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The Little House

Center for World Heritage Research & Stewardship at the University of Florida University of Florida
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021823/00001

Material Information

Title: The Little House Preservation and History of the Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter Park, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (123 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Gorman, Gary Phillip
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: After 4 years of working as a teaching assistant and documenting historic structures for the University of Florida's Preservation Institute: Nantucket, Massachusetts, I returned home anxious to resume my work on research and restoration of the original Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter Park, Florida (historically referred to locally as the Little House). This research captured a significant cultural memory and a sense of place, by uncovering a rich blend of Winter Park history, architecture, local and national figures, whose separate stories intersect to give the Little House its unique provenance. On November 6, 1936, the keys to the newly constructed Little House were officially turned over to the Girl Scouts. Today, hundreds of Winter Park residents pass by this structure daily, unaware of its story. For more than 30 years the Little House played a pivotal role in our community's cultural memory by providing a safe and nurturing environment for the Girl Scouts of Winter Park. It is not hard to imagine that many a friendship was formed before its oversized fireplace.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gary Phillip Gorman.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Prugh, Peter E.
Local: Co-adviser: Graham, Roy E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021823:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021823/00001

Material Information

Title: The Little House Preservation and History of the Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter Park, Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (123 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Gorman, Gary Phillip
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Architecture thesis, M.S.A.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: After 4 years of working as a teaching assistant and documenting historic structures for the University of Florida's Preservation Institute: Nantucket, Massachusetts, I returned home anxious to resume my work on research and restoration of the original Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter Park, Florida (historically referred to locally as the Little House). This research captured a significant cultural memory and a sense of place, by uncovering a rich blend of Winter Park history, architecture, local and national figures, whose separate stories intersect to give the Little House its unique provenance. On November 6, 1936, the keys to the newly constructed Little House were officially turned over to the Girl Scouts. Today, hundreds of Winter Park residents pass by this structure daily, unaware of its story. For more than 30 years the Little House played a pivotal role in our community's cultural memory by providing a safe and nurturing environment for the Girl Scouts of Winter Park. It is not hard to imagine that many a friendship was formed before its oversized fireplace.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gary Phillip Gorman.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.A.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Prugh, Peter E.
Local: Co-adviser: Graham, Roy E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021823:00001


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18429c1a10152d95b5d78de5be173d85eb1a6762







THE LITTLE HOUSE: PRESERVATION AND HISTORY OF THE GIRL SCOUT
CLUBHOUSE OF WINTER PARK, FLORIDA




















By

GARY PHILIP GORMAN


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Gary Philip Gorman

































To the Community of Winter Park









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I gratefully acknowledge the generous assistance of the Winter Park Public Library, the

Rollins College Olin Library, the Girl Scouts Citrus Council, the Winter Park Historical

Association and Museum, the Winter Park Woman's Club, and the many individual Girl Scouts

and their leaders who shared their stories with me. Lastly, I wish to extend a special thanks to

Mrs. Virginia Asher for kindly sharing her rich oral histories regarding the Minnesota Avenue

neighborhood and the Little House.









TABLE OF CONTENTS
page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

LIST OF FIGURES ................................... .. .... .... ................. .8

A B S T R A C T ........................................... ................................................................. 1 1

CHAPTER

1 WINTER PARK, FLORIDA AREA HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007......13

P ath to Settlem ent ...................................... ................................. ................. 13
Chartering its Ow n Course ......................................................................... .. 14
Roots of Tourism ............... ................ .......... ............................ 14
D defining a Sense of Place ................ .................. ........................... ........ ... 15
Em phasizing Public W welfare ........................................................................... 16
Conditions for M minority Population ........................................ .......................... 17
Changing Patterns of G row th ................................................... .................................. 17
E effects of the W ar Y ears ................................................................... ........................18
Im pact of Technology ............................................................... ............ 18
The New Tourism Model and its Consequences..........................................................19
Controlling Grow th............. ...... ......................... .......... 19
The D isney Effect..................................................................... ............ ..... 20
C u rrent Issu es ........................................................................... 2 1
P reserving a Sense of P lace ............................................................................. ............2 1

2 MINNESOTA AVENUE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007 ........................29

N neighborhood H history and A analysis ........................................................... .....................29
The First 75 Y ears 1850 1925 ............................................................ ............... 29
The Emerging Neighborhood 1925 -1940 ............. ............................................. 30
Residential Expansion onto Minnesota Avenue............................................................32
Closing the Little H house ................... .................................. ........ .......... .............. 33
Implications for a Transitional Neighborhood ............................................ ............... 33
Changes in D density and Scale ........................ ........................... .......................... 34
Future Infrastructure Improvements and Private Projects.............................................35
Teardow ns verses Preservation ............................................... ............................ 36
C o n c lu sio n ................... .......................................................... ................ 3 6

3 CURRENT MINNESOTA AVENUE CONTRIBUTING STRUCTURES SURVEY.........44

D ocum ending L local Structures .................................................................... .....................44
Evaluation of Survey ................................... ... .. ........... ............... 44
R resulting R record .............................................................................44










4 TH E LITTLE H O U SE H ISTO R Y .............................................................. .....................59

Juliette Gordon Low ................................. .. ... .... ................... 59
Finding a Perm anent H om e ..........................................................................59
C om m unity E effort ........................ .. ........................ .. .... ........ ........ 60
Juliette Low's Legacy ..................................................... ........ ............... 61
B breaking G round ................................................................62
L local C ontributors........ .......................................................................... ....... ... ..62
Presentation of the K eys ...................................................... ................. 63
Scouting A activities Through the Y ears........................................................ ............... 63
Ownership Changes ..................................................................... ....... ...... 65

5 PRESERVIN G THE LITTLE H OU SE ...................................................................... ......78

M methodology P lan .......................................................78
Exterior R rehabilitation .................. ..................................... ....... .......... .. ..79
F lorida F rien dly Y ard ........................................................................ .. ......................79
L landscape and Sustainability ................................................ .............................. 80
Y ard A rch eology ...................................................................................................... 8 1
Adding Elements to the Exterior and Landscape ................................. ................ 82
Examining the Envelope of the Little House....................................................................... 82
Structural A lterations........ .................................................................. ......... ....... 83
O original P aint A nalysis............. .......................................................... ................. 84
R rehabilitating the R oof ........................................................... .............. .. 85
Interior Rehabilitation ................ .......................... ................... ......... 86
D econstructing the Interior........................................... ................... ............... 86
Forensic A architecture .......................................... ............. .... ....... 89
Rehabilitation End Goals.............. .. ................. ...................90

6 CURRENT ISSUES IMPACTING PRESERVATION ON HISTORIC STRUCTURES
ON M IN N E SO TA A V EN U E ............................................................................. ..............104

Losing a Sense of Place and its Historic Structures .......................................................... 104
Slowing the Trend by Creating Awareness ........................................ ....... ............... 105

7 PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE PROTECTION OF THE LITTLE HOUSE .........................110

P ro p o sa ls ............................................................................ .. 1 1 0
Positive Arguments for Moving the Little House ............... ..................................111
Negative Tradeoffs .............. ................ ......... .................. ........ .....112

8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ........................................................... ..............115

APPENDIX THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR'S STANDARDS............................... 117





6









L IST O F R E F R E N C E S ................................................................................... ....................... 122

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... ............... ..... 123









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 Bartram commemorative plaque; Mead Gardens ................................... .................23

1-2 Early rendering of the village of Winter Park and rail line..............................................24

1-3 Advertising handbill for Winter Park visitors.......................... ...........................25

1-4 D epiction of 1887 Sem inole H otel .............................................................................. 26

1-5 Northern states influenced infrastructure legacy .................................... ............... 27

1-6 Northern states influenced town planning grid legacy. .............................................. 27

1-7 N northern states influenced architectural legacy .............................................................. 28

2-1 Subject study area .................. ............... ........ .................. ...... .... 37

2-2 Trovillion folk map rendering of Winter Park in 1908 .............. ...................................38

2-3 Aerial view of Minnesota Avenue circa 1930 ......................................... ...............39

2-4 Early plat map showing Cherokee Park subdivision ............................... ................40

2-5 Map locator showing sites of 3 surviving lake area cottages............... ...............41

2-6 L ake area cottage # 1 .......................... ...... .................... .. ......... ........ 42

2-7 Lake area cottage #2 ............................. ...................... ............ 42

2-8 L ake area cottage #3 .......................... .............................. ......... ........ 43

2-9 W inter Park H igh School built in 1927 ...................................... ..................43

3-1 Minnesota Avenue neighborhood structures locator map ...........................................46

3-2 Subject structure #1 The L little H house ..............................................................................47

3-3 Subject structure #2 ..................................................... ............ ....... ..... 48

3-4 Subject structure #3 .................. .................. ................. .......... .. ....... ..... 49

3-5 Subject structure #4 ..................................................... ............ ....... ..... 50

3-6 Subject structure #5 .................. .................. ................. .......... .. ....... ..... 51

3-7 Subject structure #6 ..................................................... ............ ....... ..... 52



8









3-8 Subject structure #7 ..................................................... ............ ............. 53

3-9 Subject structure #8 ..................................................... ............ ....... ...... 54

3-10 Subject structure #9 ..................................................... ............ ....... ...... 55

3-11 Subject structure #10 .................................... ................. .......... ....... ..... 56

3-12 Subject structure # 1 ............................................ ................................ ...... .. .... 57

3-13 Subject structure #12 .................................... ........................... ....... ..... 58

4-1 Perm mission to use W om en's Club H all ........................................ ......................... 66

4-2 Early documentation of local Girl Scouts organizations ................................................67

4-3 F first club hou se site selection ........................................ .............................................68

4-4 Formal dedication announcement ....................................................... ..............69

4-5 M missing plaque m y stery ............................................................................ ................... 70

4-6 M ead G arden s outing ........................... ............................................... .........................7 1

4-7 1939 yearly C redential F ee ....................................................................... ...................72

4-8 Charity lapel dolls .................. ............................. ........... 73

4-9 N egro Scouting program ......... ............................................................... ..........................74

4-10 L little H ou se rendering ............................................................................. .................... 75

4-11 C ottrells 40th anniversary .................................................................. ........ ...................75

4-12 Rediscovered and relocated base to flag pole ........................................ ...............76

4-13 Juliette Low m arker at Rollins College ........................................ ........................ 76

4-14 Little House as rental property 1974 .................................................... ...................77

5 -1 S ite p lan .........................................................................9 2

5-2 Front entry view.......................... .................. ........... 93

5 -3 S tre e t v iew ................................................................................................................... 9 3

5-4 R located entrance w ith arbor ........................................ .............................................94

5-5 Front courtyard ...............9.......................94



9









5 6 Rear deck with new rear entrance ................................................... ... ............95

5-7 W ood siding with circular saw m arkings...................................... ......................... 96

5-8 Boarded over window reveals original paint ........... ............................... ...............97

5-9 F finished exterior ................................................................98

5-10 H and fashioned exterior shutter........................................................................... .... ... 99

5-11 Roof water diverter ......................................... ................. ......... .. 1... 00

5-12 D constructed interior shell ......................................... .. .. .......................................... 10 1

5-13 Background showing exposed wall framing.................... ........... ................102

5-14 W ater damaged rear fireplace wall and new insert.................................. ... ..................103

5-15 K kitchen rehabilitation ....... ....................................................................... ........ .. ..... .. 103

6-1 R-3 zoning map ....... ........ ............. ........................................ .. 107

6-2 Sites of recent area dem olitions ........... ......... ......................... ......... ............... 108

6-3 A adjacent property redevelopm ent........................................................ ............... 109

7-1 W inter Park residential historic district ...................................................... ............... 113

7-2 Building development impacting the Little House ........... .................. .................. 114
























10









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies

THE LITTLE HOUSE: PRESERVATION AND HISTORY OF THE GIRL SCOUT
CLUBHOUSE OF WINTER PARK, FLORIDA

By

Gary Philip Gorman

December 2007

Chair: Peter E. Prugh
Cochair: Roy E.Graham
Major: Architecture

Following four years as a teaching assistant and documenting historic structures for the

University of Florida's Preservation Institute: Nantucket, Massachusetts, I returned home anxious

to resume my work on the research and restoration of the original Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter

Park, Florida, historically referred to locally as the Little House.

The result of this research captured a significant cultural memory and a sense of place, by

uncovering a rich blend of Winter Park history, architecture, local and national figures, whose

separate stories intersect to give the Little House its unique provenance.

On November 6, 1936 the keys to the newly constructed Little House were officially turned

over to the Girl Scouts. Today, hundreds of Winter Park residents pass by this structure daily,

unaware of its story. For over thirty years the Little House played a pivotal role in our

community's cultural memory by providing a safe and nurturing environment for the Girl Scouts

of Winter Park. It is not hard to imagine that many a friendship was formed before its oversized

fireplace.









As the physical restoration and preservation of the Little House evolved, an equally

compelling story of historic and anecdotal facts began to emerge, raising a number of interesting

questions,

* How was Juliette Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of America and recipient of a memorial
marker on Rollins College Walk of Fame, connected to the Winter Park Little House?

* How did the construction of the Little House meld into the community's historic fabric and
which local individuals played a role.

* How old was the Little House? Although mortgage documents said otherwise, forensic
architecture had shown that the carpentry details placed the structure as much older than
recorded.

* What negative forces exist which threaten the preservation of the Little House?

* What future uses, plans and methodology could be envisioned to preserve the Little House
for future generations in Winter Park?

In order to answer these and other questions I sought to understand the broad historic context

surrounding the Little House and then to narrow that research by constructing a time line for a

more detailed assessment and analysis. These processes will form the basis of my research product

and presentation.

The purpose of this research is one that through rediscovery of both the physical structure as

well as its history, I can create a comprehensive thesis document, that will provide a strong rational

for protecting and preserving the Little House.









CHAPTER 1
WINTER PARK, FLORIDA AREA HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007

Path to Settlement

In a brief overview documenting the early history and development of Winter Park, one

need only consider that as early as 1774 William Bartram, the noted naturalist, walked the

nearby Indian trails. A plaque commemorating his activities can be found in Mead Gardens, a

wetlands park, just 2 blocks south of the Little House site. (Figure 1-1) Bartram, like others to

follow, would find the area rich in natural beauty with an abundant and diverse range of flora and

fauna.

Nearly one hundred years later, the early Florida communities of Jacksonville,

Apalachicola, and St. Augustine were providing jumping off points onto Florida's extensive river

system, a river system that would serve as a primary conduit for the early settler exploration.

While the majority of Florida's interior exploration was facilitated by the extensive river-

ways, a secondary means of passage, the same as that used by the naturalist Bartram one hundred

years earlier, were the Native American trails. One such well-established trail snaked its way

around the lakes of Central Florida, where temporary encampments of native peoples were

common. Skirting these lakes, the Indian trails drew the settlers onto what would later become

the site for the community of Winter Park. (Chapman, 2001, 12)

This was an area favored by native peoples as well as the newly arriving settlers for its

pronounced environmental beauty; it featured abundant natural resources such as clean fresh

water, and large quantities of fish and game. The land was arable and the uplands woods would

provide timber and turpentine.









Chartering its Own Course

With the natural attraction of the land and a mild winter climate, many settlers felt

convinced this was the spot for them to put down roots. It may have been as legend said, that the

1858, eight-acre purchase of land here among the lakes by settler David Mizell, was in fact the

true kernel from which Winter Park would emerge. Mizell at first referred to the area as Lake

View and it drew a slow trickle of settlers, ultimately forming two small communities (Robinson

and Andrews, 1995, 53). By the early 1880's the two small communities became one and

managed to get a small rail line linked into their village, then just one year later a full service rail

depot was constructed. (Figure 1-2)

As Winter Park grew, clearly one successful and transforming effect on this small

community was its own very successful advertising campaign, used to lure visitors and investors

from throughout the northern tier states. (Figure 1-3) As a newly chartered town in 1887, Winter

Park began taking on a reputation as a winter resort with the main purpose of attracting well-

heeled northerners who wished to escape their harsh winters back home.

With an average annual temperature of 72 degrees, visitors found Winter Park's

environment and climate both healthy and mild, making it a tranquil place to visit. Many of those

wealthy northern visitors, it would turn out, would return to become permanent residents.

Roots of Tourism

Common during this period was the construction by and for seasonal residents of small

winter cottages scattered along the lakes. At the same time, there occurred an ever-expanding

business of building and operating winter resorts such as the Seminole hotel, then the largest in

the state. (Figure 1-4) Both of these enterprises would clearly contribute as economic engines for

the emerging town. Also, very important was the impact the visitors and investors,

predominantly from the northern states would have, in that these same individuals left a legacy









still visible today as seen in Winter Park's surviving period architecture and infrastructure.

(Figure's 1-5, 1-6, and 1-7) The original town plan could be characterized as one drawn using a

tight grid system format surrounding a large well defined central park. Adjacent to the park on

one side were shops and on the other a rail line and depot. This was an important selling point for

the northern investors as the town layout could be described as familiar, and very reminiscent of

a New England town plan. To the original town planner's credit, their visionary downtown

layout has held up well and still exists today, virtually unchanged from its original form.

Finally, two iconic markers, the establishment of the citrus industry and the formation of

Rollins College would help propel Winter Park, (albeit in a typical cyclical Florida fashion of

boom and bust) into the 20th century.

Defining a Sense of Place

As a new community, Winter Park appeared headed for a bright future. It had a stable and

growing population, with a vibrant business district and even at these early stages of

development it exhibited a characterization still proudly projected today by the Chamber of

Commerce, that being its emphasis on its quality of life for its residents. Through the years,

Winter Park's "sense of place" (Hiss, 1990, 24) would be tied to this motto, whereby it

consistently sought to highlight its commitment and support for higher education, the arts and the

environment, by a very generous and philanthropic citizenry.

During the first ten years of the 20th century, Winter Park remained quiet and

uncomplicated. A semi rural sense of the area still clung in the air. But the coming land boom in

Florida and the increasing ability to more readily access the state by train and eventually by auto

was bringing a larger and larger influx of visitors. By the 1920's the level of roadway

infrastructure along Florida's east coast was significant. A more rudimentary set of roads were

beginning to take shape, funneling tourists down through the center of the state. Winter Park, like









many Central Florida towns would do their best to benefit from these tourists by encouraging

them to stop and spend their dollars in its towns businesses. The old notion of the winter tourist

trade was evolving into the more modern year-round concept of tourist related businesses we

have today in Florida. Golf courses, automobile races on the beach, natural springs, tropical

gardens, citrus groves, and unusual flora and fauna became the draws. Overnight motels with

their cabin like cottages flourished along the roadways. State tourism, in its infancy was

beginning to take form. But this forward momentum would often be interrupted over the years as

severe freezes crushed the citrus industry and the once vaulted land boom became synonymous

with swampland. The final straw would be the nationwide Depression which would curtail the

land speculation and severely dry up the disposable income of the tourist trade.

Emphasizing Public Welfare

During this period of hardship and financial instability, Winter Park hunkered down and

began to take greater stock of its own citizen's welfare. At the beginning of the 20th century an

emergence of community networks began to evolve throughout the United States responding to

demands for a social safety net. Many of these same national civic organizations would surface

locally in Winter Park in the years between 1900 and 1930. The Kiwanis Club, Community

Chest, Woman's Club, Garden Club, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts all were established and all

emphasized the idea of service for the greater good. Ultimately, this civic response would lead to

the only community constructed meeting house for the Girl Scouts in Winter Park's history

and would be referred to as the Little House.

Rollins College continued its growth and expansion programs generating business for the

town's coffers in an era of little economic growth. The downtown business district held its own,

and occasionally new shops and small parking areas were added. Often times, these expansions

would result in the physical moving of older housing stock from the town's central core. One









such area on the receiving end of this early attempt at urban renewal of the downtown core was

the Minnesota Avenue neighborhood about three blocks away. In these days of economic

hardship, few livable structures would be wasted through demolition and hence many such house

relocations ended up in this close-in but underdeveloped area of Winter Park.

Conditions for Minority Population

As the community of Winter Park slipped into the clutches of the extended national

economic downturn of the 1930's, it had a population of about 7000 residents. A segregated

community, Winter Park's African American population resided in an area just west of

downtown, in a section of Winter Park referred to as the Hannibal square neighborhood. The

Hannibal Square Associates was organized "for the welfare of the Negroes of Winter Park," The

first project was the erection of a building in which to house the Hannibal Square Library,

adjacent to the Negro elementary school on West New England. (MacDowell 1950, p223) The

Hannibal neighborhood architectural form consisted of small well-kept homes, shops and

churches, set upon compact blocks of tree-lined streets. Most of its residents worked as

domestics, groundskeepers, and general laborers for the many wealthy white families of Winter

Park. Both races had similar but separate civic organizations mirroring those of one another.

Although Winter Park would proudly break ground for a new high school during this period its

schools remained segregated.

Changing Patterns of Growth

Like many small southern towns Winter Parks ice cream parlor, 5 and dime store and

movie- theatre would provide plenty of diversion and entertainment for the locals in the 1940's

and 1950's. For outdoor activities the chain of lakes offered endless opportunities for swimming,

fishing, and boating. Most Winter Park children would learn to swim as part of a local tradition

at the town's public lakeside park referred to as Dinky dock. A relaxing evening might consist of









a barefoot stroll down sandy Genius Drive at sunset where one could see and hear wild peacocks

perched throughout the live oaks.

Effects of the War Years

Nearby the faster growing city of Orlando was having its own impact on Winter Park as

the two communities grew towards one another, blurring their once separate identities and

original town boundaries. Local Defense industry companies, as well as naval and air base

facilities were all gearing up for what appeared to be a period of war following the Depression,

thereby becoming an important revenue stream for the local economies of Winter Park and

Orlando. As war approached even the local Winter Park girl-scout troop, would find ways to

support the war effort by making string dolls to be given away in exchange for donations from its

citizens as a way to help the Girl Guides program in war ravaged Great Britain.

When World War II came to an end many of the same service men and women that had

been stationed at the nearby bases decided to remain here or returned to the area with their

families to settle. This spike in population would give Winter Park a noticeable infusion of

growth and mark the end to what had been a period of economic stagnation.

Impact of Technology

Most Winter Park homes at this time had large covered porches for the practical purpose of

creating shade and ventilation as a passive means of air conditioning, used to deal with the hot

and humid conditions of Florida's summertime heat. Florida vernacular architecture commonly

incorporated rear-sleeping porches providing nighttime relief as well. But by the late 1940's and

early 1950's things were about to change in a momentous way, as the possibility of household air

conditioning systems was about to become a reality. This technology would have a huge impact

on all of Florida as the normal summertime pattern of 90 degree plus heat could now be









effectively managed. This invention would, in its own way, substantially contribute to population

growth throughout the 1950s and 60's for Florida communities like Winter Park.

The New Tourism Model and its Consequences

With better roadways, and their adjacent roadside shops, restaurants and motels with air

conditioning, tourists began to return to a new more modern Florida. State tourism sites were

establishing themselves throughout central Florida, Daytona's; beaches, 500 auto race and

nearby Marineland, St. Augustine's; Alligator Farm, Orlando's; Gatorland, St. Petersburg's;

Sunken Gardens, Winter Haven's; Bok Tower and Cypress Gardens, Ocala's; Silver Springs,

Clermont's; Citrus Tower, and Tarpons Springs; Weeki Wachee, were all early forerunners of

the giant theme parks which would appear some 20 years later.

Clearly the Winter Park of the 1950's was feeling the effects of progress on its community

but tried hard to remain faithful to its own sense of place by fending off growth when possible in

order to preserve and maintain a quality of life for its residents. Winter Park unashamedly

accepted the description of itself as an affluent community, at the same time drawing on a

growing artistic and Bohemian collection of newcomers who began renting the second floor

apartments above the shops on Park Avenue. This bastion of artists would be the future leaders,

and supporters pivotal in the formation of events such as the renowned Winter Park Art Festival,

still an annual event today. Potters, jewelry makers, and painters would also quietly impact the

main shopping fare, referred to as Park Avenue, as their wares began to be sold in newly opened

galleries and specialty shops along the street.

Controlling Growth

From the beginning the natural barriers of Winter Park's chain of lakes created a

community not easily accessible to the outsider. This sense of isolation was not lost on the

residents of Winter Park who over the years would cultivate that notion and use any measures









they could to maintain this status quo. Even today there is virtually only one street that could be

considered to directly transverse the heart of Winter Park in an east west direction. This same

situation would define one's ability to move on a north south axis through the town as well.

One dramatic example of Winter Park's early attempts at controlling growth was its

resistance to the proposed new Interstate 4 highway as it was being planned in the late 1950's

and early 1960's. Winter Park had refused to accept a plan that would bring the highway near its

center and only grudgedly allowed for an exit and entry ramp which would feed into the then

outskirts of town. Ironically, this very public aversion to the perceived idea of progress through

growth only made Winter Park more attractive to the many newcomers it continued to attract.

By the middle of the 1960's Winter Park was thriving, new schools were being built, new

restaurants began operation and an enclosed air conditioned shopping mall, would permit a

shopping experience few had ever seen in Central Florida. In-fill housing projects were back on

track and Rollins College was positioned to begin a new period of academic expansion.

The Disney Effect

The secretive accumulation, at the southern edge of Orange County of vast amounts of

undeveloped scrub and grove lands in the mid 1960's, would soon be revealed for what it was,

the development of the largest project ever to be seen in Central Florida, the creation of Walt

Disney World. No central Florida community would be able to withstand the onslaught of

change coming their way from this massive development. For Winter Park and neighboring

towns the next two decades would be a challenge as they faced never before seen topics of

sprawl, traffic congestion, explosive population growth, issues of density, and infrastructure

problems.

Banking and service industries thrived as money poured into Winter Park. Marketable

academic skills like MBAs made Rollins Graduate Business School an overnight success.









Wealth was the by-product of this period and Winter Park met the challenge by continuing to

address quality of life issues for its residents. The environment, arts, and revitalization efforts

would continue to capture dollars for community wide projects.

Current Issues

By the late 1990's and up to this current period of time, new unforeseen dilemmas for

Winter Park had emerged. The phenomenon of teardowns had created a fast moving firestorm of

change pulsing through Winter Park's once staid neighborhoods. With little or no room for

expansion in the built out environment of Winter Park, teardowns had become one of the

standard solutions to the unrelenting demand for more housing. (nationaltrust.org/11 Most/

2002/teardowns).

The approach of increasing density as a solution to housing needs ran counter to all things

Winter Park but it too had become the inevitable tool of developers eager to make money during

the housing crunch.

The white gentrification of the long established African American neighborhoods of

Winter Park began in earnest and today continues unabated, eating away at these areas with both

new residential and commercial projects.

The core problem creating these recent dilemmas has been skyrocketing land values

matched by the ever- increasing demands of individuals and families wishing to reside in Winter

Park. Recent pull backs in real estate values have definitely cooled things down in Winter Park

but many new projects continue to come out of the ground.

Preserving a Sense of Place

With a tradition established at its inception, Winter Park would, through the years,

consider itself a place apart. It drew to itself a dedicated group of like thinking people who

agreed with the notion of emphasizing quality of life issues for its citizens, and most important









they backed up those beliefs with impressive philanthropic gifts and volunteerism. Libraries,

museums, centers of higher education, the arts, outstanding public schools, numerous parks and

recreation centers and a large and outstanding group of non-profit, civic organizations would all

be the lynch pins to a community that in turn would give it confidence as it struggled and

maneuvered its way through cycles of boom and bust.

Looking back, throughout that interesting history much has changed and consequently

much has been lost in Winter Park. Fortunately, there is today a strong awareness and concern

for preserving what remains of that history. Topophlia is a term used to describe this coupling of

a community's sentiment with a sense of place (Tuan, 1974, 113) whether it is found in its

architecture, the cultural landscape, or the oral traditions and stories that connect its residents to

their past. It is in this realm of values that the Little House's preservation is important.
















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Figure 1-1 Bartram commemorative plaque; Mead Gardens


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FtORIR4


Figure 1-2 Early rendering of the village of Winter Park and rail line















SINTER PARK In a ane Wn n tn Or ani Coty, In., en the SouthI lari Rid,
elltaeen mile touhi of Aliynd, two mille ruth of ailtld, f rr mllu north of
Orlandi, Afty milln rsbo dhu wl n of c up CiMiral.l etlly miles east of Gulf of
Mauil, and a bhundred andil Lwity mi iinout(h of .lmkeonrill.
THE MAIN IDEA Of Winter I rk to a b ul.liul wine resort for well-lodo people
who wish Id sip'e from the e ld ani bl stIrrlng veathr o fruitful l or comw coughs, diph-
Ira.pl corauriumlelo, e. ai a coJill tia of Ibralifl villu Ie di e mide or omn.poro.e upon
Cer.ilol rani rr sB I .he lKrrsn crystal laik; a do In or male of IUg flrl-ta bitd$l
ce~mt dl aloni tbe two mles of lrkerrutAme,-& rmecit obt shalli be for ite winter whet
Saratoe, Long lBraIn, Ira., re orin summer.
THE LOCATION or Wliter Park ls perfect for eroh a hetime: its sir budred acre
lo high, rolling pio land ire bounded on the norllh by lake Maltlnd (imven buimntrd mar),
eat by OatCb (thrbe bundred sKrw), aind hi n by Vltionla (four lunlnld), giving oer two
milln of s beaultifl lcktmntelae u an be found In the warld (Ma mrp en litR pap). The
tall pI~i ad lgrn gren growing upon the lind down t to he f ginv the ppeianreE or a
rat gorn, through tihl r ietes on be driren A will.
THE LAKES Ihj -Pn ran d. juste lu. rI).il grme I'. rinrr.nlI Ellni., thll In bI.Tly
of those I Willrinmin ull MIinlisola; wairl ricrir a ill ml, ndl punre lid lift N rminller;
no graen Imm Is ever scon upon them; over Slay feet dnop; einnatled by runing lntrtfo
with the Bt. John's RIvor; fifuli o lrge nd drllcloum fah; horem solid ud delliltl l~lf Irrugo.
Ier, giin maslonelen views, mid rlisin gtuimlly to a billet of ty flet atbo the atlor;
rd ranbl pI F?; r--I*Aln tdn ainIIngi n mimpin has ba n chartered to put upon them
lil. orf stam-yuitbt: aranue-glrove h Lere d therro e bokth.e ba.
THE RAILROAD built In t10 by 'Pulller k OD., aIof Th BItonD hernd hal faur daily
tinlni through ~e cantIm of Winir IPark.-Ilu diellMlsn Tempa Bay.

BtrAtonm. Ulle.

SlAtfod ..... 14 f. .1 r ing crlly, everl larl hnls.
Ballir 4 a On, BSanor's liacr or iggrae.
Longwood . 10 74 Holl, l lEre, dare, MA.
y1. . 14 N Eco-inlry, anw-ill,lTr, Setc.
lln, d 1 1 IT 'reegrphoffle s, Shurct, er os,
rk rtstlon . li otel lnds wo hurleeA,
BIielow tatln. 10 B3 Bielow Iouimt on Lab Mitliad.
Wlntor Prk I. .. l 22 Rogers Hos nm Laok Ovcewl.
Wlhet . i Bl arh-flitod ar uaw.amlll
OrlAldo Co unltyal; agrowinsl tyl; severltbol
Klnimame. . 40 3 Present milsiu an Lake Tohopsknllg.


Another nrailo now building from Leabarl will miaon give llrl monnaiwli bM
Winter Pru mid Neow York, ChIepg, ove.
SANFORD Is a pr ety d thrlvlng city, the beadq4asrnr o the laims BaSm d G aLt
T.l "UBarod BHonn Is a lu Inrp hoela~ d i popular rieort f1 r todril. The "Evr.
lai n,"" I Noin Ci." And sI rrhl*n tboardiin-houme are popular ritor i.
THE TOWN PLAN ambrs a en'oar Park in It centre, through bd middle of
whi leilIth.ls runs th rallrloa, I ri tlh binhmlnu lm' aU both Sides. fronting tW PI rad
Sn. lr,.l The teulasmd runnlng from Lake Orc ola warwuil for I mll to [A ke REllir
Ssne' tbl parlk Ih two i equ divilionl, and as tSh JJua0lhan w llh I Ik is a illiih JepL.
Howl rud illt lol ion t lake. tReilen., hd g ira te ul of from uri.hlf rre to i, nrn ret
Sare u atenrd ni f l uver e trol, upon broad une ri rnnmi to the liks.
BUlLDINQG. hotel. h.eb-ing hb.ln. ime. Iure .llown halr, prl-~r e, wqerlp .tory,
Iarptleri l uPp, bMllamcklib'a shop, sa mill, depot, and iuerl rcldrnft. A& aurcb an
e hkolhoulse will I 1n b billL Telegrph cila wiII l on be open Il d.~pt
HOTELS in the t o1n are cromde erry winltr. The R gers Boe on ULke Oiwco
16v 1 und three minunis f depot, And the Blgetw, a mile north, bcarge faro to a twenty dolWa per
~, ,n lk, Ik. E l I inplt a"' ruemlllerl, ni eroln dollkreq er4' t hRo fAom rho lukptngoelie
un-ted. Tire oprnar for r firlcun brarling houiae Wirter Pat, with l t batflitwal a
WINTER PARK .~ath I aie tI ronutge. I s cclslbillit, tad lu high mad bealtby locatiU I* Tla plan for
WINTER PARK a ~nd IwBt wertre; aid hotel] men ubould not Sil to tlmenUtllte. We oftr indnuercean
lii A SOCIlETVIs s tatml..u, A odvl ptltrnng in Wnlter.Park Towu ll will bring together
BEAUTIFUIL aid as HEALTHY ua read d elad cultrted a cwmpts y u$ cn be Ibu f4 o nywher, epresentig nearly every
A orlTr As C4 s ToU IIr,. i,' State. an llI HonR ra 4 Lwin L.wre of UUL N.Y., H 1. John P. Morton of JtauWlll"
ITnnTZ tT As 611 ND aeI y{.,'T BlhopWhipple of W otA Ron. ., WileM Pl WadelptbL. Dr Tanl.tm Ddh.
WINIER FAR E BEFORE LOCATIIG. w ir,Ch.UrIe Comto4k of Chlicg, Gen. Pre ch of Gorgs. ern Ptimer ef biih Camrailn,
G --. Aicltr of New O.mpirrl l, Wilson Phelps of Oibo, J. O. Bto r f olngand, Liet. Dyer
Scte of ebove rp, m I milse-21 In. of UJ.S. @ r, IL M.Pullier of Uosn, end thr, ha ph.te in at quitnr Whtr Pt.
POLITIGCS. -ParS e about enly d4Mhdd, AS Bein m an as riB to lk motd ge
Figure 1-3be p uuverising handbill for W inte IulaPark



Figure 1-3 Advertising handbill for Winter Park visitors


h~im~I











4 SUPPLEMeNT + TO +, LOCHMGDEB


DECEMBER 30th,


1887.


THE SEMINBhE, WINTER PARK, ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA.


HIS NEW AND ELEGANT HOTEL, i.:,..:.,,r..idaUj 400 guests, opens Jan. 1st. It is superbly located upon
high land, between two beautiful lakes, the ground gently sloping to the shores of both; and from the
promenade on top, 11 lakes can be seen.
Every thing that human ingenuity can devise has been provided to make this beautiful house attractive
and home-like for old and young. Sleepers from New York without change, All trains stop at Winter Park.
WINTER PARK, 120 miles south of Jacksonville, occupies a superb and commanding position upon the high
plateau or watershed that constitutes the backbone of Florida. '"It is one of the loveliest spots on earth," says
a prominent journalist. "The prettiest spot I have seen in Florida," says President Arthur, "As healthy a spot
as can be found on the face of the globe," says Dr. Henry Foster of Clifton Springs, N.Y, Look at the beautiful
"Bird'seye View," on the other side of this sheet, and be sure and see Winter Park before, you leave Florida.
For illustrated pamphlets, maps, plan of rooms, terms, etc., address Forbes & Paige, Winter Park, Fla.


Figure 1-4 Depiction of 1887 Seminole Hotel


._._ =--~"----'
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Figure 1-5 Northern states influenced infrastructure legacy


Figure 1-6 Northern states influenced town planning grid legacy.


.*



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Figure 1-7 Northern states influenced architectural legacy









CHAPTER 2
MINNESOTA AVENUE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007

Neighborhood History and Analysis

To complete a more in depth area analysis, it would be necessary to research the specific

history of the neighborhood surrounding the location of the site selected for the thesis focus, the

Little House property on Minnesota Avenue in Winter Park. When referring to the Minnesota

Avenue site and neighborhood I will be generally describing the three-block section of

Minnesota Avenue running East and West, from Pennsylvania Avenue on the East to the rail line

crossing Minnesota at the Orange Avenue intersection on the West.(Figure 2-1)

The First 75 Years 1850 -1925

From the arrival of the first settlers in 1850 until the late 1880's this area of Winter Park

remained unchanged with the exception of some logging and primitive roads to service that

activity. The area could be described at this junction in its history as simply uninhabited

woodlands and scrub. Soon after the turn of the century some minimal changes slowly began to

creep into the landscape. An excellent folk-map, (Figure 2-2) drawn in 1968 by Mr. Ray

Trovillion, a member of a long established Winter Park family, reflected his own personal

recollections of the Winter Park of 1908. His map rendering, clearly gives a sense of the three-

block stretch of Minnesota as it appeared at that time.

Considered then to be the edge of town, this very same section of Winter Park is today

only three blocks from the city's commercial urban core and Rollins College. The Winter Park of

1908 had a population of only about 800 residents and it was very slowly pushing its growth

outward. Still evoking a rural feeling, this area along Minnesota Avenue contained only one

farmstead, and in 1908 one would look about and see a mix of agricultural, citrus, and lumbering

activities, and plots of undisturbed uplands woods. Just nearby was a turpentine works where









local African Americans would perform the hot and labor-intensive task of producing pine- sap

by products.

Trovillion's early map revealed only one actual dwelling situated within this section of

Minnesota Avenue. From numerous interviews and documents one could conjure up an image of

an emerging neighborhood in the early 1900's, that consisted of clay and sand streets with sand

pathways, shaded by large water oaks running along side of them. Roadway infrastructure was

not that important because there were after all, only three automobiles in the entire town in 1908.

Other residents noted the area supported a few small cottages and agricultural outbuildings and

even had a nearby spring and creek, at the edge of Oak Park later renamed Theodore L. Mead

Botanical Gardens (Figure 2-3) where local people sometimes collected water and close to a spot

that would later became the site of the town's water tower.

Because the area was near the commercial center of Winter Park, yet underutilized, it was

likely considered not as desirable as other more rapidly settled sections of Winter Park, but it did

at least have a reputation as one of the more affordable areas in terms of its land costs. Like most

of the land within the town limits this neighborhood, although unpopulated, had already been

platted into lots and given the name Cherokee Park by town planners. (Figure 2-4)

The Emerging Neighborhood 1925 -1940

By 1925, Winter Park had decided to incorporate as a city. Bolstered by large donations of

land and money from local philanthropists, both the city of Winter Park and Rollins College had

grown into the more established forms we see today.

It was during this period of development in Winter Park's history that the era of

constructing small lakeside winter cottages was coming to an end as a new trend to replace these

seasonal cottages with permanent and more grandiose lakefront homes took over. These original

cottages were then often moved to outlying neighborhoods in an effort to recycle them. Today,









because of the explosive local land values, just a few of those lake area cottages have managed to

survive. They serve as a reminder of the neighborhoods architectural history by telling a story of

its past scale and order. This change of neighborhood scale is significant as it represents the

beginning of a loss of a neighborhoods historic character. Three nearby examples confirm what

was once the norm but today is nearly nonexistent. The location for these cottages can be seen in

(Figure 2-5) while (Figures 2-6, 2-7 and 2-8), depict the actual subject cottages.

By the late 1920's no new homes had actually been constructed on this section of

Minnesota Avenue, although on occasion an existing structure would be relocated onto one of

the many available platted lots. During this period, a soft real estate market prevailed and the

approaching national economic Depression would further keep interest low in this neighborhood.

At a time of fairly low land prices, the city of Winter Park took ownership of a large parcel

of land at the eastern end of Minnesota where they would build, in 1927, the town's first upper

grade level high school, replacing the single all grade inclusive red brick school of 1914. This

1927 school building is today among the few public buildings designated as National Register

eligible in Winter Park. (Figure 2-9) Still in use today as the ninth grade center, the site would be

located almost directly across the street from the final site selected for the future construction of

the Little House.

For the next ten years only spotty growth occurred along the now bricked over Minnesota

Avenue. One of the very few neighborhood structures to actually be built on its still wooded site

was in fact, the 1936 construction of the Little House, a meetinghouse built specifically for the

use of the newly formed Winter Park Girl Scouts. Nestled alone on a wooded lot, surrounding by

still other empty wooded lots and walking distance to the new High School and Mead Gardens, it









was the perfect location for the Girl Scouts, and would become a cultural hub of activity for

many girls in the community over the next 33 years.

Residential Expansion onto Minnesota Avenue

By the 1940's one saw further attempts to fill the still empty lots abutting the Little House

site along Minnesota Avenue with residential structures being relocated out of the downtown

core. The rather deep lots along Minnesota Avenue, had allowed for a second structure to be

legally placed on the properties, making them perfectly suited to provide the necessary space for

these soon to be moved houses and cottages. Often the property owner ended up with a modest

home at the front of the lot and a smaller cottage to the rear. These rear cottages would be used

to generate second incomes for their owners as rentals for winter visitors or student and faculty

from nearby Rollins College.

As the war years concluded, the demand for housing in Winter Park showed a slight

upward spike and the neighborhood filled out with a complement of new middle class working

families, who were more than happy to live close to their schools and churches. Throughout the

1950's the neighborhood infill projects would continue but with a twist. The past form and order

on Minnesota Avenue had consisted primarily of clapboard wood frame single family residences

but the 1950's brought with it the construction of concrete block duplexes as a new form of

housing as well as an economic tool to take advantage of the neighborhoods zoning opportunities

and long tradition of mixed use rental properties.

Life was good in Winter Park's neighborhoods. Doors remained unlocked, as crime was

virtually nonexistent. Shopping and dining out opportunities were expanding all along the nearby

17/92-traffic corridor. For entertainment the drive in movie-theater was an inexpensive evening

out and for special occasions the family could dine at the nearby Langford hotel and wander









around the mini zoo set up by the swimming pool, investigating the many cages filled with

exotic birds and reptiles.

Car traffic had grown along Minnesota Avenue and sidewalks were added as roadway

infrastructure continued to expand. For the next twenty years little more would change in the

neighborhood.

Closing the Little House

Around 1970 the administrators of the busy and well-used Girl Scout Little House on

Minnesota Avenue concluded they had outgrown their meetinghouse's five hundred square foot

facility. For over 30 years the memory filled structure had thrived and fondly contributed to the

cultural memory and sense of place in Winter Park. Sadly, an end to an era came when the Little

House was closed. It would eventually be sold, for use as a rental property satisfying a growing

demand for rental housing for Winter Park and nearby Rollins College. The local Winter Park

administration of the Girl Scouts had gradually been transferred to the more centrally located

Citrus Council headquarters in downtown Orlando. These administrative changes would most

likely eliminate any future duplication of a local Winter Park led community effort to construct a

second scout meeting house. The cultural memory produced by the narrative and the

corresponding structure of the Little House was framed at a formative moment in Winter Park's

history and is unlikely to ever happen again.

Implications for a Transitional Neighborhood

At the same time, the central Florida economy was just beginning to feel the effects of the

new theme park tourist dollars, an upgrading in the neighborhood housing stock began to occur.

The change would not be overnight but the trend was definitely up









Changes in Density and Scale

By far the greatest catalyst for change in this section of Minnesota Avenue was its

attractive zoning. Always adverse to high-density developments, the city of Winter Park seldom

gave in to developer's demands for changes to zoning. The south side of Minnesota was one of

the few exemptions. With the door open to a new type of R/3 zoning for the neighborhood, large

and small projects of condominium town homes would be developed.

By the mid-1980s an economic slowdown had materialized and the momentum for change

along Minnesota Avenue paused. But just ten years later a clear pickup of interest in the

neighborhood could be detected. Unlikely changes were occurring at a faster and faster rate .The

once typical rental house was now being reconverted by its owner to its original single-family

origins and therefore adding to a shrinking rental housing pool. Consequently it was becoming

harder to find the available rental cottages and garage apartments of the past. Rollins students

and other renters who had inhabited this housing niche would move further out into the

surrounding neighborhoods and by splitting the rising rental costs, were just as likely to be found

leasing in the growing high-end housing market. Many older single family homes on large lots

were being sold and quickly torn down and their lot reconfigured to hold two residences where

there had been one. Density changes now meant projects of two and even three story town homes

that could be found dotting the neighborhood and signaling forever, the changing neighborhood

scale.

At the beginning of the 21st century the real estate market in Winter Park like other

communities around the country was preparing to dramatically increase in activity and value.

Older single family housing, duplexes, even 1950's campus style apartment complexes, would

be scooped up all around the neighborhood, sometimes entire blocks would be scheduled for









demolition. Winter Park, it appeared, remained high on the list of desirable places to live in

Central Florida.

Future Infrastructure Improvements and Private Projects

The neighborhood gained more notice as both intersecting ends anchoring this 3 block

section of Minnesota became the focus of activity for improving infrastructure and private

projects and remains so even in today's flat economic conditions.

The positive change resulting from these municipally supported projects and grants began

to emerge in the neighborhood in the year 2000 and have been systematically improving the

quality of life for the residents along Minnesota Avenue.

Prominent examples of this were the costly and expansive street rehabilitation at the

eastern end of this section of Minnesota that took place starting in about 2000. Using historic

street lighting fixtures, under-grounding the utility lines, adding an oversized promenade walk

and bikeway, and finally to the towns credit even re-bricking what had been formerly an asphalt

paved Pennsylvania Avenue, resulted in the creation of an environment that lured developers like

bees to honey. The result of these infrastructure improvements was literally two blocks of two

and three story luxury townhouses selling for prices not seen before in this area of Winter Park.

While this was happening on the peripheral eastern end of the neighborhood other major

developments were also drawing attention to the neighborhood. Adjacent to the Little House site

itself and also at the eastern end of Minnesota, four existing rental properties were demolished in

preparation for another proposed three-story townhouse project.

To the south of the neighborhood, Mead Gardens had become the beneficiary of a sizeable

grant as part of a major facelift to upgrade and maintain this beautiful wetlands and park. The

recent confirmation of a commuter rail line stop in Winter Park starting in the year 2009 and a









$350 million dollar streetscape project along Orange Avenue at the western end of this section of

Minnesota Avenue, would both contribute to the neighborhoods plus column.

Finally, also at the western end of Minnesota an unused parcel of land on the corer of

Minnesota and Orange Avenue is currently being considered for redevelopment. This project is

significant, as rarely does such a large parcel of commercially zoned property become available

in Winter Park. At 5.76 acres of property, the land parcel is an exceptional opportunity to create

a mixed-use project of some magnitude, and has become the subject of several neighborhood

informational meetings sponsored by the developer. The proposed project, which includes

restaurants, shops, offices, residential rental units and pocket parks is soon to be presented to the

city council for final approvals.

Teardowns verses Preservation

In summary, it is in this increasingly changing neighborhood environment that one finds

the site of a piece of Winter Park history and its cultural landscape in the form of the Little

House. The future of the older historic structures in this neighborhood is unknown; but the odds

are stacked against their survival due to their current land values. Therefore, this unique

neighborhood may soon become only a memory, and recognizing this fact is mandatory and the

first step in looking to find solutions to save the Little House and other structures like it.

Conclusion

Cultural memory and sense of place are human responses to the natural and built

environment, and by definition subjective, this does not mean they should be ignored.

For a community to sustain its sense of place, it must not only recognize its identity but also

synthesize its land use policies and regulations so that they protect and support structures such as

the Little House. In this way one promotes true sustainability by balancing community heritage

with issues of community development.















































Figure 2-1 Subject study area















37



























































.--Sw,


Figure 2-2 Trovillion folk map rendering of Winter Park in 1908

















38














































Figure 2-3 Aerial view of Minnesota Avenue circa 1930

















39





































Winter Park, Florida OfiaCe
Winter Park owes its present civic beauty to the wisdom of its
early founders, who filluwed. their traditions by planting its 1920 107E
avenues with water oaks. These have now become great over-
arching shade trees, reminders of the immemorial elms of New 1925 236C
England. Numerous connecting small lakes gleam, blue in the 1930 368E
sunlight, their shores glowing with the flowers of beautiful gar-5 4
dens and stately homes. 1935 4837
Winter Park has never been the arena of the frenzied specu-
lator, It owes its growth and the quiet dignity of its beauty
to the educated taste of its citizens. The late Edward W. Bok
declared it to be: "The most upstanding, the most civically
'awake, the cleanest and most beautiful town in Floridd, if not
in the United States."

Figure 2-4 Early plat map showing Cherokee Park subdivision






























----- ----





... ,._.. ; :;,







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Figure~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~~~.. 2- :,oao hwn ie f uvvn aeae otgs
































Figure 2-6 Lake area cottage #1


Figure 2-7 Lake area cottage #2

































Figure 2-8 Lake area cottage #3


Figure 2-9 Winter Park High School built in 1927









CHAPTER 3
CURRENT MINNESOTA AVENUE CONTRIBUTING STRUCTURES SURVEY

Documenting Local Structures


The legacy of the architecture as seen in the remaining structures surrounding the Little

House site was surveyed in order to create a record. The survey guide (Figure 3-1) and the actual

survey (Figures 3-2 through 3-13) results are shown.

Within this targeted section of Minnesota Avenue there are approximately 18 lots, of

which 7 of the surviving residences represent the pre-1950's street order and all had been moved

to this neighborhood from other locations, mostly coming from the downtown core.

Evaluation of Survey

As a result of the survey, the findings suggest that the existing older housing stock is a

very unique and valuable blend of historic structures in style and form, from farmhouse to

Victorian with cottage style thrown in. This diverse mix of building ages and styles contributes

to an interestingly complex and rather confusing time line when first exploring the

neighborhoods origins and the actual age of the subject structure, the Little House. For example,

although the land was platted for homes by the 1910's, a residence west of the Little House site

wasn't moved to its new site until the 1940s, but the house itself was built in the 1880s.

Resulting Record

The research recorded in this survey, both in comment form and photography will provide future

researchers with a window of understanding into the nature of the Minnesota Avenue

neighborhood's architectural evolution and contributes in establishing the Little House's sense of

place as part of its neighborhoods cultural memory. This survey can be constructive in

recognizing the contextual significance of the neighborhood and honors that. In other words,









unlike the quantitative information gathered from review of regulations and governmental

organizations, sense of place is recognized, not measured.
















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Figure 3-2 Subject structure #1 The Little House









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Figure 3-6 Subject structure #5









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CHAPTER 4
THE LITTLE HOUSE HISTORY

Juliette Gordon Low


In 1912, in the gracious Southern city of Savannah, Georgia, Mrs. Juliette Gordon Low

was putting the finishing touches on her plans to create a new civic organization for young girls.

Not long before, she had summoned to her residence, six of her closest confident, asking them

for their thoughts on forming the first band of Girl Scouts, or as they would initially be called,

Girl Guides. One of those invited that day was the then Carol Purse Oppenhiemer, born and

raised in Savannah and daughter to a prominent Savannah family.

Meanwhile, and in this context, one day's journey south by train was the emerging little

community of Winter Park, Florida. In that same year of 1912, Winter Park only had a

population of about nine hundred residents. Like Savannah, the local townsfolk of Winter Park

were establishing their own civic organizations. Groups such as the Woman's Club, which

formed in 1915, the Kiwanis Club, the Winter Park Garden Club, the Community Chest, and

numerous other civic and church organizations began responding to a developing need for a

social network in their community.

Finding a Permanent Home

The nascent girl scouting organization appears to have shown up in Winter Park as early as

1932, with the first troop being led by Mrs. Edward Lawrence. Minutes from a November 9,

1932 meeting at the Woman's Club noted that the mothers of the Girl Scouts had asked to hold

meetings in the Club Hall and that they had been granted that permission.(Figure 4-1) Yet, there

may have been area Girl Scouting years earlier, as evidenced in an article found in a local paper

which reported a meeting held at the Winter Park Woman's Club in 1933 when Mrs. Edith Tadd









Little spoke fondly of the Girl Scouts for the relief work they did in connection with the storm of

1928.(Figure 4-2)

Up to this time, the first Winter Park Girl Scout troop, led by Mrs. Lawrence had had no

permanent home or meeting site. Interviews, oral history transcripts, and newspaper articles

carried a theme of a nomadic existence for the Girl Scouts. Their meetings had at times been held

in private homes, or church meeting halls like the All Saints Episcopal Parish house.

Community Effort

Packing and unpacking of scouting materials at the ever-changing meeting venues began to

take a toll on the scouts and their leaders which resulted in a determined community effort to

find the Girl Scouts a more permanent meeting site. Many local events were held in order to help

raise funds for the scouts. Charitable functions such as carnivals, spaghetti dinners, dances and

music events took place throughout the community of Winter Park for the Girl Scouts.

Thus, in March of 1933, girl-scouting mothers emboldened by the significant community

support petitioned the city for a site on which to build a Girl Scout House. Soon after, a 1933

newspaper headline said it all, "Club House Site Given To Girl Scouts Monday". (Figure 4-3)

Two of the biggest supporters of this effort were the Kiwanis Club and Woman's Club, but

soon many other civic organizations and private citizens would lend a hand and get behind the

idea of finding and funding a fixed site for a clubhouse.

The newspaper reported the adoption of a resolution in which the Girl Scouts had

requested lots 7 and 8 North Charmont, and that the property now owned by the city of Winter

Park be set aside for purposes of a park where the Girl Scouts could meet and camp with the

privilege of erecting a camp meeting house. The Scouts would have use of the property for 10

years. This resolution was carried unanimously









Just when a solution to find a site for the Girl Scout meeting house appeared to be over, a

major blow to that plan occurred when at the following months' April city commission hearing,

the site became a focal point for protest by Miss Anne Stone, H.V. Conduit, and A.R. Davenport,

all protesting the location. The site was dropped.

Soon after a second site emerged, at the May 1933 commission hearing the city offered to

lease lot #22, Block "D" of Comstock Park for a period often years to the Girl Scouts but like

the first location this second parcel too was dropped.

Time passed, but interest never wavered in finding a suitable site. It would be nearly 4

years before the official dedication of the new Little House. Interestingly enough, during those

intervening years a striking confluence of events would take place behind the scenes, all of

which swirled around the notion of creating the necessary synergy for locating, building, and

dedicating the Winter Park Little House.

Juliette Low's Legacy

In the meantime, Miss Carol Oppenheimer, the aforementioned protege of Juliette Low

and a strong proponent of the national scouting movement had herself become involved in

outdoor camping activities for girls as the founder of the Eagles Nest Camp, in Brevard, North

Carolina. In 1935 she announced her marriage to Dr. Thomas Pearce Bailey. Miss Oppenheimer

had met Dr. Bailey while directing the Blue Ridge camp for girls in North Carolina. Dr. Bailey

was well known throughout the country as a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and educator, and

coincidently then a professor at Rollins College in Winter Park.

Shortly after the wedding, the then new Mrs. C.T. Bailey would relocate to Winter Park

and become an active community member involving herself in the local efforts in creating the

Girl Scout Little House but more importantly she would be bringing along with her, her historic

first person ties to the then deceased Mrs. Low.









Such was the environment in Winter Park in 1935 for the creation of a scout meeting

house. With community wide support, renown local figures in scouting, and generous private

citizens, it happened that the Little House finally began to take form.

In 1936, Foster Fanning, a local owner of a plumbing supply business donated the land.

The third and final selection for a site was lot # 14, in a sparsely inhabited area on Minnesota

Avenue in the platted neighborhood of Cherokee Park. The site was near the new high school

and only a short walk to Mead Gardens, a 55-acre Botanical Gardens and park, all interested

parties it seemed could finally agree that it would be a good fit and therefore the city commission

passed it through, permitting the building of the first and only Girl Scout Little House ever to be

built in Winter Park.

Breaking Ground

The construction began, with the structures many parts being plucked from a variety of

sources, literally invoking the often-used design axiom, that the whole is greater than the sum of

its parts.

Local Contributors

The Little House was a testament to an impressive and generous community effort in

1930's Winter Park. Here are some of the many individuals and civic groups who contributed to

that effort:

The Kiwanis Club's contribution of labor and materials.
Mrs. Tracey Turner gave the windows.
Mr. Foster Fanning's donation of land.
The Garden Club Circle put in plantings and shrubbery.
The Woman's Club raised $117.00 to donate the fireplace and chimney.
Friends of the troop donated $98.00.
Mr. H.T. Kitson donated a piano.









Presentation of the Keys

Once completed, the architectural byproduct was the Little House structure, which

appeared rustic and well built with simple symmetry and situated well back from the road. The

Little House, for all practical purposes looked like a "cozy cabin" extracted from some woodsy

northern setting.

In early November of 1936, the regular Monday night Kiwanis meeting was held at the

Little House on Minnesota Avenue. The occasion that evening was the presentation of the Little

House keys to Mrs. Edward Davis, the Girl Scout executive leader and counselor for Central

Florida. The presenter of the keys was Mr. Raymond O. Ward, chairman of the Kiwanis Girl

Scout Committee. Mr. Ward was singled out for his tireless efforts to complete the house in time

for the scouts opening fall meeting. In fact, Mrs.G.Colado a leader at the Girl Scouts Little

House recalled in a 1997 oral history transcript, that the Little House was still being given a final

coat of paint shortly before the actual presentation of the keys. Also that evening the scouts

officially thanked Mr. Kitson, for the donation of a piano and shortly afterward two attending

girl scouts performed piano solos for him in order to show their appreciation.

Hence, with spirits high the Winter Park Girl Scouts, led with great kindness by Mrs. Guy

Colado, moved into their new meetinghouse. The fall of 1936 would herald in the start of a

period of some 33 years of continuous Girl Scout use of the Little House. Troop after troop

would pass through its doors, each adding something different along the way.

Scouting Activities Through the Years

Here in an encapsulated form are just a few of the many interesting glimpses of scouting

life as seen over the years that were uncovered during my research.









* 1936 Organized by Mrs. Colado, the first Vesper Services of the local Winter Park Girl
Scouts was held in Knowles Chapel on the Rollins College campus.

* 1937 On Saturday, January 16, the formal dedication of the Little House took place. Its
dedication was big news throughout the community with articles and notations in
numerous local publications even making it into the Woman's Club Presidents annual
report. (Figure 4-4) The combined Dedication and Arbor Day ceremony took place starting
with the planting of a tree donated by the Winter Park Garden Club. Interestingly, the
person accepting the tree was Mrs. T.B. Bailey, noted associate to Juliette Low. Mrs.Bailey
had written a poem for the tree's dedication, which was read by Majorie Humpfer,
followed by the blessing of the Little House. The Woman's Club who had donated the
fireplace and chimney added to this a very special gift of a plaque to be placed over the
fireplace. The plaque, an original sculpture created by Miss Beverly Jones depicted two
Girl Scout figures sitting around a campfire. The plaque would be at the center of an
ongoing mystery well into the 1990's, as attempts to recover the missing plaque were made
public.(Figure 4-5) The nearby wetlands and park, (Oak Park) in this year would officially
become designated as Mead Botanical Gardens and would, because of its location, have an
important role in early scouting activities, especially outings and naturalist
programs.(Figure 4-6)

* 1939 The yearly credentials fee for the Little House paid by troop number two to the
National Girl Scout Organization was just $5.00. (Figure 4-7)

* 1942 In this year, Winter Park Girl Scouts make lapel string dolls to be sold for 10 cents
each with all money to go to the National Victory Fund set up to help other Girl Scouts
after the war. (Figure 4-8)

* 1952 Segregation still prevailed in the community of Winter Park as noted in a news article
covering the Negro Scouting Program chaired by Mae Rose Williams.(Figure 4-9) Young
African American girls would not become a part of the Girl Scouting life and history at the
Little House except through their noticeable absence. It would be a big year for the Little
House as the Little House Scouting Annual Report illustrated in 1952. The Winter Park
Little House would now also be the location of the Winter Park Scouting office. The yearly
report noted the installation of fluorescent lighting as well as the addition of an outdoor
fireplace grill built by troop number 6. The annual report also provided a wonderfully
simple rendering of the Little House. (Figure 4-10) Cottrell's Five Cents to a Dollar Store
on Park Avenue housed a display of Girl Scout memorabilia to commemorate Girl
Scouting's 40th Anniversary. (Figure 4-11) The highlight of the anniversary week was a
mid-week afternoon tea attended by local scout leaders, members and honored guests at the
Winter Park Scout Little House.

* 1956 On July 5th of that year members of the Winter Park Senior Girl Scouts, began a two-
month European tour of England and Scandinavian countries. The scouts would cover the
trip by writing home with update columns for publication in the local Winter Park
newspaper.









* 1957 An American flag flown over the U.S. Capital was forwarded to Mrs. Gordon Kiester
by U.S. Senator George Smathers and presented on May 1st to the Girl Scouts of Winter
Park, to be used for ceremonial functions at the Little House. The base for the flagpole
(Figure 4-12) was located some 50 years later under several inches of dirt on the adjoining
property during the actual restoration of the Little House.

* 1960 On the 100th Anniversary of Juliette Gordon Lows birth, a tile was taken from the
garden of her home in Savannah, Georgia and installed on Sunday, October 30th of this
year, placing it onto the Rollins College Walk of Fame. At the festivities was a large
contingent of Winter Park Scouts from the Little House. The tile and marker can be seen
today on the Rollins College campus at the walks upper east circuit.(Figure 4-13)

* 1966 On Sunday, October 28th, the Girl Scouts from the Little House celebrated and
honored Juliette Low at their 30th annual Vesper Service at Rollins College. Invited that
day was Mrs. Thomas Bailey, who was still living locally in Winter Park and still admired
as Mrs. Low's former protege and contributor to the original concept of National Girl
Scouting.

* 1969 Sadly, after 33 years, the Girl Scout Little House would shut its doors to scouting
activities. The Scouting leadership decided to close the Little House citing its small size
and need for major upgrading.

Ownership Changes

In 1969, the Little House was sold, as is, for $5000.00 to the adjoining property owner.

As investors in rental property the new owners of the Little House set about to quickly

reconfigure the interior space in order to adapt it to a form more utilitarian to a potential renter,

by adding walls, wall paneling, carpeting and a drop ceiling. As for the structures exterior,

although there was an initial repainting no other changes to the Little House exterior took place.

A succession of students, professionals, and retirees would move in and out of the Little House

as renters over the next 30 years.(Figure 4-14) In the late 1990's the owners began divesting

themselves of their rental houses. It was in 2001 that I would become the new owner. As the new

steward of the Little House with its expanding narrative, I had come to view the Little House as

an important structure, by strongly contributing to Winter Park's cultural memory and sense of

place and as an advocate for its preservation I began the dual processes of research and

rehabilitation.










Mothersof the Girl Scouts were granted permission to hold
meetings in the Club. The Scouts and their mothers were
also invited to attend plays at their discression. Nov. 9,
1932

The Music Department will be allowed to sponsor a Community
Woman's Chorus. Oct., 28,-1932

It was brought to the notice of the Club the fact that the
heart of the cabbage palmetto, known as the palmetto cabba.3e
was being sold in large quantities. It was moved and
seconded that the attention of the County Commissioners be
called to the fact that the law was-being broken by this sale
of palmetto cabbage. Nov., 25, 1932

.j~p- peo-i-E: board meeting, Dec., 16, 1932. It was moved and
carried that the Club House be turned over to Mrs. Little,
who was to be responsible for a Christmas Dance for the
College set.

At..-4he-reegu ta-r citing, Dec., 9, 1932 a play "-.c.k.ns
Christmas Carol', was put on by the 6th grade children of the
Public School. A free will off.=ring at the door of $8.00 was
given to the children for the school lunch fund.

A motion was carried that the Club pay for "Hold up"
Insurance again this ,year. Dec. 14, 1932

The Chairmn of the Art Department gave a most interesting and
inspiring talk on Art in its relationship to home and
community. She illustrated the importance of art to youth
and older people by having four small children draw, followed
by some of the Club members. Jan., 6, 1933

It was voted that the Woman's Club accept one book of stamps
to sell to help pay the expenses of the World's Fair in
Chicago. Jan.-13, 1933

Nov. 5, 1941 Money for black out curtains be taken from
house furnishing fund. On Nov. 7 a meeting concerning
National Defense and the part woman's clubs can play.

During World War II the Club subscribed to the Book of the
Month Club for books to be sent to the men at the air base
hospital.

It was voted to accept all resignation with regret. Dec.
18, 1935

Motion carried that $20.00 was ordered paid to the
Elementary School Fund PTA for a child's luncheons during
the current school year. D[.e. 2, 19.b


Figure 4-1 Permission to use Women's Club Hall













Woman's Club
of Winter Park
T tb;^'iree" fiiap n &J.ia :' -
SIL: z'jter'.&:yPKg'- rk' under the direc-
Etor o>Msa.': Ed ia&rd ., M. 'Davis,
c, n niismioner of the Orange Laka Business occupied most of the I
Council, last Friday had charge time at the Executive board lun-|
x: of *thxe program at the W /nuter cheon last Wednesday at the club-_
-Park Womans Club. The meeting house. Members were urged t7o.%B .
opened -with a talk by Mrs. Da- make every effort to at tirl Lh..-T-'
Svis in which she described the Court of Awards of the G ir Scouts
Work done by the Scouts, and told which will be held at the TVoanas VJ
Sof the great good they accomplish club Thursday evening, April 19,
U for the coinmuniity and for them- at 7:80 o'clock. All troops of the ,
selves- She gave a description of Orange Lake council, which in-S
ju stJ. what it. nean tn he a Gir cludes- Orlando, Winter Park and
SSOiit:-:-and% told- sornetbhini of- the Eust;s will participate. AwardinTg-
Shistor-*y- ..the.r.organa.tion: ... of proficiency badges, attendance
tra Uit.l i ct. avl a"i stars, and service stripes, and the
s rs e -- .; j.k 6-..0 Golden Eaglet, highest award in ;
b ba't^, gqnj*.J scouting, will feature the evening.
%T f0o11o-wing "-the A program will be presented by the
"tAiiNi-- 928 :S. l stated thut I1 combined troops. Invitations have
you w-anted someuhir, done effi- heen extended to the Boy Scouts
i-iAltly and without fuss, call oUi a and the Sea Scouts and the public'
Scout. i.s -o.-lially invited. Members of:
A denronrstration of signaling the board also asked members to..
followed by the singing of an Irish rresrve the night of May :first,:--
folk-song was given by troop rnuin- when the annual club picnic will 'i
her one, under the; leadership of be' held, closing the eluh season.
Mrs. E. J. Lawrence. Girls of the iThe party this year will be at -r'
troop are Anna Houser, Virginia the home 'of the president, Mrs.'
Churchill, Elaine Wilson, Gerald- HI. E. Oesterling, :and will be for -.
ine Cook in Cookinifr Cook. and Ruby members and their friends. Fur -, (
.Lee Warner. -Mi-S S44i4gt4 thur plans. for the picnic will be.-
& ]K'rBid f osldy'troo 7p HnuTber announced later-.--: .i
g~~e ^trec'l'th^ ~iv Iki :-Th-e -meeting this afternoon at i
.r =ff F'. .fTNtfde-fot -t"staJ M Users of the troop are Aldine Ba- auspices of the drama department.,i
Sker, Phyllzs Baker. Barbara Brow-n. A talk bry M rs. Franz Bellinger,":
-Jane Gary, Helen Jean Flutno, well known lecturer and -writer,'
Daphne Mctcalf and Anin Marie on "'How- VWomenr Broke. Into the
Roney. XTheatre," will feature the programmer
_.jtihrd _ebad'ddh :-$.~ii.' for -the afternoon,: ..-
...denonstratcd :."Inidia as IC Knew. It," will be d--
Tt hijur. 1MienbersI scribed by .Mrd? Jack Thompsont
of this troop are Rachel Harri., at -the meeting of the literature
S-Flora THarris, Etri c. Warner, el- department next week at ten
en 'Ward, Elsie flakes, Penny -Da- o'clock. Mrs. Thonmpson spent three
vis, Dorothy Steele, and Margaret nd a -half years in .India, where
Moore. The .Brownie Pack, headed 1Mr. Thnompson was corinected wit hI
:by their pack leader Emily Sho- the steel .industry, and is felt to
I::walter-, gave their. promise -and be :well qualified to talk on the 4
:t-heir group song, ending with the subjest. I-rer talk will be of the
pledge.. The Brownies created "every-day" side of life in that
much interest, as -the aro te.e country.
zationh agesrangig fromeit t Particnlar interest centers in
: youngest members of the organ- .Partila interest centers
aten-io, ackyes ranging -arba it t the Flamingo "Animated Maga-
Marian Whityno re, Wi ifred sZin e, -which will be presented by
Clarke,' Molly- 'White and othy studetsof collins College nextr
SChurchill ai.re members of- this Friday -at the: regular meeting at
gt : -. three o'clock, with Robert Black
g ron-p -,..... :., I".--. "-F as editor. The program will be car-".:
"Oil for the -a s China. e
-e"Oil for :the -LLaps hn." tied .ut alon the lines of tle.
was reviewed by Mrs. William- F.. gul- Roisd
ust before the morning meeting Z hld in Winter Park each
;- of the literature department last year.-
Tuesday. -The book, Wu which came -
out last October -and. reach-ed- its
u peal, of popularity in February. is ;
a novel dealing -with.life -in Chinla .-
from the vie w-point of an :Ameeri-
Scan living there-" It shows a keen
-i insight into the character, customs ---
-' and habits- of the Chinese- The
characters are clearly drawrin d -
the descriptions -are clear and
.'- charming.. Mrs. TY'-st said that she -
felt the. title to be misleading, and -
that the -book -should "not be con- "-
fused with'the.'type. of novel -writ- .--- -
ten by Pearl Buck,'" as they deal -''- --
: within t-wo -. widely separated sides of .: : '- .
Chincc.e life. -



Figure 4-2 Early documentation of local Girl Scouts organizations





67


















CLUB HOUSE SITE


GIVEN TO GIRL


SCOUTS MONDAY to
It was moved by Commissioner that
Detwiler, duly seconded and carried Hotel
Z ing Comm n IS on a vote. that the report of the Ed fo
lining C mnmission I Committee be accepted and the sale of Co
Pre aring N w confirmed, and the Mayor and Clerk oeded
Preparing N w Or instructed to issue contract for sale Port
d inan of Lot 2. Block "M' Charmanr, to The
t r nMd r. and Mrs. G Fr. Coolado senate

o sita- .anid 8. pblocrk N tin Cha d-' Glt-b' out. b. n' eq t th e PB
m bont divlo, have been ve i -ts d'Bgik i, havIn
a na
S ea-ot byGth City Coifniario$n, Ctk fa and
.,th .th.e:Gi gae.otf .e if "- a n th
suitable~iub' iouse ifor ineettngs- and
A. M. Hasis, secretary of the uWS-t **A. v',
Zoning Commision, with other C._ aesnu r o the fat. The sa
members, attended the meeting Upon motion o( Commissioer Upo
Monday and explained many points Carleton duly seconded and carried Barnu
of the new zoning ordina.,e which on a vote, the above resolution was Carlpn
is being prepared by te Zoning adopted. above
Commission for presentation and' onVa000-._23. -F, loimn
aid op etyidu the Lact I 1V2t
adoption by the City Commission. he
Minutes of the adjourned meet-, aere
ing held Monday, March 27th, are Payro
given herewit h: to rAt.
The iaeeting was called to order haer r m' at r
by Mayor-ConminiBeloner J. A- Treart
at 7-30 P. M., with C~mmisslonre --- It'
Carlnetn, Delwller and Kraft ores- RArnu
ent. Commissioner Barri mn report- on a v
Ing later. be dut
3. C.. Cook, owner of Lot H, BlooK LUD
"A". Olympla Heights Anner., a- Carlet
pearId before the ConrmislT and r :rn a
eomplalnto.I of over-assessment on 'ourne
his property due to the fact thi1 t'
the house on the property was not .
conmle ted January 1, 198. Com- .;
mlssioners Barnum and Carleton
were appointed by the -Mayor tot ...
In'.eulcn ace and report. -' t. ,
The members of the Zoning Cdm- .
aistlon were present and Mr M. M '
Har-ls secretary of the board, ex- .:
plalned the .onnlrI mal as prepared : "
by the Zoning Commissilon, Thea"
Corrnislon was assisted In prepar-
ing the mnap by D, Harold Hair,'' '
archltec.- -
Commissioners H. W. Barnum and
George Kraft were 'appointed to,,'.';i :, ..... .
meet with the Zoning Commisslon' "
on Wednesday, barch 29th, 1933, at
2.30 P. M at the City Hall, to dis- .
SCUes the ordinapcs and general zon-
Lng regulation .. '
CommlseJooners Carltaton and Bar- .-
rnum reported on the sale of Lot ,2.
Block 'M" Charrrnc, to Mr. and .
Mrs. G. F. Colado, as follows. Price,
as per Hat "125000, Cash 27.0, ,.
balate6 payable over a period of'
three year, deferred payments to.- ,
bear 6% Interest.-


S.it..srciIrin a- suitable. Mip
tpw -iiua.--t prfods, Sb
'." t ten yearar6.ntliia'5ate.V
sBnwAz arrlaed a.mi.nhh oiiau..-

nmtasloners Barnum and Carle-
made a report recommending
the assessment or the Alabama
SCo. property stand as assess-
r the year 1932. Upon motion
mmiasioner Detwiler, duly see-
i and carried on a vote, the re-
was accepted.
a fEllowing resolution was pre-
d:
It Resolved by the City of Win-
ark that Caroline H. Hackney
a submitted a Replat of Lots
* 25 inclusive, in, BLocku "A",
all or Blocks "E., "F", "G',
'L" of Green Oaks subdivision
e City of Winter Pari, the
replat being designated as Lot
that the said replpt be and
Ime is hereby confirmed.
n motion of Commissioner ,'
im, seconded by Commissioner'
on and carried on a vote, the
resolution was adopted. AH
issioners voting In 'avor of
Iorption of the above resolution.
following vouchers were pre-'
and read
II of March 25, 1933 .... 1TS. t:
Heart .....;....... ........ 55 s o0
J. 'Dea _.,.................. 30. 00
was -moved by Commisnaoner'
m, duly seconded and carried l-'
ate that the vouchers, as read, .
Ly approved and ordered paid..
n motion of Commissioner
on, duly seconded and carried
vote, the meeting was ad-
id. .


Figure 4-3 First club house site selection














r/ ..c r -,,

7,Our Club beinE open from November May and our election taking place
in February, the officers are only asked to serve three months in the

SprinE and three months in the Fall. If this was better understood,

more members would be willing to take their turn to serve.

8,As Sponsors for the Girl Scouts we were happy to join with the other
organizations of the city In the dedication of the Scout Little House.

Our share in Red Cross, Colored Day Nursery and School Luncheons, and

now the call for Flood Relief. Ever siice the first early days of Winter
Perk, before our Club was organized our women have worked hand in hand

for the need of this community. In the reports that will follow the work

of the Club year will be presented.

This year we have added Internstional Relations. Miss Long,

National International Relations Chairman was our guest and speaker last
Spring --- this week Miss Leeter of Enrland.

We are moat fortunate to be able to call on Rollins College

for assistance in programs. Last Yarch we were especially grateful
for their uniting with us in presenting Princess Cgntacuzene in the

Annie Russell Theater.
Your President has attended with few exceptions all Club and

/ Board meetings, including several special Board meetings called for

/ the purpose of taking care of our rapidly growinE membership. She has

also attended and spoken at National Conference and State meetings.
-With great appreciation for all helpfulness from the Board and

the Club and for constructive criticism and suggestions-this annual
report is given by your President.

I wish to acknowledge the efficiency of our Junior Department

and the splendid work which they are doing.







Figure 4-4 Formal dedication announcement








AbKT tt?~ t.~ CU~ .~ Ut4-
'h/Vi 4u %uk
U'


iFormer Winter Park Girl
\ Scout leader Jeanette "Dickie"
,;. Colado is looking for a piece of art
that graced her Girl Scout office
onlMinnesota Avenue. The piece
is a 5-foot-by- 11-foot bas-relief
sculpture depicting two girls sit-
ting around a campfire. Colado
said the artwork was not found
when the Citrus Council of Girls
Scouts moved to its new head-
quarters on Mills Avenue this
month. Colado is interested in do-
-nating the work to the Winter
Park Historical Association's new
museum. Anyone with any infor-
mation should call Colado at (904)
647A083.

Figure 4-5 Missing plaque mystery


rt,


Othr C~fuidraser























7'










1-


L _fJ \ ......L...____

j I& AO. Mo- %QL, ) L_ #4% AL -. _

-~2h41..... _-I c ~aJg a__,jL.s -.__....
SQ/4- UNL________________
- _--.. --.- CS- Les, ---L-4






_____L _





l, "-"' ^


Figure 4-6 Mead Gardens outing




































Figure 4-7 1939 yearly Credential Fee











Winte r Pork News:

`irl Scoutsto Buy I1cWdr Stamp

Each Per Month for victory Fund

E MA.GARIT GREENE, "' v.C ,,,, r.!' cr 3
I. E li,, A 17 iv.ri' 11-12 Qnd.i4 5 ', 'i IIIn..! r


i NER PARK-As a p:t of
tlle nitMia l n,1mement of CG.l
S*.' ll ti i'ri. Ll p a .I.',:"l ?rnd,
Ifo!Cn ,i.im h ;,i, elp other 1Gir.
[S.,isl da;: tie war, each i;
;T!: l tLy ,l' Il nl' : l1 ll Fnt, "1:jl'r*
Imri a mit.:.. wh.lich, if each of
,the 7[i.ii,.i.i:l .,r'il ill Amer-
.,a Ll par .: pi' regularly, -Tvi
amirn.ht io r: a million ani: i
2 Mjf ilii a; a .l
I To 't .:a.i their cwn;
stamps. t:le G:: .,K u ;' oi Troop
.a 3r. 1lil I 1. e', ier' jGrd onp

lad r and M. J3an1P '.lars1
P;ist.i.nlu, Lie i.pe:-dol:,; I;m stl:ng ton il
i,:; 0 r'IF ea:.1


The 0,] I it, I. d d l,. -l U
rF' eille C: al.ernrc i ai. !tibe
Lit:!e roi.pe, on Mir.m'it t.i,
Ii e.r sewing for the Ne,.e;w.:
GL'I, and 3jI: t:' iis completed
ma:i;e t;:: trm ;,:.
Thll Wv:L.ei,,iii. ;the' pnl,?r.d a
cr:-iOrt siliper at t e hnme if-

Lakke, Mrs, M; iaih.nth helped
thtimn r,. f:.r Ir.- 1 ,'sr t ,:!-
1Ji n' nilau. :':es 11d L .or
1-ifll'i r. t;l ;e s dr: 5 ['lili.


L ii'










Tbc; who tuaKPj


.C:Lv.rNorma Lee tougher ty
i:n Julia ?rri, all : ;rrm n, .
girls h:' Fall; 3 nr .Ne
ton s .re Ill, Ann 1:hl rr
'ed'n; iPark, Pt; Fe:e, M ary-. :
SWahe A ie Condict GC
C Ii 3ii.i'. l.. ,l Dolove. Jeani :.
I Nan, Neide, :'!

ITTr L'V Acrig
i -r i l 1' .>v


Figure 4-8 Charity lapel dolls



















Triurdti' T.,]rur. I.0- THE WINTER PARK HERALD

Scouting Is Major Prop ram Winter Park's Senior Girl Scout T
In Winter'Park Youlh \\orrk
Girl Scouts--a growing force (or free-1
nIt.11; ttl :al ut aite ftir community p crt.ice,
fit ort,. it itienihiiI: n metnu of pT r-





m ti %i [t l ti ittmint. l I-l
iio u II ln r io io it n i~ o f
i l Oiiii lii 01I 1 Ioillntii' n 11 hilnt


* Ei ttiiio oilk hi tch i t o ilavt -. 1






I: ,. n T. t .t ri I id -So ii f e iiii
1.113ll~ S tI li' F *k C4 ll11 11tin t t









.1 i .. .... h i c-i o. '-...-.i o r r
iSiiit-iti-..1-0iiMl to o .t1 FlotitI MMftoti-C


1hi Aniit it Giol tous ot Woniz
Icoritiff untl r5> io C ith t ito cht I


Sco .ttg or ', 1 ad MacI f I lo" ', I. Jo lol lan I lne W
c'nomtm nortdd lb pa e ,I Crne. shli it LliII. Janet L.-lr Mise Irtr, i .'r l r Eea
orthr rl of the ctl of t M el. 1
rod Poeortm is d'ue 'i r,. l .. .
t:uy Coledo. Taied r during. tot.he I m-

itre. Col do e t e oe ae t l.r vel ya e

S t Ponlls the e on s t011' 'i i. li` t
r. I. ttual Iota .i ....... VI
iroops c noo [rnthe hand. of 4 volun i l i t t I1,U rr.,
t-oi adult.. Those saomen haee been iram- lont are also planned during Ihe sum.
Imer, Fr sevral years the Brownie


mnon
mmitl
g: Dori
riy Sm


lunn


Figure 4-9 Negro Scouting program


e... .r n ir urt,
is iIrI. il:Cn. I .rr Iape
ith rr;.. F i; lr. t Sie




I- a r ,- i r

S 1 : r r,

1: .l-r hl i ...

a made a "know-yotur-oote" camp-
IContinued on lpge 37)










s Chairman A
House
ttee has
ir.g, paint- '
terior of the
sed for troop
Neighborhood


Mrs. Ralph
Committee
charge of
on Minneso
that it is
i.nd that r
when needed
past year
ing was in
6 built th
lace nril


Figure 4-10 Little House rendering


W. P. Herald


Figure 4-11 Cottrells 40th anniversary


-- *1L -r C-


































Figure 4-12 Rediscovered and relocated base to flag pole


Figure 4-13 Juliette Low marker at Rollins College



































Figure 4-14 Little House as rental property 1974









CHAPTER 5
PRESERVING THE LITTLE HOUSE

Methodology Plan

The project of restoring the Little House, like the research surrounding its history was

completely compelling, full of mystery, creatively rewarding, and always a challenge to my

design skills.

One of my favorite parts about the physical restoration process is in the discovery. The

Little House had been altered only once in 70 years, and most of its original form (Figure 5-1)

was still intact allowing for a more narrowed focus in choosing a particular restoration

methodology process.

From the start, the concept of curb appeal attracted me to the Little House. Even though the

object of that appeal was to most eyes, just a small dwelling sitting amidst an overgrowth of

bushes and trees, awaiting the wreckers ball. (Figure 5-2) Who would have known that such a

little structure could have such a big story to tell?

At the time of acquisition of the Little House I was not aware of its history. By first

researching the Little House's history a clearer plan for my restoration process and goals began

to emerge. By understanding The Little House's contextual history and its physically "built"

history, I could begin to both understand and interpret better the architectural forensics I was

starting to reveal.

As I viewed the Little House from the street I could not help but be amused by its "no fear"

attitude to the neighborhood order, with its deep setback and woodsy cabin-like sensibilities right

in the heart of Winter Park.(Figure 5-3)

I began immediately to set into motion a methodology plan mixing rehabilitation and

restoration with a goal of authenticity in restoring the Little Houses. Restoration in its purest









sense of preservation would not apply to this project since one of my final goals would be to

change a rustic public group space into a useable energy efficient living space. Hence, my

defined methodology would be to use principals of both preservation and principals of

rehabilitation, more simply defined as a plan for adaptive reuse.

Exterior Rehabilitation

On approaching the overall project I focused at first on the exterior components, by

drawing up a plan for the sites landscape, secondly, making an analysis of the structures exterior

building materials, components and original exterior color paint scheme, and lastly an

examination for any structural alterations.

Florida Friendly Yard

I started by drawing several preliminary sustainability landscape plans, the landscape plan

would be dictated by both my very serious intention to design with a "green", point of view, no

lawn, native plants, and numerous shade producing trees, as well as taking cues from the over-

riding cottage-themed architectural qualities themselves.

Fortunately, a natural "green" type of landscaping plan has a long tradition in Winter Park.

And it would not be at odds within my neighborhood or with my neighbors as one might

experience living in a planned suburban development. Winter Park has always taken a position

on the environment stressing the use of native plants, tree canopies, and lake water management.

More importantly for reasons of suitability and authenticity this natural landscape plan would

have certainly resembled how the surrounding vegetation at the Little House originally appeared.

The idea of preserving historic plant material is new but recognizes that plantings can also reflect

social, cultural and economic history as clearly as the structure itself (Meier and Mitchell, 1990,

17).









The landscape plan would metamorphosis along the way, and by setting it in the ground

early, an approach I have repeated in other preservation projects, plants would have a more

mature look at about the time I estimated I would need for the general completion of the

restoration process. My primary goal was to substantially increase the square footage of the areas

to be set aside and designated as green areas for landscape by letting them return to their natural

upland-woods state, reforesting if you will, this deep residential urban lot.

As a naturalist and outdoorsman, I have long respected the environmental theories dating

to the 1960's stressing the importance of linear bands of green space left in place for the

transference of flora and fauna across landforms. Thus, I wished to do the same albeit

in miniature and I can state unequivocally that this endeavor was an unmitigated success, since

those north south running green strips for all practical purposes have become small mammal

turnpikes.

Landscape and Sustainability

With a goal of good stewardship of the land, I wished to leave this property in better shape

than when it came to me, I had deliberately decided against the use of a water impervious,

permanent concrete driveway slab, instead choosing to use natural leaf matter and pine needles, a

naturally renewable resource, which is more resistant to termite infestation than the often used

pine bark and cedar chips. The overall aim in this approach was also the superior water

percolation that would benefit my property and reduce my need for water consumption through

irrigation. To supplement my landscape watering needs I also added three water cisterns

strategically placed to capture roof runoff, which enables me, on a typical Florida rainy day to

collect around 100 gallons of free water.

For a renewable pine needle supply I visited my local native plant nursery in order to

purchase native long leaf pines. By planting these specific trees I accomplished multiple goals,









first, an ongoing natural source of pine needles for my drive and plant beds, secondly more tree

shade means reduced air-conditioning bills through passive solar air-conditioning, third more

tree canopy shade also means less water loss from evaporation in the landscape, and lastly by

picking long leaf pines I am reintroducing a native tree almost completely gone from Central

Florida due to years of over harvesting and thereby protecting and reviving the cockaded

woodpecker who, coincidently will only nest in this particular tree and as a consequence is now

rarely seen in the Central Florida area where it was once abundant. By teaching myself how to

cultivate and move native plants like cherry laurel, scrub holly and the beautiful southeastern

beautybush with its flowers and long trains of deep purple berries favored by many birds, I was

able to create a sustainable supply of new plantings. With this general scheme in mind I either

newly planted or reestablished some 50 trees and bushes into my landscape often infusing the

design theories of procession and repetition into the landscape plan. I finished my landscape plan

by tying these ribbons of green space together by encircling the property with narrow walkways

and paths.

To further commit to the ideas of sustainability I started a large composting station to

reduce my contributions to the local landfill and thus my own carbon footprint and also have

applied to have this landscape plan considered for Florida Friendly Yard status. This

environmental program is offered through the Orange County extension office in conjunction

with the University of Florida (http://ocextension.ifas.ufl.edu/faculty.html).

Yard Archeology

Mainly it was during this process of landscaping that I began to discover an archeological

collection of buried scouting and related artifacts. As one might guess there were many hair

clasps, but also there were marbles, toy soldiers, uniform ribbons and sashes, broken pottery

shards, lipstick containers, buttons, pop bottle tops and more.









Adding Elements to the Exterior and Landscape

Concurrently, I added a number of structural elements to the landscape having established

my property boundaries immediately with a privacy fence being careful to raise it slightly off the

ground for an undisturbed passage of small animals and reptiles. Following my landscape plan,

I designed and built an entry arbor, garden seat and gate, at the newly planned entrance junction.

(Figure 5-4) This was coordinated with a redesigned off-centered entry point, created by shifting

a new bricked-in-walkway to the extreme right of the property. This design approach helped by

forming a swath of landscape buffer in the front of the Little House, and in turn formed a

planned private courtyard.( Figure 5-5) For the entry walkways and courtyard I used discarded

bricks that I had salvaged. A heavily landscaped water feature was created using natural forms

that would produce the soothing sounds of falling water in the courtyard area, with the goal of

amplifying this sound as it bounced off the body of the Little House structure, reverberating in

the courtyard. This produced the additional end goal of eliminating a portion of the street noise.

At the rear of the Little House a deck was added, by removing a window, and putting it aside for

future use. It was replaced with salvaged 100-year-old bi-fold French doors. This created a

needed rear entry and exit point. (Figure 5-6) Lastly, a nearby outdoor shower was installed,

designed to capture a natural ambiance by the use of large potted and hanging plants.

Examining the Envelope of the Little House

With the landscape plan taking hold I turned my attention to the structural body or

envelope of the Little House, for a look at its material composition. To this end, examining its

material composition would mean first identifying the specific wood materials used to build the

Little House. Posing that question to even the most experienced carpenters, I would receive

several different opinions, all substantiated with very believable arguments as to whether the

siding was cedar or pine, both woods being typical for early Florida construction. Personally, I









had hoped it was a wormy cypress siding, as I have always been impressed by the durability and

look of the old time unpainted cypress cottages. However, after much debate the deciding factor

was clear and to the point, when we took a freshly sawn wood sample and smelled the newly

exposed wood. Visually, the wood had been difficult to categorize, but its fragrance was like

smelling an uncapped bottle of pine-sol. This was the end to that debate.

Examining the wood siding was also a curious matter since the siding bore tool markings,

which did not necessarily concur with the age of the structure.(Figure 5-7) The siding was clearly

hewn with a more primitive circular saw blade, a type of lumber production less commonly used

at the recorded 1936 building date. There could be two explanations for this. The first, is that

through my extensive research I found that the preponderance of materials for the Little House

construction were donated, and therefore perhaps the siding itself had been salvaged, coming

from a tear-down of a much older home or out-building.

Secondly, keeping with the notion of thriftiness in the original construction of the Little

House it might be that the wood came from a smaller, less expensive, rural mill, which still used

the more dated circular saw. One carpenter friend observed that the Little House was built with

what West Virginians would call "barn wood". No matter, as I was pleased with the rough

texture of the wood and it also clearly delineated the area where an enclosed porch had been

added and where the old rough sawn wood contrasted strongly with the newer wood, which had

been milled as smooth as possible.

Structural Alterations

During the period of ownership by the Girl Scouts, a small side porch appeared to have

been built, added onto, and enclosed, probably sometime between 1952 and 1964 on the western

side of the Little House. It was probably done so by the Scouts, in an effort to add a little much









needed space. It eventually became the interior site for a bathroom and kitchen, although this

probably was at first used to provide space for a Scout leader's office.

As to any other visible changes made to the exterior, they all seem to have been made to

the Little Houses as it transitioned into a rental property. To create rental housing a rear southern

exposure window had been boarded over to complete an interior closet space. Another widow,

this one facing east had been completely removed and filled in with siding. This was done in a

effort to solve an interior design problem stemming from a lack of interior wall space. Another

alteration was the result of a window mounted air-conditioning unit which when installed was

formed in, in a manner that reduced the actual window opening by three quarters. These changes

belie the ongoing tension of updating a spartan public use structure to one for habitation in the

late 1990's, while at the same time not losing the structures charm and authenticity. I would

repeatedly need to consider such tradeoffs as I began to explore my own new approach while

restoring the Little House.

Original Paint Analysis

Amidst this more thorough examination of materials and building alterations, the original

paint palette of the Little House was slowly being revealed. The limited deconstruction of the

Little House exterior took place with the removal of a plywood cover used to board over the rear

southern exposure window. By doing so it provided a direct link to the past paint scheme. The

original window, sealed up and hidden for the last 35 years still sported its original if somewhat

faded trim colors. (Figure 5-8)

As additional siding was removed a more authentically conclusive paint sampling for the

general body of the Little House became apparent. The earlier owners had painted the house only

once when they initially purchased it and then I was told, they had painted it in a manner similar

to its original color scheme. The newly discovered original paint palette was typical for a cottage









of its day, a traditional cottage or barn red color for the body of the house. The trim color

uncovered was a grayish green. Once a new fresh coat of paint was applied, it immediately

transformed the Little House into a more visible and attractive structure. (Figure 5-9) The added

details of cedar flower boxes and hand fashioned exterior cedar shutters were the icing on the

cake (Figure.5-10)

Rehabilitating the Roof

The roof would be the last exterior large-scale project, and I knew it would need replacing.

Right from the start one could easily see the roof had been patched and repaired several times

over. Some of the shingle style roof looked to be in very good shape while other sections were

worn down to the felt. I had romanticized the use of a tin or metal roof in spite of its expense but

in the end I wanted more, to keep the restoration accurate by replacing shingle with shingle. I did

take some artistic license by installing architectural style roof shingles for their dimensional and

definitional qualities. I think ultimately this added to a more appealing quaint cottage-look.

These types of inner arguments over the process tradeoffs can often result in better than expected

results. For sustainability factors, I choose a lighter colored shingle in a direct effort to reduce

surface roof heat as had been created with the prior nearly black shingle. By deflecting more

solar heat back into the air the new open planned interior would be helped in staying cooler and

any new future cooling system would operate more efficiently.

Finally the roof had had a history of leaks and if it's true that water is the enemy as an

architectural professor of mine was fond of saying then finding the source and repairing the

existing damage would be crucial. A long-term existing roof leak had occurred in the wall behind

the fireplace, originating at the collar junction of the roof and the chimney. To completely

eliminate this problem a decision to install a new cricket collar at the chimney junction was

made. The built up roof angle cap would keep the rain and moisture moving down and away with









its improved drainage flow. At the front entrance of the Little House, also a site of water damage

from years of water seepage down behind the front entrance porch stairs, a large linear overhead

roof water diverter was incorporated into the new cottage-era roof overhang as a preference to an

extensive and highly visible rain gutter system, which I felt would detract from the Little

House's simple architectural lines. (Figure 5-11)

No doubt any individual who chooses to restore a structure like the Little House will

face the reoccurring questions of authenticity verses the need to modernize. Hopefully such

compromises can be looked upon as a challenge where you may find yourself making

concessions to one's more purist notions of preservation but with some thoughtful and creative

approaches you can more often than not achieve a satisfactory finished look, balancing

preservation and modernity.

Interior Rehabilitation

As I thought through the process of restoring the interior space of the Little House I

wanted to be sure and have a clear understanding and interpretation of that interior space.

Realistically the interior of the Little House was never really what we would call today, a

finished space. It was meant to be a simple, rustic, meeting space with few details or

ornamentation. The space as built did have a simple symmetry about it, which probably attracted

me to it. The focal point was undeniably the fireplace capped with an enormous single slab of

pinewood for its mantel. On seeing the fireplace the first time I could make no sense of it, as I

had never seen such a large fireplace opening in a Southern home of this period. It was only later

after learning of the Girl Scout connection, did this focal point begin to make sense.

Deconstructing the Interior

The interior, converted as it was into a one-bedroom rental, would need to be

deconstructed for my restoration purposes, that is, to return it to its original single large room









layout. Out came the wall-to-wall carpet and pads revealing basic rough wood unfinished

flooring, the same type of floor condition the Girl Scouts would have seen. Next came down the

acoustical tile drop ceiling and the grid support system created to hang it. Also removed were the

interior added walls used to create a separate interior bedroom space. The built in closets, doors

and door jams all would be removed. Eventually, all the 1970's era wall panel board would go as

well.

In removing all the interior panels of wallboard I made two interesting discoveries. One

was the uncovering of two small areas where an old tongue and groove pine panel was nailed to

the vertical wall supports. One spot was located above the mantel area of the fireplace where

little of it was left in-tack due to wood rot damage from the long neglected roof leak. A second

spot was a floor to ceiling area of about 7 feet in length surrounding the doors to the bathroom

and kitchen, an area probably added on in the 1950's. A second odd find I made was the

discovery of only a single two by five foot strip section of insulation near the fireplace wall. In

other words, there had never been any insulation in any of the walls. I verified this when I asked

the previous owner, if she recalled a finished wall or the use of insulation at the time of their

purchase and rental conversion. I found no indication of nails from any earlier wallboard or

wood wall panel on the wall supports.

Through this process of deconstruction, a finished space was achieved that appeared as a

large oversized and hollowed-out room, opened to the rafters with its great old fireplace as its

focal point and feeling with some certainty that this was probably the same type of visual

experience the girl scouts had had over the years (Figure 5-12). The space had been used in this

more rustic manner, with only the outside clapboard wood siding used as a skin and nailed to the

wall framing supports. This would have been in effect the walls makeup at that time with no









insulation and no interior finished walls. There probably was some seasonality in the use of the

Little House by the girl scouts, possibly affecting the need to use wall insulation. In both the

serene heat of Florida's summer and the more chilling months of Central Florida's winter, the

activities may have waned at the Little House. I did manage to find a photograph, which seems

to support the bare bones nature of the interior of the Scout Little House, as the background

seemed to show unfinished walls (Figure 5-13). I had also seen similar examples of this rustic

bare bones finish in a number of other cabins and cottages as in the interiors of historic summer

cottages on Nantucket.

With the overhead drop ceiling removed the 70-year plus underbelly of the roof was fully

visible. The patina of the old wood was exquisite and I knew then that I would definitely be

leaving the rafters exposed.

The lingering problem of repairing the water damaged wall and supports behind the

fireplace meant removing the entire wall section, which had suffered badly due to the effects of

the water penetration. I would need to assemble together a new insert support form. This insert

could then be scabbed into the original old wall framing behind the entire length of the fireplace,

cutting away as much as necessary of the original framing, now completely rotted out. Once the

form was attached onto the existing supports it would be as good as new (Figure 5-14). All the

wood removed during the deconstruction process as well as new scrap suitable for burning ended

up in a newly built exterior firewood stand, for use in the Little House fireplace as a

supplementary winter heat source, and a further nod to sustainability

Unlike my predecessors, in order to live in the Little House I would need to completely

insulate the walls and devise an appropriate wall treatment to finish them off. I choose to create a

rustic cedar tongue and groove wainscoting wall treatment using a mix of salvaged old wood and









new, placed into a pattern of adjusting heights, capped with a simply designed chair rail molding

trim. The top half of the lower walls would be a painted drywall, with an orange peel textured

surface finish, and topped with a matching rustic cedar ceiling molding. Lastly, the newly

exposed interior upper end walls would be finished with tongue and groove cedar panel boards.

As part of my efforts to use ideas of sustainability I found a plentiful supply of large

sections of discarded drywall, offered to me at no cost from a number of nearby construction

sites. Nearby was also a newly opened recycling store for unused construction materials that I

would gladly frequent as part of my larger commitment to participate in the ideas coupling

preservation and sustainability.

Forensic Architecture

The windows were truly a big bump in the road on the way to unfolding the true timeline

history of the Little House. The windows appeared to be very old, containing most of their

original glass panes, and making their wavy glass quotient so high that if you looked through

them while walking by very quickly they had the potential to make you dizzy. Further, as I

examined the windows more closely I was amazed to find their mortise and tenon construction.

How could the Little House, built in 1936 contain this distinctive form of construction? I

was certain that the labor intensive art of building door and window frames by fitting wooden

components together without the use of nails or screws was highly unlikely to have been used in

this mid-1930's construction. A colleague of mine whose knowledge I deeply respect and who

had been part of the team restoring the Florida State Capital building, had seen pictures of my

new project and had mentioned that the two-over-one style windows on the Little House were in

his estimation quite old, probably dating to the 1880s. Of course this was prior to my research

unearthing definitively, that the windows were donated at the time of construction, making

perfect sense of an otherwise stupefying discovery. In the meantime, it had thrown me









completely off track in the application of architectural forensics, as a way to verify the dating the

Little House.

When it came to the bathroom and kitchen the need to restore them with a degree of

practicality meant the removal of about 6 feet of existing wall in order to open the tiny kitchen

up. The kitchen had been accessible through a single doorway and had a total width of about 5

feet, two feet out from the wall extended counter space with a run of about 8 feet. An additional

3 feet of passage in front of the counters was the allotted workspace. By removing the wall

section, separating the kitchen from the scout meeting room, I had at once opened the kitchen up

to be part of the larger living space with a great result. Deciding the original cabinets were worth

saving I stripped off their white paint, ending up with warm honey-colored pine wood cabinet

doors. A new refrigerator was added but the old enamel double sink would stay (Figure 5-15).

An incredibly compact, full bathroom, was treated with a new high gloss white painted

wainscoting, chair rail, cap, and a similar upper wall textured orange peel treatment. Both the

toilet and sink would need to be replaced, with the possibility of using the antique wall sink later

after its porcelain is refinished. A large wall mirror, with its reflective surface was added to give

the sense of a larger space.

Rehabilitation End Goals

In the end, my goal to authentically transform the Little House back to a period when it

existed in a landscape setting of natural upland woods and when its structural interior plan was

more open for its practicality, as demanded by the Girl Scouts usage as a meetinghouse, seemed

to have been successfully achieved through balancing a realistic methodology of adaptive reuse,

with the needs of contemporary habitation.

Creating a space more energy efficient with modern insulation products, an open plan

kitchen and upgraded bathroom, juxtaposition with a cosmetic overhaul was enough to generate -









a high degree of satisfaction with my end product. I would continue to fine tune the overall

rehabilitation project and in the meantime begin to assemble and finalize my notes in order to

complete the larger historical documentation.













MAP OF SURVEY
DESCRIPTION
LOT 14. BLOCK B, CHEROKEE PARK, AS RECORDED IN PLAT BOOK L. PAGE 137, PUBLIC
RECORDS OF ORANGE COUNTY, FLORIDA, LESS THE NORTH 5 FEET THEREOF.


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A5. 90'01'39" MEAS
A6. 89'44'21" MEAS
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Figure 5-2 Front entry view


Figure 5-3 Street view


































Figure 5-4 Relocated entrance with arbor


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Figure 5 6 Rear deck with new rear entrance
















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Figure 5-7 Wood siding with circular saw markings


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Figure 5-10 Hand fashioned exterior shutter

















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Figure 5-12 Deconstructed interior shell





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Figure 5-13 Background showing exposed wall framing
















Figure 5-14 Water damaged rear fireplace wall and new insert


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Figure 5-15 Kitchen rehabilitation









CHAPTER 6
CURRENT ISSUES IMPACTING PRESERVATION ON HISTORIC STRUCTURES ON
MINNESOTA AVENUE

Losing a Sense of Place and its Historic Structures

Winter Park today mirrors the growth patterns and trends seen in other desirable

communities throughout the country. With little undeveloped land still available to meet its

present housing demands, Winter Park's planned approach for growth is typical.

Targeted neighborhoods with newly changed or existing R-3 zoning (Figure 6-1), that will

permit more dense and taller housing arrangements are the most likely to see the greatest impact.

Developers are eager to enter these markets where it is more certain they will be able to ensure a

higher financial return on their projects. The Little House site on Minnesota Avenue is in such an

area, where the property is currently zoned R/3.

An early indicator of change to our sense of place occurs in a transitional neighborhood

like Minnesota Avenue when scale changes. This is illustrated when single-story structures are

replaced with 3 story structures, and the corresponding density from massing is added.

Another dominant theme in such a neighborhood environment is the alteration of its past

order where one residential lot had supported one residence, but now one residential lot may

support two or more residences, as well as change set back requirements in order to meet new

density guidelines.

The Minnesota Avenue neighborhood is being slowly transitioned and reshaped into a new

form. The result is that most likely in 15 years what the neighborhood scale and order are today

will in no way resemble its future configuration. Unlike most other Winter Park neighborhoods,

this section of Minnesota Avenue that I had previously described in detail is an anomaly. The

housing stock remaining in this area is a good illustrative relic of Winter Park's recent

architectural past.









Like some great dumping ground for unwanted but still usable dwellings it has been the

recipient over the years of various urban renewal projects. These historic though certainly not

grand homes were lucky to be saved and moved into the Minnesota Avenue neighborhood the

first time around but are unlikely to get a second reprieve from the wrecker's ball, as evidenced

in a map depicting the recent area demolitions. (Figure 6-2)

At a crossroads today, the single block facing north on Minnesota Avenue that includes the

Little House originally contained 6 residences. Of the 6, only the Little House at this time is an

occupied residence. Two of the 6 structures were recently demolished, two more are for sale and

have been unoccupied for about a year and one is currently an unoccupied investor owned rental.

In order to effectively slow the trends of changing scale, density and order and the

resulting demolitions in this transitional neighborhood, an increased level of public awareness

for the neighborhoods historic value is called for.

Slowing the Trend by Creating Awareness

One can readily see the pressure of growing change streaming through this neighborhood

leading to the observation that the Little House and other neighborhood historic structures like it

have a very precarious future (Figure 6-3). This thesis asks the reader to pause and consider not

only the structure but also the values represented in it, both the tangible and intangible markers

that make up the story of the Little House. Clearly the Little House should become the subject of

future public discussions as to the merits for its preservation. In order to create an environment

for this to happen I have been begun to develop a relationship through my research with

interested Winter Park civic, educational and historic organizations, who have expressed interest

in finding out more about the narrative of the Little House .I have suggested that this could be

done with lectures, museum exhibits or the possible use of the Little House as a candidate for a

Christmas house tour, or a Spring garden tour. Donations from such events might contribute to









selected non- profit projects and at the same time bring more awareness to the Little House. Until

a concrete plan for preservation is in place, an effort to draw out public discussion and comments

could be the best tool to slow the trend of demolition as it marches through the Minnesota

neighborhood towards the Little House.







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Figure 6-3 Adjacent property redevelopment









CHAPTER 7
PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE PROTECTION OF THE LITTLE HOUSE

Like any resident of Winter Park, I am intently interested in seeing parts of our

community's historic fabric preserved. The Little Houses' present site, which lies just outside the

town's single residential historic district, (Figure 7-1) is under pressure for change through

neighborhood renewal, and located in a area characterized by a high rate of building demolition

(Figure 7-2). Any future owner of the Little House may not be able to resist the opportunity to

develop the valuable land beneath the Little House.

Proposals

The following are seven possible proposals for preserving the Little House.

* Mead Botanical Gardens, a mere two blocks away and currently undergoing a makeover
using grant funding would be an ideal relocation site. Connected through their joint history
by sentiment and use, the Little House, moved to this site could become a mini museum
documenting the park, the Girl Scouts or surrounding local history. It might provide
additional meeting space, or as a classroom for children's nature activities, or even as a
replacement to the parks concrete block guardhouse at the Denning Avenue entry.

* Winter Park Garden Club, itself located within Mead Gardens might sponsor the Little
House, as it too has historic ties to the Girl Scouts being the original source for the
landscape plantings used for the structure at its inception. This organization could utilize
the Little House as a conference room, garden house, or compliment an outdoor patio as an
entertainment area with its kitchen facilities.

* Rollins College, further away yet still close, had its own strong ties to Juliette Low, Mrs.
Carol T. Bailey and the Girl Scouts and might make use of the Little House as a
complimentary addition to their existing pre-school facility. The adjacent park setting at
Dinky Dock and correlating scale of its surroundings would make it an appropriate match,
where it might function as a small children's library or additional activity and classroom
space.

* Winter Park's Historical Association and Museum by relocating the structure, could use it
as part of an expanding repository for collections by converting it to an additional museum
building, meeting space or educational classroom and lecture facility. A relocation site near
its present museum would be sympathetic to the surrounding scale and in such a public
location it would create a vivid linkage to Winter Park's cultural heritage.

* A less desirable approach due to the necessity of removing the structure not just from the
neighborhood but from the community as well would be a more distant relocation. This









could be a possibility if an organization such as the Girl Scouts Citrus Council would move
the Little House to one of its outlying rural camping areas. In its new wooded setting the
building might be used as an archival library for the Scouts substantial collection of Girl
Scouting memorabilia from Central Florida, as an arts and crafts, or environmental
classroom, or as the camps reception hall. The decision to move the Little House to any
out-of-town site might be expedited by moving it in two sections.

* The Winter Park Ninth Grade Center, almost directly across the street from the Little
House site might use the structure as an off campus learning facility for the study of local
history, sharing its use with the City of Winter Park for other educational purposes while
maintaining the house and gardens as a pocket park. This proposal, allowing the building
to remain on its site is respectful to the notion of place and the cultural linkage to the
community and meets the suggested guidelines for preservation as outlined in the
Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the treatment of historic properties.

* The last proposal, which also allows for the Little House to remain on its site, is to simply
enhance the residential nature of the structure's overall size, by upgrading its kitchen and
number of baths and bedrooms. This should be done while maintaining the original
structures authenticity by adding a new separate addition, that sensitively connects to the
original Little House with an architectural feature clearly delineating the two parts. This
would solve the problem of making an impractically small structure larger and therefore
attractive to a family as a residence while keeping its original structure authentic and still
maintain its historic ties within the neighborhood fabric.

Positive Arguments for Moving the Little House

On the pros side of the argument for preserving the Little House by moving it, is that its

strongest attribute enhancing that scenario is simply its overall size. At approximately 550 square

foot, the Little House is a small structure, and in terms of cost to move it and its cost associated

with impact on infrastructure, it would be comparatively less difficult and less expensive than

most building relocations.

Another positive argument for the proposals to move it is that a number of the proposed

sites to receive the structure are within a very small radius to the original site.

Also as part of that debate, is the question as to whether the Little House could, based on

its scale, provide a viable and satisfying living site if surrounded on both sides by much higher

and more dense housing arrangements and therefore would it not be more likely preserved in the

long run by moving it.









Negative Tradeoffs

The negative tradeoffs in the preservation approach to moving the Little House is a strong

loss in terms of its context within the community's historic fabric. With every strategy involving

moving a structure there is a unique degradation of historic authenticity, and a greater loss from

its inability to represent Winter Park's heritage within its historical fabric framework.

This negative tradeoff is magnified by the valuable cultural memory associated with the

actual site. This sense of place, is likely to be as or more important for the Winter Park

community than the structure itself

At over 70 years of age, the Little House has and continues to provide a window into

Winter Park's history, helping us rediscover and illuminate our recent yet often forgotten past. I

believe the best strategy in preserving the Little House is one that allows the structure to remain

in place as part of the neighborhood and community's historic fabric. In this ideal setting it best

demonstrates its ability to represent Winter Park's historical heritage in its most authentic form.













E I E


44-I -

r*-l- _'- -

,* I L .,

Adopted Jly28, 2003 Coitege Quarter
-Historic District
City of Winter Patk, FL
July 2003

Figure 7-1 Winter Park residential historic district


-1 : --= 77







































Figure 7-2 Building development impacting the Little House









CHAPTER 8
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The proposal to leave the Little House standing on its original site, reminds us by its

presence, of its particular historical narrative. It speaks to us in a plain, uncomplicated way about

Winter Park's story, offering the lesson inspired by the action of its citizenry who passed on

values of commitment, volunteerism, and a hope for a better future for its youngest citizens when

building the Little House. The field of preservation had traditionally focused on architecture and

the built form, today we recognize the contextual significance of a buildings site, and its sense of

place as well. The Little House's cultural significance to the community of Winter Park and

historic ties to Juliette Low should not be undervalued.

Leaving the Little House on its original site with a proposed addition can meet the Secretary

of the Interiors Standards for the treatment of historic properties. By following the distinct

approach of rehabilitation, adding to the Little House's structure is acceptable, as long as that

addition, meant to allow for a changing use does not alter the property's historic character. This

proposal promotes consistent preservation practices.

The original methodology plan as presented in Chapter 4 is one of rehabilitation. By

choosing this path of restoration one concedes to the argument for altering the structure in order

to meet continuing or changing uses.

As suggested in the proposal any new addition should be differentiated from the older

historic structure. The original structures methodology plan for preservation as presented, made

no major exterior alterations and should be maintained in this fashion. It could be then joined to a

second new addition by a new structural feature such as a glass walkway or stairway as long as it

is compatible with the historic materials of the Little House.









If in the future, any new addition were to be removed, it must be done in a way that the

essential form and integrity of the property and environment are left unchanged. This is

compatible with the rehabilitation plan as applied to the Little House in Chapter 4.

Any further commitment on the part of the public towards an effort to protect this structure

and retain it as a component of Winter Park's historic fabric would be a worthwhile contribution

to the community's cultural memory.









APPENDIX
THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR'S STANDARDS

http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/standards-guidelines.htm

The Secretary of Interior's Standards

Rooted in overl20 years of preservation ethics in both Europe and America, the Secretary

of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties are common sense principles

in non-technical language. They were developed to help protect our nation's irreplaceable

cultural resources by promoting consistent preservation practices.

The Standards may be applied to all properties listed in the National Register of Historic

Places; buildings, sites, structures, objects, and districts.

The Standards are a series of concepts about maintaining, repairing and replacing historic

materials, as well as designing new additions or making alterations: as such, they cannot, in and

of themselves, be used to make essential decisions about which features of a history property

should be saved and which might be changed. But once an appropriate treatment is selected, the

Standards provide philosophical consistency to the work.

There are Standards for four distinct, but interrelated, approaches to the treatment of

historic properties-preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and reconstruction.

* Preservation focuses on the maintenance and repair of existing historic materials and
retention of a property's form as it has evolved over time. (Protection and Stabilization
have now been consolidated under this treatment.)

* Rehabilitation acknowledges the need to alter or add to a historic property to meet
continuing or changing uses while retaining the property's historic character.

* Restoration depicts a property at a particular time in its history, while removing evidence
of other periods.

* Reconstruction re-creates vanished or non-surviving portions of a property for
interpretive purposes.









Standards for Preservation


1. A property will be used as it was historically, or be given a new use that maximizes the
retention of distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial relationships. Where a
treatment and use have not been identified, a property will be protected and, if necessary,
stabilized until work may be undertaken.

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The replacement of
intact or repairable historic materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial
relationships that characterize a property will be avoided.

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. Work
needed to stabilize, consolidate, and conserve existing materials and features will be
physically and visually compatible, identifiable upon close inspection, and properly
documented for future research.

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in their own right will be
retained and preserved.

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes and construction techniques or examples of
craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved.

6. The existing condition of historic features will be evaluated to determine the appropriate
level of intervention needed. Where the severity of deterioration requires repair or limited
replacement of a distinctive feature, the new material will match the old in composition,
design, color, and texture.

7. Chemical or physical treatment, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means
possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used.

8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be
disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.









Standards for Rehabilitation


1. A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use that requires minimal
change to distinctive materials, features, spaces, and spatial relationships.

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The removal of
distinctive materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that
characterize a property will be avoided.

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place and use. Changes
that create a false sense of historical development, such as adding conjectural features or
elements from other historic properties, will not be undertaken.

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in their own right will be
retained and preserved.

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of
craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved.

6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of
deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature will match the
old in design, color, texture and where possible, materials. Replacement of missing
features will be substantiated by documentary and physical evidence.

7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest
means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used.

8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be
disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.

9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction will not destroy historic
materials, features, and spatial relationships that characterize the property. The new work
shall be differentiated from the old and will be compatible with the historic materials,
features, size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect the integrity of the property and
its environment.

10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction will be undertaken in such a
manner that, if removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the historic
property and its environment would be unimpaired.











Standards for Restoration


1. A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use which reflects the
property's restoration period.

2. Materials and features from the restoration period will be retained and preserved. The
removal of materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that
characterize the period will not be undertaken.

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place and use. Work
needed to stabilize, consolidate and conserve materials and features from the restoration
period will be physically compatible, identifiable upon close inspection, and properly
documented for future research.

4. Materials, features, spaces, and finishes that characterize other historical periods will be
documented prior to their alteration or removal.

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of
craftsmanship that characterize the restoration period will be preserved.

6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period will be replaced. Where the severity of
deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature will match the
old in design, color, texture, and, where possible, materials.

7. Replacement of missing features from the restoration period will be substantiated by
documentary and physical evidence. A false sense of history will not be created by adding
conjectured features, features from other properties, or by combining features that never
existed together historically.

8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest
means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used.

9. Archeological resources affected by a project will be protected and preserved in place. If
such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.

10. Designs that were never executed historically will not be constructed.









Standards for Reconstruction


1. Reconstruction will be used to depict vanished or non-surviving portions of a property
when documentary and physical evidence is available to permit accurate reconstruction
with minimal conjecture, and such reconstruction is essential to the public understanding
of the property.

2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structure, or object in its historic location will be
preceded by a thorough archeological investigation to identify and evaluate those features
and artifacts which are essential to an accurate reconstruction. If such resources must be
disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.

3. Reconstruction will include measures to pressure any remaining historic materials,
features, and spatial relationships.

4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate duplication of historic features and elements
substantiated by documentary or physical evidence rather than on conjectural designs or
the availability of different features from other historic properties. A reconstructed
property will recreate the appearance of the non-surviving historic property in materials,
design, color, and texture.

5. A reconstruction will be clearly identified as a contemporary re-creation.

6. Designs that were never executed historically will not be constructed.









LIST OF REFERENCES

Blackman, Fremont. Blackman's History of Orange County, Florida. Deland, Florida:
Painter Printing Company, 1927.

Campen, Richard N. Winter Park Portrait: The Story of Winter Park and Rollins College,
Beachwood, Ohio: West Summit Press, 1987.

Chapman, Robin. The Absolutely Essential Guide to Winter Park. Winter Park: Absolutely
Essential Company, 2001.

City of Winter Park Public Relations and Communications Division. 2001 Welcome Book,
Winter Park, City of Winter Park, 2001.

Hiss, Tony. The Experience ofPlace. New York: Knopf, 1990.

MacDowell, Claire Leavitt. Chronological History of Winter Park Florida, Winter Park:
Orange Press, 1950.

Meier, Lauren and Mitchell, Nora. Bulletin 6 Principals for Preserving Historic Plant
Material, National Park Service, 1990.

National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2002, 11 Most Endangered Places, National
Trust, http://www.nationaltrust.org/ 11Most/2002/teardowns.html.April 2007.

Orange County Extension Office, Retrieved February 3, 2007, Orange County Extension
Office, http:ocextension.ifas.ufl.edu/faculty.html.February 2007

Orange County Property Appraisers Office, Retrieved June 9 2007, Records Search,
http;//www.ocapafl.org/ June 2006.

Robinson, Jim and Andrews, Mark. Flashbacks -The Story of Central Florida's Past.
Orlando: Orange County Historical Society and The Orlando Sentinel, 1995.

Secretary of the Interior's Standards, Retrieved May 3, 2007, Treatment of Historic
Properties, http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/standards_guidelines.htm

Strong, Hope Jr. Tales of Winter Park, Winter Park: Rollins Press, 1984.

Tuan Yi-Fu. Topophilia, New York, Columbia University Press,1974.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Gary Gorman, grew up in north western Ohio, later moving to Florida with his family. He

graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Central Florida in Orlando.

During the years immediately following his undergraduate studies he traveled extensively both

domestically and internationally developing interests in cultural history, the environment and

architecture.

After many years of work in the field of historic preservation Gary entered the Master of

Science in Architectural Studies Program in the University of Florida's College of Design,

Construction, and Planning. While attending the University of Florida's Preservation Institute on

Nantucket he accepted a position with the Preservation Institute where he remained for four

years. He is currently completing the restoration of the Little House in Winter Park, Florida.





PAGE 1

1 THE LITTLE HOUSE: PRESERVATION AN D HISTORY OF THE GIRL SCOUT CLUBHOUSE OF WINTER PARK, FLORIDA By GARY PHILIP GORMAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Gary Philip Gorman

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3 To the Community of Winter Park

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I gratefully acknowledge the gene rous assistance of the W inter Park Public Library, the Rollins College Olin Library, the Girl Scouts Ci trus Council, the Winter Park Historical Association and Museum, the Winter Park Womans Club, and the many indi vidual Girl Scouts and their leaders who shared their stories with me Lastly, I wish to extend a special thanks to Mrs. Virginia Asher for kindly sharing her rich oral histories regardi ng the Minnesota Avenue neighborhood and the Little House.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................11 CHAP TER 1 WINTER PARK, FLORIDA AREA HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007 ...... 13 Path to Settlement...................................................................................................................13 Chartering its Own Course..............................................................................................14 Roots of Tourism............................................................................................................. 14 Defining a Sense of Place.......................................................................................................15 Emphasizing Public Welfare........................................................................................... 16 Conditions for Minority Population................................................................................ 17 Changing Patterns of Growth.................................................................................................17 Effects of the War Years................................................................................................. 18 Impact of Technology...................................................................................................... 18 The New Tourism Model and its Consequences............................................................. 19 Controlling Growth............................................................................................................. ....19 The Disney Effect............................................................................................................20 Current Issues..................................................................................................................21 Preserving a Sense of Place.............................................................................................21 2 MINNESOTA AVENUE HISTOR Y AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007 .......................... 29 Neighborhood History and Analysis......................................................................................29 The First 75 Years 1850 ....................................................................................... 29 The Emerging Neighborhood 1925 -1940....................................................................... 30 Residential Expansion onto Minnesota Avenue.............................................................. 32 Closing the Little House....................................................................................................... ..33 Implications for a Transitional Neighborhood....................................................................... 33 Changes in Density and Scale......................................................................................... 34 Future Infrastructure Improve m ents and Private Projects............................................... 35 Teardowns verses Preservation.......................................................................................36 Conclusion..............................................................................................................................36 3 CURRENT MINNESOTA AVENUE CONT RI BUTING STRUCTURES SURVEY......... 44 Documenting Local Structures............................................................................................... 44 Evaluation of Survey..............................................................................................................44 Resulting Record............................................................................................................... .....44

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6 4 THE LITTLE HOUSE HISTORY......................................................................................... 59 Juliette Gordon Low...............................................................................................................59 Finding a Permanent Home............................................................................................. 59 Community Effort...........................................................................................................60 Juliette Lows Legacy...................................................................................................... 61 Breaking Ground....................................................................................................................62 Local Contributors...........................................................................................................62 Presentation of the Keys..................................................................................................63 Scouting Activities Through the Years...................................................................................63 Ownership Changes................................................................................................................65 5 PRESERVING THE LITTLE HOUSE.................................................................................. 78 Methodology Plan...................................................................................................................78 Exterior Rehabilitation........................................................................................................ ....79 Florida Friendly Yard...................................................................................................... 79 Landscape and Sustainability.......................................................................................... 80 Yard Archeology.............................................................................................................81 Adding Elements to the Exterior and Landscape............................................................ 82 Examining the Envelope of the Little House.......................................................................... 82 Structural Alterations....................................................................................................... 83 Original Paint Analysis.................................................................................................... 84 Rehabilitating the Roof...........................................................................................................85 Interior Rehabilitation........................................................................................................ .....86 Deconstructing the Interior..............................................................................................86 Forensic Architecture......................................................................................................89 Rehabilitation End Goals........................................................................................................90 6 CURRENT ISSUES IMPACTING PRESER VATION ON HISTORIC S TRUCTURES ON MINNESOTA AVENUE............................................................................................... 104 Losing a Sense of Place and its Historic Structures............................................................. 104 Slowing the Trend by Creating Awareness.......................................................................... 105 7 PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE PROTEC TION OF THE LITTLE HOUSE ......................... 110 Proposals...............................................................................................................................110 Positive Arguments for Moving the Little House................................................................. 111 Negative Tradeoffs...............................................................................................................112 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION..................................................................................... 115 APPENDIX THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIORS STANDARDS.................................. 117

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7 LIST OF REFRENCES...............................................................................................................122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................123

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Bartram commemorative plaque; Mead Gardens.............................................................. 231-2 Early rendering of the village of Winter Park and rail line................................................ 241-3 Advertising handbill fo r Winter Park visitors.................................................................... 251-4 Depiction of 1887 Seminole Hotel.................................................................................... 261-5 Northern states influenc ed infrastructure legacy...............................................................271-6 Northern states influenced town planning grid legacy...................................................... 271-7 Northern states influenced architectural legacy.................................................................282-1 Subject study area..............................................................................................................372-2 Trovillion folk map rendering of Winter Park in 1908...................................................... 382-3 Aerial view of Minne sota Avenue circa 1930...................................................................392-4 Early plat map showing Cherokee Park subdivision......................................................... 402-5 Map locator showing sites of 3 surviving lake area cottages............................................. 412-6 Lake area cottage #1....................................................................................................... ...422-7 Lake area cottage #2....................................................................................................... ...422-8 Lake area cottage #3....................................................................................................... ...432-9 Winter Park High School built in 1927.............................................................................. 433-1 Minnesota Avenue neighbor hood structures locator map................................................. 463-2 Subject structure #1 The Little House...............................................................................473-3 Subject structure #2............................................................................................................483-4 Subject structure #3............................................................................................................493-5 Subject structure #4............................................................................................................503-6 Subject structure #5............................................................................................................513-7 Subject structure #6............................................................................................................52

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9 3-8 Subject structure #7............................................................................................................533-9 Subject structure #8............................................................................................................543-10 Subject structure #9............................................................................................................553-11 Subject structure #10..........................................................................................................563-12 Subject structure #11..........................................................................................................573-13 Subject structure #12..........................................................................................................584-1 Permission to use Womens Club Hall..............................................................................664-2 Early documentation of local Girl Scouts organizations...................................................674-3 First club house site selection............................................................................................ 684-4 Formal dedication announcement...................................................................................... 694-5 Missing plaque mystery..................................................................................................... 704-6 Mead Gardens outing........................................................................................................ .714-7 1939 yearly Credential Fee................................................................................................ 724-8 Charity lapel dolls........................................................................................................ ......734-9 Negro Scouting program.................................................................................................... 744-10 Little House rendering.......................................................................................................754-11 Cottrells 40th anniversary...................................................................................................754-12 Rediscovered and reloca ted base to flag pole.................................................................... 764-13 Juliette Low marker at Rollins College............................................................................. 764-14 Little House as rental property 1974..................................................................................775-1 Site plan.................................................................................................................. ...........925-2 Front entry view........................................................................................................... ......935-3 Street view................................................................................................................ .........935-4 Relocated entrance with arbor........................................................................................... 945-5 Front courtyard............................................................................................................ .......94

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10 5 6 Rear deck with new rear entrance...................................................................................... 955-7 Wood siding with circular saw markings........................................................................... 965-8 Boarded over window re veals original paint..................................................................... 975-9 Finished exterior.......................................................................................................... ......985-10 Hand fashioned exterior shutter......................................................................................... 995-11 Roof water diverter....................................................................................................... ...1005-12 Deconstructed interior shell.............................................................................................1015-13 Background showing exposed wall framing.................................................................... 1025-14 Water damaged rear fire place wall and new insert..........................................................1035-15 Kitchen rehabilitation.................................................................................................... ...1036-1 R-3 zoning map............................................................................................................. ...1076-2 Sites of recent area demolitions....................................................................................... 1086-3 Adjacent property redevelopment.................................................................................... 1097-1 Winter Park resident ial historic district...........................................................................1137-2 Building development impacting the Little House.......................................................... 114

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Architectural Studies THE LITTLE HOUSE: PRESERVATION AN D HISTORY OF THE GIRL SCOUT CLUBHOUSE OF WINTER PARK, FLORIDA By Gary Philip Gorman December 2007 Chair: Peter E. Prugh Cochair: Roy E.Graham Major: Architecture Following four years as a teach ing assistant and documenting hi storic structures for the University of Floridas Preservation Institute: Nantucket, Massachusetts, I returned home anxious to resume my work on the research and restoratio n of the original Girl Scout Clubhouse of Winter Park, Florida, historically referred to locally as the Little House. The result of this research captured a signi ficant cultural memory a nd a sense of place, by uncovering a rich blend of Winter Park history, architecture, local and national figures, whose separate stories intersect to give th e Little House its unique provenance. On November 6, 1936 the keys to the newly constr ucted Little House were officially turned over to the Girl Scouts. Today, hundreds of Winter Park resident s pass by this structure daily, unaware of its story. For over th irty years the Little House played a pivotal role in our communitys cultural memory by providing a safe and nurturing environment for the Girl Scouts of Winter Park. It is not hard to imagine that many a friendship was formed before its oversized fireplace.

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12 As the physical restoration and preservation of the Little House evolved, an equally compelling story of historic and anecdotal facts began to emerge, raising a number of interesting questions, How was Juliette Low, founder of the Girl Scou ts of America and recipient of a memorial marker on Rollins College Walk of Fame, connect ed to the Winter Park Little House? How did the construction of the Little House me ld into the communitys historic fabric and which local individuals played a role. How old was the Little House? Although mortgage documents said otherwise, forensic architecture had shown that th e carpentry details placed the st ructure as much older than recorded. What negative forces exist which threaten the preservation of the Little House? What future uses, plans and methodology could be envisioned to preser ve the Little House for future generations in Winter Park? In order to answer these and other questions I sought to understand the broad historic context surrounding the Little House and then to narrow that research by constructing a time line for a more detailed assessment and analysis. These proce sses will form the basis of my research product and presentation. The purpose of this research is one that through rediscovery of both the physical structure as well as its history, I can create a comprehensive thesis document, that will provide a strong rational for protecting and preservi ng the Little House.

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13 CHAPTER 1 WINTER PARK, FLORIDA AREA HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007 Path to Settlement In a brief overview docum enting the early hist ory and development of Winter Park, one need only consider that as early as 1774 Willia m Bartram, the noted naturalist, walked the nearby Indian trails. A plaque commemorating hi s activities can be found in Mead Gardens, a wetlands park, just 2 blocks south of the Little House site. (Figure 1-1) Bartram, like others to follow, would find the area rich in natural beauty with an abundant and diverse range of flora and fauna. Nearly one hundred years later, the early Florida communities of Jacksonville, Apalachicola, and St. Augustine were providing ju mping off points onto Floridas extensive river system, a river system that would serve as a primary conduit for the ea rly settler exploration. While the majority of Floridas interior exploration was facilitated by the extensive riverways, a secondary means of passage, the same as that used by the naturalist Bartram one hundred years earlier, were the Native American trails. One such well-established trail snaked its way around the lakes of Central Florida, where temporary encampments of native peoples were common. Skirting these lakes, the Indian trails dr ew the settlers onto what would later become the site for the community of Winter Park. (Chapman, 2001, 12) This was an area favored by native peoples as well as the newly arriving settlers for its pronounced environmental beauty; it featured abu ndant natural resources such as clean fresh water, and large quantities of fish and game. The land was arable and the uplands woods would provide timber and turpentine.

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14 Chartering its Own Course W ith the natural attraction of the land a nd a mild winter climate, many settlers felt convinced this was the spot for them to put down roots. It may have been as legend said, that the 1858, eight-acre purchase of land here among the la kes by settler David Mize ll, was in fact the true kernel from which Winter Park would emerge Mizell at first referred to the area as Lake View and it drew a slow trickle of settlers, ul timately forming two small communities (Robinson and Andrews, 1995, 53). By the early 1880s the two small communities became one and managed to get a small rail line linked into their vill age, then just one year later a full service rail depot was constructed. (Figure 1-2) As Winter Park grew, clearly one successf ul and transforming effect on this small community was its own very successful advertisi ng campaign, used to lure visitors and investors from throughout the northern tier states. (Figure 1-3) As a newly chartered town in 1887, Winter Park began taking on a reputation as a winter resort with the main purpose of attracting wellheeled northerners who wished to es cape their harsh winters back home. With an average annual temperature of 72 degrees, visitors found Winter Parks environment and climate both healthy and mild, making it a tranquil place to visit. Many of those wealthy northern visitors it would turn out, would return to become permanent residents. Roots of Tourism Common during this period was the construction by and for s easonal residents of sm all winter cottages scattere d along the lakes. At the same time there occurred an ever-expanding business of building and operating wi nter resorts such as the Seminol e hotel, then the largest in the state. (Figure 1-4) Both of these enterprises would clearly contribute as economic engines for the emerging town. Also, very important was the impact the visitors and investors, predominantly from the northern states would have, in that these same individuals left a legacy

PAGE 15

15 still visible today as seen in Winter Parks surviving period architect ure and infrastructure. (Figures 1-5, 1-6, and 1-7) The original town plan could be characterized as one drawn using a tight grid system format surrounding a large well defined central park. Adjacent to the park on one side were shops and on the othe r a rail line and depot. This wa s an important selling point for the northern investors as the town layout could be described as familiar, and very reminiscent of a New England town plan. To the original to wn planners credit, their visionary downtown layout has held up well and sti ll exists today, virtually uncha nged from its original form. Finally, two iconic markers, the establishment of the citrus industry and the formation of Rollins College would help propel Winter Park, (alb eit in a typical cyclical Florida fashion of boom and bust) into the 20th century. Defining a Sense of Place As a new community, Winter Park appeared head ed for a bright future It had a stable and growing population, with a vibran t business district and even at these early stages of developm ent it exhibited a characterization sti ll proudly projected today by the Chamber of Commerce, that being its emphasis on its quality of life for its residents. Through the years, Winter Parks sense of place (Hiss, 1990, 24) would be tied to this motto, whereby it consistently sought to highlight its commitment and support for hi gher education, th e arts and the environment, by a very generous and philanthropic citizenry. During the first ten years of the 20th century, Winter Park remained quiet and uncomplicated. A semi rural sense of the area st ill clung in the air. Bu t the coming land boom in Florida and the increasing ability to more readil y access the state by train and eventually by auto was bringing a larger and larger influx of visitors. By the 1920s the level of roadway infrastructure along Floridas east coast was signif icant. A more rudimentary set of roads were beginning to take shape, funneling tourists down through th e center of the state. Winter Park, like

PAGE 16

16 many Central Florida towns would do their best to benefit from these t ourists by encouraging them to stop and spend their dollars in its towns businesses. The old notion of the winter tourist trade was evolving into the more modern yea r-round concept of tourist related businesses we have today in Florida. Golf courses, autom obile races on the beach, natural springs, tropical gardens, citrus groves, and unusual flora and fauna became the draws. Overnight motels with their cabin like cottages flourished along the roadways. State tourism, in its infancy was beginning to take form. But this forward momentum would often be interrupt ed over the years as severe freezes crushed the citrus industry and the once vaulted land boom became synonymous with swampland. The final straw would be the nationwide Depression which would curtail the land speculation and severely dry up the dis posable income of the tourist trade. Emphasizing Public Welfare During this period of hardship and financia l instability, W inter Park hunkered down and began to take greater stock of its own ci tizens welfare. At the beginning of the 20th century an emergence of community networks began to evol ve throughout the United States responding to demands for a social safety net. Many of these same national civic organizations would surface locally in Winter Park in the years be tween 1900 and 1930. The Kiwanis Club, Community Chest, Womans Club, Garden Club, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts all were established and all emphasized the idea of service for the greater go od. Ultimately, this civic response would lead to the only community constructed m eeting house for the Girl Scout s in Winter Parks history and would be referred to as the Little House. Rollins College continued its growth and expansion programs generating business for the towns coffers in an era of little economic grow th. The downtown business district held its own, and occasionally new shops and small parking areas were added. Often times, these expansions would result in the physical moving of older housing stock from the towns central core. One

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17 such area on the receiving end of this early at tempt at urban renewal of the downtown core was the Minnesota Avenue neighborhood about three blocks away. In these days of economic hardship, few livable structures would be wa sted through demolition and hence many such house relocations ended up in this close-in but underdeveloped area of Winter Park. Conditions for Minority Population As the community of Winter Park slipped into th e clutches of the extended national economic downturn of the 1930s, it had a population of about 7000 residents. A segregated community, Winter Parks African American popul ation resided in an area just west of downtown, in a section of Winter Park referre d to as the Hannibal square neighborhood. The Hannibal Square Associates was or ganized for the welfare of the Negroes of Winter Park, The first project was the erection of a building in which to hous e the Hannibal Square Library, adjacent to the Negro elementary school on West New England. (MacDowell 1950, p223) The Hannibal neighborhood architectural form consis ted of small well-kept homes, shops and churches, set upon compact blocks of tree-lined streets. Most of its residents worked as domestics, groundskeepers, and general laborers for the many wealthy white families of Winter Park. Both races had similar but separate civi c organizations mirroring those of one another. Although Winter Park would proudly break ground for a new high school during this period its schools remained segregated. Changing Patterns of Growth Like m any small southern towns Winter Park s ice cream parlor, 5 and dime store and movietheatre would provide plen ty of diversion and entertainm ent for the locals in the 1940s and 1950s. For outdoor activities the chain of lakes offered endless opportunities for swimming, fishing, and boating. Most Winter Pa rk children would learn to swim as part of a local tradition at the towns public lakeside park referred to as Dinky dock. A relaxing ev ening might consist of

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18 a barefoot stroll down sandy Genius Drive at suns et where one could see and hear wild peacocks perched throughout the live oaks. Effects of the War Years Nearby the f aster growing city of Orlando wa s having its own impact on Winter Park as the two communities grew towards one another, blurring their once separate identities and original town boundaries. Local Defense industry companies, as well as naval and air base facilities were all gearing up for what appeared to be a period of war following the Depression, thereby becoming an important revenue stream for the local economies of Winter Park and Orlando. As war approached even the local Wint er Park girl-scout troop, would find ways to support the war effort by making stri ng dolls to be given away in exchange for donations from its citizens as a way to help the Girl Guides program in war ravaged Great Britain. When World War II came to an end many of the same service men and women that had been stationed at the nearby bases decided to re main here or returned to the area with their families to settle. This spike in population woul d give Winter Park a noticeable infusion of growth and mark the end to what had been a period of economic stagnation. Impact of Technology Most W inter Park homes at this time had larg e covered porches for th e practical purpose of creating shade and ventilation as a passive means of air conditioning, used to deal with the hot and humid conditions of Floridas summertime heat. Florida vernacula r architecture commonly incorporated rear-sleeping porches providing nighttime relief as well. But by the late 1940s and early 1950s things were about to change in a momentous way, as the possibility of household air conditioning systems was about to become a r eality. This technology would have a huge impact on all of Florida as the normal summertime pa ttern of 90 degree plus heat could now be

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19 effectively managed. This inven tion would, in its own way, substa ntially contribute to population growth throughout the 1950s and 60s for Florida communities like Winter Park. The New Tourism Model and its Consequences W ith better roadways, and their adjacent road side shops, restaurants and motels with air conditioning, tourists began to return to a new more modern Florida. State tourism sites were establishing themselves throughout central Flor ida, Daytonas; beaches, 500 auto race and nearby Marineland, St. Augustines; Alligator Fa rm, Orlandos; Gatorland, St. Petersburgs; Sunken Gardens, Winter Havens; Bok Tower and Cypress Gardens, Ocalas; Silver Springs, Clermonts; Citrus Tower, and Tarpons Springs; Weeki Wachee, were all early forerunners of the giant theme parks which would appear some 20 years later. Clearly the Winter Park of the 1950s was fee ling the effects of progress on its community but tried hard to remain faithful to its own se nse of place by fending off growth when possible in order to preserve and maintain a quality of life for its residents. Winter Park unashamedly accepted the description of itself as an afflue nt community, at the same time drawing on a growing artistic and Bohemian collection of ne wcomers who began renting the second floor apartments above the shops on Park Avenue. This ba stion of artists would be the future leaders, and supporters pivotal in the formation of events such as the renowned Winter Park Art Festival, still an annual event today. Potte rs, jewelry makers, and painters would also quietly impact the main shopping fare, referred to as Park Avenue, as their wares began to be sold in newly opened galleries and specialty shops along the street. Controlling Growth From the beginning the natural barriers of Winter Parks chain of lakes created a community not easily accessible to the outsider. This sense of isolation was not lost on the residents of Winter Park who over the years w ould cultivate that noti on and use any measures

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20 they could to maintain this status quo. Even toda y there is virtually only on e street that could be considered to directly transverse the heart of Winter Park in an east west direction. This same situation would define ones abil ity to move on a north south axis through the town as well. One dramatic example of Winter Parks early attempts at controlling growth was its resistance to the proposed new Interstate 4 highw ay as it was being planned in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Winter Park had refused to accep t a plan that would bri ng the highway near its center and only grudgedly allowed for an exit and entry ramp which would feed into the then outskirts of town. Ironically, th is very public aversion to the perceived idea of progress through growth only made Winter Park more attractive to the many newcomers it continued to attract. By the middle of the 1960s Winter Park was thriving, new schools were being built, new restaurants began operation and an enclosed air conditioned shopping mall, would permit a shopping experience few had ever seen in Central Florida. In-fill housing projects were back on track and Rollins College was positioned to begin a new period of academic expansion. The Disney Effect The secretiv e accumulation, at the southern ed ge of Orange County of vast amounts of undeveloped scrub and grove lands in the mid 1960 s, would soon be revealed for what it was, the development of the largest project ever to be seen in Central Florid a, the creation of Walt Disney World. No central Florida community wo uld be able to withstand the onslaught of change coming their way from this massive de velopment. For Winter Park and neighboring towns the next two decades would be a challenge as they faced never before seen topics of sprawl, traffic congestion, explos ive population growth, issues of density, and infrastructure problems. Banking and service industries thrived as money poured into Winter Park. Marketable academic skills like MBAs made Rollins Gradua te Business School an overnight success.

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21 Wealth was the by-product of this period and Winter Park met the challenge by continuing to address quality of life issues fo r its residents. The environment, arts, and revitalization efforts would continue to capture dollars for community wide projects. Current Issues By the late 1990s and up to this current period of tim e, new unforeseen dilemmas for Winter Park had emerged. The phenomenon of teardowns had created a fast moving firestorm of change pulsing through Winter Parks once stai d neighborhoods. With little or no room for expansion in the built out envi ronment of Winter Park, tear downs had become one of the standard solutions to the unr elenting demand for more housin g. (nationaltrust.org/11Most/ 2002/teardowns). The approach of increasing density as a soluti on to housing needs ran counter to all things Winter Park but it too had become the inevitable tool of developers eager to make money during the housing crunch. The white gentrification of the long estab lished African Americ an neighborhoods of Winter Park began in earnest and today continue s unabated, eating away at these areas with both new residential and commercial projects. The core problem creating these recent di lemmas has been skyrocketing land values matched by the everincreasing demands of individua ls and families wishing to reside in Winter Park. Recent pull backs in real estate values have definitely cooled things down in Winter Park but many new projects continue to come out of the ground. Preserving a Sense of Place W ith a tradition established at its incep tion, Winter Park would, through the years, consider itself a place apart. It drew to itself a dedicated group of like thinking people who agreed with the notion of emphasi zing quality of life issues for its citizens, and most important

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22 they backed up those beliefs w ith impressive philanthropic gift s and volunteerism. Libraries, museums, centers of higher education, the arts outstanding public schools, numerous parks and recreation centers and a large a nd outstanding group of non-profit, civic organizations would all be the lynch pins to a community that in tu rn would give it confidence as it struggled and maneuvered its way through cycles of boom and bust. Looking back, throughout that interesting hist ory much has changed and consequently much has been lost in Winter Park. Fortunatel y, there is today a str ong awareness and concern for preserving what remains of that history. Topophlia is a term used to describe this coupling of a communitys sentiment with a sense of place (Tuan, 1974, 113) whether it is found in its architecture, the cultural landscape, or the oral traditions and stories that conne ct its residents to their past. It is in this realm of values that the Little Houses preser vation is important.

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23 Figure 1-1 Bartram commemora tive plaque; Mead Gardens

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24 Figure 1-2 Early rendering of the village of Winter Park and rail line

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25 Figure 1-3 Advertising handbill for Winter Park visitors

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26 Figure 1-4 Depiction of 1887 Seminole Hotel

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27 Figure 1-5 Northern states influe nced infrastructure legacy Figure 1-6 Northern states influe nced town planning grid legacy.

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28 Figure 1-7 Northern states infl uenced architectural legacy

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29 CHAPTER 2 MINNESOTA AVENUE HISTOR Y AND DEVELOPMENT 1850-2007 Neighborhood History and Analysis To com plete a more in depth area analysis, it would be necessary to research the specific history of the neighborhood surrounding the location of the site select ed for the thesis focus, the Little House property on Minnesota Avenue in Winter Park. When referring to the Minnesota Avenue site and neighborhood I will be generally describing the three-block section of Minnesota Avenue running East and West, from Pennsylvania Avenue on the East to the rail line crossing Minnesota at the Orange Avenue intersection on the West.(Figure 2-1) The First 75 Years 1850 From the arrival of the first settlers in 1850 until the late 1880s this area of Winter Park remained unchanged with the exception of some logging and primitive roads to service that activity. The area could be descri bed at this junction in its history as simply uninhabited woodlands and scrub. Soon after th e turn of the century some minimal changes slowly began to creep into the landscape. An excellent folk -map, (Figure 2-2) drawn in 1968 by Mr. Ray Trovillion, a member of a long established Winter Park fam ily, reflected his own personal recollections of the Winter Park of 1908. His ma p rendering, clearly gives a sense of the threeblock stretch of Minnesota as it appeared at that time. Considered then to be the edge of town, this very same sect ion of Winter Park is today only three blocks from the citys commercial urban core and Rollins College. The Winter Park of 1908 had a population of only about 800 residents and it was very slowly pushing its growth outward. Still evoking a rural feeling, this area along Minnesota Avenue contained only one farmstead, and in 1908 one would look about and see a mix of agricultural, citrus, and lumbering activities, and plots of undisturbed uplands woods. Just nearby was a turpentine works where

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30 local African Americans would perform the hot a nd labor-intensive task of producing pinesap by products. Trovillions early map revealed only one actual dwelling situated within this section of Minnesota Avenue. From numerous interviews and documents one could conjure up an image of an emerging neighborhood in the early 1900s, that consisted of clay and sand streets with sand pathways, shaded by large water oaks running al ong side of them. Roadway infrastructure was not that important because there were after all, only three automobiles in the entire town in 1908. Other residents noted the area s upported a few small cottages and agricultural outbuildings and even had a nearby spring and creek, at the edge of Oak Park later renamed Theodore L. Mead Botanical Gardens (Figure 2-3) where local people sometimes collected water and close to a spot that would later became the site of the towns water tower. Because the area was near the commerci al center of Winter Park, yet underutilized, it was likely considered not as desirable as other more rapidly settled sect ions of Winter Park, but it did at least have a reputation as one of the more afford able areas in terms of its land costs. Like most of the land within the town limits this neighborhood, althoug h unpopulated, had already been platted into lots and given the name Cher okee Park by town planners. (Figure 2-4) The Emerging Neighborhood 1925 -1940 By 1925, Winter Park had decided to incorporat e as a city. Bolstere d by large donations of land and m oney from local philanthropists, both the city of Winter Park and Rollins College had grown into the more established forms we see today. It was during this period of development in Winter Park s history that the era of constructing small lakeside winter cottages was co ming to an end as a new trend to replace these seasonal cottages with permanent and more gran diose lakefront homes took over. These original cottages were then often moved to outlying neig hborhoods in an effort to recycle them. Today,

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31 because of the explosive local land values, just a few of those lake area cottages have managed to survive. They serve as a reminder of the neighbo rhoods architectural history by telling a story of its past scale and order. This change of neighborhood scale is si gnificant as it represents the beginning of a loss of a neighborhood s historic character. Three nearby examples confirm what was once the norm but today is nearly nonexistent. The location for these cottages can be seen in (Figure 2-5) while (Figures 2-6, 2-7 and 28), depict the actual subject cottages. By the late 1920s no new homes had actually been constructed on this section of Minnesota Avenue, although on occasion an existing structure would be relocated onto one of the many available platted lots. During this perio d, a soft real estate market prevailed and the approaching national economic Depression would fu rther keep interest low in this neighborhood. At a time of fairly low land prices, the city of Winter Park took owners hip of a large parcel of land at the eastern end of Minnesota where they would build, in 1927, the towns first upper grade level high school, replacing the single all grade inclusive red br ick school of 1914. This 1927 school building is today among the few public buildings designated as National Register eligible in Winter Park. (Figure 2-9) Still in use today as the ninth grade cen ter, the site would be located almost directly across the street from the final site selected for the future construction of the Little House. For the next ten years only spotty growth occurred along the now bricked over Minnesota Avenue. One of the very few neighborhood structures to actually be built on its still wooded site was in fact, the 1936 construction of the Little House, a meetinghouse built specifically for the use of the newly formed Winter Park Girl Sc outs. Nestled alone on a wooded lot, surrounding by still other empty wooded lots and walking distan ce to the new High School and Mead Gardens, it

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32 was the perfect location for the Girl Scouts, a nd would become a cultura l hub of activity for many girls in the community over the next 33 years. Residential Expansion onto Minnesota Avenue By the 1940s one saw further attempts to fill the still em pty lots a butting the Little House site along Minnesota Avenue with residential st ructures being relocated out of the downtown core. The rather deep lots along Minnesota Aven ue, had allowed for a second structure to be legally placed on the properties, making them perfectly suited to provide the necessary space for these soon to be moved houses and cottages. Of ten the property owner ended up with a modest home at the front of the lot and a smaller cottage to the rear. These rear cottages would be used to generate second incomes for their owners as rentals for winter visitors or student and faculty from nearby Rollins College. As the war years concluded, the demand for housing in Winter Park showed a slight upward spike and the neighborhood filled out with a complement of new middle class working families, who were more than happy to live clos e to their schools and churches. Throughout the 1950s the neighborhood infill projects would continue but with a twist. The past form and order on Minnesota Avenue had consisted primarily of clapboard wood frame single family residences but the 1950s brought with it the construction of concrete block duplexes as a new form of housing as well as an economic tool to take advantage of the neighbor hoods zoning opportunities and long tradition of mixed use rental properties. Life was good in Winter Parks neighborhoods Doors remained unlocked, as crime was virtually nonexistent. Shopping and dining out o pportunities were expandi ng all along the nearby 17/92-traffic corridor. For entertainment the driv e in movie-theater was an inexpensive evening out and for special occasions the family could dine at the nearby Langford hotel and wander

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33 around the mini zoo set up by the swimming pool, investigating the many cages filled with exotic birds and reptiles. Car traffic had grown along Minnesota Avenue and sidewalks were added as roadway infrastructure continued to expand. For the next twenty years little more would change in the neighborhood. Closing the Little House Around 1970 the adm inistrators of the busy a nd well-used Girl Scout Little House on Minnesota Avenue concluded th ey had outgrown their meetinghouses five hundred square foot facility. For over 30 years the memory filled stru cture had thrived and fondly contributed to the cultural memory and sense of place in Winter Par k. Sadly, an end to an era came when the Little House was closed. It would eventually be sold, for use as a rental prope rty satisfying a growing demand for rental housing for Winter Park and nearby Rollins College. Th e local Winter Park administration of the Girl Scouts had gradually been transferred to the more centrally located Citrus Council headquarters in downtown Orlando. These admini strative changes would most likely eliminate any future duplication of a local Wi nter Park led community effort to construct a second scout meeting house. The cultural memory produced by the narrative and the corresponding structure of the Litt le House was framed at a formative moment in Winter Parks history and is unlikely to ever happen again. Implications for a Transitional Neighborhood At the sam e time, the central Florida economy wa s just beginning to feel the effects of the new theme park tourist dollars, an upgrading in the neighborhood housing stock began to occur. The change would not be overnight but the trend was definitely up

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34 Changes in Density and Scale By f ar the greatest catalyst for change in this section of Minnesota Avenue was its attractive zoning. Always adverse to high-density developments, the city of Winter Park seldom gave in to developers demands for changes to zoning. The south side of Minnesota was one of the few exemptions. With the door open to a new type of R/3 zoning for the neighborhood, large and small projects of condominium town homes would be developed. By the mid-1980s an economic slowdown had ma terialized and the momentum for change along Minnesota Avenue paused. But just ten ye ars later a clear pickup of interest in the neighborhood could be detected. Unlikely changes were occurring at a faster and faster rate .The once typical rental house was now being reconverted by its owner to its original single-family origins and therefore adding to a shrinking rent al housing pool. Consequently it was becoming harder to find the available rental cottages and garage apartments of the past. Rollins students and other renters who had inhabited this hous ing niche would move further out into the surrounding neighborhoods and by splitti ng the rising rental costs, were just as likely to be found leasing in the growing high-end housing market. Many older single family homes on large lots were being sold and quickly torn down and their lot reconfigured to hold two residences where there had been one. Density changes now meant proj ects of two and even three story town homes that could be found dotting the neighborhood an d signaling forever, the changing neighborhood scale. At the beginning of the 21st century the real estate market in Winter Park like other communities around the country was preparing to dramatically increase in activity and value. Older single family housing, duplexes, even 1950 s campus style apartment complexes, would be scooped up all around the neighborhood, sometim es entire blocks would be scheduled for

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35 demolition. Winter Park, it appeared, remained high on the list of desirable places to live in Central Florida. Future Infrastructure Improvements and Private Projects The neighborhood gained m ore notice as both intersecting ends anc horing this 3 block section of Minnesota became the focus of activ ity for improving infras tructure and private projects and remains so even in todays flat economic conditions. The positive change resulting from these munici pally supported projects and grants began to emerge in the neighborhood in the year 2000 and have been systematically improving the quality of life for the resi dents along Minnesota Avenue. Prominent examples of this were the costly and expansive street rehabilitation at the eastern end of this section of Minnesota that took place starting in about 2000. Using historic street lighting fixtures, under-g rounding the utility lin es, adding an oversized promenade walk and bikeway, and finally to the towns credit even re-bricking what had been formerly an asphalt paved Pennsylvania Avenue, resulted in the creation of an environment that lured developers like bees to honey. The result of these infrastructure improvements was literally two blocks of two and three story luxury townhouses se lling for prices not seen before in this area of Winter Park. While this was happening on the peripheral eastern end of the neighborhood other major developments were also drawing attention to th e neighborhood. Adjacent to the Little House site itself and also at the eastern end of Minnesota, f our existing rental properties were demolished in preparation for another proposed three-story townhouse project. To the south of the neighborhood, Mead Gardens had become the beneficiary of a sizeable grant as part of a major facelif t to upgrade and maintain this beautiful wetlands and park. The recent confirmation of a commuter rail line stop in Winter Park starting in the year 2009 and a

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36 $350 million dollar streetscap e project along Orange Avenue at th e western end of this section of Minnesota Avenue, would both contribute to the neighborhoods plus column. Finally, also at the western e nd of Minnesota an unused parc el of land on the corner of Minnesota and Orange Avenue is currently being considered for redevelopment. This project is significant, as rarely does such a large parcel of commercially zoned property become available in Winter Park. At 5.76 acres of property, the land parcel is an exceptional opportunity to create a mixed-use project of some magnitude, and ha s become the subject of several neighborhood informational meetings sponsored by the deve loper. The proposed project, which includes restaurants, shops, offices, resident ial rental units and pocket parks is soon to be presented to the city council for final approvals. Teardowns verses Preservation In summ ary, it is in this increasingly ch anging neighborhood environment that one finds the site of a piece of Winter Park history and its cultural landscape in th e form of the Little House. The future of the older historic struct ures in this neighborhood is unknown; but the odds are stacked against their survival due to thei r current land values. Therefore, this unique neighborhood may soon become only a memory, and recognizing this fact is mandatory and the first step in looking to find solutions to save the Little House and other structures like it. Conclusion Cultural m emory and sense of place are hum an responses to the natural and built environment, and by definition subjective, th is does not mean they should be ignored. For a community to sustain its sense of place, it must not only recognize its identity but also synthesize its land use policies and regulations so th at they protect and support structures such as the Little House. In this way one promotes true sustainability by balancing community heritage with issues of community development.

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37 Figure 2-1 Subject study area

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38 Figure 2-2 Trovillion folk map re ndering of Winter Park in 1908

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39 Figure 2-3 Aerial view of Minnesota Avenue circa 1930

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40 Figure 2-4 Early plat map show ing Cherokee Park subdivision

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41 Figure 2-5 Map locator showing sites of 3 surviving lake area cottages.

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42 Figure 2-6 Lake area cottage #1 Figure 2-7 Lake area cottage #2

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43 Figure 2-8 Lake area cottage #3 Figure 2-9 Winter Park High School built in 1927

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44 CHAPTER 3 CURRENT MINNESOTA AVENUE CONT RI BUTING STRUCTURES SURVEY Documenting Local Structures The legacy of the architecture as seen in th e remaining structures surrounding the Little House site was surveyed in order to create a reco rd. The survey guide (F igure 3-1) and the actual survey (Figures 3-2 through 3-13) results are shown. Within this targeted section of Minnesota Avenue there are appr oximately 18 lots, of which 7 of the surviving residen ces represent the pre-1950s street order and all had been moved to this neighborhood from other locations, mostly coming from the downtown core. Evaluation of Survey As a result of the survey, the findings sugge st that the existing older housing stock is a very unique and valuable blend of historic structures in style and for m, from farmhouse to Victorian with cottage style thrown in. This dive rse mix of building ages and styles contributes to an interestingly complex and rather confusing time line when first exploring the neighborhoods origins and th e actual age of the subj ect structure, the Little House. For example, although the land was platted for homes by the 1910s, a residence west of th e Little House site wasnt moved to its new site until the 1940s, but the house itself was built in the 1880s. Resulting Record The research record ed in this survey, both in comment form and photography will provide future researchers with a window of understanding into the nature of the Minnesota Avenue neighborhoods architectural evolutio n and contributes in establishi ng the Little Houses sense of place as part of its neighborhoods cultural me mory. This survey can be constructive in recognizing the contextual sign ificance of the neighborhood and honor s that. In other words,

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45 unlike the quantitative information gathered from review of regula tions and governmental organizations, sense of place is recognized, not measured.

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46 Figure 3-1 Minnesota Avenue ne ighborhood structures locator map

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47 Figure 3-2 Subject structur e #1 The Little House

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48 Figure 3-3 Subject structure #2

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49 Figure 3-4 Subject structure #3

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50 Figure 3-5 Subject structure #4

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51 Figure 3-6 Subject structure #5

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52 Figure 3-7 Subject structure #6

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53 Figure 3-8 Subject structure #7

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54 Figure 3-9 Subject structure #8

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55 Figure 3-10 Subject structure #9

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56 Figure 3-11 Subject structure #10

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57 Figure 3-12 Subject structure #11

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58 Figure 3-13 Subject structure #12

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59 CHAPTER 4 THE LITTLE HOUSE HISTORY Juliette Gordon Low In 1912, in the gracious Southern city of Savannah, Georgia, Mrs. Juliette Gordon Low was putting the finishing touches on he r plans to create a new civic orga nization for young girls. Not long before, she had summoned to her residen ce, six of her closest confidents, asking them for their thoughts on forming the first band of Girl Scouts, or as they would initially be called, Girl Guides. One of those invited that day was the then Carol Purse Oppenhiemer, born and raised in Savannah and daughter to a prominent Savannah family. Meanwhile, and in this context, one days journey south by train was the emerging little community of Winter Park, Florida. In that same year of 1912, Winter Park only had a population of about nine hundred re sidents. Like Savannah, the loca l townsfolk of Winter Park were establishing their own civic organizati ons. Groups such as the Womans Club, which formed in 1915, the Kiwanis Club, the Winter Park Garden Club, the Community Chest, and numerous other civic and church organizations began responding to a developing need for a social network in their community. Finding a Permanent Home The nascent girl scouting organi zation appears to have shown up in W inter Park as early as 1932, with the first troop being led by Mrs. Ed ward Lawrence. Minutes from a November 9, 1932 meeting at the Womans Club noted that the mo thers of the Girl Scouts had asked to hold meetings in the Club Hall and that they had been granted that permission.( Figure 4-1) Yet, there may have been area Girl Scouting years earlier, as evidenced in an article found in a local paper which reported a meeting held at the Winter Park Womans Club in 1933 when Mrs. Edith Tadd

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60 Little spoke fondly of the Girl Sc outs for the relief work they di d in connection with the storm of 1928.(Figure 4-2) Up to this time, the first Winter Park Gi rl Scout troop, led by Mrs. Lawrence had had no permanent home or meeting site. Interviews, oral history transcripts, and newspaper articles carried a theme of a nomadic existence for the Girl Scouts. Their meetings had at times been held in private homes, or church meeting halls like the All Saints Episcopal Parish house. Community Effort Packing and unpacking of scouting m aterials at the ever-changing meeting venues began to take a toll on the scouts and their leaders which resulted in a determined community effort to find the Girl Scouts a more permanent meeting site. Many local events were held in order to help raise funds for the scouts. Charita ble functions such as carnivals, spaghett i dinners, dances and music events took place throughout the community of Winter Park for the Girl Scouts. Thus, in March of 1933, girl-scouting mother s emboldened by the si gnificant community support petitioned the city for a site on which to build a Girl Scout House. Soon after, a 1933 newspaper headline said it all, Club House Site Given To Girl Scouts Monday. (Figure 4-3) Two of the biggest supporters of this effort were the Ki wanis Club and Womans Club, but soon many other civic organizations and privat e citizens would lend a hand and get behind the idea of finding and funding a fixed site for a clubhouse. The newspaper reported the adoption of a resolution in which the Girl Scouts had requested lots 7 and 8 North Charmont, and that the property now owned by the city of Winter Park be set aside for purposes of a park wher e the Girl Scouts could meet and camp with the privilege of erecting a camp meeting house. The Scouts would have use of the property for 10 years. This resolution was carried unanimously

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61 Just when a solution to find a site for the Girl Scout meeting house appeared to be over, a major blow to that plan occurred when at th e following months April city commission hearing, the site became a focal point for protest by Miss Anne Stone, H.V. Conduit, and A.R. Davenport, all protesting the location. The site was dropped. Soon after a second site emerged, at the May 193 3 commission hearing the city offered to lease lot #22, Block D of Comstock Park for a period of ten years to the Girl Scouts but like the first location this s econd parcel too was dropped. Time passed, but interest never wavered in finding a suitable site. It would be nearly 4 years before the official dedication of the ne w Little House. Interestingly enough, during those intervening years a striking conf luence of events would take place behind the scenes, all of which swirled around the notion of creating the necessary synergy for locating, building, and dedicating the Winter Park Little House. Juliette Lows Legacy In the m eantime, Miss Carol Oppenheimer, the aforementioned protg of Juliette Low and a strong proponent of the national scouti ng movement had herself become involved in outdoor camping activities for girls as the founder of the Eagles Nest Camp, in Brevard, North Carolina. In 1935 she announced her marriage to Dr. Thomas Pearce Bailey. Miss Oppenheimer had met Dr. Bailey while directing the Blue Ridg e camp for girls in North Carolina. Dr. Bailey was well known throughout the country as a psyc hologist, a psychiatrist, and educator, and coincidently then a professor at Ro llins College in Winter Park. Shortly after the wedding, the then new Mrs. C.T. Bailey would relocate to Winter Park and become an active community member involving herself in the local efforts in creating the Girl Scout Little House but more importantly sh e would be bringing along with her, her historic first person ties to the then deceased Mrs. Low.

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62 Such was the environment in Winter Park in 1935 for the creation of a scout meeting house. With community wide support, renown local figures in scouting, and generous private citizens, it happened that the Little House finally began to take form. In 1936, Foster Fanning, a loca l owner of a plumbing supply business donated the land. The third and final selection for a site was lot # 14, in a sparsely inhabited area on Minnesota Avenue in the platted neighborhood of Cherokee Park. The site was near the new high school and only a short walk to Mead Gardens, a 55-ac re Botanical Gardens and park, all interested parties it seemed could finally agree that it would be a good fit and ther efore the city commission passed it through, permitting the building of the first and only Girl Scout Little House ever to be built in Winter Park. Breaking Ground The construction began, with the structures m any parts being plucked from a variety of sources, literally invoking the ofte n-used design axiom, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Local Contributors The Little House was a testam ent to an impr essive and generous community effort in 1930s Winter Park. Here are some of the many i ndividuals and civic gro ups who contributed to that effort: The Kiwanis Clubs contribution of labor and materials. Mrs. Tracey Turner gave the windows. Mr. Foster Fannings donation of land. The Garden Club Circle put in plantings and shrubbery. The Womans Club raised $117.00 to donate the fireplace and chimney. Friends of the troop donated $98.00. Mr. H.T. Kitson donated a piano.

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63 Presentation of the Keys Once com pleted, the architectural byproduct was the Little Hous e structure, which appeared rustic and well built with simple symmetry and situated well back from the road. The Little House, for all practical purposes looked like a cozy cabin extracted from some woodsy northern setting. In early November of 1936, the regular Monda y night Kiwanis meeting was held at the Little House on Minnesota Avenue. The occasion that evening was the presentation of the Little House keys to Mrs. Edward Davis, the Girl Scout executive leader and counselor for Central Florida. The presenter of the keys was Mr. Ra ymond O. Ward, chairman of the Kiwanis Girl Scout Committee. Mr. Ward was singl ed out for his tireless efforts to complete the house in time for the scouts opening fall meeting. In fact, Mrs. G.Colado a leader at the Girl Scouts Little House recalled in a 1997 oral hist ory transcript, that the Little H ouse was still being given a final coat of paint shortly before the actual presenta tion of the keys. Also that evening the scouts officially thanked Mr. Kitson, for the donation of a piano and shortly afterward two attending girl scouts performed piano solos for him in order to show their appreciation. Hence, with spirits high the Winter Park Gi rl Scouts, led with great kindness by Mrs. Guy Colado, moved into their new meetinghouse. The fall of 1936 would herald in the start of a period of some 33 years of continuous Girl Sc out use of the Little House. Troop after troop would pass through its doors, each addi ng something different along the way. Scouting Activities Through the Years Here in an encapsulated for m are just a few of the many interesting glimpses of scouting life as seen over the years that were uncovered during my research.

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64 1936 Organized by Mrs. Colado, the first Vesper Se rvices of the local Winter Park Girl Scouts was held in Knowles Chapel on the Rollins College campus. 1937 On Saturday, January 16, the formal dedi cation of the Little House took place. Its dedication was big news throughout the comm unity with articles and notations in numerous local publications even making it into the Womans Club Presidents annual report. (Figure 4-4) The combined Dedica tion and Arbor Day ceremony took place starting with the planting of a tree donated by the Winter Park Garden Club. Interestingly, the person accepting the tree was Mrs. T.B. Bailey, noted associate to Juliette Low. Mrs.Bailey had written a poem for the trees dedicat ion, which was read by Majorie Humpfer, followed by the blessing of the Little H ouse. The Womans Club who had donated the fireplace and chimney added to this a very sp ecial gift of a plaque to be placed over the fireplace. The plaque, an original sculptur e created by Miss Beverly Jones depicted two Girl Scout figures sitting around a campfire. Th e plaque would be at the center of an ongoing mystery well into the 1990s, as attempts to recover the missing plaque were made public.(Figure 4-5) The nearby wetlands and park, (Oak Park) in this year would officially become designated as Mead Botanical Gardens and would, because of its location, have an important role in early sc outing activities, especial ly outings and naturalist programs.(Figure 4-6) 1939 The yearly credentials fee for the Little House paid by troop number two to the National Girl Scout Organizati on was just $5.00. (Figure 4-7) 1942 In this year, Winter Park Girl Scouts make lapel string dolls to be sold for 10 cents each with all money to go to the National Victory Fund set up to help other Girl Scouts after the war. (Figure 4-8) 1952 Segregation still prevailed in the community of Winter Park as noted in a news article covering the Negro Scouting Program chaired by Mae Rose Williams.(Figure 4-9) Young African American girls would not become a part of the Girl Scouting li fe and history at the Little House except through their noticeable absence. It would be a big year for the Little House as the Little House Scouting Annual Report illustrated in 1952. The Winter Park Little House would now also be the location of the Winter Park Scouting office. The yearly report noted the installation of fluorescent li ghting as well as the addition of an outdoor fireplace grill built by troop number 6. The a nnual report also provided a wonderfully simple rendering of the Little House. (Figure 4-10) Cottrells Five Cents to a Dollar Store on Park Avenue housed a display of Girl Scout memorabilia to commemorate Girl Scoutings 40th Anniversary. (Figure 4-11) The highli ght of the anniversary week was a mid-week afternoon tea attended by local scout leaders, members and honored guests at the Winter Park Scout Little House. 1956 On July 5th of that year members of the Winter Park Senior Girl Scouts, began a twomonth European tour of England and Scandi navian countries. The scouts would cover the trip by writing home with update columns for publication in the local Winter Park newspaper.

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65 1957 An American flag flown over the U.S. Ca pital was forwarded to Mrs. Gordon Kiester by U.S. Senator George Smat hers and presented on May 1st to the Girl Scouts of Winter Park, to be used for ceremonial functions at the Little House. The base for the flagpole (Figure 4-12) was located some 50 years later un der several inches of dirt on the adjoining property during the actual restor ation of the Little House. 1960 On the 100th Anniversary of Juliette Gordon Lo ws birth, a tile was taken from the garden of her home in Savannah, Georgi a and installed on Sunday, October 30th of this year, placing it onto the Rollins College Walk of Fame. At the festivities was a large contingent of Winter Park Scouts from the L ittle House. The tile a nd marker can be seen today on the Rollins College campus at the walks upper east circuit.(Figure 4-13) 1966 On Sunday, October 28th, the Girl Scouts from the Little House celebrated and honored Juliette Low at their 30th annual Vesper Service at Rollins College. Invited that day was Mrs. Thomas Bailey, who was still livin g locally in Winter Park and still admired as Mrs. Lows former protg and contributo r to the original con cept of National Girl Scouting. 1969 Sadly, after 33 years, the Girl Scout Lit tle House would shut its doors to scouting activities. The Scouting leadership decided to close the Little House citing its small size and need for major upgrading. Ownership Changes In 1969, the Little House was sold, as is, for $5000.00 to the adjoining property owner. As investors in rental propert y the new owners of the Little House set about to quickly reconfigure the in terior space in order to adapt it to a form more utilitarian to a potential renter, by adding walls, wall paneling, carp eting and a drop ceiling. As for the structures exterior, although there was an initia l repainting no other changes to th e Little House exterior took place. A succession of students, professionals, and retire es would move in and out of the Little House as renters over the next 30 years.(Figure 4-14) In the late 1990s the owners began divesting themselves of their rental houses. It was in 2001 that I would become the new owner. As the new steward of the Little House with its expanding narrative, I had come to view the Little House as an important structure, by str ongly contributing to Winter Parks cultural memory and sense of place and as an advocate for its preservation I began the dual processes of research and rehabilitation.

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66 Figure 4-1 Permission to use Womens Club Hall

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67 Figure 4-2 Early documentation of lo cal Girl Scouts organizations

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68 Figure 4-3 First club house site selection

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69 Figure 4-4 Formal dedication announcement

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70 Figure 4-5 Missing plaque mystery

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71 Figure 4-6 Mead Gardens outing

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72 Figure 4-7 1939 yearly Credential Fee

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73 Figure 4-8 Charity lapel dolls

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74 Figure 4-9 Negro Scouting program

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75 Figure 4-10 Little House rendering Figure 4-11 Cottrells 40th anniversary

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76 Figure 4-12 Rediscovered and relo cated base to flag pole Figure 4-13 Juliette Low marker at Rollins College

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77 Figure 4-14 Little House as rental property 1974

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78 CHAPTER 5 PRESERVING THE LITTLE HOUSE Methodology Plan The project of restoring the Little House, like the resear ch surrounding its history was com pletely compelling, full of mystery, creativel y rewarding, and always a challenge to my design skills. One of my favorite parts about the physical restoration proc ess is in the discovery. The Little House had been altered only once in 70 years, and most of its original form (Figure 5-1) was still intact allowing for a more narrowed focus in choosing a particular restoration methodology process. From the start, the concept of curb appeal attracted me to the Little House. Even though the object of that appeal was to most eyes, just a small dwelling sitting am idst an overgrowth of bushes and trees, awaiting the wreckers ball. (Figure 5-2) Who would have known that such a little structure could have su ch a big story to tell? At the time of acquisition of the Little H ouse I was not aware of its history. By first researching the Little Houses history a clearer plan for my restoration process and goals began to emerge. By understanding The Little Houses contextual history and its physically built history, I could begin to both unde rstand and interpret better the architectural forensics I was starting to reveal. As I viewed the Little House from the street I could not help but be amused by its no fear attitude to the neighborhood order, with its deep setback and woodsy cabin -like sensibilities right in the heart of Wint er Park.(Figure 5-3) I began immediately to set into motion a methodology plan mixing rehabilitation and restoration with a goal of authenticity in restor ing the Little Houses. Restoration in its purest

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79 sense of preservation would not apply to this pr oject since one of my fi nal goals would be to change a rustic public group space into a useab le energy efficient living space. Hence, my defined methodology would be to use principals of both preservation and principals of rehabilitation, more simply define d as a plan for adaptive reuse. Exterior Rehabilitation On approaching the overall project I focuse d at first on the exterior com ponents, by drawing up a plan for the sites land scape, secondly, making an analys is of the structures exterior building materials, components and original ex terior color paint scheme, and lastly an examination for any structural alterations. Florida Friendly Yard I started by drawing several prelim inary sustai nability landscape plans, the landscape plan would be dictated by both my very serious intent ion to design with a green, point of view, no lawn, native plants, and numerous shade producing trees, as well as taking cues from the overriding cottage-themed architect ural qualities themselves. Fortunately, a natural green type of landscap ing plan has a long tradition in Winter Park. And it would not be at odds within my ne ighborhood or with my neighbors as one might experience living in a planned suburban developmen t. Winter Park has always taken a position on the environment stressing the use of native plants, tree canopies, and lake water management. More importantly for reasons of suitability and authenticity this natura l landscape plan would have certainly resembled how the surrounding vegeta tion at the Little House originally appeared. The idea of preserving historic plant material is ne w but recognizes that planti ngs can also reflect social, cultural and economic hist ory as clearly as the structure itself (Meier and Mitchell, 1990, 17).

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80 The landscape plan would metamorphosis al ong the way, and by setting it in the ground early, an approach I have repeated in other pr eservation projects, plants would have a more mature look at about the time I estimated I would need for the general completion of the restoration process. My primary goal was to substantially increase the square footage of the areas to be set aside and designated as green areas for landscape by letting them return to their natural upland-woods state, reforesting if you w ill, this deep residential urban lot. As a naturalist and outdoorsman, I have long respected the environm ental theories dating to the 1960s stressing the importance of linear bands of green space left in place for the transference of flora and fauna across landforms. Thus, I wished to do the same albeit in miniature and I can state unequi vocally that this endeavor was an unmitigated success, since those north south running green strips for a ll practical purposes have become small mammal turnpikes. Landscape and Sustainability W ith a goal of good stewardship of the land, I wi shed to leave this property in better shape than when it came to me, I ha d deliberately decided against the use of a water impervious, permanent concrete driveway slab, instead choosing to use natural leaf matter and pine needles, a naturally renewable resource, whic h is more resistant to termite infestation than the often used pine bark and cedar chips. Th e overall aim in this approach was also the superior water percolation that would benefit my property a nd reduce my need for water consumption through irrigation. To supplement my landscape watering needs I also added three water cisterns strategically placed to ca pture roof runoff, which enables me on a typical Florida rainy day to collect around 100 gallons of free water. For a renewable pine needle supply I visite d my local native plant nursery in order to purchase native long leaf pines. By planting th ese specific trees I accomplished multiple goals,

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81 first, an ongoing natural source of pine needles for my drive and plant beds, secondly more tree shade means reduced air-conditioning bills thr ough passive solar air-conditioning, third more tree canopy shade also means less water loss from evaporation in the la ndscape, and lastly by picking long leaf pines I am re introducing a native tree almost completely gone from Central Florida due to years of over harvesting and thereby protecting and reviving the cockaded woodpecker who, coincidently will only nest in this particular tree and as a consequence is now rarely seen in the Central Florida area where it was once abundant. By teaching myself how to cultivate and move native plants like cherry la urel, scrub holly and the beautiful southeastern beautybush with its flowers and long trains of deep purple berries favored by many birds, I was able to create a sustainable suppl y of new plantings. With this ge neral scheme in mind I either newly planted or reestablished some 50 trees and bushes into my landscape often infusing the design theories of procession and repetition into the landscape plan. I finished my landscape plan by tying these ribbons of green space together by encircling the property with narrow walkways and paths. To further commit to the ideas of sustainabi lity I started a large composting station to reduce my contributions to the local landfill a nd thus my own carbon foot print and also have applied to have this landscape plan consid ered for Florida Friendly Yard status. This environmental program is offered through the Or ange County extension office in conjunction with the University of Florida (http://ocextension.ifas.ufl.edu/faculty.html). Yard Archeology Mainly it wa s during this process of landscaping that I began to discover an archeological collection of buried scouting and related artifacts. As one might guess there were many hair clasps, but also there were marbles, toy sold iers, uniform ribbons and sashes, broken pottery shards, lipstick containers, buttons, pop bottle tops and more.

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82 Adding Elements to the Exterior and Landscape Concurrently, I added a num ber of structural elements to the landscape having established my property boundaries immediately w ith a privacy fence being careful to raise it slightly off the ground for an undisturbed passage of small manima ls and reptiles. Following my landscape plan, I designed and built an entry arbor, garden seat and gate, at the newly planned entrance junction. (Figure 5-4) This was coordinated with a redesigned off-centered entry point, created by shifting a new bricked-in-walkway to the extreme right of the property. This design approach helped by forming a swath of landscape buffer in the front of the Little House, and in turn formed a planned private courtyard.( Figure 5-5) For the entry walkways and cour tyard I used discarded bricks that I had salvaged. A heavily landscaped water feature was created using natural forms that would produce the soothing sounds of falling water in the courtyard area, with the goal of amplifying this sound as it bounced off the body of the Little House structure, reverberating in the courtyard. This produced the additional end goal of eliminating a portion of the street noise. At the rear of the Little House a deck was added, by removing a window, and putting it aside for future use. It was replaced with salvaged 100-year-old bi-fold French doors. This created a needed rear entry and exit point (Figure 5-6) Lastly, a nearby outdoor shower was installed, designed to capture a natural ambiance by th e use of large potted and hanging plants. Examining the Envelope of the Little House W ith the landscape plan taking hold I turned my attention to th e structural body or envelope of the Little House, for a look at its material composition. To this end, examining its material composition would mean first identifying the specific wood materials used to build the Little House. Posing that question to even th e most experienced carpenters, I would receive several different opinions, all substantiated with very believable arguments as to whether the siding was cedar or pine, both woods being typical for early Fl orida construction. Personally, I

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83 had hoped it was a wormy cypress siding, as I have always been impressed by the durability and look of the old time unpainted cypress cottages. Ho wever, after much debate the deciding factor was clear and to the point, when we took a fr eshly sawn wood sample and smelled the newly exposed wood. Visually, the wood had been difficu lt to categorize, but its fragrance was like smelling an uncapped bottle of pine-sol. This was the end to that debate. Examining the wood siding was also a curious matter since the siding bore tool markings, which did not necessarily concur with the age of the structure.(Figure 5-7) The siding was clearly hewn with a more primitive circular saw blade, a type of lumber production less commonly used at the recorded 1936 building date. There could be two explanations for this. The first, is that through my extensive research I found that the preponderance of materials for the Little House construction were donated, and therefore perhaps the siding itself had been salvaged, coming from a tear-down of a much older home or out-building. Secondly, keeping with the notion of thriftiness in the original construction of the Little House it might be that the wood came from a smalle r, less expensive, rural mill, which still used the more dated circular saw. One carpenter friend observed that the Little House was built with what West Virginians would call barn wood. No matter, as I was pleased with the rough texture of the wood and it also clearly delineate d the area where an enclosed porch had been added and where the old rough sawn wood contra sted strongly with the newer wood, which had been milled as smooth as possible. Structural Alterations During the period of ownership by the Girl Scou ts, a sm all side porch appeared to have been built, added onto, and enclosed, probabl y sometime between 1952 and 1964 on the western side of the Little House. It was probably done so by the Scouts, in an effort to add a little much

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84 needed space. It eventually became the interior site for a bathroom and kitchen, although this probably was at first used to provide space for a Scout leaders office. As to any other visible changes made to the ex terior, they all seem to have been made to the Little Houses as it transitioned into a rental property. To create rental housing a rear southern exposure window had been boarded over to comple te an interior closet space. Another widow, this one facing east had been completely removed and filled in with siding. This was done in a effort to solve an interior design problem ste mming from a lack of interior wall space. Another alteration was the result of a window mounted air-conditioning unit which when installed was formed in, in a manner that reduced the actual window opening by three quarters. These changes belie the ongoing tension of updating a spartan public use stru cture to one for habitation in the late 1990s, while at the same time not losing the structures charm a nd authenticity. I would repeatedly need to consider such tradeoffs as I began to explore my own new approach while restoring the Little House. Original Paint Analysis Am idst this more thorough examination of ma terials and building alte rations, the original paint palette of the Little House was slowly being revealed. The limited deconstruction of the Little House exterior took place with the removal of a plywood cover used to board over the rear southern exposure window. By doing so it provided a direct link to the past paint scheme. The original window, sealed up and hidd en for the last 35 years still sported its original if somewhat faded trim colors. (Figure 5-8) As additional siding was removed a more authentically conclusive paint sampling for the general body of the Little House became appare nt. The earlier owners ha d painted the house only once when they initially purchased it and then I was told, they ha d painted it in a manner similar to its original color scheme. The newly discovered original paint palette was typical for a cottage

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85 of its day, a traditional cottage or barn red color for the body of the house. The trim color uncovered was a grayish green. Once a new fresh coat of paint was applied, it immediately transformed the Little House into a more visible and attractive structure. (Figure 5-9) The added details of cedar flower boxes and hand fashioned exterior cedar shutters were the icing on the cake (Figure.5-10) Rehabilitating the Roof The roof would be the last exterior largescale project, and I knew it would need replacing. Right from the start one could eas ily see the roof had been patc hed and repaired several times over. Some of the shingle style roof looked to be in very good shape while other sections were worn down to the felt. I had roman ticized the use of a tin or metal roof in spite of its expense but in the end I wanted more, to keep the restoratio n accurate by replacing shingle with shingle. I did take some artistic license by installing architectu ral style roof shingles for their dimensional and definitional qualities. I think ultimately this added to a more appealing quaint cottage-look. These types of inner arguments ove r the process tradeoffs can often result in better than expected results. For sustainability factors, I choose a lighter colored shingl e in a direct effort to reduce surface roof heat as had been created with the prior nearly black shingle. By deflecting more solar heat back into the air the new open planned interior would be helped in staying cooler and any new future cooling system would operate more efficiently. Finally the roof had had a history of leaks and if its true that water is the enemy as an architectural professor of mine was fond of saying then finding the source and repairing the existing damage would be crucial. A long-term exis ting roof leak had occurred in the wall behind the fireplace, originating at the collar juncti on of the roof and the chimney. To completely eliminate this problem a decision to install a new cricket collar at the chimney junction was made. The built up roof angle cap would keep the rain and moisture moving down and away with

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86 its improved drainage flow. At the front entrance of the Little House, also a site of water damage from years of water seepage down behind the front entrance porch stairs, a large linear overhead roof water diverter was incorporated into the new cottage-era roof overhang as a preference to an extensive and highly visible rain gutter system, which I felt would detract from the Little Houses simple architectur al lines. (Figure 5-11) No doubt any individual who chooses to restore a structure like the Little House will face the reoccurring questions of authenticity vers es the need to modernize. Hopefully such compromises can be looked upon as a ch allenge where you may find yourself making concessions to ones more puris t notions of preservation but w ith some thoughtful and creative approaches you can more often than not achie ve a satisfactory fini shed look, balancing preservation and modernity. Interior Rehabilitation As I thought through the process of restoring the interior sp ace of the Little House I wanted to be sure and have a clear understand ing and interpretation of tha t interior space. Realistically the interior of the Little House was never real ly what we would call today, a finished space. It was meant to be a simp le, rustic, meeting space with few details or ornamentation. The space as built did have a simp le symmetry about it, which probably attracted me to it. The focal point was undeniably the fi replace capped with an enormous single slab of pinewood for its mantel. On seeing the fireplace th e first time I could make no sense of it, as I had never seen such a large fireplace opening in a Southern home of this period. It was only later after learning of the Girl Scout connection, did this focal point begin to make sense. Deconstructing the Interior The interior, converted as it was into a one-bedroom rental, would need to be deconstructed for my restoration purposes, that is, to return it to its original single large room

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87 layout. Out came the wall-to-wal l carpet and pads revealing basic rough wood unfinished flooring, the same type of floor condition the Gi rl Scouts would have seen. Next came down the acoustical tile drop ceiling and the grid support syst em created to hang it. Also removed were the interior added walls used to crea te a separate interior bedroom space. The built in closets, doors and door jams all would be removed. Eventually, all the 1970s era wall panel board would go as well. In removing all the interior panels of wall board I made two intere sting discoveries. One was the uncovering of two small areas where an ol d tongue and groove pine panel was nailed to the vertical wall supports. One spot was located above the mantel area of the fireplace where little of it was left in-tack due to wood rot damage from the long neglected roof leak. A second spot was a floor to ceiling area of about 7 feet in length surrounding the door s to the bathroom and kitchen, an area probably added on in the 1950s. A second odd find I made was the discovery of only a single two by five foot strip section of insulation near the fireplace wall. In other words, there had never been any insulation in any of the walls I verified this when I asked the previous owner, if sh e recalled a finished wall or the use of insulation at the time of their purchase and rental conversion. I found no indication of nails fr om any earlier wallboard or wood wall panel on the wall supports. Through this process of deconstruction, a finished space was achieved that appeared as a large oversized and hollowed-out room, opened to th e rafters with its great old fireplace as its focal point and feeling with some certainty that this was probably the same type of visual experience the girl scouts had had over the years (Figure 5-12). The space had been used in this more rustic manner, with only the outside clapbo ard wood siding used as a skin and nailed to the wall framing supports. This would have been in effect the walls makeup at that time with no

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88 insulation and no interior finished walls. There pr obably was some seasonality in the use of the Little House by the girl scouts, possibly affectin g the need to use wall insulation. In both the serene heat of Floridas summer and the more ch illing months of Centra l Floridas winter, the activities may have waned at the Little House. I did manage to find a photograph, which seems to support the bare bones nature of the interior of the Scout Little House, as the background seemed to show unfinished walls (Figure 5-13). I had also seen similar examples of this rustic bare bones finish in a number of other cabins and cottages as in the interiors of historic summer cottages on Nantucket. With the overhead drop ceiling removed the 70-y ear plus underbelly of the roof was fully visible. The patina of the old wood was exquisite and I knew then that I would definitely be leaving the rafters exposed. The lingering problem of repairing the water damaged wall and supports behind the fireplace meant removing the entire wall section, which had suffered badly due to the effects of the water penetration. I w ould need to assemble together a ne w insert support form. This insert could then be scabbed into the original old wall framing behind the entire length of the fireplace, cutting away as much as necessary of the origin al framing, now completely rotted out. Once the form was attached onto the existing supports it w ould be as good as new (Figure 5-14). All the wood removed during the deconstr uction process as well as new scrap suitable for burning ended up in a newly built exterior firewood stand, fo r use in the Little House fireplace as a supplementary winter heat source, an d a further nod to sustainability Unlike my predecessors, in order to live in th e Little House I would need to completely insulate the walls and devise an appropriate wall treatment to finish them off. I choose to create a rustic cedar tongue and groove wa inscoting wall treatment using a mix of salvaged old wood and

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89 new, placed into a pattern of adjusting heights, capped with a simply designed chair rail molding trim. The top half of the lower walls would be a painted drywall, with an orange peel textured surface finish, and topped with a matching rus tic cedar ceiling molding. Lastly, the newly exposed interior upper end walls w ould be finished with tongue and groove cedar panel boards. As part of my efforts to use ideas of sust ainability I found a plentiful supply of large sections of discarded drywall, offered to me at no cost from a number of nearby construction sites. Nearby was also a newly opened recycli ng store for unused construction materials that I would gladly frequent as part of my larger commitment to participate in the ideas coupling preservation and sustainability. Forensic Architecture The windows were truly a big bum p in the road on the way to unfolding the true timeline history of the Little House. The windows appeared to be very old, containing most of their original glass panes, and making their wavy gl ass quotient so high th at if you looked through them while walking by very quickly they had th e potential to make you dizzy. Further, as I examined the windows more closely I was amazed to find their mortise and tenon construction. How could the Little House, built in 1936 contai n this distinctive form of construction? I was certain that the labor intensive art of building door and window frames by fitting wooden components together without the use of nails or screws was highly unlikely to have been used in this mid-1930s construction. A colleague of mi ne whose knowledge I deeply respect and who had been part of the team restoring the Florida State Capital building, had seen pictures of my new project and had mentioned th at the two-over-one style windows on the Little House were in his estimation quite old, probably da ting to the 1880s. Of course this was prior to my research unearthing definitively, that the windows were donated at the time of construction, making perfect sense of an otherwise stupefying di scovery. In the meantime, it had thrown me

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90 completely off track in the application of architectural forensics, as a way to verify the dating the Little House. When it came to the bathroom and kitchen th e need to restore them with a degree of practicality meant the removal of about 6 feet of existing wall in order to open the tiny kitchen up. The kitchen had been accessible through a singl e doorway and had a total width of about 5 feet, two feet out from the wall extended counter space with a run of about 8 feet. An additional 3 feet of passage in front of the counters was the allotted workspace. By removing the wall section, separating the kitchen from the scout m eeting room, I had at once opened the kitchen up to be part of the larger living space with a great result. Deciding the original cabinets were worth saving I stripped off their white paint, ending up with warm honey-colo red pine wood cabinet doors. A new refrigerator was added but the ol d enamel double sink would stay (Figure 5-15). An incredibly compact, full bathroom, was tr eated with a new high gloss white painted wainscoting, chair rail, cap, and a similar upper wall textured orange peel treatment. Both the toilet and sink would need to be replaced, with th e possibility of using the antique wall sink later after its porcelain is refinished. A large wall mirr or, with its reflective surface was added to give the sense of a larger space. Rehabilitation End Goals In the end, my goal to authentically transform the Little House back to a period when it existed in a landscape setting of natural upland w oods and when its structur al interior plan was more open for its practicality, as demanded by th e Girl Scouts usage as a meetinghouse, seemed to have been successfully achieved through bala ncing a realistic methodology of adaptive reuse, with the needs of contemporary habitation. Creating a space more energy efficient with modern insulation products, an open plan kitchen and upgraded bathroom, juxtaposition with a cosmetic overhaul was enough to generate -

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91 a high degree of satisfaction with my end product. I would conti nue to fine tune the overall rehabilitation project and in the meantime begin to assemble and finalize my notes in order to complete the larger historical documentation.

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92 Figure 5-1 Site plan

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93 Figure 5-2 Front entry view Figure 5-3 Street view

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94 Figure 5-4 Relocated entrance with arbor Figure 5-5 Front courtyard

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95 Figure 5 6 Rear deck with new rear entrance

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96 Figure 5-7 Wood siding with circular saw markings

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97 Figure 5-8 Boarded over window reveals original paint

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98 Figure 5-9 Finished exterior

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99 Figure 5-10 Hand fashioned exterior shutter

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100 Figure 5-11 Roof water diverter

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101 Figure 5-12 Deconstructed interior shell

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102 Figure 5-13 Background showing exposed wall framing

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103 Figure 5-14 Water damaged rear fi replace wall and new insert Figure 5-15 Kitchen rehabilitation

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104 CHAPTER 6 CURRENT ISSUES IMPACTING PRESER VATION ON HISTORIC S TRUCTURES ON MINNESOTA AVENUE Losing a Sense of Place and its Historic Structures W inter Park today mirrors the growth patte rns and trends seen in other desirable communities throughout the country. With little undeveloped land st ill available to meet its present housing demands, Winter Parks pl anned approach for growth is typical. Targeted neighborhoods with newly changed or existing R-3 zoning (Figure 6-1), that will permit more dense and taller housing arrangements ar e the most likely to see the greatest impact. Developers are eager to enter these markets where it is more certain they will be able to ensure a higher financial return on their pr ojects. The Little House site on Minnesota Avenue is in such an area, where the property is currently zoned R/3. An early indicator of change to our sense of place occurs in a transitional neighborhood like Minnesota Avenue when scale changes. This is illustrated when single-story structures are replaced with 3 story structures, and the corresponding density from massing is added. Another dominant theme in such a neighborhood environment is the alteration of its past order where one residential lot had supported on e residence, but now one residential lot may support two or more residences, as well as change set back requirements in order to meet new density guidelines. The Minnesota Avenue neighborhoo d is being slowly transitioned and reshaped into a new form. The result is that most likely in 15 year s what the neighborhood scale and order are today will in no way resemble its future configuration. Unlike most other Winter Park neighborhoods, this section of Minnesota Avenue that I had previously described in detail is an anomaly. The housing stock remaining in this area is a good illustrative relic of Winter Parks recent architectural past.

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105 Like some great dumping ground for unwanted but still usable dwellings it has been the recipient over the years of va rious urban renewal projects. Th ese historic though certainly not grand homes were lucky to be saved and m oved into the Minnesota Avenue neighborhood the first time around but are unlikely to get a second reprieve from the wreckers ball, as evidenced in a map depicting the recent area demolitions. (Figure 6-2) At a crossroads today, the si ngle block facing north on Minneso ta Avenue that includes the Little House originally contained 6 residences. Of the 6, only the Lit tle House at this time is an occupied residence. Two of the 6 structures we re recently demolished, two more are for sale and have been unoccupied for about a year and one is currently an unoccupied investor owned rental. In order to effectively slow the trends of changing scale, density and order and the resulting demolitions in this transitional nei ghborhood, an increased leve l of public awareness for the neighborhoods histor ic value is called for. Slowing the Trend by Creating Awareness One can readily see the pressure of growi ng change stream ing through this neighborhood leading to the observation that the Little House and other neighborhood historic structures like it have a very precarious future (Figure 6-3). This th esis asks the reader to pause and consider not only the structure but also the values represented in it, both the tangible and intangible markers that make up the story of the Little House. Clear ly the Little House shoul d become the subject of future public discussions as to the merits for it s preservation. In order to create an environment for this to happen I have been begun to develop a relationship thr ough my research with interested Winter Park civic, educational and hi storic organizations, who have expressed interest in finding out more about the narrative of the Lit tle House .I have suggest ed that this could be done with lectures, museum exhibits or the possibl e use of the Little House as a candidate for a Christmas house tour, or a Spring garden tour. Donations from such events might contribute to

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106 selected nonprofit projects and at the same time bring more awareness to the Little House. Until a concrete plan for preservation is in place, an effort to draw out public discussion and comments could be the best tool to slow the trend of demolition as it marches through the Minnesota neighborhood towards the Little House.

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107 Figure 6-1 R-3 zoning map

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108 Figure 6-2 Sites of recent area demolitions

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109 Figure 6-3 Adjacent property redevelopment

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110 CHAPTER 7 PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE PROTEC TION OF THE LITTLE HOUSE Like any resident of W inter Park, I am in tently interested in seeing parts of our communitys historic fabric preserved. The Little Houses present site, whic h lies just outside the towns single residential histor ic district, (Figure 7-1) is und er pressure for change through neighborhood renewal, and located in a area char acterized by a high rate of building demolition (Figure 7-2). Any future owner of the Little Hous e may not be able to resist the opportunity to develop the valuable land beneath the Little House. Proposals The following are seven possible proposal s for preserving the Little House. Mead Botanical Gardens, a m ere two blocks away and currently undergoing a makeover using grant funding would be an ideal relocati on site. Connected through their joint history by sentiment and use, the Little House, moved to this site could become a mini museum documenting the park, the Girl Scouts or surrounding local history. It might provide additional meeting space, or as a classroom for childrens nature activit ies, or even as a replacement to the parks concrete block guardhouse at the Denning Avenue entry. Winter Park Garden Club, itself located with in Mead Gardens might sponsor the Little House, as it too has historic ties to the Girl Scouts being the original source for the landscape plantings used for the structure at its inception. Th is organization could utilize the Little House as a conference room, garden house, or compliment an outdoor patio as an entertainment area with its kitchen facilities. Rollins College, further away yet still close, had its own strong ties to Juliette Low, Mrs. Carol T. Bailey and the Girl Scouts and might make use of the Little House as a complimentary addition to their existing pre-scho ol facility. The adjace nt park setting at Dinky Dock and correlating scale of its surr oundings would make it an appropriate match, where it might function as a small childrens library or additional activity and classroom space. Winter Parks Historical Association and Mu seum by relocating the structure, could use it as part of an expanding repository for collect ions by converting it to an additional museum building, meeting space or educational classroom and lecture facility. A relocation site near its present museum would be sympathetic to the surrounding scale and in such a public location it would create a vivid linkage to Winter Parks cultural heritage. A less desirable approach due to the necessity of removing the structure not just from the neighborhood but from the community as well would be a more distant relocation. This

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111 could be a possibility if an organization such as the Girl Scouts C itrus Council would move the Little House to one of its outlying rura l camping areas. In its new wooded setting the building might be used as an archival librar y for the Scouts substant ial collection of Girl Scouting memorabilia from Central Florida, as an arts and crafts, or environmental classroom, or as the camps reception hall. Th e decision to move th e Little House to any out-of-town site might be expedited by moving it in two sections. The Winter Park Ninth Grade Center, almost directly across the street from the Little House site might use the structure as an off ca mpus learning facility for the study of local history, sharing its use with th e City of Winter Park for other educational purposes while maintaining the house and gardens as a pocket park. This proposal, allowing the building to remain on its site is respectful to the notion of place and the cultural linkage to the community and meets the suggested guideli nes for preservation as outlined in the Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the treatment of hi storic properties. The last proposal, which also allows for the Lit tle House to remain on its site, is to simply enhance the residential nature of the structur es overall size, by upgr ading its kitchen and number of baths and bedrooms. This should be done while maintaining the original structures authenticity by a dding a new separate addition, that sensitively connects to the original Little House with an architectural feature clearly delineati ng the two parts. This would solve the problem of making an impractically small structure larger and therefore attractive to a family as a residence while ke eping its original structure authentic and still maintain its historic ties w ithin the neighborhood fabric. Positive Arguments for Moving the Little House On the pros side of the argum ent for preservi ng the Little House by moving it, is that its strongest attribute enhanc ing that scenario is simply its overall size. At approximately 550 square foot, the Little House is a small structure, and in terms of cost to move it and its cost associated with impact on infrastructure, it would be comp aratively less difficult and less expensive than most building relocations. Another positive argument for the proposals to move it is that a number of the proposed sites to receive the structure are within a very small radius to the original site. Also as part of that debate, is the questi on as to whether the Little House could, based on its scale, provide a viable and satisfying livi ng site if surrounded on both sides by much higher and more dense housing arrangements and therefore would it not be more likely preserved in the long run by moving it.

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112 Negative Tradeoffs The negative tradeoffs in the preservation appr oach to m oving the Little House is a strong loss in terms of its context within the communitys historic fabric. With every strategy involving moving a structure there is a uniqu e degradation of historic auth enticity, and a greater loss from its inability to represent Winter Parks herita ge within its historical fabric framework. This negative tradeoff is magnified by the valuable cultural memory associated with the actual site. This sense of place, is likely to be as or more important for the Winter Park community than the structure itself At over 70 years of age, the Little House has and continues to provide a window into Winter Parks history, helping us rediscover and illuminate our recent yet often forgotten past. I believe the best strategy in preserving the Little House is one that allows the structure to remain in place as part of the neighborhood and communitys historic fabric. In this ideal setting it best demonstrates its ability to repres ent Winter Parks historical heri tage in its most authentic form.

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113 Figure 7-1 Winter Park resi dential historic district

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114 Figure 7-2 Building development impacting the Little House

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115 CHAPTER 8 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The proposal to leave the Little House standing on its original site, rem inds us by its presence, of its particular histor ical narrative. It speaks to us in a plain, uncomplicated way about Winter Parks story, offering the lesson inspir ed by the action of its citizenry who passed on values of commitment, volunteerism, and a hope fo r a better future for its youngest citizens when building the Little House. The field of preserva tion had traditionally focused on architecture and the built form, today we recognize the contextual si gnificance of a buildings site, and its sense of place as well. The Little Houses cultural signifi cance to the community of Winter Park and historic ties to Juliette Low should not be undervalued. Leaving the Little H ouse on its original site with a proposed addition can meet the Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the treatment of historic properties. By following the distinct approach of rehabilitation, adding to the Little Houses structure is acceptable, as long as that addition, meant to allow for a changing use does not alter the propertys hist oric character. This proposal promotes consistent preservation practices. The original methodology plan as presented in Chapter 4 is one of rehabilitation. By choosing this path of restoration one concedes to the argument for altering the structure in order to meet continuing or changing uses. As suggested in the proposal any new addition should be differentiated from the older historic structure. The original structures methodology plan for preservation as presented, made no major exterior alterations and should be maintained in this fashion. It coul d be then joined to a second new addition by a new structur al feature such as a glass walk way or stairway as long as it is compatible with the historic materials of the Little House.

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116 If in the future, any new addition were to be removed, it must be done in a way that the essential form and integrity of the property and environment are left unchanged. This is compatible with the rehabilitation plan as applied to the Little House in Chapter 4. Any further commitment on the part of the public towards an effort to protect this structure and retain it as a component of Winter Parks hi storic fabric would be a worthwhile contribution to the communitys cultural memory.

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117 APPENDIX THE SECRETARY OF THE INTE RIORS STANDARDS http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/standards-guidelines.htm The Secretary of Interio rs Standards Rooted in over120 years of preservation ethics in both Europe and Am erica, the Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties are common sense principles in non-technical language. They were developed to help prot ect our nations irreplaceable cultural resources by promoting c onsistent preservation practices. The Standards may be applied to all properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places; buildings, sites, structur es, objects, and districts. The Standards are a series of concepts about maintaining, repairing and replacing historic materials, as well as designing new additions or making alterations: as such, they cannot, in and of themselves, be used to make essential deci sions about which features of a history property should be saved and which might be changed. But once an appropriate trea tment is selected, the Standards provide philosophical consistency to the work. There are Standards for four distinct, but in terrelated, approaches to the treatment of historic properties-prese rvation, rehabilitation, restoration, and reconstruction. Preservation focuses on the maintenance and repair of existing historic materials and retention of a propertys form as it has evolved over time. (Protection and Stabilization have now been consolidated under this treatment.) Rehabilitation acknowledges the need to alter or add to a historic property to meet continuing or changing uses while retaining the propertys historic character. Restoration depicts a property at a particular time in its history, while removing evidence of other periods. Reconstruction re-creates vanished or non-surv iving portions of a property for interpretive purposes.

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118 Standards for Preservation 1. A property will be used as it was historicall y, or be given a new use that maximizes the retention of distinctive materials, features spaces, and spatial relationships. Where a treatment and use have not been identified, a property will be protected and, if necessary, stabilized until work may be undertaken. 2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The replacement of intact or repairable historic materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that characterize a property will be avoided. 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. Work needed to stabilize, consolidate, and conser ve existing materials a nd features will be physically and visually compatible, iden tifiable upon close in spection, and properly documented for future research. 4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in thei r own right will be retained and preserved. 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved. 6. The existing condition of historic features wi ll be evaluated to de termine the appropriate level of intervention needed. Wh ere the severity of deteriorat ion requires repair or limited replacement of a distinctive feature, the ne w material will match the old in composition, design, color, and texture. 7. Chemical or physical treatment, if appropriate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.

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119 Standards for Rehabilitation 1. A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use that requires minimal change to distinctive materials, feat ures, spaces, and sp atial relationships. 2. The historic character of a property will be retained and preserved. The removal of distinctive materials or alte ration of features, spaces, a nd spatial relationships that characterize a property will be avoided. 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place and use. Changes that create a false sense of historical devel opment, such as adding conjectural features or elements from other historic pr operties, will not be undertaken. 4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic significance in thei r own right will be retained and preserved. 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize a property will be preserved. 6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinct ive feature, the new feature will match the old in design, color, texture and where possible, materials. Replacement of missing features will be substantiated by documentary and physical evidence. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropr iate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 9. New additions, exterior alterations, or relate d new construction will not destroy historic materials, features, and spatia l relationships that characteri ze the property. The new work shall be differentiated from the old and will be compatible with the historic materials, features, size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect the integrity of the property and its environment. 10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction will be undertaken in such a manner that, if removed in the future, the e ssential form and integrity of the historic property and its environment would be unimpaired.

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120 Standards for Restoration 1. A property will be used as it was historically or be given a new use which reflects the propertys restoration period. 2. Materials and features from the restoration period will be retained and preserved. The removal of materials or alte ration of features, spaces, a nd spatial relationships that characterize the period will not be undertaken. 3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its time, place and use. Work needed to stabilize, consolidate and conserve materials and features from the restoration period will be physically compatible, iden tifiable upon close in spection, and properly documented for future research. 4. Materials, features, spaces, a nd finishes that characterize ot her historical periods will be documented prior to their alteration or removal. 5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize the restoration period will be preserved. 6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period will be replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinct ive feature, the new feature will match the old in design, color, texture, and, where possible, materials. 7. Replacement of missing features from the re storation period will be substantiated by documentary and physical evidence. A false se nse of history will not be created by adding conjectured features, features from other prop erties, or by combining features that never existed together historically. 8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropr iate, will be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 9. Archeological resources affected by a project wi ll be protected and preserved in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigat ion measures will be undertaken. 10. Designs that were never executed hist orically will not be constructed.

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121 Standards for Reconstruction 1. Reconstruction will be used to depict vanished or non-surviving portions of a property when documentary and physical evidence is available to permit accurate reconstruction with minimal conjecture, and such reconstruc tion is essential to the public understanding of the property. 2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structure, or object in its historic location will be preceded by a thorough archeological investigatio n to identify and evaluate those features and artifacts which are essential to an accurate reconstruction. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 3. Reconstruction will include measures to pre ssure any remaining historic materials, features, and spatial relationships. 4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate duplic ation of historic features and elements substantiated by documentary or physical evid ence rather than on c onjectural designs or the availability of different features from other historic properties. A reconstructed property will recreate the appearance of the non-surviving historic property in materials, design, color, and texture. 5. A reconstruction will be clearly iden tified as a contem porary re-creation. 6. Designs that were never executed hist orically will not be constructed.

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122 LIST OF REFRENCES Blackm an, Fremont. Blackmans History of Or ange County, Florida Deland, Florida: Painter Printing Company, 1927. Campen, Richard N. Winter Park Portrait: The Story of Winter Park and Rollins College, Beachwood, Ohio: West Summit Press, 1987. Chapman, Robin. The Absolutely Essential Guide to Winter Park. Winter Park: Absolutely Essential Company, 2001. City of Winter Park Public Rela tions and Communications Division. 2001 Welcome Book, Winter Park, City of Winter Park, 2001. Hiss, Tony. The Experience of Place. New York: Knopf, 1990. MacDowell, Claire Leavitt. Chronological History of Winter Park Florida Winter Park: Orange Press, 1950. Meier, Lauren and Mitchell, Nora. Bulletin 6 Principals for Preserving Historic Plant Material National Park Service, 1990. National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2002, 11 Most Endangered Places, National Trust, http://www.nationaltrust.org/11M ost/2002/teardowns.htm l.April 2007 Orange County Extension Office, Retrieved February 3, 2007, Orange County Extension Office, http:ocextension.ifas .ufl.edu/faculty.html .February 2007 Orange County Property Appraisers Office, Retrieved June 9 2007, Records Search, http;//www.ocapafl.org/ June 2006. Robinson, Jim and Andrews, Mark. Flashbacks -The Story of Central Floridas Past. Orlando: Orange County Historical So ciety and The Orlando Sentinel, 1995. Secretary of the Interiors St andards, Retrieved May 3, 2007, Treatment of Historic Properties, http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/st andards_guidelines.htm Strong, Hope Jr. Tales of Winter Park, W inter Park: Rollins Press, 1984. Tuan Yi-Fu. Topophilia New York, Columbia University Press,1974.

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123 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Gary Gorm an, grew up in north western Ohio, later moving to Florida with his family. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Central Florida in Orlando. During the years immediately following his underg raduate studies he trav eled extensively both domestically and internationally developing interests in cultural history, the environment and architecture. After many years of work in the field of hi storic preservation Gary entered the Master of Science in Architectural Studies Program in the University of Floridas College of Design, Construction, and Planning. While attending the University of Floridas Preservation Institute on Nantucket he accepted a position with the Preserva tion Institute where he remained for four years. He is currently completing the restoration of the Little House in Winter Park, Florida.