i

i-----r


1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


13.33
12.00
5.33
8.00
8.00
6.67
5.33
5.33
4.00
9.33
2.67
2.67
5.33
9.33
2.67


100.00
6.95
44.79
2.88


Total s
CL (1990-2003)
0
CL +/- a


75
5.21
2.34
7.55


- e-- All~ Other


- -- Explosion-Fire


14.00%
12.00%
10.00%

8 00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


1990


1992


1994


1996


1998


2000


2002


Figure 4-18. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Year












Table 4-35. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Month


Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


Total s



y +/- a


Frequency
5
4
7
6
7
8
11
10
5
6
4
2


75
6.25
2.45
8.70


Percentage
6.67
5.33
9.33
8.00
9.33
10.67
14.67
13.33
6.67
8.00
5.33
2.67


100.00
8.33
39.26
3.80


- + All ~-Other A- Explosion-Fire


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 4-19. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Month












Table 4-36. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 2 2.67
Mon 9 12.00
Tue 15 20.00
Wed 16 21.33
Thu 11 14.67
Fri 19 25.33
Sat 3 4.00


Totals 75
CL (weekday)* 14.00
0 ~3.58
CL +/- a 17.58
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
18.67
25.56
10.42


~-Other


- -- Explosion-Fire


30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri

Figure 4-20. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Day










Table 4-37. Frequency of Incidents of Explosion-Fire
This report (combined CIRPC -
Year
Explosion-Fire and Burns) fire/explosion/scalding
1991-1998 average 11.25 3.1
1999 16 17
2000 10 14
2001 9 12
2002 12 11
2003 14 14


Table 4-3 8. Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire
Location of Incident Frequency Percent
Large Tank 13 17.33
Factory/Plant 6 8.00
Outside 6 8.00
Excavation 2 2.67
Apartment 1 1.33
Attic 1 1.33
Basement 1 1.33
Building 1 1.33
Camper Trailer 1 1.33
Ditch 1 1.33
House 1 1.33
Manhole 1 1.33
Oil Well 1 1.33
Parking Garage 1 1.33
Refinery 1 1.33
Roof 1 1.33
Ship 1 1.33
Shipping Container 1 1.33
Utility Vault 1 1.33
Van/Truck 1 1.33
Warehouse 1 1.33
Not Specified 31 41.33
Total 75 100.00










Table 4-39. Source of Ignition Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire
Source of Ignition Frequency Percent
Welding/Torch 28 37.33
Ruptured Gas Line 4 5.33
Electrical Switch 3 4.00
Band Saw 2 2.67
Circular Saw 2 2.67
Grinder 2 2.67
Hammer 2 2.67
Match 2 2.67
Chemical Reaction 1 1.33
Cigarette 1 1.33
Cut-off Saw 1 1.33
Drill 1 1.33
Electric Arc 1 1.33
Engine 1 1.33
Pilot Light 1 1.33
Shop Vacuum 1 1.33
Unknown 3 4.00
Not Specified 19 25.33
Totals 75 100.00










Table 4-40. Explosive or Combustible Agent Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire
Explosive or Combustible Agent Frequency Percent
Natural Gas 10 13.33
Gasoline 5 6.67
Propane 5 6.67
Acetylene 4 5.33
Crude Oil 4 5.33
Paint/Primer 3 4.00
Explosives 2 2.67
Gas 2 2.67
Aluminum 1 1.33
Ammonia 1 1.33
Ammonium Perchlorate 1 1.33
Benzoyl Peroxide 1 1.33
Boiler 1 1.33
Brine Tank 1 1.33
Butadiene 1 1.33
Detonator Powder 1 1.33
Diesel fuel 1 1.33
Dust 1 1.33
Fuel 1 1.33
Gilsonite 1 1.33
Insulating Foam 1 1.33
Liquid Nails 1 1.33
Methane 1 1.33
Motor Oil 1 1.33
Olefins 1 1.33
Oxygen 1 1.33
Pipe 1 1.33
Reactor Vessel 1 1.33
Sodium Azide 1 1.33
Tar Paper 1 1.33
Terephthalic acid 1 1.33
Waterproofing 1 1.33
White Liquor 1 1.33
Not Specified 15 20.00
Total 75 100.00










Table 4-41. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Year
Year Frequency Percentage
1990 0 0.00
1991 5 8.62
1992 2 3.45
1993 5 8.62
1994 4 6.90
1995 2 3.45
1996 2 3.45
1997 3 5.17
1998 6 10.34
1999 4 6.90
2000 4 6.90
2001 4 6.90
2002 8 13.79
2003 9 15.52
2004 0 0.00

Totals 58 100.00
CL (1990-2003) 4.14 7.14
o 2.33 56.13
y +/- a 6.47 1.82


I..


;'~ :. .....4.*


- +-- All ~-Other


-- -A- -Hyperthermia


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%


4.00%
2.00%


1990


1992


1994


1996


1998


2000


2002


Figure 4-21. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Year













Table 4-42. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Month
Month Frequency Percentage


.,








Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


0.00
0.00
0.00
5.17
8.62
20.69
36.21
24.14
5.17
0.00
0.00
0.00


100.00
8.33
139.26
-1.90


Total s



CL +/- a


58
4.83
6.73
11.56


--+-- Al Other


- --r- --Hyperthermia


40.00%

35.00%
30.00%

25.00%
20.00%






0.00%


Figure 4-22. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Month












Table 4-43. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 0 0.00
Mon 13 22.41
Tue 10 17.24
Wed 10 17.24
Thu 12 20.69
Fri 10 17.24
Sat 3 5.17


Totals 58
CL (weekday)* 11.00
0 ~1.26
CL +/- a 12.26
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
18.97
11.50
9.74


~-Other


-- -A- -Hyperthermia


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%


Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

Figure 4-23. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Day









Table 4-44. Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia
Type of Work/Trade Frequency Percent
Site Work 13 22.41
Concrete Work 8 13.79
Laborer 8 13.79
Roofing 7 12.07
Laying Pipe 4 6.90
Carpenter 2 3.45
Bridge Work 1 1.72
Electrician 1 1.72
Highway Construction 1 1.72
Installing Insulation 1 1.72
Masonry 1 1.72
Sealing Parking Lot 1 1.72
Welding 1 1.72
Not Specified 9 15.52
Totals 58 100.00


Table 4-45. Relevant Conditions or Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia
Condition or Location of Incident Frequency Percent
Ground Level 27 46.55
On a Rooftop 9 15.52
In an Attic 1 1.72
On a Bridge 1 1.72
On Scaffolding 115' high 1 1.72
Underground 1 1.72
Not Specified 18 31.03
Totals 58 100.00


Table 4-46. Frequency of Incidents of Hyperthermia
This report CIRPC Hyperthermia
Year
(Hyperthermia) and Hypothermia
1991-1998 average 3.63 2.8
1999 4 6
2000 4 4
2001 4 5
2002 8 8
2003 9 8










Table 4-47. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Year
Year Frequency Percentage


.. *
.---r


.
k -- --


1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


0.00
7.69
15.38
0.00
10.26
5.13
5.13
7.69
0.00
0.00
10.26
10.26
12.82
7.69
7.69


100.00
6.59
74.54
0.65


Total s
CL (1990-2003)
0
CL +/- a


39
2.57
1.92
4.49


- -- All ~-Other


- -- Chemical Exposure


18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10 0%


4.00%
2.00%
0.00%


1990


1992


1994


1996


1998


2000


2002


Figure 4-24. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Year










Table 4-48. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Month
Month Frequency Percentage
Jan 7 17.95
Feb 4 10.26
Mar 4 10.26
Apr 6 15.38
May 2 5.13
Jun 0 0.00
Jul 1 2.56
Aug 2 5.13
Sep 4 10.26
Oct 4 10.26
Nov 2 5.13
Dec 3 7.69


Total s



CL +/- a


39
3.25
1.92
5.17


100.00
8.33
59.09
1.33


--+-- Al Other


- --A- -- Chemical Exposure


20.00%
18.00%
16.00% L
14.00%
12.00%
10.00% --* ----
8.00% ..
6.00%
4.00%r
2.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 4-25. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Month










Table 4-49. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 2 5.13
Mon 10 25.64
Tue 4 10.26
Wed 5 12.82
Thu 11 28.21
Fri 3 7.69
Sat 4 10.26


Totals 39
CL (weekday)* 6.60
o 3.26
CL +/- a 9.86
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


100.00
16.92
49.42
3.34


~-Other


- --r- -- Chemical Exposure


30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

5.00%


Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri


Figure 4-26. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Day










Table 4-50. Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure
Type of Work/Trade Frequency Percent
Pipe Installation/Repair 12 30.77
Boiler Repair 3 7.69
Refinishing Bathtub 3 7.69
Sewer Repair 3 7.69
Laborer 2 5.13
Asphalt Application 1 2.56
Cleaning Electrical Components 1 2.56
Demolition 1 2.56
Electrician 1 2.56
Floor Tile Removal 1 2.56
HVAC Repair 1 2.56
Pump Motor Replacement 1 2.56
Spray-finishing 1 2.56
Stripping Walls 1 2.56
Traffic Accident 1 2.56
Welding/Torch 1 2.56
Not Specified 5 12.82
Total 39 100.00


Table 4-51. Location Cited for Incidents Classified
Location Frequency Percent
Factory/Plant 13 33.33
Manhole 4 10.26
Apartment 2 5.13
Building 2 5.13
Bathroom 1 2.56
Bridge Construction 1 2.56
Chemistry Lab 1 2.56
Dairy 1 2.56
Gas Station 1 2.56
Hospital 1 2.56
Lift Station 1 2.56
Sewer 1 2.56
Van 1 2.56
Not Specified 9 23.08
Total 39 100.00


as Chemical Exposure










Table 4-52. Chemical Agents Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure
Chemical Frequency Percent
Hydrogen Sulfide 6 15.38
Steam 6 15.38
Hot Water 5 12.82
Methylene Chloride 3 7.69
Carbon Monoxide 2 5.13
Acetone cyanohydrin 1 2.56
Ammonia 1 2.56
Black Liquor 1 2.56
Cadmium and Nickel 1 2.56
Chromium 1 2.56
Freon 113 1 2.56
Freon-11 1 2.56
Gasoline 1 2.56
Hot Ash 1 2.56
Hot Asphalt 1 2.56
Hot Liquid 1 2.56
Hydrofluoric acid 1 2.56
Landfill gas 1 2.56
Mastic Remover 1 2.56
Sour Gas 1 2.56
Stripper 1 2.56
Thallium 1 2.56
Totals 39 100.00






















































: r~a '


Table 4-53. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Year


Year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

Total s
CL (1990-2003)

CL +/- a


Frequency
0
1
1
3
0
1
2
6
2
1
0
3
4
3
0

27
1.93
1.67
3.60


Percentage
0.00
3.70
3.70
11.11
0.00
3.70
7.41
22.22
7.41
3.70
0.00
11.11
14.81
11.11
0.00

100.00
7.14
86.46
0.26


- e-- All


~-Other


-- -A- -Lightning


25.00%

20.00%

15.00%




10.00%


1990


1992


1994


1996


1998


2000


2002


Figure 4-27. Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Year













Table 4-54. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Month
Month Frequency Percentage


:
I.'


~-~Y------
..i


Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.70
22.22
40.74
18.52
14.81
0.00
0.00
0.00


100.00
8.33
150.85
-1.14


Total s



CL +/- a


27
2.25
3.39
5.64


--+-- Al Other


-- -r- -- Lightning


45.00%
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Figure 4-28. Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Month










Table 4-55. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Day
Day Frequency Percentage
Sun 3 11.11
Mon 4 14.81
Tue 5 18.52
Wed 6 22.22
Thu 5 18.52
Fri 3 11.11
Sat 1 3.70


Total s
CL (weekday)*


27 100.00
4.60 17.04


0 ~1.02
CL +/- a 5.62
*Excludes Saturday and Sunday


22.17
3.58


~-Other


-- -A- -Lightning


25.00%


20.00%


15.00%


10.00%


5.00%


0.00%


Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat


Figure 4-29. Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Day









































Table 4-58. Minor Categories


Table 4-56. Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Lightning
Location Frequency Percentage


40.74
25.93
14.81
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
3.70
100


On Roof
On ground
Not Specified
3rd story plumbing install
In House
On Catwalk
On front end loader
Operating asphalt roller
Total s


Table 4-57 Frequency of Fatal Incidents due to Lightning
This report CIRPC Shock/burn
Year
(Lightning) from lightning
1991-1998 average 2 ;
1999 1 (
2000 0
2001 3
2002 4
2003 3


Percent of
Other Incidents
0.75
0.50
0.38
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
3.65
6.05


Percent of Total
Incidents
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.30
0.49


Classification


Frequency


Not Work Related
Murder
Drug related
Animal Bites
Helicopter Crash
Injury Complications
Mesothelioma
Suicide
Unknown
Total









CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS

Incidents Classified as Other

Each of the eight subcategories of "other" incidents, with the exception of incidents of

Chemical Exposure, had a maximum frequency of occurrence in July. Obvious explanations for

peaks in July for deaths from drowning, lightning and hyperthermia are that in warmer weather

more people are in or around water, there is more lightning activity, and there are higher

temperatures. There is no obvious explanation for why there are peaks in July for deaths from

natural causes, asphyxiation, burns, or explosion-fires.

The variations in the number of incidents through the week may be explained with more

information about a typical work week. However, other than the workforce tiring at the end of a

work week, there is no obvious reason as to why the percentage of "other" incidents with respect

to all incidents increases toward the end of the week.

The low number of total incidents on Sundays and Saturdays can be accounted for as these

are not normal work days and are typically used for work as make up days or when a job is

undergoing schedule acceleration. This does not explain why on Sunday the percentage of

"other" incidents with respect to all incidents is about 40% higher than average. However, given

that there are only 26 "other" incidents on Sunday over 14 years, there may not be a sufficient

number of incidents for conclusive statistical analysis.

Incidents Classified as Natural Causes

Deaths from natural causes accounted for 30.57% of "other" incidents, the largest

percentage of any subcategory. The cited cause of over 86% of these incidents was heart related

problems. While "natural causes" includes a variety of causes of death, deaths from heart related

problems may tend to be more sudden with less preceding symptoms than other ailments.









Fatalities investigated by OSHA tend to be sudden events occurring on job sites rather than

deaths that are caused by long term exposure such as silicosis, asbestosis or cancer. Review of

these types of events was beyond the scope of this report.

Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation

Over 80% of the deaths from asphyxiation were in confined spaces. This indicates much

higher risk of this type of incident for workers in a confined space than in other environments.

Chemical agents were mentioned in 76 of the 1 10 incidents. Nine of the twelve chemical agents

cited were present in less than 10% of incidents. The most frequently cited chemical agent was

CO (15.45%). This indicates no noticeable trends in the chemical agents.

Incidents Classified as Drowning

An increased number of drowning incidents occur in the warmer months. Incidents also

occur in December, January and February. The reasons for the higher number of drowning

incidents on Wednesday and Thursday are not readily obvious.

One narrative description indicated the use of PPE. This indicates that most drowning

victims were not observing proper safety procedures for working near a body of water.

Difficulties in comparative analysis of studies including drowning fatalities come from

differences in causal categorization. Some studies do not include fatalities that are not considered

job related, such as the eight incidents in this report in which workers waded or jumped in water

and drowned. These events are relevant if they occurred on a j ob site as they may indicate the

need for fencing off bodies of water on j ob sites.

Incidents Classified as Burns

A peak in the frequency of burn incidents occurred on Tuesday (28.87%). There is no

readily apparent reason for this peak. There are no readily apparent reasons for monthly peaks in

incident frequency in Marcy, July and October. There were no noticeable trends in the location









of burn incidents. The source of ignition sited in 34 (3 5.05%) incidents was an electric arc

indicating an increased risk of this type of incident. Twenty two of the 29 cited sources of

ignition were noted in one incident each, and three sources were each cited twice indicating no

maj or reoccurring sources other than electric arcs. There were 34 different combustible items

cited, with no distinct trends present.

Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire

Twenty-one (28%) incidents classified explosion-fire occurred in July and August. There

is no readily obvious explanation for over one-quarter of the incidents occurring in these two

months. While "other" incidents peak on Wednesday, incidents of explosion-fire peak on Friday.

The locations noted in narrative descriptions show no maj or trends, however over 40% of

the incident reports did not include information on the location of the incident. Complete data on

the work environment would aid in future analysis and prevention efforts.

Sixteen different sources of ignition were cited with eight noted once and five noted twice

suggesting that these may have been random accidents.

The relatively high percentage of explosion or fire incidents caused by welding and cutting

activities indicates that further review of safety procedures is warranted. However, these

incidents comprise 0.29% of all incidents and 3.52% of "other" incidents and may not receive

sufficient attention.

Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia

Over 81% of incidents of hyperthermia occurred in June (20.69%), July (36.21%) and

August (24.14%). This corresponds with higher environmental temperatures.

The type of work or trade cited most frequently in incident reports was related to site work

in 22.41% of the incidents. This was followed by concrete work and general labor work at

13.79% each. In 15.52% of the incidents the type of work was not specified in the narrative









description. Site work and general laborer tend to be low skilled jobs. Prevention efforts geared

to low skilled workers may help prevent these incidents.

The location was not specified in 31.03% of narrative descriptions. More complete data

concerning working locations and environmental conditions could help lead to more complete

incident analysis.

Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure

With only 39 incidents over 14 years, there is insufficient data to assess statistical

significance of variations in annual, monthly, and daily frequencies of events.

In the 39 incidents, there were 16 different types of work performed. Pipe

installation/repair accounted for 12 (30.77%) incidents. While this is a high percentage of this

type of incident, it does not represent a significant number of incidents.

There were 23 different chemicals noted in the 39 incident descriptions. Six (15.3 8%)

incidents involved hydrogen sulfide and six involved steam. Five (12.82%) incidents involved

hot water. Categorization of incidents with exposure to hydrogen sulfide or other toxic chemicals

to either "asphyxiation" or "burns" may be appropriate due to the limited number of incidents of

chemical exposure. Analysis of the data produced no maj or trends in the type of chemicals,

locations or type of work performed.

Incidents Classified as Lightning

The monthly frequency of occurrence showed no reports from October through April.

Most incidents occurred in June (22.22%), July (40.74%) and August (18.52%) indicating a

higher risk of these incidents in these months. The 27 incidents of lightning deaths over 14 years

may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual or weekday variations.

Locations given in incident narrative descriptions were not always specific, but included

sufficient information to conclude that in 11 (40.74%) incidents the decedents were on a roof,









and in seven (25.93%) incidents the decedents were on the ground. Because of the low number

of incidents, these do not necessarily represent statistically significant trends.









CHAPTER 6
RECOMMENDATIONS

Incidents Classified as Other

The annual percentage of "other" incidents with respect to the annual number of total

incidents ranged from 6.34% in 2001to 10.84% in 2002. Variations in the annual number of

incidents and/or incident types may be influenced by a wide range of factors including changes

in the number of hours worked, changes in construction methods, changes in safety regulations,

changes in reporting at either the state or federal levels, and changes in workforce demographics.

Further research into these factors is warranted so when regulatory changes are made there are

established baselines to compare with future data and gauge the effectiveness of the changes.

Monthly variations in incident rates are influenced by the same factors as annual rates as

well as factors such as weather, holidays and common vacation periods. Further research into

these factors is warranted to determine the causes of monthly variations. There is a notable

increase in both the frequency of "other" incidents and in the percentage of "other" incidents in

July. Each of the eight subcategories of "other" incidents, with the exception of incidents of

Chemical Exposure, had a maximum frequency of occurrence in July. Further research is

warranted to determine why there are peaks in July for deaths from natural causes, asphyxiation,

burns, and explosion-fires.

Similarly, studies of incidents and their causes should take in to account circumstances

impacting specific weekdays including typical workday activities, meetings, paydays, the effects

of weekends, holidays, and other societal and cultural events such as sporting events.

Incidents Classified as Natural Causes

The cited cause of over 86% of the deaths from natural causes was heart related problems.

Many studies of worker fatalities, including OSHA data analysis by CIRPC, have not included









deaths due to natural causes because they were not considered j ob related. Further research

concerning construction worker deaths from natural causes may indicate whether construction

workers, or a demographic within that group, are at higher risk of this type of death than other

workers. If construction workers are at higher risk, this information should influence changes in

safety protocols within the industry.

Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation

Prevention of deaths from asphyxiation may require more accountability in safety

programs and better education programs. Ninety (81.82%) of the 110 asphyxiation incident

reports either specifically mentioned that the event occurred in a confined space or it could be

determined from the narrative description that the event occurred in a confined space. Because

many incidents involved workers not following safety procedures for working in confined

spaces, prevention may be achieved by requiring more accountability for workers and

supervisors to ensure safe practices and proper PPE are employed in confined spaces. Educating

workers on the hazards of and proper procedures for working in confined spaces, especially

underground vaults, could be the best preventative measure for many of the incidents involving

asphyxiation.

There are difficulties in determining the specific cause of death in many incidents. In some

cases, the individuals died either from exposure to toxic chemicals, lack or oxygen, or a

combination of factors. Further review of these types of accidents may lead to better

classification of incidents with multiple causes, as has been suggested in other studies. With

more thorough investigations of these types of incidents and better data collection more thorough

accident prevention programs may be devised.









Incidents Classified as Drowning

The number of drowning deaths may be higher than actually reported. These incidents may

be categorized as having different root causes. The operator of a vehicle who drowns may be

considered to be "caught in" the vehicle or the vehicle may have been "struck by" another to

push the vehicle and the operator into water. While these categorizations may be correct in terms

of identifying root causes, it diminishes the relative dangers of working in or around water.

Classification of fatalities should take into account all relevant factors so job site risks can be

properly ascertained.

In the 98 incidents classified as drowning, one narrative description included that the

decedent was wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). Complete data on the use of PPE

would aid in communicating the nature of an incident including determining whether the

decedent followed safety procedures or not. These data could be used to review the effectiveness

of safety regulations. Additional research should include surveys on the use of life vests and

other PPE safety gear as well as research studies on the effectiveness of safety training on the

hazards of working in or near water. In order to determine the relative risk of drowning for

construction workers, further studies of drowning incidents should include the number of hours

of work performed in or around bodies of water.

Incidents Classified as Burns

The source of ignition sited in 3 5.05% of burn incidents was an electric arc. Those

incidents started by electrical arcs may have been prevented with proper precautions. Other

incidents that may have been preventable include those started by pilot lights and torches. Details

about whether the incident could have been prevented should be specifically stated in each

incident report.









Almost 20% of the incident reports did not include information specifying a source of

ignition. This information should be included in a complete report. Further studies on the nature

of burn incidents should include information on the exposure to risk and prevention methods

employed.

Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire

The ignition source of the explosion or fire cited most frequently, in 28 (37.33%) incidents,

involved welding and/or cutting with a torch. Further study should include a review of the

guidelines for working on or in storage tanks to determine if these incidents are preventable.

Additional safety training for personnel using torches may be warranted.

The ignition source was not cited in 25% of the incident reports. Over 40% of the incident

reports did not include information on the location of the incident. Complete data concerning the

nature of the incidents, including the location, is necessary to review the effectiveness of safety

procedures.

Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia

Deaths from hyperthermia occurred exclusively between April and September suggesting

that precautions should be stressed in these months. The location was not specified in 31.03% of

narrative descriptions. More complete data concerning working locations and environmental

conditions could help lead to more complete incident analysis. Deaths due to environmental heat

exposure are preventable but require knowledge and action by both employers and employees.

Development of education programs to promote proper heat management practices should be

stressed throughout the industry.

Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure

Difficulty in determining the cause of death and the limited number of cases have led

others to include these incidents in other categories. Complete data and revised classification










systems will help comparative analysis. In this study, analysis of the data produced no maj or

trends in the type of chemicals, location or type of work performed, suggesting that these events

border on being random accidents.

Incidents Classified as Lightning

The number of lightning incidents was not statistically significant. This may be due to

general knowledge of the dangers of lightning strikes and the willingness of workers to seek

shelter during lightning activity. OSHA should formally implement safety procedures for outside

work such as the "30/30" rule. The 30/30 rule states that if there is less than 30 seconds between

a visible lightning flash and the report of thunder, one should seek shelter for at least 30 minutes.

Incidents Classified as Unknown

Some of the incidents with causes listed as "unknown" were due to limitations on medical

science to determine the cause of death. Other incident reports did not contain complete

information on the cause of death. Complete and accurate data are necessary for substantive

analysis to lead to accident prevention.

Incident Reporting

Difficulties in comparing studies arise not only from the different sources of data but from

the variety of categories used. There has not been a specific list of categories consistently used to

report the frequency of incidents across government agencies or in academic analysis.

Additionally, while some agencies report all incidents related to a job site, some studies ignore

incidents that they do not consider j ob related. While deaths from natural causes may not appear

to be related to typical fatal construction accidents, there are potentially significant industrial

hygiene factors that influence deaths from natural causes and these factors should be considered

in comprehensive job site safety plans. Standardization of categories in both government and

academic analysis will aid in comparative analysis and tracking trends. Adding categories of









deaths due to Natural Causes; Asphyxiation/Chemical Exposure; Explosion/Fire/Burns;

Drowning; Hyperthermia and Lightning would reduce the category of "other" incidents from 795

incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data studied, to 48 incidents, 0.49% of total incidents.

Combining Asphyxiation and Chemical Exposure reduces the difficulty in distinguishing the root

cause of incidents with multiple causes. Combining Explosion-Fires and Burns includes similar

types of events. Systems that only include "root causes" may not yield many deaths from

drowning as other events often lead up to the drowning. Classification systems should include

both root causes and eventual causes which are related so prevention efforts can address root

causes of incidents as well as eventual causes of death.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Adekoya, N. and Nolte, K. (2005) "Struck-by-Lightning Deaths in the United States." Journal of
Environmental Health, 67(9), 45-50

Adelakun, A., Schwartz, E. and Blais, L. (1999) "Occupational Heat Exposure." Applied
Occupational andEnvironmental Hygiene, 14, 153-154

Beavers, J., Moore, J., Rinehart, R., and Schriver, W. (2006) "Crane-Related Fatalities in the
Construction Industry." Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(9),
901-910

Bondy, J., Lipscomb, H., Guarini, K. and Glaxner, J. (2005) "Methods for Using Narrative Text
from Injury Reports to Identify Factors Contributing to Construction Injury." American
Journal oflndustrial M~edicine, 48, 373-380

Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Charts, 1992-2005

Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries 1992-2002 Revised Annual
Data.
Bureau of Labor Statistics press release "National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries In
2005." (August 5, 2007)

Chen, G., Johnston, J., Alterman, T. Burnett, C., Steenland, K., Stern, F., and Halperin, W.
(2000) "Expanded Analysis of Injury Mortality Among Unionized Construction
Workers." American Journal oflIndustrial M~edicine, 3 7, 3 64-3 73

Construction Industry Research and Policy Center, College of Business, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville ConstructionFatalityReports.htm> (March 24, 2008)

Curran, E. B., Holle, R. L. and Lopez, R. E. (2000) "Lightning Casualties and Damages in the
United States from 1959 to 1994." Journal of Climate, 13(19), 3448-3464

Derr, J., Forst, L., Chen, H., and Conroy, L. (2001) "Fatal Falls in the US Construction Industry
1990 to 1999." Journal of Occupational and Environmental M\~edicine, 43(10), 853 -860

Fabrega, V. and Starkey, S. (2001) "Fatal Occupational Injuries among Hispanic Construction
Workers of Texas, 1997 to 1999." Human andEcological Risk Assessment, 7(7), 1869-
1883

Fuller, D. and Suruda, A. (2000) "Occupationally Related Hydrogen Sulfide Deaths in the
United States From 1984 to 1994." Journal of Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, 42(9), 939-942









Hinze, J. and Bren, D. (1996) "Analysis of Fatalities and Injuries Due to Powerline Contacts."
Journal of Construction Engmneering and Management, 122(2), 177-182

Hinze, J., Huang, X, and Terry, L. (2005) "The Nature of Stuck-by Accidents." Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management, 13 1(2), 262-268

Hinze, J., Pedersen, C. and Fredley, J. (1998) "Identifying Root Causes of Construction
Injuries." Journal of Construction Engmneering and Management, 124(1), 67-7 1

Hinze, J., Pedersen, C. and Fredley, J. (1996) "Revised Coding System for Construction
Fatalities and Injuries." Proceeding of The First International Conference of CIB
Working Commission W99, Lisbon, Portugal, September 4-7, 1996: Implementation of
Safety and Health on Construction Sites, Ed. Luis M. Alves Dias and Richard J. Coble,
67-75

Huang, X., and Hinze, J. (2003) "Analysis of Construction Worker Fall Accidents." Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management, 129(3), 262-271

Jackson, S. and Loomis, D. (2002) "Fatal Occupational Injuries in the North Carolina
Construction Industry, 1978-1994." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene,
17(1), 27-33

Leigh, J. and Miller, T. (1998) "Job-Related Diseases and Occupations Within a Large Workers'
Compensation Data Set." American Journal oflIndustrial M~edicine, 3 3, 1 97-21 1

McCann, M., Hunting, K., Murawski, J., Chowdhury, R. and Welch, L. (2003) "Causes of
Electrical Deaths and Injuries Among Construction Workers." American Journal of
Industrial M~edicine, 43, 398-406

McKinnon, S. H. and Utley, R. L. (2005) "Heat Stress." Professional Safety, 50(4), 41-47

Ore, T. and Stout, N. (1997) "Risk Differences in Fatal Occupational Injuries Among
Construction Laborers in the United States, 1 980- 1992." Journal of Occupational and
Environmental M~edicine, 39(9), 832-843

OSHA Directive Number CPL 02-00-137: Fatality/Catastrophe Investigation Procedures,
Effective date: 4/14/2005 137.pdf> (March 24, 2008)

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions. (March 24,
2008)

OSHA IMIS Accident Investigation Search. /accidentsearch.html> (March 24, 2008)

OSHA Mission Statement. (March 24, 2008)










Quinney, B., McGwin, Jr., G., Cross, J. Valent, F., Taylor, A. and Rue, L. (2002) "Thermal
Burn Fatalities in the Workplace, United States, 1992 to 1999." Journal of Burn Care
and Rehabilitation, 23 (5), 3 05-3 10

Schriver, W., Cressler II, T., Zigulis, G. (2001) "An Analysis of Fatal Events in the Construction
Industry 1999"
(March 24, 2008)

Schriver, W., Cressler II, T., and Zigulis, G. (2002) "An Analysis of Fatal Events In The
Construction Industry 2000" /2000FatalityReport.pdf> (March 25, 2008)

Schriver, W. and Cressler II, T. (2003) "An Analysis of Fatal Events In The Construction
Industry 2001"
(March 25, 2008)

Schriver, W. and Cressler II, T. (2004) "An Analysis of Fatal Events In The Construction
Industry 2002" (March 25, 2008)

Schriver, W. and Cressler II, T. (2005) "An Analysis of Fatal Events In The Construction
Industry 2003" (March 25, 2008)

Schriver, W.,Cressler II, T., and Beavers, J. (2006) "An Analysis of Fatal Events In The
Construction Industry 2004" /2000FatalityReport.pdf> (March 25, 2008)

Suruda, A., Phillips, P., Lillquist, D, and Sesek, R. (2003) "Fatal Injuries to Teenage
Construction Workers in the US." American Journal ofhidustrial medicine, 44, 510-514

Wan, M. (2004) "Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments: Florida Workers Need Help."
Florida Public Health Review, 1, 53-55

Wang, E., Dement, J, and Lipscomb, H. (1999) "Mortality Among North Carolina Construction
Workers, 1988-1994." Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14, 45-5 8

Watanabe, T. and Masahiko, M (1998) "Asphyxia Due to Oxygen Deficiency by Gaseous
Substances." Forensic Science International, 96, 47-59









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Paul Ballowe was bomn in Jacksonville, FL, in July 1966. He graduated from St. Johns

Country Day School in Orange Park in 1984. He received an AA from Santa Fe Community

College in Gainesville, FL, in 1990. He earned a BS in materials science and engineering with a

certificate in sales/interface engineering in 1994 at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Paul worked in information technology before returning to school to begin work on an MSBC

in 2003. As a graduate student, Paul has worked as a graduate assistant, served as an

officer for the student chapter of the American Society of Safety Engineers, and was

inducted into the Epsilon chapter of Sigma Lambda Chi Intemnational Construction Honor

Society. Paul and Rebecca Richmond were married in December 2006. They have one son,

Thomas, who was bomn in March 2008.





PAGE 1

FATAL CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS CATEGORIZED AS OTHER By PAUL L. BALLOWE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T HE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

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2008 Paul L. Ballowe 2

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To my wife, Rebecca Ballowe, and my mother, Shir ley Ballowe, who have encouraged me more than they know and who have prayed for me more than I know. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Jimmie Hinze for allowing me to work on this project and for his guidance, patience and contributions to this project. I would al so like to thank my committee members, Dr. R. Raymond Issa and Dr Robert C. Stroh, Sr. for their support and contributions to this project. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................................13 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................... ....14 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .16 2 LITERATURE SEARCH.......................................................................................................18 Introduction .............................................................................................................................18 Category Studies .....................................................................................................................18 General Risk...........................................................................................................................20 Equipm ent/Situation Specific .................................................................................................21 Coding Methods......................................................................................................................22 De mographics .........................................................................................................................24 Accidents Classified as Other ............................................................................................26 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................3 2 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.............................................................................................38 All Incidents ............................................................................................................................38 Incidents Classified as Other .................................................................................................40 Classifications of Other Incidents ......................................................................................42 Deaths due to Natural Causes ...............................................................................................43 Frequency of Occurrence ................................................................................................43 Subcategories of Natural Causes ....................................................................................44 Examples of Incident Descriptions .................................................................................44 Deaths from Asphyxiation .....................................................................................................45 Frequency of Occurrence ................................................................................................45 Incident Conditions .........................................................................................................47 Chemical Agents .............................................................................................................48 Exam ples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................49 Deaths From Drowning ..........................................................................................................50 Frequency o f Occurrence ................................................................................................50 Incident Conditions .........................................................................................................53 Examples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................54 5

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Deaths From Burns .................................................................................................................55 Frequency of Occurrence ................................................................................................55 Incident Location .............................................................................................................56 Ignition Source ................................................................................................................57 Combustible Agent ..........................................................................................................57 Examples of Incident Descriptions .................................................................................58 Deaths in a n Explosion or Fire .............................................................................................60 Frequency Of Occurrence ................................................................................................60 Incident Location .............................................................................................................62 Source of Ignition ...........................................................................................................62 Explosive o r Combustible Agent ....................................................................................63 Examples of Incident Descriptions .................................................................................63 Deaths from Hyperthermia....................................................................................................65 Frequency of Occurrence ................................................................................................65 Work or Trade Performed ...............................................................................................66 Conditions or Location Cited .........................................................................................66 Discussion ........................................................................................................................67 Examples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................67 Deaths from Chemical Exposure ...........................................................................................68 Frequency Of Occurrence ................................................................................................68 Work o r Trade Performed ...............................................................................................70 Incident Location .............................................................................................................70 Chemical Agents Cited ....................................................................................................70 Exam ples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................71 Deaths From Lightning ...........................................................................................................72 Frequency o f Occurrence ................................................................................................72 Incident Location .............................................................................................................73 Discussion ........................................................................................................................73 Examples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................73 Additional Causes and Unknown Causes ..............................................................................74 Findings ...........................................................................................................................74 Examples o f Incident Descriptions .................................................................................75 5 CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................................. 122 Incidents Classified as Other ...............................................................................................122 Incidents Classified as Natural Causes ................................................................................122 Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation ...................................................................................123 Incidents Classified as Drowning ........................................................................................123 Incidents Classified s Burns ...............................................................................................123 Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire ................................................................................124 Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia ..................................................................................124 Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure .........................................................................125 Incidents Classified as Lightning ........................................................................................125 6

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6 RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................................................................127 Incidents Classified as Other ...............................................................................................127 Incidents Classified as Natural Causes ................................................................................127 Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation ...................................................................................128 Incidents Classified as Drowning ........................................................................................129 Incidents Classified as Burns ...............................................................................................129 Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire ................................................................................130 Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia ..................................................................................130 Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure .........................................................................130 Incidents Classified as Lightning ........................................................................................131 Incidents Classified as Unknown ........................................................................................131 Incident Reporting ................................................................................................................131 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................133 BIOGRAPHICAL SKET CH .......................................................................................................136 7

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Categories suggested by Hinze et al. .................................................................................28 2-2 Categories used by Jackson and Loom is ...........................................................................28 2-3 Categories used by Ore and Stout ......................................................................................28 2-4 Categories used by Chen et al ............................................................................................29 2-5 Categories used by CIRPC in 2004 data report .................................................................30 4-1 Frequency of All Incidents by Year ...................................................................................76 4-2 Frequency of All Incidents by Month ................................................................................77 4-3 Frequency of All Incidents by Day ....................................................................................77 4-4 Causes of Fatalities fr o m Three Studies (Percen tages)......................................................78 4-5 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Other by Year ......................................................78 4-6 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Other by Month ...................................................79 4-7 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Other by Day .......................................................80 4-8 Annual Frequency of Other Incidents ................................................................................81 4-9 Monthly Frequency of Other Incidents ..............................................................................82 4-10 Daily Frequency of Other Incidents ...................................................................................82 4-11 CIRPC Daily Percentages of Incidents ..............................................................................82 4-12 Frequency of Occurrence of Categories of Incidents Classified Other ..........................83 4-13 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Natural Causes by Year ..........................................85 4-14 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Natural Causes by Month .......................................86 4-15 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Natural Causes by Day ...........................................87 4-16 Cause of De ath Cited for Incident s Classified as Natural Causes ..................................88 4-17 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Asphyxiation by Year.............................................89 4-18 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Month ..........................................90 8

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4-19 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Asphyxiation by Day ..............................................91 4-20 Frequency of Incidents of Asphyxiation ............................................................................92 4-21 Conditions Cited in Incide nts Classified as Asphyxiation .................................................92 4-22 Che mical Agents Cited in In cidents Classified as Asphyxiation .......................................92 4-23 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Drowning by Year ..................................................93 4-24 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Drowning by Month ...............................................94 4-25 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Drowning by Day ...................................................95 4-26 Frequency of Incidents of Drowning .................................................................................96 4-27 Conditions Cited in Incide nts Classified as Drowning......................................................96 4-28 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Year.........................................................97 4-29 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Burns by Month ......................................................98 4-30 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Day ..........................................................99 4-31 Locations C ited in Incidents Classified as Burns ............................................................100 4-32 Ignition Sources Cited in In ciden ts Classified as B urns ..................................................101 4-33 Combustible Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns ...........................................102 4-34 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Explosion-Fire by Year.........................................103 4-36 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Day ..........................................105 4-37 Frequency of Incidents of Explosion-Fire .......................................................................106 4-38 Locations C ited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire ............................................106 4-39 Source of Ignition Cited for Inci dents Classified as Explosion-Fire ...............................107 4-40 Explosive or Combustible Agent Cited fo r Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire ........108 4-41 Frequency of Incidents Cla ssified as Hyperthermia by Year ..........................................109 4-42 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Hyperthermia by Month .......................................110 4-43 Frequency of Incidents Cla ssified as Hyperthermia by Day ...........................................111 4-44 Type of W ork or Trade Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia .........................112 9

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4-45 Relevant Conditions or Locations Cited for Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia ........112 4-46 Frequency of Incidents of Hyperthermia .........................................................................112 4-47 Frequency of Incidents Classi fied as Chemical Exposure by Year .................................113 4-48 Frequency of Incidents Classifi ed as Che mical Exposure by Month ..............................114 4-49 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Day ..................................115 4-50 Type of W ork or Trade Cited for In cidents Classified as Chemical Exposure ...............116 4-51 Location Cited for Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure .......................................116 4-52 Che mical Agents Cited for Incide nts Classified as Chemical Exposure .........................117 4-53 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Lightning by Year.................................................118 4-54 Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Month..............................................119 4-55 Frequency of Incidents Cl assified as Lightning by Day ..................................................120 4-56 Locations C ited for Incidents Classified as Lightning .....................................................121 4-57 Frequency of Fatal In cidents due to Lightning ....................................................................121 4-58 Minor Categories .............................................................................................................121 10

PAGE 11

LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4-1 Percent of All and Other Incidents by Year .......................................................................79 4-2 Percent of All and Ot her Incidents by Month ....................................................................80 4-3 Percent of All and Other Incidents by Day ........................................................................81 4-4 Daily Distribution of All Fatal Construction Incidents ......................................................83 4-6 Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Year ...................................................85 4-7 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Natural Causes by Month .................................................86 4-8 Percent of Incidents Classified Natural Causes by Day .....................................................87 4-9 Percent of Incidents Cl assified Asphyxiation by Year ......................................................89 4-10 Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Asphyxiation by Month ...................................................90 4-11 Percent of Incidents Cl assified Asphyxiation by Day .......................................................91 4-12 Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Year ............................................................93 4-13 Percent of Incidents Cl assified Drowning by Month .........................................................94 4-14 Percent of Incidents Classified Drowning by Day .............................................................95 4-15 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Year ..................................................................97 4-16 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Month ...............................................................98 4-17 Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Day ...................................................................99 4-18 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Explosion-Fire by Year ..................................................103 4-19 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Explosion-Fire by Month ...............................................104 4-20 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Explosion-Fire by Day ...................................................105 4-21 Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Hypertherm ia by Year ....................................................109 4-22 Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Hyperthermia by Month .................................................110 4-23 Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Hyperthermia by Day .....................................................111 4-24 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Chemical Exposure by Year ..........................................113 11

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4-25 Percent of Incidents Classi fied Chemical Exposure by Month.......................................114 4-26 Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Day ...........................................115 4-27 Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Year ..........................................................118 4-28 Percent of Incidents Cl assified Lightning by Month .......................................................119 4-29 Percent of Incidents Classified Lightning by Day ...........................................................120 12

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFOI National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries CIRPC Construction Industry Research a nd Policy Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville CO Carbon Monoxide CV Coefficient of Variation DOL Department of Labor IMIS Integrated Management Information System NCHS National Centers for He alth Statistics NIOSH National Institute f or Occupational Safety and Health NTOF National Tra umatic Occupational Fatalities O2 Oxygen OSHA Occupational Safety a nd Health Administration PMR Proportionate Mortality Ratios PPE Personal Protective Equipment SIC Standard Industry Classification Standard Deviation Mean 13

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Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction FATAL CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS CATEGORIZED AS OTHER By Paul L. Ballowe May 2008 Chair: Jimmie Hinze Cochair: R. Raymond Issa Major: Building Construction The construction industry has a high rate of work er fatalities and cons iderable efforts are expended to find ways increase safety and curb the high death toll in the construction industry. The Occupational Safety and Health Administra tion (OSHA) is ma ndated to monitor the causes of fatalities as one way of identifying the ar eas that pose the greatest risk to construction workers. Whenever fatalities are investigated by OSHA, a determination is made about the cause of the fatality. There are five broad categories of causes of fatalities, including falls from elevation, electrocutions, struck by accidents, caught in/between acc idents and other accidents. While most causes have been extensively examine d, those fatalities attributed to other causes have received minimal attention. This is desp ite the fact that near ly ten percent of the construction worker fatalities ar e categorized as other accidents. This paper describes the results of a study of 795 incidents of construction worker fatalities occurring from 1990-2003 and attributed to other causes by OSHA. The incident data were analyzed for cause, frequency, and general circum stances surrounding the incidents. Fatalities classified as other were organized under the categories of natu ral causes, asphyxiation, 14

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drowning, burns, explosion-fire, hyperthermia, ch emical exposure, lightning and other. Rigorous statistical analysis was not applied du e to the limited number of incidents. Results show that other fatalities are attributed to various events or tasks, many of which appear to be unrelated w hen the aggregate of a given type of incidents is examined. Certain types of incidents such as hyperthermia and light ning incidents are associat ed with certain times of the year. Fatalities from natural causes were mainly related to heart problems while other types of incidents had a diverse set of causes. Many incident reports had incomplete data. Standardization of categories in both govern ment and academic analysis will aid in com parative analysis and tracking trends, potentially leading to more effective safety measures. Adding categories of deaths due to natura l causes; asphyxiation/chemical exposure; explosion/fire/burns; drowning; hyperthermia and lightning would reduce the category of other from 795 incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data studied, to 48 incidents, 0.49% of total incidents. 15

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION According to the Federal Department of Labor (DOL) National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), in 2005 the construction industry accounted for the second largest numb er of fatal occupational in juries by major occupation groups Construction ranked third in the fatality rate per 100,000 workers employed when sorted by major occupation groups. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the DOL was established in 1971 as a result of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. The mission of OSHA, s tated on their web site, is to assure the safety and health of America' s workers by setting and enforcing standard s; providing training, outreach, a nd education; establishing pa rtnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health. As part of their efforts to fulfill that mi ssion, OSHA conducts inspections of workplaces. Inspection pr iorities are listed on the OSHA F requently Asked Questions web page as follows: Top priority are reports of imminent dange rs-accidents about to happen; second are fatalities or acciden ts serious enough to send th ree or more workers to the hospital. Third are employee complaints. Referrals from other government agencies are fourth. Fifth are targeted inspections-such as the Site Specific Targeting Program, which focuses on employers that report high injury and illness rates, and special emphasis programs that zero in on hazardous work such as trenching or e quipment such as mechanical power presses. Follow-up inspections are the final priority. OSHA inspection reports of cons truction accidents include a shor t narrative of the accident and also include the cate gorization o f accidents into one of fi ve standard categories: falls (from elevation), electrical shock, struck-by, caught-in-between, an d other. OSHA collects the inspection results then catalogs them electronical ly in the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS). According to the OSHA web site used to search IMIS data, IMIS was designed as an information resource for in-house use by OSHA staff and management, and by state agencies which carry out federally-approved OSHA programs. 16

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Part of accident prevention includes understa nding the nature and causes of accidents. While many types of construction accidents ha ve been analyzed, published research does not include analysis of those accidents classified as other. The primary research objective of this study was to examine construction accidents cate gorized as other, looking for commonalities and contrasts among those factors associated wi th the accidents. Iden tifying commonalities and causes among these accidents may assist acc ident prevention efforts in the future. 17

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SEARCH Introduction Previous research published about construction fatalities used data from several sources, including OSHA accident inves tigations, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and the National In stitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Some studies have focused on specific kinds of events, while other studies focused on fatalities within a specific segment the industry, such as a given de mographic segment, specific equipment use, or specific circumstances. Some studies focused on risk analysis and others examined the systems used for categorizing fatal events. Category Studies Derr et al. (2001) examined OSHA data in th e IMIS system from 1990 to 1999 to analyze construction fatalities due to falls. The purpose of the study was to analyze risk factors in fatal falls and to analyze trends in fall rates to assess the impact of changes in fall protection regulations made by OSHA in February 1995. While the authors reported a downward trend in fatal falls during the study peri od, they stated that regression analysis showed no significant effect from the new regulations. They also noted that without a control group for the study their data analysis was unable to detect effects from the new regulations. The authors reported that for OSHA Regions 9 and 10 the IMIS database contai ned 82% of the number of fatal falls recorded in NTOF data. They also reported that CFOI c ounted more fatalities from falls than did NTOF. Huang and Hinze (2003) analyzed constructi on fall accidents from January 1990 through October 2001 using data from OSHA investigations. They reported that the highest number of falls occurred on projects involvi ng commercial buildings and also on projects costing less that 18

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$50,000. Over 25% of falls were between 10 and 20 feet. Over 70% of falls were 30 feet or less. They stated that two-thirds of the accidents involving falls were fatal and that 30% of the falls involved inadequate or inappropr iate use of fall protection pers onal protective equipment (PPE). Huang and Hinze noted that in 1996 after changes were made to the OSHA regulations for fall prevention the proportion of incide nts involving falls increased. McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data from 1992 to 1998 for electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers. They re ported 7,489 construction in dustry fatalities, of which 1,002 (13.4%) were from electrical current a nd 17 (0.2%) were from arc flash/blasts. Of these fatalities, 351 (34.4%) invo lved electrical workers and 668 (65.6%) were workers in other trades. They reported that nearly 75% of the electrical worker fata lities involved the installation or repair of light fixtures, such as florescent lights, airport runw ay lights, neon signs and street lights. For non-electrical worker s, 55.2% of the fatalities resu lted from contact with overhead power lines. The authors noted that many elect rical workers were injured while working on energized wires and/or equipment and suggested that this practice was usually unnecessary. The authors recommended the use of pe rsonal locks for loc kout/tagout procedures to ensure that equipment stays de-energized, recommended bette r education for electrical workers concerning working with energized lines and equipment, and recommended better education for nonelectrical workers concerning electrical safety. Hinze et al. (2005) used data from the OSHA IMIS database from 1997 to 2000 to report on construction related struck-by accidents. Th e authors reported that the work commonly associated with these events included work involving wood assemblies, block walls, soil/rock and steel/rebar/pipe. The age group of workers most frequently injured or killed was between 35 and 39 years of age, followed by workers aged 30 to 34 years and workers aged 40 to 44 years. 19

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The most frequently reported contributing enviro nmental factor, in 30.8% of the cases, was an overhead moving or falling object. The most freq uently cited overhead-fal ling objects were rock or soil (29%), steel/rebar/pi pe (21%), and timber (13%). That study concluded that many incidents resulted from failure to comply with existing OSHA regulations for signaling, materials handling, crane use, and trenching. They also reported that OSHA comp liance officers included prevention methods in their reports in 66% of the cases and noted that compliance officers felt that over 60% of the accidents would have been prevented with adherence to the applicable OSHA standards. It was recommended that improve d data collection and da ta entry were needed, specifically including clarifica tion of environmental factors w ith respect to movement of materials. General Risk Wang et al. (1999) examined NIOSH data from 1988 to 1994 concerning construction workers in North Carolina to analyze proportion ate mortality patterns. They com pared the proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for male c onstruction workers to the expected mortality rates of the general pop ulations of North Carolina and of the United States. They found that construction workers in North Carolina had higher PMRs than the general population for malignant tumors in the mouth, throat, and lungs; for alcoholism; for pneumonoconiosis and other respiratory diseases; and for accidental falls, poisonings, and homicides. They reported a lower risk than the general popul ation for malignant tumors of the rectum; biliary system and liver; and the lymphatic tissues. They also reported a reduced risk of diabetes mellitus, heart diseases, and disorders of the nervous system and sense organs. Chen et al.(1999) analyzed data from four previous studies of unionized construction workers. The data represented studies on 13,224 ironworkers, 11,683 construction laborers, 14,496 sheet metal workers and 15,842 operating engineers. From the death certificates, the 20

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authors established the cause of death and up to th ree contributing factors. The authors utilized a system with 33 categories of injuries based on the NTOF Surveillance System. Chen el al. reported that at least one of the four groups of unionized construction workers had elevated PMRs compared to the general population for fa lls, motor vehicle cras hes, electrocutions, explosions, suffocations, water transport incide nts, machinery incidents and being struck by falling or flying objects. In a review of data from the Bureau of La bor Statistics Supplementary Data System for 1985 and 1986, Leigh and Miller (1998) reported on job related diseases and occupations. They noted that among the causes of occupational deaths, heart conditions includes heart attacks was the cause in over 72% of the cases. Cerebrova scular and other conditi ons of the circulatory system ranked fourth at 2.9%. When combined, these two categories accounted for over 75% of the occupational deaths in that study. The second and third ranked causes listed in the Leigh and Miller study were Asbestosis (6%) and Silicosis (4.8%). Equipment/Situation Specific Hinze and Bren (1996) reported on incidents involving power lin e contacts using data in the OSHA IMIS system for 1985-1995. The authors found that 447 of 509 incidents of power line cont acts had at least one fa tality and noted an increase in the frequency of incidents in October. The authors reported that riggers or spotters had the hi ghest frequency of fatalities involving equipment contacts with power lines. The age group with the highest percentage of power line contacts was aged 25-29 years followed by workers with ages of 20 to 24 years. The authors recommended improved training for spotters as well as ot her occupations with high risk of power line contacts. They also recommended more uniform training for compliance officers for writing OSHA reports to ensure reports are written with comple te details and proper use of construction terminology. 21

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Beavers et al. (2006) examined causes of crane related fatalities using data in the IMIS database from 1997-2003. They reported that over 84% of the fatalities related to cranes and derricks were associated with th e use of mobile cran es with lattice and telescopic booms. They noted that OHSA listed the major causes of crane related fatalities as contact with power lines, overturns, falls, and mechanical failures. They al so noted that OSHA did not include categories for victims struck by the cranes cab or count erweight, victims crushed during assembly or disassembly, or victims struck by the load in cases ot her than a failure of the boom or cable. Beavers et al. found that most workers who die in crane related incidents are not crane operators, but specialty trade workers such as ironworke rs, carpenters and laborer s. They recommended more training for workers required to perform tasks near cranes. They recommended that OSHA continue to improve information collection syst ems through fatality inve stigations and add an emphasis on intervention strate gies. They also recommend that OSHA needs to capture all relevant data concerning fata lities to ensure data accuracy. Coding Methods Hinze et al. (1998) reviewed construction fatality data from 1994 and 1995 in the OSHA IMIS system to examine root causes and deve loped a revised coding system based on accident causation. The authors developed a system of 19 ev ent categories includin g two types of falls, five types of electrocutions, three types of struck-by accidents, two types of caught in/between accidents, and also included cave-in, explosi on, fire, asphyxiation, drowning, natural causes, and other. The authors noted that 91% of the accidents typically classi fied as other would be more specifically classified using the revised categories. Layne (2003) examined differences in the data from the NTOF surveillance system and CFOI for work related fatalities from 1992 to 1997. NIOSH used the inform ation from death certificates as source data for the NTOF surv eillance system. Civilian s and military personnel 22

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who died at work while in the United States we re included in the NTOF system data; however, United States military personnel and United States citizens who died abroad were not included in the NTOF system data. The BLS gathers information for CFOI from a number of sources including death certific ates, medical examiner reports, workers compensation claims, police reports and the news media. Layne noted that while the coding schemes for some events such as homicides and falls were similar, there were some categories of fatalities that the classification systems were sufficiently different to compromi se valid comparisons of the two surveillance systems. Incidents involving tr actors or other agri cultural machinery were coded as transportation incidents in the CFOI data but th ey were coded as machinery incidents in the NTOF. Layne recommended that future efforts in data collection should include obtaining more complete information concerning the ci rcumstances leading to a fatality. Bondy et al. (2005) examined methods for codifying factors leading to accidents. In their report, the authors reviewed several injury c oding schemes including the system used by BLS, the MAIM system, and Haddons matrix. In their analysis, the authors us ed an adaptation of Haddons matrix, a system original ly developed to classify factors that contributed to motor vehicle injuries. The three gene ral categories of contributing f actors in Haddons matrix were human, equipment and environment. The authors ad apted the matrix to in clude a fourth general category, organization. The authors examined 4,146 injury events at Denver International Airport between December 1990 and August 1994. In developing the matrix for recording incidents, the authors included 110 categories. They reported difficulty in establishing when individual incidents began, and s ubsequently, difficulty in identif ying what factors were in place before the given incident began. The authors co ncluded that the use of a highly structured classification system might not provide for cap turing all relevant information and that a 23

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complicated system may lead to mistakes by inexperienced coders They suggested that the use of accident investigation reports which guide inve stigators to consider a number of contributing factors would lead to more complete repor ts of factors contributing to accidents. Calls for changes in the coding system used for incident classifi cation were found in a number of articles. Hinze et al (1996) suggested a more descri ptive system with 19 categories. In an analysis of fatalities am ong unionized cons truction workers, Chen et al. (1999) suggested the use of 33 categories of injuries. Bondy et al. (2005) reviewed several injury coding schemes and reported that they had derived a matrix of over 100 categories to classify contributing factors. Categories suggested by Hi nze et al. are listed in Table 2-1. Categories used by Jackson and Loomis are listed in Table 2-2. Categories used by Ore and Stout are listed in Table 2-3. Categories used by Chen et al. are listed in Table 2-4. Categories used by CIRPC are listed in Table 2-5. Demographics Ore and Stout (1997) used NTOF data from 1980 1992 to examine fatal occupational injuries among construction laborers. The authors reported that laborers constitute 11.6% of the construction workers but had 26.6% of the total nu mber of construction fa talities. The 10 most frequently cited fatal events among constructi on laborers accounted for 91.5% of the fatalities. The categories included falls (20.3%); moto r vehicles (17.1%): machinery (13.1%); electrocutions (12.8%); struck by falling objects (10.7%); suffocati ons (7.8%); struck by/against objects (3.1%); natural and envi ronmental factors (2.8%); homi cides (2.3%); and explosions (1.5%). Of these ten types of fatalities, five categories accounted for 41.5% of the fatalities among construction laborers: motor vehicles, struck by falling objects, suffocations, struck by/against objects, and natural and environmental factors. In comparison, these same categories 24

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accounted for 31.7% of the fatalities among all c onstruction workers. Th e authors reported the average fatality rate per 100,000 workers as 17.4 for female construction laborers and 36.9 for male construction laborers. The average fatality rate per 100,000 workers for all construction workers was 1.8 for females and 17.3 for males. Over the study period, fatality rates among construction laborers declined at an annual rate of 3.1%. The authors stated that more complete data concerning fatalities, includ ing worker tasks and event circum stances, would help in future studies. The authors noted that because laborers perfor m a wide range of tasks, fatality rates might be more meaningful in the future if they were associated with specific tasks. The authors also noted that in many cases, the death certif icate data were inco mplete concerning the circumstances of deaths. Fabrega and Starkey (2001) used data from th e CFOI to report on fatalities of Hispanic construction workers in Texas from 1997 to 1999. Th e authors reported the fatality rate per 100,000 workers was 21.2 for non-Hispanic workers and 23.5 for Hispanic workers. They found that common charac teristics of fatally injure d Hispanic construction workers included foreign birthplace, low skill level and over half were under 35 years in age. They authors reported that among Hispanic workers there were fewer than average fatalities in skilled occupations and higher than average fatalities among low skilled laborers and helpers. Th e authors recommended continued research and called for safety policies that target lower-skilled Hispanic construction workers. Jackson and Loomis (2002) examined medi cal examiners records for construction industry fatalities in North Carolina from Janua ry 1978 to Decem ber 1994. The authors reviewed 525 deaths and found that the major causes of de ath were falls (26.7%), electrocutions (20.4%), and motor vehicle accidents (18.9%). The work ers with the highest mortality rates per 100,000 25

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workers were laborers (49.5), truck drivers (43.2) operating engineers (37 .2), and electricians (29.0). The authors recommended safe ty training for laborers that would take into account the variances in the levels of experience and levels of hazards present on the job site. Suruda et al. (2003) used OSHA incident data from April 1984 through 1998 to examine construction fatalities among teenaged workers in the United States. Their study showed that the fatality rate per 100,000 workers for adults in th e US construction industry was 12.9 and the rate for teenagers was 12.1 but suggested that the actual rate for teenagers was probably higher due to poor youth employme nt reporting me thods. The authors noted that 76 fatalities involved workers less than 18 years of age. In those incidents, 37 cases invol ved work prohibited by existing hazardous orders (for teenagers) including trench ing work and roofing. The authors noted that better employment data for teenagers and adults in construction trades would yield more accurate risk analysis. Accidents Classified as Other A search of peer reviewed journa ls yielded no articles specific to the analysis of the causes of construction accident s classified by OSHA as other. Information concerning these fatalities may be found in articles specific to a category event, but these articles are not specific to construction. Examples of this include articles on lightning deaths, burn fatalities, and hydrogen sulfide exposure. Adekoya and Nolte (2005) used data from th e CFOI and the National Centers for Health Statistics (NCHS) to analyze lightning deaths from 1995 2000. The authors used data from the Centers for Disease Con trol and Prevention (CDC) to calculate fatality rates for lightning deaths. The authors reported 374 fatalities from lightning giving an annual fa tality rate of 2.3 deaths per 100,000 persons. They reported 129 work relate d fatalities from lightning from 1995 2002, including 44 fatalities in the agricultural indus try and 39 fatalities in the construction industry. 26

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The fatality rate per 100,000 workers was highe r for construction workers at 5.9, than for agricultural workers at 4 .5. Work related lightning fatalities were highest in Florida (22), Texas (11), Georgia (9) and Tennessee (8). The authors noted that there were no OSHA regulations concerning lightning accident prevention. They r ecommended focused prevention and education efforts among agricultural a nd construction workers. Quinney et al. (2002) examined work relate d burn fatalities using the CFOI data. They reported 1,189 fatalities from work related ther mal burns from 1992 1999. The annual fatality rate due to therma l burns per 100,000 worker s was 0.11. The occupations with the highest fatality rates per 100,000 workers were Mining (0.77) Transportation and Pub lic Utilities (0.38), Agriculture, Forestry, and Fish ing (0.24), and Constr uction (0.22). The authors noted that the coding of CFOI data was not always suffici ently specific for meaningful analysis. Fuller and Suruda (2000) examined work related deaths from 1984 to 1994 due to hydrogen sulfide exposure using OSHA data in the IMIS database. The authors reported 57 incidents of hydrogen sulfide e xposure resulting in 80 fatalities. The authors reported 22 fatalities in the petroleum industry, but did not list the fr equency of fatalities for other industries. Of the 80 fatalities, 69 oc curred within a confined space. Nineteen workers died attempting to rescue coworkers. The authors recommended accident prevention training for workers and rescue personnel as well as hazardous gas monitoring syst ems in sewer, industrial and petroleum work sites. 27

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Table 2-1. Categories suggested by Hinze et al. 1. Asphyxiation 2. Drowning 3. Electrocution (faulty const. tools/wiring) 4. Caught In or between equipment 5. Electrocutio n (power lin es) 6. Cave-in (excavation) 7. Electrocution (faulty existing wiring ) 8. Electrocution (other) 9. Cave-in (trench) 10. Caught In or between materials 11. Electrocution (building power) 12. Fall from elevation 13. Explosion/F ire 14. Fall from ground level 15. Natural Cau ses 16. Struck by equipm ent 17. Struck by falling m aterials 18. Struck by material being handled 19. Other Table 2-2. Categories used by Jackson and Loomis 1. Asphyxiation 2. Cave-in 3. Drown 4. Electrocutions 5. Explosion, F ire 6. Falling Objects 7. Falls 8. Fight, blunt, stab, gun 9. Machinery (excluding tractors) 10. Motor Vehicle Accidents 11. Tractor 12. Transport, air 13. Transport, train Table 2-3. Categories used by Ore and Stout 1) Falls a) Building or other structure b) Scaffold c) Ladder d) Hole or other opening in surface 2) Motor Vehicle a) Collision with pedestrian b) Collision with motor vehicle 28

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Table 2-3. Continued c) Loss of control without collision on the highway d) Non-traffic 3) Machinery a) Lifting mac hines and appliances b) Earth moving, scraping and excavating machines c) Mining and earth drillin g machines 4) Electrocution a) Electric Power generating plants b) Industrial wiring, appliances and electrical machinery c) Dom estic wiring and appliances 5) Struck by Falling Objects 6) Suffocation a) Falling Earth 7) Struck by/Against Objects 8) Natural/Env ironm ental a) Excessive heat due to weather conditions b) Excessive heat of unspecified origin c) Lightning 9) Homicide a) Firearms and explosives b) Cutting and piercing instrument 10) Explosion a) Explosive gasses b) Pressure v essel 11) Other Table 2-4. Categories used by Chen et al 1) Railway tran sport 2) Motor Vehicles a) MV Traffic i) Occupants ii) Pedestrian iii) Unspecified b) MV non-traffic 3) Water Transport 4) Air Transport 5) Poisoning 6) Falls a) Stairs or steps b) Ladders or scaffolding c) Building or structure d) Into hole e) One level to another f) To same level 29

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Table 2-4. Continued g) Unspecified falls 7) Fire a) In private dwelling b) Other places 8) Nature/Environment 9) Drowning 10) Suffocat ion 11) Struck by falling objects 12) Struck by flying objects 13) Machine 14) Explosion 15) Electrocution 16) Suicide 17) Homicide 18) Intent Undetermined 19) Other Incidents Table 2-5. Categories used by CIRPC in 2004 data report 1) Asphyxiation/Inhalation of toxic vapor 2) Caught in/struck by stationary equipment 3) Crushed from collapse of structure 4) Crushed/run-over of non-operator by operation construction equipment 5) Crushed/run-over/trapped of operato r by operation construction equipment 6) Crushed/run-over by construction equipm ent during m aintenance/modification 7) Crushed/run-over by highway vehicle 8) Drown, non-lethal fall 9) Electric shock by toucing exposed wire 10) Electric shock by equipm ent contacting power source a) Ladder b) Scaffold c) Crane/lifting equipm ent/boom/ dump truck d) Contact while handling materials su ch as gutters, iron rods, etc. 11) Electric sho ck from equipm ent installation/tool use 12) Electric shock, other 13) Elevator (struck/crushed by el evator or count er weights) 14) Fall from/with ladder: includes collapse/fall of ladder 15) Fall from/through roof a) Fall off of roof b) Fall through roof other than skylight c) Fall through skylight or other opening 16) Fall from highway vehicle/construction equipme nt 17) Fall from/with scaffold 18) Fall from /with bucket (aerial lift/basket) 19) Fall from/with structure (other than roof) 30

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Table 2-5. Continued a) Fall with collapse of structure 20) Fall f rom/with platform or catwalk 21) Fall through opening (o ther than roof) 22) Fall, other or unknown 23) Fire/Explosion/Scalding 24) Hyperthermia/Hypothermia 25) Hit, crushed, fall during lifting operations 26) Struck by falling object/proje ctile (including tip-overs) 27) Crushed/suffocation from trench collapse 28) Crushed while unloading-loading equi pm ent/m aterial (except by crane) 29) Shock/burn from lightning 30) Crushed other 31) Unknown cause or other a) Other 31

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The objective of this research was to develop an understand ing of the nature of those construction f atalities categorized as other. Si nce this category of fatalities is not descriptive of the circumstances surrounding these types of acci dents, this research was designed to devise additional categories that more cl early indicate the nature of the situation resulting in these construction worker deaths. By understanding the nature of fatalities and by identifying possible trends in their occurrence, preventative meas ures might be more effectively developed. Two data sets were obtained from OSHA c ontaining incident reports extracted from OSHA Accident Investigation Form 170. OSHA Directive C PL 02-00-137 issued April 14, 2005 includes the following information concer ning the investigation of fatalities: XVI. Recording and Tracking B. Investigation Summary Report (OSHA 170). The OSHA-170 is used to summarize the results of investigations of all events that involve fatali ties, catastrophes, amputations, hospitalizations of two or more days, have generated significant publicity and/or have resulted in significant property dam age. An OSHA-170 must be opened and logged into IMIS at the beginning of the fatality or catas trophe investigation. The information on this form enables the Agency to track fatalities and summarized the circumstances surrounding the event. 2. The OSHA-170 narrative should not be a copy of the summary provided on the OSHA-36 pre-inspection form The OSHA-170 narrative must comprehensively describe the characteristics of the worksite; the employer and its relationship with other employers, if relevant; the employee task/activity being performed; the related equipment used; and other pertinent information in enough detail to provide a third party reader of the narrative with a mental picture of the fatal incident and the factual circumstances surrounding the event. The data sets obtained from OSHA were c ontained in an electronic document as a spreadsheet. The data requested included constr uction related incidents with Standard Industry Classification (SIC) numbers 15xx, 16xx, and 17xx which represent ge neral building contractors, heavy construction contractors and speci al trade contractors respectively. 32

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The first data set contained 8,537 entries dated from 1/2/1990 through 10/1/2001. The data sets included both serious injuries and fatalities and had one entry per person injured or deceased in each incident. The data included the inspec tion number, the summary report number, the SIC code, the event date, the inspec tion date, a headline summary of the incident, a descriptive abstract of the incident, company data, an ev ent categorization, and demographic data on the deceased including gender, age and union status, if known. The second set of data contained 2061 en tries dated from 12/16/2000 through 5/28/2004. This data set included inf ormation on incidents involving fatalities. Unlike the first data set that showed one entry per victim, the second data set had one entry per incident. The data set included the inspection number, the summary report number, the SIC code, the event date, the inspection date, a headline summary of the incident, and a descriptive abstract of the incident. This data set did not include demographic data on the deceased or in formation on the company. Additionally, not included was an event categorization for any of the accidents. The data analysis performed was based on fatal incidents rather than individual deaths or injuries because the second data set was organized on a per incident ba sis and because it was not always clear how many people died in a given incident. Also, if th e analysis was to be conducted on the number of victims, some accidents would be counted more than once. The elimination of those accidents that resulted in dual entries (mor e than one victim) reduced the combined data set to 9600 incidents. Analysis was performed on copies of the original files so the untouched data could be accessed as necessary. Microsoft Excel 2002 with Service Pack 3 was used to perform sorting, counting, statistical calcu lations and to generate tables and charts. The standard deviation function used in Excel was STDEVP wh ich calculates the standard deviation for an entire population using the formula shown in Equation 3-1. 33

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2 2 2)( n xxn (3-1) Because the second set of data did not include an event categorization, th e first step in data analysis inv olved creating an event categorizati on for each incident using one of the five major categories. Through this effort, the 2061 incide nts in the second data set yielded 796 (38.62%) falls, 483 (23.44%) struck-bys, 307 (14.90%) caught-in/betweens, 276 (13.39%) shocks and 199 (9.66%) other incidents. After the event categorization for the second data set was co mpleted, the data categorized as other from both data sets were combined in a separate spreadsheet for further analysis. Upon inspection of the com bined data set, it was discovered that some of the event categorizations in the first data set were incorr ect with several incidents erroneously categorized as other. The incidents which were improperly categorized as other were discarded from the combined data set of other incidents. Further review of the first data set also revealed that there were several categories used for event categorization that extended beyond the standard five event categories including: Bite/Sting/Scratch ; Cardio-Vascular/Respiratory System Failure; Ingestion; Inhalation; Repeated Motion/Pressure; and Rubbed/Abrade d. The incidents categorized under these extraneous categories were reviewed and the inci dents which would otherw ise be categorized as other were included the combined data set of o ther incidents. Incidents in the first data set classified as fall, shock, struck by, and caught-in/between were not analyzed for reclassification with the exception of deaths due to lightning which had all been categorized as struck-by. The complete data set of other incident s was purged of duplicate entries using the incident investigation number as the unique iden tifier. This eliminat ed any double counting of incidents. 34

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The next step was to gather information on a total data set, representing a combination of the two initial sets of data. The total number of unique events was tallied for each year, each calendar month and for each day of the week. Aver ages and standard deviations for days of the week were calculated without weekends becau se most construction projects are idle on weekends. Annual averages and their standard deviations were calculated based on data from 1990-2003 but do not include 2004 because the data se t is limited to the first five months of 2004. The standard deviation was calculated usi ng Equation 3.1. The standard deviation was reported in the form at =X (Y %), where X was the standard deviation for the population and Y was the Coefficient of Variation (CV). The CV was defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, and was reported as a percentage as shown in Equation 3-2. 100 CV (3-2) The CV has been commonly known as the Rela tive Standard Deviation. While rigorous statistical analysis was no t performe d for this report, calculation of and CV were included because these values indicate the disp ersion of the data in relation to The closer the data points are to the lower the values of and CV. As the data points in crease in their dispersion from the values of and CV increase. In this report, calcul ated values of CV ranged from under 6% for data grouped relatively close to the m ean to over 100% for widely disperse data. The next step in analysis was to examine the descriptive abstracts of th e other accidents to determine the type of death, conditions or circumstances at the time of th e accident and a cause or agent of death. The results were then inspected to identify cond itions or agents which were more prevalent than others for a given type of incident. This step was designed to give a further level of detail to these other incidents. The categories utilized were those identified in 35

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the literature and additional ca tegories were developed when in cidents were found that did not fit well into the existing categories. Not all inci dent abstracts included complete information in these areas. Coded information was included in the final analysis to the extent that the information was available. Investigation of the de scriptions of constructio n accidents classified as other yielded 8 major categories incl uding: Natural Causes Asphyxiation, Drowning, Burns, Explosion-Fire, Hyperthermia Chemical Exposure, and Lightning. Determining the exact nature of the caus e of death involved a certain amount of interpre tation. For example, the distinction dr awn between the categorie s Burns and ExplosionFire was the timing of the death rather than other factors. If a person died in the explosion or in the fire, the incident was counted under Explosion-Fire. The inci dent was counted under Burns if the person was burned in a fire and did not die in th e accident, but died as a result of the accident some time later. This distinction was made to s ee if there were characte ristics common to either type of accident and if there were characteristics that distingu ished one type from the other. Some injuries which may often be considered burns, such as scalding injuries from hot liquids or steam, were counted under Chemical Exposure becau se the burn was not caused by fire or an electrical arc. Some incidents were difficult to classify due to a multitude of causes of death. For example, a person in a ma nhole may have been exposed to high levels of chemicals common to sewer gas such as hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide, and at the same time be in an environment with low levels of oxygen. Deaths from low le vels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide could be classified under Asphyxiation, while de aths from high levels of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide could be classified under Chemi cal Exposure. In the following example, three workers entered an underground utility vault where there were high levels of carbon dioxide, and 36

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low levels of oxygen. The victims collapsed into th ree feet of water at the bottom of the vault and drowned. The incident was classified under Asphyxiation because that was stated as the cause of death in the description. Examples from the data sets quot ed in this paper are generally unedited with the exception of correct ing any obvious grammatical errors. Inspection Number 100562032, 7/24/1991 Employees #1, #2, and #3, two backhoe operators and one surveyor, were locating underground utilities in preparation for a road construction project. Appa rently (since there were no witnesses) employees #1, #2, and #3 ente red a 20 foot deep util ity vault to survey the wate r and gas lines at the bottom of the va ult. They were overcome by high levels of carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen, and ultim ately drowned in the 3 feet of water at the bottom of the vault. The official cause of death was cited as "drowning due to asphyxiation due to acute stagnant air syndrome." Under the category of Natural Causes, a numbe r of cardiovascular related issues were aggregated under Heart Problems. These were listed in the descriptions in a num ber of different ways including heart at tack, coronary disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, coronary atherosclerosis, corona ry artery disease, congestive h eart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, and heart aneurysm. This approach in the analysis was followed for all incidents classified as other. Most of the inform ation for determining the cause of the accident was gleaned directly from the descriptive abstracts. To help clarify the types of circumstan ces surrounding certain types of accidents, the essential portions of the abst racts were quoted. Since the study was of an exploratory nature and since the numbers of incide nts included in each of the different categories tended to be small, rigorous statis tical analysis was not conducted. 37

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CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All Incidents The data examined in this study contained 9600 unique fatality incidents from two data sets. There were 795 (8.28%) fatalit y incidents classified as other The first data set contained 7539 incidents with 596 (7.91%) inci dents classified as other. The second data set contained 2061 total incidents with 199 (9.66%) in cidents classified as other. The number of incidents was tallied for each year. The results are displaye d in Table 4-1. The average number of incide nts per year was 672.50 with =59.79 (8.89%). Two years (1992 and 1993) had fewer incidents than Four years (1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003) had more incidents than + All years were within the range of The annual distribution of incidents is shown in Figure 4-1. The number of incidents was tallied for each calendar month. The results are displayed in Table 4-2. T he average number of incidents per month was 800 with =126.57 (15.82%). The months of January, February and De cember had fewer incidents than July, August and October had more incidents than of + All months were within the range of The monthly distribution of incide nts is shown in Figure 4-2. The number of incidents was tallied for each da y of the week. The resu lts are displayed in Table 4-3. The average num ber of incidents per weekday was 1752 with =113.04 (6.45%). Friday had fewer incidents than Wednesday had more incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of The daily distribution of incidents was shown in Figure 4-3. Comparisons of the results of this study and other studies of OSHA construction incident reports yield similar trends in the ranking of in cident types (see Table 4-4). Hinze et al. (1998) analyzed fatality data reported to OSHA for 1994 1995 and com pared the results to published 38

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OSHA statistics on construction fatalities for 1985 1989. The ranking of each type of incident for the 1985 1989 data was similar to the data from 2000-2004 with the highest percentage of incidents being falls, followed by struck bys, ca ught in/betweens, electric shocks, and others. The data from 1994-1995 had a higher percentage of incidents of electric shock than either struck bys or caught in/betweens. The larges t difference in percenta ge was the decrease in electric shocks from 20% (1994-1995) to 13% (2000-2004). The next largest difference was the increase in the percentage of falls by 6% from 33% (1985-19 89) to 39% (2000-2004). While the trends in percentages are somewhat consistent among these reports, other reports using data resources other than OSHA report diffe rent trends. In a study of fatal construction injuries among Hispanic workers in T exas from 1997 to 1999, Fabrega and Starkey (2001) used CFOI data and reviewed 370 fatalities. They re ported that for companies with one to nine employees 22.1% of the incidents were classified as other and for companies with 100 or more employees 42.3% of the incidents were classified as other. Differences in the percentage of other incidents may be explained in that the data collection methods for CFOI and OSHA are different, and the study was specific to one state over three years. Difficulties in comparing studies arise not only from the different sources of data but from the differences of causal categories u sed. There has not been a specific list of categories consistently used to report the frequency of in cidents across government agencies or in academic analysis. Additionally, some studies included incidents that were not necessarily job related. Ore and Stout (2006) studied fatal occupational injures among constr uction laborers from 1980-1992 using data from NIOSH and NT OF. Categories listed by Ore and Stout included the standard categories used by OSHA as well as Motor Ve hicle, Machinery, Nature/Environmental and Homicide. The DOL press release for the National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries 39

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(CFOI) in 2005 included major cat egories for Transportation inci dents, Assaults and violent acts, Contacts with objects and equipment, Falls, Exposure to harmful substances or environments, and Fires and explosions. Each of those categories had several subcategories in the full data package posted on the DOL web site. Data analysis prepared for the OSHA Office of Statistics by the Construction Industry Research and Policy Cent er (CIRPC) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has included as many as 31 major categories and nine subcategories. Incidents Classified as Other The 9600 unique incidents contai ned 795 (8.28%) incidents classified as other. The numb er of other incidents was tallied for each year, for each calendar month, and for each day of the week. The results are shown in Table 45. The average number of other incidents per year was 55.93 with =10.94 (19.57%). Two years, 1992 and 1996, had fewer incidents than Two years, 2002 and 2003, had more incidents than + All years were w ithin the range of except 2002. The annual distribution of incidents was shown in Figure 4-1. Variations the annual number of incidents an d/or incident types may be influenced by a wide range of factors including ch anges in the num ber of hours worked, changes in construction methods, changes in safety regulations, changes in reporting on either the st ate or federal levels, and changes in workforce demographics. The average number of other incidents per month was 66.25 with = 24.46 (36.92%). Two months, July and August, had more incidents than + August had more incidents than +2 The lowest frequency of other incidents wa s in February, with 43 incidents. Figure 4.2 shows the monthly distribution of incidents classified as other and for all incidents. With the notable exceptions of July and Oc tober, the trends in the distributions of incidents are similar. While there were an above average number of to tal incidents in the summer months, there was a noticeable increase in the number of other incide nts in July. In the data set of all incidents 40

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October had the third highest frequency of in cidents following July and August. For other incidents, October had fewer incidents than th e three summer months and had the same number of incidents as September. The monthly dist ribution of incidents is shown in Figure 4-2. Studies have reported peaks in fatalities for months other than July. In their study of struck-by accidents from 1997 2000, Hinze et al (2005) found a monthly peak of accidents in October. In a study of injuries and fatalities due to power line contacts, Hinze and Bren (1996) reported a peak of incidents in October. Other st udies typically provided a nnualized statistics but not statistics on the monthly frequency of incidents. The average number of other in cidents per weekday was 143.20 with =8.52 (5.95%). Mondays had fewer incidents than Wednesdays had m ore incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of Sunday had the lowest frequency of all and other incidents the daily distribution of incide nts is shown in Figure 4-3. The annual frequencies of incidents per year for all and other incidents are listed in Table 4-8 along with the percentage of other incidents with respect to all incidents. The average annual percentage of other incident s with respect to all incidents was 8.32%. The largest difference in annual percentages wa s between 2002, at 10.84% of all incidents and 2001, at 6.34% of all incident s, a difference of 4.50%. The monthl y frequencies of all and other in cidents were listed in Table 4-9 along with the percentage of other incidents with respect to all incidents. Incidents categorized as other accounted for the 13.0% of all incidents in Ju ly and 6.28% of all in cidents in November. The daily frequency of all and other incide nts are listed in Table 4-10 along with the percentage of other incidents with respect to all incidents. S unday had the highest percentage other incidents with respect to the number of total incident s at 11.71%. Monday had the lowest 41

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percentage of other incidents with respect to the number of all incidents at 7.46%. The variations in the number of inci dents through the week may be e xplained with more information about a typical work week. The frequency of occurrence by day of the w eek is not typica lly included in fatality reports; however it was included in CIRPC reports for data from 2003 and 2004 (see Table 411). The 2003 CIRPC data reported a high incide nt rate on Monday, followed by Wednesday and Thursday. The 2004 CIRPC data reported a high incident rate on Tuesday, followed by Monday and Wednesday. When the total number of incidents was averag ed for the two years, Monday had the highest frequency of events, with 20.11% of the incidents. The CIRPC reports for both 2003 and 2004 noted that conclusions concerning th e hazardous nature of one day versus the next were not possible without data for the total number of hours worked each day. Classifications of Other Incidents A review of the narrative descriptions of inci dents classi fied as other yielded eight major categories: Natural Causes, Asphyxiation, Drowning, Burns, Explosion-Fire, Hyperthermia, Chemical Exposure, and Lightning. The frequencies of occurrence of the categories of other incidents are listed in Table 4-12 and the percenta ge of other incidents is shown in Figure 4-5. The major categories each accounted for more than 3% of other incidents and at least 1/4 of 1% of the total number of incidents in the da ta examined. The additional categories listed each accounted for less than 1% of other incidents and less than 1/10 of 1% of the number of total incidents. The low number of incidents of thes e categories represented numbers too small to warrant further analysis, i.e., further analysis wa s restricted to the eight major categories. Some incidents were classified as unknown. In these inci dent reports, the type of death was either not clearly specified in the description or the cause of death was specifically noted as either being unknown or not determined at the time of the report.. 42

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Deaths Due To Natural Causes Frequency of Occurrence There were 243 incidents classified as deaths due to natural causes which accounted for 30.57% of the other incidents and 2.53% of all in cidents. The tallies fo r annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-13, Table 4-14, and Table 4-15 respectively. The average number of deaths due to natural causes per year was 17.14 with =4.47 (26.07%). Two years, 1992 and 1996, had fewer incidents than Four years, 1993, 1995, 2002 and 2003, had m ore incidents than + All years were within the range of Figure 46 shows the annual distribution of fatalities related to natural cause s along with other incidents and all incidents. The average number of deaths due to natural causes per month was 20.25 with =5.78 (28.52%). Two m onths, March and November, had fewer incidents than One month, July, had more incidents than + All months except July we re within the range of Figure 4-7 shows the monthly distribution of incidents with fa talities due to natural causes, other incidents and all incidents. The average number of deaths due to natural causes per weekday was 45.60 with =3.01 (6.59%). Mondays had fewer incidents than and Wednesdays had more incidents than + The frequency of incidents for each weekday was within the range of Figure 4-8 shows the daily distribution of incidents of fatalities due to natural causes, other incidents and all incidents. The annual variation in the number fatality incidents from ranged from 10 incidents reported in 1992 to 24 incidents 1994. The variati ons in the annual num ber of events may be due to differences in reporting among the states ove r the years sampled. The two months with the highest frequency of deaths from natural causes were July (34) and December (26). July(34) and 43

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August (24) accounted for 23.8% of reported deaths due to natural causes. One factor in this high percentage may include weather related factors as elevated temper atures which increase stress on biological systems; however the OSHA fatality reports do not provide this type of information. Analysis of weekday numbers reveals a peak in frequency on Wednesday. A number of factors, including the average number of hours worked on a given weekday, may influence the number of incidents on a given day. Many studies of worker fatalities, includi ng OSHA data analysis by CIRPC, have not included d eaths due to natural causes because they were not considered job related. This increases the difficulty of conducting a comparative an alysis between studies. Subcategories of Natural Causes Incidents classified as death due to natura l causes were reviewed and the frequency of occurrence was tallied for each stated cause of death. The results are listed in Table 4-16. The cause of death most frequently cited was som e ty pe of heart problem, ofte n listed in the report as heart attack. Incidents counted as Heart Problems included ca uses of death such as heart attack, coronary disease, atherosclerotic cardio vascular disease, coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congest ive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, and h eart aneurysm. Heart Problems were cited in 210 (86.42%) of the 243 incidents. Other t ypes of deaths due to natural causes listed in the table did not reoccur w ith sufficient frequency to warrant further investigation. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident descri ptions of deaths due to natural causes. Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 102764040 Em ployee #1 was working in an excavation with two other employees. They were jack hammering and removing granite. Em ployee #1 suddenly collapsed. Emergency medical personnel were summoned and Employee #1 was transported to the nearest hospital where 44

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he was pronounced dead. The preliminary ca use of death was a heart attack caused by acute coronary disease. Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 306368861 The em ployee died of an aortic rupture. Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 106230956 Em ployee #1 was mixing a three part epoxy to be applied to concrete. At approximately 3:15 PM, Employee #1 was instructed to take several em pty boxes to the company truck before the crew left the work site at 3:30 p.m. Employee #1 asked the foreman and the superintendent to help him load the boxes. He was told to go to the truck and rest while the crew cleaned up and got ready to leave. Empl oyee #1 told the superint endent that he was quitting and wanted a ride home. The superi ntendent told Employ ee #1 to wait until the crew was ready and then everyone woul d go home. Employee #1 went to another construction trailer to ask for a ride home. Employee #1 got into a truck and started driving very erratically. He crashed into two parked trucks, ran over curbs, and went through two fences. Someone called the police. When the police arrived, they went to where Employee #1 had finally stopped the truck. Employee #1 had locked both doors, would not open them for the police, and tried to restart the truc k and leave the scene. The police broke through the window, handcuffed Employee #1, and took hi m to jail. Soon after, Employee #1 was unresponsive to any verbal inquiries made by the police. He was taken by an ambulance to the hospital and was treated for convulsi ons and a temperature of 107 degrees. The physicians thought that Employee #1 had encep halitis or meningitis. Employee #1 was later taken to another hospital, where he was diagnosed as suffering from a brain aneurism. Employee #1 died in the hospital. Example of an incident of death due to natural causes: Inspection Number 126960103 Em ployee died of a heart attack just as he was about to star t his duties as a welder. Deaths from Asphyxiation Frequency of Occurrence There were 110 incidents classified as deaths due to asphyxiation. Deaths from asphyxiation accounted f or 13.84% of the fatal incidents classified as other and 1.15% of total incidents reported. The tallies for annual, monthly a nd daily frequency of occurrence are listed in Table 4-17, Table 4-18 and Table 4-19 respectively. The average number of incidents with deaths from asphyxiation per year was 7.86 with =2.82 (35.95%). Two years, 1997 a nd 2000, had fewer incidents than Two years, 1992 and 45

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2002, had more incidents than + One year, 2000, had fewer incidents than -2 Figure 4-9 shows the distribution of annual in cidents of asphyxiation, other incidents and all incidents. The average number of incidents with deaths from asphyxiation per month was 9.17 with =4.74 (51.71%). May was the only month with fewer incidents than Two m onths, July and September, had more incidents than + All months except July we re within the range of Figure 4-10 shows the monthly dist ribution of incidents of asphyxi ation, other incidents and all incidents. The average number of incidents with d eaths from asphyxiation per weekday was 19.60 with =2.06 (10.51%). Thursdays had fewer incidents than Tuesdays had more incidents than + All weekdays were within the rang e of Figure 4-11 shows the daily distribution for incidents of asphyxiation, other incidents, and all incidents. The number of incidents with asphyxiation vari ed annually from two incidents in 2000 to 13 incidents in 1997. The number of incidents varied m onthly from two in May to 21 in July. Four months, June through September, accounte d for 52.7% of the asphyxiation incidents with 30.0% of the asphyxiation incidents occurring in July and August. Other than weather related phenomena, factors influencing monthly variatio ns are not obvious. Weekday variation in the number of incidents was not as extreme as th e monthly numbers. The frequency of incidents ranged from 17 on Thursday to 23 on Tuesday. Monday and Wednesday each had 20 incidents. Other studies report similar pe rcentages of deaths from as phyxiation with respect to all fatalities. In their study of constr uction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from 1978-1994, Jackson and Loom is (2002) attributed 1.3% of the deaths to asphyxiation. That study examined data from only one state which may or may not be typical of the national trends. 46

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Results from data analysis published on th e CIRPC web site included averages of asphyxiation deaths for 1991-1998 and annual data for subsequent years (see Table 4-20). Incidents of asphyxiation were categorized under asphyxiation /inhalation of toxic vapor. The definition given in the appendices was lack of oxygen and/or inhalation of toxic gas, (excluding asphyxiation resulting from fire/explosion). Differences between the CIRPC report and this report may be partially due to the difficulty of classifying accidents with multiple apparent causes. While an attempt was made to distinguis h deaths from asphyxiation from deaths due to chemical exposure in this report, those cate gories were combined in the CIRPC reports. Incident Conditions Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as deaths due to as phyxiation were reviewed for recorded data on working environments a nd general conditions surro unding the events. The categories of conditions noted are listed in Tabl e 4-21. In the descriptions of the 110 incidents, 90 (81.82%) reports either stated that the incide nt occurred in a confined space, or it wa s determined from the narrative description that the incident occurred in a confined space. Although not specifically stated in the description of the incident, it can be concluded from some narrative descriptions that workers were not following safety procedures for confined spaces. According to OSHAs General Safety and Health Provisions standard number 1926.21: 1926.21(b)(6)(i) All employees required to enter in to confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment require d. The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentia lly dangerous areas. 1926.21(b)(6)(ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i ) of this sectio n, "confined or enclosed space" means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, 47

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ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underg round utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels. Descriptions of 40 (36.36%) incide nts revealed that the events occurred either in manholes or in utility vaults. Two inci dents occurred in basem ents, one incident occurred inside an underground pipe, and one incident occurred inside a sewer conduit. Three incident reports specifica lly noted that one of the workers involved in the event was using some sort of welding equipment or a cutt ing torch. One incident involved a ruptured gas line. Six of the asphyxiation incident descriptions specifically mentioned that the decedents were wearing respirators. In five of these si x incidents, the supply ai r line contained nitrogen rather than breathable air. The sixth resp irator incident invol ved carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning due to supply air contam ination by exhaust from a generator. Chemical Agents The reports of 76 of the 110 incidents classified as asphyxiations attributed the fatality to one or more chem ical agents. The chemical agents cited are listed in Table 4-22. A high concentration of CO was listed as the chemical agent present in 17 (15.45%) incidents. Fourteen of the 17 incidents attributed to CO were in a confined space. Low levels of oxygen (O2) were noted in 16 (14.55%) incidents. Fifteen of these 16 incidents occurred in a confined space. Thirteen of the 16 low O2 incidents were either in manholes or were sewer system related. Sewer gas was noted in seven incidents. The co mposition of air in sewe rs varies depending on what is in the sewer. Gasses generated by de composition of m atter in sewers contain various constituents such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen su lfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, methane and 48

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nitrogen oxides. In addition to the presence of the chemicals listed, sewer gas is also characterized by low levels of O2. Watanabe and Morita (1998) noted that asphyxiation could include suffocation, strangulation and chemical exposure. In cases of asphyxiation involving to xic gasses, there often is a corresponding decrease of oxygen in the air. So me of the incident descriptions specifically mention that the cause of death was asphyxiation. In some cases, such as those involving toxic gasses in confined spaces, there are difficulties in determining if the individuals died from exposure to toxic chemicals, the lack of oxygen, or a combination of factors. While high levels of some gasses may imply low levels of O2, it may not actually mean that the gasses displaced the O2. Six incidents involved smoke inhalation. In these six incident s, the decedents died in a fire related event from asphyxia due to smoke inhalation rather than fr om burns or the impact of an explosion or flash fire. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident desc riptions of deaths due to asphyxiation. Example of an incident involvi ng a Manhole: Inspection Number 106444995 Employee #2 entered an underground pit throug h a manhole at the termination of a water utility conduit system The system was under going a tracer gas leak test using an argon/methane gas mixture. Employee #2 was unawa re of the testing and entered the pit to replace a drain plug on the conduit. Employee #2 was about to install the plug when he passed out. Employee #1 witnessed this from th e top of the manhole and alerted employees #6 and #7. Employee #1 entered the pit to re scue Employee #2 and passed out. Employee #7 radioed the contractor's office for help. Em ployee #3 arrived at the pit site and entered the pit through the manhole to attempt a re scue. Employee #3 was able to pull Employee #1's face out of the water at the bottom of the pit before almost passing out. Employee #3 was helped up the ladder by employees #4 and #5. Employee #4 grabbed a rope and entered the pit. Employee #4 tied the rope around Employee #2. Employees at ground level hoisted Employee #2 to the surface. Employee #1 was retrieved the same way. CPR was initiated. Employees #1 and #2 were tr ansported to the hosp ital. Employee #1 was pronounced dead at the hospital. 49

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Example of an incident involving a Respirator: Inspection Number 106620800 Employee #1 connected the fresh air line of his respirat or to the facilitys compressed air lines and began abrasive blasting. The plant op erators, unaware that their air system was being used for breathing air, shut down the fresh air compressor for routine, scheduled maintenance and pumped nitrogen into the system. The employee was overcome by the nitrogen in the air lines a nd died of nitrogen asphyxia. Example of an incident involving Ca rbon Monoxide: Inspection Number 109025429 Employee #1 was using a portable gasoline-pow ered generator inside a room with inadequate ventilation. The room m easured 11 fe et 4 inches by 12 feet by 11 feet 4 inches. The doors were closed and the vent for the permanent generator was blocked. Employee #1 was finishing the electrical work inside th e room. The cause of employee #1's death was asphyxiation due to carb on monoxide poisoning. Example of an incident involvi ng Smoke: Inspection Num ber 110352499 Employee #1 was changing a circuit breaker in a 208-volt, three-phase panel board. An electrical fault occurre d. The ensuing electric arc started a fire. The fire produced a large am ount of smoke. Employee #1 tried to escape but became confused. Employee #1 was asphyxiated by the smoke. Example of an incident involving multiple causes low O2 and Nitrogen: Inspection Number 111683660 Employee #1 was assign ed to clean the header bo lts at the top of a reactor The reactor was under a nitrogen purge. The vent port for the ni trogen was the header. A plastic cover was placed over the top of the reactor. Employee #1 crawled under the plastic cover and died of asphyxia in the oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Deaths from Drowning Frequency of Occurrence There were 98 incidents classifi ed as deaths from drowning. Deaths from drowning accounted for 12.33% of the fatal incidents classified as oth er and 1.02% of all inci dents. The tallies for 50

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annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occu rrence are listed in Table 4-23, Table 4-24 and Table 4-25 respectively. The average number of incidents with d eaths by drowning per year was 6.86 with =2.47 (36.08%). Tw o years, 1998 and 2001, had fewer incidents than Three years, 1994, 1995 and 2002, had more incidents than + All years were w ithin the range of Figure 4-12 shows the trends in the annual distributi on of incidents of drowning did not follow the trends of other incidents. Because of the low number of incidents, these trends are not st atistically significant. The number of incidents varied annually from three incidents in 1998 and 2001 to 11 incidents in 2002. Variations in the annual number of incidents m ay be due to differences in reporting from various agencies. Other factors may include variab ility in the amount of work performed in or around water as well as chan ges in work methods and safety protocols. The average number of incidents of death by drowning per month was 8.17 with =2.51 (30.75%). March was the only mont h with fewer incidents than and fewer incidents than 2 The months of July and August had more incidents that + Figure 4-13 shows the monthly distribution of incidents of drowning, other incidents and all incidents. The monthly distribution of drowning incident s ranged from only two incidents in March to the highest frequencies of occurrence in July (12), August (11), and June (10) and October (10). June, July and August accounted for 33.7% of the drowning incidents. Monthly variations may be related to weather phenomenon, however that would not explain why eight incidents were recorded for the winter months of December and January while th e early spring month of March had two recorded incidents. The average number of incidents of d eath by drowning per weekday was 17.20 with =3.97 (23.08%). Tuesdays had fewe r incidents than the range of Wednesdays had more 51

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incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of Figure 4-14 shows the daily distribution of incidents of drowning, other incidents and all incidents. Weekday frequency of incidents ranged from 12 incidents on Tuesday to 23 on Wednesday. Factors influencing this variation are not obvious. In thei r study of construction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from 1978-1994, Jackson and Loomis (2002) attributed 1.5% of the deaths to drowning. Hinze et al. (1998) reported that drowning comp rised 11.00% of the accidents classified as other for OSHA data from 1994 1995, percentages that ar e similar to the resu lts of this report. The total number of incident s involving drowning may be higher than reported as som e deaths involving drowning may have been categori zed as different types of events. Incidents involving individuals falli ng into water may be considered s truck-by incidents as the worker was pushed off balance or knocked into the wate r. Incidents involving equipment rolling or sliding into water may have been categoriz ed as caught-in/between as the operator was caught in the cab and drowned. Additional drowni ng fatalities may not have been included in some data analysis as the event may not have been considered job related. Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for incidents of drowning from 1991-1998 and annual da ta for subsequent years (see Table 4-26). Incidents of drowning were cate gorized under drown, non-lethal fa ll. The definition given in the appendices was non-lethal falls into wa ter and flooding of contai ner, trenches, etc. Differences in the results m ay be due to the incl usion in this report of non-work related drowning that were reported to OSHA, as well as other dr owning incidents which may have been otherwise classified as caught-in-between. 52

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Incident Conditions Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as death due to drow ning were reviewed for recorded data about event conditions or the nature of the event. The categories of incidents noted are listed in Table 4-27. The narra tive description of one of the 98 drowning incidents stated that the victim was wearing a personal protective equipment (PPE) flotation device when the drowning occurred. Several reports note d that PPE was not being worn. The category cited most frequently, in 28 (28.57%) incidents, involved the decedent either slipping or falling into a body of water. The s econd most cited event was an aggregate category, Equipment/Vehicle Related, which included th ree categories, Equipment slid/rolled in, Drove equipment/vehicle in, and Backed equipment/vehicle in. The equipment/vehicle related incidents totaled 26 (26.53%) incidents. In each of these categories the equipment operator drowned after that equipment entere d a body of water and the operating cabin was submersed. Nineteen (19.38%) drowning inci dents involved workers purposefully entering a body of water. Of these 19 incidents, eight descriptio ns st ated that a work er decided to go for a recreational swim and drowned. Six of these 19 incidents involved divers employed to work underwater at the job site, and in three of these incidents wo rkers died while swimming to retrieve boats that had drifted away from them. Two incidents involved workers jumping off of a boat or barge to escape ot her impending circumstances. Flooded pipes, tunnels and excavations were noted in 9 (9.18%) incidents. The event descriptions of four of these nine incidents noted that the wa ter source was a broken or burst municipal water supply line. In three of these incidents the water source was rain, while in two incidents the water was released from a storm drain after having been intentionally blocked by an inflatable plug. 53

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Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident de scriptions of deaths due to drowning. Example of an incident involving a fa ll into water: Inspection Number 106949340 Employee #1 was clim bing to his work area be neath a bridge and fell into the river. Employee #1 was not wearing a life jacket or fall protection. The company co-owner threw a rope to E mployee #1, but he refused it, sa ying that he would swim to the river bank approximately 240 ft away. Employee #1 yelled for help approximately 10 ft away from the bank and submerged. He drowned before help arrived. Employee #1s body was recovered the next day. Example of an incident involving equipment sliding or rolling in : Inspection Number 302137724 Em ployee #1 was operating a track-mounted b ackhoe to dig a retention pond. Employee #1 was working on a sloped area at the edge of the water. The backhoe had been observed to slide at least one tim e prior to the accident. The backhoe either slid again or moved into the edge of the water, where the ground was soft. The backhoe tipped over into the pond, with the door side down, trapping Employee #1 inside the cab. The cab filled with water and Employee #1 drowned. Example of an incident involving driving e quipment or a vehicle in: Inspection Numb er 305503948 Employee #1 was operating a bulldozer with an enclosed cab. The operation was to backfill a pit m easuring approximately 300 f eet long by 100 feet wide and 30 feet deep. The work area had flooded, up to 4 feet deep in some places, after several days of rain. The pit's perimeter was under several feet of wa ter and was not marked. As Employee #1 drove the bulldozer through the water along the edge of the pit, the dozer went off the edge and quickly sank. Employee #1 was trapped in th e dozer. Two witnesses dove into the water but could not locate the dozer Rescue divers removed the victim approximately 4 hours after the incident. Example of an incident involving a floode d pipe or tunnel: Inspection Number 115985194 Employees #1, #2, #3, and #4 were working in a sewer, relining it with sprayed concrete. At 1:00 p.m., rain began to fall. The aboveground superintendent gave orders to shut down operations, clear the hose of concrete, and leave th e sewer. A few minutes later the intensity of rainfall increased. The superintendent ordered an immediate exit. Water entering the manhole above the employees slowed them from exiting through the manhole. A rush of water carried away Employee #1. Employee #2 grabbed reinforcing wires and climbed out of the manhole. Employees #3 a nd #4 grabbed reinforcing wires and a pipe 54

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and were able to reach a manhole where th ey were rescued. Employee #1 was presumed drowned. Employees #2 and #3 suffered bruise s. Employee #4 suffered cuts and bruises. Deaths from Burns Frequency of Occurrence There were 97 incidents classi fied as deaths from burns. These incidents accounted for 12.20% of the fatal incidents classified as oth er and 1.01% of all inci dents.. The tallies for annual, m onthly and daily frequencies of occu rrence are listed in Table 4-28, Table 4-29 and Table 4-30 respectively. The distinction drawn between the category Burns and ExplosionFire was the timing of the death. If a person died in the explosion or in the fire, the incident was counted under Explosion-Fire. Th e incident was counted under Burns if the person was burned in a fire and did not die in the event, but died as a result of their burns some time later. Only burns from a fire were included in this category. Some events often considered burns, such as either chemical burns or scalding from hot water or steam, were categorized as Chemical Exposure. The average number of incidents with d eaths from burns per year was 6.86 with =2.23 (32.54%). Two years, 1993, and 1995 had fewer incidents than One year, 1998, had m ore incidents than + All years were within the range of except 1995 which had fewer incidents. The annual distributions of incidents with deaths from burns, other incidents and all incidents are shown in Figure 4-15 The annual frequency of incidents ranged from two in 1995 to 11 in 1998. Variation in the annual frequency of burn incidents may be rela ted to changes in reporting, changes in work methods and changes in safety prot ocols. It should be noted that the four years with the lowest reported deaths were 199 3-1996. The subsequent years, 1997-2003, each had higher frequencies of incidents. 55

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The average number of incidents with d eaths from burns per month was 8.08 with =2.69 (33.29%). Three months, February, April, and September, had fewer incidents than Three months, March, July and October had more incidents than + All months were within the range of The monthly distributions of incident s with burns, other incidents and all incidents are shown in Figure 4-16. The monthly frequency of incidents ranged from four in February to 13 in July. Factors influencing monthly variations in the frequency of incidents are not readily apparent. The average number of incidents with d eaths from burns per weekday was 16.40 with =6.15 (37.51%). Tuesdays had more incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of The daily distributions of incidents with bu rns, other incidents and all incidents are shown in Figure 4-17. Weekday variations in frequency peaked at 28 incidents on Tuesday, followed by 17 on Wednesday, 14 on Thursday a nd 12 on Friday. Factors influencing daily variations in the frequency of incidents are not readily obvious. Results from data analysis published on the CI RPC web site did not include a section for burns that was separate from fires and explosi ons. The CFOI includes Fires and explosions as a major category of event or exposure. Subcategor ies include five classi fications of fires and three classifications of explosions. Burns is a major category in the CFOI section on the nature of the incident with s ubcategories of chemical burns, electrical burns, heat burns, scalds, multiple burns, and burns, not elsewhere classified. Incident Location Narrative descriptions of incidents classified as deaths due to burns were reviewed for information about the locations of the incidents. The stated locations are listed in Table 4-31. The descriptions of 20 (20.62%) of the incidents ga ve sufficient inform ation to conclude that the event occurred outside of a building, but did not include further details on the location. Ten 56

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(10.31%) incidents occurre d inside some type of factory or plant. Thirty four (35.05%) descriptions did not gi ve sufficient information to specify the location of the incident. One incident report specifically noted that th e event occurred within a confined space. Ignition Source The descriptions of incidents with deaths from burns were reviewed to determine the ignition source in the incidents (see T able 4-32). The ignition source noted most frequently was an electrical arc, cited in 34 (35.05%) of the incidents. Of thes e 34 incidents, 27 involved an electrical distribution panel or switchgear, six involved hi gh voltage power lines and one description was not clear about the nature of the energized wi res. In a study of causes of electrical deaths among construction workers, McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data for 1992-1998 and reported that an arc flash or blast cau sed less than 2% of the electrical related deaths but caused 31% of the electrical related injuries. Six (6.19%) incidents with deaths from burns had ignition from a pilot light. Six (6.19%) incidents had ignition from activ ities involving welding. Ninet een (19.59%) of the 97 burn incident descriptions did not in clude information on a specific s ource of ignition. Twenty two of the 29 cited sources of ignition were noted in one incident eac h, and three sources were each cited twice. The large diversity of ignition sources and co mbustible m aterials may suggest that many of the incidents were truly accident s that may not have been readily preventable. However, the six incidents started by pilot lights a nd the six incidents started by we lding may have been prevented with proper precautions. Combustible Agent The descriptions of incidents with deaths from burns were reviewed to determine the ignition source in the incidents (see T able 4-33). The ignition source noted most frequently was 57

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an electrical arc, cited in 34 (35.05%) of the incidents. Of thes e 34 incidents, 27 involved an electrical distribution panel or switchgear, six involved hi gh voltage power lines and one description was not clear about the nature of the energized wi res. In a study of causes of electrical deaths among construction workers, McCann et al. (2003) examined CFOI data for 1992-1998 and reported that an arc flash or blast cau sed less than 2% of the electrical related deaths but caused 31% of the electrical related injuries. Six (6.19%) incidents with deaths from burns had ignition from a pilot light. Six (6.19%) incidents had ignition from activ ities involving welding. Ninet een (19.59%) of the 97 burn incident descriptions did not in clude information on a specific s ource of ignition. Twenty two of the 29 cited sources of ignition were noted in one incident eac h, and three sources were each cited twice. The large diversity of ignition sources and co mbustible m aterials may suggest that many of the incidents were truly accident s that may not have been readily preventable. However, the six incidents started by pilot lights a nd the six incidents started by we lding may have been prevented with proper precautions. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from burns. Example of an incident involving an Elect rical Arc Fire: Inve stigation number 112166673 Three electrical workers, Em ployees #1 a nd #2 and #3, were seriously burned by an electrical arc flash. They we re installing of a new 400-amp, 480-volt circuit breaker into a distribution switchboard at a frozen food m anufacturing plant. This activity was part of a major plant expansion program. The switchboard was a 3000-amp 480y/277 volt unit. The work was being done during a normal plant production shift and the switchboard was energized. At the time of th e accident, Employee #2 was st anding inside the switchboard frame holding the wired (new) circuit breaker. Employees #1 and #3 were believed to be connecting or preparing to connect the breaker wiring to the switchboa rd. It was at this point that the arc occurred. It is not known exactly what tool s, objects, or work activity caused or contributed to this accident. Employee #3 died. 58

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Example of an incident involvi ng arc welding: Investigation 110326279 Employees #1, #2 and #3 were part of a welding contractor's crew in a petroleum storage facility. A clogged section of pipeline blew out a plug, spraying the employees with crude petroleum. The petroleum was ignited by th e arc welding operation, and Employees #1, #2 and #3 were fatally burned. Tw o roustabout employees were al so injured while attempting to rescue the welding crew. Employee #4 was hospitalized with burns to his back and Employee #5 was treated and released for bur ns to his hands. Although no definite cause for this accident could be determined, it wa s found that blind flanges were not used to isolate the pipeline segment th e crew was working on. A vacuum truck had been connected to the same segment just prior to the fire. Residual petroleum may have been left in the section of pipeline and the crew was not gi ven appropriate warning of a potentially hazardous situation. Example of an incident involving a worker a nd flammable substance: Investigation num ber 302658521 A construction worker was killed after spayi ng lacquer on woodwork on the first floor of a 2story house. The worker was burned on 100 percent of his body. There was an overturned halogen lamp and an unplugged ex tension cord. The vapors may have been ignited by sparks produced when the lamp was overturned or when the light was disconnected from the extension cord. Example of an incident involving a r uptured pipeline: Investigation 120023841 The work performed involved sewer repair work. Employee #1 was operating a backhoe and hit a gas line that was not marked on th e city drawings. About 2 minutes later, Employee #1 and Employee #2 smelled what they believed to be residual gas and stopped the operation. There were no signs commonly associated with a live gas line break. The two employees believed the gas line was abandoned. The owner came and told the employees to stop. At approximately 11:45 th ere was a sudden gas surge which ignited, engulfing the backhoe, Employee #1 and Em ployee #2 in flames. One month later Employee #1 died due to burn complications. Both employees were treated for 2nd & 3rd degree burns. After revi ew of the drawings provided by th e city, it was noted that the gas line had been labeled as an abandoned line and was flanged off prio r to the intersection. There was no marking on the street to show the live 4 gas line. The gas line burned for approximately 3 hours before a valve was found by the utility to cut off the gas. Example of an incident invol ving butane: Investigation 108534439 Employee #1 was cutting seized bolts when a re d-hot piece of slag flew into his pocket. The slag melted through one or two plastic di sposable cigarette lig hters that contained butane. The butane ignited, burning Em ployee #1' s clothing and body. He died. 59

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Example of an incident involving an unspecifi ed solvent and an unspe cified cutting tool: Investigation 108575812 Employee #1 was dismantling a large fan and cleaning the pa rts with a solvent. He apparently spilled some of the solvent on to his clothing. Although Employee #1 had sent another employee to obtain a fire extinguisher, Employee #1 apparently started cutting before it was brought to his location. Employee #1 was on fire when the assistant returned with the fire extinguisher. Employee #1 was immediately transporte d to a hospital, and then to a burn center. Employee #1 died from the burns about two weeks later. Example of an incident involving an unspecifi ed electric lines and an unknown source of hydraulic fluid: Investigation 300498284 Employee #1 burned to death when contact with energized lines resulted in fire fueled by hydraulic fluid. Deaths in an Explosion or Fire Frequency of Occurrence There were 75 incidents classified as deaths in an explosion or fire. Deaths from explosionfire accounted for 9.43% of the fatal incidents clas sified as other and 0.78% of all incidents. The tallies fo r annual, monthly and daily freque ncies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-34, Table 4-35 and Table 4-36 respectively. The aver age number of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire per year was 5.21 with =2.34 (44.79%). Two years, 2000, and 2001 had fewer incidents than Two years, 1990 and 1992, had more incidents than + All years were within the range of except 1990. The distribution of annu al incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-18. The annual frequency of incidents ranged from 10 incidents in 1990 to two incidents in 2000 and 2001. Factors influencing the variation in the annual frequency of incidents may include changes in reporting on th e s tate and federal level. The 73 incidents of explosion-fire over 14 years may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual variations. 60

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The average number of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire per month was 6.25 with =2.45 (39.26%). Decembers was associated with fewer incidents than Two months, July and August, had more incidents than + All months were w ithin the range of The monthly distribution of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-19. The monthly frequency of occurrence of expl osion-fire incidents was highest in the summer months of June, July, and August, wh ich accounted for 38.7% of incidents. Factors influencing variations of monthly frequencie s of incidents are not readily apparent. The average number of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire per weekday was 14.00 with =3.58 (25.56%). Mondays had fewer incidents than Fridays had mor e incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of The daily distribution of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire other incidents and all incide nts is shown in Figure 4-20. Frequency of occurrence for weekdays was highest for Friday with 19, Wednesday with 16, and Tuesday with 15. Factors in fluencing variations of daily fr equencies of incidents are not readily apparent. Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 19911998 and annual data for subsequent years (see Ta ble 4-37). Incidents were categorized under fire/explosion/scalding. The de finition given in the appendices was fire/explosion/scalding, excluding electrical burns/explosi ons, although there was no separa te category or subcategory for electrical burns/explosions. In this report incidents of scalding were classified under chemical exposure. In the ir study of construction related fatal occupational injuries in North Carolina from 1978-1994, Jackson and Loomis (2002) attributed 3.0% of the deaths to explosion-fire incidents. 61

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This is a higher percentage than the results published by both the CIRPC and this study; however the study by Jackson and Loomis is for one state and covers different years. Differences in the reported percentages may result from the differen ces in the types of cons truction in that state versus the entire nation, as well as regulatory changes that may have been enacted to affect prevention efforts in years subsequent to the data analyzed by Jackson and Loomis. Incident Location The descriptions of incidents with deaths in an explosion or fire were reviewed for information about the location of the incident (s ee Table 4-38). A general category of Large Tank was used for any kind of large storage contai ner. St orage facilities in the category Large Tank included a 20,000 gallon water storag e tank, a 10,000 gallon gaso line tank, and a 55,000 gallon crude oil tank. Large Tanks were cited in 13 (17.33%) of the incidents. Six (8.00%) incidents of deaths by explosion or fire occurred in a factory or a plant. Six (8.00%) incidents were listed as occurring Outside because the narrative description was not specific concerning a loca tion, but included sufficient inform ati on to ascertain that the incident did not occur within a building. Se venteen of the 21 locations were cited once. The descriptions of 31 (41.33%) incidents did not give specific details on the location of the event. One description noted that the incident occurred in a confined space. Source of Ignition Descriptions of incidents with deaths in an e xplosion or fire were reviewed for information concerning a source of ignition (see Table 4-39 ). The descriptions of 28 (37.33%) incidents either stated or im plied that the source of i gnition involved the use of welding equipment or a torch. The descriptions of each of the 4 (5.33%) in cidents with a ruptured gas line noted that the line contained Natural Gas. Elect rical switches were implicat ed in 3 (4.00%) incidents. 62

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In 11 (14.67%) incidents, common tools created sparks either through their use or when their electrical switch was throw n. The tools included three kinds of saws, a grinder, a drill, and a shop vacuum. Of the 16 sources cited, five sources were each noted twice and eight sources were each noted once. In 19 (25.33%) incident descriptions the source of ignition was not specified. In 3 (4.00%) incident descriptions the source of ignition was speci fically stated to be unknown. Explosive or Combustible Agent Descriptions of incidents with deaths in an e xplosion or fire were reviewed for information about the explosive or com bustible agents (see Table 4-40). Of th e 33 different items specified as the explosive or combustible agent, eight were noted in more than one incident. Twenty five agents were each indicated one time. Natural Gas was identified in 10 (13.33%) incidents. Gasoline and Propane were each identified in 5 (6.67%) incidents. Acetylene and Crude Oil were each identified in 4 (5.33%) incidents. Two incidents had explosions involving a gas flow line that either was connected, or would be connected to a separator unit. In both of these cases the gas in the line and the source of ignition we re not identified. Desc riptions of 15 (20.00%) incidents did not include information as to what specifically exploded or burned. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths in an explosion or a fire. Example of an incident involving welding or torch cutting: Inspection Number 200880581 One employee was killed and two employees were injured af ter a tank exploded. The employees were performing tank removal wo rk. The tank exploded while the employees were performing a torch cutting operation. Example of an incident involving Natural Gas: Inspection Number 114639065 Employee #1 was operating a bulldozer. Employee #2 was operating a scraper. The bulldozer ruptured a high pressure, 10-inch na tural gas collector line. The escaping natural 63

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gas contacted an ignition source and exploded. Employees #1 and #2 were incinerated and killed by the resulting fireball. Example of an incident involving Gasoline: Inspection Number 302383518 Em ployee #1 and Employee #2 were attempting to remove the manhole cover from an underground, 8,000 gallon, gasoline tank. The employ ees were working in a 4 foot deep excavation to access the manhole cover. Th e employer had worked on the tank a few months before and a leak had recently been discovered at the manhole cover. Employee #1 and Employee #2 were at the j obsite to repair the leak by removing the manhole cover, then replacing and resealing the cover. The employees had removed several bolts and nuts that held the cover in place but were havi ng difficulty removing the remaining bolts and nuts. Employee #1 borrowed an electric right-a ngle grinder from the station owner to cut the remaining bolts and nuts. According to Employee #2, Employee #1 had removed two bolts with the grinder and had pushed the hot bolts into the tank. Employee #2 stated that the grinder was creating a lot of sparks. Wh ile Employee #1 was using the grinder on the 3rd bolt, there was an explosion in the tank. Employee #1 was blown 228 feet from the tank by the explosion. The employees were using an air blower to remove vapors from the gasoline tank. Employee #1 was us ing an electric grinder that was not appropriate for the task. The explosion was most likely caused by sparks and/or hot bolts igniting the explosive vapors in the tank. Example of an incident involvi ng Propane: Inspection Number 121980320 A residential hom e was nearing final completi on when a gas (propane) leak occurred. The homeowner's wife, two children, and one friend of the children were present at the home when two plumbers arrived. The plumbers, Em ployee #1 and #2, were notified of the leak and they tried to find its origin. Upon sme lling propane gas in the basement and main living areas of the home, the owner of the plumbing company advised Employee #1 to shut off the main electrical disconnect to the hous e. When Employee #1 shut off the electricity, the gas exploded and completely destroyed th e home. The homeowner's wife and the three children present were injured along with th e owner of the plumbing company. Employee #1 died from his injuries. The propane gas leak apparently came from a connection at or near the gas fireplace on the main floor. The gas settled in the basement where the main disconnect was located. The leak preceded th e plumbers arrival to the site, although actions taken by them at the s cene contributed to the events leading to the explosion. Example of an incident involving Acetylene: Inspection Number 304479868 Employee #2 was using acetylene and oxygen to cut a piece of sheet metal. Employee #1 was standing next to Employee #2 waiting to use the oxygen/acetylene torch to cut a piece of sheet metal. Sparks ignited acetylene gas leaking from a storage container in a box built into the side of the contractor 's work trailer. The resulting explosion blew the doors off of the box. One of the doors and the sheet metal struck and killed Employee #1. Employee #2 was struck by a small piece of metal a nd received minor to moderate injuries. 64

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Example of an incident involving no specified location, explosive agent, or ignition source: Inspection Number 123630725 A flash explosion caused two employees to be burned and fall. The em ployees were hospitalized. One employee expired as a resu lt of his injuries. Deaths from Hyperthermia Frequency of Occurrence There were 58 incidents classi fied as deaths from hyperthe rmia. Deaths from hyperthermia account for 7.30% of the fatal inci dents classified as other and 0.60% of all incidents. These incidents were described in the in cident reports in a number of ways including: heat stroke, heat stress, heat exhaustion, and hypert hermia. The tallies for annual, monthly and daily frequencies of occurrence are listed in Table 4-41 Table 4-42 and Table 4-43 respectively. The average number of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia per year was 4.14 with =2.33 (56.13%). One year, 1990 had fewer incidents than Two years, 2002 and 2003, had more incidents than + All years w ere within the range of except 2003. The annual distribution of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-21. The annual frequency of occurrence ranged fr om nine in 2003 to two in 1992, 1995, and 1996. No incidents were reported in 1990. Vari ations in reporting ma y account for the fluctuation in annual incidents. The 58 incide nts of hyperthermia occurring over 14 years may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclu sions on annual variations. The average number of incidents with deat hs from hyperthermia per month was 4.83 with =7.03 (145.45%). No incidents occurred in the late fall and winter m onths. Forty seven (81.03%) of the 58 incidents occurred in the summer months of June, July and August. The 65

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monthly distribution of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-22. The monthly frequency of occurrence ranged from no incidents reported from October through March, to 12 incidents in June, 14 incidents in August and 21 inci dents in July. This correlates with typ ical increases in te mperatures during th e summer months. The average number of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia per weekday was 11.00 with =1.26 (11.50%). Mondays had more incidents than + All weekdays were within the range of No incidents were reported on Sundays. Th e daily distribution of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-23. The weekday frequency of occurrence ranged fr om 13 incidents on Monday to 10 incidents on Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. The peak on Monday is unusual com pared to several other categories and may be related to the activities of wo rkers on the weekend. Work or Trade Performed Descriptions of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia were reviewed for information about each decedents task (see Tabl e 4-44). Seven of the 13 different types of work specified were noted once. In 13 (22.41%) incidents the de cedent was performing site work. In 8 (13.79%) incidents the decedent was involved in various st ages of concrete work. In 8 (13.79%) incidents the decedent was not identified with a specific trad e or was identified simply as general labor. Seven (12.07%) incidents involved roofing. Descri ptions of 9 (15.52%) inci dents did not specify the type of work being performed. Conditions or Location Cited Descriptions of incidents with deaths from hyperthermia were reviewed for information about the location of the incident (see Table 4-45). In 27 (46.55%) incidents the description included sufficient information to note that th e worker was w orking at ground level. In 9 66

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(15.52%) incidents the decedent was working on a rooftop. One (1.72%) incident occurred in an attic. One (1.72%) incident occurred underground In 18 (31.03%) incident reports the location of the work was not specified. Discussion Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 19911998 and annual data for subsequent year s. Incidents were categorized under hyperthermia/hypothermia including both heat and cold (see Table 4-46). The definition given in the appendices was heat/hypotherm ia. While the number of fatalities from hyperthermia in this report is low compared to other causes, they should be preventable. McKinnon and Utley (2005) repor ted that in 2002 BLS statistics, 40% of the occupati onal deaths from exposure to en vironmental heat were in the construction industry. A delakun et al. (1999) noted that the criteria for defining a heat-related death are different among states; medical exam iners and coroners; and individual physicians. They studied data from the NTOF surveillanc e system from 1979 through 1995 and reported that by industry, construction had the most heat related fatalities (34%), followed by agriculture/forestry/fishing ( 18.8%) and manufacturing (11.9%). Wan (2004) reported that NIOSH recommended the promulgation of sta ndards on occupational exposure to hot environments in 1972 and revised them in 1986. The OSHA Standards Advisory Committee on Heat Stress was established in 1973 and recommended a standard similar to that proposed by NIOSH. However, OSHA has adopted no sp ecific standards concerning heat stress. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident de scriptions of deaths from hyperthermia. Exam ple of an incident involving Hypert hermia on the ground: Inspection Numb er 107430316 67

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Employee #1 was shoveling dirt from a shallo w trench formed by a backhoe. The trench was being prepared for foundation work at a construction site. This was the employee's first day of work. On this day the heat index ranged from 95 degrees Fahrenheit at 10:00 AM to 102 degrees at 2:00 PM. At lunch time, Employee #1 stated that he felt weak and sick, but after lunch he c ontinued to work. After several hours, Employee #1 again reported feeling ill and quit working. Anot her employee found him lying in a storage trailer about one hour later. The trailer ha d no ventilation system. Employee #1 did not respond to emergency CPR. He was pronounced d ead at the hospital. The autopsy report revealed that Employee #1 had died as a result of hyperthermia. The employer had not provided heat stress training for the employees or allowed a period of acclimatization for new workers. Example of an incident involving Hypert hermia on a roof: Inspection Number 18540716 Employee #1 worked on a roof. He worked at th e chute throwing "tea r-off" from the roof. Between 6:00 AM and 9:00 AM Em ployee #1 became nauseated and vomited. Employee #1 was allowed to rest and drink some wa ter. Employee #1 was given a lighter task, supplying foam board to other roofers. Employee #1 continued to vomit and drink water throughout the day and left the r oof at the end of his shift. Employee #1 collapsed outside his hotel room and died from heat exhaustion. His core temperature was 107 degrees Fahrenheit. Example of an incident involving Hypert hermia in an Attic: Inspection Numb er 303388540 Employee #1 was working in the attic of a duplex home. Employee #1 was installing baffles and preparing the attic for blown fiberglass insulation. Employee #1 was found dead lying on top of an attic fan. The autopsy st ated that the cause of death was heat stroke from exposure to high temperatures. Deaths from Chemical Exposure Frequency of Occurrence There were 39 incidents with deaths from chemical exposure. Deaths from chem ical exposure accounted for 4.91% of the fatal incide nts classified as other and 0.41% of all incidents. Difficulty in determining the cause of death and the limited numb er of cases have led others to include deaths from chemical exposur e in other categories. Examples include counting 68

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incidents of inhalation of toxic vapors with asphyxiations and counting scalding with fire and explosions. These incidents were included as chemical exposure in this report to examine trends and commonalities among these incidents. The tallies for annual, monthly and daily fre quencies of occurrence are listed in Table 447, Table 4-48 and Table 4-49 respectively. The aver age number of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure per year was 2.57 with =1.92 (74.54%). Four years, 1990, 1993, 1998, and 1999, had no reported incidents. Of the years w ith incidents, 1992 and 2002 had m ore incidents than + All years with incidents were within the range of The annual distribution of incidents with deaths from chem ical exposure, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-24. The annual frequency of occurrence varied from six incidents in 1992 to no reported incidents in four years. Factors influencing the variation in fre quencies of fatalities may include reporting methods, changes in regulations, and met hods of classifying the cause of an incident. The 39 incidents of chemical exposure over 14 year s may not be sufficient to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual variations. The average number of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure per m onth was 3.25 with =1.92 (59.09%). No incidents were reported fo r the month of June and one incident was reported in the month of July. Of the months w ith incidents, July had fewer incidents than Two months, January and April, had more incidents than + January equaled the upper limit of the range of The monthly distribution of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure, other incidents and all incidents is show n in Figure 4-25. The monthly frequency of occurrence varied with seven repo rted incidents in January and no reported incidents in June. The average number of incidents with deat hs from chemical exposure per weekday was 6.60 with =3.26 (49.42%). Fridays had fewer incidents than Mondays and Thursdays had 69

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more incidents than + All weekdays were within the range The daily distribution of incidents with deaths from chem ical exposure, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-26. Weekday frequency va ried from eleven incidents on Thursday and ten incidents on Monday to four incidents on Tuesday and three incidents on Friday. Factors influencing the increase in frequency of incidents on Thur sday and Monday are not readily apparent. Work or Trade Performed The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for inform ation about the trade or type of work e ngaged in by the decedent (see Table 4-50). Pipe installation or repair wa s reported as the type of work bei ng performed in 12 (30.77%) incidents. Boiler repair, sewer repair and bathtub refinishin g were each noted in 3 (7.69%) incident reports. Eleven of the 16 types of work listed were cited once. In 5 (12.82%) inci dent descriptions the type of work was not specified. Incident Location The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for inform ation about the location of the incident (s ee Table 4-51). Thirteen (33.33%) incidents of chemical exposure occurred in a factory or plan t. Four (10.26%) incidents occurred in manholes. Nine of the 13 specified locations were noted on ce. Nine (23.08%) incident descriptions did not specify the event location. Three incident descriptions sp ecifically noted that the event occurred in a confined space. Two of the three confined space incidents were in m anholes and one was in a factory or plant. Chemical Agents Cited The descriptions of incidents with deaths from chemical exposure were reviewed for inform ation about the chemical agent involved in the event (see Table 4-52). Five of the 23 70

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chemicals noted were each identified in multiple incidents. Eighteen chemicals were each noted once. One incident listed multiple prim ary chemicals nickel and cadmium. Hot water and steam, listed separately in the ta ble, were cited in a total of 11 incidents (28.21%). Hydrogen Sulfide was noted in 6 (15.38 %) incidents. One incident noted that the workers were using a stripper and listed a number of components in the stripper, but did not cite the toxic concentration of any specifi c component or combination of components. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident descri ptions of deaths from chem ical exposure. Example of an incident involvi ng Steam: Inspection Num ber 305206252 Employee #1 entered a manhole, a confined spac e, without initiating any lock out tag out procedures. Employee #1 attemp ted to repair a high pressure, high temperature, steam trap line. Employee #1 apparently tried to remove the trap and was moving within the manhole. Employee #1 apparently struck an internally deteriorated blow down line, causing it to separate from the steam lin e, releasing 700 800 degree, 250 PSI steam. The release of steam blew Employee #1 out of the manhole. Employee #1 received third degree, full thickness burns over 95 percen t of his body. Employee #1 died approximately ten hours later at the hospital. Example of an incident involving Hot Water: Inspection Number 111615555 Em ployees #1, #2, and #3 were severely burned when they opened a vessel containing approximately 15,000 gallons of water. The water tem perature was between 200 and 289 degrees Fahrenheit. Employees #1, #2, and #3 thought the vessel had been drained. Employee #1 died of his injuries three week s later. Employee #2 sustained burns to his face, upper body, and respiratory system. Em ployee #3 sustained burns to his upper body, back, and legs. Example of an incident involving H ydrogen Sulfide: Inspection Number 123652505 Employees #1, #2, and #3 were conducting m ainte nance activities in a medical center. The employees were replacing a blind flange on a pipeline. As the flange was opened by Em ployee #2, the hydrogen sulfide unit alarm sounded. The employees stopped their work. Employee #1 tried to remove his full face respirator. Employee #1 was overcome by hydrogen sulfide gas, lost consciousness, and died. Employee #2 had previously loosened his strap to test the atmosphere for hydroge n sulfide in their work area. Employee #3, at ground level, went up to the work area where his 30 minute air-pack hung up, exposing him to the gas. Employees #2 and #3 were hospitalized. 71

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Example of an incident involving Met hylene Chloride: Inspection Number 302940762 Employee #1 was stripping and re-glazing a ba thtub in an apartment. Employee #1 was using a stripper with m ethylene chloride In the evening, the apartment owner found Employee #1 dead in the bathroom. The invest igation revealed inad equate respiratory protection was in place and low ventilation in the work area. Employee #1 was overcome by methylene chloride vapors. The medical exam iner's report stated the cause of death to be acute intoxication of methylene chloride. Example of an incident involving Ca rbon Monoxide: Inspection Number 307226837 Employee #1 died from exposure to carbon monoxide. Deaths from Lightning Frequency of Occurrence There were 27 incidents with deaths from li ghtning which accounted for 3.40% of the fatal incidents classified as other and 0.28% of total incidents. The tallies for annual, m onthly and daily frequency of occurrence are listed in Ta ble 4-53, Table 4-54 and Ta ble 4-55 respectively. The average number of incidents with d eaths from lightning per year was 1.93 with =1.67 (86.46%). Three years, 1990, 1994, and 2000 had no recorded incidents. Two years, 1997 and 2002 had more incidents than + and 1997 had more incidents than The annual distribution of incidents of deaths from lightning, other incident s and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-27. Factors influencing the variations in annual freq uencies of occurrence are not readily apparent. The average number of incidents with d eaths from lightning per month was 2.25 with =3.39 (150.85%). There were no reports from Oct ober through April. Most incidents occurred in June (22.22%), July (40.74%) and August (18.52 %). All lightning relate d incidents occurred from May through September. The monthly distri bution of incidents of deaths from lightning, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-28. The most apparent reasons for 72

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monthly variation in frequencies of occurrence are a combination of weather phenomenon and the increased number of hours people spend outdoors in warmer weather. The average number of incidents with deaths from lightning per weekday was 4.60 with =1.02 (22.17%). Fridays had fewer incidents than Wednesdays had more incidents than + All days were within the range of The daily distribution of incidents of deaths from lightning, other incidents and all incidents is shown in Figure 4-29. The 27 incidents of lightning deaths over 14 years may not be sufficien t to draw significant statistical conclusions on annual or weekday variations. Incident Location Descriptions of incidents with deaths from lightning were reviewed for information about the location of the decedent when lightning struck (see Tab le 4-56). In 11 (40.74%) incidents the workers were on roofs. In 7 (25.93%) incidents the workers were on the ground. The location of the workers was not specified in 4 (14.81%) incident reports. Because of the low number of incidents, these do not n ecessarily represent statistically significant trends. Discussion Results from data analysis published on the CIRPC web site included averages for 19911998 and annual data for subsequent years. Incide nts were categorized under shock/burn from lightning (see Table 4-57). Differe nces in the data in Table 4-57 ma y be due to differences in analysis or possibly differences in the data obtained from OSHA. Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident descriptions of deaths from lightning. Example of an incident involving Lightning st riking a person on a roof: Inspection Number 109003236 73

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Employee #1 was laying tile on a roof. Because of an approaching storm, the crew began to end the day's work. Before he could get off the roof, Employee #1 was struck and killed by lightning. Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person on th e ground: Inspection Number 301019709 Four employees had poured concrete sidewalks at a lake area. Minutes before the storm hit, the forema n told the employees to seek shelte r in a trailer about 500 feet from their work. They employees did not think the storm would be severe and did not immediately go to the trailer. The foreman came back to check on the employees and observed them leaving for the trailer. Employee #1 was struck by lightni ng while walking to the trailer. The other three employees felt tingles, but were not a ffected by the lightning. CPR was immediately given to Employee #1. Employee #1 died from the lightning strike. Example of an incident involving Lightning striking a person in a house: Inspection Number 108621947 Employee #1 was working on the ground, assisti ng other workers who were installing a roof on a house. A thunderstorm approached th e area and the employees moved inside the covered garage. Employee #1 was standing in the center of the garage when lightning struck the house. It came down the gable of the house, under the garage header, and struck Employee #1. Employee #1 was electrocuted. Example of an incident involving Lightning stri king a person at an unspecified location: Inspection Number 127314870 Employee #1 was struck by lightning and killed instantly. Additional Causes and Unknown Causes Findings Of the 795 fatality incidents classified as other, 48 (6.05%) do not have causes which reoccur with significant frequency. Twenty nine of the incidents cl assif ied as other were listed as unknown (see Table 4-58). In 19 of these incide nts the type of death was not specified in the incident description. In ten of these incidents th e cause of death was specifically noted as either being unknown or not determined. Inferences might be made about the cause of death from the description, but this would be conjecture. 74

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Examples of Incident Descriptions The following are examples of incident desc riptions of deaths categorized as unknown. Example of an incident with an unspecifi ed cause of death: Inspection Number 106170566 Employee #1 was a laborer lying on a m an-ma de cart. Employee #1 entered a new water pipe approxim ately 36 in. in diameter by 350 ft long. Employee #1 was ahead of a cement spray machine, which was spraying the interi or of the pipeline. The machine was pulled through the pipeline by an elec trically-operated winch. The laborer pulled the cart they were on as the spreader machine is pulled through. The laborer watched the operation and called out to the winch operator when to st op and go. Employee #1 died. At this time, the medical examiner has not determined the cause of death. Example of an incident with an unspecifi ed cause of death: Inspection Number 125665836 The employer was a small roofing contract or. E mployee #1, a roofer, collapsed while picking up his tools and preparing to go hom e. Employee #2 heard Employee #1 make a noise and checked on Employee #1. Employee #2 observed Employee #1 falling to the roof deck. Employee #2 called 911. The specific cau se of death has not been determined at this point. Example of an incident with an unspecifi ed cause of death: Inspection Number 110056652 Employee #1 was doing yard work. Em ployee #1 complained of light headaches and dizziness. Employee #1 laid down about noon. Another employee checked on Em ployee #1 about 2:30 PM. Employee #1 was transp orted to the hospital where he died. Example of an incident with an unspecifi ed cause of death: Inspection Number 115064693 Employee #1 went to the work trailer. Em ployee #1 and Em ployee #2 picked up supplies for painting and walked approxima tely two blocks to their work site. They climbed several flights of stairs. Employee #2 left Employee #1 to begin painting on one flight and went up another flight to paint there. Employ ee #2 turned, looked down, and saw Employee #1 with his hard hat off, rubbing his forehead and face. Employee #1 then sat down, held onto a railing, and laid his head on his arm. Em ployee #2 went to Employee #1 to help, but Employee #1 was not coherent. Employee #2 called for help to move Employee #1 outside. Employee #2 requested medical aid. Medical aid arrived in approximately 2 minutes, about 4 minutes after the start of the incident. Employee #1 was taken to a regional medical center where he was pronounced dead. Example of an incident with an unspecifi ed cause of death: Inspection Number 306202052 Employee was found face down on the ground. 75

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Table 4-1. Frequency of All Incidents by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 686 7.15 1991 648 6.75 1992 571 5.95 1993 598 6.23 1994 626 6.52 1995 631 6.57 1996 637 6.64 1997 656 6.83 1998 672 7.00 1999 736 7.67 2000 671 6.99 2001 773 8.05 2002 766 7.98 2003 744 7.75 2004 185 1.93 Totals 9600 100.00 (1990-2003) 672.50 7.01 59.79 8.89 +/732.29 612.71 76

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Table 4-2. Frequency of All Incidents by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 673 7.01 Feb 629 6.55 Mar 742 7.73 Apr 760 7.92 May 776 8.08 Jun 859 8.95 Jul 1023 10.66 Aug 987 10.28 Sep 828 8.63 Oct 954 9.94 Nov 716 7.46 Dec 653 6.80 Totals 9600 100.00 800.00 8.33 126.57 15.82 +/926.57 673.43 Table 4-3. Frequency of All Incidents by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 222 2.31 Mon 1770 18.44 Tue 1830 19.06 Wed 1881 19.59 Thu 1731 18.03 Fri 1551 16.16 Sat 615 6.41 Totals 9600 100.00 (weekday)* 1,752.60 18.26 113.04 6.45 +/1,865.64 1,639.56 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 77

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Table 4-4. Causes of Fatalities from Three Studies (Percentages) Incident Type OSHA 1985 1989* Hinze et al. 1994-1995* This report-Second data set (12/2000 5/2004) Falls 33 34 39 Struck By 22 18 23 Caught in/between 18 15 15 Electric Shock 17 20 13 Other 10 13 10 Totals 100 100 100 *(Hinze et al. 1998) Table 4-5. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Other by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 47 5.91 1991 61 7.67 1992 42 5.28 1993 60 7.55 1994 59 7.42 1995 55 6.92 1996 41 5.16 1997 57 7.17 1998 50 6.29 1999 58 7.30 2000 49 6.16 2001 49 6.16 2002 83 10.44 2003 72 9.06 2004 12 1.51 Totals 795 100.00 (1990-2003) 55.93 7.04 10.94 19.57 +/66.87 44.98 78

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0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Figure 4-1. Percent of All a nd Other Incidents by Year Table 4-6. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Other by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 53 6.67 Feb 43 5.41 Mar 48 6.04 Apr 59 7.42 May 57 7.17 Jun 79 9.94 Jul 133 16.73 Aug 94 11.82 Sep 65 8.18 Oct 65 8.18 Nov 45 5.66 Dec 54 6.79 Totals 795 100.00 66.25 8.33 24.46 36.92 +/90.71 41.79 79

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0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Figure 4-2. Percent of All a nd Other Incidents by Month Table 4-7. Frequency of Incident s Classified as Other by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 26 3.27 Mon 132 16.60 Tue 148 18.62 Wed 155 19.50 Thu 146 18.36 Fri 135 16.98 Sat 53 6.67 Totals 795 100.00 (weekday)* 143.20 18.01 8.52 5.95 +/151.72 134.68 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 80

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0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Figure 4-3. Percent of All a nd Other Incidents by Day Table 4-8. Annual Frequency of Other Incidents Year Frequency of All Incidents Frequency of Other Incidents Other Percent of Total In cidents 1990 686 47 6.85 1991 648 61 9.41 1992 571 42 7.36 1993 598 60 10.03 1994 626 59 9.42 1995 631 55 8.72 1996 637 41 6.44 1997 656 57 8.69 1998 672 50 7.44 1999 736 58 7.88 2000 671 49 7.30 2001 773 49 6.34 2002 766 83 10.84 2003 744 72 9.68 2004 185 12 6.49 (1990-2003) 672.50 55.93 8.32 81

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Table 4-9. Monthly Freque ncy of Other Incidents Month Frequency of All Incidents Frequency of Other Incidents "Other" Percent of Total In cidents Jan 673 53 7.88 Feb 629 43 6.84 Mar 742 48 6.47 Apr 760 59 7.76 May 776 57 7.35 Jun 859 79 9.20 Jul 1023 133 13.00 Aug 987 94 9.52 Sep 828 65 7.85 Oct 954 65 6.81 Nov 716 45 6.28 Dec 653 54 8.27 800.00 66.25 8.28 Table 4-10. Daily Frequency of Other Incidents Day Frequency of All Incidents Frequency of Other Incidents "Other" Percent of Total Incidents Sun 222 26 11.71 Mon 1770 132 7.46 Tue 1830 148 8.09 Wed 1881 155 8.24 Thu 1731 146 8.43 Fri 1551 135 8.70 Sat 615 53 8.62 1371.43 113.57 8.28 Table 4-11. CIRPC Daily Pe rcentages of Incidents Day CIRPC 2003 Percentage of All Events CIRPC 2004 Percentage of All Events CIRPC (2003 2004) Sun 1.42 2.29 1.87 Mon 20.93 19.36 20.11 Tue 17.82 20.38 19.17 Wed 20.65 17.96 19.24 Thu 18.67 16.82 17.69 Fri 13.58 15.16 14.41 Sat 6.93 8.03 7.51 Totals 100.00 100.00 100.00 82

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0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% SunMonTueWedThuFriSat Day Percent of Incidents All CIRPC 2003 Percentage of All Events CIRPC 2004 Percentage of All Events CIRPC Average 2003 2004 Figure 4-4. Daily Distribution of All Fatal Construction Incidents Table 4-12. Frequency of Occurrence of Cate gories of Incidents Classified Other Classification Frequency Percent of Other Incidents Percent of Total Incidents Natural Causes 243 30.57 2.53 Asphyxiation 110 13.84 1.15 Drowning 98 12.33 1.02 Burns 97 12.20 1.01 Explosion-Fire 75 9.43 0.78 Hyperthermia 58 7.30 0.60 Chemical Exposure 39 4.91 0.41 Lightning 27 3.40 0.28 Not Work Related 6 0.75 0.06 Murder 4 0.50 0.04 Drug related 3 0.38 0.03 Animal Bites 2 0.25 0.02 Helicopter Crash 1 0.13 0.01 Injury Complications 1 0.13 0.01 Mesothelioma 1 0.13 0.01 Suicide 1 0.13 0.01 Unknown 29 3.65 0.30 Total 795 100.00 8.28 83

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Suicide, 0.13% Other, 2.40% Lightning, 3.40% Unknown, 3.65% Chemical Exposure, 4.91% Hyperthermia, 7.30% Explosion-Fire, 9.43% Animal Bites, 0.25% Drug Related, 0.38% Murder, 0.50% Not Work Related, 0.75% Natural Causes, 30.57% Asphyxiation, 13.84% Drowning, 12.33% Burns, 12.20% Injury Complications, 0.13% Mesothelioma, 0.13% Helicopter Crash, 0.13% Figure 4-5. Categories of Other Incidents 84

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Table 4-13. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Natural Causes by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 13 5.35 1991 16 6.58 1992 10 4.12 1993 22 9.05 1994 19 7.82 1995 24 9.88 1996 11 4.53 1997 14 5.76 1998 13 5.35 1999 20 8.23 2000 18 7.41 2001 15 6.17 2002 23 9.47 2003 22 9.05 2004 3 1.23 Totals 243 100.00 (1990-2003) 17.14 7.05 4.47 26.07 +/21.61 12.67 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Natural Causes Figure 4-6. Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Natural Causes by Year 85

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Table 4-14. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Natural Causes by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 15 6.17 Feb 15 6.17 Mar 14 5.76 Apr 22 9.05 May 23 9.47 Jun 20 8.23 Jul 34 13.99 Aug 24 9.88 Sep 19 7.82 Oct 18 7.41 Nov 13 5.35 Dec 26 10.70 Totals 243 100.00 20.25 8.33 5.78 28.52 +/26.03 14.47 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Natural Causes Figure 4-7. Percent of Incidents Cla ssified Natural Causes by Month 86

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Table 4-15. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Natural Causes by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 4 1.65 Mon 42 17.28 Tue 48 19.75 Wed 50 20.58 Thu 45 18.52 Fri 43 17.70 Sat 11 4.53 Totals 243 100.00 (weekday)* 45.60 18.77 3.01 6.59 +/48.61 42.59 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Natural Causes Figure 4-8. Percent of Incidents Cl assified Natural Causes by Day 87

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Table 4-16. Cause of Death Cited for Inci dents Classified as Natural Causes Cause of Death Frequency Percentage Heart Problems 210 86.42 Cerebral aneurysm 5 2.06 Asthma 3 1.23 Legionella Pneumophila 3 1.23 Pulmonary Edema 3 1.23 Aneurism 2 0.82 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 2 0.82 Acute Renal Failure 1 0.41 Bacterial infection 1 0.41 Emphysema 1 0.41 Hemorrhagic pancreatitis 1 0.41 Leptospirosis 1 0.41 Lung Cancer 1 0.41 Pneumonia 1 0.41 Seizures 1 0.41 Sepsis 1 0.41 Stroke 1 0.41 Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to chronic esophagitis 1 0.41 Not Specified 4 1.65 Totals 243 100.00 88

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Table 4-17. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 7 6.36 1991 9 8.18 1992 3 2.73 1993 10 9.09 1994 9 8.18 1995 8 7.27 1996 6 5.45 1997 13 11.82 1998 9 8.18 1999 6 5.45 2000 2 1.82 2001 8 7.27 2002 11 10.00 2003 9 8.18 2004 0 0.00 Totals 110 100.00 (1990-2003) 7.86 7.14 2.82 35.95 +/10.68 5.03 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Asphyxiation Figure 4-9. Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Year 89

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Table 4-18. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 7 6.36 Feb 7 6.36 Mar 8 7.27 Apr 5 4.55 May 2 1.82 Jun 11 10.00 Jul 21 19.09 Aug 12 10.91 Sep 14 12.73 Oct 10 9.09 Nov 6 5.45 Dec 7 6.36 Totals 110 100.00 9.17 8.33 4.74 51.71 +/13.91 4.43 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Asphyxiation Figure 4-10. Percent of Incidents Classified Asphyxiation by Month 90

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Table 4-19. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 6 5.45 Mon 20 18.18 Tue 23 20.91 Wed 20 18.18 Thu 17 15.45 Fri 18 16.36 Sat 6 5.45 Totals 110 100.00 (weekday)* 19.60 17.82 2.06 10.51 +/21.66 17.54 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Asphyxiation Figure 4-11. Percent of Incident s Classified Asphyxiation by Day 91

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Table 4-20. Frequency of Incidents of Asphyxiation Year This report (Asphyxiation) CIRPC Asphyxiation /Inhalation of toxic vapor 1991-1998 average 8.4 6.5 1999 6 5 2000 2 5 2001 8 11 2002 11 14 2003 9 10 Table 4-21. Conditions Cited in Inci dents Classified as Asphyxiation Conditions Cited in Incident Reports Fre quency* Percent of Asphyxiation Incidents Confined Space 90 81.82 Manhole 40 36.36 Sewer Conduit 1 0.91 Inside Underground Pipe 1 0.91 Basement 2 1.82 Wearing Respirator 6 5.45 Welding/Torch 3 2.73 Ruptured gas line 1 0.91 *Note: Many incidents reports cited multiple conditions listed above. Table 4-22. Chemical Agents Cited in Incidents Classifi ed as Asphyxiation Chemical Agent Frequency Per cent of Asphyxiation Incidents Carbon Monoxide 17 15.45 Low O216 14.55 Nitrogen 11 10.00 Sewer Gas 7 6.36 Hydrogen Sulfide 6 5.45 Smoke 6 5.45 Paint/Primer 4 3.64 Argon 3 2.73 Gasoline 2 1.82 Methane 2 1.82 Methylene Chloride 1 0.91 Sunflex polymer Waterproofing 1 0.91 Total 76 69.09 92

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Table 4-23. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 5 5.10 1991 6 6.12 1992 8 8.16 1993 9 9.18 1994 10 10.20 1995 10 10.20 1996 5 5.10 1997 6 6.12 1998 3 3.06 1999 8 8.16 2000 7 7.14 2001 3 3.06 2002 11 11.22 2003 5 5.10 2004 2 2.04 Totals 98 100.00 (1990-2003) 6.86 7.00 2.47 36.08 +/9.33 4.38 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Drowning Figure 4-12. Percent of Incide nts Classified Drowning by Year 93

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Table 4-24. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 8 8.16 Feb 7 7.14 Mar 2 2.04 Apr 8 8.16 May 7 7.14 Jun 10 10.20 Jul 12 12.24 Aug 11 11.22 Sep 6 6.12 Oct 10 10.20 Nov 9 9.18 Dec 8 8.16 Totals 98 100.00 8.17 8.33 2.51 30.75 +/10.68 5.66 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Drowning Figure 4-13. Percent of Incident s Classified Drowning by Month 94

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Table 4-25. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Drowning by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 4 4.08 Mon 14 14.29 Tue 12 12.24 Wed 23 23.47 Thu 20 20.41 Fri 17 17.35 Sat 8 8.16 Totals 98 100.00 (weekday)* 17.20 17.55 3.97 23.08 +/21.17 13.23 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Drowning Figure 4-14. Percent of Incide nts Classified Drowning by Day 95

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Table 4-26. Frequency of Incidents of Drowning Year This report CIRPC 1991-1998 average 7.2 5.5 1999 8 10 2000 7 5 2001 3 3 2002 11 8 2003 5 2 Table 4-27. Conditions Cited in In cidents Classified as Drowning Condition or Nature of Incident Frequency Percent Fell/slipped in to water 28 28.57 Equipment/Vehicle Related 26 26.53 Equipment slid/rolled in 12 (12.24%) Drove equipment/vehicle in 11 (11.22%) Backed equipment/vehicle in 3 (3.06%) Flooded pipe/tunnel or excavation 9 9.18 Waded/jumped in for a swim & drowned 8 8.16 Boat/barge overturned 6 6.12 Diver accident 6 6.12 Swam after drifting boat 3 3.06 Jumped off barge/boat in fear 2 2.04 Knocked off bridge 1 1.02 Overcome by current 1 1.02 Sucked into water by plumbing system 1 1.02 Working in retention pond 1 1.02 Other 6 6.12 Totals 98 100.00 96

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Table 4-28. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 8 8.25 1991 9 9.28 1992 7 7.22 1993 4 4.12 1994 5 5.15 1995 2 2.06 1996 5 5.15 1997 6 6.19 1998 11 11.34 1999 9 9.28 2000 8 8.25 2001 7 7.22 2002 8 8.25 2003 7 7.22 2004 1 1.03 Totals 97 100.00 (1990-2003) 6.86 7.07 2.23 32.54 +/9.09 4.63 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Burns Figure 4-15. Percent of Incide nts Classified Burns by Year 97

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Table 4-29. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 7 7.22 Feb 4 4.12 Mar 11 11.34 Apr 5 5.15 May 9 9.28 Jun 8 8.25 Jul 13 13.40 Aug 8 8.25 Sep 5 5.15 Oct 12 12.37 Nov 8 8.25 Dec 7 7.22 Totals 97 100.00 8.08 8.33 2.69 33.29 +/10.77 5.39 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Burns Figure 4-16. Percent of Incidents Classified Burns by Month 98

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Table 4-30. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Burns by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 4 4.12 Mon 11 11.34 Tue 28 28.87 Wed 17 17.53 Thu 14 14.43 Fri 12 12.37 Sat 11 11.34 Totals 97 100.00 (weekday)* 16.40 16.91 6.15 37.51 +/22.55 10.25 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Burns Figure 4-17. Percent of Incide nts Classified Burns by Day 99

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Table 4-31. Locations Cited in In cidents Classified as Burns Location Frequency Percent Outside 20 20.62 Factory/Plant 10 10.31 House 5 5.15 Apartment 3 3.09 Basement 3 3.09 Excavation 2 2.06 Hospital 2 2.06 Van/Truck 2 2.06 Bar 1 1.03 Boiler Room 1 1.03 Ditch 1 1.03 Electrical Closet 1 1.03 Gym 1 1.03 High Rise 1 1.03 Manhole 1 1.03 Office Building 1 1.03 Petroleum Storage Facility 1 1.03 Private Residence 1 1.03 Quarry 1 1.03 Roof 1 1.03 Single Family Residence 1 1.03 Swimming Pool 1 1.03 Underground Pipe 1 1.03 Underground Vault 1 1.03 Not Specified 34 35.05 Total 97 100.00 100

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Table 4-32. Ignition Sources Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns Ignition Source Frequency Percent Electric Arc 34 35.05 Pilot Light 6 6.19 Welding 6 6.19 Electrical Switch/Light 4 4.12 Burning Trees/Plants 2 2.06 Heater 2 2.06 Tar Kettle 2 2.06 Boiler Ignition 1 1.03 Chemical Reaction 1 1.03 Cigarette 1 1.03 Cigarette Lighter 1 1.03 Drilling 1 1.03 Electric Fan 1 1.03 Explosion 1 1.03 Fire Pot/Pit 1 1.03 Flashback 1 1.03 Floor Buffer 1 1.03 Furnace 1 1.03 HVAC 1 1.03 Bulldozer Manifold 1 1.03 Metal Slag 1 1.03 Open Flame 1 1.03 Pneumatic Chipping Hammer 1 1.03 Portable Quartz Light 1 1.03 Propane Torch 1 1.03 Shop Vacuum 1 1.03 Torch 1 1.03 Vehicle Accident 1 1.03 Water Heater 1 1.03 Not Specified 19 19.59 Total 97 100.00 101

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Table 4-33. Combustible Agents Cited in Incidents Classified as Burns Combustible Agent Frequency Percent Gasoline 5 5.15 Paint/Primer 5 5.15 Hydraulic Fluid 4 4.12 Lacquer Thinner 4 4.12 Natural Gas 4 4.12 Clothing 3 3.09 Crude Oil 2 2.06 Diesel 2 2.06 Fuel Oil 2 2.06 Kerosene 2 2.06 Oil 2 2.06 Propane 2 2.06 Solvent 2 2.06 Acetone 1 1.03 Asphalt 1 1.03 Butane 1 1.03 Cobalt Solution 1 1.03 Contact Adhesive 1 1.03 Duct Liner Adhesive 1 1.03 Ethylene Glycol 1 1.03 Floor Refinishing Material 1 1.03 Hardwood Floor Sealer 1 1.03 Insulating Oil 1 1.03 Lacquer 1 1.03 Lacquer Finish 1 1.03 Methane 1 1.03 Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide 1 1.03 Naphtha 1 1.03 Petroleum Products 1 1.03 Roofing Cement 1 1.03 Thermoplastic 1 1.03 Transformer Oil 1 1.03 Varsol 1 1.03 White Lacquer Undercoating 1 1.03 Not Specified 10 10.31 102

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Table 4-34. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 10 13.33 1991 9 12.00 1992 4 5.33 1993 6 8.00 1994 6 8.00 1995 5 6.67 1996 4 5.33 1997 4 5.33 1998 3 4.00 1999 7 9.33 2000 2 2.67 2001 2 2.67 2002 4 5.33 2003 7 9.33 2004 2 2.67 Totals 75 100.00 (1990-2003) 5.21 6.95 2.34 44.79 +/7.55 2.88 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Explosion-Fire Figure 4-18. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Year 103

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Table 4-35. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 5 6.67 Feb 4 5.33 Mar 7 9.33 Apr 6 8.00 May 7 9.33 Jun 8 10.67 Jul 11 14.67 Aug 10 13.33 Sep 5 6.67 Oct 6 8.00 Nov 4 5.33 Dec 2 2.67 Totals 75 100.00 6.25 8.33 2.45 39.26 +/8.70 3.80 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Explosion-Fire Figure 4-19. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Month 104

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Table 4-36. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 2 2.67 Mon 9 12.00 Tue 15 20.00 Wed 16 21.33 Thu 11 14.67 Fri 19 25.33 Sat 3 4.00 Totals 75 100.00 (weekday)* 14.00 18.67 3.58 25.56 +/17.58 10.42 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Explosion-Fire Figure 4-20. Percent of Incidents Classified Explosion-Fire by Day 105

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Table 4-37. Frequency of Inci dents of Explosion-Fire Year This report (combined Explosion-Fire and Burns) CIRPC f ire/exp losion/scalding 1991-1998 average 11.25 3.1 1999 16 17 2000 10 14 2001 9 12 2002 12 11 2003 14 14 Table 4-38. Locations Cited for Incide nts Classified as Explosion-Fire Location of Incident Frequency Percent Large Tank 13 17.33 Factory/Plant 6 8.00 Outside 6 8.00 Excavation 2 2.67 Apartment 1 1.33 Attic 1 1.33 Basement 1 1.33 Building 1 1.33 Camper Trailer 1 1.33 Ditch 1 1.33 House 1 1.33 Manhole 1 1.33 Oil Well 1 1.33 Parking Garage 1 1.33 Refinery 1 1.33 Roof 1 1.33 Ship 1 1.33 Shipping Container 1 1.33 Utility Vault 1 1.33 Van/Truck 1 1.33 Warehouse 1 1.33 Not Specified 31 41.33 Total 75 100.00 106

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Table 4-39. Source of Ignition Cited for In cidents Classified as Explosion-Fire Source of Ignition Frequency Percent Welding/Torch 28 37.33 Ruptured Gas Line 4 5.33 Electrical Switch 3 4.00 Band Saw 2 2.67 Circular Saw 2 2.67 Grinder 2 2.67 Hammer 2 2.67 Match 2 2.67 Chemical Reaction 1 1.33 Cigarette 1 1.33 Cut-off Saw 1 1.33 Drill 1 1.33 Electric Arc 1 1.33 Engine 1 1.33 Pilot Light 1 1.33 Shop Vacuum 1 1.33 Unknown 3 4.00 Not Specified 19 25.33 Totals 75 100.00 107

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Table 4-40. Explosive or Combustible Agent Cited for Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire Explosive or Combustible Agent Frequency Percent Natural Gas 10 13.33 Gasoline 5 6.67 Propane 5 6.67 Acetylene 4 5.33 Crude Oil 4 5.33 Paint/Primer 3 4.00 Explosives 2 2.67 Gas 2 2.67 Aluminum 1 1.33 Ammonia 1 1.33 Ammonium Perchlorate 1 1.33 Benzoyl Peroxide 1 1.33 Boiler 1 1.33 Brine Tank 1 1.33 Butadiene 1 1.33 Detonator Powder 1 1.33 Diesel fuel 1 1.33 Dust 1 1.33 Fuel 1 1.33 Gilsonite 1 1.33 Insulating Foam 1 1.33 Liquid Nails 1 1.33 Methane 1 1.33 Motor Oil 1 1.33 Olefins 1 1.33 Oxygen 1 1.33 Pipe 1 1.33 Reactor Vessel 1 1.33 Sodium Azide 1 1.33 Tar Paper 1 1.33 Terephthalic acid 1 1.33 Waterproofing 1 1.33 White Liquor 1 1.33 Not Specified 15 20.00 Total 75 100.00 108

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Table 4-41. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 0 0.00 1991 5 8.62 1992 2 3.45 1993 5 8.62 1994 4 6.90 1995 2 3.45 1996 2 3.45 1997 3 5.17 1998 6 10.34 1999 4 6.90 2000 4 6.90 2001 4 6.90 2002 8 13.79 2003 9 15.52 2004 0 0.00 Totals 58 100.00 (1990-2003) 4.14 7.14 2.33 56.13 +/6.47 1.82 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Hyperthermia Figure 4-21. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Year 109

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Table 4-42. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 0 0.00 Feb 0 0.00 Mar 0 0.00 Apr 3 5.17 May 5 8.62 Jun 12 20.69 Jul 21 36.21 Aug 14 24.14 Sep 3 5.17 Oct 0 0.00 Nov 0 0.00 Dec 0 0.00 Totals 58 100.00 4.83 8.33 6.73 139.26 +/11.56 -1.90 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Hyperthermia Figure 4-22. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Month 110

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Table 4-43. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 0 0.00 Mon 13 22.41 Tue 10 17.24 Wed 10 17.24 Thu 12 20.69 Fri 10 17.24 Sat 3 5.17 Totals 58 100.00 (weekday)* 11.00 18.97 1.26 11.50 +/12.26 9.74 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Hyperthermia Figure 4-23. Percent of Incidents Classified Hyperthermia by Day 111

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Table 4-44. Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Cl assified as Hyperthermia Type of Work/Trade Frequency Percent Site Work 13 22.41 Concrete Work 8 13.79 Laborer 8 13.79 Roofing 7 12.07 Laying Pipe 4 6.90 Carpenter 2 3.45 Bridge Work 1 1.72 Electrician 1 1.72 Highway Construction 1 1.72 Installing Insulation 1 1.72 Masonry 1 1.72 Sealing Parking Lot 1 1.72 Welding 1 1.72 Not Specified 9 15.52 Totals 58 100.00 Table 4-45. Relevant Conditions or Locations Cite d for Incidents Classi fied as Hyperthermia Condition or Location of Incident Frequency Percent Ground Level 27 46.55 On a Rooftop 9 15.52 In an Attic 1 1.72 On a Bridge 1 1.72 On Scaffolding 115' high 1 1.72 Underground 1 1.72 Not Specified 18 31.03 Totals 58 100.00 Table 4-46. Frequency of In cidents of Hyperthermia Year This report (Hyperthermia) CIRPC Hypertherm ia and Hypothermia 1991-1998 average 3.63 2.8 1999 4 6 2000 4 4 2001 4 5 2002 8 8 2003 9 8 112

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Table 4-47. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Ch emical Exposure by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 0 0.00 1991 3 7.69 1992 6 15.38 1993 0 0.00 1994 4 10.26 1995 2 5.13 1996 2 5.13 1997 3 7.69 1998 0 0.00 1999 0 0.00 2000 4 10.26 2001 4 10.26 2002 5 12.82 2003 3 7.69 2004 3 7.69 Totals 39 100.00 (1990-2003) 2.57 6.59 1.92 74.54 +/4.49 0.65 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Chemical Exposure Figure 4-24. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Year 113

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Table 4-48. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Ch emical Exposure by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 7 17.95 Feb 4 10.26 Mar 4 10.26 Apr 6 15.38 May 2 5.13 Jun 0 0.00 Jul 1 2.56 Aug 2 5.13 Sep 4 10.26 Oct 4 10.26 Nov 2 5.13 Dec 3 7.69 Totals 39 100.00 3.25 8.33 1.92 59.09 +/5.17 1.33 0.00% 2.00% 4.00% 6.00% 8.00% 10.00% 12.00% 14.00% 16.00% 18.00% 20.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec All Other Chemical Exposure Figure 4-25. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Month 114

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Table 4-49. Frequency of In cidents Classified as Chemical Exposure by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 2 5.13 Mon 10 25.64 Tue 4 10.26 Wed 5 12.82 Thu 11 28.21 Fri 3 7.69 Sat 4 10.26 Totals 39 100.00 (weekday)* 6.60 16.92 3.26 49.42 +/9.86 3.34 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Chemical Exposure Figure 4-26. Percent of Incidents Classified Chemical Exposure by Day 115

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Table 4-50. Type of Work or Trade Cited for Incidents Cla ssified as Chemical Exposure Type of Work/Trade Frequency Percent Pipe Installation/Repair 12 30.77 Boiler Repair 3 7.69 Refinishing Bathtub 3 7.69 Sewer Repair 3 7.69 Laborer 2 5.13 Asphalt Application 1 2.56 Cleaning Electrical Components 1 2.56 Demolition 1 2.56 Electrician 1 2.56 Floor Tile Removal 1 2.56 HVAC Repair 1 2.56 Pump Motor Replacement 1 2.56 Spray-finishing 1 2.56 Stripping Walls 1 2.56 Traffic Accident 1 2.56 Welding/Torch 1 2.56 Not Specified 5 12.82 Total 39 100.00 Table 4-51. Location Cited for Incident s Classified as Chemical Exposure Location Frequency Percent Factory/Plant 13 33.33 Manhole 4 10.26 Apartment 2 5.13 Building 2 5.13 Bathroom 1 2.56 Bridge Construction 1 2.56 Chemistry Lab 1 2.56 Dairy 1 2.56 Gas Station 1 2.56 Hospital 1 2.56 Lift Station 1 2.56 Sewer 1 2.56 Van 1 2.56 Not Specified 9 23.08 Total 39 100.00 116

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Table 4-52. Chemical Agents Cited for Inci dents Classified as Chemical Exposure Chemical Frequency Percent Hydrogen Sulfide 6 15.38 Steam 6 15.38 Hot Water 5 12.82 Methylene Chloride 3 7.69 Carbon Monoxide 2 5.13 Acetone cyanohydrin 1 2.56 Ammonia 1 2.56 Black Liquor 1 2.56 Cadmium and Nickel 1 2.56 Chromium 1 2.56 Freon 113 1 2.56 Freon-11 1 2.56 Gasoline 1 2.56 Hot Ash 1 2.56 Hot Asphalt 1 2.56 Hot Liquid 1 2.56 Hydrofluoric acid 1 2.56 Landfill gas 1 2.56 Mastic Remover 1 2.56 Sour Gas 1 2.56 Stripper 1 2.56 Thallium 1 2.56 Totals 39 100.00 117

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Table 4-53. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Year Year Frequency Percentage 1990 0 0.00 1991 1 3.70 1992 1 3.70 1993 3 11.11 1994 0 0.00 1995 1 3.70 1996 2 7.41 1997 6 22.22 1998 2 7.41 1999 1 3.70 2000 0 0.00 2001 3 11.11 2002 4 14.81 2003 3 11.11 2004 0 0.00 Totals 27 100.00 (1990-2003) 1.93 7.14 1.67 86.46 +/3.60 0.26 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 1990199219941996199820002002 All Other Lightning Figure 4-27. Percent of Incident s Classified Lightning by Year 118

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Table 4-54. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Month Month Frequency Percentage Jan 0 0.00 Feb 0 0.00 Mar 0 0.00 Apr 0 0.00 May 1 3.70 Jun 6 22.22 Jul 11 40.74 Aug 5 18.52 Sep 4 14.81 Oct 0 0.00 Nov 0 0.00 Dec 0 0.00 Totals 27 100.00 2.25 8.33 3.39 150.85 +/5.64 -1.14 All Other Lightning 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJunJulAug Sep Oct Nov Dec Figure 4-28. Percent of Incident s Classified Lightning by Month 119

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Table 4-55. Frequency of Incidents Classified as Lightning by Day Day Frequency Percentage Sun 3 11.11 Mon 4 14.81 Tue 5 18.52 Wed 6 22.22 Thu 5 18.52 Fri 3 11.11 Sat 1 3.70 Totals 27 100.00 (weekday)* 4.60 17.04 1.02 22.17 +/5.62 3.58 *Excludes Saturday and Sunday 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Sun Mon TueWedThuFri Sat All Other Lightning Figure 4-29. Percent of Incident s Classified Lightning by Day 120

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Table 4-56. Locations Cited for In cidents Classified as Lightning Location Frequency Percentage On Roof 11 40.74 On ground 7 25.93 Not Specified 4 14.81 3rd story plumbing install 1 3.70 In House 1 3.70 On Catwalk 1 3.70 On front end loader 1 3.70 Operating asphalt roller 1 3.70 Totals 27 100 Table 4-57 Frequency of Fata l Incidents due to Lightning Year This report (Lightning) CIRPC Shock/burn from lightning 1991-1998 average 2 2 1999 1 0 2000 0 4 2001 3 4 2002 4 3 2003 3 3 Table 4-58. Minor Categories Classification Frequency Percent of Other Incidents Percent of Total Incidents Not Work Related 6 0.75 0.06 Murder 4 0.50 0.04 Drug related 3 0.38 0.03 Animal Bites 2 0.25 0.02 Helicopter Crash 1 0.13 0.01 Injury Complications 1 0.13 0.01 Mesothelioma 1 0.13 0.01 Suicide 1 0.13 0.01 Unknown 29 3.65 0.30 Total 48 6.05 0.49 121

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Incidents Classified as Other Each of the eight subcategories of other in cidents, with the excep tion of incidents of Che mical Exposure, had a maximum frequency of occurrence in July. Obvious explanations for peaks in July for deaths from drowning, lightning and hyperthermia are that in warmer weather more people are in or around water, there is more lightning activity, and there are higher temperatures. There is no obvious explanation for why there are peaks in July for deaths from natural causes, asphyxiation, burns, or explosion-fires. The variations in the number of incidents through the week may be explained with more inform ation about a typical work week. However, other than the workforce tiring at the end of a work week, there is no obvious reason as to why the percentage of other incidents with respect to all incidents increases to ward the end of the week. The low number of total incidents on Sundays and Saturdays can be accounted for as these are not normal work days and ar e typically used for work as make up days or when a job is undergoing schedule acceleration. This does not explain why on Sunday the percentage of other incidents with respect to all incidents is about 40% highe r than average. However, given that there are only 26 other incidents on Sunday over 14 years, there may not be a sufficient num ber of incidents for conc lusive statistical analysis. Incidents Classified as Natural Causes Deaths from natural causes accounted for 30.57% of other incidents, the largest percentage of any subcategory. The cited cause of over 86% of these incidents was heart related problems. While natur al causes includes a variety of causes of death, deaths from heart related problems may tend to be more sudden with less preceding symptoms than other ailments. 122

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Fatalities investigated by OSHA tend to be sudden events occurring on job sites rather than deaths that are caused by long term exposure such as silicosis, asbestosis or cancer. Review of these types of events was beyond the scope of this report. Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation Over 80% of the deaths from asphyxiation were in confined spaces. This indicates much higher risk o f this type of incident for workers in a confined space than in other environments. Chemical agents were mentioned in 76 of the 110 in cidents. Nine of the twelve chemical agents cited were present in less than 10% of incident s. The most frequently cited chemical agent was CO (15.45%). This indicates no noticeable trends in the chemical agents. Incidents Classified as Drowning An increased number of drowning incidents o ccur in the warm er months. Incidents also occur in December, January and February. The reasons for the higher number of drowning incidents on Wednesday and Thursday are not readily obvious. One narrative description indica ted the use of PPE. This indicates that most drowning victims wer e not observing proper safety pro cedures for working near a body of water. Difficulties in comparative analysis of studi es including dr owning fatalities come from differences in causal categorizati on. Some studies do not include fatalities that are not considered job related, such as the eight inci dents in this report in which workers waded or jumped in water and drowned. These events are relevant if they occurred on a job site as they may indicate the need for fencing off bodies of water on job sites. Incidents Classified as Burns A peak in the frequency of burn incidents occurred on Tuesday (28.87%). There is no readily apparent reason for this p eak. There are no readily apparent reason s for monthly peaks in incident frequency in Marcy, July and October. There were no noticeable trends in the location 123

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of burn incidents. The source of ignition sited in 34 (35.05%) in cidents was an electric arc indicating an increased risk of this type of incident. Twenty two of the 29 cited sources of ignition were noted in one incident each, and three sources were each cited twice indicating no major reoccurring sources other than electric ar cs. There were 34 different combustible items cited, with no distin ct trends present. Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire Twenty-one (28%) incidents clas sified explosion-fire occurre d in July and August. There is no readily obvious explanation for over one-qua rter of the incidents occurring in these two months. While other incidents pe ak on W ednesday, incidents of expl osion-fire peak on Friday. The locations noted in narrative descriptions show no major trends, however over 40% of the incident reports did not incl ude infor mation on the location of the incident. Complete data on the work environment would aid in futu re analysis and prevention efforts. Sixteen different sources of ignition were cite d with eight noted once and five noted twice suggesting that these may have been random accidents. The relatively high percentage of explosion or fire incidents caused by welding and cutting activities indicates tha t further review of sa fety procedures is warranted. However, these incidents comprise 0.29% of all incidents and 3.52% of other incidents and may not receive sufficient attention. Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia Over 81% of incidents of hyperthermia o ccurred in June (20.69%), July (36.21%) and August (24.14%). This co rresponds with higher environmental temp eratures. The type of work or trade cited most frequently in incident reports wa s related to site work in 22.41% of the incidents. This was followed by concrete work and general labor work at 13.79% each. In 15.52% of the incidents the type of work was not specified in the narrative 124

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description. Site work and genera l laborer tend to be low skilled jobs. Prevention efforts geared to low skilled workers may help prevent these incidents. The location was not specified in 31.03% of na rrative descr iptions. More complete data concerning working locations and environmental conditions could help lead to more complete incident analysis. Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure With only 39 incidents over 14 years, there is insu fficient data to assess statistical significance of variations in annual, monthly, and daily frequencies of events. In the 39 incidents, there were 16 diffe rent types of work performed. Pipe installation/repair accounted for 12 (30.77%) incidents. While this is a high percentage of this type of incident, it does not represen t a significant num ber of incidents. There were 23 different chemi cals noted in the 39 incide nt descriptions. Six (15.38%) incidents involved hydrogen sulfide and six invo lved steam. Five (12.82%) incidents involved hot water. Ca tegorization of incidents with exposure to hydrogen su lfide or other toxic chemicals to either asphyxiation or burns may be appropriate due to the limited number of incidents of chemical exposure. Analysis of the data produce d no major trends in the type of chemicals, locations or type of work performed. Incidents Classified as Lightning The monthly frequency of occurrence showed no reports from October through April. Most incidents occurred in June (22.22%), July (40.74%) and August (18.52%) indicating a higher risk of these incidents in these months. The 27 incidents of lightning deaths over 14 years ma y not be sufficient to draw significant statisti cal conclusions on annual or weekday variations. Locations given in incident narrative descriptions were not always specific, but included sufficient information to conclude that in 11 (40.74%) incidents the decedents were on a roof, 125

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and in seven (25.93%) incidents the decedents were on the ground. Because of the low number of incidents, these do not necessarily represent statistically significant trends. 126

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CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Incidents Classified as Other The annual percentage of other incidents with respect to the annual number of total incidents ranged from 6.34% in 2001to 10.84% in 2002. Variations in the annual number of incidents and/or incident types ma y be influen ced by a wide range of factors including changes in the number of hours worked, changes in constr uction methods, changes in safety regulations, changes in reporting at either the state or federa l levels, and changes in workforce demographics. Further research into these fact ors is warranted so when regulatory changes are made there are established baselines to compare with future da ta and gauge the effectiveness of the changes. Monthly variations in incident rates are influenced by the sa me factors as annual rates as well as facto rs such as weather, holidays and common vacation periods. Fu rther research into these factors is warranted to determine the cau ses of monthly variati ons. There is a notable increase in both the frequency of other incident s and in the percentage of other incidents in July. Each of the eight subcategories of other incidents, with the ex ception of incidents of Chemical Exposure, had a maximum frequency of occurrence in July. Further research is warranted to determine why there are peaks in Ju ly for deaths from natural causes, asphyxiation, burns, and explosion-fires. Similarly, studies of incidents and their caus es should take in to account circumstances impacting specific weekdays including typical wo rkday activities, meetings, paydays, the effects of weekends, holidays, and other societal a nd cultural events such as sporting events. Incidents Classified as Natural Causes The cited cause of over 86% of the deaths fr om natural causes was h eart related problems Many studies of worker fatalities, including OS HA data analysis by CIRPC, have not included 127

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deaths due to natural causes because they were not considered job re lated. Further research concerning construction worker deaths from natural causes may indicate whether construction workers, or a demographic within that group, are at higher risk of this type of death than other workers. If construction workers are at higher risk, this informa tion should influence changes in safety protocols within the industry. Incidents Classified as Asphyxiation Prevention of deaths from asphyxiation may require more accountability in safety program s and better education programs. Nine ty (81.82%) of the 110 as phyxiation incident reports either specifically mentioned that the even t occurred in a confined space or it could be determined from the narrative description that the event occurred in a confined space. Because many incidents involved workers not following sa fety procedures for working in confined spaces, prevention may be achieved by requiri ng more accountability for workers and supervisors to ensure safe practices and proper PPE are employed in confined spaces. Educating workers on the hazards of and proper procedures for working in confined spaces, especially underground vaults, could be the best preventa tive measure for many of the incidents involving asphyxiation. There are difficulties in determining the specific cause of deat h in many incidents. In some cases, the individuals died either from exposure to toxic ch emicals, lack or oxygen, or a combination of factors. Further review of these types of accidents may lead to better classification of incidents with multiple causes, as has been suggested in other studies. With more thorough investigations of these types of incidents and be tter data collection more thorough accident prevention programs may be devised. 128

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Incidents Classified as Drowning The number of drowning deaths may be higher than actually reported. These incidents may be categorized as having different root causes. T he operator of a vehicle who drowns may be considered to be caught in the vehicle or the vehicle may have been struck by another to push the vehicle and the operator in to water. While these categorizations may be correct in terms of identifying root causes, it diminishes the relative dangers of working in or around water. Classification of fatalities should take into accoun t all relevant factors so job site risks can be properly ascertained. In the 98 incidents classified as drowning, one narrative descripti on included that the decedent was wearing personal protective equip men t (PPE). Complete data on the use of PPE would aid in communicating the nature of an incident including determining whether the decedent followed safety procedures or not. These data could be used to review the effectiveness of safety regulations. Additional research should include surveys on the use of life vests and other PPE safety gear as well as research studie s on the effectiveness of safety training on the hazards of working in or near water. In order to determine the relative risk of drowning for construction workers, further studies of drow ning incidents should include the number of hours of work performed in or around bodies of water. Incidents Classified as Burns The source of ignition sited in 35.05% of bur n incidents was an electric arc. Those incidents started by electrical arcs may have been prevented with proper precautions. Other incidents that m ay have been preventable include those started by pilot lights and torches. Details about whether the incident could have been pr evented should be specifi cally stated in each incident report. 129

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Almost 20% of the incident reports did not include information specifying a source of ignition. This information should be included in a complete report. Further studies on the nature of burn incidents should include information on the exposure to risk and prevention methods employed. Incidents Classified as Explosion-Fire The ignition source of the expl osion or fire cited most fre quently, in 28 (37.33%) incidents, involved welding and/or cutti ng with a torch. Further study sh ould include a review of the guidelines for working on or in st orage tanks to determ ine if these incidents are preventable. Additional safety training for person nel using torches may be warranted. The ignition source was not cited in 25% of the incident report s. Over 40% of the incident reports did not include information on the location of the incident. Comple te data concerning the nature of the incidents, including the location, is necessary to review the effectiveness of safety procedures. Incidents Classified as Hyperthermia Deaths from hyperthermia o ccurred exclusively between April and September suggesting that pr ecautions should be stressed in these mont hs. The location was not specified in 31.03% of narrative descriptions. More co mplete data concerning worki ng locations and environmental conditions could help lead to more complete inci dent analysis. Deaths due to environmental heat exposure are preventable but re quire knowledge and ac tion by both employers and employees. Development of education programs to promote proper heat management practices should be stressed throughout the industry. Incidents Classified as Chemical Exposure Difficulty in determining the cause of death and the limited number of cases have led others to include these incident s in other categories. Complete data and revised classification 130

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systems will help comparative an alysis. In this study, analysis of the data produced no major trends in the type of chemicals, location or type of work perfor med, suggesting that these events border on being random accidents. Incidents Classified as Lightning The number of lightning incident s was not statistically significant. This may be due to genera l knowledge of the dangers of lightning st rikes and the willingness of workers to seek shelter during lightning activity. OSHA should forma lly implement safety procedures for outside work such as the /30 rule. The 30/30 rule stat es that if there is le ss than 30 seconds between a visible lightning flash and the re port of thunder, one should seek shelter for at least 30 minutes. Incidents Classified as Unknown Some of the incidents with causes listed as unknown were due to limitations on me dical science to determine the cause of death. Othe r incident reports did not contain complete information on the cause of death. Complete and accurate data are necessary for substantive analysis to lead to accident prevention. Incident Reporting Difficulties in comparing studies arise not only from the different sources of data but from the variety of categories used. Ther e has not been a specific list of categor ies consistently used to report the frequency of incidents across governme nt agencies or in academic analysis. Additionally, while some agencies report all incidents re lated to a job site, some studies ignore incidents that they do not consid er job related. While deaths from natural causes may not appear to be related to typical fatal construction accid ents, there are potentially significant industrial hygiene factors that influence deaths from natura l causes and these factors should be considered in comprehensive job site safety plans. Standa rdization of categories in both government and academic analysis will aid in comparative analys is and tracking trends. Adding categories of 131

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deaths due to Natural Causes; Asphyxiation/ Chemical Exposure; Explosion/Fire/Burns; Drowning; Hyperthermia and Lightning would redu ce the category of other incidents from 795 incidents, 8.28% of total incidents in the data st udied, to 48 incidents, 0.4 9% of total incidents. Combining Asphyxiation and Chemical Exposure reduc es the difficulty in di stinguishing the root cause of incidents with multiple causes. Combin ing Explosion-Fires and Burns includes similar types of events. Systems that only include root causes may not yi eld many deaths from drowning as other events often lead up to the drowning. Classi fication systems should include both root causes and eventual ca uses which are related so prev ention efforts can address root causes of incidents as well as eventual causes of death. 132

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LIST OF REFERENCES Adekoya, N. and Nolte, K. (2005) Struck-by -Lightning Deaths in the United States. Journal of Environmental Health, 67(9), 45-50 Adelakun, A., Schwartz, E. and Blais, L. (1999) Occupational Heat Exposure. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14, 153-154 Beavers, J., Moore, J., Ri nehart, R., and Schriv er, W. (2006) Crane-Rel ated Fatalities in the Construction Industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(9), 901-910 Bondy, J., Lipscom b, H., Guarini, K. and Glaxner, J. (2005) Methods for Using Narrative Text from Injury Reports to Identify Factor s Contributing to C onstruction Injury. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48, 373-380 Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Charts, 1992-2005 < http://ww w.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cfch0004.pdf > (March 24, 2008) Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fata l Occupational Injuries 1992-2002 Revised Annual Data. < http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cftb0186.pdf > (March 24, 2008) Bureau of Labor Statistics pre ss release National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries In 2005. < http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/cfoi.pdf > (August 5, 2007) Chen, G., Johnston, J., Alterman, T. Burnett, C., Steenland, K., Stern, F., and Halperin, W. (2000) Expanded Analysis of Injury Mortality Among Unionized Construction Workers. Am erican Journal of Industrial Medicine 37, 364-373 Construction Industry Research and Policy Ce nter, College of Business, University of Tennessee, Knoxville < http://bus.utk.edu/ cirpc/Research/ ConstructionFatalityReports.htm > (March 24, 2008) Curran, E. B., Holle, R. L. and Lopez, R. E. ( 2000) Lightning Casualti es and Dama ges in the United States from 1959 to 1994. Journal of Climate, 13(19), 3448-3464 Derr, J., Forst, L., Chen, H., and Conroy, L. (2001) Fatal Falls in the US Construction Industry 1990 to 1999. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43(10), 853-860 Fabrega, V. and Starkey, S. (2001) Fatal O ccupational Injuries among Hispanic Construction Workers of Texas, 1997 to 1999. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 7(7), 18691883 Fuller, D. and Suruda, A. (2000) Occupationa lly Related Hydrogen Su lfide Deaths in the United States From 1984 to 1994. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 42(9), 939-942 133

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Hinze, J. and Bren, D. (1996) Analysis of Fatalities and Injuries Due to Powerline Contacts. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 122(2), 177-182 Hinze, J., Huang, X, and Terry, L. (2005) The Nature of Stuck-by Accidents. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 131(2), 262-268 Hinze, J., Pedersen, C. and Fredley, J. (1998) Identifying Root Causes of Construction Injuries. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 124(1), 67-71 Hinze, J., Pedersen, C. and Fredley, J. ( 1996) R evised Coding System for Construction Fatalities an d Injuries. Proceeding of The First Inte rnational Conference of CIB Working Commission W99, Lisbon, Portugal, Se ptember 4-7, 1996: Implementation of Safety and Health on Construction Sites, Ed. Luis M. Alves Dias and Richard J. Coble, 67-75 Huang, X., and Hinze, J. (2003) Analysis of Construction Worker Fall Accidents. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 129(3), 262-271 Jackson, S. and Loomis, D. (2002) Fatal O ccupational Injuries in the North Carolina Construction Industry, 1978-1994. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 17(1), 27-33 Leigh, J. and Miller, T. (1998) J ob-Related Diseases and Occupa tions W ithin a Large Workers Compensation Data Set. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 33, 197-211 McCann, M., Hunting, K., Murawski, J., Chowdh ury, R. and Welch, L. (2003) Causes of Electrical Deaths and Injuries Among Construction Workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 43, 398-406 McKinnon, S. H. and Utley, R. L. (2005) Heat Stress. Professional Safety 50(4), 41-47 Ore, T. and Stout, N. (1997) Risk Differen ces in Fatal Occupational Injuries Am ong Construction Laborers in the United States, 1980-1992. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 39(9), 832-843 OSHA Directive Numb er CPL 02-00-137: Fatality/Catastrophe Invest igation Procedures, Effective date: 4/14/2005 < http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/Directive_pdf/CPL_02-00137.pdf > (March 24, 2008) OSHA Frequently Asked Questions. < http://www.osha.gov/as/opa/osha-faq.html > (March 24, 2008) OSHA IMIS Accident In vestigation Search. < http://www.osha.gov/pls/imis /accidentsearch.html > (March 24, 2008) OSHA Mission Stateme nt. < http://www.osha.gov/oshinfo/mission.html > (March 24, 2008) 134

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Quinney, B., McGwin, Jr., G., Cross, J. Valent, F., Taylor, A. and Rue, L. (2002) Thermal Burn Fatalities in the Workplac e, United States, 1992 to 1999. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 23(5), 305-310 Schriver, W., Cressler II, T., Zi gulis, G. (2001) An Analysis of Fatal Events in the Construction Industry 1999 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirp c/Research/documents/1999FatalityReport.pdf > (March 24, 2008) Schriver, W., Cressler II, T., and Zigulis, G. (2002) An Analysis of Fatal Events In T he Construction Industry 2000 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirpc/Research/documents /2000FatalityReport.pdf > (March 25, 2008) Schriver, W and Cressler II, T. (2003) An Analysis of Fatal Events In The Construction Industry 2001 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirp c/Research/documents/2001FatalityReport.pdf > (March 25, 2008) Schriver, W. and Cressler II, T. (2004) An Analysis of Fatal Events In T he Construction Industry 2002 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirp c/Research/documents/2002FatalityReport.pdf > (March 25, 2008) Schriver, W. and Cressler II, T. (2005) An Analysis of Fatal Events In T he Construction Industry 2003 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirp c/Research/documents/2003FatalityReport.pdf > (March 25, 2008) Schriver, W.,Cressler II, T., and Beavers, J. (2006) An Analysis of Fatal Events In The Construction Industry 2004 < http://bus.utk.edu/cirpc/Research/documents /2000FatalityReport.pdf > (March 25, 2008) Suruda, A., Phillips, P., Lillquist, D, and Se sek, R. (2003) Fatal Injuries to Teenage Construction Workers in the US. American Journal of I ndustrial Medicine, 44, 510-514 Wan, M. (2004) Occupational Exposure to Hot E nvironm ents: Florida Wo rkers Need Help. Florida Public Health Review 1, 53-55 Wang, E., Dement, J, and Lipscomb, H. (1999) Mortality Among North Carolina Construction Workers, 1988-1994. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14, 45-58 Watanabe, T. and Masahiko, M (1998) As phyxia Due to Oxygen Deficiency by Gaseous Substances. Forensic Science International 96, 47-59 135

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Paul Ballowe was born in Jacksonville, FL, in July 1966. He graduated from St. Johns Country Day School in Orange Park in 1984. He received an AA from Santa Fe Community College in Ga inesville, FL, in 1990. He earned a BS in materials science and engineering with a certificate in sales/interface engineering in 1994 at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Paul worked in information technology before returning to school to begin work on an MSBC in 2003. As a graduate studen t, Paul has worked as a graduate assistant, served as an officer for the student chapter of th e American Society of Safety Engineers, and was inducted into the Epsilon chap ter of Sigma La mbda Chi Inte rnational Construction Honor Society. Paul and Rebecca Richmond were married in December 2006. They have one son, Thomas, who was born in March 2008.


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