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Effect of Host Plants and Pesticides on Parasitism of Haeckeliania sperata on Diaprepes abbreviatus

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021800/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Host Plants and Pesticides on Parasitism of Haeckeliania sperata on Diaprepes abbreviatus
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Carrillo, Daniel
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Two investigations were conducted to determine the effect of host plants and pesticides on Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gregarious egg-endoparasitoid that was imported to Florida as a biological control agent of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The first study hypothesized that the reproductive success of H. sperata is affected by the host plants of D. abbreviatus. Six host plants with varying degrees of pubescence were used to determine successful parasitism and the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata. Haeckeliania was able to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on the six host plants; however, the plants with a high leaf trichome density had a lower percent of parasitism than the plants with smoother leaves. Removal of trichomes from a pubescent biotype of buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus, revealed that the presence of leaf trichomes had a negative effect on the overall searching efficiency of H. sperata. Searching speed was highly related to parasitism; this parameter could be used to predict the suitability of host plants for the establishment of H. sperata. These findings suggest that the reproductive success of H. sperata is dependent on the host plant of D. abbreviatus. The second study was designed to evaluate the relative susceptibility of H. sperata adults to contact with pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Five concentrations of seven pesticides were included in the bioassays. All tested pesticides had a negative effect on Haeckeliania?s survivorship. However, some pesticides caused significantly less harm to this parasitoid. Organophospate, carbamate and pyrethoid pesticides were highly toxic to H. sperata. Dilutions of the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid solutions did not reduce mortality of the parasitoid. Imidacloprid, abamectin, petroleum oil and a phosphonate fungicide allowed H. sperata to live longer compared with the previous pesticides, suggesting a certain degree of selectivity. The use of products that have less toxic effects on the introduced parasitoid will increase its chances to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs. This study proposes the selection of host plants of D. abbreviatus and use of selective pesticides to maximize the chances of establishment of Haeckeliania sperata in Florida.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Carrillo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pena, Jorge E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021800:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021800/00001

Material Information

Title: Effect of Host Plants and Pesticides on Parasitism of Haeckeliania sperata on Diaprepes abbreviatus
Physical Description: 1 online resource (84 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Carrillo, Daniel
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Two investigations were conducted to determine the effect of host plants and pesticides on Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gregarious egg-endoparasitoid that was imported to Florida as a biological control agent of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The first study hypothesized that the reproductive success of H. sperata is affected by the host plants of D. abbreviatus. Six host plants with varying degrees of pubescence were used to determine successful parasitism and the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata. Haeckeliania was able to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on the six host plants; however, the plants with a high leaf trichome density had a lower percent of parasitism than the plants with smoother leaves. Removal of trichomes from a pubescent biotype of buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus, revealed that the presence of leaf trichomes had a negative effect on the overall searching efficiency of H. sperata. Searching speed was highly related to parasitism; this parameter could be used to predict the suitability of host plants for the establishment of H. sperata. These findings suggest that the reproductive success of H. sperata is dependent on the host plant of D. abbreviatus. The second study was designed to evaluate the relative susceptibility of H. sperata adults to contact with pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Five concentrations of seven pesticides were included in the bioassays. All tested pesticides had a negative effect on Haeckeliania?s survivorship. However, some pesticides caused significantly less harm to this parasitoid. Organophospate, carbamate and pyrethoid pesticides were highly toxic to H. sperata. Dilutions of the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid solutions did not reduce mortality of the parasitoid. Imidacloprid, abamectin, petroleum oil and a phosphonate fungicide allowed H. sperata to live longer compared with the previous pesticides, suggesting a certain degree of selectivity. The use of products that have less toxic effects on the introduced parasitoid will increase its chances to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs. This study proposes the selection of host plants of D. abbreviatus and use of selective pesticides to maximize the chances of establishment of Haeckeliania sperata in Florida.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Carrillo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Pena, Jorge E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021800:00001


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EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS AND PESTICIDES ON PARASITISM OF
HAECKELIANIA SPERA TA ON DIAPREPES ABBREVIA TUS





















By

DANIEL CARRILLO


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007

































2007 Daniel Carrillo



































To my parents









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to my mayor professor, Dr. Jorge Pefia, for his continued support and

guidance during my time as a graduate student of the University of Florida. I also want to thank

the other members of my supervisory committee, Dr. John L. Capinera and Dr. Michael. E.

Rogers; their critiques and suggestions made substantial improvements to this study. I thank

Rita, David, Jose, and Zaragoza, not only for their support while conducting my research, but

also for helping me in many aspects of my personal life in Florida. I am grateful to Dr. Michael

Scharf and Dr. Howard Frank for always being available, with a positive attitude, to answer my

questions. I thank my family for their loving encouragement, which motivated me to complete

my study.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ......... ..... .......... ...............................................................................4

LIST O F TA BLE S ......... .... .............. .............................................................. 7

LIST OF FIGURES ................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .8

ABSTRAC T ..........................................................................................

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... ......................... .... 11

Baseline Information about Diaprepes abbreviatus ..................... .. ................... 11
Biology of the Diaprepes root weevil ............... ............ ......................12
Identification of D iaprepes abbreviatus.......................................... .......................... 15
M management of the Diaprepes root weevil ...............................................................16
Classical Biological Control of D. abbreviatus with Egg Parasitoids...................... ..24
Objectives of M aster of Science Thesis Research ............... .......................................... 31

2 EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS ON SUCCESSFUL PARASITISM OF Haeckeliania
sperata (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) ON Diaprepes abbreviatus
(COLEOPTERA : CURCULIONIDAE) EGGS ........................................ ..................... 33

Introduction.................. ...... ....................33
M material and M methods ................................ .. ...... ........... .......... .. ... .. .. ... ............ 35
Experiment. Determining the Successful Parasitism ofH. sperata on D.
abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants ............... .................. ..................... 36
Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Trichomes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata.......37
Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf
T hickness to P arasitism .......... .............................................................. .... .... ..... 39
R esu lts...................... ...................... .... ................................ .... .... .......... ..... 4 0
Experiment. Determining the Successful Parasitism ofH. sperata on D.
abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants .............................................40
Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Trichomes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata. ......41
Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf
T hickness to P arasitism .......... .............................................................. .... .... ..... 42
D iscu ssion .......... ............................... ................................................43

3 RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Haeckeliania sperata TO PESTICIDES USED IN
C IT R U S ............................................................................................. 4 6

Introduction ..... ..................................... ..............................................46
M materials and M methods .......................... ...................... .. .. .... ........ ........ 49
R e su lts ................... .............................................................. ................ 5 1









D is c u s sio n ...............................................................................................................................5 6

APPENDIX. CHECKLIST OF ENTIMINAE SCHROEDER 1823 (COLEOPTERA
CURCULIONIDAE) SPECIES AND KEY TO SOME SPECIES PRESENT IN
F L O R ID A ................... ...................6...................3..........

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .............................................................................. ...........................73

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................84














































6









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1. Effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata. ...........................42

2-2. Relationship of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism.
Multiple regression analysis of the effect of searching speed, trichome density and
leaf thickness on mean percent of parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs
laid on six host plants ................. ........... ................. .. ............. 43

3-1. List of pesticides tested on H. sperata, including trade name, class, active ingredient,
application rate, label concentration, and bioassay concentrations. ................................51

3-2. Lethal Time (50 and 90) ofH. sperata exposed to of 4 concentrations of selected
pesticides ......... .................. ...................................... ........................... 53

3-3. Lethal Concentrations (50 and 90) at 12, 24 and 48 hours after Haeckeliania sperata
adults were exposed to leaf disks treated with seven pesticides at four different
concentration s. .......................................................... ................. 54

A -1. Codes for Florida Counties. ...... ........................... ........................................... 67









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure pe

1-1. General scheme of the main strategies proposed for management of D. abbreviatus
in citru s.......... ............................... ................................................16

2-1. Effect of host plant on successful parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs by H. sperata.
No-Choice tests on six host plants and control treatment (wax paper). Different
letters represents significant differences, Tukey (P<0.05). Error bars represent the
standard error. ............................................................................. 4 1

3-1. Percent mortality ofH. sperata 24 hours after exposure to four different
concentrations of pesticide residues on lime leaves. The concentrations for each
pesticide consisted of a dilution series using the label rate for field applications as the
starting concentration ................ ...... ....... ................ .. ... ....55

A-1. Myllocerus undatus A. Postocular lobe B. Femora tooth C. Adult ...............................68

A-2. Pachnaeus litus A. Postocular vibrissae B. Base of Elytra C. Adult..............................69

A-3. Diaprepes abbreviatus A. Postocular setae B. Mandible scar C. Adult.........................70

A-4. Artipusfloridanus (A &B) Lachnopusfloridanus (C) A.Longitudinal sulcus B. Adult
C A du lt........ . ............................... ................................................ 72









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS AND PESTICIDES ON PARASITISM OF
HAECKELIANIA SPERA TA ON DIAPREPES ABBREVIA TUS

By

Daniel Carrillo

December 2007

Chair: Jorge E. Peia
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

Two investigations were conducted to determine the effect of host plants and pesticides on

Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gregarious egg-endoparasitoid that

was imported to Florida as a biological control agent ofDiaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera:

Curculionidae).

The first study hypothesized that the reproductive success ofH. sperata is affected by the

host plants of D. abbreviatus. Six host plants with varying degrees of pubescence were used to

determine successful parasitism and the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H.

sperata. Haeckeliania was able to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on the six host plants;

however, the plants with a high leaf trichome density had a lower percent of parasitism than the

plants with smoother leaves. Removal of trichomes from a pubescent biotype of buttonwood,

Conocarpus erectus, revealed that the presence of leaf trichomes had a negative effect on the

overall searching efficiency ofH. sperata. Searching speed was highly related to parasitism; this

parameter could be used to predict the suitability of host plants for the establishment of H.

sperata. These findings suggest that the reproductive success ofH. sperata is dependent on the

host plant of D. abbreviatus.









The second study was designed to evaluate the relative susceptibility ofH. sperata adults

to contact with pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Five concentrations of seven pesticides were

included in the bioassays. All tested pesticides had a negative effect on Haeckeliania's

survivorship. However, some pesticides caused significantly less harm to this parasitoid.

Organophospate, carbamate and pyrethoid pesticides were highly toxic to H. sperata. Dilutions

of the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid solutions did not reduce mortality of the

parasitoid. Imidacloprid, abamectin, petroleum oil and a phosphonate fungicide allowed H.

sperata to live longer compared with the previous pesticides, suggesting a certain degree of

selectivity. The use of products that have less toxic effects on the introduced parasitoid will

increase its chances to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs.

This study proposes the selection of host plants of D. abbreviatus and use of selective

pesticides to maximize the chances of establishment of Haeckeliania sperata in Florida.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Baseline Information about Diaprepes abbreviatus



Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is a root weevil that is native to the Lesser Antilles.

Apparently, it was accidentally introduced to Florida in the mid 1960s (Woodruff 1985). Since

its first detection in Apopka (Orange County) in 1964, Diaprepes has spread throughout the

central and southern part of the Florida peninsula. Diaprepes is now considered established in

23 counties, infesting more than 100,000 acres of citrus groves and many other agricultural,

ornamental and wild plants (Nguyen et al. 2003, Weissling et al. 2004). The introduction of this

pest to Florida has increased the production costs of many crops, and severely hindered the

growth of Florida's agricultural markets. Estimates show that this pest has increased production

costs over 70 million dollars annually for the citrus industry in Florida (Stanley 1996, Muraro

2000). Moreover, the infestation of this weevil has spread to Texas and California (Grafton-

Cardwell 2004, CDFA 2006), resulting in drastic measures to restrict the introduction of

ornamental plants from Florida (TDA 2001).

The key pest status of D. abbreviatus is partly ascribable to its polyphagy. The list of host

plants ofD. abbreviatus includes more than 270 plant species from 60 plant families (Simpson et

al. 1996, Mannion et al. 2003). A large portion of Diaprepes host plants are important

agricultural crops such as: citrus (all varieties), papaya, sugarcane, peanut, sorghum, sweet

potato, cassava, loquat, guava, mango, avocado, banana and corn. Some of the other reported

hosts are widely used by the ornamental plant industry, and they include native plants, or are

invasive species (i.e., Brazilian pepper tree), all of great ecological significance (Simpson et al.

1996). The wide host range ofD. abbreviatus has facilitated the spread of this weevil, resulting









in a significant threat to many tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Moreover, the broad

variation in the host plants ofD. abbreviatus represents a big challenge for developing efficient

and sustainable management tactics.



Biology of the Diaprepes root weevil

The adult weevils are long lived (z 147 days for females and z 135 days for males;

Wolcott 1936) and can be found throughout the year in south Florida. Their seasonality in the

central portion of Florida is different, showing a primary emergence period from May to October

and November. McCoy et al. (2003) found that the magnitude of adult emergence is related to

soil moisture. This study concluded that D. abbreviatus emergence can be delayed by moisture

deficits and that soil moisture could have a positive relationship with adult emergence. Adults

prefer to feed on young, tender leaves, leaving irregular notches. They may also feed on old

leaves or to a limited degree on fruits, as seen on papayas and young citrus fruit (Woodruff 1968,

Knapp et al. 2000). D. abbreviatus adults form aggregations of equal sex ratio on new foliage of

their host plants, where they can remain for weeks. Even though adults have considerable

intrasexual variation in body size, both sexes are considered monomorphic and mate in crowded

aggregations of up to 100 individuals per 0.5m2 (Harari and Landolt 1997, Harari and

Brockmann 1999, Harari et al. 1999, 2000, 2003). Evidence of the nature of the formation of

aggregations is contradictory. Schroeder (1981) suggested that both females and males produce

pheromones to attract the opposite sex to aggregation sites. In contrast, Beavers et al. (1982)

suggested that odor of young citrus foliage is the main cue affecting aggregation and that the

subsequently produced frass served as a secondary attractant at the aggregation site. Later on,

Hariari and Landolt (1997) reported that females were more attracted to damaged food than to

males or frass of either sex, and that males were similarly attracted to females, frass of either sex,









or damaged food. Evidence suggests that the nature of the formation of aggregations of D.

abbreviatus is complex and could be mediated by the interaction of several cues of which

damaged food probably plays a primary role.

The female oviposits egg masses between two adjacent leaves. The egg masses are

deposited in a gelatinous cement that seals the leaves together and provides protection for the

eggs (Nigg et al. 2001, Jacas et al. 2005). Females lay eggs in clusters of 30 to 265 eggs and can

deposit approximately 5000 eggs over their life time (Wolcott 1936). Simpson et al. (1996)

suggested that D. abbreviatus shows little preference for oviposition sites. Weevils confined in

artificial settings will oviposit in anything that has two surfaces close together (i.e. strips of wax

paper, a piece of wrinkled cloth). However, in a natural environment, D. abbreviatus females

seem to prefer some host plants and certain plant structures for oviposition. In a two year field

study, Pefia et al. (2007) compared the oviposition patterns in two host plants ofD. abbreviatus

and found that silver buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus L. var. sericeus Fors., is more favorable

to oviposition than dahoon holly, Ilex cassine L. Their findings suggest that the egg masses are

aggregated within canopy strata when they are deposited in silver buttonwood plants. Lapointe

(2001) reported that Diaprepes prefer to oviposit eggs on mature expanded citrus leaves,

providing further evidence that suggests females do have preference for oviposition sites. The

preference ofD. abbreviatus towards certain oviposition sites suggests that some plants could

serve as egg and larval reservoirs and thus play an important role on the population dynamics of

this weevil.

Upon emergence, the neonate larvae escape from the sealed leaves and drop to the soil

surface. The timing of the period between egg hatch and permanence in the soil surface has been

studied by various researchers as it represents a period of exposure to predation. Jones and









Schroeder (1983) reported that a considerable period of time (48h average) often elapsed from

egg hatch to larval escape from the sealed leaves. The pattern of neonate drop was studied in

detail by Stuart et al. (2003). This study revealed that neonate drop could occur during all hours

of the light and dark phases, but agreed with Jones and Schroeder (1983) in that there is a peak of

neonate drop during the second period of the light phase. However, it is unclear to what extent

these temporal patterns relate to environmental conditions such as rainfall, which could have a

large impact on the ability of neonate larvae to burrow into the soil (Jones and Schroeder 1983).

These researchers demonstrated that neonate larvae failed to penetrate dry soil. In addition, they

found that neonate larvae might frequently remain exposed on the soil surface for relatively long

periods (up to 180 minutes) before penetrating the surface of moist soil.

After penetrating the soil surface, larvae burrow down to the root system where they begin

feeding on fibrous roots. As they grow, the larvae move to feed on larger structural roots, where

they create deep grooves as they consume the outer bark and the cambium layer (McCoy et al.

2007). This stage causes major crop damage by debilitating the root system, making it more

vulnerable to infection by soil born pests such as Phytophtora spp. and nematodes, and less

tolerant to water stress. The larval development period may include up to 16 instars and varies

widely even between the individuals of a single mass. Under laboratory conditions the duration

of the larval period ofD. abbreviatus obtained from field-collected females was of 132-297 days

(Beavers and Selheime 1975). However, in the field the larval period could last up to one year.

Moreover, there are reports stating that D. abbreviatus can enter a quiescent period inside a soil

chamber for up to 388 days (Wolcott 1936). If no control measures are taken, a few large larvae

can cause a mature healthy tree to become non-productive.









Identification of Diaprepes abbreviatus.

It is important to differentiate D. abbreviatus from other Florida root weevils that inhabit

similar ecological niches in and have a similar life cycle. Diaprepes belongs to the subfamily

Entiminae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) which groups the "broad-nosed" weevils that posses a

short and stout rostrum (Marvaldi 1997, Anderson 2002). This is a large and widely distributed

group that recognizes 124 genera in 23 tribes in North America (Anderson 2002). At least 24

genera and 36 species of weevils that belong to the subfamily Entiminae are known to be present

in Florida (O'Brien and Wibmer 1982, Peck and Thomas 1998). However, only a few species

share ecological niches with Diaprepes in Florida and inflict damage to plants that could be

mistakenly attributed to Diaprepes. Even though the adults of this weevil are easily recognizable

by morphological characters (see Appendix A), some developmental stages (i.e., eggs) show

great similarities and could be easily confused from one species to another. The most relevant

weevil species inhabiting Florida that also share the same environment and deposit eggs in

between two leaves as Diaprepes include: Pachnaeus litus (Germar), P. opalus (Oliver), Artipus

floridanus Horn, Lachnopus floridanus Horn, L. argus (Rieche) and L. hispidus (Gyllenhall).

The first four species are native to Florida and the last two are adventive species that are

doubtfully established in Florida (Peck and Thomas 1998, Anderson 2002). These species,

together with D. abbreviatus, form a complex of economically damaging citrus root weevils. In

most cases, the use of adequate cultural practices should be enough for managing citrus root

weevils except for D. abbreviatus (McCoy et al. 2007). When a grove is infested with D.

abbreviatus, additional management practices are required.










Management of the Diaprepes root weevil

Throughout the last few decades several strategies have been implemented for the control

ofD. abbreviatus. A synopsis of the main tactics proposed for management for D. abbreviatus

in citrus is shown in figure 1. The first step in any management program ofD. abbreviatus is to


Management of D. abbreviatus

Monitoring


CulIural Practices


Biological Control


Figure 1-1. General scheme of the main strategies proposed for management ofD. abbreviatus in
citrus.


establish a sampling method to detect infested areas and to monitor groves with established

populations. Detection of D. abbreviatus has relied mostly on observation of the adult stage.

Visual monitoring for adults can be effective when a grove is inspected on a regular basis by

looking for the irregular notches on leaves resulting from adult feeding, especially in new

flushes. If leaf notching is observed, it is necessary to capture the adults in order to obtain a

positive identification. A capture method used by growers and researchers is the "beat" method,

which takes advantage of the behavior of the adult weevils that, when disturbed, fall to the

ground and pretend to be dead. The adult weevils can be captured by placing an open umbrella


Chemical rl









or a cloth between the tree and the ground and then beating the tree. Nigg et al. (2001) studied

the distribution and movement of marked adult Diaprepes weevils in a citrus grove using the

beat method, Tedders traps and Malaise traps. The conclusion of this study was that the beat

method is much more accurate in determining adult population levels than either of the traps, and

that the Tedders traps, which are widely used for monitoring other weevil species, were

inefficient for estimating abundance indices but could be used to signal when weevils first appear

in the trees during a season (Nigg et al. 2001). In another study, McCoy et al. (2003) assessed

the seasonal life stage abundance ofD. abbreviatus in irrigated and non-irrigated citrus

plantings. They used modified Tedders traps to monitor adults, time-limited visual inspections

to the accessible part of the tree canopy to monitor eggs, modified pitfall traps to monitor

neonate drop, and removed trees to monitor larvae and pupae present in the soil. In contrast to

the findings by Nigg et al. (2001), this study reported that Tedders traps were efficient to

measure changes in adult weevil abundance within a season. Furthermore, they reported a close

association of adult trap counts, egg mass counts and neonate counts, and therefore proposed that

adult captures in modified Tedders traps provided a reliable indicator for estimating the

abundance of other life stages (i.e. eggs). Interestingly, Pefia et al. (2007) recently reported that

D. abbreviatus prefers to oviposit on the upper stratum in the canopy of silver buttonwood

plants, which suggests that monitoring the most accessible part of the canopy of a host plant

might not necessarily give a good predictor of the abundance of eggs in the whole tree,

especially at low population densities. The later study proposes sample sizes for monitoring

Diaprepes root weevil egg infestations in silver buttonwood plants and conclude that sampling

procedures for egg masses will depend on the host plant. Several efforts have been made to

design an efficient trap to capture adult weevils that could be used to standardize the monitoring









procedures. Some researchers have looked for volatile aggregating or mating pheromones that

could be incorporated as an attractant to Tedders or other traps (Lapointe et al. 2004). However,

no efficient attractants have been identified yet and the commercial use of these traps remains

limited.

The chemical control proposed for D. abbreviatus has two components: foliar sprays and

chemical soil barriers. Foliar sprays target the peaks of adult emergence with the purpose of

reducing egg deposition, thereby limiting the number of neonate larvae entering the soil (McCoy

et al. 2007). The products recommended for foliar sprays are often mixed with petroleum oil to

improve their residual effect and to affect the bonding characteristics of the secretions that

females use to bond eggs to leaves (McCoy et al. 2007). Recommended pesticides for foliar

sprays include: carbamates (Sevin XLR, 80S & 4F), organophosphates (Orthene 97, Imidan

70WP), minerals (Kryocide 96WP), pyrethroids (Danitol 2,4EC) and insect growth regulators

(Micromite 80WGS) (McCoy et al. 2007). Chemical soil barriers are used to prevent the neonate

larvae from burrowing into the soil and reaching the root system. Two pyrethroids (Brigade

WSB and Capture 2EC) are recommended as chemical soil barriers that are more effective when

applied two weeks after the peak of adult emergence (McCoy et al. 2007). In addition, the

presence of Diaprepes in a grove induces the application of soil fungicides to control infections

of secondary pathogens (i.e. Phytophthora spp.) (McCoy et al. 2007).

The cultural practices proposed to manage a grove that is infested with Diaprepes are

designed mostly to reinforce the host plants ability to overcome larval damage. Using

Phytophthora-resistant rootstocks as well as keeping optimal soil drainage are proposed for

reducing infections in the root system and limiting tree decline (McCoy et al. 2007). Another

recommended practice is to apply additional fertilizers to promote new root growth after









Diaprepes larvae have inflicted damage to the roots. A control measure that could be considered

a cultural practice is the use of kaolin-based particle films. The particle films act as feeding and

oviposition deterrents while having a beneficial effect on carbon assimilation, leaf temperature,

tree growth, and yield of fruit trees in semiarid and subhumid environments (Glenn et al. 2001,

Lapointe et al. 2006). Additional actions have been taken by the regulatory agencies. Locations

with known Diaprepes infestations have been subject of quarantine programs to prevent the

spread of the weevil (CDFA 2006), but these actions have negatively impacted the market of

many agricultural commodities in Florida.

The other major component of the management programs of D. abbreviatus is biological

control. Several efforts have been made to identify natural sources of mortality of Diaprepes in

Florida and some Caribbean islands. There are reports of several predators of Diaprepes adults.

These range from Bufo marines (Dexter 1932), to stink bugs (Mead 1976) and spiders

(Anonymous 2005). No adult parasitoids of Diaprepes have ever been reported (Pefia

unpublished). Several parasitoids (eg., Micronotus spp., Cenosoma spp., Oestrophasia spp.)

have been collected from other species of citrus weevils, such as Artipus (Bullock 1984, Kovarik

and Reitz 2005) in Florida and from Pachnaeus in Cuba (Hernandez and Perez 1981, Grillo and

Alvarez 1984). Therefore, the incognita still exists of the existence of an adult parasitoid of the

Diaprepes root weevil.

Various predators, entomogenous nematodes, entomopathogenic microorganisms and egg

parasitoids have been found affecting Diaprepes eggs and/or larvae. In 1982, Whitcomb et al.

identified and evaluated several predators ofD. abbreviatus first instar larvae present at the High

Acres Orange Grove, Forest City, Florida. Nine species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

were the dominant predators responsible for removing an average of 47% of the neonate larvae









crawling on the soil surface during the evaluation periods (intervals of 20 minutes). In addition,

a few predation events by one spider species (Corythalia canosa Walckenaer) and earwig

juveniles (Labidura sp.) were reported. The nine ant species in decreasing order of percent

predation included: Pheidole dentate Mayr, Pheidole floridana Emery, Tetramorium simillimun

Roger, Paratrechina bourbonica Forel, Pheidole morrisi Forel, Solenopsis invicta Buren,

Conomyrma flavopecta (M.R. Smith), Pheidole moerens Wheeler, and Paratrechina vividula

(Nylander). The first four species were considered prominent predators because of the

consistency of appearance in the testing arenas and their high predation rates. P. morrisi and S.

invicta occurred rarely but had high rates of predation. Similarly, Stuart et al. (2003) evaluated

neonate predation by ants in three citrus groves of Central Florida at Lake Alfred and Alturas

(Polk County), and Southport (Osceola County). Eight species of predatory ants removed an

average of 11.9% of the neonate larvae crawling on the soil surface during the evaluation

periods. Ant species in decreasing order of percent predation included: S. invicta, P. moerens,

Dorymyrmex reginicula (Trager), Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel, Dorymyrmex bureni (Trager),

Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, P. bourbonica and P. morrisi. Interestingly, three out the four

dominant predatory ant species found by Whitcomb et al. (1982) in Forest City were not detected

in the later study. Moreover, S. invicta and P. moerens were considered minor predators in

Forest City whereas in the later study they were consider major predator species. The results of

these two studies suggest that ants are important predators ofD. abbreviatus, but also that either

the ant fauna among sites is highly variable or that the ant composition is undergoing changes

probably caused by the introduction of invasive ant species such as S. invicta (Stuart et al. 2003).

An interesting defense mechanism used by Diaprepes neonate larvae against ants was described

by Pavis et al. (1992). Observations made by these researchers revealed that a common









predatory ant in the island of Guadeloupe, Solenopsis marginata (F.), was repelled by the first

instar larva ofD. abbreviatus. Further studies revealed that first instar larvae ofD. abbreviatus

secretes an ant-repellent chemical that limit the magnitude of predation by this ant species.

Whether Florida's populations of D. abbreviatus secrete ant-repellents or if the repellents affect

the ant species present in Florida is unknown.

Three species of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were reported as potential

predators of Diaprepes eggs and neonate larvae (Stuart et al. 2002). Cycloneda sanguine (L.),

Harmonia axyridis Pallas and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant are all generalist predators that consume

various citrus pests. Bioassays conducted with these three species demonstrated that Diaprepes

eggs and neonate larvae could become part of their diet. However, there is no information on the

contribution of this species to the biological control of D. abbreviatus under natural conditions.

Another predator of Diaprepes neonate larvae is the stripped earwig Labidura riparia

(Pallas) (Tryon 1986). This species was the dominant predator in fields where ants are

suppressed by application of pesticides, showing a high predation rate (up to 20 neonate larvae

per minute) during the first three hours after the sunset (Tryon 1986).

As described in the previous paragraphs, all Florida's inhabitant predatory natural enemies

are generalists, may largely contribute to the biological control ofD. abbreviatus, and some of

them could be good candidates to develop conservation biocontrol programs.

Diaprepes also has subterranean natural enemies. Beavers et al. (1983) surveyed several

citrus producing areas and found that Diaprepes larvae were naturally attacked by four

entomopathogenic fungi including: Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff), Beauveria

bassiana (Balsamo), Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) and Aspergillus ochraceous Wilhelm.

Quintela and McCoy (1997) evaluated the pathogenicity ofM. anisopilae and B. bassiana, in









combination with sublethal doses of imidacloprid, to first instar larvae ofD. abbreviatus.

Interestingly, they found that the combination of these two fungi with imidacloprid as contact or

oral treatments resulted in a synergistic increase in both mortality and mycosis of first instar

larvae of D. abbreviatus.

Besides the identification of entomopathogenic fungi, Beavers et al. (1983) found two

species of entomogenous nematodes (Steinernemafeltiae (Filipjev) and Heterorhabditis sp.

Poinar) infecting Diaprepes larvae in several citrus producing areas in Florida. Further research

revealed that nematodes had a large potential for control of Diaprepes in part because they can

suppress all larval instars (Schroeder 1987). Shapiro and McCoy (2000) conducted a laboratory

comparison of nine species and 17 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes for virulence toward

larvae ofD. abbreviatus. The nematodes that were evaluated included six strains of H.

bacteriophora Poinar, two strains ofH. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, two strains of H.

marelatus Lui and Berry, a single strain ofH. megidis Poinar, Jackson and Klein, one strain of H.

zealandica Poinar, one strain of S. riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar and Raulston, three strains of S.

feltiae (Filipjev), and one strain of S. glaseri (Steiner). From all the nematodes tested, S.

riobrave caused greatest larval mortality. In contrast to these results, Shapiro et al. (1999) found

that H. indica caused equal or greater mortality than S. riobrave. Commercial formulation of S.

riobrave (Bio Vector) and H. indica (Grubstake 100) are currently applied in citrus groves. S.

carpocapsae was commercially available for several years but later studies revealed a low

efficacy to control D. abbreviatus larvae in the field (Duncan et al. 1996). The poor efficacy was

attributed to the host searching behavior of this nematode, which is that of an ambusher (Shapiro

and McCoy 2000). Nematodes that have high-host searching and dispersal abilities, and that can

persist in the soil, are good candidates to be used as biological control agents for D. abbreviatus









(Shapiro and McCoy 2000). Unfortunately, most of the species that have been applied

commercially against D. abbreviatus have a low persistence in the soil (Duncan and McCoy

1996). For this reason, Shapiro and McCoy (2000) suggested that another nematode, S. glaseri,

even with lower levels of virulence than S. riobrave, but with higher dispersal, host finding

abilities and good potential of persistence, could be a more effective long term solution to

suppress D. abbreviatus larvae. Even though selecting an appropriate nematode strain is vital for

the successful control ofD. abbreviatus larvae, recent studies have revealed that physical

properties the soil will influence the ability of different nematode species to disperse and search

for hosts (Jenkins et al. 2007)

The effect of other entomopathogenic microorganisms on D. abbreviatus has been

evaluated. Weathersbee et al. (2002) reported a reduction in the survival of neonate larvae

exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis incorporated into a rearing diet, and through

soil applications in potted citrus plants. Later, in 2003, Hunter and Lapointe reported the

infection ofD. abbreviatus cell cultures by an iridovirus. However, the use of these

microorganisms to control D. abbreviatus has been limited and the extent to which they could

contribute to control D. abbreviatus remains unknown.

As seen throughout this review, there are vast numbers of chemical, cultural and biological

tools for the management of D. abbreviatus. However, despite the wide array of proposed

management tactics, no long term sustainable solution has been found to reduce the weevil

populations to tolerable levels. Without specialist natural enemies and with many host plants

available, Diaprepes has continued to spread throughout Florida and other states causing more

economical and ecological damage. Classical biological control with egg parasitoids is viewed

as a possible long term solution to regulate weevil populations (Pefia et al. 2001, 2004). For this









reason, and being that this topic is the main framework of my study, a more complete review of

biological control ofD. abbreviatus with egg parasitoids follows.



Classical Biological Control of D. abbreviatus with Egg Parasitoids



Several efforts have been made to identify and introduce classical biological control agents

ofD. abbreviatus in an attempt to reduce weevil populations to tolerable levels. Attempts to

introduce egg parasitoids of D. abbreviatus to Florida began in the 1970s, with the introduction

of Quadrastichus (Tetrastichus) haitiensis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (Schauff 1987).

This endoparasitoid was found as the most common parasitoid of citrus weevils in Jamaica, and

was also present in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Andros Island and Cuba (Van

Whervin 1968, Schauff 1987). Unfortunately, this first attempt to establish Q. haitiensis in

Florida failed. Two factors were proposed by Beavers and Selhime (1975) to explain the failure

on the establishment of this parasitoid. The first factor is the cold winter temperatures in Florida

that will limit the development of this tropical parasitoid. The second explanation was the lack

of synchrony between the life cycles of Q. haitiensis and D. abbreviatus in Florida. However,

Sutton et al. (1972) proposed that intensive applications of carbaryl during the time of

introduction had contributed to limit the possibilities of establishment of Q. haitiensis.

In the late 1990's, efforts were re-initiated to introduce hymenopteran egg parasitoids from

the Caribbean islands into Florida (Pefia et al. 2001). Throughout 1997, ten Florida citrus groves

and one grove located in Puerto Rico were routinely monitored to study egg parasitism. No egg

parasitism was recorded in Florida, while the parasitism in Puerto Rico ranged from 12-68%.

The primary parasitoids found in Puerto Rico were Q. haitiensis and Aprostocetus vaquitarum

(Wolcott) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (Hall et al. 2001). In 1998, Q. haitiensis was collected









from Diaprepes eggs in Puerto Rico and brought for the second time into Florida. Field releases

in citrus groves and ornamental fields were initiated in 2000, resulting in the successful

establishment of Q. haitiensis in the southern part of the state (Pefia et al. 2004). This parasitoid

has become a permanent mortality factor parasitizing 12-55% of Diaprepes eggs in south Florida

(Pefia et al. 2004, 2006).

Before the second introduction of Q. haitiensis another parasitic wasp, Ceratogramma

etiennei Delaware (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was introduced to Florida in 1997 and

released in 1998 at locations with known infestations ofDiaprepes (Pefia et al. 2001). Release

sites included citrus groves, ornamental fields and natural habitats. This gregarious

endoparasitoid was discovered in the island of Guadeloupe and was regarded as highly specific

(Etienne et al. 1990). Amalin et al. (2005) studied certain aspects of the biology of this

parasitoid and suggested that characteristics of the host plant of D. abbreviatus such as the leaf

thickness, leaf pubescence, and plant strata, could have an effect on the parasitism by C. etiennei.

This parasitoid was recovered in Florida one year after its release in lime (Citrus aurantifolia

Swingle) and pygmy palms (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien), but was not recovered in the

subsequent years (Pefia et al. 2004). The reasons for its disappearance are unknown (Pefia et al.

2004).

In 2000, a third egg parasitoid Aprostocetus vaquitarum [= A. gala=Tetrastichus gala

(Walker)] (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced into Florida from the Dominican Republic

where it is a primary parasitoid ofD. abbreviatus (Jacas et al. 2005). A. vaquitarium deposit

their eggs in close contact with those of its host by introducing their ovipositor through the

sealed leaves (Jacas et al. 2005). After eclosion, larvae ofA. vaquitarium feed externally on

several eggs ofD. abbreviatus to complete their preimaginal development. They pupate within









the sealed leaves and eventually emerge from them. After screening under quarantine

conditions, adult wasps obtained from laboratory culture were released from 2000 through 2003

in several Florida counties. A. vaquitarum is now considered to be established in parts of

southern Florida where parasitism levels of 70-90% have been achieved (Pefia et al. 2004).

As a result of the first three introductions of egg parasitoids into Florida, the two eulophid

parasitoids (Q. haitiensis and A. vaquitarum) have successfully established in the southern

portion of the Florida peninsula where they have become an important mortality factor of

Diaprepes eggs (Pefia et al. 2004, 2006). However, no parasitoids are established in the central

portion of the state where the weevil attacks citrus orchards. The inability of these parasitoids to

establish in central Florida has been attributed in part to the parasitoids sensitivity to the ambient

temperatures registered in Central Florida. Castillo et al. (2006) and Ulmer et al. (2006a) found

that the lower temperature thresholds for completing the life cycle of Q. haitiensis and A.

vaquitarum are 16C and 15.8 C, respectively. These reports suggest that both parasitoids can

fulfill their thermal requirements in south Florida where the minimum ambient temperatures

fluctuate between 15-17C, whereas they can not survive in central Florida where the minimum

temperatures fluctuate between 10-13 C.

Two new parasitoids, Fidiobia dominica Evans and Pefia (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

and Haeckeliania sperata Pinto (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) have been introduced in an

attempt to get them established in central Florida. F. dominica is a highly specific, solitary

endoparasitoid of Diaprepes spp., that was collected in the island of Dominica during 2003.

Haeckeliania sperata is a gregarious endoparasitoid of Diaprepes sp., that was collected for the

first time in Dominica during 2003. Both parasitoids were recently described as new species

(Evans and Pefia 2005, Pinto 2005) which explains the limited information available on many









aspects of their biology, physiology, and ecology. Jacas et al. (2007) studied the thermal

requirements for the two species. Their findings suggest that both parasitoids have a greater

thermal plasticity than the parasitoid already established in south Florida, which could increase

their chances of establishment in the central portion of the state. However, Lapointe et al. (2007)

reported that Diaprepes eggs were absent during long periods of time (up to 141 days) during the

winter in a citrus grove with known infestation in central Florida. If the lack of Diaprepes egg

masses during long periods of the winter is a generalized condition throughout central Florida,

the establishment of these parasitoids will be limited (Jacas et al. 2007). However, the

observations made by Lapointe et al. (2007) were done exclusively in citrus plants and the

possibility of finding eggs in other host plants has been overlooked. Moreover, the presence of

alternate host eggs could potentially allow these parasitoids to reproduce during periods of

absence of Diaprepes eggs (Jacas et al. 2007). As mentioned before, other weevil species such

as species from the genera Pachnaeus, Artipus and Lachnopus share the same environment and

deposit eggs in the same manner as Diaprepes. These parasitoids, if they establish, would

provide welcome mortality factors to help reduce populations of the Diaprepes root weevil.

In addition to compatibility of these two parasitoids to Florida's climate, other important

factors could influence parasitoid fitness in their new environment. An important biotic factor

that could influence parasitoid fitness is the host plant species ofD. abbreviatus. Botrell and

Barbosa (1998) reported that many factors of the host plant can affect the colonization,

phenology, and effectiveness of natural enemies used in biological control. Plants employ many

physical and chemical defenses against insect herbivores that are not necessarily compatible with

natural enemies. Physical defenses may include structural traits such as surface waxes, leaf

trichomes, and/or spines whereas chemical defenses are often secondary metabolites that act as









repellents, toxins and/or digestibility reducers (Southwood 1986). Plant defense mechanisms

may directly or indirectly inhibit natural enemies. Direct plant effects on parasitoids may

involve simple mechanisms, such as reduced parasitoid searching efficiency caused by trichomes

(Botrell and Barbosa 1998). Indirect host plant effects on insect natural enemies are more

complex. For example, some insects sequester chemical compounds from their host plant, which

renders them unpalatable to natural enemies, as seen the danaid butterflies that specialize on host

plants containing cardenolides (Bowers 1990).

The effect of host plants on natural enemies has been studied in several systems. An

interesting case is the effect of some alfalfa cultivars on the parasitism of Empoascafabae

(Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) by Anagrus nigriventris Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

(Lovinger et al. 2000). Some alfalfa cultivars with glandular trichomes were released for

resistance to E. fabae. However, these cultivars had a negative impact on the searching behavior

its primary natural enemy, A. nigriventris. Their results showed that specific plant characteristics

(i.e. glandular trichomes) reduced the effectiveness ofA. nigriventris, and turned breeding

programs toward finding alfalfa cultivars that do not hinder the performance of its primary

parasitoid. In another study, Mulatu et al. (2006) found that the presence of trichomes in tomato

leaves had no effect on the establishment of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella

(Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), but had a direct adverse effect on the parasitoid Diadegma

pulchripes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). In contrast, Styrsky et al. (2006) found that the

presence of trichomes in soybean plants did not inhibit fire ants (S. invicta) from foraging on

plants, and that predation of herbivores was greater in pubescent plants when compared with

glabrous plants.









The effects of host plants have proven to be especially important for relatively small

parasitiods. Rabb and Bradley (1968) studied the egg parasitism ofManduca sexta (Lepidoptera:

Sphingidae) by two parasitoids, Telenomus sphingis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and

Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), on tobacco and other

solanaceous hosts. The tiny parasitoid T minutum became stuck in the gummy exudates of the

trichomes of the tobacco leaves and failed to parasitize eggs. However, it readily attacked eggs

on other substrates. In contrast, T. sphingis, being larger than T minutum, was able to parasitize

eggs laid in tobacco and in other substrates (Rabb and Bradley 1968). There is increasing

evidence that plant characters have a strong impact on the parasitism efficacy of trichogrammatid

wasps. This family is characterized by grouping parasitoids that differ distinctly from most other

parasitic wasps due to their minute size (Pinto and Stouthamer 1994). As a consequence, they

are more affected by plant surface structures and have a low capacity for active flights (Romeis

et al. 2005). In 1977, Burbutis et al. reported that Trichogramma nubilale Ertle and Davis is

more successful at finding hosts that are located in the middle or lower portions of corn plants

than hosts located in the top portion of these plants. In 2006, Olson and Andow observed the

walking patterns of T nubilale on leaves of several plants and artificial surfaces. They

concluded that the type and size of trichomes on the different plants affected the walking speed,

turning rates and the direction of the searching path of T. nubilale. Similarly, the searching

behavior of T exiguum Pinto and Platner was found to be affected by leaf trichome density and

morphology of maize and pigweed plants (Keller 1987). Further studies using regression

analyses found that trichome density on tomato plants accounted for the greatest proportion of

the variance in T. exiguum parasitism ofHeliothis zea (Boddie) and H. virescens (F.) eggs

(Kauffman and Kennedy 1989). The searching success of T. minutum on paper and foliage









models also proved to be affected by structural complexity, plant leaf chemicals, and female age

(Lukianchuk and Smith 1997). Romeis et al. (1998 and 1999) reported that parasitism efficiency

of Trichogramma spp. on pigeon pea (Cajanus Cajan L.) depends mainly on the location of host

(Helicoverpa ormiguera Hibner) eggs within the plant. Furthermore, they found that H.

ormiguera preferred to oviposit on calyxes and pods where the efficiency of parasitism by

Trichogramma spp. is the lowest due to physical and chemical plant characters that inhibit the

searching behavior of these parasitoids. All these studies have served to underline the

importance of habitat selection on the success of inoculative and augmentative biological control

programs. Even though most of the evidence on the effects of plant surface structures on

trichogrammatid species is restricted to the genus Trichogramma spp. (Romeis et al. 2005), one

of the recently introduced parasitoids against D. abbreviatus (H. sperata) belongs to this family

and could present similar interactions with the plants of its host. Given the wide range of host

plants of D. abbreviatus, knowledge of the potential antagonism between the host plants and the

parasitoids that were recently introduced against it is particularly important.

Another major factor that could affect the fitness of the introduced parasitoids is the

application of pesticides in citrus and ornamentals. Rational use of pesticides in IPM relies in

part on knowledge of the pesticide effects on beneficial insects and the development of strategies

to minimize disruptive effects on the natural enemies. Such strategies include the use of

selective compounds and altered rates and timings of pesticide applications. Ulmer et al. (2006b)

reported differential susceptibility ofA. vaquitarum to pesticides applied in citrus. Carbamate

and organophosphate pesticides were the most toxic to A. vaquitarum adults, followed by

neonicotinoid, pyrethoid and kaolin clay pesticides. Copper and phosphonate fungicides,

petroleum oil, abamectin, diflubenzuron and bifenazate were slightly to non-toxic to A.









vaquitarum. Another study tested the effects of diflubenzuron on C. etiennei and Q. hiatiensis,

and concluded that this pesticide interferes with the development of C. etiennei but not on Q.

haitiensis (Amalin et al. 2004). However, no information is available on the effects of pesticides

on H. sperata and F. dominica, the two new egg parasitoids that are being released in citrus and

ornamental groves where pesticides are applied. Information on the effect of pesticides on these

two parasitoids is essential for integrating biological control into the pest management programs

used in citrus and ornamental groves.



Objectives of Master of Science Thesis Research

The study presented here emphasizes two important factors that will influence the fitness

ofHaeckeliania sperata as classical biocontrol agent ofD. abbreviatus. Because Diaprepes is a

polyphagous species, the different leaf morphology of the host plant species might influence

parasitism by H. sperata. Furthermore, incompatibility with pesticide applications could hinder

the regulatory effects of this natural enemy on D. abbreviatus populations. Optimum control by

the parasitoid relies, in part, on knowledge of the influence of host plant traits and the effects that

pesticides will have on their potential control. Such knowledge will permit the development of

strategies to maximize control in suitable host plants and to minimize the disruptive effects of

pesticides on natural enemies. The results of this study will provide information to design

strategies to maximize the mortality effects of the parasitoids on Diaprepes populations. The

specific objectives of this research are to:

1. Determine the effect of host plants on successful parasitism of Haeckeliania sperata

on Diaprepes abbreviatus eggs. The effect of six major host plants on successful parasitism of

H. sperata was assessed. The ability ofH. sperata to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on leaves of









these host plants was studied. Furthermore, the effect of leaf thickness and leaf pubescence of

the host plants on successful oviposition was determined.

2. Determine the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of Haeckeliania

sperata and its parasitism on Diaprepes root weevil. Many failures in field releases and the

effectiveness of suppression of various crop pests by trichogrammatid species have been ascribed

to the physical characteristics of the host plant. The degree of control of Diaprepes populations

by H. sperata may depend on the interaction of the parasitoids with the micro-environment

created by the plant on the leaf surface. This study assessed the potential antagonism between

the presence of trichomes on the leaves surface of the host plants of D. abbreviatus, and the

levels of parasitism by H. sperata.

3. Determine the relative susceptibility of Haeckeliania sperata to pesticides applied

in citrus and ornamentals. Pesticides are a critical component of insect pest management in

citrus and ornamental production. This study assessed the relative susceptibility of H sperata to

leaf surface residues of seven pesticides used in citrus crops and ornamental plant production.

This study provides information that will permit the development of strategies to minimize the

disruptive effects of pesticides on H. sperata.









CHAPTER 2
EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS ON SUCCESSFUL PARASITISM OF Haeckeliania sperata
(HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) ON Diaprepes abbreviatus (COLEOPTERA:
CURCULIONIDAE) EGGS

Introduction

Diaprepes abbreviatus is a highly polyphagous weevil that was unintentionally introduced

to Florida in the 1960s (Woodruff 1985). Since then, D. abbreviatus has spread throughout most

of Florida where it is a pest of many native plants, fruit crops and ornamental commodities. The

key pest status ofD. abbreviatus in Florida is due to several factors including its polyphagy and

lack of natural enemies. Many of the 260 plants from 60 families that have been reported as

hosts of D. abbreviatus (Simpson et al. 1996, Mannion et al. 2003) grow in Florida where no

native specialist natural enemies are present.

Classical biological control of Diaprepes abbreviatus is viewed as one of the components

of integrated pest management programs with potential to effectively reduce weevil numbers

(Pefia et al. 2001, 2004). A promising biocontrol agent against D. abbreviatus is Haeckeliania

sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gregarious, egg-endoparasitoid that was collected

from the island of Dominica in 2003 (Pefia et al. 2006). H. sperata was found as a primary

parasitoid parasitizing more than 50% of egg masses found in citrus groves and citrus nurseries

in Dominica (Pefia et al. 2006). Besides being a primary parasitoid ofD. abbreviatus in its

homeland, H. sperata was collected in areas of high altitude (509 meters above see level) which

suggests that it could have more cold hardiness than other imported parasitoids. If established,

H. sperata could become a significant mortality factor against D. abbreviatus.

Failures in field releases and effectiveness of the suppression of various crop pests by

trichogrammatid species have often been ascribed to intrinsic factors of the parasitoid strain

(Olson and Andow 2002). However, the importance of extrinsic factors (i.e., the suitability of









the environment) has been increasingly recognized as determinant to the success of biological

control programs (Olson and Andow 2003, 2006, Romeis et al. 1998, 1999). Given the wide

host range of Diaprepes, a good understanding of the interactions between H. sperata and the

food plant of its hosts could be key to the optimization of biological control programs.

Plants employ a battery of physical and chemical defenses against insect herbivores that

are not necessarily compatible with parasitism of herbivore pests by natural enemies (Southwood

1986, Styrsky et al. 2006). One of the defense mechanisms that plants use against herbivores is

the production of trichomes on the leaf surface (Jeffree 1986, Romeis et al. 1998, 1999, 2005).

Trichomes are hair-like appendages that extend from the epidermis of above-ground plant tissues

and play many functions (i.e., physiological, anchoring, water regulation, etc.) in plants. In some

plants, trichomes serve as defense to herbivores; however, their presence may also affect their

parasitoids. There is increasing evidence that the presence of trichomes has a negative effect on

many trichogrammatid species and other minute hymenoptera (Jeffree 1986, Lukianchuk and

Smith 1997, Romeis et al. 1998, 1999, 2005, Styrsky et al. 2006, Sutterlin and Van Lenteren

1997, 1998, 2000).

Plants with trichomes often impede the movement of parasitoids, thus weakening the

parasitoid response (Price et al. 1980, Siutterlin and Van Lenteren 1997, Mulatu et al. 2006).

Because of the small size of H. sperata, trichomes and trichome exudates can inhibit the

parasitoid's movements. As with many other trichogrammatids (Schmidt 1994, Romeis et al.

2005), H. sperata searches for weevil eggs by walking on the leaf surface (D.C. personal

observations). Thus, physical and chemical leaf surface characters can alter parasitoid searching

and host encounter rates. Leaf surface characters can also alter the parasitoid's walking pattern

by changing the distribution of turning angles, reducing their searching speed and ultimately









affecting their host finding ability (Olson and Andow 2006). Another factor that can affect the

ability of H. sperata to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs is the leaf thickness of the host plant. H.

sperata inserts its ovipositor through the leaf until reaching the weevil egg mass on the other side

of the leaf (Pefia et al. 2004). This aspect of H. sperata's behavior suggests that the relation

between the length of the ovipositor and leaf thickness could be critical to the successful

parasitism of D. abbreviatus in certain host plants.

In this study we hypothesize that the reproductive success ofH. sperata is affected by the

host plant of D. abbreviatus. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the

successful parasitism ofH. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs on different host plants, (2) determine

the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata and (3) determine the

relationship between searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism of H.

sperata on Diaprepes eggs.

Material and Methods

Stock Colonies: H. sperata used in each of the experiments described below were

collected in Dominica in 2003 and reared for several generations at the Tropical Research and

Education Center (TREC) insectary (L: D: 12:12 h, 26.5 + 1IC, and 75 % RH). Parasitoids were

reared on D. abbreviatus eggs from adult weevils that were collected from a pesticide free

commercial nursery in Homestead Florida. The weevils were placed randomly in groups of 300

in Plexiglass cages (30x30x30 cm) and fed on green buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus, two

weeks prior the beginning of the experiments. Several collections of weevils were made during

the course of all the experiments. All the parasitoids used in the experiments were mated, fed,

naive with respect to hosts, and were 1-day old at the time of testing.

Plant Material: Six host plants with varying trichome density and leaf thickness were

chosen to study the successful parasitism on D. abbreviatus eggs. Among the fruit crops selected









for this study are lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), a much-branched, spiny shrub with elliptic

ovate glabrous leaves (Bayley and Bayley, 1976), and Loquat, Eriobotryajaponica (Rosaceae), a

small tree with alternate, short-petioled leaves with a high density of long, unicellular,

nonglandular trichomes (Bayley and Bayley, 1976). Among the ornamental host plants the

following were selected: pigmy palm, Phoenix roebelini O'Brien (Arecaceae), a sometimes

clustered slender palm with pinnate narrow pinnae with a sparse unicellular, non-glandular

trichomes; button mangrove, Conocarpus erectus L., a native erect shrub or tree, with elliptic to

ovate glabrous leaves; and silver button wood, C. erectus var. sericeus Fors ex. DC with silky-

hairy leaves (Bayley and Bayley, 1976). The sixth host plant selected for this study is elephant

grass, Pennisetum prupureum Schumach, (Poaceae) an invasive grass with often branched stems

and elongate blades with a high density of long, unicellular trichomes.



Experiment. Determining the Successful Parasitism ofH. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on
Different Host Plants.

No-Choice tests: Leaves free of any damage were removed from each host plant, leaving a

10 cm petiole, stem or other plant structure to hold the cutting firmly upright when formed into

bouquets with exposed leaves (1500 cm2 of leaf surface approximately). The bouquets were

formed by inserting the stems into wet florist foam covered with aluminum foil, leaving the

leaves exposed. The bouquets were placed separately into Plexiglass oviposition cages (30 x 30

x30 cm) along with 250 adult weevils (50:50 o: Y) for 24 hours. After this period, the bouquets

were removed from the weevil oviposition cages and the leaf area and number of egg masses

were standardized (250 cm2 of leaf surface and 5 egg masses per bouquet). The control

treatment consisted of opened egg masses laid on wax paper that were obtained by hanging

doubled strips of wax paper on the sides of a weevil cage during the oviposition period. The









bouquets were then placed individually in smaller cages (17x10x10 cm) bearing a small drop of

honey as a food source for the parasitoids. Twenty 1-d-old adults ofH, sperata (1: 1 :5) were

introduced into each cage and parasitism was allowed for 24 hours. After the parasitism period,

the bouquets were removed from the cages and checked under a microscope to make sure that no

parasitoids were still in the bouquets. Seven days later, parasitized eggs were counted and

percent parasitism was determined by dividing the number of parasitized eggs by the total

number of eggs on each egg mass. At this stage parasitized eggs are easily recognizable by the

presence of 4 to 6 compartments with in a single Diaprepes egg, each holding one H. sperata

individual (Ulmer et al. 2006c). Percent parasitism and natural egg mortality were recorded on

each host plant and the control treatment. This experiment was replicated seven times, each time

with new parasitoids.

Statistical analysis: ANOVAs (SAS institute, Inc. 1999) were used to detect the effects of

host plants on the level of parasitism by H. sperata in the no-choice tests. Egg mass size

(number of Diaprepes eggs per egg mass) was included as a covariate to control variation

associated with host abundance. Means were compared using Tukey's honest significance test (p

< 0.05).

Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Trichomes on the Searching Behavior of H, sperata.

This experiment was designed to determine the effect of leaf trichomes in two host plants

on the walking speed of H sperata. Only the two biotypes of buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus

L. (Combretaceae), were used in this experiment. The searching speed ofH, sperata females

was measured on leaves kept intact or leaves where the trichomes were removed by two

methods. A set of leaves of each buttonwood morph was washed with a 0.1% Triton X-100

solution, a non-phytotoxic detergent that helps removing trichomes and leaf-surface linked

chemicals. Trichomes were removed from another set of leaves of the silver morph by shaving









them with a razor blade under a microscope. We included waxed paper as a non-leaf surface

without the potential confounding effects from chemicals and epicuticular waxes. The mean

searching speed on each plant was measured for ten mated, 1 day old and honey-fed H. sperata

females. Leaf disks (6.3 cm2) of each surface abaxiall and adaxial) were excised and tightly

placed in the bottom of a Petri dish of the same size. Female wasps were individualized in

similar Petri dishes 30 min prior to each observation. Females were placed on the middle of each

surface, the Petri dish was left uncovered which allowed ventilation and the females to leave the

surface freely. The walking patterns were monitored using a video camera (Video Flex 7000

series ken-a-vision), equipped with a macro lens mounted 5 cm above the plane of the surface.

Walking patterns were traced onto acetate sheets attached to a TV screen. The path and location

were recorded every 10 s until the wasp left the surface or after 2 min had passed. The acetate

sheets were scanned to convert the walking traces into digital images. The traces were processed

using the image processing and analyzing software Scion Image This procedure allowed us

to calculate the total search time (s), the time spent motionless (s), the total distance traveled

(mm), the walking speed (mm/s) and the searching speed of each female on each surface (mm/s).

Searching speed is the average velocity a H. sperata during a certain observation, considering the

total amount of time spent walking or immobile. Walking time refers to its average velocity only

while walking. Searching speed is usually the variable of interest because it is a quantitative

measure of how far a parasitoid searches in a given time (Van Hezewijk et al. 2000).

Statistical analysis: This experiment was replicated thirteen times, each time with new

parasitoids and leaves. ANOVAs (SAS institute, Inc. 1999) were used to detect the effect of

trichomes on the total search time, the time spent motionless, the total distance traveled, the

walking speed and the searching speed ofH, sperata females on buttonwood leaves kept intact or









leaves where the trichomes were removed. Means were compared using Tukey's honest

significance test (p < 0.05).

Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to
Parasitism.

This experiment was designed to measure the degree to which variation in searching speed,

trichome density and leaf thickness explained the variation in parasitism. The six host plants

used in Experiment 1 were included in this experiment. A population of H sperata was divided

in two such that the proportion of hosts parasitized and the searching speed on the six plants

could be measured simultaneously. All experiments including parasitoids were made between 1-

5 pm. Leaves from each plant were collected and divided in three groups. The first group was

used to test the proportion of hosts parasitized on each plant biotype, the second group was used

to determine the searching speed on each leaf surface and the third to measure the trichome

density and leaf thickness of each plant biotype.

The proportion of parasitized hosts was determined in an experiment similar to the no-

choice tests. Bouquets of each host plant bearing 5 egg masses were introduced in 2-L jars

(17x10x10 cm) provisioned with a drop of honey as food source for the parasitoids. Ten 1-d-old

females of H sperata were introduced into each cage. After the parasitism period, the bouquets

were removed from the cages and checked under a microscope to make sure that no parasitoids

were on the bouquets. Seven days later, parasitized eggs were counted and percent parasitism

was determined by dividing the number of parasitized eggs by the total number of eggs on each

egg mass. Percent parasitism and natural egg mortality were recorded on each host plant.

Searching speed of H sperata on the different host plant leaves was measured in the same way

as in the previous experiment. This experiment was replicated ten times, each time with new

parasitoids and plants.









Trichome density and leaf thickness were measured on ten expanded leaves on new shoots

of the same plant material used in the previous experiments. Two squares (1cm2 each) from the

middle part of the leaves were excised; one square was used to determine the leaf thickness and

the other one for the trichome density for each leaf surface abaxiall and adaxial). Leaf thickness

was determined by placing the cutting standing on a piece of clay and measuring its thickness

under a microscope. Trichome density was established by counting the total number of

trichomes on each surface abaxiall and adaxial) and making an average of the two values.

Because of the high density of trichomes on silver buttonwood leaves, the 1 cm2 squares were

divided in four equal 0.25 cm2 sections to determine the trichome density only in one of the four

small squares.

Statistical analysis: Multiple regression (PROG REG) analysis was used to establish the

relationship of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism (SAS institute,

Inc. 1999).

Results



Experiment. Determining the Successful Parasitism ofH. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on
Different Host Plants.

The no-choice test revealed that H. sperata is able to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs laid on

the six host plants. However, H. sperata failed to parasitize egg masses on wax paper (Figure

2.1).

Interestingly the three plants with leaves having the higher densities of trichomes had a

significantly lower parasitism when compared with the three plants that had either glabrous

leaves (lime) or a low density of trichomes (pygmy palm and green buttonwood). Furthermore,











Low trichome density
<22 trichomes/cm2

E 18 a
16 a
1 14
12 High trichome density
o10 >93 trichomes/cm2
0- 8
4_ 6
4
C 2 b b

Control Loquat E. Grass Silver Green Pygmy Lime
Buttonwood Buttonwood Palm
Host Plant


Figure 2-1. Effect of host plant on successful parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs by H. sperata.
No-Choice tests on six host plants and control treatment (wax paper). Different
letters represents significant differences, Tukey (P<0.05). Error bars represent the
standard error.



percent parasitism was more that ten times greater in the glabrous green morph of C. erectus

when compared with the silver biotype that has a high density of trichomes on the leaf surface

(Figure 2.1).

Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Trichomes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata.

The overall results of this experiment show that the presence of trichomes has a significant

negative effect in the searching efficiency ofH. sperata. There was no effect of the leaf surface

orientation abaxiall and adaxial) on any of the variables measured (p <0.01). The net

displacement of the females was three fold greater on any of the surfaces that had no trichomes

than on the pubescent surface (Table 2.1). When the trichomes were removed from the

pubescent silver morph, by shaving them or treating the leaf with Triton X-100, the net

displacement ofH. sperata increased to levels similar to the glabrous green morph (Table 2.1).









Table 2-1. Effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior ofH. sperata. N=13. Means
followed by different letters within columns are significantly different at P<0.01

Net displacement Total Time on Walking Speed Searching Speed
Leaf (mm) surface (s) (mm/s) (mm/s)
Mean + SEM Mean + SEM Mean + SEM Mean + SEM

Wax Paper 79.02 7.78 a 59.16 5.51 c 7.76 3.87 a 1.92 0.34 a

Green Buttonwood 59.02 + 4.28 b 72.30 4.74 bc 5.68 0.62 b 1.02 0.15 b

Silver Buttonwood 17.92+ 1.24c 94.23 6.25 a 1.87 0.17c 0.24 0.04 c

Silver Buttonwood
54.96 + 3.79 b 61.15 6.10 c 5.09 + 0.47 b 1.51 + 0.39 ab
Shaved
Green Buttonwood
56.02 + 3.80 b 76.92 + 5.13 ab 5.51 0.54 b 0.93 + 0.17 bc
+ Triton X-100
Silver Buttonwood
50.77 + 3.18 b 82.69 6.16 ab 5.24 0.51 b 0.81 + 0.13 bc
+Triton X-100



In contrast H. sperata females spent more time on the pubescent surface and less on the

smooth leaf surfaces. When the trichomes were shaved from the pubescent morph the total time

spent on the surface decreased (Table 2.1). The walking speed was significantly higher on all the

surfaces with no trichomes when compared with the pubescent surfaces. When the trichomes

were removed by any method, the walking speed increased to levels similar to the smooth

surfaces. A similar pattern was observed in the searching speed analysis; however, the searching

speed on surfaces treated with Triton was significantly lower, which could suggest a

confounding effect of this detergent that made the parasitoids stay longer on the surface.

Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to
Parasitism.

The results of this experiment show that searching speed was a good predictor of the level

of parasitism, whereas neither trichome density nor leaf thickness explained the variation on









parasitism (Table 2.2). It is likely that the type of trichomes and the exudates associated with

them are more important than the number per unit of area.

Table 2-2. Relationship of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism.
Multiple regression analysis of the effect of searching speed, trichome density and
leaf thickness on mean percent of parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs
laid on six host plants.


Model Coef. SEa pb R2c Pd(overall)

Parasitism
= Searching Speed 2.82 0.23 <0.001 0.89 <0.01
+ Trichome Density 1.2 x 10-6 3.0 x 10-6 0.68
+ Leaf Thickness 12.59 7.16 0.09
a SE, standard error of the coefficient
b P values associated with each parameter, significance of the variable in the predicted response
c R2, proportion of the variance explained by the model
d P(overall) is for the test of significance of the model using GLM.


Discussion

Even though H. sperata can parasitize eggs laid on different host plants, the parasitoid was

affected by variations in the leaf surface structure of the host plants. We tested six host plants

with various degrees of pubescence and found that the reproductive success of H. sperata is

much higher in plants with smooth surfaces like green buttonwood or lime than on those with

pubescence (silver buttonwood and loquat). Considering that H. sperata was originally collected

from citrus groves and nurseries acting as a primary parasitoid, we could expect better chances of

control and establishment in citrus plants which are one of the major hosts of D. abbreviatus in

central and south Florida. Green buttonwood is used for rearing H. sperata, our results reaffirm

that this plant is the best known option for rearing this parasitoid. Besides being available

throughout the year in south Florida, we always found a high parasitism in this plant when

compared with the other host plants that were tested. In contrast, parasitism was lowest on the









silver morph of buttonwood. These results are similar to those obtained by Amalin et al. (2005)

working with another trichogrammatid parasitoid of D. abbreviatus, Ceratogramma etiennei. In

a no-choice experiment with four of the same host plants that we used in our experiments, C.

etiennei showed a high parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs on lime, pygmy palm and green

buttonwood, and a low parasitism on the pubescent green buttonwood. Interestingly, Mannion et

al. (2003) found that D. abbreviatus, when given a choice, prefers to oviposit on silver

buttonwood, where it has better larval survivorship. These results suggest that silver

buttonwood, which is a common ornamental plant in south and central Florida, is an important

host for D. abbreviatus, because a low parasitism by H. sperata could be expected. The results

obtained in this host plant and the other pubescent plants (i.e. elephant grass and loquat) suggest

that plants that have a high density of trichomes in their leaves are not good candidates for

releasing H. sperata.

Our results show that the presence of trichomes in C. erectus has a negative effect on the

searching efficiency ofH. sperata. In theory, faster walking females have a higher chance of

finding hosts as they can search a larger surface area per unit of time (Olson and Andow 2003).

In fact, searching speed has been adopted by the IOBC working group on "quality control of

mass reared organisms" as an important criterion for pre-introductory selection of a suitable

strain of Trichogramma spp. parasitoids (Limburg and Pak 1991). Searching speed has been

used to select strains and/or releasing sites on several trichogrammatid species (i.e.

Trichogramma brassicae, T. nubilale, T exiguum and T. chilonis) (Keller 1987). However, Van

Hezewijk et al. (2000) reported that the level of parasitism in Tminutim was positively affected

by the host acceptance, but was not related to the parasite's searching speed. Thus, searching

speed cannot always be used to predict parasitoid quality or to select plants or sites to release.









Our results, however, suggest that searching speed is a parameter tightly linked to parasitism and

that it is feasible to use this parameter to predict the suitability of host plants for releasing H.

sperata.

Diaprepes has many host plants in Florida that represent an array of leaf structures and

types of trichomes that could hinder the reproductive success of H, sperata. The degree of

control of Diaprepes populations by H. sperata may depend, among other factors, on the

interaction of the parasitoids with the micro-environment created by the plants on the leaves

surfaces. As seen in other trichogrammatids (Flanders 1937), it is possible that H. sperata will

become more prevalent in certain habitats or on specific plants. Also, parasitism levels of D.

abbreviatus can vary widely, depending on the plants on which the eggs are found. In addition,

parasitism by H. sperata may also vary with the plant structure or region of the plant on which

the host eggs are located. Our results suggest that differences in the establishment and levels of

control by H. sperata in different habitats with varying plant composition can be expected.

We conclude that the reproductive success of H sperata is dependent on the host plant of

D. abbreviatus. Plants with simplified leaf surfaces favor the searching efficiency of H sperata

and may allow higher levels of parasitism of D. abbreviatus. The presence of some types of leaf

trichomes could have a negative effect in the searching efficiency and reproductive success of H.

sperata. Finally, we propose using searching speed as one of the criteria to select suitable host

plant for releasing H. sperata.









CHAPTER 3
RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HAECKELIANIA SPERATA TO PESTICIDES USED IN
CITRUS

Introduction



In order to maximize parasitism ofH. sperata on the Diaprepes root weevil, biological

control practices must be integrated with other pest management tactics. Pesticides are a critical

component of insect pest management in citrus and ornamental production. Thus, awareness of

their effects on H. sperata would be critical information to design tactics that could maximize the

probability of establishment and control with this parasitoid. Rational use of pesticides in IPM

relies in part on knowledge of the pesticide effects on beneficial insects. Two studies have

addressed the toxicity of pesticides used in citrus to parasitoids of D. abbreviatus. Ulmer et al.

(2006b) evaluated the toxicity of pesticides used in citrus to Aprostrocetus vaquitarum. Their

findings suggested that carbamate and organophosphate pesticides were the most toxic to A.

vaquitarum adults, followed by neonicotinoid, pyrethoid and kaolin clay pesticides. Copper and

phosphonate fungicides, petroleum oil, abamectin, and insect growth regulators were slightly to

non-toxic to A. vaquitarum. In another study, Amalin et al. (2004) tested the effect of an insect

growth regulator, diflubenzuron, on Ceratogramma etiennei and Quadrastichus haitiensis. Their

study concluded that this pesticide interferes with the development of C. etiennei but not on the

development of Q. haitiensis. Other examples of studies conducted on citrus to address the

impact of pesticides on parasitoids in Florida, include evaluation of the toxicity of pesticides to

Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) (Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998), a

parasitoid of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). These

authors used an index of IPM compatibility, classifying the combination of each of these

insecticides azadirachtinn, diflubenzuron and fenoxycarb) with oil and oil alone as IPM









compatible insecticides. Application ofNeem oil and drenched imidacloprid were classified as

semi-compatible insecticides. Abamectin + oil, ethion and imidacloprid applied as a spray were

classified as IPM- incompatible insecticides.

In general, effects of pesticides on natural enemies could be direct or indirect. Direct

effects are those caused by physical direct contact of the natural enemy with the toxin, and could

be manifested as a short-term mortality or relatively long-term sublethal effects (Johnson and

Tabashnik 1999). Indirect effects are caused when the natural enemy acquires the toxin through

its host prey (Williams et al. 2003). Haeckeliania adults search for weevil egg masses while

walking on the surface of the leaves of their host's plant, where they also mate and rest. In

contrast, the immature stages of Haeckeliania develop inside the weevil eggs, which in turn are

enclosed between two sealed leaves. These aspects of the biology and behavior ofH. sperata

suggest that the adults are more likely to get in direct contact with the pesticides whereas the

immature stages are more likely to be affected indirectly by pesticides present in Diaprepes eggs.

Adults will contact pesticides either directly during an application or by encountering pesticide

residues while walking on the surface of the leaves. The fact that pesticide residues remain on

the leaves for some time after the application suggests that the likelihood of encountering

pesticide residues on the leaf surface should be much greater than the likelihood of getting

affected by a direct spray. For this reason, a good starting point to determine the relative toxicity

of pesticides to H. sperata, is to conduct bioassays to assess the effect of foliar residues of

insecticides on acute mortality ofH. sperata adults.

Evaluation of pesticide effects on minute Hymenoptera like H. sperata is complicated by

their size and extreme fragility. Several bioassays have been used for this purpose by assessing

pesticide residues on leaves or artificial surfaces enclosed in cages (Villanueva and Hoy 1998,









Hassan and Aldelgader 2001). However, recent studies have demonstrated that the toxicity of

some pesticides may vary depending on which surface they are applied (Ternes et al. 2001).

Considering that H. sperata walks on the foliage to search for hosts and mates, it is more

appropriate to evaluate the effects of pesticides residues on leaf tissues which should

approximate natural conditions in the field. Williams and Price (2004), developed a bioassay for

assessment of contact residues of insecticides on Trichogrammapretiosum and Anaphes iole

Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Their methodology is especially appealing because it

permits the leaf disks to stay fresh for a longer period of time, provides food (honey) for the

parasitoids, allows ventilation, requires little manipulation of the parasitoids, and it is relatively

easy to set up. After making preliminary tests of some of the proposed methodologies, and

recognizing that no single bioassay method will provide definite and complete information to

assess the effects of pesticides on insects, the methodology proposed by Williams and Price

(2004) was chosen to assess the effect of pesticides on H. sperata.

Some studies have demonstrated that deposition of pesticide residues on the leaf surface

under field conditions is variable. Ebert et al. (1999a) reported that the uniformity of the

deposition of the active ingredients on the target area depends largely on the volume of water in

the pesticide solution and the application equipment that is used. In general, changing the

application volume not only affects coverage of the application but also changes the

concentration of active ingredient deposited per unit of area (Ebert et al. 1999a). In addition,

there is evidence showing that different application equipment applies different amounts of

active ingredient to different portions of the plants (Ebert et al. 1999b). As a consequence pest

insect and natural enemies are often exposed to a range of pesticide concentrations that include

the label concentration but also sub-label rates. Some studies have underlined the importance of









studying the effect of different pesticide rates on natural enemies (Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy

1998, Delpuech et al.1999). Some pesticides have shown significant variation ineffects on

natural enemies at different doses. Moreover, some pesticides are registered for controlling

different pests in a single crop but with different rates depending on the target pest.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative susceptibility of adult H. sperata to

some pesticides used in citrus and ornamental plant production.



Materials and Methods



Stock Colonies: H. sperata used in each of the experiments described below were

collected in Dominica in 2003 and reared in the Tropical Research and Education Center (TREC)

insectary (12 hour photoperiod, 26.5 + 1IC, and 75 % RH) for several generations. Parasitoids

were reared on D. abbreviatus eggs from adult weevils that were collected from a pesticide free

commercial nursery in Homestead Florida. All the parasitoids used in the experiments were

mated, fed, naive with respect to hosts and less than 1-day old.

Bioassay: Williams and Price (2004) bioassay methodology developed for minute

hymenoptera was used in this study. The purpose of the bioassays was to expose parasitoids to

24h old pesticide residues on leaf surfaces to determine their effects on the longevity of H.

sperata.

Four concentrations of seven pesticides were included in the bioassays. Leaves from a

pesticide-free lime grove were collected and leaf disks (2.3 cm diam.) were excised with a cork

borer. The leaf disks were dipped for 20 min in the different concentrations of the pesticides and

in water for the control, and left to dry for 24 hours. The concentrations were chosen based on

label rates. The concentration of each pesticide tested consisted of a dilution series where the









starting and more concentrated solution was the recommended label rate for field applications,

assuming a standard volume of water of 100 gallons/acre. The pesticides tested (including trade

name, class, active ingredient, application rate, label concentration, and bioassay concentrations)

are listed in Table 3.1

The bioassay chambers consisted of one piece of transparent PVC tube (2.54cm ID x 3.5

cm long) with organdy covered ventilation holes, two vial scintillation caps (kimble glass inc.

cat. no. 74521-22400) each containing 3ml of agar and a treated leaf disk (each pair treated with

the same concentration and placed on top of the agar), a piece of dialysis membrane, and a

feeding tube. The chambers were assembled by sliding one cap into each end of the tube so that

the edge of leaf disk was aligned with the edge of the ventilation holes. The upper surface of the

leaf disk formed the floor and the under surface of the leaf disk formed the ceiling of the

chamber. A strip of dialysis membrane was used to seal the chambers. A piece of borosilicate

glass capillary (5 cm long x 1.5 mm diam.) that was previously flamed was used to make a small

hole in one of the ventilation holes. Through this hole 10 parasitoids (presumed mated and 1: 1

$:') were introduced to each chamber using an aspirator constructed with a capillary of the

same type used for making the holes. The hole was then covered with a feeding tube, one tip

(1.5 cm long) from a Finntip 5-300 il pipette tip was filled with honey-water solution (1:1) as a

food source for the parasitoid. Once assembled, the chambers were placed in a room maintained

at 26.5 + 1C, 12:12 L:D, and 75 % RH.

Mortality was scored under a stereoscope every three hours after the parasitoids were

exposed to the pesticide residues on the leaf discs. Mortality was defined by immobility and a

complete lack of movement by mouthparts, wings and legs. Five replicates per insecticide

concentration were evaluated.










Table 3-1. List of pesticides tested on H. sperata, including trade name, class, active ingredient,
application rate, label concentration, and bioassay concentrations.

Trade Class/ Manu application Label Bioassay
Manufacturer a b
Name Active Ingredient rates concentration concentrations
Sevin Carbamate/ Bayer 1.5 m (ml/L)
XLR Carbaryl(44.1%) CropScience qt/acre 3.7, 1.8, 0.9, 0.4, 0
Organophosphate
Lorsban Organophosphate Micro Flo 2-7 (ml/L)
4E / Chlorpyrifos 8.7- 2.5 ml/L
4E Chlorp s Company pt/acre 5.0, 2.5, 1.2, 0.6, 0
(44.9%)
Neonicotinoid/
Provado ic id Bayer 10-20 1- (ml/L)
1 ,-, Imidaclopnd 1.5- 0.7 ml/L
1.6F Imi d CropScience fl.oz/acre 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1,0
(22%)
Danitol Pyrethroid/ Valent USA 16-21.3 (ml/L)
Fenpropathrin 1.6- 1.2 ml/L
2.4 EC Fenprop Corporation fl.oz/acre 6-2m/ 1.5, 0.7, 0.3, 0.1, 0
(30.9%)
Phosphonate/
Alliete P o / Bayer 5.0 (gr/L)
WDG Auminium trs CropScience lb/acre 5.9g/L 6.0, 3.0, 1.5, 0.7, 0
(80%)
AgriMek Glycoside/ 10-20 (ml/L)
0.15 EC Abamectin (2%) Syngenta fl.oz/acre 1.5- 0.7 ml/L 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0
Citrus Platte
Ctu Petroleum oil P. 5 (ml/L)
Soluble Pto/ i Chemical 12.5 ml/L (l
olle (99.3%) FC 435 Cmal qt/acre 12.5, 6.2, 3.1, 1.5, 0
Oil Company
a Solutions were calculated using a standard volume of water of 100 gallons/acre.
b bioassay concentrations are a dilution series using formulated pesticides at label rates as the
primary solution and a standard volume.

Data Analysis: Lethal time 50 (LT50) and lethal time 90 (LT90) were estimated for each

insecticide concentration using the SAS-PROBIT procedure (SAS Institute, 1999). Significant

differences between lethal times were indicated when the 95% fiducial limits of one

concentration did not overlap with the fiducial limits of the other concentrations. Lethal

concentrations LC50s and LC90s were calculated 12, 24 and 48, hours after parasitoids were

exposed to the pesticides using the SAS-PROBIT procedure (SAS institute, Inc. 1999). Abbott's

transformation (Abbott 1925) was used to correct for control mortality.

Results

Carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides used in the bioassays were highly

toxic to H. sperata. Contact with any of the pesticides from these groups at any of the









concentrations resulted in death of all Haeckeliania wasps within a few hours of being exposed

(Figure 3.1). LT50s ofH. sperata exposed to residues of these pesticides ranged from 2.4-8.1 h

(Sevin), 2.4 2.8 h (Lorsban) and 1.1- 3.43 h (Danitol) (Table 3.2). In some cases, the

analyses did not produce lethal concentration values or fiducial limits. This was probably caused

by the high mortality registered in the first evaluations; 42%, 82% and 61% of the total number

of wasps were dead three hours after being exposed to Sevin, Lorsban and Danitol,

respectively. No differences in the LT50s of the four tested concentrations were observed for

Lorsban and Danitol, suggesting that the lower concentrations (dilutions) are as toxic as the

high concentrations (label rate concentrations). In contrast, lower concentrations of Sevin had a

significantly lower toxic effect on H. sperata than the higher concentrations (Figure 3.1). The

lethal concentrations (LC 50s) were out of the range of tested concentrations. Considering that

all the tested concentrations of these insecticides produced a rapid and high mortality on H.

sperata, the LCs of these pesticides will necessarily be lower than the ones used in these

bioassays. The minimum concentrations used in the bioassays were one eight of the label

recommended concentrations which suggest that these insecticides are incompatible with H.

sperata.

Contact with Agrimek and Provado also caused a high mortality ofH. sperata but it

occurred later that on those exposed to Sevin, Danitol and Lorsban. LT50s for wasps exposed

to Agrimek and Provado ranged from 9.42 to 25.37 hours and 7.66 to 29.03 hours, respectively.

In both cases an effect of the concentration on the time of death was observed. The two lower

concentrations (0.125 and 0.25 ml/L) had a significantly longer LT50s than the two higher

concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 ml/L) (Table 3.2).










Table 3-2. Lethal Time (50 and 90) of H. sperata exposed to of 4 concentrations of selected
pesticides.
LT 50 LT 90
Pesticide Concentration (h) LT 50 FL (h) (h) LT 90 FL (h) X2 Slope
0 gr/L 184.6 a 154.0 234.7 978.6 a 660.8 1665 15.35 1.76
Alliete 0.75gr/L 39.7 b 38.7 -40.7 62.1 b 60.2 64.2 19.1 6.6
WDG 1.5gr/L 33.0 c 30.71 35.48 58.5 b 52.4 68.1 71.25 5.15
3gr/L 30.9 cd 28.3- 33.7 58.8 b 51.5 71.1 88.63 4.59
6gr/L 21.6 d 17.0 -26.7 57.8 b 43.1- 100.5 198.4 3
0 ml/L 184.6 a 154.1- 234.7 978.7 a 660.8- 1665 15.35 1.76
Provado 0.12 ml/L 29.0 b 25.2 32.8 104.1 b 86.0- 134.8 147.4 2.31
1.6F 0.25 ml/L 26.5 b 22.8 -30.1 99.0 b 81.6- 128.8 135.9 2.24
0.50 ml/L 13.8 c 11.8 -15.8 65.0 c 56.2 77.7 54.67 1.9
1.00 ml/L 7.6 d 6.4 8.8 52.8 c 46.67 61.18 26.76 1.52
0 gr/L 184.6a 154.1- 234.7 978.7 a 660.8 1665 15.35 1.76
AgrMek 0.12 ml/L 25.3 b 22.1- 28.6 77.6 b 66.3 95.2 157.1 2.64
0.15 EC 0.25 ml/L 20.5 b 17.8 -23.2 74.6 b 63.7 91.2 92.57 2.29
0.50 ml/L 15.2 c 14.1- 16.4 55.0 c 51.1 -59.9 17.58 2.29
1.00 ml/L 9.4 d 8.5 10.2 30.7 d 28.2 -33.6 13.57 2.5
0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6- 226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81
Citrus 1.56 ml/L 26.4 b 24.4 -28.4 162.8 b 141.7 191.7 34.06 1.62
Soluble 3.12 ml/L 20.5 c 18.1-22.9 136.2 b 114.2 169.5 47.36 1.55
Oil 6.25 ml/L 13.4 d 10.5 16.3 62.2 c 51.5 79.4 146.8 1.92
12.5 ml/L 12.1 d 10.1 14.1 50.5 c 44.1 59.2 85.27 2.07
0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 -226.1 908.1 a 621.5- 1515 15.99 1.81
Sevin 0.45 ml/L 8.1 b 6.3 -9.7 23.3 b 18.2 34.7 19.13 2.79
XLR 0.94 ml/L 4.8 b 3.1 -6.4 13.6 bc 10.4 21.2 29.48 2.88
1.87 ml/L 3.8 bc 2.6 -4.9 12.3 c 10.0 16.3 12.88 2.54
3.75 ml/L 2.4 c 1.7 -2.9 7.9 d 6.9 9.2 2.56 2.48
0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 -226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81
Lorsban 0.63 ml/L 2.8 b 3.3 b 22.06
4E 1.25 ml/L 2.7 b 3.1 b 20.93
2.50 ml/L 2.7 b 3.1b 20.93
5.00 ml/L 2.4 b 2.8 b 18.38
0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 -226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81
Danitol 0.19 ml/L 3.4 b 2.9 -3.9 8.3 b 7.4 9.6 4.26 3.34
2.4 EC 0.38 ml/L 2.7 b 2.3 -3.1 5.2 c 4.6 6.0 2.33 4.63
0.75 ml/L 2.6 b 2.14-2.96 5.1c 4.5 5.9 1.97 4.37
1.50 ml/L 1.1 3.7 2.91 2.51
*LT50s or LT90s followed by an asterisk are not significantly different because of fiducial limits
overlap.


Accordingly, LT90s for wasps exposed to the lower concentrations were significantly

longer than those exposed to higher concentrations (Table 3.2). In both cases the LC50s










calculated 12 hours after exposure to the insecticides were les than the labelled field rates

(Tables 3.1 and 3.3). Results of the bioassays suggest that these two pesticides are less toxic to

H. sperata than the Sevin, Lorsban and Danitol. An effect of the concentration on the

mortality of H. sperata was observed, suggesting that a reduction in the insecticide concentration

favors the longevity of/. sperata (Figure 3.1).


Table 3-3. Lethal Concentrations (50 and 90) at 12, 24 and 48 hours after Haeckeliania sperata
adults were exposed to leaf disks treated with seven pesticides at four different
concentrations.
Time after LC 50 LC 90
exposure to LC 50 Fiducial limits LC 90 Fiducial limits
Pesticide insecticide ml/L ml/L ml/L ml/L X2 Slope
e 12 19.92 11.27 77.24 111.59 38.50- 1543 1.3 1.7
Alliete
WDG 24 9.34 6.46-18.17 73.18 31.68 371.66 1.8 1.4
48 0.26 0.07- 0.47 3.01 2.19 5.24 4.3 1.2
12 0.64 0.48- 1.02 10.62 4.20 74.84 0.5 1.0
Provado
1.6F 24 0.28 0.20-0.36 3.56 1.92-11.68 2.0 1.1
48 0.17 0.12-0.21 1.21 0.86-2.12 3.0 1.5
AgriMek 12 0.81 0.56 1.68 22.27 6.34 487 2.6 0.8
0.15 24 0.18 0.07-0.28 1.77 1.14-3.90 4.4 1.3
EC 48 0.12 0.07-0.15 0.82 0.61- 1.35 1.3 1.5
Citrus 12 11.86 6.73 -87.29 2091 179.65 22090 0.6 0.5
Soluble 24 4.78 3.17 7.56 231.56 66.90 10572 0.1 0.7
Oil 48 0.8 0.30- 1.29 9.62 6.70- 19.04 4.5 1.1
12 0.21 1.55 5.6 1.5
Sevin
XLR 24 0.36 0.42 0 18.3
48 *
12 0
Lorsban
4E 24 *
48 *
D l 12 0.14 0.17 17.6
Danitol
2.4 EC 24 0
48 0











100 .1... 1------ ----------- -----,...........


60 63 60








-0 0 0
psii c Danitof a Serin ui t Lorsbans






Q0 o0 c t l 0-

So Agrimeks w Provado 0 Petroleum Oil


100 ------wlc u th d a of af ft Ha k i
0B I 0 I
OmVL1. 5.6rrl 3.12fL 6.25 n, 12nI. 05ALO L O.12m6L 0.25ml. 0.50m 1.0An L il 0.126nU ,.mlt ,, ,L 100m~Lt

00


40 -

20
Aliette I
OgrL 0 .:_rL 1.5gr/L 3grAi 6grL

Pesticide Concentration

Figure 3-1. Percent mortality ofH. sperata 24 hours after exposure to four different
concentrations of pesticide residues on lime leaves. The concentrations for each
pesticide consisted of a dilution series using the label rate for field applications as t


The petroleum oil alone showed results similar to those of Provado and Agrimek (Figure

3.1). LT50s for wasps exposed to petroleum oil ranged from 12.16 to 26.42 hours. The two

lower concentrations (1.56 and 3.12 ml/L) had a significantly longer LT50s than the two higher

concentrations (6.25 and 12.5 ml/L) (Table 3.2). LT90s of wasps exposed to leaf residues of

petroleum oil at the two lower concentrations were larger than those of any of the other tested

pesticides (Table 3.2). LC50s at 12, 24 and 48 hours after exposure to petroleum oil were equal

to or lower than the label rates which suggest that contact with fresh residues of petroleum oil at

label concentrations will cause the death of half of the Haeckeliania wasps in less than 12 hours.









The only fungicide evaluated in this study, Aliette WDG, was the pesticide that showed

the lowest effect on H. sperata. LT50s for wasps exposed to Aliette ranged from 21.67 to 39.74

hours, being significantly longer at the lowest concentration that was tested (0.75 gr/L) (Table

3.2). However, LT90s of wasps exposed to Aliette were very similar to the other pesticides such

as Provado and Agrimek, but lower than that of petroleum oil. This was the only pesticide for

which the LC 50 and LC 90s at 12 and 24 hours after exposure were significantly higher than the

label concentrations (Tables 3.1 and 3.3). However, LC50 and LC90 48 hours after exposure to

the pesticide were lower than the label concentration. These results suggest that contact with

fresh residues of Aliette at label concentrations will cause the death of half Haeckeliania wasps

in less than 48 hours. An effect of the concentration of Aliette on the mortality of H. sperata

was observed, suggesting that a reduction in the fungicide concentration favors the longevity of

H. sperata (Figure 3.1). These results suggest that Aliette has a lower acute toxicity than the

other tested pesticides (Figure 3.1). However, the long-term effects seem to be relatively similar

to the other pesticides used in the bioassays.

Discussion

In our bioassays, the organophospate, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticides showed a rapid

and strong toxic effect on H. sperata. Moreover, no reduction in mortality was caused by the

dilutions of the pesticide solution, which were up to eight times lower than the recommended

label rates. This suggests that these three insecticides have a high acute toxicity to H. sperata.

These results are similar to those found on A. vaquitarum. Ulmer et al. (2006b) reported that

organophospate and carbamate insecticides tested at label rates were more toxic to A. vaquitarum

adults than other insecticides. However, H. sperata was affected similarly by carbamate,

organophosphate and pyrethoid pesticides, whereas pyrethroid insecticides were less toxic to A.

vaquitarum than the organophosphate or carbamate pesticides. These three pesticides interfere









with the transmission of nervous impulses in the nervous system of the insect. Organophosphate

and carbamate insecticides inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (Scharf 2003). This enzyme

regulates the sodium channel by removing acetylcholine from its postsynaptic receptor, and

ultimately, modulates the initiation of action potential at precise, exact intervals (Scharf 2003).

Inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides

results in the prolonged binding of acetylcholine to its receptor, and ultimately, in the insect

death from prolonged neuroexitation. Pyrethroids alter the gating kinetics of the sodium channel

causing a prolonged flow of Na+ currents into neurons, and ultimately, neuronal dysfunction

because of excessive neuroexitation (Scharf 2003). Insecticides that target the nervous system

are considered to be broad spectrum pesticides. It is not surprising that neurotoxic insecticides

could have a negative effect on natural enemies, as reported in other studies (Villanueva-Jimenez

and Hoy 1998, Wakgari and Giliomee 2001, 2003).

The carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides that were used in our

experiments are registered to control several citrus pests with varying doses depending on the

target pest. Sevin XLR is recommended for the control of various citrus pests at doses ranging

from 1.5 3 qt/acre (z 7. 5 ml/L 3.37 ml/L solution assuming a volume of 100 gal/ acre)

(Browning et al. 2007, Stansly et al. 2007). For root weevils, the dose is much higher (1-2 gal/

acre z 10-20 ml/L) and application is recommended in mixture with petroleum oil (+ 1 gal/ acre

S10 ml/L of Petroleum oil) (McCoy et al. 2007). Lorsban 4EC is registered for the control of

the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, at a rate of 5 pt/ acre (z6.25 ml/L) (Rogers

and Stansly 2007). Danitol is recommended for control of several pests including: D. citri,

flower thrips (Frankliniella spp.) and orchid thrips (Chaetanaphothrips spp.) at a rate of 1 pt/acre

(z1.25 ml/L), and for citrus root weevils at a rate of 16-21 fl. oz./ acre (z1.25-1.63ml/L) (Rogers









and Stansly 2007, Stansly et al. 2007). Results of this study suggest that applications with any of

these pesticides at any the recommended doses will be extremely toxic to H. sperata. We

conclude that these insecticides are non selective to H. sperata.

Provado is a formulation of imidacloprid applied as a foliar spray that was also highly

toxic to H. sperata. Imidacloprid is another neurotoxic molecule that has translaminar action and

causes the insect death because of prolonged neuroexitation. Foliar residues of imidacloprid

were found to be highly toxic to several predatory insects (i.e., Hippodamia convergens and Olla

v-nigrun (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae);Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae);

Deraeocoris nebulosus (Hemiptera: Miridae); Geocorispunctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)), but

less toxic to predatory mites (i.e., Neoseiulus college, Phytoseiulus macropilis and

Proprioseiopsis mexacanus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) ((Mizell and Sconyers 1992). Williams and

Price (2004) reported that residues of imidacloprid on leaves were highly toxic to Anophes iole.

Moreover, Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy (1998) reported that foliar sprays of imidacloprid were

highly toxic to the parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola and only slightly affected its host, the citrus

leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella. However, drenched imidacloprid had a moderate effect on the

parasitoid while controlling the pest. In this study Provado was highly toxic to H. sperata but it

allowed the parasitoids to live longer than the carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid

insecticides. Haeckeliania wasps exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid lived

significantly longer than those exposed to higher concentrations. These results suggest that even

though detrimental, Provado had a lower acute toxicity on H. sperata than the previous

pesticides. These results agree with those reported by Ulmer et al. (2006b) which stated that

Admire (the drench version of imidacloprid) is detrimental to A. vaquitarum but it does not act

as fast as carbamate and organophosphates. Provado is registered for control of the asian citrus









psyllid, Diaphorina citri and for control of several species of aphids at a rate of 10- 20 fl. oz/acre

(z0.78 -1.56ml/L) (Browning et al. 2007, Rogers and Stansly 2007). At this rate, Provado had a

negative effect on H. sperata. However, within the synthetic insecticides used in the bioassays,

Provado was the one that allowed the wasps to live longer which could suggest that this

insecticide is more IPM compatible than the other insecticides.

Agrimek had similar effects on H. sperata as those caused by Provado. Agrimek is an

avermectin that also targets the nervous system, but, in contrast to the former pesticides, it acts at

glutamate-gated chloride channels (Scharf 2003). Avermectins agonize glutamate-gated chloride

channels causing increased chloride current flow into neurons, which results in neuronihibition

and flaccid paralysis (Scharf 2003). Agrimek was also highly toxic to H. sperata but it allowed

the parasitoids to live longer than the carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides.

Haeckeliania wasps exposed to low concentrations of this pesticide lived significantly longer

than ones exposed to the higher concentrations. Similar to what was observed with Provado,

this pesticide was detrimental to H. sperata, but showed a lower acute toxicity than the

carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. These results are different to those

reported by Ulmer et al. (2006b) on which Agrimek caused a slight increase in mortality of A.

vaquitarum without affecting its longevity, but partially agree with those reported by Villanueva-

Jimenez and Hoy (1998), that found that this pesticide was highly toxic to A. citricola and

inappropriate for IPM programs.

Agrimek is recommended in a mixture with petroleum oil for the control of P. citrella,

rust mites (Aculopspelekassi and Phyllocoptruta oleivora) and broad mites

(Polyphagotarsonemus latus). However, the recommended rate for controlling the citrus leaf

miner (5 fl. oz/ acre of Agrimek 0.39 ml/L + 1 gal/ acre of petroleum oil z10.0 ml/L) and the









mites (10 fl. oz/ acre of Agrimek z 0.78 ml/L + 3 gal/ acre of petroleum oil z 30.0 ml/L) are

different (Childers et al. 2007, Rogers and Stansly 2007). Based on the results obtained with the

concentrations used in the bioassays, we could expect that applications of Agrimek with

petroleum oil targeting the citrus leaf miner should have less impact on H. sperata than those

made targeting mites. Our results suggest that this product was toxic to H. sperata. However,

Agrimek and Provado were less toxic to H. sperata than the carbamate, organophosphate and

pyrethroid insecticides.

Petroleum oil caused an acute mortality similar to those of Provado and Agrimek, but

was the "insecticide" that allowed the parasitoids to live longer. Observations made during the

bioassays suggest that the effect of petroleum oil on H. sperata is mechanical. It appears that the

oil sticks progressively to the wasps until it renders them immobile. However, this effect was

only observed during the first evaluations. Our results contrast with those reported by Ulmer et

at. (2006b) and Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy (1998), the former reported that petroleum oil

showed no contact toxicity to A. vaquitarum whereas the later considered it an IPM compatible

product. One explanation to these contrasting results is the fact that H. sperata is much smaller

in size than the other parasitoids, and could be more mechanically affected by the petroleum oil.

Another explanation could be that our bioassays did not include treatments aging the leaf

residues, which was found to have a large effect on the toxicity of the petroleum oils

(Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998) probably because of the short residual effect that has been

observed with this product. Moreover, our experiments did not include the effects of petroleum

oil mixed with other insecticides that could be more favorable for H. sperata. Petroleum oil

alone is recommended for control of various citrus arthropod pests at a rate of 5 gal/ acre (z50.0

ml/L). It is also recommended for control of greasy spot, Mycospharella citri at a rate of 5-10









gal/ acre (z50.0 100.0 ml/L) (Timmer and Chung 2007). These concentrations are much

higher than those used in our bioassays and could have an acute toxic effect on H. sperata. We

conclude that this product caused a high acute mortality similar to that caused by Provado and

Agrimek but lower than that caused by carbamate, organophosphate and pyretroid insecticides.

The fungicide Aliette WDG, was the pesticide that showed the lower impact on H.

sperata. Ulmer et al. (2006b) found somewhat coinciding results that showed that Aliette was

not toxic to A. vaquitarum. Our results suggest that Aliette is toxic to H. sperata but to a lower

extent than all the other tested pesticides. Moreover, the wasps that were exposed to lower

concentrations of the product had a higher survival rate than those exposed to the label rate.

Aliette is a protectant, curative and systemic fungicide recommended for the control of

Phytophthora spp. foot rot and brown rot of fruit at a rate of 5 lb/ acre (z 6 gr/L) (Graham and

Timmer 2007). At this rate Aliette was toxic to H. sperata, however the parasitoids survived

longer at the lower concentrations.

We conclude that all the pesticides that were included in our experiments had a negative

effect on Haeckeliania's survivorship. Based on this study, we could not say that these products

are selective to H. sperata. In other words, we didn't find that any of the tested pesticides

preserves the ability ofH. sperata to control D. abbreviatus. However, within the registered

insecticides, there are some that cause significantly less harm to this parasitoid. Results

presented here and those reported by Ulmer et al. (2006b) suggest that the organophospate,

carbamate and pyrethoid pesticides are not good candidates to preserve the natural control of D.

abbreviatus by any introduced egg parasitoids. Our results showed that Provado, Agrimek,

Petroleum oil and Aliette allowed H. sperata to live longer than the previous pesticides, which

suggests a certain degree of selectivity of these pesticides. Moreover, our results show that









Haeckeliania adults exposed to lower concentrations than the recommended rates of Provado,

Agrimek, Petroleum oil, and Aliette have more chances of surviving than those exposed to the

label concentrations. It is unclear if those parasitoids that can live for a certain period of time

after being exposed to a pesticide remain reproductively active and continue parasitizing hosts.

There is evidence that the behavior and physiology of beneficial arthopods could be affected by

the exposure of sublethal doses of some pesticides (Desneux et al. 2007). For example, exposure

of T. brassicae to sublethal doses of deltamethrin, a pyrethroid, modified its sex pheromonal

communication which reduced mating and therefore the fitness of this biological control agent

(Delpuech et al. 1999). This kind of pesticide effects could also be present in H. sperata.

We propose the use of products that have less toxic effects on the introduced parasitoid.

This will increase the chances ofH. sperata to control ofD. abbreviatus and might reduce the

application frequency of pesticides targeting the weevil. Within the tested pesticides, some had

lower effects on H. sperata but none showed to be clearly selective. However, this study only

evaluated a few pesticides amongst the many other products used in citrus and ornamental plant

production. In order to have a better understanding of the impact of pesticide applications on H.

sperata, further study of effects of other pesticides and the effects of aged residues on the leaves

is recommended.









APPENDIX
CHECKLIST OF ENTIMINAE SCHROEDER 1823 (COLEOPTERA CURCULIONIDAE)
SPECIES AND KEY TO SOME SPECIES PRESENT IN FLORIDA



Entiminae is recognized as a monophyletic subfamily of the family Curculionoidae and

superfamily Curculionoidea (Marvaldi 1997). The subfamily Entiminae groups the "broad-

nosed" weevils that possess a short and stout rostrum not used to prepare oviposition sites

(Marvaldi 1997, Anderson 2002). Nearly all Entiminae have a mandible that bears a deciduous

cusp used by newly emerged adults to escape from the pupal cell. The cusp is subsequently lost,

leaving a definite scar at the point of attachment on the outer face of the mandible (Fig. 2.B)

(Barratt and Kuschel 1996). However not all Entiminae possess this feature (i.e. Sitona,

Thecesternus, and members of the tribe Alophini) and their inclusion in the subfamily is based in

other characters. Entiminae also possess a short tooth or spine in the inner angle at the apex of

the hind tibia (Anderson 2002). The antennal scape of some species also extends to or beyond

the anterior margin of the eye, a feature otherwise only found in Dryophtorinae. Most are

flightless, with elytra fused together along the suture and the hind wings are vestigial.

This is a large and widely distributed group containing 124 genera in 23 tribes recognized

in North America (Anderson 2002). Many species feed on a very broad host range both as adults

and larvae. A number of species are considered pests on citrus, fruit and ornamental production.

The following checklist includes the names of 24 genera and 36 species of weevils that

belong to the subfamily Entiminae and that are known to be present in Florida (Anderson 2002,

Peck and Thomas 1998, O'Brien and Wibmer 1982). The known distribution of the species in

Florida is given by a code that represents the counties where it has been reported (Table A. 1),

followed by a brief comment on the biology and economical importance of some species. The

common name, when available is provided.










This checklist was assembled based on the classification used in the book American

Beetles (Anderson 2002) and complemented with the checklists of Beetles of Florida (Peck and

Thomas 1998) and Weevils of North America (O'Brien and Wibmer 1982). The distribution

information was taken mainly from the checklist of the beetles of Florida (Peck and Thomas

1998) and complemented with other sources (Bloem et al. 2002).




List of the Entiminae occurring in Florida


Agraphus Say 1831
A. bellicus (Say 1831) 1,2,3 ; ESC, LEV, OKA, SLU, TAY, VOL; Adults are associated
with sandy soils along the Atlantic coast and in central Florida.

Paragraphus Blatchley 1916
P. setosus Blatchley 1916 1,2,4,; LEE, OKE, OSC; Endemic.

Cyrtepistomus Marshal 1913
C. castaneus (Roelofs 1873) 1,3; ALA, ESC, HIL, LEO; "Asiatic oak Weevil";
Adventive, native from Japan.

Myllocerus Schoenherr 1823
M. undatus Marshall 1916 2,4; BRO, DAD, ORA, PAL, PIN, SAR; Adventive, native
from Sri Lanka. Pest of many ornamental and native trees and shrubs.

Neoptochus Horn 1876
N. adspersus (Boheman 1834) 1,2,4; ALA, CIT, COLL, COLU, DAD, FRA, JAC, HIG,
LEO, LEV, MAN, MON, ORA, PUT, SAR, WAK; Found in pinelands.

O'Brien, C.W., and G.J. Wibmer. 1982. Annotated checklist of the weevils (Curculionidae sensu lato) of North America, Central
America, and the West Indies (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 34: 29-49.


Peck, S. B., and M.C. Thomas. 1998. A Distributional Checklist of the Beetles of Florida. li. 1 I i ..-
dpi.org/Coleoptera/Mike/curculio.htm


Bloem, S., R.F. Mizell, and C.W. O'Brien. 2002. Old Traps for new weevils: New records for Curculionids (Coleoptera:
Curculionidae), Brentids (Coleoptera: Brentidae) and Anthribids (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) from Jefferson Co., Florida. Fla.
Entomol. 85: 632-644.

Anderson, R.S. 2002. Curculionidae, pp. 722-815. In R.H. Amett Jr., M. Thomas, P.E. Skelley, and J.H. Frank (eds.), American
Beetles: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea,vol. 2. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.










Eudiagogus Schoenherr 1840
E. marye Warner 1979 2; BRE, BRO, DAD, DES, DUV, LEO, LIB, MAN, POL, SAR,
SJO, WAK, WAS; Adults feed on foliage of species of Sesamia (Fabaceae);larvae feed
on nitrogen-fixing root nodules in the soil.
E. pulcher Fahraeus 1840 2; ALA, DAD, IND, OKE, SEM, SLU.
E. rosenschoeldi Fahraeus 1840 1,2; ALA, CIT, CLA, DUV, HIG, HIL, LAK, NAS,
OKA, TAY, WAK.

Brachystylus Schoenherr 1845
B. acutus Say 1824 2; JEF.

Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823
D. abbreviatus (Linnaeus 1758) 1,4; DAD, BRO, PAL, COLL, LEE, HIG, IND, SLU,
POL, MAN, HIL, ORA, SEM, LAK, VOL, GLA, HEN, MARIA, SUM, DES, PAS, OSC,
MAR; "Diaprepes root weevil"; Adventive, native from the lesser Antilles. Highly
polyphagous species, considered pest of citrus and various ornamental plants. Adults feed
and oviposit on the foliage of the plant; the neonate larvae fall and borough into the soil
to feed on the roots of the plants (Woodruff 1985, Mannion et al. 2003).

Epiacaerus Schoenherr 1834
E. formidolosus Boheman 1842 1,4; ALA, DAD, DES, HAM, HAR, HER, HIG, JAC,
LAK, LEO, LEV, MAN, MARIA, ORA, PAS, PIN, POL, SAR, TAY, VOL; Adults feed
on foliage.

Lachnopus Schoenherr 1840
L. floridanus Horn 1876 2,4; DAD, MON; Native and polyphagous species.
L. argus (Rieche 1840) 2,4; MON; Adventive. Doubtfully established in Florida.
L. hispidus (Gyllenhal 1834) 2,4; DAD Adventive. Doubtfully established in Florida.

Artipus Sahlberg 1823
A. floridanus Horn 1876 1,4; DAD, BRE, BRO, GLA, HEN, IND, LAK, MART, MON,
ORA, PAL, SLU, VOL; Minor pest of Citrus plants.

Artrichonotus Buchanan 1939
A. taeniatulus (Bergl881) 1,2,4; OKA; Adults feed on foliage of various plants, but most
frequently Fabaceae.

Naupactus Dejean 1821
N. godmanni (Crotch 1867) 4; ALA, BAK, DAD, DES, ESC, GAD, HAR, HER, HIG,
HIL, HOL, IND, JAC, JEF, LAK, LEO, MAN, MARIA, MART, MON, OKA, OKE,
ORA, OSC, PAS, POL, SAR, SEM, SLU, SRO, SUW, UNI, VOL, WAL; Adventive,
native from South America. Adults are considered pests and feed on foliage of various
plants.
N. minor (Buchanan 1942) 2,4; ESC, SRO.









N. peregrinus (Buchanan 1939) 2,4; ALA, CAL, COLU, GAD, GUL, JAC, JEF, LEO,
LIB, OKA, SRO, WAL, WAS.
N. leucoloma (Boheman 1840) 2,4; ALA, ESC, HOL, JAC, LEO, OKA, SRO, WAL.

Otiorhynchus Germar 1822
0. ovatus (Linnaeusl758) 1,2,4; "Strawberry root weevil". Adventive, possibly not
established in Florida. The Adults and larvae feed on a variety of plants and are
considered serious pests. Adults are flightless.

Aphrastus Say 1831
A. griseus Blatchley 1916 1,2; LIB; Adults feed on foliage of various plants.
A. taeniatus Say 1831 1,2; GAD, LEO.

Sitona Germar 1817
S. californicus (Fahraeus 1840) 1,2,4; JEF; Adventive. Adults feed on the foliage of the
plant and the larvae on the roots of the plants.
S. lineellus (Bonsdorff 1785) 1,2; DAD; "Sweetclover weevil"; Immigrant, Pest.
S. hispidulus (Fabricius 1776) 1,2,4; LEO; "Clover root curculio"; Adventive, native from
Europe.

Pachnaeus Schoenherr 1826
P. litus (Germar 1824) 1,2,4 ; Southern Florida; Native, Pest in citrus industry.
P. opalus (Oliver 1807) 1,2,4; Northern Florida; Native, Pest in citrus industry.

Pandeleteius Schoenherr 1834
P. hilaris (Herbst 1797) 1,2; ALA, CAL, COLU, DAD, DES, DIX, FRA, HIG, HIL,
HOL, LEO, LEV, MAN, MARI, ORA, PIN, PUT, SAR, SRO, WAK; Adults feed on
Fagaceae and other plants.
P. nodifer Champion 1911; BRO, DAD; Adults are found in various ornamental plants.

Scalaventer Howden 1970
S. subtropicus (Fall 1907) 1,2,4; DAD, MON, adults have been collected on Bumelia
celastrina (Sapotaceae).

Tanymecus Germar 1817
T. lacaena Herbst 1797 1,2,4; ALA, BAK, BAY, BRE, BRO, CIT, DES, HEN, HIG, HIL,
IND, LEE, LEO, MAN, MON, NAS, ORA, OAS, PAL, PIN, POL, PUT, SAR, SEM,
SLU, VOL; Adults have been collected on Sesuvium. portulacastrum (L.) (Aizoaceae) in
southern Florida.
T. confusus Say 1831 1,2; FLA, LEO.

Cercopeus Schoenherr 1842
C. komarecki O'Brien 1977 1,2,4; LEO; Adults are flightless and found in leaf litter.

Pseudocneorhinus Roelofs 1873









P. bifasciatus Roelofs 1880 2,4; WAS; Twobanded Japanese Weevil"; Adventive,
native from Japan. The adults and larvae feed on various plants.

Trachyphloeosoma Wollaston 1869
T. advena Zimmerman 1956 1,4; LEO; Adventive, native from Japan.


Table A-i. Codes for Florida Counties.


Literature based Key to some Entiminae Species of Florida

This literature based key to some Entiminae species found in Florida was assembled based

on the classification used in the book American Beetles (Anderson 2002) and complemented

with the checklists of Beetles of Florida (Peck and Thomas 1998) and Weevils of North America

(O'Brien and Wibmer 1982).


Code County Code County Code County
ALA Alachua HAM Hamilton OKE Okeechobee
BAK Baker HAR Hardee ORA Orange
BAY Bay HEN Hendry OSC Osceola
BRA Bradford HER Hernando PAL Palm Beach
BRE Brevard HIG Highlands PAS Pasco
BRO Broward HIL Hillsborough PIN Pinellas
CAL Calhoun HOL Holmes POL Polk
CHA Charlotte IND Indian River PUT Putnam
CIT Citrus JAC Jackson SAR Sarasota
CLA Clay JEF Jefferson SEM Seminole
COLL Collier LAF Lafayette SJO St. Johns
COLU Columbia LAK Lake SLU St. Lucie
DAD Dade LEE Lee SRO Santa Rosa
DES De Soto LEO Leon SUM Sumter
DIX Dixie LEV Levy SUW Suwannee
DUV Duval LIB Liberty TAY Taylor
ESC Escambia MAD Madison UNI Union
FLA Flagler MAN Manatee VOL Volusia
FRA Franklin MARI Marion WAK Wakulla
GAD Gadsden MART Martin WAL Walton
GIL Gilchrist MON Monroe WAS Washington
GLA Glades NAS Nassau
GUL Gulf OKA Okaloosa









1. Mandibles large, hemispherical externally, inner surface slightly cupped; surface of
mandible densely squamate except narrow median edge glabrous; mandible without
deciduous process; bucal cavity large, maxillary palpus fully or mostly exposed, scrobes
lateral; rostrum similar to head in length and width; anterior edge of prothorax straight
laterally, not lobbed beneath the eye............................... ................. Sitona

Mandibles various; if large and densely squamate, then with postocular lobe (Fig. 1-A)
and/or with scrobe dorsal and/or deciduous process (Fig. 3-B).............. ..............2

2(1). Side of prothorax with anterior margin produced into slight to very large rounded
postocular lobe (Fig. 1-A); eye tear drop shaped.............. .. .................. ...............3

Side of prothorax with anterior margin straight; eyes various...............................6

3(2). Mandible with four or more large setae; ventral edge of postocular lobe very abrupt;
elytra with humeral angle slanted from stria 7 outwards; scutellum very wide; prothorax
and elytra patterned with lines and other markings; body length 4.1-8.0 mm....Ediagogus

Mandible with three large setae, femur with a tooth on inner edge distally....................4

4(3). Elytra with humerus rounded; Pterygium closed apically; eye small, flattened, with
approximately 20 facets along longest axis; prothorax 1.4x longer dorsally than ventrally;
body length 3.0-4.0 mm .................................. ............Neoptochus adspersus

Elytra with humeral angle ................ .................................................. 5

5(4). Femora with very large tooth bearing two smaller teeth on distal edge (Fig. 1-B); scape
reaching anterior third of prothorax; base of elytron forming a large lobe between
scutellum and interval 5; dorsal elytral setae minute, color dark brown-black with whitish
scales with irregular pattern; body length 6.0-7.0 mm (Fig. 1-C)........Myllocerus undatus

Femora with a single small tooth; dorsal elytral setae long; base of elytra straight; eye
large, separated from anterior margin of prothorax by single row of scales; pronotum and
disc of elytra with scales very sparse or absent; scales becoming more numerous laterally;
body length 4.5-5.8mm ..................................................Cyrtepistomus castaneus











Figure A-1. Myllocerus undatus A. Postocular lobe B. Femora tooth C. Adult










6(2). Anterior edge of prothorax laterally with postocular vibrissae in a cluster or tuft (Fig. 2-
A) ...................................... ............................ ........ ........ 7

Anterior edge of prothorax without postocular vibrissae or if postocular vibrissae present
not in cluster or tuft................... ............... .................. ... ....... 11

7(6). Eye large, flattened; rostrum thick; front coxae contiguous or apparently so; body length
5.0-12.0 m m ...................................... .................................... 8

Eye smaller; front coxae distinctly separated by continuous prostemal integument; body
length less than 5.0 mm .................. .................................. .. ... .... 10

8(7). Hind tibia with straight comb of setae on outer edge, comb at least as long as width of
tibia at apex; postocular vibrissae set on edge of prothorax; color dorsally dark, vaguely
patterned at most; corbel open; body length 5.5-10.0 mm..........................Tanymecus

Hind tibia without straight comb of setae; postocular vibrissae set on a knob or rounded
tooth on edge of prothorax; corbel various; color pastel gray, green; body length 6.4-
12.0mm ............. ........... ........ ...... ....................... 9

9(8). Elytra produced forward at basal center, appearing bisinuate (Fig. 2-B); humeral angle
also projecting forward; color usually bright blue green or aqua; found only in southern
half Florida (Fig. 2-C)........................................................ Pachnaeus litus

Elytra not noticeably produced forward, the juncture between elytra and pronotum
slightly irregular but not appearing sinuate; humeral angle rounded, not projecting. Color
more variable; most often pale gray-green, but occasionally bright aqua. Found in
northern half of Florida............. ............................... Pachnaeus opalus












Figure A-2. Pachnaeus litus A. Postocular vibrissae B. Base of Elytra C. Adult


10(7). Anterior margin of abdominal ventrites 3, 4 and 5 without modification; contour and
vestiture more or less uniform; mandible without scales; postocular vibrissae various,
well developed in most species; front legs distinctly to greatly larger than middle and
hind legs ................. ............... ................... ............ ... ..Pandeleteius










Anterior margin of abdominal ventrites 3, 4 and 5 deeply, narrow sulcate across width of
abdomen; posterior margin of sulcus carinate, right angled in female, more rounded in
male; front legs slightly larger than middle and hind legs......... Scalaventer subtropicus

11(6). Scrobe dorsal or dorsolateral, indefinite caudad of antennal insertion; scape in repose not
situated in scrobe, usually passing over eye ..... .... .... ................................12

Scrobe lateral, scape in repose situated in scrobe .............................. ............20

12(11). Corbel closed; tarsal claws free; humeral angle well developed .........................13

Corbel opened or not distinctly closed; tarsal claws free or connate; humeral angle
rounded ............................................................... ..... .......... 14

13(12). Scape very thick, short, no longer than thickness of rostrum; apex of rostrum with 20-30
long setae; mandible with many long setae directed to mandibular scar; body length 5.5-
7.5 mm .................... ....... ........................... Brachystylus acutus

Scape longer, extended to or beyond eye; eye slightly encroaching on dorsum; anterior
margin of prothorax with a row of 20 or more very fine long setae of graduated lengths
directed toward the edge of the eye (Fig.3-A); humeri quadrate, prominent; base of elytra
very slightly produced; body length 13.5-18.0 mm (Fig. 3-C).........Diaprepes abbreviatus












Figure A-3. Diaprepes abbreviatus A. Postocular setae B. Mandible scar C. Adult


14(12).Funicle with six articles; tarsal claws free ....................... ... ......... 15

Funicle with seven articles; tarsal claws various................ .... ................. 16

15(14).Prothorax lacking median sulcus; surface punctuate; elytral intervals flat; corbel plate
large, glabrous, oval; body length 5.8-6.8 mm......................... Agraphus bellicus

Prothorax with median longitudinal sulcus; elytral intervals 3, 5 and 7 more prominent;
corbel plate intermediate; body length 6.2 mm ......... ...............Paragraphus setosus










16(14). Tarsal claws connate.................. .................. ................... .. ........17

Tarsal claws free.................................. ............................ 18

17(16). Eye large, almost touching prothorax; anterior margin of prothorax with postocular lobe;
corbel narrowly closed; elytra very convex, sides greatly rounded
...... ...................................................... ........Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus

Eye smaller, prothorax without postocular lobe; corbel narrowly closed; rostrum in dorsal
view more or less rectangular in outline; entire body and appendages densely scaled;
scrobe completely dorsal................. ........................... ................Aphrastus

18(16). Antenna with scape with vestiture of fine setae and round flat scales; body size small 2.3-
4.5 m m ................... ................... ........................ .... .......... 19

Antenna with scape with vestiture of fine setae only or with at most a few scattered
elongate, recumbent scales intermixed; elytra with few sparse or no scales; body size 4.0-
13.0 mm ................ ..... .............. ......... .......... Otiorhynchus ovatus

19(18).Epistoma large, distinct, occupying approximately half the anterior margin of rostrum,
triangular, limited by distinct carina; scrobe dorsal, very short and deep, not reaching eye;
front and middle tibiae with single, strong, almost horizontal apical tooth; hind tibia with
pair of short vertical apical spines..................................... Cercopeus komarecki

Epistoma very small, indistinct; scrobe lateral, long, passing backward and below the
lower angle of eye; all tibiae with apical spine or tooth; vestiture of long, suberect, fine
hair-like setae; eye with less than 5 facets across greatest width; elytra rounded,
subglobose .............. ........................................... Trachyphloeosoma advena

20(11).Eyes partly encroaching on head; epistoma poorly defined; humeri rounded (except
Lachnopus, southern Florida only) ................. .......................... ............. 21

Eyes lateral; humeri rounded; rostrum with longitudinal sulcus or impressed line reaching
from interantennal line to head, continuing or not with fine impressed line reaching
beyond eyes(Fig. 4-A)................... ................... .................. ........ 22

21(20).Mesepimeron triangular, anterior margin running straight to angle between elytron and
peduncle of mesothorax, mesepisternum not touching side margin of elytron;
metepistemal suture complete; humeri well-developed, quadrate; scales on body sparse,
not imbricate, prothorax and elytra lacking erect scales or setae (Fig. 4-C)......Lachnopus



















Figure A-4. Artipusfloridanus (A &B) Lachnopusfloridanus (C) A.Longitudinal sulcus B.
Adult C. Adult


Mesepimeron short trapezoidal, anterior margin running to side margin of elytron,
mesepisternum touching elytron on broad contact; metepisternal suture obliterated in
basal half; rostrum (excluding mandibles) in dorsal view from anterior margin of eye to
apex slightly longer than greatest width in apical region; antenna with short, narrow
scales and sparse, long, fine setae; prosternum lacking two close adjacent tubercles
behind front coxae.............................. ............ Epiacaerusformidolosus

22(20). Epistoma conspicuous, very wide, occupying most of anterior edge of rostrum; prothorax
and elytra with very irregularly shaped, randomly situated large foveae (Fig.4-B)
.................................. ............................. ......... .. ....Artipus floridanus

Epistoma inconspicuous, occupying half or less of anterior edge of rostrum; prothorax
and elytra with only regular sculpture....... ... ...................... ...... ................23

23(22). Scutellum glabrous, glossy; antennal funicle with article 2 approximately as long as
article 1; corbel plate narrow ......... ....................Artrichonotus taeniatulus

Scutellum squamate; antennal funicle with article 2 approximately 1.5 to 2.0x longer than
article 1; corbel plate absent or present.................. .........................Naupactus









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Daniel Carrillo was born in Pereira, Colombia. Daniel got his bachelor's degree in

agronomic engineering in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia in the year 2004. During his

time as an undergraduate student, Daniel got interested in the study of insects and their

interactions with plants. After graduating, Daniel worked with farmers promoting the integration

of biological control tactics to pest management programs in horticultural systems. In the year

2006, Daniel started a master's program in entomology at the University of Florida. For the past

two years Daniel has worked in a biological control project in the Tropical Research and

Education Center in Homestead, Florida.





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EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS AND PE STICIDES ON PARASITISM OF HAECKELIANIA SPERATA ON DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS By DANIEL CARRILLO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007 1

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2007 Daniel Carrillo 2

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To my parents 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to my mayor professor, Dr Jorge Pea, for his continued support and guidance during my time as a graduate student of the University of Florida. I also want to thank the other members of my supervisory committee, Dr. John L. Capinera and Dr. Michael. E. Rogers; their critiques and sugge stions made substantial improvements to this study. I thank Rita, David, Jose, and Zaragoza, not only for their support while conducting my research, but also for helping me in many aspects of my personal life in Florida. I am grateful to Dr. Michael Scharf and Dr. Howard Frank for always being avai lable, with a positive attitude, to answer my questions. I thank my family for their loving en couragement, which motivated me to complete my study. 4

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TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .11 Baseline Information about Diaprepes abbreviatus ...............................................................11 Biology of the Diaprepes root weevil .............................................................................12 Identification of Diaprepes abbreviatus ..........................................................................15 Management of the Diaprepes root weevil .....................................................................16 Classical Biological Control of D. abbreviatus with Egg Parasitoids ....................................24 Objectives of Master of Science Thesis Research ..................................................................31 2 EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS ON SUCCESSFUL PARASITISM OF Haeckeliania sperata (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) ON Diaprepes abbreviatus (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) EGGS.....................................................................33 Introduction .............................................................................................................................33 Material and Methods .............................................................................................................35 Experiment1. Determining the Successful Parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants. .................................................................36 Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Tric homes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata.......37 Experiment 3. The Relationship of Search ing Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to Parasitism. ...............................................................................................39 Results .....................................................................................................................................40 Experiment1. Determining the Successful Parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants .................................................................40 Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Tric homes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata. ......41 Experiment 3. The Relationship of Sear ching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to Parasitism. ...............................................................................................42 Discussion ...............................................................................................................................43 3 RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Haeckeliania sperata TO PESTICIDES USED IN CITRUS......................................................................................................................... .........46 Introduction .............................................................................................................................46 Materials and Methods ...........................................................................................................49 Results .....................................................................................................................................51 5

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Discussion ...............................................................................................................................56 APPENDIX. CHECKLIST OF ENTIMI NAE SCHROEDER 1823 (COLEOPTERA CURCULIONIDAE) SPECIES AND KEY TO SOME SPECIES PRESENT IN FLORIDA ...............................................................................................................................63 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................84 6

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1. Effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata. ....................................42 2-2. Relationship of searching speed, trichome de nsity and leaf thickne ss to parasitism. Multiple regression analysis of the effect of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness on mean pe rcent of parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs laid on six host plants. ........................................................................................................43 3-1. List of pesticides tested on H. sperata, including trade name, cl ass, active ingredient, application rate, label concentra tion, and bioassay concentrations. ..................................51 3-2. Lethal Time (50 and 90) of H. sperata exposed to of 4 concentrations of selected pesticides. ...........................................................................................................................53 3-3. Lethal Concentrations (50 and 90) at 12, 24 and 48 hours after Haeckeliania sperata adults were exposed to leaf disks treated with seven pesticides at four different concentrations. ...................................................................................................................54 A-1. Codes for Florida Counties. ...............................................................................................67 7

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1. General scheme of the main stra tegies proposed for management of D. abbreviatus in citrus. ..............................................................................................................................16 2-1. Effect of host plant on successful parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs by H. sperata. No-Choice tests on six host plants and control treatment (wax paper). Different letters represents significant differences, Tukey (P<0.05). Error bars represent the standard error. ....................................................................................................................41 3-1. Percent mortality of H. sperata 24 hours after exposure to four different concentrations of pesticid e residues on lime leaves. Th e concentrations for each pesticide consisted of a dilution series using the label rate for field applications as the starting concentration. ........................................................................................................55 A-1. Myllocerus undatus A. Postocular lobe B. Femora tooth C. Adult ..................................68 A-2. Pachnaeus litus A. Postocular vibrissae B. Base of Elytra C. Adult.................................69 A-3. Diaprepes abbreviatus A. Postocular setae B. Mandible scar C. Adult ............................70 A-4. Artipus floridanus (A &B) Lachnopus floridanus (C) A .Longitudinal sulcus B. Adult C. Adult ..............................................................................................................................72 8

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Abstract of Thesis Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS AND PE STICIDES ON PARASITISM OF HAECKELIANIA SPERATA ON DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS By Daniel Carrillo December 2007 Chair: Jorge E. Pea Major Department: Entomology and Nematology Two investigations were conducted to determine the effect of host plants and pesticides on Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gr egarious egg-endoparasitoid that was imported to Florida as a biological control agent of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The first study hypothesized that the reproductive success of H. sperata is affected by the host plants of D. abbreviatus Six host plants with varying degrees of pubescence were used to determine successful parasitism and the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata. Haeckeliania was able to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on the six host plants; however, the plants with a high le af trichome density had a lower pe rcent of parasitism than the plants with smoother leaves. Removal of trichomes from a pubescen t biotype of buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus revealed that the presence of leaf trichomes had a negative effect on the overall searching efficiency of H. sperata. Searching speed was highly related to parasitism; this parameter could be used to predict the suitability of host pl ants for the establishment of H. sperata. These findings suggest that the reproductive success of H. sperata is dependent on the host plant of D. abbreviatus 9

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The second study was designed to evalua te the relative susceptibility of H. sperata adults to contact with pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Five concentra tions of seven pesticides were included in the bioassays. All tested pesticides had a negative effect on Haeckelianias survivorship. However, some pesticides cause d significantly less harm to this parasitoid. Organophospate, carbamate and pyrethoid pesticides were highly toxic to H. sperata. Dilutions of the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroi d solutions did not reduce mortality of the parasitoid. Imidacloprid, abamectin, petrol eum oil and a phosphonate fungicide allowed H. sperata to live longer compared with the previous pesticides, s uggesting a certain degree of selectivity. The use of products that have less toxic effects on the introduced parasitoid will increase its chances to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs. This study proposes the sele ction of host plants of D. abbreviatus and use of selective pesticides to maximize the chances of establishment of Haeckeliania sperata in Florida. 10

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Baseline Information about Diaprepes abbreviatus Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is a root weevil that is native to the Lesser Antilles. Apparently, it was accidentally introduced to Florida in the mid 1960s (Woodruff 1985). Since its first detection in A popka (Orange County) in 1964, Diaprepes has spread throughout the central and southern part of the Florida peninsula. Diaprepes is now considered established in 23 counties, infesting more than 100,000 acres of citrus groves and ma ny other agricultural, ornamental and wild plants (N guyen et al. 2003, Weissling et al. 2004). The introduction of this pest to Florida has increased the production costs of many crops, and severely hindered the growth of Floridas agricultural markets. Estima tes show that this pest has increased production costs over 70 million dollars annua lly for the citrus industry in Florida (Stanley 1996, Muraro 2000). Moreover, the infestation of this weevil has spread to Texas and California (GraftonCardwell 2004, CDFA 2006), resul ting in drastic meas ures to restrict the introduction of ornamental plants from Florida (TDA 2001). The key pest status of D. abbreviatus is partly ascribable to its polyphagy. The list of host plants of D. abbreviatus includes more than 270 plant species from 60 plant families (Simpson et al. 1996, Mannion et al. 2003) A large portion of Diaprepes host plants are important agricultural crops such as: citrus (all varieties), papaya sugarcane, peanut, sorghum, sweet potato, cassava, loquat, guava, mango, avocado, ba nana and corn. Some of the other reported hosts are widely used by the ornamental plant industry, and they includ e native plants, or are invasive species (i.e., Brazilian pepper tree), all of great ecological significance (Simpson et al. 1996). The wide host range of D. abbreviatus has facilitated the spread of this weevil, resulting 11

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in a significant threat to many tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Moreover, the broad variation in the host plants of D. abbreviatus represents a big challenge for developing efficient and sustainable management tactics. Biology of the Diaprepes root weevil The adult weevils are long lived ( 147 days for females and 135 days for males; Wolcott 1936) and can be found throughout the year in south Florida. Th eir seasonality in the central portion of Florida is different, showing a primary emergence period from May to October and November. McCoy et al. (2003) found that th e magnitude of adult emergence is related to soil moisture. This study concluded that D. abbreviatus emergence can be delayed by moisture deficits and that soil moisture could have a positive relationship with adult emergence. Adults prefer to feed on young, tender leav es, leaving irregular notches. They may also feed on old leaves or to a limited degree on fruits, as seen on papayas and young citrus fruit (Woodruff 1968, Knapp et al. 2000). D. abbreviatus adults form aggregations of equal sex ratio on new foliage of their host plants, where they can remain for w eeks. Even though adults have considerable intrasexual variation in body size, both sexes are considered m onomorphic and mate in crowded aggregations of up to 100 individuals per 0.5m 2 (Harari and Landolt 1997, Harari and Brockmann 1999, Harari et al. 1999, 2000, 2003). Evid ence of the nature of the formation of aggregations is contradictory. Schroeder (1981 ) suggested that both females and males produce pheromones to attract the opposite sex to aggregation sites. In contrast, Beavers et al. (1982) suggested that odor of young citrus foliage is the main cue aff ecting aggregation and that the subsequently produced frass served as a secondary attractant at the aggregation site. Later on, Hariari and Landolt (1997) reported that females were more attracted to damaged food than to males or frass of either sex, and th at males were similarly attracted to females, frass of either sex, 12

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or damaged food. Evidence suggests that the na ture of the formation of aggregations of D. abbreviatus is complex and could be mediated by th e interaction of seve ral cues of which damaged food probably plays a primary role. The female oviposits egg masses between two adjacent leaves. The egg masses are deposited in a gelatinous cement that seals the leaves together and pr ovides protection for the eggs (Nigg et al. 2001, Jacas et al. 2005). Females lay eggs in cl usters of 30 to 265 eggs and can deposit approximately 5000 eggs over their life time (Wolcott 1936). Simpson et al. (1996) suggested that D. abbreviatus shows little preference for ovipositi on sites. Weevils confined in artificial settings will oviposit in anything that has two surfaces close together (i.e. strips of wax paper, a piece of wrinkled cloth). However, in a natural environment, D. abbreviatus females seem to prefer some host plants and certain plant structures for oviposition. In a two year field study, Pea et al. (2007) comp ared the oviposition pattern s in two host plants of D. abbreviatus and found that silver buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus L. var. sericeus Fors., is more favorable to oviposition than dahoon holly, Ilex cassine L. Their findings suggest that the egg masses are aggregated within canopy strata when they are deposited in silver buttonwood plants. Lapointe (2001) reported that Diaprepes prefer to oviposit eggs on ma ture expanded citrus leaves, providing further evidence that s uggests females do have preference for oviposition sites. The preference of D. abbreviatus towards certain oviposition sites suggests that some plants could serve as egg and larval reservoirs and thus play an important role on th e population dynamics of this weevil. Upon emergence, the neonate larvae escape from the sealed leaves and drop to the soil surface. The timing of the period between egg hatch and permanence in the soil surface has been studied by various researchers as it represents a period of expo sure to predation. Jones and 13

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Schroeder (1983) reported that a considerable period of time (48h average) often elapsed from egg hatch to larval escape from the sealed leav es. The pattern of neonate drop was studied in detail by Stuart et al. (2003). This study revealed that neonat e drop could occur during all hours of the light and dark phases, but agreed with Jone s and Schroeder (1983) in th at there is a peak of neonate drop during the second peri od of the light phase. However, it is unclear to what extent these temporal patterns relate to environmental conditions such as rainfall, which could have a large impact on the ability of neonate larvae to burrow into the soil (J ones and Schroeder 1983). These researchers demonstrated th at neonate larvae failed to penetr ate dry soil. In addition, they found that neonate larvae might frequently remain exposed on the soil surface for relatively long periods (up to 180 minutes) before pene trating the surface of moist soil. After penetrating the soil surf ace, larvae burrow down to the r oot system where they begin feeding on fibrous roots. As they grow, the larvae move to feed on larger structural roots, where they create deep grooves as they consume the outer bark and th e cambium layer (McCoy et al. 2007). This stage causes major crop damage by debilitating the root system, making it more vulnerable to infection by soil born pests such as Phytophtora spp. and nematodes, and less tolerant to water stress. The larval developm ent period may include up to 16 instars and varies widely even between the indivi duals of a single mass. Under laboratory conditions the duration of the larval period of D. abbreviatus obtained from field-collected females was of 132-297 days (Beavers and Selheime 1975). However, in the fiel d the larval period could last up to one year. Moreover, there are reports stating that D. abbreviatus can enter a quiescen t period inside a soil chamber for up to 388 days (Wolcott 1936). If no control measures are taken, a few large larvae can cause a mature healthy tree to become non-productive. 14

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Identification of Diaprepes abbreviatus It is important to differentiate D. abbreviatus from other Florida root weevils that inhabit similar ecological niches in and have a similar life cycle. Diaprepes belongs to the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) which gr oups the broad-nosed weevils that posses a short and stout rostrum (Marvaldi 1997, Anderson 2002) This is a large and widely distributed group that recognizes 124 genera in 23 tribes in North Amer ica (Anderson 2002). At least 24 genera and 36 species of weevils that belong to the subfamily Entiminae are known to be present in Florida (OBrien and Wibmer 1982, Peck and Thomas 1998). However, only a few species share ecological niches with Diaprepes in Florida and inflict damage to plants that could be mistakenly attributed to Diaprepes Even though the adults of this weevil are eas ily recognizable by morphological characters (see Appendix A), some developmen tal stages (i.e., eggs) show great similarities and could be easily confused fr om one species to another. The most relevant weevil species inhabiting Florida that also sh are the same environment and deposit eggs in between two leaves as Diaprepes include: Pachnaeus litus (Germar), P. opalus (Oliver), Artipus floridanus Horn Lachnopus floridanus Horn, L. argus (Rieche) and L. hispidus (Gyllenhall) The first four species are native to Florida a nd the last two are adve ntive species that are doubtfully established in Florida (Peck and Thomas 1998, Anderson 2002). These species, together with D. abbreviatus, form a complex of economically dama ging citrus root weevils. In most cases, the use of adequate cultural practices should be enough for managing citrus root weevils except for D. abbreviatus (McCoy et al. 2007). When a grove is infested with D. abbreviatus, additional management practices are required. 15

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Management of the Diaprepes root weevil Throughout the last few decades several strategies have been implemented for the control of D. abbreviatus A synopsis of the main tactics proposed for management for D. abbreviatus in citrus is shown in figure 1. The fi rst step in any management program of D. abbreviatus is to Figure 1-1. General scheme of the main strategies proposed for management of D. abbreviatus in citrus. establish a sampling method to detect infested areas and to monitor groves with established populations. Detection of D. abbreviatus has relied mostly on observa tion of the adult stage. Visual monitoring for adults can be effective wh en a grove is inspecte d on a regular basis by looking for the irregular notches on leaves resulting from adu lt feeding, especially in new flushes. If leaf notching is observed, it is neces sary to capture the adults in order to obtain a positive identification. A capture method used by growers and researchers is the beat method, which takes advantage of the behavior of the adult weevils that, when disturbed, fall to the ground and pretend to be dead. The adult weevil s can be captured by placing an open umbrella 16

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or a cloth between the tree and th e ground and then beating the tree. Nigg et al. (2001) studied the distribution and movement of marked adult Diaprepes weevils in a citrus grove using the beat method, Tedders traps and Malaise traps. Th e conclusion of this study was that the beat method is much more accurate in determining adult population levels than either of the traps, and that the Tedders traps, which are widely used for monitoring other weevil species, were inefficient for estimating abundance indices but could be used to si gnal when weevils first appear in the trees during a season (Nigg et al. 2001). In another study, McCoy et al. (2003) assessed the seasonal life stage abundance of D. abbreviatus in irrigated and non-irrigated citrus plantings. They used modified Tedders traps to monitor adults, time-limited visual inspections to the accessible part of the tree canopy to m onitor eggs, modified pitfall traps to monitor neonate drop, and removed trees to monitor larvae and pupa e present in the soil. In contrast to the findings by Nigg et al. (2001), this study reported that Tedd ers traps were efficient to measure changes in adult weevil abundance within a season. Furthermore, they reported a close association of adult trap counts, egg mass counts and neonate c ounts, and therefore proposed that adult captures in modified Tedders traps prov ided a reliable indicator for estimating the abundance of other life stages (i.e. eggs). Intere stingly, Pea et al. (2007) recently reported that D. abbreviatus prefers to oviposit on the upper stratu m in the canopy of silver buttonwood plants, which suggests that monitoring the most accessible part of the canopy of a host plant might not necessarily give a good predictor of the abundance of eggs in the whole tree, especially at low population densities. The later study proposes sample sizes for monitoring Diaprepes root weevil egg infe stations in silver buttonwood plan ts and conclude that sampling procedures for egg masses will depend on the host plant. Several efforts have been made to design an efficient trap to capture adult weevils that could be used to standardize the monitoring 17

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procedures. Some researchers have looked for volatile aggregating or mating pheromones that could be incorporated as an attr actant to Tedders or other traps (Lapointe et al. 2004). However, no efficient attractants have been identified yet and the commercial use of these traps remains limited. The chemical control proposed for D. abbreviatus has two components: foliar sprays and chemical soil barriers. Foliar sprays target th e peaks of adult emergen ce with the purpose of reducing egg deposition, there by limiting the number of neonate larvae entering the soil (McCoy et al. 2007). The products recommended for foliar sprays are often mixed with petroleum oil to improve their residual effect and to affect th e bonding characteristics of the secretions that females use to bond eggs to leaves (McCoy et al. 2007). Recommended pesticides for foliar sprays include: carbamates (Sevin XLR, 80S & 4F), organophosphates (Orthene 97, Imidan 70WP), minerals (Kryocide 96WP), pyrethroids (Danitol 2,4EC) and ins ect growth regulators (Micromite 80WGS) (McCoy et al. 2007). Chemical soil barriers are used to prevent the neonate larvae from burrowing into the soil and reaching the root system. Two pyrethroids (Brigade WSB and Capture 2EC) are recommended as chemical soil barriers that are more effective when applied two weeks after the peak of adult emergence (McCoy et al. 2007). In addition, the presence of Diaprepes in a grove induces the ap plication of soil fungicides to control infections of secondary pathogens (i.e. Phytophthora spp.) (McCoy et al. 2007). The cultural practices proposed to mana ge a grove that is infested with Diaprepes are designed mostly to reinforce the host plants ability to overcome larval damage. Using Phytophthora -resistant rootstocks as we ll as keeping optimal soil drainage are proposed for reducing infections in the root system and lim iting tree decline (McCoy et al. 2007). Another recommended practice is to apply additional fe rtilizers to promote new root growth after 18

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Diaprepes larvae have inflicted damage to the roots. A control measure that could be considered a cultural practice is the use of ka olin-based particle films. The particle films act as feeding and oviposition deterrents while havi ng a beneficial effect on carbon a ssimilation, leaf temperature, tree growth, and yield of fruit trees in semiarid and subhumid environments (Glenn et al. 2001, Lapointe et al. 2006). Additional actions have been taken by the regulatory agencies. Locations with known Diaprepes infestations have been subject of quarantine programs to prevent the spread of the weevil (CDFA 2006), but these actions have negativ ely impacted the market of many agricultural commodities in Florida. The other major component of the management programs of D. abbreviatus is biological control. Several efforts have been made to identify natural sources of mortality of Diaprepes in Florida and some Caribbean islands. Ther e are reports of several predators of Diaprepes adults. These range from Bufo marins (Dexter 1932), to stink bugs (Mead 1976) and spiders (Anonymous 2005). No adult parasitoids of Diaprepes have ever been reported (Pea unpublished). Several parasitoids (eg., Micronotus spp., Cenosoma spp., Oestrophasia spp.) have been collected from other sp ecies of citrus weevils, such as Artipus (Bullock 1984, Kovarik and Reitz 2005) in Florida and from Pachnaeus in Cuba (Hernandez and Perez 1981, Grillo and Alvarez 1984). Therefore, the incognita still exists of the existence of an adult parasitoid of the Diaprepes root weevil. Various predators, entomogenous nematodes, entomopathogenic microorganisms and egg parasitoids have been found affecting Diaprepes eggs and/or larvae. In 1982, Whitcomb et al. identified and evaluate d several predators of D. abbreviatus first instar larvae present at the High Acres Orange Grove, Forest City, Florida. Ni ne species of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the dominant predators responsible for rem oving an average of 47% of the neonate larvae 19

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crawling on the soil surface during the evaluation pe riods (intervals of 20 minutes). In addition, a few predation events by one spider species ( Corythalia canosa Walckenaer) and earwig juveniles (Labidura sp.) were reported. The nine ant sp ecies in decreasing order of percent predation included: Pheidole dentate Mayr, Pheidole floridana Emery, Tetramorium simillimun Roger, Paratrechina bourbonica Forel, Pheidole morrisi Forel, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Conomyrma flavopecta (M.R. Smith), Pheidole moerens Wheeler, and Paratrechina vividula (Nylander). The first four species were c onsidered prominent predators because of the consistency of appearance in the testing arenas and thei r high predation rates. P. morrisi and S. invicta occurred rarely but had high ra tes of predation. Similarly, St uart et al. (2003) evaluated neonate predation by ants in thr ee citrus groves of Central Flor ida at Lake Alfred and Alturas (Polk County), and Southport (Osceola County). Eight species of predatory ants removed an average of 11.9% of the neonate larvae craw ling on the soil surface during the evaluation periods. Ant species in decreasing or der of percent predation included: S. invicta, P. moerens, Dorymyrmex reginicula (Trager), Brachymyrmex obscurior Forel, Dorymyrmex bureni (Trager), Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, P. bourbonica and P. morrisi Interestingly, three out the four dominant predatory ant species f ound by Whitcomb et al. (1982) in Forest City were not detected in the later study. Moreover, S. invicta and P. moerens were considered minor predators in Forest City whereas in the later study they were consider major predator species. The results of these two studies suggest that an ts are important predators of D. abbreviatus but also that either the ant fauna among sites is highly variable or that the ant composition is undergoing changes probably caused by the introduction of invasive ant species such as S. invicta (Stuart et al. 2003). An interesting defense mechanism used by Diaprepes neonate larvae against ants was described by Pavis et al. (1992). Observ ations made by these research ers revealed that a common 20

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predatory ant in the island of Guadeloupe, Solenopsis marginata (F.), was repelled by the first instar larva of D. abbreviatus Further studies revealed that first instar larvae of D. abbreviatus secretes an ant-repellent chemical that limit the magnitude of predation by this ant species. Whether Floridas populations of D. abbreviatus secrete ant-repellents or if the repellents affect the ant species present in Florida is unknown. Three species of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were reported as potential predators of Diaprepes eggs and neonate larvae (Stuart et al. 2002). Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Harmonia axyridis Pallas and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant are all generalist predators that consume various citrus pests. Bioassays conducted with these three species demonstrated that Diaprepes eggs and neonate larvae could become part of thei r diet. However, there is no information on the contribution of this species to the biological control of D. abbreviatus under natural conditions. Another predator of Diaprepes neonate larvae is the stripped earwig Labidura riparia (Pallas) (Tryon 1986). This species was the dom inant predator in fields where ants are suppressed by application of pes ticides, showing a high predation rate (up to 20 neonate larvae per minute) during the first three hou rs after the sunset (Tryon 1986). As described in the previous paragraphs, all Floridas inhabitant pr edatory natural enemies are generalists, may largely contri bute to the biological control of D. abbreviatus and some of them could be good candidates to devel op conservation biocontrol programs. Diaprepes also has subterranean natural enemies. Beavers et al. (1983) surveyed several citrus producing areas and found that Diaprepes larvae were naturally attacked by four entomopathogenic fungi including: Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) and Aspergillus ochraceous Wilhelm. Quintela and McCoy (1997) evaluated the pathogenicity of M. anisopilae and B. bassiana, in 21

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combination with sublethal doses of im idacloprid, to first instar larvae of D. abbreviatus. Interestingly, they found that the combination of these two fungi with imidacloprid as contact or oral treatments resulted in a synergistic increas e in both mortality and mycosis of first instar larvae of D. abbreviatus Besides the identification of entomopathogenic fungi, Beavers et al. (1983) found two species of entomogenous nematodes ( Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and Heterorhabditis sp. Poinar) infecting Diaprepes larvae in several citrus producing areas in Fl orida. Further research revealed that nematodes had a large potential for control of Diaprepes in part because they can suppress all larval instars (Schroeder 1987). Shapiro and McCoy (2000) conducted a laboratory comparison of nine species and 17 strains of en tomopathogenic nematodes for virulence toward larvae of D. abbreviatus The nematodes that were evaluated included six strains of H. bacteriophora Poinar, two strains of H. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, two strains of H. marelatus Lui and Berry, a single strain of H. megidis Poinar, Jackson and Klein, one strain of H. zealandica Poinar, one strain of S. riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar and Raulston, three strains of S. feltiae (Filipjev), and one strain of S. glaseri (Steiner). From all the nematodes tested, S. riobrave caused greatest larval morta lity. In contrast to these resu lts, Shapiro et al. (1999) found that H. indica caused equal or greater mortality than S. riobrave Commercial formulation of S. riobrave (Bio Vector) and H. indica (Grubstake 100) are currently applied in citrus groves. S. carpocapsae was commercially available for several years but later studies revealed a low efficacy to control D. abbreviatus larvae in the field (Duncan et al. 1996). The poor efficacy was attributed to the host searching behavior of this nematode, which is that of an ambusher (Shapiro and McCoy 2000). Nematodes that ha ve high-host searching and disp ersal abilities, and that can persist in the soil, are good candidates to be used as bi ological control agents for D. abbreviatus 22

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(Shapiro and McCoy 2000). Unfortunately, most of the species that have been applied commercially against D. abbreviatus have a low persistence in the soil (Duncan and McCoy 1996). For this reason, Shapiro and McCoy (2000) suggested that another nematode, S. glaseri, even with lower levels of virulence than S. riobrave but with higher disp ersal, host finding abilities and good potential of pers istence, could be a more effective long term solution to suppress D. abbreviatus larvae. Even though selecting an appr opriate nematode strain is vital for the successful control of D. abbreviatus larvae, recent studies have revealed that physical properties the soil will influence th e ability of different nematode species to disperse and search for hosts (Jenkins et al. 2007) The effect of other entomopathogenic microorganisms on D. abbreviatus has been evaluated. Weathersbee et al. (2002) reported a reduction in the survival of neonate larvae exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis incorporated into a rearing diet, and through soil applications in po tted citrus plants. Later, in 2003, Hunter and Lapointe reported the infection of D. abbreviatus cell cultures by an iridovirus. However, the use of these microorganisms to control D. abbreviatus has been limited and the extent to which they could contribute to control D. abbreviatus remains unknown. As seen throughout this review, there are vast numbers of chemical, cultural and biological tools for the management of D. abbreviatus. However, despite the wide array of proposed management tactics, no long term sustainabl e solution has been found to reduce the weevil populations to tolerable levels. Without specia list natural enemies and with many host plants available, Diaprepes has continued to spread throughout Florida and ot her states causing more economical and ecological damage. Classical biol ogical control with egg parasitoids is viewed as a possible long term solution to regulate weev il populations (Pea et al. 2001, 2004). For this 23

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reason, and being that this topic is the main framework of my study, a more complete review of biological control of D. abbreviatus with egg parasitoids follows. Classical Biological Control of D. abbreviatus with Egg Parasitoids Several efforts have been made to identify a nd introduce classical biological control agents of D. abbreviatus in an attempt to reduce weevil populations to tolera ble levels. Attempts to introduce egg parasitoids of D. abbreviatus to Florida began in the 1970s, with the introduction of Quadrastichus (Tetrastichus) haitiensis (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (Schauff 1987). This endoparasitoid was found as the most common parasitoid of citrus weevils in Jamaica, and was also present in the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Andros Island and Cuba (Van Whervin 1968, Schauff 1987). Unfort unately, this first attempt to establish Q. haitiensis in Florida failed. Two factors were proposed by Beaver s and Selhime (1975) to explain the failure on the establishment of this parasito id. The first factor is the cold winter temperatures in Florida that will limit the development of this tropical parasitoid. The second explanation was the lack of synchrony between the life cycles of Q. haitiensis and D. abbreviatus in Florida. However, Sutton et al. (1972) proposed th at intensive applications of carbaryl during the time of introduction had contributed to limit the possibilities of establishment of Q. haitiensis In the late 1990s, efforts were re-initiated to introduce hyme nopteran egg parasitoids from the Caribbean islands into Florida (Pea et al. 2001). Throughout 1997, ten Florida citrus groves and one grove located in Puerto Rico were rout inely monitored to study e gg parasitism. No egg parasitism was recorded in Florida, while the pa rasitism in Puerto Rico ranged from 12-68%. The primary parasitoids found in Puerto Rico were Q. haitiensis and Aprostocetus vaquitarum (Wolcott) (Hymenoptera: Eulophida e) (Hall et al. 2001). In 1998, Q. haitiensis was collected 24

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from Diaprepes eggs in Puerto Rico and brought for the second time into Florida. Field releases in citrus groves and ornamental fields were initiated in 2000, resulting in the successful establishment of Q. haitiensis in the southern part of the state (Pea et al. 2004). This parasitoid has become a permanent mortality factor paras itizing 12-55% of Diaprepes eggs in south Florida (Pea et al. 2004, 2006). Before the second introduction of Q. haitiensis another parasitic wasp, Ceratogramma etiennei Delaware (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was introduced to Florida in 1997 and released in 1998 at locations with known infestations of Diaprepes (Pea et al. 2001). Release sites included citrus groves, or namental fields and natural habitats. This gregarious endoparasitoid was discovered in the island of Guadeloupe and wa s regarded as highly specific (Etienne et al. 1990). Amalin et al. (2005) st udied certain aspects of the biology of this parasitoid and suggested that char acteristics of the host plant of D. abbreviatus such as the leaf thickness, leaf pubescence, and plant strata, could have an effect on the parasitism by C. etiennei. This parasitoid was recovered in Florid a one year after its release in lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) and pygmy palms ( Phoenix roebelenii OBrien), but was not recovered in the subsequent years (Pea et al. 2004). The reasons for its disapp earance are unknown (Pea et al. 2004). In 2000, a third egg parasitoid Aprostocetus vaquitarum [= A. gala=Tetrastichus gala (Walker)] (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introdu ced into Florida from the Dominican Republic where it is a primary parasitoid of D. abbreviatus (Jacas et al. 2005). A. vaquitarium deposit their eggs in close contact with those of its host by introducing thei r ovipositor through the sealed leaves (Jacas et al. 2005) After eclosion, larvae of A. vaquitarium feed externally on several eggs of D. abbreviatus to complete their preimaginal de velopment. They pupate within 25

PAGE 26

the sealed leaves and eventually emerge from them. After sc reening under quarantine conditions, adult wasps obtained from laborat ory culture were released from 2000 through 2003 in several Florida counties. A. vaquitarum is now considered to be established in parts of southern Florida where parasitism levels of 70-90% have been achieve d (Pea et al. 2004). As a result of the first three introductions of egg parasitoids into Fl orida, the two eulophid parasitoids ( Q. haitiensis and A. vaquitarum ) have successfully established in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula where they have become an important mortality factor of Diaprepes eggs (Pea et al. 2004, 2006). However, no parasitoids are established in the central portion of the state where the weevil attacks citrus orchards. The in ability of these parasitoids to establish in central Florida has been attributed in part to the parasitoids sensitivity to the ambient temperatures registered in Central Florida. Cast illo et al. (2006) and Ulmer et al. (2006a) found that the lower temperature threshol ds for completing the life cycle of Q. haitiensis and A. vaquitarum are 16C and 15.8 C, respectively. These reports suggest that both parasitoids can fulfill their thermal requirements in south Flor ida where the minimum ambient temperatures fluctuate between 15-17C, whereas they can not survive in central Florida where the minimum temperatures fluctuate between 10-13 C. Two new parasitoids, Fidiobia dominica Evans and Pea (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Haeckeliania sperata Pinto (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) have been introduced in an attempt to get them established in central Florida. F. dominica is a highly sp ecific, solitary endoparasitoid of Diaprepes spp., that was collected in th e island of Dominica during 2003. Haeckeliania sperata is a gregarious endoparasitoid of Diaprepes sp., that was collected for the first time in Dominica during 2003. Both parasitoids were recen tly described as new species (Evans and Pea 2005, Pinto 2005) which explains the limited information available on many 26

PAGE 27

aspects of their biology, physiology, and ecology. Jacas et al. (2007) studied the thermal requirements for the two species. Their findings suggest that both parasi toids have a greater thermal plasticity than the parasitoid already esta blished in south Florida, which could increase their chances of establishment in the central portion of the stat e. However, Lapointe et al. (2007) reported that Diaprepes eggs were absent during long periods of time (up to 141 days) during the winter in a citrus grove with known infestation in central Florida. If the lack of Diaprepes egg masses during long periods of the winter is a generalized condition throughout central Florida, the establishment of these parasitoids will be limited (Jacas et al. 2007). However, the observations made by Lapointe et al. (2007) were done exclusivel y in citrus plants and the possibility of finding eggs in other host plants has been overlooked. Moreover, the presence of alternate host eggs could potenti ally allow these parasitoids to reproduce during periods of absence of Diaprepes eggs (Jacas et al. 2007). As mentione d before, other weevil species such as species from the genera Pachnaeus, Artipus and Lachnopus share the same environment and deposit eggs in the same manner as Diaprepes. These parasitoids, if they establish, would provide welcome mortality factors to help reduce populations of the Diaprepes root weevil. In addition to compatibility of these two para sitoids to Floridas climate, other important factors could influence parasitoid fitness in their new environment. An important biotic factor that could influence parasitoid fitness is the host plant species of D. abbreviatus Botrell and Barbosa (1998) reported that many factors of the host plant can affect the colonization, phenology, and effectiveness of natu ral enemies used in biological control. Plants employ many physical and chemical defenses against insect herbivores that are not nece ssarily compatible with natural enemies. Physical defenses may include structural traits such as surface waxes, leaf trichomes, and/or spines whereas chemical defenses are often secondary metabolites that act as 27

PAGE 28

repellents, toxins and/or digestibility reduc ers (Southwood 1986). Plant defense mechanisms may directly or indirectly inhibit natural enem ies. Direct plant effects on parasitoids may involve simple mechanisms, such as reduced para sitoid searching efficiency caused by trichomes (Botrell and Barbosa 1998). Indi rect host plant effects on insect natural enemies are more complex. For example, some insects sequester chemical compounds from their host plant, which renders them unpalatable to natura l enemies, as seen the danaid butterflies that specialize on host plants containing carde nolides (Bowers 1990). The effect of host plants on natural enemies has been studied in several systems. An interesting case is the effect of some alfalfa cultivars on the parasitism of Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) by Anagrus nigriventris Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) (Lovinger et al. 2000). Some alfalfa cultivars with glandular trichomes were released for resistance to E. fabae However, these cultivars had a negative impact on the searching behavior its primary natural enemy, A. nigriventris Their results showed that specific plant characteristics (i.e. glandular trichomes) re duced the effectiveness of A. nigriventris and turned breeding programs toward finding alfalfa cultivars that do not hinder the performance of its primary parasitoid. In another study, Mulatu et al. (2006) found that the pr esence of trichomes in tomato leaves had no effect on the estab lishment of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), but had a direct adverse eff ect on the parasitoid Diadegma pulchripes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). In cont rast, Styrsky et al. (2006) found that the presence of trichomes in soybean plants did not inhibit fire ants ( S. invicta ) from foraging on plants, and that predation of herbivores was gr eater in pubescent plants when compared with glabrous plants. 28

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The effects of host plants have proven to be especially important for relatively small parasitiods. Rabb and Bradley (1968) studied the egg parasitism of Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by two parasitoids, Telenomus sphingis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Trichogramma minutum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogramma tidae), on tobacco and other solanaceous hosts. The tiny parasitoid T. minutum became stuck in the gummy exudates of the trichomes of the tobacco leaves and failed to parasitize eggs. Ho wever, it readily attacked eggs on other substrates. In contrast, T. sphingis, being larger than T. minutum was able to parasitize eggs laid in tobacco and in other substrates (Rabb and Brad ley 1968). There is increasing evidence that plant characters have a strong imp act on the parasitism efficacy of trichogrammatid wasps. This family is characte rized by grouping parasitoids that di ffer distinctly from most other parasitic wasps due to their mi nute size (Pinto and Stouthamer 1994) As a consequence, they are more affected by plant surface structures an d have a low capacity fo r active flights (Romeis et al. 2005). In 1977, Burbu tis et al. reported that Trichogramma nubilale Ertle and Davis is more successful at finding hosts that are located in the middle or lower portions of corn plants than hosts located in the top portion of these plants. In 2006, Olson and Andow observed the walking patterns of T. nubilale on leaves of several plants and artificial surfaces. They concluded that the type and size of trichomes on the different plants affected the walking speed, turning rates and the directi on of the searching path of T. nubilale Similarly, the searching behavior of T. exiguum Pinto and Platner was found to be a ffected by leaf trichome density and morphology of maize and pigweed plants (Kel ler 1987). Further studies using regression analyses found that trichome de nsity on tomato plants accounted for the greatest proportion of the variance in T. exiguum parasitism of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and H. virescens (F.) eggs (Kauffman and Kennedy 1989). The searching success of T. minutum on paper and foliage 29

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models also proved to be affected by structural complexity, plant leaf chemicals, and female age (Lukianchuk and Smith 1997). Romeis et al. (199 8 and 1999) reported that parasitism efficiency of Trichogramma spp. on pigeon pea ( Cajanus Cajan L.) depends mainly on the location of host ( Helicoverpa ormiguera Hbner) eggs within the plant. Furthermore, they found that H. ormiguera preferred to oviposit on ca lyxes and pods where the e fficiency of parasitism by Trichogramma spp. is the lowest due to physical and ch emical plant characte rs that inhibit the searching behavior of these pa rasitoids. All these studies have served to underline the importance of habitat selection on the success of inoculative and a ugmentative biological control programs. Even though most of the evidence on the effects of plant surface structures on trichogrammatid species is restricted to the genus Trichogramma spp. (Romeis et al. 2005), one of the recently introduced parasitoids against D. abbreviatus ( H. sperata) belongs to this family and could present similar interactions with the pl ants of its host. Given the wide range of host plants of D. abbreviatus knowledge of the potential antagonism between the host plants and the parasitoids that were recently introdu ced against it is particularly important. Another major factor that could affect the fitness of the introduced parasitoids is the application of pesticides in citr us and ornamentals. Rational use of pesticides in IPM relies in part on knowledge of the pesticid e effects on beneficial insects a nd the development of strategies to minimize disruptive effects on the natural enem ies. Such strategies include the use of selective compounds and a ltered rates and timing s of pesticide applicati ons. Ulmer et al. (2006b) reported differential susceptibility of A. vaquitarum to pesticides applied in citrus. Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides were the most toxic to A. vaquitarum adults, followed by neonicotinoid, pyrethoid and ka olin clay pesticides. C opper and phosphonate fungicides, petroleum oil, abamectin, diflubenzuron and bifenazate were slightly to non-toxic to A. 30

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vaquitarum Another study tested th e effects of diflubenzuron on C. etiennei and Q. hiatiensis and concluded that this pesticide in terferes with the development of C. etiennei but not on Q. haitiensis (Amalin et al. 2004) However, no information is avai lable on the effects of pesticides on H. sperata and F. dominica the two new egg parasitoids that are being released in citrus and ornamental groves where pesticides are applied. Information on the effect of pesticides on these two parasitoids is essential for integrating biol ogical control into the pest management programs used in citrus and ornamental groves. Objectives of Master of Science Thesis Research The study presented here emphasizes two important factors that will influence the fitness of Haeckeliania sperata as classical biocontrol agent of D. abbreviatus Because Diaprepes is a polyphagous species, the different leaf morphology of the host plant species might influence parasitism by H. sperata Furthermore, incompatibility with pesticide applica tions could hinder the regulatory effects of this natural enemy on D. abbreviatus populations. Optimum control by the parasitoid relies, in part, on knowledge of the in fluence of host plant tra its and the effects that pesticides will have on their potential control. Such knowledge will permit the development of strategies to maximize control in suitable host plants and to mi nimize the disruptive effects of pesticides on natural enemies. The results of this study will provide information to design strategies to maximize the mortality effects of the parasitoids on Diaprepes populations. The specific objectives of this research are to: 1. Determine the effect of host plants on successful parasitism of Haeckeliania sperata on Diaprepes abbreviatus eggs. The effect of six major host plan ts on successful parasitism of H. sperata was assessed. The ability of H. sperata to parasitize Diaprepes eggs laid on leaves of 31

PAGE 32

these host plants was studied. Furthermore, the effect of leaf thickne ss and leaf pubescence of the host plants on successful oviposition was determined. 2. Determine the effect of leaf tricho mes on the searching behavior of Haeckeliania sperata and its parasitism on Diaprepes root weevil. Many failures in fiel d releases and the effectiveness of suppression of various crop pests by trichogrammatid species have been ascribed to the physical characteristic s of the host plant. The degree of control of Diaprepes populations by H. sperata may depend on the interacti on of the parasitoids with the micro-environment created by the plant on the leaf surface. This study assessed the potential antagonism between the presence of trichomes on the l eaves surface of the host plants of D. abbreviatus, and the levels of parasitism by H. sperata. 3. Determine the relative susceptibility of Haeckeliania sperata to pesticides applied in citrus and ornamentals. Pesticides are a critical component of insect pest management in citrus and ornamental production. This st udy assessed the relative susceptibility of H. sperata to leaf surface residues of seven pest icides used in citrus crops and ornamental plant production. This study provides information that will permit th e development of strategies to minimize the disruptive effects of pesticides on H. sperata 32

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CHAPTER 2 EFFECT OF HOST PLANTS ON SUCCESSFUL PARASITISM OF Haeckeliania sperata (HYMENOPTERA: TRIC HOGRAMMATIDAE) ON Diaprepes abbreviatus (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) EGGS Introduction Diaprepes abbreviatus is a highly polyphagous weevil that was unintentionally introduced to Florida in the 1960s (W oodruff 1985). Since then, D. abbreviatus has spread throughout most of Florida where it is a pest of many native plants, fruit crops and ornamental commodities. The key pest status of D. abbreviatus in Florida is due to several factors including its polyphagy and lack of natural enemies. Many of the 260 plants from 60 families that have been reported as hosts of D. abbreviatus (Simpson et al. 1996, Mannion et al 2003) grow in Florida where no native specialist natural enemies are present. Classical biological control of Diaprepes abbreviatus is viewed as one of the components of integrated pest management programs with potential to effectively reduce weevil numbers (Pea et al. 2001, 2004). A promis ing biocontrol agent against D. abbreviatus is Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a gregari ous, egg-endoparasitoid that was collected from the island of Dominica in 2003 (Pea et al. 2006). H. sperata was found as a primary parasitoid parasitizing more than 50% of egg ma sses found in citrus groves and citrus nurseries in Dominica (Pea et al. 2006). Besides being a primary parasitoid of D. abbreviatus in its homeland, H. sperata was collected in areas of high altitude (509 meters above see level) which suggests that it could have more cold hardiness th an other imported parasito ids. If established, H. sperata could become a significant mortality factor against D. abbreviatus Failures in field releases a nd effectiveness of the suppres sion of various crop pests by trichogrammatid species have often been ascribed to intrinsic factors of the parasito id strain (Olson and Andow 2002). However, the importance of extrinsic factors (i .e., the suitability of 33

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the environment) has been increasingly recogniz ed as determinant to the success of biological control programs (Olson and Andow 2003, 2006, Ro meis et al. 1998, 1999). Given the wide host range of Diaprepes a good understanding of th e interactions between H. sperata and the food plant of its hosts could be key to the optimization of biological control programs. Plants employ a battery of physical and chemical defenses against insect herbivores that are not necessarily compatible with parasitism of herbivore pests by natural enemies (Southwood 1986, Styrsky et al. 2006). One of the defense mech anisms that plants use against herbivores is the production of trichomes on the leaf surf ace (Jeffree 1986, Romeis et al. 1998, 1999, 2005). Trichomes are hair-like appendages that extend fr om the epidermis of ab ove-ground plant tissues and play many functions (i.e., physio logical, anchoring, wa ter regulation, etc.) in plants. In some plants, trichomes serve as defense to herbivores ; however, their presence may also affect their parasitoids. There is increasing evidence that th e presence of trichomes has a negative effect on many trichogrammatid species and other minut e hymenoptera (Jeffree 1986, Lukianchuk and Smith 1997, Romeis et al. 1998, 1999, 2005, Styrsky et al. 2006, Stterlin and Van Lenteren 1997, 1998, 2000). Plants with trichomes often impede the move ment of parasitoids, thus weakening the parasitoid response (Price et al. 1980, Stter lin and Van Lenteren 1997, Mulatu et al. 2006). Because of the small size of H. sperata, trichomes and trichome exudates can inhibit the parasitoids movements. As with many othe r trichogrammatids (Schmidt 1994, Romeis et al. 2005), H. sperata searches for weevil eggs by walki ng on the leaf surface (D.C. personal observations). Thus, physical and chemical leaf surface characters can alter parasitoid searching and host encounter rates. Leaf surface characters can also alter the parasitoids walking pattern by changing the distribution of turning angles, reducing their searching speed and ultimately 34

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affecting their host finding ability (Olson and A ndow 2006). Another factor that can affect the ability of H. sperata to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs is the leaf thickne ss of the host plant. H. sperata inserts its ovipositor through the leaf until reaching the weev il egg mass on the other side of the leaf (Pea et al. 2004). This aspect of H. sperata s behavior suggests that the relation between the length of the oviposito r and leaf thickness could be critical to the successful parasitism of D. abbreviatus in certain host plants. In this study we hypothesize th at the reproductive success of H. sperata is affected by the host plant of D. abbreviatus The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) determine the successful parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs on different host plants, (2) determine the effect of leaf trichomes on the searching behavior of H. sperata and (3) determine the relationship between searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism of H. sperata on Diaprepes eggs. Material and Methods Stock Colonies: H. sperata used in each of the experiments described below were collected in Dominica in 2003 and reared for several generations at the Tropical Research and Education Center (TREC) insect ary (L: D: 12:12 h, 26.5 1C, and 75 % RH). Parasitoids were reared on D. abbreviatus eggs from adult weevils that were collected from a pesticide free commercial nursery in Homestead Florida. The weevils were placed randomly in groups of 300 in Plexiglass cages (30x30x30 cm ) and fed on green buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus two weeks prior the beginning of the experiments. Several collections of weevils were made during the course of all the experiments. All the para sitoids used in the experiments were mated, fed, nave with respect to hosts, and we re1-day old at the time of testing. Plant Material : Six host plants with varying tricho me density and leaf thickness were chosen to study the successful parasitism on D. abbreviatus eggs. Among the fruit crops selected 35

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for this study are lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Rutaceae), a much-branched, spiny shrub with elliptic ovate glabrous leaves (Bayley and Bayley, 1976), and Loquat, Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae), a small tree with alternate, short-petioled leav es with a high density of long, unicellular, nonglandular trichomes (Bayley and Bayley, 197 6). Among the ornamental host plants the following were selected: pigmy palm, Phoenix roebelini OBrien (Arecaceae), a sometimes clustered slender palm with pinnate narrow pi nnae with a sparse uni cellular, non-glandular trichomes; button mangrove, Conocarpus erectus L., a native erect shrub or tree, with elliptic to ovate glabrous leaves; and silver button wood, C. erectus var. sericeus Fors ex. DC with silkyhairy leaves (Bayley and Bayley, 1976). The sixth host plant select ed for this study is elephant grass, Pennisetum prupureum Schumach, (Poaceae) an invasive grass with often branched stems and elongate blades with a high dens ity of long, unicellular trichomes. Experiment1. Determining the Successful Parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants. No-Choice tests: Leaves free of any damage were removed from each host plant, leaving a 10 cm petiole, stem or other plant structure to hol d the cutting firmly upright when formed into bouquets with exposed leaves (1500 cm 2 of leaf surface approximately). The bouquets were formed by inserting the stems into wet florist foam covered with aluminum foil, leaving the leaves exposed. The bouquets were placed separa tely into Plexiglass oviposition cages (30 x 30 x30 cm) along with 250 adult weevils (50:50 : ) for 24 hours. After this period, the bouquets were removed from the weevil oviposition cages and the leaf area and number of egg masses were standardized (250 cm 2 of leaf surface and 5 egg masses per bouquet). The control treatment consisted of opened egg masses laid on wax paper that were obtained by hanging doubled strips of wax paper on the sides of a weevil cage during the oviposition period. The 36

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bouquets were then placed individually in sma ller cages (17x10x10 cm) bearing a small drop of honey as a food source for the parasito ids. Twenty 1-d-old adults of H. sperata (1: 1 : ) were introduced into each cage and parasitism was a llowed for 24 hours. After the parasitism period, the bouquets were removed from the cages and checked under a microscope to make sure that no parasitoids were still in the bouquets. Seven days later, para sitized eggs were counted and percent parasitism was determined by dividing the number of parasiti zed eggs by the total number of eggs on each egg mass. At this stag e parasitized eggs are easily recognizable by the presence of 4 to 6 compartments with in a single Diaprepes egg, each holding one H. sperata individual (Ulmer et al. 2006c). Percent parasitism and natural egg mortality were recorded on each host plant and the control treatment. This experiment was replicated seven times, each time with new parasitoids. Statistical analysis: ANOVAs (SAS institute, In c. 1999) were used to detect the effects of host plants on the level of parasitism by H. sperata in the no-choice tests. Egg mass size (number of Diaprepes eggs per egg mass) was included as a covariate to control variation associated with host abundance. Means were comp ared using Tukeys honest significance test (p < 0.05). Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Tric homes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata This experiment was designed to determine the effect of leaf trichom es in two host plants on the walking speed of H. sperata. Only the two biotypes of buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae), were used in this experiment. The searching speed of H. sperata females was measured on leaves kept intact or leaves where the trichomes were removed by two methods. A set of leaves of each buttonwood morph was washed with a 0.1% Triton X-100 solution, a non-phytotoxic detergent that help s removing trichomes and leaf-surface linked chemicals. Trichomes were removed from another set of leaves of the silver morph by shaving 37

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them with a razor blade under a microscope. We included waxed paper as a non-leaf surface without the potential confounding e ffects from chemicals and epicuticular waxes. The mean searching speed on each plant was measured for ten mated, 1 day old and honey-fed H. sperata females. Leaf disks (6.3 cm 2 ) of each surface (abaxial and adax ial) were excised and tightly placed in the bottom of a Petri dish of the same size. Female wasps were individualized in similar Petri dishes 30 min prior to each observa tion. Females were placed on the middle of each surface, the Petri dish was left uncovered which allowed ventilation and the females to leave the surface freely. The walking patterns were m onitored using a video camera (Video Flex 7000 series kena -vision), equipped with a macro lens mounted 5 cm above the plane of the surface. Walking patterns were traced onto acetate sheets attached to a TV screen. The path and location were recorded every 10 s until the wasp left th e surface or after 2 min had passed. The acetate sheets were scanned to convert the walking traces into di gital images. The traces were processed using the image processing and analyzing software Scion Image This procedure allowed us to calculate the total search time (s), the time spent motionless (s), the total distance traveled (mm), the walking speed (mm/s) and the searching speed of each female on each surface (mm/s). Searching speed is the average velocity a H. sperata during a certain observation, considering the total amount of time spent walking or immobile. Walking time refers to it s average velocity only while walking. Searching speed is usually the va riable of interest because it is a quantitative measure of how far a parasito id searches in a given time (Van Hezewijk et al. 2000). Statistical analysis: This experiment was re plicated thirteen times, each time with new parasitoids and leaves. ANOVAs (SAS institute, In c. 1999) were used to detect the effect of trichomes on the total search time, the time sp ent motionless, the total distance traveled, the walking speed and the searching speed of H. sperata females on buttonwood leaves kept intact or 38

PAGE 39

leaves where the trichomes were removed. Means were compared using Tukeys honest significance test (p < 0.05). Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Sp eed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to Parasitism. This experiment was designed to measure the degree to which variati on in searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness explained the variation in parasitism The six host plants used in Experiment 1 were included in this experiment. A population of H. sperata was divided in two such that the proportion of hosts parasitized and the se arching speed on the six plants could be measured simultaneousl y. All experiments including para sitoids were made between 15 pm. Leaves from each plant were collected and divided in three groups. The first group was used to test the proportion of hosts parasitiz ed on each plant biotype, the second group was used to determine the searching speed on each leaf surface and the third to measure the trichome density and leaf thickness of each plant biotype. The proportion of parasitized hosts was determ ined in an experiment similar to the nochoice tests. Bouquets of each host plant beari ng 5 egg masses were introduced in 2-L jars (17x10x10 cm) provisioned with a drop of honey as food source for the parasitoids. Ten 1-d-old females of H. sperata were introduced into each cage. Af ter the parasitism period, the bouquets were removed from the cages and checked under a microscope to make sure that no parasitoids were on the bouquets. Seven days later, parasiti zed eggs were counted and percent parasitism was determined by dividing the number of parasitized eggs by the total number of eggs on each egg mass. Percent parasitism and natural egg mo rtality were recorded on each host plant. Searching speed of H. sperata on the different host plant leaves was measured in the same way as in the previous experiment. This experiment was replicated ten times, each time with new parasitoids and plants. 39

PAGE 40

Trichome density and leaf thickness were m easured on ten expanded leaves on new shoots of the same plant material used in the previous experiments. Two squares (1cm 2 each) from the middle part of the leaves were excised; one squa re was used to determine the leaf thickness and the other one for the trichome density for each le af surface (abaxial and adaxial). Leaf thickness was determined by placing the cutting standing on a piece of clay and measuring its thickness under a microscope. Trichome density was es tablished by counting the total number of trichomes on each surface (abaxial and adaxia l) and making an average of the two values. Because of the high density of trichome s on silver buttonwood leaves, the 1 cm 2 squares were divided in four equal 0.25 cm 2 sections to determine the trichome density only in one of the four small squares. Statistical analysis: Multiple regression (PROG REG) analysis was used to establish the relationship of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness to parasitism (SAS institute, Inc. 1999). Results Experiment1. Determining the Successful Parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus Eggs on Different Host Plants The no-choice test revealed that H. sperata is able to parasitize D. abbreviatus eggs laid on the six host plants. However, H. sperata failed to parasitize egg masses on wax paper (Figure 2.1). Interestingly the three plants with leaves having the higher densities of trichomes had a significantly lower parasitism when compared with the three plants that had either glabrous leaves (lime) or a low density of trichomes (pygmy palm and green buttonwood). Furthermore, 40

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Figure 2-1. Effect of host pl ant on successful parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs by H. sperata. No-Choice tests on six host plants and control treatment (wax paper). Different letters represents significant differences, Tukey (P<0.05). Error bars represent the standard error. percent parasitism was more that ten times greater in the glabrous green morph of C. erectus when compared with the silver biotype that has a high density of trichomes on the leaf surface (Figure 2.1). Experiment 2. Effect of Leaf Tric homes on the Searching Behavior of H. sperata. The overall results of this experiment show th at the presence of trichomes has a significant negative effect in the se arching efficiency of H. sperata. There was no effect of the leaf surface orientation (abaxial and adaxia l) on any of the variables measured (p <0.01). The net displacement of the females was three fold great er on any of the surfaces that had no trichomes than on the pubescent surface (Table 2.1). Wh en the trichomes were removed from the pubescent silver morph, by shaving them or treating the leaf with Triton X-100, the net displacement of H. sperata increased to levels similar to th e glabrous green morph (Table 2.1). 41

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Table 2-1. Effect of leaf trichom es on the searching behavior of H. sperata. N=13. Means followed by different letters within colu mns are significantly different at P<0.01 Leaf Net displacement (mm) Total Time on surface (s) Walking Speed (mm/s) Searching Speed (mm/s) Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Wax Paper 79.02 7.78 a 59.16 5.51 c 7.76 3.87 a 1.92 0.34 a Green Buttonwood 59.02 4.28 b 72.30 4.74 bc 5.68 0.62 b 1.02 0.15 b Silver Buttonwood 17.92 1.24 c 94.23 6.25 a 1.87 0.17 c 0.24 0.04 c Silver Buttonwood Shaved 54.96 3.79 b 61.15 6.10 c 5.09 0.47 b 1.51 0.39 ab Green Buttonwood + Triton X-100 56.02 3.80 b 76.92 5.13 ab 5.51 0.54 b 0.93 0.17 bc Silver Buttonwood +Triton X-100 50.77 3.18 b 82.69 6.16 ab 5.24 0.51 b 0.81 0.13 bc In contrast H. sperata females spent more time on the pubescent surface and less on the smooth leaf surfaces. When the trichomes were shaved from the pubescent morph the total time spent on the surface decreased (Table 2.1). The wa lking speed was significantly higher on all the surfaces with no trichomes when compared with the pubescent surfaces. When the trichomes were removed by any method, the walking speed increased to levels similar to the smooth surfaces. A similar pattern was observed in the se arching speed analysis; however, the searching speed on surfaces treated with Triton was significantly lower, which could suggest a confounding effect of this deterg ent that made the parasitoids stay longer on the surface. Experiment 3. The Relationship of Searching Speed, Trichome Density and Leaf Thickness to Parasitism. The results of this experiment show that s earching speed was a good predictor of the level of parasitism, whereas neither trichome density nor leaf thickness expl ained the variation on 42

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parasitism (Table 2.2). It is likely that the type of tric homes and the exudates associated with them are more important than the number per unit of area. Table 2-2. Relationship of searching speed, trichome de nsity and leaf thickne ss to parasitism. Multiple regression analysis of the effect of searching speed, trichome density and leaf thickness on mean pe rcent of parasitism of H. sperata on D. abbreviatus eggs laid on six host plants. Model Coef. SE a P P b R 2c P P d (overall) Parasitism = Searching Speed 2.82 0.23 <0.001 0.89 <0.01 + Trichome Density 1.2 x 10 -6 3.0 x 10 -6 0.68 + Leaf Thickness 12.59 7.16 0.09 a SE, standard error of the coefficient b P values associated with each parameter, significance of the variable in the predicted response c R 2 proportion of the variance explained by the model d P(overall) is for the test of significance of the model using GLM. Discussion Even though H. sperata can parasitize eggs laid on different host plants, th e parasitoid was affected by variations in the leaf surface structure of the host plants. We tested six host plants with various degrees of pubescence and found that the repr oductive success of H. sperata is much higher in plants with smooth surfaces like green buttonwood or lime than on those with pubescence (silver butto nwood and loquat). Considering that H. sperata was originally collected from citrus groves and nurseries acting as a primar y parasitoid, we could e xpect better chances of control and establishment in citrus plan ts which are one of the major hosts of D. abbreviatus in central and south Florida. Green buttonwood is used for rearing H. sperata, our results reaffirm that this plant is the best known option for rear ing this parasitoid. Besides being available throughout the year in south Flor ida, we always found a high para sitism in this plant when compared with the other host plan ts that were tested. In cont rast, parasitism was lowest on the 43

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silver morph of buttonwood. These results are sim ilar to those obtained by Amalin et al. (2005) working with another tric hogrammatid parasitoid of D. abbreviatus, Ceratogramma etiennei. In a no-choice experiment with four of the same host plants that we used in our experiments, C. etiennei showed a high parasitism of D. abbreviatus eggs on lime, pygmy palm and green buttonwood, and a low parasitism on the pubescen t green buttonwood. Interestingly, Mannion et al. (2003) found that D. abbreviatus, when given a choice, prefers to oviposit on silver buttonwood, where it has better larval survivorsh ip. These results suggest that silver buttonwood, which is a common ornamental plant in south and central Florida, is an important host for D. abbreviatus, because a low parasitism by H. sperata could be expected. The results obtained in this host plant and the other pubescent plants (i.e. elephant gr ass and loquat) suggest that plants that have a high density of trichom es in their leaves ar e not good candidates for releasing H. sperata Our results show that the presence of trichomes in C. erectus has a negative effect on the searching efficiency of H. sperata In theory, faster walking females have a higher chance of finding hosts as they can search a larger su rface area per unit of time (Olson and Andow 2003). In fact, searching speed has been adopted by the IOBC working group on quality control of mass reared organisms as an important criteri on for pre-introductory selection of a suitable strain of Trichogramma spp parasitoids (Limburg and Pak 1991). Searching speed has been used to select strains and/or releasing sites on several trichogrammatid species (i.e. Trichogramma brassicae, T. nubilale, T. exiguum and T. chilonis) ( Keller 1987). However, Van Hezewijk et al. (2000) reported that the level of parasitism in T minutim was positively affected by the host acceptance, but was not related to th e parasite's searching speed. Thus, searching speed cannot always be used to pred ict parasitoid quality or to select plants or sites to release. 44

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Our results, however, suggest that searching speed is a parameter tightly linked to parasitism and that it is feasible to use this parameter to pr edict the suitability of host plants for releasing H. sperata. Diaprepes has many host plants in Flor ida that represent an arra y of leaf structures and types of trichomes that could hi nder the reproduct ive success of H. sperata. The degree of control of Diaprepes populations by H. sperata may depend, among other factors, on the interaction of the parasitoids with the microenvironment created by the plants on the leaves surfaces. As seen in other trichogrammatids (Flanders 1937), it is possible that H. sperata will become more prevalent in certain habitats or on specific plants. Also, parasitism levels of D. abbreviatus can vary widely, depending on the plants on which the eggs are found. In addition, parasitism by H. sperata may also vary with the plant struct ure or region of the plant on which the host eggs are located. Our resu lts suggest that differences in the establishment and levels of control by H. sperata in different habitats with varyi ng plant composition can be expected. We conclude that the reproductive success of H. sperata is dependent on the host plant of D. abbreviatus Plants with simplified leaf surfac es favor the searching efficiency of H. sperata and may allow higher levels of parasitism of D. abbreviatus The presence of some types of leaf trichomes could have a negative effect in the searching efficiency a nd reproductive success of H. sperata. Finally, we propose using searching speed as one of the criteria to select suitable host plant for releasing H. sperata. 45

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CHAPTER 3 RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HAECKELIANIA SPERATA TO PESTICIDES USED IN CITRUS Introduction In order to maximize parasitism of H. sperata on the Diaprepes root weevil, biological control practices must be integrated with other pest management tac tics. Pesticides are a critical component of insect pest management in citrus and ornamental production. Thus, awareness of their effects on H. sperata would be critical information to de sign tactics that could maximize the probability of establishment and control with this parasitoid. Rational use of pesticides in IPM relies in part on knowledge of the pesticide eff ects on beneficial insects. Two studies have addressed the toxicity of pesticides used in citrus to parasitoids of D. abbreviatus. Ulmer et al. (2006b) evaluated the toxicity of pesticides used in citrus to Aprostrocetus vaquitarum Their findings suggested that carbamate and organophos phate pesticides were the most toxic to A. vaquitarum adults, followed by neonicoti noid, pyrethoid and kaolin cl ay pesticides. Copper and phosphonate fungicides, petroleum oil, abamectin, and insect growth regulato rs were slightly to non-toxic to A. vaquitarum In another study, Amalin et al. (2004) tested the effect of an insect growth regulator, diflubenzuron, on Ceratogramma etiennei and Quadrastichus haitiensis Their study concluded that this pesticide interferes with the development of C. etiennei but not on the development of Q. haitiensis. Other examples of studies c onducted on citrus to address the impact of pesticides on parasitoids in Florida, in clude evaluation of the toxi city of pesticides to Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) (V illanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998), a parasitoid of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). These authors used an index of IPM compatibility, classifying the combination of each of these insecticides (azadirachtin, di flubenzuron and fenoxycarb) with oil and oil alone as IPM 46

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compatible insecticides. Application of Neem o il and drenched imidacloprid were classified as semi-compatible insecticides. Abamectin + oil, ethion and imidacloprid applied as a spray were classified as IPMincompatible insecticides. In general, effects of pesticid es on natural enemies could be direct or indirect. Direct effects are those caused by physical direct contact of the natural enemy with the toxin, and could be manifested as a short-term mortality or relatively long-term sublethal effects (Johnson and Tabashnik 1999). Indirect effects are caused wh en the natural enemy acquires the toxin through its host prey (Williams et al. 2003). Haeckeliania adults search for weevil egg masses while walking on the surface of the leaves of their host s plant, where they also mate and rest. In contrast, the immature stages of Haeckeliania develop inside the weevil eggs, which in turn are enclosed between two sealed leaves. These aspects of the biology and behavior of H. sperata suggest that the adults are more likely to get in direct contact with the pesticides whereas the immature stages are more likely to be affected indirectly by pesticides present in Diaprepes eggs. Adults will contact pesticides either directly during an applic ation or by encountering pesticide residues while walking on the surface of the leav es. The fact that pesticide residues remain on the leaves for some time after the application suggests that the likelihood of encountering pesticide residues on the leaf surface should be much greater than the likelihood of getting affected by a direct spray. For this reason, a good starti ng point to determine the relative toxicity of pesticides to H. sperata, is to conduct bioassays to assess the effect of foliar residues of insecticides on acute mortality of H. sperata adults. Evaluation of pesticide eff ects on minute Hymenoptera like H. sperata is complicated by their size and extreme fragility. Several bioassay s have been used for this purpose by assessing pesticide residues on leaves or artificial surf aces enclosed in cages (Villanueva and Hoy 1998, 47

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Hassan and Aldelgader 2001). Howe ver, recent studies have demons trated that the toxicity of some pesticides may vary depending on which surface they are applied (Ternes et al. 2001). Considering that H. sperata walks on the foliage to search for hosts and mates, it is more appropriate to evaluate the effects of pest icides residues on leaf tissues which should approximate natural conditions in the field. W illiams and Price (2004), developed a bioassay for assessment of contact residues of insecticides on Trichogramma pretiosum and Anaphes iole Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Their methodol ogy is especially appealing because it permits the leaf disks to stay fresh for a l onger period of time, provides food (honey) for the parasitoids, allows ventilation, re quires little manipulation of the parasitoids, and it is relatively easy to set up. After making pr eliminary tests of some of the proposed methodologies, and recognizing that no single bioassay method will provi de definite and complete information to assess the effects of pesticides on insects, the methodology proposed by Williams and Price (2004) was chosen to assess th e effect of pesticides on H. sperata. Some studies have demonstrated that deposit ion of pesticide residue s on the leaf surface under field conditions is variable. Ebert et al. (1999a) reported that the uniformity of the deposition of the active ingredients on the target area depends largely on the volume of water in the pesticide solution and the application equipmen t that is used. In general, changing the application volume not only affects coverage of the application but also changes the concentration of active ingredient deposited per unit of area (Ebert et al. 1999a). In addition, there is evidence showing that different applic ation equipment applies different amounts of active ingredient to different port ions of the plants (Ebert et al. 1999b). As a consequence pest insect and natural enemies are often exposed to a range of pesticide concen trations that include the label concentration but also sub-label rates. Some studies have underlined the importance of 48

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studying the effect of different pesticide rate s on natural enemies (Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998, Delpuech et al.1999). Some pesticides ha ve shown significant variation ineffects on natural enemies at different doses Moreover, some pesticides are registered for controlling different pests in a single crop but with di fferent rates depending on the target pest. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative susceptibility of adult H. sperata to some pesticides used in citrus and ornamental plant production. Materials and Methods Stock Colonies: H. sperata used in each of the experiments described below were collected in Dominica in 2003 and reared in the Tropical Research and Education Center (TREC) insectary (12 hour photoperiod, 26.5 1C, and 75 % RH) for several generations. Parasitoids were reared on D. abbreviatus eggs from adult weevils that were collected from a pesticide free commercial nursery in Homestead Florida. All the parasitoids used in the experiments were mated, fed, nave with respect to hosts and less than 1-day old. Bioassay: Williams and Price (2004) bioassay methodology developed for minute hymenoptera was used in this study. The purpose of the bioassays was to expose parasitoids to 24h old pesticide residues on leaf surfaces to determine their effects on the longevity of H. sperata Four concentrations of seven pesticides were included in the bioassa ys. Leaves from a pesticide-free lime grove were collected and leaf disks (2.3 cm diam.) were excised with a cork borer. The leaf disks were dipped for 20 min in th e different concentrations of the pesticides and in water for the control, and left to dry for 24 hours. The concentrations were chosen based on label rates. The concentration of each pesticide tested consisted of a dilution series where the 49

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starting and more concentrated solution was the recommended label rate for field applications, assuming a standard volume of wa ter of 100 gallons/acre. The pest icides tested (including trade name, class, active ingredient, ap plication rate, label concentration, and bioa ssay concentrations) are listed in Table 3.1 The bioassay chambers consisted of one piece of transparent PVC tube (2.54cm ID x 3.5 cm long) with organdy covered ventilation holes, two vial scintillation caps (kimble glass inc. cat. no. 74521-22400) each containing 3ml of agar and a treated leaf disk ( each pair treated with the same concentration and placed on top of th e agar), a piece of dialysis membrane, and a feeding tube. The chambers were assembled by slid ing one cap into each e nd of the tube so that the edge of leaf disk was aligned with the edge of the ventilation holes. The upper surface of the leaf disk formed the floor and the under surface of the leaf disk formed the ceiling of the chamber. A strip of dialysis membrane was used to seal the chambers. A piece of borosilicate glass capillary (5 cm long x 1.5 mm diam.) that was previously flamed was used to make a small hole in one of the ventilation holes. Through th is hole 10 parasitoids (presumed mated and 1: 1 : ) were introduced to each chamber using an as pirator constructed with a capillary of the same type used for making the holes. The hole was then covered with a feeding tube, one tip (1.5 cm long) from a Finntip 5-300 l pipette tip was filled with honey-water solution (1:1) as a food source for the parasitoid. Once assembled, the chambers were placed in a room maintained at 26.5 1C, 12:12 L:D, and 75 % RH. Mortality was scored under a stereoscope every three hours after the parasitoids were exposed to the pesticide residues on the leaf disc s. Mortality was defined by immobility and a complete lack of movement by mouthparts, wing s and legs. Five rep licates per insecticide concentration were evaluated. 50

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Table 3-1. List of pesticides tested on H. sperata, including trade name, cl ass, active ingredient, application rate, label concentra tion, and bioassay concentrations. Trade Name Class / Active Ingredient Manufacturer application rates Label concentration a Bioassay concentrations b Sevin XLR Carbamate/ Carbaryl (44.1%) Bayer CropScience 1.5 qt/acre 3.7 ml/L (ml/L) 3.7, 1.8, 0.9, 0.4, 0 Lorsban 4E Organophosphate / Chlorpyrifos (44.9%) Micro Flo Company 2-7 pt/acre 8.72.5 ml/L (ml/L) 5.0, 2.5, 1.2, 0.6, 0 Provado 1.6F Neonicotinoid/ Imidacloprid (22%) Bayer CropScience 10-20 fl.oz/acre 1.50.7 ml/L (ml/L) 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0 Danitol 2.4 EC Pyrethroid/ Fenpropathrin (30.9%) Valent USA Corporation 16-21.3 fl.oz/acre 1.61.2 ml/L (ml/L) 1.5, 0.7, 0.3, 0.1, 0 Alliete WDG Phosphonate/ Aluminium tris (80%) Bayer CropScience 5.0 lb/acre 5.9 gr/L (gr/L) 6.0, 3.0, 1.5, 0.7, 0 AgriMek 0.15 EC Glycoside/ Abamectin (2%) Syngenta 10-20 fl.oz/acre 1.50.7 ml/L (ml/L) 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0 Citrus Soluble Oil Petroleum oil (99.3%) FC 435 Platte Chemical Company 5 qt/acre 12.5 ml/L (ml/L) 12.5, 6.2, 3.1, 1.5, 0 a Solutions were calculated using a standard volume of water of 100 gallons/acre. b bioassay concentrations are a d ilution series using formulated pesticides at label rates as the primary solution and a standard volume. Data Analysis: Lethal time 50 (LT50) and le thal time 90 (LT90) were estimated for each insecticide concentration usi ng the SAS-PROBIT procedure (SAS Institute, 1999). Significant differences between lethal times were indi cated when the 95% fiducial limits of one concentration did not overlap wi th the fiducial limits of the other concentrations. Lethal concentrations LC50 s and LC90 s were calculated 12, 24 and 48, hours after parasitoids were exposed to the pesticides using the SAS-PROBIT procedure (SAS institute, Inc. 1999). Abbotts transformation (Abbott 1925) was used to correct for control mortality. Results Carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticid es used in the bioassays were highly toxic to H. sperata. Contact with any of the pesticid es from these groups at any of the 51

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concentrations resulted in death of all Haeckeliania wasps within a few hours of being exposed (Figure 3.1). LT50 s of H. sperata exposed to residues of these pesticides ranged from 2.4-8.1 h (Sevin ), 2.4 2.8 h (Lorsban ) and 1.13.43 h (Danitol ) (Table 3.2). In some cases, the analyses did not produce lethal concentration values or fiducial limits. This was probably caused by the high mortality registered in the first evaluations; 42%, 82% and 61% of the total number of wasps were dead three hours after being exposed to Sevin Lorsban and Danitol respectively. No differences in the LT50 s of the four tested concen trations were observed for Lorsban and Danitol suggesting that the lower concentrat ions (dilutions) are as toxic as the high concentrations (label rate concentrations). In contra st, lower concentrations of Sevin had a significantly lower toxic effect on H. sperata than the higher concentrations (Figure 3.1). The lethal concentrations (LC 50 s ) were out of the range of tested concentrations. Considering that all the tested concentrations of these insec ticides produced a rapid and high mortality on H. sperata, the LC s of these pesticides will necessarily be lower than the ones used in these bioassays. The minimum concentrations used in the bioassays were one eight of the label recommended concentrations which suggest that these insecticides are incompatible with H. sperata Contact with Agrimek and Provado also caused a high mortality of H. sperata but it occurred later that on those exposed to Sevin Danitol and Lorsban LT50 s for wasps exposed to Agrimek and Provado ranged from 9.42 to 25.37 hours and 7.66 to 29.03 hours, respectively. In both cases an effect of the concentration on the time of death was observed. The two lower concentrations (0.125 and 0.25 ml/L) had a significantly longer LT50 s than the two higher concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 ml/L) (Table 3.2). 52

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Table 3-2. Lethal Ti me (50 and 90) of H. sperata exposed to of 4 concentrations of selected pesticides. Pesticide Concentration LT 50 (h) LT 50 FL (h) LT 90 (h) LT 90 FL (h) 2 Slope 0 gr/L 184.6 a 154.0 234.7 978.6 a 660.8 1665 15.35 1.76 0.75gr/L 39.7 b 38.7 40.7 62.1 b 60.2 64.2 19.1 6.6 1.5gr/L 33.0 c 30.71 35.48 58.5 b 52.4 68.1 71.25 5.15 3gr/L 30.9 cd 28.333.7 58.8 b 51.5 71.1 88.63 4.59 Alliete WDG 6gr/L 21.6 d 17.0 26.7 57.8 b 43.1 100.5 198.4 3 0 ml/L 184.6 a 154.1234.7 978.7 a 660.8 1665 15.35 1.76 0.12 ml/L 29.0 b 25.2 32.8 104.1 b 86.0 134.8 147.4 2.31 0.25 ml/L 26.5 b 22.8 30.1 99.0 b 81.6 128.8 135.9 2.24 0.50 ml/L 13.8 c 11.8 15.8 65.0 c 56.2 77.7 54.67 1.9 Provado 1.6F 1.00 ml/L 7.6 d 6.4 8.8 52.8 c 46.67 61.18 26.76 1.52 0 gr/L 184.6a 154.1234.7 978.7 a 660.8 1665 15.35 1.76 0.12 ml/L 25.3 b 22.128.6 77.6 b 66.3 95.2 157.1 2.64 0.25 ml/L 20.5 b 17.8 23.2 74.6 b 63.7 91.2 92.57 2.29 0.50 ml/L 15.2 c 14.116.4 55.0 c 51.1 59.9 17.58 2.29 AgriMek 0.15 EC 1.00 ml/L 9.4 d 8.5 10.2 30.7 d 28.2 -33.6 13.57 2.5 0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81 1.56 ml/L 26.4 b 24.4 28.4 162.8 b 141.7 191.7 34.06 1.62 3.12 ml/L 20.5 c 18.122.9 136.2 b 114.2 169.5 47.36 1.55 6.25 ml/L 13.4 d 10.5 16.3 62.2 c 51.5 79.4 146.8 1.92 Citrus Soluble Oil 12.5 ml/L 12.1 d 10.1 14.1 50.5 c 44.1 59.2 85.27 2.07 0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81 0.45 ml/L 8.1 b 6.3 9.7 23.3 b 18.2 34.7 19.13 2.79 0.94 ml/L 4.8 b 3.1 6.4 13.6 bc 10.4 21.2 29.48 2.88 1.87 ml/L 3.8 bc 2.6 4.9 12.3 c 10.0 16.3 12.88 2.54 Sevin XLR 3.75 ml/L 2.4 c 1.7 2.9 7.9 d 6.9 9.2 2.56 2.48 0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81 0.63 ml/L 2.8 b 3.3 b 22.06 1.25 ml/L 2.7 b 3.1 b 20.93 2.50 ml/L 2.7 b 3.1 b 20.93 Lorsban 4E 5.00 ml/L 2.4 b 2.8 b 18.38 0 ml/L 179.3 a 150.6 226.1 908.1 a 621.5 1515 15.99 1.81 0.19 ml/L 3.4 b 2.9 3.9 8.3 b 7.4 9.6 4.26 3.34 0.38 ml/L 2.7 b 2.3 3.1 5.2 c 4.6 6.0 2.33 4.63 0.75 ml/L 2.6 b 2.14 2.96 5.1 c 4.5 5.9 1.97 4.37 Danitol 2.4 EC 1.50 ml/L 1.1 3.7 2.91 2.51 *LT50 s or LT90 s followed by an asterisk are not significan tly different because of fiducial limits overlap. Accordingly, LT90 s for wasps exposed to the lower c oncentrations were significantly longer than those exposed to higher concentrations (Table 3.2). In both cases the LC50 s 53

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calculated 12 hours after exposure to the insecticides were les than the labelled field rates (Tables 3.1 and 3.3). Results of th e bioassays suggest th at these two pesticid es are less toxic to H. sperata than the Sevin Lorsban and Danitol An effect of the concentration on the mortality of H. sperata was observed, suggesting that a reducti on in the insecticide concentration favors the longevity of H. sperata (Figure 3.1). Table 3-3. Lethal Concentrations (50 and 90) at 12, 24 and 48 hours after Haeckeliania sperata adults were exposed to leaf disks treated with seven pesticides at four different concentrations. Pesticide Time after exposure to insecticide LC 50 ml/L LC 50 Fiducial limits ml/L LC 90 ml/L LC 90 Fiducial limits ml/L 2 Slope 12 19.92 11.27 77.24 111.59 38.50 1543 1.3 1.7 24 9.34 6.46 18.17 73.18 31.68 371.66 1.8 1.4 Alliete WDG 48 0.26 0.07 0.47 3.01 2.19 5.24 4.3 1.2 12 0.64 0.48 1.02 10.62 4.20 74.84 0.5 1.0 24 0.28 0.20 0.36 3.56 1.92 11.68 2.0 1.1 Provado 1.6F 48 0.17 0.12 0.21 1.21 0.86 2.12 3.0 1.5 12 0.81 0.56 1.68 22.27 6.34 487 2.6 0.8 24 0.18 0.07 0.28 1.77 1.14 3.90 4.4 1.3 AgriMek 0.15 EC 48 0.12 0.07 0.15 0.82 0.61 1.35 1.3 1.5 12 11.86 6.73 87.29 2091 179.65 22090 0.6 0.5 24 4.78 3.17 7.56 231.56 66.90 10572 0.1 0.7 Citrus Soluble Oil 48 0.8 0.30 1.29 9.62 6.70 19.04 4.5 1.1 12 0.21 1.55 5.6 1.5 24 0.36 0.42 0 18.3 Sevin XLR 48 12 0 24 Lorsban 4E 48 12 0.14 0.17 17.6 24 0 Danitol 2.4 EC 48 0 54

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Figure 3-1. Percent mortality of H. sperata 24 hours after exposure to four different concentrations of pesticide residues on lime leaves. The concentrations for each pesticide consisted of a dilution series using the label rate for field applications as t he starting concentration. The petroleum oil alone showed re sults similar to those of Provado and Agrimek (Figure 3.1). LT50 s for wasps exposed to petroleum oil ranged from 12.16 to 26.42 hours. The two lower concentrations (1.56 and 3.12 ml/L) had a significantly longer LT50 s than the two higher concentrations (6.25 and 12.5 ml/L) (Table 3.2). LT90 s of wasps exposed to leaf residues of petroleum oil at the two lower concentrations were larger than those of any of the other tested pesticides (Table 3.2). LC50 s at 12, 24 and 48 hours after exposure to petroleum oil were equal to or lower than the label rates which suggest that contact with fresh residu es of petroleum oil at label concentrations will cause the death of half of the Haeckeliania wasps in less than 12 hours. 55

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The only fungicide evaluated in this study, Aliette WDG, was the pesticide that showed the lowest effect on H. sperata. LT50 s for wasps exposed to Aliette ranged from 21.67 to 39.74 hours, being significantly longer at the lowest co ncentration that was tested (0.75 gr/L) (Table 3.2). However, LT90 s of wasps exposed to Aliette were very similar to the other pesticides such as Provado and Agrimek but lower than that of petroleum o il. This was the only pesticide for which the LC 50 and LC 90s at 12 and 24 hours afte r exposure were significantly higher than the label concentrations (Tables 3.1 and 3.3). Ho wever, LC50 and LC90 48 hours after exposure to the pesticide were lower than th e label concentration. These resu lts suggest that contact with fresh residues of Aliette at label concentrations will cause the death of half Haeckeliania wasps in less than 48 hours. An effect of the concentration of Aliette on the mortality of H. sperata was observed, suggesting that a re duction in the fungicide concen tration favors the longevity of H. sperata (Figure 3.1). These resu lts suggest that Aliette has a lower acute toxicity than the other tested pesticides (Figure 3.1) However, the long-term effects seem to be relatively similar to the other pesticides used in the bioassays. Discussion In our bioassays, the organophospate, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticides showed a rapid and strong toxic effect on H. sperata. Moreover, no reduction in mortality was caused by the dilutions of the pesticide solution, which were up to eight times lower than the recommended label rates. This suggests that these three insecticides have a hi gh acute toxicity to H. sperata. These results are similar to those found on A. vaquitarum. Ulmer et al. (2006b) reported that organophospate and carbamate insecticides test ed at label rates were more toxic to A. vaquitarum adults than other insecticides. However, H. sperata was affected similarly by carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethoid pesticides, whereas pyrethroid insecticides were less toxic to A. vaquitarum than the organophosphate or carbamate pestic ides. These three pe sticides interfere 56

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with the transmission of nervous impulses in the nervous system of the insect. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (Scharf 2003). This enzyme regulates the sodium channel by removing acety lcholine from its postsynaptic receptor, and ultimately, modulates the initiati on of action potential at precise, exact intervals (Scharf 2003). Inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides results in the prolonged binding of acetylcholine to its receptor, and ultimately, in the insect death from prolonged neuroexitation. Pyrethroids alter the gating kinetics of the sodium channel causing a prolonged flow of Na+ currents into neurons, and ultimately, neuronal dysfunction because of excessive neuroexitation (Scharf 2003). Insecticides that target the nervous system are considered to be broad spectrum pesticides. It is not surprising that neurotoxic insecticides could have a negative effect on natural enemies, as reported in other studi es (Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998, Wakgari and Giliomee 2001, 2003). The carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides that were used in our experiments are registered to control several citrus pests with varying doses depending on the target pest. Sevin XLR is recommended for the control of various citrus pest s at doses ranging from 1.5 3 qt/acre ( 7. 5 ml/L 3.37 ml/L solution assuming a volume of 100 gal/ acre) (Browning et al. 2007, Stansly et al. 2007). For ro ot weevils, the dose is much higher (1-2 gal/ acre 10-20 ml/L) and application is recommended in mixture with petroleum oil (+ 1 gal/ acre 10 ml/L of Petroleum oil) (M cCoy et al. 2007). Lorsban 4EC is registered for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, at a rate of 5 pt/ acre ( 6.25 ml/L) (Rogers and Stansly 2007). Danitol is recommended for control of several pests including: D. citri, flower thrips ( Frankliniella spp.) and orchid thrips ( Chaetanaphothrips spp.) at a rate of 1 pt/acre ( 1.25 ml/L), and for citrus root weevils at a rate of 16-21 fl. oz./ acre ( 1.25-1.63ml/L) (Rogers 57

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and Stansly 2007, Stansly et al. 2007). Results of th is study suggest that app lications with any of these pesticides at any the recommended doses will be extremely toxic to H. sperata. We conclude that these insecticides are non selective to H. sperata. Provado is a formulation of imidacloprid applied as a foliar spray that was also highly toxic to H. sperata. Imidacloprid is another neurotoxic molecule that has translaminar action and causes the insect death because of prolonged ne uroexitation. Foliar residues of imidacloprid were found to be highly toxic to several predatory insects (i.e., Hippodamia convergens and Olla v-nigrun (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae); Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae); Deraeocoris nebulosus (Hemiptera: Miridae); Geocoris punctipes (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)), but less toxic to predatory mites (i.e., Neoseiulus collegae, Phytoseiulus macropilis and Proprioseiopsis mexacanus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) ((Mizell and Sconyers 1992). Williams and Price (2004) reported that residues of imid acloprid on leaves we re highly toxic to Anophes iole Moreover, Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy (1998) reporte d that foliar sprays of imidacloprid were highly toxic to the parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola and only slightly affected its host, the citrus leaf miner, Phyllocnistis citrella However, drenched imidacloprid had a moderate effect on the parasitoid while controlling th e pest. In this study Provado was highly toxic to H. sperata but it allowed the parasitoids to live longer than the carbamate organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Haeckeliania wasps exposed to low concentr ations of imidacloprid lived significantly longer than those expos ed to higher concentrations. Th ese results suggest that even though detrimental Provado had a lower acute toxicity on H. sperata than the previous pesticides. These results agree with those repo rted by Ulmer et al. (2006b) which stated that Admire (the drench version of im idacloprid) is detrimental to A. vaquitarum but it does not act as fast as carbamate and organophosphates. Provado is registered for cont rol of the asian citrus 58

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psyllid, Diaphorina citri and for control of several species of a phids at a rate of 1020 fl. oz/acre ( 0.78 -1.56ml/L) (Browning et al. 2007, Rogers and Stansly 2007). At this rate, Provado had a negative effect on H. sperata. However, within the synthetic inse cticides used in the bioassays, Provado was the one that allowed the wasps to live longer which could suggest that this insecticide is more IPM compatible than the other insecticides. Agrimek had similar effects on H. sperata as those caused by Provado Agrimek is an avermectin that also targets the nervous system, but, in contrast to the former pesticides, it acts at glutamate-gated chloride channels (Scharf 2003). Avermectins agonize glutamate-gated chloride channels causing increased chlori de current flow into neurons, which results in neuronihibition and flaccid paralysis (Scharf 2003). Agrimek was also highly toxic to H. sperata but it allowed the parasitoids to live longer th an the carbamate, organophosphate a nd pyrethroid in secticides. Haeckeliania wasps exposed to low concentrations of this pesticide lived significantly longer than ones exposed to the higher concentrations. Similar to what was observed with Provado this pesticide was detrimental to H. sperata, but showed a lower acute toxicity than the carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insectic ides. These results ar e different to those reported by Ulmer et al. (2006b) on which Agrimek caused a slight increase in mortality of A. vaquitarum without affecting its longevity, but partia lly agree with those reported by VillanuevaJimenez and Hoy (1998), that found that this pesticide was highly toxic to A. citricola and inappropriate for IPM programs. Agrimek is recommended in a mixture with petroleum oil for the control of P. citrella rust mites ( Aculops pelekassi and Phyllocoptruta oleivora ) and broad mites ( Polyphagotarsonemus latus ). However, the recommended rate for controlling the citrus leaf miner (5 fl. oz/ acre of Agrimek 0.39 ml/L + 1 gal/ acre of petroleum oil 10.0 ml/L) and the 59

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mites (10 fl. oz/ acre of Agrimek 0.78 ml/L + 3 gal/ acre of petroleum oil 30.0 ml/L) are different (Childers et al. 2007, R ogers and Stansly 2007). Based on the results obtained with the concentrations used in the bioassays, we c ould expect that app lications of Agrimek with petroleum oil targeting the citrus leaf miner should have less impact on H. sperata than those made targeting mites. Our results su ggest that this product was toxic to H. sperata. However, Agrimek and Provado were less toxic to H. sperata than the carbamate, organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Petroleum oil caused an acute mort ality similar to those of Provado and Agrimek but was the insecticide that allowed the parasitoids to live longer. Observations made during the bioassays suggest that the effect of petroleum oil on H. sperata is mechanical. It appears that the oil sticks progressively to the wasps until it rende rs them immobile. However, this effect was only observed during the first evalua tions. Our results contrast w ith those reported by Ulmer et at. (2006b) and Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy (1998) the former reported that petroleum oil showed no contact toxicity to A. vaquitarum whereas the later considered it an IPM compatible product. One explanation to these co ntrasting results is the fact that H. sperata is much smaller in size than the other parasitoids, and could be more mechanically affected by the petroleum oil. Another explanation could be that our bioassay s did not include treatments aging the leaf residues, which was found to have a large eff ect on the toxicity of the petroleum oils (Villanueva-Jimenez and Hoy 1998) probably because of the short residual effect that has been observed with this product. Moreover, our experi ments did not include the effects of petroleum oil mixed with other insecticides that could be more favorable for H. sperata. Petroleum oil alone is recommended for control of various citrus arthropod pest s at a rate of 5 gal/ acre ( 50.0 ml/L). It is also recommended for control of greasy spot, Mycospharella citri at a rate of 5-10 60

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gal/ acre ( 50.0 100.0 ml/L) (Timmer and Chung 2007). These concentrations are much higher than those used in our bioassays and could have an acute toxic effect on H. sperata. We conclude that this product caused a high acute mortality similar to that caused by Provado and Agrimek but lower than that caused by carbamate, organophosphate and pyretroid insecticides. The fungicide Aliette WDG was the pesticide that showed the lower impact on H. sperata. Ulmer et al. (2006b) found somewhat coin ciding results that showed that Aliette was not toxic to A. vaquitarum Our results suggest that Aliette is toxic to H. sperata but to a lower extent than all the other tested pesticides. Moreover, the wasps that were exposed to lower concentrations of the product ha d a higher survival rate than t hose exposed to the label rate. Aliette is a protectant, curative and systemic fungicide recommended for the control of Phytophthora spp. foot rot and brown rot of fruit at a rate of 5 lb/ acre ( 6 gr/L) (Graham and Timmer 2007). At this rate Aliette was toxic to H. sperata, however the parasitoids survived longer at the lower concentrations. We conclude that all the pest icides that were included in our experiments had a negative effect on Haeckelianias survivorship. Based on this study, we could not say th at these products are selective to H. sperata. In other words, we didnt find th at any of the tested pesticides preserves the ability of H. sperata to control D. abbreviatus However, within the registered insecticides, there are some that cause significantly less harm to this parasitoid. Results presented here and those reported by Ulmer et al. (2006b) suggest th at the organophospate, carbamate and pyrethoid pesticid es are not good candidates to pres erve the natural control of D. abbreviatus by any introduced egg parasitoids. Our results showed that Provado Agrimek Petroleum oil and Aliette allowed H. sperata to live longer than the previous pesticides, which suggests a certain degree of selectivity of thes e pesticides. Moreover, our results show that 61

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Haeckeliania adults exposed to lower concentrations than the recommended rates of Provado Agrimek Petroleum oil and Aliette have more chances of surviving than those exposed to the label concentrations. It is unclear if those parasitoids that can live for a certain period of time after being exposed to a pesticid e remain reproductively active a nd continue parasitizing hosts. There is evidence that the behavior and physiology of beneficial arthopods could be affected by the exposure of sublethal doses of some pesticid es (Desneux et al. 2007). For example, exposure of T. brassicae to sublethal doses of deltamethrin, a pyrethroid, modified its sex pheromonal communication which reduced mating and therefore the fitness of this biological control agent (Delpuech et al. 1999). This kind of pest icide effects could also be present in H. sperata. We propose the use of products that have less toxic effects on the in troduced parasitoid. This will increase the chances of H. sperata to control of D. abbreviatus and might reduce the application frequency of pesticides targeting the weevil. Within the tested pesticides, some had lower effects on H. sperata but none showed to be clearly selective. However, this study only evaluated a few pesticides amongst the many other products used in citrus and ornamental plant production. In order to have a be tter understanding of the impact of pesticide applications on H. sperata, further study of effects of ot her pesticides and the effects of aged residues on the leaves is recommended. 62

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APPENDIX CHECKLIST OF ENTIMINAE SCHROEDER 1823 (COLEOPTERA CURCULIONIDAE) SPECIES AND KEY TO SOME SPECIES PRESENT IN FLORIDA Entiminae is recognized as a monophyletic s ubfamily of the family Curculionoidae and superfamily Curculionoidea (Marvaldi 1997). The subfamily Entiminae groups the broadnosed weevils that possess a short and stout ro strum not used to prepare oviposition sites (Marvaldi 1997, Anderson 2002). N early all Entiminae have a mandible that bears a deciduous cusp used by newly emerged adults to escape from the pupal cell. The cusp is subsequently lost, leaving a definite scar at the point of attachment on the outer face of the mandible (Fig. 2.B) (Barratt and Kuschel 1996). However not al l Entiminae possess this feature (i.e. Sitona, Thecesternus, and members of the tribe Alophini) and thei r inclusion in the s ubfamily is based in other characters. Entiminae also possess a short tooth or spine in the inner angle at the apex of the hind tibia (Anderson 2002). Th e antennal scape of some speci es also extends to or beyond the anterior margin of the eye, a feature otherwise only found in Dr yophtorinae. Most are flightless, with elytra fused together along the suture and the hind wings are vestigial. This is a large and widely distributed group containing 124 genera in 23 tribes recognized in North America (Anderson 2002). Many species feed on a very broad host range both as adults and larvae. A number of species are considered pests on citrus fruit and ornamental production. The following checklist includes the names of 24 genera and 36 species of weevils that belong to the subfamily Entiminae and that are known to be present in Florida (Anderson 2002, Peck and Thomas 1998, OBrien and Wibmer 1982). The known distribution of the species in Florida is given by a code that represents the counties where it has been reported (Table A.1), followed by a brief comment on the biology and ec onomical importance of some species. The common name, when available is provided. 63

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This checklist was assembled based on the classification used in the book American Beetles (Anderson 2002) and complemented with th e checklists of Beetles of Florida (Peck and Thomas 1998) and Weevils of North America (O Brien and Wibmer 1982). The distribution information was taken mainly from the checklist of the beetles of Fl orida (Peck and Thomas 1998) and complemented with othe r sources (Bloem et al. 2002). List of the Entiminae occurring in Florida Agraphus Say 1831 A. bellicus (Say 1831) 1 ,, 2 3 ; ESC, LEV, OKA, SLU, TAY, VOL; Adults are associated with sandy soils along the Atlantic coast and in ce ntral Florida. Paragraphus Blatchley 1916 P. setosus Blatchley 1916 1,2, 4 ; LEE, OKE, OSC; Endemic. Cyrtepistomus Marshal 1913 C. castaneus (Roelofs 1873) 1,3 ; ALA, ESC, HIL, LEO; Asiatic oak Weevil; Adventive, native from Japan. Myllocerus Schoenherr 1823 M. undatus Marshall 1916 2,4 ; BRO, DAD, ORA, PAL, PIN, SAR; Adventive, native from Sri Lanka. Pest of many orname ntal and native trees and shrubs. Neoptochus Horn 1876 N. adspersus (Boheman 1834) 1,2,4 ; ALA, CIT, COLL, COLU, DAD, FRA, JAC, HIG, LEO, LEV, MAN, MON, ORA, PUT, SAR, WAK; Found in pinelands. 1 OBrien, C.W., and G.J. Wibmer. 1982. Annotated checklist of th e weevils (Curculionidae sensu lato ) of North America, Central America, and the West Indies (Coleoptera: Curc ulionidae). Mem. Am. Entomol. Inst. 34: 29-49. 2 Peck, S. B., and M.C. Thomas. 1998. A Distribut ional Checklist of the Beetles of Florida. http://www.fscadpi.org/Coleoptera/Mike/curculio.htm 3 Bloem, S., R.F. Mizell, and C.W. OBrien. 2002. Old Traps for new weev ils: New records for Curculionids (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Brentids (Coleoptera: Brentidae) and Anthribids (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) fro m Jefferson Co., Florida. Fla. Entomol. 85: 632-644. 4 Anderson, R.S. 2002. Curculionidae, pp. 722-815. In R.H. Ar nett Jr., M. Thomas, P.E. Skelley, and J.H. Frank (eds.), American Beetles: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curc ulionoidea,vol. 2. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 64

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Eudiagogus Schoenherr 1840 E. marye Warner 1979 2 ; BRE, BRO, DAD, DES, DUV, LEO, LIB, MAN, POL, SAR, SJO, WAK, WAS; Adults f eed on foliage of species of Sesamia (Fabaceae);larvae feed on nitrogen-fixing root nodules in the soil. E. pulcher Fahraeus 1840 2 ; ALA, DAD, IND, OKE, SEM, SLU. E. rosenschoeldi Fahraeus 1840 1,2 ; ALA, CIT, CLA, DUV, HIG, HIL, LAK, NAS, OKA, TAY, WAK. Brachystylus Schoenherr 1845 B. acutus Say 1824 2 ; JEF. Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823 D. abbreviatus (Linnaeus 1758) 1,4 ; DAD, BRO, PAL, COLL, LEE, HIG, IND, SLU, POL, MAN, HIL, ORA, SEM, LAK, VOL, GL A, HEN, MARI, SUM, DES, PAS, OSC, MAR; Diaprepes root weevil; Adventive, native from the lesser Antilles. Highly polyphagous species, considered pest of citrus and various orna mental plants. Adults feed and oviposit on the foliage of the plant; the ne onate larvae fall and borough into the soil to feed on the roots of the plants (Woodruff 1985, Ma nnion et al. 2003). Epiacaerus Schoenherr 1834 E. formidolosus Boheman 1842 1,4 ; ALA, DAD, DES, HAM, HAR, HER, HIG, JAC, LAK, LEO, LEV, MAN, MARI, ORA, PAS, PI N, POL, SAR, TAY, VOL; Adults feed on foliage. Lachnopus Schoenherr 1840 L. floridanus Horn 1876 2,4 ; DAD, MON; Native and polyphagous species. L. argus (Rieche 1840) 2,4 ; MON; Adventive. Doubtfully established in Florida. L. hispidus (Gyllenhal 1834) 2,4 ; DAD Adventive. Doubtfully established in Florida. Artipus Sahlberg 1823 A. floridanus Horn 1876 1,4 ; DAD, BRE, BRO, GLA, HEN, IND, LAK, MART, MON, ORA, PAL, SLU, VOL; Minor pest of Citrus plants. Artrichonotus Buchanan 1939 A. taeniatulus (Berg1881) 1,2,4 ; OKA; Adults feed on foliage of various plants, but most frequently Fabaceae. Naupactus Dejean 1821 N. godmanni (Crotch 1867) 4 ; ALA, BAK, DAD, DES, ESC, GAD, HAR, HER, HIG, HIL, HOL, IND, JAC, JEF, LAK, LE O, MAN, MARI, MART, MON, OKA, OKE, ORA, OSC, PAS, POL, SAR, SEM, SLU, SRO, SUW, UNI, VOL, WAL; Adventive, native from South America. Adults are consid ered pests and feed on foliage of various plants. N. minor (Buchanan 1942) 2,4 ; ESC, SRO. 65

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N. peregrinus (Buchanan 1939) 2,4 ; ALA, CAL, COLU, GAD, GUL, JAC, JEF, LEO, LIB, OKA, SRO, WAL, WAS. N. leucoloma (Boheman 1840) 2,4 ; ALA, ESC, HOL, JAC, LEO, OKA, SRO, WAL. Otiorhynchus Germar 1822 O. ovatus (Linnaeus1758) 1,2,4 ; Strawberry root weevil. Adventive, possibly not established in Florida. The Adults and la rvae feed on a variety of plants and are considered serious pests. Adults are flightless. Aphrastus Say 1831 A. griseus Blatchley 1916 1,2 ; LIB; Adults feed on foliage of various plants. A. taeniatus Say 1831 1,2 ; GAD, LEO. Sitona Germar 1817 S. californicus (Fahraeus 1840) 1,2,4 ; JEF; Adventive. Adults feed on the foliage of the plant and the larvae on the roots of the plants. S. lineellus (Bonsdorff 1785) 1,2 ; DAD; Sweetclover weevil; Immigrant, Pest. S. hispidulus (Fabricius 1776) 1,2,4 ; LEO; Clover root curculio; Adventive, native from Europe. Pachnaeus Schoenherr 1826 P. litus (Germar 1824) 1,2,4 ; Southern Florida; Native, Pest in citrus industry. P. opalus (Oliver 1807) 1,2,4 ; Northern Florida; Native, Pest in citrus industry. Pandeleteius Schoenherr 1834 P. hilaris (Herbst 1797) 1,2 ; ALA, CAL, COLU, DAD, DES, DIX, FRA, HIG, HIL, HOL, LEO, LEV, MAN, MARI, ORA, PIN, PUT, SAR, SRO, WAK; Adults feed on Fagaceae and other plants. P. nodifer Champion 1911; BRO, DAD; Adults are found in various ornamental plants. Scalaventer Howden 1970 S. subtropicus (Fall 1907) 1,2,4 ; DAD, MON, adults have been collected on Bumelia celastrina (Sapotaceae). Tanymecus Germar 1817 T. lacaena Herbst 1797 1,2,4 ; ALA, BAK, BAY, BRE, BRO, CIT, DES, HEN, HIG, HIL, IND, LEE, LEO, MAN, MON, NAS, ORA, OAS PAL, PIN, POL, PUT, SAR, SEM, SLU, VOL; Adults have been collected on Sesuvium. portulacastrum (L.) (Aizoaceae) in southern Florida. T. confusus Say 1831 1,2 ; FLA, LEO. Cercopeus Schoenherr 1842 C. komarecki O'Brien 1977 1,2,4 ; LEO; Adults are flightless and found in leaf litter. Pseudocneorhinus Roelofs 1873 66

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P. bifasciatus Roelofs 1880 2,4 ; WAS; Twobanded Japanese Weevil; Adventive, native from Japan. The adults and larvae feed on various plants. Trachyphloeosoma Wollaston 1869 T. advena Zimmerman 1956 1,4 ; LEO; Adventive, native from Japan. Table A-1. Codes for Florida Counties. Code County Code County Code County ALA Alachua HAM Hamilton OKE Okeechobee BAK Baker HAR Hardee ORA Orange BAY Bay HEN Hendry OSC Osceola BRA Bradford HER Hernando PAL Palm Beach BRE Brevard HIG Highlands PAS Pasco BRO Broward HIL Hillsborough PIN Pinellas CAL Calhoun HOL Holmes POL Polk CHA Charlotte IND Indian River PUT Putnam CIT Citrus JAC Jackson SAR Sarasota CLA Clay JEF Jefferson SEM Seminole COLL Collier LAF Lafayette SJO St. Johns COLU Columbia LAK Lake SLU St. Lucie DAD Dade LEE Lee SRO Santa Rosa DES De Soto LEO Leon SUM Sumter DIX Dixie LEV Levy SUW Suwannee DUV Duval LIB Liberty TAY Taylor ESC Escambia MAD Madison UNI Union FLA Flagler MAN Manatee VOL Volusia FRA Franklin MARI Marion WAK Wakulla GAD Gadsden MART Martin WAL Walton GIL Gilchrist MON Monroe WAS Washington GLA Glades NAS Nassau GUL Gulf OKA Okaloosa Literature based Key to some Entiminae Species of Florida This literature based key to some Entiminae species found in Florida was assembled based on the classification used in the book Ameri can Beetles (Anderson 2002) and complemented with the checklists of Beetles of Florida (Peck and Thomas 1998) and Weevils of North America (OBrien and Wibmer 1982). 67

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1. Mandibles large, hemispherical externall y, inner surface slightly cupped; surface of mandible densely squamate except narrow me dian edge glabrous; mandible without deciduous process; bucal cavity large, maxillary palpus fully or mostly exposed, scrobes lateral; rostrum similar to head in length and width; anterior edge of prothorax straight laterally, not lobbed beneath the eye...... Sitona Mandibles various; if large a nd densely squamate, then with postocular lobe (Fig. 1-A) and/or with scrobe dorsal and/ or deciduous process (Fig. 3-B)...............2 2(1). Side of prothorax with anterior margin produced into slight to very la rge rounded postocular lobe (Fig. 1-A) ; eye tear drop shaped.....................3 Side of prothorax with anterior margin straight; eyes various.6 3(2). Mandible with four or more large setae; ventral edge of postocular lobe very abrupt; elytra with humeral angle slanted from stria 7 outwards; scutellum very wide; prothorax and elytra patterned with lines a nd other markings; body length 4.1-8.0 mm. Ediagogus Mandible with three large setae, femur with a toot h on inner edge distally........4 4(3). Elytra with humerus rounde d; Pterygium closed apically ; eye small, flattened, with approximately 20 facets along longest axis; pr othorax 1.4x longer dorsally than ventrally; body length 3.0-4.0 mm. Neoptochus adspersus Elytra with humeral angle ... 5(4). Femora with very large tooth bearing two smaller teeth on distal edge (Fig. 1-B); scape reaching anterior third of prothorax; base of elytron forming a large lobe between scutellum and interval 5; dorsal elytral seta e minute, color dark brown-black with whitish scales with irregular patter n; body length 6.0-7.0 mm (Fig. 1-C).. Myllocerus undatus Femora with a single small t ooth; dorsal elytral setae long; base of elytra straight; eye large, separated from anterior margin of prothorax by single row of scales; pronotum and disc of elytra with scales ve ry sparse or absent; scales becoming more numerous laterally; body length 4.5-5.8mm...... Cyrtepistomus castaneus Figure A-1. Myllocerus undatus A. Postocular lobe B. Femora tooth C. Adult 68

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6(2). Anterior edge of prothorax laterally with pos tocular vibrissae in a cluster or tuft (Fig. 2A) ....7 Anterior edge of prothorax w ithout postocular vibrissae or if postocular vibrissae present not in cluster or tuft...11 7(6). Eye large, flattened; rostrum thick; front coxae contiguous or a pparently so; body length 5.0-12.0 mm. Eye smaller; front coxae distinctly separa ted by continuous proste rnal integument; body length less than 5.0 mm.....10 8(7). Hind tibia with straight comb of setae on outer edge, comb at least as long as width of tibia at apex; postocular vibr issae set on edge of prothorax ; color dorsally dark, vaguely patterned at most; corbel open; body length 5.5-10.0 mm...... Tanymecus Hind tibia without straight co mb of setae; postocular vibr issae set on a knob or rounded tooth on edge of prothorax; corbel various ; color pastel gray, green; body length 6.412.0mm 9(8). Elytra produced forward at basal center, appearing bisinuate (F ig. 2-B); humeral angle also projecting forward; color usually bright blue green or aqua; found only in southern half Florida (Fig. 2-C)..... Pachnaeus litus Elytra not noticeably produced forward, th e juncture between elytra and pronotum slightly irregular bu t not appearing sinuate; humeral a ngle rounded, not projecting. Color more variable; most often pale gray-gre en, but occasionally bright aqua. Found in northern half of Florida...Pachnaeus opalus Figure A-2. Pachnaeus litus A. Postocular vibrissae B. Base of Elytra C. Adult 10(7). Anterior margin of abdominal ventrite s 3, 4 and 5 without modification; contour and vestiture more or less uniform; mandible w ithout scales; postocular vibrissae various, well developed in most species; front legs di stinctly to greatly larger than middle and hind legs.... Pandeleteius 69

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Anterior margin of abdominal ventrites 3, 4 and 5 deeply, narrow sulcate across width of abdomen; posterior margin of sulcus carinat e, right angled in female, more rounded in male; front legs slightly larg er than middle and hind legs.. Scalaventer subtropicus 11(6). Scrobe dorsal or dorsolatera l, indefinite caudad of antennal insertion; scape in repose not situated in scrobe, usually passing over eye....12 Scrobe lateral, scape in repose situated in scrobe 12(11). Corbel closed; tarsal claws free; humeral angle well developed. Corbel opened or not distinct ly closed; tarsal claws free or connate; humeral angle rounded.14 13(12). Scape very thick, short, no longer than thic kness of rostrum; apex of rostrum with 20-30 long setae; mandible with many long setae di rected to mandibular scar; body length 5.57.5 mm.. Brachystylus acutus Scape longer, extended to or beyond eye; eye slightly en croaching on dorsum; anterior margin of prothorax with a row of 20 or more very fine long setae of graduated lengths directed toward the edge of the eye (Fig.3-A) ; humeri quadrate, prominent; base of elytra very slightly produced; body length 13.5-18.0 mm (Fig. 3-C)......... Diaprepes abbreviatus Figure A-3. Diaprepes abbreviatus A. Postocular setae B. Mandible scar C. Adult 14(12). Funicle with six artic les; tarsal claws free.....15 Funicle with seven article s; tarsal claws various... 15(14). Prothorax lacking median sulcus; surface punc tuate; elytral intervals flat; corbel plate large, glabrous, oval; body length 5.8-6.8 mm.... Agraphus bellicus Prothorax with median longitudinal sulcus; elytral intervals 3, 5 and 7 more prominent; corbel plate intermedia te; body length 6.2 mm....Paragraphus setosus 70

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16(14). Tarsal claws connate.. Tarsal claws free....18 17(16). Eye large, almost touching prothorax; anteri or margin of prothorax with postocular lobe; corbel narrowly closed; elytra very convex, sides greatly rounded ....Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Eye smaller, prothorax without postocular lobe ; corbel narrowly clos ed; rostrum in dorsal view more or less rectangular in outline; entire body and appendages densely scaled; scrobe completely dorsal..Aphrastus 18(16). Antenna with scape with vestiture of fine setae and round flat scales; body size small 2.34.5 mm .. Antenna with scape with vestit ure of fine setae only or w ith at most a few scattered elongate, recumbent scales intermixed; elytra with few sparse or no scales; body size 4.013.0 mm... Otiorhynchus ovatus 19(18). Epistoma large, distinct, occupying approximately half the anterior margin of rostrum, triangular, limited by distinct carina; scrobe dor sal, very short and deep, not reaching eye; front and middle tibiae with single, strong, almost horizontal ap ical tooth; hind tibia with pair of short verti cal apical spines..... Cercopeus komarecki Epistoma very small, indistinct; scrobe lateral, long, passing backward and below the lower angle of eye; all tibiae w ith apical spine or tooth; vest iture of long, suberect, fine hair-like setae; eye with less than 5 facet s across greatest width; elytra rounded, subglobose..Trachyphloeosoma advena 20(11). Eyes partly encroaching on head; epis toma poorly defined; humeri rounded (except Lachnopus southern Florida only).... Eyes lateral; humeri rounded; rostrum with l ongitudinal sulcus or im pressed line reaching from interantennal line to head, continuing or not with fine impressed line reaching beyond eyes(Fig. 4-A)... 21(20). Mesepimeron triangular, anterior margin running straight to a ngle between elytron and peduncle of mesothorax, mesepisternum not touching side margin of elytron; metepisternal suture complete; humeri we ll-developed, quadrate; scales on body sparse, not imbricate, prothorax and elytra lack ing erect scales or setae (Fig. 4-C)... Lachnopus 71

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Figure A-4. Artipus floridanus (A &B) Lachnopus floridanus (C) A .Longitudinal sulcus B. Adult C. Adult Mesepimeron short trapezoidal, anterior marg in running to side margin of elytron, mesepisternum touching elytron on broad contact; metepisternal suture obliterated in basal half; rostrum (excluding mandibles) in dor sal view from anterior margin of eye to apex slightly longer than greatest width in apical region; antenna with short, narrow scales and sparse, long, fine setae; pros ternum lacking two close adjacent tubercles behind front coxae Epiacaerus formidolosus 22(20). Epistoma conspicuous, very wide, occupying most of anterior edge of rostrum; prothorax and elytra with very irregularly shaped, randomly situated large foveae (Fig.4-B) .....Artipus floridanus Epistoma inconspicuous, occupying half or le ss of anterior edge of rostrum; prothorax and elytra with only regular sculpture...23 23(22). Scutellum glabrous, glossy ; antennal funicle w ith article 2 approximately as long as article 1; corbel plate narrow ... Artrichonotus taeniatulus Scutellum squamate; antennal funicle with ar ticle 2 approximately 1.5 to 2.0x longer than article 1; corbel plate absent or present Naupactus 72

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Daniel Carrillo was born in Pereira, Colomb ia. Daniel got his bachelors degree in agronomic engineering in the Universidad Nacion al de Colombia in the year 2004. During his time as an undergraduate student, Daniel got in terested in the study of insects and their interactions with plants After graduating, Daniel worked wi th farmers promoting the integration of biological control tactics to pest management programs in horticultural systems. In the year 2006, Daniel started a masters prog ram in entomology at the University of Florida. For the past two years Daniel has worked in a biological control project in the Tropical Research and Education Center in Homestead, Florida. 84


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