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Phosphorus Sorption by soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021805/00001

Material Information

Title: Phosphorus Sorption by soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Janardhanan, Lalitha
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural, air, area, drying, eaa, everglades, field, florida, histosol, moist, organic, phosphorus, soils, sorption, south
Soil and Water Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Soil and Water Science thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), downstream and south of Lake Okeechobee in south Florida and once part of the vast Everglades, has been drained in the early 20th century for agriculture and flood protection. As a result, the organic soils in the area are continuously undergoing subsidence and becoming shallower with pH increasing due to organic matter oxidation and mixing with limestone bedrock. Inorganic phosphorus (P) in excess plays a major role in eutrophication of aquatic systems adjacent to intensively cultivated, subsiding soils. Understanding of P sorption by these intensively cultivated organic soils of the EAA overlying limestone bedrock is important for safeguarding water quality and fertilizer management. Our objective was to determine the phosphorus sorption capacity of different organic soils in the EAA and determine if P sorption is greater in shallower soils due to increased pH and calcium carbonate content. We sampled three soil series, based on their depth to bedrock, which varied from less than 51 cm (Dania) to less than 130 cm (Pahokee). Sorption isotherms experiments were conducted and the isotherms fitted to Langmuir to determine P sorption maxima. These organic soils were found to have a high sorption capacity ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1 of inorganic P. The sorption of P varied with soil series and was highest in Lauderhill, which was intermediate in depth. This contradicted our hypothesis that the shallowest soil series had a higher P adsorption. Phosphorus sorption was the same for the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth in all soils. Soil properties that may affect P adsorption like pH, organic matter, total P, available P, water extractable P, calcium carbonate and extractable Fe, Al, Ca and Mg, were measured. Correlation analysis was conducted to identify the soil factors that best explained P sorption in these histosols. Phosphorus sorption significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, extractable Fe and Al and total P and negatively with soil organic matter and water extractable P. Thus, P sorption is higher in soils with lower soil organic matter and water extractable P and was not influenced by calcium carbonate content of the soil. Using field moist soils for P adsorption experiments also challenged the conventional method of air-drying and sieving the soil. Air-drying the samples resulted in lower P adsorption estimation compared to using field moist soils. This was also true for both 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil depth. The negative impacts of air-drying on P adsorption was credited possibly to an increase in water-extractable P as a result of drying and inverse association between sorption maxima and water extractable P. The decreased soil to solution ratio was also considered to be a factor affecting the higher adsorption in moist soil samples when compared to the air-dried samples. It was concluded that field moist samples are more realistic in estimating the P sorption capacity of these histosols. Phosphorus sorption in these organic soils will be affected by increase in mineral matter content as a result of subsidence, though the limestone bedrock does not seem to affect soils? ability to sorb P currently.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lalitha Janardhanan.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Daroub, Samira H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021805:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021805/00001

Material Information

Title: Phosphorus Sorption by soils of the Everglades Agricultural Area
Physical Description: 1 online resource (95 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Janardhanan, Lalitha
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agricultural, air, area, drying, eaa, everglades, field, florida, histosol, moist, organic, phosphorus, soils, sorption, south
Soil and Water Science -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Soil and Water Science thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), downstream and south of Lake Okeechobee in south Florida and once part of the vast Everglades, has been drained in the early 20th century for agriculture and flood protection. As a result, the organic soils in the area are continuously undergoing subsidence and becoming shallower with pH increasing due to organic matter oxidation and mixing with limestone bedrock. Inorganic phosphorus (P) in excess plays a major role in eutrophication of aquatic systems adjacent to intensively cultivated, subsiding soils. Understanding of P sorption by these intensively cultivated organic soils of the EAA overlying limestone bedrock is important for safeguarding water quality and fertilizer management. Our objective was to determine the phosphorus sorption capacity of different organic soils in the EAA and determine if P sorption is greater in shallower soils due to increased pH and calcium carbonate content. We sampled three soil series, based on their depth to bedrock, which varied from less than 51 cm (Dania) to less than 130 cm (Pahokee). Sorption isotherms experiments were conducted and the isotherms fitted to Langmuir to determine P sorption maxima. These organic soils were found to have a high sorption capacity ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1 of inorganic P. The sorption of P varied with soil series and was highest in Lauderhill, which was intermediate in depth. This contradicted our hypothesis that the shallowest soil series had a higher P adsorption. Phosphorus sorption was the same for the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth in all soils. Soil properties that may affect P adsorption like pH, organic matter, total P, available P, water extractable P, calcium carbonate and extractable Fe, Al, Ca and Mg, were measured. Correlation analysis was conducted to identify the soil factors that best explained P sorption in these histosols. Phosphorus sorption significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, extractable Fe and Al and total P and negatively with soil organic matter and water extractable P. Thus, P sorption is higher in soils with lower soil organic matter and water extractable P and was not influenced by calcium carbonate content of the soil. Using field moist soils for P adsorption experiments also challenged the conventional method of air-drying and sieving the soil. Air-drying the samples resulted in lower P adsorption estimation compared to using field moist soils. This was also true for both 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil depth. The negative impacts of air-drying on P adsorption was credited possibly to an increase in water-extractable P as a result of drying and inverse association between sorption maxima and water extractable P. The decreased soil to solution ratio was also considered to be a factor affecting the higher adsorption in moist soil samples when compared to the air-dried samples. It was concluded that field moist samples are more realistic in estimating the P sorption capacity of these histosols. Phosphorus sorption in these organic soils will be affected by increase in mineral matter content as a result of subsidence, though the limestone bedrock does not seem to affect soils? ability to sorb P currently.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lalitha Janardhanan.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Daroub, Samira H.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021805:00001


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3ebb0db34d00a48498ba352dbdf9def410c489f5







PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA


By

LALITHA JANARDHANAN













A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Lalitha Janardhanan


































To my parents and my husband









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I express my sincere thanks to my advisor Dr. Samira Daroub for her continued support

and faith in me. I am extremely grateful to her for the many challenging and thought provoking

discussions that brought out the best in me. Her trust and confidence in me, and her guidance and

mentorship throughout the course of my research are sincerely appreciated. Special thanks also

goes to her for going the extra distance in helping with the academic formalities towards my

graduation. I also thank the other members of my committee, Dr. Alan Wright and Dr. Jana

Newman, for their support, guidance, knowledge sharing, and valuable comments.

I also thank Ms. Viviana Nadal for having patience with me in our lab, helping with

conducting hundreds of soil analysis experiments, and for tutoring me on the many intricacies of

the lab. Acknowledgements go out to the Everglades Research and Education Center, Belle

Glade, for providing the facilities to conduct this research. I also recognize Dr. Orlando Diaz

without whom it would have been challenging for me to collect the numerous soil samples to

analyze. Statistical assistance provided by Dr. Timothy Lang is greatly appreciated. My sincere

thanks to all at the Belle Glade center to help lighten the work atmosphere making many of my

trips memorable ones. Thanks also go out to Ms. Lucia Orantes for helping me with conducting

some of my soil analysis experiments.

I am deeply grateful to my parents and my grand parents for encouraging me to pursue

further studies upon coming to the United States. Last but not the least, thanks to my husband for

his constant encouragement, for standing by me throughout the course of my studies, and having

patience during my long stays at the Belle Glade center.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ......... ...... ...................................................................................

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .8

ABSTRAC T ...........................................................................................

CHAPTER

1 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY ORGANIC SOILS IN THE EVERGLADES
AGRICULTURAL AREA (EAA) ...................................................... ........................ 11

1 .1 In tro d u ctio n ...................................... .................................. ................ 1 1
1.2 Literature R eview ................................... ..... .. .. .......... ..... .. ... 16
1.2.1 Phosphorus sorption isotherm s......................................... .......................... 20
1.2.2 Phosphorus sorption index (PSI) ...................................... ....................... ........ 21
1.2.3 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPCo) .......................................... 21
1.2.4 Soil properties and P sorption........................................... .......................... 22
1.3 Ju stificatio n ............................................................................... 2 3
1 .4 O b j e c tiv e s ................................................................................................................... 2 5

2 COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF THREE EAA SOIL
S E R IE S .............. ...................................................................2 6

2 .1 Intro du action ............. .............. ............................................................2 6
2 .2 M materials and M methods .......................................................................... .....................28
2.2.1 Site description ..... ... .. ... ... ...... .... .... .... .... ..................... 28
2.2.2 Soil sam pling and preparation ......... ............................................ ............... 31
2 .2 .3 Sorption experim ent ......... .................... ...........................................................3 1
2.2.4 Soil organic m atter determ nation ........................................ ....... ............... 34
2 .2 .5 Soil pH m easurem ent ..................................................................... ..................34
2.2.6 Statistical analysis ........................................ .... ....... .... ....... 34
2.3 Results and Discussion .................................... ..... .......... .......... ...35
2.3.1 Site and sam ple description ........... ....................................... ............... 35
2.3.2 Langm uir isotherm results........... ............................................... ............... 36
2.3.3 Sorption m axim a of the three soil series ..................................... .................47
2.4 C conclusion .............................. .......... ................... ............ ................. 49

3 EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF
E A A S O IL S .................................................................................50

3.1 Introduction ................. .................................. .........................50









3.2 M materials and M methods ........................................................................... ....................52
3.2.1 Soil sam pling and preparation ...................................................... ..................52
3.2.2 Sorption experim ent ............................................. .................. ............... 53
3.2.3 Soil organic m atter determ nation ........................................ ....... ............... 53
3.2 .4 Soil pH m easurem ent ..................................................................... ..................53
3.2.5 Calcium carbonate content determination...........................................................53
3.2.6 Extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca and Mg)................................. ...........54
3 .2 .7 T o tal P ................................................................5 4
3.2.8 Statistical analysis ........................................ .... ....... .... ....... 55
3.3 Results and Discussion .................................... ..... .......... ......... .... 55
3.3.1 Soil characterization ................ .......... ............. ... .. .. .... ...... ............. 55
3.3.2 Correlation among the soil properties and P sorption parameters.......................59
3.3.2.1 Sorption properties ............................................... ............................ 59
3.3.2.2 Soil properties ........................................ .. .. ............. ......... 67
3.4 C conclusion ......... .... ..... ......... ................................... ..........................72

4 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION IN AIR-DRIED AND FIELD MOIST SOIL .......................73

4 .1 In tro d u ctio n .............. .. ....... .......................................................................................... 7 3
4 .2 M materials and M methods ........................................................................... ....................74
4.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation ...................... ............... 74
4 .2 .2 Sorption experim ent ....................................................................... ..................75
4.2.3 Statistical analysis ........................................ ................. .... ....... 76
4.3 Results and D discussion .................................... ..... .......... ...... ........ .. 76
4.3.1 Q uantity/Intensity plots ................................................ .............................. 76
4.3.2 Effects of drying on P sorption......................................... .......................... 80
4 .4 C on clu sion ......... ..... ............. ..................................... ............................8 5

5 C O N C L U SIO N S ........ .. ............. ............................................................ ................. .. 87

APPENDIX: ANOVA FOR THE PH OF THREE SOIL SERIES AT TWO DEPTHS ...............89

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S .................................................................................... .....................90

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK ETCH ...................................................................... .......................... 95
















6









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Organic soil series sampled in the EAA and selected properties............... .......... 32

2-2 Smax and k values from the Langmuir sorption isotherm. ............................................37

2-3 Analysis of variance for Smax for the 3 soil series at 2 depths. .............. .................47

2-4 Least Squares Means Comparison for the three series at 0-20 cm ................................49

3-1 Selected soil properties of the soil series investigated................... ...............................57

3-2 Selected averaged soil properties averaged across 0-40 cm..................... ..............58

3-3 Selected soil properties averaged by depth ............................................ ............... 58

3-4 Correlations coefficients in 0-20 cm of three series in the EAA. .............. ................. 61

3-5 Correlations coefficients in 20-40 cm of three series in the EAA. ..................................62

3-6 Correlations coefficients in 0-40 cm of three series in the EAA. ................. ........... 63

4-1 Smax for the selected soil series measured in air-dried and field moist soils...................79

4-2 Comparison of averaged Smax of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth. .......79

4-3 Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist soil by soil series. ...................................81

4-4 Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist samples based on two depths. .................81

A-i ANOVA for pH for the three soil series at two depths..................................................89

A-2 Least squares means comparison for the three soil series ............................................89









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Florida Everglades w atershed area. .............................................................................. 12

1-2 The Everglades Agricultural Area. ............................................................................. 14

2-1 Map of the EAA showing the sampling sites.............. ............................. ...............30

2-2 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 0-20cm. ...........................................39

2-3 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 20-40cm ........................................40

2-4 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 0-20cm ....................................42

2-5 Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 20-40cm ...........................................43

2-6 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 0-20cm ......................................44

2-7 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 20-40cm .....................................45

2-8 Linear Langmuir isotherm for all the three soil series at both depths. ..........................46

2-9 M means Smax for the three series. ............................................................. .....................48

3-1 Relationship between Smax of soils and extractable Fe, Al, pH and organic matter ........65

3-2 Relationship between Smax and Pw for air-dried and field moist soils ..........................66

3-3 Relationship between soil depth and extractable Al, Fe, Mg, organic matter, and pH.....69

3-4 Relationship between pH and organic matter, extractable Al and Mg and total
C a C O 3 ............................................................................................ 7 1

4-1 Quantity/intensity plots for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth ....................77

4-2 Quantity/intensity plots of P for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth............78

4-3 Average Smax of air-dried and field moist soils at 0-40cm depth................................83

4-4 Average Smax of air-dried and field moist soils at 0-20cm and 20-40cm ..........................84









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA

By

Lalitha Janardhanan

December 2007

Chair: Dr. Samira Daroub
Major: Soil and Water Science


The Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), downstream and south of Lake Okeechobee in

south Florida and once part of the vast Everglades, has been drained in the early 20th century for

agriculture and flood protection. As a result, the organic soils in the area are continuously

undergoing subsidence and becoming shallower with pH increasing due to organic matter

oxidation and mixing with limestone bedrock. Inorganic phosphorus (P) in excess plays a major

role in eutrophication of aquatic systems adjacent to intensively cultivated, subsiding soils.

Understanding of P sorption by these intensively cultivated organic soils of the EAA overlying

limestone bedrock is important for safeguarding water quality and fertilizer management. Our

objective was to determine the phosphorus sorption capacity of different organic soils in the

EAA and determine ifP sorption is greater in shallower soils due to increased pH and calcium

carbonate content. We sampled three soil series, based on their depth to bedrock, which varied

from less than 51 cm (Dania) to less than 130 cm (Pahokee). Sorption isotherms experiments

were conducted and the isotherms fitted to Langmuir to determine P sorption maxima. These

organic soils were found to have a high sorption capacity ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1 of

inorganic P. The sorption of P varied with soil series and was highest in Lauderhill, which was

intermediate in depth. This contradicted our hypothesis that the shallowest soil series had a









higher P adsorption. Phosphorus sorption was the same for the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth in

all soils.

Soil properties that may affect P adsorption like pH, organic matter, total P, available P,

water extractable P, calcium carbonate and extractable Fe, Al, Ca and Mg, were measured.

Correlation analysis was conducted to identify the soil factors that best explained P sorption in

these histosols. Phosphorus sorption significantly and positively correlated with soil pH,

extractable Fe and Al and total P and negatively with soil organic matter and water extractable P.

Thus, P sorption is higher in soils with lower soil organic matter and water extractable P and was

not influenced by calcium carbonate content of the soil.

Using field moist soils for P adsorption experiments also challenged the conventional

method of air-drying and sieving the soil. Air-drying the samples resulted in lower P adsorption

estimation compared to using field moist soils. This was also true for both 0-20 and 20-40 cm

soil depth. The negative impacts of air-drying on P adsorption was credited possibly to an

increase in water-extractable P as a result of drying and inverse association between sorption

maxima and water extractable P. The decreased soil to solution ratio was also considered to be a

factor affecting the higher adsorption in moist soil samples when compared to the air-dried

samples. It was concluded that field moist samples are more realistic in estimating the P sorption

capacity of these histosols.

Phosphorus sorption in these organic soils will be affected by increase in mineral matter

content as a result of subsidence, though the limestone bedrock does not seem to affect soils'

ability to sorb P currently.









CHAPTER 1
PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY ORGANIC SOILS IN THE EVERGLADES
AGRICULTURAL AREA (EAA)

1.1 Introduction

Wetland ecosystems are important in water resource management since they have been

recognized for their ability to cycle and retain nutrients such as P and thus reduce potential

eutrophication in the down stream waters (Richardson, 1985; Gale et al., 1994). In addition to

biological uptake, wetlands remove the P from the surface waters through chemical, physical and

biological processes such as P sorption and precipitation with different forms of Fe, Al and Ca.

The term sorption refers to both absorption and sorption of P on the solid surfaces and is an

instantaneous reaction of P with soil (Havlin et al., 1999), but P sorption is primarily a physical

process. Among the soil variables that affect P sorption are pH and extractable amorphous and

poorly crystalline Fe and Al (Khalid et al, 1977; Reddy et al., 1998) and CaCO3 (Richardson and

Vaithiyanathan, 1995).

The Florida Everglades is an internationally recognized ecosystem that covers

approximately 2 million acres in South Florida and represents the largest subtropical wetland in

the United States. It extends from Lake Okeechobee southward toward Florida Bay and THE

Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1-1). The present day Everglades consist of the Everglades Agricultural

Area (EAA) and the Everglades Protection Area (EPA). The EAA lies between Lake

Okeechobee to the north and the Palm Beach Broward County border to the south (Bottcher

and Izuno, 1994). South of the EAA are areas of peat soils less suitable for agriculture, and are

designated as water-conservation areas (WCAs) (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). These areas are

maintained in an undeveloped state, but a system of dikes and canals allows water levels to be

manipulated to achieve management objectives that include flood control, water supply, and










wildlife habitat. The WCAs and Everglades National park (ENP) together make up the EPA and

are now the surviving remnants of the historical Everglades.


hoPrim
&Md


O


nwy*


I~b9ba
~ a-os
A Ipl
Wnr


Figure 1-1. Florida Everglades watershed area.

On September 28, 1850 an area of drained peat soil south of Lake Okeechobee was

designated for agricultural purposes (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994) and is now known as the EAA.

The EAA is a small portion of historic Everglades region, consisting of an artificially drained









area of approximately 283,280 ha of organic soils, which is approximately 14.5% of the historic

Everglades (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994) (Figure 1-2). Most of the soils in the EAA are classified

as Histosols. These soils form when the rate of organic matter (OM) accumulation exceeds the

rate of decomposition (Snyder, 2005).

The EAA is one of those agricultural regions in the state with 204,366 ha under

production, providing 40% of the nation's winter vegetables and 25% of the nation's sugar

(Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Although this area is an important economic resource, it is also the

largest single source of P to the Everglades (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Runoff water containing P

from fertilizers in the EAA, as well as other developed areas, have enriched the Everglades

which was historically adapted to very low nutrient levels, with P being the limiting nutrient.

Phosphorus imports as cattle feed and crop fertilization were the primary sources of P in the

Okeechobee watershed. Based on a detailed budget constructed for the period of 1985-1989, an

annual net amount of 1500 tons of P in fertilizers accounted for 51% of P imports, while dairies

accounted for 49% (Flaig and Reddy, 1995).

Most Everglades soils have a circum-neutral pH, particularly when compared to the

extremely low values often found in peat soils. Incorporation of bedrock CaCO3 into soil by

tillage, and due to soil subsidence, increased pH values considerably (Zhou and Li, 2001). In

some areas, soils pH is excessively high for optimum crop production, especially sugar cane, one

of the major crops grown in EAA, which requires pH less than 6.6 (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994).

The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the organic soil is greater than that of mineral soils

(Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The CEC of some surface soils in EAA ranged from 100 to 180

centimoles of charge per kg of soil (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994) while CEC of a few common









mineral soils found in Florida range from 9 to 11 centimoles of charge per kg of soil (Brady and

Weil, 1999).


Figure 1-2. The Everglades Agricultural Area.

Excessive nutrient loading, particularly P, has severely altered the ecological structure and

function of approximately 6000 acres in WCA 1 (Izuno et al., 1991). In the EAA, reported P

losses to drainage waters have ranged from 0.5 kg acre-' to 3.82 kg acre year-'(Izuno et al.,

1991). The EAA is dependent on surrounding areas for water storage and supply. Back pumping

of storm water into Lake Okeechobee and discharging of water into Everglades WCAs

contributed to large doses of agricultural contaminants in the ecosystem. The saturated hydraulic









conductivity of EAA and other parts of Everglades is fairly high. Thus drainage can be quite

good when a hydraulic gradient and an outlet for excess water are provided. More than 50% of

the P discharge from the EAA is a result of sediment transport. Approximately 20-70 percent of

the total P in water discharged from the EAA is in particulate form (Daroub et al., 2005).

Anthropogenic P loading, mainly from the EAA, is the primary cause of eutrophication in

the Everglades. Eutrophication occurs when surface waters become over-enriched with nutrients

such as N and P. This stimulates plant and algal growth, which subsequently dies and

decomposes; thereby reducing dissolved 02 concentrations in water, which is detrimental to

aquatic life and thus changing the wetland ecosystem (Brady and Weil, 1999). An average of 429

tons of P enters the Everglades WCAs each year, with approximately 40 % derived from rainfall

and the remainder contributed by agricultural runoff (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995). The

state of Florida has adopted several measures to reduce the Everglades eutrophication problems,

such as the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in agricultural watersheds

and the construction of Storm Water Treatment Areas (STAs). Storm Water Treatment Area is a

constructed wetland designed to remove nutrients primarily from agricultural runoff originating

within the EAA, while BMPs keep soil and other pollutants out of streams and lakes by

protecting water quality and preventing new pollution. Freshwater wetlands have the ability to

remove nutrients but when they get nutrient saturated, they start acting as a nutrient source.

Phosphorus concentrations generally decrease with distance downstream from the source areas to

a greater degree than could be accounted for by dilution, indicating that the uplands, wetlands

and streams assimilate P (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Thus, it is necessary to examine the capacity

of EAA soils to sorb P and understand the relative stability of retained P.









1.2 Literature Review

Phosphorus is a contributing factor to the wide spread negative impacts on environmental

quality. Phosphorus is lost from watersheds and wastewater treatment facilities, and the eroded

sediments are upsetting streams, lakes, and estuaries. This causes P eutrophication and results in

degradation of water quality. Phosphorus control is therefore a high priority of most national and

regional water quality programs. Many of the freshwater wetlands are important in acting as a

sink for nutrients like P and N from point and non-point sources. The potential role of a flooplain

in removing inorganic P inputs from floodwaters and the runoff has been proven very well with

the estimated inorganic P sorption maximum (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Phosphorus

accumulation can occur through sedimentation or organic matter accumulation and it is released

during decomposition of soil organic matter. The released P is usually retained by the wetland

through sorption and precipitation reactions. Long-term nutrient retention by soil organic matter

is affected by environmental factors like temperature, hydroperiod and fire (Reddy et al., 1993).

The soils of EAA continuously change between nearly flooded and relatively dry conditions,

similar to a floodplain, as a result of frequent rainstorms and highly developed drainage systems

(Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Thus, its role in P cycle is critical.

The main mechanism by which P is lost from agricultural land is by runoff, erosion, and

leaching. The loss of P in runoff occurs in dissolved and particulate P forms. Dissolved P is

comprised of unincorporated fertilizer and manures on the surface of crop and pastureland and

mineralized peat (both air dried and when field burned), while the P carried away on the eroded

sediment forms the particulate P. However, increased P input into wetlands has often created an

over saturation of soil P, leading to export of P from the wetlands and flooded areas. Thus, the

cycling and retention of soil P within the soil is of ecological interest.









When inorganic P is added to soil, the soluble form immediately reacts with soil and then

forms less soluble compounds that become increasingly insoluble with time. However, a large

proportion of the P that is removed from solution is adsorbed onto soil surfaces. Sorption of P is

closely related to characteristics of soil, such as its surface area and is one of the first and

reversible reactions to occur (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957). The mineral forms of Fe and Al that

are amorphous and less crystalline adsorb P more than their crystalline forms due to their larger

surface area per unit volume of soil (Khalid et al., 1977; Darke and Walbridge. 2000). Based on

this concept, it is generally accepted that soils dominated by fine-textured clays and silts will

have a higher P sorption capacity than soils dominated by coarse-textured sands (Bruland and

Richardson, 2004; Olsen and Watanabe, 1957). Research by Olsen and Watanabe also showed

that acid soils held more P than alkaline soils assuming both have similar surface area (Olsen and

Watanabe, 1957). Acid conditions favor the formation of P bound to Fe and Al secondary

minerals, whereas more alkaline conditions favor the formation of Ca-bound P (Qualls and

Richardson, 1995)

The ability of soils to assimilate P depends on physical, chemical, and biological

characteristics of the soil. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mainly regulates P retention in the

Everglades (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995) and specific sorption is the major mechanism

of P retention in most sandy soils of Florida (Lu and O'Connor, 2001). The soils in EAA are

mainly histosols that overlie calcareous limestone deposits ranging in depth from about 0.3 to 1

m. Typically these soils have an organic matter content ranging from 710 to 910 g kg -1 (Porter

and Sanchez, 1992) with a rather moderate pH, when compared to the extremely low values

often typical of peat soils.









Flaig and Reddy (1995) summarized research accomplishments on biogeochemistry of the

soils in the lake Okeechobee watershed, which consist of Spodosols, Histosols and Entisols, with

the majority being Spodosols. They found greater P retention in soils with shallow and well-

developed spodic horizons where 49% of total P was associated with Fe and Al. Components of

spodic horizons are less crystalline, rich in C and metal humates (Zhou et al., 1997) and are

formed as a result of organic matter accumulation (USDA /NRCS, 1999). Thus, spodic horizons

with high organic matter content are comparable to organic soils. Aluminum-organic matter

complexes are responsible for the high sorption capacity of the spodic horizon (Zhou et al.,

1997). Oxalate extractable Fe and Al have also been shown to be reliable predictors of the P

sorption capacity of peat soils in the Everglades (Reddy et al., 1998; Giesler et al., 2005). Khalid

et al. (1977) suggested that there is a positive relationship between ammonium oxalate-

extractable Fe content of soils and P adsorbed under flooded conditions. In fact, the areas with

predominately mineral soils and high amorphous Al content are better P sinks (Richardson,

1985), since these Fe and Al oxyhydroxides minerals control inorganic P sorption in many

wetlands (Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Sallade and Sims, 1997). Studies on peat soils have

shown that accumulation of Al and Fe in organic soils increases the capacity of phosphate

sorption and that phosphate sorption is positively correlated to amounts of extractable Fe and Al

(Richardson, 1985; Giesler et al., 2005). In wetland soils and stream sediments impacted by dairy

effluent in Florida, ammonium oxalate-extractable Fe and Al accounted for 87% of P sorption

(Reddy et al., 1998). The Fe in EAA are mostly present in labile forms while Al is mostly

present as solid phases, as shown by the ratio of the extractable Al to the total Al averaged about

0.1 (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). Phosphorus associated with Fe and Al oxyhydroxides accounted

for 17-43% of the total P in wetland soils (Flaig and Reddy, 1995).









Flooding induced changes in crystallinity is reported to strongly influence Fe

biogeochemistry, suggesting the importance of redox reactions, while such changes have no or

little effect on Al biogeochemistry. Changes in crystallinity occurs due to changes brought about

by redox reactions (Patrick and Khalid, 1974; Darke and Walbridge, 2000) and due to the

dissolution of ferrous Fe upon flooding followed by their re-precipitation into amorphous forms

when drained (Vadas et al, 1999). In humus soils with an inherent high content of Al and Fe,

phosphate sorption capacity may be affected by competition for sorption sites by dissolved

organic carbon (Giesler et al, 2005), thus indicating the importance of detecting the amorphous

Fe and Al content for sorption capacity of EAA soils. Giesler et al, 2005, also reported that

competition for sorption sites between phosphate and anions, especially organic anions are likely

to be high in a matrix of humus rich soils where organic C is about 30% or more.

The soils of EAA frequently change between nearly flooded and relatively dry conditions

contributing to the rapid changes in moisture content (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). It has also been

reported that the effect of high water table on the soil redox potential is likely to be more

pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil. In topsoil flooding and decrease in redox potential results

in decreased P sorption capacity and increased solution P concentrations (Vadas et al, 1999).

Therefore, P losses through surface runoff and shallow sub-surface discharge are likely to impact

the water quality than P leaching via deeper ground water flow (Vadas et al, 1999). Richardson

and Vaithiyanathan (1995) showed that phosphate sorption primarily occurs in surface soils of

WCA-2A where water forms a permanent sheet over the wetland. The capacity of flooded soil to

release P to a solution low in P and to sorb from a solution high in P is dependent on the amount

of dissolved inorganic orthophosphate within the soil/sediment (Patrick and Khalid, 1974).

These reactions determine the fate of P and hence its environmental impact.









1.2.1 Phosphorus sorption isotherms

Phosphorus sorption isotherms are useful to quantify P sorption processes by soils and

sediments and were successfully used to characterize an organic soil's ability to remove

dissolved inorganic P from solution (Richardson 1985). Isotherms are graphical tools for visual

comparison of P sorption relationships as a function of soil properties. In these sorption

experiments soils are shaken well with known amounts of P and then equilibrated. The amount

of P remaining in the solution is then analyzed. The differences in amounts of P added and P

recovered in solution at each concentration after equilibration are considered P adsorbed by soil

or sediment (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). These values are then plotted in

a graph that forms the sorption isotherm. There are different methods to determine the P sorption

maximum of soils, such as Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir Isotherm, or using the linear model.

Langmuir isotherm model: the Langmuir equation is an accepted and widely used

means to describe the solid-solution reactions in soils. Olsen and Watanbe (1957) originally

demonstrated the potential of the equation in studying P sorption, which was also supported by

Vadas and Sims (1999). This model applies to relatively smaller amounts of adsorbed P and

when more dilute equilibrium P concentrations are used (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; McGechan,

2002). Langmuir sorption isotherm equation provides both an estimate of sorption capacity and

an estimate of the average sorption strength of the soil (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and

Reddy, 2001). It also provides a quantitative estimate of the effect of soil conditions on P

sorption (Vadas et al, 1999). Phosphorus sorption maximum (S) values and bonding energy (k)

values can be determined using a modified Langmuir model (Reddy et al., 1998). The S is

closely related to characteristic property of soil like surface area and to initial reaction between

solution P and soil (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957).









The Freundlich isotherm model: this model applies to a wide range of equilibrium P

concentration (EPCo) and large amounts of adsorbed P, and does not calculate the S value

(Olsen and Watanabe, 1957), unlike Langmuir isotherm.

1.2.2 Phosphorus sorption index (PSI)

Phosphorus sorption index is another reliable gauge of P sorption potential in soil

(Richardson 1985; Sallade and Sims, 1997; Bruland and Richardson, 2004). It is less time

consuming than multiple point P sorption and facilitates easy comparison with related soil

properties (Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Extractable amorphous Fe and Al

have been shown to predict PSI (Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Bruland and

Richardson, 2004).

Bruland and Richardson (2004) determined the PSI by shaking a sterilized soil sample with

a solution of 130 mg P L-1 for 24 h. The difference in concentration of inorganic P between the

initial and final concentration represents the amount ofP sorbed. The index is then calculated as

X (log C)-1, where X is the amount ofP sorbed (mg P 100 g soil-') and C is the final inorganic P

concentration in solution (mg P L1) (Bruland and Richardson, 2004)

1.2.3 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPCo)

Equilibrium P Concentration is the soluble P concentration in equilibrium with soil at

which, neither net sorption nor desorption occurs. Equilibrium P Concentration is an important

property associated with a soil/solution mixture (Pant and Reddy, 2001). Theoretically, if the P

concentration of the floodwater/ runoff water were to increase due to some external loading, then

more P would be sorbed to reestablish this equilibrium and if the P concentration were to

decrease then more P would be released into the flood water / runoff water until this equilibrium

is reached.









In short, soils with a high EPCo value will have a greater tendency to desorb (release)

soluble P. Lower EPCo values would suggest that this particular soil has a decreased tendency to

release P. Thus, if the EPCo decreases, the soil would be expected to adsorb P from run off

waters (Philips, 2001; Litaor et al, 2005). Therefore, EPCo values help in determining the ability

of soil to sorb or desorb P.

To sum up, EPCo values indicates the extent of P loading onto soils, i.e. increases in these

values reflect increases in P loading and soils with higher EPCo values would be expected to

release P into runoff waters.

1.2.4 Soil properties and P sorption

In an effort to understand the biogeochemistry of P in uplands, wetlands and streams of

Okeechobee watershed, an interdisciplinary research was conducted and P retention was found to

increase linearly with P loading up to a concentration of 6 mg L 1, with 56-88 % of added P

retained by stream sediments and 23-87 % retained by the wetland soils (Flaig and Reddy, 1995).

It was also observed that when highly loaded, soils and sediments were in contact with low P

rainwater, 2-9 % of applied P was released from non-impacted sites, compared to 14 28 % of

applied P released from highly loaded sites (Flaig and Reddy, 1995).

Porter and Sanchez (1992) studied few EAA soils (18) and showed the histosols that are

drained and cultivated had increasing ash content, which was highly correlated with P sorption.

The objective of their study was to identify soil properties in EAA that are related to P sorption,

and they significantly correlated PSI with ash content, pH, water-soluble P, free carbonate,

extractable and total Ca and extractable and total Fe. Porter and Sanchez also (1992) observed

that EAA histosols that were high in ash content were also high in pH, total Ca, and free

carbonate content. They were also able to establish a significant correlation between ash content

and P retention capacity of the EAA soils that were studied, though majority of EAA soils









currently represent low ash types. The study also forecasted that, as the EAA soils subside and

mineralize, more soil volume will be influenced by the underlying limestone bedrock and that

the sorption precipitation reactions of P by exchangeable Ca or carbonate minerals will probably

increase (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). Snyder (2005), upon studying the various soil series in

EAA, observed an increase in mineral content of the soil and decrease in the organic matter

content due to subsidence, as was seen in Torry series, and postulated that the rate of subsidence

may decrease in the future. As the mineral content increases, the amount of extractable metals

increases along with ash content (Porter and Sanchez, 1992) in comparison to organic matter,

which will affect the P sorption capacity of these soils.

Though the soils in EAA have the ability to remove nutrients for the short term, they serve

as a nutrient source to its downstream system. Land changes like subsidence, and changes in

cultural and management practices during agriculture, have resulted in a reduction of nutrient

loading to the Everglades ecosystem (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Thus, it is necessary to examine

the nutrient cycling process in relation to the changed soil environment.

1.3 Justification

Porter and Sanchez (1992) studied the effect of soil properties on P sorption by the organic

soils of the EAA. After many years of P loading on the EAA soils, along with subsidence and the

best management practices that were implemented to reduce the P losses to the drainage water by

reducing the extractable P level, attention needs to be focused back on the EAA's ability to sorb

P and the related soil properties. In the EAA, oxidation of organic matter under drained

conditions accounted for soil loss of about 3 cm yr1 (Reddy et al., 1993; Snyder 2005).

The capacity of flooded soils to release or adsorb P is dependent on numerous soil

parameters like the amount of dissolved inorganic orthophosphate within the soil (Patrick and

Khalid, 1974) and other soil properties like oxalate extractable Fe, suspension pH (Khalid et al,









1977), soil organic matter (Porter and Sanchez, 1992) and extractable Al (Reddy et al, 1998;

Giesler, 2005). Greater sorption capacity has most often been attributed to the reduction of Fe

hydroxides, their dissolution and their re-precipitation in amorphous forms, which have a much

greater surface area and therefore a greater P sorption capacity (Khalid et al., 1977) as a result of

flooding and draining the soil. Since most of the Histosols in the EAA are underlain by dense

limestone rock, (Snyder, 2005) CaCO3 content of the soil from the underlying bedrock may also

influence the soil volume and affect P sorption. The P cycle in histosols is quite complex (Porter

and Sanchez, 1992) due to high soil organic matter content, Fe transformations when the histosol

undergoes a periodic wet and dry cycle, the organic forms of P present in these soils, and the

underlying limestone bedrock and a higher pH when compared to other histosols. These soils are

also shallow and poorly drained leading to their higher soil moisture content and resulting in

frequent changes in soil systems (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994), and thus adding to the complexity.

Studying how well the soil properties correlate with P sorption will help us better understand the

P cycle of these histosols, which is different from other peat soils.

Phosphorus sorption experiments and research have been conducted on the EAA soil with

air-dried soil samples to correlate the soils' ability to adsorb P with other soil properties like soil

organic matter, Al and Fe content, etc like that conducted in 1992 by Porter and Sanchez. Only

scant attention has been given to an alternate methodology such as using a field moist soil

sample for P isotherm analysis. The soils of EAA continuously change between nearly flooded

and relatively dry conditions as a result of frequent rainstorms and highly developed drainage

systems (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Since these soils are never completely dry, an alternate

method of using field moist samples to determine the P sorption capacity may lead to more

realistic results.









Air-dried soils might underestimate the oxalate extractable Fe and Al (Reddy et al, 1998)

and the presence of organo-metal complexes could considerably increase the inorganic P

sorption capacity of flood plain soils (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). The disruption of organic

matter (Turner, 2005) and other changes caused by drying may alter the P sorption significantly

(Peltovouri, 2007). Moreover air-dried samples pose to be a problem when soils under study are

subsoil in cool and humid climates because these soils are hardly ever dry thoroughly in the field

(Peltovuori, 2007). It is thus necessary to examine how the results and interpretations vary when

an alternative methodology with field moist soil sample is used.

This study is intended to give an idea about the present soil conditions and soil properties

that affect P sorption potential and how air-dried and field moist samples alter the estimation of P

sorption. Thus the following hypotheses were tested in this research.

1. Phosphorus sorption capacity is different in organic soils in relation to their depth to bedrock.
2. Phosphorus sorption capacity will increase significantly with increased active carbonate
content.
3. Phosphorus sorption capacity will significantly increase with increased amorphous Fe
content in soils.
4. The P sorption capacity estimated using air-dried samples and field moist samples would be
the same.

1.4 Objectives

The objectives of this study are to:

1. Determine the sorption capacity of selected soils in the EAA in relation to depth to bedrock.

2. Determine the sorption capacity of sub surface and below surface layers of selected soils in
the EAA

3. Investigate the relationship between the selected physio-chemical characteristics and P
sorption capacities of selected soils in the EAA

4. Evaluate the differences in P sorption using air-dried samples and field moist samples.









CHAPTER 2
COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF THREE EAA SOIL SERIES

2.1 Introduction


The Everglades is a subtropical fresh water wetland and is comprised of sawgrass marshes,

open water sloughs, wet prairies, and tree islands. The Everglades is a P limited naturally

oligotrophic peat land and runoff flowed southward as a sheet flow. Land use changes and

changes in water management practices have caused increased P loading (Richardson and

Vaithiyanathan, 1995). The added inputs of P are largely responsible for eutrophication, which

may jeopardize drinking water supplies and can severely restrict the use of these aquatic systems

for fisheries, recreation, industry, and aesthetics (Brady and Weil, 1999) in downstream EAA.

The soils in the EAA are predominantly histosols, with muck and peat deposits, and a soil

depth ranging from less than 0.3 m to 4.0 m that overlie calcareous deposits. Organic matter

contents within the upper 21-cm profile of the EAA Histosols soils range from 33% to more than

85% (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The organic soils in the EAA are classified within the Histosol

soil order, based on high organic matter composition and the absence of consistently frigid

conditions (Rice et al., 2005). The organic soils of the EAA lack strong evidence of horizon

development, and are therefore classified as Haplosaprists and further sub classified as series

based on depth of the organic soil profile over the limestone bedrock, or saprist material or sandy

material (Rice et al., 2005). The Pahokee, Lauderhill, and Dania series have thinner layers of

organic materials overlying the lime stone bedrock and are Lithic Haplosaprists (Rice et al.,

2005).

Subsidence is the lowering of the land surface elevation as a result of draining organic soils

and compaction due to agricultural practices. Histosols contain a minimum of 20 to 30% organic

matter, by weight, depending on the clay content. The organic soils of the EAA are continuously









undergoing transitional processes because of ongoing subsidence effects resulting from the

aerobic mineralization of OM. The mineral matter within the organic soil profile over time may

become a major component of the soil matrix as the subsidence continues (Snyder, 2005).

In peat and muck soils (which are typically acidic), organic acids contribute significantly

to acidity (Havlin et al., 1999). The pH values for most organic soils in the world range from 3.7

to 7.8 as measured in water (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The acidity of organic soils is typically

controlled by the presence of organic compounds, exchangeable H+ and Al, Fe sulfide, and other

S minerals (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The majority of organic soils of the EAA are neutral to

alkaline in nature due to the underlying limestone (marl or shell) (Richardson and

Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Quails and Richardson, 1995), calcareous dust or washings from roads

and ditch banks, and burning (the ash from burning 30 cm of organic soil may raise the pH more

than one unit) (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Thus, P chemistry of these alkaline organic soils of

the EAA is unique and complex.

Phosphorus concentrations in soil solution and its movement in soils are controlled by

fixation, adsorption, precipitation, and solubility of P containing minerals (Brady and Weil,

1999). The concentration of P in soil solution is very low, ranging from 0.0001 mg L-1 in very

infertile soil to 1.0 mg L-1 in rich, heavily fertilized soils (Brady and Weil, 1999). Storage of P in

wetlands depends on removal of dissolved inorganic P from the water by microbial and plant

uptake, soil sorption and incorporation of organic P into soil peat (Richardson, 1985) and

sedimentation (Qualls and Richardson, 1995). Phosphorus being a critical element in natural and

agricultural ecosystems and also in environmental degradation, its use and its movement in the

environment need to be closely monitored.









The mechanism by which P is removed is thought to be a sorption process rather than a

precipitation process (Patrick and Khalid, 1974). Phosphorus sorption is a physical process and a

mechanism by which the P is adsorbed to soil on the soil surfaces as a result of an instantaneous

reversible reaction whereby phosphate is adsorbed by anion exchange or when phosphate ion

replaces a hydroxyl group in the surface structure of Al or Fe hydroxides in the soil (Brady and

Weil, 1999). Phosphorus sorption is quantified successfully with P sorption isotherms

(Richardson, 1985). These are graphical tools used to characterize the ability of histosols to

remove inorganic P from soil solution (Richardson, 1985), and help in visual comparison of P

sorption relationship as a function of soil properties (Olsen and Watanbe, 1957; Pant and Reddy,

2001). The Langmuir equation is used in this study to quantify the P adsorbed. It is an accepted

and widely used method to describe solid-solution reactions in soils. Olsen and Watanbe (1957)

demonstrated the potential of the Langmuir equation in studying the P sorption reaction. The

equation is easy to apply and provides constants related to the soil P sorption maximum and the

bonding energy of P to soils and is undoubtedly useful for providing quantitative estimates of the

effect of soil conditions on P sorption (Vadas and Sims, 1999). Questions concerning the

differences among alkaline organic soils of the EAA to sorb P and the mechanism controlling

soil sorption of P need to be answered to understand how subsidence and how added inputs of P

have affected the EAA's ability to retain P.

2.2 Materials and Methods

2.2.1 Site description

Soils were sampled from nine sites near Belle Glade, FL (Figure 2-1). The soil types were

classified as Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee based on their depth to bedrock. All of these three

soil series are histosols with organic matter content ranging from 60-90% OM according to the









soil survey of Palm Beach county in year 1978 (USDA, 1978). Histosols in the EAA are very

similar.

Dania series (Euic, hyperthermic, shallow Lithic Haplosaprists) consists of shallow, very

poorly drained, rapidly permeable organic soils in fresh water marshes or swamps on the fringes

of areas of deeper organic soils. They are formed in thin beds of well decomposed, hydrophytic and

non-woody plant remains. The water table is at depths of less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 months

except during extended dry seasons. During wet seasons these soils are flooded. They rest on

limestone at a depth less than 51 cm (USDA, 1978; USDA-NRCS, 1999). All the 3 sites

sampled from Dania were under sugarcane at their early stages of development.

Lauderhill series (Euic, hyperthermic Lithic Haplosaprists) consists of nearly level and

very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils formed in organic deposits of fresh water marshes,

those are 51-91 cm thick over the limestone bedrock (USDA-NRCS, 1999). The first site

sampled from Lauderhill was under sugarcane cropping. The second site was fallow and

previously cultivated for sugarcane. The third site sampled was cropped for sweet corn.

Pahokee series (Euic, hyperthermic Lithic Haplosaprists) consists of very poorly drained,

rapidly permeable soils formed in organic deposits of freshwater marshes that are 91-130 cm

thick over the limestone bedrock (USDA-NRCS, 1999). All the three sites in Pahokee seemed to

have been disk ploughed. In Pahokee the first two sites sampled were under sugarcane, at their

early stages of development. The third site however was under thick leaved corn variety, mostly

used as fodder.

All three series when found under natural environmental conditions the water table is at or

above the surface for much of the year; in other areas man controls the water table. These three

soil types are closely associated and the difference between them is related to their soil depth (O












horizon) from the limestone bedrock and has been classified based on O horizon depth for the


limestone bedrock.


Tab US"A 5S


!-Lake-

Okeechobee
ab.


- .-.......-...


lrr


I / EE':
| -K 'Olsh i' La'iierlu ii
h i,, I O
* "I 0

So KingRancd


1" r
IiP (Dana)








---..-. .. r\
_


I
i




Data uic w= ra tkcnse
C2004 feLnrmt TcpD USAM 5
0we* sitlm car


WCA-3A


uWN 5 5"


0 2 4 Gm 9 0
D~b fLRom3


Figure 2-1. Map of the EAA showing the sampling sites.


WCA-1

i .q. "
Ji ^-4 e


a -va-.


SWCA-2A


4 4 4,









2.2.2 Soil sampling and preparation

The sampling was done at 9 sites (three sites per soil series) with two samples from each site.

The soil samples were collected and were sectioned into two cores of 20cm each, 0-20 and 20-

40cm, at the lab. Thus a total of 36 samples were collected. The depth to bedrock was measured

at the time of sampling. Table 2-1 gives the sampling details of all three series sampled.

The soil samples were homogenized and stored at 5C at field moisture content till they were

used for P sorption experiments. A part of each of the homogenized samples was air-dried for 24

h and crushed to pass 20-mesh sieve (Reddy et al, 1998) and stored.

2.2.3 Sorption experiment


These Quantity/Intensity (Q/I) graphs are non-mechanistic technique used to assess substance

sorption (Essington, 2004). It is a graph of the equilibrium surface excess or amount of P

adsorbed, in mg kg-1, plotted against the equilibrium solution concentration of P, in mg L-1, at

affixed temperature, pressure and solution chemistry (Essington, 2004). The Q/I Experiments

were carried out at a soil to solution ratio of 1:10. Three g of field moist was mixed with 30 ml of

P solution (Porter and Sanchez, 1992 and Pant and Reddy, 2001) containing 0, 10, 30, 50, 100,

250, and 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4 (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998).

Field moist sediment samples were subjected to a similar methodology by Pant and Reddy

(2001). An ionic medium like KC1 helps to reduce the pH dependant sorption unlike when only

water is used and KC1 at 0.01M concentrations was used this study (Giesler et al., 2005). The pH

of the ionic medium containing P was adjusted to 7. The soil was not sterilized with toluene as

these inhibitors are shown to lyse the microbial cells and increase dissolved P (Reddy et al,

1998).









Table 2-1. Organic soil series sampled in the EAA and selected properties.
No. Series Length Depth Cropping GPS coordinates
history


1 Dania 1 At
2 Dania 1 B:
3 Dania 2 A
4 Dania 2 B
5 Dania 3 A
6 Dania 3 B
7 Dania 4 A
8 Dania 4 B
9 Dania 5 A
10 Dania 5 B
11 Dania 6 A
12 Dania 6 B
13 Lauderhill 1 A
14 Lauderhill 1 B
15 Lauderhill 2 A
16 Lauderhill 2 B
17 Lauderhill 3 A
18 Lauderhill 3 B
19 Lauderhill 4 A
20 Lauderhill 4 B
21 Lauderhill 5 A
22 Lauderhill 5 B
23 Lauderhill 6 A
24 Lauderhill 6 B
25 Pahokee 1 A
26 Pahokee 1 B
27 Pahokee 2 A
28 Pahokee2 B
29 Pahokee 3 A
30 Pahokee3 B
31 Pahokee 4 A
32 Pahokee4 B
33 Pahokee 5 A
34 Pahokee 5 B
35 Pahokee 6 A
36 Pahokee6 B
t 0-20 cm
Length of profile


(cm) (cm)
0-20 46.1
20-40
0-20 48.7
20-40
0-20 45.2
20-40
0-20 48.3
20-40
0-20 45.5
20-40
0-20 43.2
20-40
0-20 78.1
20-40
0-20 58.7
20-40
0-20 61.0
20-40
0-20 90.2
20-40
0-20 77.0
20-40
0-20 72.6
20-40
0-20 111.8
20-40
0-20 96.5
20-40
0-20 91.7
20-40
0-20 93.3
20-40
0-20 96.1
20-40
0-20 116.8
20-40
t 20-40 cm


Sugarcane


Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Corn

Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Corn


Sugarcane


Sugarcane

Corn

Sugarcane

Sugarcane


Corn


Latitude
26.56

26.56

26.54

26.54

26.56

26.56

26.66

26.66


Longitude
-80.62

-80.62

-80.68

-80.68

-80.66

-80.66

-80.63

-80.63


26.66 -80.63


26.66

26.65

26.66

26.76

26.76


-80.63

-80.63

-80.63

-80.51

-80.51


26.76 -80.51


26.76

26.76

26.76


-80.52

-80.51

-80.51


T Depth to bedrock


pH


Organic
matter
(%)
81
64
82
65
83
36
82
70
78
80
80
78
77
81
63
80
75
79
79
80
78
79
78
78
84
86
84
85
81
83
80
83
83
85
84
87









The soil samples with P solutions were shaken for 24 hrs at 250C on an orbital shaker,

centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and immediately filtered through 0.45Lam membrane HV

filter paper (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998; Khalid et al, 1977; Sallade

and Sims, 1997; Zhou and Li, 2001; Giesler et al, 2005). The filtrates were later analyzed for P

by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy and Riley, 1962) using an ALPKEM segmented-flow

650nm analyzer (2001) (Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et al, 2005). The difference in amounts of P

added and recovered in solution at each concentration after equilibration was considered P

adsorbed (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). The results were later fitted to

graphs that form the sorption isotherm and were summarized using the Linear Langmuir sorption

equation, and P sorption maximum and other P retention parameters were determined. The

equation for the Linear Langmuir isotherm is as follows (Pant and Reddy, 2001; Essington,

2004):

C/S = 1/(k Smax) + C/Smax where

C = Solution P concentration measured after 24 hour equilibration (mg L 1)

S = Amount of P sorbed in solid phase (mg kg 1)

Smax = P sorption maximum (mg kg 1)

k = Sorption constant related to P bonding energy (L mg 1)

the Linear Langmuir isotherm was constructed by plotting C/S Vs Smax, such that slope is

equal to 1/Smax and the intercept is equal to 1/(k Smax) (Pant and Reddy, 2001). In the equation

the sorption constant k, which is related to bonding energy of the soil for phosphate, is equal to

the reciprocal of equilibrium P concentration at one half saturation (Olsen and Watanbe, 1957).

The high concentration of P is not used if the precipitation of carbonate surface is likely the

dominant process (Zhou and Li, 2001) but because Ca and pH may not be sufficiently high to









cause precipitation (Flaig and Reddy, 1995) with soils from the EAA. Comparatively higher P

concentrations are used in this study.

2.2.4 Soil organic matter determination

Soil organic matter was determined by the loss-on-ignition-method. The loss of weight

between soils dried to a constant weight at 1050C in an oven and soil held at 4000C to a constant

weight in a muffle furnace overnight were used to calculate the loss of ignition (USDA-NRCS,

1996; Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The soil organic matter is then calculated based on the net

oven-dry basis.

2.2.5 Soil pH measurement

Ten g of field moist soil was mixed with 20-mL of deionized (DI) water. The solution was

mixed for 10 min and remained undisturbed for 30min before determination using a pH meter

(Thomas, 1996).

2.2.6 Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed with SAS/STAT software (SAS Institute, 2002-2003) for analysis of

variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. Linear regression analysis was performed to construct

Langmuir isotherm and then to determine the P sorption maxima. The data was checked for

normal distribution and homogeneity as a requirement for the ANOVA and parametric analysis

were conducted once the data was found to be normal and homogeneous. The field design was a

completely randomized design. The ANOVA was run using PROC GLM procedure with the soil

series, at three levels (Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee), and soil depth at two levels (0-20 and 20-

40 cm), as the two factors. After conducting ANOVA when the null hypothesis was rejected the

pdiff option for multiple comparisons in SAS was used to compare Ismeans, to detect which soil

series differed from each other.









2.3 Results and Discussion


2.3.1 Site and sample description

Dania. All the 3 sites sampled from Dania were under sugarcane at their early stages of

development, and theses sites have been under the same crop in the previous season. All three

sites were sampled on February 23, 2007.

First sample from the second site at lower depth (20-40cm), soil sample 6 in Table 2-1,

was clayey in texture and had very low soil organic matter 36 % (Table 2-1). These samples had

rocks, unlike other samples, and CaCO3 probably a part of the bedrock.

The soil sample 4 (Table 2-1) from first site at 20-40cm depth also clayey in texture,

though the organic matter content was 65 % (Table 2-1). The soil sample 10 (Table 2-1) from the

third site at 20-40 cm with 78 % (Table 2-1) soil organic matter was also clayey in texture. The

organic matter was very well decomposed in the lower part of the profile in all sites.

Lauderhill. The first site was under sugarcane cropping, and was previously cultivated for

vegetables. The second site was currently fallow and has been previously cultivated for

sugarcane, while the third site at the time of sampling was cropped for sweet corn. Sampling for

Lauderhill series was done on March 5, 2007.

The samples from theses sites were mostly with fibrous and partially decomposed organic

matter that formed bulk of the soil in the lower 20-40 cm. While second sample; soil 16 (Table

2-1), in the first site was very fibrous and brownish at 20-40 cm, the first sample; soil 14 (Table

2-1), of second site at 20-40 cm was less fibrous with very dark hue and with a rotten egg smell.

The samples from the third site at 20-40 cm had pieces of cane in their initial stages of

decomposition. All these samples have a soil organic matter content of 78-79 %.









Pahokee. The first two sites sampled in Pahokee were under sugarcane cultivation, which

were at their early stages of development. The third site however was under a thick leaved corn

variety. Sampling for Pahokee sites was done on March 16, 2007.

All the samples were generally very dry and hydrophobic. The second sample, soil 27 and

28 (Table 2-1), from first site had a lot of cane litter. The litter was removed at the time of

sample preparation and before the experiments.

2.3.2 Langmuir isotherm results

Sorption coefficients including adoption maxima (Smax) in mg kg-land the sorption

constant (k) related to P bonding energy in L mg-1 are presented in Table 2-2. Sorption maximum

ranged from a low of 1481 mg kg-1 in Dania at 0-20 cm soil depth to a high of 5260 mg kg-1 in

Lauderhill at 20-40 cm soil depth.

Dania. Langmuir isotherms for the three Dania sites at 0-20 cm depth are presented in

Figure 2-2 and for the 20-40 cm depth in Figure 2-3. The average Smax for Dania soils was 2734

mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). The sorption maxima in Dania ranged from 1481 to 3851 mg kg-1 at 0-20

cm depth with an average of 2548 mg kg-lat 0-20 cm. The regression lines for first two sites in

Dania seem to follow the same pattern in Figure 2-2 while for third site regression lines seem to

have a less steep slope and a higher sorption in comparison, corresponding to their Smax values,

which are 1481, 2313, and 3781 mg kg-1 respectively (Table 2-2). At the 20-40 cm depth, the

first two sites have very similar slopes (Figure 2-3) with 2440 and 2540 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2) and

third site has a much less steeper slope with Smax of 3781 mg kg1.

Comparing the Langmuir isotherms for the two depths in Dania, it is observed that at the

first two sites the regression lines are much steeper (Figure 2-2 and 2-3) and with a lower

sorption values at surface 0-20 cm (Table 2-2) than at 20-40 cm. While at third site P sorption at









surface 0-20 cm is slightly greater than at 20-40 cm with 3851 and 3781 mg kg-1 ofP sorption

maxima values respectively (Table 2-2).

The P Smax in Dania being higher in the 20-40 cm than the 0-20 cm may be related to the

shallowness of the Dania soils and that the lower depth is quite close to limestone bedrock, so

CaCO3 may have affected the P sorption. It is also observed that third site has a much higher P

sorption than the first two sites and this might be due to it being the shallowest, 43.2 cm deep

(Table2-1), of the three sites sampled in Dania soil series.

Lauderhill. Langmuir isotherms for Lauderhill soils are presented in Figure 2-4 for the 0-

20cm depth and in Figure 2-5 for the 20-40cm depth. The average Smax was 4089 mg kg-1 for the

0-20 cm and 3684 mg kg-1 for the 20-40 cm (Table 2-2). The sorption maximum in Lauderhill

ranged from a low of 2307 to a high of 5260 mg kg-1 both at 20-40 cm depth with an average of

3887 mg kg1.


Table 2-2. Smax and k values from the Langmuir sorption isotherm.
Depth Dania Lauderhill Pahokee
Smax k Smax k Smax k
(cm) (mg kg-1) (L/mg) (mg kg-1) (L/mg) (mg kg-1) (L/mg)
0-20 1481 -0.028 4732 0.011 2179 0.005
20-40 2440 0.021 2307 0.030 5253 0.003
0-20 2313 0.007 3658 0.015 2416 0.006
20-40 2540 0.014 5260 0.014 1889 0.006
0-20 3851 0.010 3878 0.015 1699 0.020
20-40 3781 0.015 3486 0.012 1286 0.010
Averages
0-20 2548 a -0.004 4089 b 0.014 2098 a 0.010
20-40 2920 a 0.016 3684 b 0.019 4065 a 0.014
0-40 2734 0.006 3887 0.016 2453 0.008
Means with same letter are not statistically different at the 0.05 level


At Lauderhill sites all three Langmuir isotherms were quite similar for the surface 0-20 cm,

with the second and third site a little steeper than the first (Figure 2-4). Their corresponding Smax









values are 4732, 3658, and 3878 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). At 20-40 cm depth site 1 has the steepest

regression line (Figure 2-5) with Smax values of 2307, followed by site 3 with 3486 mg kg-1 of

sorption maximum. It was then followed by site 2, with 5260 mg kg-1 of Smax (Table 2-2).

When the Langmuir isotherms for 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths were compared the sorption

maxima at sites 1 and 3 were higher at 0-20cm (Table 2-2) with less steep slopes for Langmuir

regression lines at 0-20 when compared to 20-40 cm depth (Figure2-4 and Figure 2-5). The soil

pH at 20-40 cm was lower than at 0-20 cm depth for all the sites sampled in Lauderhill and may

be why on an average soil P sorption was higher at surface 0-20 cm than at 20-40cm (Table 2-2),

unlike in Dania where the Smax was higher at 20-40 cm. Thus soil depth from the surface at

which P sorption occurs seems to have some influence on P sorption.

Pahokee. Langmuir isotherms for Pahokee soils are shown in Figure 2-6 for surface 0-20

cm depth and Figure 2-7 for 20-40 cm depth. Pahokee has an average P Smax of 2453 mg kg-1

when the whole profile is considered. Pahokee has an average of 2098 mg kg-1 of Smax at 0-20 cm

depth and 4065 mg kg-1 of Smax at 20-40 cm depth (Table 2-2). The sorption maxima ranged from

1286 mg kg-1 to 5253 mg kg-1 both at 0-20 cm depth (Table2-2).

At 0-20 cm depth the first two sites have a similar slope while the third site has slightly

steeper slope (Figure 2-6), which is reflected by the sorption maxima at third site being lowest

among the three sites at 0-20 cm depth (Table 2-2). The Smax values of the three sites are as

follows 2179, 2416, and 1286 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). At 20-40 cm depth second and third site seem

to have a similar and steeper slope than the first site (Figure 2-6). The first site has the highest

sorption among the three sites in Pahokee at 20-40 cm (Table 2-2). On an average the sorption at

0-20 cm was 2098 mg kg-1 and 4065 mg kg-1 at 20-40 cm. Thus, Dania and Pahokee have a

higher sorption at 20-40cm unlike Lauderhill, which has higher P sorption at surface 0-20 cm.






































* Site
+ Site

eg Site3


Figure 2-2. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


.4s,5 C/S= 0.001 +C/1481



_ 0.30-



0.15-



0.001
0 100 200 300 400 SOC
a C (mg L.)c


U.45. C/S= 0.08+ C/2313



- 0.30



0.15



0.00
a 100 200 300 400 500
b C (mg Lz1)


0.IS 0. 020 + C13L' I





tko

r0.M





c 0 100 0z 360 400 60
c C (mg L')































Site


+ SiteJ


Figure 2-3. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


Q.*9;1 C/S = C .02 + C/2440





ja.




EU

S .100 200 30o .460 sio
a
C (mg L%)


o.4s CI/S= 0 4+ C,"2 540O



0.330







0.00 -
b 0 100 200 300 400 500
C (mg L1)


0.45. CIS = 0.02 + C/3731



0.30



0.15




~o 260 300 400 g0o
c (mg LU'









In general Lauderhill has the highest sorption followed by Dania and Pahokee (Figure 2-8).

Dania being closest to bedrock was expected to have a higher sorption, but there seems to be no

general pattern with respect to depth to bedrock. Soil organic matter in general is highest in

Pahokee and lowest in Dania, and Lauderhill falls right in between (Table 2-1).

The organic soils sampled from the EAA, with Smax values ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg

kg-1 (Table 2-2), have a higher capacity to adsorb P than mineral soils. Richardson (1985) found

that peat soils tend to have much less sorption capacity than mineral soils. Mineral soils like

ultisols from Delaware had Smax ranging from 95 to 588 mg kg-1 (Sallade and Sims, 1997), while

a few Bt horizons of ultisols from sandy coastal regions of Florida ranged from 470 to 1500 mg

kg-1 (Zhou et al., 1997), well drained calcareous Mollisols from Canada with maximum of 0.4 to

2.1% of soil organic matter had less than 50 mg kg-1 of Smax (Whalen and Chang, 2002). Acidic

Appalachian soils, with 0.2 to 17 % soil organic matter, had a P sorption maximum ranging from

970 to 2500 mg kg-1 (Anghinoni et al., 1996).

Cultivated muck and peat soils have increased P sorption upon cultivation compared to

virgin peat soils. Larson et al. (1968) showed that a low ash virgin muck at pH 5.0 sorbed less

than 200 mg kg-lof P, but one that was drained and cultivated over 15 years sorbed 16000 mg kg-

1ofP. A 25-year cultivated muck showed 27-fold increase in P sorption by over virgin muck was

(Shikluna et al, 1968). Tillage may also have influenced the P sorption by increasing the surface

area for sorption.

Litaor et al (2003) also reported a high P sorption maximum for histosols with 3616 %

soil organic matter and found it to be greater than that of organo-mineral soils with 163 % soil

organic matter. The differences according to him resulted from the higher sesquioxide and

organic matter content in the Histosols compared with organo mineral soils.


































Os. C/S= 0.017 +C/3878


r11

0.o.1



U O.iS


C 10o0 260 o00 400 5sa
C (mg L')

Figure 2-4. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


g,<5 C/S =0.02 + C-732



0.30-
t3l0






C.oa a c)
a 6 100 260 300 400 soo
C (mg L-)


9t45I CS =0.02+ CM3658



0.30

Q'2
bo






0. C

10 20 6o 300 400 Soo
C (mg L9 )


site

Sitc2
Site3
















C/S = 0.017+ C/2307


0.45- C/S = 0.026 + C/3486



0.30-



0.1S-



0.00 D
C 0 100 200 300 400 500


Figure 2-5. Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


* Sitel
S ite2

+ Site3


0.30-



0.15-



0.00-
a 0 100 200 300 400 500
c)


0.30-



0.15-



0.00
b a 100 zoo 300 400 500


cls = n 017 + C/5 2 n


0.45,


0.45-




























* Site I


+ UO


Figure 2-6. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


0.4s CUS 0. 11+ C/2I17










a *c
60 100 200 360 400 560
c (mR L;,)C)


0.4s- ciS= 08 *C/2416




UO






b 160 260 300 460 500
C (mg L')


Cis 0.O6+ C/1 700







0 .



0 100 200 300 00 S

C (Mg L1












C/S = 0.09 + C/5253


0.00
a a LOO


200
C (mg L1) c)


C/S = 0.08 + C/1286


S0.30-







0.00
0 00


200 300 400
C (mg L-)


Figure 2-7. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3.


* 0.30*








b. 100 00 300 400 5S0
C (mg 9U)


* Sitel
Site2
+ Stte3


I


C/S = 0.095 + C/1 88


0.45I


0.45s


~----------I?


500




























0 100 200 300 400 500



d


0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500


e











s


f
1


*< Sitel
Sitae
+ Site3


0 100 200 300 400 500 0
Dania


100 200 300 400 500 0
Lauderhill


100 200 300 400 500
Pahokee


C (mg L')


Figure 2-8. Linear Langmuir isotherm for all the three soil series at both depths.









Porter and Sanchez (1992) conducted a study to identify the soil properties that are related

to P sorption by Histosols, focusing on EAA soils. They reported Smax ranging 790 mg kg-1 in

Terra Ceia to 104000 mg kg-1 in Pahokee. The P sorption maxima values obtained in this study,

though high for organic soils, are in general lower than those reported by Porter and Sanchez in

1992. Porter and Sanchez reported the Smax values for air-dried soil samples, while this study

relied on the Smax values from the moist samples.

Though peat soils have been reported to have much less sorption capacity than mineral

soils (Richardson, 1985), these organic soils have been under cultivation since 1800s and have a

high ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Al content when compared to mineral soils

mentioned above and thus could explain high P sorption capacity of these organic soils of the

EAA.

2.3.3 Sorption maxima of the three soil series

The analysis of variance test for the equality of Smax means for the three series is presented

in Table 2-3. The soil series, Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee, are significantly different (P< 0.01)

from each other with respect to P sorption maxima (Table 2-3), while the P sorption at 0-20 cm

depth is not significantly different from that at 20-40 cm depth (Table 2-3). There is no

interaction between these two factors.


Table 2-3. Analysis of variance for Smax for the 3 soil series at 2 depths.
Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value p
Series 2 13849986 6924993 3.65 0.04
Depth 1 460425 460425 0.24 0.63
Series*Depth 2 1964439 982220 0.52 0.60


The depth to bedrock has a significant effect on P sorption or in other words the soil P

sorption varies significantly with the three series under consideration. The depth from the surface










at which P sorption occurs on the other hand does not affect the Smax values, even though the

Langmuir sorption isotherms seemed to differ at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths for a few sites. The

average sorption maximum of Lauderhill was highest among the three soil series at 0-20 cm and

when the complete 0-40 cm of the soil profile was considered (Table 2-2). Figure 2-8 represents

the mean Smax values of the three series at 0-40 cm of the profile.

Figure 2-8. Mean Smax Values for the three series.

When the means of the series were compared with each other, using Lsmeans statement in

the general linear models procedure, Dania and Lauderhill were significantly different (P< 0.05)

and similarly Lauderhill and Pahokee were significantly different (P< 0.05) (Figure 2-9 and

Table 2-4). Pahokee and Dania with a higher p value have the same P sorption (Table 2-4).

700 -




o;n-









175 -





Dania Lauderhill Pahokee
< 51 cm 51-90 cm 91-130 cm
Figure 2-9. Means Smax for the three series.










Table 2-4. Least Squares Means Comparison for the three series at 0-20 cm.
Smax (mg kg- ) Dania Lauderhill Pahokee
Dania 2458 a
Lauderhill 4089 b 0.05
Pahokee 2098 a 0.62 0.02-
Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 0.05level.


2.4 Conclusion

This research provided information on the ability of the histosols of the EAA to sorb P.

The organic soils of the EAA, with Smax values ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1, have a high

P sorption capacity. Results of P sorption capacity of cultivated peat and muck soils being related

to the inorganic fractions in these soils have been reported.

The sorption maxima of the three soil series sampled, Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee vary

significantly from each other, with Lauderhill having the highest sorption and Pahokee the

lowest. Though sorption on an average is higher at 0-20 cm in Dania and Pahokee, it is not

significantly different from 20-40 cm and this is also true for Lauderhill. Though P sorption

capacity varies with soil series, the difference was not as predicted related to soil depth alone.

Dania being shallowest of the three series and with its proximity to the limestone bedrock was

expected to have the highest P sorption, followed by Lauderhill with intermediate depth and

lowest in Pahokee deepest soil series. Instead, Lauderhill had the highest sorption capacity and

Dania was right in between Lauderhill and Pahokee. This indicates that depth to bedrock and

possible increase in pH and CaCO3 content may not be the only factor affecting these soils'

sorption capacity. Other factors like Al and Fe content may play an important role.









CHAPTER 3
EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF EAA
SOILS

3.1 Introduction


Of all the macronutrients found in soils, P has by far the smallest concentrations in

solution. The two phenomena that tend to control the concentration of P in soil solution and

movement in soils are solubility ofP containing minerals and the fixation or sorption of

phosphate ions on surface of the soil particles. The solubility of P mainly depends on chemical

reactions in soils like precipitation, which in turn depends on the soil pH (Brady and Weil,

1999).

Phosphorus gets released into soil solution as a consequence of different processes such as

desorption, dissolution, reduction affecting the soil particles and sediments. Sorption is a two-

dimensional process ranging from weak physical bonding to chemical interactions, including

ligand exchange, that occur at low inorganic P concentrations (Darke and Walbridge, 2000).

Phosphorus has been identified as a major source of eutrophication in and around the lake

Okeechobee and Everglades National Park (Zhou an Li, 2001). Release and retention of P affects

the nutrient status of soil and in turn eutrophication. The ability of soil to release sorbed P is

dependant on P-sorption capacity and the amount of P sorbed (Zhou an Li, 2001). Sorption of P

by soils is commonly described with quantity/intensity (Q/I) graphs sorptionn curves) depicting

the quantity of P on sorption surfaces at measured solution PO4-P concentrations. The results of

multipoint Q/I experiments can be conveniently summarized in few parameters using, for

example, the Freundlich sorption equation (Peltovuori, 2007) or Langmuir equation.

Solute sorption is an exchange process that occurs at specific sites on a homogenous

surface. A monolayer of adsorbed solute is formed on the surface and a sorption maximum is









achieved as the monolayer becomes saturated by the adsorbate. Linear Langmuir equation yields

the adsorbate concentration that is a monolayer (the parameter Smax) and a parameter that is

related to the energy of sorption and the exchange equilibrium constant (K parameter).

Otherwise, as is the case in soil, the Langmuir model parameters are merely empirical,

describing the shape of the sorption isotherm (Essington, 2004).

The P sorption capacity soils has been attributed to various soil properties like Fe and Al

oxides, mainly the amorphous and the less crystalline fraction due to their larger surface area per

unit soil volume (Khalid et al., 1977; Darke and Walbridge, 2000), carbonate content (Zhou and

Li, 2001), soil organic matter content, inorganic soil P content and pH (Darke and Walbridge,

2000).

The role of amorphous Fe and Al oxides on P sorption has been well documented. Active

amorphous Al, on a per mole basis adsorbs nearly twice as much P as active amorphous Fe

(Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Borggaard et al. (1990) and Freese et al.

(1992) found that amorphous form of both Fe and Al were important predictors of soil P-sorption

capacity in clayey, peaty, and sandy soils. In a study by Darke and Walbridge (2000), amorphous

Fe and Al correlated well with the soil organic matter and they suggested that organic matter-

metal (Al, Fe) complexes might be an important component of inorganic P sorption.

Hydroperiod also plays an important part in P-sorption due to flooding-induced conversion of

crystalline Fe oxides to non-crystalline forms and by balancing of Fe oxide losses with fresh

floodwater Fe oxide inputs of lower crystallinity (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Soil organic

anions on the other hand tend to compete with phosphate ion for binding sites and reduce P

sorption (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Soil organic matter can enhance P sorption in soil by

inhibiting the crystallization of Fe and Al oxide minerals (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Peat and









muck soils that are low in ash content possess a very small capacity for P retention (Porter and

Sanchez, 1992). The organic matter content of EAA soils related very well to P sorption with

significant and inverse linear correlation between soil organic matter and phosphate sorption

index, a gauge for P sorption capacity of soil (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The same authors also

noted that histosols high in ash content are also high in pH, total Ca and free carbonate content.

Everglades Histosols have rather moderate pH compared with the extremely low pH values

often found in peat soils. In general, soil pH in the EAA has increased with time (Snyder, 2005),

and in some areas soil pH is too high for optimum crop production (Morris et al., 2004). This

increase is occurring as a consequence of declining soil thickness (subsidence) combined with

the movement of free carbonates from the underlying limestone bedrock into the soil profile by

mass flow and diffusion (Snyder, 2005) and by tillage. An increase in soil pH would affect soil P

sorption (Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Porter and Sanchez, 1992) and decreasing soil depth to

bedrock within EAA Histosols may have altered the P sorption capacity.

3.2 Materials and Methods

3.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation

The soil samples were taken from the same sites as mentioned in chapter 2. Briefly, three

organic soil series in the EAA were considered (Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee). Sampling was

done at 9 sites; with each soil series sampled at three sites. Two samples were taken from each of

the nine sites. The soil samples were collected from the surface 40 cm of the soil and were

sectioned into two cores of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths for a total of 36 samples. The depth to

bedrock was measured in each site at the time of sampling using an iron rod with a sharp end.

Bulk density and soil moisture content were measured. A sub sample of each of the homogenized

samples was air-dried and crushed to pass 20 mesh sieve (Reddy et al, 1998) and stored.









3.2.2 Sorption experiment

The Quantity/Intensity Experiments were carried out as discussed in the chapter 2. Three g

of soil was mixed with 30-mL of P solution (Porter and Sanchez, 1992; Pant and Reddy, 2001)

containing 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4in an ionic media KC1 at

0.01M concentrations. The soil samples with P solutions were shaken for 24hr at 250con an

orbital shaker, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and immediately filtered through 0.45[jm

membrane HV filters. The filtrates were analyzed for P by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy

and Riley, 1962 using ALPKEM Segmented flow 650nm analyzer (Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et

al, 2005). The P sorption maximum and other P retention parameters were determined using

linear Langmuir isotherms (Pant and Reddy, 2001).

3.2.3 Soil organic matter determination

Soil organic matter was determined by the loss-on-ignition-method. The loss of weight

between soils dried to a constant weight at 1050C in an oven and soil held at 4000C to a constant

weight in a muffle furnace overnight were used to calculate the loss of ignition (USDA-NRCS,

1996; Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The soil organic matter is then calculated based on the net

oven-dry basis. Soil moisture content was determined from the difference in weight of field

moist and air-dried soil.

3.2.4 Soil pH measurement

Ten g of field moist soil was mixed with 20-mL of deionized (DI) water. The solution was

mixed for 10 min and remained undisturbed for 30min before pH was measured (Thomas, 1996).

3.2.5 Calcium carbonate content determination

Calcium carbonate was determined by a titrimetric procedure based on dissolution of

carbonate present in air-dried soil in a digestion chamber (Loeppert and Suarez, 1996). The

digestion chamber is a wide mouth, 8 oz French square bottle. The chamber was fitted with a









rubber stopper with a single hole to tightly hold a glass tube. The upper end of the glass tube was

sealed with a sleeve-type rubber septum. A 5-mL beaker (to hold the KOH solution) was

attached to the glass rod by means of a rubber band, so that the bottom of the beaker is about 5

mm above the lower end of the tube.

Five g of air-dried soil, ground to pass through 100 um sieve and placed in a digestion

chamber, was allowed to react with aqueous 2 M KOH, placed in the 5-mL beaker mounted on

the stopper assembly. Then 20-mL of 2 M HC1 was injected into the bottle. The apparatus thus

was allowed to stand for 16-24 hrs. KOH from the mounted 5-mL beaker was then transferred

into an Erlenmeyer flask with the aid of CO2 free deionized water. An aliquot of the aqueous

KOH absorbent is first titrated with 1 M HC1 to the phenolphthalein end point and then with 0.1

M HC1 to the bromocresol green end point. The inorganic carbonate content is proportional to

the 0.1 M HC1 consumed in this latter reaction (Loeppert and Suarez, 1996).

3.2.6 Extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca and Mg)

Active amorphous Fe and Al oxide were extracted using acid ammonium oxalate, pH 3.0,

in darkness (Loeppert and Inskeep, 1996; McKeague and Day, 1965). The samples from Dania

and Lauderhill were pretreated for CaCO3, due to their higher soil pH, with ammonium acetate

(pH 5.5, 1.OM) (Loeppert and Inskeep, 1996). The Analytical Research Laboratory, Gainesville,

Florida, analyzed the extracts using an inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer.

Extractable Ca and Mg were determined using 0.5N acetic acid as the extracting solution

(Sanchez, 1990) and followed by Ca and Mg analysis by the Soil Testing Laboratory, Belle

Glade, Florida, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

3.2.7 Total P

Total P was determined by sulfuric acid digestion of the ashed soil (Andersen, 1976),

followed by photometric analysis at 660nm on an Alpkem flow analyzer. Water-extractable and









acetic acid extractable P was also analyzed by the Soil Testing Laboratory, Belle Glade, Florida

(Sanchez, 1990).

3.2.8 Statistical analysis

Pearson's Correlation analysis was done between the different Langmuir parameters and

other soil properties. Linear regression between solution P concentration measured after 24 hour

equilibration (C) and the ratio of solution P concentration (C) and P sorbed in the soil (S) was

also performed to asses the P sorption maxima (Smax) and P sorption constant (k). Correlation

analysis and linear regression analysis were performed using SAS statistical software package

(SAS Institute, 2002-2003).

3.3 Results and Discussion

3.3.1 Soil characterization

The soils varied in many soil properties (Table 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3). The soil organic matter

content varied from 53% in Dania at 20-40 cm to 86% for Pahokee at 20-40 cm depth (Table 3-

1), with an average of 78% (Table 3-3). The soil pH ranged from 6.4 in Pahokee at 0-20 cm

depth to 7.9, in Dania at 20-40 cm depth (Table 3-1) and had an average of 7.2 (Table 3-3). Total

P content ranged from 260 mg kg-1 in Pahokee at 20-40 cm to 2550 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill at 0-

20 cm (Table 3-1). Water extractable P ranged from 2 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill soil series to 20 mg

kg-1 in Pahokee both at surface 0-20 cm (Table 3-1). Acid ammonium oxalate extractable Fe

content ranged from 1936 to 14576 mg kg-1 of extractable Fe with the upper limit in Lauderhill

0-20 cm and lower limit in Pahokee 20-40 cm. Extractable Al content in these soils ranged from

386 mg kg-1 in Pahokee to 3179 mg kg-1 in Dania at the 20-40 cm depth (Table 3-1). Extractable

Ca and Mg content were lowest in Pahokee soil series at 20-40 cm depth at 6826 mg kg-1 for Ca

and 970 mg kg-1 for Mg. The highest amount was found in Dania soil series at 20-40 cm with Ca

content of 21034 mg kg-1 and Mg at 3178 mg kg-1 both in soil series Dania at 20-40 cm. The









CaCO3 content of these soils ranged from 273 mg kg-1, in Pahokee soil series at 0-20 cm depth,

to 5284 mg kg-1 in Dania at 0-20cm depths. The CaCO3 vales averaged to 2462 mg kg-1 in these

soils.

Averaged soil properties across each soil series are presented in Table 3-2. In general the

soil samples from Dania which had the shallowest soils had lowest soil organic matter content

averaging 73%, and Lauderhill with an intermediate depth to bedrock had 77% soil organic

matter while the deepest soil series, Pahokee, had the highest mean soil organic matter content of

84% (Table 3-2).

A similar trend was seen with the extractable metals Mg, Ca and Al (Table 3-2), with

Dania having the highest metal content and Pahokee the lowest, thus implying how depth to

bedrock impacts the content of these metals. On the other hand, total P, extractable Fe, and

CaCO3 contents showed a different pattern, with the highest content in the Lauderhill series

(Table 3-2).

Average soil properties with depth are presented in Table 3-3. Total P, acetic acid and

water extractable P were higher at the 0-20 cm depth in all the three soil series. Pahokee had the

lowest extractable Fe and Al content of the three soil series and a lower content of these metals

in the upper 0-20 cm of the profile compared to 20-40 cm of the profile (Table 3-3).

The total CaCO3 content and the extractable Ca and Mg were on an average higher at the

20-40 cm depth when all three series were combined (Table 3-3), though in none of the series

CaCO3 and extractable Ca and Mg showed any relation to depth individually. The extractable

Ca, Mg content and total CaCO3 content at 20-40 cm was either higher than or equal to 0-20 cm

depth in Dania and Pahokee, while their content was much lower at 20-40 cm than at 0-20 cm

depth.









Table 3-1. Selected soil properties of the soil series investigated.
Soil Ebt SOM SMC pH Depth TP# Patt Pw Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3
no g/cm3 % % cm mg kg'


0-20 cm
Dania




Lauderhill




Pahokee


20-40 cm
S Dania




Lauderhill


0.38
0.27
0.38

0.52
0.39
0.39

0.37
0.42
0.33

0.43
0.35
0.34

0.27
0.33
0.43

0.23
0.34
0.25


Pahokee


48
48
46

69
76
76

104
94
107

48
48
46

69
76
76


1605 111
821 93
1389 129

2550 158
1581 104
1667 75

1623 129
1894 165
1262 100

728 72
490 96
1137 74

749 132
1127 85
1331 82


260
825
738


12.0 8118 1403 8472 1866 731
8.1 5638 2099 11171 1726 640
5.9 11336 2273 10753 2288 5824

8.7 13035 2120 9932 1834 2046
3.8 11008 1932 10912 2382 3027
1.5 14576 2067 8739 1456 3412

16.3 4783 998 10676 1638 455
20.0 5490 1138 9049 1293 1908
12.4 3703 776 8498 1138 273

5.3 4604 2807 7385 1521 1279
1.7 3372 3179 21034 1183 2412
3.7 8340 2536 16172 3178 5281

5.1 6569 1459 8798 1320 2951
3.2 11035 1918 11441 2411 2213
3.2 13125 2217 8097 1013 2845


12.4 2099 854
7.9 3618 708
14.8 1936 386


6826 970 3808
7579 1079 817
10773 1552 4401


t Bulk Density
Soil moisture content
# Total P
Water extractable P


1 Soil organic matter
Depth to bedrock
ft Acetic acid extractable P









Table 3-2. Selected averaged soil properties averaged across 0-40 cm.
SOM TP Pa Pw Fe


Al Ca


% mgkg'
Dania 73.2 1028 96 6 6901 2382 12497 1960 2694
Standard deviation 13.0 419 40 4 2855 709 6798 730 3111
Lauderhill 77.2 1501 106 4 11558 1952 9653 1736 2749
Standard deviation 5.0 698 37 2 2844 313 1551 577 748
Pahokee 83.7 1100 87 14 3605 810 8900 1278 1943
Standard deviation 2.0 597 52 6 1444 264 1625 297 2700



Table 3-3. Selected soil properties averaged by depth.
SOM pH TP Pa Pw Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3
% mgkg1
Dania-At 81 a 7.3 a 1272 a Illa 9a 8364a1924a 10132 a 1960 a 2398 a
Lauderhill-A 75 a 7.4 a 1933 a 112a 5a 12873 b 2040 b 9861 a 1890 a 2828 a
Pahokee-A 83 b 6.6 b 1593 b 131 a 16b 4658c 970 c 9407 a 1356 b 879 a

Dania-B $ 66 a 7.6 a 785 a 81 a 4 a 5438 a 2840 a 14863 a 1960 a 2990 a
Lauderhill-B 79 a 7.2 a 1069 a 99a 4a 10243 b 1864 b 9445 a 1581 a 2670 a
Pahokee-B 79 b 7.2 b 1152b 101a 4b 11258 c 2026c 9798 a 1671 b 2614 a

Average A 80 a 7.1 a 1599 a 118 a 10a 8632 a 1645 a 9800 a 1735 a 2035 a
Average B 75 a 7.3 a 1002 b 94b 4b 8980 b 2244 a 11369 a 1738 a 2758 a

Average 0-40 cm 78 7.2 1210 96 8 7355 1715 10350 1658 2462
t 0-20 cm depth
20-40 cm depth
Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 0.05 level.


CaCO3









3.3.2 Correlation among the soil properties and P sorption parameters

Pearson's correlation analysis between sorption parameters and soil properties was

performed at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth as well as for the two depths combined (0-40 cm).

Results are shown in Table 3-4, Table 3-5 and Table 3-6.

3.3.2.1 Sorption properties

Surface 0-20 cm: The sorption maximum from the field moist samples was found to

correlate positively with amorphous extractable Fe (p < 0.01) and Al (p < 0.05) oxides, pH (p <

0.05) and negatively with soil organic matter (p < 0.01) and soil moisture content (p < 0.01) at

surface 0-20 cm of the soil profile (Table 3-4). The sorption maximum from the air-dried

samples at surface 0-20 cm of profile (Table 3-4) also correlated positively with extractable

amorphous Fe (p < 0.01) and Al (p < 0.01) oxides, pH (p < 0.01) and negatively with soil

organic matter (p < 0.01), and in addition an inverse correlation with water extractable P (p <

0.01) was also observed. Porter and Sanchez, 1992, found extractable Fe to be a well correlated

with P sorption, but they observed very little correlation between extractable Al and P sorption,

although in this study both these metals were found to correlate well with Smax at the 0-20 cm

depth. Porter and Sanchez, 1992, also found soils low in organic matter to be high in pH and

high in soil P sorption similar to what was found in this study, although they conducted the study

by air-drying the surface 15 cm of the soil samples.

Subsurface 20-40 cm: At 20-40 cm sorption maximum for the air-dried samples was only

found to correlate with extractable Fe content at P < 0.05 (Table 3-5). There was no significant

correlation between Smax and any other soil properties at lower 20-40 cm for field moist samples

(Table 3-5). Although the extractable Fe, Al and Ca content was higher at 20-40 cm of the

profile than 0-20 cm along with a higher pH and lower soil organic matter. The total P content of

the soil was lower at 20-40 cm of the soil profile than surface 0-20 cm of the soil profile.









While considering the complete soil profile, i.e. the 0-40 cm depth (Table 3-6), the

sorption maximum of the field moist soil samples did not significantly correlate with any of the

other soil properties. Air-dried soil samples significantly correlated with extractable Fe (p <

0.01) content, pH (P < 0.05) and inversely correlated with water extractable P (p < 0.01).

Amorphous Fe and Al Oxides: The relationship between Smax and several soil properties

are illustrated in Fig 3-1. Figure 3-la and 3-1b shows the relationship between the P sorption and

extractable Fe and Al content of the soil with r2 = 0.64 and 0.47 (Table 3-4) respectively for field

moist samples. As the metal content increases the soils ability to sorb P also increases (Sallade

and Sims, 1997; Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Giesler et al., 2005). In general,

P retention of field moist soil samples showed little correlation to extractable Al compared to

extractable Fe (Figure 3-1 a, b). Darke and Walbridge (2000) found amorphous Al to be more

strongly correlated with inorganic P sorption than Fe, contradicting the results in this study

which may be due to relatively low Al content of EAA histosols (Porter and Sanchez, 1992).

Soil pH: The strength of correlation between soil P sorption with pH (r2 = 0.50), was low

for field moist samples when compared to air-dry soil (r2 = 0.61). Porter and Sanchez, 1992,

found a similar relationship for air-dried soil and these results were comparable to r2 values for

air-dried soil in this study.

Soil organic matter: Figure 3-id shows the inverse relationship between soil organic

matter and soil P sorption with a strong r2 value of -0.83 (Table 3-4) and thus implicating an

increase in P sorption with increase in soil mineral matter content. Porter and Sanchez (1992)

reported similar results. There are two types of reactions that explain the relationship between P

sorption and soil organic matter (Hue, 1991).










Table 3-4. Correlations coefficients in 0-20 cm of three series in the EAA.
BDt SOMI SMC pH Depth Smax k Smax k TP Pa## Pwttt Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3
(fm)# (fmtt (ad)t$ (ad)
BD 1.00
SOM -0.83 1.00
SMC -0.97 0.76** 1.00
pH 0.38 -0.64** -0.31 1.00
Depth 0.01 0.31 -0.10 -0.64 1.00
Smax (fmi) 0.71" -0.85* -0.66* 0.50* -0.29 1.00
K (fm) 0.32 -0.16 -0.27 0.03 0.33 0.35 1.00
Smax (ad) 0.39 -0.69** -0.34 0.61 -0.35 0.59 0.07 1.00
K (ad) 0.25 -0.47* -0.20 0.37 -0.33 0.53* 0.22 0.76** 1.00
TP 0.92 -0.80** -0.92 0.18 0.08 0.70** 0.24 0.33 0.19 1.00
Pa 0.56 -0.29 -0.65 0.14 0.16 0.27 0.16 -0.22 -0.32 0.50 1.00
o Pw 0.06 0.27 -0.19 -0.40 0.41 -0.33 -0.09 -0.65** -0.59 0.10 0.66** 1.00
Fe 0.49 -0.65 -0.40 0.59 -0.38 0.64** 0.24 0.73** 0.86 0.34 -0.09 -0.59 1.00
Al 0.16 -0.52** -0.05 0.77 -0.70** 0.47 -0.12 0.62** 0.61 0.01 -0.14 -0.60 0.78 1.00
Ca -0.06 -0.10 0.09 0.34 -0.13 0.26 0.15 -0.03 -0.15 -0.06 0.22 -0.08 0.02 0.36 1.00
Mg 0.15 -0.33 -0.09 0.71 -0.45 0.40 0.18 0.25 0.23 0.07 0.11 -0.32 0.46 0.59** 0.69 1.00
CaCO3 0.22 -0.39 -0.18 0.57** -0.29 0.42 0.17 0.30 0.35 0.09 -0.10 -0.45 0.52* 0.51* 0.17 0.42 1.00
*, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively
t Bulk Density j Soil organic matter Soil moisture content
Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil ft k for field moist soil
11 Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total P
## Acetic acid extractable P fttWater extractable P










Table 3-5. Correlations coefficients in 20-40 cm of three series in the EAA.


BDt SOMI SMC pH Depth Smax k Smax k TP Pa## Pwttt Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3
(fm)# (fmtt (ad)t$ (ad)


BD 1.uu
SOM -0.57* 1.00
SMC -0.91 0.46 1.00
pH 0.31 -0.45 -0.36 1.00
Depth -0.46 0.64 0.48 -0.80 1.00
Smax (f) 0.00 0.19 -0.03 -0.08 0.04 1.00
K (fm) -0.06 -0.28 0.03 0.47 -0.45 -0.33 1.00
Smax (ad) 0.08 0.06 -0.15 -0.03 0.09 -0.01 0.39 1.00
K (ad) 0.26 -0.16 -0.42 0.63 -0.66 0.27 0.54 0.42
TP 0.38 0.23 -0.61** 0.32 -0.28 0.05 0.07 0.24
Pa 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.31 -0.43 -0.06 0.39 0.19
O Pw -0.59 0.53 0.59 -0.73 0.77 -0.19 -0.47 -0.14
Fe 0.43 0.08 -0.61 0.27 -0.31 0.37 0.13 0.51
Al 0.59* -0.64** -0.53 0.58* -0.84* 0.24 0.22 -0.03
Ca 0.24 -0.71 -0.19 0.57 -0.43 -0.09 0.21 0.06
Mg 0.00 0.12 -0.14 0.64 -0.38 0.25 0.12 0.07
CaCO3 -0.34 0.17 0.31 0.16 0.05 -0.02 0.06 0.07
*, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively
f Bulk Density 8 Soil organic matter Soil n
Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil ft k for
11 Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total
## Acetic acid extractable P fttWater extractable P


1.00
0.52* 1.00
0.49 0.37 1.00
-0.71 -0.40 -0.42 1.00
0.69 0.82 0.38 -0.56 1.00
0.54 0.20 0.40 -0.79* 0.35 1.00
0.10 -0.14 -0.17 -0.36 -0.03 0.36 1.00
0.50 0.44 0.17 -0.23 0.36 0.25 0.26 1.00
0.04 -0.11 -0.13 0.17 -0.01 -0.15 0.22 0.38 1


moisture content
field moist soil
1P












Table 3-6. Correlations coefficients in 0-40 cm of three series in the EAA.
BDt SOMI SMC pH Depth Smax k Smax k TP Pa## Pwttf Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3
(fm)# (fmftt (ad)t$ (ad)


BD 1.00
SOM -0.50* 1.00
SMC -0.90 0.28 1.00
pH 0.27 -0.47** -0.19 1.00
Depth -0.23 0.50** 0.14 -0.71** 1.00
Smax (fm) 0.26 -0.10 -0.22 0.22 -0.12 1.00
K (fm) 0.07 -0.20 0.01 0.19 0.06 0.11 1.00
Smax (ad) 0.21 -0.19 -0.18 0.35 -0.17 0.33 0.16 1.00
K (ad) 0.25 -0.23 -0.25 0.49** -0.50** 0.39* 0.30 0.61*
o TP 0.69** 0.01 -0.88** 0.09 -0.04 0.27 0.00 0.19
Pa 0.36 0.05 -0.52 0.13 -0.14 0.03 0.08 -0.05
Pw -0.10 0.38 -0.10 -0.53 0.51 -0.27 -0.23 -0.49*
Fe 0.51* -0.06 -0.57** 0.37* -0.33** 0.45 0.11* 0.57*
Al 0.39 -0.62** -0.20 0.62 -0.76** 0.31 0.06 0.23
Ca 0.12 -0.66** -0.01 0.45 -0.31 -0.01 0.15 0.04
Mg 0.09 0.05 -0.17 0.62 -0.40 0.28 0.10 0.13
CaCO3 -0.12 -0.04 0.14 0.39 -0.13 0.22 0.17 0.22
*, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively
f Bulk Density 8 Soil organic matter Soil n
Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil ft k for
1 Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total
## Acetic acid extractable P tt tWater extractable P


1.00
0.25 1.00
0.12 0.61 1.00
-0.59 0.15 0.29 1.00
0.74** 0.58** 0.30 -0.43** 1.00
0.54 0.02 0.15 -0.61 0.43 1.00
0.04 -0.15 -0.14 -0.23 -0.05 0.36 1.00
0.39 0.26 0.19 -0.20 0.40 0.33 0.29 1.00
0.20 -0.11 -0.19 -0.27 0.20 0.11 0.19 0.35* 1.00


moisture content
field moist soil
1P









Indirect interactions between soil organic matter and Fe and Al oxides inhibit

crystallization and thereby increase P sorption capacity leading to a positive correlation

(Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke and Walbridge, 2000) as a result of different organic acids

produced, like acetic and malic (Hue, 1991).

Direct interactions where in competition for sorption sites occurs between organic matter

and phosphate, leading to decreased phosphate sorption (Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke and

Walbridge, 2000). Hue (1991) also reported the influence of organic matter on P sorption varied

with the type of organic acid. For example, less P was observed to be sorbed in the presence of

malic acid than acetic acid. Competition between phosphate and organic anions are likely to be

high in this matrix with more than 75% organic matter (Giesler et al., 2005) and could be the

reason for the significant negative correlation between Smax and organic matter (r2=-0.85) (Table

3-4).

Water extractable P: A study conducted by Styles and Coxon (2006) on organic matter

rich soils showed desorbable inorganic P increases to be positively correlated to the degree of P

sorption saturation. Figure 3-2a, b shows the relationship between water extractable P and P

sorption maxima. High water extractable P content decreases the ability of these organic soils to

adsorb P irrespective of whether the soil was air-dried or maintained field moist as shown in

Figure 3-2a and b. This might also be the reason why Lauderhill with the lowest soluble P had

the highest sorption, while Pahokee with lower soluble P content did not sorb P as much.

Depth to bedrock: The depth of the soil surface to bedrock did not significantly correlate

with the sorption maximum of both field moist and air-dried samples at all depths. The sorption

constant k from the Langmuir equation inversely correlated with depth to bedrock (p < 0.01) for

air-dried samples at 20-40 cm and 0-40 cm but not for the field moist samples (Table 3-5 and 6).




















1501
2000-



I- -



1000-


4000


S (mgkg%')


oo00


U
U


boom
L,



CI
P s^ s


2000 4000
Sm (mg kg-')


U
I
a

U


4000


dOoo


2000


S.x (mg kg1)


Figure 3-1. Relationship between Smax of field moist soils and extractable Fe, Al, pH and organic matter (SOM) at 0-20 cm depth.


4000

S (mg kg-')


S I


af


2000


7.5


6000


2000


6d00


I I























20-
tno



S10-


2.0


UCI^ U

mE
0
0 I I00

2000


3000
3000


Sm (mg kg') (Air-dried)


b













* U
U UM
%


2000


4000


6000


S,, (mg kg') (Field moist)


Figure 3-2. Relationship between Smax and water extractable P (Pw) for a) air-dried and b) field
moist soils at 0-40 cm.









The sorption constant is a measure of the intensity of the sorption isotherm and thus this

correlation would indicate that intensity of P sorption was higher for Pahokee, where the depth to

bedrock is higher when compared to Dania, when the soil is air-dried.

3.3.2.2 Soil properties

Depth to bedrock: Relationships between soil depth to bedrock and several other soil

properties are presented in Figure 3-3. Extractable Al (p< 0.05) and soil pH (p< 0.05) were

negatively and significantly correlated with depth to bedrock (Table 3-4, Table 3-5 and Table 3-

6). Extractable amorphous Fe oxides correlated negatively with depth to bedrock when the

complete 40 cm of the profile was taken into account, but with a low r2=-0.33 (Table 3-4 and

Figure 3-3b). Extractable Mg (p< 0.01) also negatively and weakly correlated with the depth to

bedrock only when the whole soil profile was considered (0-40 cm) (Figure 3-3c).

Soil organic matter: Soil organic matter correlated positively with depth to bedrock at

p< 0.05 except at surface 0-20 cm (Table 3-5 and Table 3-6). This relationship is illustrated in

Fig 3-3c and clearly indicates as depth of the soil is lowered, the soil organic matter content is

lower, the mineral content is increasing, and pH is increasing (Fig 3.3e).

The relationship between soil organic matter and soil pH is shown in Figure 3-4a. As the

soil organic matter content increases pH decreases. Similar relationship between soil organic

matter and soil pH was observed in a study conducted by Porter and Sanchez in 1992 on the

Everglades Agricultural Area histosols and the increase in pH was attributed to soil organic

matter loss due to subsidence and a possible increase in soil CaCO3 content.

Soil organic matter inversely affected the amount of extractable amorphous Al oxides

and extractable Ca (p < 0.01) at 20-40 cm and 0-40 cm of the profile, while at the surface 0- 20

cm only Al oxides correlated with soil organic matter (Table 3-5, 3-6). Extractable Ca content at

surface 0-20 cm was lower than at subsurface 20-40 cm especially for Dania, which might be the









reason for absence of a correlation between organic matter and Ca at 0-20 cm. Extractable

amorphous Fe oxides correlated with soil organic matter only at surface 0-20 cm (p < 0.01)

(Table 3-4).

Soil pH: The relationships between pH and soil organic matter, extractable amorphous Al

oxides, extractable Mg and total CaCO3 are presented in Figures 3-4 a-d. Soils with high pH had

high extractable amorphous Fe oxides (p < 0.01), Al oxides (p < 0.01), extractable Ca (p < 0.01)

and Mg (p < 0.01) (Figure 3-4a), and low soil organic matter (p < 0.01) (Figure 3-4a), when 0-20

and 0-40 cm was considered (Table 3-6). Soils with high pH and these properties were reported

to form a self-correlated group by Porter and Sanchez, 1992. At the 20-40 cm depth, soil organic

matter and extractable amorphous Fe oxides showed no relation to pH while extractable Al

oxides, and extractable Ca and Mg were seen to increase with an increase in pH of the soil

(Table 3-5).

Depth to bedrock: The Pahokee soil series with the higher depth to bedrock had a lower

soil pH, higher soil organic matter content, and lower extractable amorphous Fe oxides and Al

oxides, and extractable Mg (Table 3-2) than Dania and Lauderhill soil series. And since there

also was a significant positive correlation between pH and Smax (Figure 3-1c), Pahokee with a

lower pH and higher depth to bedrock would have a lower P adsorption. In general, at a depth

closer bedrock soil pH is higher, and there are higher amounts of extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca

and Mg) while soil organic matter is comparatively lower.















1o 000-


40D o0 0 100
Depth to bedrock (cm)

M


15000-


10000-




50o0-


8000


6000


4000


20OQ-


*-


40 t o Bb 100
Depth to bedrock (cm)


40 60 80 100
S. (mg kg1)
Figure 3-3. Relationship between soil depth to bedrock and extractable a) Al oxides, b) Fe
oxides, c) Mg, d) organic matter (SOM), and e) pH at 0-40 cm depth.












----- ... ........ .













Depth to b edro ck (cm)
i-..















40 o0 Bo 100
Depth to bedrock (cm)
3-3. Continued.


s0-

40-

30-




10-


Figure






















3000-


M


pa
a- . a



M C
^t--^' *









*


2000.





1000-


10000-


5000-


6 ,



0
0s


r r U
U"


m 0


U
U


-

*


* 0


m i UU1
mm U
UE- T U


6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0


7.5


8.0


pH pH

Figure 3-4. Relationship between pH and a) organic matter (SOM), extractable b) Al and c) Mg and d) total CaCO3 at 0-40 cm depth.


84






60






40-


3000






2000






1000,









3.4 Conclusion

The sorption of P by soil is depicted by the sorption maximum and the sorption constant

from the Langmuir isotherm. From the results of correlation analysis variation in P sorption was

largely explained by a few basic soil characteristics. It is thus concluded that P sorption in these

histosols is mainly dependent on extractable amorphous Fe and Al oxides, pH, soil organic

matter and these correlations were limited to the 0-20 cm depth. The agricultural practices like

the tillage, which is limited to surface 20 cm, may have restricted these relationships to the 0-20

cm depth along with other soil and environmental factors.

The P sorption showed a stronger correlation to extractable Fe (r2=0.64) than Al (r2=0.47),

which confirms with earlier studies on EAA histosols by Porter and Sanchez in 1992 even

though amorphous Al is a better predictor of P sorption capacity in wetland. The fact that these

histosols have a lower amorphous Al oxide content in comparison with Fe oxide content may be

the reason why Smax correlated better with Fe oxide than Al oxide. It has also been reported that

amorphous Fe and Al oxides in humus soils have a greater impact on phosphate sorption despite

the presence of large amounts of soil organic matter. Thus when soil pH and extractable Fe and

Al oxide increases and soil organic matter decreases either in combination or individually, soil P

sorption increases. Extractable Ca and Mg, and total CaCO3 content, did not have influence P

sorption.









CHAPTER 4
PHOSPHORUS SORPTION IN AIR-DRIED AND FIELD MOIST SOIL

4.1 Introduction


Measuring the P-sorption capacity of a soil can be done using either field moist or air-dried

soil. Soil is generally air-dried to measure the P-sorption capacity of the soil and the majority of

these experiments have been carried out thus (Peltovuori, 2007). Air- dried soil is assumed to be

chemically stable and may be stored for longer periods before extraction and analysis (Turner,

2005). Air-drying of fresh soil samples, however, has been reported to increase extractable P in

mineral soils (Turner, 2005), and also increase soil pH and affect sorption properties (Peltovuori

and Soinne, 2005).

Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) studied sorption ofP in field moist and air-dried samples

from four cultivated mineral soils. Air-drying increased the P sorption capacity of all soils in

their study, altered the shape of Quantity/Intensity graph (Q/I plots) parameters estimated with

modified Freundlich experiment, and increased the amount ofP extracted with water. Peltovuori

(2007) observed increased desorption of P at small P concentration in soil horizons with good P

status and large soil organic matter content, and increased sorption of P at high P concentration

upon drying, and attributed it to the breakdown of organo-metal complexes that released P upon

shattering and exposed new sorption sites for P at the same time (Peltovuori and Soinne, 2005).

Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) also reported some other reasons for the increased P sorption

upon drying, such as larger sorption area due to disaggregation of soil crumbs followed by

destruction of soil organic matter shielding the sorption surfaces, formation of new sorption sites

on Fe-Al-organic matter complexes and to an extent due to a decline the pH commonly

associated with drying. Dissolved organic carbon gets bound to soil material itself and these









organic coatings on the mineral particles improve the sorption capacity of the soil material for

metal cations like Fe2+, Fe3+and Al3+ (Kaiser et al., 2000) which in turn affects P sorption.

Drying can increase both inorganic and organic available P concentrations compared with

the equivalent fresh soil by disruption of organic matter and lysis of microbial cells (Turner,

2005). Air-drying poses to be a problem particularly when studying subsoil in cool and humid

climates since these soils hardly ever dry out completely in the field (Peltovuori, 2007). The soils

in EAA with very high soil organic matter and with a pH higher than generally found in histosols

are rarely completely dry (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994), and thus air-dried samples may not

truthfully represent field conditions.

The objective of this study was to evaluate how air-drying would impact P sorption

capacity measurement of three organic soils in the EAA; Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee.

Sorption of P by soils is described with the help P sorption isotherms used to characterize the

soils capacity to remove dissolved P from solution (Richardson, 1985) and are prepared by

plotting PO4 adsorbed or precipitated as a function of P remaining in the solution after

equilibration for 24 h at a constant temperature. In accordance with earlier studies air-drying

these organic soil was expected to estimate a higher P sorption capacity due to the exposure of

new sorption sites resulting form soil organic matter disruption. Our hypothesis was that P

sorption capacity estimate using air-dried and field moist samples would be the same and the

alternative hypothesis was that air drying will lead to lower P sorption capacity due to an

increase in soluble P upon air drying of soils.

4.2 Materials and Methods

4.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation

The Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee were the three organic soil series of the EAA

considered for this experiment. Sampling was done at 9 sites with three samples collected from









each of the three soil series at two depths along with their replicates. The depth to bedrock was

measured at the time of sampling using an iron rod. The soil samples were collected from the top

40 cm of the soil and sectioned into two depths of cores of 20 cm each at the lab. Thus, 36 total

samples were under consideration. The soil samples were homogenized and stored at 50C at field

moisture content till used for P sorption experiments. A part of each of homogenized sample was

air-dried and crushed to pass 20-mesh sieve (0.8 mm) (Reddy et al, 1998).

4.2.2 Sorption experiment

Sorption experiments were performed to measure the phosphate sorption capacity of these

soil series using field moist and air-dried soil samples. The experiments were carried out at 1:10

soil to solution ratio (Porter and Sanchez, 1992 and Pant and Reddy, 2001). Experiments as

explained in the previous chapters were carried out.

Field moist and air-dry soil samples from the same locations were equilibrated with P

solutions at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4 with 0.01 M KC1 as the ionic

media (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998; Reddy et al, 1998; Giesler et

al., 2005) for 24 hrs at 25C on an orbital shaker. The pH of the ionic medium containing P was

adjusted to 7. The samples were then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and immediately

filtered through 0.45pm membrane HV filter paper (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995;

Reddy et al, 1998; Khalid et al, 1977; Sallade and Sims, 1997; Zhou and Li, 2001; Giesler et al,

2005). The filtrates were analyzed for soluble reactive P by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy &

Riley 1962; Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et al, 2005).

The differences in amounts of P added and P recovered in solution at each P concentration

after equilibration were considered as P adsorbed (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy,

2001). The results were fitted to Q/I graphs that form the sorption isotherm. These Q/I graphs are

non-mechanistic techniques used to assess substance sorption (Essington, 2004). It is a graph of









the equilibrium surface excess or amount of P adsorbed, in mg kg-1, plotted against the

equilibrium solution concentration of P, in mg L-1, at affixed temperature, pressure and solution

chemistry (Essington, 2004). The data was also fitted to Langmuir sorption isotherms and the

sorption coefficients for air dry and field moist soils are presented here.

4.2.3 Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed with SAS/STAT software (SAS Institute, 2002-2003). Paired t-tests

were used to compare treatments (field moist and air-dried samples). The data was checked for

normal distribution as a requirement for the paired t-test and parametric analysis were conducted

once the data was found to be normal.

4.3 Results and Discussion

4.3.1 Quantity/Intensity plots

Figure 4-1 shows the Q/I plots of the three soil series at a depth of 0-20 cm and Figure 4-2

shows the Q/I plots at the 20-40 cm. The Q/I graphs were constructed by taking the solution P

concentration measured after 24hr equilibration in mg L-1 on X-axis and amount ofP sorbed in

the soil (mg kg-1) on Y-axis. It is interesting to note that the curves for the air-dried samples are

similar in shape to those of field moist samples for all soil series, but with a lower equilibrium

point, indicating a lower sorption capacity in air-dried soils. This was true for both soil depths,

which clearly indicates a negative impact of air-drying on P sorption capacity measurement.

Comparing the three soil series, Pahokee had the lowest sorption at both depths for air-dried and

field moist soils. Lauderhill had the highest sorption among the three series for both depths and

in air-dried and field moist soils.

Table 4-1 shows the Smax values calculated from the Langmuir sorption isotherms for two

depths and field moist and air-dry soil. The field moist samples had minimum sorption maxima












(Smax) of 429 mg kg-1 in Dania soil series at a depth of 0-20 cm and a maximum of 6767 mg kg'1


in Lauderhill soil series at 0-20cm depth of the soil profile.


Field moist Air-dried


5000-
a
4000-


4 3000-


----* 2000-


SD* 1000-
* Dania

0-


400 500


5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-


0-


5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-





5000


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000


0-


100 200 300


* Lauderhill

0 100 200 300 400 5


e













iPahokee


300 400


0 100 200


J Dania

0 100 200 300 400 5C


Lauderhill


*"


0 100


5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-


0-
S00


200 300


f







Sitel
SSite2
+ Site3


SPahokee


0 100 200


300 400 500


5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-


0-


C (mg L-)
Figure 4-1. Quantity/intensity plots for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth; a) b)
Dania, c) d) Lauderhill and e) f) Pahokee.













Field moist

a













4 Dania

0 100 200 300 400 5C



C


5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000


01



5000-


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000


0-



5000


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000


0-


0 100 200


0 100 200


5000


4000-


3000-


2000


1000.


00


5000


4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-


0-


300 400 SO0


5000-
e

4000-


3000-


2000-


1000-

Pahokee
0-
300 400 500


Air-dried


0 100 200 3

0 100 200 300


Dania


*


Lauderhill


0 100


300 400 500


Sitel
SSite2
+ Site3




+ Pahokee

0 100 200 300 400 501


C (mg L-)

Figure 4-2. Quantity/intensity plots of P for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth; a) b)

Dania, c) d) Lauderhill and e) f) Pahokee.


The air-dried soil samples had minimum sorption maxima of 624 mg kg'1 for Pahokee at 0-


20 cm and a maximum of 3199 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill at 0-20 cm (Table 4-1).


Lauderhill


I I I I I I









Comparing average values for the 0-40 cm depth, Pahokee has the average Smax with 2453

mg kg-1 in field moist soil and 1460 mg kg-1 for air-dried soil (Table 4-1). The average

maximum value of Smax was observed in Lauderhill at 2672 mg kg-1 for air-dried, and 3887 mg

kg-1 for field moist soil (Table 4-1).


Table 4-1. Smax for the selected soil series measured in air-dried and field moist soils.
Dania Lauderhill Pahokee
Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1 Smax (mg kg-1
Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried
0-20 cm 2313 1684 4731 2784 2179 719
1480 1930 3658 2893 2893 1601
3851 1484 3878 2813 2721 1287

20-40 cm 2540 1653 2307 2629 5253 1478
2440 1701 5260 2352 2721 1656
3781 1793 3486 2558 2352 2019

Average 2734 a 1707 b 3887 a 2672 b 2453 a 1460 b
Means with the same alphabet are significantly not different at 0.05 level.


Table 4-2 shows Smax for the two different soil depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in air-dried and

field moist soils. Average Smax for field moist soil at 0-20 cm and 0-40 cm, 2912 and 3556 mg

kg-1, respectively, were greater than Smax for air-dried samples at 1910 and 2235 mg kg-1,

respectively, for all the three soil series averaged together (Table 4-2). This also true at both

depths for all series taken separately and is depicted in Figure 4-3.



Table 4-2. Comparison of averaged Smax of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth.
Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1)
Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried
0-20cm -20-40cm
Dania 2548 1699 2920 1716
Lauderhill 4089 2830 3684 2513
Pahokee 2098 1202 4065 2476
Average 2912 1910 3556 2235










4.3.2 Effects of drying on P sorption

Sorption abilities of the soil were compared using paired t-test analysis and the data was

normally distributed. Results of a paired t-test of Smax between air-dried and field-moist soils

based on series are presented in Table 4-3.

When data from all series were pooled, P sorption by field moist and air-dried samples

were significantly different at p < 0.001 (Table 4-3). Phosphorus sorption of field moist Pahokee

soils were significantly higher than air-dried soil (p < 0.05) (Table 4-3), with Smax of 2453 mg

kg-1 for field moist greater than Smax of 1460 mg kg-1 for air-dried soil (Table 4-1). Similarly,

Smax for field moist soil was greater than air-dried soil for Lauderhill (p < 0.01) and Dania (p <

0.01) (Table 4-3).

When comparing sorption maxima of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth of

soil (Table 4-4) Smax in surface 0-20 cm is significantly higher in the field moist soil (p < 0.01).

Similarly, at the 20-40 cm depth, Smax of field moist samples is significantly higher than air-dried

samples (p < 0.01) (Table 4-4). On average, the Langmuir sorption maxima of air-dried soil were

lower than field moist soil, which contradicts a similar study by Peltovuori (2007) on mineral

soils wherein the Langmuir sorption maxima for air-dried soil was higher than field moist soil

(Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2).

Figure 4-3 displays mean moist and dried sample P sorption maxima for all soil series

combined and for each soil series individually at 0-40 cm, with highest sorption in Lauderhill

soil. The Smax values for the field moist soils are proportionately greater than air-dried soil (Fig

4-2). Figure 4-4 indicates how air-dried and field moist soils vary in sorption at 0-20 and 20-40

cm depths, and shows that air-drying at any depth will over evaluate the P sorption capacity of

these organic soils.









Table 4-3. Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist soil by soil series.
All soil series Dania
Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1)
Sample Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried
Mean Smax 3025 1946 2734 1707
Variance 2091963 459660 1437978 66653
Observations 36 36 12 12
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 0.00
df 50.00 12.00
t Stat 4.05 2.90
p (T t Critical one-tail 1.68 1.78
P (T t Critical two-tail 2.01 2.18


Lauderhill
Smax (mg kg-1)
Field moist Air-dried
3887 2672
1896551 83637
12 12
0.00
12.00
2.99
0.006
1.78
0.011
2.18


Pahokee
Smax (mg kg-1)
Field moist Air-dried
2453 1460
2062626 418139
12 12
0.00
15.00
2.18
0.02
1.75
0.045
2.13


Table 4-4. Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist samples based on two depths.
0-20cm 20-40cm
Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1)
Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried
Mean Smax 2912 1910 3138 1982
Variance 1994291 620162 2285608 323477
Observations 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 0.00
df 27.00 22.00
t Stat 2.63 3.04
p (T t Critical one-tail 1.70 1.72
p (T Critical two-tail 2.05 2.07









It is clear that air-drying of soil samples has consistently decreased the amount of P sorbed

when samples from the three soil series were pooled, and for each of the three series (Figure 4-

3a), and at all depths (Figure 4-4). Possible explanations for the decreased P sorption values in

air-dried soils could be the increase in available P upon drying. Air- drying can increase

available P by modifying the soil chemistry and soil biology, especially in soils with high

organic matter content and microbial biomass (Schaerer et al., 2003).

A study conducted by Styles and Coxon, 2006, on organic matter rich soils, showed that

drying induced desorbable inorganic P increases to be positively correlated to degree of P

sorption saturation. They also reported a drying induced increase in water extractable P, and

extracted ten times more water extractable P from air-dried soils than field moist soil. They

related the increase in water extractable P to soil organic matter and soil moisture content and

drying induced P release through microbial cell lysis and organic matter destabilization. The

destabilization of soil organic matter and mineralization of organic P in air-dried samples

explained the increase in water extractable P due to organic matter. Pore volume in soils

indicates the reactive surface that is susceptible to drying induced P release. Since soil moisture

content reflects pore volume it also explains the increase in water extractable P in air-dried soil

(Styles and Coxon, 2006). Likelihood that release of fine colloidal P by drying induced

degradation of structures involving organic matter may have contributed to increase in water

extractable P and subsequently a low sorption (Styles and Coxon, 2006).

The results from correlation analysis reported in Chapter 3 (Table 3-4,5 and 6) showed a

significant negative relationship between the water extractable P and Langmuir sorption maxima

of the dried soil throughout the profile. This shows that as the water extractable P increases, the

Smax values of the air-dried soil tend to be lower.
















3000





2000





00oo 1000






Average Dania


Figure 4-3. Average Smax of air-dried and field moist soils at 0-40cm depth.


* Fi~1 ridon11


Lauderhill Pahokee












7000.


60007 20-40



5001:1



,_ 4000


oo 0 3000



2000



1000




A B A B A B Depth
Dania Lauderhill Pahokee Seres
Figure 4-4. Average Smax of air-dried and field moist soils at 0-20cm and 20-40cm for Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee.









Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) recorded the negative effects of increased available P on soil

P sorption and they also recorded drying induced breakdown of organo-mineral complexes thus

increasing P sorption. In this study, the soils have very high soil organic matter levels ranging

between 73-84 % (Chapter 3, Table 3-2), and the former negative effect of available P may have

overcome the effects of increased breakdown of organo-mineral complexes and other possible

reasons mentioned by Peltovuori and Soinne (2005), like increased surface acidity and break

down of internal H+ bonding due to air-drying. According to Peltovuori (2007), the organo metal

complexes release P upon shattering during air-drying and break H bonds. This exposes new

sites for P sorption and causes increase sorption in air-dried soil (Peltovuori, 2007). A tendency

of air-drying to increase the pH and therefore increases P sorption was also observed (Peltovuori,

2007). Fe and Al phosphates release phosphate as pH increases while calcium phosphates

liberate phosphate as pH decreases (Brady and Weil, 1999).

McLaughlin et al. (1981) and Baldwin (1996) reported synthetic Fe Al oxy-hydroxides to

exhibit a decrease in their P sorption capacity upon drying as a consequence of increased

crystallinity. The crystalline form of Fe oxides and oxy-hydroxides adsorb less P due to reduced

surface area than amorphous oxide forms of Fe (Darke and Walbridge, 2000).

Another possible reason for higher P sorption in field moist samples when compared to air-

dried samples could be the decrease in soil to solution ratio in field moist soil. When field moist

samples weight was corrected for moisture content for calculations on an oven-dry basis the soil

to solution ratio decreased. Decreasing the soil solution ratio specifically increases the solute

concentration that enhances the sorption of P in soil (Peltovuori and Soinne, 2005).

4.4 Conclusion

Phosphorus sorption capacity of organic soils in the EAA, specifically Dania, Lauderhill,

and Pahokee, were higher when using field moist vs. air-dried soils. Air-drying seems to have









decreased the ability of these organic soils to adsorb P considerably, which contradicts studies

conducted in mineral soils. Air-drying in mineral soils have shown to increase equilibrium P

concentration and increase the soil's ability to adsorb P. The decrease in P sorption maxima as a

result of air-drying was attributed to a possible increase in water-extractable P during drying and

an inverse association between water-extractable P and P sorption maxima. Another possible

reason is the decreased soil to solution ratio when oven dry weight of the soils is considered.

It is the conclusion of this study that an estimation of P sorption from air-dried samples of

organic soils may not reflect the actual P sorption capacity of the soil. Phosphorus sorption

capacity obtained from air-dried samples in organic soils, which hardly ever dries thoroughly in

the field, may lead to under estimation of that capacity. Use of field moist samples seems to be

more appropriate to obtain relevant data to field conditions.









CONCLUSIONS

The Everglades once under natural conditions and uncultivated was developed for

agriculture in the early 1900s. This development has lead to a change in hydrology and quality of

water as a result of agricultural practices. Cultivation of the organic soils also resulted in organic

matter oxidation and subsidence. The most critical and prevalent water quality issue is related to

P eutrophication in the Everglades. Soils can retain or release P to the soil solution, thus

aggravate or alleviate the situation. This research attempts to study the ability of organic soils of

the EAA to sorb P, the soil characteristics that can be correlated to soil P sorption and to evaluate

how effective the traditional method of sample preparation by air-drying functions as opposed to

using field moist samples.

The organic soils in the EAA are classified taxonomically into soil series based on their

depth, over the limestone bedrock. This study investigated Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee soil

series having variable depths, Dania being the shallowest, Lauderhill intermediate, and Pahokee

being the deepest. High concentrations of P sorbed, from the Langmuir isotherm, showed that P

sorption potential of these organic soils is higher than expected. The results also show that P

sorption maxima of the three soil series differed, which is to say that as the surface depth from

the limestone bedrock varied, the P sorption also varied. There was no correlation between the

depth to bedrock and P sorption or between CaCO3 content and P sorption so depth to bedrock

does not seem to be a major factor controlling P sorption. The data also showed P sorption was

the same at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm in all soils. These results indicate that some soil properties

other than the depth to limestone bedrock and increased calcium carbonate affected the P

sorption process in these soils.

It is difficult to separate the effect of a single parameter in determining the P sorption

capacity of soils since they are often inter-correlated with other parameters. In this study,









significant correlation with such soil properties between P sorption and extractable Fe, Al

content, soil pH, and soil organic matter and these correlations were significant only at surface 0-

20 cm of the soil. The soil organic matter and Fe and Al content of the soil best explained the

variability in sorption. As the organic matter content of these soils increases, the sorption is

decreases. This was mainly attributed to the competition between the phosphate and organic ions

for the P sorption site in the soil matrix. The extractable Fe content had a positive effect on P

sorption. Phosphorus sorption is known to correlate better with extractable Al, though the study

showed little correlation to extractable Al content. This was attributed to very little Al in these

soils. Water-extractable P or soluble P correlated well with P sorption. The soils would have a

lower capacity to sorb P as these soils get saturated and have a high water-extractable P. Soil pH

had a positive and significant relation with P sorption. These correlations strongly point out why

Lauderhill with intermediate depth to bedrock, high Fe and Al content, with higher pH and

lowest soil organic matter, had the highest P sorption capacity. These correlations also explain

why P sorption of Dania, shallowest amongst the three soil series, is lower than Lauderhill, but

higher than Pahokee with the greatest organic matter content.

As a part of this study, air-drying the sample before P sorption experiment was compared

to the field moist samples and air-drying was found to underestimate the P sorption capacity of

these soils. The reason for decreased P sorption may be due to a possible increase in water-

extractable P during drying, a decrease soil to solution ratio when oven dry weight of the field

moist soils is considered, increased crystallinity of Fe and Al oxides. It can be thus concluded

that estimating P sorption of organic soils in the EAA from air-dried samples may not reflect the

actual P sorption capacity of the soil and field moist samples seems to be more appropriate to

obtain relevant data.









APPENDIX
ANOVA FOR THE PH OF THREE SOIL SERIES AT TWO DEPTHS

The analysis of variance test for the equality of pH means for the three soil series is

presented with soil series and soil depth as two factors; the former was taken at 3 levels (Dania,

Lauderhill, and Pahokee) and soil depth at two levels (0-20 and 20-40 cm).


Table A-1. ANOVA for pH for the three soil series at two depths
Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value p
Series 2 3.4 1.72 14.26 <0.0001
Depth 1 0.11 0.11 0.90 0.35
Series*Depth 2 0.32 0.16 1.32 0.28



Table A-2. Least squares means comparison for the three soil series
Dania Lauderhill Pahokee
Dania
Lauderhill 0.3115
Pahokee < 0.0001 0.0004









LIST OF REFERENCES


Abdu, N. 2006. Soil phosphorus extraction methodologies: A review. African J. Ag. Re.
1:159-161.

Anderson, J.M. 1976. An ignition method for determination of total phosphorus in lake
sediments. Water Res. 10:329-331.

Anghinoni, I., V.C. Baligar, and R.J.Wright. 1996. Phosphorus sorption isotherm
characteristics and availability parameters of Appalachian acidic soils.
Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27: 2033-2048.

Axt, J.R., and M.R. Walbridge. 1999. Phosphate removal capacity of palustrine forested
wetlands and adjacent uplands in Virginia. Soil Sci. Soc.Am. J. 63: 1019-1031.

Bertsch, P.M., and P. R. Bloom. 1996. Aluminum. p. 517-549. In D.L. Sparks (ed.)
Methods of soil analysis Part 3: Chemical methods 3rd ed. SSSA and ASA, Book
Ser 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

Borggaard, O. K., S. S. Jorgensen, J. P.Moberg, and Raben-Lange B. 1990. Influence of
organic matter on phosphate adsorption by Aluminum and iron oxides in sandy
soils. J. Soil Sci. 41: 443-449.

Bottcher, A. B., and F. T. Izuno. 1994. Everglades Agricultural area Water, Soil, Crop,
and Environmental Management. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fl.

Brady, N.C., and Weil, R.R. 1999. The nature and properties of soils. 12th ed. Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Bruland, G. L. and C.J. Richardson. 2004. A spatially explicit investigation of
phosphorus sorption and related soil properties in two riparian wetlands. J.
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Lalitha Janardhanan was born in the city of Trivandrum, in Southern India. Her family

settled down in the town of Thrissur, where she finished her high school. She attended the Kerala

Agricultural University, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in agriculture in the

fall of 2002. In September 2003, she married and moved to the United States where her husband

worked. After taking her time to settle down and contemplating her options, she decided to keep

her gray cells working by taking a bio-chemistry course at the Florida Atlantic University in the

fall of 2004. It was by chance that she stumbled upon the Fort Lauderdale Research and

Education Center in Davie and heard about the distance education program. She joined the

University of Florida in August 2005 and will graduate with a Master of Science degree in the

Soil and Water Science Department in the fall of 2007. Upon graduation, she would like to

continue using her knowledge and skill set in soil science at either a public or private

organization, and is also interested in pursuing a Ph.D.





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1 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA By LALITHA JANARDHANAN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Lalitha Janardhanan

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3 To my parents and my husband

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I express my sincere thanks to my advisor Dr. Samira Daroub for her continued support and faith in me. I am extremely grateful to her for the many challenging and thought provoking discussions that brought out the be st in me. Her trust and confidence in me, and her guidance and mentorship throughout the course of my research are sincerely appreciate d. Special thanks also goes to her for going the extra distance in help ing with the academic formalities towards my graduation. I also thank the other members of my committee, Dr. Alan Wright and Dr. Jana Newman, for their support, guidance, knowle dge sharing, and valuable comments. I also thank Ms. Viviana Nadal for having pa tience with me in our lab, helping with conducting hundreds of soil an alysis experiments, and for tutoring me on the many intricacies of the lab. Acknowledgements go out to the Evergl ades Research and Education Center, Belle Glade, for providing the facilitie s to conduct this research. I al so recognize Dr. Orlando Diaz without whom it would have been challenging for me to collect the numerous soil samples to analyze. Statistical assistance provided by Dr. Timothy Lang is greatly appreciated. My sincere thanks to all at the Belle Glade center to help lighten the work atmosphere making many of my trips memorable ones. Thanks also go out to Ms. Lucia Orantes for helping me with conducting some of my soil anal ysis experiments. I am deeply grateful to my parents and my grand parents for encouraging me to pursue further studies upon coming to the United States. Last but not the least, thanks to my husband for his constant encouragement, for standing by me throughout the course of my studies, and having patience during my long stays at the Belle Glade center.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .........8 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ..............9 CHAPTER 1 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY ORGANIC SOILS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA (EAA).........................................................................................11 1.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........11 1.2 Literature Review.......................................................................................................... ...16 1.2.1 Phosphorus sorption isotherms...............................................................................20 1.2.2 Phosphorus sorption index (PSI)............................................................................21 1.2.3 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPCo)....................................................21 1.2.4 Soil properties and P sorption.................................................................................22 1.3 Justification.............................................................................................................. .........23 1.4 Objectives................................................................................................................. ........25 2 COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF THREE EAA SOIL SERIES......................................................................................................................... ..........26 2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........26 2.2 Materials and Methods.....................................................................................................28 2.2.1 Site description.......................................................................................................28 2.2.2 Soil sampling and preparation................................................................................31 2.2.3 Sorption experiment...............................................................................................31 2.2.4 Soil organic matter determination..........................................................................34 2.2.5 Soil pH measurement.............................................................................................34 2.2.6 Statistical analysis..................................................................................................34 2.3 Results and Discussion.....................................................................................................35 2.3.1 Site and sample description....................................................................................35 2.3.2 Langmuir isotherm results......................................................................................36 2.3.3 Sorption maxima of the three soil series................................................................47 2.4 Conclusion................................................................................................................. .......49 3 EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON P HOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF EAA SOILS...................................................................................................................... ......50 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........50

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6 3.2 Materials and Methods.....................................................................................................52 3.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation................................................................................52 3.2.2 Sorption experiment...............................................................................................53 3.2.3 Soil organic matter determination..........................................................................53 3.2.4 Soil pH measurement.............................................................................................53 3.2.5 Calcium carbonate content determination..............................................................53 3.2.6 Extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca and Mg).................................................................54 3.2.7 Total P.................................................................................................................. ..54 3.2.8 Statistical analysis..................................................................................................55 3.3 Results and Discussion.....................................................................................................55 3.3.1 Soil characterization...............................................................................................55 3.3.2 Correlation among the soil proper ties and P sorption parameters..........................59 3.3.2.1 Sorption properties.......................................................................................59 3.3.2.2 Soil properties..............................................................................................67 3.4 Conclusion................................................................................................................. .......72 4 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION IN AIRDRIED AND FIELD MOIST SOIL..........................73 4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........73 4.2 Materials and Methods.....................................................................................................74 4.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation................................................................................74 4.2.2 Sorption experiment...............................................................................................75 4.2.3 Statistical analysis..................................................................................................76 4.3 Results and Discussion.....................................................................................................76 4.3.1 Quantity/Intensity plots..........................................................................................76 4.3.2 Effects of drying on P sorption...............................................................................80 4.4 Conclusion................................................................................................................. .......85 5 CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................................. ........87 APPENDIX: ANOVA FOR THE PH OF THREE SOIL SERIES AT TWO DEPTHS............... 89 LIST OF REFERENCES............................................................................................................. ..90 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.........................................................................................................95

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Organic soil series sampled in the EAA and sel ected properties......................................32 2-2 Smax and k values from the Langmuir sorption isotherm..................................................37 2-3 Analysis of variance for Smax for the 3 soil series at 2 depths..........................................47 2-4 Least Squares Means Comparison for the three series at 0-20 cm...................................49 3-1 Selected soil properties of the soil series investigated......................................................57 3-2 Selected averaged soil prope rties averaged across 0-40 cm.............................................58 3-3 Selected soil prope rties averaged by depth.......................................................................58 3-4 Correlations coefficients in 020 cm of three series in the EAA......................................61 3-5 Correlations coefficients in 2040 cm of three series in the EAA....................................62 3-6 Correlations coefficients in 040 cm of three series in the EAA......................................63 4-1 Smax for the selected soil series measured in air-dried and field moist soils.....................79 4-2 Comparison of averaged Smax of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth........79 4-3 Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist soil by soil series.....................................81 4-4 Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist samples based on two depths..................81 A-1 ANOVA for pH for the thr ee soil series at two depths.....................................................89 A-2 Least squares means c omp arison for the three soil series ............................................... 89

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Florida Everglades watershed area....................................................................................12 1-2 The Everglades Agricultural Area....................................................................................14 2-1 Map of the EAA showing the sampling sites....................................................................30 2-2 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 0-20cm..............................................39 2-3 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 20-40cm ...........................................40 2-4 Linear Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 0-20cm ......................................42 2-5 Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 20-40cm ...............................................43 2-6 Linear Langmuir isotherm fo r Pahokee soil series at 0-20cm .........................................44 2-7 Linear Langmuir isotherm fo r Pahokee soil series at 20-40cm .......................................45 2-8 Linear Langmuir isotherm for all the three soil series at both depths..............................46 2-9 Means Smax for the three series.........................................................................................48 3-1 Relationship between Smax of soils and extractable Fe, Al, pH and organic matter........65 3-2 Relationship between Smax and Pw for air-dried and field moist soils ............................66 3-3 Relationship between soil depth and extr actable Al, Fe, Mg, organic matter, and pH.....69 3-4 Relationship between pH and organic matter, extractable Al and Mg and total CaCO3............................................................................................................................... .71 4-1 Quantity/intensity plots for field mo ist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth....................77 4-2 Quantity/intensity plots of P for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth............78 4-3 Average Smax of air-dried and field mo ist soils at 0-40cm depth......................................83 4-4 Average Smax of air-dried and field mois t soils at 0-20cm and 20-40cm..........................84

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY SOILS OF THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA By Lalitha Janardhanan December 2007 Chair: Dr. Samira Daroub Major: Soil and Water Science The Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), dow nstream and south of Lake Okeechobee in south Florida and once part of the vast Ev erglades, has been drained in the early 20th century for agriculture and flood protection. As a result, th e organic soils in the area are continuously undergoing subsidence and becoming shallower with pH increasing due to organic matter oxidation and mixing with limestone bedrock. In organic phosphorus (P) in excess plays a major role in eutrophication of aqua tic systems adjacent to intensiv ely cultivated, subsiding soils. Understanding of P sorption by thes e intensively cultivated organic soils of the EAA overlying limestone bedrock is important for safeguarding water quality a nd fertilizer management. Our objective was to determine the phos phorus sorption capaci ty of different organic soils in the EAA and determine if P sorption is greater in sh allower soils due to increased pH and calcium carbonate content. We sampled th ree soil series, based on their de pth to bedrock, which varied from less than 51 cm (Dania) to less than 130 cm (Pahokee). Sorption isotherms experiments were conducted and the isotherms fitted to La ngmuir to determine P sorption maxima. These organic soils were found to have a high sorp tion capacity ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1 of inorganic P. The sorption of P varied with soil series and was highest in Lauderhill, which was intermediate in depth. This c ontradicted our hypothesi s that the shallowest soil series had a

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10 higher P adsorption. Phosphorus sorption was the same for the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth in all soils. Soil properties that may affect P adsorption lik e pH, organic matter, total P, available P, water extractable P, calcium carbonate and extr actable Fe, Al, Ca and Mg, were measured. Correlation analysis was conducted to identify the soil factors that best explained P sorption in these histosols. Phosphorus so rption significantly a nd positively correlated with soil pH, extractable Fe and Al and total P and negatively with soil organic matter and water extractable P. Thus, P sorption is higher in soils with lower soil organic matter and wate r extractable P and was not influenced by calcium carbonate content of the soil. Using field moist soils for P adsorption e xperiments also challe nged the conventional method of air-drying and sieving the soil. Air-dr ying the samples resulted in lower P adsorption estimation compared to using field moist soils. This was also true for both 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil depth. The negative impacts of air-drying on P adsorption was credited possibly to an increase in water-extractable P as a result of drying and inverse association between sorption maxima and water extractable P. The decreased soil to solution ratio was also considered to be a factor affecting the higher adsorption in mois t soil samples when compared to the air-dried samples. It was concluded that field moist sample s are more realistic in estimating the P sorption capacity of these histosols. Phosphorus sorption in these organic soils will be affected by increase in mineral matter content as a result of subsiden ce, though the limestone bedrock doe s not seem to affect soils ability to sorb P currently.

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11 CHAPTER 1 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION BY ORGANIC SOILS IN THE EVERGLADES AGRICULTURAL AREA (EAA) 1.1 Introduction Wetland ecosystems are important in water resource management since they have been recognized for their ability to cy cle and retain nutrients such as P and thus reduce potential eutrophication in the down stream waters (Ric hardson, 1985; Gale et al., 1994). In addition to biological uptake, wetlands remove the P from the surface waters through chemical, physical and biological processes such as P sorption and prec ipitation with different forms of Fe, Al and Ca. The term sorption refers to both absorption and sorption of P on the solid surfaces and is an instantaneous reaction of P with soil (Havlin et al., 1999), but P sorption is primarily a physical process. Among the soil variable s that affect P sorption are pH and extractable amorphous and poorly crystalline Fe and Al (Khalid et al, 1977; Reddy et al., 1998) and CaCO3 (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995). The Florida Everglades is an internati onally recognized ecosystem that covers approximately 2 million acres in South Florida an d represents the largest subtropical wetland in the United States. It extends from Lake Ok eechobee southward toward Florida Bay and THE Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1-1). The present day Ev erglades consist of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) and the Everglades Protection Area (EPA). The EAA lies between Lake Okeechobee to the north and the Palm Beach Br oward County border to the south (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). South of the EAA ar e areas of peat soils less su itable for agriculture, and are designated as water-conservation areas (WCAs) (Bottcher and Izuno, 199 4). These areas are maintained in an undeveloped state, but a system of dikes and canals allows water levels to be manipulated to achieve management objectives that include flood control, water supply, and

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12 wildlife habitat. The WCAs and Everglades Nati onal park (ENP) together make up the EPA and are now the surviving remnants of the historical Everglades. Figure 1-1. Florida Evergl ades watershed area. On September 28, 1850 an area of drained peat soil south of Lake Okeechobee was designated for agricultural purposes (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994) and is now known as the EAA. The EAA is a small portion of historic Everglades region, consisting of an artificially drained

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13 area of approximately 283,280 ha of organic soils, which is approximately 14.5% of the historic Everglades (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994) (Figure 1-2). Most of the so ils in the EAA are classified as Histosols. These soils form when the rate of organic matter (OM) accumulation exceeds the rate of decomposition (Snyder, 2005). The EAA is one of those agricultural regions in the state with 204,366 ha under production, providing 40% of the na tions winter vegetables a nd 25% of the nations sugar (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Although this area is an important economic resource, it is also the largest single source of P to the Everglades (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Runoff water containing P from fertilizers in the EAA, as well as other developed areas, have enriched the Everglades which was historically adapted to very low nutrient levels, with P being the limiting nutrient. Phosphorus imports as cattle feed and crop fert ilization were the primary sources of P in the Okeechobee watershed. Based on a detailed budge t constructed for the period of 1985-1989, an annual net amount of 1500 tons of P in fertiliz ers accounted for 51% of P imports, while dairies accounted for 49% (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Most Everglades soils have a circum-neutral pH, particularly when compared to the extremely low values often found in peat soils. Incorporati on of bedrock CaCO3 into soil by tillage, and due to soil subsiden ce, increased pH values consid erably (Zhou and Li, 2001). In some areas, soils pH is excessively high for optimum crop production, especially sugar cane, one of the major crops grown in EAA, which requ ires pH less than 6.6 (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The cation exchange capacity (CEC ) of the organic soil is greater than that of mineral soils (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The CEC of some surface soils in EAA ranged from 100 to 180 centimoles of charge per kg of soil (Bottc her and Izuno, 1994) while CEC of a few common

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14 mineral soils found in Florida range from 9 to 11 centimoles of charge per kg of soil (Brady and Weil, 1999). Figure 1-2. The Everglades Agricultural Area. Excessive nutrient loading, particularly P, ha s severely altered the ecological structure and function of approximately 6000 acres in WCA 1 (Izuno et al., 1991). In the EAA, reported P losses to drainage waters have ranged from 0.5 kg acre-1 to 3.82 kg acreyear-1(Izuno et al., 1991). The EAA is dependent on surrounding areas fo r water storage and s upply. Back pumping of storm water into Lake Okeechobee and disc harging of water into Everglades WCAs contributed to large doses of agricultural contam inants in the ecosystem. The saturated hydraulic

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15 conductivity of EAA and other part s of Everglades is fairly hi gh. Thus drainage can be quite good when a hydraulic gradient and an outlet for excess water are provided. More than 50% of the P discharge from the EAA is a result of sedi ment transport. Approximately 20-70 percent of the total P in water discharged from the EAA is in particulate form (Daroub et al., 2005). Anthropogenic P loading, mainly from the EAA, is the primary cause of eutrophication in the Everglades. Eutrophication occurs when su rface waters become over-enriched with nutrients such as N and P. This stimulates plant and algal growth, which subsequently dies and decomposes; thereby reducing dissolved O2 concentrations in water, which is detrimental to aquatic life and thus changing th e wetland ecosystem (Brady and We il, 1999). An average of 429 tons of P enters the Everglades WCAs each year with approximately 40 % derived from rainfall and the remainder contributed by agricultural runoff (Richards on and Vaithiyanathan, 1995). The state of Florida has adopted several measures to reduce the Everglades eutrophication problems, such as the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in agricultural watersheds and the construction of Storm Water Treatment Areas (STAs). Storm Water Treatment Area is a constructed wetland designed to remove nutrients primarily from agricultural runoff originating within the EAA, while BMPs keep soil and other pollutants out of streams and lakes by protecting water quality and prev enting new pollution. Freshwater wetlands have the ability to remove nutrients but when they get nutrient saturated, they st art acting as a nutrient source. Phosphorus concentrations genera lly decrease with distance downstream from the source areas to a greater degree than could be accounted for by dilution, indicating that the uplands, wetlands and streams assimilate P (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). T hus, it is necessary to examine the capacity of EAA soils to sorb P and understand th e relative stability of retained P.

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16 1.2 Literature Review Phosphorus is a contributing factor to the wide spread negative impacts on environmental quality. Phosphorus is lost from watersheds and wastewater treatment facilities, and the eroded sediments are upsetting streams, lakes, and estuar ies. This causes P eutrophication and results in degradation of water quality. Phosph orus control is therefore a high priority of most national and regional water quality programs. Many of the fres hwater wetlands are impo rtant in acting as a sink for nutrients like P and N fr om point and non-point sources. The potential role of a flooplain in removing inorganic P inputs fr om floodwaters and the runoff ha s been proven very well with the estimated inorganic P sorption maximu m (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Phosphorus accumulation can occur through sedimentation or or ganic matter accumulation and it is released during decomposition of soil organic matter. The released P is usually retained by the wetland through sorption and precipitation reactions. Longterm nutrient retention by soil organic matter is affected by environmental factors like te mperature, hydroperiod and fire (Reddy et al., 1993). The soils of EAA continuously change between nearly flooded and relatively dry conditions, similar to a floodplain, as a result of frequent rainstorms and highly developed drainage systems (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Thus, its role in P cycle is critical. The main mechanism by which P is lost from agricultural land is by runoff, erosion, and leaching. The loss of P in runoff occurs in dissolv ed and particulate P forms. Dissolved P is comprised of unincorporated fertilizer and ma nures on the surface of crop and pastureland and mineralized peat (both air drie d and when field burned), while the P carried away on the eroded sediment forms the particulate P. However, increa sed P input into wetlands has often created an over saturation of soil P, leading to export of P from the wetla nds and flooded areas. Thus, the cycling and retention of soil P within th e soil is of ecological interest.

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17 When inorganic P is added to soil, the solubl e form immediately reacts with soil and then forms less soluble compounds that become increas ingly insoluble with ti me. However, a large proportion of the P that is removed from solution is adsorbed onto soil surfaces. Sorption of P is closely related to characteristics of soil, such as its surface area and is one of the first and reversible reactions to occur (O lsen and Watanabe, 1957). The mineral forms of Fe and Al that are amorphous and less crystalline ad sorb P more than their crystalline forms due to their larger surface area per unit volume of so il (Khalid et al., 1977; Darke and Walbridge. 2000). Based on this concept, it is generally accepted that soils dominated by fine-textured clays and silts will have a higher P sorption capacity than soils dom inated by coarse-textured sands (Bruland and Richardson, 2004; Olsen and Wata nabe, 1957). Research by Olsen and Watanabe also showed that acid soils held more P than alkaline soils assuming both have similar surface area (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957). Acid conditi ons favor the formation of P bound to Fe and Al secondary minerals, whereas more alkaline conditions favor the formation of Ca-bound P (Qualls and Richardson, 1995) The ability of soils to assimilate P de pends on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mainly regulates P retention in the Everglades (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995) and specific sorption is the major mechanism of P retention in most sandy soils of Florid a (Lu and OConnor, 2001). The soils in EAA are mainly histosols that overlie calcareous limestone deposits ranging in depth from about 0.3 to 1 m. Typically these soils have an organi c matter content ranging from 710 to 910 g kg -1 (Porter and Sanchez, 1992) with a rather moderate pH, when compared to the extremely low values often typical of peat soils.

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18 Flaig and Reddy (1995) summarized research accomplishments on biogeochemistry of the soils in the lake Okeechobee watershed, which cons ist of Spodosols, Histosols and Entisols, with the majority being Spodosols. They found greater P retention in soils with shallow and welldeveloped spodic horizons where 49 % of total P was associated w ith Fe and Al. Components of spodic horizons are less crystalline, rich in C and metal humates (Z hou et al., 1997) and are formed as a result of organic matter accumu lation (USDA /NRCS, 1999). Thus, spodic horizons with high organic matter content are comparable to organic soils. Aluminum-organic matter complexes are responsible for the high sorpti on capacity of the spodi c horizon (Zhou et al., 1997). Oxalate extractable Fe and Al have also b een shown to be reliable predictors of the P sorption capacity of peat soils in the Everglades (Reddy et al., 1998; Giesler et al., 2005). Khalid et al. (1977) suggested that there is a positive relationship between ammonium oxalateextractable Fe content of soils and P adsorbed under flooded conditions. In fact, the areas with predominately mineral soils and high amorphou s Al content are bette r P sinks (Richardson, 1985), since these Fe and Al oxyhydroxides minera ls control inorganic P sorption in many wetlands (Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Sallade and Sims, 1997). Studies on peat soils have shown that accumulation of Al and Fe in orga nic soils increases the capacity of phosphate sorption and that phosphate sorpti on is positively correlated to am ounts of extractable Fe and Al (Richardson, 1985; Giesler et al., 2005). In wetla nd soils and stream sediments impacted by dairy effluent in Florida, ammonium oxalate-extract able Fe and Al accounted for 87% of P sorption (Reddy et al., 1998). The Fe in EAA are mostly pr esent in labile forms while Al is mostly present as solid phases, as shown by the ratio of th e extractable Al to the total Al averaged about 0.1 (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). Phosphorus associated with Fe and Al oxyhydroxides accounted for 17-43% of the total P in we tland soils (Flaig and Reddy, 1995).

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19 Flooding induced changes in crystallinity is reported to strongly influence Fe biogeochemistry, suggesting the importance of redox reactions, while such changes have no or little effect on Al biogeochemistr y. Changes in crystallinity occurs due to changes brought about by redox reactions (Patrick and Khalid, 1974; Darke and Walbridge, 2000) and due to the dissolution of ferrous Fe upon fl ooding followed by their re-precipitation into amorphous forms when drained (Vadas et al, 1999). In humus soils with an inhere nt high content of Al and Fe, phosphate sorption capacity may be affected by competition for sorption sites by dissolved organic carbon (Giesler et al, 2005), thus indicating the importa nce of detecting the amorphous Fe and Al content for sorption capacity of EAA soils. Giesler et al, 2005, also reported that competition for sorption sites between phosphate and anions, especially organic anions are likely to be high in a matrix of humus rich so ils where organic C is about 30% or more. The soils of EAA frequently change betwee n nearly flooded and relatively dry conditions contributing to the rapid changes in moisture co ntent (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). It has also been reported that the effect of high water table on the soil redox potential is likely to be more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil. In tops oil flooding and decrease in redox potential results in decreased P sorption capacity and increased solution P concentrations (Vadas et al, 1999). Therefore, P losses through surface runoff and sha llow sub-surface discharge are likely to impact the water quality than P leaching via deeper gr ound water flow (Vadas et al, 1999). Richardson and Vaithiyanathan (1995) showed that phosphate sorption primarily occurs in surface soils of WCA-2A where water forms a permanent sheet over the wetland. The capacity of flooded soil to release P to a solution low in P and to sorb fr om a solution high in P is dependent on the amount of dissolved inorganic orthophosphate within th e soil/sediment (Patrick and Khalid, 1974). These reactions determine the fate of P and hence its environmental impact.

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20 1.2.1 Phosphorus sorption isotherms Phosphorus sorption isotherms are useful to quantify P sorption pr ocesses by soils and sediments and were successfully used to char acterize an organic soils ability to remove dissolved inorganic P from soluti on (Richardson 1985). Isotherms ar e graphical tools for visual comparison of P sorption relationships as a f unction of soil properties. In these sorption experiments soils are shaken well with known amounts of P and then equilibrated. The amount of P remaining in the solution is then analy zed. The differences in amounts of P added and P recovered in solution at each con centration after equili bration are considered P adsorbed by soil or sediment (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). These values are then plotted in a graph that forms the sorption isotherm. There ar e different methods to determine the P sorption maximum of soils, such as Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir Isotherm, or using the linear model. Langmuir isotherm model: the Langmuir equation is an accepted and widely used means to describe the solid-solution reactions in soils. Olsen and Watanbe (1957) originally demonstrated the potential of the equation in studying P sorption, which was also supported by Vadas and Sims (1999). This model applies to relatively smaller amounts of adsorbed P and when more dilute equilibrium P concentrations are used (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; McGechan, 2002). Langmuir sorption isotherm equation provid es both an estimate of sorption capacity and an estimate of the average sorption strength of the soil (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). It also provides a quantitative es timate of the effect of soil conditions on P sorption (Vadas et al, 1999). Phosphorus sorption maximum (Smax) values and bonding energy (k) values can be determined using a modified Langmuir model (Reddy et al., 1998). The Smax is closely related to characteristic property of soil like surface area and to initial reaction between solution P and soil (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957).

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21 The Freundlich isotherm model: this model applies to a wide range of equilibrium P concentration (EPCo) and larg e amounts of adsorbed P, and does not calculate the Smax value (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957), unlike Langmuir isotherm. 1.2.2 Phosphorus sorption index (PSI) Phosphorus sorption index is another reliab le gauge of P sorption potential in soil (Richardson 1985; Sallade and Sims, 1997; Brul and and Richardson, 2004). It is less time consuming than multiple point P sorption and facilitates easy comparison with related soil properties (Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbri dge, 2000). Extractable amorphous Fe and Al have been shown to predict PSI (Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Bruland and Richardson, 2004). Bruland and Richardson (2004) de termined the PSI by shaking a sterilized soil sample with a solution of 130 mg P L-1 for 24 h. The difference in concentr ation of inorganic P between the initial and final concentration represents the amount of P sorbed. The index is then calculated as X (log C)-1, where X is the amount of P sorbed (mg P 100 g soil-1) and C is the final inorganic P concentration in solution (mg P L-1) (Bruland and Richardson, 2004) 1.2.3 Equilibrium Phosphorus Concentration (EPCo) Equilibrium P Concentration is the soluble P concentration in equilibrium with soil at which, neither net sorption nor desorption occurs. Equilibrium P Concentration is an important property associated with a soil /solution mixture (Pant and Re ddy, 2001). Theoretically, if the P concentration of the floodwater/ r unoff water were to increase due to some external loading, then more P would be sorbed to rees tablish this equilibrium and if the P concentration were to decrease then more P would be released into the flood water / runoff water until this equilibrium is reached

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22 In short, soils with a high EPCo value will have a greater tendency to desorb (release) soluble P. Lower EPCo values would suggest that this particular soil has a decreased tendency to release P. Thus, if the EPCo decreases, the soil would be expected to adsorb P from run off waters (Philips, 2001; Litaor et al 2005). Therefore, EPCo values help in determining the ability of soil to sorb or desorb P. To sum up, EPCo values indicates the extent of P loading onto soils, i.e. increases in these values reflect increases in P loading and soils with higher EPCo values would be expected to release P into runoff waters. 1.2.4 Soil properties and P sorption In an effort to understand the biogeochemist ry of P in uplands, wetlands and streams of Okeechobee watershed, an interdisciplinary resear ch was conducted and P retention was found to increase linearly with P loading up to a concentration of 6 mg L with 56-88 % of added P retained by stream sediments and 23-87 % retain ed by the wetland soils (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). It was also observed that when highly loaded, soils and sediments were in contact with low P rainwater, 2-9 % of applied P was released from non-impacted sites, compared to 14 28 % of applied P released from highly lo aded sites (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Porter and Sanchez (1992) studied few EAA so ils (18) and showed the histosols that are drained and cultivated had incr easing ash content, which was hi ghly correlated with P sorption. The objective of their study was to identify soil properties in EAA that are related to P sorption, and they significantly correlated PSI with ash content, pH, water-soluble P, free carbonate, extractable and total Ca and extractable and to tal Fe. Porter and Sanchez also (1992) observed that EAA histosols that were high in ash content were also high in pH, total Ca, and free carbonate content. They were also able to establish a significant correlation between ash content and P retention capacity of the EAA soils that were studied, though ma jority of EAA soils

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23 currently represent low ash types. The study also forecasted that, as the EAA soils subside and mineralize, more soil volume will be influen ced by the underlying limestone bedrock and that the sorption precipitation reactions of P by exchangeable Ca or carbonate minerals will probably increase (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). Snyder (2 005), upon studying the various soil series in EAA, observed an increase in mineral content of the soil and decrease in the organic matter content due to subsidence, as was seen in Torry se ries, and postulated that the rate of subsidence may decrease in the future. As the mineral cont ent increases, the amount of extractable metals increases along with ash content (Porter and Sa nchez, 1992) in comparison to organic matter, which will affect the P sorption capacity of these soils. Though the soils in EAA have the ability to rem ove nutrients for the short term, they serve as a nutrient source to its downstream system. Land changes like subsidence, and changes in cultural and management practices during agriculture, have resu lted in a reduction of nutrient loading to the Everglades ecosystem (Flaig and Reddy, 1995). Thus, it is necessary to examine the nutrient cycling process in relatio n to the changed soil environment. 1.3 Justification Porter and Sanchez (1992) studied the effect of soil properties on P sorption by the organic soils of the EAA. After many years of P loadi ng on the EAA soils, along with subsidence and the best management practices that were implemente d to reduce the P losses to the drainage water by reducing the extractable P level, attention needs to be focused back on the EAAs ability to sorb P and the related soil properties. In the E AA, oxidation of organic matter under drained conditions accounted for soil loss of about 3 cm yr-1 (Reddy et al., 1993; Snyder 2005). The capacity of flooded soils to release or adsorb P is dependent on numerous soil parameters like the amount of dissolved inorga nic orthophosphate within the soil (Patrick and Khalid, 1974) and other soil proper ties like oxalate extractable Fe suspension pH (Khalid et al,

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24 1977), soil organic matter (Porter and Sanchez, 1992) and extractable Al (Reddy et al, 1998; Giesler, 2005). Greater sorption capacity has most often been attr ibuted to the re duction of Fe hydroxides, their dissolution and th eir re-precipitation in amorphous forms, which have a much greater surface area and therefore a greater P sorp tion capacity (Khalid et al ., 1977) as a result of flooding and draining the soil. Sinc e most of the Histosols in the EAA are underlain by dense limestone rock, (Snyder, 2005) CaCO3 content of the soil from the underlying bedrock may also influence the soil volume and aff ect P sorption. The P cycle in hist osols is quite complex (Porter and Sanchez, 1992) due to high soil organic matter content, Fe transformations when the histosol undergoes a periodic wet and dry cycle, the orga nic forms of P present in these soils, and the underlying limestone bedrock and a higher pH when compared to other histosols. These soils are also shallow and poorly drained leading to thei r higher soil moisture content and resulting in frequent changes in soil systems (Bottcher a nd Izuno, 1994), and thus adding to the complexity. Studying how well the soil properties correlate with P sorption will help us better understand the P cycle of these histosols, which is different from other peat soils. Phosphorus sorption experiments and research have been conducted on the EAA soil with air-dried soil samples to correlate the soils ability to adsorb P with other soil properties like soil organic matter, Al and Fe content, etc like th at conducted in 1992 by Port er and Sanchez. Only scant attention has been given to an altern ate methodology such as using a field moist soil sample for P isotherm analysis. The soils of EAA continuously change between nearly flooded and relatively dry conditions as a result of frequent rainstorms and highly developed drainage systems (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). Since these so ils are never completely dry, an alternate method of using field moist samples to determ ine the P sorption capacity may lead to more realistic results.

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25 Air-dried soils might underestimate the oxalate extractable Fe and Al (Reddy et al, 1998) and the presence of organo-metal complexes co uld considerably increase the inorganic P sorption capacity of flood plai n soils (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). The disruption of organic matter (Turner, 2005) and other changes caused by drying may alter the P sorption significantly (Peltovouri, 2007). Moreove r air-dried samples pose to be a problem when soils under study are subsoil in cool and humid climates because these soils are hardly ever dry thoroughly in the field (Peltovuori, 2007). It is thus n ecessary to examine how the results and interpretations vary when an alternative methodology with fiel d moist soil sample is used. This study is intended to give an idea about the present soil conditions and soil properties that affect P sorption potential and how air-dried and field moist samples alter the estimation of P sorption. Thus the following hypotheses we re tested in this research. 1. Phosphorus sorption capacity is diffe rent in organic soils in rela tion to their depth to bedrock. 2. Phosphorus sorption capacity wi ll increase sign ificantly with increased active carbonate content. 3. Phosphorus sorption capacity will significantl y increase with increased amorphous Fe content in soils. 4. The P sorption capacity estimated using air-dried samples and field moist samples would be the same. 1.4 Objectives The objectives of th is study are to: 1. Determine the sorption capacity of selected soil s in the EAA in relation to depth to bedrock. 2. Determine the sorption capacity of sub surface a nd below surface layers of selected soils in the EAA 3. Investigate the relationship be tween the selected physio-che mical characteristics and P sorption capacities of selected soils in the EAA 4. Evaluate the differences in P sorption using air-dried samples and field moist samples.

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26 CHAPTER 2 COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF THREE EAA SOIL SERIES 2.1 Introduction The Everglades is a subtropical fresh water we tland and is comprised of sawgrass marshes, open water sloughs, wet prairies, and tree islands. The Everglades is a P limited naturally oligotrophic peat land and runoff flowed sout hward as a sheet flow. Land use changes and changes in water management practices have caused increased P loading (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995). The added inputs of P are largely responsible fo r eutrophication, which may jeopardize drinking water supplies and can severe ly restrict the use of these aquatic systems for fisheries, recreation, industry, and aesthetic s (Brady and Weil, 1999) in downstream EAA. The soils in the EAA are predominantly histosol s, with muck and peat deposits, and a soil depth ranging from less than 0.3 m to 4.0 m that overlie calcareous deposits. Organic matter contents within the upper 21-cm profile of the E AA Histosols soils range from 33% to more than 85% (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The organic soils in the EAA are classified within the Histosol soil order, based on high organic matter composit ion and the absence of consistently frigid conditions (Rice et al., 2005). The organic soils of the EAA lack strong evidence of horizon development, and are therefore classified as Hapl osaprists and further sub classified as series based on depth of the organic soil profile over the limestone bedrock, or saprist material or sandy material (Rice et al., 2005). The Pahokee, Lauderhil l, and Dania series have thinner layers of organic materials overlying the lime stone bedrock and are Lithic Haplosaprists (Rice et al., 2005). Subsidence is the lowering of the land surface el evation as a result of draining organic soils and compaction due to agricultural practices. Hist osols contain a minimum of 20 to 30% organic matter, by weight, depending on the clay content. The organic soils of the EAA are continuously

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27 undergoing transitional processes because of ongoing subsidence effects resulting from the aerobic mineralization of OM. The mineral matter within the organic soil profile over time may become a major component of the soil matrix as the subsidence continues (Snyder, 2005). In peat and muck soils (which are typically acidic), organi c acids contribute significantly to acidity (Havlin et al., 1999). The pH values fo r most organic soils in the world range from 3.7 to 7.8 as measured in water (Bottcher and Izuno, 1994). The acidity of orga nic soils is typically controlled by the presence of or ganic compounds, exchangeable H+ and Al, Fe sulfide, and other S minerals (Bottcher and Izuno, 199 4). The majority of organic soils of the EAA are neutral to alkaline in nature due to the underlying lim estone (marl or shell) (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Qualls and Richardson, 1995) calcareous dust or washings from roads and ditch banks, and burning (the ash from burning 30 cm of organic soil ma y raise the pH more than one unit) (Bottcher and Iz uno, 1994). Thus, P chemistry of th ese alkaline organic soils of the EAA is unique and complex. Phosphorus concentrations in soil solution a nd its movement in soils are controlled by fixation, adsorption, precipitati on, and solubility of P contai ning minerals (Brady and Weil, 1999). The concentration of P in soil so lution is very low, ranging from 0.0001 mg L-1 in very infertile soil to 1.0 mg L-1 in rich, heavily fertilized soils (B rady and Weil, 1999). Storage of P in wetlands depends on removal of dissolved inorga nic P from the water by microbial and plant uptake, soil sorption and incor poration of organic P into so il peat (Richardson, 1985) and sedimentation (Qualls and Richardson, 1995). Phosphor us being a critical el ement in natural and agricultural ecosystems and also in environmenta l degradation, its use an d its movement in the environment need to be closely monitored.

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28 The mechanism by which P is removed is though t to be a sorption pr ocess rather than a precipitation process (Patrick a nd Khalid, 1974). Phosphorus sorpti on is a physical process and a mechanism by which the P is adsorbed to soil on the soil surfaces as a result of an instantaneous reversible reaction whereby phosphate is adsorb ed by anion exchange or when phosphate ion replaces a hydroxyl group in the surface structur e of Al or Fe hydroxides in the soil (Brady and Weil, 1999). Phosphorus sorption is quantifie d successfully with P sorption isotherms (Richardson, 1985). These are graphical tools used to characterize the ability of histosols to remove inorganic P from soil solution (Richard son, 1985), and help in visual comparison of P sorption relationship as a functi on of soil properties (Olsen and Watanbe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). The Langmuir equation is used in this stu dy to quantify the P adsorbed. It is an accepted and widely used method to desc ribe solid-solution reactions in soils. Olsen and Watanbe (1957) demonstrated the potential of the Langmuir equation in studying the P sorption reaction. The equation is easy to apply and provides constants related to th e soil P sorption maximum and the bonding energy of P to soils and is undoubtedly usef ul for providing quantitative estimates of the effect of soil conditions on P sorption (Vadas and Sims, 1999). Questions concerning the differences among alkaline organic soils of the EAA to sorb P and the mechanism controlling soil sorption of P need to be answered to understand how subsidence and how added inputs of P have affected the EAAs ability to retain P. 2.2 Materials and Methods 2.2.1 Site description Soils were sampled from nine sites near Bell e Glade, FL (Figure 2-1). The soil types were classified as Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee base d on their depth to bedrock. All of these three soil series are histosols with organic matter co ntent ranging from 60-90% OM according to the

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29 soil survey of Palm Beach county in year 1978 (USDA, 1978). Histosols in the EAA are very similar. Dania series (Euic, hyperthermic, shallow Lith ic Haplosaprists) consists of shallow, very poorly drained, rapidly permeable organic soils in fresh water ma rshes or swamps on the fringes of areas of deeper organic soils. They are formed in thin beds of well decomposed, hydrophytic and non-woody plant remains. The water table is at depths of le ss than l0 inches for 6 to 12 months except during extended dry seasons. During wet seasons these soils are flooded. They rest on limestone at a depth less than 51 cm (USD A, 1978; USDA-NRCS, 1999). All the 3 sites sampled from Dania were under sugarcane at their early stages of development. Lauderhill series (Euic, hyperthermic Lithic Ha plosaprists) consists of nearly level and very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils formed in organic deposits of fresh water marshes, those are 51-91 cm thick over the limestone bedrock (USDA-NRCS, 1999). The first site sampled from Lauderhill was under sugarcan e cropping. The second site was fallow and previously cultivated for sugarcane. The thir d site sampled was cropped for sweet corn. Pahokee series (Euic, hyperthermic Lithic Hapl osaprists) consists of very poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils formed in organic depos its of freshwater marshes that are 91-130 cm thick over the limestone bedrock (USDA-NRCS, 1999) All the three sites in Pahokee seemed to have been disk ploughed. In Pahokee the first tw o sites sampled were under sugarcane, at their early stages of development. Th e third site however was under thic k leaved corn variety, mostly used as fodder. All three series when found under natural enviro nmental conditions the water table is at or above the surface for much of the year; in other areas man controls the water table. These three soil types are closely associated and the difference between them is related to their soil depth (O

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30 horizon) from the limestone bedrock and has be en classified based on O horizon depth for the limestone bedrock. Figure 2-1. Map of the EAA showing the sampling sites.

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31 2.2.2 Soil sampling and preparation The sampling was done at 9 sites (three sites per soil series) with two sa mples from each site. The soil samples were collected and were sectio ned into two cores of 20cm each, 0-20 and 2040cm, at the lab. Thus a total of 36 samples we re collected. The depth to bedrock was measured at the time of sampling. Table 2-1 gives the sa mpling details of all three series sampled. The soil samples were homogenized and stored at 5oC at field moisture content till they were used for P sorption experiments. A part of each of the homogenized samples was air-dried for 24 h and crushed to pass 20-mesh sieve (Reddy et al, 1998) and stored. 2.2.3 Sorption experiment These Quantity/Intensity (Q/I) graphs are non-mechanistic techni que used to assess substance sorption (Essington, 2004). It is a graph of the equilibrium surface excess or amount of P adsorbed, in mg kg-1, plotted against the equilibrium solu tion concentration of P, in mg L-1, at affixed temperature, pressure and solution chemistry (Essington, 2004). The Q/I Experiments were carried out at a soil to so lution ratio of 1:10. Three g of field moist was mixed with 30 ml of P solution (Porter and Sanchez, 1992 and Pant and Reddy, 2001) containing 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4 (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998). Field moist sediment samples were subjecte d to a similar methodology by Pant and Reddy (2001). An ionic medium like KCl helps to redu ce the pH dependant sorption unlike when only water is used and KCl at 0.01M concentrations wa s used this study (Giesler et al., 2005). The pH of the ionic medium containing P was adjusted to 7. The soil was not sterilized with toluene as these inhibitors are shown to lyse the microbial cells and increase dissolved P (Reddy et al, 1998).

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32 Table 2-1. Organic soil series sampled in the EAA and selected properties. No. Series Length Depth Cropping history GPS coordinates Organic matter pH (cm) (cm) Latitude Longitude (%) 1 Dania 1 A 0-20 46.1 Sugarcane 26.56 -80.62 81 7.3 2 Dania 1 B 20-40 64 7.2 3 Dania 2 A 0-20 48.7 Sugarcane 26.56 -80.62 82 6.9 4 Dania 2 B 20-40 65 7.4 5 Dania 3 A 0-20 45.2 Sugarcane 26.54 -80.68 83 7.1 6 Dania 3 B 20-40 36 7.7 7 Dania 4 A 0-20 48.3 Sugarcane 26.54 -80.68 82 7.3 8 Dania 4 B 20-40 70 7.4 9 Dania 5 A 0-20 45.5 Sugarcane 26.56 -80.66 78 7.8 10 Dania 5 B 20-40 80 8.0 11 Dania 6 A 0-20 43.2 Sugarcane 26.56 -80.66 80 7.3 12 Dania 6 B 20-40 78 7.8 13 Lauderhill 1 A 0-20 78.1 Sugarcane 26.66 -80.63 77 7.5 14 Lauderhill 1 B 20-40 81 7.3 15 Lauderhill 2 A 0-20 58.7 Sugarcane 26.66 -80.63 63 7.6 16 Lauderhill 2 B 20-40 80 7.3 17 Lauderhill 3 A 0-20 61.0 Corn 26.66 -80.63 75 8.0 18 Lauderhill 3 B 20-40 79 7.6 19 Lauderhill 4 A 0-20 90.2 Sugarcane 26.66 -80.63 79 7.4 20 Lauderhill 4 B 20-40 80 7.3 21 Lauderhill 5 A 0-20 77.0 Sugarcane 26.65 -80.63 78 6.9 22 Lauderhill 5 B 20-40 79 7.0 23 Lauderhill 6 A 0-20 72.6 Corn 26.66 -80.63 78 6.8 24 Lauderhill 6 B 20-40 78 6.8 25 Pahokee 1 A 0-20 111.8 Sugarcane 26.76 -80.51 84 6.7 26 Pahokee 1 B 20-40 86 6.1 27 Pahokee 2 A 0-20 96.5 Sugarcane 26.76 -80.51 84 6.2 28 Pahokee 2 B 20-40 85 6.8 29 Pahokee 3 A 0-20 91.7 Corn 26.76 -80.51 81 7.1 30 Pahokee 3 B 20-40 83 7.2 31 Pahokee 4 A 0-20 93.3 Sugarcane 26.76 -80.52 80 6.9 32 Pahokee 4 B 20-40 83 7.1 33 Pahokee 5 A 0-20 96.1 Sugarcane 26.76 -80.51 83 6.6 34 Pahokee 5 B 20-40 85 6.9 35 Pahokee 6 A 0-20 116.8 Corn 26.76 -80.51 84 6.4 36 Pahokee 6 B 20-40 87 6.7 0-20 cm 20-40 cm Length of profile Depth to bedrock

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33 The soil samples with P solutions were shaken for 24 hrs at 25oC on an orbital shaker, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min a nd immediately filtered through 0.45 m membrane HV filter paper (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998; Khalid et al, 1977; Sallade and Sims, 1997; Zhou and Li, 2001; Giesler et al, 2005). The filtrates were later analyzed for P by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy and R iley, 1962) using an ALPKEM segmented-flow 650nm analyzer (2001) (Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et al, 2005). The difference in amounts of P added and recovered in solution at each con centration after equilibration was considered P adsorbed (Olsen and Watanabe, 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). The results were later fitted to graphs that form the sorption isotherm and we re summarized using the Linear Langmuir sorption equation, and P sorption maximum and other P re tention parameters were determined. The equation for the Linear Langmuir isotherm is as follows (Pant and Reddy, 2001; Essington, 2004): C/S = 1/(k Smax) + C/Smax where C = Solution P concentration measur ed after 24 hour equilibration (mg L ) S = Amount of P sorbed in solid phase (mg kg ) Smax = P sorption maximum (mg kg ) k = Sorption constant related to P bonding energy (L mg ) the Linear Langmuir isotherm was constructed by plotting C/S Vs Smax, such that slope is equal to 1/Smax and the intercept is equal to 1/(k Smax) (Pant and Reddy, 2001). In the equation the sorption constant k, which is related to bonding energy of the soil for phosphate, is equal to the reciprocal of equilibrium P concentration at one half saturation (Olsen and Watanbe, 1957). The high concentration of P is not used if the precipitation of carbonate surface is likely the dominant process (Zhou and Li, 2001) but because Ca and pH may not be sufficiently high to

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34 cause precipitation (Flaig and Reddy, 1995) with soils from the EAA. Comparatively higher P concentrations are used in this study. 2.2.4 Soil organic matter determination Soil organic matter was determined by the loss-on-ignition-method. The loss of weight between soils dried to a constant weight at 105oC in an oven and soil held at 400oC to a constant weight in a muffle furnace overnight were used to calculate the loss of ignition (USDA-NRCS, 1996; Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The soil organi c matter is then calculated based on the net oven-dry basis. 2.2.5 Soil pH measurement Ten g of field moist soil was mixed with 20-mL of deionized (DI) water. The solution was mixed for 10 min and remained undisturbed for 30min before determination using a pH meter (Thomas, 1996). 2.2.6 Statistical analysis Data were analyzed with SAS/STAT software (SAS Institute, 2002-2003) for analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. Linear re gression analysis was performed to construct Langmuir isotherm and then to determine the P sorption maxima. The data was checked for normal distribution and homogeneity as a requir ement for the ANOVA and parametric analysis were conducted once the data was found to be normal and homogeneous. The field design was a completely randomized design. The ANOVA was run using PROC GLM proce dure with the soil series, at three levels (Dania, Lauderhill, and Pa hokee), and soil depth at two levels (0-20 and 2040 cm), as the two factors. After conducting A NOVA when the null hypothe sis was rejected the pdiff option for multiple comparisons in SAS was us ed to compare lsmeans, to detect which soil series differed from each other.

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35 2.3 Results and Discussion 2.3.1 Site and sample description Dania. All the 3 sites sampled from Dania were under sugarcane at their early stages of development, and theses sites have been under the same crop in the previous season. All three sites were sampled on February 23, 2007. First sample from the second site at lower depth (20-40cm), soil sample 6 in Table 2-1, was clayey in texture and had very low soil orga nic matter 36 % (Table 2-1). These samples had rocks, unlike other samples, and CaCO3 probably a part of the bedrock. The soil sample 4 (Table 2-1) from first site at 20-40cm depth also clayey in texture, though the organic matter content wa s 65 % (Table 2-1). The soil samp le 10 (Table 2-1) from the third site at 20-40 cm with 78 % (T able 2-1) soil organi c matter was also clayey in texture. The organic matter was very well decomposed in th e lower part of the profile in all sites. Lauderhill. The first site was under sugarcane cropping, and was previously cultivated for vegetables. The second site was currently fall ow and has been previously cultivated for sugarcane, while the third site at the time of sampling was cropped for sweet corn. Sampling for Lauderhill series was done on March 5, 2007. The samples from theses sites were mostly w ith fibrous and partiall y decomposed organic matter that formed bulk of the soil in the lowe r 20-40 cm. While second sample; soil 16 (Table 2-1), in the first site was very fibrous and brownish at 20-40 cm, the first sample; soil 14 (Table 2-1), of second site at 20-40 cm was less fibrous with very dark hue and with a rotten egg smell. The samples from the third site at 20-40 cm had pieces of cane in th eir initial stages of decomposition. All these samples have a soil organic matter content of 78-79 %.

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36 Pahokee. The first two sites sampled in Pahokee were under sugarcane cultivation, which were at their early stages of development. The third site however was under a thick leaved corn variety. Sampling for Pahokee sites was done on March 16, 2007. All the samples were generally very dry a nd hydrophobic. The second sample, soil 27 and 28 (Table 2-1), from first site had a lot of can e litter. The litter was removed at the time of sample preparation and before the experiments. 2.3.2 Langmuir isotherm results Sorption coefficients including adoption maxima (Smax) in mg kg-1and the sorption constant (k) related to P bonding energy in L mg-1 are presented in Table 2-2. Sorption maximum ranged from a low of 1481 mg kg-1 in Dania at 0-20 cm soil depth to a high of 5260 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill at 20-40 cm soil depth. Dania. Langmuir isotherms for the three Dania sites at 0-20 cm depth are presented in Figure 2-2 and for the 20-40 cm depth in Figure 2-3. The average Smax for Dania soils was 2734 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). The sorption maxima in Dania ranged from 1481 to 3851 mg kg-1 at 0-20 cm depth with an average of 2548 mg kg-1at 0-20 cm. The regression lin es for first two sites in Dania seem to follow the same pattern in Figure 22 while for third site regression lines seem to have a less steep slope and a higher sorpti on in comparison, corresponding to their Smax values, which are 1481, 2313, and 3781 mg kg-1 respectively (Table 2-2) At the 20-40 cm depth, the first two sites have very similar slop es (Figure 2-3) with 2440 and 2540 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2) and third site has a much less steeper slope with Smax of 3781 mg kg-1. Comparing the Langmuir isotherms for the two dept hs in Dania, it is observed that at the first two sites the regression lines are much st eeper (Figure 2-2 and 23) and with a lower sorption values at surface 0-20 cm (Table 2-2) than at 20-40 cm. While at third site P sorption at

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37 surface 0-20 cm is slightly greater than at 20-40 cm with 3851 and 3781 mg kg-1 of P sorption maxima values respectively (Table 2-2). The P Smax in Dania being higher in the 20-40 cm th an the 0-20 cm may be related to the shallowness of the Dania soils and that the lowe r depth is quite close to limestone bedrock, so CaCO3 may have affected the P sorp tion. It is also observed that third site has a much higher P sorption than the first two sites and this might be due to it being the shallowest, 43.2 cm deep (Table2-1), of the three sites sampled in Dania soil series. Lauderhill. Langmuir isotherms for Lauderhill soils are presented in Figure 2-4 for the 020cm depth and in Figure 2-5 for the 20-40cm depth. The average Smax was 4089 mg kg-1 for the 0-20 cm and 3684 mg kg-1 for the 20-40 cm (Table 2-2). The sorption maximum in Lauderhill ranged from a low of 2307 to a high of 5260 mg kg-1 both at 20-40 cm depth with an average of 3887 mg kg-1. Table 2-2. Smax and k values from the Langmuir sorption isotherm. Depth Dania Lauderhill Pahokee (cm) Smax (mg kg-1) k (L/mg) Smax (mg kg-1) k (L/mg) Smax (mg kg-1) k (L/mg) 0-20 1481 -0.028 4732 0.011 2179 0.005 20-40 2440 0.021 2307 0.030 5253 0.003 0-20 2313 0.007 3658 0.015 2416 0.006 20-40 2540 0.014 5260 0.014 1889 0.006 0-20 3851 0.010 3878 0.015 1699 0.020 20-40 3781 0.015 3486 0.012 1286 0.010 Averages 0-20 2548 a -0.004 4089 b 0.014 2098 a 0.010 20-40 2920 a 0.016 3684 b 0.019 4065 a 0.014 0-40 2734 0.006 3887 0.016 2453 0.008 Means with same letter are not statis tically different at the 0.05 level At Lauderhill sites all three Langmuir isotherm s were quite similar for the surface 0-20 cm, with the second and third site a little steeper than the first (Figure 2-4) Their corresponding Smax

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38 values are 4732, 3658, and 3878 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). At 20-40 cm de pth site 1 has the steepest regression line (Figure 2-5) with Smax values of 2307, followed by site 3 with 3486 mg kg-1 of sorption maximum. It was then followed by site 2, with 5260 mg kg-1 of Smax (Table 2-2). When the Langmuir isotherms for 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths were compared the sorption maxima at sites 1 and 3 were higher at 0-20cm (Table 2-2) with less steep slopes for Langmuir regression lines at 0-20 when compared to 20-40 cm depth (Figure2-4 and Figure 2-5). The soil pH at 20-40 cm was lower than at 0-20 cm depth for all the sites sampled in Lauderhill and may be why on an average soil P sorption was higher at surface 0-20 cm than at 20-40cm (Table 2-2), unlike in Dania where the Smax was higher at 20-40 cm. Thus soil depth from the surface at which P sorption occurs seems to have some influence on P sorption. Pahokee. Langmuir isotherms for Pahokee soils ar e shown in Figure 2-6 for surface 0-20 cm depth and Figure 2-7 for 20-40 cm depth. Pahokee has an average P Smax of 2453 mg kg-1 when the whole profile is considere d. Pahokee has an average of 2098 mg kg-1 of Smax at 0-20 cm depth and 4065 mg kg-1 of Smax at 20-40 cm depth (Table 2-2). The sorption maxima ranged from 1286 mg kg-1 to 5253 mg kg-1 both at 0-20 cm depth (Table2-2). At 0-20 cm depth the first two sites have a si milar slope while the th ird site has slightly steeper slope (Figure 2-6), which is reflected by the sorption maxima at third site being lowest among the three sites at 0-20 cm depth (Table 2-2). The Smax values of the three sites are as follows 2179, 2416, and 1286 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2). At 20-40 cm depth second and third site seem to have a similar and steeper slope than the first site (Figure 2-6). The fi rst site has the highest sorption among the three sites in Pa hokee at 20-40 cm (Table 2-2). On an average the sorption at 0-20 cm was 2098 mg kg-1 and 4065 mg kg-1 at 20-40 cm. Thus, Dania and Pahokee have a higher sorption at 20-40cm unlike Lauderhill, wh ich has higher P sorption at surface 0-20 cm.

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39 Figure 2-2. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c)

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40 Figure 2-3. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Dania soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c

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41 In general Lauderhill has the highest sorption followed by Dania and Pahokee (Figure 2-8). Dania being closest to bedrock wa s expected to have a higher sorption, but there seems to be no general pattern with respect to depth to bedroc k. Soil organic matter in general is highest in Pahokee and lowest in Dania, and Lauderhi ll falls right in between (Table 2-1). The organic soils sampled from the EAA, with Smax values ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1 (Table 2-2), have a higher ca pacity to adsorb P than mine ral soils. Richardson (1985) found that peat soils tend to have much less sorption capacity than mineral soils. Mineral soils like ultisols from Delaware had Smax ranging from 95 to 588 mg kg-1 (Sallade and Sims, 1997), while a few Bt horizons of ultisols from sandy coasta l regions of Florida ranged from 470 to 1500 mg kg-1 (Zhou et al., 1997), well draine d calcareous Mollisols from Cana da with maximum of 0.4 to 2.1% of soil organic matter had less than 50 mg kg-1 of Smax (Whalen and Chang, 2002). Acidic Appalachian soils, with 0.2 to 17 % soil organi c matter, had a P sorption maximum ranging from 970 to 2500 mg kg-1 (Anghinoni et al., 1996). Cultivated muck and peat soils have increa sed P sorption upon cultivation compared to virgin peat soils. Larson et al. (1968) showed that a low ash virgin muck at pH 5.0 sorbed less than 200 mg kg-1of P, but one that was drained and cu ltivated over 15 year s sorbed 16000 mg kg1 of P. A 25-year cultivated muck showed 27-fold increase in P sorption by over virgin muck was (Shikluna et al, 1968). Tillage ma y also have influenced the P sorption by increasing the surface area for sorption. Litaor et al (2003) also re ported a high P sorption maximu m for histosols with 36 % soil organic matter and found it to be greater than that of organo-mi neral soils with 16 % soil organic matter. The differences according to hi m resulted from the higher sesquioxide and organic matter content in the Histosols compared with organo mineral soils.

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42 Figure 2-4. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c)

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43 Figure 2-5. Langmuir isotherm for Lauderhill soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c)

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44 Figure 2-6. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 0-20cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c)

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45 Figure 2-7. Linear Langmuir isotherm for Pahokee soil series at 20-40cm a) Site 1, b) Site 2, c) Site 3. c)

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46 Figure 2-8. Linear Langmuir isotherm for all the three soil series at both depths. e a b c d f

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47 Porter and Sanchez (1992) conducted a study to id entify the soil properti es that are related to P sorption by Histosols, focusing on EAA soils. They reported Smax ranging 790 mg kg-1 in Terra Ceia to 104000 mg kg-1 in Pahokee. The P sorption maxima values obtained in this study, though high for organic soils, are in general lower than those reported by Porter and Sanchez in 1992. Porter and Sanchez reported the Smax values for air-dried soil samples, while this study relied on the Smax values from the moist samples. Though peat soils have been reported to ha ve much less sorption capacity than mineral soils (Richardson, 1985), these organic soils have been under cultivation since 1800s and have a high ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Al content when compared to mineral soils mentioned above and thus could explain high P so rption capacity of these organic soils of the EAA. 2.3.3 Sorption maxima of the three soil series The analysis of variance te st for the equality of Smax means for the three series is presented in Table 2-3. The soil series, Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee, are significantly different (P< 0.01) from each other with respect to P sorption maxima (Table 2-3), while the P sorption at 0-20 cm depth is not significantly differe nt from that at 20-40 cm depth (Table 2-3). There is no interaction between these two factors. Table 2-3. Analysis of variance for Smax for the 3 soil series at 2 depths. Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value p Series 2 13849986 6924993 3.65 0.04 Depth 1 460425 460425 0.24 0.63 Series*Depth 2 1964439 982220 0.52 0.60 The depth to bedrock has a signi ficant effect on P sorption or in other words the soil P sorption varies significantly with the three series under consideration. The depth from the surface

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48 at which P sorption occurs on the other hand does not affect the Smax values, even though the Langmuir sorption isotherms seemed to differ at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths for a few sites. The average sorption maximum of Lauderhill was highest among the three soil series at 0-20 cm and when the complete 0-40 cm of the soil profile wa s considered (Table 2-2) Figure 2-8 represents the mean Smax values of the three series at 0-40 cm of the profile. Figure 2-8. Mean Smax Values for the three series. When the means of the series were compared with each other, using Lsmeans statement in the general linear models procedure, Dania a nd Lauderhill were signifi cantly different (P< 0.05) and similarly Lauderhill and Pahokee were signif icantly different (P< 0.05) (Figure 2-9 and Table 2-4). Pahokee and Dania w ith a higher p value have the same P sorption (Table 2-4). Figure 2-9. Means Smax for the three series.

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49 Table 2-4. Least Squares Means Comparis on for the three series at 0-20 cm. Smax (mg kg-1 ) Dania Lauderhill Pahokee Dania 2458 a Lauderhill 4089 b 0.05 Pahokee 2098 a 0.62 0.02 Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 0.05level. 2.4 Conclusion This research provided information on the ability of the histosols of the EAA to sorb P. The organic soils of the EAA, with Smax values ranging from 1286 to 5260 mg kg-1, have a high P sorption capacity. Results of P sorption capacity of cultivated peat and muck soils being related to the inorganic fractions in th ese soils have been reported. The sorption maxima of the three soil series sampled, Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee vary significantly from each other, with Lauderhill having the highest sorption and Pahokee the lowest. Though sorption on an average is higher at 0-20 cm in Dania and Pahokee, it is not significantly different from 20-40 cm and this is also true for Lauderhill. Though P sorption capacity varies with soil series, the difference wa s not as predicted related to soil depth alone. Dania being shallowest of the th ree series and with its proximity to the limestone bedrock was expected to have the highest P sorption, follo wed by Lauderhill with intermediate depth and lowest in Pahokee deepest soil series. Instead, Lauderhill had the highest sorption capacity and Dania was right in between Lauderhill and Pahokee. This indicates that depth to bedrock and possible increase in pH and CaCO3 content may not be the only factor affecting these soils sorption capacity. Other factors like Al and Fe content may play an important role.

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50 CHAPTER 3 EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON PHOS PHORUS SORPTION CAPACITY OF EAA SOILS 3.1 Introduction Of all the macronutrients found in soils, P ha s by far the smallest concentrations in solution. The two phenomena that tend to control the concentration of P in soil solution and movement in soils are solubility of P containing mi nerals and the fixation or sorption of phosphate ions on surface of the so il particles. The solubility of P mainly depends on chemical reactions in soils like precipit ation, which in turn depends on the soil pH (Brady and Weil, 1999). Phosphorus gets released into soil solution as a consequence of different processes such as desorption, dissolution, reduction affecting the soil particles and sediments. Sorption is a twodimensional process ranging from weak physic al bonding to chemical interactions, including ligand exchange, that occur at low inorganic P concentrations (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Phosphorus has been identified as a major s ource of eutrophication in and around the lake Okeechobee and Everglades National Park (Zhou an Li, 2001). Release and retention of P affects the nutrient status of soil and in turn eutrophication. The ability of soil to releas e sorbed P is dependant on P-sorption capacity and the amoun t of P sorbed (Zhou an Li, 2001). Sorption of P by soils is commonly described wi th quantity/intensity (Q/I) gra phs (sorption curves) depicting the quantity of P on sorption surf aces at measured solution PO4-P concentrations. The results of multipoint Q/I experiments can be conveniently summarized in few parameters using, for example, the Freundlich sorption equati on (Peltovuori, 2007) or Langmuir equation. Solute sorption is an exchange process th at occurs at specific sites on a homogenous surface. A monolayer of adsorbed solute is formed on the surface and a sorption maximum is

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51 achieved as the monolayer becomes saturated by th e adsorbate. Linear La ngmuir equation yields the adsorbate concentration that is a monolayer (the parameter Smax) and a parameter that is related to the energy of sorp tion and the exchange equilibr ium constant (K parameter). Otherwise, as is the case in soil, the Langm uir model parameters are merely empirical, describing the shape of the sorption isotherm (Essington, 2004). The P sorption capacity soils has been attributed to various soil prope rties like Fe and Al oxides, mainly the amorphous and the less crystallin e fraction due to their la rger surface area per unit soil volume (Khalid et al., 1977; Darke a nd Walbridge, 2000), carbonate content (Zhou and Li, 2001), soil organic matter content, inorganic soil P content and pH (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). The role of amorphous Fe and Al oxides on P sorption has been well documented. Active amorphous Al, on a per mole basis adsorbs nearly twice as much P as active amorphous Fe (Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke a nd Walbridge, 2000). Borggaard et al. (1990) and Freese et al. (1992) found that amorphous form of both Fe and Al were important predictors of soil P-sorption capacity in clayey, peaty, and sandy soils. In a study by Darke and Walbridge (2000), amorphous Fe and Al correlated well with the soil organic matter and they suggested that organic mattermetal (Al, Fe) complexes might be an important component of inorganic P sorption. Hydroperiod also plays an important part in P-sorption due to floodinginduced conversion of crystalline Fe oxides to non-cr ystalline forms and by balancing of Fe oxide losses with fresh floodwater Fe oxide inputs of lower crystall inity (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Soil organic anions on the other hand tend to compete with phosphate ion for bi nding sites and reduce P sorption (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Soil orga nic matter can enhance P sorption in soil by inhibiting the crystallizat ion of Fe and Al oxide minerals (D arke and Walbridge, 2000). Peat and

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52 muck soils that are low in ash content possess a very small capacity for P retention (Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The organic matter content of E AA soils related very well to P sorption with significant and inverse linear correlation between soil organi c matter and phosphate sorption index, a gauge for P sorption capacity of soil (Por ter and Sanchez, 1992). The same authors also noted that histosols high in ash content are also high in pH, tota l Ca and free carbonate content. Everglades Histosols have rath er moderate pH compared with the extremely low pH values often found in peat soils. In ge neral, soil pH in the EAA has increased with time (Snyder, 2005), and in some areas soil pH is too high for op timum crop production (Morris et al., 2004). This increase is occurring as a consequence of dec lining soil thickness (subsidence) combined with the movement of free carbonates from the underl ying limestone bedrock in to the soil profile by mass flow and diffusion (Snyder, 2005) and by tillage An increase in soil pH would affect soil P sorption (Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Porter and Sanchez, 1992) and decreasing soil depth to bedrock within EAA Histosols may ha ve altered the P sorption capacity. 3.2 Materials and Methods 3.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation The soil samples were taken from the same site s as mentioned in chapter 2. Briefly, three organic soil series in the EAA were consider ed (Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee). Sampling was done at 9 sites; with each soil seri es sampled at three sites. Two samples were taken from each of the nine sites. The soil samples were collect ed from the surface 40 cm of the soil and were sectioned into two cores of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths for a total of 36 samples. The depth to bedrock was measured in each site at the time of sampling using an iron rod with a sharp end. Bulk density and soil moisture content were meas ured. A sub sample of each of the homogenized samples was air-dried and crushed to pass 20 me sh sieve (Reddy et al, 1998) and stored.

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53 3.2.2 Sorption experiment The Quantity/Intensity Experiments were carried out as discussed in the chapter 2. Three g of soil was mixed with 30-mL of P solution (Porter and Sanchez, 1992; Pant and Reddy, 2001) containing 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4 in an ionic media KCl at 0.01M concentrations. The soil samples with P solutions were shaken for 24hr at 25oCon an orbital shaker, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and imme diately filtered through 0.45 m membrane HV filters. The filtrates were anal yzed for P by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy and Riley, 1962 using ALPKEM Segmented flow 650nm analyzer (Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et al, 2005). The P sorption maximum and other P re tention parameters were determined using linear Langmuir isotherms (Pant and Reddy, 2001). 3.2.3 Soil organic matter determination Soil organic matter was determined by the loss-on-ignition-method. The loss of weight between soils dried to a constant weight at 105oC in an oven and soil held at 400oC to a constant weight in a muffle furnace overnight were used to calculate the loss of ignition (USDA-NRCS, 1996; Porter and Sanchez, 1992). The soil organi c matter is then calculated based on the net oven-dry basis. Soil moisture content was determ ined from the differen ce in weight of field moist and air-dried soil. 3.2.4 Soil pH measurement Ten g of field moist soil was mixed with 20-mL of deionized (DI) water. The solution was mixed for 10 min and remained undisturbed for 30min before pH was measured (Thomas, 1996). 3.2.5 Calcium carbonate content determination Calcium carbonate was determined by a titr imetric procedure based on dissolution of carbonate present in air-dried so il in a digestion chamber (Loe ppert and Suarez, 1996). The digestion chamber is a wide mouth, 8 oz French square bottle. The cham ber was fitted with a

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54 rubber stopper with a single hole to tightly hold a glass tube. The upper end of the glass tube was sealed with a sleeve-type rubber septum. A 5-mL beaker (to hold the KOH solution) was attached to the glass rod by mean s of a rubber band, so that the bottom of the beaker is about 5 mm above the lower end of the tube. Five g of air-dried soil, ground to pass through 100 m sieve and placed in a digestion chamber, was allowed to react with aqueous 2 M KOH, placed in the 5-mL beaker mounted on the stopper assembly. Then 20-mL of 2 M HCl was injected into the bottle. The apparatus thus was allowed to stand for 16-24 hrs. KOH from th e mounted 5-mL beaker was then transferred into an Erlenmeyer flask with the aid of CO2 free deionized water. An aliquot of the aqueous KOH absorbent is first titrated wi th 1 M HCl to the phenolphthalein end point and then with 0.1 M HCl to the bromocresol green end point. The inorganic carbonate conten t is proportional to the 0.1 M HCl consumed in this latter reaction (Loeppert and Suarez, 1996). 3.2.6 Extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca and Mg) Active amorphous Fe and Al oxide were ex tracted using acid ammonium oxalate, pH 3.0, in darkness (Loeppert and Inskeep, 1996; Mc Keague and Day, 1965). The samples from Dania and Lauderhill were pretreated for CaCO3, due to their higher soil pH, with ammonium acetate (pH 5.5, 1.0M) (Loeppert and Inskeep, 1996). The Anal ytical Research Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida, analyzed the extracts using an i nductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer. Extractable Ca and Mg were determined usi ng 0.5N acetic acid as the extracting solution (Sanchez, 1990) and followed by Ca and Mg an alysis by the Soil Testing Laboratory, Belle Glade, Florida, using an atom ic absorption spectrophotometer. 3.2.7 Total P Total P was determined by sulfuric acid digestion of the ashe d soil (Andersen, 1976), followed by photometric analysis at 660nm on an Alpkem flow analyzer. Water-extractable and

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55 acetic acid extractable P was also analyzed by th e Soil Testing Laboratory, Belle Glade, Florida (Sanchez, 1990). 3.2.8 Statistical analysis Pearsons Correlation analysis was done betw een the different Langmuir parameters and other soil properties. Linear regression between solution P concentration measured after 24 hour equilibration (C) and the ratio of solution P conc entration (C) and P sorbed in the soil (S) was also performed to asses the P sorption maxima (Smax) and P sorption constant (k). Correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were pe rformed using SAS statistical software package (SAS Institute, 2002-2003). 3.3 Results and Discussion 3.3.1 Soil characterization The soils varied in many soil properties (T able 3-1, 3-2, and 3-3). The soil organic matter content varied from 53% in Dania at 20-40 cm to 86% for Pahokee at 20-40 cm depth (Table 31), with an average of 78% (Table 3-3). The soil pH ranged from 6.4 in Pahokee at 0-20 cm depth to 7.9, in Dania at 20-40 cm depth (Table 31) and had an average of 7.2 (Table 3-3). Total P content ranged from 260 mg kg-1 in Pahokee at 20-40 cm to 2550 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill at 020 cm (Table 3-1). Water extractable P ranged from 2 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill soil series to 20 mg kg-1 in Pahokee both at surface 0-20 cm (Table 31). Acid ammonium oxalate extractable Fe content ranged from 1936 to 14576 mg kg-1 of extractable Fe with the upper limit in Lauderhill 0-20 cm and lower limit in Pahokee 20-40 cm. Extrac table Al content in these soils ranged from 386 mg kg-1 in Pahokee to 3179 mg kg-1 in Dania at the 20-40 cm de pth (Table 3-1). Extractable Ca and Mg content were lowest in Pahokee soil series at 20-40 cm depth at 6826 mg kg-1 for Ca and 970 mg kg-1 for Mg. The highest amount was found in Da nia soil series at 20-40 cm with Ca content of 21034 mg kg-1 and Mg at 3178 mg kg-1 both in soil series Dania at 20-40 cm. The

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56 CaCO3 content of these soils ranged from 273 mg kg-1, in Pahokee soil series at 0-20 cm depth, to 5284 mg kg-1 in Dania at 0-20cm depths. The CaCO3 vales averaged to 2462 mg kg-1 in these soils. Averaged soil properties across each soil series are presented in Table 3-2. In general the soil samples from Dania which had the shallowest soils had lowest soil organic matter content averaging 73%, and Lauderhill with an interm ediate depth to bedrock had 77% soil organic matter while the deepest soil series, Pahokee, had the highest mean soil organic matter content of 84% (Table 3-2). A similar trend was seen with the extractable metals Mg, Ca and Al (Table 3-2), with Dania having the highest metal content and Pa hokee the lowest, thus implying how depth to bedrock impacts the content of these metals. On the other hand, total P, extractable Fe, and CaCO3 contents showed a different pattern, with the highest cont ent in the Lauderhill series (Table 3-2). Average soil properties with depth are presente d in Table 3-3. Total P, acetic acid and water extractable P were higher at the 0-20 cm de pth in all the three soil series. Pahokee had the lowest extractable Fe and Al content of the thr ee soil series and a lower content of these metals in the upper 0-20 cm of the pr ofile compared to 20-40 cm of the profile (Table 3-3). The total CaCO3 content and the extractable Ca and Mg were on an average higher at the 20-40 cm depth when all three series were comb ined (Table 3-3), though in none of the series CaCO3 and extractable Ca and Mg showed any rela tion to depth individually. The extractable Ca, Mg content and total CaCO3 content at 20-40 cm was either higher than or equal to 0-20 cm depth in Dania and Pahokee, while their content was much lower at 20-40 cm than at 0-20 cm depth.

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57Table 3-1. Selected soil properties of the soil series investigated. Soil b SOM SMC pH Depth TP# Pa Pw Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 no g/cm3 % % cm ___________________________________ mg kg-1 __________________________________0-20 cm Dania 1 0.38 82 62 7.1 48 1605 111 12.0 8118 1403 8472 1866 731 3 0.27 83 72 7.2 48 821 93 8.1 5638 2099 11171 1726 640 5 0.38 79 63 7.6 46 1389 129 5.9 11336 2273 10753 2288 5824 Lauderhill 7 0.52 70 51 7.6 69 2550 158 8.7 13035 2120 9932 1834 2046 9 0.39 77 61 7.7 76 1581 104 3.8 11008 1932 10912 2382 3027 11 0.39 78 62 6.9 76 1667 75 1.5 14576 2067 8739 1456 3412 Pahokee 13 0.37 84 63 6.4 104 1623 129 16.3 4783 998 10676 1638 455 15 0.42 81 55 7.0 94 1894 165 20.0 5490 1138 9049 1293 1908 17 0.33 84 68 6.5 107 1262 100 12.4 3703 776 8498 1138 273 20-40 cm Dania 2 0.43 65 65 7.3 48 728 72 5.3 4604 2807 7385 1521 1279 4 0.35 53 71 7.6 48 490 96 1.7 3372 3179 21034 1183 2412 6 0.34 79 70 7.9 46 1137 74 3.7 8340 2536 16172 3178 5281 Lauderhill 8 0.27 81 77 7.3 69 749 132 5.1 6569 1459 8798 1320 2951 10 0.33 80 67 7.4 76 1127 85 3.2 11035 1918 11441 2411 2213 12 0.43 79 64 6.9 76 1331 82 3.2 13125 2217 8097 1013 2845 Pahokee 14 0.23 86 79 6.5 104 260 26 12.4 2099 854 6826 970 3808 16 0.34 83 71 7.2 94 825 59 7.9 3618 708 7579 1079 817 18 0.25 86 76 6.8 107 738 45 14.8 1936 386 10773 1552 4401 Bulk Density Soil organic matter Soil moisture content Depth to bedrock # Total P Acetic acid extractable P Water extractable P

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58Table 3-2. Selected averaged soil properties averaged across 0-40 cm. SOM TP Pa Pw Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 % ____________________________________ mg kg-1 _____________________________________ Dania 73.2 1028 96 6 6901 2382 12497 1960 2694 Standard deviation 13.0 419 40 4 2855 709 6798 730 3111 Lauderhill 77.2 1501 106 4 11558 1952 9653 1736 2749 Standard deviation 5.0 698 37 2 2844 313 1551 577 748 Pahokee 83.7 1100 87 14 3605 810 8900 1278 1943 Standard deviation 2.0 597 52 6 1444 264 1625 297 2700 Table 3-3. Selected soil pr operties averaged by depth. SOM pH TP Pa Pw Fe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 % __________________________________ mg kg-1___________________________________Dania-A 81 a 7.3 a 1272 a 111 a9 a 8364a1924 a 10132 a 1960 a2398 a Lauderhill -A 75 a 7.4 a 1933 a 112 a5 a 12873 b2040 b 9861 a 1890 a2828 a Pahokee-A 83 b 6.6 b 1593 b 131 a16 b 4658 c970 c 9407 a 1356 b879 a Dania-B 66 a 7.6 a 785 a 81 a 4 a 5438 a2840 a 14863 a 1960 a2990 a Lauderhill -B 79 a 7.2 a 1069 a 99 a 4 a 10243 b1864 b 9445 a 1581 a2670 a Pahokee-B 79 b 7.2 b 1152 b 101 a4 b 11258 c2026 c 9798 a 1671 b2614 a Average A 80 a 7.1 a 1599 a 118 a10 a 8632 a1645 a 9800 a 1735 a2035 a Average B 75 a 7.3 a 1002 b 94 b 4 b 8980 b2244 a 11369 a 1738 a2758 a Average 0-40 cm 78 7.2 1210 96 8 7355 1715 10350 1658 2462 0-20 cm depth 20-40 cm depth Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 0.05 level.

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59 3.3.2 Correlation among the soil properties and P sorption parameters Pearsons correlation analysis between sorption paramete rs and soil properties was performed at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depth as well as for the two depths combined (0-40 cm). Results are shown in Table 3-4, Table 3-5 and Table 3-6. 3.3.2.1 Sorption properties Surface 0-20 cm : The sorption maximum from the field moist samples was found to correlate positively with amorphous extractable Fe (p < 0.01) and Al (p < 0.05) oxides, pH (p < 0.05) and negatively with soil organic matter (p < 0.01) and soil moisture content (p < 0.01) at surface 0-20 cm of the soil profile (Table 34). The sorption maximum from the air-dried samples at surface 0-20 cm of profile (Table 34) also correlated positively with extractable amorphous Fe (p < 0.01) and Al (p < 0.01) oxide s, pH (p < 0.01) and negatively with soil organic matter (p < 0.01), and in addition an i nverse correlation with water extractable P (p < 0.01) was also observed. Porter and Sanchez, 19 92, found extractable Fe to be a well correlated with P sorption, but they observed very little correlation between extractable Al and P sorption, although in this study both these metals were found to correlate well with Smax at the 0-20 cm depth. Porter and Sanchez, 1992, also found soils low in organic matter to be high in pH and high in soil P sorption similar to what was f ound in this study, although they conducted the study by air-drying the surface 15 cm of the soil samples. Subsurface 20-40 cm : At 20-40 cm sorption maximum for the air-dried samples was only found to correlate with extracta ble Fe content at P < 0.05 (Table 3-5). There was no significant correlation between Smax and any other soil properties at lo wer 20-40 cm for field moist samples (Table 3-5). Although the extract able Fe, Al and Ca content was higher at 20-40 cm of the profile than 0-20 cm along with a higher pH and lower soil organic matter. The total P content of the soil was lower at 20-40 cm of the soil pr ofile than surface 0-20 cm of the soil profile.

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60 While considering the complete soil profile, i.e. the 0-40 cm dept h (Table 3-6), the sorption maximum of the field moist soil samples di d not significantly correlate with any of the other soil properties. Air-dried so il samples significantly correlat ed with extractable Fe (p < 0.01) content, pH (P < 0.05) and inversely corr elated with water extractable P (p < 0.01). Amorphous Fe and Al Oxides: The relationship between Smax and several soil properties are illustrated in Fig 3-1. Figur e 3-1a and 3-1b shows the relati onship between the P sorption and extractable Fe and Al content of the soil with r2 = 0.64 and 0.47 (Table 3-4) respectively for field moist samples. As the metal content increases the soils ability to sorb P also increases (Sallade and Sims, 1997; Richardson, 1985; Darke and Walbridge, 2000; Giesle r et al., 2005). In general, P retention of field moist soil samples showed little correlation to extractable Al compared to extractable Fe (Figure 3-1 a, b). Darke and Walbridge (2000) found amorphous Al to be more strongly correlated with inorga nic P sorption than Fe, contradi cting the results in this study which may be due to relatively low Al conten t of EAA histosols (Por ter and Sanchez, 1992). Soil pH: The strength of corre lation between soil P sorption with pH (r2 = 0.50), was low for field moist samples when compared to air-dry soil (r2 = 0.61). Porter and Sanchez, 1992, found a similar relationship for air-dried soil and these results were comparable to r2 values for air-dried soil in this study. Soil organic matter: Figure 3-1d shows the inverse re lationship between soil organic matter and soil P sorption with a strong r2 value of -0.83 (Table 3-4) and thus implicating an increase in P sorption with increase in soil mi neral matter content. Porter and Sanchez (1992) reported similar results. There are two types of reactions that e xplain the relationship between P sorption and soil organic matter (Hue, 1991).

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61Table 3-4. Correlations coefficients in 0-20 cm of three series in the EAA. BD SOM SMC pH DepthSmax (fm)# k (fm Smax (ad) k (ad) TP Pa## PwFe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 BD 1.00 SOM -0.83** 1.00 SMC -0.97** 0.76** 1.00 pH 0.38 -0.64** -0.31 1.00 Depth 0.01 0.31 -0.10 -0.64** 1.00 Smax (fm) 0.71** -0.85** -0.66** 0.50* -0.29 1.00 K (fm) 0.32 -0.16 -0.27 0.03 0.33 0.35 1.00 Smax (ad) 0.39 -0.69** -0.34 0.61** -0.35 0.59* 0.07 1.00 K (ad) 0.25 -0.47* -0.20 0.37 -0.33 0.53* 0.22 0.76** 1.00 TP 0.92** -0.80** -0.92** 0.18 0.08 0.70** 0.24 0.33 0.19 1.00 Pa 0.56** -0.29 -0.65** 0.14 0.16 0.27 0.16 -0.22 -0.32 0.50* 1.00 Pw 0.06 0.27 -0.19 -0.40 0.41 -0.33 -0.09 -0.65** -0.59** 0.10 0.66** 1.00 Fe 0.49* -0.65** -0.40 0.59** -0.38 0.64** 0.24 0.73** 0.86** 0.34 -0.09 -0.59** 1.00 Al 0.16 -0.52** -0.05 0.77** -0.70** 0.47* -0.12 0.62** 0.61** 0.01 -0.14 -0.60** 0.78** 1.00 Ca -0.06 -0.10 0.09 0.34 -0.13 0.26 0.15 -0.03 -0.15 -0.06 0.22 -0.08 0.02 0.36 1.00 Mg 0.15 -0.33 -0.09 0.71** -0.45 0.40 0.18 0.25 0.23 0.07 0.11 -0.32 0.46 0.59** 0.69** 1.00 CaCO3 0.22 -0.39 -0.18 0.57** -0.29 0.42 0.17 0.30 0.35 0.09 -0.10 -0.45 0.52* 0.51* 0.17 0.42 1.00 *, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively Bulk Density Soil organic matter Soil moisture content Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil k for field moist soil Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total P ## Acetic acid extractable P Water extractable P

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62Table 3-5. Correlations coefficients in 20-40 cm of three se ries in the EAA. BD SOM SMC pH DepthSmax (fm)# k (fm Smax (ad) k (ad) TP Pa## PwFe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 BD 1.00 SOM -0.57* 1.00 SMC -0.91** 0.46* 1.00 pH 0.31 -0.45 -0.36 1.00 Depth -0.46 0.64** 0.48* -0.80** 1.00 Smax (fm) 0.00 0.19 -0.03 -0.08 0.04 1.00 K (fm) -0.06 -0.28 0.03 0.47* -0.45 -0.33 1.00 Smax (ad) 0.08 0.06 -0.15 -0.03 0.09 -0.01 0.39 1.00 K (ad) 0.26 -0.16 -0.42 0.63** -0.66** 0.27 0.54* 0.42 1.00 TP 0.38 0.23 -0.61** 0.32 -0.28 0.05 0.07 0.24 0.52* 1.00 Pa 0.00 0.04 0.01 0.31 -0.43 -0.06 0.39 0.19 0.49* 0.37 1.00 Pw -0.59** 0.53* 0.59** -0.73** 0.77** -0.19 -0.47* -0.14 -0.71** -0.40 -0.42 1.00 Fe 0.43 0.08 -0.61** 0.27 -0.31 0.37 0.13 0.51* 0.69** 0.82** 0.38 -0.56** 1.00 Al 0.59** -0.64** -0.53* 0.58** -0.84** 0.24 0.22 -0.03 0.54* 0.20 0.40 -0.79** 0.35 1.00 Ca 0.24 -0.71** -0.19 0.57** -0.43 -0.09 0.21 0.06 0.10 -0.14 -0.17 -0.36 -0.03 0.36 1.00 Mg 0.00 0.12 -0.14 0.64** -0.38 0.25 0.12 0.07 0.50* 0.44 0.17 -0.23 0.36 0.25 0.26 1.00 CaCO3 -0.34 0.17 0.31 0.16 0.05 -0.02 0.06 0.07 0.04 -0.11 -0.13 0.17 -0.01 -0.15 0.22 0.38 1 *, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively Bulk Density Soil organic matter Soil moisture content Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil k for field moist soil Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total P ## Acetic acid extractable P Water extractable P

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63 Table 3-6. Correlations coefficients in 0-40 cm of three series in the EAA. BD SOM SMC pH DepthSmax (fm)# k (fm Smax (ad) k (ad) TP Pa## PwFe Al Ca Mg CaCO3 BD 1.00 SOM -0.50* 1.00 SMC -0.90** 0.28 1.00 pH 0.27 -0.47** -0.19 1.00 Depth -0.23 0.50** 0.14 -0.71** 1.00 Smax (fm) 0.26 -0.10 -0.22 0.22 -0.12 1.00 K (fm) 0.07 -0.20 0.01 0.19 0.06 0.11 1.00 Smax (ad) 0.21 -0.19 -0.18 0.35* -0.17 0.33* 0.16 1.00 K (ad) 0.25 -0.23 -0.25 0.49** -0.50** 0.39* 0.30 0.61** 1.00 TP 0.69** 0.01 -0.88** 0.09 -0.04 0.27 0.00 0.19 0.25 1.00 Pa 0.36* 0.05 -0.52** 0.13 -0.14 0.03 0.08 -0.05 0.12 0.61** 1.00 Pw -0.10 0.38* -0.10 -0.53** 0.51** -0.27 -0.23 -0.49** -0.59** 0.15 0.29 1.00 Fe 0.51** -0.06 -0.57** 0.37* -0.33** 0.45 0.11** 0.57** 0.74** 0.58** 0.30 -0.43** 1.00 Al 0.39** -0.62** -0.20 0.62** -0.76** 0.31 0.06 0.23 0.54** 0.02 0.15 -0.61** 0.43** 1.00 Ca 0.12 -0.66** -0.01 0.45** -0.31 -0.01 0.15 0.04 0.04 -0.15 -0.14 -0.23 -0.05 0.36* 1.00 Mg 0.09 0.05 -0.17 0.62** -0.40* 0.28 0.10 0.13 0.39* 0.26 0.19 -0.20 0.40* 0.33* 0.29 1.00 CaCO3 -0.12 -0.04 0.14 0.39* -0.13 0.22 0.17 0.22 0.20 -0.11 -0.19 -0.27 0.20 0.11 0.19 0.35* 1.00 *, ** Significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 level respectively Bulk Density Soil organic matter Soil moisture content Depth to bedrock # Smax for field moist soil k for field moist soil Smax for air-dried soil k for air-dried soil Total P ## Acetic acid extractable P Water extractable P

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64 Indirect interactions betw een soil organic matter and Fe and Al oxides inhibit crystallization and thereby increase P sorpti on capacity leading to a positive correlation (Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke a nd Walbridge, 2000) as a result of different organic acids produced, like acetic and malic (Hue, 1991). Direct interactions where in competition for sorption sites occurs between organic matter and phosphate, leading to decreased phosphate sorption (Borggaard et al., 1990; Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Hue (1991) also re ported the influence of organic matter on P sorption varied with the type of organic acid. Fo r example, less P was observed to be sorbed in the presence of malic acid than acetic acid. Competition between phosphate and organic anions are likely to be high in this matrix with more than 75% organi c matter (Giesler et al., 2005) and could be the reason for the significant ne gative correlation between Smax and organic matter (r2=-0.85) (Table 3-4). Water extractable P: A study conducted by Styles and Coxon (2006) on organic matter rich soils showed desorbable inorganic P increases to be positively correlated to the degree of P sorption saturation. Figure 3-2a, b shows the re lationship between wate r extractable P and P sorption maxima. High water extractable P content de creases the ability of these organic soils to adsorb P irrespective of whether the soil was air-dried or maintained field moist as shown in Figure 3-2a and b. This might also be the reas on why Lauderhill with the lowest soluble P had the highest sorption, while Pahokee with lower soluble P content did not sorb P as much. Depth to bedrock: The depth of the soil surface to bedr ock did not significantly correlate with the sorption maximum of both field moist a nd air-dried samples at all depths. The sorption constant k from the Langmuir equation inversely correlated with depth to bedrock (p < 0.01) for air-dried samples at 20-40 cm and 0-40 cm but not for the field moist samples (Table 3-5 and 6).

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65 Figure 3-1. Relationship between Smax of field moist soils and extractable Fe, Al, pH and organic matter (SOM) at 0-20 cm depth.

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66 Figure 3-2. Relationship between Smax and water extractable P (Pw) for a) air-dried and b) field moist soils at 0-40 cm.

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67 The sorption constant is a measure of the inte nsity of the sorption isotherm and thus this correlation would indicate that in tensity of P sorption was higher for Pahokee, where the depth to bedrock is higher when compared to Dania, when the soil is air-dried. 3.3.2.2 Soil properties Depth to bedrock: Relationships between soil depth to bedrock and several other soil properties are presented in Figure 3-3. Extrac table Al (p< 0.05) and soil pH (p< 0.05) were negatively and significantly corre lated with depth to bedrock (T able 3-4, Table 3-5 and Table 36). Extractable amorphous Fe oxides correlated negatively with depth to bedrock when the complete 40 cm of the profile was ta ken into account, but with a low r2=-0.33 (Table 3-4 and Figure 3-3b). Extractable Mg (p< 0.01) also negati vely and weakly correlated with the depth to bedrock only when the whole soil profile wa s considered (0-40 cm ) (Figure 3-3c). Soil organic matter: Soil organic matter correlated positively with depth to bedrock at p< 0.05 except at surface 0-20 cm (Table 3-5 and Ta ble 3-6). This relationship is illustrated in Fig 3-3c and clearly indicates as depth of the soil is lowered, the soil organic matter content is lower, the mineral content is increa sing, and pH is increasing (Fig 3.3e). The relationship between soil organic matter and soil pH is shown in Figure 3-4a. As the soil organic matter content increases pH decreas es. Similar relationship between soil organic matter and soil pH was observed in a study c onducted by Porter and Sanchez in 1992 on the Everglades Agricultural Area hi stosols and the increase in pH was attributed to soil organic matter loss due to subsidence and a possible increase in soil CaCO3 content. Soil organic matter inversely affected th e amount of extractable amorphous Al oxides and extractable Ca (p < 0.01) at 20-40 cm and 040 cm of the profile, while at the surface 020 cm only Al oxides correlated with soil organic ma tter (Table 3-5, 3-6). Extr actable Ca content at surface 0-20 cm was lower than at subsurface 20-40 cm especially for Dania, which might be the

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68 reason for absence of a correlation between orga nic matter and Ca at 0-20 cm. Extractable amorphous Fe oxides correlated with soil organi c matter only at surface 0-20 cm (p < 0.01) (Table 3-4). Soil pH : The relationships between pH and soil organic matter, extractable amorphous Al oxides, extractable Mg and total CaCO3 are presented in Figures 3-4 a-d. Soils with high pH had high extractable amorphous Fe oxides (p < 0.01), Al oxides (p < 0.01), extractable Ca (p < 0.01) and Mg (p < 0.01) (Figure 3-4a), and low soil or ganic matter (p < 0.01) (Figure 3-4a), when 0-20 and 0-40 cm was considered (Table 3-6). Soils wi th high pH and these properties were reported to form a self-correlated group by Porter and Sa nchez, 1992. At the 20-40 cm depth, soil organic matter and extractable amorphous Fe oxides show ed no relation to pH while extractable Al oxides, and extractable Ca and Mg were seen to increase with an increase in pH of the soil (Table 3-5). Depth to bedrock: The Pahokee soil series with the hi gher depth to bedrock had a lower soil pH, higher soil organic matter content, a nd lower extractable amorphous Fe oxides and Al oxides, and extractable Mg (Table 3-2) than Dania and Lauderhill soil series. And since there also was a significant positive correlation between pH and Smax (Figure 3-1c), Pahokee with a lower pH and higher depth to bedrock would have a lower P adsorption. In general, at a depth closer bedrock soil pH is higher, and there are higher amounts of extractable metals (Fe, Al, Ca and Mg) while soil organic matter is comparatively lower.

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69 a b c Figure 3-3. Relationship between so il depth to bedrock and extrac table a) Al oxides, b) Fe oxides, c) Mg, d) organic matter (S OM), and e) pH at 0-40 cm depth.

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70 d e Figure 3-3. Continued.

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71 Figure 3-4. Relationship between pH and a) organic matter (SOM), extractable b) Al and c) Mg and d) total CaCO3 at 0-40 cm depth. a c b d

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72 3.4 Conclusion The sorption of P by soil is depicted by th e sorption maximum and the sorption constant from the Langmuir isotherm. From the results of correlation analysis vari ation in P sorption was largely explained by a few basic soil characteristics. It is thus concluded that P sorption in these histosols is mainly dependent on extractable amorphous Fe and Al oxi des, pH, soil organic matter and these correlations were limited to th e 0-20 cm depth. The agricultural practices like the tillage, which is limited to surface 20 cm, may have restricted these relationships to the 0-20 cm depth along with other soil and environmental factors. The P sorption showed a stronger co rrelation to extractable Fe (r2=0.64) than Al (r2=0.47), which confirms with earlier studies on EAA histosols by Porter and Sanchez in 1992 even though amorphous Al is a better pr edictor of P sorption capacity in wetland. The fact that these histosols have a lower amorphous Al oxide conten t in comparison with Fe oxide content may be the reason why Smax correlated better with Fe oxide than Al oxide. It has also been reported that amorphous Fe and Al oxides in humus soils have a greater impact on phos phate sorption despite the presence of large amounts of soil organic matter. Thus when soil pH and extractable Fe and Al oxide increases and soil organi c matter decreases either in co mbination or individually, soil P sorption increases. Extractabl e Ca and Mg, and total CaCO3 content, did not have influence P sorption.

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73 CHAPTER 4 PHOSPHORUS SORPTION IN AIR-DRIED AND FIELD MOIST SOIL 4.1 Introduction Measuring the P-sorption capacity of a soil can be done using either fi eld moist or air-dried soil. Soil is generally air-dried to measure the P-sorption capacity of the soil and the majority of these experiments have been carried out thus (P eltovuori, 2007). Airdried soil is assumed to be chemically stable and may be stored for longer periods before extraction and analysis (Turner, 2005). Air-drying of fresh soil samples, however, ha s been reported to increase extractable P in mineral soils (Turner, 2005), and also increase soil pH and affect sorptio n properties (Peltovuori and Soinne, 2005). Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) studi ed sorption of P in field moist and air-dried samples from four cultivated mineral soils. Air-drying in creased the P sorption capacity of all soils in their study, altered the shape of Quantity/Intensity graph (Q/I plots) parameters estimated with modified Freundlich experiment, and increased the amount of P ex tracted with water. Peltovuori (2007) observed increased desorption of P at sm all P concentration in soil horizons with good P status and large soil organic matter content, a nd increased sorption of P at high P concentration upon drying, and attributed it to the breakdown of organo-metal complexes that released P upon shattering and exposed new sorption sites for P at the same time (Peltovuori and Soinne, 2005). Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) also reported some other reasons for the increased P sorption upon drying, such as larger sorption area due to disaggregation of soil crumbs followed by destruction of soil organic matter shielding the so rption surfaces, formation of new sorption sites on Fe-Al-organic matter complexes and to an extent due to a dec line the pH commonly associated with drying. Dissolved organic carbon gets bound to soil mate rial itself and these

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74 organic coatings on the mineral particles improve the sorption capacity of the soil material for metal cations like Fe2+, Fe3+and Al3+ (Kaiser et al., 2000) which in turn affects P sorption. Drying can increase both inorgani c and organic available P con centrations compared with the equivalent fresh soil by disr uption of organic matter and lysi s of microbial cells (Turner, 2005). Air-drying poses to be a problem particular ly when studying subsoil in cool and humid climates since these soils hardly ever dry out co mpletely in the field (P eltovuori, 2007). The soils in EAA with very high soil organic matter and with a pH higher than generally found in histosols are rarely completely dry (Bottcher and Iz uno, 1994), and thus airdried samples may not truthfully represent field conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate how air-drying would impact P sorption capacity measurement of three organic soils in the EAA; Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee. Sorption of P by soils is described with the help P sorption isotherms used to characterize the soils capacity to remove dissolved P from solution (Richardson, 1985) and are prepared by plotting PO4 adsorbed or precipitated as a function of P remaining in the solution after equilibration for 24 h at a constant temperature. In accordance with ea rlier studies air-drying these organic soil was expected to estimate a high er P sorption capacity due to the exposure of new sorption sites resulting form soil orga nic matter disruption. Our hypothesis was that P sorption capacity estimate using air-dried and fi eld moist samples would be the same and the alternative hypothesis was that air drying will lead to lower P sorption capacity due to an increase in soluble P upo n air drying of soils. 4.2 Materials and Methods 4.2.1 Soil sampling and preparation The Dania, Lauderhill and Pahokee were th e three organic soil series of the EAA considered for this experiment. Sampling was done at 9 sites with three samples collected from

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75 each of the three soil series at two depths along with their replicates. The depth to bedrock was measured at the time of sampling using an iron rod. The soil samples were collected from the top 40 cm of the soil and sectioned into two depths of cores of 20 cm each at the lab. Thus, 36 total samples were under consideration. The soil sa mples were homogenized and stored at 50C at field moisture content till used for P sorption experime nts. A part of each of homogenized sample was air-dried and crushed to pass 20-mesh sieve (0.8 mm) (Reddy et al, 1998). 4.2.2 Sorption experiment Sorption experiments were performed to meas ure the phosphate sorpti on capacity of these soil series using field moist and air-dried soil samples. The experiments were carried out at 1:10 soil to solution ratio (Porte r and Sanchez, 1992 and Pant and Reddy, 2001). Experiments as explained in the previous ch apters were carried out. Field moist and air-dry soil samples from th e same locations were equilibrated with P solutions at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg L-1 of P as KH2PO4 with 0.01 M KCl as the ionic media (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Re ddy et al, 1998; Reddy et al, 1998; Giesler et al., 2005) for 24 hrs at 25oC on an orbital shaker. The pH of the ionic medium containing P was adjusted to 7. The samples were then cen trifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 min and immediately filtered through 0.45 m membrane HV filter paper (Richardson and Vaithiyanathan, 1995; Reddy et al, 1998; Khalid et al, 1977; Sallade an d Sims, 1997; Zhou and Li 2001; Giesler et al, 2005). The filtrates were analyzed for soluble reactive P by the ascorbic acid method (Murphy & Riley 1962; Giesler et al, 2005; Litaor et al, 2005). The differences in amounts of P added and P re covered in solution at each P concentration after equilibration were considered as P adsorb ed (Olsen and Watanabe 1957; Pant and Reddy, 2001). The results were fitted to Q/I graphs that form the sorption isotherm. These Q/I graphs are non-mechanistic techniques used to assess substa nce sorption (Essington, 2004) It is a graph of

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76 the equilibrium surface excess or amount of P adsorbed, in mg kg-1, plotted against the equilibrium solution concentration of P, in mg L-1, at affixed temperature, pressure and solution chemistry (Essington, 2004). The data was also fitt ed to Langmuir sorption isotherms and the sorption coefficients for air dry and field moist soils are presented here. 4.2.3 Statistical analysis Data were analyzed with SAS/STAT softwa re (SAS Institute, 2002-2003). Paired t-tests were used to compare treatments (field moist a nd air-dried samples). The data was checked for normal distribution as a requirement for the paired t-test and para metric analysis were conducted once the data was found to be normal. 4.3 Results and Discussion 4.3.1 Quantity/Intensity plots Figure 4-1 shows the Q/I plots of the three soil series at a de pth of 0-20 cm and Figure 4-2 shows the Q/I plots at the 20-40 cm. The Q/I gra phs were constructed by taking the solution P concentration measured after 24hr equilibration in mg L-1 on X-axis and amount of P sorbed in the soil (mg kg-1) on Y-axis. It is interesting to note that the curves for the air-dried samples are similar in shape to those of field moist samples for all soil series, but with a lower equilibrium point, indicating a lower sorption cap acity in air-dried soils. This was true for both soil depths, which clearly indicates a nega tive impact of air-drying on P sorption capacity measurement. Comparing the three soil series, Pahokee had the lo west sorption at both de pths for air-dried and field moist soils. Lauderhill had the highest sorp tion among the three series for both depths and in air-dried and field moist soils. Table 4-1 shows the Smax values calculated from the Langmuir sorption isotherms for two depths and field moist and air-dry soil. The fi eld moist samples had minimum sorption maxima

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77 (Smax) of 429 mg kg-1 in Dania soil series at a depth of 0-20 cm and a maximum of 6767 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill soil series at 0-20c m depth of the soil profile. Field moist Air-dried Figure 4-1. Quantity/intensity plots for field moist and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth; a) b) Dania, c) d) Lauderhill and e) f) Pahokee. Pahokee Pahokee Lauderhill C ( m g L-1 ) S (mg Kg-1) Dania Dania Lauderhill Site1 Site3+Site2* Site1 Site3+Site2* a f e d c b

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78 Field moist Air-dried Figure 4-2. Quantity/intensity plots of P for field mois t and air-dried soil at 20-40cm depth; a) b) Dania, c) d) Lauderhill and e) f) Pahokee. The air-dried soil samples had mini mum sorption maxima of 624 mg kg-1 for Pahokee at 020 cm and a maximum of 3199 mg kg-1 in Lauderhill at 0-20 cm (Table 4-1). Pahokee Pahokee Lauderhill C ( m g L-1 ) S (mg Kg-1) Lauderhill Dania Dania Site1 Site3+Site2* Site1 Site3+Site2* a f e d c b

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79 Comparing average values for the 0-40 cm depth, Pahokee has the average Smax with 2453 mg kg-1 in field moist soil and 1460 mg kg-1 for air-dried soil (Table 4-1). The average maximum value of Smax was observed in Lauderhill at 2672 mg kg-1 for air-dried, and 3887 mg kg-1 for field moist soil (Table 4-1). Table 4-1. Smax for the selected soil series measured in air-dried and field moist soils. Dania Lauderhill Pahokee Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1 Smax (mg kg-1 Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried 0-20 cm 2313 1684 4731 2784 2179 719 1480 1930 3658 2893 2893 1601 3851 1484 3878 2813 2721 1287 20-40 cm 2540 1653 2307 2629 5253 1478 2440 1701 5260 2352 2721 1656 3781 1793 3486 2558 2352 2019 Average 2734 a 1707 b 3887 a 2672 b 2453 a 1460 b Means with the same alphabet are sign ificantly not different at 0.05 level. Table 4-2 shows Smax for the two different soil depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in air-dried and field moist soils. Average Smax for field moist soil at 0-20 cm and 0-40 cm, 2912 and 3556 mg kg-1, respectively, were greater than Smax for air-dried samples at 1910 and 2235 mg kg-1, respectively, for all the three soil series averaged together (Table 4-2). This also true at both depths for all series taken separate ly and is depicted in Figure 4-3. Table 4-2. Comparison of averaged Smax of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth. Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1) Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried _________________0-20cm____________ _________________-20-40cm______________ Dania 2548 1699 2920 1716 Lauderhill 4089 2830 3684 2513 Pahokee 2098 1202 4065 2476 Average 2912 1910 3556 2235

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80 4.3.2 Effects of drying on P sorption Sorption abilities of the soil were compared us ing paired t-test analysis and the data was normally distributed. Results of a paired t-test of Smax between air-dried and field-moist soils based on series are presented in Table 4-3. When data from all series were pooled, P sorption by field moist and air-dried samples were significantly different at p < 0.001 (Table 4-3). Phosphorus sorption of field moist Pahokee soils were significantly higher than air-dri ed soil (p < 0.05) (Table 4-3), with Smax of 2453 mg kg-1 for field moist greater than Smax of 1460 mg kg-1 for air-dried soil (Table 4-1). Similarly, Smax for field moist soil was great er than air-dried soil for Laude rhill (p < 0.01) and Dania (p < 0.01) (Table 4-3). When comparing sorption maxi ma of field moist and air-dried samples based on depth of soil (Table 4-4) Smax in surface 0-20 cm is significantly higher in the field moist soil (p < 0.01). Similarly, at the 20-40 cm depth, Smax of field moist samples is sign ificantly higher than air-dried samples (p < 0.01) (Table 4-4). On average, the Langmuir sorption maxima of air-dried soil were lower than field moist soil, which contradict s a similar study by Pelt ovuori (2007) on mineral soils wherein the Langmuir sorpti on maxima for air-dried soil wa s higher than field moist soil (Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2). Figure 4-3 displays mean moist and dried sa mple P sorption maxima for all soil series combined and for each soil series individually at 0-40 cm, with highest sorption in Lauderhill soil. The Smax values for the field moist soils are propor tionately greater than air-dried soil (Fig 4-2). Figure 4-4 indicates how ai r-dried and field moist soils va ry in sorption at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, and shows that air-drying at any dept h will over evaluate the P sorption capacity of these organic soils.

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81Table 4-3. Comparison of Smax in air-dry and field moist soil by soil series. All soil series Dania Lauderhill Pahokee Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1) Smax (mg kg-1) Sample Field moistAir-dried Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-dried Field moist Air-driedMean Smax 3025 1946 2734 1707 3887 2672 2453 1460 Variance 2091963 459660 1437978 66653 1896551 83637 2062626 418139 Observations 36 36 12 12 12 12 12 12 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 df 50.00 12.00 12.00 15.00 t Stat 4.05 2.90 2.99 2.18 p (T
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82 It is clear that air-drying of soil samples has consistently decreased the amount of P sorbed when samples from the three soil series were pool ed, and for each of the three series (Figure 43a), and at all depths (Figure 4-4). Possible expl anations for the decreased P sorption values in air-dried soils could be the increase in av ailable P upon drying. Airdrying can increase available P by modifying the soil chemistry a nd soil biology, especially in soils with high organic matter content and microbial biomass (Schaerer et al., 2003). A study conducted by Styles and Coxon, 2006, on organic matter rich soils, showed that drying induced desorbable inorga nic P increases to be positivel y correlated to degree of P sorption saturation. They also reported a drying induced increase in water extractable P, and extracted ten times more water extractable P from air-dried soils than field moist soil. They related the increase in water extractable P to so il organic matter and soil moisture content and drying induced P release through microbial cell ly sis and organic matter destabilization. The destabilization of soil organic matter and minera lization of organic P in air-dried samples explained the increase in water extractable P due to organic matter. Pore volume in soils indicates the reactive surface that is susceptible to drying induced P release. Since soil moisture content reflects pore volume it al so explains the increase in wate r extractable P in air-dried soil (Styles and Coxon, 2006). Likeliho od that release of fine co lloidal P by drying induced degradation of structures invol ving organic matter may have cont ributed to increase in water extractable P and subsequently a low sorption (Styles and Coxon, 2006). The results from correlation analysis reported in Chapter 3 (Table 3-4,5 and 6) showed a significant negative relationship be tween the water extractable P and Langmuir sorption maxima of the dried soil throughout the pr ofile. This shows that as the wa ter extractable P increases, the Smax values of the air-dried soil tend to be lower.

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83 Figure 4-3. Average Smax of air-dried and field mo ist soils at 0-40cm depth.

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84 Figure 4-4. Average Smax of air-dried and field moist soils at 0-20cm and 20-40cm for Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee.

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85 Peltovuori and Soinne (2005) record ed the negative effects of increased available P on soil P sorption and they also recorded drying indu ced breakdown of organo-mineral complexes thus increasing P sorption. In this study, the soils ha ve very high soil organic matter levels ranging between 73-84 % (Chapter 3, Table 3-2), and the former negative e ffect of available P may have overcome the effects of increased breakdown of organo-mineral complexes and other possible reasons mentioned by Peltovuori and Soinne (200 5), like increased surf ace acidity and break down of internal H+ bonding due to air-drying. According to Peltovuori (2007), the organo metal complexes release P upon shatteri ng during air-drying and break H+ bonds. This exposes new sites for P sorption and causes increase sorption in air-dried soil (Peltovuori, 2007). A tendency of air-drying to increase the pH and therefore increases P sorpti on was also observed (Peltovuori, 2007). Fe and Al phosphates release phosphate as pH increases while calcium phosphates liberate phosphate as pH decreases (Brady and Weil, 1999). McLaughlin et al. (1981) and Baldwin (1996) re ported synthetic Fe Al oxy-hydroxides to exhibit a decrease in their P sorption capacity upon drying as a cons equence of increased crystallinity. The crystalline fo rm of Fe oxides and oxy-hydroxides adsorb less P due to reduced surface area than amorphous oxide forms of Fe (Darke and Walbridge, 2000). Another possible reason for higher P sorption in field moist samples when compared to airdried samples could be the decrease in soil to so lution ratio in field moist soil. When field moist samples weight was corrected for moisture conten t for calculations on an oven-dry basis the soil to solution ratio decreased. Decreasing the soil solution ratio specifically increases the solute concentration that enhances the sorption of P in soil (Peltovuori and Soinne, 2005). 4.4 Conclusion Phosphorus sorption capacity of organic soils in the EAA, specifically Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee, were higher when using field moist vs. air-dried soils. Air-drying seems to have

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86 decreased the ability of these organic soils to adsorb P considerably, which contradicts studies conducted in mineral soils. Air-drying in mineral soils have shown to in crease equilibrium P concentration and increase the soil s ability to adsorb P. The decr ease in P sorption maxima as a result of air-drying was attributed to a possibl e increase in water-extract able P during drying and an inverse association between water-extractab le P and P sorption maxima. Another possible reason is the decreased soil to solution ratio wh en oven dry weight of the soils is considered. It is the conclusion of this st udy that an estimation of P sorp tion from air-dried samples of organic soils may not reflect th e actual P sorption capacity of the soil. Phosphorus sorption capacity obtained from air-dried samples in organi c soils, which hardly ever dries thoroughly in the field, may lead to under estimation of that ca pacity. Use of field moist samples seems to be more appropriate to obtain rele vant data to field conditions.

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87 CONCLUSIONS The Everglades once under natural conditions and uncul tivated was developed for agriculture in the early 1900s. Th is development has lead to a ch ange in hydrology and quality of water as a result of agricultural practices. Cultivati on of the organic soils al so resulted in organic matter oxidation and subsidence. The most critical and prevalent water quality issue is related to P eutrophication in the Everglades. Soils can re tain or release P to the soil solution, thus aggravate or alleviate the situation. This research attempts to study the abil ity of organic soils of the EAA to sorb P, the soil characteristics that can be correlated to soil P sorption and to evaluate how effective the traditional method of sample pr eparation by air-drying functions as opposed to using field moist samples. The organic soils in the EAA are classified taxonomically into soil series based on their depth, over the limestone bedrock. This study inve stigated Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee soil series having variable depths Dania being the shallowest, La uderhill intermediate, and Pahokee being the deepest. High concentrations of P sorb ed, from the Langmuir isotherm, showed that P sorption potential of these organic soils is highe r than expected. The results also show that P sorption maxima of the three soil series differed, which is to say that as the surface depth from the limestone bedrock varied, the P sorption also varied. There was no correlation between the depth to bedrock and P sorption or between CaCO3 content and P sorption so depth to bedrock does not seem to be a major factor controlling P sorption. The data also showed P sorption was the same at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm in all soils. These results indicate that some soil properties other than the depth to limestone bedrock a nd increased calcium car bonate affected the P sorption process in these soils. It is difficult to separate the effect of a single parameter in determining the P sorption capacity of soils since they ar e often inter-co rrelated with other parameters. In this study,

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88 significant correlation with such soil properties between P sorp tion and extractable Fe, Al content, soil pH, and soil organic matter and th ese correlations were significant only at surface 020 cm of the soil. The soil organic matter and Fe and Al content of the soil best explained the variability in sorption. As the or ganic matter content of these so ils increases, the sorption is decreases. This was mainly attributed to the co mpetition between the phos phate and organic ions for the P sorption site in the soil matrix. The extractable Fe content had a positive effect on P sorption. Phosphorus sorption is known to correla te better with extractable Al, though the study showed little correlation to extractable Al content. This was attr ibuted to very little Al in these soils. Water-extractable P or soluble P correlate d well with P sorption. Th e soils would have a lower capacity to sorb P as these soils get satura ted and have a high water-extractable P. Soil pH had a positive and significant re lation with P sorption. These correlations strongly point out why Lauderhill with intermediate depth to bedrock, high Fe and Al content, with higher pH and lowest soil organic matter, had the highest P so rption capacity. These correlations also explain why P sorption of Dania, shallowest amongst the three soil series, is lower than Lauderhill, but higher than Pahokee with the grea test organic matter content. As a part of this study, air-drying the sample before P sorption experiment was compared to the field moist samples and air-drying was f ound to underestimate the P sorption capacity of these soils. The reason for decreased P sorption may be due to a possible increase in waterextractable P during drying, a decr ease soil to solution ratio when oven dry weight of the field moist soils is considered, increased crystallinity of Fe and Al oxides. It can be thus concluded that estimating P sorption of orga nic soils in the EAA from air-dri ed samples may not reflect the actual P sorption capacity of the soil and field mo ist samples seems to be more appropriate to obtain relevant data.

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89 APPENDIX ANOVA FOR THE PH OF THREE SOIL SERIES AT TWO DEPTHS The analysis of variance test for the equality of pH means for the three soil series is presented with soil series and soil depth as two fa ctors; the former was ta ken at 3 levels (Dania, Lauderhill, and Pahokee) and soil depth at two levels (0-20 and 20-40 cm). Table A-1. ANOVA for pH for the thr ee soil series at two depths Source DF Type III SS Mean Square F Value p Series 2 3.4 1.72 14.26 <0.0001 Depth 1 0.11 0.11 0.90 0.35 Series*Depth 2 0.32 0.16 1.32 0.28 Table A-2. Least squares means comp arison for the three soil series Dania Lauderhill Pahokee Dania Lauderhill 0.3115 Pahokee < 0.0001 0.0004

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90 LIST OF REFERENCES Abdu, N. 2006. Soil phosphorus extraction methodol ogies: A review. African J. Ag. Re. 1:159-161. Anderson, J.M. 1976. An ignition method for dete rmination of total phosphorus in lake sediments. Water Res. 10:329. Anghinoni, I., V.C. Baligar, and R.J.Wr ight. 1996. Phosphorus sorption isotherm characteristics and availability parame ters of Appalachian acidic soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27: 2033-2048. Axt, J.R., and M.R. Walbridge. 1999. Phosphate removal capacity of palustrine forested wetlands and adjacent uplands in Virginia. Soil Sci. Soc.Am. J. 63: 1019-1031. Bertsch, P.M., and P. R. Bloom. 1996. Aluminum. p. 517-549. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis Part 3: Chemi cal methods 3rd ed. SSSA and ASA, Book Ser 5. SSSA, Madison, WI. Borggaard, O. K., S. S. Jorgensen, J. P.M oberg, and Raben-Lange B. 1990. Influence of organic matter on phosphate adsorption by Aluminum and iron oxides in sandy soils. J. Soil Sci. 41: 443-449. Bottcher, A. B., and F. T. Izuno. 1994. Evergl ades Agricultural area Water, Soil, Crop, and Environmental Management. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Brady, N.C., and Weil, R.R. 1999. The nature and properties of soils. 12th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Bruland, G. L. and C.J. Richardson. 2004. A spatially explicit investigation of phosphorus sorption and related soil prope rties in two ripa rian wetlands. J. Environ. Qual. 33: 785-794. Darke, A.K., and M.R. Walbridge. 2000. Al and Fe biogeochemistry in a floodplain forest: implications for P rete ntion. Biogeochemistry. 51: 1-32. Daroub, S. H., O.A. Diaz, T.A. Lang M. Chen, and J. D. Stuck. 2005. Everglades Agricultural Area BMPs for reducing part iculate Phosphorus transportthe Soil and Water Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, UF. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Daroub, S.H., J.D. Stuck, T.A. Lang, and O.A Diaz. 2002. Particulate Phosphorus in the Everglades Agricultural Ar ea: I Introduction and Sources IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SS410 Essington, M. E. 2004. Soil and Water Chemistr y: An Integrative approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl.

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91 Flaig, E.G., and K.R. Reddy. 1995. Fate of phosphorus in the Lake Okeechobee watershed, Florida, USA: overview and recommendations. Ecol. Eng. 5: 127-142. Freese D., S. van der Zee, and van Riem sdijk W. H. 1992. Comparison of different models for phosphate sorption as a func tion of Fe and Al oxides of soils Eur. J. Soil Sci. 43: 729-738. Gale, P.M., K.R. Reddy, and D.A. Graetz. 1994. Phosphorus reten tion by wetland soils used for treated wastewater dis posal. J. Environ. Qual. 23: 370-377. Giesler, R., T. Andersson, L. Lovgren and P. Persson. 2005. Phosphate sorption in aluminum and iron rich humus soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69: 77-86. Havlin, J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, and W.L. Nelson. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers: an introduction to nutrient management. 6th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Hue. N. V. 1991. Effects of organic acids/ anions on P sorption and phytoavalability in soils with different minerologies. Soil Sci. 152: 463-471. Izuno, F.T., C.A. Sanchez, F.J. Coale, A.B. Bottcher, and D.B. Jones. 1991.Phosphorus concentrations in drainage water in the Everglades Agricultur al Area. J. Environ. Qual. 22: 608-619. Kaiser, K., Martin. K., and Wolfgang. Z. 2000. Sorption of dissolved organic carbon in soils: effects of soil sample storage, soil-to-solution ratio, and temperature. Geoderma 99: 317-328. Khalid, R.A., W.H. Patrick, Jr. and R.D. DeLaune. 1977. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of flooded soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41: 305-310. Larsen, J E., G. F. Warren, and R. Langst on. 1959. Effect of iron, aluminum and humic acid on phosphorus fixation in organic so ils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 23: 438440. Litaor, M.I., O. Reichmann, M. Belzer, K. Auerswald, A. Nishri, and M. Shenker. 2003. Spatial analysis of phosphorus sorption cap acity in a semiarid altered wetland. J. Environ. Qual. 32: 335. Litaor, M.I., O. Reichmann, A. Haim, K. Auerswald, and M. Shenker. 2005. Sorption characteristics of phosphorus in peat so ils of semiarid altered wetlands. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69: 1658-1665. Loeppert, R.H., and W.P. Inskeep. 1996. Iron. p. 639. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of soil analysis Part 3: Chemical me thods 3rd ed. SSSA and ASA, Book Ser 5. SSSA, Madison, WI.

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95 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lalitha Janardhanan was born in the city of Trivandrum, in Southern India. Her family settled down in the town of Thrissur, where she finished her high school. Sh e attended the Kerala Agricultural University, and gra duated with a Bachelor of Scien ce degree in agriculture in the fall of 2002. In September 2003, she married and moved to the United States where her husband worked. After taking her time to settle down and contemplating her options, she decided to keep her gray cells working by taking a bio-chemistry course at the Florida Atlantic University in the fall of 2004. It was by chance that she stumbl ed upon the Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center in Davie and heard about the distance education program. She joined the University of Florida in August 2005 and will gra duate with a Master of Science degree in the Soil and Water Science Department in the fa ll of 2007. Upon graduation, she would like to continue using her knowledge and skill set in soil science at either a public or private organization, and is also in terested in pursuing a Ph.D.