<%BANNER%>

Women's Health in Jeopardy

University of Florida Institutional Repository
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021859/00001

Material Information

Title: Women's Health in Jeopardy A Framing Analysis of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage in Selected Women's Magazines from 1997 to 2004
Physical Description: 1 online resource (63 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: breast, cancer, disease, framing, heart, ladies, magazines, womens
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The media, magazines in particular, are an important source of health information. Many women believe their greatest health risk to be breast cancer when, in reality, heart disease is the number-one killer of women. So where is the misinformation coming from? To answer this question, this study sought to examine heart disease and breast cancer coverage in four women's magazines, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman?s Day and Ladies? Home Journal, aimed at middle-aged women. This study analyzed the frequency of heart disease and breast cancer coverage in addition to the sources and frames used in that coverage. Framing theory was used in order to explain the overall message each magazine article portrayed. This study revealed three findings. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive equal coverage in the women?s magazines analyzed. Second, the empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in both heart disease and breast cancer coverage. Third, the coverage of heart disease does not accurately reflect the health risk it poses to women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Treise, Deborah M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021859:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021859/00001

Material Information

Title: Women's Health in Jeopardy A Framing Analysis of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage in Selected Women's Magazines from 1997 to 2004
Physical Description: 1 online resource (63 p.)
Language: english
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: breast, cancer, disease, framing, heart, ladies, magazines, womens
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The media, magazines in particular, are an important source of health information. Many women believe their greatest health risk to be breast cancer when, in reality, heart disease is the number-one killer of women. So where is the misinformation coming from? To answer this question, this study sought to examine heart disease and breast cancer coverage in four women's magazines, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman?s Day and Ladies? Home Journal, aimed at middle-aged women. This study analyzed the frequency of heart disease and breast cancer coverage in addition to the sources and frames used in that coverage. Framing theory was used in order to explain the overall message each magazine article portrayed. This study revealed three findings. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive equal coverage in the women?s magazines analyzed. Second, the empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in both heart disease and breast cancer coverage. Third, the coverage of heart disease does not accurately reflect the health risk it poses to women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Treise, Deborah M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021859:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20101117_AAAADA INGEST_TIME 2010-11-18T03:15:54Z PACKAGE UFE0021859_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 66649 DFID F20101117_AABZKM ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH martinez_m_Page_59.jpg GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
06a553aebdfa7f650de5cd2ba9a991ab
SHA-1
eaae5e8399401a37614c36c62558467976c3e062
775 F20101117_AABZUG martinez_m_Page_07.txt
619f96609d07df9b31b7a6fcde9495e2
fdcbcb6027dc298cbf6df80a4fd9b7bd802a9f71
1053954 F20101117_AABZPJ martinez_m_Page_47.tif
a746ad028e54653b83fbb02e81287a66
6e3f356c2623fd059c97e5c24107a09207662899
F20101117_AABZKN martinez_m_Page_20.tif
a53a13f846d61a7c2546401c1e091878
9ed73e1f021817ec13ebdbe0d9eb44c7dfe49454
118310 F20101117_AABZUH martinez_m_Page_26.jp2
5a58e1136dc9d59f9593bf07db05612e
699ca1a9264293c1784467365db27ece9af3f455
7168 F20101117_AABZPK martinez_m_Page_38thm.jpg
6a9447fccbed3d14a71f441339cf2afa
5253f4dd3c53dc9e65001633adcd86f6a9caadae
55570 F20101117_AABZKO martinez_m_Page_51.pro
a196debae86c81c1cc4c0fcefe362e04
9196ee4d81be1aab831e57cb27094cf62901d945
116207 F20101117_AABZUI martinez_m_Page_39.jp2
c0fd61cfcebede372b515a108df27a24
e991b9a1f80a7867cbabd368879454aa9e618db7
49681 F20101117_AABZPL martinez_m_Page_40.pro
f6fdc6661063aa33a14be66ef6c38341
4be6a56f3f1a7728cebeecaf028f69b93f62a6b9
71100 F20101117_AABZKP martinez_m_Page_31.jpg
13a854e70d084afd292dae3290afbccb
72e7b096e2268a2fcf33a47f40cc3e5118eb87e9
940 F20101117_AABZUJ martinez_m_Page_12.txt
c446b576b193b77e3139c7213158fe4d
4e5daae5b6483c88cd28e443d685ddfa4929fa43
77365 F20101117_AABZPM martinez_m_Page_34.jpg
2b4da9290fe4c5c0f69d60380ab46407
612544c6e9e2b5a7029f7e7bec438d43eacb187c
75733 F20101117_AABZKQ martinez_m_Page_24.jpg
a8fb9f190d6964547e71aaeec3c66a9e
ea3573d2345e84319c03a9be1a2f643012db35b7
6598 F20101117_AABZUK martinez_m_Page_21thm.jpg
c872caae0655a70167919495bd41406f
908cc0f5654d330280e995ac865f8371fbc5a46f
23779 F20101117_AABZPN martinez_m_Page_15.QC.jpg
d1b8ade82eece950f3ca03d0729e94b8
a88bca836289e084864081e8a5cbac8232b8020a
6923 F20101117_AABZKR martinez_m_Page_17thm.jpg
1cd311f6155a6c7c2db1aee0435ebde0
6ad887817b06875fa1f848be690b5910e7f18e8b
115223 F20101117_AABZUL martinez_m_Page_36.jp2
11dd620b4de6f7c101b6a6237fa386b0
262e130429d658408971b44e505827cf99c7a34d
12502 F20101117_AABZPO martinez_m_Page_12.QC.jpg
8dd00cc4d775405f8d3921f38f09b397
24a85689f6fd0fc72073facb38138a08a32ba995
31148 F20101117_AABZKS martinez_m_Page_04.jpg
d51e4318e439d69d7b16721daea6853b
7afc0b84e4ace07a91e23c48c6de98942b732281
6935 F20101117_AABZUM martinez_m_Page_49thm.jpg
0d940319d529620f2f5fc72751c6ecf0
8b337bb2d821151c3a8d4d4991f0cec8b1f792e4
F20101117_AABZPP martinez_m_Page_26.tif
1852b2fb219b0775b1d6f6e32322685b
4e52541d9681f21fd1b88ceef86b5b8e0b30d55c
25113 F20101117_AABZKT martinez_m_Page_19.QC.jpg
8f64b4fc90cfde9cdfb6cf101e2c51ba
9e8bdf8370eec16a11ab278a21f60715c002b013
54729 F20101117_AABZUN martinez_m_Page_62.jpg
7702b3c7ba10c76181cfc15e3a1fc820
8362f94d0e5620bd7f8adcbebf4d48084590d74f
1022245 F20101117_AABZPQ martinez_m_Page_62.jp2
876c257ddb1588ed8b05d2ea069170e4
ec0d106b73158f58efed3f19c6a769bb84653fde
25492 F20101117_AABZKU martinez_m_Page_49.QC.jpg
6aab870d2cb9369a0932bb1f8cf3d9a7
24120032475caf799ab6c7da8db00dd6364b15d2
23759 F20101117_AABZUO martinez_m_Page_23.QC.jpg
42f5a9d06bfeb7dcfc3f06306264c77c
c6c3e4652cf901ad0df67aa30475bbf4a80af74c
69622 F20101117_AABZPR martinez_m_Page_21.jpg
e9b6b2966203c56a3bef60aa87d61e1d
1f8f00d4b754ca845f8cea53994a8d64992a5a83
39254 F20101117_AABZKV martinez_m_Page_59.pro
5ff701abc47527c7ff284ed629adef2d
56dc05257c00d8a629b6cf12b00c192eaf36ee9a
1051975 F20101117_AABZUP martinez_m_Page_06.jp2
8894a73584d6e2a75ed1a32f267c675d
561b8e7357784a1dec00938d614a28fc08d2ed8b
25271604 F20101117_AABZPS martinez_m_Page_56.tif
dc2c064226197f45a7c6a57ae82ed716
2f6aa14c59d363f809a37f5d9af92f0911b4bd3a
F20101117_AABZKW martinez_m_Page_22.tif
3c41f5f8dedd283510f89d815f62b690
913cfd67d978b1f61195bf6c3c292800f8575479
37641 F20101117_AABZUQ martinez_m_Page_58.pro
aa4957f4e379cf483a995d2c7d350335
015a7b772b0fb53605a4e8da28ed013f017ffc26
2165 F20101117_AABZPT martinez_m_Page_29.txt
8662303c54fbcbbe9363dfb70b50301e
8cde874f9caa4bc41513e4d330d8e63abbe5b083
24753 F20101117_AABZKX martinez_m_Page_24.QC.jpg
c0f7ae95e52e5c89c4f1b443b3e052f3
95668b6e9e0faf308eda01ee56155a12abf9df88
51502 F20101117_AABZUR martinez_m_Page_33.pro
e1cd6a1d189b6f94796fcf92fa63a1ab
5492ca16f65b2baed57c8f6f2fcaa3ca6decfee6
28195 F20101117_AABZPU martinez_m_Page_22.jpg
8ca1ebf9391fc4b186cebae09fe9ce22
79da6f318e9bebff9e216c0d8454079fa6615768
F20101117_AABZKY martinez_m_Page_14.tif
251d37ef442be34e4cdef4bcef26682c
34148814d1e430462e36d7ccd5ae62cc868a0cbd
F20101117_AABZUS martinez_m_Page_28.tif
34a8f3c1286e7449f3c61b253d245cc9
ce6a527ea24f78a22c9f4f559d31d9e61b71286e
13331 F20101117_AABZPV martinez_m_Page_42.pro
6353a7c509b75497fcdf3be2f6b281c1
cda7ceac54b7708c727d2dcd9b4074d7819e8e41
89544 F20101117_AABZKZ martinez_m_Page_08.jp2
b51f9ab9ac430b5915c9727c7c8e046d
8a0af9e2046364e20ebe870f7186704d23e4e604
7115 F20101117_AABZUT martinez_m_Page_14thm.jpg
8c00d5f3496ffe6eb519dafcf0361c1a
6934f4b3385b646f32fe35e1d0db12274abd7bcb
F20101117_AABZPW martinez_m_Page_02.tif
9b70cd66f230cc8c6d17c881f62ec430
60125dc1b18c362189d85bed78d2d370413983d6
78812 F20101117_AABZIA martinez_m_Page_55.jpg
567b720a2103493f2025e494876e76aa
a3fc75008c90a32ec4c632d81638116f17201d9c
23118 F20101117_AABZUU martinez_m_Page_21.QC.jpg
3d02c97b60e1ed79fef9fca9c6576e47
1665183d4be07d72186265f9adc55f324f2d04ac
1201 F20101117_AABZPX martinez_m_Page_62.txt
5e3f61ae85288d756a3cbf484f437f75
a4e1d130c934baabb0b8a521a498e9df74230e98
20146 F20101117_AABZIB martinez_m_Page_59.QC.jpg
2ecd40f0ec591e1da2490e2d36a4848f
87fcafc48c44c68041a680d588df4a9492ad4ec8
1497 F20101117_AABZUV martinez_m_Page_56.txt
db9e8b62e1c2c6065462ca3772402e76
c90d0327938041b3edbcb303d261895bfb620c13
2072 F20101117_AABZPY martinez_m_Page_25.txt
28018d8058857c7cfa4bdf6da28081e9
9cdc35fec0178217d6254e7a5bfb52630d35519e
9444 F20101117_AABZIC martinez_m_Page_42.QC.jpg
f42906a51e7bb4a9efa15a0a30b3c6c5
058e225e3c5e0aae435c2883bee8b80f12c6749a
118409 F20101117_AABZUW martinez_m_Page_20.jp2
df41e9d7fc2078a9648a5d2bc2ada077
9b4b73e34b8f6efb7babd794001e3b084e951906
113184 F20101117_AABZNA martinez_m_Page_33.jp2
32c1833acbb69c113778c604e3316857
a69281745d07663deb384445a54f6103cae3ed7b
67499 F20101117_AABZPZ martinez_m_Page_13.jpg
ae0cfd75cfc8c313022086f8aa703ebf
f042c613fcef95ddec53258ef86be69e2e5631fa
38553 F20101117_AABZID martinez_m_Page_22.jp2
f5ab21f873adac6b5b297fec34c17555
e2109d6759950a134defe9f55bfb6974a8ff3cd4
F20101117_AABZUX martinez_m_Page_29.tif
19301425ae7e4c43b5d264e60ec3dbf1
967a51b0a46b007f0839f9f78775697224f15df0
6856 F20101117_AABZNB martinez_m_Page_19thm.jpg
b14f04f1b78f88db3ef4007495ed015d
7e7abf6e4474a4057da6948359f8c3220d94644b
116831 F20101117_AABZIE martinez_m_Page_10.jp2
2f86ee886b6095bb30022bacc920a9b9
786e0f59278a9d8a37f38c2730b4e8619807279f
1326 F20101117_AABZSA martinez_m_Page_02thm.jpg
8dd45ec61933ffa2d03130bfbadb0b84
7ffd959ab5625b7c2c3ae6cb782ee5f6a8f44824
2851 F20101117_AABZUY martinez_m_Page_63thm.jpg
4f2d06236edaa9af06e80d5145b00849
3f55371d60ad561e1218cce0609e50d90ac5de3a
1512 F20101117_AABZNC martinez_m_Page_60.txt
889746ca5159cde207daf7e4e51dd39a
74a7c814732e007137274516677e13a4df37f718
26007 F20101117_AABZIF martinez_m_Page_14.QC.jpg
9702bef974942412c78a7816ebd6fe6b
9962f2c0fd878b64bee409a7e4752e4f9232d855
117188 F20101117_AABZUZ martinez_m_Page_55.jp2
abba07db670e115b1e55283efecbcb03
cf94c12c13a6edab15552a07955576a9fddca3e7
F20101117_AABZND martinez_m_Page_19.tif
ad40fcfffd2f83b63723648e991c4bb5
6689f40ee277c0eebc17099acb2a8eeb638e5fde
2194 F20101117_AABZIG martinez_m_Page_14.txt
390f38bda81d4c7944098e2b72932b4c
35ed04737fc04558550e7b5adf9d3421c5ce4ed5
113924 F20101117_AABZSB martinez_m_Page_09.jp2
a047484e33d91caaac648502867c7100
98ebf170c8acf72b57a4698d0314faceb79df4e3
2124 F20101117_AABZNE martinez_m_Page_30.txt
6133cb7d4044d174e73323fe47892745
0fc65c441413cff364d334cf4a77d09c1e58ffb0
37255 F20101117_AABZIH martinez_m_Page_63.jp2
8c9163f48d7c1602b573c0af56405e1e
8f2ffb643bd33b0b068334985cb992ebe36d7c6e
74638 F20101117_AABZSC martinez_m_Page_39.jpg
d06587076f00ab058b854d1e4de07589
c17cb08f3f8938113e7654c008c078fbaef494ca
26290 F20101117_AABZXA martinez_m_Page_29.QC.jpg
d675286ad155c06ff2c95e38be131d01
25ab7f0bbf8cdda65a623f0c507d49e54e4a1260
F20101117_AABZNF martinez_m_Page_07.tif
aebf92a779a8f01e1ee0740a272e9e3b
2354581ec6f27c734aa425f92bb8dbbd49335268
16591 F20101117_AABZII martinez_m_Page_04.pro
2e87d8d19ee0c13011695001dd226ce8
55cf6501af630119afb91e898b55aa64e60ef2d5
1475 F20101117_AABZSD martinez_m_Page_27.txt
0ea50568e9cbc208b5c46547057a9078
19d1dc2481e7bc82122d9e8ffc513de7eba128c4
6962 F20101117_AABZXB martinez_m_Page_33thm.jpg
115ebfeeacfde582aa37fa0732158fbb
f9be3783360d296af9ea893f5941d3fed094bf60
2515 F20101117_AABZNG martinez_m_Page_07thm.jpg
990a92766e9c3cc94b9aa4e319b20508
7eb5743b2305f3ea20fd6f42f0c34e7f967d6302
7052 F20101117_AABZIJ martinez_m_Page_26thm.jpg
a10921c28c2b519abb605172ee987fc0
15064805b36166021ffd5068b26553e202366b0e
6841 F20101117_AABZXC martinez_m_Page_37thm.jpg
df662c899205f6f64e20bef1ee0be90f
4d347ee8e99750153ed7f921ac95ae8fac5c667b
74250 F20101117_AABZNH martinez_m_Page_09.jpg
2d76937673a3566c8da6925877b1212e
3088aaeeb7c50bc14d29b4647c57025c3156b6e0
116656 F20101117_AABZIK martinez_m_Page_52.jp2
6efc48306f74126c7966b8ffe21ba376
1f4683e53a1d64b7fc749e8ceaa47e710becb487
697 F20101117_AABZSE martinez_m_Page_04.txt
ecdd4c972d1e9447d80b17f7e4c4d742
2e0e28e94da5130536a243cb667f21d98ff6df7d
20039 F20101117_AABZXD martinez_m_Page_60.QC.jpg
b03fe65c80e24804700b21dcce5a5387
2e25ff9d0808d24c9dc92984f5a82640bd4346cb
77292 F20101117_AABZNI martinez_m_Page_26.jpg
c437d5ca859323649213a5b404d64ea0
32301fe535be4fa921bde39f1e081cc4da934c87
122209 F20101117_AABZIL martinez_m_Page_48.jp2
4c53dd826ce0781e67b3a427a90fa866
d10ad106e349538db28c09649987c40d41bed4f4
2129 F20101117_AABZSF martinez_m_Page_28.txt
114d03ff6c7f7a3a73fa953a6457181a
4770d60d32f9c2b2a955355a7afcc3e3a952711b
5057 F20101117_AABZXE martinez_m_Page_62thm.jpg
2b9079f491295f618bffce68e0c1fe8a
e9f9b650a4eee11de7f7795faa556121e345e220
116680 F20101117_AABZNJ martinez_m_Page_49.jp2
468928d6079e2f25d61adafd00a8fdda
a8b8639cbc3aef64ab58bd69ece5447386f494d9
6728 F20101117_AABZIM martinez_m_Page_40thm.jpg
9fd1ad52e97e786bb4a789ecc0aecd60
37efdd275b09b685f059ba96daa18578cd9f380d
F20101117_AABZSG martinez_m_Page_09.tif
931e77875dbcd47b6934950f237daab3
96cc3c1503eee2588080b843e4c51301f745eac6
75678 F20101117_AABZXF UFE0021859_00001.mets FULL
0c5d4fbcece1ec9f93d8cc1c7fde3766
e1c29f9fdeb5b8bf84656eb98aa3e79f07c285c9
F20101117_AABZNK martinez_m_Page_21.tif
dca7f508011e7353b5e8f2414675d554
42034e83be775f174ffd39675cf1938f6baf063a
25209 F20101117_AABZIN martinez_m_Page_52.QC.jpg
44d09b0a5fdab5635223ba06e815f5c9
dfb0de7752bad3805eacc52c970bcead77656a27
29458 F20101117_AABZSH martinez_m_Page_01.jp2
3873df6800cf592afc4b68692c06c107
c9b44bfd4fad263dda71703fec09ced47e50d196
7027 F20101117_AABZNL martinez_m_Page_34thm.jpg
fba34f390b8f284fa663b772df860e1f
ab3e28ea9bb96e6d7692541597d4c98a94301368
116476 F20101117_AABZIO martinez_m_Page_16.jp2
7e158a9f6fcc5359c28610a1a7ca375b
16b0d47c8e74dc323f9464110156461e893ca2da
889 F20101117_AABZSI martinez_m_Page_41.txt
3384fa8e018f0ada327ffe2bb0477f0f
25ad7f5346d231a05eaee7ea71a7fac52188e836
38060 F20101117_AABZNM martinez_m_Page_61.pro
1fc9c3f13db649c31917ed3032f43e80
1984aca4e256c392fb1b6944deb7da0d2c9b2d58
F20101117_AABZIP martinez_m_Page_36.tif
20bcaa395a51368c8d6f96efd5992070
386b1d965308ffd407df4747effd07b51135620b
2171 F20101117_AABZSJ martinez_m_Page_52.txt
b1ef55689764a9a190d2edb64f74fd7b
72a18ed506699bec39156baffa174824caa71ec3
F20101117_AABZNN martinez_m_Page_04.tif
a871a1c56b4ae153aa00088eec72424b
b43612ce4052a77835448b84a92ee6bd13bc3672
19631 F20101117_AABZIQ martinez_m_Page_61.QC.jpg
9189632eafb74d38061b881fcd3abe89
16d5735ceba39b1cb072ea0fac396b9320ab4d2f
23900 F20101117_AABZSK martinez_m_Page_50.QC.jpg
d7ae1daee8d62344313c081ae91d5641
589ac8604618047074b92e7aa41c25d6caa2b75f
114769 F20101117_AABZNO martinez_m_Page_46.jp2
a748b74a8fba157b56db3e3e48b51300
68da1c8b7a171d033e5a631ee0b3167a66414061
55381 F20101117_AABZIR martinez_m_Page_20.pro
63d81a0bccbbc0f2fe806f687883bf86
cd30c6a51d703f89fe3f0a2ada8d5b027c92e0ea
2074 F20101117_AABZSL martinez_m_Page_32.txt
c28d79cd11429bbfb637c9cc98738bd4
2bbee61d6a41515e1383c6070c78222fdf5a4ba2
2130 F20101117_AABZNP martinez_m_Page_49.txt
989ac2ba219d3fcf84a4b4a9858f72c8
a6bbe1195926c35c9d022c6703e398d529bd9837
2134 F20101117_AABZIS martinez_m_Page_46.txt
1a8fb8580315cab154ed42dffe67e6ba
00e48a5be14fce3eeaa7055ad8f5cc6af2c64ab3
54143 F20101117_AABZSM martinez_m_Page_35.pro
f0a68d7574ca11c5553832b588c0d850
0b36b22ab03f24e0a0ffb6175d69026bee64471f
7033 F20101117_AABZNQ martinez_m_Page_20thm.jpg
10cc5866ab1479fbe09e3372bedcae91
1b85301316c3c18bb64418f566e4e89ed054876d
35612 F20101117_AABZIT martinez_m_Page_57.pro
96519c5ce6a3640ceca35f8cbcc65bbf
2b99eead8a7d549076986c129a4e44de15155d9b
23408 F20101117_AABZSN martinez_m_Page_12.pro
4549223cc51d8249d09a120c3459b418
7ec737cd94e64fe28dbcbe2ac53d906b09ce4f30
7137 F20101117_AABZNR martinez_m_Page_30thm.jpg
614e8f2ae65257147af932bfa452d72f
f0a078c7ba1dde8ae2c0956aa86f6de2f9b21ad7
1556 F20101117_AABZIU martinez_m_Page_03thm.jpg
fe8ab6f9d45a51e72dbc86144b1e74a2
4a145d463fc56811e9367bd1d7b8c2cefd1e3bb5
117184 F20101117_AABZSO martinez_m_Page_35.jp2
8a1a39e496a796db73f7631a0f121f3a
e2c530003fd2b79bcf34dfd73c9a9cf437063549
25909 F20101117_AABZNS martinez_m_Page_51.QC.jpg
98a9121ce64823ea02df2cc565f5f13e
bc9d86770c9a7c0d48cff51332523dd3e4bda196
75163 F20101117_AABZIV martinez_m_Page_32.jpg
17c21916461282a69f673d62865eb914
60b1eedc9c28bd19afb9b7c9c8c9b024c579bcf5
115771 F20101117_AABZSP martinez_m_Page_17.jp2
d257f416b2dc7fc9a91b6aa1eb4f77d5
cdaa5bc1ee65c6b04f21d1244a105d377133c526
30950 F20101117_AABZNT martinez_m_Page_54.jp2
4dc3bcb73e0c4b5188aa2ea4348c6095
04006904bdcc4a2de904f0f37d53315571fa5b8a
F20101117_AABZIW martinez_m_Page_23.jpg
925f0d7a23d689f1326310f50907b33d
e227f704e12f1712abb2b821072ad8a55c474d8d
45663 F20101117_AABZSQ martinez_m_Page_43.jpg
ae01c262bcd8dd2c59a111fe70ff9d35
235ce96c556c96b047fcd119d999670a4860f109
11741 F20101117_AABZNU martinez_m_Page_06.QC.jpg
e78581bd861142530460d92e46aeb28f
31fad9058f96595dce9e0d37872d72956654a7bd
112908 F20101117_AABZIX martinez_m_Page_11.jp2
615c3f7935d6c79ccf5ed182b28a9e00
93d44d1b1fd0fd9213c419f4537aaffc043ea05e
8507 F20101117_AABZSR martinez_m_Page_07.QC.jpg
650a87e820578dc7d166120e4343d304
0ae98ecbbd06d92775c556992ec8622e6da8807a
46756 F20101117_AABZNV martinez_m_Page_53.pro
0db415e18b5b4a1e00a97b47f6f5d54a
6a0e979b38cee80905ffb64ae8248384ec76578f
7036 F20101117_AABZIY martinez_m_Page_48thm.jpg
c96e0436fe232a8ffafb2cc9a9e440e6
a1cbeb1ed5593106ba9709eaa40f1002103cd3d0
54326 F20101117_AABZSS martinez_m_Page_52.pro
b7630849e112bf42ef09ec21eff3f647
eefe9aa37cccbc98eb424c292d682ea504ef54ee
74816 F20101117_AABZNW martinez_m_Page_33.jpg
86fc9e5b79ad7c993d5b724ba180d65a
c5806530c7d47c000dda87d6a84f7b87005c7662
2096 F20101117_AABZIZ martinez_m_Page_11.txt
cba514a1a4720a8a00ed78b6b80543ae
f15953911d6775e71196cc6ddaef8525fdb4f2a5
F20101117_AABZST martinez_m_Page_55.tif
d99b942f8841998106754d61c453b6ad
f336bb75fea4cc89c1805ad7e2f86511325149f3
25275 F20101117_AABZNX martinez_m_Page_32.QC.jpg
167d3e7fb8d64a95168c9906dee4b3b5
cd7820c62cd4423bc7d74a259e0ce987eeea1c11
F20101117_AABZSU martinez_m_Page_51.tif
f1e71da96a1fc5339ea1722a8d346288
c7ccafcf7b8c7c5ad7befa9ddda2f29df3b29e25
54813 F20101117_AABZNY martinez_m_Page_26.pro
816e109f75ad1ebf91ff89e8c00c10b4
271d003309914f8666fdb968da7ede712b1c16ca
123126 F20101117_AABZGC martinez_m_Page_14.jp2
31da2384e8f54942343ae1ad4ffaf397
d1a4654f7d386dfbdff891e227b45fa7db5e8477
92 F20101117_AABZSV martinez_m_Page_02.txt
b19c05503e2723cd86e908f6d5b5fcb4
0537cc335905c0f9798a9053f3ae988dc7ab6e27
2077 F20101117_AABZNZ martinez_m_Page_17.txt
229397da23675fd1c06ee9e028e5f02b
4816671d2e3622fd2e5e321cff20fc580206dd9a
2064 F20101117_AABZGD martinez_m_Page_19.txt
59bcba2d0afa86ef708139b59d2419e7
72a92195300fd33d8f0309cf7d498577d6a4a00f
24913 F20101117_AABZSW martinez_m_Page_55.QC.jpg
9e6dc92458beceacee13d169e9b5fb62
943e936773a407d0e66c88ee8a06e75393aa7b1a
9483 F20101117_AABZLA martinez_m_Page_03.jp2
33ec62f7b356e632d2f4ee8b345ab4c6
649e39a55d1fa2e131094f322b3c96c9a5926e6f
3761 F20101117_AABZGE martinez_m_Page_05.txt
204abc96c1a5a636db88f23ca4a9e58f
90d4385b26001ad664ce96e40e5cdf90e7656108
10249 F20101117_AABZSX martinez_m_Page_54.pro
4d1ce60a3a08f23173762bd3650c1fc7
44f55dd96aac7ab76a747cdaf8c0e3feed43362a
25678 F20101117_AABZLB martinez_m_Page_38.QC.jpg
35a96f97fcf3e1f73d386de47c96a18e
64fb050be23ebe460ba98d4fc965cc89744429bb
F20101117_AABZGF martinez_m_Page_10.tif
d7338e19b29d0758ac628421fb8c6fa2
8c336a5bb89a74f37a867359e61fc84967555d02
77096 F20101117_AABZQA martinez_m_Page_37.jpg
98d57609592ed859f2e294b1519a7a47
8e71af5e74d4fabd7e41f8131546d172be734d80
1220 F20101117_AABZSY martinez_m_Page_43.txt
d76b101c57fbe523c024eb5bb2d58f43
94576cbb12cc00896893ae19045d33584eee81a5
F20101117_AABZLC martinez_m_Page_51thm.jpg
616b5ca77f15935202990a21bc4fd1ea
0584230a9f3a1022ca2f2af27bf21c1eb48855fd
F20101117_AABZGG martinez_m_Page_24.tif
d9b85e66fb3423f59a78b71e0e31e366
99d6e6fd7447ee6cd04d1766d44d487a19c84573
2162 F20101117_AABZQB martinez_m_Page_37.txt
d1f3994734fc5af14764b23c10bd9984
3c90ea29088f0e6d8303bbff85263f6100341643
6794 F20101117_AABZSZ martinez_m_Page_52thm.jpg
5ec1479f18747cfa9c80eb0fbcc4e874
2e5f9ecd9ac25cab9d25515ba95cb81c66faeb9e
63662 F20101117_AABZLD martinez_m_Page_57.jpg
8c743c35175125efd21a60522199ec38
fa07289c2b97c2bd0faf5f79f926462ede784dd2
2935 F20101117_AABZGH martinez_m_Page_42thm.jpg
e8a7d7d76814cc784e0fb5689aaa90c1
3310b89e8d90c6ebb564e03fd2aeeb826615ccc8
112094 F20101117_AABZLE martinez_m_Page_25.jp2
ec18815305259c6acc1d7a93b0ae3536
6e2bc4ed3bcba86112b26dc7cb022ef588048df6
5740 F20101117_AABZGI martinez_m_Page_60thm.jpg
8cd8d276f8acd28a5b1f3be3eddaea04
19c44becb09aaafa91090e59aea078319d56972d
23642 F20101117_AABZQC martinez_m_Page_28.QC.jpg
9a632ee38024e94cd5a83db8ef828a2b
d4736c9458bd21030da47fa3feb18195ea03fc39
F20101117_AABZLF martinez_m_Page_27.tif
44ee1e6c58f98e8d785ee60ea961eb83
b05f6434e03d153a3bc1291be2f45dd0ce432a55
52479 F20101117_AABZVA martinez_m_Page_46.pro
52a34e4f71a5965b2cdfa2d3dacc9f5f
95108f3eba885edfd604c73b99e49f16d93e30f4
23935 F20101117_AABZGJ martinez_m_Page_11.QC.jpg
2f725a77adefe4eaaff13bb5eef4b30f
51673ab8b8ea13bb1bf31229ed8d90ecebe616bd
2198 F20101117_AABZQD martinez_m_Page_51.txt
ed816846af089990348a455c846968a7
a14ca2756d00e845fcb94583918eaee4ca35b20f
72228 F20101117_AABZLG martinez_m_Page_25.jpg
91dd3d919f851d83d0fde07d5f9507ac
4308ce53002f83e1dbc14054099666ea6835619f
56006 F20101117_AABZVB martinez_m_Page_48.pro
4b73b1f87c0b86afca7c97bba44e51d6
3cdfd6be3b546bea54bf6fc770b8eec152d0287a
63732 F20101117_AABZGK martinez_m_Page_60.jpg
7516e5be7d555b210836ff686fc87953
61399bdc6961e9e807e2db31b5bbd7d30ac5e7da
F20101117_AABZQE martinez_m_Page_18.tif
504609bfeb5e8fc9fd7b408db940d0f3
643f0f46115d73cc02cc85be2b885c369cc8c0e4
116614 F20101117_AABZLH martinez_m_Page_38.jp2
0dc6a252ffb5388481cd211d16ff0e27
1feb1267a173d107a4615e991d657fa2ce81ea45
28572 F20101117_AABZVC martinez_m_Page_62.pro
243758f4569049e4667703610fba16b2
e9c6d0e430fc072577fdb03cde87ad41ef70b178
F20101117_AABZGL martinez_m_Page_58.tif
090e37b92c413a12ff1a969a06b26ce0
a2a4f3707f833b0ff34484966b67984e43e66f9b
F20101117_AABZQF martinez_m_Page_62.tif
919b4f0b90e4801c8ff0dfeec82d9683
09e7f4f9a516ca1f3a7c25509806357c40e5b0f7
52357 F20101117_AABZLI martinez_m_Page_11.pro
edf897deeb78d2efc20ab20c662c874f
54b78701f78cbc6785a581c4d6a622f5acf81587
53877 F20101117_AABZVD martinez_m_Page_30.pro
cc4d13f6700d62b644da70ff0fb50d98
daef3aed1929fd0f2a36224f37504b9036db2fe1
2071 F20101117_AABZGM martinez_m_Page_36.txt
8f2002e88e8b8b7a9655eb1d98ee2d27
40c8e81a95a8e65260d4206d8f623484f74506ec
1994 F20101117_AABZQG martinez_m_Page_15.txt
e503bafda41c96d270acd0b44f080251
b3fac41d3f178c2758ba51ae109eaf429ed309e9
25388 F20101117_AABZLJ martinez_m_Page_35.QC.jpg
1c1a23c6c6cfcda8cd9f319360f41272
8f99ff3eb20a69a0a5704003c4580d6cd09495ae
39804 F20101117_AABZVE martinez_m_Page_45.jpg
d7357bcc37b861e25a846f06f57bc2ce
3f211aee2aecb1c7589006c1862e4ee023ba4fea
51505 F20101117_AABZGN martinez_m_Page_50.pro
70bd4597ca313c7d07b29b0b76a58612
2e10a40391ced08f582c1e1bfaea4e8fdbf2baba
F20101117_AABZQH martinez_m_Page_53.tif
913b1720467001b7efc647da064c4dec
da5189d7b048559e9fab6acebb7b4c45fa4fd57c
6920 F20101117_AABZLK martinez_m_Page_29thm.jpg
e2f7460695e503e193fbe47444c83f9a
de17926adc0e33363bcea143eafbb73d1d71c0de
27408 F20101117_AABZVF martinez_m_Page_54.jpg
16515b28b5a82361c740a755cbdc1961
85c04ff658d461a46c2132bd90685dace576977e
20505 F20101117_AABZGO martinez_m_Page_58.QC.jpg
bb9769ae4d3c62aa662f3b6f1446015f
5c8c30616abec5eea99ccba232baa01a437aa4f7
886 F20101117_AABZQI martinez_m_Page_42.txt
566f1c9be1c3dc97ae3d878ed1ff9e6c
4389976d6849c8b598f5192658ecb7c5b93cae56
6875 F20101117_AABZLL martinez_m_Page_16thm.jpg
ab2f73cf72d53ecf7df883f3152bfb25
e2c78d031bf5c48ff51ec3a6023fe2f19095ce9e
52777 F20101117_AABZVG martinez_m_Page_39.pro
7cc889cdf60a50a98f633bab51b23d61
60bf41b1e5d581dd0a95909a4dcd056fc9629a40
5398 F20101117_AABZGP martinez_m_Page_08thm.jpg
2ccf1b0385c9bf9ef5a77c28902938af
d3bc919696ad6efd30ba43fbc8de74be8d767e72
F20101117_AABZQJ martinez_m_Page_32.tif
c68769cb037b0022611fa1aafeab42c0
781b9c2f96f3f327bf8c7d44c876b53fbff49523
6527 F20101117_AABZLM martinez_m_Page_53thm.jpg
23976a69815c1add27c9ae9a6f50cbf8
d05b3109b5a55491edd7be2ed2c414c2ef343bdf
6249 F20101117_AABZQK martinez_m_Page_13thm.jpg
bafe2fed7a69608908b4691a18774db1
d095b191ed167ebcb48567e882ce8d513ab3556c
6544 F20101117_AABZLN martinez_m_Page_31thm.jpg
62cb873b400f029e035926fccc837a4e
b314a98c927ec0b3d270058ee3406dd9af3ea484
51486 F20101117_AABZVH martinez_m_Page_09.pro
6b0258f0812aab0f14acc3571ce23d23
393d37264273dc03aa7a7bcfcd88dae69066c4b1
21140 F20101117_AABZGQ martinez_m_Page_05.QC.jpg
38f2f1a29259af9fbaf31e0001c1e3b0
6269baac7fab7efe600f11258087c5de07e006b8
3498 F20101117_AABZQL martinez_m_Page_45thm.jpg
aab5e89b6cec44dc977a1041c41a9107
420c7be85a2755fd1186bcbba8f670e7d2178cc7
25216 F20101117_AABZLO martinez_m_Page_17.QC.jpg
2dde8a9cd3cec87409933db02187da15
7df83b45b292fc723a2e1991b94edda1b630cf07
25650 F20101117_AABZVI martinez_m_Page_37.QC.jpg
f932f27b58e7fde513f501923b6c7c89
5963d32e648d18515a7d7fdb37df58e7cf49b54a
36687 F20101117_AABZGR martinez_m_Page_60.pro
9b2aae373ed892b0124427572558e448
e8a27180057159f065f4071715e99cb7b7744bb1
73640 F20101117_AABZQM martinez_m_Page_11.jpg
c308f161446f9431fea36fe9bb0655ae
43c3122543f2642446e44831c02bb390fc2225a4
1563 F20101117_AABZLP martinez_m_Page_58.txt
a8fbab46df58a812dea9007dee164f74
e63c03572e988e1e02dfb043f614c5c3d98da1cb
1891 F20101117_AABZVJ martinez_m_Page_13.txt
f3d8721a5eab084b16df03e51bb1ba94
e104637b4210d19fcb3458aeaaafa73e0c2c1419
6821 F20101117_AABZGS martinez_m_Page_10thm.jpg
e5477cbc8e62764ca15628a55ef605aa
607326f83c757c5a06dd2f5bbf03403f6770bc50
9879 F20101117_AABZQN martinez_m_Page_04.QC.jpg
f8cea1c87738998349374e509db86506
eb619292caba60062576382baaca3b82f8ea5eaa
109517 F20101117_AABZLQ martinez_m_Page_50.jp2
8966fafcdce553f1575e7011fe431149
617a8438369a5271e57609417d6c5ebf66960c38
25690 F20101117_AABZVK martinez_m_Page_48.QC.jpg
79913a882a0c7bcaf2b596b3daa98132
28cc48539e2cc6b3ae34610c5276fcb74bd620ba
22497 F20101117_AABZGT martinez_m_Page_53.QC.jpg
9e49a19bb3b0c731f0881e8a2d136d80
df3a80f1a48c3b71b246f588c4a8b9bc987b8b4a
158 F20101117_AABZQO martinez_m_Page_03.txt
4bfa0c3ed359d0f62796b52f567081ba
42c3d1f3cdf84d6ffef72b6ed4dad55f9ed17741
77649 F20101117_AABZLR martinez_m_Page_20.jpg
61b24d4b29a4d8c9612a85a4dfbca84c
1d19ef40c71af2882fb139e1d7f86f60131f5217
25167 F20101117_AABZVL martinez_m_Page_34.QC.jpg
eff1669dc2f8844707d73b24fddd86ed
5ed8170cbfc08e64f0368d18c5cee3bd967a708b
81505 F20101117_AABZGU martinez_m_Page_05.jpg
7a187b19aa535a56f8d34dc0da987cdf
de1daafa0080e87e904ed1faeb6f6a5110a5be92
F20101117_AABZQP martinez_m_Page_45.tif
784ed825783f67297bd73dd29db33d82
b0e4a82029dbf45ddbde8f1e58f525773e70b930
51131 F20101117_AABZLS martinez_m_Page_28.pro
a87a650e30408204df6c6812d7c11734
447344407bebd00818c8d8360d0bbc79e3c6d426
97556 F20101117_AABZVM UFE0021859_00001.xml
82ed579623ad559f0022f786582d5f14
b0be73ba403e9c2d21bb3fa7f782e17b4fcecee6
52533 F20101117_AABZGV martinez_m_Page_36.pro
8b9fd27d54eb2309d450f8f43352dafd
29b32489cf4bccd7d2aa41a2ee54690ba4aa69c4
29780 F20101117_AABZQQ martinez_m_Page_41.jpg
bccdb27dc1a8e8f2c932f6bf728a5ba0
ec1b7383788d8009bc8d3a41c8b2a4dae00ac301
2858 F20101117_AABZLT martinez_m_Page_54thm.jpg
e7f61065b86b2c209ad895891346bee6
76436b4adbf1a01fb273c3e5321b3587c1d7cc5b
F20101117_AABZGW martinez_m_Page_42.tif
1071900066a6912f03d6c1862018c970
6f6f1bfde7bd5c6816c5012f5418d2daa87cf1c0
23756 F20101117_AABZQR martinez_m_Page_40.QC.jpg
1d64fab8d6edc35e09bf917e82323dc2
4c0bfca91bd38873d0a7d44beb93d25742a36654
115032 F20101117_AABZLU martinez_m_Page_19.jp2
186fb4a9fdfc8d124b568fecf93adcc3
00afc3a0fe8df050d5c5b0e105dcd761456499a8
53457 F20101117_AABZGX martinez_m_Page_34.pro
7c911108f1068affb049f78638f8552f
ef7b4fa019612d57eda55dff126da84de0df316c
61132 F20101117_AABZVP martinez_m_Page_08.jpg
eeefbf7bc783e8841618e1b34c30717e
46d24b4e4bfeaf006e9df7437c87395d2ff0999e
2230 F20101117_AABZQS martinez_m_Page_47.txt
d8ba52f8f29ba9c388029589e6df5fad
a5aac273786bc1e1ef1823e559a8695fc521d104
14472 F20101117_AABZLV martinez_m_Page_43.QC.jpg
418453876bc0e16e919d84a58bda4893
6354775ed08a21671c74120cdaffdfd001e1615b
75855 F20101117_AABZVQ martinez_m_Page_10.jpg
f1941d47b1f98e6f7d4f37a14409cc78
8bf7abe2651940889a77b173e26e5ecc227899e2
53256 F20101117_AABZQT martinez_m_Page_12.jp2
c963bca48f6f64b6dd3b147335762b95
4e7fa1a31f67799048de4e2893a65e0831c1dba3
35975 F20101117_AABZLW martinez_m_Page_56.pro
b9edac16516294ac78f0b688eccc14eb
2674def03973d6be1883768568f3fda8701d53b8
F20101117_AABZGY martinez_m_Page_05.tif
94c854dbbdf6ce6cc2fdf114f143a120
143b17052d269cb43a7fb34d671c04a1baf360bf
74943 F20101117_AABZVR martinez_m_Page_17.jpg
22801c5a0219c63f3cfdc15cbc58af42
882e26f096351eda2e8716dd8e637449293cff28
2066 F20101117_AABZQU martinez_m_Page_16.txt
acb2476941b20acd0ed5ca927e246bf6
6bde979c43d41cab47f54c2db666c47b14ed6491
51175 F20101117_AABZLX martinez_m_Page_45.jp2
6e54280ae3181c8cd607fe7e0e8bec47
4397e349c1efd4ed696eb2ccca0fa09689d71663
38682 F20101117_AABZGZ martinez_m_Page_08.pro
5c4fde22ed51dd4ac74ce451c9f16130
1cfda0c83be57bea40002611b9680b76d92a8e35
72729 F20101117_AABZVS martinez_m_Page_28.jpg
df37d8ad471d6909f626186c30aa8f05
2dc2682949991a6305774fbf286b901a07eac3a5
78064 F20101117_AABZQV martinez_m_Page_48.jpg
853c85f001a9c9c999287e5440281b80
c2a4cdc07cc97cafca714a1fce921accc581bb1d
25758 F20101117_AABZLY martinez_m_Page_20.QC.jpg
5ffe0ed7cfa49da329c5242114d3b4a2
3fcc9e2a094523edc0e642c9fb7acdb6da0f39da
78042 F20101117_AABZVT martinez_m_Page_30.jpg
e6f3932139ac4e21b67d29d7f5541cbb
c68acc5dd97e0800d3b4efc2ef78683f50d09703
3054 F20101117_AABZQW martinez_m_Page_22thm.jpg
0b1ba1d588a971ef16a0fca33baf09bd
6939f0ae9b27e4f3253b8652280bcc3eeae12523
117378 F20101117_AABZJA martinez_m_Page_18.jp2
91abbc9190afe45b6134ebd12fead092
333f3172ee37bccce262ec9e7008b89320c80bba
56157 F20101117_AABZLZ martinez_m_Page_47.pro
14005d666268311548459e23ef56bdd5
f0384cc613ad23e0c7e6acfd6b50745901a7d375
39244 F20101117_AABZVU martinez_m_Page_44.jpg
06d81f8effd3fb5191b8ec10eafb7193
d94a8ad01676b7bc835d259810edd9fb18af4077
40386 F20101117_AABZQX martinez_m_Page_04.jp2
8ad492e8d29353b4f45b0de639795568
6373b7e98a8bd1f78feb65d492045023f692a5ea
26567 F20101117_AABZJB martinez_m_Page_47.QC.jpg
27a57ab9bb4db0fa15c6f3d664ce2c20
f2532c06cbb046ae174bbccc09743136e510cdb1
78200 F20101117_AABZVV martinez_m_Page_51.jpg
06e67add7126260383f5f5342db28217
8272b1fd16b20cbb287e72e2e2ec82a42b69ed5c
2342 F20101117_AABZQY martinez_m_Page_45.txt
cd3df5c53223c18cb12834cad2717d74
fb1adfe09534609ff809ee01c96498eef1ae9511
52575 F20101117_AABZJC martinez_m_Page_17.pro
5cd848e7510a46128341a7fc378f6f6b
a77789ce1ab0fb921e183d1b5df4423390122658
66421 F20101117_AABZVW martinez_m_Page_61.jpg
329d27ea1d72976da7d0d1a8794db7de
583078d7a56ec18156ac6c0ec61317c9ba1e73c6
1744 F20101117_AABZJD martinez_m_Page_08.txt
0db8b515d79565153b04911e0bdbe60d
4305750eded854f3a5e5b32121a978b268cfe4d5
2101 F20101117_AABZOA martinez_m_Page_34.txt
38f0e40444b56c7b88168704a368cc35
eda0effff477e5d55b97368aad2c821ffda2c098
8934 F20101117_AABZQZ martinez_m_Page_54.QC.jpg
8767853b07977edef065e8bde22bf8bf
7490911b60345a1bb8cb2974e7d62c4bef3a45d8
615718 F20101117_AABZVX martinez_m_Page_07.jp2
e8559e8e3d9f9a02e3b4aba97f0b7b29
8583e85bc180e429f3e38e0ad77876f314d3b4a7
9886 F20101117_AABZJE martinez_m_Page_02.jpg
03e835847a6b7622105e8aa5093ff527
9e1d729a704882f93d06c58b0deedaf63c27919f
2032 F20101117_AABZOB martinez_m_Page_24.txt
e9f04edb09b0bcd90b69a05613a2d542
87c26a9cc646c09dd6a5effc55f5992b8e3d7e9c
110264 F20101117_AABZVY martinez_m_Page_23.jp2
2b0a6538a570f83fcf3a00e6fa0f4c9c
cc4531cecad461179acd8681bbb2a9525c596b68
444 F20101117_AABZJF martinez_m_Page_54.txt
00bd584e60de027505ca15d535207c19
f2b72f579d7621c73c3d615dd61081655948c520
78918 F20101117_AABZTA martinez_m_Page_29.jpg
f66c593409284c361b1b1908eee85fcd
36aa089b1b59305488035155f6e0590300f0c9c3
953249 F20101117_AABZOC martinez_m_Page_61.jp2
ddd7cfdf9dcc2b785035417ea7069e5a
5581ba36a67d66e5938805de7f28aac2b4dfb462
81910 F20101117_AABZVZ martinez_m_Page_27.jp2
f3c10dbda5b71de43ee83cccb9f27647
2cd3b05ea40913e26b74a3b8e99cb9b70285487f
75340 F20101117_AABZJG martinez_m_Page_19.jpg
367ea81abc624a1d6bc0f2e065d47682
1d3853f4dcb0108112ca137681c54675e676e3f1
5726 F20101117_AABZTB martinez_m_Page_61thm.jpg
f00c18df703ea4c6c6f4c64a4ad6d4fd
1fd76fe0c4fb0e463e1122a08de703282fc713eb
1048402 F20101117_AABZOD martinez_m_Page_58.jp2
2faf5faddce9283c5ef056dfafb14ba6
ae2da21dda9c5ab07a5fb0a701e9bc94a0a0bf29
7004 F20101117_AABZJH martinez_m_Page_24thm.jpg
3a9b1cb98f8856581f0f8e070904900b
cf0803f9028b1e186a2dae8d1a284f61ef0103c8
25316 F20101117_AABZTC martinez_m_Page_18.QC.jpg
1604fb651ca08f9968bb10c5066db9ad
9926a73d185c07bfa858d324c48a9369c9db4ba5
43229 F20101117_AABZOE martinez_m_Page_06.jpg
2241cfabf0bf6068c9a62b890ec58405
5a60bf3abf0a8c14f659daa742a45bc2483fb4ff
65422 F20101117_AABZJI martinez_m_Page_58.jpg
a1a5cee89204e4e24c75ac15984af92c
a411bcb5d2e7bb88d0c8a3fb0516b19b403be903
2174 F20101117_AABZTD martinez_m_Page_55.txt
759aaf838c633acadcbc10131624928c
4c8adbda4ef06d1af71c00e80d70372949d2d35a
25615 F20101117_AABZOF martinez_m_Page_26.QC.jpg
0ed0e87606aa9d771e0616b97451b25e
cfc40ec87de6917896d8aee7582559443f2e6040
16001 F20101117_AABZJJ martinez_m_Page_62.QC.jpg
9d51021a5d898d42d43c4360e040532a
424734f860fc6a5827cd87901a2d78e6f0451378
117360 F20101117_AABZTE martinez_m_Page_34.jp2
1c3b114a989ac9f619bbbf88abefe6b6
d7df1ee5202cf18ff88629efa8441ec08d41af0c
981476 F20101117_AABZOG martinez_m.pdf
05adb455d7f7a74eebb7c5fcfa3cff7d
15da5a864f89a82471d1adba3d2e338656a0089e
5670 F20101117_AABZJK martinez_m_Page_56thm.jpg
2a2892bed115f0183f93a6958d0e2033
e320e353f9302089327b2d5338f64aa0bcfb204a
25604 F20101117_AABZOH martinez_m_Page_36.QC.jpg
168f19fc57a13a2da4e5e67bb18ecb26
2e2db22f7112b71cc5a0097686cea89d27258c7c
6647 F20101117_AABZJL martinez_m_Page_15thm.jpg
2bf055a499ac2844b2c9bbfb661809ab
5348c3d245f647f88ab3089d72f5981db3183134
112300 F20101117_AABZTF martinez_m_Page_28.jp2
f8c100a417d5e3b269c93d996998fbd2
777d3010d78b0dd89c627dfa63ace4756769d632
962922 F20101117_AABZOI martinez_m_Page_60.jp2
8e076415238a9ea91f1cc6916211d996
81fc8de4868c3680c85775b3f7e2b18497185e9a
111008 F20101117_AABZTG martinez_m_Page_40.jp2
c9f12f51974002605e574a738d57d74e
487495232ce7212f9f8f1fa8306af0be82223b9e
F20101117_AABZOJ martinez_m_Page_60.tif
c60e686589cff36b9e6081e9f11659ad
98d260ea24e7d06b769500ec6d42cec146ffdba3
F20101117_AABZJM martinez_m_Page_30.tif
b4b9c721483154551950bc9536cf39c9
9afc29c251c4e53065ca9d76fab47ac52d7786ae
9162 F20101117_AABZTH martinez_m_Page_63.QC.jpg
4720424617fcbe2a83a477529cd388a0
847794e74e8985cb4a9fe0dfe15fbe585ccb5f25
23660 F20101117_AABZOK martinez_m_Page_31.QC.jpg
372bd802845b480c6820aa77c1b7fed4
bb2a2488985a89f54add4c9007f201637a9057ec
6064 F20101117_AABZJN martinez_m_Page_58thm.jpg
ba0755d1853933566ed81b6a7fa52625
5c157576d3ab210bde84b6b67913944755ce296e
77731 F20101117_AABZTI martinez_m_Page_35.jpg
02043e6e6639c9193ad731ea03758609
fcccafe8120f69c9e1094d4b85d0f24d06f26d80
1414 F20101117_AABZOL martinez_m_Page_06.txt
82213d41fa25baf9ae29c6e583091eb9
65f27b6d2802b2007e442f5e3d4b24c06af39393
5939 F20101117_AABZJO martinez_m_Page_59thm.jpg
773438299458cac6d6dc5da37a07fddf
d1e786ae8d224546f738b146b319112b8c6c904a
25189 F20101117_AABZTJ martinez_m_Page_39.QC.jpg
689c68949dbcbdb8e4ecd91d98c71f6b
d49e6798786787a104d06559bcf14a0a050062b1
2132 F20101117_AABZOM martinez_m_Page_35.txt
5e08dddb277163f74f4700c33d85a524
06d049b213b79137e3183b108d66ac5d01670094
F20101117_AABZJP martinez_m_Page_38.tif
246e49c9dea8599c60449c4cc926c467
c895b165b400ea655cd195242c979d20069faa23
F20101117_AABZTK martinez_m_Page_06.tif
bbdd0cd1d11bb0db85b56c9f3d782757
07add099954f21c615f0c765d406b4528eb201f5
F20101117_AABZON martinez_m_Page_16.tif
d3bab346a40cb41958ba1c489e268751
571719cf487ef67280578b2956041703e470f6ed
35619 F20101117_AABZJQ martinez_m_Page_41.jp2
f5ac6b7ef7cf4fa0482d2045d9a46f19
54c725df4a69bc9d9c214e5a50dedec48e908dfb
5436 F20101117_AABZTL martinez_m_Page_05thm.jpg
2d3d5d2ea3ed6a379ced66528179ac61
7a029dc870996321e0b1fe45f073caaa78eed95f
F20101117_AABZOO martinez_m_Page_46.tif
bb6ae8c0ab4b29cec4cbf28048144538
1c7bc91f212c430fd7040ff90284a5ea4efb3581
15603 F20101117_AABZJR martinez_m_Page_22.pro
eba606ebc1cc1685306cc7ab8827cb73
069019c9509a978b9f2c179d7020933dfdf7c2ad
2540 F20101117_AABZTM martinez_m_Page_01thm.jpg
28de99a8c09b3bc623af9aaa87b912a5
204a0c85f07aeb3369e93dae5ff4a7e56eeb1bfd
F20101117_AABZOP martinez_m_Page_37.tif
479a2482af7940a27a21b4203429143e
d2f2e39d9f4b7428ac58a74f17e7bd959e0f91cb
628 F20101117_AABZJS martinez_m_Page_63.txt
02c20d1b56a377fdeb19079ef719958c
693457b7750fda3f4b8d7c6f495183b06d9ed927
76325 F20101117_AABZTN martinez_m_Page_36.jpg
2307e106c33281389f3414dd7f8a3463
d1bf055b2db8bb17e6c72b70e4c09e0b9f171942
3220 F20101117_AABZOQ martinez_m_Page_02.QC.jpg
3babb294bae0c8c58029e6b66e7f612a
a63324f5b44f1b0a957aca40fd260c9a49af1d7c
6825 F20101117_AABZJT martinez_m_Page_25thm.jpg
0b0d0a35dd9780fac09224590afd3693
375962e02969856bd4af53ea97a865c7cfb6581e
6756 F20101117_AABZTO martinez_m_Page_32thm.jpg
4fc7639c148efe8ddea6489f50ad1f2f
3ce81dace52c89e9b54484b20beb07d7a437cd60
6985 F20101117_AABZOR martinez_m_Page_46thm.jpg
2f559c229c06c3f5b3925d130c156d6c
d2875ef78c1394336f8d85d61d000816f60ef612
117549 F20101117_AABZJU martinez_m_Page_37.jp2
7a6ce24404e30fc973a9195d9ea80aa9
31c2983f1f45cb9298ff364b3a2b67c979bd2727
55345 F20101117_AABZTP martinez_m_Page_38.pro
4049f7bda235c7b6afbeafb269ce9d81
33e7477662c58eb76053a4d6194bbcf96c05e93d
836 F20101117_AABZOS martinez_m_Page_02.pro
50e325671cfaebd0ce85a67d8e77ac39
dc652a2fb808fd2be0f4ffa4e1354a6624539894
1584 F20101117_AABZJV martinez_m_Page_61.txt
980e9af8167ac351124268a4e86226fb
cb2b369d7ed9a6703828ac51498de00cf568b47a
122361 F20101117_AABZTQ martinez_m_Page_29.jp2
79dc706529cc2e3484955cbd39c571fa
8e5546ce2dfcd6695cea431b98e1a1862a37114b
5146 F20101117_AABZOT martinez_m_Page_02.jp2
13044813a4fc32340bbea378c4eeff34
4f4e063200974cafd1119516692d53357a6d1870
54061 F20101117_AABZJW martinez_m_Page_27.jpg
5184ba0b9060e580477e5511a9256c1a
f06bf2aac5e52f9ddf3bb8121f20e084accae1ac
51058 F20101117_AABZTR martinez_m_Page_44.jp2
a7ba3d9009321b3cc44a2228352a5dfe
a70089ad359c381c2cead5e49fff56681e5ba893
642 F20101117_AABZOU martinez_m_Page_22.txt
dafc1e357e74fe138c63ca598e893b1b
12198905748bf3f84f833fc69a67f3d714d2c288
24770 F20101117_AABZJX martinez_m_Page_33.QC.jpg
2f412b24305c731ea896d04aade4c9e0
d1fe15e8d22167360bb5b755cf9f07f3acb44fdb
24186 F20101117_AABZTS martinez_m_Page_09.QC.jpg
bf811254b328a33cb8e2c85362931843
77e6ad77e84d65b13d52ed2ba32c7fcc8758ff6b
26214 F20101117_AABZOV martinez_m_Page_30.QC.jpg
450bf9afda40412c1e43129db501c986
95157437b1b154cb2ff5c18f0208bef38f52d00c
71746 F20101117_AABZJY martinez_m_Page_40.jpg
5392083b2c4f3f9070ea749dbab13229
72c9950b239a27916c809787ccb3005e2355b219
6958 F20101117_AABZTT martinez_m_Page_18thm.jpg
931d8313f9e56a548ca3e0e4a5e377ed
374c7b6f2f80472a069767bd0e7232f501b53426
76936 F20101117_AABZOW martinez_m_Page_18.jpg
7528552d02ce6db0a2018b81c729ea0f
dfc40d50deb5074145d57170f48da61bf80bbf8f
F20101117_AABZHA martinez_m_Page_59.tif
3889ce750a9fa3ffe3250038c13ef125
6d12f2980d10eb8232954e00a64dadec76e386b2
64220 F20101117_AABZJZ martinez_m_Page_56.jpg
35a65e196eecc6213c9c1aacb020e2bf
cf51cceac1fa2296302d4072bb12a265a8dac0c3
F20101117_AABZTU martinez_m_Page_54.tif
91f05a89d04ef68bfa4a9b1df849c3da
15da92dea79425026386d4513a6a1e2ac970b195
2148 F20101117_AABZOX martinez_m_Page_10.txt
2ddbd4032c5141d285659429eec81220
3a79ea89755471a8040c44569de02acab55daa41
117683 F20101117_AABZHB martinez_m_Page_30.jp2
98c72b3aae944fc38c94bfe1ecbeb7f5
d2630a0c672147b71deed7bb3810edb4fb403dac
962157 F20101117_AABZOY martinez_m_Page_57.jp2
5216b35ffbb83d5eb6ba54fc87be699b
ab9ccdf4a0745befcb05081bb20a06f17085e13c
7071 F20101117_AABZHC martinez_m_Page_36thm.jpg
97281449bade7c3bb4867b5fac1c13a9
d2c038ec0f9c19517f7b898f25c802d52069cf5e
55859 F20101117_AABZTV martinez_m_Page_14.pro
a2c788fbbd866f709ec91965a26d1bbe
f09590c7f89889e0f704a2a4846cbc6c5f8c3370
F20101117_AABZMA martinez_m_Page_57.tif
2278537f0c66ff5a9055b0e8ac0cd0c3
50d00e5c3bff47f584b7ba7ecee65b813157fa55
15367 F20101117_AABZOZ martinez_m_Page_41.pro
161be620c45f0ef98728a62f5c6ae10c
49d847bffbfe27a6f81c6e197051bca3d4e1dfbe
32137 F20101117_AABZHD martinez_m_Page_42.jp2
5842a0545ca92b70133656779f605ca7
8f72ddd3cab6e680a24f7e7f7efef863091a880f
55164 F20101117_AABZTW martinez_m_Page_29.pro
3a93be1180ec22516ba13bb4006ada30
55cf6f0d84c5035a50e142b3fb7d73ffeadc3012
45036 F20101117_AABZMB martinez_m_Page_13.pro
847ce05a0fb5447e518f5a5f10f35613
b591d89a1ab4b13222a40d2696f882ca4cbb35b2
11495 F20101117_AABZHE martinez_m_Page_44.QC.jpg
fa61cb411e7b160c85e059f97828d31b
b3abd248f2fd4d54cac93da144f72009d81eb4f0
F20101117_AABZTX martinez_m_Page_12.tif
26404267dc0acc93992d722ec4964cfe
98233a6b2afc48785324f20d74ee808c43eb3791
34867 F20101117_AABZMC martinez_m_Page_06.pro
f8a7f237eaabfe6de24bdde6d8e83a6f
27de7b7ab217739d1921b39fd9c9a652bad921c2
49351 F20101117_AABZHF martinez_m_Page_23.pro
c812ea7a81447321a0da6c72a153f10c
51a241e59dedf31e87a0200ca14743d20018e4d6
7279 F20101117_AABZRA martinez_m_Page_47thm.jpg
777fb1bb71d6449414798a0122f84db3
9d1baaba4b6a178c55d109ca0c3ce48ae585bf48
2177 F20101117_AABZTY martinez_m_Page_20.txt
5ee2e5789151eb8f3f2baea3b907c9b9
db68466512e8e7d6bb5b31bf50fa266b5c274bd9
107107 F20101117_AABZMD martinez_m_Page_21.jp2
c35c60dcbdbaf5aeecd1c1dd44902754
50220048cd9749f8a7bf62d238323865decbc71f
22134 F20101117_AABZHG martinez_m_Page_13.QC.jpg
5e6bfa98e525de2acfe483d4fc11c42c
5dae5b21abfeca20db9efd5bfaec74acdcf2b806
3259 F20101117_AABZRB martinez_m_Page_06thm.jpg
07d2d1d97bb106b39d83367a4c33223e
48a686b49c555c03061bdae11257c65a879f8a63
76057 F20101117_AABZTZ martinez_m_Page_38.jpg
91745bff0df9379c19d99e20247f1473
ae42c9567f761490a52fe0d667284575ea145524
20274 F20101117_AABZME martinez_m_Page_56.QC.jpg
0d59a77f241ec8d64657f4f150ee11c9
5dae44876ebff0277e268ab22c1b1e34c4a7b967
56225 F20101117_AABZHH martinez_m_Page_55.pro
42c0b4c8d87887dee417eb491616df63
1b1e8f84fa3dfcf46050d125b05feb47d6621e0e
3828 F20101117_AABZRC martinez_m_Page_12thm.jpg
af2ec501f06bc98fd57ae7ac37132099
012c7b7878b975d068bd1bacd193113686f50949
114865 F20101117_AABZWA martinez_m_Page_32.jp2
7f2eb63fcba4e40fb7c516884c91066e
58a1c047eab78a7ee2ff612e7ef48c587b52b4cd
F20101117_AABZMF martinez_m_Page_48.tif
6b48885a8cf02336c3d609bd673844d3
15a540c1b59c946795b9e98b08a25f4589330aeb
51603 F20101117_AABZHI martinez_m_Page_24.pro
0ed6fa445f477edfe9538ec46251f840
943bca28286590c877b8e49dfaf6670f99b697fd
60166 F20101117_AABZWB martinez_m_Page_43.jp2
af6a5787a5d12bd8180de6386f0f1bea
8ea5487e6eafd5bd135f4bb5ecb64e7b19d63fbf
50502 F20101117_AABZMG martinez_m_Page_25.pro
16a8529ceb7b035a5a475d30b0d8a6d8
a53d34fa52d57aedeb70ac748c7a9a590f1daffb
49279 F20101117_AABZHJ martinez_m_Page_31.pro
2c03fe1b165df1245520e7165f6666b9
ad28f16062723ed9990f7d5b95d132cb5a6cb268
6984 F20101117_AABZRD martinez_m_Page_35thm.jpg
03de5e340830b1103e40da79a88aab46
e7fcb6ee32b0e3d48614bd6d3140ed31881548cd
F20101117_AABZWC martinez_m_Page_03.tif
3eaf67ff7b9905e298adcf4ae134560c
77850aefc0dc14da1bc5b5a41f1a1b29d36fffb2
54078 F20101117_AABZMH martinez_m_Page_49.pro
fc475cb382e2708523580b48705ca1ee
140ef5ead7dd86392bd368f1f473b9c7311be9dd
4307 F20101117_AABZHK martinez_m_Page_43thm.jpg
cb96241131ed69f483fcc1e4e2b71226
de290c01dcafc4338241cdd091f4ee4c1f062007
74685 F20101117_AABZRE martinez_m_Page_16.jpg
76d7a816565e7bcedf4d58c56d4c8dba
bcf475222f7efba182443c5131bfc7dec2efd88b
F20101117_AABZWD martinez_m_Page_13.tif
dbd226005578bb6f19d0d961013b0808
77df145ee36c2ed1cdc65c2248bebfdf174e23d7
F20101117_AABZHL martinez_m_Page_01.tif
76853cb23d8a1e79de6d5ec6ddbaca66
9ccc533ea3612b240ef4fe8bc4f4b8662a33e816
F20101117_AABZRF martinez_m_Page_11.tif
8ce99f86b86a1e97209f59c5a473906b
bfd7b3e9a2a7c39976138df041c011241942f87f
24487 F20101117_AABZMI martinez_m_Page_16.QC.jpg
908a409bf91acd6c426443c72ae440bf
3194a6f409243bd51b217f99fe76031d053e4056
F20101117_AABZWE martinez_m_Page_34.tif
fe8e88906790065c25d95b33ad1e9cf2
f924db0f3511174fbd00082452e5de1c5de8c8fc
9283 F20101117_AABZHM martinez_m_Page_22.QC.jpg
96458a937c0884a3a43f81d7e327069e
a7b20c07ac288da43904dc80d9c54154ccd89e76
5796 F20101117_AABZRG martinez_m_Page_57thm.jpg
d9e3a92d090518dc5e6405a8b5e0ab98
f4b24e7f818894c29c59129bd566bce7512cefe8
9615 F20101117_AABZMJ martinez_m_Page_41.QC.jpg
5d6b21dcf266b2374e1abb9feabcd432
6cef61ce3028b48d4292804959c0aab6fda5d951
F20101117_AABZWF martinez_m_Page_35.tif
447212962894fbde8ac09effc05dfc94
1212169cdfcabfbd8e2f304889be534b5a839697
75292 F20101117_AABZHN martinez_m_Page_52.jpg
9b767c908e261851804748792d3eed1b
913fded1ff0b09904ce7bd2f5c99209637dd45b6
F20101117_AABZRH martinez_m_Page_56.jp2
9b4e58adf556af6bf412a79b7ff3039a
90236d8a656e43db9744047af014d24b2da4df5f
1050758 F20101117_AABZMK martinez_m_Page_59.jp2
ad76cdb49e6f3e22fc2839aaa7d72356
402fb376a11b60b938f04e715e668dadb95852ad
F20101117_AABZWG martinez_m_Page_49.tif
fd9114b7587a2f0d8e3be88f1511c6cc
7b2ee4abad12f49f8f6913f35fd4a0e1120d06b8
F20101117_AABZHO martinez_m_Page_17.tif
eea0c22b7f9c584823de6b8301176b87
08ec806297eb5a4176421f9b50db84f3f9604522
50260 F20101117_AABZRI martinez_m_Page_15.pro
2459b5e8baf2a0a0f9d0d0961afc20e9
70c642e52f7899fbfb1e7eea39ebc1c4f489ab68
18554 F20101117_AABZML martinez_m_Page_07.pro
45687bbd449ee1cf5d5acb2ae137e4ca
d3775fb9316fb76d846baf6a57f501385999914e
F20101117_AABZWH martinez_m_Page_50.tif
4012f0b8425b8e16aded055095f5d755
a0b6476493e75b32d826a685695d5f4a97010e80
F20101117_AABZHP martinez_m_Page_25.tif
92670d919bea64443dcb02c09c7ee527
71c6b7d014d568a3bd3eeee29ea590496f253577
24511 F20101117_AABZRJ martinez_m_Page_44.pro
1164210e57d2f368e940ac7021ea8129
8ddca16f32610a49f75151afe6d3c81745ca761e
28529 F20101117_AABZMM martinez_m_Page_63.jpg
9ccd772ce94ad6bf042a20d00c8a1bb0
bb5dc0965c662b77b84ee39f882f6ba90ea03744
11501 F20101117_AABZHQ martinez_m_Page_45.QC.jpg
2ad41f58ef844adf0bb4589a1a237207
4e88e8bd98e2038d5b8af6b5a5884b5b316ea9b2
1146 F20101117_AABZRK martinez_m_Page_44.txt
2deced578e7703f9150c071542de323a
5402679920be57be514fa19333dac295fa4607c9
F20101117_AABZMN martinez_m_Page_41.tif
cbd3c640a630262ea21f8e90d922c0d4
b8c112894e4b74d72e814357f98a739aeeb2509d
F20101117_AABZWI martinez_m_Page_63.tif
8ff25f61f357c96b62c7c16ec2f4d3cf
7494f331ac85aa36136457fe970c8786b94a8521
75750 F20101117_AABZHR martinez_m_Page_46.jpg
a11189f9b385732d2be269fd0af0cfae
b764bc4e1be9387608e8ae5f9893757868422466
2061 F20101117_AABZRL martinez_m_Page_23.txt
b36e8a2e477033fff59f24a523800156
f621d2b7ffe7061fbca1dfb7eb8b3fe0cb657cc1
5381 F20101117_AABZMO martinez_m_Page_27thm.jpg
96fc0ff830055951c981e6e3047f361b
8fb1dde41ab64d0cf116f57c679c19d1ebe38c27
89525 F20101117_AABZWJ martinez_m_Page_05.pro
4bec81f78eea8a24885daf8a63f02d13
2ff3d0d5ce28700bbbb8a7309e4aca11862677bd
F20101117_AABZHS martinez_m_Page_53.txt
296f09f7ee61f2abe59712bf9f4156cc
ddf4c792033cb0287570d63f5b7af36acd1fa898
12572 F20101117_AABZRM martinez_m_Page_03.jpg
85398e87b959e2ca4d949b04874e49fb
c416866854561f0a2aefe832dcb78ea05cb7510b
1968 F20101117_AABZMP martinez_m_Page_40.txt
df99cd738d0b6c7bcac82013fec8d3db
96b6dd0e547cddc2957eda63bf92f5dd5a29000c
52567 F20101117_AABZWK martinez_m_Page_16.pro
26dd047ad7e3a3d2d91f5cd0a8b9793b
5c21b85846f0aa074d8fb8e867a3c026a2d06d55
116505 F20101117_AABZHT martinez_m_Page_24.jp2
15f287ddedb5291aaa4f99115bb3d255
8049040aa7f17bf50115172851d9dba17210a915
19685 F20101117_AABZRN martinez_m_Page_08.QC.jpg
b3c8ac3c753c07a9185933a011aad8d3
2bbc9718c829edf566071db2c8abce0c2feff400
3088 F20101117_AABZMQ martinez_m_Page_04thm.jpg
120503ee47843380f9a6455a51de189f
d938f26c4dfaf7a6c61fdaf0e07096c24e5e1d56
53633 F20101117_AABZWL martinez_m_Page_18.pro
f1273df2fb58ac741c8dc990ac94ee28
e99435d4bd1d9f80ea7d93921fde36ab9ff619e6
72782 F20101117_AABZHU martinez_m_Page_15.jpg
83ef3b53ed0bfcb88053006f244a2bf9
0714b6720abd40844b94950f1ae52a9808383575
F20101117_AABZRO martinez_m_Page_33.tif
a098e980ade8401492fed82c5df3cd35
353c1be8aca79900cb4cf0694e8dd307979c6afa
F20101117_AABZMR martinez_m_Page_31.tif
59cfb963eb4b23e73cc90fcd9e31748c
4555ff9ffc8be59846cf5259b0e798d080e8f602
48183 F20101117_AABZWM martinez_m_Page_21.pro
d1ad522a6ab9c5bf4e9fed59be90f3f2
cf3d42d8914e1b9a1c2fd01ed9ec35ca1ad7e724
F20101117_AABZHV martinez_m_Page_08.tif
2a603bcd6240f8db06d79368197de40c
983335b5d2d6423dadb77661755a822783f89960
F20101117_AABZRP martinez_m_Page_40.tif
e0f57b879de307ef9e7e65c1159575a9
6e9fbd267f6348ee4e533441d4ff2020a821c8d7
76847 F20101117_AABZMS martinez_m_Page_49.jpg
dcdd27b347c9bed6fae0b477bf262a45
8d817bd0cfd04918943912a3f82f4b6b969f84e5
36877 F20101117_AABZWN martinez_m_Page_27.pro
1a29ff2f04933e74e047ba9e3bfadbf9
4562651dc59ce6c521edce16db2e19bb61c96bed
104072 F20101117_AABZHW martinez_m_Page_53.jp2
395015784e5f35d32adde3eb34b95630
aaa7bf2f0bd35c7bf69a19d92d0d3f741e44773d
F20101117_AABZRQ martinez_m_Page_44.tif
91ab6130f5250570aa3df28126b8726c
290d6b49beb0a0d42ad1a22a69df6d1df3b42012
26654 F20101117_AABZMT martinez_m_Page_01.jpg
cdd56dfc15e030b5632e46d7465c4763
4ea92b6972064aeb69500b7314b12013e1c8f288
52478 F20101117_AABZWO martinez_m_Page_32.pro
6df9c9ec602fcc4f1fcdf04c54c4b1a6
9deb8e6629c6c86d58387af294caad65a7d4fc81
6470 F20101117_AABZHX martinez_m_Page_55thm.jpg
42a62a2b9617fbad3c51dc9bef79917c
9d26b63df8f5fa9215fb34a3a8362a5f41a22657
102866 F20101117_AABZRR martinez_m_Page_13.jp2
c75a28fa3cb71192d7b4b6f90a4702bd
57ab35a4dfcd26b3a28cf8dae83a0d3f27947175
8075 F20101117_AABZMU martinez_m_Page_01.QC.jpg
c8a45b1ab0103a878ca3b9fa2b7e766f
8205fd496ec310b3757b273562d0dcc783136e20
54974 F20101117_AABZWP martinez_m_Page_37.pro
d7f3673c19c4eb068378a716fa4abeb5
de0297a6a7a32c6a556e6c98c98715cb484e47c9
2035 F20101117_AABZHY martinez_m_Page_33.txt
8567d4390e773f1e9f727931eb21e535
c1eb847da65eee2032211ea8a416a4265fddb04d
25828 F20101117_AABZRS martinez_m_Page_45.pro
529d02d89c72efb7fc56add13a2ab7ba
1a9612c3ae6ada68addb8b7bae1fbfd38739b4da
37634 F20101117_AABZMV martinez_m_Page_12.jpg
d968c2d9ab87bc72742017e8d10165ec
f0dc8510337fb5f091202fdf9772376dc1fa00d4
566 F20101117_AABZWQ martinez_m_Page_01.txt
07650671998c4d0f5b6779bcaa5e1321
7351b33dd221d6f8111916d215615a95829eec6d
52285 F20101117_AABZRT martinez_m_Page_19.pro
0d626471f9c5286527941f8bb54f6516
1b3cb7218c8335517329a24f491abe8368d6e8eb
110715 F20101117_AABZMW martinez_m_Page_15.jp2
f354048a3c8400bfd120a3614bae93d1
dadb4fc6557d76087e6ae870e1176ccde7018d28
2106 F20101117_AABZWR martinez_m_Page_09.txt
6fccfcb2ae80b014adc0638c2b025f09
66cc2eb8143d0c9edd24c99ad2ab13dddf136ed9
6929 F20101117_AABZHZ martinez_m_Page_39thm.jpg
12f7f664f311fd2c06a0326b115582ff
d39283da9ee33d4e46d59f0a0c846a715d5a9605
24462 F20101117_AABZRU martinez_m_Page_46.QC.jpg
254e229ec0ffcea39650929f7f98ce21
f87c52be1f6615ffa82e5cd0d41db17ed23d6cdf
1473 F20101117_AABZMX martinez_m_Page_57.txt
7ac55cef8781b5d5c6b4c55ad70986fe
62a64e88763c11115b27137b1c59272457bf4b9f
2092 F20101117_AABZWS martinez_m_Page_39.txt
92417c0337574ee1e790795a80e65782
ec786f56fca1dc8ba64f04f78d67de0ee351df78
F20101117_AABZRV martinez_m_Page_26.txt
2bc479f211e3c7c168c8a06d9375a2bf
2d6beddd15b2042ba638ee870f41d2dad80040a3
29331 F20101117_AABZMY martinez_m_Page_42.jpg
e5802ba5eed1c8c131a492649adedccf
ca4824f3959f7bd8c2ea7929516457ac74b7734b
2203 F20101117_AABZWT martinez_m_Page_48.txt
cda5d5bce193d19dace3dd9c35729e35
aed9c49ec61dca8d1eb4ddad3451cb8fbc42d722
1051910 F20101117_AABZRW martinez_m_Page_05.jp2
be43169ec29f6045e501b817aeda35bc
4677bc5fb5b580845e904a0ddeedce8b72bd03b9
20742 F20101117_AABZKA martinez_m_Page_57.QC.jpg
3ed13aee813363fecdc8fccf647b6bb6
9bbfffcc05da99b3ca2fdd500c4835f6d14ad98d
79945 F20101117_AABZMZ martinez_m_Page_14.jpg
8eccc3d593ba3e68f7a60d0bd972d643
88fe6a5d4b88b1c48b48cc504c9e2ca9463274ab
2033 F20101117_AABZWU martinez_m_Page_50.txt
a261536c98aa59c2c2fc867cb08233e9
42e2a097d3f89935b0eceac770cf0c8a83d9e250
109898 F20101117_AABZRX martinez_m_Page_31.jp2
9e231c23e1b1ff89f8256ab358ff75a9
bb0b9bd10d090e41a84d91fcdfdfa657aaf8029c
14886 F20101117_AABZKB martinez_m_Page_63.pro
b32e35e0de4d3c2e761f52212730320a
0cc06e90b68689f8887eba5cc15a3d3e68eff088
1623 F20101117_AABZWV martinez_m_Page_59.txt
a807731efe6b86bebf40538cddafc525
2a017493b2053f08147fd0f66853b5355ac508b9
4321 F20101117_AABZPA martinez_m_Page_03.QC.jpg
b14528e76575ba4774033ae0cedd1769
6834ab757a619d0288f2af093cf9cad4d40302bb
F20101117_AABZRY martinez_m_Page_61.tif
d75c6911f354b584d7697e8583f73862
20699ed85a17a21e667bf77ac5fde7f21ea3e326
F20101117_AABZKC martinez_m_Page_23.tif
e8a8694046970a1068e7981dc14f0031
4dc83bcfe3da5a0946703002c59bd1c3a859459a
25409 F20101117_AABZWW martinez_m_Page_10.QC.jpg
b48c8b07be7b022752cc8c508a033ea2
ee435205beed66832c5da03c275706ea3832f075
F20101117_AABZRZ martinez_m_Page_52.tif
f4add77fdac4c9643b2db33d02f5a07c
cf75386a46376578a7ffcaf24acc279ae7fbff11
28305 F20101117_AABZKD martinez_m_Page_07.jpg
1b519b4f7ceb8f358a3f0395d7e62ecb
923196f6abd26e272ad2c74704dea8ff2d7a0e30
6775 F20101117_AABZWX martinez_m_Page_11thm.jpg
d2668c9a73278283ddcc839224a31c67
7611f49be53d09326544fa2292649a61b04f6e70
72607 F20101117_AABZPB martinez_m_Page_50.jpg
43134f7f4f39c176f916154c5cc5a24f
b11f6a197172784581186bb28e08d90ca852b1c8
68256 F20101117_AABZKE martinez_m_Page_53.jpg
1ba589398a19524fa053eafa05cf401d
c805b511e36d8caf14516d12a0a087e8cd63aa12
6721 F20101117_AABZWY martinez_m_Page_23thm.jpg
c415217aaa3028411b685e1b951211f6
e11a23bbf3320b68c97b2b785992548d3fbeff65
6684 F20101117_AABZPC martinez_m_Page_09thm.jpg
918d4c333fbe2ac00f5357554d642070
9976510e92dc2cbf3278fbc7a993687dadd85901
6739 F20101117_AABZKF martinez_m_Page_50thm.jpg
bf03bf2b2f47e95c2cd11fc95641bdfd
cff5147b2388f562da41ec3c17bec6b6c8bd06bf
3437 F20101117_AABZUA martinez_m_Page_44thm.jpg
a627fa0b988ca96a90b4cb0cea0dbfd1
a6071b6944e713db60d6a9b5f63e5d537bca5ccf
6742 F20101117_AABZWZ martinez_m_Page_28thm.jpg
602bb26f9f8776ac4442a20f069274fd
302bce75795bfa7f613745364717009394dfa766
F20101117_AABZPD martinez_m_Page_15.tif
a7d53a14605b7e090c9a31da139dcfde
4496b23798cf95647edd85df4dcd0c2ca918aa59
F20101117_AABZKG martinez_m_Page_39.tif
d8bb60d5741284af393c300d3592604d
dbe5c31dcd34ef25cc40d16d7d6e6de9fa122a4a
2181 F20101117_AABZUB martinez_m_Page_38.txt
d7bf07855c0a0a4d7d9a1a6410cb1f8e
ec45250cd2ec8bc3c1b661af212a7565d1a17e83
2145 F20101117_AABZKH martinez_m_Page_18.txt
a81a5000f94f893892af09ae3845a83f
ac2d73d8e64e04bb42190c611602a5bb140aaff0
2978 F20101117_AABZUC martinez_m_Page_41thm.jpg
aa3df048b9869160e309274afa861091
86114c3550a4dfcab63db2fffdcdbe1a6d33fe82
24806 F20101117_AABZPE martinez_m_Page_25.QC.jpg
0ef8abf4691c0820bef3d74f4c309d1b
13892b271dc5493352dd7173430ba75901d799ff
1952 F20101117_AABZKI martinez_m_Page_31.txt
bf892c444af23b50878b04221fa79a81
2fa8c692a0cf5e4029041611d8ebf8e49da9c40b
80173 F20101117_AABZUD martinez_m_Page_47.jpg
f69e2b1cf5c2a252c7afe78eee377607
d8222316f775f9add03e36ac17548486dc9a1618
26790 F20101117_AABZPF martinez_m_Page_43.pro
e4ea24dd8cdd8cecc28b3aaec1d2d9ca
ad91e6d9f770217ed1a440c5d461b65a432f801c
2706 F20101117_AABZKJ martinez_m_Page_03.pro
9b891c453da2f0aaae118df1ad9ed467
fda8f177653b6d8cfa159d199e7babaee627567f
1942 F20101117_AABZUE martinez_m_Page_21.txt
cb6ef47b096cd86a701bffa060748e0a
abb478b5f8600b9bbe2093d60887d12d8f96b0ff
119481 F20101117_AABZPG martinez_m_Page_51.jp2
8efbaeefdb5abcad754597b8c4b0e79c
3eda6fe60fe616e47d487602d0870281f6f7d55b
53555 F20101117_AABZKK martinez_m_Page_10.pro
70c8719212f421d9fda3cd5e588d35d3
f55e198bc77801dd4524e5c2c22cc460093206e4
18081 F20101117_AABZUF martinez_m_Page_27.QC.jpg
734dc29b7d88970b25c50715719986f0
bbb7b7297e7db1bea55122a06d590b707e044dd7
F20101117_AABZPH martinez_m_Page_43.tif
8c3bada0f2c1f9624ef83dc4b564e7fd
8347f749e6b1ef0da842ea043583049b8f6754e6
123397 F20101117_AABZKL martinez_m_Page_47.jp2
82dc87a1a72cca9bef8e9d0f79884eb2
884693a790af40f503d3e6cf4bd71e9eac8fad98
9919 F20101117_AABZPI martinez_m_Page_01.pro
0b88f7d299162169695ff650d5b268ec
e0817550a9f29b3719ab73625415b08051d2b606







WOMEN'S HEALTH IN JEOPARDY: A FRAMING ANALYSIS OF HEART DISEASE AND
BREAST CANCER COVERAGE IN SELECTED WOMEN'S MAGAZINES
FROM 1997 TO 2004






















By

MEGAN MARTINEZ


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008



































2008 Megan Martinez

































To my parents, Kay and Robert Martinez, who never let me think a good education was optional.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Dr. Deborah Treise for the guidance and encouragement she gave me throughout

this process. I would also like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Kim Walsh-Childers and Dr.

Johanna Cleary. All three professors guided me in my efforts to create and execute my thesis. I

also thank my parents, Kay and Robert Martinez, whose emphasis on the importance of a higher

education helped propel me through my early education and through graduate school. I would

also like to thank my husband, Jonathon McGrady, who helped me throughout my graduate

career. His support helped me make it through many a stressful time.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN TS ......... .......................................................................... 4

LIST OF TABLES ......... ..... .... ............... .......................................... 7

A B S T R A C T ...................................................................... ............................... ......... ..... 8

CHAPTER

1 IN TR OD U CTION ......................................................................... ........ 9

Heart Disease is a Woman's Number One Health Risk............................................. 10
B reast C ancer and a W om an's B ody ...................................................................... ...... 10
Fram ing Theory and W om en's M magazines ................................... .................................... 11

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ .... ....... ..... 13

R review of L iterature.................................................... ................... .. ...... ........ 13
D definition of Term s .................. .................... ............. ... .............. 13
Coverage of Health Issues in W omen's M magazines .................................................... 14
H eart D disease C overage ............................................................................ 16
B rest C cancer C overage ................................... ................................... ................... ... 17
R review of Theory..................................................... ................... .. ....... ........ 18
Sum m ary and Research Questions.......................................................... .............. 21

3 M E T H O D S ...........................................................................................2 3

M magazine Selection ....................................................................... ........ 23
M magazine A article Selection ....................................................................... .................... 25
A article C oding..................................................... 25
Constant-Com parative M ethod............................................................................ 26

4 R E S U L T S .............. .... ............. ................. ....................................................... 2 8

Findings for Editorial Content ........................................... .......................................... 28
RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Covered
Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Women's Magazines Aimed at 45- to 54-
Year-Old Women? ................. ....... .......... ..........30
Empowerment Frame .............. ........... ...... ....................... 31
Breakthrough ........................................... ......... ..... .............. 33
Dispelling Myths ................. ....... ......... ............35
First-Person N arrative ............................................................... 36
Personal Narrative ............................................38
RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast
Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?.....................................39









5 D ISCU SSION AN D CON CLU SION ...........................................................................46

Implications from Research Questions ................. .... ... ............ ......... .... .......... 47
RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage
Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Women's Magazines Aimed at 45- to 54-
Y ear-Old W om en? ... ................. ... ...... .. .... ..... .......... ............ 47
RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast
Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?......................................49
The Big Picture: Women's Magazines Coverage of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer ........51
C conclusion ............ ... ... ........................................................ ............ 52
Suggestions for Future R research ............................................... ............................. 53

A PPEN D IX : CO D IN G SH EET.............................................................................. ...............54

L IST O F R E FE R E N C E S ............................................................................ ........................56

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................................................................. 63











LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1. Total number of articles by disease ........................................ ........ ....... ..............41

4-2. Average length for articles found by disease ............................................42

4-3. Total number of sources used by magazine ........................................................... ....... 43

4-4. Top two most frequently used sources by disease............................. ... ...........43

4-5. Frames by disease used in Family Circle and Good Housekeeping .............. ..............44

4-6. Frames by disease used in Woman's Day and Ladies' Home Journal ............................45









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication

WOMEN'S HEALTH IN JEOPARDY: A FRAMING ANALYSIS OF HEART DISEASE AND
BREAST CANCER COVERAGE IN SELECTED WOMEN'S MAGAZINES
FROM 1997 TO 2004

By

Megan Martinez

May 2008

Chair: Deborah Treise
Major: Mass Communication

The media, magazines in particular, are an important source of health information. Many

women believe their greatest health risk to be breast cancer when, in reality, heart disease is the

number-one killer of women. So where is the misinformation coming from? To answer this

question, this study sought to examine heart disease and breast cancer coverage in four women's

magazines, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman's Day and Ladies' Home Journal,

aimed at middle-aged women. This study analyzed the frequency of heart disease and breast

cancer coverage in addition to the sources and frames used in that coverage. Framing theory was

used in order to explain the overall message each magazine article portrayed.

This study revealed three findings. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive equal

coverage in the women's magazines analyzed. Second, the empowerment frame was the most

frequently used frame in both heart disease and breast cancer coverage. Third, the coverage of

heart disease does not accurately reflect the health risk it poses to women.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

With all the media coverage breast cancer receives, most women believe that breast cancer

is their biggest health risk (Gorman, 2003). It is hard to open a women's magazine without

seeing an article about a woman's chance of getting breast cancer or seeing an ad selling a

product whose proceeds go to a charity supporting breast cancer. In reality, only one in eight

women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and of those, only one in 35 will die from it

(American Heart Association [AHA], 2007a), in contrast to the one in three women who will die

of heart disease (Gorman, 2003). So why do women fear breast cancer more than they fear heart

disease? Magazines are an important source of women's health information (Jones, 2004). In

fact, magazines are the third most important source of cancer information for women (Meissner

et al., 1992). Could it be then that magazines are providing imbalanced coverage of women's

direst health risks, focusing too much attention on breast cancer and not enough on heart disease?

This research seeks to answer that question and to identify any disparities in magazine

coverage of breast cancer and heart disease that may affect women's health beliefs. Identifying

these deficiencies may provide media professionals and scholars with a starting point from which

to improve magazine coverage of women's most serious health concerns.

Many magazine studies have examined coverage of a singular health issue, but few, if any,

have examined the relationships between coverage of multiple health issues. This study used

qualitative framing analysis to examine two aspects of health coverage in Family Circle, Good

Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal. It sought to answer the following

research questions: (1) What frames were used in heart disease and breast cancer coverage

between 1997-2004 in the top four women's magazines aimed at 45- to 54- year-old women?









(2) Within each magazine, how did sources used in the coverage of breast cancer and heart

disease compare to one another?

Heart Disease is a Woman's Number One Health Risk

Traditionally thought of as a man's disease (AHA, 2007a), heart disease is the number one

killer of women and has held that rank since 1910 (Center for Disease Control & Prevention

[CDC], 2007b). In this research, the term "heart disease" encompasses all diseases that affect the

heart, including heart attacks, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurism and dissection, heart failure,

hypertensive heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (CDC, 2007a). Many women

believe breast cancer is their bigger health risk, but twice as many U.S. women will die of heart

disease and stroke as will die from all forms of cancer (AHA, 2007a). Stroke and heart disease

together are responsible for 60% of all women's deaths and disabilities, and yet both are

preventable (World Health Organization [WHO], 2000). Not only are women at high risk for

heart disease, but when women do suffer heart attacks, they are 15% more likely than men to die

from a heart attack (Skarnulis, 2005). Women are also twice as likely to have a second heart

attack in the six years following their first (Skarnulis, 2005). In addition, few women recognize

heart disease as their biggest health threat (Skarnulis, 2005). Not only do many women not

know that heart disease is a serious health threat for them, but the American Heart Association

(2007a) also reports that fewer than one in five physicians recognize that more women than men

die each year of heart disease.

Breast Cancer and a Woman's Body

Other than the disparity in media coverage of heart disease and breast cancer, one

explanation for women's greater fear of breast cancer is the nature of the disease.. Our society

places enormous emphasis on women's breasts and the loss or disfigurement of them because of

cancer can be devastating. One study suggests that women perceive a mastectomy as a threat to









their femininity and that the removal of one or both of a woman's breasts can result in a decline

in body image and anxiety (Harcourt et al., 2002).

Being diagnosed with breast cancer is only the first step. A breast cancer diagnosis can

mean surgery, chemotherapy and radiation as well as the complete devastation of women's body

image (Harper, 2006). In addition, breast cancer could mean the partial or total loss of their

breasts, a devastating experience. For many women, suffering the loss of part or all of their

breasts equals a loss of their identity as women (Harper, 2006). The fact that breast cancer

aggressively threatens a part of a woman's body that holds so much meaning in our society could

make a difference in how women perceive the disease in relation to its actual risk to their health.

Framing Theory and Women's Magazines

This study aims to identify common themes utilized in the magazine stories to convey

information about breast cancer and heart disease. This study is grounded in framing theory,

which argues that the ways in which journalists write about disease have an impact on the

readers' responses to the disease. Frames are techniques writers use to make sense of relevant

events and issues; through the use of catchphrases and symbols, the frames suggest what is most

important in thinking about an issue or disease (Gamson & Modigliani, 1989). For instance, if

an article uses phrases such as "death was not an option" multiple times, it may be using this

catchphrase to indicate a "hopeful" or "survival-oriented" frame. These frames help indicate the

overall tone of an article's message and give clues as to how readers will receive the information.

Previous research has scrutinized magazine coverage of individual health issues and how

they are framed. This research examined the relationships between coverage of two key health

issues, offering researchers and media professionals a better understanding of the overall

message.









A second reason this study is important is that it examines the way health issues are

framed. It is not enough for magazines to simply cover health topics and hope that women at

risk will read them. Magazines must address health topics in ways that reach those women who

are most at risk for these issues (Frisby & Fleming, 2005).

Chapter 2 reviews previous literature on magazine coverage of health issues, with a focus

on research about breast cancer and heart disease coverage. It also includes a discussion on

framing theory and the constant-comparative method. Chapter 3 describes the methods used in

this study, specifically how articles were selected for analysis and an overview of the analysis

methods utilized. Chapter 4 describes this study's results. Last, Chapter 5 discusses the

implications of this study's findings, its limitations and suggestions for future research.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Many researchers have recognized the important role magazines play in communicating

health information to consumers. This is especially true for women. Compared to newspapers,

magazines are designed for a smaller audience, are more specialized, are able to devote more

space to health concerns than newspapers, and are more appealing to women than men (Frisby &

Fleming, 2005). Other sources for women's health information, such as television news, lack the

in-depth coverage and easily reviewable print format magazines provide (Andsager & Powers,

2001). Not only are magazines easier to access than radio and television, magazines are also

inexpensive and available almost everywhere (Clarke & Binns, 2006).

Numerous researchers have documented the importance of magazines as health

information sources, especially for women (Andsager & Powers, 2001; Barnett, 2006; Clarke,

1992; Clarke & Binns, 2006; Covello & Peters, 2002; Frisby & Fleming, 2005; Jones, 2004;

McKay & Bonner, 2000; McKay & Bonner, 2002; Meischke et al., 2002; Meissner et al., 1992).

Because magazines are important sources of women's health information, many studies have

examined the coverage these magazines have given health issues. This section will provide a

review of the existing literature on magazine coverage of health issues.

Review of Literature

Definition of Terms

During the eight-year period from 1997 to 2004, the top two killers of women ages 45 to

54, in order of decreasing disease mortality rate, were heart disease and breast cancer (CDC,

2007a). While these ailments may be recognizable, a definition is necessary to comprehend the

importance of each in this research.









For this research, the term "heart disease" encompasses all major cardiovascular diseases

as designated by the CDC (2007a). Diseases in this category include heart attacks,

atherosclerosis, aortic aneurism and dissection, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, and

acute myocardial infarction (CDC, 2007a). Using the "heart disease" category, this research will

endeavor to provide a clearer picture of magazine coverage of a range of health issues.

The term "cancer" in this research is used to refer to the CDC definition of malignant

neoplasms. Among all cancers, lung cancer is the biggest killer of women of all ages, and breast

cancer ranks second among cancer deaths (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2006). However,

for women ages 45 to 54, more women will die of breast cancer than lung cancer (CDC, 2007a).

Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancers are also responsible for many cancer-related

deaths in women (ACS, 2006). Breast cancer deaths have dropped 24% from 1990 to 2003

(Hitti, 2007). Overall, the death rate from all forms of cancer for both men and women has

dropped 13.6% from 1991 to 2004.

Coverage of Health Issues in Women's Magazines

Previous research has found that magazines are an important source of health information

(Andsager & Powers, 2001; Barnett, 2006; Clarke, 1992; Clarke & Binns, 2006; Covello &

Peters, 2002; Frisby & Fleming, 2005; Jones, 2004; McKay & Bonner, 2000; McKay & Bonner,

2000; Meischke et al., 2002; Meissner et al., 1992). One study in particular, performed by

Meissner, Potosky and Convissor (1992), looked at how sources of health information influenced

knowledge of breast cancer screening procedures. The Meissner et al. study (1992) showed that

magazines were the second most frequently used source for health information, after doctors.

The study also revealed that women turned to magazines for health information more frequently

than men did (Meissner et al., 1992). Overall, this study revealed that those who used magazines

and other print sources for health information were more likely to be familiar with cancer









screening exams (Meissner et al., 1992). Additionally, the study revealed that those who used

magazine and other print sources for health information were more active and attentive in finding

and reading health information (Meissner, et al., 1992).

While magazines are an important source of health information for women (Jones, 2004),

magazines might not always be accurately conveying which health problems affect women the

most. For instance, in the '80s, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as a major killer of women of

all ages. Despite this, few magazines in that decade contained stories dealing with lung cancer,

and none linked lung cancer to cigarettes (Kessler, 1989).

Why does this disconnect exist? It has been argued that magazines have failed to cover

some serious women's health issues in favor of keeping advertisers happy (Kessler, 1989).

Magazine editors may have perceived that a story on smoking-related hazards would be

controversial in a magazine that receives ad revenue from cigarette companies (Kessler, 1989).

Another component of health issue coverage is framing. Looking at the frames used in

women's magazine health stories, Barnett (2006) found that health was typically framed as

"women's work." This frame implies that it is the woman's job to take care of her own health in

addition to the health of her family. Barnett's study also revealed that articles framed health as

an accomplishment that required commitment and hard work that was typically the job of the

woman in the family (Barnett, 2006).

The trend of mass market women's magazines has been toward increasing coverage of

health issues. McKay and Bonner (2000) found that pathographies, or the study of a subject in

relation to an illness, were a powerful narrative tool used by magazines on health discourse.

These pathographies are designed to inspire readers using symbols of hope, optimism,









perseverance and survival while offering first hand advice on handling significant health issues

(McKay & Bonner, 2000).

Later, in a 2002 study, McKay and Bonner further explored the personal health narratives

found in women's magazines. These narratives provided more than health information by

conveying the meaning of what it is to have an illness and the triumph of overcoming it (McKay

& Bonner, 2002). Through their research, McKay and Bonner (2002) also identified four

common themes found in magazine coverage. These themes emphasized the importance of

family, helping others, self-identity and spirituality (McKay & Bonner, 2002).

Heart Disease Coverage

Numerous researchers have documented flaws in magazine coverage of heart disease,

especially as it affects women. Heart disease has become an increasing threat to women because

they do not recognize it as a legitimate risk to their health (Mosca, Ferris, Fabunmi, &

Robertson, 2004).

As early as 1992, Clarke identified a disparity in magazine coverage of cancer, heart

disease and AIDS (Clarke, 1992). The mass media were identified as a "significant source of

information about the disease, its nature, causes, and treatments in the mass media" (Clarke,

1992, p. 105). By examining magazine coverage of cancer, heart disease and AIDS, Clarke

aimed to identify how these diseases were portrayed. Because the mass media are a "major

source of information, metaphors, and values" (p. 106), Clarke argued that understanding how

magazines portray these diseases will help researchers understand how society understands them.

Clarke found that heart disease was predominantly portrayed as an isolated event that was very

painful (Clarke, 1992). Overall, heart disease coverage was optimistic about patients' recovery,

citing new technology as a way to treat the disease. This was in contrast to the study's findings

on cancer coverage; heart disease was portrayed as nothing more than a chance occurrence.









However, Clarke (1992) found that magazine coverage portrayed cancer as "evil," and that it

also was cause for shame in the patient diagnosed with it (Clarke, 1992). Not only was cancer

described as an "alien intruder," the media portrayed it as disfiguring and terminal (Clarke,

1992). Overall, Clarke's study revealed that magazine coverage deemphasized the seriousness of

heart disease and sensationalized cancer.

In a later study, Clarke and Binns (2006) found that coverage of heart disease was framed

in one of seven ways in the top 20 North American magazines. These frames were optimism

about medicine, "good" medicine versus "bad" body, heart disease as an "attack," individual

responsibility, contradictory information, male celebrity patients and doctors, and prestigious

medical sources (Clarke & Binns, 2006). The male celebrity patients and doctor frame

reinforced the myth that heart disease is traditionally a man's disease (AHA, 2007a). Clarke and

Binns (2006) also reported an overall lack of information on women and heart disease found

during the time period researched.

In a 2002 study, Meischke et al. found that women received more information overall on

the prevention of heart attacks than they did information on recognizing its symptoms and what

their risk factors are. Also, women did not receive adequate health information on certain heart

attack symptoms such as shortness of breath and nausea. This was an important finding because

both symptoms are more frequently reported by women having heart attacks than by men. Their

study also showed that the mass media were the most frequently reported source of heart attack

information among women surveyed.

Breast Cancer Coverage

In a 1999 study, Andsager and Powers found that news magazines' breast cancer coverage

is very different from women's magazines' coverage. Three frames were identified within

women's magazines stories: coping, first person experiences and risk factors. Within these









frames, Andsager and Powers (1999) found that articles encouraged women to be assertive in

prevention and treatment of breast cancer and also provided in-depth information that was only

found in a women's magazine. In contrast, news magazines covered breast cancer in a less

personal way and used economic, political and medical news frames (Andsager & Powers,

1999). Women's magazines strived to encourage women to prevent breast cancer and seek

treatment, while news magazines focused on the effects of breast cancer on more than just a

woman's body.

In a 2002 study, Covello and Peters found that many women knew little about the real risks

that breast cancer posed to them (Covello & Peters, 2002). Covello and Peters evaluated

women's ability to sort through an abundance of health information provided by the media in

order to determine their breast cancer risk. The researchers found that many of the women

surveyed could not discern from the media information which breast cancer statistics pertained to

their age group, their chances of dying from breast cancer in relation to lung cancer or heart

disease, and did not know that having a mammogram did not lower a woman's risk of

developing breast cancer (Covello & Peters, 2002). The researchers also found that media

coverage of breast cancer exaggerated its risks, leading women to believe breast cancer was their

greatest health risk over heart disease. Despite an overall increase in media coverage of disease,

Covello and Peters (2002) found that the women they surveyed were unable to accurately

identify their disease-related risk. They argued that the media's exaggeration of breast cancer as

a woman's greatest health risk over heart disease and lung cancer leads women to underestimate

the importance of these other, more common health risks.

Review of Theory

Framing theory was used in this research. A frame is defined by Gamson and Modigliani

(1989) as a central organizing idea used to make sense of relevant events and to suggest what is









at issue. Gamson and Modigliani describe frames as a form of "shorthand, making it possible to

display the package as a whole with a deft metaphor, catchphrase, or other symbolic device"

(1989, p.3).

Hertog and McLeod (2001) take this idea one step further, defining frames as "relatively

comprehensive structures of meaning made up of a number of concepts and the relations among

those concepts." (p. 140). These concepts are used to structure the social world (Hertog &

McLeod, 2001). While a frame might stir up public interest in an event, the opposite is also true:

frames are a reflection of the social realities that already exist (Hertog & McLeod, 2001).

Framing can be detected by the occurrence of certain key words, but can also be indicated

by the absence of certain key words (Entman, 1993). The sources that appear or are absent in an

article also can help to identify a frame (Miller & Riechert, 2001). Miller and Riechert (2001)

looked at news releases from conservation groups (like the National Audubon Society) and

property-owner groups (like the American Farm Bureau Federation) to identify keywords unique

to each group. These keywords were used to identify and compare frames used by the

conservation and property-owner groups. Miler and Riechert (2001) then looked at the sources

used by both sides. They found a relationship between the sources each side cited and the

keywords used. They found a relationship between the sources each side cited and the keywords

used. The sources a news release cited used keywords unique to their frame, thus there was a

clear difference in the sources and keywords used to frame news releases from both parties

(Miller & Riechert, 2001).

One example of framing analysis is a study by Hertog and McLeod (1999) that looked at

how media framed three demonstrations and a conference held by anarchists. They identified

five frames: the riot, confrontation, protest, circus and debate frames. Hertog and McLeod









(1999) found that the media focused less on the issues of the anarchists and more on the violence

that occurred at the protests. The debate frame, which treated anarchists as "thoughtful social

critics," was used the least. By examining the frames the media used, Hertog and McLeod

(1999) were able to identify the messages their audience was receiving.

Another framing theory relevant to this research is Miller and Riechert's "Spiral of

Opportunity" theory. The authors argue that media alter public opinion less by providing new

information on social realities and more by altering their frames (Miller & Riechert, 2001).

Miller and Riechert (2001) identify four phases within the "Spiral of Opportunity" theory.

During the "emergence" phase, news coverage shifts to focus on an emerging aspect of an event.

Once it garners attention and is part of the public agenda the "definition/conflict" phase begins.

During this phase, an event is framed by its stakeholders in a way that highlights certain

information and downplays other information in an attempt to serve the stakeholder's interests.

In the "resonance" phase, one side of the issue gains support and becomes the dominant,

resonating position. Frames are chosen by the stakeholder of an issue based on how their target

audience reacts to them. Frames that are received favorably are continued while unsuccessful

frames are abandoned (Miller & Riechert, 2001). In the "equilibrium or resolution" phase, one

frame dominates and makes its view the "norm." At any time new events may occur that start

this process over. Therefore, the frames that are used the most often are the most successful at

reaching their target audience. This theory is important to this research because it suggests that

there will be a correlation between the frequency with which a frame is used and its perceived

effectiveness at reaching its target audience.

Framing is an appropriate method for this study because it allows the researcher to identify

how these women's magazines covered the top two killers of women aged 45-54. An illustration









of the effectiveness of the framing method is Clarke and Binns' (2006) framing analysis of

magazine coverage of heart disease. Clarke and Binns (2006) suggest that "all media stories are

framed in one way or another. Frames establish boundaries regarding what and how topics will

be discussed" (p. 39). They identified seven frames used in coverage of heart disease in their

study of a sample of Canada's highest circulating mass magazines. The frames they identified

included a "male celebrity patients and doctor" frame (p.44). The "male celebrity patients and

doctor" frame identified by Clarke and Binns (2006) in high-circulation magazines may

contribute to women's belief that breast cancer not heart disease is their biggest health concern

(Gorman, 2003).

By applying a similar framing method as illustrated above, this study is designed to

examine how the top four women's magazines aimed at middle-aged women covered heart

disease and breast cancer from 1997 to 2004. The implications of these findings are important,

as demonstrated by Clarke and Binns (2006), because they suggest that frames may have an

impact on women readers' perceptions of their health risks and how they act upon those risks.

Summary and Research Questions

Three conclusions can be drawn from the existing literature. First, magazines are an

important source of women's health information. Second, there remains a disparity between

magazine coverage of breast cancer and heart disease. Third, women perceive breast cancer as

their greatest health risk even though heart disease is the number one killer of women.

Lacking in the previous research, however, is an examination of the relationships among

magazine coverage of multiple health issues. This study is designed to fill this gap by answering

the following research questions:









RQ 1: What frames were used in heart disease and breast cancer coverage between 1997-

2004 in the top four women's magazines aimed at 45- to 54- year-old women?

RQ 2: Within each magazine, how did sources used in the coverage of breast cancer and

heart disease compare to one another?



By looking at these questions in this way, the researcher will be able to analyze women's

magazine coverage of the top two killers of women as well as the frames used in this coverage.

This study's findings may help identify deficiencies in coverage as well as patterns in how the

issues were framed.









CHAPTER 3
METHODS

This study employed qualitative framing analysis of coverage of heart disease and breast

cancer in the top four women's magazines aimed at women in the 45- to 54-year-old age group;

articles published from 1997 to 2004 were analyzed. This study examined how the content was

framed and followed similar procedures used in Clarke and Binns' 2006 study of heart disease

coverage.

Magazine Selection

Women's magazines were chosen over other forms of media for their in-depth coverage of

health issues. Women's magazines are an important source for women's health information

(Jones, 2004). An analysis of women's magazine coverage of the top two killers of women aged

45 to 54 was deemed important because it could potentially reveal differences in how these

health issues were covered that could potentially be a cause of how women perceive their breast

cancer and heart disease risk. This could reveal a disparity in the coverage that the two diseases

receive. This study differed from previous studies because it looked at the relationships among

coverage of two health issues, while past studies have tended to look at the coverage of only one

issue. Looking at the amount of coverage the top four women's magazines dedicated to heart

disease and breast cancer in addition to the frames utilized in this coverage, gives researchers and

media professionals a better understanding of the complete messages being sent to readers.

The four women's magazines were chosen based on their average annual circulation as

recorded by the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) for the years 1997 to 2004. Preference was

given to magazines that had a consistent health section focusing on women's health, versus

"family health." Therefore, the women's magazines selected were Family Circle, Good

Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal.









This research focused on magazines aimed at women aged 45 to 54 because these women

are more at risk for cancer and heart disease than younger women and are more likely to be

seeking information on the prevention and treatment of these diseases. As women get older, their

chance of developing breast cancer increases (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2007). The

National Cancer Institute (2007) recommends that women begin having regular mammograms

after they turn 40. As women get older, their chance of developing heart disease also increases

(Women's Health.Gov [WHG], 2007). Simple tests for cholesterol levels and blood pressure

levels can help determine a woman's heart disease risk (Mayo, 2007). According to the

Women's Heart Foundation (2005), women are more than twice as likely as men to die from a

heart attack before the age of 50.

The range of ages was determined by taking the age of each magazine's average reader and

matching this with the corresponding age range used in the CDC's Trends on Health and Aging

data table. Family Circle has an average readership age of 52 (FC, 2007), Good Housekeeping

has an average readership age of 50.6 (GH, 2007), Woman's Day has an average readership age

of 49.8 (WD, 2007), and Ladies' Home Journal has an average readership age of 54 (LHJ,

2007).

Eight complete years were examined for each title. The year 1997 was determined an

appropriate year to begin the study because it was the year that the American Heart Association

began a campaign to improve women's awareness of heart disease as the number one killer of

women. In 1997, the American Heart Association conducted a survey that showed only 7% of

women thought heart disease was their greatest health risk (Mosca et al., 2004). A 2004

American Heart Association study looked at how women's perceptions of heart disease changed

from 1997 to 2003. They found that although awareness of heart disease had increased, there









was still a gap between women's perceived risk and their actual risk of having heart disease

(Mosca et al., 2004), suggesting that there were still discrepancies in the health information

women are receiving.

The eight-year period provides enough time to reflect any increases in heart disease

coverage after the American Heart Association awareness campaign began. The year 2004 was

determined an appropriate ending year because the CDC's Trends in Health and Aging data were

not available for 2004 (CDC, 2007a).

Magazine Article Selection

All issues of Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home

Journal published between January 1997 and December 2004 were examined. Analysis

included studying each magazine's cover as well as the table of contents for editorial items

covering either heart disease or breast cancer, or both. All editorial items excluding Q&As,

briefs and quizzes that were at least one page in length and covered heart disease, breast cancer

or both were analyzed. Articles that covered cancer in general that also included breast cancer

information were included. Briefs, quizzes and Q&As were excluded because they lacked a

clearly definable frame and they devoted fewer than 500 words to any one topic.

The magazine articles used in this research were found in hard copy and microfilm form at

the Los Angeles Central Library and the San Diego Central Library. These locations were

chosen because both have extensive and complete periodical collections. All articles that fit the

above criteria were copied and organized by magazine and date.

Article Coding

In order to determine the health issue coverage and the frames utilized, a coding sheet was

constructed to record data (Appendix A). Each article was read in its entirety to determine its

main topic: coverage of heart disease, breast cancer or both; and, overall themes. The article was









then read a second time, line-by-line, to identify keywords and sources. The article was read a

third time to determine the number of pages, section, length in pages, and subheads.

Frames were not predetermined. They were found as the content was read to avoid any

unintentional researcher bias and to "discover new insights as part of the coding process"

(Hertog & McLeod, 2001, p. 153). Leaving frames undetermined gave the researcher "the

ability to learn as a part of the method" (Hertog & McLeod, 2001, p. 153). During the second

read-through of an article, a pencil was used to make note of the frame and any themes

discovered. During the third read-through of the article highlighters were used to mark frames.

Similar frames were highlighted in the same color. For example, words and phrases such as "it

happened to me," "my struggle with illness," or "how I survived cancer" denoted a first-person

narrative frame. This frame was highlighted in yellow. Words and phrases such as "10 cancer-

fighting foods" and "how to stop heart disease before it starts" denoted an empowerment frame.

This frame was highlighted in blue. Distinct colors were used for each frame so that the

researcher could more easily determine frequency of each frame in the women's magazine

coverage.

Constant-Comparative Method

Under the umbrella of qualitative analysis, this research employed the constant-

comparative method, developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). In the constant-

comparative method, the codes and categories the researcher uses when analyzing data are

flexible until the end of the research (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). There are four stages to the

constant comparative method. The first stage is comparing incidents applicable to each category.

During this stage, data are coded into as many categories as possible (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002).

The constant-comparative method differs from traditional qualitative methods because it assigns

a code to each incident based on how it compares to previous incidents the researcher already has









witnessed in her research (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). In this way, category coding is interrelated

and easier to organize into broader categories at a later date in a way that makes sense to the

researcher (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002).

The second phase is integrating categories and their properties. During this phase,

incidents are compared not only to previous incidents, but also with the properties of categories

(Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The third phase is delimiting the theory. During this phase, the

researchers solidify the theory based on the trends they are seeing in the data and the categories

are condensed as common properties are recognized (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The fourth, and

final phase, is writing theory. During this phase the researcher reviews the coded data, her notes

and theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). In this research, the fourth phase is found in the results

section of this thesis.

The constant-comparative method is used in this research because of the large volume of

data with unknown characteristics. Because the constant-comparative method utilizes the

relationships between data to create categories, the researcher will be able to shape theory around

the properties of his data, instead of trying to make the data fit into rigid categories. This allows

the researcher to account for the unexpected and allow that data to shed new understanding on

the research.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Chapter 4 outlines the results of this study. It presents the results of the analysis of Family

Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal's coverage of breast

cancer and heart disease, as well as revealing the frames and sources used in that coverage.

Findings for Editorial Content

A total of 126 articles covering heart disease and breast cancer were found in Family

Circle (n=25), Good Housekeeping (n=18), Woman's Day (n=45), and Ladies' Home Journal

(n=38) during the eight-year period from 1998 to 2004. Of those, 53 articles covered only heart

disease, 55 covered only breast cancer and 18 covered both heart disease and breast cancer.

(Table 4-1)

In addition to heart disease and breast cancer, both magazines covered a range of other

health issues. Family Circle covered cancer of the ovaries, thyroid, skin, colon, brain, lungs,

cervix, pancreas, uterus, bladder and stomach. It also covered diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer's

disease, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, liver disease and HIV. Good Housekeeping covered

cancer of the ovaries, colon, lungs, bladder and stomach. It also covered diabetes, Alzheimer's

disease, asthma, irritable bowl syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. Woman's Day covered cancer

of the stomach, lung, colon, uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, gallbladder, kidney and skin. It

also covered diabetes, pneumonia, lupus, meningitis, epilepsy, arthritis, depression and

incontinence. Ladies' Home Journal covered cancer of the cervix, liver, ovaries, bladder,

pancreas and lung. In addition, it also covered diabetes, glaucoma, osteoporosis and leukemia.

The majority of breast cancer and heart disease articles appeared in the health section of

each magazine. In Family Circle, 88% (n=22) of breast cancer and heart disease articles ran in

the health section. Overall, the most frequent authors of health articles were staff or freelance









writers who were not doctors or medical professionals. In Family Circle, freelance and staff

writers wrote 96% (n=24) of all the health articles studied, with only one article written by a

medical doctor. Similarly, most of Good Housekeeping's articles were written by freelance and

health writers, with only 28% (n=5) of total articles written by medical professionals. Like

Family Circle, only one Woman's Day article, or 2% (n=l), was written by a medical doctor. In

Ladies' Home Journal, 16% (n=6) of articles were written by a medical doctor, the rest were

written by staff or freelance writers.

The average article length varied significantly between the four magazines. Overall,

Family Circle had the greatest average article length (n=3.59). In Ladies' Home Journal 3.48

pages, in Woman's Day 2.83 pages, and in Good Housekeeping the average article length was

2.17 pages. The average length of an article in Family Circle covering heart disease was 3.58

pages, while the average length of an article covering breast cancer was 3.48 pages. In Family

Circle, heart disease received slightly more coverage overall than breast cancer. In Good

Housekeeping, fewer pages were allotted heart disease coverage, which had an average length of

two pages. The average length of an article covering breast cancer was 2.30 pages. (Table 4-2)

The sources used within each magazine differed only by the third most frequently used

source. Of sources used, medical doctors were cited the most frequently and PhDs the second

most frequently in all four magazines. In Family Circle, medical doctors made up 60% (n=125)

of sources and PhD's made up 21% (n=44) of sources. The American Cancer Society was the

third most frequently used source, accounting for 5% (n=l 1) of total sources. Spokespersons for

the American Cancer Society were counted separately if they were medical doctors or PhDs.

Articles in Good Housekeeping cited significantly fewer sources than Family Circle, with a total

of only 60 sources compared to Family Circle's 209 sources. In Good Housekeeping, medical









doctors made up 58% (n=35) of sources cited, and PhDs made up 18% (n=l 1). The third most

frequently cited sources were the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute,

which accounted for 5% (n=3) of sources cited.

Woman's Day used the greatest number of sources of all four women's magazines. Of the

297 sources cited, medical doctors made up 56% (n=165) of sources cited, and Ph.D.s made up

10% (n=31) of sources cited. The third most frequently cited source was the National Cancer

Institute cited only 2% (n=6) of the time. Medical doctors were the most frequently used source

in Ladies'Home Journal, making up 53% (n=122) of all 231 sources used. Ph.D.s were the

second most frequently used source, accounting for 11% (n=25) of all sources used. The

American Heart Association was the third most frequently cited source, making up 3% (n=7) of

all sources used (Tables 4-3 and 4-4).

RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Covered Between
1997-2004 in the Top Two Women's Magazines Aimed at 45- to 54- Year-Old Women?

Over the eight-year period studied, this research identified five overriding frames through

the analysis of titles, main topics, subheads and sources in women's magazine coverage of heart

disease and breast cancer. They are (1) empowerment, (2) breakthrough, (3) dispelling myths,

(4) first-person narrative, and (5) personal narrative.

Family Circle had a total of 25 articles covering heart disease, breast cancer and both

diseases. The predominant frame used in those articles was the empowerment frame, which

made up 56% (n=14) of all frames used in all Family Circle stories. The second most frequently

used frame was the breakthrough frame, which was used 28% (n=7) of all stories. The dispelling

myths frame was used the third most frequently, in 12% (n=3) of all stories. The personal

narrative was used only once, making up only 4% (n=l) of frames used in all stories and the

first-person narrative frame was not used at all (Tables 4-5 and 4-6).









Like Family Circle, the most commonly used frame in Good Housekeeping stories was the

empowerment frame, which made up 44% (n=8) of all frames used in all stories. The

breakthrough and first-person narrative frames were the next most frequently used frames, each

making up 28% (n=5) of all story frames. None of the articles found in Good Housekeeping

used the dispelling myths and personal narrative frames.

In Woman's Day, the empowerment frame was used considerably more often than all other

frames, making up 60% (n=27) of frames used in stories. The personal narrative was the next

most frequently used frame, making up 13% (n=6) of frames used in stories. Woman's Day

stories used the breakthrough frame for 11% (n=5) of all stories. The dispelling myths frame

made up 9% (n=4) of all frames used in all stories. The least frequently used frame was the first-

person narrative frame, used in only 7% (n=3) of all stories.

The frame used most frequently in Ladies' Home Journal articles was the empowerment

frame, making up 34% (n=13) of frames used in all stories. Like in Good Housekeeping, the

breakthrough frame was the second most frequently used frame, making up 26% (n=10) of

frames used in all stories. Stories using the personal narrative frame made up 21% (n=8) of all

stores used. The first-person narrative made up 13% (n=5) of frames appearing in stories. The

dispelling myths frame was used the least, making up only 5% (n=2) of frames used in all

stories.

Empowerment Frame

The empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in Family Circle, Good

Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal. It was used in 49% (n=62) of all

stories in all magazines. As the name implies, the empowerment frame is about women taking

charge of their own health. Statements like "seize hold of your health yourself" and encouraging









women to "listen to their bodies and act on their beliefs" were used in the empowerment frame in

order to encourage women to take control of their health (Lynch, 1997).

The empowerment frame also provided readers with information to help women prevent,

diagnose and choose the best treatment options when faced with heart disease and breast cancer.

One Family Circle article, titled "Vital Medical Tests: How to Prevent Dangerous Mistakes"

gave definitions of common medical tests, where to go to get them, how the tests are performed

and what women can do to prevent a dangerous mistake from happening to them (Fischer, 1998).

A common format within the empowerment frame was used for this story: the first half of the

article provided readers with information about a disease and the second half provided readers

with information on what they can do to prevent or treat it. Another article titled, "How You

Can Prevent Cancer" gave information on new findings about what foods help prevent cancer

(Henig, 1997). The article tells readers they have "more control" than they may think over their

chances of getting heart disease.

Another format of the empowerment frame was used in the Good Housekeeping article,

titled "The 318 Top Cancer Specialists for Women" (Abrams, 1999). In the article information

about several diseases are broken down by the risk they pose to women, how to prevent them and

how to screen for them. This synopsis was then followed by the story of how a cancer specialist

was able to help a woman with cancer. The article was followed by a list of the 318 top cancer

specialists, encouraging women to take control of their health and seek out expert advice when

faced with cancer (Abrams, 1999).

The empowerment frame did more than just provide readers with information on diseases;

it encouraged women to actively participate in their own disease prevention. A Good

Housekeeping article, titled "Get a Mammogram You Can Trust," provided women with









information about how they could increase their odds of getting an accurate mammogram (Moss,

2003). The article also warned readers that "this may require boldness," encouraging women to

speak up when it comes to their health (Moss, 2003).

Another component of the empowerment frame was encouraging women to believe in their

intuition when it comes to their health. One Family Circle article, titled "Fighting Cancer the

Best Weapon: Take Charge," encouraged women to take the initiative and related a story of a

woman whose "persistence saved her life" (Lynch, 1997). In the article, several women's

experiences with cancer were told with a focus on how listening to their bodies saved their lives.

One woman, whose doctor refused to believe her when she said she thought she had cancer

persisted until she found a doctor who would believe her. The woman said, "I followed my gut

and saved my life" (Lynch, 1997).

Breakthrough

The breakthrough frame was found in stories that gave information about new treatments,

cures and diagnosis techniques for heart disease and breast cancer. The breakthrough frame

accounted for 21% (n=27) of all frames used in stories found in all four magazines. Articles

using the breakthrough frame tended to feature a hopeful tone regarding disease treatment,

reassuring readers that heart disease and breast cancer are not the health threats they once were

thanks to new medical advances. This is illustrated with statements like "new evidence," a "new

class of drugs," "new studies," and "but now research shows" (Haupt, 1997). For instance, in

Good Housekeeping's "The Anti-Cancer Diet," readers were presented with new dietary

recommendations that may "reduce the chance of developing cancer by 30 to 40%" (Napier,

1998).

New prevention information can signal new hope for readers. Family Circle 's article,

titled "Lifesaving Medical Breakthroughs," gave readers a "preview of what scientists are









working on now," and said that "we are on the brink of a golden age of medicine" (Lyon, 2000).

The article gave information on how current research potentially could change the way diseases

are diagnosed and treated in the future. Similarly, the Woman's Day article titled "Making

Strides Against Breast Cancer" gave information on recent research breakthroughs regarding

breast cancer drugs (Martino, 1998). These new drugs may mean more effective treatment of

breast cancer. A Ladies' Home Journal article titled, "Women Are Different" gave readers

information about how women's health has improved over the last 10 years, as well as what

advances are expected in the next 10 years (Roufos, 2000). The article catches up readers on

some of the biggest breakthroughs of the past as well as providing information on new

technologies that may provide hope for disease sufferers.

Updates on prevention can also provide readers with in-depth information on a procedure

they were previously unfamiliar with. In a Family Circle article, titled "News about Breast

Cancer that could Save Your Life," new mammogram and biopsy technologies are explained in

an easy-to-understand way (Castleman, 1997, p. 60). For instance, the article includes an

illustration that breaks down the steps of a new biopsy procedure, the mammotomy, making it

easy for readers to understand how the technique works.

The informative nature of the breakthrough frame can sometimes be confusing. Too much

information can be just as confusing as not enough. To address this, some articles reviewed how

previous "breakthroughs" have been affected by more recent breakthroughs. One Good

Housekeeping article, titled "Breakthroughs in Battling Breast Cancer," did just that (Snyderman,

1997).The article reviewed previous recommendations by the National Cancer Institute, the

National Institutes of Health and the American Cancer Society in order to give readers a picture

of how recommendations have changed over time and what they are today.









Dispelling Myths

The dispelling myths frame appeared in Family Circle, Woman's Day and Ladies' Home

Journal and made up 7% (n=9) of frames used in all stories. Articles using the dispelling-myths

frame typically followed a similar format. A myth was first presented and was followed by

information confirming or dispelling that myth. One of the articles reviewed using the dispelling

myths frame did not use this format. Instead Family Circle 's article, titled "Can What You Eat

Really Prevent Cancer" instead gave information on foods that increased and decreased a

woman's cancer risk (Castleman, 2002). The article also dispelled common myths about food's

role in causing and preventing cancer. Headings included "the truth about fiber" and "the scoop

on supplements" (Castleman, 2002, p.62).

All articles in Family Circle and Ladies' Home Journal using the dispelling myths frame

were about cancer, and the purpose of two of the articles was to dispel myths about the link

between certain foods and cancer. Titles of articles using the dispelling myths framed include

words like "truth" and "facts." Articles using the dispelling myths frame utilized a format in

which a myth was introduced and followed by information provided to disprove the myth. An

article, titled "What to Eat to Prevent Cancer: The Truth Behind 12 Diet and Cancer Myths"

debunked myths and included information on how to cut readers' cancer risk (Castleman, 1998).

None of the articles found in Family Circle and Ladies' Home Journal covering heart disease

used this frame. Instead, articles covering heart disease predominantly used the empowerment

and breakthrough frames.

Dispelling myths about cancer meant replacing popular myths with facts that potentially

could make a positive difference in a reader's health. For example, an article titled, "Breast

Cancer Facts and Fallacies: The Truths That Can Save Your Life" stated that "the more facts you

know about this disease, the better you will be able to protect your health" (William, 2000). In









Ladies' Home Journal, one of two articles using the dispelling myths frame dealt with myths

about mammograms. The article, titled "Should I Have a Mammogram?" discussed medical

myths of the past in order to conclude that current mammography benefits outweigh any

mammography inadequacies (Grady, 2002). The only other article in Ladies' Home Journal

using the dispelling myths frame dealt with myths a woman might hear from their doctors

regarding their breast health. Ranging from doctors saying women are "too young" to have

cancer to telling women that a lump is "nothing to worry about," the article provided women

with what they should expect when receiving breast cancer related information from a competent

doctor (Costas, 1998).

Woman's Day was the only magazine to use the dispelling myths frame in stories about

heart disease. In an article titled, "Cholesterol: Should You Worry?" myths about women,

cholesterol and their related heart disease risk are dispelled (Browder, 1997). One myth the

article dispels is that just because a woman is overweight doesn't necessarily mean she has high

cholesterol. The reverse is true. The article urges women to get their cholesterol levels checked

regardless of how they perceive their outward physical condition because other factors like

genetics might predispose them to have higher cholesterol, putting them at higher risk for heart

disease (Browder, 1997). The other article using the dispelling myths frame in Woman's Day

dispelled the myth that a heart attack is always accompanied by pain in women. The article

titled, "Medical Myths that can Kill" provided information on the symptoms that women might

experience while having a heart attack and included differences in symptoms based on age

(Houck, 2003).

First-Person Narrative

The first-person narrative made up 10% (n=13) of total article frames in all the magazines

except Good Housekeeping. First-person narratives were identified mainly by the fact that the









article was written from the first-person perspective and included few if any additional sources.

The first-person narratives did not always focus exclusively on the physical manifestations of a

disease and often detailed how it affected the victim's family and professional life. Many of the

narratives were told by women who were shocked and confused by their diagnosis. In a Good

Housekeeping article, titled "I'm Too Young to Have a Stroke," the narrator balked at the idea

that she might be sick saying, ". preposterous! A perfectly healthy 48-year-old doesn't wake

up feeling fine and then have a stroke" (Sigmon, 2003, p.72). Another common emotion

expressed in first person narratives was fear. In another Good Housekeeping article, one woman

realized that she was having a heart attack and stated that she was "scared" and "very

discouraged" (Griffin, 2003, p. 95). This fear is a way to connect the readers with the narrator

and to motivate them to prevent the same thing from happening to them.

Another angle of the first-person narrative is how women cope with a devastating

diagnosis. In GoodHousekeeping's "A Woman of Valor" article, one woman shares the story of

how she dealt with a breast cancer diagnosis (Greene, 1998). Faced with her own mortality, the

narrator says, "Even though I've lost control over my body, I can still control my behavior"

(Greene, 1998, p.74). The purpose of this article is not to provide in-depth and scientific

information; instead this article seeks to provide a way for women in a similar situation to cope.

The article focuses on how the breast cancer victim becomes the breast cancer survivor. This

article also tackles the narrator's fear of mutilation: "the fear of mutilation lasts a lifetime," she

writes (Greene, 1998, p.76).

Since the first-person narrative stories are written by the same person who was diagnosed

with the life-threatening illness, the reader knows the author survives. The narrative, in addition

to sharing the story of a person who survived a disease, gives hope to readers who may find









themselves in a similar position. The first-person narrative frame was present in the only article

used in this research that also featured a celebrity. In Good Housekeeping's article, titled

"Rosie's Worst Fear" Rosie O'Donnell comes face to face with the possibility that she might

have breast cancer (Powell, 1999, p. 107).

Personal Narrative

The personal narrative frame is similar to the first-person frame in that it relates a person's

story, or narrative. But the personal narrative frame is different because, unlike the first-person

frame, it is told in the third-person. Articles using the personal narrative frame were made up of

several women's stories about their experiences with heart disease or breast cancer.

The personal narrative frame was used predominantly with breast cancer. Woman's Day

was the only magazine to feature heart disease articles that used the personal narrative frame. In

the article titled "Heart to Heart," the author discusses three families who have learned that heart

disease runs in their families and the actions they have taken to prevent it (Cadoff, 2001). Their

experience with heart disease is interspersed with helpful health information such as healthy

blood pressure and cholesterol numbers (Cadoff, 2001). Like the first-person narrative, the

personal narrative titled, "Too Young to Die" presents a woman's story with which readers can

relate (Belson, 2001). Unlike the first-person narrative, the personal narrative article relates the

woman's tale after her death. The article tells the story of a woman who dies suddenly from a

massive heart attack, presenting a wake-up call to women who may share similar risk factors.

The article goes on to provide warning signs of a heart attack as well as heart disease prevention

tips (Belson, 2001).

In 1999, Woman's Day began a series of articles written in conjunction with the American

Heart Association that focused on heart disease and women. One of the articles, titled "A Place

for Us." used the personal narrative frame to share women's experiences with heart disease from









across the country (Weinstock, 2002). The article emphasized the importance of gender-specific

heart disease treatment as well as providing information from women's heart centers across the

country.

The only personal narrative that appeared in Family Circle covered three women's fights

with breast cancer. The article, titled "Breast Cancer Breakthroughs: How women are beating

the odds" (Di Constanzo, October 2002), focused on the fact that many breast cancer cases are

highly treatable now. Each woman used breakthroughs in breast cancer for their diagnosis and

treatment, giving hope to other women in a similar position.

RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer
and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?

Although Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal

covered both breast cancer and heart disease, each did it in their own way. These differences and

similarities can be seen in the sources that each article cited.

In Family Circle, the top two most frequently used source types for both heart disease and

breast cancer coverage were medical doctors and Ph.D.s. There were 47 instances of medical

doctors being used as sources in heart disease coverage and 33 such instances in breast cancer

coverage. Professionals with a Ph.D. were cited 21 times as sources in articles covering breast

cancer but only 12 times in articles covering heart disease. In articles covering heart disease, the

third most frequently used source was the American Heart Association, with a total of five cites.

Articles covering breast cancer cited the American Cancer Society most frequently, after medical

doctors and Ph.D.'s, a total of six times.

In Good Housekeeping, the most frequently used source type for both heart disease and

breast cancer coverage was medical doctors. Breast cancer articles cited medical doctors a total

of 28 times, while heart disease coverage cited medical doctors only five times. The second









most frequently used source type in articles covering breast cancer was Ph.D.'s, used a total of

eight times. The second most frequently used source in articles covering heart disease was the

National Institute of Health, used twice.

In Woman's Day, the two most frequently used source types for breast cancer and heart

disease articles were medical doctors and PhDs. Medical doctors made up 45% (n=33) of breast

cancer article sources and 58% (n=102) of heart disease article sources. PhD citations made up

8% (n=6) of sources used in breast cancer articles and 11% (n=20) in heart disease articles. In

articles covering breast cancer, the third most frequently cited source was the National Cancer

Institute, making up 4% (n=3) of sources. In articles covering heart disease, the third most

frequently cited source was the American Heart Association, making up 2% (n=3) of sources.

In Ladies' Home Journal, the two most frequently used source types for breast cancer and

heart disease were medical doctors and PhDs. Articles covering breast cancer used medical

doctors in 51% (n=51) of articles and used PhD as sources 13% (n=13). The third most

frequently used frame was the American Cancer Society used in 5% (n=5) of articles. In heart

disease coverage, medical doctors were the most frequently used source making up 55% (n=47)

of sources cited. The second most frequently cited source was the American Heart Association

cited in 6% (n=5) of articles.

Overall, Family Circle used more sources in articles covering breast cancer than Good

Housekeeping. Family Circle used a total of 88 sources, while Good Housekeeping used 47.

This may have been because Family Circle articles were on average 1.59 pages longer than Good

Housekeeping articles. Also, Family Circle had seven more articles than Good Housekeeping

did that covered heart disease, breast cancer or both.









Table 4-1. List of total number of articles by disease
Magazine Disease Number of Articles
Family Circle Breast Cancer 10
Heart Disease 9
Both 6
Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer 10
Heart Disease 7
Both 1
Woman's Day Breast Cancer 15
Heart Disease 24
Both 6
Ladies' Home Journal Breast Cancer 20
Heart Disease 13
Both 5
All Magazines Breast Cancer 55
Heart Disease 53
Both 18


Percentage of Total Articles
40%
36%
24%
56%
39%
6%
33%
53%
13%
53%
34%
13%
44%
42%
14%












Table 4-2. List of average length for articles found by disease
Magazine Disease
Family Circle Breast Cancer
Heart Disease
Both
Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer
Heart Disease
Both
Woman's Day Breast Cancer
Heart Disease
Both
Ladies' Home Journal Breast Cancer
Heart Disease
Both
All Magazines Breast Cancer
Heart Disease
Both


Average Page Length
3.48
3.58
3.59
2.30
2.00
2.17
2.23
3.26
2.58
3.59
3.33
3.45
2.90
3.04
2.95









Table 4-3. List of total number of sources used by magazine
Magazine Number of Sources
Good Housekeeping 60
Family Circle 209
Woman's Day 297
Ladies' Home Journal 231
All 802

Table 4-4. List of most top two most frequently used sources by disease
Magazine Disease Type


Breast Cancer

Heart Disease

Both

Breast Cancer

Heart Disease

Both

Breast Cancer

Heart Disease

Both

Breast Cancer

Heart Disease

Both


MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
National Institute of Health
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
PhD Sources
MD Sources
American Heart Association
MD Sources
PhD Sources


Number of
Sources
33
21
47
12
45
11
28
8
5
2
2
3
33
6
102
20
30
5
51
13
47
5
24
10


Family Circle


Good Housekeeping


Woman's Day


Ladies' Home Journal









Table 4-5. List of frames by disease used in Family
Magazine Disease
Family Circle Breast Cancer




Heart Disease




Both


Breast Cancer


Heart Disease




Both


Circle and Good Housekeeping
Frame Frame Use
Empowerment 4
Breakthrough 2
Dispelling Myths 3
First Person Narrative 1
Personal Narrative 0
Empowerment 7
Breakthrough 2
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 0
Personal Narrative 0
Empowerment 3
Breakthrough 3
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 0
Personal Narrative 0
Empowerment 4
Breakthrough 3
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 3
Personal Narrative 0
Empowerment 4
Breakthrough 1
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 2
Personal Narrative 0
Empowerment 0
Breakthrough 1
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 0
Personal Narrative 0


Good Housekeeping









Table 4-6. List of frames by disease used in Woman's Day and Ladies' Home Journal
Magazine Disease Frame Frame Use
Woman's Day Breast Cancer Empowerment 9
Breakthrough 2
Dispelling Myths 1
First Person Narrative 1
Personal Narrative 2
Heart Disease Empowerment 14
Breakthrough 2
Dispelling Myths 2
First Person Narrative 2
Personal Narrative 4
Both Empowerment 4
Breakthrough 1
Dispelling Myths 1
First Person Narrative 0
Personal Narrative 0
Ladies'Home Journal Breast Cancer Empowerment 3
Breakthrough 3
Dispelling Myths 2
First Person Narrative 4
Personal Narrative 8
Heart Disease Empowerment 9
Breakthrough 3
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 1
Personal Narrative 0
Both Empowerment 1
Breakthrough 4
Dispelling Myths 0
First Person Narrative 0
Personal Narrative 0









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

This study revealed similarities and differences between heart disease and breast cancer

coverage in women's magazines. One similarity between the four magazines' heart disease and

breast cancer coverage is the extensive use of the empowerment frame. Also of note was the

similarity between the four magazines' use of sources. Overall, medical doctors and PhDs were

the two most frequently used source types for both diseases.

Differences between heart disease and breast cancer coverage included the use of the

dispelling myths frame, which was used for heart disease coverage only in Woman's Day's.

Another difference between coverage of the two diseases is that more sources were used in

breast cancer stories overall than for heart disease coverage despite the fact that the average page

length of breast cancer and heart disease articles was almost equal. One similarity between the

two diseases was that overall, there was only one more breast cancer article than heart disease

articles.

With all the magazine coverage that breast cancer receives, it is little wonder that women

believe it is their greatest health risk. The disparity in how women view heart disease and breast

cancer may be a result of the coverage each disease receives. Breast cancer is traditionally

considered a woman's disease. In the past 20 years it has gained notoriety through celebrity

advocacy, fundraising and a national campaign. One in eight women will be diagnosed with

breast cancer in their lives (ACS, 2007) which means that many women will either be diagnosed

with or know someone who has been diagnosed with breast cancer. On the other hand, the term

"heart disease" is an umbrella term that includes many different ailments, including heart attacks

and strokes. The effects of heat disease are often long-term. While a heart attack might strike

with little warning, other symptoms of heart disease like high cholesterol and high blood









pressure might be present for years. Despite the fact that one in eight women will be diagnosed

with breast cancer, only one in 35 will die (ACS, 2007). This difference between how the two

diseases affect women may contribute to the quantity of coverage that breast cancer receives

over heart disease. Heart disease is a silent killer with little or no outward symptoms while

breast cancer may result in a physical manifestation, like the loss of a woman's breasts.

Implications from Research Questions

RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage Between
1997-2004 in the Top Two Women's Magazines Aimed at 45- to 54- Year-Old Women?

Of the four magazines analyzed, Woman's Day was the only magazine to use the dispelling

myths frame in its heart disease coverage. Family Circle and Ladies' Home Journal both used

the dispelling myths frame in their breast cancer coverage only. Good Housekeeping did not use

the dispelling myths in any health coverage. The use of the dispelling myths frame more

frequently in breast cancer coverage is important because it suggests that readers already have

some prior knowledge of the disease. In order to convey to readers truths about breast cancer,

readers must already be knowledgeable about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment options and risk

factors. The fact that the dispelling myths frame used just twice and in only one magazine's

heart disease coverage suggests that heart disease is not a disease about which many women

already have knowledge. So, in order to frame heart disease coverage correctly, the

empowerment, breakthrough, personal narrative and even first-person narrative frames are used

in order to provide readers with new information they might not already know.

In heart disease coverage, special emphasis is placed on the empowerment frame. This

could be attributed to the newness of the information being conveyed. Also, the use of first-

person and personal narratives in heart disease framing suggests that Good Housekeeping,

Woman's Day and Ladies' Home Journal were making an effort to share with readers women's









stories about their experience with heart disease. Whatever the reason, only Woman's Day

devoted more articles and sources to the coverage of heart disease than breast cancer.

Similar to heart disease coverage, breast cancer articles were framed using all five frames:

empowerment, breakthrough, dispelling myths, first-person narratives and personal narrative.

The use of this range of different frames in breast cancer coverage suggests that authors are

trying to reach their audience in the most effective way. These frames included less new

information and assumed the reader had more knowledge of the topic to begin with.

In Good Housekeeping and Ladies' Home Journal, breast cancer was covered more

frequently than heart disease. Articles covering breast cancer also cited more sources than

articles covering heart disease. The average page length for breast cancer articles was also

longer than for heart disease articles. The difference in how women view breast cancer and heart

disease as health risks could be a result of this disparity in coverage. Despite contrary statistics,

many women still view breast cancer as their biggest health risk and women's magazines

recognize that. Good Housekeeping may have focused more health coverage on breast cancer in

order to appease readers who were looking for more information on the disease.

Similarly, in Family Circle, more articles were found that covered breast cancer than those

that covered heart disease. Articles on breast cancer cited more sources than articles covering

heart disease. However, heart disease articles had a higher average page length than those

articles covering breast cancer. This means that more space was devoted to the coverage of heart

disease in Family Circle, and suggests that despite a deficiency in the quantity of heart disease

articles overall, the coverage devoted to heart disease may use more sources and have longer

average article lengths than coverage devoted to breast cancer. This may be a result of the level

of coverage breast cancer has traditionally received in women's magazines. In many women's









minds, breast cancer is their greatest health risk. As a result, they may actively seek out

information about breast cancer. A primary source of that information is women's magazines.

Therefore, breast cancer coverage need not be as comprehensive as heart disease coverage

because women already have sought that information and obtained it prior to reading the article.

Also, heart disease is thought of less as a health threat in women's minds and thus, information

about it is not as actively sought after as breast cancer information may be. Magazine coverage

must therefore relay not only basic information like statistics and definitions to reinforce the

severity of heart disease, but also introduce new information about heart disease.

In contrast, Woman's Day 's was the only magazine to have more articles covering heart

disease than breast cancer. Also, its heart disease articles used more than twice as many sources

as breast cancer articles and had a longer average article length. It is important to note that

Woman's Day was the only magazine of the four that ran a series of articles in conjunction with

the American Heart Association. Of the four magazines, Woman's Day was the only magazine

to consistently cover heart disease and its risk to women.

RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer
and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?

The presence of multiple sources in breast cancer and heart disease coverage helps to

reinforce the credibility of the information it conveys. Overall, Woman's Day cited the most

sources, followed in descending order by Ladies' Home Journal, Family Circle and Good

Housekeeping. Of the sources cited overall in all four magazines, medical doctors and PhDs

were the most frequently cited above all other sources. The presence of professional sources

suggests that the information in the articles is correct and thoroughly researched. The consistent

use of medical doctors over other sources could reassure readers that the information they are









reading is similar to the information they would get from their own doctor. This might cause

readers to pay more information to the information they are receiving as well as follow it better.

Overall, Good Housekeeping used fewer sources than the other three magazines. The

combination of a lack of credible sources and authors who are not health professionals may

undermine the health information they provide. This deficiency may be explained by the use of

the first-person narrative frame and the fact that it had the fewest articles (n=18) overall.

Articles using the first-person narrative frame tended to use few, if any, sources because articles

using the first-person narrative frame focused on the disease sufferer's experience rather than

conveying facts about disease.

While medical doctors and PhDs were used the most frequently, other sources like the

American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, National Institutes of Health, and even

National Cancer Institute were used few times, if at all, in a majority of the articles. This

disparity between the uses of sources reflects journalists and media professional's choices of

sources for important health information. One concern of the concentrated use of only medical

doctors and PhDs is that important information that may be available from equally credible

sources, like the American Heart Association, is being overlooked. Another concern with

journalists' use of sources in articles is that many articles cited studies without providing enough

information about the study to enable interested readers to seek more information. Because most

of the articles were written by journalists, not medical professionals, the credibility of their

interpretation of the study findings may be at issue. Most journalists are not trained to read and

understand scientific studies; thus they may not always understand the result of a study and the

interrelation of those results.









Also, many journalists might not know that many heart disease studies fail to include

women (AHA, 2007b). The American Heart Association (2007b) reports that women make up

only 38% of subjects in the National Institutes of Health cardiovascular studies, and for one third

of all new drugs approved by the FDA, there is no information about whether they are safe for

women. This may result in journalists citing studies that might provide findings relevant only to

men and heart disease, not women.

The Big Picture: Women's Magazines Coverage of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer

Overall, this research supported conclusions derived from the review of previous literature.

Reviewing this research, three points can be concluded about women's magazines coverage of

heart disease and breast cancer. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive similar coverage,

despite the fact that a woman is far more likely to die of heart disease than breast cancer.

Covello and Peters (2002) found that media coverage exaggerated women's breast cancer risk,

and this remains true. The fact that the number of breast cancer articles is essentially the same

as heart disease articles suggests that it is at least as dire a health risk to women as heart disease.

Second, the empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in coverage of both

heart disease and breast cancer. This may be because of the frame's effectiveness. The

empowerment frame encouraged women to take control of their health, the article providing tips

on prevention and disease information. This is an important finding for media professionals,

who might be searching for the most effective frame in order to relay to readers important health

information.

Third, there is a deficiency in the coverage heart disease receives. Clark and Binns (2006)

found an overall lack of information on women and heart disease. In this research the same was

true, with the exception of Woman's Day magazine. Many of its articles focused on heart

disease, and in particular the relationship between women and heart disease. In the articles









reviewed in this research the majority of those covering heart disease focused on women and

their role in preventing, treating and recognizing the symptoms of heart disease. Despite this

increase in articles covering women and heart disease, this research reveals that the amount of

coverage it receives still does not treat it as a woman's number one health risk Therefore, what

this study concludes about women's magazine coverage of heart disease and breast cancer is that

there is a serious disparity between the health impact of heart disease and breast cancer and the

coverage each receives.

Conclusion

This research's findings reinforce the importance of the media as a source of health

information for women. The four women's magazines studied all had health sections that

provided health information about a range of health topics. Focusing only on breast cancer and

heart disease, this research found that magazines gave both diseases almost equal coverage. The

fact that women are still unable to correctly identify the greatest health risk reflects this coverage

and stresses the important role that media professionals play in conveying women's heart disease

and breast cancer risks. While there are no printed guidelines for writing about heart disease and

breast cancer, the sources that media professionals choose when writing health articles can make

a difference. Organizations like the American Heart Association and the American Cancer

Society have media relations liaisons that can answer media professionals' questions and provide

important information.

What this research's findings mean for women seeking health information is that while

magazines are an important source of health information, women should not rely solely on

magazines for their information. Magazines, for all their benefits, are still confined by space and

the timeliness of the information they provide. Also, magazines' primary aim is to sell

magazines and to sell space to advertisers, not necessarily to inform women about their health









risks in a way that emphasizes the risk each disease poses. Also, many journalists are not

medical professionals and may not always be able to accurately and fully report on medical

studies.

Suggestions for Future Research

One of the problems with this study's methodology is that the years examined for this

study are not sufficient to provide a clear view of trends in breast cancer and heart disease

coverage. Analysis of years preceding the beginning of this eight-year period and to the present

would provide a picture of how, if at all, coverage of heart disease and breast cancer increased or

decreased over time.

Future research could also examine the correlation between the months dedicated to

disease awareness and coverage of a disease. For example, October is traditionally known as

breast cancer awareness month, so it would be interesting to see if more breast cancer articles

appear in October's issue of a women's magazine than the rest of the issues.

Another problem was the limitations of looking at only four women's magazines. Future

research could explore the way a larger range of women's magazines cover heart disease and

breast cancer and look for new frames. Another possible research idea would be to study

women's magazines that target an ethnic audience, like Ebony or Latina magazine. This might

reveal the use of different frames in heart disease and breast cancer coverage.

Taking this research one step further, future researchers could also explore the readership

of Good Housekeeping, Family Circle, Woman's Day, and Ladies' Home Journal through focus

groups. Researchers could then determine how women who read the magazines perceive heart

disease and breast cancer, revealing the effectiveness of health article's frames.









APPENDIX: CODING SHEET


1. MAGAZINE NAME

2. DATE

3. SECTION


4. PAGE NUMBERS)

5. APPROXIMATE LENGTH (IN PAGES)

6. AUTHOR

7. TITLE

8. WHICH DISEASES DOES IT ADDRESS
(CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY)
a. HEART DISEASE
b. BREAST CANCER

9. MAIN TOPIC

10. SECONDARY TOPIC(S) OF STORY

11. SUBHEADERS

12. SOURCES USED IN ARTICLE

13. FRAMING ANALYSIS (MARK DIRECTLY ON HARD-COPY OF ARTICLE)









Coding Guidelines
1. Magazine name: write in one of four magazine titles.
2. Record date of publication.
3. Section article was in: look at top corners for section label, if none write 'none.'
4. Page number that article begins with and each page that article jumps to.
5. Approximate length of article in pages: count the number of pages including text and graphics.
If a page has ads on it, estimate the amount of text and add-up. Use 1 page, /4 page, /2 page, and
3/ page.
6. Author's name: include their title if applicable (MD, PhD, etc).
7. Record article's full title. If the headline includes more than one line, please write all of it.
8. Circle all diseases covered. Coverage means more information is provided than the mention
of the disease. Information must be provided about an aspect of the disease. For example:
diagnosis, myths regarding disease, surviving disease, treatments, etc.
9. Main topic: Identify article's main topic. This is the primary issue that this article covers. If it
is difficult to determine the article's main topic, then count the number of paragraphs that deal
with the issue you think is the main topic. The topic with the most paragraphs is the main topic.
10. Secondary topics: Any other topics article covers that are not the main topic.
11. Subheads: Record if any.
12. Sources: Any sources that are used in story: paraphrased or directly quoted. List the names
and titles of all sources. These may include organizations, web sites and studies.
13. Framing analysis: Read the item carefully several times. Going paragraph by paragraph,
identify keywords, phrases, metaphors and sources of information used, and notably absent, in
the story to determine how the article is framed. How are the diseases framed? What sources
are used? Are these credible sources? Elements of framing include symbols, keywords,
metaphors, catchphrases and themes as well as those that are notably absent. Underline in pencil
any clues (keywords, metaphors, phrases, etc.) as to the article's frame, and write in the margin
what frame(s) you identify.


Attach the coding sheet to the article being coded









LIST OF REFERENCES


Abrams, M. (1999). The 318 top cancer specialists for women. Good Housekeeping, 67-
75.


American Cancer Society (2006). Cancer Facts and Figures. Retrieved
March 10, 2007 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0 2006.asp?
sitearea=STT&level= 1


American Cancer Society (2007). What Are the Key Statistics for Breast Cancer?
Retrieved November 15, 2007 from
http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_24_ 1X Whatarethe_key_statistics_f
orbreast_cancer5. asp


American Heart Association (2007a). Women, Heart Disease and Stroke.
Retrieved March 20, 2007 from http://www.americanheart.org
/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4786


American Heart Association (2007b). Women and Cardiovascular Disease Facts. Retrieved
December 3, 2007, from http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?
identifier=3039318


Andsager, J.L. & Powers, A. (1999). Social or economic concerns: How news and
women's magazines framed breast cancer in the 1990s. Journalism andMass
Communication Quarterly, 76(3), 531-550.


Andsager, J.L. & Powers, A. (2001). Framing women's health with a sense-making
approach: Magazine coverage of breast cancer and implants. Health Communication,
13(2), 163-185.


Barnett, B. (2006). Health as women's work: A pilot study on how women's magazines
frame medical news and femininity. Women and Language, 29(2), 1-12.









Belson, A.A. (2001). Too young to die. Woman's Day, 44-48.


Browder, S.E. (1997). Cholesterol: Should you worry. Woman's Day, 46-55.


Cadoff, J. (2001). Heart to heart. Woman's Day, 45-48.


Castleman, M. (1997). News about breast cancer that could save your life. Family
Circle, 110, 60-66.


Castleman, M. (1998). What to eat to prevent cancer: The truth behind 12 diet
and cancer myths. Family Circle, 111, 62-70.


Castleman, M. (2002). Can what you eat really prevent cancer? Family Circle, 115,
61-64


Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007a). Beyond 20/20: Trends in
health and aging: Mortality: Death rates by age, sex, and underlying cause in the United
States, 1981-2004. Retrieved July 15, 2007, from http://209.217.72.34/
aging/ReportFolders/ReportFolders. aspx?IF_ActivePathName=P/Mortality


Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007b). Leading Cause ofDeath:
1900- 1998. Retrieved March 4, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/
dvs/leadl900_98.pdf


Clarke, J.N. (1992). Cancer, heart disease, and AIDS: What do the media tell us about these
diseases? Health Communication, 4(2), 105-120.


Clarke, J.N. & Binns, J. (2006). The portrayal of heart disease in mass print magazines,
1991-2001. Health Communication, 19(1), 39-48.


Costas, C. (1998). You're too young to have cancer. Ladies'Home Journal, 120-128.











Covello, V.T. & Peters, R.G. (2002). Women's perceptions of the risks of age-related diseases,
including breast cancer: reports from a 3-year research study. Health Communication,
14(3), 377-395.


Di Constanzo, D. (2002, October 8). Breast cancer breakthroughs: How women are beating the
odds. Family Circle, 115, 82-91.


Entman, R.M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of
Communication, 43(4), 51-8.


Family Circle (2007). Media kit. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from
http://search.rja-ads.com/pdfs/demographics/fc-audience.pdf


Frisby, C. & Fleming, K. (2005). Breast cancer anxiety and its links to media use and
perceptions of medial information in African Americans and Caucasians.
International Communication Association, 2005 Annual Meeting. Pp. 1-34.


Gamson, W.A. & Modigliani, A. (1989). Media discourse and public opinion on nuclear power:
A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, 95(1), 1-37.


Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for
qualitative research. London: Aldine Transaction.


Good Housekeeping (2007). Media Kit. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from
http://www.ghmediakit.com/r5/showkiosk.asp?listing_id=368324&category_id=25077&
category_code=research


Gorman, C. (2003). The No. 1 killer of women. Time, 2003, cover story.


Grady, D. (2002). Should I have a mammogram. Ladies' Home Journal, 70-75.











Greene, E. (1998). A woman of valor. Good Housekeeping, 74-81.


Griffon, K. (2003). This healthy woman had a heart attack, could you? Good
Housekeeping, 95-102.


Harcourt, D.M., Rumsey, N.J., Ambler, N.R., Cawthorn, S.J., Reid, C.D., Maddox, P.R., et al.
(2003). The psychological effect of mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction: A
prospective, multicenter study. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 111(3), 1060-1068.


Harper, A. (2006). New program streamlines breast cancer treatments. Academic Health Center
Findings. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://healthnews.uc.edu/publications/
findings/?/3143/3148/


Haupt, D. (1997). Medical Breakthroughs: Good news about cancer, heart disease,
arthritis and more. Family Circle, 110, 62-66.


Henig, R.M. (1997). How you can prevent cancer. Woman's Day, 54-57.


Hertog, J. & McLeod, D. (1999). Anarchists wreak havoc in downtown Minneapolis: A
multilevel study of media coverage of radical protest. Journalism & Mass
Communication Monographs, 151.


Hertog, J., & McLeod, D. (2001). "A multiperspectival approach to framing anaylsis: a field
guide," in S. Reese, O. Gandy and A. Grand (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on
Media and Our Understanding of the Social World. p. 139-161. New Jersey: Erlbaum.


Hitti, M. (2007). Breast cancer death rates improving. Breast cancer health center. Retrieved
April 13, 2007, from http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20070404/breast-
cancer-death-rates-improving









Houck, C. (2003). Medical myths that kill. Woman's Day, 44-50.


Jones, S.C. (2004). Coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media: Does
advertising and editorial coverage reflect correct social marketing messages. Journal of
Health Communication, 9, 309-325.


Kessler, L. (1989). Women's magazines' coverage of smoking related health hazards.
Journalism Quarterly, 66(2), 316-322.


Ladies' Home Journal (2007). Media Kit. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from
http://www.meredithdrm. com/magazines_lhj. html


Lindlof, T.R. & Taylor, B.C. (2002). Qualitative communication research methods.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Lynch, P. (1997). Fighting cancer the best weapon: Take charge. Family Circle, 111, 62-69.


Lyon, J. (2000). Lifesaving medical breakthroughs. Family Circle, 113, 38-47.


Martino, S. (1998). Making strides against breast cancer. Woman's Day, 42.


Mayo Clinic (2007). Heart disease in women: A mayo clinic specialist answers questions.
Retrieved September 20, 2007, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-
disease/HB00040


McKay, S. & Bonner, F. (2000). Challenges, determination and triumphs: Inspiration
discourse in women's magazine health stories. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies,
14(2), 133-144.


McKay, S. & Bonner, F. (2002). Evaluating illness in women's magazines. Journal of
Language and Social Psychology, 21(1), 53-67.











Meischke, H., Kuniyuki, A., Yasui, Y., Bowen, D.J., Anderson, R., & Urban, N. (2002).
Information women receive about heart attacks and how it affects their knowledge,
beliefs, and intentions to act in a cardiac emergency. Health Care for Women
International, 23,149-162.


Meissner, H.L., Potosky, A.L., & Convissor, R. (1992). How sources of health information relate
to knowledge and use of cancer screening exams. Journal of Community Health, 17, 153-
165.


Miller, M. & Riechert, B. (2001). The spiral of opportunity and frame resonance:
Mapping the issue cycle in news and public discourse. In S. Reese, O. Gandy, & A.
Grand (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the
Social World (pp. 107-121). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.


Mosca, L., Ferris, A., Fabunami, R., & Robertson, R.M. (2004). Tracking women's
awareness of heart disease: An American Heart Association national study. Circulation,
2004(109), 573-579.


Moss, M. (2003). Get a mammogram you can trust. Good Housekeeping, 106-112.


National Cancer Institute (2007). Abortion, miscarriage and, breast cancer risk.
Retrieved September 24, 2007 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/
factsheet/Risk/abortion-miscarriage


Powell, J. (1999). Rosie's worst fear. Good Housekeeping, 107-218.


Roufos, A. (2000). Women are different. Ladies'Home Journal, 102-106.


Sigmon, A.E. (2003). "I'm too young to have a stroke." Good Housekeeping, 72-76.









Skarnulis, L. (2005). Silent Risk: Women and heart disease: Heart disease guide.
Retrieved April 13, 2007, from http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/women-
more-afraid-of-breast-cancer-than-heart-disease


Snyderman, N. (1997). Breakthroughs Battling Breast Cancer. Good Housekeeping,
71.


Weinstock, C.P. (2002). A place for us. Woman's Day, 56-59.


Williams, G., III (2000). Breast cancer facts and fallacies: The truths that can save
your life. Family Circle, 113, 74-84.


Woman's Day (2007). Woman's Day Reader. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from
http://www.hfmus.com/hfmus/media_kits/womenhealth/woman s_day/audience/demog
graphics


Women's Health.Gov (2007). Heart Disease. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from
http://www.4women.gov/FAQ/heartdis.htm#b


Women's Heart Foundation (2005). Women and heart disease facts. Retrieved September 13,
2007, from http://www.womensheartfoundation.org/content/
HeartDisease/heart_disease_facts. asp


World Health Organization (2000). Women, Ageing and Health. Retrieved
March 29, 2007, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs252/en/









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Megan Martinez graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in journalism from the University of

West Florida in May 2005. She graduated with a Master of Arts in Mass Communication at the

University of Florida in May 2008. During her time as undergraduate, Megan was the features

and commentary editor of the University of West Florida's newspaper, the Voyager. As a

graduate student, she was the editor of the Graduate and Family Housing's newsletter, the

Villager. Megan hopes to pursue a career in the communication side of the health care field.





PAGE 1

WOMENS HEALTH IN JEOPARDY: A FRAMING ANALYSIS OF HEART DISEASE AND BREAST CANCER COVERAGE IN SELECTED WOMENS MAGAZINES FROM 1997 TO 2004 By MEGAN MARTINEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1

PAGE 2

2008 Megan Martinez 2

PAGE 3

To my parents, Kay and Robert Martinez, who never let me think a good education was optional. 3

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Dr. Deborah Treise for the guidance and encouragement she gave me throughout this process. I would also like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Kim Walsh-Childers and Dr. Johanna Cleary. All three professors guided me in my efforts to create and execute my thesis. I also thank my parents, Kay and Robert Martinez, whose emphasis on the importance of a higher education helped propel me through my early education and through graduate school. I would also like to thank my husband, Jonathon McGrady, who helped me throughout my graduate career. His support helped me make it through many a stressful time. 4

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...........................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................................7 ABSTRACT...............................................................................................................................8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................9 Heart Disease is a Womans Number One Health Risk.......................................................10 Breast Cancer and a Womans Body..................................................................................10 Framing Theory and Womens Magazines.........................................................................11 2 LITERATURE REVIEW...................................................................................................13 Review of Literature...........................................................................................................13 Definition of Terms.....................................................................................................13 Coverage of Health Issues in Womens Magazines......................................................14 Heart Disease Coverage..............................................................................................16 Breast Cancer Coverage..............................................................................................17 Review of Theory...............................................................................................................18 Summary and Research Questions......................................................................................21 3 METHODS........................................................................................................................23 Magazine Selection............................................................................................................23 Magazine Article Selection................................................................................................25 Article Coding....................................................................................................................25 Constant-Comparative Method...........................................................................................26 4 RESULTS..........................................................................................................................28 Findings for Editorial Content............................................................................................28 RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Covered Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Womens Magazines Aimed at 45to 54Year-Old Women?...................................................................................................30 Empowerment Frame...........................................................................................31 Breakthrough........................................................................................................33 Dispelling Myths..................................................................................................35 First-Person Narrative..........................................................................................36 Personal Narrative................................................................................................38 RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?...............................................39 5

PAGE 6

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.................................................................................46 Implications from Research Questions...............................................................................47 RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Womens Magazines Aimed at 45to 54Year-Old Women?...................................................................................................47 RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another?...............................................49 The Big Picture: Womens Magazines Coverage of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer........51 Conclusion.........................................................................................................................52 Suggestions for Future Research........................................................................................53 APPENDIX: CODING SHEET.................................................................................................54 LIST OF REFERENCES..........................................................................................................56 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.....................................................................................................63 6

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table page 4-1. Total number of articles by disease....................................................................................41 4-2. Average length for articles found by disease......................................................................42 4-3. Total number of sources used by magazine........................................................................43 4-4. Top two most frequently used sources by disease...............................................................43 4-5. Frames by disease used in Family Circle and Good Housekeeping.....................................44 4-6. Frames by disease used in Womans Day and Ladies Home Journal.................................45 7

PAGE 8

Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communication WOMENS HEALTH IN JEOPARDY: A FRAMING ANALYSIS OF HEART DISEASE AND BREAST CANCER COVERAGE IN SELECTED WOMENS MAGAZINES FROM 1997 TO 2004 By Megan Martinez May 2008 Chair: Deborah Treise Major: Mass Communication The media, magazines in particular, are an important source of health information. Many women believe their greatest health risk to be breast cancer when, in reality, heart disease is the number-one killer of women. So where is the misinformation coming from? To answer this question, this study sought to examine heart disease and breast cancer coverage in four womens magazines, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day and Ladies Home Journal, aimed at middle-aged women. This study analyzed the frequency of heart disease and breast cancer coverage in addition to the sources and frames used in that coverage. Framing theory was used in order to explain the overall message each magazine article portrayed. This study revealed three findings. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive equal coverage in the womens magazines analyzed. Second, the empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in both heart disease and breast cancer coverage. Third, the coverage of heart disease does not accurately reflect the health risk it poses to women. 8

PAGE 9

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION With all the media coverage breast cancer receives, most women believe that breast cancer is their biggest health risk (Gorman, 2003). It is hard to open a womens magazine without seeing an article about a womans chance of getting breast cancer or seeing an ad selling a product whose proceeds go to a charity supporting breast cancer. In reality, only one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and of those, only one in 35 will die from it (American Heart Association [AHA], 2007a), in contrast to the one in three women who will die of heart disease (Gorman, 2003). So why do women fear breast cancer more than they fear heart disease? Magazines are an important source of womens health information (Jones, 2004). In fact, magazines are the third most important source of cancer information for women (Meissner et al., 1992). Could it be then that magazines are providing imbalanced coverage of womens direst health risks, focusing too much attention on breast cancer and not enough on heart disease? This research seeks to answer that question and to identify any disparities in magazine coverage of breast cancer and heart disease that may affect womens health beliefs. Identifying these deficiencies may provide media professionals and scholars with a starting point from which to improve magazine coverage of womens most serious health concerns. Many magazine studies have examined coverage of a singular health issue, but few, if any, have examined the relationships between coverage of multiple health issues. This study used qualitative framing analysis to examine two aspects of health coverage in Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal. It sought to answer the following research questions: (1) What frames were used in heart disease and breast cancer coverage between 1997-2004 in the top four womens magazines aimed at 45to 54year-old women? 9

PAGE 10

(2) Within each magazine, how did sources used in the coverage of breast cancer and heart disease compare to one another? Heart Disease is a Womans Number One Health Risk Traditionally thought of as a mans disease (AHA, 2007a), heart disease is the number one killer of women and has held that rank since 1910 (Center for Disease Control & Prevention [CDC], 2007b). In this research, the term heart disease encompasses all diseases that affect the heart, including heart attacks, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurism and dissection, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (CDC, 2007a). Many women believe breast cancer is their bigger health risk, but twice as many U.S. women will die of heart disease and stroke as will die from all forms of cancer (AHA, 2007a). Stroke and heart disease together are responsible for 60% of all womens deaths and disabilities, and yet both are preventable (World Health Organization [WHO], 2000). Not only are women at high risk for heart disease, but when women do suffer heart attacks, they are 15% more likely than men to die from a heart attack (Skarnulis, 2005). Women are also twice as likely to have a second heart attack in the six years following their first (Skarnulis, 2005). In addition, few women recognize heart disease as their biggest health threat (Skarnulis, 2005). Not only do many women not know that heart disease is a serious health threat for them, but the American Heart Association (2007a) also reports that fewer than one in five physicians recognize that more women than men die each year of heart disease. Breast Cancer and a Womans Body Other than the disparity in media coverage of heart disease and breast cancer, one explanation for womens greater fear of breast cancer is the nature of the disease.. Our society places enormous emphasis on womens breasts and the loss or disfigurement of them because of cancer can be devastating. One study suggests that women perceive a mastectomy as a threat to 10

PAGE 11

their femininity and that the removal of one or both of a womans breasts can result in a decline in body image and anxiety (Harcourt et al., 2002). Being diagnosed with breast cancer is only the first step. A breast cancer diagnosis can mean surgery, chemotherapy and radiation as well as the complete devastation of womens body image (Harper, 2006). In addition, breast cancer could mean the partial or total loss of their breasts, a devastating experience. For many women, suffering the loss of part or all of their breasts equals a loss of their identity as women (Harper, 2006). The fact that breast cancer aggressively threatens a part of a womans body that holds so much meaning in our society could make a difference in how women perceive the disease in relation to its actual risk to their health. Framing Theory and Womens Magazines This study aims to identify common themes utilized in the magazine stories to convey information about breast cancer and heart disease. This study is grounded in framing theory, which argues that the ways in which journalists write about disease have an impact on the readers responses to the disease. Frames are techniques writers use to make sense of relevant events and issues; through the use of catchphrases and symbols, the frames suggest what is most important in thinking about an issue or disease (Gamson & Modigliani, 1989). For instance, if an article uses phrases such as death was not an option multiple times, it may be using this catchphrase to indicate a hopeful or survival-oriented frame. These frames help indicate the overall tone of an articles message and give clues as to how readers will receive the information. Previous research has scrutinized magazine coverage of individual health issues and how they are framed. This research examined the relationships between coverage of two key health issues, offering researchers and media professionals a better understanding of the overall message. 11

PAGE 12

A second reason this study is important is that it examines the way health issues are framed. It is not enough for magazines to simply cover health topics and hope that women at risk will read them. Magazines must address health topics in ways that reach those women who are most at risk for these issues (Frisby & Fleming, 2005). Chapter 2 reviews previous literature on magazine coverage of health issues, with a focus on research about breast cancer and heart disease coverage. It also includes a discussion on framing theory and the constant-comparative method. Chapter 3 describes the methods used in this study, specifically how articles were selected for analysis and an overview of the analysis methods utilized. Chapter 4 describes this studys results. Last, Chapter 5 discusses the implications of this studys findings, its limitations and suggestions for future research. 12

PAGE 13

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Many researchers have recognized the important role magazines play in communicating health information to consumers. This is especially true for women. Compared to newspapers, magazines are designed for a smaller audience, are more specialized, are able to devote more space to health concerns than newspapers, and are more appealing to women than men (Frisby & Fleming, 2005). Other sources for womens health information, such as television news, lack the in-depth coverage and easily reviewable print format magazines provide (Andsager & Powers, 2001). Not only are magazines easier to access than radio and television, magazines are also inexpensive and available almost everywhere (Clarke & Binns, 2006). Numerous researchers have documented the importance of magazines as health information sources, especially for women (Andsager & Powers, 2001; Barnett, 2006; Clarke, 1992; Clarke & Binns, 2006; Covello & Peters, 2002; Frisby & Fleming, 2005; Jones, 2004; McKay & Bonner, 2000; McKay & Bonner, 2002; Meischke et al., 2002; Meissner et al., 1992). Because magazines are important sources of womens health information, many studies have examined the coverage these magazines have given health issues. This section will provide a review of the existing literature on magazine coverage of health issues. Review of Literature Definition of Terms During the eight-year period from 1997 to 2004, the top two killers of women ages 45 to 54, in order of decreasing disease mortality rate, were heart disease and breast cancer (CDC, 2007a). While these ailments may be recognizable, a definition is necessary to comprehend the importance of each in this research. 13

PAGE 14

For this research, the term heart disease encompasses all major cardiovascular diseases as designated by the CDC (2007a). Diseases in this category include heart attacks, atherosclerosis, aortic aneurism and dissection, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (CDC, 2007a). Using the heart disease category, this research will endeavor to provide a clearer picture of magazine coverage of a range of health issues. The term cancer in this research is used to refer to the CDC definition of malignant neoplasms. Among all cancers, lung cancer is the biggest killer of women of all ages, and breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2006). However, for women ages 45 to 54, more women will die of breast cancer than lung cancer (CDC, 2007a). Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancers are also responsible for many cancer-related deaths in women (ACS, 2006). Breast cancer deaths have dropped 24% from 1990 to 2003 (Hitti, 2007). Overall, the death rate from all forms of cancer for both men and women has dropped 13.6% from 1991 to 2004. Coverage of Health Issues in Womens Magazines Previous research has found that magazines are an important source of health information (Andsager & Powers, 2001; Barnett, 2006; Clarke, 1992; Clarke & Binns, 2006; Covello & Peters, 2002; Frisby & Fleming, 2005; Jones, 2004; McKay & Bonner, 2000; McKay & Bonner, 2000; Meischke et al., 2002; Meissner et al., 1992). One study in particular, performed by Meissner, Potosky and Convissor (1992), looked at how sources of health information influenced knowledge of breast cancer screening procedures. The Meissner et al. study (1992) showed that magazines were the second most frequently used source for health information, after doctors. The study also revealed that women turned to magazines for health information more frequently than men did (Meissner et al., 1992). Overall, this study revealed that those who used magazines and other print sources for health information were more likely to be familiar with cancer 14

PAGE 15

screening exams (Meissner et al., 1992). Additionally, the study revealed that those who used magazine and other print sources for health information were more active and attentive in finding and reading health information (Meissner, et al., 1992). While magazines are an important source of health information for women (Jones, 2004), magazines might not always be accurately conveying which health problems affect women the most. For instance, in the 80s, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as a major killer of women of all ages. Despite this, few magazines in that decade contained stories dealing with lung cancer, and none linked lung cancer to cigarettes (Kessler, 1989). Why does this disconnect exist? It has been argued that magazines have failed to cover some serious womens health issues in favor of keeping advertisers happy (Kessler, 1989). Magazine editors may have perceived that a story on smoking-related hazards would be controversial in a magazine that receives ad revenue from cigarette companies (Kessler, 1989). Another component of health issue coverage is framing. Looking at the frames used in womens magazine health stories, Barnett (2006) found that health was typically framed as womens work. This frame implies that it is the womans job to take care of her own health in addition to the health of her family. Barnetts study also revealed that articles framed health as an accomplishment that required commitment and hard work that was typically the job of the woman in the family (Barnett, 2006). The trend of mass market womens magazines has been toward increasing coverage of health issues. McKay and Bonner (2000) found that pathographies, or the study of a subject in relation to an illness, were a powerful narrative tool used by magazines on health discourse. These pathographies are designed to inspire readers using symbols of hope, optimism, 15

PAGE 16

perseverance and survival while offering first hand advice on handling significant health issues (McKay & Bonner, 2000). Later, in a 2002 study, McKay and Bonner further explored the personal health narratives found in womens magazines. These narratives provided more than health information by conveying the meaning of what it is to have an illness and the triumph of overcoming it (McKay & Bonner, 2002). Through their research, McKay and Bonner (2002) also identified four common themes found in magazine coverage. These themes emphasized the importance of family, helping others, self-identity and spirituality (McKay & Bonner, 2002). Heart Disease Coverage Numerous researchers have documented flaws in magazine coverage of heart disease, especially as it affects women. Heart disease has become an increasing threat to women because they do not recognize it as a legitimate risk to their health (Mosca, Ferris, Fabunmi, & Robertson, 2004). As early as 1992, Clarke identified a disparity in magazine coverage of cancer, heart disease and AIDS (Clarke, 1992). The mass media were identified as a significant source of information about the disease, its nature, causes, and treatments in the mass media (Clarke, 1992, p. 105). By examining magazine coverage of cancer, heart disease and AIDS, Clarke aimed to identify how these diseases were portrayed. Because the mass media are a major source of information, metaphors, and values (p. 106), Clarke argued that understanding how magazines portray these diseases will help researchers understand how society understands them. Clarke found that heart disease was predominantly portrayed as an isolated event that was very painful (Clarke, 1992). Overall, heart disease coverage was optimistic about patients recovery, citing new technology as a way to treat the disease. This was in contrast to the studys findings on cancer coverage; heart disease was portrayed as nothing more than a chance occurrence. 16

PAGE 17

However, Clarke (1992) found that magazine coverage portrayed cancer as evil, and that it also was cause for shame in the patient diagnosed with it (Clarke, 1992). Not only was cancer described as an alien intruder, the media portrayed it as disfiguring and terminal (Clarke, 1992). Overall, Clarkes study revealed that magazine coverage deemphasized the seriousness of heart disease and sensationalized cancer. In a later study, Clarke and Binns (2006) found that coverage of heart disease was framed in one of seven ways in the top 20 North American magazines. These frames were optimism about medicine, good medicine versus bad body, heart disease as an attack, individual responsibility, contradictory information, male celebrity patients and doctors, and prestigious medical sources (Clarke & Binns, 2006). The male celebrity patients and doctor frame reinforced the myth that heart disease is traditionally a mans disease (AHA, 2007a). Clarke and Binns (2006) also reported an overall lack of information on women and heart disease found during the time period researched. In a 2002 study, Meischke et al. found that women received more information overall on the prevention of heart attacks than they did information on recognizing its symptoms and what their risk factors are. Also, women did not receive adequate health information on certain heart attack symptoms such as shortness of breath and nausea. This was an important finding because both symptoms are more frequently reported by women having heart attacks than by men. Their study also showed that the mass media were the most frequently reported source of heart attack information among women surveyed. Breast Cancer Coverage In a 1999 study, Andsager and Powers found that news magazines breast cancer coverage is very different from womens magazines coverage. Three frames were identified within womens magazines stories: coping, first person experiences and risk factors. Within these 17

PAGE 18

frames, Andsager and Powers (1999) found that articles encouraged women to be assertive in prevention and treatment of breast cancer and also provided in-depth information that was only found in a womens magazine. In contrast, news magazines covered breast cancer in a less personal way and used economic, political and medical news frames (Andsager & Powers, 1999). Womens magazines strived to encourage women to prevent breast cancer and seek treatment, while news magazines focused on the effects of breast cancer on more than just a womans body. In a 2002 study, Covello and Peters found that many women knew little about the real risks that breast cancer posed to them (Covello & Peters, 2002). Covello and Peters evaluated womens ability to sort through an abundance of health information provided by the media in order to determine their breast cancer risk. The researchers found that many of the women surveyed could not discern from the media information which breast cancer statistics pertained to their age group, their chances of dying from breast cancer in relation to lung cancer or heart disease, and did not know that having a mammogram did not lower a womans risk of developing breast cancer (Covello & Peters, 2002). The researchers also found that media coverage of breast cancer exaggerated its risks, leading women to believe breast cancer was their greatest health risk over heart disease. Despite an overall increase in media coverage of disease, Covello and Peters (2002) found that the women they surveyed were unable to accurately identify their disease-related risk. They argued that the medias exaggeration of breast cancer as a womans greatest health risk over heart disease and lung cancer leads women to underestimate the importance of these other, more common health risks. Review of Theory Framing theory was used in this research. A frame is defined by Gamson and Modigliani (1989) as a central organizing idea used to make sense of relevant events and to suggest what is 18

PAGE 19

at issue. Gamson and Modigliani describe frames as a form of shorthand, making it possible to display the package as a whole with a deft metaphor, catchphrase, or other symbolic device (1989, p.3). Hertog and McLeod (2001) take this idea one step further, defining frames as relatively comprehensive structures of meaning made up of a number of concepts and the relations among those concepts. (p. 140). These concepts are used to structure the social world (Hertog & McLeod, 2001). While a frame might stir up public interest in an event, the opposite is also true: frames are a reflection of the social realities that already exist (Hertog & McLeod, 2001). Framing can be detected by the occurrence of certain key words, but can also be indicated by the absence of certain key words (Entman, 1993). The sources that appear or are absent in an article also can help to identify a frame (Miller & Riechert, 2001). Miller and Riechert (2001) looked at news releases from conservation groups (like the National Audubon Society) and property-owner groups (like the American Farm Bureau Federation) to identify keywords unique to each group. These keywords were used to identify and compare frames used by the conservation and property-owner groups. Miler and Riechert (2001) then looked at the sources used by both sides. They found a relationship between the sources each side cited and the keywords used. They found a relationship between the sources each side cited and the keywords used. The sources a news release cited used keywords unique to their frame, thus there was a clear difference in the sources and keywords used to frame news releases from both parties (Miller & Riechert, 2001). One example of framing analysis is a study by Hertog and McLeod (1999) that looked at how media framed three demonstrations and a conference held by anarchists. They identified five frames: the riot, confrontation, protest, circus and debate frames. Hertog and McLeod 19

PAGE 20

(1999) found that the media focused less on the issues of the anarchists and more on the violence that occurred at the protests. The debate frame, which treated anarchists as thoughtful social critics, was used the least. By examining the frames the media used, Hertog and McLeod (1999) were able to identify the messages their audience was receiving. Another framing theory relevant to this research is Miller and Riecherts Spiral of Opportunity theory. The authors argue that media alter public opinion less by providing new information on social realities and more by altering their frames (Miller & Riechert, 2001). Miller and Riechert (2001) identify four phases within the Spiral of Opportunity theory. During the emergence phase, news coverage shifts to focus on an emerging aspect of an event. Once it garners attention and is part of the public agenda the definition/conflict phase begins. During this phase, an event is framed by its stakeholders in a way that highlights certain information and downplays other information in an attempt to serve the stakeholders interests. In the resonance phase, one side of the issue gains support and becomes the dominant, resonating position. Frames are chosen by the stakeholder of an issue based on how their target audience reacts to them. Frames that are received favorably are continued while unsuccessful frames are abandoned (Miller & Riechert, 2001). In the equilibrium or resolution phase, one frame dominates and makes its view the norm. At any time new events may occur that start this process over. Therefore, the frames that are used the most often are the most successful at reaching their target audience. This theory is important to this research because it suggests that there will be a correlation between the frequency with which a frame is used and its perceived effectiveness at reaching its target audience. Framing is an appropriate method for this study because it allows the researcher to identify how these womens magazines covered the top two killers of women aged 45-54. An illustration 20

PAGE 21

of the effectiveness of the framing method is Clarke and Binns (2006) framing analysis of magazine coverage of heart disease. Clarke and Binns (2006) suggest that all media stories are framed in one way or another. Frames establish boundaries regarding what and how topics will be discussed (p. 39). They identified seven frames used in coverage of heart disease in their study of a sample of Canadas highest circulating mass magazines. The frames they identified included a male celebrity patients and doctor frame (p.44). The male celebrity patients and doctor frame identified by Clarke and Binns (2006) in high-circulation magazines may contribute to womens belief that breast cancer not heart disease is their biggest health concern (Gorman, 2003). By applying a similar framing method as illustrated above, this study is designed to examine how the top four womens magazines aimed at middle-aged women covered heart disease and breast cancer from 1997 to 2004. The implications of these findings are important, as demonstrated by Clarke and Binns (2006), because they suggest that frames may have an impact on women readers perceptions of their health risks and how they act upon those risks. Summary and Research Questions Three conclusions can be drawn from the existing literature. First, magazines are an important source of womens health information. Second, there remains a disparity between magazine coverage of breast cancer and heart disease. Third, women perceive breast cancer as their greatest health risk even though heart disease is the number one killer of women. Lacking in the previous research, however, is an examination of the relationships among magazine coverage of multiple health issues. This study is designed to fill this gap by answering the following research questions: 21

PAGE 22

RQ 1: What frames were used in heart disease and breast cancer coverage between 1997-2004 in the top four womens magazines aimed at 45to 54year-old women? RQ 2: Within each magazine, how did sources used in the coverage of breast cancer and heart disease compare to one another? By looking at these questions in this way, the researcher will be able to analyze womens magazine coverage of the top two killers of women as well as the frames used in this coverage. This studys findings may help identify deficiencies in coverage as well as patterns in how the issues were framed. 22

PAGE 23

CHAPTER 3 METHODS This study employed qualitative framing analysis of coverage of heart disease and breast cancer in the top four womens magazines aimed at women in the 45to 54-year-old age group; articles published from 1997 to 2004 were analyzed. This study examined how the content was framed and followed similar procedures used in Clarke and Binns 2006 study of heart disease coverage. Magazine Selection Womens magazines were chosen over other forms of media for their in-depth coverage of health issues. Womens magazines are an important source for womens health information (Jones, 2004). An analysis of womens magazine coverage of the top two killers of women aged 45 to 54 was deemed important because it could potentially reveal differences in how these health issues were covered that could potentially be a cause of how women perceive their breast cancer and heart disease risk. This could reveal a disparity in the coverage that the two diseases receive. This study differed from previous studies because it looked at the relationships among coverage of two health issues, while past studies have tended to look at the coverage of only one issue. Looking at the amount of coverage the top four womens magazines dedicated to heart disease and breast cancer in addition to the frames utilized in this coverage, gives researchers and media professionals a better understanding of the complete messages being sent to readers. The four womens magazines were chosen based on their average annual circulation as recorded by the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) for the years 1997 to 2004. Preference was given to magazines that had a consistent health section focusing on womens health, versus family health. Therefore, the womens magazines selected were Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal. 23

PAGE 24

This research focused on magazines aimed at women aged 45 to 54 because these women are more at risk for cancer and heart disease than younger women and are more likely to be seeking information on the prevention and treatment of these diseases. As women get older, their chance of developing breast cancer increases (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2007). The National Cancer Institute (2007) recommends that women begin having regular mammograms after they turn 40. As women get older, their chance of developing heart disease also increases (Womens Health.Gov [WHG], 2007). Simple tests for cholesterol levels and blood pressure levels can help determine a womans heart disease risk (Mayo, 2007). According to the Womens Heart Foundation (2005), women are more than twice as likely as men to die from a heart attack before the age of 50. The range of ages was determined by taking the age of each magazines average reader and matching this with the corresponding age range used in the CDCs Trends on Health and Aging data table. Family Circle has an average readership age of 52 (FC, 2007), Good Housekeeping has an average readership age of 50.6 (GH, 2007), Womans Day has an average readership age of 49.8 (WD, 2007), and Ladies Home Journal has an average readership age of 54 (LHJ, 2007). Eight complete years were examined for each title. The year 1997 was determined an appropriate year to begin the study because it was the year that the American Heart Association began a campaign to improve womens awareness of heart disease as the number one killer of women. In 1997, the American Heart Association conducted a survey that showed only 7% of women thought heart disease was their greatest health risk (Mosca et al., 2004). A 2004 American Heart Association study looked at how womens perceptions of heart disease changed from 1997 to 2003. They found that although awareness of heart disease had increased, there 24

PAGE 25

was still a gap between womens perceived risk and their actual risk of having heart disease (Mosca et al., 2004), suggesting that there were still discrepancies in the health information women are receiving. The eight-year period provides enough time to reflect any increases in heart disease coverage after the American Heart Association awareness campaign began. The year 2004 was determined an appropriate ending year because the CDCs Trends in Health and Aging data were not available for 2004 (CDC, 2007a). Magazine Article Selection All issues of Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal published between January 1997 and December 2004 were examined. Analysis included studying each magazines cover as well as the table of contents for editorial items covering either heart disease or breast cancer, or both. All editorial items excluding Q&As, briefs and quizzes that were at least one page in length and covered heart disease, breast cancer or both were analyzed. Articles that covered cancer in general that also included breast cancer information were included. Briefs, quizzes and Q&As were excluded because they lacked a clearly definable frame and they devoted fewer than 500 words to any one topic. The magazine articles used in this research were found in hard copy and microfilm form at the Los Angeles Central Library and the San Diego Central Library. These locations were chosen because both have extensive and complete periodical collections. All articles that fit the above criteria were copied and organized by magazine and date. Article Coding In order to determine the health issue coverage and the frames utilized, a coding sheet was constructed to record data (Appendix A). Each article was read in its entirety to determine its main topic: coverage of heart disease, breast cancer or both; and, overall themes. The article was 25

PAGE 26

then read a second time, line-by-line, to identify keywords and sources. The article was read a third time to determine the number of pages, section, length in pages, and subheads. Frames were not predetermined. They were found as the content was read to avoid any unintentional researcher bias and to discover new insights as part of the coding process (Hertog & McLeod, 2001, p. 153). Leaving frames undetermined gave the researcher the ability to learn as a part of the method (Hertog & McLeod, 2001, p. 153). During the second read-through of an article, a pencil was used to make note of the frame and any themes discovered. During the third read-through of the article highlighters were used to mark frames. Similar frames were highlighted in the same color. For example, words and phrases such as it happened to me, my struggle with illness, or how I survived cancer denoted a first-person narrative frame. This frame was highlighted in yellow. Words and phrases such as 10 cancer-fighting foods and how to stop heart disease before it starts denoted an empowerment frame. This frame was highlighted in blue. Distinct colors were used for each frame so that the researcher could more easily determine frequency of each frame in the womens magazine coverage. Constant-Comparative Method Under the umbrella of qualitative analysis, this research employed the constant-comparative method, developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). In the constant-comparative method, the codes and categories the researcher uses when analyzing data are flexible until the end of the research (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). There are four stages to the constant comparative method. The first stage is comparing incidents applicable to each category. During this stage, data are coded into as many categories as possible (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). The constant-comparative method differs from traditional qualitative methods because it assigns a code to each incident based on how it compares to previous incidents the researcher already has 26

PAGE 27

witnessed in her research (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). In this way, category coding is interrelated and easier to organize into broader categories at a later date in a way that makes sense to the researcher (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). The second phase is integrating categories and their properties. During this phase, incidents are compared not only to previous incidents, but also with the properties of categories (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The third phase is delimiting the theory. During this phase, the researchers solidify the theory based on the trends they are seeing in the data and the categories are condensed as common properties are recognized (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The fourth, and final phase, is writing theory. During this phase the researcher reviews the coded data, her notes and theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). In this research, the fourth phase is found in the results section of this thesis. The constant-comparative method is used in this research because of the large volume of data with unknown characteristics. Because the constant-comparative method utilizes the relationships between data to create categories, the researcher will be able to shape theory around the properties of his data, instead of trying to make the data fit into rigid categories. This allows the researcher to account for the unexpected and allow that data to shed new understanding on the research. 27

PAGE 28

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Chapter 4 outlines the results of this study. It presents the results of the analysis of Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journals coverage of breast cancer and heart disease, as well as revealing the frames and sources used in that coverage. Findings for Editorial Content A total of 126 articles covering heart disease and breast cancer were found in Family Circle (n=25), Good Housekeeping (n=18), Womans Day (n=45), and Ladies Home Journal (n=38) during the eight-year period from 1998 to 2004. Of those, 53 articles covered only heart disease, 55 covered only breast cancer and 18 covered both heart disease and breast cancer. (Table 4-1) In addition to heart disease and breast cancer, both magazines covered a range of other health issues. Family Circle covered cancer of the ovaries, thyroid, skin, colon, brain, lungs, cervix, pancreas, uterus, bladder and stomach. It also covered diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimers disease, osteoporosis, Parkinsons disease, liver disease and HIV. Good Housekeeping covered cancer of the ovaries, colon, lungs, bladder and stomach. It also covered diabetes, Alzheimers disease, asthma, irritable bowl syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. Womans Day covered cancer of the stomach, lung, colon, uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, gallbladder, kidney and skin. It also covered diabetes, pneumonia, lupus, meningitis, epilepsy, arthritis, depression and incontinence. Ladies Home Journal covered cancer of the cervix, liver, ovaries, bladder, pancreas and lung. In addition, it also covered diabetes, glaucoma, osteoporosis and leukemia. The majority of breast cancer and heart disease articles appeared in the health section of each magazine. In Family Circle, 88% (n=22) of breast cancer and heart disease articles ran in the health section. Overall, the most frequent authors of health articles were staff or freelance 28

PAGE 29

writers who were not doctors or medical professionals. In Family Circle, freelance and staff writers wrote 96% (n=24) of all the health articles studied, with only one article written by a medical doctor. Similarly, most of Good Housekeepings articles were written by freelance and health writers, with only 28% (n=5) of total articles written by medical professionals. Like Family Circle, only one Womans Day article, or 2% (n=1), was written by a medical doctor. In Ladies Home Journal, 16% (n=6) of articles were written by a medical doctor, the rest were written by staff or freelance writers. The average article length varied significantly between the four magazines. Overall, Family Circle had the greatest average article length (n=3.59). In Ladies Home Journal 3.48 pages, in Womans Day 2.83 pages, and in Good Housekeeping the average article length was 2.17 pages. The average length of an article in Family Circle covering heart disease was 3.58 pages, while the average length of an article covering breast cancer was 3.48 pages. In Family Circle, heart disease received slightly more coverage overall than breast cancer. In Good Housekeeping, fewer pages were allotted heart disease coverage, which had an average length of two pages. The average length of an article covering breast cancer was 2.30 pages. (Table 4-2) The sources used within each magazine differed only by the third most frequently used source. Of sources used, medical doctors were cited the most frequently and PhDs the second most frequently in all four magazines. In Family Circle, medical doctors made up 60% (n=125) of sources and PhDs made up 21% (n=44) of sources. The American Cancer Society was the third most frequently used source, accounting for 5% (n=11) of total sources. Spokespersons for the American Cancer Society were counted separately if they were medical doctors or PhDs. Articles in Good Housekeeping cited significantly fewer sources than Family Circle, with a total of only 60 sources compared to Family Circles 209 sources. In Good Housekeeping, medical 29

PAGE 30

doctors made up 58% (n=35) of sources cited, and PhDs made up 18% (n=11). The third most frequently cited sources were the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute, which accounted for 5% (n=3) of sources cited. Womans Day used the greatest number of sources of all four womens magazines. Of the 297 sources cited, medical doctors made up 56% (n=165) of sources cited, and Ph.D.s made up 10% (n=31) of sources cited. The third most frequently cited source was the National Cancer Institute cited only 2% (n=6) of the time. Medical doctors were the most frequently used source in Ladies Home Journal, making up 53% (n=122) of all 231 sources used. Ph.D.s were the second most frequently used source, accounting for 11% (n=25) of all sources used. The American Heart Association was the third most frequently cited source, making up 3% (n=7) of all sources used (Tables 4-3 and 4-4). RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Covered Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Womens Magazines Aimed at 45to 54Year-Old Women? Over the eight-year period studied, this research identified five overriding frames through the analysis of titles, main topics, subheads and sources in women's magazine coverage of heart disease and breast cancer. They are (1) empowerment, (2) breakthrough, (3) dispelling myths, (4) first-person narrative, and (5) personal narrative. Family Circle had a total of 25 articles covering heart disease, breast cancer and both diseases. The predominant frame used in those articles was the empowerment frame, which made up 56% (n=14) of all frames used in all Family Circle stories. The second most frequently used frame was the breakthrough frame, which was used 28% (n=7) of all stories. The dispelling myths frame was used the third most frequently, in 12% (n=3) of all stories. The personal narrative was used only once, making up only 4% (n=1) of frames used in all stories and the first-person narrative frame was not used at all (Tables 4-5 and 4-6). 30

PAGE 31

Like Family Circle, the most commonly used frame in Good Housekeeping stories was the empowerment frame, which made up 44% (n=8) of all frames used in all stories. The breakthrough and first-person narrative frames were the next most frequently used frames, each making up 28% (n=5) of all story frames. None of the articles found in Good Housekeeping used the dispelling myths and personal narrative frames. In Womans Day, the empowerment frame was used considerably more often than all other frames, making up 60% (n=27) of frames used in stories. The personal narrative was the next most frequently used frame, making up 13% (n=6) of frames used in stories. Womans Day stories used the breakthrough frame for 11% (n=5) of all stories. The dispelling myths frame made up 9% (n=4) of all frames used in all stories. The least frequently used frame was the first-person narrative frame, used in only 7% (n=3) of all stories. The frame used most frequently in Ladies Home Journal articles was the empowerment frame, making up 34% (n=13) of frames used in all stories. Like in Good Housekeeping, the breakthrough frame was the second most frequently used frame, making up 26% (n=10) of frames used in all stories. Stories using the personal narrative frame made up 21% (n=8) of all stores used. The first-person narrative made up 13% (n=5) of frames appearing in stories. The dispelling myths frame was used the least, making up only 5% (n=2) of frames used in all stories. Empowerment Frame The empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in Family Circle Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal. It was used in 49% (n=62) of all stories in all magazines. As the name implies, the empowerment frame is about women taking charge of their own health. Statements like seize hold of your health yourself and encouraging 31

PAGE 32

women to listen to their bodies and act on their beliefs were used in the empowerment frame in order to encourage women to take control of their health (Lynch, 1997). The empowerment frame also provided readers with information to help women prevent, diagnose and choose the best treatment options when faced with heart disease and breast cancer. One Family Circle article, titled Vital Medical Tests: How to Prevent Dangerous Mistakes gave definitions of common medical tests, where to go to get them, how the tests are performed and what women can do to prevent a dangerous mistake from happening to them (Fischer, 1998). A common format within the empowerment frame was used for this story: the first half of the article provided readers with information about a disease and the second half provided readers with information on what they can do to prevent or treat it. Another article titled, How You Can Prevent Cancer gave information on new findings about what foods help prevent cancer (Henig, 1997). The article tells readers they have more control than they may think over their chances of getting heart disease. Another format of the empowerment frame was used in the Good Housekeeping article, titled The 318 Top Cancer Specialists for Women (Abrams, 1999). In the article information about several diseases are broken down by the risk they pose to women, how to prevent them and how to screen for them. This synopsis was then followed by the story of how a cancer specialist was able to help a woman with cancer. The article was followed by a list of the 318 top cancer specialists, encouraging women to take control of their health and seek out expert advice when faced with cancer (Abrams, 1999). The empowerment frame did more than just provide readers with information on diseases; it encouraged women to actively participate in their own disease prevention. A Good Housekeeping article, titled Get a Mammogram You Can Trust, provided women with 32

PAGE 33

information about how they could increase their odds of getting an accurate mammogram (Moss, 2003). The article also warned readers that this may require boldness, encouraging women to speak up when it comes to their health (Moss, 2003). Another component of the empowerment frame was encouraging women to believe in their intuition when it comes to their health. One Family Circle article, titled Fighting Cancer the Best Weapon: Take Charge, encouraged women to take the initiative and related a story of a woman whose persistence saved her life (Lynch, 1997). In the article, several womens experiences with cancer were told with a focus on how listening to their bodies saved their lives. One woman, whose doctor refused to believe her when she said she thought she had cancer persisted until she found a doctor who would believe her. The woman said, I followed my gut and saved my life (Lynch, 1997). Breakthrough The breakthrough frame was found in stories that gave information about new treatments, cures and diagnosis techniques for heart disease and breast cancer. The breakthrough frame accounted for 21% (n=27) of all frames used in stories found in all four magazines. Articles using the breakthrough frame tended to feature a hopeful tone regarding disease treatment, reassuring readers that heart disease and breast cancer are not the health threats they once were thanks to new medical advances. This is illustrated with statements like new evidence, a new class of drugs, new studies, and but now research shows (Haupt, 1997). For instance, in Good Housekeepings The Anti-Cancer Diet, readers were presented with new dietary recommendations that may reduce the chance of developing cancer by 30 to 40% (Napier, 1998). New prevention information can signal new hope for readers. Family Circles article, titled Lifesaving Medical Breakthroughs, gave readers a preview of what scientists are 33

PAGE 34

working on now, and said that we are on the brink of a golden age of medicine (Lyon, 2000). The article gave information on how current research potentially could change the way diseases are diagnosed and treated in the future. Similarly, the Womans Day article titled Making Strides Against Breast Cancer gave information on recent research breakthroughs regarding breast cancer drugs (Martino, 1998). These new drugs may mean more effective treatment of breast cancer. A Ladies Home Journal article titled, Women Are Different gave readers information about how womens health has improved over the last 10 years, as well as what advances are expected in the next 10 years (Roufos, 2000). The article catches up readers on some of the biggest breakthroughs of the past as well as providing information on new technologies that may provide hope for disease sufferers. Updates on prevention can also provide readers with in-depth information on a procedure they were previously unfamiliar with. In a Family Circle article, titled News about Breast Cancer that could Save Your Life, new mammogram and biopsy technologies are explained in an easy-to-understand way (Castleman, 1997, p. 60). For instance, the article includes an illustration that breaks down the steps of a new biopsy procedure, the mammotomy, making it easy for readers to understand how the technique works. The informative nature of the breakthrough frame can sometimes be confusing. Too much information can be just as confusing as not enough. To address this, some articles reviewed how previous breakthroughs have been affected by more recent breakthroughs. One Good Housekeeping article, titled Breakthroughs in Battling Breast Cancer, did just that (Snyderman, 1997).The article reviewed previous recommendations by the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health and the American Cancer Society in order to give readers a picture of how recommendations have changed over time and what they are today. 34

PAGE 35

Dispelling Myths The dispelling myths frame appeared in Family Circle, Womans Day and Ladies Home Journal and made up 7% (n=9) of frames used in all stories. Articles using the dispelling-myths frame typically followed a similar format. A myth was first presented and was followed by information confirming or dispelling that myth. One of the articles reviewed using the dispelling myths frame did not use this format. Instead Family Circles article, titled Can What You Eat Really Prevent Cancer instead gave information on foods that increased and decreased a womans cancer risk (Castleman, 2002). The article also dispelled common myths about foods role in causing and preventing cancer. Headings included the truth about fiber and the scoop on supplements (Castleman, 2002, p.62). All articles in Family Circle and Ladies Home Journal using the dispelling myths frame were about cancer, and the purpose of two of the articles was to dispel myths about the link between certain foods and cancer. Titles of articles using the dispelling myths framed include words like truth and facts. Articles using the dispelling myths frame utilized a format in which a myth was introduced and followed by information provided to disprove the myth. An article, titled What to Eat to Prevent Cancer: The Truth Behind 12 Diet and Cancer Myths debunked myths and included information on how to cut readers cancer risk (Castleman, 1998). None of the articles found in Family Circle and Ladies Home Journal covering heart disease used this frame. Instead, articles covering heart disease predominantly used the empowerment and breakthrough frames. Dispelling myths about cancer meant replacing popular myths with facts that potentially could make a positive difference in a readers health. For example, an article titled, Breast Cancer Facts and Fallacies: The Truths That Can Save Your Life stated that the more facts you know about this disease, the better you will be able to protect your health (William, 2000). In 35

PAGE 36

Ladies Home Journal, one of two articles using the dispelling myths frame dealt with myths about mammograms. The article, titled Should I Have a Mammogram? discussed medical myths of the past in order to conclude that current mammography benefits outweigh any mammography inadequacies (Grady, 2002). The only other article in Ladies Home Journal using the dispelling myths frame dealt with myths a woman might hear from their doctors regarding their breast health. Ranging from doctors saying women are too young to have cancer to telling women that a lump is nothing to worry about, the article provided women with what they should expect when receiving breast cancer related information from a competent doctor (Costas, 1998). Womans Day was the only magazine to use the dispelling myths frame in stories about heart disease. In an article titled, Cholesterol: Should You Worry? myths about women, cholesterol and their related heart disease risk are dispelled (Browder, 1997). One myth the article dispels is that just because a woman is overweight doesnt necessarily mean she has high cholesterol. The reverse is true. The article urges women to get their cholesterol levels checked regardless of how they perceive their outward physical condition because other factors like genetics might predispose them to have higher cholesterol, putting them at higher risk for heart disease (Browder, 1997). The other article using the dispelling myths frame in Womans Day dispelled the myth that a heart attack is always accompanied by pain in women. The article titled, Medical Myths that can Kill provided information on the symptoms that women might experience while having a heart attack and included differences in symptoms based on age (Houck, 2003). First-Person Narrative The first-person narrative made up 10% (n=13) of total article frames in all the magazines except Good Housekeeping. First-person narratives were identified mainly by the fact that the 36

PAGE 37

article was written from the first-person perspective and included few if any additional sources. The first-person narratives did not always focus exclusively on the physical manifestations of a disease and often detailed how it affected the victims family and professional life. Many of the narratives were told by women who were shocked and confused by their diagnosis. In a Good Housekeeping article, titled Im Too Young to Have a Stroke, the narrator balked at the idea that she might be sick saying, . preposterous! A perfectly healthy 48-year-old doesnt wake up feeling fine and then have a stroke (Sigmon, 2003, p.72). Another common emotion expressed in first person narratives was fear. In another Good Housekeeping article, one woman realized that she was having a heart attack and stated that she was scared and very discouraged (Griffin, 2003, p. 95). This fear is a way to connect the readers with the narrator and to motivate them to prevent the same thing from happening to them. Another angle of the first-person narrative is how women cope with a devastating diagnosis. In Good Housekeepings A Woman of Valor article, one woman shares the story of how she dealt with a breast cancer diagnosis (Greene, 1998). Faced with her own mortality, the narrator says, Even though Ive lost control over my body, I can still control my behavior (Greene, 1998, p.74). The purpose of this article is not to provide in-depth and scientific information; instead this article seeks to provide a way for women in a similar situation to cope. The article focuses on how the breast cancer victim becomes the breast cancer survivor. This article also tackles the narrators fear of mutilation: the fear of mutilation lasts a lifetime, she writes (Greene, 1998, p.76). Since the first-person narrative stories are written by the same person who was diagnosed with the life-threatening illness, the reader knows the author survives. The narrative, in addition to sharing the story of a person who survived a disease, gives hope to readers who may find 37

PAGE 38

themselves in a similar position. The first-person narrative frame was present in the only article used in this research that also featured a celebrity. In Good Housekeepings article, titled Rosies Worst Fear Rosie ODonnell comes face to face with the possibility that she might have breast cancer (Powell, 1999, p. 107). Personal Narrative The personal narrative frame is similar to the first-person frame in that it relates a persons story, or narrative. But the personal narrative frame is different because, unlike the first-person frame, it is told in the third-person. Articles using the personal narrative frame were made up of several womens stories about their experiences with heart disease or breast cancer. The personal narrative frame was used predominantly with breast cancer. Womans Day was the only magazine to feature heart disease articles that used the personal narrative frame. In the article titled Heart to Heart, the author discusses three families who have learned that heart disease runs in their families and the actions they have taken to prevent it (Cadoff, 2001). Their experience with heart disease is interspersed with helpful health information such as healthy blood pressure and cholesterol numbers (Cadoff, 2001). Like the first-person narrative, the personal narrative titled, Too Young to Die presents a womans story with which readers can relate (Belson, 2001). Unlike the first-person narrative, the personal narrative article relates the womans tale after her death. The article tells the story of a woman who dies suddenly from a massive heart attack, presenting a wake-up call to women who may share similar risk factors. The article goes on to provide warning signs of a heart attack as well as heart disease prevention tips (Belson, 2001). In 1999, Womans Day began a series of articles written in conjunction with the American Heart Association that focused on heart disease and women. One of the articles, titled A Place for Us. used the personal narrative frame to share womens experiences with heart disease from 38

PAGE 39

across the country (Weinstock, 2002). The article emphasized the importance of gender-specific heart disease treatment as well as providing information from womens heart centers across the country. The only personal narrative that appeared in Family Circle covered three womens fights with breast cancer. The article, titled Breast Cancer Breakthroughs: How women are beating the odds (Di Constanzo, October 2002), focused on the fact that many breast cancer cases are highly treatable now. Each woman used breakthroughs in breast cancer for their diagnosis and treatment, giving hope to other women in a similar position. RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another? Although Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal covered both breast cancer and heart disease, each did it in their own way. These differences and similarities can be seen in the sources that each article cited. In Family Circle, the top two most frequently used source types for both heart disease and breast cancer coverage were medical doctors and Ph.D.s. There were 47 instances of medical doctors being used as sources in heart disease coverage and 33 such instances in breast cancer coverage. Professionals with a Ph.D. were cited 21 times as sources in articles covering breast cancer but only 12 times in articles covering heart disease. In articles covering heart disease, the third most frequently used source was the American Heart Association, with a total of five cites. Articles covering breast cancer cited the American Cancer Society most frequently, after medical doctors and Ph.D.s, a total of six times. In Good Housekeeping, the most frequently used source type for both heart disease and breast cancer coverage was medical doctors. Breast cancer articles cited medical doctors a total of 28 times, while heart disease coverage cited medical doctors only five times. The second 39

PAGE 40

most frequently used source type in articles covering breast cancer was Ph.D.s, used a total of eight times. The second most frequently used source in articles covering heart disease was the National Institute of Health, used twice. In Womans Day, the two most frequently used source types for breast cancer and heart disease articles were medical doctors and PhDs. Medical doctors made up 45% (n=33) of breast cancer article sources and 58% (n=102) of heart disease article sources. PhD citations made up 8% (n=6) of sources used in breast cancer articles and 11% (n=20) in heart disease articles. In articles covering breast cancer, the third most frequently cited source was the National Cancer Institute, making up 4% (n=3) of sources. In articles covering heart disease, the third most frequently cited source was the American Heart Association, making up 2% (n=3) of sources. In Ladies Home Journal, the two most frequently used source types for breast cancer and heart disease were medical doctors and PhDs. Articles covering breast cancer used medical doctors in 51% (n=51) of articles and used PhD as sources 13% (n=13). The third most frequently used frame was the American Cancer Society used in 5% (n=5) of articles. In heart disease coverage, medical doctors were the most frequently used source making up 55% (n=47) of sources cited. The second most frequently cited source was the American Heart Association cited in 6% (n=5) of articles. Overall, Family Circle used more sources in articles covering breast cancer than Good Housekeeping. Family Circle used a total of 88 sources, while Good Housekeeping used 47. This may have been because Family Circle articles were on average 1.59 pages longer than Good Housekeeping articles. Also, Family Circle had seven more articles than Good Housekeeping did that covered heart disease, breast cancer or both. 40

PAGE 41

Table 4-1. List of total number of articles by disease Magazine Disease Number of Articles Percentage of Total Articles Family Circle Breast Cancer 10 40% Heart Disease 9 36% Both 6 24% Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer 10 56% Heart Disease 7 39% Both 1 6% Womans Day Breast Cancer 15 33% Heart Disease 24 53% Both 6 13% Ladies Home Journal Breast Cancer 20 53% Heart Disease 13 34% Both 5 13% All Magazines Breast Cancer 55 44% Heart Disease 53 42% Both 18 14% 41

PAGE 42

Table 4-2. List of average length for articles found by disease Magazine Disease Average Page Length Family Circle Breast Cancer 3.48 Heart Disease 3.58 Both 3.59 Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer 2.30 Heart Disease 2.00 Both 2.17 Womans Day Breast Cancer 2.23 Heart Disease 3.26 Both 2.58 Ladies Home Journal Breast Cancer 3.59 Heart Disease 3.33 Both 3.45 All Magazines Breast Cancer 2.90 Heart Disease 3.04 Both 2.95 42

PAGE 43

Table 4-3. List of total number of sources used by magazine Magazine Number of Sources Good Housekeeping 60 Family Circle 209 Womans Day 297 Ladies Home Journal 231 All 802 Table 4-4. List of most top two most frequently used sources by disease Magazine Disease Type Number of Sources Family Circle Breast Cancer MD Sources 33 PhD Sources 21 Heart Disease MD Sources 47 PhD Sources 12 Both MD Sources 45 PhD Sources 11 Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer MD Sources 28 PhD Sources 8 Heart Disease MD Sources 5 National Institute of Health 2 Both MD Sources 2 PhD Sources 3 Womans Day Breast Cancer MD Sources 33 PhD Sources 6 Heart Disease MD Sources 102 PhD Sources 20 Both MD Sources 30 PhD Sources 5 Ladies Home Journal Breast Cancer MD Sources 51 PhD Sources 13 Heart Disease MD Sources 47 American Heart Association 5 Both MD Sources 24 PhD Sources 10 43

PAGE 44

Table 4-5. List of frames by disease used in Family Circle and Good Housekeeping Magazine Disease Frame Frame Use Family Circle Breast Cancer Empowerment 4 Breakthrough 2 Dispelling Myths 3 First Person Narrative 1 Personal Narrative 0 Heart Disease Empowerment 7 Breakthrough 2 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 0 Personal Narrative 0 Both Empowerment 3 Breakthrough 3 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 0 Personal Narrative 0 Good Housekeeping Breast Cancer Empowerment 4 Breakthrough 3 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 3 Personal Narrative 0 Heart Disease Empowerment 4 Breakthrough 1 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 2 Personal Narrative 0 Both Empowerment 0 Breakthrough 1 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 0 Personal Narrative 0 44

PAGE 45

Table 4-6. List of frames by disease used in Womans Day and Ladies Home Journal Magazine Disease Frame Frame Use Womans Day Breast Cancer Empowerment 9 Breakthrough 2 Dispelling Myths 1 First Person Narrative 1 Personal Narrative 2 Heart Disease Empowerment 14 Breakthrough 2 Dispelling Myths 2 First Person Narrative 2 Personal Narrative 4 Both Empowerment 4 Breakthrough 1 Dispelling Myths 1 First Person Narrative 0 Personal Narrative 0 Ladies Home Journal Breast Cancer Empowerment 3 Breakthrough 3 Dispelling Myths 2 First Person Narrative 4 Personal Narrative 8 Heart Disease Empowerment 9 Breakthrough 3 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 1 Personal Narrative 0 Both Empowerment 1 Breakthrough 4 Dispelling Myths 0 First Person Narrative 0 Personal Narrative 0 45

PAGE 46

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION This study revealed similarities and differences between heart disease and breast cancer coverage in womens magazines. One similarity between the four magazines heart disease and breast cancer coverage is the extensive use of the empowerment frame. Also of note was the similarity between the four magazines use of sources. Overall, medical doctors and PhDs were the two most frequently used source types for both diseases. Differences between heart disease and breast cancer coverage included the use of the dispelling myths frame, which was used for heart disease coverage only in Womans Days. Another difference between coverage of the two diseases is that more sources were used in breast cancer stories overall than for heart disease coverage despite the fact that the average page length of breast cancer and heart disease articles was almost equal. One similarity between the two diseases was that overall, there was only one more breast cancer article than heart disease articles. With all the magazine coverage that breast cancer receives, it is little wonder that women believe it is their greatest health risk. The disparity in how women view heart disease and breast cancer may be a result of the coverage each disease receives. Breast cancer is traditionally considered a woman's disease. In the past 20 years it has gained notoriety through celebrity advocacy, fundraising and a national campaign. One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their lives (ACS, 2007) which means that many women will either be diagnosed with or know someone who has been diagnosed with breast cancer. On the other hand, the term heart disease is an umbrella term that includes many different ailments, including heart attacks and strokes. The effects of heat disease are often long-term. While a heart attack might strike with little warning, other symptoms of heart disease like high cholesterol and high blood 46

PAGE 47

pressure might be present for years. Despite the fact that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer, only one in 35 will die (ACS, 2007). This difference between how the two diseases affect women may contribute to the quantity of coverage that breast cancer receives over heart disease. Heart disease is a silent killer with little or no outward symptoms while breast cancer may result in a physical manifestation, like the loss of a womans breasts. Implications from Research Questions RQ 1: What Frames were Used in Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Coverage Between 1997-2004 in the Top Two Womens Magazines Aimed at 45to 54Year-Old Women? Of the four magazines analyzed, Womans Day was the only magazine to use the dispelling myths frame in its heart disease coverage. Family Circle and Ladies Home Journal both used the dispelling myths frame in their breast cancer coverage only. Good Housekeeping did not use the dispelling myths in any health coverage. The use of the dispelling myths frame more frequently in breast cancer coverage is important because it suggests that readers already have some prior knowledge of the disease. In order to convey to readers truths about breast cancer, readers must already be knowledgeable about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment options and risk factors. The fact that the dispelling myths frame used just twice and in only one magazines heart disease coverage suggests that heart disease is not a disease about which many women already have knowledge. So, in order to frame heart disease coverage correctly, the empowerment, breakthrough, personal narrative and even first-person narrative frames are used in order to provide readers with new information they might not already know. In heart disease coverage, special emphasis is placed on the empowerment frame. This could be attributed to the newness of the information being conveyed. Also, the use of first-person and personal narratives in heart disease framing suggests that Good Housekeeping, Womans Day and Ladies Home Journal were making an effort to share with readers womens 47

PAGE 48

stories about their experience with heart disease. Whatever the reason, only Womans Day devoted more articles and sources to the coverage of heart disease than breast cancer. Similar to heart disease coverage, breast cancer articles were framed using all five frames: empowerment, breakthrough, dispelling myths, first-person narratives and personal narrative. The use of this range of different frames in breast cancer coverage suggests that authors are trying to reach their audience in the most effective way. These frames included less new information and assumed the reader had more knowledge of the topic to begin with. In Good Housekeeping and Ladies Home Journal, breast cancer was covered more frequently than heart disease. Articles covering breast cancer also cited more sources than articles covering heart disease. The average page length for breast cancer articles was also longer than for heart disease articles. The difference in how women view breast cancer and heart disease as health risks could be a result of this disparity in coverage. Despite contrary statistics, many women still view breast cancer as their biggest health risk and womens magazines recognize that. Good Housekeeping may have focused more health coverage on breast cancer in order to appease readers who were looking for more information on the disease. Similarly, in Family Circle, more articles were found that covered breast cancer than those that covered heart disease. Articles on breast cancer cited more sources than articles covering heart disease. However, heart disease articles had a higher average page length than those articles covering breast cancer. This means that more space was devoted to the coverage of heart disease in Family Circle, and suggests that despite a deficiency in the quantity of heart disease articles overall, the coverage devoted to heart disease may use more sources and have longer average article lengths than coverage devoted to breast cancer. This may be a result of the level of coverage breast cancer has traditionally received in womens magazines. In many womens 48

PAGE 49

minds, breast cancer is their greatest health risk. As a result, they may actively seek out information about breast cancer. A primary source of that information is womens magazines. Therefore, breast cancer coverage need not be as comprehensive as heart disease coverage because women already have sought that information and obtained it prior to reading the article. Also, heart disease is thought of less as a health threat in womens minds and thus, information about it is not as actively sought after as breast cancer information may be. Magazine coverage must therefore relay not only basic information like statistics and definitions to reinforce the severity of heart disease, but also introduce new information about heart disease. In contrast, Womans Days was the only magazine to have more articles covering heart disease than breast cancer. Also, its heart disease articles used more than twice as many sources as breast cancer articles and had a longer average article length. It is important to note that Womans Day was the only magazine of the four that ran a series of articles in conjunction with the American Heart Association. Of the four magazines, Womans Day was the only magazine to consistently cover heart disease and its risk to women. RQ 2: Within Each Magazine, How Did Sources Used in the Coverage of Breast Cancer and Heart Disease Compare to One Another? The presence of multiple sources in breast cancer and heart disease coverage helps to reinforce the credibility of the information it conveys. Overall, Womans Day cited the most sources, followed in descending order by Ladies Home Journal, Family Circle and Good Housekeeping. Of the sources cited overall in all four magazines, medical doctors and PhDs were the most frequently cited above all other sources. The presence of professional sources suggests that the information in the articles is correct and thoroughly researched. The consistent use of medical doctors over other sources could reassure readers that the information they are 49

PAGE 50

reading is similar to the information they would get from their own doctor. This might cause readers to pay more information to the information they are receiving as well as follow it better. Overall, Good Housekeeping used fewer sources than the other three magazines. The combination of a lack of credible sources and authors who are not health professionals may undermine the health information they provide. This deficiency may be explained by the use of the first-person narrative frame and the fact that it had the fewest articles (n=18) overall. Articles using the first-person narrative frame tended to use few, if any, sources because articles using the first-person narrative frame focused on the disease sufferers experience rather than conveying facts about disease. While medical doctors and PhDs were used the most frequently, other sources like the American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, National Institutes of Health, and even National Cancer Institute were used few times, if at all, in a majority of the articles. This disparity between the uses of sources reflects journalists and media professionals choices of sources for important health information. One concern of the concentrated use of only medical doctors and PhDs is that important information that may be available from equally credible sources, like the American Heart Association, is being overlooked. Another concern with journalists use of sources in articles is that many articles cited studies without providing enough information about the study to enable interested readers to seek more information. Because most of the articles were written by journalists, not medical professionals, the credibility of their interpretation of the study findings may be at issue. Most journalists are not trained to read and understand scientific studies; thus they may not always understand the result of a study and the interrelation of those results. 50

PAGE 51

Also, many journalists might not know that many heart disease studies fail to include women (AHA, 2007b). The American Heart Association (2007b) reports that women make up only 38% of subjects in the National Institutes of Health cardiovascular studies, and for one third of all new drugs approved by the FDA, there is no information about whether they are safe for women. This may result in journalists citing studies that might provide findings relevant only to men and heart disease, not women. The Big Picture: Womens Magazines Coverage of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Overall, this research supported conclusions derived from the review of previous literature. Reviewing this research, three points can be concluded about womens magazines coverage of heart disease and breast cancer. First, breast cancer and heart disease receive similar coverage, despite the fact that a woman is far more likely to die of heart disease than breast cancer. Covello and Peters (2002) found that media coverage exaggerated womens breast cancer risk, and this remains true. The fact that the number of breast cancer articles is essentially the same as heart disease articles suggests that it is at least as dire a health risk to women as heart disease. Second, the empowerment frame was the most frequently used frame in coverage of both heart disease and breast cancer. This may be because of the frames effectiveness. The empowerment frame encouraged women to take control of their health, the article providing tips on prevention and disease information. This is an important finding for media professionals, who might be searching for the most effective frame in order to relay to readers important health information. Third, there is a deficiency in the coverage heart disease receives. Clark and Binns (2006) found an overall lack of information on women and heart disease. In this research the same was true, with the exception of Womans Day magazine. Many of its articles focused on heart disease, and in particular the relationship between women and heart disease. In the articles 51

PAGE 52

reviewed in this research the majority of those covering heart disease focused on women and their role in preventing, treating and recognizing the symptoms of heart disease. Despite this increase in articles covering women and heart disease, this research reveals that the amount of coverage it receives still does not treat it as a womans number one health risk Therefore, what this study concludes about womens magazine coverage of heart disease and breast cancer is that there is a serious disparity between the health impact of heart disease and breast cancer and the coverage each receives. Conclusion This researchs findings reinforce the importance of the media as a source of health information for women. The four womens magazines studied all had health sections that provided health information about a range of health topics. Focusing only on breast cancer and heart disease, this research found that magazines gave both diseases almost equal coverage. The fact that women are still unable to correctly identify the greatest health risk reflects this coverage and stresses the important role that media professionals play in conveying womens heart disease and breast cancer risks. While there are no printed guidelines for writing about heart disease and breast cancer, the sources that media professionals choose when writing health articles can make a difference. Organizations like the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society have media relations liaisons that can answer media professionals questions and provide important information. What this researchs findings mean for women seeking health information is that while magazines are an important source of health information, women should not rely solely on magazines for their information. Magazines, for all their benefits, are still confined by space and the timeliness of the information they provide. Also, magazines primary aim is to sell magazines and to sell space to advertisers, not necessarily to inform women about their health 52

PAGE 53

risks in a way that emphasizes the risk each disease poses. Also, many journalists are not medical professionals and may not always be able to accurately and fully report on medical studies. Suggestions for Future Research One of the problems with this studys methodology is that the years examined for this study are not sufficient to provide a clear view of trends in breast cancer and heart disease coverage. Analysis of years preceding the beginning of this eight-year period and to the present would provide a picture of how, if at all, coverage of heart disease and breast cancer increased or decreased over time. Future research could also examine the correlation between the months dedicated to disease awareness and coverage of a disease. For example, October is traditionally known as breast cancer awareness month, so it would be interesting to see if more breast cancer articles appear in Octobers issue of a womens magazine than the rest of the issues. Another problem was the limitations of looking at only four womens magazines. Future research could explore the way a larger range of womens magazines cover heart disease and breast cancer and look for new frames. Another possible research idea would be to study womens magazines that target an ethnic audience, like Ebony or Latina magazine. This might reveal the use of different frames in heart disease and breast cancer coverage. Taking this research one step further, future researchers could also explore the readership of Good Housekeeping, Family Circle, Womans Day, and Ladies Home Journal through focus groups. Researchers could then determine how women who read the magazines perceive heart disease and breast cancer, revealing the effectiveness of health articles frames. 53

PAGE 54

APPENDIX: CODING SHEET 1. MAGAZINE NAME 2. DATE 3. SECTION 4. PAGE NUMBER(S) 5. APPROXIMATE LENGTH (IN PAGES) 6. AUTHOR 7. TITLE 8. WHICH DISEASES DOES IT ADDRESS (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) a. HEART DISEASE b. BREAST CANCER 9. MAIN TOPIC 10. SECONDARY TOPIC(S) OF STORY 11. SUBHEADERS 12. SOURCES USED IN ARTICLE 13. FRAMING ANALYSIS (MARK DIRECTLY ON HARD-COPY OF ARTICLE) 54

PAGE 55

Coding Guidelines 1. Magazine name: write in one of four magazine titles. 2. Record date of publication. 3. Section article was in: look at top corners for section label, if none write none. 4. Page number that article begins with and each page that article jumps to. 5. Approximate length of article in pages: count the number of pages including text and graphics. If a page has ads on it, estimate the amount of text and add-up. Use 1 page, page, page, and page. 6. Authors name: include their title if applicable (MD, PhD, etc). 7. Record articles full title. If the headline includes more than one line, please write all of it. 8. Circle all diseases covered. Coverage means more information is provided than the mention of the disease. Information must be provided about an aspect of the disease. For example: diagnosis, myths regarding disease, surviving disease, treatments, etc. 9. Main topic: Identify articles main topic. This is the primary issue that this article covers. If it is difficult to determine the articles main topic, then count the number of paragraphs that deal with the issue you think is the main topic. The topic with the most paragraphs is the main topic. 10. Secondary topics: Any other topics article covers that are not the main topic. 11. Subheads: Record if any. 12. Sources: Any sources that are used in story: paraphrased or directly quoted. List the names and titles of all sources. These may include organizations, web sites and studies. 13. Framing analysis: Read the item carefully several times. Going paragraph by paragraph, identify keywords, phrases, metaphors and sources of information used, and notably absent, in the story to determine how the article is framed. How are the diseases framed? What sources are used? Are these credible sources? Elements of framing include symbols, keywords, metaphors, catchphrases and themes as well as those that are notably absent. Underline in pencil any clues (keywords, metaphors, phrases, etc.) as to the articles frame, and write in the margin what frame(s) you identify. Attach the coding sheet to the article being coded 55

PAGE 56

LIST OF REFERENCES Abrams, M. (1999). The 318 top cancer specialists for women. Good Housekeeping, 6775. American Cancer Society (2006). Cancer Facts and Figures. Retrieved March 10, 2007 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0_2006.asp? sitearea=STT&level=1 American Cancer Society (2007). What Are the Key Statistics for Breast Cancer? Retrieved November 15, 2007 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1X_What_are_the_key_statistics_for_breast_cancer_5.asp American Heart Association (2007a). Women, Heart Disease and Stroke. Retrieved March 20, 2007 from http://www.americanheart.org /presenter.jhtml?identifier=4786 American Heart Association (2007b). Women and Cardiovascular Disease Facts. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml? identifier=3039318 Andsager, J.L. & Powers, A. (1999). Social or economic concerns: How news and womens magazines framed breast cancer in the 1990s. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(3), 531-550. Andsager, J.L. & Powers, A. (2001). Framing womens health with a sense-making approach: Magazine coverage of breast cancer and implants. Health Communication, 13(2), 163-185. Barnett, B. (2006). Health as womens work: A pilot study on how womens magazines frame medical news and femininity. Women and Language, 29(2), 1-12. 56

PAGE 57

Belson, A.A. (2001). Too young to die. Womans Day, 44-48. Browder, S.E. (1997). Cholesterol: Should you worry. Womans Day, 46-55. Cadoff, J. (2001). Heart to heart. Womans Day, 45-48. Castleman, M. (1997). News about breast cancer that could save your life. Family Circle, 110, 60-66. Castleman, M. (1998). What to eat to prevent cancer: The truth behind 12 diet and cancer myths. Family Circle, 111, 62-70. Castleman, M. (2002). Can what you eat really prevent cancer? Family Circle, 115, 61-64 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007a). Beyond 20/20: Trends in health and aging: Mortality: Death rates by age, sex, and underlying cause in the United States, 1981-2004. Retrieved July 15, 2007, from http://209.217.72.34/ aging/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx?IF_ActivePathName=P/Mortality Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007b). Leading Cause of Death: 19001998. Retrieved March 4, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ dvs/lead1900_98.pdf Clarke, J.N. (1992). Cancer, heart disease, and AIDS: What do the media tell us about these diseases? Health Communication, 4(2), 105-120. Clarke, J.N. & Binns, J. (2006). The portrayal of heart disease in mass print magazines, 1991-2001. Health Communication, 19(1), 39-48. Costas, C. (1998). Youre too young to have cancer. Ladies Home Journal, 120-128. 57

PAGE 58

Covello, V.T. & Peters, R.G. (2002). Womens perceptions of the risks of age-related diseases, including breast cancer: reports from a 3-year research study. Health Communication, 14(3), 377-395. Di Constanzo, D. (2002, October 8). Breast cancer breakthroughs: How women are beating the odds. Family Circle, 115, 82-91. Entman, R.M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-8. Family Circle (2007). Media kit. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from http://search.rja-ads.com/pdfs/demographics/fc-audience.pdf Frisby, C. & Fleming, K. (2005). Breast cancer anxiety and its links to media use and perceptions of medial information in African Americans and Caucasians. International Communication Association, 2005 Annual Meeting. Pp. 1-34. Gamson, W.A. & Modigliani, A. (1989). Media discourse and public opinion on nuclear power: A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, 95(1), 1-37. Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. London: Aldine Transaction. Good Housekeeping (2007). Media Kit. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from http://www.ghmediakit.com/r5/showkiosk.asp?listing_id=368324&category_id=25077&category_code=research Gorman, C. (2003). The No. 1 killer of women. Time, 2003, cover story. Grady, D. (2002). Should I have a mammogram. Ladies Home Journal, 70-75. 58

PAGE 59

Greene, E. (1998). A woman of valor. Good Housekeeping, 74-81. Griffon, K. (2003). This healthy woman had a heart attack, could you? Good Housekeeping, 95-102. Harcourt, D.M., Rumsey, N.J., Ambler, N.R., Cawthorn, S.J., Reid, C.D., Maddox, P.R., et al. (2003). The psychological effect of mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction: A prospective, multicenter study. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 111(3), 1060-1068. Harper, A. (2006). New program streamlines breast cancer treatments. Academic Health Center Findings. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://healthnews.uc.edu/publications/ findings/?/3143/3148/ Haupt, D. (1997). Medical Breakthroughs: Good news about cancer, heart disease, arthritis and more. Family Circle, 110, 62-66. Henig, R.M. (1997). How you can prevent cancer. Womans Day, 54-57. Hertog, J. & McLeod, D. (1999). Anarchists wreak havoc in downtown Minneapolis: A multilevel study of media coverage of radical protest. Journalism & Mass Communication Monographs, 151. Hertog, J., & McLeod, D. (2001). A multiperspectival approach to framing anaylsis: a field guide, in S. Reese, O. Gandy and A. Grand (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World. p.139-161. New Jersey: Erlbaum. Hitti, M. (2007). Breast cancer death rates improving. Breast cancer health center. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from http://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20070404/breast-cancer-death-rates-improving 59

PAGE 60

Houck, C. (2003). Medical myths that kill. Womans Day, 44-50. Jones, S.C. (2004). Coverage of breast cancer in the Australian print media: Does advertising and editorial coverage reflect correct social marketing messages. Journal of Health Communication, 9, 309-325. Kessler, L. (1989). Womens magazines coverage of smoking related health hazards. Journalism Quarterly, 66(2), 316-322. Ladies Home Journal (2007). Media Kit. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from http://www.meredithdrm.com/magazines_lhj.html Lindlof, T.R. & Taylor, B.C. (2002). Qualitative communication research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Lynch, P. (1997). Fighting cancer the best weapon: Take charge. Family Circle, 111, 62-69. Lyon, J. (2000). Lifesaving medical breakthroughs. Family Circle, 113, 38-47. Martino, S. (1998). Making strides against breast cancer. Womans Day, 42. Mayo Clinic (2007). Heart disease in women: A mayo clinic specialist answers questions. Retrieved September 20, 2007, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-disease/HB00040 McKay, S. & Bonner, F. (2000). Challenges, determination and triumphs: Inspiration discourse in womens magazine health stories. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, 14(2), 133-144. McKay, S. & Bonner, F. (2002). Evaluating illness in womens magazines. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 21(1), 53-67. 60

PAGE 61

Meischke, H., Kuniyuki, A., Yasui, Y., Bowen, D.J., Anderson, R., & Urban, N. (2002). Information women receive about heart attacks and how it affects their knowledge, beliefs, and intentions to act in a cardiac emergency. Health Care for Women International, 23,149-162. Meissner, H.L., Potosky, A.L., & Convissor, R. (1992). How sources of health information relate to knowledge and use of cancer screening exams. Journal of Community Health, 17, 153-165. Miller, M. & Riechert, B. (2001). The spiral of opportunity and frame resonance: Mapping the issue cycle in news and public discourse. In S. Reese, O. Gandy, & A. Grand (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World (pp. 107-121). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Mosca, L., Ferris, A., Fabunami, R., & Robertson, R.M. (2004). Tracking womens awareness of heart disease: An American Heart Association national study. Circulation, 2004(109), 573-579. Moss, M. (2003). Get a mammogram you can trust. Good Housekeeping, 106-112. National Cancer Institute (2007). Abortion, miscarriage and, breast cancer risk. Retrieved September 24, 2007 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ factsheet/Risk/abortion-miscarriage Powell, J. (1999). Rosies worst fear. Good Housekeeping, 107-218. Roufos, A. (2000). Women are different. Ladies Home Journal, 102-106. Sigmon, A.E. (2003). Im too young to have a stroke. Good Housekeeping, 72-76. 61

PAGE 62

Skarnulis, L. (2005). Silent Risk: Women and heart disease: Heart disease guide. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/women-more-afraid-of-breast-cancer-than-heart-disease Snyderman, N. (1997). Breakthroughs Battling Breast Cancer. Good Housekeeping, 71. Weinstock, C.P. (2002). A place for us. Womans Day, 56-59. Williams, G., III (2000). Breast cancer facts and fallacies: The truths that can save your life. Family Circle, 113, 74-84. Womans Day (2007). Womans Day Reader. Retrieved November 11, 2007, from http://www.hfmus.com/hfmus/media_kits/women_health/woman_s_day/audience/demographics Womens Health.Gov (2007). Heart Disease. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from http://www.4women.gov/FAQ/heartdis.htm#b Womens Heart Foundation (2005). Women and heart disease facts. Retrieved September 13, 2007, from http://www.womensheartfoundation.org/content/ HeartDisease/heart_disease_facts.asp World Health Organization (2000). Women, Ageing and Health. Retrieved March 29, 2007, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs252/en/ 62

PAGE 63

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Megan Martinez graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in journalism from the University of West Florida in May 2005. She graduated with a Master of Arts in Mass Communication at the University of Florida in May 2008. During her time as undergraduate, Megan was the features and commentary editor of the University of West Floridas newspaper, the Voyager. As a graduate student, she was the editor of the Graduate and Family Housings newsletter, the Villager. Megan hopes to pursue a career in the communication side of the health care field. 63