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An Executional and Cultural Analysis of Television Advertisements in Pakistan

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021882/00001

Material Information

Title: An Executional and Cultural Analysis of Television Advertisements in Pakistan
Physical Description: 1 online resource (146 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, analysis, commercials, cultural, culture, dimensions, hofstede, pakistan, pakistani
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the creative executional characteristics and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television advertising. The study also examined any significant differences in the executional characteristics and value appeals among Pakistani terrestrial and satellite television channels and differences in commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items. The methodology chosen is content analysis. The unit of analysis is the individual television commercial aired on PTV (terrestrial), GEO TV (satellite) and ARY Digital (satellite) between 2002 and 2007. Hofstede?s cultural dimensions were used as the theoretical framework for cultural analysis. The findings suggest that cultural values portrayed across different channels tend to stay the same. However, the executional characteristics as well as cultural values tend to differ significantly in commercials for different product categories. Also, Pakistani food and drink category commercials overall generally tend to contain younger models and emphasis on being youthful and young and use affable language to communicate with the audience.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021882:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021882/00001

Material Information

Title: An Executional and Cultural Analysis of Television Advertisements in Pakistan
Physical Description: 1 online resource (146 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, analysis, commercials, cultural, culture, dimensions, hofstede, pakistan, pakistani
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the creative executional characteristics and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television advertising. The study also examined any significant differences in the executional characteristics and value appeals among Pakistani terrestrial and satellite television channels and differences in commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items. The methodology chosen is content analysis. The unit of analysis is the individual television commercial aired on PTV (terrestrial), GEO TV (satellite) and ARY Digital (satellite) between 2002 and 2007. Hofstede?s cultural dimensions were used as the theoretical framework for cultural analysis. The findings suggest that cultural values portrayed across different channels tend to stay the same. However, the executional characteristics as well as cultural values tend to differ significantly in commercials for different product categories. Also, Pakistani food and drink category commercials overall generally tend to contain younger models and emphasis on being youthful and young and use affable language to communicate with the audience.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Roberts, Marilyn.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021882:00001


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edb1ba28e6b803e0b4bd9f49915b1f6023eeac74







AN EXECUTIONAL AND CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS
IN PAKISTAN





















By

IRTIFA NASIR


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008
































2008 Irtifa Nasir





























To my mother who prays for me 24/7 and still thinks my grades are a result of my hard work, my
perfect husband who let me pursue my dream even if that meant staying apart for two years and
my supportive in-laws who supported my decision to study abroad in spite of social implications.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank everyone and anyone who has directly or indirectly, consciously or

subconsciously, and knowingly or unknowingly helped me cross this great milestone in my life.

First and foremost, I would like to express my most heartfelt appreciation and gratitude to

my thesis adviser Dr. Marilyn Roberts; without her continuous guidance, help and support, I

could not have dared to write a 50+ page research paper, let alone a 100+ page thesis! I am

grateful to her for patiently putting up with my anxiety attacks and nervous tantrums and

assuring me of my abilities all along.

I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Robyn Goodman and Dr. Jorge

Villegas, for their valuable input and constructive critique; they helped me get over the

frightening misconceptions I had been fed about getting thrashed in a proposal defense. They are

great teachers and I wish I was an undergrad and could take more classes with them.

I would like to thank all my friends, Michelle, Arsalan, Saqib, Elaine, MJ... and everyone

else, who made my life so much easier and more colorful, eventful and beautiful. They have

helped me all along, put up with my eccentricities and still remained unswerving in their love

and support. I salute them for their resilience.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my mother and my husband for trusting my

abilities and letting me avail this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to pursue my dream. They are

my strength and the pillars of my life; in fact, without them I am pretty much a nonentity.

God, I thank thee for all of the above and more.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IS T O F T A B L E S ................................................................................. 7

ABSTRAC T .......................................................................................

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ............................ .............................. 10

Purpose of the Study ............... ....................................................... 11
Significance of the Study ....................................................... .......... ......... ..... 12
Methodical Approach ................................... ........................... 13
Research Overview............ .... ................................. .......... 14

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W ........................................................................ .. ....................... 16

W h at Is C u ltu re? ................................................................................................. ........... 16
Brief History of Pakistan .............. ................. ............ ............ ............. 17
Cultural A analysis of Pakistan ........................................................... .. ............... 18
R e lig io n .............................................................................. 1 9
Social O organization ................. ........ .......................... .. ......... .............20
Globalization Trends .............................................. .. ..........21
C cultural A rts ........................................................................22
Food and Drink Consum ption Culture ........................................ ........................ 22
Overview of Advertising in Pakistan ................................................... ... ............24
H isto ry ............................................................................... 2 4
Current Scenario ................ ........ ..................... ........... .. ...................... 27
Characteristics of Pakistani Advertisements .............. ........................................29
Television N etw works in Pakistan .................................................. .............................. 30
F ram ew orks for C cultural A nalysis............................................................... .....................32
Pakistan's Rankings on H ofstede's D im tensions ........................................ .....................34
P ow er D instance ..................................................................................................... 34
M a scu lin ity .................................................................................................. ........... 3 4
In d iv id u a lism ............................................................................................................. 3 5
Uncertainty Avoidance ...............................................................................36
L on g -term O orientation ............................................................................................... 3 6
Cultural Studies in A advertising ...........................................................37
T he Stew art and Furse Fram ew ork ................................................................................... 43
Research Questions and Hypotheses .............................................. ............... 45
E x ecutional C characteristics ....................................................................................... 46
Cultural Values .......................................................................... 50
Other Exploratory Cultural V ariables ....................................................... 50
H y p o th e se s ................................................................5 1









3 METHODOLOGY ............................. ...................... ........53

U n it o f A n a ly sis ................................................................................................................ 5 4
Sam pling D esign......................................................... 54
C oding C categories and V ariables ........................................ ............................................57
P retest and C oding P rocedure........................................................................ ...................58
Inter-coder Reliability ............... ................. ............. ........................... 59
D ata A analysis ................................................... 62

4 F IN D IN G S ................... ...................6...................3..........

Description of the Sample of Commercials................................ ......................... ........ 63
Research Questions........... .......... .......... ... .. .... ...... .... .......... 66
E xecutional C characteristics ..................................................................... ..................66
Cultural Values .......................................................................... 89
Other Exploratory Cultural V ariables ........................................ ........................ 95
H ypotheses.......... ..........................................................97

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................99

Descriptive Results ...............................................................................99
D om inant Executional Characteristics ...........................................................................100
Descriptive Characteristics ................................. ................ .................. 100
Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial ............................................102
Dependent Relationships with Product Category.........................................................103
D om inant C cultural V values ...................................................................................... 105
D descriptive R results ................ ...... ....... ................................ ............ ...... 105
Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial ............................................107
Dependent Relationships with Product Category .................. ......... ...................107
O their E exploratory V ariables............................ ............................................................. 110
H ypotheses.................. .................... ..... ...... ........ ...............111
Women in Western Clothing in Edible Items Commercials ............... ..................111
Language of Text by Brand Origin .............. ..................................... ................ ...111
L im itatio n s ........... ................. ....................................................................................... 1 12
F future R research ................................114.............................
C o n clu sio n ................................115.............................

APPENDIX

A T H E SIS C O D E SH E E T ........................................................................................117

B C O D E B O O K ................................126............................

LIST O F R EFEREN CE S ................................140............................

BIO GRAPH ICAL SK ETCH ................................................................................................... 146




6









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1 H olsti's (1969) Inter-Coder Reliability ................................................................. 59

2 Distribution of Sample by Source of Commercial .......................................................63

3 Sam ple Distribution by Brand Origin ...................................................... .............. 64

4 Sample Distribution by Length of Commercial ......................................... ............64

5 Sample Distribution by Channel of the Commercial ......................................................64

6 Sam ple Distribution by Product Category ........................................ ...... ............... 65

7 Sam ple D distribution of Edible Item s........................................................ ............... 65

8 Product C categories by C channel ............................................................................ .... ... 66

9 Distribution of Visual Devices Presence ............ .................................... .................67

10 Distribution of Language of Text in Commercial...........................................................67

11 Substantive Supers by Product Category............................................... ........ ....... 68

12 Surrealistic Visuals by Product Category ............................................... ............... 68

13 Language of Text in Commercial by Product Category .......................................... 69

14 A uditory D evices P presence ..................................................................... .....................69

15 Rhymes, Slogans and Mnemonics by Product Category ............................................70

16 Unusual Sound Effects by Product Category .............................................71

17 Distribution of M usic and Dancing Presence ....................................... ....................... 71

18 M usic Style by Product Category ............................................. ............................. 72

19 Dancing in Commercial by Channel of Commercial.................................... ................ 72

20 M music Creates a M ood by Product Category ................................. ......... .....................73

21 Music Present as a Major Element by Product Category ............................................73

22 M usic Style by Product Category ............................................ .............................. 74

23 Distribution of Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions .......................................74









24 Com m ercial A approach in Sam ple......... ................. ................................. ............... 76

25 Brand Differentiating Message in Sample................ .. ......... ........ .................76

26 Commercial Approach by Product Category......... ...................... ...............77

27 Brand-differentiating Messages by Product Category ...................... ..................77

28 D om inant Com m ercial Form at .......................................................... ............... 78

29 Com m ercial Form at by Product Category ................................. ..................................... 79

30 Typology of Broadcast Messages in Sample ........................................ ...............80

31 Typology of Broadcast Messages by Product Category.............................................80

32 D om inant Com m ercial Setting ................................................ .............................. 81

33 Commercial Setting by Channel of Commercial...... ............................................... .........82

34 Comm ercial Setting by Product Category ........................................ ...... ............... 82

35 Com m ercial Tones in Sam ple......... ................. ................... .................. ............... 83

36 Dominant Commercial Tone by Product Category ................................. ............... 84

37 D om inant Com m ercial Structure ............... .............. ........................................... 85

38 Dominant Commercial Structure by Product Category...............................................86

39 Com m ercial Characters Presence in Sam ple ........................................ .....................86

40 Commercial Characters by Channel of Ad (N=214) ......................................................87

41 Commercial Characters Presence by Product Category (N=214) ...............................89

42 P presence of C cultural V alues.............................................................................. ........ 90

43 Presence of Cultural Values by Channel of Commercial ...............................................91

44 Presence of Cultural Values by Product Categories .................................. ............... 93

45 Presence of Fem ales in W western Clothing ........................................ ...... ............... 95

46 Portrayal of Women in Western Clothing by Product Category .................. .............96

47 R religious R reference in Sam ple........................................................................... ...... 96

48 Female Characters Clothing by Edible Items (n=122) ............................................... 97









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising

AN EXECUTIONAL AND CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS
IN PAKISTAN

By

Irtifa Nasir

May 2008

Chair: Marilyn Roberts
Major: Advertising

The primary purpose of this study was to explore the creative executional characteristics

and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television advertising. The study also

examined any significant differences in the executional characteristics and value appeals among

Pakistani terrestrial and satellite television channels and differences in commercials for

carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items.

The methodology chosen is content analysis. The unit of analysis is the individual

television commercial aired on PTV (terrestrial), GEO TV (satellite) and ARY Digital (satellite)

between 2002 and 2007. Hofstede's cultural dimensions were used as the theoretical framework

for cultural analysis.

The findings suggest that cultural values portrayed across different channels tend to stay

the same. However, the executional characteristics as well as cultural values tend to differ

significantly in commercials for different product categories. Also, Pakistani food and drink

category commercials overall generally tend to contain younger models and emphasis on being

youthful and young and use affable language to communicate with the audience.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In the words of Marshall McLuhan "Historians and archaeologists will one day discover

that the ads of our time are the richest and most faithful reflections that any society ever made of

its entire range of activities" (BrainyQuote, 2007).

What makes Pakistani advertisements so distinctly 'Pakistani'? This study aims to

understand the underlying cultural dimensions manifest in television commercials on terrestrial

and satellite television channels as well as across product categories in Pakistan and examine

how reflective they are of the existing cultural values of Pakistan.

From an industry perspective, from the days when advertising was restricted to graffiti on

the walls, printed messages in the newspapers and handbills (Aslam, 2000) to the day when

concepts like '360 degrees Advertising' and 'Brand Activation' have become commonplace,

Pakistan has come a long way. The growth of the advertising industry is inseparably linked to

Pakistani media development over the past 60 years. Starting off with the press being the only

medium of advertising available to advertisers and leading up to the recent years, the rapid

proliferation of media choices and emergence of new distribution channels poses great

challenges to advertising and media professionals. The industry is growing at an unprecedented

rate; a few Pakistani advertisements also have received honors at the Abby Awards in India (Pak

Tribune, 2005, June 27). Several local advertising agencies are affiliated with prominent

multinationals such as McCann-Erickson, Young and Rubicam, I-Com and Saatchi and Saatchi.

Recently, following JWT Pakistan's footsteps, the multinational agency Ogilvy and Mather setup

independent operations in Pakistan. The All Pakistan Newspapers Association (APNS) instituted

awards for excellence in print advertising in 1981 while the advertising publication Aurora

instituted Pakistan's first electronic media awards in 2007.









Pakistan's GDP experienced a strong average yearly growth of 7% over 2002-2007

making it one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. Per capital income increased by an

average of 13% per annum over 2002-2007 while real private consumption expenditure grew by

an average of 7.4% during 2003-2007, indicating the emergence of a strong middle-class with

growing buying power. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) grew by 37% in 2006-2007 touching

US$ 4.16 billion, as compared to US$ 3.2 billion in 2005-2006. Telecom, energy, banking and

finance, and food and beverages accounted for almost 80% percent of FDI growth. This indicates

investors' confidence in the long-term profitability from production activities in Pakistan

(Government of Pakistan, 2007).

In the past six years, extensive structural reforms, macroeconomic stability and quick,

strong and continuous economic revival has made Pakistan an ideal country for foreign

investment. However, Pakistan still suffers from a image problem which has been further

aggravated by foreign media depicting it as a society with religious extremism, oppression of

women and children, political turmoil, mass illiteracy, high conservatism, hatred towards the

West, etc. (Alam, 2005). This distorted image may not only discourage the foreign investor from

investing in Pakistan, it can also make it difficult for the international marketer to understand the

true society and culture of Pakistan, its people, emerging social and consumption trends and

technologies. The lack of knowledge can make it very difficult for a prospective foreign investor

to design appropriate communication for successfully marketing and selling its products/services

in Pakistan. There is an information gap that needs to be filled.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to highlight the recurring executional characteristics and elements

of Pakistani television advertising and to examine how television advertisements portray the

culture of Pakistan. Although every country possesses a national culture, some sub-cultural









differences may exist owing to factors such as demographics, geographic location, socio-

economic status, education level, etc. These differences may reflect in advertisements targeted to

these audiences. Therefore, rather than just looking at Pakistani TV commercials as a whole, this

study will explore TV commercials from terrestrial and satellite channels in Pakistan and among

different product categories to highlight any differences in the characteristics and value appeals

used in those commercials.

Television is the medium of choice because television in Pakistan enjoys a popularity

unmatched by any other medium of mass communication in the country. In the words of Shoaib

Qureshi (2005, June), an advertising guru in Pakistan, "Even at a national level, a Pakistani is as

much a follower of the 'Electronic Religion' as he is of Islam" (p. 18). According to advertising

spending figures for the fiscal year July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, television advertising owned a

38% of the media mix as compared to 46% owned by print media (Aurora, 2006, December).

However, television still remains the most influential medium in view of the fact that the literacy

rate in Pakistan for people aged 15 and over hovers around 48.7% with 61.7% men and only

35.2% women being literate (Ghauri, 2006, July 28). Television is the best medium that breaks

through the barriers of literacy and reaches out to the entire population regardless of education

level and therefore enjoys a more heterogeneous audience compared to print media.

Significance of the Study

In advertising research, culture-portrayals in advertisements have generally been measured as

a function of cultural values (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Ahmed, 1996; Milner & Collins,

2000; Cho, Up, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999; Singh & Baack, 2004). While many studies have

analyzed the differences in cultural values portrayed in advertisements from a cross-national

perspective (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Ahmed, 1996; Milner & Collins, 2000; Cho, Up,

Gentry, Jun and Kropp, 1999; Moon & Chan, 2005, Zhang & Neelankavil, 1997), there has been









little research on the variations in cultural values depicted in the advertising content aired across

different vehicles on an advertising channel. More specifically, there has been no study based on

the variations in cultural values depicted in advertisements aired on a country's satellite

television channels in comparison to terrestrial television channels and how they relate to the

accepted cultural/sub-cultural values of that society. A literature gap exists in this area.

Moreover, no recognized academic literature exists in relation to Pakistani advertising a

booming industry in contemporary Pakistan. This exploratory study will provide a stepping stone

for future researchers who wish to further explore Pakistani advertising and carry out cross-

cultural comparisons with other countries.

According to the famous novelist Norman Douglas, "you can tell the ideals of a nation by

its advertisements" (Norman Douglas Quotes, 2007). Over the past century, this idea has been

emphasized by various social scientists through research in cultural anthropology, sociology,

marketing, mass communication, cultural studies and semiotics (Ahmed, 1996). Also it has been

shown that advertising appeals that use local cultural cues, i.e. an adaptive communication

strategy, elicit considerably greater positive attitudes than those that do not (Zhang & Gelb,

1996; Gregory & Munch, 1997; Singh & Baack, 2004). Edward T. Hall (1981) holds that "the

chances of one's being correct decrease as cultural distances increase" (pg. 76). Therefore, this

study will help foreign multinationals looking to enter the Pakistani market to understand the

dominant cultural values within Pakistani advertising to enable them to adapt their marketing

communication to the acceptable culture and emerging trends.

Methodical Approach

The variables for this content analysis have been derived from Stewart and Furse's (1986)

study of effective television advertising, Cheng (1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp

(1999), Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996) and Hofstede, Pederson and









Hofstede J. (2002). Hofstede's cultural dimensions and studies of advertising effectiveness form

the theoretical framework for this research. The sample has been derived from the media banks

of Synergy Advertising (Lahore) and Orient McCann-Erickson (Lahore). The sample represents

advertisements from three product categories comprising carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items, aired on three television channels comprising PTV (terrestrial owned

by state), GEO TV (satellite channel owned by local media group) and ARY Digital (satellite

channel owned by pan-global group).

Research Overview

This thesis has been organized in chapters as follows: Chapter 1 is a brief overview of the

study and how this research is hoped to make a contribution to advertising literature. Chapter 2

consists of a literature review that starts off by defining culture, a brief overview of the history of

Pakistan and insights into the country's social, cultural and religious characteristics. This is

followed by a discussion of the Pakistani advertising industry including its history and the

current scenario. The chapter moves on to a discussion of the different cultural frameworks that

exist for this type of study, a detailed description of Hofstede's cultural dimensions and its

importance in the current study. Previous studies of culture portrayal in advertising are discussed

and finally, the research questions and hypotheses for this study are proposed.

Chapter 3 describes the methodology that has been used in this research, starting off with

a brief overview of content analysis, the sampling design, the variable analysis framework and

coding categories with definitions, coding and pre-testing procedures, reliability measures and

finally the data analysis method.

Chapter 4 consists of the findings from this quantitative content analysis. Frequency tables,

cross-tabulations and chi-squares results also are presented.









Chapter 5 deals with a discussion and implications of the findings, limitations of this study,

and lastly, suggestions for future research and conclusion are offered.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

What Is Culture?

To date, several variations of the definition of'culture' and 'cultural values' have

been documented. In the simplest of words, de Mooij (2004) describes culture as the

"glue that binds groups together" (p. 26). It defines a social grouping and embodies all

the common attitudes, beliefs, ideas, customs, roles, institutions and social organizations

shared by its members who live together in the same geographic region in the same

historical period (de Mooij, 2004).

According to E.B. Taylor, culture is "a complex whole, which includes knowledge,

belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by

individuals as members of a society" (as cited in Mueller, 2004, p. 106). In other words,

individual behavior is controlled by a set of pre-defined procedures that are by and large

adhered to by the members who share a common culture. In the same vein, in his book

'Culture and Organizations Software of the Mind', Geert Hofstede (1994), one of the

most well-known and widely-quoted social researchers in cross-cultural marketing

research, defines culture as the 'collective mental programming' (p. 5) that forms the

basis for the differentiation between members of different groups or categories. Also, one

is not born with culture; it is inherited from one's external environment and is then

internalized (Mueller, 2004). It is also different from human nature on the one side and

from an individual's personality on the other. Hofstede (1994) says that human nature is

what all human beings have in common it includes universals like love, anger, hate, joy

and sorrow; how we choose to express these feelings is influenced by culture. Similarly,









one's personality is something that is partly genetic and partly determined by one's

unique experiences as well as culture (Hofstede, 1994).

Individuals' values are basically a combination of the characteristics of their unique

individual personalities and the shared characteristics of the group they belong and thus

patterns of association of values can vary considerably between the individual level and

the collective level (de Mooij, 2004). For example, in Pakistan, the color green is

associated with different values on the two levels it stands for purity on one hand and

on the other, it stands for nationalism and patriotism to Pakistan.

For the purpose of this discussion, it is safe to assume that although there is a

diverse range of individual personalities in any society, the predominant one is taken to

represent national culture (de Mooij, 2004). According to Hofstede, it can be debated that

societies are more consistent in character than nations and thus the definition of common

culture might not be applicable on nations. However, there are quite a few integrative

forces within every nation, such as mass media, dominant language, etc. that make such

an extrapolation possible (de Mooij, 2004).

Brief History of Pakistan

Pakistan is a relatively new entity on the world atlas and was formed out of the

partition of the Indian sub-continent in 1947. The country is located in an area which was

home to the great Indus Valley and Harappa civilizations some 4,500 years ago and also

came under great Buddhist influence from the Central Asian Kushan Empire

(Background Notes: Pakistan, 2007). In 711 A.D., Muslim traders introduced Islam in the

subcontinent which was then followed by the vast Muslim Mogul Empire, which ruled

the subcontinent from the 13th to the 18th century. This period influenced the architecture,

cuisine, and language of the region, the effects of which can be seen in Pakistani culture









even today (Country Profile: Pakistan, 2005). After the collapse of the Mogul Empire,

much of the subcontinent came under a British imperialist rule, which affected the socio-

economic system as well as the culture of the subcontinent in many ways. One of the

most obvious examples of British influence that can still be seen today is status of

English as the official language in the subcontinent.

There were two dominant religions in the subcontinent i.e. Hinduism and Islam, but

over time, due to the development of antagonistic feelings between Muslims and Hindus,

Pakistan was formed as a separate homeland for Muslims in 1947 (Country Profile:

Pakistan, 2005).

Although a democratic republic, Pakistan has been under military rule for more

than half its existence from 1958-1972; 1977-1985 (Mumtaz & Mitha, 2003). After a

bloodless military coup in October 1999 to date, the country has been under the

leadership of General Pervez Musharraf. The social, political and economic consequences

of such extended periods of dictatorship have been immense. The effects manifest

themselves in the shape of sharp inequality within the social classes and geographical

regions, with power and wealth concentrated in the hands of the few (Mumtaz & Mitha,

2003). Moreover, Pakistan also has been under the deep-rooted undemocratic influence

of feudal lords who enjoy considerable control over politics and the economy since

Pakistan's inception (Warner, 2003).

Cultural Analysis of Pakistan

Pakistan is a relatively new entity on the political map, but its diverse array of sub-

cultures and values find their roots in hundreds of years of history. Pakistani culture, as

we study it today, is a product of its religious affiliation (i.e. Islam), its Indian origins,

British colonialism and indirect American influences (Warner, 2003).









Religion

Pakistan is a predominantly Muslim country with 97% of the population following

the religion of Islam, while Christians, Hindus and Parsis (a Zorastrian sect) are the

religious minorities (Background Notes: Pakistan, 2007). According to Hofstede's

research, Muslim countries rank relatively higher than others on the Power Distance

index (ITIM International, 2003). This is illustrated by the fact that the Islamic religion in

Pakistan generally has a bearing on most aspects of society, culture and the law. The

'Shariah' or Islamic law is the basis for legal and juridical structure and violations of the

Islamic laws has stern implications. Islamic extremism is seen rampant in educational

institutions as well, with Jaamat-e-Islami, the youth wing of Pakistan's biggest Islamic

party, resiliently controlling not just student activities (Economist, 2006, July), but also

influencing curriculum, course syllabuses, faculty selection and degree programs in

almost all of Pakistan's 50 public universities (Baker, 2006, October 16).

Due to the gradual emergence of an educated middle class in the country, several

new private educational institutions have appeared and the concept of Madrassahs

(Schools with only rigid Islamic teachings) is being criticized in educated circles with the

reasoning that these Madrassahs were just creating unemployment and militancy in

society (Hamid, 2004). President Pervez Musharraf has paid particular attention to this

issue and holds that "there is no place for extremism, terrorism and sectarianism in our

country as these would disrupt our development activities," (The News, 2007, September

30). He is taking measures to increase literacy and curb unemployment to counter

militant inclinations amongst the youth.









Social Organization

The social organization of the country is predominantly based on a Baradari

(family kin) system, wherein the Baradari serves as the distinct identity for its members

and provides social protection to them. Members form strong ties with persons within

their Baradari and also with other social groups they identify with (Warner, 2003).

Family obligations play a very integral role in the lives of Pakistanis. Responsibilities

towards family are broad-based, including both financial support and active involvement

in collective rituals and traditions. A strong sense of dependency and need for security is

characteristic of Pakistanis, which follows from their highly collectivist approach to

social life.

According to Ramsey Naja, Chief Creative Officer, JWT Middle East and Africa,

Pakistan is a collectivist society that attaches great importance to the group rather than

the individual (Baig, 2007a). Similar to the Arab world, the society is built around the

family. Decisions and opinions are shaped through mutual consent of the group, not the

individual (Baig, 2007a). In a country with a predominantly collectivist culture,

familiarity bears significant value; the tried and tested is often preferred over the untried

- the exotic. This makes it very difficult for advertisers to breakthrough the walls of

tradition that are erected by the highly collectivist Pakistani consumers (Baig, 2007a).

However, as the educated middle-class is expanding, a trend towards a nuclear

family system is being noticed especially in the large metropolises of the country

(Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad), owing to the quickening pace of life and increasing job

competition due to economic development.

Generally, Pakistani masses seem to be apprehensive of making decisions on their

own for fear of disapproval from their social surroundings and thus depend on other









normative forces to steer their lives for them (Warner, 2003). For instance, the majority

of Pakistanis still believe in arranged marriages wherein the bride or the groom is

selected by parents or other elders in the family. This kind of attitude of submission to

authority also has been reinforced by the political scenario in the country.

Globalization Trends

One cannot fail to notice the permeating influences of American media, society and

organizational culture in Pakistan. With access to many American channels like HBO,

MTV, etc., the rapid permeation of the interest amongst the masses, and the adoption of

American syllabi in many private colleges around the country, a majority of Pakistanis

are in some form being exposed to American cultural values and thought processes,

which is slowly injecting a sense of materialism and consumerism amongst them

(Wamer, 2003).

Talking about media more specifically, the diversity of foreign media has exposed

the average Pakistani to foreign advertising and brand culture. Belonging to a nation

which is struggling to develop economically and is dependent on foreign aid from the

more 'successful' or powerful countries for its progress, the average Pakistani has

become an 'aspirant' by nature; and foreign media has fueled his/her aspirations to

experience a better life similar to what Western media has portrayed to him/her (Faizi,

2007).

However, according to Shahnoor Ahmed, industry veteran and CEO of Spectrum

Communications (Pvt.) Ltd., in spite of all the modem trends and Western values that

Pakistanis are imbibing from the media, Pakistan still largely remains a conservative

society. Advertisers should realize that trying to go against the basic cultural values and

norms of society reduces the value of the message as an incentive for consumers. Out-of-









the-box award-winning advertisements may not always be the most effective consumer-

centric advertisements (Defining the past, 2005, June).

Cultural Arts

The cultural arts of Pakistan are changing much more rapidly than what is generally

assumed. For instance, Pakistan has gained great fame in the area of music. This is just

part of the rapid revolution of the arts and media, which has taken over the country since

new media laws liberalizing broadcasting policies were established in Pakistan by

President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 (Hoffman & Rehmat, 2007, May 25). In recent

years, Pakistan has witnessed rapid cable and satellite pervasion, combined with

increasing economic growth, especially in the advertising, telecom, apparel, textiles and

cement industries (Menen, 2006, March 23). All these factors combined have set off a

new wave of cultural revival and modernization which is not just limited to the country's

Westernized elites. Rather, it is a mass culture and is being created in the major

metropolitan areas of Pakistan (Hamid, 2004).

Food and Drink Consumption Culture

Modern Pakistani culture is a synthesis of its Aryan, Dravidian, Greek, Scythian,

Hun, Arab, Mongol, Persian, and Afghan roots (Khan, 2006, March 23). The influence of

each of these races can be felt in Pakistani cuisine and consumption culture.

Pakistani women believe that the way to a man's heart is through his stomach.

Cooking is considered to be a foremost duty of every female in the country and girls are

taught how to cook right from when they are teenagers. In majority of Pakistani families,

prospective grooms' families place a lot of importance on how well the girls can cook

and serve food in order to be considered for marriage. Pakistani food is known to be rich

in spices and herbs and 'Masala' or 'Seasoning' is the most important ingredient in all









Pakistani foods. Due to the quickening pace of life in urban areas especially with an

increasing number working women, pre-seasoned masalas (all in one spice mixes) have

become very popular in the country (Irshad, 2003, December 1). Most Pakistani dishes

are either deep-fried or cooked in ample amounts of cooking oil or Ghee (a thicker more

traditional form of oil). Although rice is very popular in Pakistan, wheat is considered the

staple food and is used to make bread called 'Roti' or 'Chapati', which is an

indispensable accompaniment of all meals (Khan, 2006, March 23).

The religion of Islam also bears a great influence on eating habits of Pakistanis.

The consumption of pork and alcohol is strictly prohibited in Islam. These items are not

publicly sold or marketed in Pakistan. Sales are restricted to non-Muslims only (Pakistan

Food, n.d.). These restrictions have channeled the tastes and consumption habits of

Pakistanis in other directions. For instance, carbonated soft drinks have become part of

the culture in Pakistan, especially amongst the youth in both rural and urban areas such

that they make up the highest per capital consumption in Pakistan (Business News, 2006,

April 17). Moreover, traditional liquid concentrate drinks like 'Rooh-Afza' and 'Jam-e-

Shirin' are considered essential in every Pakistani home especially in rural areas during

summers (Euromonitor International, 2007a, February). Also, with the increase in health

awareness amongst consumers, demand for fruit juices and bottled water also has

increased drastically.

Tea and milk also form an integral part of Pakistani culture. The great majority of

Pakistanis drink at least a morning and an evening cup of milk tea daily, even during

summers. Serving milk tea to every guest is an essential part of Pakistan's hospitality









code. This strong demand has made Pakistan the world's largest importer of tea and the

7th largest tea consumer in the world (Euromonitor International, 2007b, February).

Overview of Advertising in Pakistan

History

For almost a decade after Pakistan's inception in 1947, the advertising domain was

controlled by a few large foreign-based advertising agencies. The press was the only

medium of advertising available. Client budgets were severely limited. There was a great

dearth of trained and skilled professionals and production facilities were almost non-

existent (Orient Advertisers, 1988). This was not a surprising scenario at that time given

that most of the nation's attention was directed towards nation-building efforts and

overcoming problems that any newly formed country goes through. Commerce and

industry faced stunted growth initially during the first decade after Pakistan's formation.

In the next few years, this picture started to change dramatically. New commercial

and industrial ventures cropped up. The consumer market started taking shape and this

created a growing demand for better and innovative advertising. Rapid developments also

took place on the media side (Orient Advertisers, 1988). Radio Pakistan started its

commercial services, which was followed by the launch of the first state-owned

television station, Pakistan Television (PTV), in Lahore in November 1964. The Pakistan

Television Network (a public limited company with all shares residing with the

Government of Pakistan) dominated television till around 1990, when STN became

available to Pakistani viewers (Television Mania, 2005, June).

Since 1999, the number of TV channels in Pakistan has increased significantly with

the formation of new media policies. Earlier, the only Pakistani TV channels comprised

the state-run PTV, PTV World and Channel 3, which were owned by the Pakistan









Television Corporation Limited (PTV Network) (Cyber City Online, 2004). Due to a

long-drawn Islamist Military dictatorship in Pakistan by General Zia-ul-Haq in the 80s,

numerous media policies and censor laws were drastically affected. For example, some of

the extremely strict rulings on broadcast media included:

* No physical contact between male and female not even between siblings or
mother and son.

* TV plays were barred from showing married couples sharing a bed.

* Playwrights were banned from using the word 'jamhooriat' (democracy).

* Making fun or even critiquing the army and the clergy was not allowed.

* Female singers were only allowed minimum physical movement while singing on
TV.

* Female newscasters and announcers were not allowed to wear makeup on screen.

* No ads could show models blowing a bubble gum or licking an ice-cream cone.

* Females could be shown in only 30% of the total time of the commercial (Paracha,
2005).

These strict media laws had a very long-lasting impact on Pakistani advertisements

through the times. Even though today these censorship laws do not hold as they were, a

subtle yet very noticeable difference can still be seen in the content run on the state-

owned television channels and those broadcast on the newer privately-owned TV

channels.

At the start of the new millennium, the Pakistan Electronic Media Authority

(PEMRA) realized the dearth of electronic media and issued licenses to several new

private satellite channels and television networks to meet the growing demands of

viewers in the hope of propelling Pakistani electronic media to meet international

standards (Television Mania, 2005, June). This also provided advertising with the much









needed push and opportunity to grow and develop in order to meet and maintain the same

standards that were being established by these modem private media ventures.

According to advertising industry veteran, Shahnoor Ahmed, there is a world of

difference between the advertising industry scene today and that in the seventies. In the

seventies for example, advertisers had to send copy to independent typesetters to get it

composed and if there were modifications in the copy, advertisers had to go to the

typesetters to get them done (Defining the past, 2005, June). Usually, one could find

personnel from different agencies sitting with the same typesetter competing for his

services (Defining the past, 2005, June). Moreover, in those times, print was the

dominant media for most campaigns. PTV was the only television channel in Pakistan

and was very inflexible and set out rigid regulations for advertisers to follow. For

example, advertisements on PTV were only accepted on 35 mm film (Defining the past,

2005, June).

The past provided the advertising industry in Pakistan with a number of factors that

propelled it to where it stands today. Even in its early days, multinational companies saw

Pakistan as favorable grounds for investment. Industries and manufacturers within the

country grew substantially to take their operations beyond regional boundaries.

Moreover, there was a mass exodus of skilled labor from Pakistan to the Middle East in

the 1970s, which greatly increased purchasing power within the country. Also,

globalization and the spread of international media brought in the Western concept of

consumerism that was quickly adopted by the Pakistani people, as it gave them a

culturally warranted feeling of affluence and superiority (Aslam, 2000).









Current Scenario

In the past 60 years of Pakistan's existence on the map of the world, the market for

consumer goods, durables, capital goods and services has grown phenomenally. This is

quite an evolutionary achievement for a country that had virtually no infrastructure just a

little more than half a century ago. This growth is not limited to the size and demand of

the consumer market. It can also be seen in the development and specialization of

marketing tools and trends that are quickly propelling the market to a level at par with

global standards.

Pakistan's advertising expenditure is amongst the most optimistic in Asia,

experiencing an average yearly growth of around 25% (WPP, 2007). Moreover, the

Pakistani economy has seen a growth of 7% in 2006 and earned it a position amongst the

fastest growing economies in Asia. In 2007, foreign investment is projected to be close to

$3 billion, the highest in Pakistan has ever experienced (WPP, 2007). Michael Maedel,

President of JWT believes that Asia boasts of some of the strongest emerging economies

in the world, led by China and India at the forefront and followed by the next generation

of countries that include Vietnam, Indonesia and Pakistan in that order. With huge

amounts of investment pouring into these countries, he believes that Pakistan has also

crossed over to the next stage in the evolution of communications wherein consumer

spending has increased substantially and is predicted to double in the recent future (Baig,

2007b). Pakistan also being strategically located between the Middle East and the rest of

Asia, acts as a bridge between these two rapidly developing regions (WPP, 2007).

However, academically speaking, there has been no formal research on the budding

advertising industry; no conceptual framework has ever been applied to measure the

creativity, effectiveness or content of Pakistani ads. The majority of advertising agencies









do not use formal market research for even large-scale campaigns. Clients are well aware

of this but the lack of a proper research framework and infrastructure makes such an

option infeasible at the current time. According to Ahmed Zaki, Director Operations of

the Evernew Group (affiliated with Dentsu), most advertising is being done based on gut

feel and the data that is available is usually not reliable (Personal Communication, 1st

August, 2007). However, Ammar Rasool, Creative Director at JWT Pakistan, holds that a

lot of multinational brands already established in Pakistan do base all their marketing

efforts on research. Moreover, he believes that most of the advertisements made in

Pakistan are very consumer-targeted. If it is a product for use in the kitchen, the

advertisements will always show housewives in a household setting and most of the

times, the advertisements are depicting stereotypical roles (personal communication, 2nd

August 2007). It is worthy of note that Pakistani advertisements have won quite a few

awards in the international arena (Abby Awards in India, for example). Several new

multinational companies have entered the country, mostly due to a recent

telecommunication boom (new international telecom giants like Telenor and Warid

Telecom entered Pakistan in 2004). The advertising industry is undergoing rapid

expansion and development. Also, P&G, Unilever, Pepsico and other market giants are

spending millions of rupees every year in face of the media explosion that has given

viewers a multitude of new channels and print media options to choose from.

As of October 19, 2006, Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority

(PEMRA) has issued licenses to 18 private satellite TV channels out of which 14 are

already in operation (Daily Times, 2006, October 19). This sudden expansion of private









TV stations has brought an end to more than 5 decades of the state-run broadcast

company Pakistan Television Network's virtual monopoly of TV broadcasting.

However, according to Miles Young, Chairman of Ogilvy & Mather Asia Pacific,

"There is no country in the world where the gap between external perception and reality

is so extreme" (WPP, 2007). Even though Pakistan has undergone unprecedented

progress economically and socially and has been greatly affected by globalization, it is

still perceived as a backward country because so little is known about it. This is

especially true in the area of advertising.

Characteristics of Pakistani Advertisements

According to an informal survey of 500 respondents (male/female, sec A/B,

different age groups) conducted by Synergizer, a leading advertising magazine, the most

recalled advertisements were not only 10 years or older but also jingle-based. The top

brands that invoked instant recall included State Life Insurance, Naurus Instant Drink

Mix, Dentonic Tooth Powder and Lipton Yellow Label owing to the simplicity,

catchiness and repetition of their jingles, which made these advertisements unforgettable

to most Pakistanis (Mandviwalla, 2007).

Syed Faisal Hashmi holds that almost 80% of Pakistani advertising is formula-

based in claim, idea and execution leading to creative mediocrity in the industry (Hashmi,

2007). Also, according to Ahmed Kapadia, CEO of Synergy Advertising in Pakistan,

most of Pakistani advertising is visually oriented with very little emphasis on the actual

big idea; the form takes precedence over the content (Marketing Association of Pakistan,

2005). In a personal interview, Ammar Rasool, Creative Director of JWT Pakistan

commented that over the past few years, Pakistan has come to a point where in terms of

production value, sound and picture quality, graphics and cinematography, Pakistani









advertising can easily compete with international advertising. However, in terms of ideas

and content, Pakistani advertising lags far behind due to Pakistan not being a very

experimental or arts-driven society (Personal communication, 2nd August 2007).

According to Mazhar Salam, Account Director at Red Communication Arts in Pakistan,

most of Pakistani advertising is mediocre and portrays characters in stereotypical roles

because there are risks associated with altering the accepted social, religious and political

norms and going against them can result in a serious backlash. Even some kinds of humor

might end up hurting religious sentiments or offend a political faction. Advertisers need

to be careful in what they show (Personal communication, 2nd August 2007).

Television Networks in Pakistan

Following the previous discussion about the changing face of Pakistani culture, a

discussion of the current shift in the overall outlook of advertising in Pakistan will now

be presented. The shift could be due to several factors: the advent of new multinationals

with a more affluent consumer base (and thus more educated and open to innovation),

public acceptance of President Musharraf s theory of 'Moderate enlightenment' i.e. a

suggestion that the Muslim world needed to pursue the path of moderation and

enlightenment in order to break free from its present deadlock (Shuja, 2005), or

modernization trends caused by increased exposure to the outside world through rapid

proliferation of new media and satellite networks.

This change is apparent in both the long-established terrestrial TV channels as well

as the new satellite ones. An important fact to note is that the major terrestrial channel

PTV is state-owned and the most popular satellite channels Geo TV and ARY Digital are

private-owned. As a terrestrial channel, it has the highest reach and viewership

comprising all strata, segments, income groups and ages (Interview with the Head, 2005,









June). This is because satellite channels are only accessible to viewers through cable

subscription while PTV, being terrestrial, is openly accessible to anyone with a television

set.

Pakistan's population is close to 166 million. More that two thirds live in rural

areas in around 125,000 villages across the country (Mohsin, 2005, July-August). In

terms of TV viewership, 78% of the urban population in Pakistan watches TV. Out of

these, 13% are occasional viewers while 65% regularly watch TV at least 4 days a week.

In the rural areas, 49% of the population watches TV. The total cable and satellite viewer

ship in Pakistan, according to Gallup, is 53% for urban areas and 13% for rural areas

(Business Recorder, 2007). In terms of advertising expenditure for the fiscal year 2005-

2006, the total advertising expenditure for satellite channels was Rs. 3.81 billion, i.e. US$

63.5 million (64%) and Rs. 2.15 billion, i.e. US$ 35.83 million (36%) for terrestrial

channels (Aurora, December 2006).

Private TV channels are not permitted to broadcast terrestrially and cable viewer-

ship is very low in rural areas. Thus PTV, being a state-owned terrestrial channel, holds a

virtual monopoly in all rural areas of Pakistan. This results in a larger rural audience,

compared to satellite TV channels like GEO and ARY Digital that are watched mostly in

larger metropolitan areas (Fatah, 2005). It is believed that PTV's viewership in urban

areas has been reduced drastically since the introduction of better quality and more global

private satellite channels, the most popular amongst which are Geo TV and ARY Digital.

However, urban families belonging to the lower income groups still prefer to watch PTV

as it is available to them without any subscription fee.









This brings up an interesting dichotomy considering that most satellite viewer-ship

is drawn from urban viewers who can afford to subscribe to cable TV channels while

most terrestrial viewer-ship is drawn from rural areas or the lower SES groups who

cannot afford subscribing to cable. Also, in terms of content, according to Imran Ansari,

Head of Sales and Marketing for PTV Network, PTV is different from private satellite

channels because it depicts the true culture of Pakistan as opposed to private satellite

channels who are always trying to copy Indian channels in terms of content (Interview

with the Head, 2005, June). Another difference is that the most popular satellite channels,

GEO TV and ARY Digital are up-linked from Dubai Media City in the UAE therefore

avoid the strict telecast regulations of the government of Pakistan and broadcast relatively

uncensored programming (Fatah, 2005).

Frameworks for Cultural Analysis

Culture has always been an important topic of research. For the purpose of this

study, a number of cultural typologies were analyzed based on how popular they were in

business literature and how effectively their cultural value categories or dimensions have

been operationalized to reliably represent the cultural values depicted in advertisements.

A few tested conceptual frameworks that already exist for cultural analysis are:

* Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's (1961) five value orientations and their variations 1)
human nature (good, mix of good and evil, neutral and evil), 2) man-nature
orientation (subjugation, harmony and mastery), 3) time orientation (past, present
and future), 4) activity orientation (being, being-in-becoming and doing), and 5)
relational orientation (lineality, collaterality and individualism) (pg. 12)

* Trompenaars' (1994) seven categories of work-related values derived from
Parson's five relational orientations and an application of Kluckhohn and
Strodtbeck's value orientations to countries 1) Universalism vs. particularism, 2)
achievement vs. ascription, 3) individualism vs. collectivism, 4) emotional vs.
neutral, 5) specific vs. diffuse, 6) time orientation and 7) orientation to nature (pp.
10-11)









* Edward Hall's (1981) patterns of culture in accordance with 1) context, 2) space, 3)
time and 4) meaning

* Hofstede's (1991) five cultural dimensions 1) Power distance, 2) Individualism-
Collectivism, 3) Masculinity-Femininity, 4) Uncertainty avoidance and 5) Long-
term orientation (Confucian Dynamism)

* Schwartz's seven motivational domains 1) Conservatism, 2) Intellectual
autonomy, 3) Affective autonomy, 4) Hierarchy, 5) Mastery, 6) Egalitarian
commitment and 7) Harmony (cited in: Watson, Lysonski, Gillan and Raymore,
2002)

Also, a new framework for cultural analysis still in the validation stage has been

developed by Singh (2004) and it proposes 3 broad-based levels of cultural dimensions -

1) Perceptual, 2) Behavorial and 3) Symbolic.

Out of all the afore-discussed frameworks, Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions

was the first empirically and conceptually developed framework for cultural analysis

(Watson, Lysonski, Gillan and Raymore, 2002). Only the Hofstede and Shwartz models

provide scores for a range of countries to enable the analysis of consumption data (de

Mooij, 2004). Historically, Hofstede's cultural dimensions have been extensively used in

international marketing research (Albers-Miller & Gelb, 1996; Raghu, Abel & Salvador,

1999; Milner & Collins, 2000; Singh & Baack, 2004). Simon Holt, a well-known global

advertising consultant is quoted in de Mooij (2004) to have said that Hofstede's

dimensions are:

"...absolutely made for mass marketing, an area where individual personality is of
very secondary importance, and what you really want is reliable, true, but gross
generalizations. You need to know what most people in a country are like and how
most of them will behave in response to certain stimuli." (p. 30)

According to Singh and Baack (2004), Hofstede's dimensions are the most

appropriate framework for international advertising research because:

* They have been replicated and validated in several studies of cultural theory and
cross-cultural analysis.









* Sondergaard established in 1994 through in-depth analysis of various studies that
Hofstede's dimensions were stable across populations and time.

* Clark suggested in 1990 that a few dimensions overlap in most cultural typologies
and Hofstede's dimensions cover most of the commonly used dimensions of
cultural analysis.

In addition, research done by Milner and Collins (2000) also supports the idea that

Hofstede's cultural framework is practical enough to be used in the analysis and selection

of country specific advertising appeals.

Based on the above reasons, Hofsede's cultural dimensions provide an appropriate

framework to apply in this study.

Pakistan's Rankings on Hofstede's Dimensions

Hofstede (1994) defines the five dimensions as follows:

Power Distance

It is the extent to which the less powerful members of a society accept the inherent

inequalities in their society. It can range from low to high. Some typical indicators of this

dimension are the degree of importance attached to social status and the degree of respect

for elders, figures of authority, etc (Hofstede, 1994).

Pakistan ranks relatively high on power distance according to Hofstede Power

Distance Index (ITIM International, 2003) implying that surrendering to authority is

common in the country and a wide inequality exists between social classes.

Masculinity

It is the opposite of femininity and represents a society in which social and gender

roles are clearly distinct. Men are generally assertive, tough, and aspire to material

success; women on the other hand are modest, tender and concerned about the quality of

life (Hofstede, 1994). Also, there is high importance attached to achievements,









competition and heroism (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). In a feminine society on the other

hand, both men AND women are supposed to be modest, tender and concerned with the

quality of life. Gender equality is common and individuals are people-oriented, less

aggressive and more nurturing (Hofstede, 1994).

Pakistan ranks about equal on masculinity and femininity dimensions (ITIM

International, 2003) implying that the quality and quantity of life both are equally coveted

in Pakistani culture. So, on the one hand, values like competition, assertiveness and

desire for more are important in Pakistani culture, while on the other hand, values like

caring for others, hospitality and aesthetic values are also characteristic of the national

culture. Also, there is higher representation of females in politics.

Individualism

It is the opposite of collectivism and represents a society in which there are weaker

bonds between individuals, everyone is expected to look after oneself and his/her own

immediate family only (Hoftsede, 1994). There is a strong emphasis on 'I' rather than

'Us' and these societies tend to have a weaker social framework. Moreover,

individualistic society members attach higher value to personal independence and

personal goals and also have a high need for personal achievement (Swaidan and Hayes,

2005). On the other hand, collectivism is represented in a society wherein people are

integrated into strong cohesive in-groups right from birth and are unquestionably loyal to

these in-groups in return for a lifetime of belonging and protection (Hoftsede, 1994).

Pakistan ranks very low on individualism (ITIM International, 2003) implying that

it is fundamentally a collectivist culture and people are well meshed into organized

groups and so everything is seen in the context of 'us' not 'I'. This endangers people's









personal lives and individual goals and aspirations because normative forces govern

individual lives to a high degree.

Uncertainty Avoidance

It goes from low to high and is defined as the extent to which the members of a

particular culture feel endangered by uncertain or unknown situations (Hoftsede, 1994). It

is also indicated by the degree to which people are uncomfortable with innovation,

change or novel situations as well as their willingness to adopt strict codes of conduct

(Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). High uncertainty avoidance, for instance, is indicated by the

practice of unquestioning 'blind' faith and belief in absolute truths, the intolerance of

deviant ideas and behaviors, the reluctance to take risks and bigotry or unwillingness to

accommodate others beliefs or religions.

Pakistan ranks very high on uncertainty avoidance (ITIM International, 2003)

implying that they like to stick to the tried and tested, are ethnically more homogenous,

value traditions over innovations and are more religiously rigid.

Long-term Orientation

It is the opposite of short-term orientation and is indicated by the fostering of

virtues oriented towards more future rewards (Hoftsede, 1994). Long-term oriented

societies have a more forward-looking approach to things, are defined by the values of

thrift, hard work, respect for relationships and perseverance and have a more motivated

and progressive mentality. This is opposed to short-term orientation which is

characterized by a rather static mentality, high importance attached to 'face-value',

tradition, social obligations, dwelling in the past and present with less concern about the

future (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). Together, the two poles form a dimension of national

cultures called Confucian Dynamism.









Pakistan ranks lowest in the world on long term orientation (ITIM International,

2003) implying that they are not forward-looking and have a short-term outlook towards

life. However, in a study on Confucian dynamism, it was found that Pakistan is an outlier

when it comes to its ranking in the Confucian dynamism dimension. Unlike other similar

countries like Bangladesh who rank relatively higher on this index, Pakistan scores a zero

which is an anomaly and the reason is uncertain (Yeh & Lawrence, 1995). Therefore

since a valid comparison cannot be drawn on this dimension between Pakistani culture

and culture portrayed in Pakistani advertisements this study will only focus on the other

four dimensions.

Cultural Studies in Advertising

A wealth of research data is available to validate the inseparable association of

culture and advertising content across the globe. Country-specific advertisement appeals

are generally kneaded with varying degrees of national cultural values, symbols, norms

and characteristics (Mueller, 1987).

According to quite a few empirical studies, it has been shown that advertisements

are relatively more persuasive if they reflect some degree of local culture-specific values

than those that are more standardized (Gregory & Munch, 1997). To motivate someone, a

message should relate to the person's goals, wants and needs an advertising appeal is

what fulfills that need (Mueller, 1987).

According to Pollay, advertising does not employ and echo all cultural values

(1986, April). He coined the metaphor 'the distorted mirror' for advertising, saying that

in commercials, some values are reinforced far more frequently than the others. So

advertising reflects cultural values but it does this on a rather selective basis such that









those values serve the advertiser's interests and most readily relate to the products being

advertised (Pollay, 1986, April).

In advertising research, culture-portrayal in advertisements has generally been

measured as a function of cultural values (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Cho, Up,

Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999; Zhang & Gelb, 1996). Olayan and Karande (2000) carried

out a content analysis of magazine advertisements from the United States and the Arab

World to examine cross-cultural differences in the advertising content of these two

drastically different cultural environments. The researchers examined existing views

about the role of religion in forming values, the level of individualism and whether the

culture is high or low context. They found that though people are less frequently depicted

in Arabic ads, there is no difference in the extent to which men or women are portrayed.

Women are mostly featured in ads for products that directly relate to women and are

shown wearing long conservative dresses. Moreover, Arabic ads have less information

content, less price information and less comparative advertising than US magazine ads

(Olayan and Karande, 2000).

Cho, Up, Kwon, Gentry, Jun and Kropp (1999) conducted a quantitative content

analysis of Korean and American TV commercials to examine differences in underlying

cultural dimensions in both theme and execution between North American and East

Asian advertisements. The cultural dimensions included individualism/collectivism, time

orientation, relationship with nature and contextuality. The study suggested that although

individualism and collectivism are portrayed in commercials from both countries,

individualism is more dominant in U.S. commercials. U.S. commercials also tend to use

more direct commercial approaches reflecting the low-context nature of American









culture. Also, Korean and U.S. commercials almost equally stress oneness with nature

which reflects the increasing environmental consciousness in the US (Cho, Up, Kwon,

Gentry, Jun and Kropp, 1999).

Another study conducted by Zhang and Gelb (1996) explored effects of

collectivistic and individualistic advertising appeals in US and China. The findings

suggest that culturally congruent appeals are more effective (China being collectivistic

and US being individualistic) generally, but culturally incongruent appeals may work if

the advertising appeal matches the product use condition. According to this study,

advertisements for products that are used privately such as toothbrushes can utilize

individualistic appeals effectively, even if such appeals are incongruent with the accepted

cultural values (Zheng and Gelb, 1996). In the case of Pakistan, according to Mazhar

Salam, Account Director at the advertising agency Red Communication Arts in Lahore

(Pakistan), the effectiveness of advertising appeals also depends on the brand being

advertised. Western advertising appeals can work for certain product brands such as

Levis jeans, depending on what sort of brand image one is trying to convey through the

ad (personal communication, 2nd August 2007). Also according to Boddewyn, Soehl and

Picard (1986), standardization of advertising appeals across cultures is a comparatively

more viable option for industrial products than for consumer products, which need to be

adapted to consumers' lifestyles, values, practices and norms. Likewise, according to

Douglas and Urban (1977) non-durable products such as food products, household

cleaning products or other products related to household roles require greater adaptation

to the target country's culture because they need to be customized in accordance with

local tastes and habits. Also other products which are directed at minority segments such









as health foods or herbal perfumes may be more standardized especially if they are

targeted at affluent or more sophisticated customers (Douglas and Urban, 1977).

While most cross-cultural research is based on highly contrasting cultures (e.g,

Olayan & Karande, 2000; Zheng & Gelb, 1996, Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun & Kropp,

1999), a few authors have also studied cross-cultural differences between similar cultures

(e.g., Javalgi, Cutler & White, 1994; Tse, Belk and Zhou, 1989). Javalgi, Cutler and

White (1994) dealt with the issue of standardization of print advertising across three

culturally similar countries of the Pacific Basin which included Japan, Taiwan and South

Korea. The study suggested that regionalization of advertising content based on

geographic proximity or shared heritage may be counter-productive. This is especially

true in terms of the visual devices and communication appeals in the print

advertisements. Also international advertisers should concentrate on building a high

status image and use quality appeals to advertise their products in these countries. This is

truer in the case of Japan as it is a rapidly progressing nation with an increasingly affluent

consumer market that is concerned more with quality rather than price (Javalgi, Cutler &

White, 1994).

Tse, Belk and Zhou (1989) compared the different consumption appeals used in ads

from Taiwan, Hong Kong and the PRC (China), three countries with similar language

and a shared cultural heritage. They found that the cultural values depicted in the ads

from these three regions were distinct from each other, due to differences in the societies'

attitudes towards consumerism which have been shaped by the differences in political

and economic influences in the three countries (Tse, Belk and Zhou, 1989).









While many studies have analyzed the differences in cultural values portrayed in

advertisements from a cross-national perspective, there has been little research on finding

the variations in cultural values within a country. One such study was conducted by

Cheng (1994) to find out the dominant cultural values manifest in Chinese magazine

advertisements from 1982 and 1992, and to also point out the changes in cultural values

over a 10 year time period. The study found that 'modernity', 'technology' and 'quality'

were the predominant cultural values manifest in Chinese advertisements over this time

period. The study also found that while the occurrence of values that were symbolic in

nature or suggestive of human emotions increased with time, utilitarian values or those

centering on product quality decreased with time (Cheng, 1994). Another study (Cheng,

1998) which content analyzed Chinese television commercials from 1990 and 1995

sought the same purpose and also examined the similarities and differences across the

two media. The researcher chose this time period because it also allowed an analysis of

the effects of some new advertising laws implemented in 1995 and how they affected the

cultural values portrayed in Chinese advertisements. The researcher found that

'modernity' was still the dominant cultural value that remained stable throughout the time

period, while the value of 'quality' lost it importance over this period. Moreover,

according to this research, the value of 'tradition' was more frequently seen in

advertisements for food and drink categories (Cheng, 1998), thus emphasizing the fact

that product category does moderate the extent to which cultural values have to be

adhered to in creating advertisements.

Gregory and Munch (1997) studied the effects of variations in cultural norms and

familial roles depicted in advertisements in the highly collectivist Mexican culture. They









found that generally advertising appeals that were consistent with the local cultural norms

and societal roles generated greater favorability and higher purchase intentions. More

interestingly, they also found that depicting advertising appeals consistent with the

typical roles of Mexican society (e.g. showing man as bread earner) had a greater

persuasive impact for high-involvement decision making products (e.g. automobiles).

Depicting appeals consistent with familial norms (e.g. eating together) had a greater

persuasive impact for low-involvement decision making products (such as gelatin

dessert). Moreover, the study showed that for products wherein the mother facilitates the

preparation process, depicting both role and familial norms increase the effectiveness of

the advertisements (Gregory and Munch, 1997).

Han and Shavitt's (1994) study of advertising appeals in individualistic and

collectivist societies showed that advertising appeals emphasizing individualistic benefits

and preferences were not only more prevalent in US magazine advertising, they were also

more persuasive than collectivist appeals in the US. In contrast, advertising appeals

emphasizing in-group benefits, harmony and integrity, were not only more prevalent in

Korean magazine ads, they also were more persuasive than individualistic appeals in

Korea (Han and Shavitt, 1994). The study's findings suggested that goals associated with

the use of a product also play a role in determining the effectiveness of culturally

congruent or incongruent advertising appeals. According to the authors, products which

are shared in use (e.g. soft drinks, groceries, coffee, tea) can employ both collectivist and

individualistic appeals depending on the value assigned to individual versus collective

benefits in the target culture. However, for personal use products (such as fashion









apparel, cosmetic, wine) which offer individual benefits only, collectivist appeals might

not work in even collectivist cultures (Han and Shavitt, 1994).

The Stewart and Furse Framework

As discussed, Pakistani advertising is a completely untouched subject in

international literature. Therefore, in addition to exploring cultural elements, this research

seeks to also measure the typical characteristics, in terms of executional elements,

formats and devices in Pakistani advertisements.

The coding categories for analyzing the executional characteristics of commercials

were derived from Stewart and Furse's (1986) study of the effects of advertising

executional factors on advertising performance. The study involved the content analysis

of 1,059 television commercials on 155 unique executional variables identified based on

past research and preliminary testing. This was followed by copytesting of each

commercial with hundreds of consumers to identify the executional elements of effective

advertisements (Stewart and Furse, 1986). For this research however, only the

executional variables were employed.

Quite a few past studies have used the Stewart and Furse (1986) coding framework

to analyze the content of television commercials (e.g. Dixit, 2005; Hsu, 2005; Senkova,

2005). Most of them have involved the content-analysis of award-winning television

commercials from and across different countries. Dixit (2005) employed the Stewart and

Furse (1986) coding framework to examine award-winning print and television

commercials from India, Pakistan's closest neighbor in terms of geographical proximity

as well as cultural similarities. The research found that the use of music and humorous

commercial tone was prevalent in a majority of award-winning Indian television

commercials. Also, the dominant commercial format was to show the product in use or









by analogy. Print advertisements on the other hand used more surrealistic visuals, visual

memory devices, visual taglines as well as a more relaxed, laid-back and fun commercial

tone. The only similarity the research highlighted was that both print and television

advertisements were dominantly set outdoors, usually in the marketplace (Dixit, 2005).

Hsu (2005) conducted a content analysis of award-winning TV commercials from

the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards in Taiwan using Stewart and Furse's (1986)

coding framework. The research identified the dominant executional elements in

Taiwanese award winning commercials and compared the results to the Stewart and

Furse (1986) study to find out whether the Taiwanese sample contained the executional

elements considered 'effective'. Some conflicts were identified between the two studies

suggesting that award-winning 'creative' advertisements might not be the most

'effective' (Hsu, 2005).

Senkova (2005) analyzed 170 Russian TV advertisements from the Moscow

International Advertising Festival to discover specific advertising strategy elements and

advertising appeals in Russian award-winning advertising. According to the study, typical

Russian award-winning commercials were humorous in tone, employed an affective

transformational creative strategy, with attributes/ingredients, product performance and

enjoyment being used as the dominant promise or appeal. Also award-winning and non-

award-winning advertisements were different mostly in the use of humor, unique selling

proposition strategy and visual devices.

Gagnard and Morris (1988) analyzed Clio award-winning commercials from 1975,

1980 and 1985 to identify trends over a ten year time period and then compared the

results with earlier effectiveness studies. The researchers found that Clio award-winners









do not hold the same characteristics that have been identified in effective TV

commercials. This implies that award-winning television commercials may not

necessarily perform well in the actual market.

Kover, James and Sonner (1997) conducted a study comprising both Effie award

winning and non-award-winning TV commercials and recorded responses of creative

professionals and general viewers towards those commercials. The results showed that

creative showed greater positive responses to award-winning commercials while the

general viewers favored commercials that elicited feelings of personal enhancement,

regardless of being award-winning or not. This suggests that creative show greater

positive attitudes towards commercials that meet professional criteria rather than

consumer-effective criteria. Therefore, award-winning advertisements may not always

reflect consumers' preferences.

In the case of Pakistan, electronic media awards are a relatively new phenomenon

and a large enough pool of award-winning advertisements does not exist to allow for a

sizeable sample. For the purpose of this study therefore, a general sample of actual

recorded advertisements from different television channels has been used for analysis.

Whether they are award-winning or not is not known. However, they represent acceptable

Pakistani advertising and a study of their executional characteristics is a first step towards

gaining an understanding of Pakistani advertising in general.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The goal of the current study is to explore the creative executional characteristics

and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television advertising and examine

their occurrences with respect to terrestrial / satellite television channels and product









categories. Based on previous research and the literature reviewed, the following research

questions are proposed:

Executional Characteristics

Visual devices

Research question (la). What are the characteristics of visual devices used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (lb). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of visual devices with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

Research question (Ic). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of visual devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

Auditory devices

Research question (2a). What are the characteristics of auditory devices used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (2b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of auditory devices with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Research question (2c). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of auditory devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Music and Dancing

Research question (3a). What are the characteristics of music and dancing used in

television commercials in Pakistan?









Research question (3b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of music and dancing with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Research question (3c). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of music and dancing with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Commercial appeals or selling propositions

Research question (4a). What are the dominant commercial appeals used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (4b). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

Research question (4c). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages,

non-carbonated beverages and edible items?

Commercial approach

Research question (5a). What is the dominant commercial approach used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (5b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial approach with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Research question (5c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial approach with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?









Commercial format

Research question (6a). What are the dominant commercial formats used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (6b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial formats with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Research question (6c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial formats with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Typology of broadcast messages

Research question (7a). What is the dominant typology of broadcast messages

used in television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (7b). What are the significant differences in broadcast typology

with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

Research question (7c). What are the significant differences in broadcast typology

with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and

edible items?

Commercial setting

Research question (8a). What are the dominant commercial settings used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (8b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial settings with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?









Research question (8c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial settings with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Commercial tone and atmosphere

Research question (9a). What are the dominant commercial tones used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (9b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial tones with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

Research question (9c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial tones with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

Commercial Structure

Research question (10a). What are the dominant commercial structures used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (10b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial structures with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Research question (10c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial structures with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Commercial characters

Research question (1 a). What are the commercial characters dominantly used in

television commercials in Pakistan?









Research question (lib). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial characters with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

Research question (11c). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial characters with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages,

non-carbonated beverages and edible items?

Cultural Values

Research question (12a). What are the dominant cultural values portrayed in

Pakistani television commercials?

Research question (12b). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural

values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercials on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

Research question (12c). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural

values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

Other Exploratory Cultural Variables

Research question (13a). What are the characteristics of women's clothing

portrayed in television commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (13b). What are the significant differences in women's clothing

portrayed in the commercials with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

Research question (13c). What are the significant differences in women's clothing

portrayed in the commercials with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?









Research question (14a). How often are religious references made in television

commercials in Pakistan?

Research question (14b). Is there a significant relationship between the presence

or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on?

Research question (14c). Is there a significant relationship between the presence

or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on?

Hypotheses

Also, although this is an exploratory study, a few hypotheses can be proposed.

According to Han and Shavitt (1994), the presence or absence of culturally congruent

advertising appeals is also determined by the goals that the target market associates with

the use of a product. Also, according to Olayan and Karande (2000), in Arab

commercials, women are generally shown for products that directly relate to women and

are depicted wearing the traditional Arab dress. Therefore, in Pakistan, being a Muslim

country, commercials for food items which are generally targeted at housewives may

contain more traditionalistic women. Therefore, for commercials which contain female

characters the following hypothesis will be tested:

Hypothesis 1. Commercials for edible items will contain more women in

traditional clothing than in Western clothing.

Language is a reflection of a country's culture (de Mooij, 2005) and therefore is

part of its identity. Hence it can be assumed that products with a domestic brand origin

are more likely to use Urdu only as the dominant language of text in commercials while

products with a Western brand origin are more likely to employ English only as the

dominant language of text. This allows for the following hypotheses:









Hypothesis 2. Urdu only will be used as the dominant language of printed text on

screen in commercials for products with a domestic brand origin.

Hypothesis 3: English only will be used as the dominant language of printed text

on screen in commercials for products with an international brand origin.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

To explore the proposed research questions, the method of quantitative content

analysis is employed. Quantitative content analysis has been explained as the method of

studying an area of subjective nature by classifying the qualitative information such that

it can be manipulated quantitatively (Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp, 1999).

Krippendorff (1980) defines it as "a research technique for making replicable and valid

inferences from data to their context" (pg. 21). According to Holsti (1969), a content

analysis is any procedure that is used to draw inferences by coding specified

characteristics of messages objectively and systematically (pg. 14).

Content analysis can be used to describe content and to test hypothesis derived

from theory. It is considered an unobtrusive and non-reactive measurement method that

also makes it possible to conduct longitudinal studies as well as reduce large amounts of

data to numbers whilst retaining meaningful differences in the data. (Riffe, Lacy, & Fico,

2005). According to Holsti (1969), content analysis is most useful under 3 circumstances:

when it is difficult to access data and the researcher only holds documentary evidence;

when the subject's own language plays a significant role in the study; and lastly, when

the amount of material to be examined is too large to allow the researcher to single-

handedly analyze it (pp. 15-17).

It has been widely used to study content in a variety of fields including marketing,

media studies, literature, ethnography, cultural studies, gender studies, sociology,

psychology, etc. (Busch, et al., 2005). It is the most widely used method for cross-cultural

research and other exploratory studies about advertising content in general (e.g. Moon &

Chan, 2005; Kalliny & Gentry, 2007; Javalgi et al, 1994; Senkova, 2005).









The purpose of the current study is to discover the executional characteristics and

the patterns of dominant cultural values in Pakistani TV commercials. By comparing and

analyzing the advertisements' content and relating the results to previous literature about

Pakistani culture, the goal is to determine how the culture portrayed in Pakistani TV

commercials relates to the culture of Pakistan per se. Content analysis is the most

appropriate method to quantitatively measure the various research dimensions and to

analyze them systematically and objectively.

Unit of Analysis

For this study, the unit of analysis was the individual television commercial aired

on one of the three Pakistani TV channels including PTV, Geo TV and ARY Digital from

the year 2002 to 2007.

Sampling Design

The population comprised all Pakistani TV commercials collected in DVD format

from the respective media banks of two advertising agencies, namely Synergy

Advertising and Orient McCann-Erickson. Due to the high cost of obtaining media

monitoring tapes from independent media agencies, the TV commercials for this study

were derived from the general media records/collection (also called media banks) of the

mentioned advertising agencies. Synergy Advertising is a young local advertising agency

established in 1999 and affiliated with i-Com, the world's largest network of independent

advertising agencies. Orient McCann-Erickson is one of the first advertising agencies in

Pakistan established locally in 1953 and later affiliated with McCann-Erickson

Worldwide in 1993. The commercials from Synergy Advertising represented 17 product

categories and 15 television channels, while those from Orient McCann-Erickson

represented nine product categories and 13 television channels.









The commercials were arranged year-wise and product category-wise on the

DVDs. First, non-probability purposive or relevance sampling was used to separate all

television commercials (n=534) aired between the years 2002 to 2007. This time frame

was chosen for a couple of reasons. Firstly, Pakistan has not undergone any change of

government or major political turmoil since 2002, i.e. when General Pervez Musharraf

declared himself President of Pakistan. The catalyst of social change has remained the

pursuit of 'moderate enlightenment' since 2000. Secondly, the government's media

liberalization policies officially took effect from 2002, the same year when GEO

Network, the most popular satellite television network, was launched. Lastly, culture

generally remains stable over a long period of time and therefore portrayal of culture is

assumed to stay relatively consistent over a period of five years. Next, because this study

aims to analyze the cultural variations in the commercials aired on terrestrial and satellite

TV channels in Pakistan, TV commercials aired on PTV terrestrial channel (=108

commercials), Geo TV satellite channel (=99 commercials) and ARY Digital satellite

channel (=94 commercials) were separated for analysis. This was done by viewing each

TV commercial and identifying the TV channel through the channel logo on the recorded

commercial. These comprised a total of 301 TV commercials. Commercials aired on

other channels were excluded due to a very small representation in the sample population.

Commercials aired on Geo TV and ARY Digital were extracted for analyzing satellite

channel ads. These two companies differ in their corporate background with GEO being

owned by 'Jang' the largest Pakistani news media group, and ARY Network owned by

the Dubai-based ARY Group of Companies. Geo was established and started

transmission in 2002 for the Pakistan market. It gained popularity among Pakistanis









worldwide for its round-the-clock news coverage and challenging the political status quo.

ARY started off its services in UK in 2000 to cater to Pakistanis living in Europe. In 2001

ARY also began its transmission in Pakistan and other parts of Asia, gaining popularity

as an infotainment channel (Television Mania, 2005, June). By analyzing commercials

from these two satellite channels, any differences between satellite channels itself can be

highlighted.

Lastly, purposive or relevance sampling again was used to further reduce the

sample to represent commercials across three product categories including carbonated

beverages (n=90 commercials), non-carbonated beverages (n=48 commercials) and

edible products (n=91 commercials). The sample consisted of a total of 229 television

commercials at the start of the coding process. The other product categories were

removed due to a comparatively much smaller representation in the sample to allow

statistically significant findings for the respective product categories. Previous research

on the effects of product category and product usage on cultural appeals in advertising

suggests that non-durable, consumer products with shared usage will contain more

culture-specific advertising appeals than otherwise. According to Han & Shavitt (1994),

soft drinks, tea, milk, coffee, groceries (edible items), baby food, etc. are all shared in

nature and therefore commercials for these products will be more culturally adapted on

the collectivism/individualism dimension. However, according to Pollay (1986, April),

cultural values or characteristics of the commercials may differ based on the advertiser's

interests and how they most readily relate to the products being advertised. The target

market for carbonated beverages for example is mostly the youth whereas for edible









items it is mostly housewives. Therefore, differences in the target market for the product

category may influence the cultural and executional characteristics of the commercials.

During the coding process, duplicate advertisements aired on the same TV channel

were eliminated, while those appearing on different TV channels were not excluded from

the study. This led to a final sample of 214 commercials. The rationale was because the

entire purpose of the study is to analyze culture as portrayed in the advertisements on the

three channels. Thus similar commercials on different TV channels are separate entities

and every commercial broadcast on them constitutes a distinct and measurable sampling

unit.

Coding Categories and Variables

In developing a systematic framework for a content analysis, factors such as

exclusiveness, exhaustiveness and parsimony of coding schemes and categories have to

be kept in mind (Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp, 1999). In using a multi-layered

framework such as Hofstede's 5 cultural dimensions, some coding categories for some of

the dimensions may run into a conceptual overlap due to their strong role in shaping

those dimensions. However, the cumulative measures of the Hofstede's dimensions will

be used for the results of this study. Thus, the overlapping of categories between different

dimensions should not skew the results.

According to Pollay (1983), culture also plays a role in determining which

categories will appear most often in advertising appeals and which ones, though

applicable in other cultures, might be redundant in the one under study. Also, the

frequency with which different advertising appeals occur in advertisements should also

be used to select the best coding categories for a coding scheme.









The commercials were coded for executional characteristics as well as cultural

values. The coding scheme for the executional characteristics was based on the Stewart

and Furse (1986) coding framework. The coding categories for this study were derived

from Steve Marshall's (2006) doctoral dissertation that employed part of the Stewart and

Furse coding framework to examine advertising message strategies and executional

devices in US television commercials from award-winning campaigns from 1999 to

2004. Also, the cultural values for this study were derived from past studies by Cheng

(1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp (1999), Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller

& Gelb (1996), and Hofstede, Pederson and Hofstede J. (2002). In addition, a few

country-specific exploratory cultural variables were also added to facilitate a broader

analysis of Pakistani television commercials. The coding instrument can be found in

Appendix A.

Pretest and Coding Procedure

The content analysis was performed by two coders the researcher (fluent in Urdu

and English female native but raised in the Middle East) served as primary coder.

Another native individual, fluent in Urdu and English, born and raised in Pakistan (25-30

age-group male) served as secondary coder. This not only helped eliminate gender bias in

the study, but the presence of the secondary coder also ensured that the primary

researcher's foreign upbringing does not impair results.

A codebook containing the precise operational definitions of all the categories and

dimensions was developed as a reference tool to enable both coders to code the

advertisements based on similar criteria (See Appendix B). The primary coder trained the

secondary coder to use the codebook by explaining each category thoroughly and

removing any ambiguities in regard to the exact meaning of every category.









Next, the coders practiced using the coding sheets by coding non-sample

advertisements and compared results with each other to clarify doubts that arose due to

judgment and interpretation differences due to the subjective nature of a number of

coding categories.

Lastly, the pretest was carried out with the coders to streamline the coding

categories, remove redundancies and determine inter-coder reliability. The pretest

contained 10% of the sample (roughly 25 advertisements) and these were given to the

coders to code and then compare their results with each other.

Inter-coder Reliability

Inter-coder reliability refers to whether the coders are coding the advertisements the

same way (are they assigning the same codes to similar stimuli). The most popular

method of determining inter-coder reliability is Holsti's (1969) formula:

Reliability = 2M/(N1 + N2) where N1 and N2 are the total number of coding

decisions made by coder 1 and coder 2 respectively and M is the total number of

agreements between the 2 coders. Table 1 exhibits the reliability results for each of the

coded categories. Acceptable reliability was established at > 80% before the actual study

was conducted (Kassarjian, 1977).

Table 1. Holsti's (1969) Inter-Coder Reliability
Category Holsti's
Scenic Beauty 1.00
Beautiful Characters 0.86
Ugly Characters 1.0
Graphics and Computer-generated Visuals 0.95
Surrealistic Visuals 1.0
Substantive Supers 1.0
Visual Tagline 1.0
Visual Memory Device 1.0
Language of Visual Text in Commercial 0.95
Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Devices 1.0









Table 1. Continued
Category Holsti's
Unusual Sound Effects 0.95
Spoken Tagline 1.0
Music in Commercial 1.0
Music as a Major Element 0.95
Music Style 1.0
Music Creates a Mood (vs. Background Only) 0.86
Music is a Brand Jingle 0.95
Dancing in Commercial 1.0
Dominant Commercial Appeal/Selling Proposition 0.81
Rational or More Emotional Appeal 0.86
Brand Differentiating Message 1.0
Dominant Commercial Format 0.81
Typology of Broadcast Messages 0.76
Dominant Commercial Setting 1.0
Where is the Commercial Setting? 0.95
Dominant Commercial Tone 0.86
Dominant Commercial Structure 0.86
Principal Character(s) Male 0.90
Principal Character(s) Female 0.95
Principal Character(s) Child/Infant 1.0
Principal Character(s) Celebrity 1.0
Principal Character(s) Actor Playing Role of Ordinary 1.0
Person
Principal Character(s) Real People 1.0
Principal Character(s) Creation 1.0
Principal Character(s) Animal 1.0
Principal Character(s) Animated 1.0
No Principal Character(s) 1.0
Characters Identified with Company 1.0
Background Cast 0.95
Celebrity in Minor Role 1.0
Animal in Minor Role 1.0
Created Character or Cartoon Character in Minor Role 1.0
Real Person in Minor Role 1.0
Recognized Continuing Character 0.90
Presenter/Spokesperson on Camera 1.0
Direct Comparison with Other Products 1.0
Indirect Comparison with Other Products 1.0
Puffery or Unsubstantiated Claims 1.0
Collective Integrity 0.86
Interdependence 0.86
Collective Benefits 0.86
Collectivism 0.90
Patriotism 1.0









Table 1. Continued
Category Holsti's
Popularity 1.0
Succorance 0.86
Independence 0.86
Distinctiveness 0.81
Self-sufficiency 0.81
Self-gain 0.90
Individual Benefits 0.81
Beauty 1.0
Health 0.95
Individualism 0.86
Uniqueness 0.95
Respect for the Elderly 0.86
Social Status 0.86
Formality 0.81
Humility 0.90
Economy 0.90
Power Aversion 1.0
Power Equality 1.0
Casualness 0.81
Convenience 0.76
Competition 0.95
Effectiveness 0.90
Wealth 1.0
Work 1.0
Courtesy 0.86
Family 0.81
Nurturance 0.81
Natural 0.95
Modesty 0.86
Enjoyment 0.76
Safety 0.76
Technology 1.0
Tradition 1.0
Tamed 0.86
Adventure 0.90
Magic 0.81
Youth 0.86
Sex 0.90
Religious Reference/Symbolism 1.0
Ad Origin 1.0
Women in Western Clothing 1.0
Overall Reliability 0.93









Data Analysis

After completing the coding procedures, the data was entered in to SPSS

(Statistical Package for the Social Science) and statistical analysis was conducted on it.

Frequency tables were drawn to analyze the occurrence of variables across television

networks and also across product categories/sub-categories. Also chi-square tests were

run to determine statistically significant relationships between the variables to answer the

research questions and hypotheses.









CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS

The basic purpose of this study was to explore the executional characteristics

and cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV advertisements. This chapter reports the

basic descriptive statistics for the sample containing TV advertisements from the three

Pakistani television stations PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV across the product

categories of carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items. It also

includes statistical chi-square tests of the research questions and hypotheses proposed

in light of existing literature.

Some variables including 'brand origin', 'specific international brand origin',

length of ad', 'specific product types', 'music style', 'dominant commercial setting'

and 'dominant commercial structure' were recorded by combining categories in order

to ensure that the minimum cell size was large enough for tests of statistical

significance. Also in all other cases, only variables and categories that met the

minimum sample size criteria of 5% (eleven commercials) were considered for further

analysis.

Description of the Sample of Commercials

Out of the 214 commercials coded, there was an almost equal representation of

commercials from the two sources the sample was drawn from, with 106 commercials

from Synergy Advertising and 108 from Orient McCann-Erickson (Table 2).

Table 2. Distribution of Sample by Source of Commercial
Source of Commercial Frequency Percent
Orient McCann-Erickson 108 50.5%
Synergy Advertising 106 49.5%
Total 214 100%









In the sample, 115 commercials were for domestic brands while 98 were for

Western brands of products (Table 3). One commercial however had an East-Asian brand

origin (Red Bull).

Table 3. Sample Distribution by Brand Origin
Brand Origin Frequency Percent
Domestic 115 53.7%
Western 98 45.8%
East-Asian 1 0.5%
Total 214 100%


In terms of the length of the commercial, the majority of the commercials (61.2%)

were 30 seconds or less in length while 38.8% were longer than 30 seconds (Table 4).

Table 4. Sample Distribution by Length of Commercial
Length of Commercial Frequency Percent
< 30 Seconds 131 61.2%
> 30 Seconds 83 38.8%
Total 214 100%


In terms of the channel the commercials were aired on, PTV had a higher

representation of commercials with 80 commercials (37.4%) from PTV, 69 from Geo TV

(32.2%) and 65 from ARY Digital (30.4%) and (Table 5).

Table 5. Sample Distribution by Channel of the Commercial
Channel Frequency Percent
PTV 80 37.4%
Geo TV 69 32.2%
ARY Digital 65 30.4%
Total 214 100%


There were three product categories analyzed in this study (Table 6). Carbonated

beverages and edible items had almost similar representations with 82 commercials

(38.3%) for carbonated beverages and 86 for edible items (40.2%). However, non-









carbonated beverages represented around one-fifth of the sample with just 46

commercials (21.5%).

Table 6. Sample Distribution by Product Category
Product Category Frequency Percent
Edible Items 86 40.2%
Carbonated Beverages 82 38.3%
Non-carbonated Beverages 44 21.5%
Total 214 100%


Among edible items, around 67.6% of the products were cooking products or condiments

such as edible oil (55.8%) and spices and food mixes (10.8%), while 23.4% of the edible

items belonged to the snacks and confections category which is usually targeted at

children (Table 7).

Table 7. Sample Distribution of Edible Items
Edible Items Type Frequency Percent
Edible Oil and Ghee 48 55.8%
Snacks and Confections 20 23.3%
Spices and Food Mixes 9 10.8%
Other 5 5.8%
Baby Food 4 4.7%
Total 86 100%


Table 8 shows a cross-tabulation of the sample by product category and the

channels on which the commercials were aired. Statistically significant differences were

discovered between product categories by channels with half of the commercials on PTV

(50.0%) belonging to the carbonated beverages category while more than half of the

commercials on ARY Digital (53.8%) and 44.9% of the Geo TV commercials

representing the edible items category. Also, non-carbonated beverages had a higher

representation on PTV (20 commercials) as compared to ARY Digital (11 commercials)

or Geo TV (15 commercials).









Table 8. Product Categories by Channel
PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV (%) Total (%)
Carbonated Beverages 40 (50.0%) 19 (29.2%) 23 (33.3%) 82 (38.3%)
Non-Carbonated Beverages 20 (25.0%) 11 (16.9%) 15 (21.7%) 46 (21.5%)
Edible Items 20 (25.0%) 35 (53.8%) 31 (44.9%) 86 (40.2%)
Total 80 (100.0%) 65 (100.0%) 69 (100.0%) 214 (100%)
X2 (4, n=214) = 13.78, p<.05

Research Questions

The basic purpose of the study is was to discover the dominant executional and

cultural characteristics of the sample of commercials. Also, the study sought to examine

any statistically significant differences in the above-mentioned characteristics with

respect to the channel the commercial was aired on and category of the advertised

product.

Executional Characteristics

The executional characteristics that were analyzed in this study include: visual

devices, auditory devices, music and dancing, commercial appeals and selling

propositions, commercial approach, commercial format, typology of broadcast messages,

commercial setting, commercial tone and atmosphere, commercial structure, commercial

characters and comparisons.

Visual devices

Research question (la). What are the characteristics of visual devices used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

Table 9 illustrates the frequencies and percentages highlighting the presence of

visual devices in the sample. Visual memory devices (93.5%) were used in almost all of

the commercials in the sample, closely followed by graphic displays (84.6%) used in

more than four-fifths of the sample.









Table 9. Distribution of Visual Devices Presence
Frequency Percent
Visual Memory Device 200 93.5
Graphic Displays 181 84.6
Substantive Supers 72 33.6
Surrealistic Visuals 59 27.6
Beautiful Characters 44 20.6
Visual Taglines 38 17.8
Scenic Beauty 15 7.0
Ugly Characters 7 3.3**
**sample size criteria violation (N=214)

According to Table 10, English only was the most commonly used language of text in the

overall sample (39.7%) followed closely by Urdu only (34.6%). Around one fourth of the

commercials also used a combination of Urdu and English visual text (25.7%).

Table 10. Distribution of Language of Text in Commercial
Language of Text in Commercial Frequency Percent
English 85 39.7%
Urdu 74 34.6%
English and Urdu Mix 55 25.7%
Total 214 100%


Research question (Ib). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of visual devices with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

None of the visual devices had a statistically significant relationship with the

channel the commercial was aired on. The chi-square results are as follows: Scenic

beauty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.23, p = n.s.), beautiful characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.92, p =

n.s.), ugly characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.15, p = n.s.), graphics and computer-generated

visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.67, p = n.s.), surrealistic visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.60, p =

n.s.), substantive supers (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.57, p = n.s.), visual taglines (X2 (2, n = 214)

= 0.38, p = n.s.), visual memory devices (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.89, p = n.s.) and language of

printed text in commercial (X2 (4, n = 214) = 8.97, p = n.s.).









Research question (Ic). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of visual devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

Out of the nine measure visual devices, substantive supers (X2 (2, n = 214) = 11.00,

p < .01) (Table 11) and surrealistic visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 27.25, p < .01) (Table 12)

portrayed statistically significant differences across product categories. Substantive

supers were found more than expected in commercials for edible items with almost half

(46.5%) of all edible items commercials employing substantive supers. Surrealistic

visuals had a more than expected presence in carbonated beverages commercials with

47.6% of all carbonated beverages commercials employing some surreal imagery in

them.

Table 11. Substantive Supers by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 19(23.2%) 13 (28.3%) 40 (46.5%) 72 (33.6%)
Absence 63 (76.8%) 33 (71.7%) 46 (53.5%) 142 (66.4%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n= 214) = 11.00, p <.01

Table 12. Surrealistic Visuals by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 39 (47.6%) 5 (10.9%) 15 (17.4%) 59 (27.6%)
Absence 43 (52.4%) 41 (89.1%) 71 (82.6%) 155 (72.4%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) (100%)
X2 (2, n = 214)= 27.25, p <.01

The chi-squares for visual devices that did not portray significant differences across

product categories include scenic beauty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.79, p = n.s.), beautiful

characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.58, p = n.s.), ugly characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.05, p =

n.s.), graphics and computer-generated visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.40, p = n.s.), visual









taglines (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.45, p = n.s.), visual memory devices (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.69,

p = n.s.) and language of printed or visual text in commercial (X2 (4, n = 214) = 20.12, p

=n.s.).

Also, as shown in Table 13, there was a statistically significant association between

the language of the text used and product category of the commercial. Urdu only was

predominantly used in almost half of the carbonated beverage commercials (46.3%),

English was the only language used in more than half (58.7%) of non-carbonated

beverage commercials and a mix of English and Urdu was predominantly used in

commercials for edible items (60%).

Table 13. Language of Text in Commercial by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Urdu 38 (46.3%) 13 (28.3%) 23 (26.7%) 74 (34.6%)
English 28 (34.1%) 27 (58.7%) 30 (34.9%) 85 (39.7%)
English and 16(19.5%) 6 (13.0%) 33 (38.4%) 55 (25.7%)
Urdu Mix
Total (%) 82(100.0%) 46(100.0%) 86(100.0%) 214 (100%)
X2 (4, n= 214) = 20.12, p <.01

Auditory devices

Research question (2a). What are the characteristics of auditory devices used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 14, rhymes, slogans and mnemonics were very commonly used

in the sample commercials (82.7%). Sound effects were used in around one-fourth of the

commercials (27.1%).

Table 14. Auditory Devices Presence
Auditory Device Frequency Percent
Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonics 177 82.7%
Unusual Sound Effects 58 27.1%
Spoken Tagline 25 11.7%









Research question (2b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of auditory devices with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

None of the auditory devices exhibited any significant relationship with channel of

the commercial. The chi-squares from the cross-tabs between the auditory devices

variables and 'channel of commercial' are as follows: Rhymes, slogans and mnemonics

(X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.84, p = n.s.), unusual sound effects (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.62, p = n.s.)

and spoken tagline (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.11, p = n.s.).

Research question (2c). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of auditory devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

Rhymes, slogans and mnemonics (Table 15) as well as unusual sound effects (X2

(2, n=214) = 25.56, p < .01) (Table 16) exhibited a statistically significant relationship

with product category. An overwhelming number of edible items' commercials (93.0%)

and non-carbonated beverages' commercials (89.1%) used some form of rhymes, slogans

or mnemonics. However, carbonated beverages' commercials employed a less than

expected amount of rhymes, slogans or mnemonics in them (Table 15). The variable

'spoken tagline' did not exhibit any statistically significant relationships with product

category (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.29, p = n.s.).

Table 15. Rhymes, Slogans and Mnemonics by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 56 (68.3%) 41 (89.1%) 80 (93.0%) 177 (82.7%)
Absence 26 (31.7%) 5 (10.9%) 6 (7.0%) 37 (17.3%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n = 214) = 19.64, p <.01









Almost half of the carbonated beverages' commercials (46.3%) employed some kind of

unusual sound effects as compared to just 10.9% in non-carbonated beverage

commercials and 17.4% in edible items' commercials (Table 16).

Table 16. Unusual Sound Effects by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 38 (46.3%) 5 (10.9%) 15 (17.4%) 58 (27.1%)
Absence 44(53.7%) 41(89.1%) 71(82.6%) 156(72.9%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n= 214)= 25.56, p <.01

Music and dancing

Research question (3a). What are the characteristics of music and dancing used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 17, music was present in almost all the commercials (99.1%) in

the sample. More than half of the commercials in the sample used music to create a

certain mood in the commercial, such as suspense, romance or happiness, rather than just

use it as a background. However, dances were not very common with just 10.3% of the

commercials containing dancing in them.

Table 17. Distribution of Music and Dancing Presence
Frequency Percent
Music in Commercial 212 99.1%
Music Creates a Mood 122 57.0%
Music is a Brand Jingle 63 29.4%
Music as Major Element 59 27.6%
Dancing in Commercial 22 10.3%


According to Table 18, Western and other non-Pakistani music styles were most

commonly used in the commercials in the sample (42.9%). However, the combined usage

of traditional and contemporary Pakistani music made up just over half (51.1%) of the

music style employed in the commercials.









Table 18. Music Style by Product Category
Frequency Percent
Western and Others 91 42.9%
Traditional Pakistani 64 30.2%
Contemporary Pakistani 57 26.9%
Total 212 100%


Research question (3b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of music and dancing with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

There were statistically significant differences found for the variable 'dancing in

the commercial' with respect to the channel of the commercial (Table 19). Dancing was

employed more often than expected in commercials aired on Geo TV (17.4%) and

minimally in commercials aired on PTV (5.0%).

Table 19. Dancing in Commercial by Channel of Commercial
PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV(%) Total (%)
Presence 4 (5.0%) 6 (9.2%) 12 (17.4%) 22 (10.3%)
Absence 76(95.0%) 59 (90.8%) 57 (82.6%) 192 (89.7%)
Total (%) 80 (100%) 65 (100%) 69 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n = 214)= 6.28, p < .05

However, there was no statistically significant association between any other

variable in the 'music and dancing' category and channel of the commercial. The chi-

squares for the other variables are as follows: Music in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) =

3.38, p = n.s.), music as a major element (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.57, p = n.s.), music style

(X2 (4, n = 212) = 4.25, p = n.s.), music creates a mood (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.41, p = n.s.)

and music is a brand jingle (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.19, p = n.s.).

Research question (3c). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of music and dancing with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?









There was a statistically significant relationship between product category and the

variables 'music creates a mood' (X2 (2, n=214) = 20.65, p < .01) (Table 20) and 'music

present as a major element' (X2 (2, n=214) = 8.23, p < .05) (Table 21). According to

Table 20, music was used to create a mood in a majority of the carbonated beverages'

(73.2%) and non-carbonated beverages commercials (60.9%) but was not used as often as

expected in commercials for edible items.

Table 20. Music Creates a Mood by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 60 (73.2%) 28 (60.9%) 34 (39.5%) 122 (57.0%)
Absence 22 (26.8%) 18(39.1%) 52 (60.5%) 92 (43.0%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n= 214) = 19.73, p < .01

According to Table 21, music was present as a major element in around two-fifths of the

commercials for non-carbonated beverages (39.1%) and a little less than one-third of the

commercials for edible items (31.4%). However, carbonated beverages had less than the

expected number of commercials (17.1%) with music as a major element in them.

Table 21. Music Present as a Major Element by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Presence 14(17.1%) 18(39.1%) 27 (31.4%) 59 (27.6%)
Absence 68 (82.9%) 28 (60.9%) 59 (68.6%) 155 (72.4%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n = 214)= 8.23, p < .05

There was a statistically significant relationship between music style and product

category with 62.5% of carbonated beverages commercials employing Western or other

non-traditional styles of music while almost half of edible items commercials (47.7%)

employed the traditional Pakistani music style (Table 22). However, only a few

carbonated beverages' commercials (7.5%) used traditional Pakistani music in them.









Table 22. Music Style by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) Items (%)
Western and 50 (62.5%) 19(41.3%) 22 (25.6%) 91 (42.9%)
Others
Traditional 6 (7.5%) 17(37.0%) 41(47.7%) 64 (30.2%)
Pakistani
Contemporary 24 (30.0%) 10 (21.7%) 23 (26.7%) 57 (26.9%)
Pakistani
Total 80 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 212 (100%)
X2 (4, n= 212)= 36.99; p <.01

There was no statistically significant relationship however between product category and

music in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.25, p = n.s.), music is a brand jingle (X2 (2, n =

214) = 2.65, p = n.s.) and dancing in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.56, p = n.s.).

Commercial appeals or selling propositions

Research question (4a). What are the dominant commercial appeals used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 23, product reminder as main message' was the dominant

commercial appeal (22.0%). This was followed by the 'enjoyment' appeal (18.2%) and

'product performance or benefit as main message' appeal (15.4%).

Table 23. Distribution of Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions
Frequency Percent
Product Reminder as Main Message 47 22.0%
Enjoyment Appeal 39 18.2%
Product Performance or Benefits as Main Message 33 15.4%
Achievement 25 11.7%
Excitement, Sensation and Variety 21 9.8%
Attributes or Ingredients as Main Message 19 8.9%
Psychological/Subjective Benefits of Product 12 5.6%
Social Approval 8 3.7%**
Welfare Appeal 5 2.3%**
Self-Esteem or Self-Image 2 0.9%**
Sexual Appeal 2 0.9%**
Safety Appeal 1 0.5%**
Comfort Appeal 0 0.0%**
**sample size criteria violation









Appeals which did not fulfill the minimum sample size criteria of 5% were

removed from further analysis.

Research question (4b). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

In conducting cross-tabs between commercial appeal (that met the minimum

sample size criteria) and channel of the commercial, the appeal 'psychological or

subjective benefits of product as main message' did not fulfill the minimum expected cell

count criteria and was removed from analysis. However, no statistically significant

relationship was found between the remaining commercial appeals and channel of the ad

(X2 (10, n = 184) = 16.20, p = n.s.).

Research question (4c). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages,

non-carbonated beverages and edible items?

No statistically significant relationship was found between commercial appeals and

product category even after removing all categories that did not meet minimum cell

criteria (X2 (2, n = 86) = 0.59, p = n.s.).

Commercial approach

Research question (5a). What is the dominant commercial approach used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 24, more than half of the commercials in the sample utilized a

predominantly emotional commercial approach (57%) while less than one fourth utilized

a more rational appeal (23.4%).









Table 24. Commercial Approach in Sample
Rational or More Emotional Appeal Frequency Percent
More Emotional 122 57%
More Rational 50 23.4%
Balance of Rational/ Emotional 42 19.6%
Total (%) 214 100%


Also, only 12.1% of the sample commercials employed any brand-differentiating

messages in them (Table 25), while a majority of the commercials contained mostly

generic claims not unique to the brand or product being advertised.

Table 25. Brand Differentiating Message in Sample
Brand Differentiating Message Frequency Percent
Present 26 12.1%
Absent 188 87.9%
Total (%) 214 100%


Research question (5b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial approach with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital & Geo?

The relationships between the commercial approach variables, 'emotional or

rational appeal' (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.16, p = n.s.) and 'brand-differentiating message' (X2

(2, n = 214) = 0.26, p = n.s.) with 'channel of commercial' were not statistically

significant

Research question (5c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial approach with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

The relationship between commercial approach and product category was

statistically significant. An emotional approach was taken more often than expected in

carbonated beverages, while a rational approach was taken in edible items more often

than expected (Table 26).









Table 26. Commercial Approach by Product Category
Carbonated Non- Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages Carbonated (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
More Emotional 62 (75.6%) 24 (52.2%) 36 (41.9%) 122 (57.0%)
More Rational 9 (11.0%) 11 (23.9%) 30 (34.9%) 50 (23.4%)
Balance of 11 (13.4%) 11 (23.9%) 20 (23.3%) 42 (19.6%)
Rational/ Emotional
Total (%) 82(100.0%) 46(100.0%) 86(100%) 214(100%)
X2 (4, n= 214) = 21.52; p <.01

Product categories also exhibited a significant association with the presence of

brand-differentiating messages with a greater number of edible items' commercials

(22.1%) carrying unique claims or brand-differentiating messages about the product.

Carbonated beverages' commercials on the other hand had a negligible presence (3.7%)

of brand-differentiating messages.

Table 27. Brand-differentiating Messages by Product Category
Carbonated Non- Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages Carbonated (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
Present 3 (3.7%) 4 (8.7%) 19 (22.1%) 26 (12.1%)
Absent 79 (96.3%) 42 (91.3%) 67 (77.9%) 188 (87.9%)
Total (%) 82(100.0%) 46(100.0%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n= 214) = 14.02; p <.01

Commercial format

Research question (6a). What are the dominant commercial formats used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 28, demonstration of product in use or by analogy was the most

commonly used commercial format (19.2%) in the sample followed by continuity of

action (16.8%) and announcement (15.9%). Eleven commercial formats were removed

from further statistical analysis due to small sample size thus yielding seven total

measured appeals.









Table 28. Dominant Commercial Format
Frequency Percent
Demonstration of Product in Use or by Analogy 41 19.2%
Continuity of Action 36 16.8%
Announcement 34 15.9%
Creation of Mood or Image as Dominant Element 26 12.1%
Fantasy, Exaggeration or Surrealism as Dominant Element 25 11.7%
Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope 20 9.3%
Slice of Life 13 6.1%
Vignette 6 2.8%**
Demonstration of Results of Using Product 4 1.9%**
Comedy or Satire 3 1.4%**
Testimonial by Product User 3 1.4%**
Endorsement by Celebrity or Authority 2 0.9%**
New Wave Graphics 1 0.5%**
Photographic Stills 0 0.0%**
Problem and Solution 0 0.0%**
Commercial Written as a Serious Drama 0 0.0%**
Interview 0 0.0%**
Camera involves Audience in Situation 0 0.0%**
** sample size criteria violation

Research question (6b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial formats with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

Three of the least occurring commercial formats (fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as

dominant element, animation/cartoon/rotoscope and slice of life) failed to fulfill the

minimum expected cell count criteria when measured against the 'channel of

commercial' variable. However, no statistically significant relationship was found

between commercial format and channel of ad (X2 (10, n = 182) = 6.32; p = n.s.) after

removing those three categories from analysis.

Research question (6c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial formats with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?









Three of the least occurring commercial formats (fantasy, exaggeration or

surrealism as dominant element, animation/cartoon/rotoscope and slice of life) failed to

fulfill the minimum expected cell count criteria when measured against the 'product

category' variable. After removing these categories, a statistically significant relationship

was found between commercial format and product category (Table 29). Continuity of

action was the dominant format used in carbonated beverages' commercials (42.9%)

while demonstration of product in use or by analogy was predominantly used for edible

items' commercials (48.5%). Creation of mood or image was used more often than

expected in commercials for non-carbonated beverages (27.6%).

Table 29. Commercial Format by Product Category
Carbonated Non- Edible Total (%)
Beverages Carbonated Items (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
Demonstration of 4 (9.5%) 5 (17.2%) 32 (48.5%) 41 (29.9%)


product in use or by
analogy
Continuity of Action 18 (42.9%) 11 (37.9%) 7 (10.6%) 36 (26.30
Announcement 10(23.8%) 5 (17.2%) 19 (28.8%) 34 (24.8%
Creation of mood or 10 (23.8%) 8 (27.6%) 8 (12.1%) 26 (19.00
image as dominant
element
Total 42(100.0%) 29(100.0%) 66(100%) 137(1000
X2 (6, n = 137) = 31.45; p <.01

Typology of broadcast messages

Research question (7a). What is the dominant typology of broadcast messages

used in television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 30, the sample commercials dominantly contained

transformational messages (67.3%) with a more image-based, emotional or feelings

approach whereas less than one-third of the commercials (32.7%) employed

informational messages in them.


a)



%)









Table 30. Typology of Broadcast Messages in Sample
Frequency Percent
Transformational 114 67.3%
Informational 70 32.7%
Total (%) 214 100%


Research question (7b). What are the significant differences in broadcast typology

with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

There was no statistically significant relationship between the broadcast typology of the

commercial and the channel of the commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.27; p = n.s.)

Research question (7c). What are the significant differences in broadcast

typology with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

There was a statistically significant relationship found between the typology of

broadcast messages in the commercials and the product category the commercial

advertised (Table 31). A greater majority of carbonated beverages' commercials were

more transformational in nature (81.7%), whereas commercials for edible items

exhibited equal numbers of transformational and informational messages (50.0%).

However, edible items contained informational messages more often than expected,

while both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages contained transformational

messages more often than expected.

Table 31. Typology of Broadcast Messages by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) Items (%)
Informational 15 (18.3%) 12 (26.1%) 43 (50.0%) 70 (32.7%)
Transformational 67 (81.7%) 34 (73.9%) 43 (50.0%) 144 (67.3%)
Total 82(100.0%) 46(100.0%) 86 214(100%)
(100.0%)
X2 (2, n= 214) = 20.34; p <.01









Commercial setting

Research question (8a). What are the dominant commercial settings used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 32, more than half of the sample commercials (54.2%) were

filmed indoors in man-made structures such as houses, kitchens, train, stadium,

restaurants, etc. Also, around 17.3% of the commercials were filmed on no particular

setting, i.e. on graphics background or other non-descript backgrounds such as black or

white screens or curtains. Also, just 7.9% of the commercials showed only outdoor

settings and natural environments such as hills, riversides, mountains, etc.

Table 32. Dominant Commercial Setting
Commercial Setting Frequency Percent
Indoors 116 54.2%
No Setting 37 17.3%
Other 24 11.2%
Both Indoors and Outdoors 20 9.3%
Outdoors 17 7.9%
Total (%) 214 100.0%


Research question (8b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial settings with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

There was a statistically significant relationship between commercial setting and

the channel the commercial was aired on (Table 33). Although indoors was the dominant

setting for more than half of the commercials on PTV (51.3%), ARY Digital (55.4%) as

well as Geo TV (56.4%), a less than expected number of commercials aired on PTV used

a 'no setting' environment. However, commercials on PTV also exhibited other settings

like roads, streets, etc. more often than expected.









Table 33. Commercial Setting by Channel of Commercial
PTV (%) ARY Geo TV (%) Total (%)
Digital (%)
Indoors 41(51.3%) 36(55.4%) 39 (56.4%) 116(54.2%)
No Setting 6 (7.5%) 18(27.7%) 13 (18.8%) 37 (17.3%)
Other 18(22.5%) 2(3.1%) 4(5.8%) 24(11.2%)
Both Indoors and Outdoors 8 (10.0%) 4 (6.2%) 8 (11.6%) 20 (9.3%)
Outdoors 7 (8.8%) 5 (7.7%) 5 (7.2%) 17(7.9%)
Total (%) 80 (100%) 65 (100%) 69 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (8, n = 214)= 24.73, p <.01

Research question (8c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial settings with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

When measuring commercial setting against product category, two commercial

settings (outdoors and both indoors and outdoors) did not meet minimum expected cell

count criteria and were removed from analysis. After the removal of those categories, a

chi-square test between commercial setting and product category provided statistically

significant results (Table 34). Greater than two-thirds of edible items' commercials were

in an indoors setting (70.9%), while just 1.3 % of edible items' commercials, lesser than

expected, were in some other setting (such as roads, streets, etc.). However, carbonated

beverages utilized other settings such as streets, highways, roads, outdoor tuck shops, etc.

more often than expected (25.9%).

Table 34. Commercial Setting by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Total (%)
Beverages Beverages (%) Items (%)
(%)
Indoors 34 (58.6%) 26 (65.0%) 56 116(65.5%)
(70.9%)
No Setting 9(15.5%) 6(15.0%) 22 37(20.9%)
(27.8%)
Other 15(25.9%) 8 (20.0%) 1 (1.3%) 24 (13.6%)
Total (%) 58 (100%) 40 (100%) 79 (100%) 177 (100%)
X2 (4, n = 177) = 20.57, p <.01









Commercial tone and atmosphere

Research question (9a). What are the dominant commercial tones used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 35, around 29.4% of the entire sample exhibited a happy and

fun-loving tone, 13.6% had a more hard sell tone and 12.1% used a dominantly

wholesome and healthy tone. However, ten of the commercial tone categories fell below

the minimum sample size criteria and were removed from further analysis.

Table 35. Commercial Tones in Sample
Frequency Percent
Happy/Fun-loving 63 29.4
Hard Sell 29 13.6
Wholesome/Healthy 26 12.1
Rough/Rugged 18 8.4
Warm and Caring 14 6.5
Modem/Contemporary 12 5.6
Relaxed/Comfortable 12 5.6
Cool/laid back 8 3.7**
Cute/Adorable 7 3.3**
Conservative/Traditional 5 2.3**
Humorous 5 2.3**
Glamorous 4 1.9**
Suspenseful 3 1.4**
Somber/Serious 3 1.4**
Technological/Futuristic 2 0.9**
Uneasy/Tense/Irritated 2 0.9**
Old-Fashioned/Nostalgic 1 0.5**
Total 214 100.0
**sample size violation

Research question (9b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of dominant commercial tones with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

After removing the categories which did not meet the minimum expected cell count

criteria (warm and caring, modem/contemporary and relaxed/comfortable), no









statistically significant relationship was found between commercial tone and channel of

commercial (X2 (6, n = 136) = 6.90, p = n.s.).

Research question (9c). What are the significant differences in the characteristics

of dominant commercial tones with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages,

non-carbonated beverages and edible items?

After removing categories which did not meet the minimum cell count criteria

(warm and caring, modem/contemporary, relaxed/comfortable and rough/rugged),

statistical significant differences could be seen in the commercial tones with respect to

product categories (X2 (4, n = 118) = 25.63, p < .01) (Table 36). The majority of

carbonated beverage commercials (85.7%) had a happy and fun-loving tone, which was

more than the expected number. On the other hand, edible items had a less than expected

number of commercials that employed a happy and fun-loving tone. However, edible

items' commercials employed a wholesome and healthy tone as well as a hard sell tone

more often than expected.

Table 36. Dominant Commercial Tone by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) Items (%)
Happy/Fun-loving 30 (85.7%) 12 (50.0%) 21 (35.6%) 63 (53.4%)
Hard Sell 5 (14.3%) 4 (16.7%) 20 (33.9%) 29 (24.6%)
Wholesome/Healthy 0 (0.0%) 8 (33.3%) 18(30.5%) 26 (22.0%)
Total 35 (100%) 24 (100%) 59 (100%) 118(100%)
X2 (4, n = 118) = 25.63, p <.01

Commercial structure

Research question (lOa). What are the dominant commercial structures used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 37, front-end impact was the dominant commercial structure

employed in around two-thirds of the sample (64.5%). Three commercial structure









categories including surprise or suspense at closing, humorous closing and blind lead-in

were removed from further analysis due to a violation of the minimum sample size

criteria.

Table 37. Dominant Commercial Structure
Frequency Percent
Front-end Impact 138 64.5
Message in the Middle (Doughnut) 33 15.4
Surprise or Suspense in the Middle 30 14.0
Surprise or Suspense at Closing 7 3.3**
Humorous Closing 3 1.4**
Blind Lead In 3 1.4**
Total 214 100.0
** sample size violation

Research question (10b). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial structures with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo

TV?

No statistically significant relationship was found between the variables 'dominant

commercial structure' and 'channel of the commercial' (X2 (4, n = 201) = 2.52, p = n.s.).

Research question (10c). What are the significant differences in the dominant

commercial structures with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

A statistically significant association was found between dominant commercial

structure and product category (Table 38). Almost three-fourth of carbonated beverages'

commercials and more than a third of non-carbonated beverages' commercials (69.0%)

used the front-end impact structure. Also, edible items exhibited a less than expected use

of the front-end impact commercial structure (64.7%) but used a doughnut structure

(message embedded in the middle) noticeably more often (25.9%) than the other two

product categories did.









Table 38. Dominant Commercial Structure by Product Category
Carbonated Non- Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Carbonated (%)
Beverages (%)
Front-end Impact 54 (73.0%) 29 (69.0%) 55 (64.7%) 138(68.7%)
Surprise or 16 (21.6%) 6 (14.3%) 8 (9.4%) 30 (14.9%)
Suspense in the
Middle
Message in the 4 (5.4%) 7 (16.7%) 22 (25.9%) 33 (16.4%)
Middle (Doughnut)
Total 74 (100%) 42 (100%) 85 (100%) 201 (100%)


XL (4, n = 201) = 14.47, p <.01

Commercial characters

Research question (1 a). What are the commercial characters dominantly used in

television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 39, the most commonly used principal commercial characters

were actors playing roles of ordinary people (72.9%). The principal characters were

females in 57.0% of the commercials and males in 54.7% of the commercials

Table 39. Commercial Characters Presence in Sample
Frequency Percent
Principal Character Actor Playing Role of 156 72.9
Ordinary Person
Principal Character Female 122 57.0
Principal Character Male 117 54.7
Background Cast 90 42.1
Principal Character Child 41 19.2
No Principal Character 31 14.5
Recognized Continuing Character 25 11.7
Principal Character Celebrity 24 11.2
Principal Character Creation 17 7.9
Principal Character Animated 17 7.9
Character identified with Company 15 7.0
Celebrity in Minor Role 11 5.1
Created/Cartoon Character in Minor Role 10 4.7**
Animal in Minor Role 9 4.2**
Principal Character Animal 5 2.3**
Real Person in Minor Role 4 1.9**
Principal Character Real People 1 0.5**
**sample size criteria violated









A number of commercials in the sample employed a background cast too (42.1%).

Commercial character variables that violated the minimum sample size criteria were

removed from further analysis (Table 39).

Research question (lib). What are the significant differences in the use of

dominant commercial characters with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital

and Geo TV?

According to Table 40, the commercial characters 'recognized continuing character' (X2

(2, n = 214) = 6.25; p < .05) and 'principal character celebrity' (X2 (2, n = 214) = 13.03;

p < .01) showed a statistically significant association with the channels the commercials

were aired on. Both the commercial characters were found more often than expected on

PTV.

Table 40. Commercial Characters by Channel of Ad (N=214)
PTV ARY Geo Total X2 d.f. p
(%) Digital (%) TV (%)
(%)
Recognized 14 8 3 25 6.25 2 .04
continuing (17.5%) (12.3%) (4.3%) (11.7%)
character
Principal character 17 4 3 24 13.03 2 .00
celebrity (21.3%) (6.2%) (4.3%) (11.2%)


However no statistically significant relationships were found between channel of

commercial and the following variables: Principal character male (X2 (2, n = 214) =

3.31, p = n.s.), principal character female (X2 (2, n = 214) =2.02, p = n.s.), principal

character child/enfant (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.74, p = n.s.), principal character actor playing

role of ordinary person (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.16, p = n.s.), principal character creation

(X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.34, p = n.s.), principal character animal (X2 (2, n = 214) = 11.74, p

= n.s.), principal character animated (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.41, p = n.s.), no principal









character (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.43, p = n.s.), characters identified with company (X2 (2, n

= 214) = 10.76, p = n.s.), background cast (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.72, p = n.s.), celebrity in

minor role (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.37, p = n.s.), and presenter/spokesperson on camera (X2

(6, n = 214)= 6.78, p = n.s.).

Research question (11c). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant

commercial characters with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items?

While comparing the presence of commercial characters with product category,

seven statistically significant relationships were discovered (Table 41): principal

character female, principal character male, background cast, principal character child, no

principal character, recognized continuing character and principal character celebrity.

Principal character female (69.8%) and principal character child (27.9%) appeared more

often than expected in commercials for edible items, while principal character male

(79.3%), principal character celebrity (24.4%), background cast (58.5%) and recognized

continuing character (24.4%) appeared more often than expected in commercials for

carbonated beverages. Also, more often than expected, commercials for non-carbonated

beverages used children as principal characters (30.4%) or used no principal characters at

all (23.9%). However, no statistically significant relationships were found between

product category and the following variables: Principal character actor playing role of

ordinary person (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.59, p = n.s.), principal character creation (X2 (2, n =

214) = 2.75, p = n.s.), principal character animated (X2 (2, n = 214) = 5.12, p = n.s.),

characters identified with company (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.45, p = n.s.), celebrity in minor

role (X2 (2, n = 214) = 13.74, p = n.s.), created character/cartoon character in minor role









(X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.76, p = n.s.), and presenter/spokesperson on camera (X2 (6, n = 214)

= 21.96, p = n.s.).

Table 41. Commercial Characters Presence by Product Category (N=214)
Carbonated Non- Edible Total X2 d.f. p
Beverages Carbonated Items (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
(%)
Principal 33 29 60 122 15.80 2 .00
character (40.2%) (63.0%) (69.8%) (57%)
female
Principal 65 23 29 117 35.66 2 .00
character (79.3%) (50.0%) (33.7%) (54.7%)
male
Background 48 20 22 90 18.76 2 .00
cast (58.5%) (43.5%) (25.6%) (42.1%)
Principal 3 14 24 41 20.75 2 .00
character (3.7%) (30.4%) (27.9%) (19.2%)
child
No principal 6 11 14 31 6.95 2 .03
character (7.3%) (23.9%) (16.5%) (14.6%)
Recognized 20 0 5 25 21.79 2 .00
continuing (24.4%) (0.0%) (5.8%) (11.7%)
character
Principal 20 3 1 24 24.04 2 .00
character (24.4%) (6.5%) (1.2%) (11.2%)
celebrity


Cultural Values

Research question (12a). What are the dominant cultural values portrayed in

Pakistani television commercials?

According to Table 42, 'youth' (64.0%), 'enjoyment' (52.8%), 'courtesy' (45.8%)

and 'collectivism' (43.6%) were the most dominant cultural values used in that order, in

the sample commercials. Cultural values such as 'sex', 'tradition', 'work', 'technology',

'competition', 'power aversion', 'work' and 'beauty' did not meet the minimum sample

size criteria and were removed from further analysis.










Table 42. Presence of Cultural Values
Frequency Percent
Youth 137 64.0
Enjoyment 113 52.8
Courtesy 98 45.8
Collectivism 94 43.6
Effectiveness 85 39.7
Family 81 37.9
Interdependence 77 36.0
Collective Benefits 72 33.6
Tamed 72 33.6
Distinctiveness 66 30.8
Casualness 64 29.9
Health 54 25.2
Self-Sufficiency 53 24.8
Adventure 47 22.0
Individualism 45 21.0
Self-Gain 43 20.1
Independence 42 19.6
Succorance 41 19.2
Social Status 40 18.7
Formality 37 17.3
Convenience 35 16.4
Natural 35 16.4
Collective Integrity 29 13.6
Individual Benefits 32 15.0
Economy 26 12.1
Uniqueness 26 12.1
Respect for Elderly 26 12.1
Nurturance 25 11.7
Modesty 23 10.7
Power Equality 20 9.3
Humility 19 8.9
Patriotism 15 7.0
Popularity 15 7.0
Wealth 13 6.1
Safety 12 5.6
Magic 11 5.1
Sex 6 2.8**
Competition 6 2.8**
Work 4 1.9**
Tradition 3 1.4**
Power Aversion 3 1.4**
Beauty 1 0.5**
Technology 1 0.5**
**minimum sample size violation









Research question (12b). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural

values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercials on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

Four cultural values namely effectiveness, casualness, social status and nurturance

exhibited dependent relationships by the channel of the commercials (Table 43). The

value of effectiveness was present more often than expected on Geo TV (with over 50%

of commercials on Geo TV portraying this value) and ARY Digital as compared to PTV.

However, the values of casualness, social status and nurturance were present more often

than expected on PTV with around 40% of PTV commercials portraying casualness,

28.8% portraying social status and 18.8% portraying nurturance.

Table 43. Presence of Cultural Values by Channel of Commercial
PTV ARY Geo TV (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. P
(%) Digital (%)
Effectiveness 24 26 35 85 6.65 2 .04
(30.0%) (40.0%) (50.7%) (39.7%)
Casualness 32 18 14 64 7.08 2 .03
(40.0%) (27.7%) (20.3%) (29.9%)
Social Status 23 11 6 40 10.0 2 .01
(28.8%) (16.9%) (8.7%) (18.7%)
Nurturance 15 7 3 25 7.52 2 .02
(18.8%) (10.8%) (4.3%) (11.7%)


The following variables did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with

channel of the commercial: Youth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.25, p = n.s.), enjoyment (X2 (2, n

= 214) = 0.84, p = n.s.), courtesy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.82, p = n.s.), collectivism (X2 (2, n

= 214) = 1.55, p = n.s.), family (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.54, p = n.s.), interdependence (X2 (2,

n = 214) = 0.65, p = n.s.), collective benefits (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.79, p = n.s.), tamed (X2

(2, n = 214) = 0.09, p = n.s.), distinctiveness (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.64, p = n.s.), health (X2

(2, n = 214) = 0.04, p = n.s.), self-sufficiency (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.11, p = n.s.), adventure

(X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.32, p = n.s.), individualism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.31, p = n.s.), self-









gain (X2 (2, n = 214)= 0.61, p = n.s.), independence (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.68, p = n.s.),

succorance (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.82, p = n.s.), formality (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.22, p = n.s.),

convenience (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.15, p = n.s.), natural (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.22, p = n.s.),

collective integrity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.12, p = n.s.), individual benefits (X2 (2, n = 214)

= 0.02, p = n.s.), economy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.44, p = n.s.), uniqueness (X2 (2, n = 214)

= 3.44, p = n.s.), respect for elderly (X2 (2, n = 214)= 0.26, p = n.s.), modesty (X2 (2, n =

214) = 2.09, p = n.s.), power equality (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.52, p = n.s.), humility (X2 (2, n

= 214) = 0.86, p = n.s.), patriotism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.91, p = n.s.), popularity (X2 (2, n

= 214) = 5.99, p = n.s.), wealth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.33, p = n.s.), safety (X2 (2, n = 214)

1.20, p = n.s.) and magic (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.91, p = n.s.).

Research question (12c). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural

values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated

beverages and edible items?

Twenty three cultural values out of a total of 43 exhibited statistically dependent

relationships with the product category of the commercials (Table 44). Commercials for

carbonated beverages dominantly displayed the values of youth (76.8%), distinctiveness

(54.9%), casualness (43.9%), adventure (43.9%), individualism (39%), self-sufficiency

(36.6%), self-gain (35.4%), independence (31.7%) and social-status (30.5%).

Commercials for non-carbonated beverages dominantly displayed the values of youth

(69.6%), courtesy (65.2%), collectivism (58.7%), effectiveness (56.5%), family (54.3%),

interdependence (50.0%), health (47.8%), natural (34.8%) and convenience (32.6%).

Commercials for edible items on the other hand dominantly displayed the values of

courtesy (64.0%), effectiveness (62.8%), family (55.8%), tamed (54.7%), collective









benefits (48.8%), youth (48.8%) collectivism (45.3%), health (36.0%) and succorance

(30.2%). The value of youth is dominant in all three product categories and is also the

dominant value overall. The values of convenience, natural, health, succorance, collective

integrity and nurturance are present in less than 5% of carbonated beverage commercials.

Table 44. Presence of Cultural Values by Product Categories
Carbonated Non- Edible Total X2 d.f. p
Beverages Carbonated Items (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
(%)


Youth 63 32 42 137 15.06 2 .00
(76.8%) (69.6%) (48.8%) (64.0%)
Courtesy 13 30 55 98 48.03 2 .00
(15.9%) (65.2%) (64.0%) (45.8%)
Collectivism 28 27 39 94 7.33 2 .02
(34.1%) (58.7%) (45.3%) (43.9%)
Effectiveness 5 26 54 85 63.26 2 .00
(6.1%) (56.5%) (62.8%) (39.7%)
Family 8 25 48 81 44.63 2 .00
(9.8%) (54.3%) (55.8%) (37.9%)
Interdependence 35 23 19 77 12.73 2 .00
(42.7%) (50.0%) (22.1%) (36.0%)
Collective 10 20 42 72 27.78 2 .00
Benefits (12.2%) (43.5%) (48.8%) (33.6%)
Tamed 5 20 47 72 46.86 2 .00
(6.1%) (43.5%) (54.7%) (33.6%)
Distinctiveness 45 8 13 66 36.08 2 .00
(54.9%) (17.4%) (17.1%) (30.8%)
Casualness 36 10 18 64 12.43 2 .00
(43.9%) (21.7%) (20.9%) (29.9%)
Health 1 22 31 54 42.84 2 .00
(1.2%) (47.8%) (36.0%) (25.2%)
Self-sufficiency 30 8 15 53 9.97 2 .01
(36.6%) (17.4%) (17.4%) (24.8%)
Adventure 36 5 6 47 37.60 2 .00
(43.9%) (10.9%) (7.0%) (22.0%)
Individualism 32 3 10 45 26.40 2 .00
(39%) (6.5%) (11.6%) (21.0%)
Self-gain 29 4 10 43 19.47 2 .00
(35.4%) (8.7%) (11.6%) (20.1%)
Independence 26 6 10 42 12.34 2 .00
(31.7%) (13.0%) (11.6%) (19.6%)









Table 44. Continued
Carbonated Non- Edible Total X2 d.f. p
Beverages Carbonated Items (%)
(%) Beverages (%)
(%)
Succorance 4 11 26 41 18.28 2 .00
(4.9%) (23.9%) (30.2%) (19.2%)
Social Status 25 6 9 40 12.30 2 .00
(30.5%) (13.0%) (10.5%) (18.7%) 2
Formality 7 12 18 37 7.68 2 .02
(8.5%) (26.1%) (20.9%) (17.3%)
Convenience 3 15 17 35 19.28 2 .00
(3.7%) (32.6%) (19.8%) (16.4%)
Natural 0 16 19 35 29.52 2 .00
(0.0%) (34.8%) (22.1%) (16.4%)
Collective 3 10 16 29 11.36 2 .00
Integrity (3.7%) (21.7%) (18.6%) (13.6%)
Nurturance 3 7 15 25 8.45 2 .02
(3.7%) (15.2%) (17.4%) (11.7%)


Cultural values that did not show a statistically significant relationship with product

category include enjoyment (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.36, p = n.s.), individual benefits (X2 (2,

n = 214) = 0.61, p = n.s.), economy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.77, p = n.s.), uniqueness (X2 (2,


n =214)

(X2 (2, n


0.63, p = n.s.), respect for elderly (X2 (2, n =

214) = 4.61, p = n.s.), power equality (X2 (2,


214) = 2.91, p = n.s.), modesty

n = 214) = 2.51, p = n.s.),


humility (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.51, p = n.s.), patriotism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 12.31, p = n.s.),

popularity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 7.66, p = n.s.), wealth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.00, p = n.s.),

safety (X2 (2, n = 214) = 10.18, p = n.s.), and magic (X2 (2, n = 214) = 9.35, p = n.s.).

Table 43 and Table 44 suggest that a majority of the dominant cultural values

portrayed in television commercials aired in Pakistan have a statistically significant

association with product category rather than the channel on which they are aired. When

product category is used as a control variable a statistically significant association

between channel of ad and the values 'social status' and 'casualness' can only be found









in the carbonated beverages category, with ads on PTV portraying a greater amount of

both values. Associations for the other two product categories do not meet the minimum

cell criteria. However, according to Table 8, PTV also has a significantly greater number

of carbonated beverage ads than other channels and therefore this association can be

attributable to product category rather than the channel of the ad. Also, when product

category is used as a control variable, associations between the other two cultural values

(effectiveness and nurturance) and channel of the ad do not meet the minimum cell count

criteria.

Other Exploratory Cultural Variables

The sample was coded for two other exploratory cultural variables that were not

based on previous research. The purpose was to probe deeper into television commercials

in Pakistan by analyzing certain culture-specific aspects of the country's advertising.

Research question (13a). What is the frequency of women portrayed in Western

clothing in television commercials in Pakistan?

According to Table 45, only 42 sample commercials (19.6%) portrayed females in

Western clothing.

Table 45. Presence of Females in Western Clothing
Frequency Percent
Present 42 19.6%
Absent 172 80.0%
Total 214 100.0%


Research question (13b). Is there a statistically significant relationship between

portrayal of women in Western clothing and channel of the commercial?

There was statistically significant relationship between channel of the commercial

and portrayal of women in Western clothing (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.55, p = n.s.).









Research question (13c). Is there a statistically significant relationship between

portrayal of women in Western clothing and product category of the commercial?

A statistically significant relationship was found between product category and

portrayal of women in Western clothing (Table 46). Around 32.9% of carbonated

beverage commercials portrayed women in Western clothing which was more than the

expected value and comparatively much more than those portrayed in edible items'

commercials (9.0%).

Table 46. Portrayal of Women in Western Clothing by Product Category
Carbonated Non-Carbonated Edible Items Total (%)
Beverages (%) Beverages (%) (%)
Present 27 (32.9%) 9 (19.6%) 6 (7.0%) 42
Absent 55 (65.9%) 37 (37.0%) 80 (69.1%) 172 (80.4%)
Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%)
X2 (2, n = 214) = 17.92, p <.01

Research question (14a). How often are religious references made in television

commercials in Pakistan?

Religious references were very rarely made in the sample commercials (9.3%) and

most of the religious references or symbolism appeared in commercials aired during the

month of Ramadan (religious month of Fasting).

Table 47. Religious Reference in Sample
Religious Reference Frequency Percent
Present 20 9.3%
Absent 194 90.7%
Total 214 100.0%


Research question (14b). Is there a significant relationship between the presence

or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on?

There was no statistically significant relationship found between religious reference

and channel of the commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.66, p = n.s.).









Research question (14c). Is there a significant relationship between the presence

or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on?

The sample did not meet minimum expected cell count criteria due to a small

number of commercials with religious reference. Therefore no statistically significant

relationship could be found (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.42, p = n.s.).

Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1. Commercials for edible items will contain more women in

traditional clothing than in Western clothing.

According to Table 48, there were a total of 122 commercials where the principal

character was female. Out of these, females were used as principal characters in a total of

61 edible items' commercials. Out of these 61 commercials, only 8.2% of the

commercials displayed women in Western clothing while an overwhelming 91.8% of

edible items' commercials with women as principal characters, displayed women in

traditional dresses. Moreover, this relationship was statistically significant with women

appearing less often than expected in Western clothing in edible items' commercials.

Therefore the hypothesis was statistically supported.

Table 48. Female Characters Clothing by Edible Items (n=122)
Edible Items (%) Others (%) Total
Western Clothing 5 (8.2%) 23 (37.7%) 28 (23.0%)
Traditional Clothing 56 (91.8%) 38 (62.3%) 94(77.0%)
Total 61 (100%) 61 (100%) 122(100%)
X2 (1, n = 122)= 15.02, p <.01

Hypothesis 2: Urdu only will be used as the dominant language of text in

commercials for products with a domestic brand origin.

Hypothesis 3: English only will be used as the dominant language of text in

commercials for products with an international brand origin.









To analyze the presence of monolingual text in domestic and international brands'

commercials, the variable 'language of text in commercial' was recorded to remove all

commercials with bilingual text. However, the relationship between brand origin and

language of text in commercial was not significant and both the hypotheses were not

statistically supported (X2 (1, n = 159) =.071, p = n.s.).









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The main purpose of this study was to examine the dominant creative executional

elements and cultural values portrayed in commercials in Pakistan. The study also sought

to highlight any significant differences in the executional elements and value appeals

portrayed in commercials aired on Pakistani terrestrial and satellite television channels as

well as across product categories. This study is differentiated from other cultural analyses

in advertising because to date, there is no existing academic literature on the subject of

advertising in Pakistan and this study is intended to be a pioneer in this area of research.

The sample consisted of advertisements from one terrestrial and two satellite TV

channels in Pakistan and represented three product categories. The commercials were

coded for executional characteristics derived from Steve Marshall's (2006) doctoral

dissertation that was based on Stewart and Furse's (1986) coding framework. Hofstede's

cultural dimensions operationalized by Cheng (1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp

(1999), Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996) and Hofstede, Pederson and

Hofstede J. (2002) were used to code for cultural appeals. This chapter describes the

major findings from Chapter 4, discusses the limitations of this research and highlights

prospects for future research.

Descriptive Results

This study basically analyzed commercials for non-durable shared usage consumer

products from three food and drink product categories. These included carbonated

beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items. There was an almost equal

representation of commercials for carbonated beverage and edible items but non-

carbonated beverages constituted just about one-fifth of the total sample. There were









some differences within the edible items category with cooking products such as edible

oils and spices representing a little over two-thirds of the edible items' commercials,

while commercials for children's products such as confections and snacks constituted a

little less than one-fourth of the sample.

There were an almost equal number of commercials from both ARY Digital

(30.4%) and Geo TV (32.2%) but PTV commercials (37.4%) constituted just a little over

one-third of the total sample.

There were statistically significant differences in product category with respect to

channel of the commercial. Half of the commercials on PTV (50.0%) belonged to the

carbonated beverages category. The bulk of commercials on ARY Digital (53.8%) and

Geo TV (44.9%) belonged to the edible items category. Around one-third of Geo TV

commercials belonged to the carbonated beverages category too. Non-carbonated

beverages had an overall smaller representation in the sample and did not represent a

major chunk of any particular channel.

Dominant Executional Characteristics

Descriptive Characteristics

Part 'a' of research questions 1-12 described the executional characteristics of the

sample of commercials. The most dominant executional characteristics highlighted in the

results were profiled to create a prototypical food and drink category Pakistani

commercial. The prototypical Pakistani food and drink commercial would be: less than or

equal to 30 seconds in length (61.2%) and will contain visual memory devices (93.5%)

and graphic displays (84.6%). The text used in the commercial will be entirely in English

(39.7%). The commercial will use rhymes, slogans or mnemonics (82.7%) and some

form of music (99.1%) as well. A product reminder will be used as the main commercial









appeal (22.0%) while a demonstration of the product in use or by analogy (19.2%) will be

the commercial format. The commercial will use a more emotional approach (57.0%) and

a more transformational message strategy (67.3%). The commercial will be set indoors

(54.2%), carry a happy and fun-loving tone (29.4%) and a front-end impact structure

(64.5%). The commercial will contain a female principal character (57.0%) and a male

principal character (54.7%) with actors playing the role of ordinary people (72.9%).

Surprisingly, English was the most frequently used language of the printed text on

screen (39.7%) in the overall sample. Pakistan has an overall literacy rate of 48.7% and

just 35.2% for females (Ghauri, 2006, July 28), and a much smaller percentage of people

who can read English. In such a scenario, the higher usage of English text in TV

commercials for mass products such food and beverages was unexpected.

As discussed in the literature review, some of the most recalled advertisements in

Pakistan are jingle-based (Mandviwalla, 2007). However, although music was present in

almost all commercials in the sample it was used as a major element in just 27.6% of the

commercials and only 29.4% contained brand jingles. A small number of commercials

(10.3%) contained traditional or Western dances as well. Most of them belonged to the

carbonated and non-carbonated beverages which are generally targeted at younger

audiences. Although Pakistan is a Muslim country, the display of dances in television

commercials is expected. This is because Pakistanis are exposed to foreign media not

only from the West but also from its next door neighbor, India, which has a deep-rooted

culture of music and dancing, which can be seen manifest in all its television

programming.









Brand differentiating messages were found in very few commercials (12.1%).

According to Faisal Hashmi, around 80% of Pakistani advertising is formula-based in

both idea and execution (Hashmi, 2007). This is even truer in the case of the food and

drink category where most products have similar attributes and benefits. It is no surprise

then that most Pakistani TV commercials use a more emotional approach (57%) rather

than make rational claims (23.4%) based on the product's attributes or objective benefits.

A happy and fun-loving tone was used most frequently (29.4%) which is expected

considering that food and drink are considered an important aspect of Pakistan's

hospitable culture and having good food and drink is the main leisure activity of

Pakistanis.

Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial

This topic discusses part 'b' of research questions 1-12. Surprisingly, most of the

measured executional characteristics in the sample did not exhibit statistically significant

relationships with the channel of the commercial. Only four executional variables

exhibited significant variance with respect to the channel the commercial was aired on.

The prominent differentiating characteristics of commercials on Geo TV included the

presence of dancing and indoor commercial settings. The comparatively greater use of a

graphics background instead of an actual commercial setting differentiated the

commercials on ARY Digital. Lastly, a comparatively greater use of celebrities as

principal characters and recognized continuing characters as part of a continuing

campaign or by virtue of previous appearances set PTV apart from the other two

channels. However, though these relationships are statistically significant, they lack a

general trend across channels. Although it can be said that Geo TV, being a satellite









channel used more dances because it has a more liberal outlook, the same is not seen on

ARY Digital which is assumed to be a more liberal channel than Geo TV.

Dependent Relationships with Product Category

This topic discusses part 'c' of research questions 1-12. Most of the measured

executional characteristics exhibited dependent relationships with product category.

Although all three product categories belong to the food and drink category, edible items

and carbonated beverages stood out as considerably different. This may be due to

differences in the target audience, wherein carbonated beverage commercials are usually

targeted at the youth while edible items are targeted at housewives.

Edible items were associated with substantive supers as visual devices and tended

to display a combination of both English and Urdu text in the commercials. Edible items

also used rhymes, slogans and mnemonics as well as traditional Pakistani music more

frequently. This is expected considering housewives are more traditionalistic in nature

and would have a greater relevance to traditional rather than contemporary or Western

music. Edible items' commercials were also associated with an emotional appeal or a

balance of emotional and rational appeals. 'Demonstration of product in use or by

analogy' such as showing a woman cooking, as well as 'sales announcement' such as

promotional discounts were prominent commercial formats. Informational message

strategies were used more often in edible oils than in the other two product categories.

These commercials also predominantly used female principal characters in indoor

commercial settings. These commercials also had an almost equal likelihood of

containing happy/fun-loving, wholesome/healthy and hard sell appeals although

compared to the other categories, a greater percentage of the edible items' commercials

had a hard sell appeal in them. This can be partially attributed to the relatively higher









number of sales announcement commercials (28.8%) found in the edible items category.

Also, a comparatively higher percentage of edible items' commercials (22.1%) contained

brand-differentiating messages. This was expected considering that a higher percentage

of these commercials also had hard sell appeals and a more rational approach which

perhaps were based on unique claims about the product attributes. Most commercials also

had a front-end impact structure, although, compared to the other two categories, a

doughnut structure was seen more often in edible items' commercials.

Carbonated beverages' commercials were associated with surrealistic visuals and

unusual sound effects like a man falling out of the sky while enjoying Mountain Dew or

Fido Dido coming out of a Seven-up bottle with an unusual sound. Also, the commercials

had a greater likelihood to use Urdu as the language of text. This may be because

carbonated beverages are affordable mass-targeted products with an increasing appeal in

rural areas of Pakistan; thus the language in the commercials needs to widely

comprehensible. These commercials employed music to create a mood and had a greater

likelihood to use contemporary Pakistani or Western and other styles of music. The

majority of these commercials used a more emotional approach and transformational

message strategies with continuity of action or story-telling as a dominant format. Most

commercials were set indoors although compared to the other categories, carbonated

beverage commercials were more likely to use other settings such as streets, roads,

walkways, etc. Carbonated beverages were associated with a happy and fun-loving

commercial tone and a front-end impact commercial structure. This category was also

more likely to use males as principal characters along with a background cast and









recognized continuing characters such as sports endorsers or character actors from

existing or past campaigns.

Non-carbonated beverages were more likely to use English as the language of the

text. The reason may be that non-carbonated beverages such as packaged juices and

packaged milk products are a popular concept only amongst the urban crowd, especially

the more educated classes. Rural inhabitants as well as more traditional Pakistanis still

prefer to use freshly prepared juices and generally buy fresh milk from the milkman

rather than in packaged packets. Also, packaged non-carbonated beverages are relatively

more expensive in Pakistan and only the more affluent classes can afford to buy them.

Affluence is considered an indicator of more education and thus English may be

practically used to target these audiences. Non-carbonated beverages commercials were

also associated with rhymes, slogans and mnemonics and also used music as a major

element. They were also associated with a balance of emotional and rational commercial

approach with the creation of mood or image as the dominant commercial format and a

wholesome and healthy commercial tone. Non-carbonated beverages also had an

association with the absence of principal characters as quite a few commercials

emphasized the freshness of the product by showing images of the product or the product

source rather than reali life characters. However, children as principal character were

more likely to be used in these commercials.

Dominant Cultural Values

Descriptive Results

Part 'a' of research question 12 described the portrayal of cultural values in the

sample of commercials. The dominant cultural values found in the overall sample

included 'youth', 'enjoyment', 'courtesy' and 'collectivism' in that order. Younger,









good-looking models and an emphasis on feeling young or achieving youthful health or

energy were common in most commercials. This coupled with the almost non-existence

of the values of tradition or emphasis on the qualities of being time-honored or part of a

longer tradition, points towards a surprisingly high presence of the uncertainty avoidance

dimension. This is contrary to Hofstede's findings about Pakistan which rank Pakistan as

very high on uncertainty avoidance (ITIM International, 2003). However, this does

support the fact that because Pakistan is at a developmental stage in its life, most

Pakistanis have become aspirational in nature. This coupled with continuous exposure to

the West through media, has triggered the gradual but continuous process of

Westernization and modernization amongst Pakistanis, especially in the urban areas

(Faizi, 2007). Therefore, the portrayal of higher uncertainty avoidance in Pakistani

commercials, which is a characteristic of most Western cultures, may be understandable.

Enjoyment associated with the use of a product, a feminine value, was also

emphasized in more than half of the sample commercials. This can be attributed to the

importance and appreciation of good food and drink in Pakistan. Courtesy towards the

consumer through the use of polite and affable language (e.g.: using the formal

expression for 'you' i.e. 'aap' instead of 'tum'), another feminine value, was emphasized

too. This is expected considering that Pakistan is a more reserved culture and the Urdu

language, like French, differentiates between formal speech for strangers and casual

speech for close acquaintances. The presence of feminine appeals is also supported by

Hofstede's findings about Pakistani culture wherein Pakistan ranks almost equal on

femininity and masculinity (ITIM International, 2003). Lastly, the value of collectivism,

i.e. depicting the individual as an integral part of the group is expected considering that









Pakistan is a highly collectivistic culture according to Hofstede's rankings (ITIM

International, 2003).

Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial

Only four cultural values exhibited a dependent relationship with the channel the

commercial was aired on. This was surprising because a major part of this study was

based on the premise that because terrestrial and satellite channels have different viewer-

ships and corporate backgrounds, these variations may be manifest as differences in

cultural values portrayed in commercials in the three channels under discussion. Geo TV

and ARY Digital were associated with the masculine value of effectiveness, i.e.

portraying a product as achieving certain ends (e.g. cooking oil makes food tasty, fresh

juice refreshes). PTV on the other hand was associated with casual style of speech

between commercial characters (low power distance), social status associated with the

use of a product (high power distance) and nurturance, i.e. emphasis on helping or taking

care of the young or the elderly (femininity dimension).

Although as expected, PTV portrayed a value signifying high power distance, there

is no indication of there being an overall variation in the portrayal of cultural dimensions

by channel of the commercial.

Dependent Relationships with Product Category

Out of the 43 cultural values measured in this study, 23 of them exhibited strong

associations with product category. Carbonated beverages were associated with most of

the individualistic values including distinctiveness, individualism, self-sufficiency, self-

gain and independence. They also had a strong association with the low uncertainty

avoidance values of youth and adventure and the low power distance value of casualness

of speech between characters. However, carbonated beverage commercials were also









associated with the high power distance value of social status. This was because just a

little less than one-third of these commercials portrayed the product or its use as being

able to elevate the position of the user in the eyes of others. The product was generally

portrayed as a symbol of being 'cool' and a means to get positive attention from others.

Non-carbonated beverages were strongly associated with the collectivistic values of

collectivism, interdependence and collective benefits and the individualistic value of

health benefits of the product. Also, compared to the other product categories, non-

carbonated beverages' commercials had a greater likelihood of portraying the

collectivistic value of collective integrity (appeals such as "your family's well-being is

important to you"). Collectivism was the dominant dimension which may be due to the

fact that non-carbonated beverages are healthy alternatives to carbonated beverages and

therefore hold collective benefits and appeal to all age groups; this make them a more

shared use category than carbonated beverages. As discussed in the literature, products

that are shared in use generally use more culturally congruent appeals (Han and Shavitt,

1994) and therefore the collectivism dimension holds strong for non-carbonated

beverages' commercials in Pakistan. The commercials also contained associations with

feminine values including courtesy, family (showing family scenes and emphasis on the

goodness of the product for the whole family) and natural (emphasis on the purity and

freshness of product). The masculine value of effectiveness and convenience in the use of

the product was also emphasized. This was expected considering that non-carbonated

packaged beverages are a tasty yet convenient alternative to the widely consumed freshly

produced unpackaged beverages. Lastly, the low uncertainty avoidance value of youth

was also present in more than half of the non-carbonated beverage commercials.









Edible items generally were more likely to contain feminine values such as

courtesy, family and nurturance as well as the masculine value of effectiveness of

product. They were also more likely to portray the collectivistic values of collective

benefits and succorance (emphasis on exchanging expressions of love, appreciation or

gratitude). Also, edible items had a strong association with the high uncertainty

avoidance value of tamed or domesticated characteristics of characters. Most of the

edible items' commercials were for cooking products and showed women in stereotypical

domesticated roles as mothers, wives or daughter-in-laws. This was expected considering

that cooking is a domestic activity and the kitchen is the woman's forte especially in

collectivistic cultures. This finding is also supported by previous findings by Gregory and

Munch (1997) which suggested that for products wherein the mother facilitates the

preparation process, depicting both role and familial norms increases the effectiveness of

the commercials. The commercials also exhibited an association with the individualistic

value of health and health benefits from the use of the product. This points towards a shift

in the Pakistani mindset from a more purity or freshness-driven one to a more nutrition-

value driven one. Although the value of youth was not significantly associated with the

edible items' category, it was present in almost half of the edible items' commercials.

It is interesting to note that the use of younger models and emphasis on the

rejuvenating benefits of the brand (such as depicting characters as staying young and

healthy by using a certain product) was found to be a dominant cultural variable across

product categories. Also, carbonated beverages' commercials exhibited less culturally

congruent characteristics as compared to non-carbonated and edible items' commercials.

This may be due to the fact that carbonated beverages are targeted towards the younger









audiences in Pakistan who are more liberal, receive more exposure from foreign media

and are gradually adopting more Western cultural values of individualism and higher

uncertainty avoidance.

Other Exploratory Variables

Although the two variables 'women in Western clothing' and 'religious references'

were not taken from any previous research studies, they were used to probe deeper into

how specific cultural symbols or culture-specific values are used in Pakistani

commercials. Western clothing for women is an emerging trend in the urban areas of

Pakistan and is prevalent only in the more educated, more liberal and higher-income

classes. Religion also plays an important role Pakistani society.

Only about one-fifth of the commercials portrayed women in Western clothing. In

commercials where women were present as a principal character, less than one-fourth of

them were in Western clothing. However, just about 10% of the commercials contained

religious references. These references were used mainly in commercials aired during the

month of Fasting (Ramadan) and mostly talked about discounts for consumers during that

particular holy month.

There was no statistically significant relationship between women in channel of the

commercial and women in Western clothing. However, carbonated beverages exhibited a

strong association with women in Western clothing. This was expected considering the

characteristics of the target market for carbonated beverages as discussed earlier.

Religious references did not show any dependent relationship with either the

channel of the commercial or the product category.









Hypotheses

Women in Western Clothing in Edible Items Commercials

The first hypothesis investigated the cultural congruency of women's clothing in

edible items' commercials. To examine whether women in commercials for edible items

dress more traditionally, only commercials in which women appeared as principal

characters were analyzed. The findings were found to be statistically significant and over

90% of women who appeared as principal characters in edible items' commercials were

dressed traditionally in 'shalwar kameez' with a small shawl or wrap covering the chest

area thrown around the neck. However, contrary to popular belief, the greater majority of

these women did not wear a headscarf. In fact, even traditional clothing was more

contemporary in nature with stylish designs and in a few cases, without a shawl or stole

covering the chest. This points towards an interesting dichotomy between the general

assumption or impression of the portrayal of women in commercials from Muslim

countries and their depiction in Pakistani commercials. According to Olayan and

Karande's (2000) cross-cultural study of Arab TV commercials, women were shown

wearing long conservative dresses. However, although Pakistani commercials depicted

women wearing the traditional dress (loose trouser and knee length shirt), the dresses

were body-hugging in most cases, and in some cases the shirts were sleeveless as well.

This is perhaps due to the vast cultural differences in Arab and Pakistani culture, which at

times override the similarities in religion.

Language of Text by Brand Origin

The second and third hypotheses investigated the language of text used in

commercials in relation to brand origin. The hypotheses proposed that commercials for

domestic products will use Urdu as the only language of text while commercials for









international products, by virtue of their origin, will use English as the only language of

text. Both the hypotheses were shown to be statistically insignificant. Surprisingly, a

greater percentage of international commercials employed Urdu as the only language of

text and vice versa but the association was not strong enough to hold statistical

significance.

Limitations

The Pakistani advertising industry is still in its early developmental stages.

Moreover, 'advertising' itself is still not considered a subject for academic research in the

country. It is important to note that before this study was conducted, there was no

previous academic research available about Pakistan in the subject of advertising. As a

result, a lot of limitations were experienced in reviewing literature, data collection and

data analysis during the study.

Due to the limited nature of Synergy Advertising's and Orient McCann-Erickson's

media banks, enough product categories couldn't be procured. Moreover, because the

advertisements are from only two advertising agencies' media banks, they were more

likely to have a greater concentration of commercials for product categories which they

work with or have worked with in the past.

The total number of commercials available for sampling was too small to allow for

random probability sampling and therefore convenience sampling was employed to

derive the sample for analysis. Also, due to relatively lower representation of most other

product categories, the sample had to be restricted to carbonated beverages, non-

carbonated beverages and edible items. With more product categories, the analysis might

have produced varying results. Additionally, because these commercials were from a

general collection of advertisements rather than actual media monitoring records, the









exact year of broadcast for each commercial could not be determined. A number of

commercials from relevant product categories did not indicate the channel they were

aired on and had to be removed from the sample, thus reducing the sample size.

Most past research using the Stewart and Furse (1986) coding framework analyzed

award-winning commercials from various countries under the premise that award-

winning commercials are more effective and according to Gregory and Munch (1997)

and Zhang and Gelb (1996), appeals which are culturally congruent are more effective.

Thus, award-winning commercials will contain more culturally congruent appeals.

However, in the case of Pakistan, advertising awards for television commercials (Aurora

Awards) are a very recent phenomenon. Unfortunately, there were too few commercials

to derive a representative sample for this study. Therefore the sample was based on what

consumers were exposed to rather than what they are affected by.

Additionally, it is important to note that the variables used for the analysis of

culture were derived directly from previous studies which have utilized Hofstede's

dimensions for cultural research on other countries. As a result these variables may not

have measured other dominant culture-specific values of Pakistan such as religious

devotion, gender equality/inequality, etc. Even the Stewart and Furse (1986) framework

used to analyze executional characteristics of the sample commercials, is more than 21

years old. Considering that the advertising industry is so dynamic and has changed so

much over the past two and a half decades, this framework might not have been able to

account for newer creative strategies, formats or other executional characteristics.

A couple of coding issues were also faced during the coding process. Firstly, the

secondary coder was not an 'advertising' major and had initial difficulty understanding









the concepts and definitions presented to him in the code book. Even after training with

more than six to eight code sheets, the reliability tests produced low reliability scores for

cultural variables such as 'enjoyment', 'safety' and 'convenience'. This was due to the

vagueness of definitions and disagreements over what constitutes, for example, 'use of a

product makes the user wild with joy' as in the case of the 'enjoyment' variable.

Future Research

This exploratory study was undertaken with the aim of laying the grounds for

future research on Pakistani advertising. This research can be the foundation of a number

of other studies both Pakistan-specific as well as cross-cultural.

First, it can be used for cross-cultural studies of executional characteristics as well

as cultural values between Pakistan and other similar cultures. It would be interesting to

see a comparison being drawn between commercials from other Muslim countries as well

as other South Asian countries that have a lot cultural similarities with Pakistan.

The current study can also be extended by adding more product categories to the

data set to allow for a broader analysis of television commercials in Pakistan. Adding

product categories will allow a more generalized picture of the 'prototypical' Pakistani

commercial to appear. This research was restricted to analyzing differences in

executional and cultural variables across the food and drink category. However, a broader

product category set comprising other non-durable consumer products as well as other

durable or industrial products might reveal even greater variations in the dominant

executional characteristics and cultural values. Moreover, this study can be used as a

Pakistani benchmark for other countries to compare the dominant characteristics of

commercials across different product categories to understand the possibilities of using

standardized international commercials in Pakistan.









Moreover, in the future, the coding framework used in this study can be used to

analyze award-winning commercials from Pakistan to discover the dominant cultural

values and executional characteristics that make Pakistani advertisements 'effective' as

well as to compare the overall characteristics of award-winners with the results from this

study to see how award-winners are different from non-award winning commercials.

Conclusion

Over the years, Pakistani advertising has progressed rapidly and the Pakistani

advertising industry is considered to be one of the most promising ones in Asia. This

study is the first contribution to academic literature regarding Pakistani advertising.

The study analyzed the executional characteristics and cultural values present in

Pakistani television commercials from three perspectives: the overall sample consisting

of commercials from three product categories and three television channels, across

television channels and across product categories.

The results indicated no meaningful differences across the three channels which

included one terrestrial channel and two satellite channels. This may be due to the fact

that since the political scenario in the country changed and President Musharraf

introduced the concept of moderate enlightenment, even the more conservative PTV with

a large rural audience came under its influence since it is a government-owned terrestrial

channel. The other two satellite channels did not exhibit significant differences either

although they have a more urban audience with an overall higher socio-economic status.

However, a number of differences were noticed in both executional characteristics

as well as cultural values portrayed in commercials for different product categories.

Although past research considers carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and

edible items similar in terms of shared use non-durable consumer products, non-









carbonated beverages and edible items differed significantly on several variables.

Whereas carbonated beverages portrayed higher uncertainty avoidance and individualism

values, edible items dominantly contained collectivistic and feminine values. This

difference most likely arises from a difference in the target audience of these product

categories. In the case of carbonated beverages, the audience is predominantly the youth

who have been quicker to adapt Western or global values (just like the youth all over the

world). On the other hand, the audience for edible items is predominantly housewives

who are responsible for cooking and taking care of their families. They are more

domesticated, adhere more to traditional values and therefore most commercials targeted

at them depict familial relationships and values of care and nurturance.

Overall, this study suggests that Pakistan is a country with immense cultural

diversity. Although this may not be visible from a macro perspective, a deeper analysis of

Pakistan's television commercials targeted at different audiences reveals the cultural

differences amongst Pakistani people. Also, it is not so much a difference in the socio-

economic status of audiences that accounts for these variations; it is perhaps a difference

in the age-group or the psychographics of the audiences targeted by those commercials.










APPENDIX A
THESIS CODE SHEET


V2 Coder ID


V3 Source of Ad:
<0> Orient McCann-Erickson


<1> Synergy Advertising


V4 Brand:


V5 Brand Origin:
<0> Domestic


<1> International


V6 Specific International Brand Origin:
<0> American <1> European
<4> Other South Asian <5> Other <


V7 TV Channel:
<1> PTV


<2> ARY Digital


<2> Don't know


<2> East-Asian
6> Don't Know


<3> Middle-Eastern
<7> N/A


<3> GEO TV


V8 Length of Ad:
<0> 10 sec <1> 30 sec <2> 45 sec <3> 60 sec <4> Other (specify)


V9 Product Category:
<0> Carbonated Beverages


<1> Non-carbonated Beverages


<2> Edible Products


V10 Carbonated Beverage Type:
<0> Cola <1> Lemon-based Non-cola <2> Ener
<9> N/A

VI1 Non-carbonated Beverage Type:
<0> Fruit Juice <1> Juice Concentrate/Mix <
<4> Water <5> Other <9> N/A

V12 Edible Product Type:
<0> Edible Oil/Ghee <1> Spices and Food Mixes <
<3> Baby Food <4> Other <9> N/A


A. Visual Devices

V13 Scenic Beauty:
<1> Present


<2> Absent


V14 Beautiful Characters:
<1> Present <2> Absent


V15 Ugly Characters:
<1> Present


<2> Absent


gy Drink



:2> Tea/Coffee


<3> Other



<3> Milk


:2> Snacks and Confections


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


V1 Ad ID#










V16 Graphics and Computer-generated Visuals:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code


V17 Surrealistic Visuals:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V18 Substantive Supers:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V19 Visual Tagline:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V20 Visual Memory Device:
<1> Present <2> Absent


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


V21 Language of Visual Text in the Commercial:
<1> Urdu <2> English <3> English and Urdu Mix

B. Auditory Devices


V22 Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Devices:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V23 Unusual Sound Effects:
<1> Present <2> Absent


V24 Spoken Tagline:
<1> Present


<2> Absent


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


C. Music and Dancing


V25 Music in Commercial:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V26 Music as a Major Element:
<1> Present <2> Absent


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


V27 Music Style:
<1> Traditional Pakistani
<2> Contemporary Pakistani
<3> Classical Western
<4> Contemporary Western
<5> Other
<6> Not Applicable

V28 Music Creates a Mood (versus background only):
<1> Yes <2> No <3> Cannot code


V29 Music is a Brand Jingle:
<1>Yes <2> No


<3> Cannot code










V30 Dancing in Commercial:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

D. Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions:

V31 What is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or Selling Proposition?

<1> Attributes or ingredients as main message
<2> Product performance or benefit as main message
<3> Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership as main message
<4> Product reminder as main message
<5> Sexual appeal
<6> Comfort appeal
<7> Safety appeal
<8> Enjoyment appeal
<9> Welfare appeal
<10> Social Approval
<11> Self-esteem or self-image
<12> Achievement
<13> Excitement, sensation, variety

E. Commercial Approach

V32 Rational or More Emotional Appeal:
<1> More Rational
<2> More Emotional
<3> Balance of Rational and Emotional

V33 Brand Differentiating Message:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot Code

F. Commercial Format

V34 What is the Dominant Format of the Commercial?
<1> Vignette
<2> Slice of Life
<3> Continuity of Action
<4> Testimonial by Product User
<5> Endorsement by Celebrity or Authority
<6> Announcement
<7> Demonstration of Product in Use or by Analogy
<8> Demonstration of Results of using Product
<9> Comedy or Satire
<10> Animation/ Cartoon
<11> Photographic Stills
<12> Creation of mood or image as dominant element
<13> Commercial written as serious drama
<14> Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element
<15> Problem and Solution (before/ after presentation)
<16> Interview (person on the street or elsewhere)
<17> Camera involves audience in situation










<18> New wave (product graphics)


G. Typology of Broadcast Commercial Messages

V35 Informational/Rational or Transformational/Emotional
<1> Informational
<2> Transformational

H. Commercial Setting

V36 What is the dominant commercial setting?
<1> Indoors
<2> Outdoors
<3> Both indoors and outdoors
<4> Other
<5> No setting

V37 Where is the commercial setting?
<1> Urban apartment/housing
<2> Rural apartment/housing
<3> Generic office/business setting
<4> Generic restaurant setting
<5> Foreign locale/landmark
<6> Green pasture
<7> Mountainous area
<8> Other
<9> Not applicable

I. Commercial Tone and Atmosphere

V38 What is the predominant commercial tone?
<1> Cute/ Adorable
<2> Hard Sell
<3> Warm and caring
<4> Modem/contemporary
<5> Wholesome/healthy
<6> Technological/futuristic
<7> Conservative/traditional
<8> Old fashioned/nostalgic
<9> Happy/fun loving
<10> Cool/laid back
<11> Somber/serious
<12> Uneasy/tense/irritated
<13> Relaxed/comfortable
<14> Glamorous
<15> Humorous
<16> Suspenseful
<17> Rough/rugged










J. Dominant Commercial Structure

V39 What is the dominant commercial structure?
<1> Front end impact
<2> Surprise or suspense in the middle
<3> Surprise or suspense at closing
<4> Unusual setting or situation
<5> Humorous closing
<6> Blind lead in
<7> Message in the middle (doughnut)

K. Commercial Characters

V40 Principal Character(s) Male?
<1>Yes <2> No

V41 Principal Character(s) Female?
<1>Yes <2> No

V42 Principal Character(s) Child or Infant?
<1>Yes <2> No

V43 Principal Character(s) Celebrity?
<1>Yes <2> No

V44 Principal Character(s) Actor Playing Role of Ordinary Person?
<1>Yes <2> No

V45 Principal Character(s) Real People?
<1>Yes <2> No

V46 Principal Character(s) Creation?
<1>Yes <2> No

V47 Principal characters) animal?
<1>Yes <2> No

V48 Principal Character(s) Animated?
<1>Yes <2> No

V49 No Principle Character(s)?
<1>Yes <2> No

V50 Characters Identified with Company?
<1>Yes <2> No

V51 Background Cast (people walking, etc.)?
<1>Yes <2> No

V52 Celebrity in minor role (cameo appearance)
<1>Yes <2> No











V53 Animal(s) in minor role
<1>Yes <2> No

V54 Created character or cartoon characters in minor role
<1>Yes <2> No

V55 Real person in minor role?
<1>Yes <2> No


V56 Recognized continuing character?
<1>Yes <2> No

V57 Presenter/Spokesperson on camera?
<1> Voice-over only <2> Voice-over & on camera characters <3> No V/O (entire audio
delivered by on-screen character)

L. Comparisons

V58 Is there a direct comparison with other products?
<1>Yes <2> No

V59 Is there an indirect comparison with other products?
<1>Yes <2> No

V60 Is there puffery or unsubstantiated claims made?
<1>Yes <2> No

M. Representation of Culture in Commercial

Collectivism:

V61 Collective Integrity:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

V62 Interdependence:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

V63 Collective Benefits:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

V64 Collectivism:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

V65 Patriotism
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

V66 Popularity:
<1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code










V67 Succorance:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Individualism:

V68 Independence:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V69 Distinctiveness:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V70 Self-sufficiency:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V71 Self-gain:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V72 Individual benefits:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V73 Beauty:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V74 Health:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V75 Individualism:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V76 Uniqueness:
<1> Present <2> Absent

High Power Distance:

V77 Respect for the elderly:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V78 Social Status:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V79 Formality:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Low Power Distance

V80 Humility:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V81 Economy:
<1> Present <2> Absent


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code










V82 Power Aversion:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V83 Power Equality:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V84 Casualness:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Masculinity:

V85 Convenience:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V86 Competition:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V87 Effectiveness:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V88 Wealth:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V89 Work:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Femininity:

V90 Courtesy:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V91 Family:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V92 Nurturance:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V93 Natural:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V94 Modesty:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V95 Enjoyment:
<1> Present <2> Absent

High Uncertainty Avoidance:

V96 Safety:
<1> Present <2> Absent


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code










V97 Technology:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V98 Tradition:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V99 Tamed:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Low Uncertainty Avoidance:

V100 Adventure:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V101 Magic:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V102 Youth:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V103 Sex:
<1> Present <2> Absent

Other Cultural Variables

V104 Women in Western Clothing:
<1> Present <2> Absent

V105 Religious Reference:
<1> Present <2> Absent


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code




<3> Cannot code


<3> Cannot code









APPENDIX B
CODE BOOK

A. VISUAL DEVICES

Scenic Beauty: Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty

(mountains, flowing streams, etc.) at some point?

Beautiful Characters: Does the commercial present one or more strikingly beautiful

people (a person is portrayed as being beautiful in the ad)?

Ugly Characters: Does the commercial present one or more strikingly ugly characters (a

person is portrayed as being ugly in the ad)?

Graphics and Computer-generated visuals: Does the commercial use graphic displays

or computer generated visuals as part of its presentation? Graphics can be computer-generated.

Surrealistic Visuals: Does the commercial present unreal visuals, distorted visuals,

fantastic scenes like a watch floating through outer space or Fido Dido coming out of a bottle?

Substantive Supers: A superscript (words on the screen) used to reinforce some

characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message for example, "50% stronger"

or "3 out of 4 doctors recommend it."

Visual Tagline: A visually presented statement of new information at the end of the

commercial; for example, the screen shows the name of participating dealers or another product

that was not the focus of the commercial shown. Corporate logos or slogans do not qualify

(Example: "7-Up... live it up" doesn't qualify).

Visual Memory Device: Any devices shown that reinforces product benefit, the product

name, or the message delivered by the commercial for example, time release capsules bouncing

in the air, the word Jello spelled out with Jello Gelatin, the piece of sun in Polaroid commercials,

etc.









B. AUDITORY DEVICES

Rhymes, slogans or mnemonic devices: Nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics

(memory aid devices) may be incorporated in lyrics of a song, but must also stand alone, apart

from music for example, "You're in good hands with All-State."

Unusual Sound Effects: Out of place, unusual, or bizarre use of sound for example,

the sound of a jackhammer as someone eats a pretzel.

Spoken Tagline: A statement at the end of the commercial that presents new information

usually unrelated to the principal focus of the commercial for example, "And try new lime

flavor too"

C. MUSIC AND DANCING

Music in Commercial: Is music present in the commercial in any form?

Music as a major element: Do the lyrics or the focus of the music used in the

commercial carry a product message? for example, "have it your way..." or "I am a

pepper..."?

Music Style: What is the music genre?

Music Creates a Mood (versus background only): Music contributes to the creation of

a mood or emotion for example, suspense, sensuality, etc.

Music is a Brand Jingle: Is the music a brand jingle?

Dancing in Commercial: Do cast members dance in the commercial?

D. COMMERCIAL APPEALS OR SELLING PROPOSITIONS:

What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?









Attributes or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to

communicate something about how the product is made (for example, car in manufacturing) or

ingredients (for example, the only toothpaste with stannous fluoride).

Product performance or benefit as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to

communicate what the product does (for example, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter teeth) or

how to use it.

Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership as main message: A maj or

focus of the commercial is to communicate hidden or non-provable benefits of having/using the

product for example, "You will be more popular, sexier, or more confident."

Product reminder as main message: The product or package is the primary message

rather than any specific attribute or benefit of use.

Sexual appeal: Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues.

Comfort appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to creature comforts

(soft chairs, cool climate).

Safety appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cues appealing to being free from fear or

physical danger.

Enjoyment appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the

fullest, having good food and drink, and so on.

Welfare appeal: Main focus is on caring or providing for others for example, gift

giving.

SocialApproval: Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining

approval of others.









Self-esteem or self-image: Main focus of commercial is on feeling better about one's

self, improving oneself, being a better person.

Achievement: Main focus of commercial is on obtaining superiority over others, getting

ahead, winning.

Excitement, sensation, variety: Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement,

thrills, variety to life, avoiding boredom.

E. COMMERCIAL APPROACH

Rational or Emotional?

More rational: A fairly straightforward presentation of the product's attributes and

claims.

More emotional: An emotional appeal does not appeal to reason but to feelings.

Both rational and emotional: An appeal counterpoising of rational and emotional.

Brand differentiating message: Is the principle message of the commercial unique to

the product being advertised, or could any product make this claim? The commercial must make

it clear that the message is unique; that is, the commercial must explicitly indicate the uniqueness

or difference of the product.

F. COMMERCIAL FORMAT

What is the dominant format of the commercial?

Vignettes: a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline

but several independent stories (which may convey the same message). Multiple interviews

would be an example. Has no continuity of action.

Slice of life: Interplay between two or more people, that portrays a conceivable real-life

situation. There is continuity of action.









Continuity of action: Commercial has a single storyline throughout with an obvious

beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, character, or issue ties the whole commercial

together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single individual, slice of life,

or any other format that involves continuity of action.

Testimonial by product user: One or more individuals recount their satisfaction with the

product advertised or the results of using the product advertised for example, Bill Cosby for

Jello Pudding.

Endorsement by celebrity or authority: One or more individuals (or organizations)

advocates or recommends the product but does not claim personal use or satisfaction.

Announcement: Commercial's format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales

announcement.

Demonstration ofproduct in use or by analogy: A demonstration of the product in use -

for example, a man shaving in a commercial for shaving lather, women applying makeup. It also

includes a demonstration of the use of the product, benefit, or product characteristic by an

analogy or device rather than actual demonstration.

Demonstration of results of using product: Demonstration of the outcome of using the

product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair.

Comedy or satire: The commercial is written as a comedy, parody, or satire. Not only is

humor an element of the commercial, but also the commercial is written to be funny.

Animation/cartoon/rotoscope: The entire commercial or some substantial part of the

commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a combination of real life and animation on the screen at

the same time for example, the fido dido and real actors.









Photographic stills: The use of photographic stills in part of the commercial. These may

be product shots, settings, or models.

Creation of mood or image as dominant element: An attempt to create a desire for the

product, without offering a specific product claim by appealing to the viewer's

emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thrust of the commercial is the creation of a feeling

or mood.

Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play,

melodrama, or tragedy.

Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element: The use of animation or

other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal

translation on the part of the viewer.

Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a

problem, then indicate how the product eliminates or reduces the problem for example "ring

around collar."

Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle

in the commercial.

Camera involves audience in situation: Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates

participation in commercial.

New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in

Diet Pepsi.

G. TYPOLOGY OF BROADCAST COMMERCIAL MESSAGES

Informational/Rational or Transformational/Emotional: Is main message

informational (rational or cognitive) or transformational (image, emotional or feeling)?









H. COMMERCIAL SETTING

What is the dominant commercial setting?

Indoor: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, indoors or in other man-

made structures (for example, a kitchen, garage, office, stadium or airplane)?

Outdoors: Is the commercial setting, or a significant part of it, outdoors (mountain,

rivers, backyard, garden, or other natural setting)? Do not include unnatural environments such

as stadium or home driveway.

Other: Not indoor or outdoor

Both Indoor and Outdoor: The commercial utilizes both indoor and outdoor settings.

No setting: There is no particular setting for the commercial; the setting is neutral,

neither indoor nor outdoors.

I. COMMERCIAL TONE AND ATMOSPHERE

Choices include: cute/adorable, hard sell, warm/caring, modern/contemporary,

wholesome/healthy, technological/futuristic, conservative/traditional, old fashioned/nostalgic,

happy/fun-loving, cool/laid-back, somber/serious, uneasy/tense/irritated, relaxed/comfortable,

glamorous, humorous, suspenseful, and rough/rugged (choices are mutually exclusive)

J. DOMINANT COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE

What is the dominant commercial structure?

Front-end impact: The first 10 seconds of the commercial creates suspense, questions,

surprise, drama, or something that otherwise gains attention.

Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial: Something surprising, dramatic, or

suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial.









Surprise or suspense at closing: Commercial ends with a surprise, an unexpected event,

suspense, or drama.

Unusual setting or situation: Product is in setting not normally associated with product

purchase or use for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient

Greece.

Humorous closing: Commercial ends with ajoke, pun, witticism, or slapstick.

Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial.

Message in the middle (doughnut): Music and/or action at the start and close of

commercial with announcer copy in the middle for example, Green Giant commercials.

K. COMMERCIAL CHARACTERS

Principal characters) male: The characters) carrying the major on-camera role of

delivering the commercial message is a male. Incidental, background on-camera appearance is

not applicable.

Principal characters) female: The characters) carrying the major on-camera role of

delivering the commercial message is a female. Incidental, background on-camera appearance is

not applicable.

Principal characters) child or infant: The characters) carrying the major on-camera

role of delivering the commercial message is a child or infant. Incidental, background on-camera

appearance is not applicable.

Principal characters) celebrity: The characters) delivering the major portion of the

message on camera is well known either by name or face. Celebrities may be athletes, movie

stars or well-known corporate figures (but not simply the identified head of a corporation).









Principal characters) actor playing role of ordinary person: Must be delivering the

major portion of the message.

Principal characters) real people: Are one or more of the principal characters

identified as real people (as opposed to actors playing a role)? This may take the form of a

hidden camera or an interview.

Principal characters) creation: The principal character is a created role, person, or

cartoon for example, Ronald McDonald, Pillsbury Doughboy.

Principal characters) animal: Is one or more of the principal characters an animal

(either real or animated)?

Principal characters) animated: Is one or more of the principal characters animated

(cartoon)?

No principal characterss: No central character or set of characters delivers a major

portion of the commercial message, although there may be characters performing roles on

camera relevant to the message.

Characters identified with company: Is one or more of the characters in the

commercial symbolic of or well identified with the company manufacturing and/or distributing

the product? The character may be real, created, or animated but should be identified with the

company, not a specific product for example, Keebler Elves, Green Giant.

Background cast: Are there people in the commercial other than the principal

characters, people who serve as scenery or background for example, people walking by, people

sitting in a bar. These people are only incidental to the commercial message that is, not active

in making a product claim or demonstrating a product benefit.

Celebrity in minor role (cameo appearance)









Animal(s) in minor role

Created character or cartoon characters in minor role

Real person in minor role: May be actual consumers (specifically identified) or

employees

Recognized continuing character: Is one or more of the principal or minor characters in

the commercial recognized as a part of a continuing advertising campaign? Is the character

associated with the product by virtue of previous appearances in commercials for the product?

Presenter/spokesperson on camera: Is the audio portion of the commercial message

delivered by voice-over announcer (person not on camera), characters) on camera, or a

combination of both?

L. COMPARISONS

Is there a direct comparison with other products?: A competitor is identified by name.

May also be a direct comparison with an old version of the product being advertised.

Is there an indirect comparison with other products?: A comparison is made between

the advertised product and a competitor, but the competitor is not named.

Is there puffery, or unsubstantiated claims made?: Product is declared best, better,

finest without identification of dimension or attribute.

M. CULTURAL ANALYSIS:

Collectivism:

Collective Integrity: Appeals about the integrity of or belonging to a family or social

groups (e.g. "Your family's respect is important to you...")

Interdependence: Reflection of interdependent relationship with others (activities in

groups, amongst circle of friends and families)









Collective Benefits: Emphasis on the benefits of the product or service to families or

social groups

Collectivism: The emphasis here is on the individual in relation to others, typically in the

reference group. Individuals are depicted as integral parts of the group

Patriotism: The love and loyalty to one's own nation inherent in the nature or in the use

of a product are suggested here

Popularity: The focus here is on the universal recognition and acceptance of a certain

product by consumers, e.g.: 'Bestseller'; Well-known worldwide'

Succorance: Emphasis on exchanging expressions of love (all except sexuality),

gratitude, pat on the back

Individualism:

Independence: Appeals about the individuality or independence of the audience

Distinctiveness: Emphasis on uniqueness or originality (featuring a person enjoying

being unique, standing out from the crowd, speaking one's mind)

Self-sufficiency: Reflections of self-reliance, hedonism or competition (featuring a

person doing something by oneself)

Self-gain: Emphasis on self-fulfillment, self-development or self-realization of an

individual

Individual benefits: Emphasis on the benefits to an individual consumer

Beauty: This suggests that the use of a product will enhance the loveliness, attractiveness

or elegance of an individual

Health: This value commends that the use of a product will enhance or improve the

vitality, soundness, and robustness of the body









Individualism: The emphasis here is on the self-sufficiency and self-reliance of an

individual or on the individual as being distinct and unlike others

Uniqueness: The incomparable, unrivaled, and unparalleled nature of a product is

emphasized, e.g. "We are the only one that offers you this product".

High Power Distance:

Respect for the elderly: The commercial displays a respect for older people by using a

model of old age or asking the opinions, recommendations and advice of the elders (seniors

means: teachers, elders (family), higher employees, higher social class, higher education class,

juniors look up to seniors for directions)

Social Status: The use of a product is claimed to be able to elevate the position or rank of

the user in the eyes of others. The idea of prestige, trend-setting, status symbol and pride in the

use of a product is conveyed

Formality: Style of speech is formal (use of respectful titles for seniors, husbands -

wives would refer to them as 'aap', a more respectful way of saying 'you').

Low Power Distance

Humility: Emphasis on being unaffected, simple, patient, fate-accepting, resigned, down-

to-earth

Economy: The inexpensive, affordable and cost-saving nature of a product is emphasized

in the commercial

Power Aversion: Negative attitude towards status symbols and privileges

Power Equality: Equality with juniors (juniors means: students, children, younger

siblings, subordinates, lower social class, lower education class)









Casualness: Casual and laid-back style of speech (refers to style of conversation as

well as informal titles for seniors, husbands, etc.)

Masculinity:

Convenience: Emphasis on a product being handy and easy and/or quick to use

Competition: The emphasis here is on distinguishing a product from its counterparts by

aggressive comparisons. While explicit comparisons may mention the competitor's name,

implicit comparisons may use words such as 'number one' and 'leader'

Effectiveness: A product is suggested to be powerful and capable of achieving certain

ends (e.g. cooking oil makes food tasty, clothes are comfortable)

Wealth: This conveys the idea that being affluent, prosperous and rich should be

encouraged and suggests that a certain product or service will make the user well-off

Work: This value shows respect for diligence and dedication of one's labor and skills. A

typical example is that a medication has regained a patient his or her ability to work

Femininity:

Courtesy: Politeness and friendship towards the consumer is shown through the use of

polished and affable language

Family: The emphasis here is on family life and family members. The commercials

stresses family scenes, getting married, companionship of siblings, kinship, being at home, and

suggests that a certain product is good for the whole family

Nurturance: This stresses giving charity, help, protection, support, or sympathy to the

weak, disabled, young and elderly.

Natural: Appeals about the freshness of product; reference to fruits and vegetables, farming,

purity of product, organically grown, nutrition of product

Modesty: Showing characters being modest, shy, virtuous, naive, innocent, inhibited









Enjoyment: This value suggests that a product will make a user wild with joy

High Uncertainty Avoidance:

Safety: The reliable and secure nature of a product is stressed

Technology: Here, the advanced and sophisticated technical skills to engineer and

manufacture a certain product are emphasized

Tradition: The experience of the past, customs and conventions are respected. The

qualities of being historical, time-honored, and legendary are venerated, e.g. "With 80 years of

manufacturing experience" or "It has been adapted from ancient prescriptions".

Tamed: Emphasis on the faithfulness, reliability, responsibility in attitude, sacrificing

and domesticated attributes of characters)

Low Uncertainty Avoidance:

Adventure: This suggests boldness, daring, bravery, courage or thrill

Magic: The emphasis here is on the miraculous effect and nature of a product, e.g.

"Bewitch your man..." or "... heals like magic".

Youth: The worship of the younger generation is shown through the depiction of

younger models. The rejuvenating benefits of the brand are emphasized, e.g. "feel young again".

Sex: The commercial uses glamorous and sensual models or has a background of lovers

holding hands, embracing or kissing to promote a product

Other Cultural Variables:

Women in Western Clothing: The commercial portrays women in Western clothing

Religious Reference: The commercial makes any references to religion, religious events,

symbols, etc.









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Irtifa Nasir is a Fulbright Scholar from Pakistan. She earned her high school degree from

Abu Dhabi, UAE, and her B.S. in mathematics from Lahore, Pakistan. After completing her

bachelor's, she spent 2 years working in small to medium sized advertising agencies in

copywriting and creative management positions. After graduating with a master's degree in

advertising, she plans to return to Pakistan and pursue a career in account/strategic planning or

creative management.





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1 AN EXECUTIONAL AND CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS IN PAKISTAN By IRTIFA NASIR A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Irtifa Nasir

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3 To my mother who prays for me 24/7 and still thinks my grad es are a result of my hard work, my perfect husband who let me pursue my dream even if that meant staying apart for two years and my supportive in-laws who supported my decision to study abroad in spite of social implications.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank everyone and anyone who has directly or indirectly, consciously or subconsciously, and knowingly or unknowingly helped me cross this great milestone in my life. First and foremost, I would like to express my most heartfelt apprecia tion and gratitude to my thesis adviser Dr. Marilyn Roberts; without her continuous guidance, help and support, I could not have dared to write a 50+ page research paper, let alone a 100+ page thesis! I am grateful to her for patiently putting up with my anxiety attacks and nervous tantrums and assuring me of my abilities all along. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Robyn Goodman and Dr. Jorge Villegas, for their valuable input and constr uctive critique; they helped me get over the frightening misconceptions I had been fed about ge tting thrashed in a proposal defense. They are great teachers and I wish I was an undergra d and could take more classes with them. I would like to thank all my friends, Michelle, Arsalan, Saqib, Elaine, MJ and everyone else, who made my life so much easier and more colorful, eventful a nd beautiful. They have helped me all along, put up with my eccentricities and st ill remained unswerving in their love and support. I salute them for their resilience. Last but not the least, I would like to tha nk my mother and my husband for trusting my abilities and letting me avail th is once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to pursue my dream. They are my strength and the pillars of my life; in fact, without them I am pretty much a nonentity. God, I thank thee for all of the above and more.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................10 Purpose of the Study........................................................................................................... ....11 Significance of the Study...................................................................................................... ..12 Methodical Approach............................................................................................................ .13 Research Overview.............................................................................................................. ...14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................16 What Is Culture?............................................................................................................... ......16 Brief History of Pakistan...................................................................................................... ..17 Cultural Analysis of Pakistan.................................................................................................18 Religion....................................................................................................................... ....19 Social Organization.........................................................................................................20 Globalization Trends.......................................................................................................21 Cultural Arts.................................................................................................................. ..22 Food and Drink Consumption Culture............................................................................22 Overview of Advertising in Pakistan......................................................................................24 History........................................................................................................................ .....24 Current Scenario..............................................................................................................27 Characteristics of Pakistani Advertisements...................................................................29 Television Networks in Pakistan............................................................................................30 Frameworks for Cultural Analysis..........................................................................................32 Pakistans Rankings on Ho fstedes Dimensions....................................................................34 Power Distance................................................................................................................34 Masculinity.................................................................................................................... ..34 Individualism.................................................................................................................. .35 Uncertainty Avoidance....................................................................................................36 Long-term Orientation.....................................................................................................36 Cultural Studies in Advertising..............................................................................................37 The Stewart and Furse Framework.........................................................................................43 Research Questions and Hypotheses......................................................................................45 Executional Characteristics.............................................................................................46 Cultural Values................................................................................................................50 Other Exploratory Cultural Variables.............................................................................50 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................... .51

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6 3 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................53 Unit of Analysis............................................................................................................... .......54 Sampling Design................................................................................................................ .....54 Coding Categories and Variables...........................................................................................57 Pretest and Coding Procedure.................................................................................................58 Inter-coder Reliability........................................................................................................ .....59 Data Analysis.................................................................................................................. ........62 4 FINDINGS....................................................................................................................... .......63 Description of the Sample of Commercials............................................................................63 Research Questions............................................................................................................. ....66 Executional Characteristics.............................................................................................66 Cultural Values................................................................................................................89 Other Exploratory Cultural Variables.............................................................................95 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................... .........97 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................99 Descriptive Results............................................................................................................ .....99 Dominant Executional Characteristics.................................................................................100 Descriptive Characteristics............................................................................................100 Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial...............................................102 Dependent Relationships with Product Category..........................................................103 Dominant Cultural Values....................................................................................................105 Descriptive Results........................................................................................................105 Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial...............................................107 Dependent Relationships with Product Category..........................................................107 Other Exploratory Variables.................................................................................................110 Hypotheses..................................................................................................................... .......111 Women in Western Clothing in Edible Items Commercials.........................................111 Language of Text by Brand Origin...............................................................................111 Limitations.................................................................................................................... ........112 Future Research................................................................................................................ ....114 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .......115 APPENDIX A THESIS CODE SHEET.......................................................................................................117 B CODE BOOK...................................................................................................................... .126 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................140 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................146

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 Holstis (1969) Inter-Coder Reliability..............................................................................59 2 Distribution of Sample by Source of Commercial.............................................................63 3 Sample Distribution by Brand Origin................................................................................64 4 Sample Distribution by Length of Commercial.................................................................64 5 Sample Distribution by Ch annel of the Commercial.........................................................64 6 Sample Distribution by Product Category.........................................................................65 7 Sample Distribution of Edible Items..................................................................................65 8 Product Categories by Channel..........................................................................................66 9 Distribution of Visu al Devices Presence...........................................................................67 10 Distribution of Language of Text in Commercial..............................................................67 11 Substantive Supers by Product Category...........................................................................68 12 Surrealistic Visuals by Product Category..........................................................................68 13 Language of Text in Commercial by Product Category....................................................69 14 Auditory Devices Presence................................................................................................69 15 Rhymes, Slogans and Mnemonics by Product Category...................................................70 16 Unusual Sound Effects by Product Category.....................................................................71 17 Distribution of Music and Dancing Presence....................................................................71 18 Music Style by Product Category......................................................................................72 19 Dancing in Commercial by Channel of Commercial.........................................................72 20 Music Creates a Mood by Product Category.....................................................................73 21 Music Present as a Major Element by Product Category..................................................73 22 Music Style by Product Category......................................................................................74 23 Distribution of Commercial A ppeals or Selling Propositions...........................................74

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8 24 Commercial Approach in Sample......................................................................................76 25 Brand Differentiating Message in Sample.........................................................................76 26 Commercial Approach by Product Category.....................................................................77 27 Brand-differentiating Messages by Product Category.......................................................77 28 Dominant Commercial Format..........................................................................................78 29 Commercial Format by Product Category.........................................................................79 30 Typology of Broadcast Messages in Sample.....................................................................80 31 Typology of Broadcast Messages by Product Category....................................................80 32 Dominant Commercial Setting..........................................................................................81 33 Commercial Setting by Ch annel of Commercial...............................................................82 34 Commercial Setting by Product Category.........................................................................82 35 Commercial Tones in Sample............................................................................................83 36 Dominant Commercial Tone by Product Category...........................................................84 37 Dominant Commer cial Structure.......................................................................................85 38 Dominant Commercial St ructure by Product Category.....................................................86 39 Commercial Character s Presence in Sample.....................................................................86 40 Commercial Characters by Channel of Ad (N=214).........................................................87 41 Commercial Characters Pres ence by Product Category (N=214).....................................89 42 Presence of Cultural Values...............................................................................................90 43 Presence of Cultural Values by Channel of Commercial..................................................91 44 Presence of Cultural Valu es by Product Categories..........................................................93 45 Presence of Females in Western Clothing.........................................................................95 46 Portrayal of Women in Wester n Clothing by Product Category.......................................96 47 Religious Reference in Sample..........................................................................................96 48 Female Characters Clothing by Edible Items (n=122)......................................................97

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising AN EXECUTIONAL AND CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF TELEVISION ADVERTISEMENTS IN PAKISTAN By Irtifa Nasir May 2008 Chair: Marilyn Roberts Major: Advertising The primary purpose of this study was to expl ore the creative executional characteristics and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pa kistani television advertising. The study also examined any significant differences in the ex ecutional characteristics and value appeals among Pakistani terrestrial and satellite television channels and differences in commercials for carbonated beverages, n on-carbonated beverages and edible items. The methodology chosen is content analysis The unit of analysis is the individual television commercial aired on PTV (terrestrial), GEO TV (satellite) and ARY Digital (satellite) between 2002 and 2007. Hofstedes cultural dimensi ons were used as the theoretical framework for cultural analysis. The findings suggest that cultura l values portrayed across diff erent channels tend to stay the same. However, the executional characteris tics as well as cultural values tend to differ significantly in commercials for different produ ct categories. Also, Pa kistani food and drink category commercials overall generally tend to contain younger models and emphasis on being youthful and young and use affable language to communicate with the audience.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the words of Marshall McLuhan "Histori ans and archaeologists will one day discover that the ads of our time are the richest and most fa ithful reflections that a ny society ever made of its entire range of activities" (BrainyQuote, 2007). What makes Pakistani advertisements so di stinctly Pakistani? This study aims to understand the underlying cultural dimensions mani fest in television comm ercials on terrestrial and satellite television channels as well as across product categor ies in Pakistan and examine how reflective they are of the exis ting cultural values of Pakistan. From an industry perspective, from the days when advertising was restricted to graffiti on the walls, printed messages in the newspapers and handbills (Aslam, 2000) to the day when concepts like degrees Advertising and Brand Activation have become commonplace, Pakistan has come a long way. The growth of th e advertising industry is inseparably linked to Pakistani media development over the past 60 year s. Starting off with th e press being the only medium of advertising available to advertisers and leading up to the recent years, the rapid proliferation of media choices and emergen ce of new distribution channels poses great challenges to advertising and media professionals The industry is growing at an unprecedented rate; a few Pakistani advertisements also have received honors at the A bby Awards in India (Pak Tribune, 2005, June 27). Several local advertis ing agencies are affiliated with prominent multinationals such as McCann-Erickson, Young a nd Rubicam, I-Com and Saatchi and Saatchi. Recently, following JWT Pakistans footsteps, th e multinational agency Ogilvy and Mather setup independent operations in Pakista n. The All Pakistan Newspapers Association (APNS) instituted awards for excellence in print advertising in 1981 while the advertisi ng publication Aurora instituted Pakistans first el ectronic media awards in 2007.

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11 Pakistans GDP experienced a strong aver age yearly growth of 7% over 2002-2007 making it one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. Per capita income increased by an average of 13% per annum over 2002-2007 while real private consumption expenditure grew by an average of 7.4% during 2003-2007, indicating the emergence of a strong middle-class with growing buying power. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) grew by 37% in 2006-2007 touching US$ 4.16 billion, as compared to US$ 3.2 billi on in 2005-2006. Telecom, energy, banking and finance, and food and beverages accounted for almo st 80% percent of FDI growth. This indicates investors confidence in the l ong-term profitability from prod uction activities in Pakistan (Government of Pakistan, 2007). In the past six years, extensive structural reforms, macroeconomic stability and quick, strong and continuous economic revival has made Pakistan an ideal country for foreign investment. However, Pakistan still suffers fr om a image problem which has been further aggravated by foreign media depi cting it as a society with re ligious extremism, oppression of women and children, political turmoil, mass illite racy, high conservatism, hatred towards the West, etc. (Alam, 2005). This distorted image ma y not only discourage the foreign investor from investing in Pakistan, it can also make it difficult for the international marketer to understand the true society and culture of Pa kistan, its people, emerging soci al and consumption trends and technologies. The lack of knowledge can make it ve ry difficult for a prospective foreign investor to design appropriate communication for successfully marketing and selling its products/services in Pakistan. There is an informa tion gap that needs to be filled. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to highlight the r ecurring executional characteristics and elements of Pakistani television advertis ing and to examine how televisi on advertisements portray the culture of Pakistan. Although ev ery country possesses a national culture, some sub-cultural

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12 differences may exist owing to factors such as demographics, ge ographic location, socioeconomic status, education level, etc. These differe nces may reflect in advertisements targeted to these audiences. Therefore, rather than just lookin g at Pakistani TV commercials as a whole, this study will explore TV commercials from terrestrial and satellite channels in Pakistan and among different product categories to hi ghlight any differences in the ch aracteristics and value appeals used in those commercials. Television is the medium of choice because television in Pakistan enjoys a popularity unmatched by any other medium of mass communication in the count ry. In the words of Shoaib Qureshi (2005, June), an advertisi ng guru in Pakistan, Even at a na tional level, a Pakistani is as much a follower of the Electronic Religion as he is of Islam (p. 18). According to advertising spending figures for the fiscal year July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006, television advertising owned a 38% of the media mix as compared to 46% owned by print media (Aurora, 2006, December). However, television still remains the most influentia l medium in view of the fact that the literacy rate in Pakistan for people aged 15 and ove r hovers around 48.7% with 61.7% men and only 35.2% women being literate (Ghaur i, 2006, July 28). Television is th e best medium that breaks through the barriers of literacy and reaches out to the entire population regardless of education level and therefore enjoys a more heteroge neous audience compared to print media. Significance of the Study In advertising research, cultureportrayals in advertisements have generally been measured as a function of cultural values (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Ahmed, 1996; Milner & Collins, 2000; Cho, Up, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999; Singh & Baack, 2004). While many studies have analyzed the differences in cultural values por trayed in advertisements from a cross-national perspective (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Ah med, 1996; Milner & Collins, 2000; Cho, Up, Gentry, Jun and Kropp, 1999; Moon & Chan, 2005, Zh ang & Neelankavil, 1997), there has been

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13 little research on the variations in cultural values depicted in th e advertising content aired across different vehicles on an advertis ing channel. More sp ecifically, there has been no study based on the variations in cultural values depicted in advertisements aired on a countrys satellite television channels in comparison to terrestrial television channels and how they relate to the accepted cultural/sub-cultural valu es of that society. A literatur e gap exists in this area. Moreover, no recognized academic literature exis ts in relation to Pakistani advertising a booming industry in contemporary Pa kistan. This exploratory study will provide a stepping stone for future researchers who wish to further e xplore Pakistani advertis ing and carry out crosscultural comparisons with other countries. According to the famous novelist Norman Dougla s, you can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements (Norman Douglas Quotes, 2007) Over the past century, this idea has been emphasized by various social scientists thr ough research in cultural anthropology, sociology, marketing, mass communication, cultural studies a nd semiotics (Ahmed, 1996). Also it has been shown that advertising appeals that use local cultural cues, i.e. an adaptive communication strategy, elicit considerably grea ter positive attitudes than those that do not (Zhang & Gelb, 1996; Gregory & Munch, 1997; Singh & Baack, 2004) Edward T. Hall (1981) holds that the chances of ones being correct decrease as cultu ral distances increase (p g. 76). Therefore, this study will help foreign multinationals looking to enter the Pakistani market to understand the dominant cultural values within Pakistani advertising to enable them to adapt their marketing communication to the acceptable culture and emerging trends. Methodical Approach The variables for this content analysis have been derived fr om Stewart and Furses (1986) study of effective television advertising, Cheng (1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp (1999), Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996) and Hofstede, Pederson and

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14 Hofstede J. (2002). Hofstedes cultural dimensions and studies of advertising effectiveness form the theoretical framework for this research. The sample has been derived from the media banks of Synergy Advertising (Lahore) and Orient McCann-Erickson (La hore). The sample represents advertisements from three product categories comprising carbonated be verages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items, aire d on three television channels co mprising PTV (terrestrial owned by state), GEO TV (satellite channel owned by local media group) and ARY Digital (satellite channel owned by pan-global group). Research Overview This thesis has been organized in chapters as follows: Chapter 1 is a brief overview of the study and how this research is hoped to make a c ontribution to advertisi ng literature. Chapter 2 consists of a literature review th at starts off by defining culture, a brief overview of the history of Pakistan and insights into the countrys social, cultural and religious characteristics. This is followed by a discussion of the Pakistani adve rtising industry includi ng its history and the current scenario. The chapter moves on to a discu ssion of the different cult ural frameworks that exist for this type of study, a detailed description of Hofstede s cultural dimensions and its importance in the current study. Previous studies of culture portrayal in advertising are discussed and finally, the research questions an d hypotheses for this study are proposed. Chapter 3 describes the methodology that has been used in this resear ch, starting off with a brief overview of content analysis, the sampli ng design, the variable analysis framework and coding categories with definitions, coding and pr e-testing procedures, reliability measures and finally the data analysis method. Chapter 4 consists of the findings from this quantitative content analysis. Frequency tables, cross-tabulations and chi-square s results also are presented.

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15 Chapter 5 deals with a discussion and implica tions of the findings, limitations of this study, and lastly, suggestions for future research and conclusion are offered.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW What Is Culture? To date, several variations of the definiti on of culture and c ultural values have been documented. In the simplest of words, de Mooij (2004) desc ribes culture as the glue that binds groups togeth er (p. 26). It defines a so cial grouping and embodies all the common attitudes, beliefs, ideas, customs, roles, institutions a nd social organizations shared by its members who live together in the same geographic region in the same historical period (de Mooij, 2004). According to E.B. Taylor, culture is a complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by individuals as members of a society (as ci ted in Mueller, 2004, p. 106). In other words, individual behavior is contro lled by a set of pre-defined pr ocedures that are by and large adhered to by the members who share a comm on culture. In the same vein, in his book Culture and Organizations Software of th e Mind, Geert Hofstede (1994), one of the most well-known and widely-quoted social researchers in crosscultural marketing research, defines culture as the collective mental programming (p. 5) that forms the basis for the differentiation between members of different groups or categories. Also, one is not born with culture; it is inherited from ones extern al environment and is then internalized (Mueller, 2004). It is also different from huma n nature on the one side and from an individuals personality on the other. Hofstede (1994) says that human nature is what all human beings have in common it in cludes universals like lo ve, anger, hate, joy and sorrow; how we choose to express these fe elings is influenced by culture. Similarly,

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17 ones personality is something that is part ly genetic and partly determined by ones unique experiences as well as culture (Hofstede, 1994). Individuals values are basically a combina tion of the characteris tics of their unique individual personalities and th e shared characteristics of the group they belong and thus patterns of association of valu es can vary considerably be tween the individual level and the collective level (d e Mooij, 2004). For example, in Pakistan, the color green is associated with different values on the two levels it stands for purity on one hand and on the other, it stands for nationa lism and patriotism to Pakistan. For the purpose of this discussion, it is safe to assume that although there is a diverse range of individual pe rsonalities in any society, the predominant one is taken to represent national culture (de Mooij, 2004). According to Hofs tede, it can be debated that societies are more consistent in character th an nations and thus the definition of common culture might not be applicable on nations. However, there are quite a few integrative forces within every nation, such as mass medi a, dominant language, etc. that make such an extrapolation possible (de Mooij, 2004). Brief History of Pakistan Pakistan is a relatively new entity on the world atlas and was formed out of the partition of the Indian sub-continent in 1947. Th e country is located in an area which was home to the great Indus Valle y and Harappa civilizations some 4,500 years ago and also came under great Buddhist influence from the Central Asian Kushan Empire (Background Notes: Pakistan, 2007). In 711 A.D ., Muslim traders introduced Islam in the subcontinent which was then followed by the vast Muslim Mogul Empire, which ruled the subcontinent from the 13th to the 18th century. This period influenced the architecture, cuisine, and language of the region, the effects of which can be seen in Pakistani culture

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18 even today (Country Profile: Pakistan, 2005). After the collapse of the Mogul Empire, much of the subcontinent came under a British imperialist rule, whic h affected the socioeconomic system as well as the culture of the subcontinent in many ways. One of the most obvious examples of British influence th at can still be seen today is status of English as the official language in the subcontinent. There were two dominant religions in the s ubcontinent i.e. Hinduism and Islam, but over time, due to the development of antagoni stic feelings between Muslims and Hindus, Pakistan was formed as a separate homeland for Muslims in 1947 (Country Profile: Pakistan, 2005). Although a democratic republic, Pakistan has been under military rule for more than half its existence from 1958-1972; 1977-1985 (Mumtaz & Mitha, 2003). After a bloodless military coup in October 1999 to date, the country has been under the leadership of General Pervez Musharraf. Th e social, political and economic consequences of such extended periods of dictatorship have been immense. The effects manifest themselves in the shape of sharp inequality within the social cl asses and geographical regions, with power and wealth concentrated in the hands of the few (Mumtaz & Mitha, 2003). Moreover, Pakistan also has been unde r the deep-rooted undemocratic influence of feudal lords who enjoy considerable c ontrol over politics a nd the economy since Pakistans inception (Warner, 2003). Cultural Analysis of Pakistan Pakistan is a relatively new entity on the political map, but its diverse array of subcultures and values find their roots in hundreds of years of history. Pakistani culture, as we study it today, is a product of its religious affiliation (i.e. Islam), its Indian origins, British colonialism and indirect Am erican influences (Warner, 2003).

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19 Religion Pakistan is a predominantly Muslim c ountry with 97% of the population following the religion of Islam, while Christians, Hindus and Parsis (a Zorastrian sect) are the religious minorities (Background Notes: Pa kistan, 2007). According to Hofstedes research, Muslim countries rank relatively higher than others on the Power Distance index (ITIM International, 2003). This is illust rated by the fact that the Islamic religion in Pakistan generally has a bear ing on most aspects of society, culture and the law. The Shariah or Islamic law is the basis for legal and juridical structure and violations of the Islamic laws has stern implications. Islamic extremism is seen rampant in educational institutions as well, with Jaamat-e-Islami, the youth wing of Pakistans biggest Islamic party, resiliently controlling not just student activities (Economist 2006, July), but also influencing curriculum, course syllabuses, faculty selection and degree programs in almost all of Pakistans 50 public universities (Baker, 2006, October 16). Due to the gradual emergence of an educated middle class in the country, several new private educational institutions have appeared and the concept of Madrassahs (Schools with only rigid Islamic teachings) is be ing criticized in educ ated circles with the reasoning that these Madrassahs were just creating unemployment and militancy in society (Hamid, 2004). President Pervez Musharra f has paid particular attention to this issue and holds that there is no place for ex tremism, terrorism and sectarianism in our country as these would disr upt our development activitie s, (The News, 2007, September 30). He is taking measures to increase li teracy and curb unemployment to counter militant inclinations amongst the youth.

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20 Social Organization The social organization of the country is predominantly based on a Baradari (family kin) system, wherein the Baradari serv es as the distinct identity for its members and provides social protection to them. Memb ers form strong ties with persons within their Baradari and also with other social groups they identify with (Warner, 2003). Family obligations play a very integral role in the lives of Pakistanis. Responsibilities towards family are broad-based, including bot h financial support and active involvement in collective rituals and tradi tions. A strong sense of dependenc y and need for security is characteristic of Pakistanis, which follows from their highly colle ctivist approach to social life. According to Ramsey Naja, Chief Creativ e Officer, JWT Middle East and Africa, Pakistan is a collectivist society that attach es great importance to the group rather than the individual (Baig, 2007a). Similar to th e Arab world, the society is built around the family. Decisions and opinions are shaped through mutual consen t of the group, not the individual (Baig, 2007a). In a country w ith a predominantly collectivist culture, familiarity bears significant value; the tried and tested is often preferred over the untried the exotic. This makes it very difficult fo r advertisers to breakthrough the walls of tradition that are erected by the highly collectivist Paki stani consumers (Baig, 2007a). However, as the educated middle-class is expanding, a tre nd towards a nuclear family system is being noticed especially in the large metropo lises of the country (Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad), owing to th e quickening pace of lif e and increasing job competition due to economic development. Generally, Pakistani masses seem to be a pprehensive of making decisions on their own for fear of disapproval from their so cial surroundings and thus depend on other

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21 normative forces to steer their lives for them (Warner, 2003). For instance, the majority of Pakistanis still believe in arranged marriages wherein the bride or the groom is selected by parents or other el ders in the family. This kind of attitude of submission to authority also has been reinforced by the political scenario in the country. Globalization Trends One cannot fail to notice the permeating infl uences of American media, society and organizational culture in Pakistan. With access to many American channels like HBO, MTV, etc., the rapid permeation of the inte rnet amongst the masses, and the adoption of American syllabi in many private colleges ar ound the country, a majority of Pakistanis are in some form being exposed to American cultural values and thought processes, which is slowly injecting a sense of materialism and consumerism amongst them (Warner, 2003). Talking about media more specifically, th e diversity of foreign media has exposed the average Pakistani to fore ign advertising and brand cu lture. Belonging to a nation which is struggling to develop economically and is dependent on foreign aid from the more successful or powerful countries fo r its progress, the average Pakistani has become an aspirant by nature; and forei gn media has fueled hi s/her aspirations to experience a better life similar to what West ern media has portrayed to him/her (Faizi, 2007). However, according to Shahnoor Ahmed, industry veteran and CEO of Spectrum Communications (Pvt.) Ltd., in spite of all the modern tre nds and Western values that Pakistanis are imbibing from the media, Paki stan still largely remains a conservative society. Advertisers should rea lize that trying to go against the basic cultural values and norms of society reduces the value of the messa ge as an incentive for consumers. Out-of-

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22 the-box award-winning advertisements may not always be the most effective consumercentric advertisements (Def ining the past, 2005, June). Cultural Arts The cultural arts of Pakistan are changing mu ch more rapidly than what is generally assumed. For instance, Pakistan has gained great fame in the area of music. This is just part of the rapid revolution of the arts and media, which has taken over the country since new media laws liberalizing broadcasting policies were established in Pakistan by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 (Hof fman & Rehmat, 2007, May 25). In recent years, Pakistan has witnessed rapid cabl e and satellite pervasion, combined with increasing economic growth, especially in the advertising, telecom, apparel, textiles and cement industries (Menen, 2006, March 23). All these factors combined have set off a new wave of cultural revival and modernizati on which is not just limited to the countrys Westernized elites. Rather, it is a mass cu lture and is being created in the major metropolitan areas of Pakistan (Hamid, 2004). Food and Drink Consumption Culture Modern Pakistani culture is a synthesis of its Aryan, Dravidian, Greek, Scythian, Hun, Arab, Mongol, Persian, and Afghan root s (Khan, 2006, March 23). The influence of each of these races can be felt in Pakist ani cuisine and consumption culture. Pakistani women believe that the way to a mans heart is through his stomach. Cooking is considered to be a foremost duty of every female in the country and girls are taught how to cook right from when they are t eenagers. In majority of Pakistani families, prospective grooms families place a lot of importance on how well the girls can cook and serve food in order to be considered for marriage. Pakistani food is known to be rich in spices and herbs and Masala or Seasoning is the most important ingredient in all

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23 Pakistani foods. Due to the quickening pace of life in urban areas especially with an increasing number working women, pre-seasone d masalas (all in one spice mixes) have become very popular in the country (Irsha d, 2003, December 1). Most Pakistani dishes are either deep-fried or cooked in ample am ounts of cooking oil or Ghee (a thicker more traditional form of oil). Although rice is very popular in Pakistan, wheat is considered the staple food and is used to make bread cal led Roti or Chapati, which is an indispensable accompaniment of all meals (Khan, 2006, March 23). The religion of Islam also bears a great influence on eating habits of Pakistanis. The consumption of pork and alcohol is strict ly prohibited in Islam. These items are not publicly sold or marketed in Pakistan. Sale s are restricted to nonMuslims only (Pakistan Food, n.d.). These restrictions have channele d the tastes and consumption habits of Pakistanis in other directions. For instance, ca rbonated soft drinks have become part of the culture in Pakistan, especially amongst th e youth in both rural and urban areas such that they make up the highest per capita consumption in Pakistan (Business News, 2006, April 17). Moreover, traditional liquid concen trate drinks like Rooh-Afza and Jam-eShirin are considered essential in every Pa kistani home especially in rural areas during summers (Euromonitor International, 2007a, Febr uary). Also, with the increase in health awareness amongst consumers, demand for fr uit juices and bottled water also has increased drastically. Tea and milk also form an integral part of Pakistani culture. The great majority of Pakistanis drink at least a morning and an evening cup of milk tea daily, even during summers. Serving milk tea to every guest is an essential part of Pa kistans hospitality

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24 code. This strong demand has made Pakistan the worlds largest im porter of tea and the 7th largest tea consumer in the world (E uromonitor International, 2007b, February). Overview of Advertising in Pakistan History For almost a decade after Pakistans in ception in 1947, the advertising domain was controlled by a few large foreign-based adve rtising agencies. The press was the only medium of advertising available. Client budge ts were severely limited. There was a great dearth of trained and skilled professiona ls and production facilities were almost nonexistent (Orient Advertisers, 1988). This was not a surprising scenario at that time given that most of the nations attention was di rected towards nationbuilding efforts and overcoming problems that any newly fo rmed country goes through. Commerce and industry faced stunted growth initially during the first decade after Pakistans formation. In the next few years, this picture started to change dramatically. New commercial and industrial ventures cropped up. The consum er market started taking shape and this created a growing demand for better and innovati ve advertising. Rapid developments also took place on the media side (Orient Adve rtisers, 1988). Radio Pa kistan started its commercial services, which was followed by the launch of the first state-owned television station, Pakistan Television (PTV), in Lahore in November 1964. The Pakistan Television Network (a public limited compa ny with all shares residing with the Government of Pakistan) dominated te levision till around 1990, when STN became available to Pakistani viewers (Television Mania, 2005, June). Since 1999, the number of TV channels in Pa kistan has increased significantly with the formation of new media policies. Earlier, the only Pakistani TV channels comprised the state-run PTV, PTV World and Channe l 3, which were owned by the Pakistan

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25 Television Corporation Limited (PTV Networ k) (Cyber City Online, 2004). Due to a long-drawn Islamist Military dictatorship in Pakistan by General Zia-ul-Haq in the 80s, numerous media policies and censo r laws were drastically aff ected. For example, some of the extremely strict rulings on broadcast media included: No physical contact between male and fe male not even between siblings or mother and son. TV plays were barred from show ing married couples sharing a bed. Playwrights were banned from using the word jamhooriat (democracy). Making fun or even critiquing the army and the clergy was not allowed. Female singers were only allowed mini mum physical movement while singing on TV. Female newscasters and announcers were not allowed to wear makeup on screen. No ads could show models blowing a bubbl e gum or licking an ice-cream cone. Females could be shown in only 30% of the total time of the commercial (Paracha, 2005). These strict media laws ha d a very long-lasting impact on Pakistani advertisements through the times. Even though today these cens orship laws do not hold as they were, a subtle yet very noticeable difference can st ill be seen in the content run on the stateowned television channels and those broa dcast on the newer privately-owned TV channels. At the start of the new millennium, th e Pakistan Electronic Media Authority (PEMRA) realized the dearth of electronic media and issu ed licenses to several new private satellite channels a nd television networks to meet the growing demands of viewers in the hope of propelling Pakistan i electronic media to meet international standards (Television Mania, 2005, June). This also provided advertising with the much

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26 needed push and opportunity to grow and develo p in order to meet and maintain the same standards that were being established by these modern private media ventures. According to advertising industry vetera n, Shahnoor Ahmed, there is a world of difference between the advertisi ng industry scene today and that in the seventies. In the seventies for example, advertisers had to send copy to independent typesetters to get it composed and if there were modifications in the copy, advertisers had to go to the typesetters to get them done (Defining the past, 2005, J une). Usually, one could find personnel from different agencies sitting w ith the same typesetter competing for his services (Defining the past, 2005, June). Moreover, in those times, print was the dominant media for most campaigns. PTV wa s the only television channel in Pakistan and was very inflexible and set out rigid regulations for advertisers to follow. For example, advertisements on PTV were only accepted on 35 mm film (Defining the past, 2005, June). The past provided the advertising industry in Pakistan with a number of factors that propelled it to where it stands today. Even in its early days, multinational companies saw Pakistan as favorable grounds for investment. Industries a nd manufacturers within the country grew substantially to take their operations beyond regional boundaries. Moreover, there was a mass exodus of skilled la bor from Pakistan to the Middle East in the 1970s, which greatly increased purcha sing power within the country. Also, globalization and the spread of international media brought in the Western concept of consumerism that was quickly adopted by th e Pakistani people, as it gave them a culturally warranted feeling of affl uence and superiority (Aslam, 2000).

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27 Current Scenario In the past 60 years of Pakistans existe nce on the map of the world, the market for consumer goods, durables, capital goods and services has grown phenomenally. This is quite an evolutionary achievement for a country that had virtually no infrastructure just a little more than half a century ago. This gr owth is not limited to the size and demand of the consumer market. It can also be seen in the development and specialization of marketing tools and trends that are quickly propelling the market to a level at par with global standards. Pakistans advertising e xpenditure is amongst the most optimistic in Asia, experiencing an average yearly growth of around 25% (WPP, 2007). Moreover, the Pakistani economy has seen a growth of 7% in 2006 and earned it a position amongst the fastest growing economies in Asia. In 2007, forei gn investment is project ed to be close to $3 billion, the highest in Pakistan has ev er experienced (WPP, 2007). Michael Maedel, President of JWT believes that Asia boasts of some of the strongest emerging economies in the world, led by China and India at the forefront and followed by the next generation of countries that include Vi etnam, Indonesia and Pakistan in that order. With huge amounts of investment pouring into these countri es, he believes that Pakistan has also crossed over to the next stage in the evol ution of communications wherein consumer spending has increased substantially and is pred icted to double in the recent future (Baig, 2007b). Pakistan also being stra tegically located between the Middle East and the rest of Asia, acts as a bridge between these tw o rapidly developing regions (WPP, 2007). However, academically speaking, there ha s been no formal research on the budding advertising industry; no conceptual framewor k has ever been app lied to measure the creativity, effectiveness or content of Pakistan i ads. The majority of advertising agencies

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28 do not use formal market research for even large-scale campaigns. Clients are well aware of this but the lack of a proper research framework and infrastructure makes such an option infeasible at the current time. Accord ing to Ahmed Zaki, Dire ctor Operations of the Evernew Group (affiliated with Dentsu), mo st advertising is being done based on gut feel and the data that is available is usually not reliable (Personal Communication, 1st August, 2007). However, Ammar Rasool, Creative Director at JWT Pakistan, holds that a lot of multinational brands already established in Pakistan do base all their marketing efforts on research. Moreover, he believes th at most of the advertisements made in Pakistan are very consumer-targeted. If it is a product for use in the kitchen, the advertisements will always show housewives in a household setting and most of the times, the advertisements are depicting st ereotypical roles (per sonal communication, 2nd August 2007). It is worthy of note that Paki stani advertisements have won quite a few awards in the international arena (Abby Awa rds in India, for example). Several new multinational companies have entered the country, mostly due to a recent telecommunication boom (new international telecom giants like Telenor and Warid Telecom entered Pakistan in 2004). The a dvertising industry is undergoing rapid expansion and development. Also, P&G, Unile ver, Pepsico and other market giants are spending millions of rupees every year in face of the media explosion that has given viewers a multitude of new channels a nd print media options to choose from. As of October 19, 2006, Pakistan Elec tronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has issued licenses to 18 private satellite TV channels out of which 14 are already in operation (Daily Times, 2006, Oct ober 19). This sudden expansion of private

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29 TV stations has brought an end to more th an 5 decades of the state-run broadcast company Pakistan Television Networks virtual monopoly of TV broadcasting. However, according to Miles Young, Chairman of Ogilvy & Mather Asia Pacific, There is no country in the world where th e gap between external perception and reality is so extreme (WPP, 2007). Even though Pakistan has undergone unprecedented progress economically and socia lly and has been greatly a ffected by globa lization, it is still perceived as a backward country becau se so little is known about it. This is especially true in th e area of advertising. Characteristics of Pakistani Advertisements According to an informal survey of 500 respondents (male/female, sec A/B, different age groups) conducted by Synergizer, a leading advertising magazine, the most recalled advertisements were not only 10 year s or older but also jingle-based. The top brands that invoked instant recall included St ate Life Insurance, Naurus Instant Drink Mix, Dentonic Tooth Powder and Lipton Yellow Label owing to the simplicity, catchiness and repetition of th eir jingles, which made thes e advertisements unforgettable to most Pakistanis (Mandviwalla, 2007). Syed Faisal Hashmi holds that almost 80% of Pakist ani advertising is formulabased in claim, idea and execution leading to creative mediocrity in the industry (Hashmi, 2007). Also, according to Ahmed Kapadia, CE O of Synergy Advertising in Pakistan, most of Pakistani advertising is visually or iented with very little emphasis on the actual big idea; the form takes precedence over the co ntent (Marketing Association of Pakistan, 2005). In a personal interview, Ammar Ras ool, Creative Director of JWT Pakistan commented that over the past few years, Pakist an has come to a point where in terms of production value, sound and pi cture quality, graphics a nd cinematography, Pakistani

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30 advertising can easily compete with internationa l advertising. However, in terms of ideas and content, Pakistan i advertising lags far behind due to Pakistan not being a very experimental or arts-driven so ciety (Personal communication, 2nd August 2007). According to Mazhar Salam, Account Direct or at Red Commu nication Arts in Pakistan, most of Pakistani advertising is mediocre a nd portrays characters in stereotypical roles because there are risks associat ed with altering the accepted social, religious and political norms and going against them can result in a serious backlash. Even some kinds of humor might end up hurting religious se ntiments or offend a political faction. Advertisers need to be careful in what they show (Personal communication, 2nd August 2007). Television Networks in Pakistan Following the previous discussion about th e changing face of Pakistani culture, a discussion of the current shift in the overall outlook of advertising in Pakistan will now be presented. The shift could be due to seve ral factors: the advent of new multinationals with a more affluent consumer base (and thus more educated and open to innovation), public acceptance of President Musharrafs th eory of Moderate enlightenment i.e. a suggestion that the Muslim world needed to pursue the path of moderation and enlightenment in order to break free from its present deadlock (Shuja, 2005), or modernization trends caused by increased e xposure to the outside world through rapid proliferation of new media and satellite networks. This change is apparent in both the long-established terr estrial TV channels as well as the new satellite ones. An important fact to note is that the major terrestrial channel PTV is state-owned and the most popular sate llite channels Geo TV and ARY Digital are private-owned. As a terrestrial channel, it has the highest r each and viewership comprising all strata, segments, income groups and ages (Interview with the Head, 2005,

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31 June). This is because satellite channels are only accessible to viewers through cable subscription while PTV, being terrestrial, is openly accessible to anyone with a television set. Pakistans population is close to 166 milli on. More that two thirds live in rural areas in around 125,000 villag es across the country (M ohsin, 2005, July-August). In terms of TV viewership, 78% of the urban population in Pakistan watches TV. Out of these, 13% are occasional viewers while 65% re gularly watch TV at least 4 days a week. In the rural areas 49% of the population wa tches TV. The total cable and satellite viewer ship in Pakistan, according to Gallup, is 53% for urban areas and 13% for rural areas (Business Recorder, 2007). In terms of advertisin g expenditure for the fiscal year 20052006, the total advertising expend iture for satellite channels was Rs. 3.81 billion, i.e. US$ 63.5 million (64%) and Rs. 2.15 billion, i.e. US$ 35.83 million (36%) for terrestrial channels (Aurora, December 2006). Private TV channels are not permitted to broadcast terrestrially and cable viewership is very low in rural areas. Thus PTV, be ing a state-owned terres trial channel, holds a virtual monopoly in all rural ar eas of Pakistan. This results in a larger rural audience, compared to satellite TV channels like GEO and ARY Digital that are watched mostly in larger metropolitan areas (Fatah, 2005). It is believed that PTVs viewership in urban areas has been reduced drastically since the in troduction of better qua lity and more global private satellite channels, th e most popular amongst which are Geo TV and ARY Digital. However, urban families belonging to the lower income groups still prefer to watch PTV as it is available to them w ithout any subscription fee.

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32 This brings up an interesting dichotomy c onsidering that most satellite viewer-ship is drawn from urban viewers who can afford to subscribe to cable TV channels while most terrestrial viewer-ship is drawn from rural areas or the lower SES groups who cannot afford subscribing to cable. Also, in te rms of content, according to Imran Ansari, Head of Sales and Marketing for PTV Networ k, PTV is different from private satellite channels because it depicts the true culture of Pakistan as opposed to private satellite channels who are always trying to copy Indian channels in terms of content (Interview with the Head, 2005, June). Another difference is that the most popular satellite channels, GEO TV and ARY Digital are up-linked from Dubai Media City in the UAE therefore avoid the strict telecast regulat ions of the government of Paki stan and broadcast relatively uncensored programming (Fatah, 2005). Frameworks for Cultural Analysis Culture has always been an important t opic of research. For the purpose of this study, a number of cultural t ypologies were analyzed based on how popular they were in business literature and how effectively their cultural value categories or dimensions have been operationalized to reliably represent the cultural values depicted in advertisements. A few tested conceptual frameworks that already exist for cultural analysis are: Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks (1961 ) five value orientations and their variations 1) human nature (good, mix of good and evil, neutral and evil), 2) man-nature orientation (subjugation, harm ony and mastery), 3) time or ientation (past, present and future), 4) activity orientation (b eing, being-in-becoming and doing), and 5) relational orientation (lin eality, collaterality and individualism) (pg. 12) Trompenaars (1994) seven categories of work-related values derived from Parsons five relational orientations and an application of Kluckhohn and Strodtbecks value orientations to countrie s 1) Universalism vs. particularism, 2) achievement vs. ascription, 3) individua lism vs. collectivism, 4) emotional vs. neutral, 5) specific vs. diffuse, 6) time or ientation and 7) orient ation to nature (pp. 10-11)

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33 Edward Halls (1981) patterns of culture in accordance with 1) context, 2) space, 3) time and 4) meaning Hofstedes (1991) five cultural dimensions 1) Power distance, 2) IndividualismCollectivism, 3) Masculinity-Femininity, 4) Uncertainty avoidance and 5) Longterm orientation (Confucian Dynamism) Schwartzs seven motivational domains 1) Conservatism, 2) Intellectual autonomy, 3) Affective autonomy, 4) Hi erarchy, 5) Mastery, 6) Egalitarian commitment and 7) Harmony (cited in: Watson, Lysonski, Gillan and Raymore, 2002) Also, a new framework for cultural analysis still in the valida tion stage has been developed by Singh (2004) and it proposes 3 br oad-based levels of cultural dimensions 1) Perceptual, 2) Behavorial and 3) Symbolic. Out of all the afore-discussed frameworks, Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions was the first empirically and conceptually developed framework for cultural analysis (Watson, Lysonski, Gillan and Raymore, 2002) Only the Hofstede and Shwartz models provide scores for a range of countries to en able the analysis of consumption data (de Mooij, 2004). Historically, Hofstedes cultural dimensions have been extensively used in international marketing res earch (Albers-Miller & Gel b, 1996; Raghu, Abel & Salvador, 1999; Milner & Collins, 2000; Singh & Baac k, 2004). Simon Holt, a well-known global advertising consultant is quoted in de Moo ij (2004) to have sa id that Hofstedes dimensions are: absolutely made for mass marketing, an area where individual personality is of very secondary importance, and what you re ally want is reliable, true, but gross generalizations. You need to know what mo st people in a country are like and how most of them will behave in response to certain stimuli. (p. 30) According to Singh and Baack (2004), Hofstedes dimensions are the most appropriate framework for internatio nal advertising research because: They have been replicated and validated in several studies of cultural theory and cross-cultural analysis.

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34 Sondergaard established in 1994 through in-dep th analysis of va rious studies that Hofstedes dimensions were st able across populations and time. Clark suggested in 1990 that a few dimensi ons overlap in most cultural typologies and Hofstedes dimensions cover most of the commonly used dimensions of cultural analysis. In addition, research done by Milner and Co llins (2000) also supports the idea that Hofstedes cultural framework is practical enoug h to be used in the analysis and selection of country specific advertising appeals. Based on the above reasons, Hofsedes cultur al dimensions provi de an appropriate framework to apply in this study. Pakistans Rankings on Hofstedes Dimensions Hofstede (1994) defines the five dimensions as follows: Power Distance It is the extent to which the less powerful me mbers of a society accept the inherent inequalities in their society. It can range from low to high. Some typical indicators of this dimension are the degree of importance attached to social status and the degree of respect for elders, figures of aut hority, etc (Hofstede, 1994). Pakistan ranks relatively high on power distance according to Hofstede Power Distance Index (ITIM International, 2003) implying that surrendering to authority is common in the country and a wide inequali ty exists between social classes. Masculinity It is the opposite of femini nity and represents a societ y in which social and gender roles are clearly distinct. Me n are generally assertive, t ough, and aspire to material success; women on the other hand are modest, tender and concerned about the quality of life (Hofstede, 1994). Also, there is high importance attached to achievements,

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35 competition and heroism (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). In a feminine society on the other hand, both men AND women are supposed to be modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life. Gender equa lity is common and individua ls are people-oriented, less aggressive and more nur turing (Hofstede, 1994). Pakistan ranks about equal on masculin ity and femininity dimensions (ITIM International, 2003) implying that the quality and quantity of life bot h are equally coveted in Pakistani culture. So, on the one hand, va lues like competition, assertiveness and desire for more are important in Pakistani culture, while on the ot her hand, values like caring for others, hospitality and aesthetic valu es are also characteristic of the national culture. Also, there is higher representation of females in politics. Individualism It is the opposite of collectivism and represents a society in which there are weaker bonds between individuals, everyone is expect ed to look after onese lf and his/her own immediate family only (Hoftsede, 1994). Ther e is a strong emphasis on I rather than Us and these societies tend to have a weaker social framework. Moreover, individualistic society members attach hi gher value to personal independence and personal goals and also have a high need fo r personal achievement (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). On the other hand, collectivism is re presented in a society wherein people are integrated into strong cohesi ve in-groups right from birth and are unquestionably loyal to these in-groups in return fo r a lifetime of belonging and protection (Hoftsede, 1994). Pakistan ranks very low on individualism (ITIM International, 2003) implying that it is fundamentally a collectiv ist culture and people are well meshed into organized groups and so everything is seen in the cont ext of us not I. This endangers peoples

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36 personal lives and individual goals and aspi rations because normative forces govern individual lives to a high degree. Uncertainty Avoidance It goes from low to high and is defined as the extent to which the members of a particular culture feel enda ngered by uncertain or unknown situations (Hoftsede, 1994). It is also indicated by the degree to whic h people are uncomfort able with innovation, change or novel situations as well as their willingness to adopt strict codes of conduct (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). High uncertainty a voidance, for instance, is indicated by the practice of unquestioning blind faith and beli ef in absolute truths the intolerance of deviant ideas and behaviors, the reluctance to take risks and bigotry or unwillingness to accommodate others beliefs or religions. Pakistan ranks very high on uncertainty avoidance (ITIM International, 2003) implying that they like to stick to the trie d and tested, are ethnically more homogenous, value traditions over innovations and are more religiously rigid. Long-term Orientation It is the opposite of short-term orienta tion and is indicated by the fostering of virtues oriented towards more future re wards (Hoftsede, 1994). Long-term oriented societies have a more forward-looking approach to things, are defined by the values of thrift, hard work, respect for relationships and perseverance and have a more motivated and progressive mentality. This is opposed to short-term orientation which is characterized by a rather static mentalit y, high importance attached to face-value, tradition, social obligations, dwelling in the pa st and present with less concern about the future (Swaidan and Hayes, 2005). Together, the two poles form a dimension of national cultures called C onfucian Dynamism.

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37 Pakistan ranks lowest in the world on l ong term orientation (I TIM International, 2003) implying that they are not forward-looki ng and have a short-term outlook towards life. However, in a study on Confucian dynamism it was found that Pakistan is an outlier when it comes to its ranking in the Confuc ian dynamism dimension. Unlike other similar countries like Bangladesh who ra nk relatively higher on this i ndex, Pakistan scores a zero which is an anomaly and the reason is un certain (Yeh & Lawren ce, 1995). Therefore since a valid comparison cannot be drawn on this dimension between Pakistani culture and culture portrayed in Pakistani advertisem ents this study will only focus on the other four dimensions. Cultural Studies in Advertising A wealth of research data is available to validate the inseparable association of culture and advertising conten t across the globe. Country-specific advertisement appeals are generally kneaded with varying degrees of national cultural va lues, symbols, norms and characteristics (Mueller, 1987). According to quite a few empirical studies it has been shown that advertisements are relatively more persuasive if they reflect some degree of local culture-specific values than those that are more standardized (Gregory & Munch, 1997). To motivate someone, a message should relate to the persons goals, wants and needs an advertising appeal is what fulfills that ne ed (Mueller, 1987). According to Pollay, advertising does not employ and echo all cultural values (1986, April). He coined the metaphor the di storted mirror for advertising, saying that in commercials, some values are reinforced far more frequently than the others. So advertising reflects cultural values but it does this on a rather selective basis such that

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38 those values serve the advertisers interests and most r eadily relate to the products being advertised (Pollay, 1986, April). In advertising research, culture-portrayal in advertisements has generally been measured as a function of cultural valu es (e.g., Olayan & Karande, 2000; Cho, Up, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999; Zhang & Gelb, 1996) Olayan and Karande (2000) carried out a content analysis of magazine advertis ements from the United States and the Arab World to examine cross-cultural differences in the advertising content of these two drastically different cultural environments The researchers examined existing views about the role of religion in forming values the level of individualism and whether the culture is high or low context. They found th at though people are less frequently depicted in Arabic ads, there is no difference in th e extent to which men or women are portrayed. Women are mostly featured in ads for products that directly rela te to women and are shown wearing long conservative dresses. Mo reover, Arabic ads have less information content, less price information and less comp arative advertising than US magazine ads (Olayan and Karande, 2000). Cho, Up, Kwon, Gentry, Jun and Kropp (1999) conducted a quantitative content analysis of Korean and American TV comm ercials to examine differences in underlying cultural dimensions in both theme and execution between North American and East Asian advertisements. The cultural dimensions included individualism/collectivism, time orientation, relationship with nature and contextuality. The study suggested that although individualism and collectivism are portra yed in commercials from both countries, individualism is more dominant in U.S. commercials. U.S. commercials also tend to use more direct commercial appr oaches reflecting the low-c ontext nature of American

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39 culture. Also, Korean and U.S. commercials almost equally stress oneness with nature which reflects the increasing environmenta l consciousness in the US (Cho, Up, Kwon, Gentry, Jun and Kropp, 1999). Another study conducted by Zhang and Gelb (1996) explored effects of collectivistic and individualistic advertisi ng appeals in US and China. The findings suggest that culturally congrue nt appeals are more effectiv e (China being collectivistic and US being individualistic) generally, but culturally incongruent appeals may work if the advertising appeal matches the produc t use condition. According to this study, advertisements for products that are used privately such as to othbrushes can utilize individualistic appeals effectiv ely, even if such appeals are incongruent with the accepted cultural values (Zheng and Gelb, 1996). In th e case of Pakistan, according to Mazhar Salam, Account Director at the advertising agency Red Co mmunication Arts in Lahore (Pakistan), the effectiveness of advertisi ng appeals also depends on the brand being advertised. Western advertising appeals can work for certain product brands such as Levis jeans, depending on what sort of brand image one is trying to convey through the ad (personal communication, 2nd August 2007). Also according to Boddewyn, Soehl and Picard (1986), standardization of advertising appeals across cultures is a comparatively more viable option for industrial products th an for consumer products, which need to be adapted to consumers lifestyles, values, practices and norms. Likewise, according to Douglas and Urban (1977) non-durable pr oducts such as food products, household cleaning products or other products related to household roles requi re greater adaptation to the target countrys culture because they need to be customized in accordance with local tastes and habits. Also other products which are directed at minority segments such

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40 as health foods or herbal perfumes may be more standardized esp ecially if they are targeted at affluent or more sophisticated customer s (Douglas and Urban, 1977). While most cross-cultural research is based on highl y contrasting cultures (e.g, Olayan & Karande, 2000; Zheng & Ge lb, 1996, Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun & Kropp, 1999), a few authors have also studied cross-cu ltural differences between similar cultures (e.g., Javalgi, Cutler & White, 1994; Tse, Belk and Zhou, 1989). Javalgi, Cutler and White (1994) dealt with the issue of standa rdization of print a dvertising across three culturally similar countries of the Pacific Ba sin which included Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. The study suggested that regionali zation of advertisin g content based on geographic proximity or shared heritage may be counter-productive. This is especially true in terms of the visual devices and communication appeals in the print advertisements. Also intern ational advertisers should c oncentrate on building a high status image and use quality appeals to advertis e their products in these countries. This is truer in the case of Japan as it is a rapidly progressing nation with an increasingly affluent consumer market that is concerned more with quality rather than price (Javalgi, Cutler & White, 1994). Tse, Belk and Zhou (1989) compared the different consumption appeals used in ads from Taiwan, Hong Kong and the PRC (China), three countries with similar language and a shared cultural he ritage. They found that the cultural values depicted in the ads from these three regions were distinct from each other, due to differences in the societies attitudes towards consumerism which have be en shaped by the differences in political and economic influences in the three countries (Tse, Belk and Zhou, 1989).

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41 While many studies have analyzed the diffe rences in cultural values portrayed in advertisements from a cross-national perspec tive, there has been li ttle research on finding the variations in cultural values with in a country. One such study was conducted by Cheng (1994) to find out the dominant cultural values manifest in Chinese magazine advertisements from 1982 and 1992, and to also point out the changes in cultural values over a 10 year time period. The study found th at modernity, techno logy and quality were the predominant cultural values manifest in Chinese advertisements over this time period. The study also found that while the occu rrence of values that were symbolic in nature or suggestive of human emotions increas ed with time, utilitarian values or those centering on product quality decreased with time (Cheng, 1994). Another study (Cheng, 1998) which content analyzed Chinese television commercials from 1990 and 1995 sought the same purpose and also examined the similarities and differences across the two media. The researcher chose this time peri od because it also allo wed an analysis of the effects of some new advertising laws im plemented in 1995 and how they affected the cultural values portrayed in Chinese advertisements. The researcher found that modernity was still the domina nt cultural value that remain ed stable throughout the time period, while the value of quality lost it importance over this period. Moreover, according to this research, the value of tradition was more frequently seen in advertisements for food and drink categor ies (Cheng, 1998), thus emphasizing the fact that product category does moderate the exte nt to which cultural values have to be adhered to in creating advertisements. Gregory and Munch (1997) studied the eff ects of variations in cultural norms and familial roles depicted in advertisements in the highly collectivist Mexican culture. They

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42 found that generally advertising appeals that were consistent with the local cultural norms and societal roles generated greater favorab ility and higher purchase intentions. More interestingly, they also f ound that depicting advertising appeals consistent with the typical roles of Mexican so ciety (e.g. showing man as br ead earner) had a greater persuasive impact for high-involvement de cision making products (e.g. automobiles). Depicting appeals consistent with familia l norms (e.g. eating toge ther) had a greater persuasive impact for low-involvement de cision making products (such as gelatin dessert). Moreover, the study showed that for products wherein the mother facilitates the preparation process, depicting both role and familial norms increase the effectiveness of the advertisements (Gregory and Munch, 1997). Han and Shavitts (1994) study of advert ising appeals in individualistic and collectivist societies showed that advertisi ng appeals emphasizing indi vidualistic benefits and preferences were not only more prevalent in US magazine advertis ing, they were also more persuasive than collectivist appeals in the US. In contrast, advertising appeals emphasizing in-group benefits, harmony and inte grity, were not only more prevalent in Korean magazine ads, they also were more persuasive than indi vidualistic appeals in Korea (Han and Shavitt, 1994). The studys findi ngs suggested that goals associated with the use of a product also play a role in determining the effectiveness of culturally congruent or incongruent advertising appeals. According to the authors, products which are shared in use (e.g. soft drinks, groceries, coffee, tea) can empl oy both collectivist and individualistic appeals depending on the valu e assigned to individua l versus collective benefits in the target culture. However, for personal use products (such as fashion

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43 apparel, cosmetic, wine) which offer individu al benefits only, colle ctivist appeals might not work in even collectivist cultures (Han and Shavitt, 1994). The Stewart and Furse Framework As discussed, Pakistani advertising is a completely untouched subject in international literature. Therefor e, in addition to exploring cult ural elements, this research seeks to also measure the typical character istics, in terms of executional elements, formats and devices in Pakistani advertisements. The coding categories for analyzing the ex ecutional characteristics of commercials were derived from Stewart and Furses ( 1986) study of the eff ects of advertising executional factors on advertising performan ce. The study involved th e content analysis of 1,059 television commercials on 155 unique executional variables identified based on past research and preliminary testing. This was followed by copytesting of each commercial with hundreds of consumers to iden tify the executional el ements of effective advertisements (Stewart and Furse, 1986) For this research however, only the executional variables were employed. Quite a few past studies have used the Stewart and Furse (1986) coding framework to analyze the content of television commercials (e.g. Di xit, 2005; Hsu, 2005; Senkova, 2005). Most of them have involved the cont ent-analysis of award-winning television commercials from and across different count ries. Dixit (2005) employed the Stewart and Furse (1986) coding framework to exam ine award-winning print and television commercials from India, Pakistans closest neighbor in terms of geographical proximity as well as cultural similarities. The research found that the use of music and humorous commercial tone was prevalent in a majo rity of award-winning Indian television commercials. Also, the dominant commercial fo rmat was to show the product in use or

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44 by analogy. Print advertisements on the other hand used more surrealis tic visuals, visual memory devices, visual taglines as well as a more relaxed, laid-back and fun commercial tone. The only similarity th e research highlighted was th at both print and television advertisements were dominantly set outdoors, usually in the marketplace (Dixit, 2005). Hsu (2005) conducted a content analysis of award-winning TV commercials from the 20th to 25th Times Advertising Awards in Taiw an using Stewart and Furses (1986) coding framework. The research identified the dominant executional elements in Taiwanese award winning commercials and compared the results to the Stewart and Furse (1986) study to find out whether the Ta iwanese sample contained the executional elements considered effective. Some conflic ts were identified between the two studies suggesting that award-winning creative advertisements might not be the most effective (Hsu, 2005). Senkova (2005) analyzed 170 Russian TV advertisements from the Moscow International Advertising Festival to discover specific advertising strategy elements and advertising appeals in Russian award-winning advertising. According to the study, typical Russian award-winning commercials were hum orous in tone, employed an affective transformational creative stra tegy, with attributes/ingredie nts, product performance and enjoyment being used as the dominant promis e or appeal. Also award-winning and nonaward-winning advertisements were different mostly in the use of humor, unique selling proposition strategy and visual devices. Gagnard and Morris (1988) analyzed C lio award-winning commercials from 1975, 1980 and 1985 to identify trends over a ten y ear time period and then compared the results with earlier effectiveness studies. The researchers found that Clio award-winners

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45 do not hold the same characteristics that have been identified in effective TV commercials. This implies that awardwinning television commercials may not necessarily perform well in the actual market. Kover, James and Sonner (1997) conducted a study comprising both Effie award winning and non-award-winning TV commercials and recorded responses of creative professionals and general viewers towards t hose commercials. The results showed that creatives showed greater pos itive responses to award-winning commercials while the general viewers favored commercials that e licited feelings of personal enhancement, regardless of being award-winning or not. Th is suggests that crea tives show greater positive attitudes towards commercials that meet professional criteria rather than consumer-effective criteria. Therefore, aw ard-winning advertisements may not always reflect consumers preferences. In the case of Pakistan, electronic me dia awards are a relatively new phenomenon and a large enough pool of award-winning advert isements does not exist to allow for a sizeable sample. For the purpose of this st udy therefore, a general sample of actual recorded advertisements from different televi sion channels has been used for analysis. Whether they are award-winning or not is not known. However, they represent acceptable Pakistani advertising and a study of their executional characteris tics is a first step towards gaining an understanding of Paki stani advertising in general. Research Questions and Hypotheses The goal of the current study is to expl ore the creative execu tional characteristics and dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television advertising and examine their occurrences with respect to terrestrial / sa tellite television channels and product

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46 categories. Based on previous research and th e literature reviewed, the following research questions are proposed: Executional Characteristics Visual devices Research question (1a). What are the characteristics of visual devices used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (1b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of visual devices with respect to commer cials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (1c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of visual devices with respect to commer cials for carbonated beve rages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Auditory devices Research question (2a). What are the characteristics of auditory devices used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (2b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of auditory devices with respect to comm ercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (2c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of auditory devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Music and Dancing Research question (3a). What are the characteristics of music and dancing used in television commercials in Pakistan?

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47 Research question (3b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of music and dancing with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (3c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of music and dancing with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Commercial appeals or selling propositions Research question (4a). What are the dominant commercial appeals used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (4b). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (4c). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverage s and edible items? Commercial approach Research question (5a). What is the dominant comm ercial approach used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (5b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial approach with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (5c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial approach with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items?

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48 Commercial format Research question (6a). What are the dominant commercial formats used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (6b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial formats with respect to commer cials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (6c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial formats with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Typology of broadcast messages Research question (7a). What is the dominant typology of broadcast messages used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (7b). What are the significant differe nces in broadcast typology with respect to commercials aire d on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (7c). What are the significant differe nces in broadcast typology with respect to commercials for carbonat ed beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Commercial setting Research question (8a). What are the dominant commercial settings used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (8b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial settings with respect to comm ercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV?

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49 Research question (8c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial settings with respect to commercials fo r carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Commercial tone and atmosphere Research question (9a). What are the dominant commercial tones used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (9b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial tones with respect to commercia ls aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (9c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial tones with respect to commercia ls for carbonated beve rages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Commercial Structure Research question (10a). What are the dominant commercial structures used in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (10b). What are the significant di fferences in the dominant commercial structures with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (10c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial structures with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Commercial characters Research question (11a). What are the commercial characters dominantly used in television commercials in Pakistan?

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50 Research question (11b). What are the significant di fferences in the use of dominant commercial characters with respec t to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (11c). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant commercial characters with respec t to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverage s and edible items? Cultural Values Research question (12a). What are the dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television commercials? Research question (12b). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV commerc ials on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (12c). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercia ls for carbonated beve rages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Other Exploratory Cultural Variables Research question (13a). What are the characteristics of womens clothing portrayed in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (13b). What are the significant differences in womens clothing portrayed in the commercials with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Research question (13c). What are the significant diffe rences in womens clothing portrayed in the commercials with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items?

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51 Research question (14a). How often are religious references made in television commercials in Pakistan? Research question (14b). Is there a significant relati onship between the presence or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on? Research question (14c). Is there a significant relationship between the presence or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on? Hypotheses Also, although this is an explorator y study, a few hypotheses can be proposed. According to Han and Shavitt (1994), the pr esence or absence of culturally congruent advertising appeals is also determined by the go als that the target market associates with the use of a product. Also, according to Olayan and Karande (2000), in Arab commercials, women are generally shown for pr oducts that directly relate to women and are depicted wearing the traditional Arab dres s. Therefore, in Pakistan, being a Muslim country, commercials for food items which ar e generally targeted at housewives may contain more traditionalistic women. Therefor e, for commercials which contain female characters the following hypothesis will be tested: Hypothesis 1. Commercials for edible items will contain more women in traditional clothing than in Western clothing. Language is a reflection of a countrys cu lture (de Mooij, 2005) and therefore is part of its identity. Hence it can be assumed that products with a domestic brand origin are more likely to use Urdu only as the domin ant language of text in commercials while products with a Western brand origin are mo re likely to employ English only as the dominant language of text. This allo ws for the following hypotheses:

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52 Hypothesis 2. Urdu only will be used as the dominant language of printed text on screen in commercials for products with a domestic brand origin. Hypothesis 3: English only will be used as the dominant language of printed text on screen in commercials for products with an international brand origin.

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53 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY To explore the proposed research questi ons, the method of quantitative content analysis is employed. Quantitative content an alysis has been explained as the method of studying an area of subjective na ture by classifying the qualita tive information such that it can be manipulated quantitatively (Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp, 1999). Krippendorff (1980) defines it as a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context ( pg. 21). According to Holsti (1969), a content analysis is any procedure that is used to draw inferences by coding specified characteristics of messages objectiv ely and systematically (pg. 14). Content analysis can be used to describe content and to test hypothesis derived from theory. It is considered an unobtrusi ve and non-reactive measurement method that also makes it possible to conduct longitudinal studies as well as reduce large amounts of data to numbers whilst retaining meaningful di fferences in the data. (Riffe, Lacy, & Fico, 2005). According to Holsti (1969), content anal ysis is most useful under 3 circumstances: when it is difficult to access data and the researcher only holds documentary evidence; when the subjects own language plays a signifi cant role in the st udy; and lastly, when the amount of material to be examined is t oo large to allow the re searcher to singlehandedly analyze it (pp. 15-17). It has been widely used to study content in a variety of fields including marketing, media studies, literature, ethnography, cu ltural studies, gender studies, sociology, psychology, etc. (Busch, et al., 2005 ). It is the most widely used method for cross-cultural research and other explorator y studies about advertising c ontent in general (e.g. Moon & Chan, 2005; Kalliny & Gentry, 2007; Javalgi et al, 1994; Senkova, 2005).

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54 The purpose of the current study is to disc over the executional characteristics and the patterns of dominant cultu ral values in Pakistani TV commercials. By comparing and analyzing the advertisements content and relating the results to previous literature about Pakistani culture, the goal is to determine how the culture portray ed in Pakistani TV commercials relates to the culture of Pakist an per se. Content analysis is the most appropriate method to quantitat ively measure the various re search dimensions and to analyze them systematically and objectively. Unit of Analysis For this study, the unit of analysis was th e individual television commercial aired on one of the three Pakistani TV channels in cluding PTV, Geo TV and ARY Digital from the year 2002 to 2007. Sampling Design The population comprised all Pakistani TV commercials collected in DVD format from the respective media banks of two advertising agencies, namely Synergy Advertising and Orient Mc Cann-Erickson. Due to the high cost of obtaining media monitoring tapes from independe nt media agencies, the TV commercials for this study were derived from the general media record s/collection (also calle d media banks) of the mentioned advertising agencies. Synergy Adve rtising is a young local advertising agency established in 1999 and affiliated with i-Com, the worlds largest network of independent advertising agencies. Orient Mc Cann-Erickson is one of the fi rst advertising agencies in Pakistan established locally in 1953 a nd later affiliated with McCann-Erickson Worldwide in 1993. The commercials from S ynergy Advertising represented 17 product categories and 15 television channels, wh ile those from Orient McCann-Erickson represented nine product categorie s and 13 television channels.

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55 The commercials were arranged year-w ise and product category-wise on the DVDs. First, non-probability purposive or rele vance sampling was used to separate all television commercials (n=534) aired betw een the years 2002 to 2007. This time frame was chosen for a couple of r easons. Firstly, Pakistan has not undergone any change of government or major political turmoil since 2002, i.e. when General Pervez Musharraf declared himself President of Pakistan. The catalyst of social change has remained the pursuit of moderate enlightenment si nce 2000. Secondly, the governments media liberalization policies offici ally took effect from 2002, the same year when GEO Network, the most popular sate llite television network, wa s launched. Lastly, culture generally remains stable over a long period of time and theref ore portrayal of culture is assumed to stay relatively consistent over a pe riod of five years. Next, because this study aims to analyze the cultural variations in th e commercials aired on te rrestrial and satellite TV channels in Pakistan, TV commercial s aired on PTV terrestrial channel (=108 commercials), Geo TV satellite channel (= 99 commercials) and ARY Digital satellite channel (=94 commercials) were separated fo r analysis. This was done by viewing each TV commercial and identifying the TV channe l through the channel l ogo on the recorded commercial. These comprised a total of 301 TV commercials. Commercials aired on other channels were excluded due to a very small representation in the sample population. Commercials aired on Geo TV and ARY Digital were extrac ted for analyzing satellite channel ads. These two companies differ in their corporate background with GEO being owned by Jang the largest Pakistani ne ws media group, and ARY Network owned by the Dubai-based ARY Group of Companie s. Geo was established and started transmission in 2002 for the Pakistan mark et. It gained popularity among Pakistanis

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56 worldwide for its round-the-clock news coverage and challenging the political status quo. ARY started off its services in UK in 2000 to cat er to Pakistanis living in Europe. In 2001 ARY also began its transmission in Pakistan and other parts of Asia, gaining popularity as an infotainment channel (Television Ma nia, 2005, June). By analyzing commercials from these two satellite channe ls, any differences between sate llite channels itself can be highlighted. Lastly, purposive or relevance sampling again was used to further reduce the sample to represent commercials across th ree product categories including carbonated beverages (n=90 commercials), non-carbona ted beverages (n=48 commercials) and edible products (n=91 commercials). The samp le consisted of a total of 229 television commercials at the start of the coding pr ocess. The other product categories were removed due to a comparatively much smaller representation in the sample to allow statistically significant findings for the respective product cate gories. Previous research on the effects of product category and product usage on cultural app eals in advertising suggests that non-durable, consumer products with shared usage will contain more culture-specific advertising appeals than ot herwise. According to Han & Shavitt (1994), soft drinks, tea, milk, coffee, groceries (edi ble items), baby food, etc. are all shared in nature and therefore commercials for these pr oducts will be more culturally adapted on the collectivism/individualism dimension. However, according to Pollay (1986, April), cultural values or characteristics of the comm ercials may differ based on the advertisers interests and how they most readily relate to the products being a dvertised. The target market for carbonated beverages for example is mostly the youth whereas for edible

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57 items it is mostly housewives. Therefore, differe nces in the target market for the product category may influence the cultural and executi onal characteristics of the commercials. During the coding process, duplicate advert isements aired on the same TV channel were eliminated, while those appearing on diffe rent TV channels were not excluded from the study. This led to a final sample of 214 commercials. The rati onale was because the entire purpose of the study is to analyze culture as portrayed in the advertisements on the three channels. Thus similar commercials on di fferent TV channels are separate entities and every commercial broadcast on them constitutes a distinct and measurable sampling unit. Coding Categories and Variables In developing a systematic framework for a content analysis, factors such as exclusiveness, exhaustiveness and parsimony of coding schemes and categories have to be kept in mind (Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp, 1999). In using a multi-layered framework such as Hofstedes 5 cultural dime nsions, some coding categories for some of the dimensions may run into a conceptual ove rlap due to their strong role in shaping those dimensions. However, the cumulative m easures of the Hofstedes dimensions will be used for the results of this study. Thus, th e overlapping of categories between different dimensions should not skew the results. According to Pollay (1983), culture also plays a role in determining which categories will appear most often in a dvertising appeals and which ones, though applicable in other cultures, might be redundant in the one under study. Also, the frequency with which different advertising ap peals occur in advert isements should also be used to select the best codi ng categories for a coding scheme.

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58 The commercials were coded for executiona l characteristics as well as cultural values. The coding scheme for the executiona l characteristics was based on the Stewart and Furse (1986) coding framework. The coding categories for this study were derived from Steve Marshalls (2006) doctoral dissertat ion that employed part of the Stewart and Furse coding framework to examine adver tising message strategies and executional devices in US television commercials fr om award-winning campaigns from 1999 to 2004. Also, the cultural values for this study were derived from past studies by Cheng (1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp (1999) Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996), and Hofstede, Pederson and Hofstede J. (2002). In addition, a few country-specific exploratory cu ltural variables were also added to facilitate a broader analysis of Pakistani television commercia ls. The coding instrument can be found in Appendix A. Pretest and Coding Procedure The content analysis was performed by two coders the researcher (fluent in Urdu and English female native but raised in the Middle East) served as primary coder. Another native individual, fluent in Urdu and English, born and raised in Pakistan (25-30 age-group male) served as secondary coder. Th is not only helped eliminate gender bias in the study, but the presence of the secondary coder also ensured that the primary researchers foreign upbringi ng does not impair results. A codebook containing the precise operational definitions of all the categories and dimensions was developed as a reference to ol to enable both coders to code the advertisements based on similar criteria (See Appendix B). The primary coder trained the secondary coder to use the codebook by explaining each category thoroughly and removing any ambiguities in regard to the exact meaning of every category.

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59 Next, the coders practiced using th e coding sheets by coding non-sample advertisements and compared results with each other to clarify doubts that arose due to judgment and interpretation differences due to the subjective nature of a number of coding categories. Lastly, the pretest was carried out with the coders to streamline the coding categories, remove redundancies and determ ine inter-coder reliability. The pretest contained 10% of the sample (roughly 25 adve rtisements) and these were given to the coders to code and then compar e their results with each other. Inter-coder Reliability Inter-coder reliability refers to whether the coders are coding the advertisements the same way (are they assigning the same c odes to similar stimuli). The most popular method of determining inter-coder reliabi lity is Holstis (1969) formula: Reliability = 2M/(N1 + N2) where N1 and N2 are the total number of coding decisions made by coder 1 and coder 2 re spectively and M is the total number of agreements between the 2 coders. Table 1 exhi bits the reliability results for each of the coded categories. Acceptable reliability was established at > 80% be fore the actual study was conducted (Kassarjian, 1977). Table 1. Holstis (1969) Inter-Coder Reliability Category Holstis Scenic Beauty 1.00 Beautiful Characters 0.86 Ugly Characters 1.0 Graphics and Computer-generated Visuals 0.95 Surrealistic Visuals 1.0 Substantive Supers 1.0 Visual Tagline 1.0 Visual Memory Device 1.0 Language of Visual Text in Commercial 0.95 Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Devices 1.0

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60 Table 1. Continued Category Holstis Unusual Sound Effects 0.95 Spoken Tagline 1.0 Music in Commercial 1.0 Music as a Major Element 0.95 Music Style 1.0 Music Creates a Mood (vs. Background Only) 0.86 Music is a Brand Jingle 0.95 Dancing in Commercial 1.0 Dominant Commer cial Appeal/Selling Proposition 0.81 Rational or More Emotional Appeal 0.86 Brand Differentiating Message 1.0 Dominant Commercial Format 0.81 Typology of Broadcast Messages 0.76 Dominant Commercial Setting 1.0 Where is the Commercial Setting? 0.95 Dominant Commer cial Tone 0.86 Dominant Commercial Structure 0.86 Principal Character(s) Male 0.90 Principal Character(s) Female 0.95 Principal Character(s) Child/Infant 1.0 Principal Character(s) Celebrity 1.0 Principal Character(s) Actor Playing Role of Ordinary Person 1.0 Principal Character(s) Real People 1.0 Principal Character(s) Creation 1.0 Principal Character(s) Animal 1.0 Principal Character(s) Animated 1.0 No Principal Character(s) 1.0 Characters Identified with Company 1.0 Background Cast 0.95 Celebrity in Minor Role 1.0 Animal in Minor Role 1.0 Created Character or Cartoon Character in Minor Role 1.0 Real Person in Minor Role 1.0 Recognized Continuing Character 0.90 Presenter/Spokesperson on Camera 1.0 Direct Comparison with Other Products 1.0 Indirect Comparison with Other Products 1.0 Puffery or Unsubstantiated Claims 1.0 Collective Integrity 0.86 Interdependence 0.86 Collective Benefits 0.86 Collectivism 0.90 Patriotism 1.0

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61 Table 1. Continued Category Holstis Popularity 1.0 Succorance 0.86 Independence 0.86 Distinctiveness 0.81 Self-sufficiency 0.81 Self-gain 0.90 Individual Benefits 0.81 Beauty 1.0 Health 0.95 Individualism 0.86 Uniqueness 0.95 Respect for the Elderly 0.86 Social Status 0.86 Formality 0.81 Humility 0.90 Economy 0.90 Power Aversion 1.0 Power Equality 1.0 Casualness 0.81 Convenience 0.76 Competition 0.95 Effectiveness 0.90 Wealth 1.0 Work 1.0 Courtesy 0.86 Family 0.81 Nurturance 0.81 Natural 0.95 Modesty 0.86 Enjoyment 0.76 Safety 0.76 Technology 1.0 Tradition 1.0 Tamed 0.86 Adventure 0.90 Magic 0.81 Youth 0.86 Sex 0.90 Religious Reference/Symbolism 1.0 Ad Origin 1.0 Women in Western Clothing 1.0 Overall Reliability 0.93

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62 Data Analysis After completing the coding procedures, the data was entered in to SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) and statistical analysis was conducted on it. Frequency tables were drawn to analyze th e occurrence of variables across television networks and also across product categories/s ub-categories. Also ch i-square tests were run to determine statistically significant relatio nships between the variables to answer the research questions and hypotheses.

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63 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS The basic purpose of this study was to explore the executi onal characteristics and cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV advertisements. This chapter reports the basic descriptive statistics for the sample c ontaining TV advertisements from the three Pakistani television stations PTV, AR Y Digital and Geo TV across the product categories of carbonated bevera ges, non-carbonated beverages and edible items. It also includes statistical ch i-square tests of th e research questions and hypotheses proposed in light of existing literature. Some variables including brand origin, specific international brand origin, length of ad, specific product types, mus ic style, dominant commercial setting and dominant commercial structure were recoded by combining categories in order to ensure that the minimum cell size wa s large enough for test s of statistical significance. Also in all ot her cases, only variables a nd categories that met the minimum sample size criteria of 5% (eleve n commercials) were considered for further analysis. Description of the Sample of Commercials Out of the 214 commercials coded, there wa s an almost equal representation of commercials from the two sources the samp le was drawn from, with 106 commercials from Synergy Advertising and 108 from Orient McCann-Erickson (Table 2). Table 2. Distribution of Samp le by Source of Commercial Source of Commercial FrequencyPercent Orient McCann-Erickson 108 50.5% Synergy Advertising 106 49.5% Total 214 100%

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64 In the sample, 115 commercials were for domestic brands while 98 were for Western brands of products (Table 3). One commercial however had an East-Asian brand origin (Red Bull). Table 3. Sample Distribution by Brand Origin Brand Origin Frequency Percent Domestic 115 53.7% Western 98 45.8% East-Asian 1 0.5% Total 214 100% In terms of the length of the commercial the majority of the commercials (61.2%) were 30 seconds or less in length while 38.8 % were longer than 30 seconds (Table 4). Table 4. Sample Distribution by Length of Commercial Length of Commercial Frequency Percent < 30 Seconds 131 61.2% > 30 Seconds 83 38.8% Total 214 100% In terms of the channel the commercials were aired on, PTV had a higher representation of commercials with 80 comme rcials (37.4%) from PTV, 69 from Geo TV (32.2%) and 65 from ARY Digital (30.4%) and (Table 5). Table 5. Sample Distribution by Channel of the Commercial Channel Frequency Percent PTV 80 37.4% Geo TV 69 32.2% ARY Digital 65 30.4% Total 214 100% There were three product cat egories analyzed in this study (Table 6). Carbonated beverages and edible items had almost si milar representations with 82 commercials (38.3%) for carbonated beverages and 86 fo r edible items (40.2%). However, non-

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65 carbonated beverages represented around one-f ifth of the sample with just 46 commercials (21.5%). Table 6. Sample Distribution by Product Category Product Category Frequency Percent Edible Items 86 40.2% Carbonated Beverages 82 38.3% Non-carbonated Beverages 44 21.5% Total 214 100% Among edible items, around 67.6% of the produc ts were cooking products or condiments such as edible oil (55.8%) a nd spices and food mixes (10.8%), while 23.4% of the edible items belonged to the snacks and confections category which is us ually targeted at children (Table 7). Table 7. Sample Distribution of Edible Items Edible Items Type Frequency Percent Edible Oil and Ghee 48 55.8% Snacks and Confections 20 23.3% Spices and Food Mixes 9 10.8% Other 5 5.8% Baby Food 4 4.7% Total 86 100% Table 8 shows a cross-tabulation of the sample by product category and the channels on which the commercials were aire d. Statistically signifi cant differences were discovered between product categories by channe ls with half of the commercials on PTV (50.0%) belonging to the carbonated beverages category while more than half of the commercials on ARY Digital (53.8%) a nd 44.9% of the Geo TV commercials representing the edible items category. Also, non-carbonated beverages had a higher representation on PTV (20 commercials) as compared to ARY Digital (11 commercials) or Geo TV (15 commercials).

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66 Table 8. Product Categories by Channel PTV (%) ARY Digital (%)Geo TV (%) Total (%) Carbonated Beverages 40 (50.0%) 19 (29.2%) 23 (33.3%) 82 (38.3%) Non-Carbonated Beverages 20 (25.0%) 11 (16.9%) 15 (21.7%) 46 (21.5%) Edible Items 20 (25.0%) 35 (53.8%) 31 (44.9%) 86 (40.2%) Total 80 (100.0%) 65 (100.0%) 69 (100.0%) 214 (100%) X2 (4, n=214) = 13.78, p < .05 Research Questions The basic purpose of the study is was to discover the domin ant executional and cultural characteristics of the sample of commercials. Also, the study sought to examine any statistically significant differences in the above-mentioned characteristics with respect to the channel the commercial wa s aired on and category of the advertised product. Executional Characteristics The executional characteristics that were an alyzed in this st udy include: visual devices, auditory devices, music and dancing, commercial appeals and selling propositions, commercial approach, commercia l format, typology of broadcast messages, commercial setting, commercial tone and atmo sphere, commercial structure, commercial characters and comparisons. Visual devices Research question (1a). What are the characteristics of visual devices used in television commercials in Pakistan? Table 9 illustrates the fre quencies and percentages hi ghlighting the presence of visual devices in the sample. Visual memory devices (93.5%) were used in almost all of the commercials in the sample, closely fo llowed by graphic displays (84.6%) used in more than four-fifths of the sample.

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67 Table 9. Distribution of Vi sual Devices Presence Fre q uenc y Percent Visual Memor y Device 20093.5 Graphic Displays 181 84.6 Substantive Supers 72 33.6 Surrealistic Visuals 59 27.6 Beautiful Characters 44 20.6 Visual Taglines 38 17.8 Scenic Beauty 15 7.0 Ugly Characters 7 3.3** **sample size criteria violation (N=214) According to Table 10, English only was the most commonly used language of text in the overall sample (39.7%) followed closely by Ur du only (34.6%). Around one fourth of the commercials also used a combination of Urdu and English visual text (25.7%). Table 10. Distribution of Language of Text in Commercial Language of Text in Commercial Frequency Percent English 85 39.7% Urdu 74 34.6% English and Urdu Mix 55 25.7% Total 214 100% Research question (1b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of visual devices with respect to commer cials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? None of the visual devices had a statis tically significant re lationship with the channel the commercial was aired on. The chisquare results are as follows: Scenic beauty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.23, p = n.s.), beautiful characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.92, p = n.s.), ugly characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.15, p = n.s.), graphics and computer-generated visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.67, p = n.s.) surrealistic visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.60, p = n.s.), substantive supers (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.57, p = n.s.), visual taglines (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.38, p = n.s.), visual memory devices (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.89, p = n.s.) and language of printed text in commercial (X2 (4, n = 214) = 8.97, p = n.s.).

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68 Research question (1c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of visual devices with respect to commer cials for carbonated beve rages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Out of the nine measure visual devices, substantive supers (X2 (2, n = 214) = 11.00, p < .01) (Table 11) and surrealistic visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 27.25, p < .01) (Table 12) portrayed statistically significant differences across product categories. Substantive supers were found more than expected in comm ercials for edible items with almost half (46.5%) of all edible items commercials employing s ubstantive supers. Surrealistic visuals had a more than expected presen ce in carbonated beverages commercials with 47.6% of all carbonated bevera ges commercials employing so me surreal imagery in them. Table 11. Substantive Supe rs by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 19 (23.2%) 13 (28.3%) 40 (46.5%) 72 (33.6%) Absence 63 (76.8%) 33 (71.7%) 46 (53.5%) 142 (66.4%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 11.00, p < .01 Table 12. Surrealistic Visu als by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 39 (47.6%) 5 (10.9%) 15 (17.4%) 59 (27.6%) Absence 43 (52.4%) 41 (89.1%) 71 (82.6%) 155 (72.4%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 27.25, p < .01 The chi-squares for visual devices that di d not portray si gnificant differences across product categories include scenic beauty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.79, p = n.s.), beautiful characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.58, p = n.s.), ugly characters (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.05, p = n.s.), graphics and computer-generated visuals (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.40, p = n.s.), visual

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69 taglines (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.45, p = n.s.), visual memory devices (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.69, p = n.s.) and language of printed or visual text in commercial (X2 (4, n = 214) = 20.12, p = n.s.). Also, as shown in Table 13, there was a st atistically si gnificant association between the language of the text used and produc t category of the commercial. Urdu only was predominantly used in almost half of th e carbonated beverage commercials (46.3%), English was the only language used in more than half (58.7%) of non-carbonated beverage commercials and a mix of Eng lish and Urdu was predominantly used in commercials for edible items (60%). Table 13. Language of Text in Commercial by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Urdu 38 (46.3%) 13 (28.3%) 23 (26.7%) 74 (34.6%) English 28 (34.1%) 27 (58.7%) 30 (34.9%) 85 (39.7%) English and Urdu Mix 16 (19.5%) 6 (13.0%) 33 (38.4%) 55 (25.7%) Total (%) 82 (100.0%) 46 (100.0%) 86 (100.0%) 214 (100%) X2 (4, n = 214) = 20.12, p < .01 Auditory devices Research question (2a). What are the characteristics of auditory devices used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 14, rhymes, slogans and mnemonics were very commonly used in the sample commercials (82.7%). Sound eff ects were used in around one-fourth of the commercials (27.1%). Table 14. Auditory Devices Presence Auditory Device Frequency Percent Rh y mes, Slo g ans or Mnemonics17782.7% Unusual Sound Effects 58 27.1% Spoken Tagline 25 11.7%

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70 Research question (2b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of auditory devices with respect to comm ercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? None of the auditory devices exhibited a ny significant relationship with channel of the commercial. The chi-squares from the cross-tabs between the auditory devices variables and channel of commercial are as follows: Rhymes, slogans and mnemonics (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.84, p = n.s .), unusual sound effects (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.62, p = n.s.) and spoken tagline (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.11, p = n.s.). Research question (2c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of auditory devices with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? Rhymes, slogans and mnemonics (Table 15) as well as unusual sound effects (X2 (2, n=214) = 25.56, p < .01) (Table 16) exhibite d a statistically si gnificant relationship with product category. An overwhelming number of edible items commercials (93.0%) and non-carbonated beverages commercials (89 .1%) used some form of rhymes, slogans or mnemonics. However, carbonated bevera ges commercials employed a less than expected amount of rhymes, slogans or mnem onics in them (Table 15). The variable spoken tagline did not exhibi t any statistically significant relationships with product category (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.29, p = n.s.). Table 15. Rhymes, Slogans and Mnemonics by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 56 (68.3%) 41 (89.1%) 80 (93.0%) 177 (82.7%) Absence 26 (31.7%) 5 (10.9%) 6 (7.0%) 37 (17.3%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 19.64, p < .01

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71 Almost half of the carbonated beverages commercials (46.3%) employed some kind of unusual sound effects as compared to just 10.9% in non-carbonated beverage commercials and 17.4% in edible items commercials (Table 16). Table 16. Unusual Sound Effects by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 38 (46.3%) 5 (10.9%) 15 (17.4%) 58 (27.1%) Absence 44 (53.7%) 41 (89.1%) 71 (82.6%) 156 (72.9%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 25.56, p < .01 Music and dancing Research question (3a). What are the characteristics of music and dancing used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 17, music was present in almost all the commercials (99.1%) in the sample. More than half of the commercials in the sample used music to create a certain mood in the commercial, such as suspense, romance or happiness, rather than just use it as a background. However, dances were not very common with just 10.3% of the commercials containing dancing in them. Table 17. Distribution of Mu sic and Dancing Presence Frequency Percent Music in Commercial 212 99.1% Music Creates a Mood 122 57.0% Music is a Brand Jingle 63 29.4% Music as Major Element 59 27.6% Dancing in Commercial 22 10.3% According to Table 18, Western and other non-Pakistani music styles were most commonly used in the commercials in the sa mple (42.9%). However, the combined usage of traditional and contemporar y Pakistani music made up just over half (51.1%) of the music style employed in the commercials.

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72 Table 18. Music Style by Product Category Frequency Percent Western and Others 91 42.9% Traditional Pakistani 64 30.2% Contemporary Pakistani 57 26.9% Total 212 100% Research question (3b). What are the significant differences in the characteristics of music and dancing with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? There were statistically si gnificant differences found for the variable dancing in the commercial with respect to the channel of the commerci al (Table 19). Dancing was employed more often than expected in commercials aired on Geo TV (17.4%) and minimally in commercials aired on PTV (5.0%). Table 19. Dancing in Commercial by Channel of Commercial PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV(%) Total (%) Presence 4 (5.0%) 6 (9.2%) 12 (17.4%) 22 (10.3%) Absence 76(95.0%) 59 (90.8%) 57 (82.6%) 192 (89.7%) Total (%) 80 (100%) 65 (100%) 69 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 6.28, p < .05 However, there was no statistically si gnificant association between any other variable in the music and dancing cate gory and channel of the commercial. The chisquares for the other variables are as follows: Music in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.38, p = n.s.), music as a major element (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.57, p = n.s.), music style (X2 (4, n = 212) = 4.25, p = n.s .), music creates a mood (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.41, p = n.s.) and music is a brand jingle (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.19, p = n.s.). Research question (3c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of music and dancing with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items?

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73 There was a statistically significant rela tionship between product category and the variables music creates a mood (X2 (2, n=214) = 20.65, p < .01) (Table 20) and music present as a major element (X2 (2, n=214) = 8.23, p < .05) (Table 21). According to Table 20, music was used to create a mood in a majority of the carbonated beverages (73.2%) and non-carbonated beverages commercial s (60.9%) but was not used as often as expected in commercials for edible items. Table 20. Music Creates a Mood by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 60 (73.2%) 28 (60.9%) 34 (39.5%) 122 (57.0%) Absence 22 (26.8%) 18 (39.1%) 52 (60.5%) 92 (43.0%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 19.73, p < .01 According to Table 21, music was present as a major element in around two-fifths of the commercials for non-carbonated beverages (39.1%) and a little less than one-third of the commercials for edible items (31.4%). Howe ver, carbonated beverages had less than the expected number of commercials (17.1%) with music as a major element in them. Table 21. Music Present as a Major Element by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Presence 14 (17.1%) 18 (39.1%) 27 (31.4%) 59 (27.6%) Absence 68 (82.9%) 28 (60.9%) 59 (68.6%) 155 (72.4%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 8.23, p < .05 There was a statistically significant rela tionship between music style and product category with 62.5% of carbonated beverages commercials employing Western or other non-traditional styles of musi c while almost half of edib le items commercials (47.7%) employed the traditional Pakistani music style (Table 22). However, only a few carbonated beverages commerci als (7.5%) used traditional Pakistani music in them.

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74 Table 22. Music Style by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Western and Others 50 (62.5%) 19 (41.3%) 22 (25.6%) 91 (42.9%) Traditional Pakistani 6 (7.5%) 17 (37.0%) 41 (47.7%) 64 (30.2%) Contemporary Pakistani 24 (30.0%) 10 (21.7%) 23 (26.7%) 57 (26.9%) Total 80 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 212 (100%) X2 (4, n = 212) = 36.99; p < .01 There was no statistically significant relati onship however between product category and music in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.25, p = n.s.), music is a brand jingle (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.65, p = n.s.) and dancing in commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.56, p = n.s.). Commercial appeals or selling propositions Research question (4a). What are the dominant commercial appeals used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 23, product reminder as main message was the dominant commercial appeal (22.0%). This was follo wed by the enjoyment appeal (18.2%) and product performance or benefit as main message appeal (15.4%). Table 23. Distribution of Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions Frequency Percent Product Reminder as Main Message 47 22.0% Enjoyment Appeal 39 18.2% Product Performance or Benefits as Main Message 33 15.4% Achievement 25 11.7% Excitement, Sensation and Variety 21 9.8% Attributes or Ingredient s as Main Message 19 8.9% Psychological/Subjective Benefits of Product 12 5.6% Social Approval 8 3.7%** Welfare Appeal 5 2.3%** Self-Esteem or Self-Image 2 0.9%** Sexual Appeal 2 0.9%** Safety Appeal 1 0.5%** Comfort Appeal 0 0.0%** **sample size criteria violation

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75 Appeals which did not fulfill the minimu m sample size criteria of 5% were removed from further analysis. Research question (4b). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? In conducting cross-tabs between comme rcial appeal (that met the minimum sample size criteria) and channel of the co mmercial, the appeal psychological or subjective benefits of product as main message did not fulfill the minimum expected cell count criteria and was remove d from analysis. However, no statistically significant relationship was found between the remaining commercial appeals and channel of the ad (X2 (10, n = 184) = 16.20, p = n.s.). Research question (4c). What are the significant differences in the use of dominant commercial appeals with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverage s and edible items? No statistically significan t relationship was found between commercial appeals and product category even after removing all cate gories that did not meet minimum cell criteria (X2 (2, n = 86) = 0.59, p = n.s.). Commercial approach Research question (5a). What is the dominant comm ercial approach used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 24, more than half of the commercials in the sample utilized a predominantly emotional commercial approach (57%) while less than one fourth utilized a more rational appeal (23.4%).

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76 Table 24. Commercial A pproach in Sample Rational or More Emotional Appeal Frequency Percent More Emotional 122 57% More Rational 50 23.4% Balance of Rational/ Emotional 42 19.6% Total (%) 214 100% Also, only 12.1% of the sample commer cials employed any brand-differentiating messages in them (Table 25), while a major ity of the commercials contained mostly generic claims not unique to the br and or product being advertised. Table 25. Brand Differentiating Message in Sample Brand Differentiating Message Frequency Percent Present 26 12.1% Absent 188 87.9% Total (%) 214 100% Research question (5b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial approach with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital & Geo? The relationships between the commercial approach variables, emotional or rational appeal (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.16, p = n.s.) and brand-differentiating message (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.26, p = n.s.) with channel of commercial were not statistically significant Research question (5c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial approach with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? The relationship between commercial approach and product category was statistically significant. An emotional appro ach was taken more often than expected in carbonated beverages, while a rational approach was taken in edible items more often than expected (Table 26).

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77 Table 26. Commercial Appr oach by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) More Emotional 62 (75.6%) 24 (52.2%) 36 (41.9%) 122 (57.0%) More Rational 9 (11.0%) 11 (23.9%) 30 (34.9%) 50 (23.4%) Balance of Rational/ Emotional 11 (13.4%) 11 (23.9%) 20 (23.3%) 42 (19.6%) Total (%) 82 (100.0%) 46 (100.0%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (4, n = 214) = 21.52; p < .01 Product categories also exhibited a signifi cant association with the presence of brand-differentiating messages with a greate r number of edible items commercials (22.1%) carrying unique claims or brand-di fferentiating messages about the product. Carbonated beverages commer cials on the other hand had a negligible presence (3.7%) of brand-differentiating messages. Table 27. Brand-differentiating Me ssages by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Present 3 (3.7%) 4 (8.7%) 19 (22.1%) 26 (12.1%) Absent 79 (96.3%) 42 (91.3%) 67 (77.9%) 188 (87.9%) Total (%) 82 (100.0%) 46 (100.0%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 14.02; p < .01 Commercial format Research question (6a). What are the dominant commercial formats used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 28, demonstration of pr oduct in use or by analogy was the most commonly used commercial format (19.2%) in the sample followed by continuity of action (16.8%) and announcement (15.9%). Elev en commercial formats were removed from further statistical analysis due to small sample size thus yielding seven total measured appeals.

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78 Table 28. Dominant Commercial Format Frequency Percent Demonstration of Product in Use or b y Analo gy 4119.2% Continuity of Action 36 16.8% Announcement 34 15.9% Creation of Mood or Image as Dominant Element 26 12.1% Fantasy, Exaggeration or Surrealis m as Dominant Element 25 11.7% Animation/Cartoon/Rotoscope 20 9.3% Slice of Life 13 6.1% Vignette 6 2.8%** Demonstration of Results of Using Product 4 1.9%** Comedy or Satire 3 1.4%** Testimonial by Product User 3 1.4%** Endorsement by Celebrity or Authority 2 0.9%** New Wave Graphics 1 0.5%** Photographic Stills 0 0.0%** Problem and Solution 0 0.0%** Commercial Written as a Serious Drama 0 0.0%** Interview 0 0.0%** Camera involves Audience in Situation 0 0.0%** ** sample size criteria violation Research question (6b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial formats with respect to commer cials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Three of the least occurring commercial form ats (fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element, animation/cartoon/rotoscope and slice of life) failed to fulfill the minimum expected cell count criteria wh en measured against the channel of commercial variable. However, no statis tically significant relationship was found between commercial format and channel of ad (X2 (10, n = 182) = 6.32; p = n.s.) after removing those three categories from analysis. Research question (6c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial formats with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items?

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79 Three of the least occurring commercial formats (fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element, animation/cartoon/rotoscope and slice of life) failed to fulfill the minimum expected cell count crite ria when measured against the product category variable. After removing these categor ies, a statistically si gnificant relationship was found between commercial format and pr oduct category (Table 29 ). Continuity of action was the dominant format used in carbonated beverages commercials (42.9%) while demonstration of product in use or by analogy was predominantly used for edible items commercials (48.5%). Creation of mood or image wa s used more often than expected in commercials for non-carbonated beverages (27.6%). Table 29. Commercial Format by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Demonstration of product in use or by analogy 4 (9.5%) 5 (17.2%) 32 (48.5%) 41 (29.9%) Continuity of Action 18 (42.9%) 11 (37.9%) 7 (10.6%) 36 (26.3%) Announcement 10 (23.8%) 5 (17.2%) 19 (28.8%) 34 (24.8%) Creation of mood or image as dominant element 10 (23.8%) 8 (27.6%) 8 (12.1%) 26 (19.0%) Total 42 (100.0%) 29 (100.0%) 66 (100%) 137 (100%) X2 (6, n = 137) = 31.45; p < .01 Typology of broadcast messages Research question (7a). What is the dominant typology of broadcast messages used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 30, the sample commercials dominantly contained transformational messages (67.3%) with a mo re image-based, emotional or feelings approach whereas less than one-third of the commercials (32.7%) employed informational messages in them.

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80 Table 30. Typology of Broadcast Messages in Sample Frequency Percent Transformational 114 67.3% Informational 70 32.7% Total (%) 214 100% Research question (7b). What are the significant differe nces in broadcast typology with respect to commercials aire d on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? There was no statistically significant relati onship between the broadcast typology of the commercial and the channel of the commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.27; p = n.s.) Research question (7c). What are the significant differences in broadcast typology with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? There was a statistically significant re lationship found between the typology of broadcast messages in the commercials and the product category the commercial advertised (Table 31). A greater majority of carbonated beverages commercials were more transformational in nature (81.7%), whereas commercials for edible items exhibited equal numbers of transformati onal and informational messages (50.0%). However, edible items contained informa tional messages more often than expected, while both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages contained transformational messages more often than expected. Table 31. Typology of Broadcast Messages by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Informational 15 (18.3%) 12 (26.1%) 43 (50.0%) 70 (32.7%) Transformational 67 (81.7%) 34 (73.9%) 43 (50.0%) 144 (67.3%) Total 82 (100.0%) 46 (100.0%) 86 (100.0%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 20.34; p < .01

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81 Commercial setting Research question (8a). What are the dominant commercial settings used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 32, more than half of the sample comm ercials (54.2%) were filmed indoors in man-made structures such as houses, kitchens, train, stadium, restaurants, etc. Also, around 17.3% of the co mmercials were filmed on no particular setting, i.e. on graphics bac kground or other non-descript ba ckgrounds such as black or white screens or curtains. Also, just 7 .9% of the commercial s showed only outdoor settings and natural environments such as hills, riversides, mountains, etc. Table 32. Dominant Commercial Setting Commercial Setting Frequency Percent Indoors 116 54.2% No Setting 37 17.3% Other 24 11.2% Both Indoors and Outdoors 20 9.3% Outdoors 17 7.9% Total (%) 214 100.0% Research question (8b). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial settings with respect to comm ercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? There was a statistically significant re lationship between commercial setting and the channel the commercial was aired on (Table 33). Although indoors was the dominant setting for more than half of the commer cials on PTV (51.3%), ARY Digital (55.4%) as well as Geo TV (56.4%), a less than expected number of commercials aired on PTV used a no setting environment. However, commerc ials on PTV also exhibited other settings like roads, streets, etc. more often than expected.

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82 Table 33. Commercial Setting by Channel of Commercial PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV (%) Total (%) Indoors 41 (51.3%) 36 (55.4%) 39 (56.4%) 116 (54.2%) No Setting 6 (7.5%) 18 (27.7%) 13 (18.8%) 37 (17.3%) Other 18 (22.5%) 2 (3.1%) 4 (5.8%) 24 (11.2%) Both Indoors and Outdoors 8 (10.0%) 4 (6.2%) 8 (11.6%) 20 (9.3%) Outdoors 7 (8.8%) 5 (7.7%) 5 (7.2%) 17 (7.9%) Total (%) 80 (100%) 65 (100%) 69 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (8, n = 214) = 24.73, p < .01 Research question (8c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial settings with respect to commercials fo r carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? When measuring commercial setting agai nst product category, two commercial settings (outdoors and both indoors and outdoor s) did not meet minimum expected cell count criteria and were removed from analysis After the removal of those categories, a chi-square test between commercial setting and product category provided statistically significant results (Table 34). Gr eater than two-thirds of edible items commercials were in an indoors setting (70.9%), while just 1.3 % of edible items commercials, lesser than expected, were in some other setting (such as roads, streets, etc.). However, carbonated beverages utilized other settings such as streets, highway s, roads, outdoor tuck shops, etc. more often than expected (25.9%). Table 34. Commercial Setting by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Indoors 34 (58.6%) 26 (65.0%) 56 (70.9%) 116 (65.5%) No Setting 9 (15.5%) 6 (15.0%) 22 (27.8%) 37 (20.9%) Other 15 (25.9%) 8 (20.0%) 1 (1.3%) 24 (13.6%) Total (%) 58 (100%) 40 (100%) 79 (100%) 177 (100%) X2 (4, n = 177) = 20.57, p < .01

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83 Commercial tone and atmosphere Research question (9a). What are the dominant commercial tones used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 35, around 29.4% of the entire sample exhibited a happy and fun-loving tone, 13.6% had a more hard sell tone and 12.1% used a dominantly wholesome and healthy tone. However, ten of the commercial tone categories fell below the minimum sample size criteria and we re removed from further analysis. Table 35. Commercial Tones in Sample Frequency Percent Happy/Fun-loving 63 29.4 Hard Sell 29 13.6 Wholesome/Healthy 26 12.1 Rough/Rugged 18 8.4 Warm and Caring 14 6.5 Modern/Contemporary 12 5.6 Relaxed/Comfortable 12 5.6 Cool/laid back 8 3.7** Cute/Adorable 7 3.3** Conservative/Traditional 5 2.3** Humorous 5 2.3** Glamorous 4 1.9** Suspenseful 3 1.4** Somber/Serious 3 1.4** Technological/Futuristic 2 0.9** Uneasy/Tense/Irritated 2 0.9** Old-Fashioned/Nostalgic 1 0.5** Total 214 100.0 **sample size violaton Research question (9b). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of dominant commercial tones with respect to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? After removing the categories which did not meet the minimum expected cell count criteria (warm and carin g, modern/contemporary and relaxed/comfortable), no

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84 statistically significant relati onship was found between commercial tone and channel of commercial (X2 (6, n = 136) = 6.90, p = n.s.). Research question (9c). What are the significant differe nces in the characteristics of dominant commercial tones with respect to commercials for carbonated beverages, non-carbonated beverage s and edible items? After removing categories which did not meet the minimum cell count criteria (warm and caring, modern/contemporary, re laxed/comfortable and rough/rugged), statistical significant differences could be seen in the commercial tones with respect to product categories (X2 (4, n = 118) = 25.63, p < .01) (Table 36). The majority of carbonated beverage commercials (85.7%) ha d a happy and fun-loving tone, which was more than the expected number. On the other hand, edible items had a less than expected number of commercials that employed a happy and fun-loving tone. However, edible items commercials employed a wholesome and h ealthy tone as well as a hard sell tone more often than expected. Table 36. Dominant Commercial Tone by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Happy/Fun-loving 30 (85.7%) 12 (50.0%) 21 (35.6%) 63 (53.4%) Hard Sell 5 (14.3%) 4 (16.7%) 20 (33.9%) 29 (24.6%) Wholesome/Healthy 0 (0.0%) 8 (33.3%) 18 (30.5%) 26 (22.0%) Total 35 (100%) 24 (100%) 59 (100%) 118 (100%) X2 (4, n = 118) = 25.63, p < .01 Commercial structure Research question (10a). What are the dominant commercial structures used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 37, front-end impact wa s the dominant comm ercial structure employed in around two-thirds of the samp le (64.5%). Three commercial structure

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85 categories including surprise or suspense at closing, humorous clos ing and blind lead-in were removed from further analysis due to a violation of the minimum sample size criteria. Table 37. Dominant Commercial Structure Frequency Percent Front-end Impact 138 64.5 Message in the Middle (Doughnut) 33 15.4 Surprise or Suspense in the Middle 30 14.0 Surprise or Suspense at Closing 7 3.3** Humorous Closing 3 1.4** Blind Lead In 3 1.4** Total 214 100.0 ** sample size violation Research question (10b). What are the significant di fferences in the dominant commercial structures with respect to comme rcials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? No statistically significan t relationship was found between the variables dominant commercial structure and channel of the commercial (X2 (4, n = 201) = 2.52, p = n.s.). Research question (10c). What are the significant differences in the dominant commercial structures with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? A statistically significant associati on was found between dominant commercial structure and product category (T able 38). Almost three-fourth of carbonated beverages commercials and more than a third of noncarbonated beverages commercials (69.0%) used the front-end impact structure. Also, ed ible items exhibited a less than expected use of the front-end impact commercial stru cture (64.7%) but used a doughnut structure (message embedded in the middle) noticeabl y more often (25.9%) than the other two product categories did.

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86 Table 38. Dominant Commercial Structure by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Front-end Impact 54 (73.0%) 29 (69.0%) 55 (64.7%) 138 (68.7%) Surprise or Suspense in the Middle 16 (21.6%) 6 (14.3%) 8 (9.4%) 30 (14.9%) Message in the Middle (Doughnut) 4 (5.4%) 7 (16.7%) 22 (25.9%) 33 (16.4%) Total 74 (100%) 42 (100%) 85 (100%) 201 (100%) X2 (4, n = 201) = 14.47, p < .01 Commercial characters Research question (11a). What are the commercial characters dominantly used in television commercials in Pakistan? According to Table 39, the most commonly used principal commercial characters were actors playing roles of ordinary people (72.9%). The principal characters were females in 57.0% of the commercials and males in 54.7% of the commercials Table 39. Commercial Charact ers Presence in Sample Frequency Percent Principal Character Actor Playing Role of Ordinary Person 156 72.9 Principal Character Female 122 57.0 Principal Character Male 117 54.7 Background Cast 90 42.1 Principal Character Child 41 19.2 No Principal Character 31 14.5 Recognized Continuing Character 25 11.7 Principal Character Celebrity 24 11.2 Principal Character Creation 17 7.9 Principal Character Animated 17 7.9 Character identified with Company 15 7.0 Celebrity in Minor Role 11 5.1 Created/Cartoon Character in Minor Role 10 4.7** Animal in Minor Role 9 4.2** Principal Character Animal 5 2.3** Real Person in Minor Role 4 1.9** Principal Character Real People 1 0.5** **sample size criteria violated

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87 A number of commercials in the sample employed a background cast too (42.1%). Commercial character variables that violat ed the minimum sample size criteria were removed from further analysis (Table 39). Research question (11b). What are the significant di fferences in the use of dominant commercial characters with respec t to commercials aired on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? According to Table 40, the commercial charac ters recognized continuing character (X2 (2, n = 214) = 6.25; p < .05) and p rincipal character celebrity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 13.03; p < .01) showed a statistically significant associat ion with the channels the commercials were aired on. Both the commercial characte rs were found more ofte n than expected on PTV. Table 40. Commercial Characters by Channel of Ad (N=214) PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. p Recognized continuing character 14 (17.5%) 8 (12.3%) 3 (4.3%) 25 (11.7%) 6.25 2 .04 Principal character celebrity 17 (21.3%) 4 (6.2%) 3 (4.3%) 24 (11.2%) 13.03 2 .00 However no statistically significant relati onships were found between channel of commercial and the following variables: Principal character male (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.31, p = n.s.), principal character female (X2 (2, n = 214) =2.02, p = n.s.), principal character child/enfant (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.74, p = n.s.), pr incipal character actor playing role of ordinary person (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.16, p = n.s.), principal character creation (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.34, p = n.s.), principal character animal (X2 (2, n = 214) = 11.74, p = n.s.), principal character animated (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.41, p = n.s.), no principal

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88 character (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.43, p = n.s.), characters identified with company (X2 (2, n = 214) = 10.76, p = n.s.), background cast (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.72, p = n.s.), celebrity in minor role (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.37, p = n.s.), and presenter/spokesperson on camera (X2 (6, n = 214) = 6.78, p = n.s.). Research question (11c). What are the significant differenc es in the use of dominant commercial characters with respect to co mmercials for carbonated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items? While comparing the presence of commerc ial characters with product category, seven statistically significant relationshi ps were discovered (Table 41): principal character female, principal character male, background cast, principa l character child, no principal character, recognized continuing ch aracter and principal character celebrity. Principal character female (69.8%) and princi pal character child ( 27.9%) appeared more often than expected in commercials for ed ible items, while principal character male (79.3%), principal character celebrity (24.4 %), background cast ( 58.5%) and recognized continuing character (24.4%) a ppeared more often than expected in commercials for carbonated beverages. Also, more often than expected, commercials for non-carbonated beverages used children as principal characte rs (30.4%) or used no principal characters at all (23.9%). However, no statistically si gnificant relationships were found between product category and the following variables: Pr incipal character actor playing role of ordinary person (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.59, p = n.s.), principal character creation (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.75, p = n.s.), principal character animated (X2 (2, n = 214) = 5.12, p = n.s.), characters identified with company (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.45, p = n.s.), celebrity in minor role (X2 (2, n = 214) = 13.74, p = n.s.), created ch aracter/cartoon charac ter in minor role

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89 (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.76, p = n.s.), and presenter/spokesperson on camera (X2 (6, n = 214) = 21.96, p = n.s.). Table 41. Commercial Ch aracters Presence by Product Category (N=214) Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. p Principal character female 33 (40.2%) 29 (63.0%) 60 (69.8%) 122 (57%) 15.80 2 .00 Principal character male 65 (79.3%) 23 (50.0%) 29 (33.7%) 117 (54.7%) 35.66 2 .00 Background cast 48 (58.5%) 20 (43.5%) 22 (25.6%) 90 (42.1%) 18.76 2 .00 Principal character child 3 (3.7%) 14 (30.4%) 24 (27.9%) 41 (19.2%) 20.75 2 .00 No principal character 6 (7.3%) 11 (23.9%) 14 (16.5%) 31 (14.6%) 6.95 2 .03 Recognized continuing character 20 (24.4%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (5.8%) 25 (11.7%) 21.79 2 .00 Principal character celebrity 20 (24.4%) 3 (6.5%) 1 (1.2%) 24 (11.2%) 24.04 2 .00 Cultural Values Research question (12a). What are the dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani television commercials? According to Table 42, youth (64.0%), enjoyment (52.8%), courtesy (45.8%) and collectivism (43.6%) were th e most dominant cultural valu es used in that order, in the sample commercials. Cultural values such as sex, tradition work, technology, competition, power aversion, work and beauty did not meet the minimum sample size criteria and were rem oved from further analysis.

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90 Table 42. Presence of Cultural Values Fre q uenc y Percent Youth 137 64.0 En j o y men t 113 52.8 Courtes y 98 45.8 Collectivism 94 43.6 Effectiveness 85 39.7 Famil y 81 37.9 Interde p endence 77 36.0 Collective Benefits72 33.6 Tame d 72 33.6 Distinctiveness 66 30.8 Casualness 64 29.9 Health 54 25.2 Self-Sufficienc y 53 24.8 Adventure 47 22.0 Individualis m 45 21.0 Self-Gain 43 20.1 Inde p endence 42 19.6 Succorance 41 19.2 Social Status 40 18.7 Formalit y 37 17.3 Convenience 35 16.4 N atural 35 16.4 Collective Inte g rit y 29 13.6 Individual Benefits32 15.0 Econom y 26 12.1 Uni q ueness 26 12.1 Res p ect for Elderl y 26 12.1 N urturance 25 11.7 Modest y 23 10.7 Power E q ualit y 20 9.3 Humilit y 19 8.9 Patriotis m 15 7.0 Po p ularit y 15 7.0 Wealth 13 6.1 Safet y 12 5.6 Ma g ic 11 5.1 Sex 6 2.8** Com p etition 6 2.8** Wor k 4 1.9** Tradition 3 1.4** Power Aversion 3 1.4** Beaut y 1 0.5** Technolo gy 1 0.5** **minimum sample size violation

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91 Research question (12b). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV commerc ials on PTV, ARY Digital and Geo TV? Four cultural values namely effectiveness, casualness, social status and nurturance exhibited dependent relationships by the ch annel of the commerci als (Table 43). The value of effectiveness was present more ofte n than expected on Geo TV (with over 50% of commercials on Geo TV portraying this valu e) and ARY Digital as compared to PTV. However, the values of casualness, social st atus and nurturance were present more often than expected on PTV with around 40% of PTV commercials portraying casualness, 28.8% portraying social status and 18.8% portraying nurturance. Table 43. Presence of Cultural Values by Channel of Commercial PTV (%) ARY Digital (%) Geo TV (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. P Effectiveness 24 (30.0%) 26 (40.0%) 35 (50.7%) 85 (39.7%) 6.65 2 .04 Casualness 32 (40.0%) 18 (27.7%) 14 (20.3%) 64 (29.9%) 7.08 2 .03 Social Status 23 (28.8%) 11 (16.9%) 6 (8.7%) 40 (18.7%) 10.0 2 .01 Nurturance 15 (18.8%) 7 (10.8%) 3 (4.3%) 25 (11.7%) 7.52 2 .02 The following variables did not exhibit stat istically significant relationships with channel of the commercial: Youth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.25, p = n.s.), enjoyment (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.84, p = n.s.), courtesy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.82, p = n.s.), collectivism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.55, p = n.s.), family (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.54, p = n.s.), interdependence (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.65, p = n.s.), collective benefits (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.79, p = n.s.), tamed (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.09, p = n.s.), distinctiveness (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.64, p = n.s.), health (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.04, p = n.s.), self-sufficiency (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.11, p = n.s.), adventure (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.32, p = n.s.), individualism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.31, p = n.s.), self-

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92 gain (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.61, p = n.s.), independence (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.68, p = n.s.), succorance (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.82, p = n.s.), formality (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.22, p = n.s.), convenience (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.15, p = n.s.), natural (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.22, p = n.s.), collective integrity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.12, p = n.s.) individual benefits (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.02, p = n.s.), economy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.44, p = n.s.), uniqueness (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.44, p = n.s.), respect for elderly (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.26, p = n.s.), modesty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.09, p = n.s.), power equality (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.52, p = n.s.), humility (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.86, p = n.s.), patriotism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.91, p = n.s.), popularity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 5.99, p = n.s.), wealth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.33, p = n.s.), safety (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.20, p = n.s.) and magic (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.91, p = n.s.). Research question (12c). What are the significant differences in dominant cultural values portrayed in Pakistani TV commercia ls for carbonated beve rages, non-carbonated beverages and edible items? Twenty three cultural values out of a tota l of 43 exhibited statistically dependent relationships with the produc t category of the commercials (Table 44). Commercials for carbonated beverages dominantly displayed th e values of youth (76.8% ), distinctiveness (54.9%), casualness (43.9%), adventure (43.9%), individualism (39%), self-sufficiency (36.6%), self-gain (35.4%), independen ce (31.7%) and social -status (30.5%). Commercials for non-carbonated beverages dom inantly displayed the values of youth (69.6%), courtesy (65.2%), co llectivism (58.7%), effectiven ess (56.5%), family (54.3%), interdependence (50.0%), health (47.8%), natural (34.8%) and convenience (32.6%). Commercials for edible items on the other hand dominantly displayed the values of courtesy (64.0%), effectiveness (62.8%), family (55.8%), tamed (54.7%), collective

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93 benefits (48.8%), youth ( 48.8%) collectivism (45.3%), he alth (36.0%) and succorance (30.2%). The value of youth is dominant in a ll three product categor ies and is also the dominant value overall. The values of conveni ence, natural, health, succorance, collective integrity and nurturance are present in less than 5% of carbonated beverage commercials. Table 44. Presence of Cultural Va lues by Product Categories Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. p Youth 63 (76.8%) 32 (69.6%) 42 (48.8%) 137 (64.0%) 15.06 2 .00 Courtesy 13 (15.9%) 30 (65.2%) 55 (64.0%) 98 (45.8%) 48.03 2 .00 Collectivism 28 (34.1%) 27 (58.7%) 39 (45.3%) 94 (43.9%) 7.33 2 .02 Effectiveness 5 (6.1%) 26 (56.5%) 54 (62.8%) 85 (39.7%) 63.26 2 .00 Family 8 (9.8%) 25 (54.3%) 48 (55.8%) 81 (37.9%) 44.63 2 .00 Interdependence 35 (42.7%) 23 (50.0%) 19 (22.1%) 77 (36.0%) 12.73 2 .00 Collective Benefits 10 (12.2%) 20 (43.5%) 42 (48.8%) 72 (33.6%) 27.78 2 .00 Tamed 5 (6.1%) 20 (43.5%) 47 (54.7%) 72 (33.6%) 46.86 2 .00 Distinctiveness 45 (54.9%) 8 (17.4%) 13 (17.1%) 66 (30.8%) 36.08 2 .00 Casualness 36 (43.9%) 10 (21.7%) 18 (20.9%) 64 (29.9%) 12.43 2 .00 Health 1 (1.2%) 22 (47.8%) 31 (36.0%) 54 (25.2%) 42.84 2 .00 Self-sufficiency 30 (36.6%) 8 (17.4%) 15 (17.4%) 53 (24.8%) 9.97 2 .01 Adventure 36 (43.9%) 5 (10.9%) 6 (7.0%) 47 (22.0%) 37.60 2 .00 Individualism 32 (39%) 3 (6.5%) 10 (11.6%) 45 (21.0%) 26.40 2 .00 Self-gain 29 (35.4%) 4 (8.7%) 10 (11.6%) 43 (20.1%) 19.47 2 .00 Independence 26 (31.7%) 6 (13.0%) 10 (11.6%) 42 (19.6%) 12.34 2 .00

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94 Table 44. Continued Carbonated Beverages (%) NonCarbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) X2 d.f. p Succorance 4 (4.9%) 11 (23.9%) 26 (30.2%) 41 (19.2%) 18.28 2 .00 Social Status 25 (30.5%) 6 (13.0%) 9 (10.5%) 40 (18.7%) 12.30 2 .00 2 Formality 7 (8.5%) 12 (26.1%) 18 (20.9%) 37 (17.3%) 7.68 2 .02 Convenience 3 (3.7%) 15 (32.6%) 17 (19.8%) 35 (16.4%) 19.28 2 .00 Natural 0 (0.0%) 16 (34.8%) 19 (22.1%) 35 (16.4%) 29.52 2 .00 Collective Integrity 3 (3.7%) 10 (21.7%) 16 (18.6%) 29 (13.6%) 11.36 2 .00 Nurturance 3 (3.7%) 7 (15.2%) 15 (17.4%) 25 (11.7%) 8.45 2 .02 Cultural values that did not show a statis tically significant re lationship with product category include enjoyment (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.36, p = n.s.), individual benefits (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.61, p = n.s.), economy (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.77, p = n.s.), uniqueness (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.63, p = n.s.), respect for elderly (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.91, p = n.s.), modesty (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.61, p = n.s.), power equality (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.51, p = n.s.), humility (X2 (2, n = 214) = 1.51, p = n.s.), patriotism (X2 (2, n = 214) = 12.31, p = n.s.), popularity (X2 (2, n = 214) = 7.66, p = n.s.), wealth (X2 (2, n = 214) = 3.00, p = n.s.), safety (X2 (2, n = 214) = 10.18, p = n.s.), and magic (X2 (2, n = 214) = 9.35, p = n.s.). Table 43 and Table 44 suggest that a majo rity of the dominant cultural values portrayed in television commercials aired in Pakistan have a st atistically significant association with product category rather than the channel on which they are aired. When product category is used as a control variab le a statistically si gnificant association between channel of ad and the values soc ial status and casualness can only be found

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95 in the carbonated beverages category, with ads on PTV portraying a greater amount of both values. Associations for the other tw o product categories do not meet the minimum cell criteria. However, according to Table 8, PTV also has a significantly greater number of carbonated beverage ads than other channe ls and therefore this association can be attributable to product categor y rather than the channel of the ad. Also, when product category is used as a control variable, associ ations between the other two cultural values (effectiveness and nurturance) and channel of the ad do not meet the minimum cell count criteria. Other Exploratory Cultural Variables The sample was coded for two other explor atory cultural variab les that were not based on previous research. The purpose was to probe deeper into television commercials in Pakistan by analyzing certain culture-specific aspects of the countrys advertising. Research question (13a). What is the frequency of women portrayed in Western clothing in television comme rcials in Pakistan? According to Table 45, only 42 sample commercials (19.6%) portrayed females in Western clothing. Table 45. Presence of Females in Western Clothing Frequency Percent Present 4219.6% Absent 172 80.0% Total 214 100.0% Research question (13b). Is there a statistically si gnificant relationship between portrayal of women in Western clothing and channel of the commercial? There was statistically significant relati onship between channel of the commercial and portrayal of women in Western clothing (X2 (2, n = 214) = 4.55, p = n.s.).

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96 Research question (13c). Is there a statistically si gnificant relationship between portrayal of women in West ern clothing and product ca tegory of the commercial? A statistically significant relationship was found betw een product category and portrayal of women in Western clothing (Table 46). Around 32.9% of carbonated beverage commercials portrayed women in Western clothing which was more than the expected value and comparatively much more than those portrayed in edible items commercials (9.0%). Table 46. Portrayal of Women in We stern Clothing by Product Category Carbonated Beverages (%) Non-Carbonated Beverages (%) Edible Items (%) Total (%) Present 27 (32.9%) 9 (19.6%) 6 (7.0%) 42 Absent 55 (65.9%) 37 (37.0%) 80 (69.1%) 172 (80.4%) Total (%) 82 (100%) 46 (100%) 86 (100%) 214 (100%) X2 (2, n = 214) = 17.92, p < .01 Research question (14a). How often are religious references made in television commercials in Pakistan? Religious references were very rarely ma de in the sample commercials (9.3%) and most of the religious references or symbo lism appeared in commercials aired during the month of Ramadan (religious month of Fasting). Table 47. Religious Reference in Sample Religious Reference Frequency Percent Present 209.3% Absent 194 90.7% Total 214 100.0% Research question (14b). Is there a significant relati onship between the presence or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on? There was no statistically significant rela tionship found between religious reference and channel of the commercial (X2 (2, n = 214) = 0.66, p = n.s.).

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97 Research question (14c). Is there a significant relati onship between the presence or absence of religious references and the channel the commercial is aired on? The sample did not meet minimum expected cell count criteria due to a small number of commercials with religious refere nce. Therefore no statistically significant relationship could be found (X2 (2, n = 214) = 2.42, p = n.s.). Hypotheses Hypothesis 1. Commercials for edible items will contain more women in traditional clothing than in Western clothing. According to Table 48, there were a tota l of 122 commercials where the principal character was female. Out of these, females were used as principal characters in a total of 61 edible items commercials. Out of these 61 commercials, only 8.2% of the commercials displayed women in Western clothing while an overwhelming 91.8% of edible items commercials with women as principal characters, displayed women in traditional dresses. Moreover, this relationship was statistically significant with women appearing less often than exp ected in Western clothing in edible items commercials. Therefore the hypothesis was statistically supported. Table 48. Female Characters Clot hing by Edible Items (n=122) Edible Items (%) Others (%) Total Western Clothing 5 (8.2%) 23 (37.7%) 28 (23.0%) Traditional Clothing 56 (91.8%) 38 (62.3%) 94 (77.0%) Total 61 (100%) 61 (100%) 122 (100%) X2 (1, n = 122) = 15.02, p < .01 Hypothesis 2: Urdu only will be used as the dominant language of text in commercials for products with a domestic brand origin. Hypothesis 3: English only will be used as the dominant language of text in commercials for products with an international brand origin.

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98 To analyze the presence of monolingual text in domestic and international brands commercials, the variable language of text in commercial was recoded to remove all commercials with bilingual text. However, the relationship between brand origin and language of text in commer cial was not significant a nd both the hypotheses were not statistically supported (X2 (1, n = 159) =.071, p = n.s.).

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99 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The main purpose of this study was to examine the dominant creative executional elements and cultural values portrayed in commercials in Pakistan. The study also sought to highlight any significant differences in the executional elements and value appeals portrayed in commercials aired on Pakistani terre strial and satellite te levision channels as well as across product categories. This study is differentiated from ot her cultural analyses in advertising because to date, there is no existing academic literature on the subject of advertising in Pakistan and this study is intended to be a pion eer in this area of research. The sample consisted of advertisements fr om one terrestrial and two satellite TV channels in Pakistan and represented thr ee product categories. The commercials were coded for executional characteristics derive d from Steve Marshalls (2006) doctoral dissertation that was based on Stewart and Furses (1986) coding framework. Hofstedes cultural dimensions operationalized by Ch eng (1997), Cho, Kwon, Gentry, Jun, & Kropp (1999), Moon & Chan (2005), Albers-Miller & Gelb (1996) and Hofstede, Pederson and Hofstede J. (2002) were used to code for cultural appeals. This chapter describes the major findings from Chapter 4, discusses the limitations of this research and highlights prospects for future research. Descriptive Results This study basically analyzed commercials for non-durable shared usage consumer products from three food and drink produc t categories. These included carbonated beverages, non-carbonated be verages and edible items. There was an almost equal representation of commercials for carbona ted beverage and edible items but noncarbonated beverages constituted just about on e-fifth of the total sample. There were

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100 some differences within the edible items cat egory with cooking products such as edible oils and spices representing a little over two-thirds of the edible items commercials, while commercials for childrens products such as confections and snacks constituted a little less than one-fourth of the sample. There were an almost equal number of commercials from both ARY Digital (30.4%) and Geo TV (32.2%) but PTV commercial s (37.4%) constituted just a little over one-third of the total sample. There were statistically si gnificant differences in produc t category with respect to channel of the commercial. Half of the commercials on PTV (50.0%) belonged to the carbonated beverages category. The bulk of commercials on ARY Digital (53.8%) and Geo TV (44.9%) belonged to the edible items category. Around one-third of Geo TV commercials belonged to the carbonated beverages category too. Non-carbonated beverages had an overall smaller representa tion in the sample and did not represent a major chunk of any particular channel. Dominant Executional Characteristics Descriptive Characteristics Part a of research questi ons 1-12 described the executio nal characteristics of the sample of commercials. The most dominant executional characteristic s highlighted in the results were profiled to create a prototypical food a nd drink category Pakistani commercial. The prototypical Pakistani food and drink commercial would be: less than or equal to 30 seconds in length (61.2%) and will contain visual memory devices (93.5%) and graphic displays (84.6%). Th e text used in the commercial will be entirely in English (39.7%). The commercial will use rhymes, slogans or mnemonics (82.7%) and some form of music (99.1%) as well. A product reminder will be used as the main commercial

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101 appeal (22.0%) while a demonstr ation of the product in use or by analogy (19.2%) will be the commercial format. The commercial will use a more emotional approach (57.0%) and a more transformational message strategy ( 67.3%). The commercial will be set indoors (54.2%), carry a happy and fun-loving tone (29.4%) and a front-end impact structure (64.5%). The commercial will contain a fema le principal characte r (57.0%) and a male principal character (54.7 %) with actors playing the role of ordinary people (72.9%). Surprisingly, English was the most frequen tly used language of the printed text on screen (39.7%) in the overall sample. Pakistan has an overa ll literacy rate of 48.7% and just 35.2% for females (Ghauri, 2006, July 28) and a much smaller percentage of people who can read English. In such a scenario, the higher usage of English text in TV commercials for mass products such food and beverages was unexpected. As discussed in the literatur e review, some of the most recalled advertisements in Pakistan are jingle-based (M andviwalla, 2007). However, al though music was present in almost all commercials in the sample it was us ed as a major element in just 27.6% of the commercials and only 29.4% contained brand jingles. A small number of commercials (10.3%) contained traditional or Western dances as well. Most of them belonged to the carbonated and non-carbonated beverages wh ich are generally targeted at younger audiences. Although Pakistan is a Muslim c ountry, the display of dances in television commercials is expected. This is because Pa kistanis are exposed to foreign media not only from the West but also from its next door neighbor, India, which has a deep-rooted culture of music and dancing, which can be seen manifest in all its television programming.

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102 Brand differentiating messages were f ound in very few commercials (12.1%). According to Faisal Hashmi, around 80% of Pa kistani advertising is formula-based in both idea and execution (Hashmi, 2007). This is even truer in the case of the food and drink category where most products have simila r attributes and benefits. It is no surprise then that most Pakistani TV commercials us e a more emotional approach (57%) rather than make rational claims (23.4%) based on the products attributes or objective benefits. A happy and fun-loving tone was used most frequently (29.4%) which is expected considering that food and dri nk are considered an importa nt aspect of Pakistans hospitable culture and having good food and drink is the main leisure activity of Pakistanis. Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial This topic discusses part b of research questions 112. Surprisingly, most of the measured executional characteristics in the sa mple did not exhibit st atistically significant relationships with the channel of the commercial. Only four executional variables exhibited significant variance with respect to the channel the commercial was aired on. The prominent differentiating characteristic s of commercials on Geo TV included the presence of dancing and indoor commercial se ttings. The comparatively greater use of a graphics background instead of an actual commercial setting differentiated the commercials on ARY Digital. Lastly, a comp aratively greater use of celebrities as principal characters and r ecognized continuing characters as part of a continuing campaign or by virtue of previous appear ances set PTV apart from the other two channels. However, though these relationships are statistically significant, they lack a general trend across ch annels. Although it can be said that Geo TV, being a satellite

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103 channel used more dances because it has a mo re liberal outlook, the same is not seen on ARY Digital which is assumed to be a more liberal channel than Geo TV. Dependent Relationships with Product Category This topic discusses part c of research questions 1-12. Most of the measured executional characteristics exhibited depe ndent relationships with product category. Although all three product categories belong to the food and drink ca tegory, edible items and carbonated beverages stood out as consid erably different. This may be due to differences in the target audience, wherein carbonated beverage co mmercials are usually targeted at the youth while edible it ems are targeted at housewives. Edible items were associated with substa ntive supers as visual devices and tended to display a combination of both English and Urdu text in the commercials. Edible items also used rhymes, slogans and mnemonics as well as traditional Pakistani music more frequently. This is expected considering hous ewives are more tradit ionalistic in nature and would have a greater relevance to traditional rather than contemporary or Western music. Edible items commercials were also associated with an emotional appeal or a balance of emotional and rational appeals. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy such as showing a woman cooking, as well as sales announcement such as promotional discounts were prominent commercial formats. Informational message strategies were used more often in edible o ils than in the other two product categories. These commercials also predominantly used female principal characters in indoor commercial settings. These commercials al so had an almost equal likelihood of containing happy/fun-loving, wholesome/h ealthy and hard sell appeals although compared to the other categories, a greater percentage of the edible items commercials had a hard sell appeal in them. This can be partially attributed to the relatively higher

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104 number of sales announcement commercials (2 8.8%) found in the edib le items category. Also, a comparatively higher percentage of edible items commercials (22.1%) contained brand-differentiating messages. This was expect ed considering that a higher percentage of these commercials also had hard sell ap peals and a more rati onal approach which perhaps were based on unique claims about th e product attributes. Most commercials also had a front-end impact structure, although, co mpared to the other two categories, a doughnut structure was seen more often in edible items commercials. Carbonated beverages commer cials were associated with surrealistic visuals and unusual sound effects like a man falling out of the sky while enjoying Mountain Dew or Fido Dido coming out of a Seven-up bottle w ith an unusual sound. Also, the commercials had a greater likelihood to us e Urdu as the language of te xt. This may be because carbonated beverages are affordable mass-target ed products with an increasing appeal in rural areas of Pakistan; thus the langua ge in the commercials needs to widely comprehensible. These commercials employed music to create a mood and had a greater likelihood to use contemporary Pakistani or Western and other styles of music. The majority of these commercials used a more emotional approach and transformational message strategies with continuity of action or story-telling as a dominant format. Most commercials were set indoor s although compared to the other categories, carbonated beverage commercials were more likely to us e other settings such as streets, roads, walkways, etc. Carbonated beverages were associated with a happy and fun-loving commercial tone and a front-end impact commer cial structure. This category was also more likely to use males as principal ch aracters along with a background cast and

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105 recognized continuing characters such as sports endorsers or character actors from existing or past campaigns. Non-carbonated beverages were more likely to use English as the language of the text. The reason may be that non-carbonated beverages such as packaged juices and packaged milk products are a popular concept only amongst the urban crowd, especially the more educated classes. Rural inhabitant s as well as more traditional Pakistanis still prefer to use freshly prepar ed juices and generally buy fr esh milk from the milkman rather than in packaged packets. Also, p ackaged non-carbonated be verages are relatively more expensive in Pakistan and only the more affluent classes can afford to buy them. Affluence is considered an indicator of more education and thus English may be practically used to target these audiences Non-carbonated bevera ges commercials were also associated with rhymes, slogans and mnemonics and also used music as a major element. They were also associated with a balance of emotional and rational commercial approach with the creation of mood or image as the dominant commercial format and a wholesome and healthy commercial tone. Non-carbonated beverages also had an association with the absence of principa l characters as quite a few commercials emphasized the freshness of the product by s howing images of the product or the product source rather than reali life characters. Ho wever, children as principal character were more likely to be used in these commercials. Dominant Cultural Values Descriptive Results Part a of research question 12 described the portrayal of cultural values in the sample of commercials. The dominant cultur al values found in the overall sample included youth, enjoyment, courtesy a nd collectivism in that order. Younger,

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106 good-looking models and an emphasis on fee ling young or achieving youthful health or energy were common in most commercials. Th is coupled with the almost non-existence of the values of tradition or emphasis on the qualities of be ing time-honored or part of a longer tradition, points towards a surprisingly high presence of the uncertainty avoidance dimension. This is contrary to Hofstedes fi ndings about Pakistan wh ich rank Pakistan as very high on uncertainty avoidance (ITIM International, 2003). However, this does support the fact that because Pakistan is at a developmental stage in its life, most Pakistanis have become aspira tional in nature. This coupled with continuous exposure to the West through media, has triggered th e gradual but contin uous process of Westernization and modernization amongst Paki stanis, especially in the urban areas (Faizi, 2007). Therefore, the portrayal of higher uncertain ty avoidance in Pakistani commercials, which is a characteristic of mo st Western cultures, ma y be understandable. Enjoyment associated with the use of a product, a feminine value, was also emphasized in more than half of the sample commercials. This can be attributed to the importance and appreciation of good food and dr ink in Pakistan. Courtesy towards the consumer through the use of polite and affable language (e.g.: using the formal expression for you i.e. aap instead of t um), another feminine value, was emphasized too. This is expected consider ing that Pakistan is a more reserved culture and the Urdu language, like French, differentiates between formal speech for strangers and casual speech for close acquaintances. The presence of feminine appeals is also supported by Hofstedes findings about Pakistani culture wherein Pakistan ranks almost equal on femininity and masculinity (I TIM International, 2003). Lastl y, the value of collectivism, i.e. depicting the individual as an integral part of the group is exp ected considering that

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107 Pakistan is a highly collectivistic culture according to Hofstedes rankings (ITIM International, 2003). Dependent Relationships with Channel of Commercial Only four cultural values exhibited a de pendent relationship with the channel the commercial was aired on. This was surprisi ng because a major part of this study was based on the premise that because terrestrial a nd satellite channels have different viewerships and corporate backgrounds, these variations may be ma nifest as differences in cultural values portray ed in commercials in the three channels under discussion. Geo TV and ARY Digital were associated with the masculine value of effectiveness, i.e. portraying a product as achievi ng certain ends (e.g. cooking oil makes food tasty, fresh juice refreshes). PTV on the other hand was associated with casual style of speech between commercial characters (low power dist ance), social status associated with the use of a product (high power distance) and nur turance, i.e. emphasis on helping or taking care of the young or the elderl y (femininity dimension). Although as expected, PTV portrayed a valu e signifying high power distance, there is no indication of there being an overall vari ation in the portrayal of cultural dimensions by channel of the commercial. Dependent Relationships with Product Category Out of the 43 cultural values measured in this study, 23 of th em exhibited strong associations with product categ ory. Carbonated beverages were associated with most of the individualistic values including distinctiveness, individualism, self-sufficiency, selfgain and independence. They also had a st rong association with the low uncertainty avoidance values of youth and adventure and the low power distance value of casualness of speech between characters. However, ca rbonated beverage commercials were also

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108 associated with the high power distance value of social status. This was because just a little less than one-third of these commercial s portrayed the product or its use as being able to elevate the position of the user in the eyes of others. The product was generally portrayed as a symbol of being cool and a means to get positive attention from others. Non-carbonated beverages were strongly associ ated with the collectivistic values of collectivism, interdependence and collective benefits and the individualistic value of health benefits of the product. Also, co mpared to the other product categories, noncarbonated beverages comm ercials had a greater lik elihood of portraying the collectivistic value of collective integrity (a ppeals such as your familys well-being is important to you). Collectivism was the dominant dimension which may be due to the fact that non-carbonated beve rages are healthy alternatives to carbonated beverages and therefore hold collective benefits and appeal to all age groups; this make them a more shared use category than carbona ted beverages. As discussed in the literature, products that are shared in use generally use more culturally congruent appeals (Han and Shavitt, 1994) and therefore the co llectivism dimension holds strong for non-carbonated beverages commercials in Paki stan. The commercials also contained associations with feminine values including courtesy, family (showing family scenes and emphasis on the goodness of the product for the whole family) and natural (emphasis on the purity and freshness of product). The masculine value of e ffectiveness and conveni ence in the use of the product was also emphasized. This was expected considering that non-carbonated packaged beverages are a tasty yet convenient alternative to the wide ly consumed freshly produced unpackaged beverages. Lastly, th e low uncertainty avoidance value of youth was also present in more than half of the non-carbonated beverage commercials.

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109 Edible items generally were more likely to contain feminine values such as courtesy, family and nurturance as well as the masculine value of effectiveness of product. They were also more likely to portr ay the collectivistic values of collective benefits and succorance (emphasis on excha nging expressions of l ove, appreciation or gratitude). Also, edible items had a str ong association with the high uncertainty avoidance value of tamed or domesticated ch aracteristics of char acters. Most of the edible items commercials were for cooking pr oducts and showed women in stereotypical domesticated roles as mothers, wives or da ughter-in-laws. This was expected considering that cooking is a domestic activity and the ki tchen is the womans forte especially in collectivistic cultures. This finding is also supported by prev ious findings by Gregory and Munch (1997) which suggested that for pr oducts wherein the moth er facilitates the preparation process, depicting both role and familial norms increases the effectiveness of the commercials. The commercials also exhib ited an association with the individualistic value of health and health benefits from the use of the product. This points towards a shift in the Pakistani mindset from a more purity or freshness-driven one to a more nutritionvalue driven one. Although the value of youth was not signifi cantly associated with the edible items category, it was present in almost half of the edible items commercials. It is interesting to note that the use of younger models and emphasis on the rejuvenating benefits of the brand (such as depicting characters as staying young and healthy by using a certain product) was found to be a dominant cultural variable across product categories. Also, carbonated beverages commercials exhibi ted less culturally congruent characteristics as compared to non-carbonated and edible items commercials. This may be due to the fact that carbonate d beverages are targeted towards the younger

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110 audiences in Pakistan who are more liberal, receive more exposure from foreign media and are gradually adopting mo re Western cultural values of individualism and higher uncertainty avoidance. Other Exploratory Variables Although the two variables wom en in Western clothing and religious references were not taken from any previ ous research studies, they were used to probe deeper into how specific cultural symbols or culture-sp ecific values are used in Pakistani commercials. Western clothing for women is an emerging trend in the urban areas of Pakistan and is prevalent onl y in the more educated, more liberal and higher-income classes. Religion also plays an im portant role Pakistani society. Only about one-fifth of the commercials portrayed women in Western clothing. In commercials where women were present as a pr incipal character, less than one-fourth of them were in Western clothing. However, ju st about 10% of the commercials contained religious references. These references were used mainly in commercials aired during the month of Fasting (Ramadan) and mostly talked about discounts for consumers during that particular holy month. There was no statistically significant rela tionship between women in channel of the commercial and women in Western clothing. Ho wever, carbonated beverages exhibited a strong association with women in Western clothing. This wa s expected considering the characteristics of the target market for carbonated beverages as discussed earlier. Religious references did not show any dependent relationship with either the channel of the commercial or the product category.

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111 Hypotheses Women in Western Clothing in Edible Items Commercials The first hypothesis investigated the cultu ral congruency of womens clothing in edible items commercials. To examine whet her women in commercials for edible items dress more traditionally, only commercials in which women appeared as principal characters were analyzed. The findings were f ound to be statistically significant and over 90% of women who appeared as principal characters in edible items commercials were dressed traditionally in shalwar kameez wi th a small shawl or wrap covering the chest area thrown around the neck. However, contrary to popular belief, the greater majority of these women did not wear a headscarf. In fact, even traditional clothing was more contemporary in nature with stylish designs and in a few cases, wit hout a shawl or stole covering the chest. This points towards an interesting dichotomy between the general assumption or impression of the portrayal of women in commercials from Muslim countries and their depiction in Pakistan i commercials. According to Olayan and Karandes (2000) cross-cultura l study of Arab TV commer cials, women were shown wearing long conservative dresses. Howeve r, although Pakistani commercials depicted women wearing the traditional dress (loose tr ouser and knee length shirt), the dresses were body-hugging in most cases, and in some cases the shirts were sleeveless as well. This is perhaps due to the vast cultural differe nces in Arab and Pakistani culture, which at times override the similarities in religion. Language of Text by Brand Origin The second and third hypotheses investig ated the language of text used in commercials in relation to brand origin. Th e hypotheses proposed that commercials for domestic products will use Ur du as the only language of text while commercials for

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112 international products, by virtue of their orig in, will use English as the only language of text. Both the hypotheses were shown to be st atistically insignifi cant. Surprisingly, a greater percentage of intern ational commercials employed Ur du as the only language of text and vice versa but the associatio n was not strong enough to hold statistical significance. Limitations The Pakistani advertising i ndustry is still in its ea rly developmental stages. Moreover, advertising itself is still not considered a subject for academic research in the country. It is important to note that be fore this study was conducted, there was no previous academic research available about Pa kistan in the subject of advertising. As a result, a lot of limitations were experienced in reviewing literature, data collection and data analysis during the study. Due to the limited nature of Synergy A dvertisings and Orient McCann-Ericksons media banks, enough product categories couldn t be procured. Moreover, because the advertisements are from only two advertisi ng agencies media banks, they were more likely to have a greater concentration of co mmercials for product categories which they work with or have worked with in the past. The total number of commercials available for sampling was too small to allow for random probability sampling and therefor e convenience sampling was employed to derive the sample for analysis. Also, due to relatively lower representation of most other product categories, the sample had to be restricted to carbon ated beverages, noncarbonated beverages and edible items. With more product categ ories, the analysis might have produced varying results. Additionally, because these commercials were from a general collection of advertisements rather than actual media monitoring records, the

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113 exact year of broadcast for each commercia l could not be determined. A number of commercials from relevant product categorie s did not indicate the channel they were aired on and had to be removed from the sample, thus reducing the sample size. Most past research using the Stewart a nd Furse (1986) coding framework analyzed award-winning commercials from various countries under the pr emise that awardwinning commercials are more effective and according to Gregory and Munch (1997) and Zhang and Gelb (1996), appeals which ar e culturally congruent are more effective. Thus, award-winning commercials will contain more culturally congruent appeals. However, in the case of Paki stan, advertising awards for television commercials (Aurora Awards) are a very recent phenomenon. Unfortunately, there were too few c ommercials to derive a representative sample for this stud y. Therefore the sample was based on what consumers were exposed to rather than what they are affected by. Additionally, it is important to note that the variables used for the analysis of culture were derived directly from previous studies which have utilized Hofstedes dimensions for cultural research on other coun tries. As a result these variables may not have measured other dominant culture-specifi c values of Pakistan such as religious devotion, gender equality/inequality, etc. Ev en the Stewart and Furse (1986) framework used to analyze executional characteristics of the sample commercials, is more than 21 years old. Considering that the advertising i ndustry is so dynamic and has changed so much over the past two and a half decades, th is framework might not have been able to account for newer creative strategies, format s or other executional characteristics. A couple of coding issues were also faced during the coding process. Firstly, the secondary coder was not an advertising ma jor and had initial di fficulty understanding

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114 the concepts and definitions pr esented to him in the code book. Even after training with more than six to eight code sheets, the reliab ility tests produced low reliability scores for cultural variables such as e njoyment, safety and convenience. This was due to the vagueness of definitions and disagreements over what constitutes, for example, use of a product makes the user wild with joy as in the case of the enjoyment variable. Future Research This exploratory study was undertaken w ith the aim of laying the grounds for future research on Pakistani advertising. This research can be the foundation of a number of other studies both Pakistan-speci fic as well as cross-cultural. First, it can be used for cross-cultural st udies of executional characteristics as well as cultural values between Paki stan and other similar cultures. It would be interesting to see a comparison being drawn between commerci als from other Muslim countries as well as other South Asian countries that have a lot cultural similarities with Pakistan. The current study can also be extended by adding more product categories to the data set to allow for a broader analysis of television commercials in Pakistan. Adding product categories will allow a more generalized picture of the pro totypical Pakistani commercial to appear. This research was restricted to analyzing differences in executional and cultural variab les across the food and drink category. However, a broader product category set comprising other non-durab le consumer products as well as other durable or industrial products might reveal even greater variations in the dominant executional characteristics and cultural valu es. Moreover, this study can be used as a Pakistani benchmark for other countries to compare the dominant characteristics of commercials across different product categories to understa nd the possibilities of using standardized international commercials in Pakistan.

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115 Moreover, in the future, the coding framework used in this study can be used to analyze award-winning commercials from Paki stan to discover the dominant cultural values and executional characteristics that ma ke Pakistani advertisements effective as well as to compare the overall characteristics of award-winners with the results from this study to see how award-winners are differe nt from non-award wi nning commercials. Conclusion Over the years, Pakistani advertising has progressed rapidly and the Pakistani advertising industry is considered to be one of the most promising ones in Asia. This study is the first contribution to academic lite rature regarding Pakistani advertising. The study analyzed the executional characteri stics and cultural values present in Pakistani television commercial s from three perspectives: th e overall sample consisting of commercials from three product categor ies and three television channels, across television channels and ac ross product categories. The results indicated no meaningful diffe rences across the three channels which included one terrestrial channel and two satelli te channels. This may be due to the fact that since the political sc enario in the country cha nged and President Musharraf introduced the concept of moderate enlighten ment, even the more conservative PTV with a large rural audience came unde r its influence since it is a government-owned terrestrial channel. The other two satellite channels did not exhibit significant differences either although they have a more urban audience with an overall higher socio-economic status. However, a number of differences were noticed in both executi onal characteristics as well as cultural values por trayed in commercials for different product categories. Although past research cons iders carbonated beverages, non-carbonated be verages and edible items similar in terms of shar ed use non-durable consumer products, non-

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116 carbonated beverages and edible items differed significantly on several variables. Whereas carbonated beverages portrayed higher uncertainty avoidance and individualism values, edible items dominantly contained collectivistic and feminine values. This difference most likely arises from a differe nce in the target au dience of these product categories. In the case of car bonated beverages, the audience is predominantly the youth who have been quicker to adapt Western or global values (just like the youth all over the world). On the other hand, the audience for edible items is predominantly housewives who are responsible for cooking and taking care of their families. They are more domesticated, adhere more to traditional valu es and therefore most commercials targeted at them depict familial relationships and values of care and nurturance. Overall, this study suggests that Pakist an is a country with immense cultural diversity. Although this may not be visible from a macro perspec tive, a deeper analysis of Pakistans television commercials targeted at different audiences reveals the cultural differences amongst Pakistani people. Also, it is not so much a difference in the socioeconomic status of audiences that accounts for these variations; it is perhaps a difference in the age-group or the psychographics of th e audiences targeted by those commercials.

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117 APPENDIX A THESIS CODE SHEET V1 Ad ID# _______ V2 Coder ID _______ V3 Source of Ad: <0> Orient McCann-Erickson <1> Synergy Advertising V4 Brand: _________________________________________________________ V5 Brand Origin: <0> Domestic <1> International <2> Dont know V6 Specific International Brand Origin: < 0> American <1> European <2> East-Asian <3> Middle-Eastern <4> Other South Asian <5> Other <6> Dont Know <7> N/A V7 TV Channel: <1> PTV <2> ARY Digital <3> GEO TV V8 Length of Ad: <0> 10 sec <1> 30 sec <2> 45 sec <3> 60 sec <4> Other (specify) ______ V9 Product Category: <0> Carbonated Beverages <1> Non-carbonate d Beverages <2> Edible Products V10 Carbonated Beverage Type: <0> Cola <1> Lemon-based Non-cola <2> Energy Drink <3> Other <9> N/A V11 Non-carbonated Beverage Type: <0> Fruit Juice <1> Juice Concentrat e/Mix <2> Tea/Coffee <3> Milk <4> Water <5> Other <9> N/A V12 Edible Product Type: <0> Edible Oil/Ghee <1> Spices and Fo od Mixes <2> Snacks and Confections <3> Baby Food <4> Other <9> N/A A. Visual Devices V13 Scenic Beauty: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V14 Beautiful Characters: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V15 Ugly Characters: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

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118 V16 Graphics and Computer-generated Visuals: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V17 Surrealistic Visuals: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V18 Substantive Supers: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V19 Visual Tagline: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V20 Visual Memory Device: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V21 Language of Visual Text in the Commercial: <1> Urdu <2> English <3> English and Urdu Mix B. Auditory Devices V22 Rhymes, Slogans or Mnemonic Devices: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V23 Unusual Sound Effects: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V24 Spoken Tagline: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code C. Music and Dancing V25 Music in Commercial: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V26 Music as a Major Element: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V27 Music Style: <1> Traditional Pakistani <2> Contemporary Pakistani <3> Classical Western <4> Contemporary Western <5> Other <6> Not Applicable V28 Music Creates a Mood (versus background only): < 1> Yes <2> No <3> Cannot code V29 Music is a Brand Jingle: < 1> Yes <2> No <3> Cannot code

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119 V30 Dancing in Commercial: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code D. Commercial Appeals or Selling Propositions: V31 What is the Dominant Commercial Appeal or Selling Proposition? <1> Attributes or ingredients as main message <2> Product performance or benefit as main message <3> Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership as main message <4> Product reminder as main message <5> Sexual appeal <6> Comfort appeal <7> Safety appeal <8> Enjoyment appeal <9> Welfare appeal <10> Social Approval <11> Self-esteem or self-image <12> Achievement <13> Excitement, sensation, variety E. Commercial Approach V32 Rational or More Emotional Appeal: <1> More Rational <2> More Emotional <3> Balance of Rational and Emotional V33 Brand Differentiating Message: <1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot Code F. Commercial Format V34 What is the Dominant Format of the Commercial? <1> Vignette <2> Slice of Life <3> Continuity of Action <4> Testimonial by Product User <5> Endorsement by Celebrity or Authority <6> Announcement <7> Demonstration of Product in Use or by Analogy <8> Demonstration of Results of using Product <9> Comedy or Satire <10> Animation/ Cartoon <11> Photographic Stills <12> Creation of mood or image as dominant element <13> Commercial written as serious drama <14> Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element <15> Problem and Solution (before/ after presentation) <16> Interview (person on the street or elsewhere) <17> Camera involves audience in situation

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120 <18> New wave (product graphics) G. Typology of Broadcast Commercial Messages V35 Informational/Rational or Transformational/Emotional <1> Informational <2> Transformational H. Commercial Setting V36 What is the dominant commercial setting? <1> Indoors <2> Outdoors <3> Both indoors and outdoors <4> Other <5> No setting V37 Where is the commercial setting? <1> Urban apartment/housing <2> Rural apartment/housing <3> Generic office/business setting <4> Generic restaurant setting <5> Foreign locale/landmark <6> Green pasture <7> Mountainous area <8> Other <9> Not applicable I. Commercial Tone and Atmosphere V38 What is the predominant commercial tone? <1> Cute/ Adorable <2> Hard Sell <3> Warm and caring <4> Modern/contemporary <5> Wholesome/healthy <6> Technological/futuristic <7> Conservative/traditional <8> Old fashioned/nostalgic <9> Happy/fun loving <10> Cool/laid back <11> Somber/serious <12> Uneasy/tense/irritated <13> Relaxed/comfortable <14> Glamorous <15> Humorous <16> Suspenseful <17> Rough/rugged

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121 J. Dominant Commercial Structure V39 What is the dominant commercial structure? <1> Front end impact <2> Surprise or suspense in the middle <3> Surprise or suspense at closing <4> Unusual setting or situation <5> Humorous closing <6> Blind lead in <7> Message in the middle (doughnut) K. Commercial Characters V40 Principal Character(s) Male? <1> Yes <2> No V41 Principal Character(s) Female? <1> Yes <2> No V42 Principal Character(s) Child or Infant? <1> Yes <2> No V43 Principal Character(s) Celebrity? <1> Yes <2> No V44 Principal Character(s) Actor Playing Role of Ordinary Person? <1> Yes <2> No V45 Principal Character(s) Real People? <1> Yes <2> No V46 Principal Character(s) Creation? <1> Yes <2> No V47 Principal character(s) animal? <1> Yes <2> No V48 Principal Character(s) Animated? <1> Yes <2> No V49 No Principle Character(s)? <1> Yes <2> No V50 Characters Identified with Company? <1> Yes <2> No V51 Background Cast (people walking, etc.)? <1> Yes <2> No V52 Celebrity in minor role (cameo appearance) <1> Yes <2> No

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122 V53 Animal(s) in minor role <1> Yes <2> No V54 Created character or cartoon characters in minor role <1> Yes <2> No V55 Real person in minor role? <1> Yes <2> No V56 Recognized continuing character? <1> Yes <2> No V57 Presenter/Spokesperson on camera? <1> Voice-over only <2> Voice-over & on came ra characters <3> No V/O (entire audio delivered by on-screen character) L. Comparisons V58 Is there a direct comparison with other products? <1> Yes <2> No V59 Is there an indirect comparison with other products? <1> Yes <2> No V60 Is there puffery or unsubstantiated claims made? <1> Yes <2> No M. Representation of Culture in Commercial Collectivism: V61 Collective Integrity: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V62 Interdependence: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V63 Collective Benefits: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V64 Collectivism: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V65 Patriotism < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V66 Popularity: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

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123 V67 Succorance: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Individualism: V68 Independence: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V69 Distinctiveness: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V70 Self-sufficiency: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V71 Self-gain: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V72 Individual benefits: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V73 Beauty: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V74 Health: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V75 Individualism: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V76 Uniqueness: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code High Power Distance: V77 Respect for the elderly: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V78 Social Status: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V79 Formality: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Low Power Distance V80 Humility: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V81 Economy: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

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124 V82 Power Aversion: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V83 Power Equality: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V84 Casualness: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Masculinity: V85 Convenience: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V86 Competition: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V87 Effectiveness: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V88 Wealth: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V89 Work: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Femininity: V90 Courtesy: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V91 Family: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V92 Nurturance: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V93 Natural: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V94 Modesty: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V95 Enjoyment: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code High Uncertainty Avoidance: V96 Safety: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

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125 V97 Technology: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V98 Tradition: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V99 Tamed: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Low Uncertainty Avoidance: V100 Adventure: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V101 Magic: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V102 Youth: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V103 Sex: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code Other Cultural Variables V104 Women in Western Clothing: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code V105 Religious Reference: < 1> Present <2> Absent <3> Cannot code

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126 APPENDIX B CODE BOOK A. VISUAL DEVICES Scenic Beauty: Does the commercial present striking scenes of natural beauty (mountains, flowing streams, etc.) at some point? Beautiful Characters: Does the commercial present one or more strikingly beautiful people (a person is portrayed as being beautiful in the ad)? Ugly Characters: Does the commercial present one or more strikingly ugly characters (a person is portrayed as being ugly in the ad)? Graphics and Computer-generated visuals: Does the commercial use graphic displays or computer generated visuals as part of its pr esentation? Graphics can be computer-generated. Surrealistic Visuals: Does the commercial present unreal visuals, distorted visuals, fantastic scenes like a watch floating through outer space or Fido Dido coming out of a bottle? Substantive Supers: A superscript (words on the scre en) used to reinforce some characteristic of the product or a part of the commercial message for example, % stronger or out of 4 doctors recommend it. Visual Tagline: A visually presented statement of new information at the end of the commercial; for example, the screen shows the na me of participating dealers or another product that was not the focus of the commercial s hown. Corporate logos or slogans do not qualify (Example: -Up live it up doesnt qualify). Visual Memory Device: Any devices shown that reinforc es product benefit, the product name, or the message delivered by the commerci al for example, time release capsules bouncing in the air, the word Jello spelled out with Jello Gelatin, the pi ece of sun in Polaroid commercials, etc.

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127 B. AUDITORY DEVICES Rhymes, slogans or mnemonic devices: Nonmusical rhymes or other mnemonics (memory aid devices) may be incorp orated in lyrics of a song, but must also stand alone, apart from music for example, Youre in good hands with All-State. Unusual Sound Effects: Out of place, unusual, or bizarre use of sound for example, the sound of a jackhammer as someone eats a pretzel. Spoken Tagline: A statement at the end of the commer cial that presents new information usually unrelated to the princi pal focus of the commercial for example, And try new lime flavor too C. MUSIC AND DANCING Music in Commercial: Is music present in the commercial in any form? Music as a major element: Do the lyrics or the focus of the music used in the commercial carry a product message? for ex ample, have it your way or I am a pepper? Music Style: What is the music genre? Music Creates a Mood (versus background only): Music contributes to the creation of a mood or emotion for example, suspense, sensuality, etc. Music is a Brand Jingle: Is the music a brand jingle? Dancing in Commercial: Do cast members dance in the commercial? D. COMMERCIAL APPEALS OR SELLING PROPOSITIONS: What is the dominant commercial appeal or selling proposition?

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128 Attributes or ingredients as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate something about how the product is ma de (for example, car in manufacturing) or ingredients (for example, the only to othpaste with stannous fluoride). Product performance or benefit as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate what the product does (for example, shinier tub, fresher breath, whiter teeth) or how to use it. Psychological or subjective benefits of product ownership as main message: A major focus of the commercial is to communicate hidde n or non-provable benefits of having/using the product for example, You will be more popular, sexier, or more confident. Product reminder as main message: The product or package is the primary message rather than any specific attr ibute or benefit of use. Sexual appeal: Main focus of commercial is on sexual cues. Comfort appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cu es appealing to creature comforts (soft chairs, cool climate). Safety appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cues a ppealing to being free from fear or physical danger. Enjoyment appeal: Main focus of commercial is on cues about enjoying life to the fullest, having good food and drink, and so on. Welfare appeal: Main focus is on caring or providing for others for example, gift giving. Social Approval: Main focus of commercial is on belonging, winning friends, obtaining approval of others.

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129 Self-esteem or self-image: Main focus of commercial is on feeling better about ones self, improving oneself, being a better person. Achievement: Main focus of commercial is on obta ining superiority ove r others, getting ahead, winning. Excitement, sensation, variety: Main focus of commercial is on adding excitement, thrills, variety to life, avoiding boredom. E. COMMERCIAL APPROACH Rational or Emotional? More rational: A fairly straightforward presentati on of the products attributes and claims. More emotional: An emotional appeal does not a ppeal to reason but to feelings. Both rational and emotional: An appeal counterpoising of rational and emotional. Brand differentiating message: Is the principle message of the commercial unique to the product being advertised, or could any product make this cl aim? The commercial must make it clear that the message is unique; that is, the co mmercial must explicitly indicate the uniqueness or difference of the product. F. COMMERCIAL FORMAT What is the dominant format of the commercial? Vignettes: a series of two or more stories that could stand alone; no continuing storyline but several independent stories (which may c onvey the same message). Multiple interviews would be an example. Ha s no continuity of action. Slice of life: Interplay between two or more people, that portrays a conceivable real-life situation. There is c ontinuity of action.

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130 Continuity of action: Commercial has a single stor yline throughout with an obvious beginning, middle, and end; a common theme, char acter, or issue ties the whole commercial together from beginning to end. This may be an interview with a single in dividual, slice of life, or any other format that i nvolves continuity of action. Testimonial by product user: One or more individuals recoun t their satisfaction with the product advertised or the results of using the product advertised for example, Bill Cosby for Jello Pudding. Endorsement by celeb rity or authority: One or more individua ls (or organizations) advocates or recommends the product but doe s not claim personal use or satisfaction. Announcement : Commercials format is that of a newscast or sportscast, sales announcement. Demonstration of product in use or by analogy: A demonstration of the product in use for example, a man shaving in a commercial fo r shaving lather, women applying makeup. It also includes a demonstration of the use of the produc t, benefit, or product characteristic by an analogy or device rather than actual demonstration. Demonstration of results of using product: Demonstration of the outcome of using the product for example, shining floors, bouncing hair. Comedy or satire: The commercial is written as a co medy, parody, or satire. Not only is humor an element of the commercial, but al so the commercial is written to be funny. Animation/cartoon/rotoscope: The entire commercial or some substantial part of the commercial is animated. A rotoscope is a combinati on of real life and anim ation on the screen at the same time for example, the fido dido and real actors.

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131 Photographic stills: The use of photographic stills in pa rt of the commercial. These may be product shots, settings, or models. Creation of mood or image as dominant element: An attempt to create a desire for the product, without offering a specific produc t claim by appealing to the viewers emotional/sensory involvement. The primary thrust of the commercial is th e creation of a feeling or mood. Commercial written as serious drama: The commercial is written as a stage play, melodrama, or tragedy. Fantasy, exaggeration or surrealism as dominant element: The use of animation or other visual device instead of a realistic treatment to suspend disbelief or preclude literal translation on the part of the viewer. Problem and solution (before/after presentation): An attempt to define or show a problem, then indicate how the product eliminat es or reduces the prob lem for example ring around collar. Interview (person on the street or elsewhere): An interview (Q&A) is a primary vehicle in the commercial. Camera involves audience in situation: Use of camera as eyes of viewer. Camera creates participation in commercial. New wave (product graphics): Use of poster-like visuals, fast cuts, high symbolism as in Diet Pepsi. G. TYPOLOGY OF BROADCAST COMMERCIAL MESSAGES Informational/Rational or Tr ansformational/Emotional: Is main message informational (rational or cognitive) or tran sformational (image, emotional or feeling)?

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132 H. COMMERCIAL SETTING What is the dominant commercial setting? Indoor: Is the commercial setting, or a signific ant part of it, indoors or in other manmade structures (for example, a kitche n, garage, office, stad ium or airplane)? Outdoors: Is the commercial setting, or a sign ificant part of it, outdoors (mountain, rivers, backyard, garden, or othe r natural setting)? Do not incl ude unnatural environments such as stadium or home driveway. Other: Not indoor or outdoor Both Indoor and Outdoor: The commercial utilizes both indoor and outdoor settings. No setting: There is no particular setting for th e commercial; the setting is neutral, neither indoor nor outdoors. I. COMMERCIAL TONE AND ATMOSPHERE Choices include: cute/adorable, hard sell, warm/caring, modern/contemporary, wholesome/healthy, technological/futuristic, conser vative/traditional, old fashioned/nostalgic, happy/fun-loving, cool/laid-back, so mber/serious, uneasy/tense/irr itated, relaxed/comfortable, glamorous, humorous, suspenseful, and rough/rugged (choices are mutually exclusive) J. DOMINANT COMMERCIAL STRUCTURE What is the dominant commercial structure? Front-end impact : The first 10 seconds of the commer cial creates suspense, questions, surprise, drama, or something that otherwise gains attention. Surprise or suspense in middle of commercial: Something surprising, dramatic, or suspenseful occurs in the middle of the commercial.

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133 Surprise or suspense at closing: Commercial ends with a surprise, an unexpected event, suspense, or drama. Unusual setting or situation: Product is in setting not norma lly associated with product purchase or use for example, a car on top of a mountain, a contemporary wine in ancient Greece. Humorous closing : Commercial ends with a joke, pun, witticism, or slapstick. Blind lead-in: No identification of product until the end of the commercial. Message in the middle (doughnut): Music and/or action at the start and close of commercial with announcer copy in the middle for example, Green Giant commercials. K. COMMERCIAL CHARACTERS Principal character(s) male: The character(s) carrying the major on-camera role of delivering the commercial message is a male. Incidental, background on-camera appearance is not applicable. Principal character(s) female: The character(s) carrying th e major on-camera role of delivering the commercial message is a female. Incidental, background on-camera appearance is not applicable. Principal character(s) child or infant: The character(s) carrying the major on-camera role of delivering the commercial message is a child or infant. Incide ntal, background on-camera appearance is not applicable. Principal character(s) celebrity: The character(s) delivering the major portion of the message on camera is well known either by name or face. Celebrities ma y be athletes, movie stars or well-known corporate figu res (but not simply the identi fied head of a corporation).

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134 Principal character(s) actor play ing role of ordinary person: Must be delivering the major portion of the message. Principal character(s) real people: Are one or more of the principal characters identified as real people (as oppos ed to actors playing a role)? This may take the form of a hidden camera or an interview. Principal character(s) creation: The principal character is a created role, person, or cartoon for example, Ronald McDonald, Pillsbury Doughboy. Principal character(s) animal: Is one or more of the principal characters an animal (either real or animated)? Principal character(s) animated: Is one or more of the principal characters animated (cartoon)? No principal character(s): No central character or set of characters delivers a major portion of the commercial message, although th ere may be characters performing roles on camera relevant to the message. Characters identified with company: Is one or more of the characters in the commercial symbolic of or well identified with the company manufactur ing and/or distributing the product? The character may be real, created, or animated but should be identified with the company, not a specific product for ex ample, Keebler Elves, Green Giant. Background cast: Are there people in the commercial other than the principal characters, people who serve as scenery or ba ckground for example, people walking by, people sitting in a bar. These people are only incidental to the commercial message that is, not active in making a product claim or demonstrating a product benefit. Celebrity in minor role (cameo appearance)

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135 Animal(s) in minor role Created character or cartoon characters in minor role Real person in minor role: May be actual consumers (specifically identified) or employees Recognized continuing character: Is one or more of the principal or minor characters in the commercial recognized as a part of a c ontinuing advertising campa ign? Is the character associated with the product by vi rtue of previous appearances in commercials for the product? Presenter/spokesperson on camera: Is the audio portion of the commercial message delivered by voice-over announcer (person not on camera), char acter(s) on camera, or a combination of both? L. COMPARISONS Is there a direct comparison with other products?: A competitor is identified by name. May also be a direct comparison with an old version of the product being advertised. Is there an indirect comparison with other products?: A comparison is made between the advertised product and a competitor, but the competitor is not named. Is there puffery, or unsubstantiated claims made?: Product is declared best, better, finest without identification of dimension or attribute. M. CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Collectivism: Collective Integrity: Appeals about the integrity of or belonging to a family or social groups (e.g. Your familys re spect is important to you) Interdependence: Reflection of interdependent relationship with others (activities in groups, amongst circle of friends and families)

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136 Collective Benefits: Emphasis on the benefits of the product or service to families or social groups Collectivism: The emphasis here is on the individual in relation to others typically in the reference group. Individuals are depict ed as integral parts of the group Patriotism: The love and loyalty to ones own nation inherent in the nature or in the use of a product are suggested here Popularity: The focus here is on the universal recognition and acceptance of a certain product by consumers, e.g.: Bests eller; Well-known worldwide Succorance: Emphasis on exchanging expressions of love (all except sexuality), gratitude, pat on the back Individualism: Independence: Appeals about the individuality or independence of the audience Distinctiveness: Emphasis on uniqueness or origin ality (featuring a person enjoying being unique, standing out from the crowd, speaking ones mind) Self-sufficiency: Reflections of self-reliance, he donism or competition (featuring a person doing something by oneself) Self-gain: Emphasis on self-fulfillment, self-d evelopment or self-realization of an individual Individual benefits: Emphasis on the benefits to an individual consumer Beauty: This suggests that the use of a product wi ll enhance the loveli ness, attractiveness or elegance of an individual Health: This value commends that the use of a product will enhance or improve the vitality, soundness, and robustness of the body

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137 Individualism: The emphasis here is on the self-su fficiency and self-reliance of an individual or on the individual as being distinct and unlike others Uniqueness: The incomparable, unrivaled, and unpa ralleled nature of a product is emphasized, e.g. We are the only one that offers you this product. High Power Distance: Respect for the elderly: The commercial displays a resp ect for older people by using a model of old age or asking the opinions, recomme ndations and advice of the elders (seniors means: teachers, elders (family), higher employees, higher social class, higher education class, juniors look up to seni ors for directions) Social Status: The use of a product is claimed to be able to elevate the position or rank of the user in the eyes of others. The idea of prestige, trend-setting, status symbol and pride in the use of a product is conveyed Formality: Style of speech is formal (use of respectful titles for seniors, husbands wives would refer to them as aap, a more respectful way of saying you). Low Power Distance Humility: Emphasis on being unaffected, simple, patient, fate-accepting, resigned, downto-earth Economy: The inexpensive, affordable and cost-s aving nature of a product is emphasized in the commercial Power Aversion: Negative attitude towards st atus symbols and privileges Power Equality: Equality with juniors (juniors means: students, children, younger siblings, subordinates, lower soci al class, lower education class)

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138 Casualness: Casual and laid-back style of speech (refers to style of conversation as well as informal titles for seniors, husbands, etc.) Masculinity: Convenience: Emphasis on a product being handy and easy and/or quick to use Competition: The emphasis here is on distinguishi ng a product from its counterparts by aggressive comparisons. While explicit comparisons may mention the competitors name, implicit comparisons may use words such as number one and leader Effectiveness: A product is suggested to be powerfu l and capable of achieving certain ends (e.g. cooking oil makes food ta sty, clothes are comfortable) Wealth: This conveys the idea that being affl uent, prosperous and rich should be encouraged and suggests that a certain produc t or service will make the user well-off Work: This value shows respect for diligence and dedication of ones labor and skills. A typical example is that a medication has rega ined a patient his or her ability to work Femininity: Courtesy: Politeness and friendship towards the c onsumer is shown through the use of polished and affable language Family: The emphasis here is on family life and family members. The commercials stresses family scenes, getting married, compani onship of siblings, kins hip, being at home, and suggests that a certain product is good for the whole family Nurturance: This stresses giving charity, help, pr otection, support, or sympathy to the weak, disabled, young and elderly. Natural: Appeals about the freshness of product; refere nce to fruits and vegetables, farming, purity of product, organically grown, nutrition of product Modesty: Showing characters being modest, shy, virtuous, nave, innocent, inhibited

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139 Enjoyment: This value suggests that a product will make a user wild with joy High Uncertainty Avoidance: Safety: The reliable and secure natu re of a product is stressed Technology: Here, the advanced and sophisticated technical skills to engineer and manufacture a certain product are emphasized Tradition: The experience of the past, customs and conventions are respected. The qualities of being historical, ti me-honored, and legendary are venerated, e.g. With 80 years of manufacturing experience or It has been adapted from ancient prescriptions. Tamed: Emphasis on the faithfulness, reliability, responsibility in attitude, sacrificing and domesticated attributes of character(s) Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Adventure: This suggests boldness, daring, bravery, courage or thrill Magic: The emphasis here is on the miraculous effect and nature of a product, e.g. Bewitch your man or heals like magic. Youth: The worship of the younger generation is shown through the depiction of younger models. The rejuvenating benefits of th e brand are emphasized, e.g. feel young again. Sex: The commercial uses glamorous and sensua l models or has a background of lovers holding hands, embracing or ki ssing to promote a product Other Cultural Variables: Women in Western Clothing: The commercial portrays wo men in Western clothing Religious Reference: The commercial makes any referenc es to religion, religious events, symbols, etc.

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146 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Irtifa Nasir is a Fulbright Scholar from Paki stan. She earned her high school degree from Abu Dhabi, UAE, and her B.S. in mathematics from Lahore, Pakistan. After completing her bachelors, she spent 2 years working in sma ll to medium sized adve rtising agencies in copywriting and creative management positions. Af ter graduating with a masters degree in advertising, she plans to return to Pakistan and pursue a career in account/strategic planning or creative management.