<%BANNER%>

The More Mischievous the Better

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021796/00001

Material Information

Title: The More Mischievous the Better Octavian and Queer Opera Performance in Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal's Der Rosenkavalier
Physical Description: 1 online resource (52 p.)
Language: english
Creator: D'Ettore, Peter A, Jr
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: gender, german, hofmannsthal, opera, performance, queer, rosenkavalier, sexuality, strauss
English -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: English thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Despite the thriving gay fanbase opera has developed over the years, this art form continues to cater to conservative ideologies and traditions--especially concerning matters of gender and sexuality. As discussed in studies such as Catherine Clement's 1979 Opera, or the Undoing of Women, opera has built its enduring popularity on traditional, heterosexual narratives that conclude with the dramatic demise of their heroines. In this thesis, I argue that composer Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal subvert these established notions of gender and sexuality in the opera Der Rosenkavalier through the character of the young Count Octavian Rofrano. Utilizing the operatic practice of casting a female singer as a male character (commonly known as a trouser role), Strauss and Hofmannsthal prevent Octavian from inhabiting a strictly masculine or feminine, heterosexual or homosexual identity. This unique, non-heteronormative characterization endows Octavian with a fluid, non-static gendering that helps to destabilize gender binarity. After offering an historical analysis of the trouser role, paying especial attention to the figure of the castrato and the pageboy archetype, I contend that Strauss and Hofmannsthal--through cues in the opera's libretto, musical score, and staging--endeavor to mold a character that refuses the boundaries of male or female, heterosexual or homosexual labeling. By permitting Octavian to exist within this 'queer,' nongendered space, Strauss and Hofmannsthal force viewers of Der Rosenkavalier to reassess traditional gender and sexual roles--both when the opera was premiered in 1911 as well as today. Thus, my thesis offers an analysis that not only situates the opera in the context of the early twentieth century but also outlines the opera's commentary on gender and sexual roles that are still valuable for contemporary culture, particularly discussions of queer theory.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Peter A D'Ettore.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Mennel, Barbara.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021796:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021796/00001

Material Information

Title: The More Mischievous the Better Octavian and Queer Opera Performance in Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal's Der Rosenkavalier
Physical Description: 1 online resource (52 p.)
Language: english
Creator: D'Ettore, Peter A, Jr
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: gender, german, hofmannsthal, opera, performance, queer, rosenkavalier, sexuality, strauss
English -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: English thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Despite the thriving gay fanbase opera has developed over the years, this art form continues to cater to conservative ideologies and traditions--especially concerning matters of gender and sexuality. As discussed in studies such as Catherine Clement's 1979 Opera, or the Undoing of Women, opera has built its enduring popularity on traditional, heterosexual narratives that conclude with the dramatic demise of their heroines. In this thesis, I argue that composer Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal subvert these established notions of gender and sexuality in the opera Der Rosenkavalier through the character of the young Count Octavian Rofrano. Utilizing the operatic practice of casting a female singer as a male character (commonly known as a trouser role), Strauss and Hofmannsthal prevent Octavian from inhabiting a strictly masculine or feminine, heterosexual or homosexual identity. This unique, non-heteronormative characterization endows Octavian with a fluid, non-static gendering that helps to destabilize gender binarity. After offering an historical analysis of the trouser role, paying especial attention to the figure of the castrato and the pageboy archetype, I contend that Strauss and Hofmannsthal--through cues in the opera's libretto, musical score, and staging--endeavor to mold a character that refuses the boundaries of male or female, heterosexual or homosexual labeling. By permitting Octavian to exist within this 'queer,' nongendered space, Strauss and Hofmannsthal force viewers of Der Rosenkavalier to reassess traditional gender and sexual roles--both when the opera was premiered in 1911 as well as today. Thus, my thesis offers an analysis that not only situates the opera in the context of the early twentieth century but also outlines the opera's commentary on gender and sexual roles that are still valuable for contemporary culture, particularly discussions of queer theory.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Peter A D'Ettore.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Mennel, Barbara.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021796:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





THE MORE MISCHIEVOUS THE BETTER:
OCTAVIAN AND QUEER OPERA PERFORMANCE
IN RICHARD STRAUSS AND HUGO VON HOFMANNSTHAL' S DER ROSENKAVALIER




















By

PETER D'ETTORE


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007





























2007 Peter D'Ettore



































For my Mother, to whom each of my accomplishments are dedicated, whether or not I remember
to say so.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Barbara Mennel for her generous support and

guidance in a project that refused to be defined by any one academic discipline. Her

intradepartmental studies proved to be an invaluable resource for an equally intradepartmental

thesis. I would also like to thank Dr. Anthony Offerle, whose unique knowledge of opera and

constant enthusiasm aided in refining and strengthening my musical scholarship. I must also

offer my thanks to Dr. Maureen Turim, whose patience and kindness during the early stages of

this project were absolutely vital in helping it to become the thesis that it is now. Lastly, I cannot

forget the limitless love and encouragement of my parents, Peter and Marie D'Ettore, to whom I

owe more than I could possibly hope to enumerate here.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ..... ..... ................. .6

A B S T R A C T ........... ................... .................. .......................... ................ 7

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE.............................13

T he R ise and F all of the C astrato ................................................................ ..................... 13
The Trouser R ole and the Pageboy ........................................... ........ ..... ............... .15
Octavian, the Knight of the Silver Rose .................................................... .................. 17

TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE.................................22

MUSICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE............................... 30

VISUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE.................. ............38

Silver Roses, Swords, and the Gendered Props ofDer Rosenkavalier ................................38
Alfred Roller, Erte, and the Costuming of Octavian ...................... ........................ ....40
Fassbaender, Kirchschlager, and the Filmed Performances of Der Rosenkavalier ...............44

P O S T L U D E ...............................................................................................................4 8

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S .............................................................................. ...........................50

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................................................. .....................52









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

III-1 D er R osenkavalier; A ct I ......................................................................... ....................32

III-2 D er R osenkavalier; A ct II.......................................................... ..................................34

III-3 D er Rosenkavalier; A ct III .................................. ........................... ............... 36

IV-1 Octavian Rofrano: Drittes Kostim, Erster Aufzug .................................................41

IV-2 Octavian Rofrano: Viertes Kostim, Zweiter Aufzug ....................... ........................... 41

IV-3 Octavian Rofrano Genannt Quinquin: Erstes Kostim, Erster Aufzug ...........................42

IV -4 O ctavian at the end of A ct I ......................................... .. ........................... ...................43

IV-5 Octavian's runners ................................... .. ........... .. ............43









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

THE MORE MISCHIEVOUS THE BETTER:
OCTAVIAN AND QUEER OPERA PERFORMANCE
IN RICHARD STRAUSS AND HUGO VON HOFMANNSTHAL' S DER ROSENKAVALIER

By

Peter D'Ettore

December 2007

Chair: Barbara Mennel
Major: English

Despite the thriving gay fanbase opera has developed over the years, this art form

continues to cater to conservative ideologies and traditions-especially concerning matters of

gender and sexuality. As discussed in studies such as Catherine Clement's 1979 Opera, or the

Undoing of Women, opera has built its enduring popularity on traditional, heterosexual narratives

that conclude with the dramatic demise of their heroines. In this thesis, I argue that composer

Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal subvert these established notions of

gender and sexuality in the opera Der Rosenkavalier through the character of the young Count

Octavian Rofrano. Utilizing the operatic practice of casting a female singer as a male character

(commonly known as a trouser role), Strauss and Hofmannsthal prevent Octavian from

inhabiting a strictly masculine or feminine, heterosexual or homosexual identity. This unique,

non-heteronormative characterization endows Octavian with a fluid, non-static gendering that

helps to destabilize gender binarity.

After offering an historical analysis of the trouser role, paying especial attention to the

figure of the castrato and the pageboy archetype, I contend that Strauss and Hofmannsthal-

through cues in the opera's libretto, musical score, and staging-endeavor to mold a character









that refuses the boundaries of male or female, heterosexual or homosexual labeling. By

permitting Octavian to exist within this "queer," nongendered space, Strauss and Hofmannsthal

force viewers ofDer Rosenkavalier to reassess traditional gender and sexual roles-both when

the opera was premiered in 1911 as well as today. Thus, my thesis offers an analysis that not

only situates the opera in the context of the early twentieth century but also outlines the opera's

commentary on gender and sexual roles that are still valuable for contemporary culture,

particularly discussions of queer theory.









PRELUDE

Nowadays, opera is gay. Twenty-first century audiences tend to associate the exquisite

excesses of opera with homosexuality. The phrase "opera queen"-usually used to describe a

white, upper middle class, effeminate gay man who frequents the opera-has become a

commonly-recognized entry in the ever-growing gay lexicon, and, with the advent of twentieth-

century technology, the gay interest has spread to the internet in the form of websites and blogs,

such as the self-proclaimed "queer opera zine" Parterre Box (http://www.parterre.com/).

Despite opera's close association with queerness, many opera houses still play to conservative

audiences and ideologies. Even though operatic "divas," epitomized by Maria Callas, have

become synonymous with homosexual sensibilities, the operatic stage still caters to the elaborate

fetishization of female demise; as Catherine Clement famously and poetically remarks in her

groundbreaking 1979 Opera, or the Undoing of Women, "[O]n the opera stage women

perpetually sing their eternal undoing" (5).

It is precisely because of this atmosphere of conservative, even patriarchal, interest in

opera that its queer transgressions become so powerful. In the mid-1990s critics from academic

realms as varied as literature, psychology, and musicology, lead by Wayne Koestenbaum's

seminal text on homosexuality and opera, The Queen's Throat: Opera, Homosexuality, and the

Mystery ofDesire, began to explore opera's undeniably queer leanings. Take, for example, the

opening scene of Richard Strauss' popular opera, Der Rosenkavalier. The curtain rises: it is

morning. As woodwinds alternate the chirpings of a morningbird song, two women sleepily

rouse from their passionate embrace. One of these women is the aging princess known only by

her title, the Marschallin; the other woman, however, is the young Count Octavian Rofrano-a

male character portrayed by a female actor. Dresden audiences witnessed this very operatic









tableau at the premiere of the opera in 1911, and, as if willfully ignorant of the staging of what

appeared to be a blatant sexual transgression, the opera went on to become an instant success

with the public. Overlooking or excusing this elephant in the room, the audience at the

premiere-as well as audiences since-seemed to dismiss this subverted heterosexuality as a

mere operatic sleight of hand. While this practice of women performing the roles that had been

left vacant after the demise of the male-bodied, soprano-voiced castrati stretches back through

historical operatic performance-from Handel and Rossini to Mozart and Bellini-only very

recently has opera and gender scholarship finally begun to unpack the multifarious and often

unquestioned gender-bending of these trouser roles.

Not content simply to use the trouser role in their historic purpose as surrogates for the

obsolete castrati, Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, composer and librettist of the

aforementioned Der Rosenkavalier, utilized this operatic trickery as a means of destabilizing and

reassessing the gender roles of the early twentieth century. As Sam Abel asserts in Opera in the

Flesh: Sexuality in Opera Performance, the "female-to-male cross-dresser ... always poses a

threat. Women dressed as men violate male hegemony by attempting to reject their secondary

social role and to assume male power or, more powerfully, to reject the whole concept of binary

gender division" (151). In this thesis, I would like to refine Abel's discussion of the subversive

quality of drag. Rather than arguing that Octavian is apriori subversive simply because the

character is in actuality a woman in man's clothing (i.e., a woman who has attained male power),

I would like to posit that Octavian's malleable gender prevents the character from identifying

completely as either male or female, placing Octavian at a site of subversive power that fosters a

critique of dyadic, heteronormative gender roles. Indeed, the presence of this central trouser role

in Strauss and Hofmannsthal's Der Rosenkavalier does more than provide audiences with lesbian









titillation or reinforce patriarchal constructions by endowing a woman with masculinity; instead,

the character of Octavian captures an image of a queered gender fluidity that destabilizes notions

of gender binarity, refusing to resolve into either masculinity or femininity, male or female.

Before beginning my close examination of the various texts in Der Rosenkavalier, I must

explicate my reading of the word "queer," which becomes an essential descriptor of Octavian's

manygendered characterizationl-rather than strictly hetero- or homosexual, lesbian or gay-in

this project. My usage of the word "queer" draws from the work of Judith Butler in Bodies That

Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex. In her discussion of this multifaceted and recursive

term, Butler states "that queeringg' might signal an inquiry into (a) theformation of

homosexualities (a historical inquiry which cannot take the stability of the term for granted,

despite the political pressure to do so) and (b) the deformative and misappropriative power that

the term currently enjoys" (229, italics in original). Butler goes on to explain that a possible

function of this word is to "resist the more institutionalized and reformist politics sometimes

signified by 'lesbian and gay'" (228). Thus, Butler offers a definition of "queer" that, like my

argued characterization of Octavian, describes a sexual identification that exists constantly in

flux, defying codifiable gender labels. In terms of this paper, I offer it as an alternative to the

more limiting and often static identities of "gay" and "lesbian" in hopes that it will signify an

even more complex and critical theoretical idea.

So, while Octavian has come to be read as a representative or iconographic lesbian figure

in recent gender and opera criticism (see Brett and Wood 359 and Hadlock 265n. 34), I would


' While I understand the possible limitations and complications inherent in a term that suggests
the existence of "many" genders without defining them, I use the term "manygendered" (as well
as "multigendered") as a linguistic shorthand to symbolize a fluid gender characterization that,
rather than representing a character who simply and statically inhabits both masculinity and
femininity, maneuvers freely on the continuum between these socially-constructed gender roles.









argue that, through composer Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal's use of

libretto, musical score, and staging, Octavian functions as a purposefully queeredd" character

whose successful existence without definable gender reflects the emergence of non-normative

sexualities in the social consciousness of the early twentieth century that are still relevant today.









ACT I
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE

The Rise and Fall of the Castrato

Before embarking on my discussion of the breeches role in Der Rosenkavalier, it is

necessary to provide a brief background of these roles in opera's performance history. Before

women were universally permitted to grace the stage, whether theatrical or operatic, the castrato

sang the high-voiced alto and soprano roles most commonly associated nowadays with women.

Susan J. Leonardi and Rebecca A. Pope, whose study on diva politics and worship discusses the

rise and fall of the castrato at length, trace the practice of castration in The Diva'sMouth: Body,

Voice, Prima Donna Politics:

Castration was, perhaps, the price patriarchy paid to keep women silent and its authority
intact. "As in all congregations of God's people, women should keep silent at the
meeting," St. Paul advised the Corinthians (I Cor. 14.33-34), and his namesake Pope Paul
IV (1555-1559) codified Paul's advice by officially banning women from singing in St.
Peter's. Church choirs depended on boys and adult male falsettists to sing soprano and
alto parts, but as monody gave way to increasingly complicated polyphony, more
powerful voices and mature musicians (especially singers who would not be lost once
their voices changed) were needed for upper-register parts. (25)

In order to fulfill this need for a voice as light as a child's, while also as strong as an adult's, the

custom of castrating young boys to preserve their young, high voices, in what is known as an

orchiectomy, was born. Although practiced by the Roman Catholic Church, the Church itself

publicly shunned the act, and thus, it is uncertain exactly when the practice began; however,

documentation exists of castrati performing as early as 1562 (Leonardi and Pope 25). On the

other hand, the appearance of women on the stage, even outside the Catholic Church, was often

looked upon as an act of gross impropriety. This is not to say that women did not perform

publicly; however, because they were often prohibited from appearing and singing onstage, the

figure of the castrato began to serve as a proxy for the female performer and the staged female

body of the era.









In the 1740s, however, the popularity of castrati began to wane significantly. In The

Diva's Mouth, Pope and Leonardi offer a number of suggestions as to why the castrato began to

disappear from the public eye: an economic boom in the 1730s which eased dependence upon

the cruel and desperate process of castration in order to secure a son's future, "a decline in the

number of religious orders in Italy ... and the dissolution of others with the coming of the

French," and attempts by Napoleonic governments to outlaw castration (42). Most importantly

for this project, however, is the notion that castrati fell out of favor because of a decline in the

florid vocal stylings synonymous with the castrato and a movement towards more realism in

opera performance (42). Under the guise of making opera more realistic, the complex, non-

heteronormative gender roles embodied in the castrato were shunned by opera composers and

librettists. It is only in the early twentieth century, when Strauss and Hofmannsthal introduced

their more fantastical Octavian and Composer pants roles (the latter appearing in Ariadne auf

Naxos) that opera performance truly regained some of the powerful gender complexity present in

the era of the castrato.

Contrary to modern listeners' conceptions of voice and gender, men's heroic operatic

voices before the 1800s were rarely deep and heavy. Instead, the male protagonists in opera

could have high, light voices-voices that are now commonly associated with women and

femininity; however, with the sparse population of castrati available, opera companies were often

forced to seek alternative bodies and voices to reproduce roles that were once the sole domain of

the castrato. While some opera composers transposed their music, dropping the vocal lines to

lower tessituras in order to accommodate male tenors, baritones, and basses (e.g., Gluck rewrote

Orfeo edEuridice so that the once-castrato role of the young poet Orpheus could now be

performed by a male tenor), other opera companies began to substitute the similarly-sounding









female mezzo soprano or contralto in lieu of the castrato. Perhaps most famously, George

Frideric Handel often employed both male castrato and female mezzo sopranos-vocal ranges

that sonically overlap-for the same roles in his operas, simply depending upon the availability

of the artists. Margaret Reynolds describes this blurring of the lines between voice and gender in

her essay, "Ruggiero's Deceptions, Cherubino's Distractions":

In Handel's day there was sexual anarchy on stage. Men (or ex-men) played the parts of
heroes in high voices. Women, dressed up as men, sang heroes in high voices. Men,
dressed up as women, played their consorts with high or low voices. And if you couldn't
hire the singer of the sex required, you settled for the voice and didn't worry. (138)

As apparent in Reynolds' reading of the opera stage during the eighteenth century, opera served

as a site for gender deconstruction where feminine-sounding men stood alongside armor-clad

women. Indeed, Handel wrote operas where high, almost feminine, voices could be either male

or female and could evoke a number of vocal qualities that ran the gamut from heroism and

seduction to virginity and villainy. In his most famous opera, Giulio Cesare, the voice types of

the lead roles-Giulio Cesare, Cleopatra, Sesto, Tolomeo, and Cornelia-all fall into similarly

high-voiced tessituras that could be sung by both male castrati and women regardless of whether

the character was male or female; however, as opera edged further away from the opera seria

realm of the castrati to the class struggles and 'battle of the (heterosexual) sexes' subject matter

of opera buffa, the newly-established trouser role began to signify a new type of sexuality.

The Trouser Role and the Pageboy

After the cessation of the practice of castration, as well as the moral clash of the eerily-

juxtaposed masculine body and feminine voice of the castrato with the sexual mores of the late

eighteenth century, castrati became virtually obsolete outside of the church. The sidelining of

the complicated sexual embodiment of the castrato did not, however, stop composers from

writing music for their voice type; now, these composers began to write specifically for the









trouser role-a female singer (usually mezzo soprano) who performs as a man in men's clothing.

The most famous archetype to emerge from this newfound operatic role was the pageboy. The

quintessential young man on the verge of sexual awakening, the pageboy is a figure caught

between adulthood and childhood, man and not-man, making the androgynous female drag

performance functional as well as aesthetic. While the stock character of the pageboy recurs in

operas such as Verdi's Un ball in maschera and Wagner's Tannhduser, the most prominent and

popular of these characters is certainly Cherubino from Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro. A

secondary character that nevertheless sends Mozart's buffa plot careening into motion,

Cherubino is a sexually-volatile page who falls in love with virtually every female character in

the opera's cast. In her discussion of the pageboy figure of Cherubino in "The Career of

Cherubino, or the Trouser Role Grows Up," Heather Hadlock explains that the

variety of names for the practice [of female-to-male cross-dressing in opera], variously
known as the "trouser role," "breeches part," or "pants part," Hosenrolle or travesti,
testifies both to its international appeal and to the necessity of the singer's having slim,
boyish legs. Equally essential ... is a light and clear voice [and the] page's "talk of love"
is typically translated into melancholy or flirtatious staged songs, directly or indirectly
addressed to an inaccessible beloved, of which Cherubino's "Voi che sapete" remains the
archetype. (68)

Indeed, the figure of the pageboy is part erotic spectacle (the sight of women's legs, even clothed

in men's stockings, was a novelty for the stage at that time) and a true example of form fitting

function-the singer's androgynous voice, much like the voice of a boy experiencing the

hormonal rushes of puberty, is at times lovely and light while at others plummy and deep.

Yet, the character of the pageboy is a limited one. While beloved, the pageboy is often a

minor character in the opera's drama, rarely eclipsing the traditional heterosexual coupling of the

lead soprano and tenor/baritone. Also, despite the pageboy's zealous sexual appetite, the opera

composer and librettist rarely allow this nontraditionally-gendered character to interact sexually









with the objects of his affection other than as comedic (and ultimately ineffectual) playacting.

Indeed, in David J. Levin's discussion of Cherubino in Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart, Verdi,

Wagner, and Zemlinsky, the author notes that, unlike the focal relationships in Le nozze di Figaro

(e.g., Figaro and Susanna, the Count and Countess, and Bartolo and Marcellina), Cherubino and

Barbarina's relationship remains narratively unresolved because their marriage is still

"unscheduled when the opera comes to a close" (78). Levin goes on to claim that this thwarted

resolution is a result of Cherubino's gender confusion: "To the extent that Cherubino embodies

something that would resist being tied down, we might describe that 'something' as the fact or

problem of the figure's peculiar embodiment itself, a kind of erratic traffic in and between

gender" (79). This trope of the fervently sexual, but ultimately sexless, pageboy (what Levin

refers to as Cherubino's libidinall surplus" [78]) continues throughout the nineteenth century

until the emergence of the character of Octavian in Richard Strauss and Hugo von

Hofmannsthal's Der Rosenkavalier in the early twentieth century who manages to transcend the

obstacles of rigid gender and sexual representation that had thwarted the pageboy tradition

before him.

Octavian, the Knight of the Silver Rose

By the close of the nineteenth century, Victorian notions of sexuality had been brought to

the fore of European social consciousness by Richard von Krafft-Ebing's P%~yL /i qu Ithiia sexualis

andfin de sikcle decadence epitomized by writers such as Joris-Karl Huysmans and Oscar

Wilde-not to mention the latter's infamous sodomy trial. Richard Strauss, certainly no stranger

to these cultural developments, had recently completed two operas that explored the darker

realms of sexuality: 1905's Salome, adapted from Wilde's play, and 1909's Elektra, Strauss' first

collaboration with Hugo von Hofmannsthal. While Strauss experimented with modernist

orchestration in these two pieces, employing chromaticism, dissonance, and atonality to reflect









the tension of this new and troubling sexuality (Plaut 265), the composer returned to more

traditional composition and themes for what would become his most successful and popular

composition, Der Rosenkavalier. Despite what was then viewed as Strauss' musical and

ideological retreat into safer settings and melodic structures, the composer, as well as his

librettist, Hofmannsthal, endowed the work with an even more complex and avant-garde

treatment of gender and sexuality.

Before fully exploring the complicated gender depictions of Octavian in Der

Rosenkavalier, a brief synopsis of the opera is in order. Der Rosenkavalier narrates the story of

the young Count Octavian and his illicit affair with the Marschallin. As mentioned earlier, when

the opera begins, the lovers are in bed together; however, the Marschallin's cousin, the boorish

Baron Ochs, calls on the princess to request a young nobleman to perform the ceremonial

Presentation of the Silver Rose for his fiancee, Sophie. Unable to escape before Ochs' entrance,

Octavian must don the clothes of a chambermaid and soon finds himself dodging the lascivious

advances of the Baron. To appease Ochs, the Marschallin suggests that Octavian bear the silver

rose to Sophie.

In the second act, Octavian arrives at the house of Sophie's father, the nouveau-riche

Faninal, to present his daughter with the silver rose. During the scene, Octavian and Sophie are

entranced by one another's beauty, and, after Sophie repulses Ochs' crass, oversexed

propositions, they pledge their love to one another. Later, while trying to defend Sophie's honor,

Octavian inadvertently wounds the Baron with his sword; however, Ochs is undeterred and still

plans to marry Sophie. At the end of the act, Ochs receives a letter written by the Marchallin's

chambermaid (actually Octavian) requesting a clandestine rendezvous.









In the final act, Ochs brings Mariandl (Octavian dressed as a chambermaid) to an inn

where he plans to bed her. Unbeknownst to the Baron, Octavian has devised an elaborate plot

involving masked men and a woman disguised as the Baron's supposedly-abandoned widow in

order to expose the Baron's infidelities. As the evening progresses and an outraged Faninal and

Sophie eventually arrive at the inn to witness the Baron with the "chambermaid," Ochs can no

longer hold Sophie to her marital obligation. Just as Ochs begins to realize the trick that has

been played on him, the Marschallin arrives, sending the Baron away in shame and, despite her

own love for Octavian, uniting the young lovers at the opera's denouement.

Certainly, whether operagoers chose to ignore or dismiss the non-normative gender

depictions in Strauss' opera, they could no longer passively assume that this operatic genderplay

was a simple smoke-and-mirrors illusion meant to stealthily place a women's voice in the body

of a man. From the moment the curtain rises on Der Rosenkavalier, the opera immediately

confronts its audience with the image of two female actresses in bed together. The homoerotic

sexual tension of this first scene was so dangerous to some that the opera was censored and even

banned shortly after its premiere.2 From the opera's inception to its more recent productions, the

complex tinderbox of sexuality also did not go unnoticed on its performers. As recounted in

Philip Brett and Elizabeth Wood's collaborative essay, "Lesbian and Gay Music," famous opera

singer Mary Garden refused to "create the role of Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier because of its

lesbian implications" (353-54). Similarly, New Zealand soprano Kiri te Kanawa has stated, on

2 In "Ruggiero's Deceptions, Cherubino's Distractions," Margaret Reynolds recounts an example
of the censorship Der Rosenkavalier faced in England:

The first act bed caused trouble in London where the Lord Chamberlain intervened when
Thomas Beecham declared his intention to stage the opera in 1912: either the bed had to
go from the scene or there was to be no reference to it in the text sung by the performers.
Beecham decided that the former was preferable, so the Marschallin and Octavian
conducted themselves with upright propriety. (144)









singing the role of the Marschallin, that the first five minutes ofDer Rosenkavalier are "the most

awkward to perform in any opera" (Castle 46), and "[o]nce you get past these first few minutes

when you are in bed with another woman, you can get on with the role" (Castle 56). As these

examples show, the subversiveness of Octavian's characterization is not simply a theoretical

performativity that can only be identified and teased out through academic scholarship; it is an

unsettling representation of non-normativity recognizable to both the performers and viewers of

the opera as well.

What specifically seems to be so frightening to these performers about the sexuality

inherent in the role of Octavian? For one, at the very beginning of the post-coital tableau that

opens the opera, the audience is privy to the fact that Octavian, unlike Cherubino, actually

experiences the sexual consummation all the other pageboys spend so much time longingly

wishing for in song. Or, as succinctly written by Sam Abel in Opera in the Flesh, "Cherubino

fantasizes about sex, but Octavian actually has sex" (159). Thus, the playful sexual threat posed

by the pageboy and his indiscernible gender finally becomes realized in the character of

Octavian.

While Strauss and Hofmannsthal's characterization of Octavian as sexually active

certainly touches upon emerging notions of early-twentieth-century sexual sensibility, I would

argue that Octavian offers audiences even more complexity than that. In concluding her

examination of the Cherubino figure, Heather Hadlock remarks that twentieth-century composers

and librettists

no longer treat female travesty as a problem or a challenge, and [Strauss and
Hofmannsthal's] (excessively) frank staging of the relationship between Octavian and the
Marschallin puts the female lovers in a spotlight, clearly intended to titillate. Their
"Cherubino" no longer undresses behind a screen, and this very shamelessness, this
abandonment of over a century of shadows and veils over the page's body and desire,
leaves less to "read." (92)










While Hadlock's reading of the pageboy trope via the character of Cherubino is insightful

in its investigation of what is often obscured from view, I believe that the author oversimplifies

the characterization of Octavian when she claims that his lesbian visibility (the "female lovers")

automatically de-problematizes his gender travesty, as if the characters in Der Rosenkavalier

become transparently and unproblematically homosexual. Surely, the more sexually suggestive

aspects in the "lesbian" relationship between Octavian and the Marschallin (and later Octavian

and Sophie) cannot be completely swept under the rug, but I would argue that Octavian's

characterization is far too mercurial to be labeled as simply homosexual. By blending together

the seemingly binary genders embodied in the character of Octavian, merging the feminine and

girlish with the masculine and boyish, Strauss and Hofmannsthal not only move Octavian

beyond the limited depiction of the operatic pageboy, but reify emergent non-heteronormative

sexualities that are still surprisingly relevant in contemporary society.









ACT II
TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE

In examining the opera Der Rosenkavalier, Octavian's multifarious gender and sexuality

can been seen in virtually each facet of operatic performance: from the musical to the visual;

however, I would like to begin my examination of the opera with a textual analysis of the

libretto, because it is often this literary aspect of opera that is overlooked in current scholarship.

Indeed, while opera layperson and fanatic alike may often attribute authorship of Der

Rosenkavalier to Richard Strauss solely, the work finds a great deal of its shape and narration

through the libretto of Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Like the famous collaboration between Mozart

and Lorenzo da Ponte, Strauss and Hofmannsthal's professional partnership has been, and still is,

touted as one of opera's greatest composer-librettist pairings (an extra-textual homosocial

relationship linked to Der Rosenkavalier that has not gone unnoticed by opera scholars and queer

theorists alike), and their extensive correspondence helped to shape the convoluted birth of the

opera. Also, in Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Psychiatry, and the Making of Sexual

Identity, Harry Oosterhuis asserts that for Hugo von Hofmannsthal "sexuality was an intriguing

subject that could be deployed to unveil bourgeois society's sense of security as a facade, full of

empty conventions" (260). Thus, I propose that Hofmannsthal, via his textual cues throughout

the opera's libretto, knowingly endows the character of Octavian with a manyheaded and fluid

sexuality. This non-static gendering present in Der Rosenkavalier not only prevents the lesbian-

coded relationships in the opera from being read as merely pornographic, functioning solely to

excite sexually and sensationally, but also presents audiences with an indefinable sexuality that

helps to liberate gender and sexual representations from the male/female, hetero-/homosexual

dyad, both in our current cultural conceptions as well as the microcosmic realm of the operatic

mise-en-scene.









As the opera begins, the viewer is automatically provided with visual clues that suggest

Octavian's sexual otherness. Immediately, the audience is confronted with the image of a

woman in man's clothing; however, even the listener (or reader, if the opera house employs

surtitles) can recognize the unique space that Octavian inhabits through the words of the opera.

This liminal space is often seen when the audience, recognizing the femaleness of the actor

portraying the male character of Octavian, is continuously reminded by the libretto, through

gendered names or pronouns for example, of Octavian's maleness. In order to reinforce the

theatrical illusion of Octavian's male gender within the diegesis of the narrative, Hofmannsthal

saturates the libretto with various references to Octavian's maleness and masculinity. For

instance, the Marschallin constantly refers to Octavian as "mein Bub'," a term of affection

typically translated as "my boy" (61, 64). Even this simple pet name between lovers signifies

with a very specific male gender. Also, on two separate occasions, the Marschallin remarks how

the queerly-gendered Octavian behaves much like other men do. When Octavian reacts

petulantly and possessively to the Marschallin's fear of abandonment in the first act, she pleads,

"No, please, do not be as all men are" ["Nein bitt' sch6n, sei Er nur nicht, wie alle Manner

sind!"] (104). Then, near the end of the last act, the Marschallin relinquishes Octavian to his

new love, Sophie, both chiding his fickle heart and his sex as a whole when she bittersweetly

comments, "You are so like a man-go to her!" ["Er ist ein rechtes Mannsbild, geh' Er hin"]

(196). Not only do these purposeful references to Octavian's maleness and masculine behavior

keep the femaleness of the actor performing the role textually hidden, but the juxtaposition of

these remarks with the actor's true gender also provide for a sly undercurrent of self-referential

humor at the genderplay involved in the opera. Although these purposes may strike the reader as

both expected and even necessary in reinforcing a more conservative masking of Octavian's









queerness, when viewed in conjunction with a number of purposefully non-masculine references,

Hofmannsthal complicates and problematizes Octavian's seemingly "straight"-forward role as a

man in the context of the opera.

While Octavian physically flirts with a more feminine sexuality (most prominently, when

he dresses as the handmaid Mariandl in order to escape Baron Ochs' notice as he's leaving the

Marschallin's room after a night of lovemaking), this more feminine characterization of Octavian

also translates to Hofmannsthal's textual treatment of the character. Probably the most

consistent example of this is Hofmannsthal's use of a thematic sexual sameness in the dialogue

between Octavian and the other two female leads, the Marschallin and Sophie. Beth Hart

explores this mirroring motif between the opera's all-"female" love triangle in "Strauss and

Hofmannsthal's Accidental Heroine: The Psychohistorical Meaning of the Marschallin." In her

examination of the opening scene between Octavian and the Marschallin, Hart rhetorically asks

her reader, "We wonder what need Octavian fulfills in the Marschallin as she mirrors him in

voice and gaze, calling him her boy, her darling boy" (421). As Hart suggests, despite the

difference in their characters' genders, the female actors portraying the Marschallin and Octavian

reflect one another vocally and visually. Even Octavian's effusive tendresse manifests itself in

poetic waxings that begin to blur the boundaries between the Marschallin and Octavian, the

feminine and masculine: "You, you-what does it mean, this 'you'? This 'you' and 'I'? ... but

this 'I' is lost in this 'you'" ["Du, du, du-was heilt das >Du? Was >du und ich? ... aber das

Ich vergeht in dem Du"] (61). Octavian's emphatic lapsing of the two pronouns carries a

significant added weight when considering the similar lapse that occurs between the genders of

both Octavian and the Marschallin: like the actor portraying the Marschallin, the supposedly

male Octavian actually possesses the body of a woman (the actor who plays him). To rearrange









Hart's rhetorical inquiry, perhaps the more fitting question to ask is "What does the Marschallin

fulfill in Octavian," because it is when Octavian conflates his own self and gender with the

Marschallin's that his role moves beyond the simple woman-as-man transvestite performance to

a more complex, ungendered one.

Even Octavian's interaction with Sophie reveals a similar mirroring trend. After Sophie

meets the loutish Baron Ochs, she confides her dissatisfaction to the dashing young Octavian.

When Octavian promises to oppose the marriage arrangement on her behalf, he makes her a

request: "All alone, you must now stand for us both!" ["Nun mu3 Sie ganz allein fiur uns zwei

einstehn!"] (132). The provided translation reinforces the doubleness of the Octavian and Sophie

figures as Octavian not only asks that Sophie "stand" up for both of their honor but also that she

"stand for" (i.e., "represent") both characters. Again, these textual choices made by librettist

Hofmannsthal muddy what initially appears to be a conventionally-masculine characterization of

Octavian.

Still more convincingly, only minutes after their pact, the frightened Sophie insists that

Octavian stand up for her: "No, no! I can't open my mouth. You speak for me!" ["Nein! Nein!

Ich bring' den Mund nicht auf Sprech' Er fiur mich!"] (137). At the textual level, Sophie's

request speaks to the similarity between the gender of the two characters insomuch as the one

can stand in for the other; however, at this moment, Octavian's mercurial gender even transcends

the confines of the libretto, as the audience will recognize that the female actor playing the male

Octavian, when speaking her next lines, actually does speak for Sophie with an almost identical

female voice.

This sexual sameness between Octavian and both the Marschallin and Sophie located

within the libretto can also be seen in the flesh, so to speak, in the ways in which varying artists









have graduated through or swapped the female roles over the course of their careers. Since

Strauss composed all three characters for the soprano voice (although Octavian is most often

performed by a mezzo soprano), many singers have found the transition between these

differently-gendered characters to be surprisingly smooth and natural. Christa Ludwig and

Gwyneth Jones both essayed the role of the Marschallin after successful portrayals of Octavian,

and Swiss soprano Lisa della Casa has the distinction of having performed as each of the three

lead roles at different stages in her operatic career. This fascinating mobility that performers

have found shifting between the roles of the male Octavian and the female Marschallin and

Sophie speaks to the same textual/sexual ambiguity that Hofmannsthal gives to the character of

Octavian throughout his libretto.

Hofmannsthal likewise imbues Der Rosenkavalier's operatic mise-en-scene (especially

during the love scenes) with a whimsical surreality that hints at the queerness at work in the

character of Octavian. In what is perhaps the opera's most famous set piece, the second act's

Presentation of the Rose scene, Octavian bears a silver rose to Sophie in recognition of her

betrothal to Baron Ochs. When staged, this scene is quite often visually resplendent, with a

silver-clad Octavian arriving at his musical cue with a train of similarly clad officers amidst the

filigreed architecture of Faninal's opulent home; however, while the visual markers of the

scene's fantastic qualities are no doubt in plain view, even the opera's libretto iterates the

otherworldliness of this realm where roses smell celestial and a woman playing a man can be

both and neither genders. In The Queen's Throat, Wayne Koestenbaum elaborates upon the

ways in which this scene arrests the flow of time and how that chronological topsy-turvydom

corresponds to the opera's queer sexuality:









The silver rose [...] carr[ies] the charge of an unspeakable and chronology-stopping love
because a connection arose in the late nineteenth century between itmit 11' ig ii th time
and it mle' ii, i i ith gender.
Disturb gender, and you disturb temporality; accept the androgyne, and you
accept the abyss. (218)

Here Koestenbaum asserts that the artificiality and unreality of the ceremony-as well as the

silver rose around which it revolves-opens a site for reassessing concepts of time and gender

which appear equally fantastic. Indeed, Hofmannsthal's libretto reflects this notion that the

Presentation of the Rose ceremony represents something queer and other that has ripped the

fabric of conventional understandings of time, beauty, and gender. When Sophie first smells the

silver rose, she notes that it smells not only like an actual rose but also like "roses of heaven, not

of earth like roses of holy paradise" ["Wie himmelische, nicht irdische, wie Rosen vom

hochheiligen Paradies"] (115). Sophie's recognition (or failed recognition) of what is the fantasy

and what is the reality of the rose parallels the audience's own recognition of the meshing of

fantasy and reality in the performed gender of the character of Octavian. Hofmannsthal's clever

use of the metaphorical silver rose in the libretto (as a symbol of the unreal) thus comments upon

his and Strauss' purposeful decision to cast the character of Octavian as similarly illusory, by

using a female soprano or mezzo soprano to portray the male knight of the rose.

Even the simultaneously spoken words of Octavian and Sophie's duet during this scene

further the idea that the opera has suspended reality, allowing the queer and the other to emerge

in this fantastical staged world disconnected from the more realistic and typical ideas and

traditions of the early twentieth century. Calling to mind Koestenbaum's aforementioned

discussion of temporality and sexuality, Sophie exclaims, "There's Time and Eternity in this

moment of bliss" ["Ist Zeit und Ewigkeit in einem sel'gen Augenblick"] (116), while Octavian

speaks of the tenuousness of his own gender: "I was a boy and did not know her yet. Who am I









then? ... Were I not a man, I should lose my senses" ["Ich war ein Bub' da hab' ich die noch

nicht gekannt. Wer bin denn ich? ... War' ich kein Mann, die Sinne mochten mir vergehn"]

(116). Indeed, even Octavian himself draws attention to his complex gender characterization by

voicing his own confusion about his identity in this surreal and chimerical scene; however,

Hofmannsthal does not intend for this glimpse of an indefinable, non-normative sexuality to

remain encapsulated inside the hermetically-sealed world of the opera. As mentioned earlier, the

sodomy trial of Oscar Wilde (on whose play Strauss had based his 1905 opera Salome) had

occurred less than twenty years before the premiere ofDer Rosenkavalier, and Richard von

Krafft-Ebing wrote his psychiatric study of sexual deviance, Psychopathia sexualis, which

catalogued and medicalized homosexuality in the nineteenth century,3 only ten years prior to

that. Wendy Bashant provides a link between Hofmannsthal's world of opera and the then-

emerging understandings of sexuality in her essay, "Singing in Greek Drag: Gluck, Berlioz,

George Eliot." Bashant explains that the "[u]nbridled, gender-bending women like Salome were

created by men after Krafft-Ebing's theories linking athletes, feminists, and 'opera singers and

actresses who appear in male attire on the stage by preference' were published in 1889. They

were meant to be viewed as monstrous women" (222-23). Certainly Octavian can be included in

this discussion of "gender-bending women"; however, even with his knowledge of these cultural

happenings, Hofmannsthal uses the character of Octavian not as a symbol of fear, mutation, or

disease, but, moving beyond the moral decay of nineteenth century decadence, creates a

character who is complexly-gendered and yet still endowed with a sympathetic humanity.



3 For more on Krafft-Ebing's influence on homosexuality in the nineteenth century, see
Oosterhuis, who makes the claim that sexual perversion was "recognized, confirmed, and
legitimized" through the dialogue between patient and psychiatric community present in Krafft-
Ebing's numerous case studies (212).









In the concluding act, readers can finally begin to envision Octavian's full character arc

as well as the non-normative sexuality with which Hofmannsthal has provided him. When the

Marschallin finally arrives at the inn, subsequently ending the convoluted plot Octavian had

devised to thwart Baron Ochs' plans of marrying Sophie, she informs the police commissioner

that "the whole thing was a charade and nothing more" ["das Ganze war halt eine Farce und

weiter nichts"] (189) and "'Tis a Viennese masquerade nothing more" ["Is eine wienerische

Maskerad' und weiter nichts"] (190). Ostensibly, the Marschallin is referring to the ploy

concocted by Octavian involving numberless characters now dressed as widows, children, and

ghosts, but the pointed use of the words "charade" and "masquerade" echo the notion of fantasy

and alternative sexualities exemplified in the Presentation of the Rose scene. But this leaves the

audience wondering, "Was all of this, then, a hoax? An operatic sleight of hand?"

If so, the return to the triangle of lovers at the opera's denouement and the deservedly

famous final trio seem to silence any suspicion of the opera's continuing insincerity. The

moving, even if melodramatic, display of emotions in the Marschallin's relinquishment of

Octavian and the charming, even if ephemeral, pairing of the young lovers in the final duet

contradict any arguments that may claim that the manygendered Octavian is merely a charade or

inassimilable other. At the end of the opera, whether or not Sophie and Octavian remain together

long after the curtain's close, Hofmannsthal allows this symbol of non-heteronormative sexuality

to exist and to merit affording a happy ending.









ACT III
MUSICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE

While the more literary aspects of Der Rosenkavalier's libretto point to a multigendered

characterization of Octavian, the most recognized feature of opera tends not to be the text but the

music. German composer Richard Strauss gained fame (and notoriety) by writing operas that

explored complex and oftentimes disturbing portrayals of gender and sexuality. As I mentioned

before, Strauss' first triumph as an opera composer came after the premiere of Salome in 1905.

Adapted from Oscar Wilde's dramatic treatment of the biblical story, the opera recounts the

young Salome's obsession and lust after Jokanaan (John the Baptist) and closes with an extended

scene where she sings a fascinating and horrific song of desire to his severed head. Even

Strauss' follow-up opera, 1909's Elektra, focuses on the Greek tragedy where the eponymous

heroine plots the death of her mother, Klytemnastra, who has murdered Elektra's father. Aside

from their psychosexual subject matter, both of these operas were also marked by Strauss' use of

harsh and unnerving dissonance in order to convey the equally unsettling narratives of sexual

deviance (Plaut 268). While the later Der Rosenkavalier has been criticized as a retreat from the

more adventurous compositions in the darker Salome and Elektra, the composer by no means

balks from musically molding yet another character who explores non-normative gender and

sexuality. Indeed, Strauss not only endows Octavian with both masculine and feminine motifs in

his musical signatures but also orchestrally shapes Octavian's scenes in order to draw the

audience's attention to the character's queered presence.

In her landmark text on feminism and opera, Opera, or the Undoing of Women, Catherine

Clement devotes a section to the discussion of Der Rosenkavalier, describing Octavian, in

particular, as "the young count Octavian, [who] is distinctly unruly, scatterbrained enough and

with a good enough start under ladies' skirts to be known tenderly as Quinquin. And Richard









Strauss gives him a disturbing woman's voice" (108). I find that Clement's choice of words in

referring to Octavian as having a "disturbing ... voice" robs the character of its powerful position

of gender reevaluation as a figure which overlaps genders. Clement's comment also seems to

dismiss that this very particular voice allows Octavian to maneuver more fluidly between the

genders represented by the other characters in the opera. For example, in the first act, Strauss

often features horn fanfares to represent Octavian's arrogant and specifically-masculine behavior

when he attempts to overpower the Marschallin's doubts of his fidelity. Indeed, in his article,

"Kitsch, Camp, and Opera: Der Rosenkavalier," Gary Le Tourneau describes the use of brass as

ejaculatoryry' horn calls" (93). While, in this quotation, Le Tourneau assigns a masculine

vocality to the character of Octavian, he continues on to argue that "Octavian is made a member

of both genders by the music" (93, emphasis mine). Certainly, despite Octavian's musical and

verbal ejaculations, he can often revert to a more lyrical and feminine line that mirrors the

musical characterization of his female lover, the Marschallin. In the selection provided in figure

1, as Octavian and the Marschallin intimately coo over one another, their alternating pet names

become repeated musical phrases that produce the effect that the two female voices echo or

answer one another:









51 Marsehllwin,


ct ..n.n Oc ta r -mn!

Mn ne The res'! H1 chet tc!
Ma ife rt rer?:' A cAst s!
mA sso assai


Eanco.
N L


A~ I. L


Quin- quin! o P'p..


S I (l/?to nsprnei&ro


Figure III-I. Der Rosenkavalier; Act I (Source: Strauss 24-5)

This androgynous vocalizing in the first act also resembles the vocal and gender leaps of

Octavian's pageboy predecessor, Cherubino. Naomi Andre explores this notion of Cherubino's

two voices in Voicing Gender: Castrati, Travesti, and the Second Woman in Early-Nineteenth-

Century Italian Opera:

As for Cherubino, the aria ["Non so piu"] illustrates the tug and pull he experiences
between his "two voices."... [I]t is as though he is trying to tame his voice and push it
down to a lower tessitura, yet it keeps popping up to a higher range, almost beyond his
control.... Split between his higher and lower voices, his "I am" encompasses the two
simultaneous aspects of the childlike boy and the budding adult male personalities he
embodies. (109)

Much like this doubled voice that exists inside the character of Cherubino, Octavian experiences

a similar multivocality. With a vocal line that alternates between violent and bombastic as he









imagines challenging the Marschallin's husband to a duel and light and lyrical when he comforts

and woos his older lover, Octavian and his vocal characterization, even in the span of the first

scene, swing wildly from the masculine to the feminine. This multigendered vocal line that

Strauss attributes to Octavian (Strauss himself was no stranger to Mozart, and it is believed that

Octavian's character and name are drawn from the character of Don Ottavio from Don Giovanni

[Abel 159]) reinforces the complex gender construction of the character, allowing Octavian to

transcend the limiting label of a lesbian "sameness" and represent an even more universal,

ungendered figure.

The female ensembles also especially emphasize this tricky destabilizing of gender in

Octavian's character. Like the previous examination of Hofmannsthal's libretto during the

Presentation of the Rose scene and duet, Strauss' orchestration highlights the mystical,

otherworldly quality of this scene which undermines traditional concepts of time and sexuality.

Strauss' prominent usage of celesta, harp, and flute in the descending theme of the duet creates a

shimmering, glossy effect which enhances the un-/surreality of the moment.

To the fore of Strauss' orchestration during this scene, however, are the twin female

voices of Octavian and Sophie. As the duet begins, Octavian sings in a low, almost monotone

voice, even dipping down to a C sharp below the staff to sing the word "Jungfer." While Sophie

begins in a similar monotone, she soon soars up to a B above the staff when extolling the beauty

of the silver rose ("Wie himmelische..."). This marked contrast between the lower-lying

passages of Octavian's more masculine voice and Sophie's high, feminine tones present the

listener with very separately-gendered voices-aural signifiers of Octavian's masculinity versus

Sophie's femininity; however, when Octavian and Sophie begin singing together, the yearning

triplet pattern of their shared musical line becomes almost identical, and the audience finds it










difficult to separate which voice belongs to Octavian and which voice belongs to Sophie. In the

climatic measure especially (beginning at the section labeled 36 in figure 2), the two singers'

melodies synch up perfectly, remaining only a third apart from one another on the musical scale,

emphasizing the transvocality of Octavian who, through the course of the duet, sings as both

male and female:


ae.. C T57 .-36 _

em nem s' gen An ea-bick, denwillKb h ne ver.
a.- tcr -'rWyfts ho y

OPa
gehnl daa itin ma 1e ger Au ge-n-bick, deAanl ie -
an,; Ay to ___ a 0 t&r i ,y, er Sty y





K cre4 b- a .... 7
-a-- 5
IPtA4)


179

ankl b


Got.


Figure III-2. Der Rosenkavalier; Act II (Source: Strauss 175-76)

Thus, through his composition and orchestration in the Presentation of the Rose duet,

Strauss adds an additional dimension to Hofmannsthal's textual description of the scene,









underpinning the break from gender tradition and convention captured in the duet's otherworldly

atmosphere and Octavian's fluctuating musical line that at times embodies both masculine and

feminine characteristics.

Strauss' attention to the gendered vocality of Octavian becomes even more focused in the

final trio and duet. In the celebrated trio ("Hab' mir's gelobt"), the composer layers the voices of

his female performers to create an almost impenetrable mesh of feminine sound. In Opera and

the Culture ofFascism, Jeremy Tambling describes this ensemble, explaining that "the voices

soar, and it is not clear which voice is being heard, whether that of the stage women or the

putative male-that is, Octavian" (190). Surely, in composing this piece, Strauss was aware of

this inevitable aural confusion-a confusion that, in obscuring the gender of the male Octavian

among the female voices of Sophie and the Marschallin, undermines gender binaries, giving

form to a character without tangible or definite male- or femaleness. Even more so than its role

in the Presentation of the Rose scene, Octavian's voice alternates between its masculine and

feminine colorations, at times providing the supportive moving line while the voices of Sophie

and the Marschallin draw out their high notes and then suddenly soaring higher than both the

other voices (as seen when Octavian sings "Ist den nein groBes Unrecht..." in figure 3):










li. |. r J r IL .L m >r m n n

ni der knien dart- vor der Frat nd mkht ihr as
la dyk ftl, L..- 1--j IMwt kLed yt j in WouN I

I f a I
eFur t. er Rse ndr giaavier; Act III (Surc: Straus
atte to te e uroti i l, levin hie nd Otin ne to efo th o a fna

mpie, -rume it- trtwait en ir? nut denies gro listener a rs uet s-
ow rlatil y convntional the piec sounds after the co le wrong a euvin d hora











Figure 111-3. Der Rosenkavalier; Act III (Source: Strauss 439)

This inseparable web of female voices dissipates soon after when the Marschallin exits to

attend to the neurotic Faninal, leaving Sophie and Octavian alone to perform the opera's final

piece, the duet "1st ein Traum"-"Spur' nur dich." What strikes the listener about this duet is

how relatively conventional the piece sounds after the complex vocal maneuverings and chordal

dissonances of the trio. The duet's more typical and familiar structure and delivery stem

specifically from the tradition of the heterosexual love duet that runs throughout operatic

performance history. As Eric A. Plaut recounts in Grand Opera: Mirror of the Western Mind, it

was Hofmannsthal himself who suggested to Strauss that he compose a "Mozartian duet" for the

opera's finale (281). Both structurally and tonally, this closing duet in Der Rosenkavalier

follows the pattern of the Mozartian heterosexual love duet typified by the famous "La ci darem

la mano" from Don Giovanni. In The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozart's Vienna, Mary Hunter

explains the "predictable" duet structure of Mozart's duet via the scholarship of Ronald Rabin:









"Rabin has described the progression as moving 'from independent statements for the two

participants, through dialogue, to a closing tutti in parallel thirds and sixths.' The 'independent

statements' often repeat the same melody" (162). By extension, this same structure applies to

Strauss' Mozartian "Ist ein Traum"-"Sptr' nur dich." Indeed, even though Sophie and

Octavian's duet begins with the tutti, after the first unison section, Octavian and Sophie trade off

the melody as mentioned above. Just like Don Giovanni's heterosexual seduction of Zerlina in

"La ci darem la mano," the male and female figures of Octavian and Sophie alternate the

melodic line of the duet until closing the opera with their shared reprise of the duet's main

theme. In composing this duet, whose format and content would be familiar to operagoers,

Strauss places Octavian and Sophie in the longstanding tradition of heteronormative gender roles

in opera; however, at the same time, the conscious choice to use the androgynous voice of

Octavian as a participant in the duet works against a strictly "straight" reading of the scene. The

similarity of the two female voices when swapping identical melodic lines or even when singing

in harmony enhances the sexual sameness of these supposed differently-gendered characters.

Also, the recurrence of celesta, harp, and flute echoes their same thematic uses in the queered

Presentation of the Rose scene. So, not only does Strauss present his audience with a non-static

character that constantly maneuvers between genders, but his is a character more fully-formed

than the pageboys of operatic past, for while Cherubino sings love songs to the world's women

in "Non so piu" and "Voi che sapete," these arias are sung alone; Octavian, on the other hand, is

permitted to function in a romantic relationship-to sing a love song to another character and

have that character reciprocate his desire.









ACT IV
VISUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE

Last, but most definitely not least, in reading the queerness ofDer Rosenkavalier

audiences and scholars alike must pay especial attention to the staging and production of the

opera. Although the visual aspect of opera is often its most vivid and striking quality, audiences

are deprived of this crucial tool to understanding opera performance when it is heard as a

recording. Because this visual component is often ignored by scholars in opera analysis, Linda

and Michael Hutcheon argue for the necessity of examining this physical space of opera in their

2000 essay, "Staging the Female Body: Richard Strauss's Salome":

While it may seem obvious that the staged body is central to any form of theatrical
representation, it is the voice-almost a disembodied voice-that has come to dominate
discussions of opera, especially since the technological advances in audio recording and
radio transmissions. In a related move, opera criticism has been dominated by
considerations of the music that voice sings-usually separated from the libretto's verbal
text and the dramatic staged narrative. Musicologists confidently assert: "It is after all
the music that an opera-lover goes to hear." But, speaking for these opera-lovers, at least,
we go to see as well as hear a performance, and that performance includes a verbal text
and a staged dramatic narrative-for which that (admittedly important) music was
especially written. Opera is an embodied art form; it is the performers who give it its
"phenomenal reality." Indeed, opera owes its undeniable affective power to the
overdetermination of the verbal, the visual and the aural-not to the aural alone. And it
is specifically the body-the gendered, sexualized body-that will not be denied in
staged opera. (206)

Indeed, the gendered bodies of the characters in Der Rosenkavalier are extraordinarily vital

means through which audiences may apprehend the complexities of the work, not to mention the

ways in which various aspects of the opera as seemingly inconsequential as props and costumes

further the queer representations of Octavian.

Silver Roses, Swords, and the Gendered Props of Der Rosenkavalier

Aside from the titular silver rose, perhaps the most famous prop that cleverly comments

upon Octavian's sexuality is his sword. Serving as a surrogate phallus for the female actor's

literal lack, Octavian's sword doesn't simply sit at his side for the entirety of the opera but









almost performs a role of its own in propelling the narrative to its finale. In Opera in the Flesh,

Sam Abel explains the use of Octavian's sword in Der Rosenkavalier against the more blatant

psychosexual dramas of Salome and Elektra, claiming that "Strauss carries over the fetish-laden

atmosphere of his first two successes and transforms it into a much more subtle use of the

sexually obsessive symbol" (124). This "visual objectification of Octavian's elusive

masculinity" (124), as Abel calls it, often comes into play in the opera's plot in order to clarify

Octavian's maleness. In the first act, for example, Octavian accidentally leaves his sword in the

Marschallin's room as he runs to hide from Baron Ochs. Not only does the phallic sword, in this

instance, allude to the post-coital scene that opens the opera, but the Marschallin also chides

Octavian's masculinity for his misplacement of the weapon, stating, "You scatterbrain, how

careless of you! Is it the thing to leave one's sword lying around in a lady's bedroom? Have you

no manners?" ["Er Katzenkopf, Er Unvorsichtiger! La3t man in einer Dame Schlafzimmer

seinen Degen herumliegen? Hat Er keine besseren Gepflogenheiten?"] (63) This utilization of

the sword as a prop in this scene and the Marschallin's subsequent chastisement of Octavian's

maleness reinforce once again that Octavian is a character who has been gendered in multiple

ways by the staging of Der Rosenkavalier. Not only does the sword metaphorically signify

Octavian's masculinity, but his improper placement of it (i.e., his misuse of the phallus) labels

him as unmasculine and distinctly non-heteronormative.

In the second act, the sword takes on an even more significant role as the scuffle that

ensues between Baron Ochs and Octavian climatically sets into motion the conflict that will

bring about the opera's deus ex machine resolution. When Octavian initially confronts Ochs on

behalf of Sophie, Ochs is dismissive and condescending toward the young boy. Octavian rashly

challenges Ochs to a duel, brandishing his sword, which results in Ochs accidentally wounding









himself on the weapon. As Ochs blusters over the slight injury he receives, he remarks, "One is

what one is and has no need to prove it" ["Man ist halt, was man ist, und braucht's nicht zu

beweisen"] (140). Again, Octavian's sword and Ochs' response draw attention to the limitations

of Octavian's maleness. Even the ineffectual wounding of Ochs (other than the tantrum it elicits

from the Baron) reemphasizes Octavian's inability to wield his substitute phallus and to

successfully perform expected male roles. Thus, Strauss and Hofmannsthal's effective use of the

sword as prop and symbol throughout the narrative and staging of Der Rosenkavalier work to

further Octavian's complex characterization as a fluidly-gendered figure that destabilizes

conventional binary gender constructions.

Alfred Roller, Ert6, and the Costuming of Octavian

More so than most operas (the spartan production values and costuming of Wagner and

verismo operas immediately come to mind), Der Rosenkavalier gains a majority of its appeal

from its distinctive, elaborate visual style. This confectioner's sugar coating has garnered the

opera many critiques for being too superficial, but I would argue that this surface sheen serves as

yet another important facet in fleshing out a queered sensitivity of this work. The costuming in

particular functions to both masculinize and feminize the character of Octavian. In his

discussion of Victorian representations of trouser roles in Opera in the Flesh, Sam Abel notes

that artists often made no attempt to hide the femaleness of the travesti performers:

There is no attempt at realistic illusion; the contours of the ideal feminine body are often
more highlighted in drag than in "proper" women's clothes. The male clothes emphasize
the female parts. Images of hourglass figures, wasp waists, and large bosoms recur in
these engravings, clearly evoking the ideal of feminine sexual allure. (211)

In the sketches available from the original 1911 Der Rosenkavalier premiere, however, the

costume designs literally obscure the gender of the actor playing Octavian under men's military










or ceremonial outfits while also introducing "feminine" and ornate touches to complicate the

character's masculinity:


AF


CHRflS IOVTUM
fRSItHAUFZUC


Figure IV-1. Octavian Rofrano: Figure IV-2. Octavian Rofrano:
Drittes Kostum, Erster Aufzug Viertes Kostum, Zweiter Aufzug
(Source: Roller 17) (Source: Roller 25)

In these original 1910 costume sketches for the opera's premiere in Dresden, Alfred

Roller portrays Octavian with a lithe, boyish figure stripped of any marker of the femaleness

underneath (except, perhaps, for the more pronounced hips of the figure in the second image).

The faces, however, are certainly more androgynous. In figure 1, Octavian's colored cheeks and

feline eyes make him more pretty and feminine, while the cherubic face in figure 2 seems to defy


5TO (TMI M-7 : ?-









gender categorization completely. Even the costumes themselves, especially the silver outfit in

figure 2, are almost feminine in their sartorial opulence and finery.


Figure IV-3. Octavian Rofrano Genannt
Quinquin: Erstes Kostum, Erster Aufzug
(Source: Roller 5)

The Octavian in figure 3, also by Alfred Roller, brings the actor's femaleness even more

to the fore as the jacketless figure's feminine hips and backside are now visible (even though,

surprisingly, the face appears more masculine than the previous two images). Thus, in each of

these sketches, Roller emphasizes both the masculine and feminine qualities of the Octavian

character, creating a figure that balances between, rather than resolving into, a strict male or

female gender identity.


11Q1 ;LlI 1. 9-1111 I









Erte's costume designs for the 1980 Glyndebourne Festival similarly straddle depictions

of masculinity and femininity:










-j
















Figure IV-4. Octavian at the end of Act I Figure IV-5. Octavian's runners
(Source: Erte 19) (Source: Erte 25)

Unlike the more ambiguous genders of the figures in Roller's sketches, the image of

Octavian in figure 4 at first may appear to be an unquestionable female in men's clothing, as if

designer Erte makes no attempt to hide the gender of the actor playing Octavian; however, when

compared to the accompanying paintings of Octavian's retinue (figure 5)-male characters,

especially those associated with the fantastical Presentation of the Rose scene, who would

actually be performed onstage by male actors-they appear similarly effeminate. Thus, the

fashion-oriented Erte displays Octavian's fluid gender not through the same androgyny of









Roller's images, but through an almost effeminized masculinity, which endows the male

characters in the opera, whether being performed by male or female actors, with a beauty

typically associated with females. So, both Roller and Erte maintain a multigendered portrayal

of Octavian through their respective costume sketches by recognizing both the masculine and

feminine qualities of the character.

Even more so than two-dimensional images and sketches, though, the three-dimensional

costuming of Octavian plays an integral role in the comprehension ofDer Rosenkavalier's queer

performativity. Over the course ofDer Rosenkavalier, Octavian dons women's clothes and

disguises himself as Mariandl-first to escape notice when leaving the Marschallin's boudoir

and secondly to entrap Baron Ochs in order to thwart his marriage arrangement to Sophie. This

double cross-dressing by the actor playing Octavian draws even more attention to the genderplay

at work in the opera. For example, when the Marschallin kisses Octavian dressed as a woman

("You darling! And I can give you no more than a kiss" ["Du Schatz! Und nicht einmal mehr

als ein Busserl kann ich dir geben."] [69]) and calls after him, "And come back, darling, but in

man's clothing and by the front door, if you please" ["Und komm' Er wieder, Schatz, aber in

Mannskleidern und durch die vordre Ttir, wenn's Ihm beliebt"] (69), she makes known her

preference that Octavian return to her in the drag costuming of his male clothes. Thus, the

Marschallin doesn't desire Octavian as a lesbian (as many modern scholars have interpreted the

Marschallin-Octavian affair) or as a heterosexual woman, but instead desires the other-gendered

Octavian who inhabits both realms of sexuality.

Fassbaender, Kirchschlager, and the Filmed Performances of Der Rosenkavalier

Lastly, I would like to examine briefly two performances of Der Rosenkavalier available

on DVD and how their respective actors' portrayals of Octavian enhance (or fail to enhance) the

notion of gender mutability I have espoused throughout this project. The first filmization is a









1979 performance of the Bayerisches Staatsorchester, conducted by Carlos Kleiber; Brigitte

Fassbaender performs the role of Octavian. The second is a 2004 Salzburg Festival performance

by the Wiener Philharmoniker conducted by Semyon Bychkov; the Octavian is Angelika

Kirchschlager. Although the 1979 performance is more traditional and typical in its production

and staging choices, I feel that this filmic representation conveys more successfully than the

avant-garde and controversial Salzburg Festival entry the plastic and fluid gender of Octavian's

character.

In her justly-famous assumption of the role of Octavian, Brigitte Fassbaender creates a

character whose complicated web of genders and cross-dressings are always utterly believable.

Never betraying discomfort in her intimate interactions with Gwyneth Jones or Lucia Popp (the

actors who portray the Marschallin and Sophie, respectively), Fassbaender and her ease of

performance naturalizes the non-heteronormativity of her drag character; however, despite her

studied mimicry of masculinity, Fassbaender is never satisfied to simply perform as a man. In

her essay, "In Praise of Brigitte Fassbaender: Reflections on Diva Worship," Terry Castle

explains just how Fassbaender's complex performance as Octavian avoids a seamless illusion of

maleness:

Precisely to the degree that Fassbaender seems to enter "into" her male roles, precisely as
I watch her approach (though without ever reaching) a kind of "zero degree masculinity,"
I find myself becoming more and more acutely aware of, and aroused by, her femininity.
The very butchness with which she tackles, say, a role like Octavian-the sheer,
absolutist bravado of the impersonation-infuses it with a dizzying homosexual charge.
(43)

Indeed, while Fassbaender certainly makes her masculinity believable (seen particularly

convincingly when an uncomfortable, almost homophobic, tension builds at the prospect of

Octavian, in the double-drag as Mariandl, kissing Baron Ochs-though, in reality, a heterosexual

kiss between a male and female actor), as Castle notes, the singer never achieves a perfect









semblance of masculinity. Fassbaender, I believe, is even aware of this disjuncture, and often, in

her characterization of the multigendered Octavian, fondles his sword, sheathing and

unsheathing it, in symbolic recognition of her own-and, by extension, the character's-ultimate

phallic lack. Thus, I feel that Fassbaender succeeds in providing an interpretation of Octavian

that truly explores the character's ungendered qualities, rather than simply assigning Octavian

either a masculine or even subversively lesbian identity.

Angelika Kirchschlager, on the other hand, for all her many musical talents, fails to

succeed in providing the wholly complex characterization so evident in Fassbaender's

interpretation. The problems with Kirchschlager's performance surface most prominently when

her Octavian is dressed as Mariandl. In the first act, when she's attempting to escape Baron

Ochs, no amount of playacting can disguise the fact that Kirchschlager has now reverted back to

being a woman. Wearing red lipstick and her breasts unbound, it becomes obvious to the

audience that the actor playing Octavian is, in reality, female. It is almost as if director Robert

Carsen had wanted to divulge the theatrical secret of Octavian's character by having the actress

dress in female clothing in order to reveal her "true" identity. Unlike the aforementioned 1979

performance, which never tips its hand either way about Fassbaender's true gender (even during

the curtain calls, Fassbaender chivalrously leads Jones and Popp out in front of her), this more

recent performance breaks the operatic conceit and, even more detrimentally, explains the

previously unexplainable gender of the Octavian character.

In the final scene of the Salzburg performance, when Octavian dresses as Mariandl in

order to seduce Baron Ochs, Kirchschlager is costumed in layered lingerie and comes sashaying

campily through a circle of women in her new disguise. Almost completely antithetical to her

previous double cross-dressing, Kirchschlager now treats femininity not as Octavian's true









identity, but as full-blown parody. Instead of fleshing out the varying genders and sexualities

that comprise Octavian's identity, this parodic portrayal of Octavian's double drag performance

turns the character's sexual slippage into a humorous-but meaningless-joke, rather than a

source of gender exploration and examination.

Then again, some viewers and scholars may argue that the subversive sexuality absent in

Kirchschlager's performance can be seen more openly in the vivid and unabashed sexual

displays throughout the 2004 production. Certainly, the opera's bookending scenes feature

Octavian and the Marschallin (Adrianne Pieczonka)-and Sophie (Miah Persson) in the finale-

in various stages of undress, passionately kissing, embracing, and rolling around on beds.

Unfortunately, I see this seeming celebration of Der Rosenkavalier's queer sensibilities as

ultimately limited. Rather than truly exploring the sexual complexities of Octavian's character,

these scenes simply exploit the more prurient and sensationalist homosexual aspects of the

opera's casting, as evidenced by the remainder of the pre-World War II Regietheater production,

which sets the final scene in a brothel where numerous couples simulate intercourse in the

background. In contrast to the Presentation of the Rose scene, where the otherworldly

atmosphere queers gender and sexuality, the scenes of sexuality in Carsen's production ofDer

Rosenkavalier simply serve to shock and titillate.









POSTLUDE

So, in examining the extraordinarily vital textual, musical, and visual features ofDer

Rosenkavalier, modem operagoers and scholars can begin to see how Strauss and Hofmannsthal

as well as subsequent opera directors, producers, costume designers, and performers have each

attempted to preserve the fascinating sexual and gender mores of the opera and its eponymous

hero(ine). As I bring this project to a close, I would like to draw your attention to a

correspondence written by composer Richard Strauss to librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal on the

ninth of July, 1909. Replying to a draft of the second act that Hofmannsthal had recently sent,

Strauss discusses the character of Octavian and his elaborate plot to foil Baron Ochs' plans of

marrying Sophie: "The more mischievous Octavian is the better" (267). Whether or not Strauss

intended this comment to refer specifically to Octavian's complicated cross-dressing as Mariandl

or simply the convoluted scheme in general, I feel that this quotation helps us to grasp the very

purposeful intent behind the character of Octavian: to function as a contrary to

heteronormativity. Not simply a lesbian or homosexual figure, Octavian is a powerfully-

ungendered other that opens a site for questioning accepted genders and sexualities and

challenging the status quo. As we look over the long lineage of the trouser role and its

multifaceted methods of commenting on gender and sexuality, from the onstage gender anarchy

of Handel to Mozart's lusty pageboy, arriving at Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal's

Der Rosenkavalier brings us to a point in operatic history where the queer sensibilities currently

so synonymous with opera truly began to emerge and, even to this day, flourish.

So, as opera continues to build an even larger gay and lesbian following, queer scholars

and fans alike can continue to expand and refine the discourse of gender rebellion that occurs on

the operatic stage. By viewing opera through the lens of queer and gender studies, we can

unlock perceptions and interpretations long obscured by the more conservative ideologies that









have dominated this multimedia art form. Thus, if we truly recognize and embrace the queerness

of opera-from its travesti to its divadom to its still untapped realms of non-heteronormativity-

lovers of opera can begin to mine the rich depths of subversion inherent in these extravagant,

melodramatic, campy-and fabulously gay-works of art.









LIST OF REFERENCES

Abel, Sam. Opera in the Flesh: Sexuality in Operatic Performance. Boulder: Westview, 1996.

Andre, Naomi. Voicing Gender: Castrati, Travesti, and the Second Woman in Early-Nineteenth-
Century Italian Opera. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2006.

Bashant, Wendy. "Singing in Greek Drag: Gluck, Berlioz, George Eliot." Blackmer and Smith
216-41.

Blackmer, Corinne E. and Patricia Juliana Smith, eds. En Travesti: Women, Gender Subversion,
Opera. New York: Columbia UP, 1995.

Blumer, Rodney, ed. Der Rosenkavalier. LP Booklet. London: Decca, 1969.

Brett, Philip and Elizabeth Wood. "Lesbian and Gay Music." Queering the Pitch: The New Gay
andLesbian Musicology. Eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, and Gary C. Thomas. New
York: Routledge, 2006. 351-89.

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex." New York: Routledge,
1993.

Castle, Terry. "In Praise of Brigitte Fassbaender: Reflections on Diva-Worship." Blackmer and
Smith 20-58.

Clement, Catherine. Opera, or the Undoing of Women. Trans. Betsy Wing. Minneapolis: U of
Minnesota P, 1988.

Erte. Erte 's Costumes and Sets for Der Rosenkavalier in Full Color. New York: Dover, 1980.

Hadlock, Heather. "The Career of Cherubino, or the Trouser Role Grows Up." Smart 67-92.

Hart, Beth. "Strauss and Hofmannsthal's Accidental Heroine: The Psychohistorical Meaning of
the Marschallin." Opera Quarterly. 15.3 (Summer 1999): 414-34.

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. Der Rosenkavalier. Libretto. London: Decca, 1984.

Hunter, Mary. The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozart's Vienna: A Poetics of Entertainment.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1999.

Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. "Staging the Female Body: Richard Strauss's
Salome." Smart 204-21.

Koestenbaum, Wayne. The Queen's Throat: Opera, Homosexuality, and the Mystery ofDesire.
New York: Poseidon, 1993.









Le Tourneau, Gary. "Kitsch, Camp, and Opera: Der Rosenkavalier." Canadian University
Music Review. 14 (1994): 77-97.

Leonardi, Susan J. and Rebecca A. Pope. The Diva's Mouth: Body, Voice, and Prima Donna
Politics. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1996.

Levin, David J. Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, and Zemlinsky. Chicago: U
of Chicago P, 2007.

Oosterhuis, Harry. Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Psychiatry, and the Making of Sexual
Identity. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2000.

Plaut, Eric A. Grand Opera: Mirror of the Western Mind. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993.

Reynolds, Margaret. "Ruggiero's Deceptions, Cherubino's Distractions." Blackmer and Smith
132-51.

Roller, Alfred. "Octavian Rofrano: Drittes Kostim, Erster Aufzug." Blumer 17.

S"Octavian Rofrano: Viertes Kostim, Zweiter Aufzug." Blumer 25.

S"Octavian Rofrano Genannt Quinquin: Erstes Kostim, Erster Aufzug." Blumer 5.

Der Rosenkavalier. Dir. Otto Schenk. Perf. Dame Gwyneth Jones, Brigitte Fassbaender, Lucia
Popp, Manfred Jungwirth, Carlos Kleiber. 1979. DVD. Deutsche Grammophon, 2005.

Dir. Robert Carsen. Perf. Adrianne Pieczonka, Angelika Kirchschlager, Miah Persson,
Franz Hawlata, Semyon Bychkov. DVD. TDK, 2004.

Smart, Mary Ann, ed. Siren Songs: Representations of Gender and Sexuality in Opera.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.

Strauss, Richard. "Dear Herr von Hofmannsthal." 9 July 1909. Opera: A History in Documents.
Ed. Piero Weiss. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. 266-68.

Der Rosenkavalier. Vocal Score. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1943.

Tambling, Jeremy. Opera and the Culture ofFascism. New York: Oxford UP, 1996.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Peter D'Ettore is a native of Florida, born and raised in Pembroke Pines. He earned his

bachelor's degree in English literature with a minor in women's studies from Florida State

University in December 2004. Over the course of his graduate study, he has developed interests

in 20th century women's poetry, gender and queer studies, and opera studies. After receiving his

master's degree from the University of Florida in December 2007, he plans to pursue a career as

a junior college literature and writing instructor.





PAGE 1

1 THE MORE MISCHIEVOUS THE BETTER: OCTAVIAN AND QUEER OPERA PERFORMANCE IN RICHARD STRAUSS AND HUGO VON HOFMANNSTHALS DER ROSENKAVALIER By PETER DETTORE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Peter DEttore

PAGE 3

3 For my Mother, to whom each of my accomplishmen ts are dedicated, whether or not I remember to say so.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and forem ost, I would like to thank Dr. Barbara Mennel for her generous support and guidance in a project that refu sed to be defined by any one academic discipline. Her intradepartmental studies proved to be an invaluable resource for an equally intradepartmental thesis. I would also like to thank Dr. Anthony Offerle, whose unique knowledge of opera and constant enthusiasm aided in refining and stre ngthening my musical scholarship. I must also offer my thanks to Dr. Maureen Turim, whose patience and kindness during the early stages of this project were absolutely vital in helping it to become the thesis that it is now. Lastly, I cannot forget the limitless love and encouragement of my parents, Peter and Marie DEttore, to whom I owe more than I could possibly hope to enumerate here.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FI GURES.........................................................................................................................6 ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................7 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF OC TAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE .............................. 13 The Rise and Fall of the Castrato ........................................................................................... 13 The Trouser Role and the Pageboy .........................................................................................15 Octavian, the Knight of the Silver Rose .................................................................................17 TEXTUAL ANAL YSIS OF OCTAVI AN AND THE TROUSER ROLE................................... 22 MUSICAL ANAL YSIS OF OCTAVI AN AND THE TROUSER ROLE.................................... 30 VISUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTA VIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE ....................................... 38 Silver Roses, Swords, and the Gendered Props of Der Rosenkavalier ..................................38 Alfred Roller, Ert, and th e Costum ing of Octavian.............................................................. 40 Fassbaender, Kirchschlager, and the Film ed Performances of Der Rosenkavalier ................44 POSTLUDE ....................................................................................................................... ............48 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................50 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .........................................................................................................52

PAGE 6

6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page III-1 Der Rosenkavalier ; Act I ...................................................................................................32 III-2 Der Rosenkavalier ; Act II ..................................................................................................34 III-3 Der Rosenkavalier ; Act III.................................................................................................36 IV-1 Octavian Rofrano: Dritte s Kostm Erster Aufzug............................................................41 IV-2 Octavian Rofrano: Vier tes Kostm Zweiter Aufzug........................................................41 IV-3 Octavian Rofrano Genannt Quinquin: Erstes Kostm Erster Aufzug..............................42 IV-4 Octavian at the end of Act I.............................................................................................. .43 IV-5 Octavians runners........................................................................................................ .....43

PAGE 7

7 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THE MORE MISCHIEVOUS THE BETTER: OCTAVIAN AND QUEER OPERA PERFORMANCE IN RICHARD STRAUSS AND HUGO VON HOFMANNSTHALS DER ROSENKAVALIER By Peter DEttore December 2007 Chair: Barbara Mennel Major: English Despite the thriving gay fanbase opera has developed over the years, this art form continues to cater to conservati ve ideologies and traditionse specially concerning matters of gender and sexuality. As discussed in studies such as Catherine Clments 1979 Opera, or the Undoing of Women, opera has built its enduring popularity on traditional, heterosexual narratives that conclude with the dramatic demise of their heroines. In this thesis, I argue that composer Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmanns thal subvert these established notions of gender and sexuality in the opera Der Rosenkavalier through the character of the young Count Octavian Rofrano. Utilizing the operatic practice of casting a female singer as a male character (commonly known as a trouser role), Strauss and Hofmannsthal prevent Octavian from inhabiting a strictly masculine or feminine, he terosexual or homosexual identity. This unique, non-heteronormative characteriza tion endows Octavian with a fl uid, non-static gendering that helps to destabilize gender binarity. After offering an historical analysis of the trouser role, paying esp ecial attention to the figure of the castrato and the pageboy archetype I contend that Strauss and Hofmannsthal through cues in the operas libretto, musical sc ore, and stagingendeavor to mold a character

PAGE 8

8 that refuses the boundaries of male or female, heterosexual or homosexual labeling. By permitting Octavian to exist within this qu eer, nongendered space, Strauss and Hofmannsthal force viewers of Der Rosenkavalier to reassess traditional gender and sexual rolesboth when the opera was premiered in 1911 as well as today. Thus, my thesis offers an analysis that not only situates the opera in the context of the early twentieth century but also outlines the operas commentary on gender and sexual roles that are still valuable for contemporary culture, particularly discussi ons of queer theory.

PAGE 9

9 PRELUDE Nowadays, opera is gay. Twenty-first century audiences tend to associate the exquisite excesses of opera with homosexuality. The phras e opera queenusually used to describe a white, upper middle class, effeminate gay ma n who frequents the operahas become a commonly-recognized entry in the ever-growing ga y lexicon, and, with the advent of twentiethcentury technology, the gay interest has spread to the internet in the form of websites and blogs, such as the self-proclaimed queer opera zine Parterre Box ( http://www.parterre.com/). Despite operas close association with queerness, m any opera houses still play to conservative audiences and ideologies. Even though operati c divas, epitomized by Maria Callas, have become synonymous with homosexual sensibilities, the operatic stage still caters to the elaborate fetishization of female demise; as Catherine Clment famously and poetically remarks in her groundbreaking 1979 Opera, or the Undoing of Women [O]n the opera stage women perpetually sing their eternal undoing (5). It is precisely because of this atmosphere of conservative, even patriarchal, interest in opera that its queer transgressions become so powerful. In the mid-1990s critics from academic realms as varied as litera ture, psychology, and musicology, lead by Wayne Koestenbaums seminal text on homosexuality and opera, The Queens Throat: Opera, Homosexuality, and the Mystery of Desire began to explore operas undeniably queer leanings. Take, for example, the opening scene of Richard Strauss popular opera, Der Rosenkavalier The curtain rises: it is morning. As woodwinds alternate the chirpi ngs of a morningbird song, two women sleepily rouse from their passionate embrace. One of these women is the aging princess known only by her title, the Marschallin; th e other woman, however, is the young Count Octavian Rofranoa male character portrayed by a female actor. Dr esden audiences witnessed this very operatic

PAGE 10

10 tableau at the premiere of the opera in 1911, and, as if willfully ignorant of the staging of what appeared to be a blatant sexual transgression, th e opera went on to become an instant success with the public. Overlooking or excusing this elephant in the room, the audience at the premiereas well as audiences sinceseemed to dismiss this subverted heterosexuality as a mere operatic sleight of hand. While this practic e of women performing the roles that had been left vacant after the demise of the male-bodie d, soprano-voiced castrati stretches back through historical operatic performancefrom Hande l and Rossini to Mozart and Bellinionly very recently has opera and gender scholarship finally begun to unpack the multifarious and often unquestioned gender-bending of these trouser roles. Not content simply to use the trouser role in their historic purpose as surrogates for the obsolete castrati, Richard Stra uss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, composer and librettist of the aforementioned Der Rosenkavalier utilized this operatic trickery as a means of destabilizing and reassessing the gender roles of the early twentieth century. As Sam Abel asserts in Opera in the Flesh: Sexuality in Opera Performance the female-to-male cross-dresser always poses a threat. Women dressed as men violate male he gemony by attempting to reject their secondary social role and to assume male power or, more powerfully, to reject the whole concept of binary gender division (151). In this thesis, I would like to refine Abels discussion of the subversive quality of drag. Rather th an arguing that Octavian is a priori subversive simply because the character is in actuality a woman in mans clothi ng (i.e., a woman who has attained male power), I would like to posit that Octavians malleable gender prevents the character from identifying completely as either male or female, placing Octavian at a site of subvers ive power that fosters a critique of dyadic, heteronormative gender roles. Indeed, the presence of this central trouser role in Strauss and Hofmannsthals Der Rosenkavalier does more than provide audiences with lesbian

PAGE 11

11 titillation or reinforce patriarchal constructions by endowing a wo man with masculinity; instead, the character of Octavian captures an image of a qu eered gender fluidity that destabilizes notions of gender binarity, refusing to reso lve into either masculinity or femininity, male or female. Before beginning my close examination of the various texts in Der Rosenkavalier I must explicate my reading of the word queer, which becomes an essential descriptor of Octavians manygendered characterization1rather than strictly heteroor homosexual, lesbian or gayin this project. My usage of the word queer draws from the work of Judith Butler in Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. In her discussion of this multifaceted and recursive term, Butler states that queering might signal an inquiry into (a) the formation of homosexualities (a historical i nquiry which cannot take the stab ility of the term for granted, despite the political pressure to do so) and (b) the deformative and misappropriative power that the term currently enjoys (229, italics in original ). Butler goes on to explain that a possible function of this word is to resist the more institutionalized and reformist politics sometimes signified by lesbian and gay ( 228). Thus, Butler offers a de finition of queer that, like my argued characterization of Octavian describes a sexual identification that exists constantly in flux, defying codifiable gender labels In terms of this paper, I offer it as an alternative to the more limiting and often static identities of gay and lesbian in hopes that it will signify an even more complex and critical theoretical idea. So, while Octavian has come to be read as a representative or iconogr aphic lesbian figure in recent gender and opera criticism (see Br ett and Wood 359 and Hadlock 265n. 34), I would 1 While I understand the possible limitations and complications inherent in a term that suggests the existence of many genders without defining them, I use the term manygendered (as well as multigendered) as a linguistic shorthand to symbolize a fluid gender characterization that, rather than representing a character who simply and statically inhabits both masculinity and femininity, maneuvers freely on the continuum be tween these socially-con structed gender roles.

PAGE 12

12 argue that, through composer Richard Strauss and librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthals use of libretto, musical score, and stag ing, Octavian functions as a pur posefully queered character whose successful existence without definable ge nder reflects the emergence of non-normative sexualities in the social conscious ness of the early twentieth century that are still relevant today.

PAGE 13

13 ACT I HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE The Rise and Fall of the Castrato Before em barking on my discussion of the breeches role in Der Rosenkavalier it is necessary to provide a brief background of these roles in operas performance history. Before women were universally permitted to grace the stag e, whether theatrical or operatic, the castrato sang the high-voiced alto and soprano roles most commonly associated nowadays with women. Susan J. Leonardi and Rebecca A. Pope, whose st udy on diva politics and worship discusses the rise and fall of the castrato at lengt h, trace the practice of castration in The Divas Mouth: Body, Voice, Prima Donna Politics : Castration was, perhaps, the price patriarchy pa id to keep women silent and its authority intact. As in all congregations of Gods people, women should keep silent at the meeting, St. Paul advised the Corinthians (I Cor. 14.33-34), and his namesake Pope Paul IV (1555-1559) codified Pauls advice by officially banni ng women from singing in St. Peters. Church choirs depended on boys and adult male falsettists to sing soprano and alto parts, but as monody gave way to increasingly complicated polyphony, more powerful voices and mature musicians (espec ially singers who would not be lost once their voices changed) were needed for upper-register parts. (25) In order to fulfill this need for a voice as light as a childs, while also as strong as an adults, the custom of castrating young boys to preserve their young, high voices, in what is known as an orchiectomy, was born. Although practiced by th e Roman Catholic Church, the Church itself publicly shunned the act, and thus it is uncertain exactly when the practice began; however, documentation exists of castrati performing as early as 1562 (Leonardi and Pope 25). On the other hand, the appearance of wome n on the stage, even outside th e Catholic Church, was often looked upon as an act of gross impropriety. Th is is not to say that women did not perform publicly; however, because they were often prohi bited from appearing and singing onstage, the figure of the castrato began to serve as a proxy fo r the female performer and the staged female body of the era.

PAGE 14

14 In the 1740s, however, the popularity of castr ati began to wane significantly. In The Divas Mouth Pope and Leonardi offer a number of suggestions as to why the castrato began to disappear from the public eye: an economic boom in the 173 0s which eased dependence upon the cruel and desperate process of castration in order to secure a sons future, a decline in the number of religious orders in Italy and the dissolution of others with the coming of the French, and attempts by Napoleonic governments to outlaw castration (42). Most importantly for this project, however, is the notion that castra ti fell out of favor because of a decline in the florid vocal stylings synonymous with the cast rato and a movement towards more realism in opera performance (42). Under the guise of making opera more realistic, the complex, nonheteronormative gender roles embodied in th e castrato were shunned by opera composers and librettists. It is only in the early twentieth cen tury, when Strauss and Hofmannsthal introduced their more fantastical Octavian and Compos er pants roles (the latter appearing in Ariadne auf Naxos ) that opera performance truly regained some of the powerful gender complexity present in the era of the castrato. Contrary to modern listene rs conceptions of voice and gender, mens heroic operatic voices before the 1800s were rarely deep and he avy. Instead, the male protagonists in opera could have high, light voicesvoices that ar e now commonly associat ed with women and femininity; however, with the spar se population of castrati availabl e, opera companies were often forced to seek alternative bodies and voices to re produce roles that were once the sole domain of the castrato. While some opera composers transp osed their music, dropping the vocal lines to lower tessituras in order to accommodate male te nors, baritones, and basses (e.g., Gluck rewrote Orfeo ed Euridice so that the once-castrato role of the young poet Orpheus could now be performed by a male tenor), other opera compan ies began to substitute the similarly-sounding

PAGE 15

15 female mezzo soprano or contra lto in lieu of the castrato. Perhaps most famously, George Frideric Handel often employed both male cas trato and female mezzo sopranosvocal ranges that sonically overlapfor the same roles in hi s operas, simply depending upon the availability of the artists. Margaret Reynolds describes this blurring of the lines between voice and gender in her essay, Ruggieros Deceptions Cherubinos Distractions: In Handels day there was sexual anarchy on stag e. Men (or ex-men) played the parts of heroes in high voices. Women, dressed up as men, sang heroes in high voices. Men, dressed up as women, played their consorts wi th high or low voices. And if you couldnt hire the singer of the sex required, you se ttled for the voice and didnt worry. (138) As apparent in Reynolds reading of the opera stage during the eighteenth century, opera served as a site for gender deconstruction where feminine-sounding men stood alongside armor-clad women. Indeed, Handel wrote opera s where high, almost feminine, voices could be either male or female and could evoke a number of vocal qualities that ran the gamut from heroism and seduction to virginity and villainy. In his most famous opera, Giulio Cesare, the voice types of the lead rolesGiulio Cesare, Cleopatra, Sesto, Tolomeo, and Corneliaall fall into similarly high-voiced tessituras that could be sung by both male castrati and women regardless of whether the character was male or female; however, as opera edged further away from the opera seria realm of the castrati to the class struggles and b attle of the (heterosexual) sexes subject matter of opera buffa the newly-established trouser role bega n to signify a new type of sexuality. The Trouser Role and the Pageboy After the cessation of the pract ice of castration, as well as the moral clash of the eerilyjuxtaposed masculine body and femi nine voice of the castrato with the sexual mores of the late eighteenth century, castrati became virtually obsole te outside of the chur ch. The sidelining of the complicated sexual embodiment of the castrato did not, however, stop composers from writing music for their voice type; now, these composers began to write specifically for the

PAGE 16

16 trouser rolea female singer (usually mezzo sopr ano) who performs as a man in mens clothing. The most famous archetype to emerge from th is newfound operatic role was the pageboy. The quintessential young man on the verge of sexua l awakening, the pageboy is a figure caught between adulthood and childhood, man and not-m an, making the androgynous female drag performance functional as well as aesthetic. Wh ile the stock character of the pageboy recurs in operas such as Verdis Un ballo in maschera and Wagners Tannhuser, the most prominent and popular of these characters is cer tainly Cherubino from Mozarts Le nozze di Figaro. A secondary character that ne vertheless sends Mozarts buffa plot careening into motion, Cherubino is a sexually-volatile page who falls in love with virtually every female character in the operas cast. In her discussion of the pageboy figure of Cherubino in The Career of Cherubino, or the Trouser Role Grows Up, Heather Hadlock explains that the variety of names for the practice [of female-t o-male cross-dressing in opera], variously known as the trouser role, breeches part, or pants part, Hosenrolle or travesti testifies both to its international appeal and to th e necessity of the singers having slim, boyish legs. Equally essential is a light and clear voice [and the] pages talk of love is typically translated into melancholy or flir tatious staged songs, directly or indirectly addressed to an inaccessible beloved, of which Cherubinos Voi che sapete remains the archetype. (68) Indeed, the figure of the pageboy is part erotic sp ectacle (the sight of wo mens legs, even clothed in mens stockings, was a novelty for the stage at that time) and a true example of form fitting functionthe singers androgynous voice, much like the voice of a boy experiencing the hormonal rushes of puberty, is at times lovely and light while at others plummy and deep. Yet, the character of the pageboy is a limite d one. While beloved, the pageboy is often a minor character in the operas drama, rarely ec lipsing the traditional heterosexual coupling of the lead soprano and tenor/baritone. Also, despite the pageboys zealous sexual appetite, the opera composer and librettist rarely a llow this nontraditionally-gendered character to interact sexually

PAGE 17

17 with the objects of his affection other than as comedic (and ultimately ineffectual) playacting. Indeed, in David J. Levins discussion of Cherubino in Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, and Zemlinsky, the author notes that, unlike the focal relationships in Le nozze di Figaro (e.g., Figaro and Susanna, the Count and Countess, and Bartolo and Marcellina), Cherubino and Barbarinas relationship remains narratively unresolved because their marriage is still unscheduled when the opera comes to a close ( 78). Levin goes on to claim that this thwarted resolution is a result of Cherubinos gender conf usion: To the extent that Cherubino embodies something that would resist being tied down, we mi ght describe that somet hing as the fact or problem of the figures peculiar embodiment itsel f, a kind of erratic traffic in and between gender (79). This trope of the fervently sexual, but ultimate ly sexless, pageboy (what Levin refers to as Cherubinos libid inal surplus [78]) continues throughout the nineteenth century until the emergence of the ch aracter of Octavian in Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthals Der Rosenkavalier in the early twentieth century who manages to transcend the obstacles of rigid gender and se xual representation that had thwarted the pageboy tradition before him. Octavian, the Knight of the Silver Rose By the close of the nineteenth century, Victor ian notions of sexuality had been brought to the fore of European social cons ciousness by Richard von Krafft-Ebings P sychopathia sexualis and fin de sicle decadence epitomized by writers such as Joris-Karl Huysmans and Oscar Wildenot to mention the latters infamous sodomy trial. Richard Straus s, certainly no stranger to these cultural developments, had recently co mpleted two operas that explored the darker realms of sexuality: 1905s Salome adapted from Wildes play, and 1909s Elektra Strauss first collaboration with Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Wh ile Strauss experimented with modernist orchestration in these two pieces, employing chromaticism, dissonance, and atonality to reflect

PAGE 18

18 the tension of this new and troubling sexuality (Plaut 265), the compos er returned to more traditional composition and themes for what w ould become his most successful and popular composition, Der Rosenkavalier Despite what was then view ed as Strauss musical and ideological retreat into safer settings and me lodic structures, the composer, as well as his librettist, Hofmannsthal, endowed the work with an even more complex and avant-garde treatment of gender and sexuality. Before fully exploring the complicated gender depictions of Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier, a brief synopsis of the opera is in order. Der Rosenkavalier narrates the story of the young Count Octavian and his illicit affair with the Marschallin. As mentioned earlier, when the opera begins, the lovers are in bed together; however, the Marschallins cousin, the boorish Baron Ochs, calls on the princess to request a young nobleman to perform the ceremonial Presentation of the Silver Rose for his fiance, So phie. Unable to escape before Ochs entrance, Octavian must don the clothes of a chambermai d and soon finds himself dodging the lascivious advances of the Baron. To appease Ochs, the Mars challin suggests that Octa vian bear the silver rose to Sophie. In the second act, Octavian arrives at the house of Sophies father, the nouveau-riche Faninal, to present his daughter with the silver rose. During the scene, Octavian and Sophie are entranced by one anothers beauty, and, after Sophie repuls es Ochs crass, oversexed propositions, they pledge their love to one anothe r. Later, while trying to defend Sophies honor, Octavian inadvertently wounds the Baron with his sword; however, Ochs is undeterred and still plans to marry Sophie. At the end of the act, Oc hs receives a letter wr itten by the Marchallins chambermaid (actually Octavian) requesting a clandestine rendezvous.

PAGE 19

19 In the final act, Ochs brings Mariandl (Oct avian dressed as a chambermaid) to an inn where he plans to bed her. Unbeknownst to the Baron, Octavian has devi sed an elaborate plot involving masked men and a woman disguised as the Barons supposedly-abandoned widow in order to expose the Barons infidelities. As the evening progresses and an outraged Faninal and Sophie eventually arrive at th e inn to witness the Baron with the chambermaid, Ochs can no longer hold Sophie to her marital obligation. Just as Ochs begins to realize the trick that has been played on him, the Marschallin arrives, se nding the Baron away in shame and, despite her own love for Octavian, uniting the yo ung lovers at the operas dnouement. Certainly, whether operagoers chose to ignore or dismiss the non-normative gender depictions in Strauss opera, they could no long er passively assume that this operatic genderplay was a simple smoke-and-mirrors illusion meant to stealthily place a womens voice in the body of a man. From the moment the curtain rises on Der Rosenkavalier the opera immediately confronts its audience with the image of two fema le actresses in bed together. The homoerotic sexual tension of this first scene was so dangerous to some that the opera was censored and even banned shortly after its premiere.2 From the operas inception to its more recent productions, the complex tinderbox of sexuality also did not go u nnoticed on its performers. As recounted in Philip Brett and Elizabeth Woods collaborative essay, Lesbian and Gay Music, famous opera singer Mary Garden refused to c reate the role of Octavian in Der Rosenkavalier because of its lesbian implications (353-54). Similarly, New Zealand soprano Ki ri te Kanawa has stated, on 2 In Ruggieros Deceptions, Cherubinos Distractions, Margaret Reynolds recounts an example of the censorship Der Rosenkavalier faced in England: The first act bed caused trouble in London where the Lord Chamberlain intervened when Thomas Beecham declared his intention to st age the opera in 1912: either the bed had to go from the scene or there was to be no refere nce to it in the text sung by the performers. Beecham decided that the former was pref erable, so the Marschallin and Octavian conducted themselves with upright propriety. (144)

PAGE 20

20 singing the role of the Marschallin, that the first five minutes of Der Rosenkavalier are the most awkward to perform in any opera (Castle 46), and [ o]nce you get past these first few minutes when you are in bed with another woman, you can ge t on with the role (Cas tle 56). As these examples show, the subversiveness of Octavians characterization is no t simply a theoretical performativity that can only be identified and teased out through academic scholarship; it is an unsettling representation of non-normativity rec ognizable to both the performers and viewers of the opera as well. What specifically seems to be so frighteni ng to these performers about the sexuality inherent in the role of Octavian? For one, at the very beginning of th e post-coital tableau that opens the opera, the audience is privy to the fact that Octavian, un like Cherubino, actually experiences the sexual consummation all the other pageboys spend so much time longingly wishing for in song. Or, as succinctly written by Sam Abel in Opera in the Flesh Cherubino fantasizes about sex, but Octavian actually has se x (159). Thus, the playful sexual threat posed by the pageboy and his indiscernible gender fina lly becomes realized in the character of Octavian. While Strauss and Hofmannsthals characte rization of Octavian as sexually active certainly touches upon emerging notions of early-t wentieth-century sexual sensibility, I would argue that Octavian offers audiences even mo re complexity than that. In concluding her examination of the Cherubino figure, Heather Hadl ock remarks that twentieth-century composers and librettists no longer treat female travesty as a pr oblem or a challenge, and [Strauss and Hofmannsthals] (excessively) frank staging of the relations hip between Octavian and the Marschallin puts the female love rs in a spotlight, cl early intended to titillate. Their Cherubino no longer undresses behind a screen, and this very shamelessness, this abandonment of over a century of shadows a nd veils over the pages body and desire, leaves less to read. (92)

PAGE 21

21 While Hadlocks reading of the pageboy trope vi a the character of Cherubino is insightful in its investigation of what is often obscured from view, I believe that the author oversimplifies the characterization of Octavian when she claims that his lesbian visibility (the female lovers) automatically de-problematizes his gende r travesty, as if the characters in Der Rosenkavalier become transparently and unproblematically homos exual. Surely, the mo re sexually suggestive aspects in the lesbian relationship between Oc tavian and the Marschal lin (and later Octavian and Sophie) cannot be completely swept under the rug, but I would argue that Octavians characterization is far too mercurial to be labele d as simply homosexual. By blending together the seemingly binary genders embodied in the ch aracter of Octavian, merging the feminine and girlish with the masculine and boyish, Strauss and Hofmannsthal not only move Octavian beyond the limited depiction of the operatic pageboy, but reify emergent non-heteronormative sexualities that are still surprisingl y relevant in contemporary society.

PAGE 22

22 ACT II TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE In exam ining the opera Der Rosenkavalier Octavians multifarious gender and sexuality can been seen in virtually each facet of operatic performance: from the musical to the visual; however, I would like to begin my examination of the opera with a textual analysis of the libretto, because it is often this literary aspect of opera that is overlooked in current scholarship. Indeed, while opera layperson and fanatic alike may often attribute authorship of Der Rosenkavalier to Richard Strauss solely, the work finds a great deal of its shape and narration through the libretto of Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Like the famous collabor ation between Mozart and Lorenzo da Ponte, Strauss and Hofmannsthals professional partnership has been, and still is, touted as one of operas great est composer-librettist pairings (an extra-textual homosocial relationship linked to Der Rosenkavalier that has not gone unnoticed by opera scholars and queer theorists alike), and their extensive corresponden ce helped to shape the convoluted birth of the opera. Also, in Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Psychiatry, and the Making of Sexual Identity Harry Oosterhuis asserts that for Hugo v on Hofmannsthal sexuality was an intriguing subject that could be deployed to unveil bourgeois societys sense of secur ity as a faade, full of empty conventions (260). Thus, I propose that Hofmannsthal, via his textual cues throughout the operas libretto, knowingly e ndows the character of Octavian with a manyheaded and fluid sexuality. This non-static gendering present in Der Rosenkavalier not only prevents the lesbiancoded relationships in the opera from being read as merely por nographic, functioning solely to excite sexually and sensationally, but also presents audiences with an indefinable sexuality that helps to liberate gender and sexual representations from the male/female, hetero-/homosexual dyad, both in our current cultural conceptions as well as the microcosmic realm of the operatic mise-en-scne

PAGE 23

23 As the opera begins, the viewer is automatically provided with visual clues that suggest Octavians sexual otherness. Immediately, the audience is confronted with the image of a woman in mans clothing; howev er, even the listener (or reader, if th e opera house employs surtitles) can recognize the unique space that Octavian inhabits through the words of the opera. This liminal space is often seen when the audi ence, recognizing the femaleness of the actor portraying the male character of Octavian, is continuously reminded by the libretto, through gendered names or pronouns for example, of Octavi ans maleness. In order to reinforce the theatrical illusion of Octavians male gender within the diegesis of the narrative, Hofmannsthal saturates the libretto with various references to Octavians maleness and masculinity. For instance, the Marschallin constantly refers to Octavian as mein Bub, a term of affection typically translated as my boy (61, 64). Even this simple pet name between lovers signifies with a very specific male gender. Also, on two separate occasions, the Marschallin remarks how the queerly-gendered Octavian behaves much like other men do. When Octavian reacts petulantly and possessively to the Marschallins fear of abandonment in the first act, she pleads, No, please, do not be as all men are [Nein bitt schn, sei Er nur ni cht, wie alle Mnner sind!] (104). Then, near the end of the last act, the Marschallin relinqu ishes Octavian to his new love, Sophie, both chiding his fickle heart and his sex as a whole when she bittersweetly comments, You are so like a mango to her! [ Er ist ein rechtes Mann sbild, geh Er hin] (196). Not only do these purposeful references to Octavians maleness an d masculine behavior keep the femaleness of the acto r performing the role textually hidden, but the juxtaposition of these remarks with the actors true gender also provide for a sly undercurre nt of self-referential humor at the genderplay involved in the opera. Although these purposes may strike the reader as both expected and even necessary in reinforci ng a more conservative masking of Octavians

PAGE 24

24 queerness, when viewed in conjunction with a number of purposef ully non-masculine references, Hofmannsthal complicates and problematizes Octa vians seemingly strai ght-forward role as a man in the context of the opera. While Octavian physically flirts with a more feminine sexuality (most prominently, when he dresses as the handmaid Mariandl in order to escape Baron Ochs noti ce as hes leaving the Marschallins room after a night of lovemaking), th is more feminine characterization of Octavian also translates to Hofmannsthals textual tr eatment of the character. Probably the most consistent example of this is Hofmannsthals use of a thematic sexual sameness in the dialogue between Octavian and the other two female lead s, the Marschallin and Sophie. Beth Hart explores this mirroring motif be tween the operas all-female love triangle in Strauss and Hofmannsthals Accidental Heroin e: The Psychohistorical Meaning of the Marschallin. In her examination of the opening scene between Octavian and the Marschallin, Hart rhetorically asks her reader, We wonder what need Octavian fulf ills in the Marschallin as she mirrors him in voice and gaze, calling him her boy, her darling b oy (421). As Hart suggests, despite the difference in their characters genders, the female actors portraying the Ma rschallin and Octavian reflect one another vocally and vi sually. Even Octavians effusive tendresse manifests itself in poetic waxings that begin to blur the boundaries between the Marschallin and Octavian, the feminine and masculine: You, youwhat does it m ean, this you? This you and I? but this I is lost in this you [Du, du, duwas heit das D u? Was du und ich? aber das Ich vergeht in dem Du] (61). Octavians emphatic lapsing of the two pronouns carries a significant added weight when cons idering the similar lapse that occurs between the genders of both Octavian and the Marschallin: like the ac tor portraying the Marschallin, the supposedly male Octavian actually possesses the body of a woma n (the actor who plays him). To rearrange

PAGE 25

25 Harts rhetorical inquiry, perhaps the more f itting question to ask is What does the Marschallin fulfill in Octavian, because it is when Octavi an conflates his own self and gender with the Marschallins that his role moves beyond the simple woman-as-man transvestite performance to a more complex, ungendered one. Even Octavians interaction with Sophie re veals a similar mirroring trend. After Sophie meets the loutish Baron Ochs, she confides he r dissatisfaction to the dashing young Octavian. When Octavian promises to oppose the marriag e arrangement on her behalf, he makes her a request: All alone, you must now stand for us bot h! [Nun mu Sie ganz allein fr uns zwei einstehn!] (132). The provided tr anslation reinforces the doubleness of the Octavian and Sophie figures as Octavian not only asks that Sophie stand up for both of their honor but also that she stand for (i.e., represent) bo th characters. Again, these textual choices made by librettist Hofmannsthal muddy what initially appears to be a conventionally-masculin e characterization of Octavian. Still more convincingly, only minutes after thei r pact, the frightened Sophie insists that Octavian stand up for her: No, no! I cant open my mouth. You speak for me! [Nein! Nein! Ich bring den Mund nicht auf. Sprech Er fr mi ch!] (137). At the textual level, Sophies request speaks to the similarity between the gender of the two characters insomuch as the one can stand in for the other; however, at this mome nt, Octavians mercurial gender even transcends the confines of the libretto, as the audience will recognize that the female actor playing the male Octavian, when speaking her next lines, actually does speak for Sophie with an almost identical female voice. This sexual sameness between Octavian a nd both the Marschallin and Sophie located within the libretto can also be seen in the flesh, so to speak, in the ways in which varying artists

PAGE 26

26 have graduated through or swapped the female ro les over the course of their careers. Since Strauss composed all three characters for the soprano voice (although Octa vian is most often performed by a mezzo soprano), many singers have found the transition between these differently-gendered characters to be surprisingly smooth and natural. Christa Ludwig and Gwyneth Jones both essayed the role of the Mars challin after successful portrayals of Octavian, and Swiss soprano Lisa della Casa has the distin ction of having performed as each of the three lead roles at different stages in her operatic career. This fascinating mobility that performers have found shifting between the roles of the ma le Octavian and the female Marschallin and Sophie speaks to the same textual/sexual ambiguity that Hofmannsthal gives to the character of Octavian throughout his libretto. Hofmannsthal likewise imbues Der Rosenkavalier s operatic mise-en-scne (especially during the love scenes) with a whimsical surreal ity that hints at the queerness at work in the character of Octavian. In what is perhaps the operas most famous set piece, the second acts Presentation of the Rose scene, Octavian bears a silver rose to Sophie in recognition of her betrothal to Baron Ochs. When staged, this scene is quite ofte n visually resplendent, with a silver-clad Octavian arriving at hi s musical cue with a train of si milarly clad officers amidst the filigreed architecture of Faninals opulent hom e; however, while the visual markers of the scenes fantastic qualities are no doubt in plai n view, even the operas libretto iterates the otherworldliness of this realm where roses sm ell celestial and a woman playing a man can be both and neither genders. In The Queens Throat Wayne Koestenbaum elaborates upon the ways in which this scene arrests the flow of time and how that chr onological topsy-turvydom corresponds to the operas queer sexuality:

PAGE 27

27 The silver rose [] carr[ies] the charge of an unspeakable and chronology-stopping love because a connection arose in the late nineteenth century between tampering with time and tampering with gender Disturb gender, and you disturb te mporality; accept the androgyne, and you accept the abyss. (218) Here Koestenbaum asserts that the artificiali ty and unreality of the ceremonyas well as the silver rose around which it revolvesopens a site for reassessing concepts of time and gender which appear equally fantastic. Indeed, Hofmanns thals libretto reflects this notion that the Presentation of the Rose ceremony represents so mething queer and other that has ripped the fabric of conventional understand ings of time, beauty, and gender. When Sophie first smells the silver rose, she notes that it smells not only like an actual rose but also lik e roses of heaven, not of earth like roses of holy paradise [Wi e himmelische, nicht irdische, wie Rosen vom hochheiligen Paradies] (115). Sophies recogniti on (or failed recognition) of what is the fantasy and what is the reality of the rose parallels the audiences ow n recognition of the meshing of fantasy and reality in the perfor med gender of the character of Oc tavian. Hofmannsthals clever use of the metaphorical silver rose in the libr etto (as a symbol of the unreal) thus comments upon his and Strauss purposeful decisi on to cast the character of Octa vian as similarly illusory, by using a female soprano or mezzo soprano to portray the male knight of the rose. Even the simultaneously spoken words of Octavian and Sophies duet during this scene further the idea that the opera ha s suspended reality, a llowing the queer and the other to emerge in this fantastical staged world disconnected from the more realistic and typical ideas and traditions of the early twentieth century. Calling to mind Koestenbaums aforementioned discussion of temporality and sexuality, Sophie exclaims, Theres Time and Eternity in this moment of bliss [Ist Zeit und Ewigkeit in einem selgen Augenblick] (116), while Octavian speaks of the tenuousness of his ow n gender: I was a boy and did not know her yet. Who am I

PAGE 28

28 then? Were I not a man, I should lose my sens es [Ich war ein Bub da hab ich die noch nicht gekannt. Wer bin denn ich? Wr ich kein Mann, die Sinne mchten mir vergehn] (116). Indeed, even Octavian himself draws a ttention to his complex gender characterization by voicing his own confusion about his identity in this surreal and chimerical scene; however, Hofmannsthal does not intend for this glimpse of an indefinable, non-normative sexuality to remain encapsulated inside the hermetically-sealed world of the opera. As mentioned earlier, the sodomy trial of Oscar Wilde (on whose play Strauss had based his 1905 opera Salome ) had occurred less than twenty years before the premiere of Der Rosenkavalier and Richard von Krafft-Ebing wrote his psychiat ric study of sexual deviance, Psychopathia sexualis which catalogued and medicalized homosexuali ty in the nineteenth century,3 only ten years prior to that. Wendy Bashant provides a link between Ho fmannsthals world of opera and the thenemerging understandings of sexuality in her essay, Singing in Greek Drag: Gluck, Berlioz, George Eliot. Bashant explains that the [ u]nbridled, gender-bending women like Salome were created by men after Krafft-Ebings theories linking athletes, feminists, and opera singers and actresses who appear in male attire on the stage by preference were published in 1889. They were meant to be viewed as monstrous women (222-23). Certainly Octavi an can be included in this discussion of gender-bending women; however even with his knowledge of these cultural happenings, Hofmannsthal uses the character of Octavian not as a symbol of fear, mutation, or disease, but, moving beyond the moral decay of nineteenth century decadence, creates a character who is complexly-gendered and yet still endowed with a sympathetic humanity. 3 For more on Krafft-Ebings influence on homos exuality in the nineteenth century, see Oosterhuis, who makes the claim that sexual perversion was recognized, confirmed, and legitimized through the dialogue between patient and psychiatric community present in KrafftEbings numerous case studies (212).

PAGE 29

29 In the concluding act, readers can finally be gin to envision Octavian s full character arc as well as the non-normative sexuality with which Hofmannsthal has provided him. When the Marschallin finally arrives at the inn, subsequently ending th e convoluted plot Octavian had devised to thwart Baron Ochs plans of marrying Sophie, she informs the police commissioner that the whole thing was a charade and not hing more [das Ganze war halt eine Farce und weiter nichts] (189) and Tis a Viennese masquerade nothing more [Is eine wienerische Maskerad und weiter nichts] (190). Ostensib ly, the Marschallin is referring to the ploy concocted by Octavian involving numberless char acters now dressed as widows, children, and ghosts, but the pointed use of the words charade and masquerade echo the notion of fantasy and alternative sexualities exemplified in the Presen tation of the Rose scene. But this leaves the audience wondering, Was all of this, then, a hoax? An operatic sleight of hand? If so, the return to the triangle of lovers at the operas dnouement and the deservedly famous final trio seem to silence any suspic ion of the operas con tinuing insincerity. The moving, even if melodramatic, display of emo tions in the Marschallins relinquishment of Octavian and the charming, even if ephemeral, pairing of the young lovers in the final duet contradict any arguments that may claim that th e manygendered Octavian is merely a charade or inassimilable other. At the end of the opera, wh ether or not Sophie and Octavian remain together long after the curtains close, Ho fmannsthal allows this symbol of non-heteronormative sexuality to exist and to merit affording a happy ending.

PAGE 30

30 ACT III MUSICAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND THE TROUSER ROLE W hile the more literary aspects of Der Rosenkavalier s libretto point to a multigendered characterization of Octavian, the most recognized feature of opera tends not to be the text but the music. German composer Richard Strauss gain ed fame (and notoriety) by writing operas that explored complex and oftentimes disturbing portrayals of gender and sexuality. As I mentioned before, Strauss first triumph as an ope ra composer came after the premiere of Salome in 1905. Adapted from Oscar Wildes dramatic treatment of the biblical story, the opera recounts the young Salomes obsession and lust after Jokanaan (J ohn the Baptist) and closes with an extended scene where she sings a fascinating and horrific song of desire to his severed head. Even Strauss follow-up opera, 1909s Elektra focuses on the Greek tragedy where the eponymous heroine plots the death of her mother, Klytemnst ra, who has murdered Elektras father. Aside from their psychosexual subject matter, both of th ese operas were also marked by Strauss use of harsh and unnerving dissonance in order to convey the equally unsettli ng narratives of sexual deviance (Plaut 268). While the later Der Rosenkavalier has been criticized as a retreat from the more adventurous compositions in the darker Salome and Elektra the composer by no means balks from musically molding yet another ch aracter who explores non-normative gender and sexuality. Indeed, Strauss not only endows Octavian with both masculine and feminine motifs in his musical signatures but also orchestrally shap es Octavians scenes in order to draw the audiences attention to the characters queered presence. In her landmark text on feminism and opera, Opera, or the Undoing of Women Catherine Clment devotes a sectio n to the discussion of Der Rosenkavalier describing Octavian, in particular, as the young count Octavian, [who] is distinctly unruly, sc atterbrained enough and with a good enough start under ladies skirts to be known tenderly as Quinquin. And Richard

PAGE 31

31 Strauss gives him a disturbing womans voice (108) I find that Clments choice of words in referring to Octavian as having a disturbing voice robs the character of its powerful position of gender reevaluation as a figure which overlap s genders. Clments comment also seems to dismiss that this very particular voice allows Octavian to maneuver more fluidly between the genders represented by the other ch aracters in the opera. For example, in the first act, Strauss often features horn fanfares to represent Octavian s arrogant and specifically-masculine behavior when he attempts to overpower the Marschallins doubts of his fidelity. In deed, in his article, Kitsch, Camp, and Opera: Der Rosenkavalier Gary Le Tourneau describes the use of brass as ejaculatory horn calls (93). While, in this quotation, Le Tourneau assigns a masculine vocality to the character of Octa vian, he continues on to argue that Octavian is made a member of both genders by the music (93, emphasis mine). Certainly, despite Octavians musical and verbal ejaculations, he can often revert to a more lyrical and feminine line that mirrors the musical characterization of his female lover, the Marschallin. In the selection provided in figure 1, as Octavian and the Marschallin intimately c oo over one another, thei r alternating pet names become repeated musical phrases that produce th e effect that the two female voices echo or answer one another:

PAGE 32

32 Figure III-1. Der Rosenkavalier ; Act I (Source: Strauss 24-5) This androgynous vocalizing in the first act al so resembles the vocal and gender leaps of Octavians pageboy predecessor, Cherubino. Naom i Andr explores this notion of Cherubinos two voices in Voicing Gender: Castrati, Travesti, and the Second Woman in Early-NineteenthCentury Italian Opera : As for Cherubino, the aria [Non so pi] illustrates the tug and pull he experiences between his two voices. [I]t is as though he is trying to tame his voice and push it down to a lower tessitura, yet it keeps popping up to a higher range, almost beyond his control. Split between his higher and lower voices, his I am encompasses the two simultaneous aspects of the childlike boy and the budding adult male personalities he embodies. (109) Much like this doubled voice that exists inside the character of Cherubino, Octavian experiences a similar multivocality. With a vocal line that al ternates between violent and bombastic as he

PAGE 33

33 imagines challenging the Marschal lins husband to a duel and light and lyrical when he comforts and woos his older lover, Octavi an and his vocal characterization, even in the span of the first scene, swing wildly from the masculine to the feminine. This multigendered vocal line that Strauss attributes to Octavian (Strauss himself wa s no stranger to Mozart, and it is believed that Octavians character and name are drawn from the character of Don Ottavio from Don Giovanni [Abel 159]) reinforces the comple x gender construction of the char acter, allowing Octavian to transcend the limiting label of a lesbian samen ess and represent an even more universal, ungendered figure. The female ensembles also especially em phasize this tricky destabilizing of gender in Octavians character. Like the previous ex amination of Hofmannsthals libretto during the Presentation of the Rose scene and duet, Stra uss orchestration highlights the mystical, otherworldly quality of this scene which undermin es traditional concepts of time and sexuality. Strauss prominent usage of celesta, harp, and fl ute in the descending theme of the duet creates a shimmering, glossy effect which enhances the un-/surreality of the moment. To the fore of Strauss orch estration during this scene, however, are the twin female voices of Octavian and Sophie. As the duet begi ns, Octavian sings in a low, almost monotone voice, even dipping down to a C sharp below the st aff to sing the word Jungfer. While Sophie begins in a similar monotone, she soon soars up to a B above the staff when extolling the beauty of the silver rose (Wie himmelische). Th is marked contrast between the lower-lying passages of Octavians more masculine voice and Sophies hi gh, feminine tones present the listener with very separately-gen dered voicesaural signifiers of Octavians masculinity versus Sophies femininity; however, when Octavian and Sophie begin singing together, the yearning triplet pattern of their shared musical line becomes almost identical, and the audience finds it

PAGE 34

34 difficult to separate which voice belongs to Octavi an and which voice belongs to Sophie. In the climatic measure especially (beginning at the section labeled 36 in fi gure 2), the two singers melodies synch up perfectly, remaining only a thir d apart from one another on the musical scale, emphasizing the transvocality of Octavian who, through the course of th e duet, sings as both male and female: Figure III-2. Der Rosenkavalier ; Act II (Source: Strauss 175-76) Thus, through his composition a nd orchestration in the Pres entation of the Rose duet, Strauss adds an additional dimension to Hofmannsthals textual description of the scene,

PAGE 35

35 underpinning the break from gender tradition and convention captured in the duets otherworldly atmosphere and Octavians fluctuating musical line that at times embodies both masculine and feminine characteristics. Strauss attention to the ge ndered vocality of Octavian becomes even more focused in the final trio and duet. In the celebrated trio (Hab mirs gelobt), the compos er layers the voices of his female performers to create an almost impenetrable mesh of feminine sound. In Opera and the Culture of Fascism Jeremy Tambling describes this en semble, explaining that the voices soar, and it is not clear which voice is being heard, whether that of the stage women or the putative malethat is, Octavian (190). Surely, in composing this piece, Strauss was aware of this inevitable aural confusiona confusion that, in obscuring the gender of the male Octavian among the female voices of Sophie and the Ma rschallin, undermines gender binaries, giving form to a character without tangible or definite maleor femaleness. Even more so than its role in the Presentation of the Rose scene, Octavi ans voice alternates be tween its masculine and feminine colorations, at times providing the s upportive moving line whil e the voices of Sophie and the Marschallin draw out their high notes and then suddenly soari ng higher than both the other voices (as seen when Octavian sings Ist den nein groes Un recht in figure 3):

PAGE 36

36 Figure III-3. Der Rosenkavalier ; Act III (Source: Strauss 439) This inseparable web of female voices dissipat es soon after when the Marschallin exits to attend to the neurotic Faninal, leaving Sophie and Octavian alone to perform the operas final piece, the duet Ist ein TraumSpr nur dich. What strikes the liste ner about this duet is how relatively conventional the piece sounds af ter the complex vocal maneuverings and chordal dissonances of the trio. The duets more typical and familiar structure and delivery stem specifically from the tradition of the hetero sexual love duet that runs throughout operatic performance history. As Eric A. Plaut recounts in Grand Opera: Mirror of the Western Mind it was Hofmannsthal himself who suggested to Strauss that he com pose a Mozartian duet for the operas finale (281). Both structural ly and tonally, this closing duet in Der Rosenkavalier follows the pattern of the Mozartian heterosexual love duet typified by the famous L ci darem la mano from Don Giovanni In The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozarts Vienna Mary Hunter explains the predictable duet st ructure of Mozarts duet via th e scholarship of Ronald Rabin:

PAGE 37

37 Rabin has described the progression as moving from independent statements for the two participants, through dialogue, to a closing tutti in parallel thirds and si xths. The independent statements often repeat the same melody (162). By extension, this same structure applies to Strauss Mozartian Ist ein TraumSpr nur dich. Indeed, even though Sophie and Octavians duet begins with the tutti after the first unis on section, Octavian and Sophie trade off the melody as mentioned above. Just like Don Giovannis heterosexual se duction of Zerlina in L ci darem la mano, the male and female figures of Octavian and Sophie alternate the melodic line of the duet until closing the opera w ith their shared reprise of the duets main theme. In composing this duet, whose format and content would be familiar to operagoers, Strauss places Octavian and Sophie in the longs tanding tradition of hete ronormative gender roles in opera; however, at the same time, the conscious choice to use the androgynous voice of Octavian as a participant in the duet works against a strictly straight reading of the scene. The similarity of the two female voices when swappi ng identical melodic lines or even when singing in harmony enhances the sexual sameness of thes e supposed differently-gendered characters. Also, the recurrence of celesta, harp, and flute ec hoes their same thematic uses in the queered Presentation of the Rose scene. So, not only does Strauss present his audi ence with a non-static character that constantly maneuvers between genders, but hi s is a character more fully-formed than the pageboys of operatic past, for while Ch erubino sings love songs to the worlds women in Non so pi and Voi che sapete, these arias are sung alone; Octavian, on the other hand, is permitted to function in a romantic relationshi pto sing a love song to another character and have that character reciprocate his desire.

PAGE 38

38 ACT IV VISUAL ANALYSIS OF OCTAVIAN AND T HE TROUSER ROLE Last, but most definitely not least, in reading the queerness of Der Rosenkavalier audiences and scholars alike must pay especial attention to th e staging and production of the opera. Although the visual aspect of opera is of ten its most vivid and striking quality, audiences are deprived of this crucial tool to understa nding opera performance when it is heard as a recording. Because this visual component is of ten ignored by scholars in opera analysis, Linda and Michael Hutcheon argue for the necessity of examining this physical space of opera in their 2000 essay, Staging the Female Body: Richard Strausss Salome : While it may seem obvious that the staged body is central to any form of theatrical representation, it is the voicealmost a dise mbodied voicethat has come to dominate discussions of opera, especially since the t echnological advances in audio recording and radio transmissions. In a related move opera criticism has been dominated by considerations of the music th at voice singsusually separate d from the librettos verbal text and the dramatic staged narrative. Musicologists confidently assert: It is after all the music that an opera-lover goes to hear. But, speaking for these opera-lovers, at least, we go to see as well as hear a performance, and th at performance includes a verbal text and a staged dramatic narrativefor wh ich that (admittedly important) music was especially written. Opera is an embodied art form; it is the performers who give it its phenomenal reality. Indeed, opera owes its undeniable affective power to the overdetermination of the verbal, the visual a nd the auralnot to th e aural alone. And it is specifically the bodythe gendered, se xualized bodythat will not be denied in staged opera. (206) Indeed, the gendered bodies of the characters in Der Rosenkavalier are extraordinarily vital means through which audiences may apprehend the complexities of the work, not to mention the ways in which various aspects of the opera as seemingly inconsequential as props and costumes further the queer representations of Octavian. Silver Roses, Swords, and the Gendered Props of Der Rosenkavalier Aside from the titular silver rose, perhaps the most famous prop that cleverly comments upon Octavians sexuality is his sword. Serving as a surrogate phallus for the female actors literal lack, Octavians sword doesnt simply sit at his side for the enti rety of the opera but

PAGE 39

39 almost performs a role of its own in pr opelling the narrative to its finale. In Opera in the Flesh Sam Abel explains the use of Octavians sword in Der Rosenkavalier against the more blatant psychosexual dramas of Salome and Elektra claiming that Strauss car ries over the fetish-laden atmosphere of his first two successes and transf orms it into a much more subtle use of the sexually obsessive symbol (124). This vis ual objectification of Octavians elusive masculinity (124), as Abel calls it, often comes into play in the operas pl ot in order to clarify Octavians maleness. In the first act, for exampl e, Octavian accidentally leaves his sword in the Marschallins room as he runs to hide from Baron Ochs. Not only does the phallic sword, in this instance, allude to the post-coital scene that opens the opera, but the Marschallin also chides Octavians masculinity for his misplacement of the weapon, stating, You scatterbrain, how careless of you! Is it the thi ng to leave ones sword lying arou nd in a ladys bedroom? Have you no manners? [Er Katzenkopf, Er Unvorsichtiger! Lt man in einer Dame Schlafzimmer seinen Degen herumliegen? Hat Er keine besseren Gepflogenheiten ?] (63) This utilization of the sword as a prop in this scene and the Marsch allins subsequent chastisement of Octavians maleness reinforce once again that Octavian is a character who has been gendered in multiple ways by the staging of Der Rosenkavalier Not only does the sword metaphorically signify Octavians masculinity, but his improper placement of it (i.e., his misuse of the phallus) labels him as unmasculine and dis tinctly non-heteronormative. In the second act, the sword takes on an even more significant role as the scuffle that ensues between Baron Ochs and Octavian climati cally sets into motion the conflict that will bring about the operas deus ex machina resolution. When Octavian initially confronts Ochs on behalf of Sophie, Ochs is di smissive and condescending toward the young boy. Octavian rashly challenges Ochs to a duel, brandishing his swor d, which results in Oc hs accidentally wounding

PAGE 40

40 himself on the weapon. As Ochs blusters over the slight injury he receives, he remarks, One is what one is and has no need to prove it [Ma n ist halt, was man ist, und brauchts nicht zu beweisen] (140). Again, Octavians sword and Ochs response draw atte ntion to the limitations of Octavians maleness. Even the ineffectual w ounding of Ochs (other than the tantrum it elicits from the Baron) reemphasizes Octavians inab ility to wield his substitute phallus and to successfully perform expected male roles. Thus, Strauss and Hofmannsthals effective use of the sword as prop and symbol throughou t the narrative and staging of Der Rosenkavalier work to further Octavians complex characterization as a fluidly-gendered figure that destabilizes conventional binary gender constructions. Alfred Roller, Ert, and the Costuming of Octavian More so than m ost operas (the spartan pr oduction values and costuming of Wagner and verismo operas immediately come to mind), Der Rosenkavalier gains a majority of its appeal from its distinctive, elaborate visual style. This confectioners sugar coating has garnered the opera many critiques for being too superficial, but I would argue that this surface sheen serves as yet another important facet in fles hing out a queered sensitivity of this work. The costuming in particular functions to both masculinize and feminize the character of Octavian. In his discussion of Victorian represen tations of trouser roles in Opera in the Flesh Sam Abel notes that artists often made no attempt to hide the femaleness of the travesti performers: There is no attempt at realistic illusion; the contours of the ideal feminine body are often more highlighted in drag than in proper womens clothes. The male clothes emphasize the female parts. Images of hourglass figur es, wasp waists, and large bosoms recur in these engravings, clearly evoking the ideal of feminine sexual allure. (211) In the sketches available from the original 1911 Der Rosenkavalier premiere, however, the costume designs literally obscure the gender of the actor playing Octavian under mens military

PAGE 41

41 or ceremonial outfits while also introducing f eminine and ornate touches to complicate the characters masculinity: Figure IV-1. Octavian Rofrano: Figure IV-2. Octavian Rofrano: Drittes Kostm, Erster Aufzug Viertes Kostm, Zweiter Aufzug (Source: Roller 17) (Source: Roller 25) In these original 1910 costume sketches for the operas premiere in Dresden, Alfred Roller portrays Octavian with a lithe, boyish figure stripped of any marker of the femaleness underneath (except, perhaps, for the more pronounced hips of the figure in the second image). The faces, however, are certainly more androgynous. In figure 1, Octavians colored cheeks and feline eyes make him more pretty and feminine, while the cherubic face in figure 2 seems to defy

PAGE 42

42 gender categorization completely. Even the costum es themselves, especially the silver outfit in figure 2, are almost feminine in th eir sartorial opulence and finery. Figure IV-3. Octavian Rofrano Genannt Quinquin: Erstes Kostm, Erster Aufzug (Source: Roller 5) The Octavian in figure 3, also by Alfred Roller, brings the actors femaleness even more to the fore as the jacketless figures feminine hips and backside are now visible (even though, surprisingly, the face appears more masculine than the previous two images). Thus, in each of these sketches, Roller emphasizes both the masc uline and feminine qualities of the Octavian character, creating a figure that balances between, rather than resolving into, a strict male or female gender identity.

PAGE 43

43 Erts costume designs for the 1980 Glyndebourne Festival similarly straddle depictions of masculinity and femininity: Figure IV-4. Octavian at the end of Ac t I Figure IV-5. Octavians runners (Source: Ert 19) (Source: Ert 25) Unlike the more ambiguous genders of the figures in Rollers sketches, the image of Octavian in figure 4 at first may appear to be an unquestionable female in mens clothing, as if designer Ert makes no attempt to hide the gende r of the actor playing Octavian; however, when compared to the accompanying paintings of Octa vians retinue (figure 5)male characters, especially those associated with the fantastic al Presentation of the Rose scene, who would actually be performed onstage by male actorsth ey appear similarly effeminate. Thus, the fashion-oriented Ert displays Octavians fluid gender not through the same androgyny of

PAGE 44

44 Rollers images, but through an almost effe minized masculinity, which endows the male characters in the opera, whethe r being performed by male or fe male actors, with a beauty typically associated with females. So, both Roller and Ert maintain a multigendered portrayal of Octavian through their respective costume sketches by recognizing both the masculine and feminine qualities of the character. Even more so than two-dimensional images and sketches, though, the three-dimensional costuming of Octavian plays an integral role in the comprehension of Der Rosenkavalier s queer performativity. Over the course of Der Rosenkavalier Octavian dons womens clothes and disguises himself as Mariandlfirst to escap e notice when leaving the Marschallins boudoir and secondly to entrap Baron Ochs in order to th wart his marriage arrangement to Sophie. This double cross-dressing by the actor playing Octavian draws even more atte ntion to the genderplay at work in the opera. For example, when the Marschallin kisses Octavi an dressed as a woman (You darling! And I can give you no more than a kiss [Du Schatz! Und nicht einmal mehr als ein Busserl kann ich dir geben. ] [69]) and calls after him, And come back, darling, but in mans clothing and by the front door, if you pl ease [Und komm Er wieder, Schatz, aber in Mannskleidern und durch die vordre Tr, wenns Ihm beliebt] (69), she makes known her preference that Octavian return to her in the dr ag costuming of his male clothes. Thus, the Marschallin doesnt desire Octavi an as a lesbian (as many modern scholars have interpreted the Marschallin-Octavian affair) or as a heterose xual woman, but instead desires the other-gendered Octavian who inhabits both realms of sexuality. Fassbaender, Kirchschlager, and the Filmed P erformances of Der Rosenkavalier Lastly, I would like to examine briefly two performances of Der Rosenkavalier available on DVD and how their respective acto rs portrayals of Octavian enha nce (or fail to enhance) the notion of gender mutability I have espoused throughout this project. The first filmization is a

PAGE 45

45 1979 performance of the Bayerisches Staatsorches ter, conducted by Carlos Kleiber; Brigitte Fassbaender performs the role of Octavian. Th e second is a 2004 Salzburg Festival performance by the Wiener Philharmoniker conducted by Semyon Bychkov; the Octavian is Angelika Kirchschlager. Although the 1979 performance is more traditional and ty pical in its production and staging choices, I feel that this filmic representation conveys more successfully than the avant-garde and controversial Salzburg Festival entry the plastic and fluid gender of Octavians character. In her justly-famous assump tion of the role of Octavian, Brigitte Fassbaender creates a character whose complicated web of genders and cr oss-dressings are always utterly believable. Never betraying discomfort in her intimate intera ctions with Gwyneth Jones or Lucia Popp (the actors who portray the Marschallin and Sophie, respectively), Fassbaender and her ease of performance naturalizes the non-heteronormativity of her drag character; however, despite her studied mimicry of masculinity, Fassbaender is ne ver satisfied to simply perform as a man. In her essay, In Praise of Brigit te Fassbaender: Reflections on Diva Worship, Terry Castle explains just how Fassbaenders complex performance as Octavian avoids a seamless illusion of maleness: Precisely to the degree that Fassbaender seems to enter into her male roles, precisely as I watch her approach (though without ever r eaching) a kind of zero degree masculinity, I find myself becoming more and more acutely aware of, and aroused by, her femininity. The very butchness with which she tackles, say, a role like Octavianthe sheer, absolutist bravado of the impersonationinfus es it with a dizzying homosexual charge. (43) Indeed, while Fassbaender certainly makes her masculinity believable (seen particularly convincingly when an uncomfortable, almost homophobic, tension builds at the prospect of Octavian, in the double-drag as Mariandl, kissing Baron Ochst hough, in reality, a heterosexual kiss between a male and female actor), as Castle notes, the singer neve r achieves a perfect

PAGE 46

46 semblance of masculinity. Fassbaen der, I believe, is even aware of this disjuncture, and often, in her characterization of the multigendered Octavian, fondles his sword, sheathing and unsheathing it, in symbolic recognition of he r ownand, by extension, the charactersultimate phallic lack. Thus, I feel that Fassbaender succeeds in providing an inte rpretation of Octavian that truly explores the characte rs ungendered qualitie s, rather than simply assigning Octavian either a masculine or even subversively lesbian identity. Angelika Kirchschlager, on the other hand, fo r all her many musical talents, fails to succeed in providing the wholly complex char acterization so evid ent in Fassbaenders interpretation. The problems with Kirchschlage rs performance surface most prominently when her Octavian is dressed as Mariandl. In the first act, when shes attempting to escape Baron Ochs, no amount of playacting can di sguise the fact that Kirchschlager has now reverted back to being a woman. Wearing red lipstick and her breasts unbound, it becomes obvious to the audience that the actor playing Octavian is, in realit y, female. It is almost as if director Robert Carsen had wanted to divulge th e theatrical secret of Octavians character by having the actress dress in female clothing in order to reveal her true identity. Unlike the aforementioned 1979 performance, which never tips its hand either way about Fassbaenders tr ue gender (even during the curtain calls, Fassbaender chiv alrously leads Jones and Popp out in front of her), this more recent performance breaks the operatic conceit and, even more detrimentally, explains the previously unexplainable gender of the Octavian character. In the final scene of the Sa lzburg performance, when Octavi an dresses as Mariandl in order to seduce Baron Ochs, Kirchschlager is co stumed in layered lingerie and comes sashaying campily through a circle of women in her new dis guise. Almost completely antithetical to her previous double cross-dressing, Kirchschlager now treats femininity not as Octavians true

PAGE 47

47 identity, but as full-blown parody. Instead of fleshing out the varying genders and sexualities that comprise Octavians identity, this parodic portrayal of Octavians double drag performance turns the characters sexual sl ippage into a humorousbut mean inglessjoke, rather than a source of gender exploration and examination. Then again, some viewers and scholars may ar gue that the subversive sexuality absent in Kirchschlagers performance can be seen more openly in the vivid and unabashed sexual displays throughout the 2004 production. Certainly, the operas bookending scenes feature Octavian and the Marschallin (Adrianne Pieczonka )and Sophie (Miah Persson) in the finale in various stages of undress, passionately kissing, embracing, and rolling around on beds. Unfortunately, I see this seeming celebration of Der Rosenkavalier s queer sensibilities as ultimately limited. Rather than truly exploring th e sexual complexities of Octavians character, these scenes simply exploit the more prurient and sensationalist homosexual aspects of the operas casting, as evidenced by the remainder of the pre-World War II Regietheater production, which sets the final scene in a brothel where numerous couples simulate intercourse in the background. In contrast to the Presentation of the Rose scene, where the otherworldly atmosphere queers gender and sexuality, the scenes of sexuality in Ca rsens production of Der Rosenkavalier simply serve to shock and titillate.

PAGE 48

48 POSTLUDE So, in exam ining the extraordinarily vital textual, musical, and visual features of Der Rosenkavalier, modern operagoers and scholars can begi n to see how Strauss and Hofmannsthal as well as subsequent opera dire ctors, producers, costume designe rs, and performers have each attempted to preserve the fascinating sexual a nd gender mores of the opera and its eponymous hero(ine). As I bring this project to a close, I would lik e to draw your attention to a correspondence written by composer Richard Stra uss to librettist Hugo von Hofmannsthal on the ninth of July, 1909. Replying to a draft of the second act that Ho fmannsthal had recently sent, Strauss discusses the character of Octavian and his elaborate plot to foil Baron Ochs plans of marrying Sophie: The more mischievous Octavian is the better (267). Whether or not Strauss intended this comment to refer specifically to Oc tavians complicated cro ss-dressing as Mariandl or simply the convoluted scheme in general, I feel that this quotation helps us to grasp the very purposeful intent behind the character of Octavian: to function as a contrary to heteronormativity. Not simply a lesbian or homosexual figure, Octavian is a powerfullyungendered other that opens a site for ques tioning accepted genders and sexualities and challenging the status quo. As we look over the long lineage of the trouser role and its multifaceted methods of commenting on gender and sexuality, from the onstage gender anarchy of Handel to Mozarts lusty pageboy, arriving at Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthals Der Rosenkavalier brings us to a point in operatic hist ory where the queer sensibilities currently so synonymous with opera truly began to emer ge and, even to this day, flourish. So, as opera continues to build an even la rger gay and lesbian following, queer scholars and fans alike can continue to expand and refine the discourse of gender rebellion that occurs on the operatic stage. By viewing opera through the lens of queer and gender studies, we can unlock perceptions and interpretations long obscu red by the more conservative ideologies that

PAGE 49

49 have dominated this multimedia art form. Thus if we truly recognize and embrace the queerness of operafrom its travesti to its divadom to its still untappe d realms of non-heteronormativity lovers of opera can begin to mine the rich dept hs of subversion inherent in these extravagant, melodramatic, campyand fabulously gayworks of art.

PAGE 50

50 LIST OF REFERENCES Abel, Sam Opera in the Flesh: Sexuality in Operatic Performance Boulder: Westview, 1996. Andr, Naomi. Voicing Gender: Castrati, Travesti, and the Second Woman in Early-NineteenthCentury Italian Opera Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2006. Bashant, Wendy. Singing in Greek Drag: Gluck, Berlioz, George Eliot. Blackmer and Smith 216-41. Blackmer, Corinne E. and Patricia Juliana Smith, eds. En Travesti: Women, Gender Subversion, Opera. New York: Columbia UP, 1995. Blumer, Rodney, ed. Der Rosenkavalier LP Booklet. London: Decca, 1969. Brett, Philip and Elizabeth Wood. Lesbian and Gay Music. Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology Eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, and Gary C. Thomas. New York: Routledge, 2006. 351-89. Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex. New York: Routledge, 1993. Castle, Terry. In Praise of Brigitte Fassbaender: Reflections on Diva-Worship. Blackmer and Smith 20-58. Clment, Catherine. Opera, or the Undoing of Women Trans. Betsy Wing. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1988. Ert. Erts Costumes and Sets for Der Rosenkavalier in Full Color. New York: Dover, 1980. Hadlock, Heather. The Career of Cherubino, or the Trouser Role Grows Up. Smart 67-92. Hart, Beth. Strauss and Hofmanns thal's Accidental Heroine: Th e Psychohistorical Meaning of the Marschallin. Opera Quarterly 15.3 (Summer 1999): 414-34. Hofmannsthal, Hugo von. Der Rosenkavalier Libretto. London: Decca, 1984. Hunter, Mary. The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozarts Vienna: A Poetics of Entertainment Princeton: Princeton UP, 1999. Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. Sta ging the Female Body: Richard Strausss Salome Smart 204-21. Koestenbaum, Wayne. The Queens Throat: Opera, Homosex uality, and the Mystery of Desire New York: Poseidon, 1993.

PAGE 51

51 Le Tourneau, Gary. Kitsch, Camp, and Opera: Der Rosenkavalier Canadian University Music Review 14 (1994): 77-97. Leonardi, Susan J. and Rebecca A. Pope. The Divas Mouth: Body, Voice, and Prima Donna Politics New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1996. Levin, David J. Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart Verdi, Wagner, and Zemlinsky Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2007. Oosterhuis, Harry. Stepchildren of Nature: Krafft-Ebing, Ps ychiatry, and the Making of Sexual Identity Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2000. Plaut, Eric A. Grand Opera: Mirror of the Western Mind. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1993. Reynolds, Margaret. Ruggieros Deceptions, Cher ubinos Distractions. Blackmer and Smith 132-51. Roller, Alfred. Octavian Rofrano: Dritt es Kostm, Erster Aufzug. Blumer 17. Octavian Rofrano: Viertes Kostm, Zweiter Aufzug. Blumer 25. Octavian Rofrano Genannt Quinquin: Erstes Kostm, Erster Aufzug. Blumer 5. Der Rosenkavalier Dir. Otto Schenk. Perf. Dame Gwyneth Jones, Brigitte Fassbaender, Lucia Popp, Manfred Jungwirth, Carlos Kleiber. 1979. DVD. Deutsche Grammophon, 2005. Dir. Robert Carsen. Perf. Adrianne Pieczo nka, Angelika Kirchschlager, Miah Persson, Franz Hawlata, Semyon Bychkov. DVD. TDK, 2004. Smart, Mary Ann, ed. Siren Songs: Representations of Gender and Sexuality in Opera Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000. Strauss, Richard. Dear Herr von Hofmannsthal. 9 July 1909. Opera: A History in Documents Ed. Piero Weiss. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. 266-68. Der Rosenkavalier Vocal Score. New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1943. Tambling, Jeremy. Opera and the Culture of Fascism New York: Oxford UP, 1996.

PAGE 52

52 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Peter DEttore is a native of Florida, born and raised in Pem broke Pines. He earned his bachelors degree in English literature with a minor in womens studies from Florida State University in December 2004. Over the course of his graduate study, he has developed interests in 20th century womens poetry, gender and queer studi es, and opera studies. After receiving his masters degree from the University of Florida in December 2007, he plans to pursue a career as a junior college literature and writing instructor.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110331_AAAADW INGEST_TIME 2011-03-31T22:24:44Z PACKAGE UFE0021796_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 365 DFID F20110331_AACTIQ ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH dettore_p_Page_49.txt GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
058bd476f302bd79a56619c7ed09e6e6
SHA-1
fe3a147531c51c00bf75c9ae4c6edc746d873d37
509 F20110331_AACTDT dettore_p_Page_02thm.jpg
21e1fd324e49188a0c9597782c4b7f2d
f796927190b40ae13b9cf59a00d5f4d62200a0ba
1051959 F20110331_AACTNN dettore_p_Page_50.jp2
6de28e08af81d6113129bb81f4b3ba2d
fadb35fd0a0f124551952b4183b6f325ff9414d5
2009 F20110331_AACTIR dettore_p_Page_07.txt
2f328530e0cc5c4d0794c9dd6df93220
15f2846da5595de7f2de8315d0a10c65674cdd92
49510 F20110331_AACTDU dettore_p_Page_18.pro
2bf99ac79a708cce5059396819d42a6f
d0638b4d7abeb4b2e144ce17a301af90b5f5c02a
1020438 F20110331_AACTNO dettore_p_Page_51.jp2
aebe9bd78568486daa0319c3cf60467c
06174a7a6b90f65530ddd8c9326cc9c2149acb7a
846 F20110331_AACTIS dettore_p_Page_42.txt
6014615fd98300b6d31e708869bc70c1
a7423f2beca28f4b33de0e28a8ef7d5a0f1d1dda
106558 F20110331_AACTDV dettore_p_Page_09.jpg
6a840e86cb285bde0004131fdf9fd168
9a646e21dc6c3e5191de64f8024d729ff66c990c
32007 F20110331_AACTNP dettore_p_Page_50.QC.jpg
cb8a7709b2726aa544afc6df63d44d96
95f2aa5d3400b3162d4e5d69b706e5531f6cc7d3
8456 F20110331_AACTDW dettore_p_Page_26thm.jpg
5ee8d317238a6f730a7446db9e6080e0
cf195f3599df7c3b12010086cdede3453c5d12b8
36598 F20110331_AACTNQ dettore_p_Page_30.QC.jpg
8eedbed59c7c79b27c8a45697e94b2af
d1745c305b25def076a104bd5bd8121bce542d46
121688 F20110331_AACTIT dettore_p_Page_19.jpg
49aeffa1e1154ed2e9d3e687815ed9df
8ffb3e98cf0c44c93e3eb41c14a6a41f4d2d2a58
23518 F20110331_AACTDX dettore_p_Page_12.jpg
77ba262d88a9535f0d405fdc6273bf55
8c123e50c780298a7a66d82ee063e5b0151d79b8
38607 F20110331_AACTNR dettore_p_Page_36.QC.jpg
4f6ebef99042b5793b6c2d6cb01e1f52
f8ca25cec03f6579edc0b950b287f9c701ac0ec9
32125 F20110331_AACTIU dettore_p_Page_18.QC.jpg
96bc9a84f0c771e963dd2e764221535f
bbdf6e46b54c216ae4a2c361087415a133f511c2
1202 F20110331_AACTNS dettore_p_Page_02.QC.jpg
d7c0c1b60dc6cd53bc0b5dcc72cfc498
0490efb4e42f67a1826ade50090e131132283abe
26746 F20110331_AACTIV dettore_p_Page_43.QC.jpg
7226f68d15e8b0b18200d8049ae404b9
846eafb03d2272f936be656b739f86a28e222056
113972 F20110331_AACTBA dettore_p_Page_48.jpg
416e7a0d5557b2890caad187b2eaca2b
2637da1dffe4adb1b52bf7a549f727c370a9acdb
59061 F20110331_AACTDY dettore_p_Page_15.pro
a992f819ab675a9d304f198d794b335c
627b9b2b6ba2ed622b23d1264ecd648e2f396617
30264 F20110331_AACTNT dettore_p_Page_41.QC.jpg
57f805af02a83db65edde6e09686ecb6
b97ff60baad86d8b88e506e28a100d6b8cf9e35b
26212 F20110331_AACTIW dettore_p_Page_35.QC.jpg
fbbad54bb3f89a28b7eb12617af99164
67f5bd015e7d975e68aa9eab14755c9f7aa70e0a
1051913 F20110331_AACTBB dettore_p_Page_23.jp2
ed52ad933b0f6a7733be6c1258efc8f7
264075645a6522e16b5652b5c15535aa89d6bb41
8631 F20110331_AACTDZ dettore_p_Page_13thm.jpg
9e833a79cfda156ba8b0d654dbb6f3a6
ced48fee5d333615a3f0d4810e8fc6a78ad5f3b4
8774 F20110331_AACTNU dettore_p_Page_50thm.jpg
5d1e9994320a05133861b9f851f2caed
0277f0585a27a4159d3cdd93ee4be143ca003783
2223 F20110331_AACTIX dettore_p_Page_28.txt
31330dd251cffcb233cdc60f762de655
5ab2ad04360db8a064a1f7a822358b9d5b2a94a3
56134 F20110331_AACTBC dettore_p_Page_17.pro
7dbd7a41b87b6fd616c7437a91ba18ad
132664ec1a91f7929689561e2a5cb06a52ef3396
35864 F20110331_AACTNV dettore_p_Page_14.QC.jpg
de3a586241842208891d17f4adad54fe
7f227083963ed8339513826d7315378c27caa697
667394 F20110331_AACTIY dettore_p_Page_21.jp2
2d798a34de073f08816b2b88a4051868
b10a86f29d7b1b694c259642618d9e8447bd73d7
122171 F20110331_AACTBD dettore_p_Page_11.jpg
5de567ee1d36a1e0c461005099c8cd7f
7a969ddcc86560c18120b94a604f400b6cedb54e
38109 F20110331_AACTNW dettore_p_Page_38.QC.jpg
6b4c83467efb9ca52d5660d684adf797
2a1fa3d514136fbada1be5ef362d7b818125a369
1051969 F20110331_AACTGA dettore_p_Page_30.jp2
52151fc51b927ff92a4a2aaeab63e3e3
a41119acd6301450c25aca688014dbbefbd924f3
2161 F20110331_AACTIZ dettore_p_Page_46.txt
979bcb4da0ebb4719e7228fd4adb6312
abbe10d4ffcb599286f2541a70b812270d7cacf7
103412 F20110331_AACTBE dettore_p_Page_26.jpg
5dbcdeb36b1b9fd4a142eb73bd210c37
755856cdfa313a80670f1f4c3e862f2fa3a79255
8601 F20110331_AACTNX dettore_p_Page_25thm.jpg
368e1986a46241c579ae7bb051e27616
edf377de32c05facc450d7b1dce273a332a8de4b
998899 F20110331_AACTGB dettore_p_Page_43.jp2
0977f81b095b380ca3ab5b68928a280b
10b2c32de4223cf4fb00fe825c87954649660bc6
25271604 F20110331_AACTBF dettore_p_Page_34.tif
2c32a1ad21dccae44704cb42363841ed
7c6cf07dc4297cd6c854286ffbd6ac328a7fd2b2
8791 F20110331_AACTNY dettore_p_Page_33thm.jpg
3d38d210ebcc091ff5c546a5666a0165
055bed4e1660a34d451c689e63ae9f89d2379a52
109106 F20110331_AACTGC dettore_p_Page_20.jpg
7a753265ee1cf9eccf7d04ea2169bae8
1f3f53337f51bb1c85bc52e4c927485a2732fa00
2001 F20110331_AACTLA dettore_p_Page_50.txt
f1e2239664890a53fb7d4a0b043a00b9
7eba792f867d6d531335e173c9fe9d93cc3991bc
33671 F20110331_AACTNZ dettore_p_Page_26.QC.jpg
bdb281670f5d07b89ee3c626f9c5d088
d7447065ab51357ff43b0b15bf9db15c04e41ba6
26702 F20110331_AACTGD dettore_p_Page_34.pro
3da51a475c036768f30854beac1293c7
aa68a4cc8d4fd91ae60116d1678abf4dba47a4db
2928 F20110331_AACTBG dettore_p_Page_03.pro
c930311f9cc63e5d49a0f6a170e2d9a1
9d272bb203262ba7e1dee514e467a6d0d84ae6ff
609 F20110331_AACTLB dettore_p_Page_52.txt
a1ec612d49918c9eee714d49c9f11fbc
32e0e5e3122cdc6a289f76e2dda1a575c79d8bcb
115012 F20110331_AACTGE dettore_p_Page_27.jpg
14ffece49fe32123d29b43788f2bb80a
41043ed5975c6fc44595640106b18036fe2866be
33315 F20110331_AACTBH dettore_p_Page_52.jpg
d232dfb5a94a2199d92298a9a17cf68d
a45aa7d31051e132dae62d668dcc8c4ade83cefb
9310 F20110331_AACTLC dettore_p_Page_01.pro
be9b0b66fd85c5be3bb28eed8735a976
4ee7974b41ef09bbd7d7e0e61bf8625b361ae562
F20110331_AACTGF dettore_p_Page_28.tif
3fdeccdc7cd0d4d7c154d1dd5c128b8a
05c1c0fb7156429031b8e613de6a126888b72fe0
9146 F20110331_AACTBI dettore_p_Page_49.pro
9829fd002ac4bc2592ddb4d3658c2bf2
0d9c89f6c9b100ca892ba296ca1ea34bb1fb7ede
58771 F20110331_AACTLD dettore_p_Page_13.pro
3cac2734b1b96328158dca771e7eb8b5
ddb1bd4e422f769462efa04091d71ed7ae3dab4a
9928 F20110331_AACTGG dettore_p_Page_36thm.jpg
85bdd096edacffd75e5e58ed3c3437ce
152cd60273f632cb0b5dd8523ccb93fda8476f2e
331388 F20110331_AACTBJ dettore_p_Page_52.jp2
b84c75a15258b3cad015c8e7afb0fc74
38f9f605dd33fc4e5f4656d00d022047b5b67b80
61240 F20110331_AACTLE dettore_p_Page_19.pro
f4bd1b536d815655c7a75101365c66a6
ac424414975e57f7b3e6ba70e80769641f63ba31
116085 F20110331_AACTGH dettore_p_Page_36.jpg
0e77ace717c0b1efa88839d9864533ec
e4f7792e6dd7818931a4dd07f529a963f99a2dbb
11011 F20110331_AACTBK dettore_p_Page_52.QC.jpg
c199d56ccd498e2d0493d56c2b494e31
d2787537779c7750ecf4422f2ddee0f7c6be4b2b
55306 F20110331_AACTLF dettore_p_Page_20.pro
9848b954683b7f5b8fe7347b1362f0ca
fd3373ae80b0ced05139183bf53c204124a32de8
35585 F20110331_AACTGI dettore_p_Page_45.QC.jpg
f9dee6be6251d32f5d2736cfcdbf28e4
e41e9cf6afa336317290048f0b2e7d6aa2a5e906
112608 F20110331_AACTBL dettore_p_Page_17.jpg
061bf5658d360bd1b7655f5f96951d2f
f3bb2e1aec406b1d23d63b924b8e3b7b0ac79f57
56972 F20110331_AACTLG dettore_p_Page_23.pro
b7f97f040ef05697f04b07c74e4dc9a7
2355f3e3967e2f29f76ad419a24818fad3341b2d
8966 F20110331_AACTGJ dettore_p_Page_28thm.jpg
496bf32d1116c11f0b4b1f9a2b9ad3ef
811c75d83a46955d681f806a27ed101dfad4a892
2294 F20110331_AACTBM dettore_p_Page_01thm.jpg
254509ff9f4ffc8d9c6aa5891461267b
997348489950d8b281fbfe557bf319a10eb5917e
51516 F20110331_AACTLH dettore_p_Page_25.pro
ccc201b262b43c07e1d639df076c41a5
953b1b705950e4283d5d30aaa43d71a8e3d566af
2682 F20110331_AACTGK dettore_p_Page_52thm.jpg
1f2d61cfb27e8335677737f2ce8284ff
b46189a70ae4d98e1fe1e3c55f7c1af3e802637a
F20110331_AACTBN dettore_p_Page_22.tif
885a94af8e09a9c954e605c501cbd1bf
cea1e01a3b75203d75263187f177a926506aa297
51053 F20110331_AACTLI dettore_p_Page_26.pro
bcd2c7c21230c742da6375564dcd3cf1
8c05c891007ae7eed719d69e7ba90d5d24b174cc
45260 F20110331_AACTGL dettore_p_Page_07.pro
898b5ee0289769acfa9f99750829548d
3edd4fd70067d1d7f50215950d85dab236bb1e8b
36555 F20110331_AACTBO dettore_p_Page_27.QC.jpg
876e1dc393edf283bef9a9db8ea5275a
4cc9aee33e04c6181d6e7cf75233a7a876d6824d
58000 F20110331_AACTLJ dettore_p_Page_27.pro
1e790a5fd6f4d50e46d7ad1a0c8758ac
d64f489e57661ace97bb9625b1d900aed4a89820
1051979 F20110331_AACTGM dettore_p_Page_09.jp2
05c7acf37278a393046455458b63a28d
e63d70a6248d21b73ea0c8cbfad2eb5eec632be2
38954 F20110331_AACTBP dettore_p_Page_11.QC.jpg
dfab91072033c0a32293a54b674f55d2
5d39884fb5511475dca0aefe21e139bbba8da161
57010 F20110331_AACTLK dettore_p_Page_28.pro
26a3a32363d0797fe162143b1113b667
1504bddf9487476a36f453b9c6ec3e3235199805
713123 F20110331_AACTGN dettore_p_Page_06.jp2
0f6aa7d2af91880a219c4be98e60f4c6
37ac26db90aebe4b4a862d803106fdefff8548a2
1051931 F20110331_AACTBQ dettore_p_Page_32.jp2
28146a995d32f9b0bba2253f083955d6
7e778844a071443791969de08a22ed1306e2e338
44784 F20110331_AACTLL dettore_p_Page_29.pro
1858f2400f30e63a4b7f35a3ea614003
93b1ba96b1505782f6759a55ddc7858665d4361c
7345 F20110331_AACTGO dettore_p_Page_49.QC.jpg
ed142dcf823d43eca474858914e2a351
850305613fdc427c0143012f60d69db8906fff2e
96512 F20110331_AACTBR dettore_p_Page_07.jpg
9d713c0e84d0be82d62f0f8a86259073
4bd8bee965a4beabcc71b192caa6a45bf753e55f
35040 F20110331_AACTLM dettore_p_Page_32.pro
848d37f0c1d3234e174cc8356da6f748
e2f8f5ec52d9a5994bb87be228fe32c29a0a96cf
26857 F20110331_AACTGP dettore_p_Page_06.pro
ba0abc3c2bf6e8b811bf89794f81abca
3910e03c409a3880043a1a1a7c6c42ee6eff26a8
2219 F20110331_AACTBS dettore_p_Page_17.txt
9b169960e3a013b42b6e728998ebda64
7ca5aee2268e08f19e185e00277cd67e57fd741a
54544 F20110331_AACTLN dettore_p_Page_33.pro
4e4ec413ed3524c97f1a61c3f6fe4a91
d8a6b2ef1165d04d4b2712a8753e3e1ab5668252
23519 F20110331_AACTGQ dettore_p_Page_02.jp2
8a516aff8f7879ba555cde9763f671fa
901e332d3b8e9bf94ca3891b14f2a67fdf39cddd
111527 F20110331_AACTBT dettore_p_Page_40.jpg
4757caa33a4ec2a61d5d9296681552c3
d2847b8829ea0d8fb8d35ff0913c8592060a1661
37615 F20110331_AACTLO dettore_p_Page_35.pro
d1de611709c9b439f0bb7b6ec23015a4
98502328e592e3a589b1862615033846c40cfc7c
F20110331_AACTGR dettore_p_Page_24.tif
54862300f73e53eb366eb4105c632cc2
76778d8d891bbf7d450ac909e34c1c0c6256dd3e
9039 F20110331_AACTBU dettore_p_Page_17thm.jpg
0c332493ae4e8a0caeaf86a04d2e694b
0abe3c57ce2e64c366e98bb1a8a7326dbd378dc7
F20110331_AACTGS dettore_p_Page_17.tif
9d39c2019490593784c50fd612b40dd7
eca76588bf26ea39e19d2660c2f45b8b5468828b
9121 F20110331_AACTBV dettore_p_Page_30thm.jpg
01f8ff202076ec442ed9b76c213a8b72
30ed082ed2f95084de4456f8bcb7c43da3acbebd
44822 F20110331_AACTLP dettore_p_Page_36.pro
5c722f29fbcdd1817d541ae15713c428
0c0f14918ed5169433a1d156707fa0ee5a79e48c
47875 F20110331_AACTGT dettore_p_Page_05.pro
18586212bb10e55261a8a12efc995ace
2a074a5ede0a0329b962125fad362fe64b5aa7d8
56150 F20110331_AACTLQ dettore_p_Page_39.pro
7c255694f882be021ec35ba51dda21bb
047c3d72a4772a6e36cf18f063e6e20c23dcdffb
F20110331_AACTGU dettore_p_Page_45.tif
1a6fecaae36d96f012aae5caaa8ff5c0
e3231396bf311b22df956ffd9bee7166987514f4
F20110331_AACTBW dettore_p_Page_16.jp2
3b28c604d240b2706f336bd4391929dc
2a3032ae03de071cf9c8801b0638075c8a7a60d0
56068 F20110331_AACTLR dettore_p_Page_40.pro
ead4ba5ee8b30f9c838a1a93944223a2
1a152b180e81dd7918e3eb31522eb639b05f866c
115043 F20110331_AACTGV dettore_p_Page_44.jpg
01f77033b2e496b34a7fe05f93dc92a6
9d620032c5ba6d46148152953ecdbd435818662e
F20110331_AACTBX dettore_p_Page_16.tif
d27a69611f709efad08966e56f30038c
b94b08bd615291f84c1de3e5bb8eff86336b7e64
21673 F20110331_AACTLS dettore_p_Page_42.pro
283c4dfe0ed9a047a349575e8f39b654
d9ec6855b801c23516aa2b183eaaea070fc36cf9
F20110331_AACTGW dettore_p_Page_10.tif
21669ead1ed079d86ca1d91c1d8b7f23
40f21b9605e5aae1c7b665a2ce3128217f0c0768
F20110331_AACTBY dettore_p_Page_26.tif
cd92468044a5207df2b0745c3078ba87
dc661fd78894020f74aaaee4b74f27e67087e7bf
48489 F20110331_AACTLT dettore_p_Page_50.pro
a011f5e22df6122fc1015eff9660ca23
6e6de88a872d2d299adadb99ac9dd7c495d02069
835 F20110331_AACTGX dettore_p_Page_02.pro
8e8143bce6daee71c639e4281bfaa68c
293b5095fac9660c31e8cb6c11a9cf320eb32da7
38005 F20110331_AACTBZ dettore_p_Page_31.pro
a94e053a56bb2f73c0fd9af5af090964
d53660a8e9d5c9b46a0707dab09d11205d220805
14363 F20110331_AACTLU dettore_p_Page_52.pro
fc6889a48a857958059bdff07b5a1f8c
56439fce96be57f4eef3008808c9a79ef8ac390f
55286 F20110331_AACTGY dettore_p_Page_24.pro
5c75437954dd752a5c82e05fb35bb555
97551d40c35f2537b2c25ac9f586a5efc8562840
9213 F20110331_AACTLV dettore_p_Page_03.jpg
48e5e32808be054670ba0a451397a076
b33993a8bd52e63fb016ae37cfaad6fb3684ec80
2169 F20110331_AACTEA dettore_p_Page_24.txt
ad073d1558c945b4f6754dd572ab715f
bff66b5e81dab6d89bd322cbe45708e99f404c5c
8229 F20110331_AACTGZ dettore_p_Page_18thm.jpg
741b8fc661c7150b19d5536107b81c47
30df0a5b63ba484c8ea7f3fc2cce3a63f9e7bb6c
47270 F20110331_AACTLW dettore_p_Page_04.jpg
cab684a940e25572b47ca51a5078a9a3
5fc2dea686e772000d5c0a238936d6fbfd7a1467
896 F20110331_AACTEB dettore_p_Page_04.txt
987b7314719c43ef115fdbfdafc64b42
7f36fb43f250f10a145f38c891da4e0f2243f780
77438 F20110331_AACTLX dettore_p_Page_05.jpg
d82ba19175ec3e838c491a6d81e63326
4d4cd54b689601e7fa4514be3b298804d0d52891
40867 F20110331_AACTLY dettore_p_Page_06.jpg
8217193a456f55d1ab05510837cb0dcd
9319a77357d068936ec194005cb51e6fb6fb1c90
92438 F20110331_AACTEC dettore_p_Page_29.jpg
7b19223a7344c42f1248861de4713a57
75063e28adf262e87543ff022478a997ad6e61e8
9570 F20110331_AACTJA dettore_p_Page_32thm.jpg
1e506e7da04cad9b6f9f8ab61cbc5995
90f08c737bec9d9951aa2e6f25201b7216252b49
118220 F20110331_AACTLZ dettore_p_Page_13.jpg
855225e3c287540202b366317b8425b3
7bfd42b576245d696f7c1d855a86457e4c06d8c6
37195 F20110331_AACTED dettore_p_Page_48.QC.jpg
74b1ecedaa6d413c17f4312d4f0118cf
216921c71499a61b610f39a27fe14ff598438293
1742 F20110331_AACTJB dettore_p_Page_51.txt
0a73d4b36d5184316a676fdc9755f4ff
f0c4f87329a298e6d49d9510f3df17abc876db77
54667 F20110331_AACTEE dettore_p_Page_22.pro
0367a2ea74f609f59ab44b812bff1a35
faf848e6d9808254f64fdae66fade982e1f45e73
6604 F20110331_AACTOA dettore_p_Page_35thm.jpg
efc9d76c94cb563460961d41328dc437
e4bb658ebc4b47e071ce979fde74c18a171f5eb2
37597 F20110331_AACTJC dettore_p_Page_16.QC.jpg
5cb5b7690d23f830a30241c369b0d345
0d146b8e8d4c34a70e1d94cac7fde9b3068202a7
9244 F20110331_AACTEF dettore_p_Page_39thm.jpg
795919d5bfde8a68de57ff7dc5c88d84
79727c3c85d76725b48634fc35488565b65a1b66
6707 F20110331_AACTOB dettore_p_Page_47thm.jpg
f67f94882353e13fb79eef97a33e7d08
a78058866c323b195ca12a4a3c9a375bfd0ee6e2
63848 F20110331_AACTJD UFE0021796_00001.mets FULL
3231cb7155aa8cc84eca19a9c65d6e63
5914cfc3b6bad8fe7ab6698cd5bbf0db31d135bb
29016 F20110331_AACTEG dettore_p_Page_01.jpg
439afb253df09e4626ac96efb1ee1d7b
9f3155e87f856d9fa788c0c29eebee4d11fb34a4
5128 F20110331_AACTOC dettore_p_Page_05thm.jpg
be2de7a86c659595fbdd31b05ae640a5
f310ceb911a938bbae9034f14ffa74ae33f48664
234596 F20110331_AACTEH dettore_p_Page_12.jp2
310ba51e8c9ff8361effde366cfb745c
c7eb75a895197464b40dc859d924ef393d8c0b1f
F20110331_AACTEI dettore_p_Page_30.tif
711232df2cd5b07d0ef01533a7958887
c330745fe5cf7a305cb60dfe1b32491d2a8c9688
9178 F20110331_AACTOD dettore_p_Page_23thm.jpg
d36cd3584bc887efca4772caa7e8a03e
49727245b9b293bf1954c7da8dfbca794f4e301a
F20110331_AACTJG dettore_p_Page_05.tif
5008dbac6f65ea94fc1dcec55f983784
663a1f0bce4e0362f1ba9965681002ae14f38329
F20110331_AACTEJ dettore_p_Page_01.tif
5bfe87e7d6f7e13dda4b3eabcad5c4bc
12d8a619f86e43a546a75966d3b630b100bcdea3
9286 F20110331_AACTOE dettore_p_Page_24thm.jpg
6a0ce5f0a13b5763434b28ab8c4737cb
3f2844a94fbfeef8dc5ff5afd74d181f20549579
F20110331_AACTJH dettore_p_Page_06.tif
e553e50709f2195e2e8f1100a2bf3070
0ecb0ef62db184c538b50fdf7882c06f606074bd
7404 F20110331_AACTEK dettore_p_Page_07thm.jpg
a8e774451b5df0d973a4c720186806bb
b23d3290a9948150361949445f06b2aba9eca3b9
35920 F20110331_AACTOF dettore_p_Page_33.QC.jpg
919ef9eece8b70075c44c904aa43a12d
79eb19361dfebc6fb1b506a0ace1f0030d692adb
F20110331_AACTJI dettore_p_Page_07.tif
4ac5bdfea5c6de9531756c014f8a83e7
a998b500df4fbca221e7d5ccc7eeee2a633b14a8
91853 F20110331_AACTEL dettore_p_Page_51.jpg
3fe43df682abd49e437a1152478eaf0e
6812b676423a4d054102cb081194e3595804388d
9171 F20110331_AACTOG dettore_p_Page_10thm.jpg
2bc54b7150a4fc9b9cb93d4cece42e46
34fe4499edd045a2c0e6ae49998f945a95c14f85
F20110331_AACTJJ dettore_p_Page_08.tif
463c96145c91ccb38dd8a80438a321fe
b1f3d757e49279f8ea192a38fafb192f12a5a92c
27014 F20110331_AACTEM dettore_p_Page_47.QC.jpg
4999aea9039f6fa4fec261e1ec425f8e
753519d54242883c8e48f23a3ce857699685e0c2
8443 F20110331_AACTOH dettore_p_Page_41thm.jpg
bb3743ec574c8e99026b6d9b65ff3571
bddcad47f2ec7db69142f1186e199aac8dd68b51
F20110331_AACTJK dettore_p_Page_09.tif
f32dd3b5c9c41d1103aea83d5ef307fd
c55960488c3a76330328d870f72f606741828acc
3137 F20110331_AACTEN dettore_p_Page_06thm.jpg
8facae436d1ff75a17393c095b336e78
adf1779ca9e4a9448d735aace5921cb14b8cffc2
36484 F20110331_AACTOI dettore_p_Page_13.QC.jpg
0ff804b7b1d91b598b6f7fba2f96107c
666d9e22063f81b699cccc3a4c74522e8cb90cf6
F20110331_AACTJL dettore_p_Page_12.tif
f2a169b04b449547633e813bbf3cf068
47c52215c3278686b223d2ae35891e994a5ad490
113378 F20110331_AACTEO dettore_p_Page_10.jpg
9afdfce8a785338a9095084650661371
ef56186092044f37e0c2a4d67db3dc43e30d56ac
9243 F20110331_AACTOJ dettore_p_Page_27thm.jpg
d103ef5be00812e64b4bcc3ca716cba5
f6150377332ea92b2b86ce636bd6b73bf354098b
F20110331_AACTJM dettore_p_Page_14.tif
78c6de423445e677da731b4d071d4a4c
ddf7e7bc594935bf5e995a41d25c433d6042c3c8
F20110331_AACTEP dettore_p_Page_02.tif
d084b771a91fd368c4b04c82b2a2d35d
43629ff984b6bc8a31955fad442e2db869804e7a
2010 F20110331_AACTOK dettore_p_Page_49thm.jpg
6f959d25aab93c2fd11685ce8c20d891
120c64aa3a3373db9715b0a61e207d34b7f7a08a
F20110331_AACTJN dettore_p_Page_15.tif
eaa250ca87d41a3620145048901b5b37
928cca30ca0743fb4cf79c20e6806d1b0261e766
F20110331_AACTEQ dettore_p_Page_13.tif
630264ddf6f09577703fd4bb7e3aa13c
7992743e303ec058516f5b0544eee140041f09ba
F20110331_AACTJO dettore_p_Page_19.tif
961dc7128727c2281fe51663dfcf866a
cac48b62af5f306f2be1b52925096b633168abcc
F20110331_AACTER dettore_p_Page_48.tif
6dd1b148e3a1c099ce8144166d772d4f
75084fc932b9737e45c262fc8c4871f42c6dd452
86857 F20110331_AACTOL UFE0021796_00001.xml
2bec6b46435a08897941d073c9385308
d603784407a9e2c2884864e5124a4ace7af5c688
F20110331_AACTJP dettore_p_Page_21.tif
f573100d189c0f51a0e41867605a270a
3f8baf318e52473177d2b34415fed6db58461175
38142 F20110331_AACTES dettore_p_Page_19.QC.jpg
3093ace8e4c9f7c984bee252c1d48d60
cb0df0e9edac5f294064bb6da43c59dd6913126e
19722 F20110331_AACTOM dettore_p_Page_05.QC.jpg
ac3184f37f3c976a852d5d56287d1af8
9f14bed368a92f99ba1b62a1c0cdbab56827c4ca
F20110331_AACTJQ dettore_p_Page_23.tif
52cde699f2f427fbcce1201f3c4e8c4c
ded89eae3b89a6ade0ae3faa981ea89470dddab8
3997 F20110331_AACTET dettore_p_Page_04thm.jpg
6ef8d892354cbf6086cd7a0410e2feaa
0640e98cccad4eee74a4b06334bf599d15e95a02
7688 F20110331_AACTON dettore_p_Page_12.QC.jpg
cdd70b123e5967decb02014802a1691d
86412951d9b82f8d4bb61c48fc650bcbd319ef3d
F20110331_AACTJR dettore_p_Page_31.tif
56e02eb0a6f662c299bbf7543db4a897
88f170b102a71c1559b368fa5b25201afee26cac
37100 F20110331_AACTEU dettore_p_Page_10.QC.jpg
32c3373b354573735de9b21c3ec1b267
09ff8b7f1ee35755a271372b2655d3375efb2323
20327 F20110331_AACTOO dettore_p_Page_21.QC.jpg
aa1cdbe744eb5ca198e3d16f618c212d
a90bd84b14f30d0910822b661002f0955cd9a5e7
F20110331_AACTJS dettore_p_Page_33.tif
6ff43a80b52a394f00cb6c82a4d3f094
99d4a843bbf8d53a40cc1d049e3ea261f2d7a31b
8689 F20110331_AACTEV dettore_p_Page_40thm.jpg
fb77027eb155ebc1bd683d8e7598df71
5125c879b8dadc9c68b112966ebc2d9dde94fd6e
35785 F20110331_AACTOP dettore_p_Page_22.QC.jpg
1a41ab3c2d7f6308d8e899f7881669a4
a0aae0a93c5d386936f4649969111b41c5e2cac3
F20110331_AACTJT dettore_p_Page_35.tif
084aec18060cf0ae86f512beb0a2102c
353a04c08bb81e2de3ac0223233a709a28d3ddc7
56523 F20110331_AACTEW dettore_p_Page_48.pro
baa572eb857f63f506a309477553a738
536863c0ffb195f08e165d6c7f4569423bf9d2f1
36782 F20110331_AACTOQ dettore_p_Page_24.QC.jpg
85f897465acf08103c8d4576806e8ffe
17041b987608203fc708a00ac32b5f8ce724b112
F20110331_AACTJU dettore_p_Page_37.tif
70535f1e924b1cad87a7c08f922b36ab
17f44b728b036c0792b9b23e7adb72c6ad60f481
F20110331_AACTEX dettore_p_Page_38.tif
b59eccb5127dc377a44aef10fab854db
04b3b2efd06bcdfe6d78f3102b4860471d00c906
35110 F20110331_AACTOR dettore_p_Page_25.QC.jpg
53b8872c5afba0b9874034d9ef309e35
aedf55e6dff43a38c0e4f27f62bf26fa34803197
F20110331_AACTJV dettore_p_Page_39.tif
f540980e5ba8f9db9d878be3517d9349
7781a8f5709842187f8fcd6571150ef8baef681c
34046 F20110331_AACTEY dettore_p_Page_37.QC.jpg
34f7f173a5fc263b14bb01572a1323a8
af8c3507c0a53556f283e510e63e9b1dbcbe7c2f
25890 F20110331_AACTOS dettore_p_Page_31.QC.jpg
f2037654a66a2758f912d1690b4de480
d5b1006ed3a695a36c781be2737d1d29ed13c8f8
F20110331_AACTJW dettore_p_Page_44.tif
d0e8423c7070b69b45a05cc9fde250eb
e842206c1eb8140b9f1bca40238c0d867000f98c
F20110331_AACTCA dettore_p_Page_36.tif
7c5488811b9c8d065ff18af5cfa43e62
c72c50ccf74d5ce61222692895e205d5c3b09e43
37135 F20110331_AACTOT dettore_p_Page_34.QC.jpg
1d805164015bf1dd957183a95dc09653
33d71a936a282528d462a2173d2d1cc3fe157403
F20110331_AACTJX dettore_p_Page_46.tif
a1d9ebba6e50e642dc66701554c1cf8d
06460d23a6868b31a75a5b02d08cf8d497dcb2e8
F20110331_AACTCB dettore_p_Page_11.tif
c24e515fe93510825b3ef004b80c5878
304fc07de8f187399cc71be18eb7b6dccadaa5ee
6185 F20110331_AACTEZ dettore_p_Page_42thm.jpg
59aa73eb3053d559cfb2b46aa66b11da
f746a8f5fd690bb865800991ff6605ae9fa1ccf5
37055 F20110331_AACTOU dettore_p_Page_39.QC.jpg
dc0d64e11c42cf86e64da68b63073ac7
77786c587eb1ee5f0fb4438c4b6495b97e74a899
F20110331_AACTJY dettore_p_Page_47.tif
d1f823cc64e8cdced6eeb0bd2d0e98c1
8b96707959770e14ab35929dc65ae4ad42874d03
2435 F20110331_AACTCC dettore_p_Page_16.txt
073ddb1d17d0ca23cf14f1d1e9dc0e3d
2f7bcef4e2dfbc19abe96f8acda370201a53f45b
29424 F20110331_AACTOV dettore_p_Page_51.QC.jpg
2ace5fc82780e98d1fceac539839c8e5
1023191bbe1b6be5211805038470d03e891ece8c
F20110331_AACTJZ dettore_p_Page_50.tif
7bdecda5324f26c59336e93111b1b4e8
4984857b08ee5fdb4aba698ec24a83f3bdfdaffa
21588 F20110331_AACTCD dettore_p_Page_49.jpg
9cb6378cc4d6a040cef86fbc45200c00
314466f4562047fbc5983dd7c5d20df23534ec66
951 F20110331_AACTOW dettore_p_Page_03thm.jpg
d1ac8c33c1bb7fbe464953d5add26f1f
d7d6b02012863174f63ea59cf5c571e107f43194
F20110331_AACTHA dettore_p_Page_41.tif
19f998036a76a7298582e0d760cde610
0a0a4e67028c7b853bca0c6eaea0d958b1d808f0
109307 F20110331_AACTCE dettore_p_Page_33.jpg
2b6f3b6654b0cfa2ce9ba33eaf98d97e
bb661a2dc74c2e8950865eae187ccfbd5906c363
8583 F20110331_AACTOX dettore_p_Page_09thm.jpg
b76befcdda8d46179633e8d22946af45
467e0736541202bceaf62e2968bd222ca4a20e4a
1051932 F20110331_AACTHB dettore_p_Page_37.jp2
0093c58a4dff1aec1455233eb5a3d8c6
03673ac123fe3f5b13a688da181b357461910531
F20110331_AACTCF dettore_p_Page_03.tif
10e8fba4ee75f23235c35b58c44d1638
47188396d0203e08f97a017e3a122f58517029bd
111375 F20110331_AACTMA dettore_p_Page_14.jpg
828694c221b9843130afbb7b9ee0266d
b46d1ca51ab9423542f7f1b58618ee018ddf96b4
9122 F20110331_AACTOY dettore_p_Page_16thm.jpg
53850f6ace932e707279d8bcf2e147fc
784f568c15a035da740df8fa2bbe25b756fcbfb9
80745 F20110331_AACTHC dettore_p_Page_43.jpg
3cbfa09436443e91ffa6e00461397d56
173eab3ee07dbd36d8c0149310359d51f92f34f6
1253 F20110331_AACTCG dettore_p_Page_34.txt
a91af2e9e9c44b3a4f1c62483e4c4639
8d5b06487170adfe986e33c2d1be69b3a9236c27
8321 F20110331_AACTOZ dettore_p_Page_20thm.jpg
4c30d63c15ca7ee195cdc5cddfeeba5e
05d76eda87ce6c88fbe8581ceda0d337b05edcab
34952 F20110331_AACTHD dettore_p_Page_40.QC.jpg
978655d03aaf2d863d97daf66a0b46d0
5f4fabf1cba71d44734b0d3d28c6ebf2bae2ba9b
926 F20110331_AACTCH dettore_p_Page_41.txt
9c58652995ecdc89a93294643e9b4353
1057b42138556ccec3ef8ef9fb2ff6054122f006
117675 F20110331_AACTMB dettore_p_Page_15.jpg
dce2cd5a9b6cad0b1f2f0efdb6b208f3
8e54ecf28288ea3e9eb56c2912f079a16f36099b
1956 F20110331_AACTHE dettore_p_Page_18.txt
36a7ae929a04a2efd47a2ccc42dc11a3
3873c8331fb8954b29d9b1a4b6fb3f08479100ec
2241 F20110331_AACTCI dettore_p_Page_40.txt
e1375b6f1feff2b0efcc328e5426f990
a488a9684d8f496e23818791187b2ca86c5e9ae5
120792 F20110331_AACTMC dettore_p_Page_16.jpg
e517ac3cecbc327f7ee4943012099571
f7d46b86c17b3ce7c1b59e954361326767ddd531
7683 F20110331_AACTHF dettore_p_Page_51thm.jpg
8b8aeec723cdaa7e64e34d27ef2fa40e
338af56614f73f4582622f260dcfdc0377bb67b5
9316 F20110331_AACTCJ dettore_p_Page_15thm.jpg
9586fb8f0b68d0bb8a5f91d3e9e623c5
7d641010c14256a27ab28066593ff84275aa0732
61706 F20110331_AACTMD dettore_p_Page_21.jpg
71f276f10241993283e2a113c2badeb0
6ee88e99f14a2811fb04ea90fe3fa9ddeca31531
29001 F20110331_AACTHG dettore_p_Page_21.pro
4c7417cc941c1458ca0c1e2e41f12d69
afaf2f8d0ce77e6a2dfc4e6ef71eb01171f75701
72316 F20110331_AACTCK dettore_p_Page_03.jp2
6e41a9437b98db1fe6cbc6da0ec1015d
f65a0e1167360d3e82b5bcbb918ca7cef01b77f8
111029 F20110331_AACTME dettore_p_Page_22.jpg
998bf9dc751c57523cf2f62541b288c7
ed49b66d07f1b647a3f737ebc1e27206a1588d8b
1051948 F20110331_AACTHH dettore_p_Page_22.jp2
4cdcae5a2ff1cbc6b117c9e0b3e28ced
0e2649923f55053afe6dfff716460050ef126dcd
1051945 F20110331_AACTCL dettore_p_Page_27.jp2
75474305b483304d6b68f84ca6fa1af0
876a9624139f33ba96f99bdc5e09be63e502eaf7
113395 F20110331_AACTMF dettore_p_Page_23.jpg
1a9df9e3be5bf0252e52eba84d878cf5
16d6ade9a58d9370ee0957fbd6ee60dc0b3b6b19
1051984 F20110331_AACTHI dettore_p_Page_28.jp2
9ecdb1e2a8260df98e9bd97bf2f60e80
cd2521038fc15982b8f1ad1c0f7aae85cb23d895
10186 F20110331_AACTCM dettore_p_Page_12.pro
1b34f6cee9a37327ea476225099ad919
e537dcb99d75c314a8835f98780887fd334f7fed
117221 F20110331_AACTMG dettore_p_Page_28.jpg
29e84852c3e4fda5378430a6a79da30b
20e42c64f63a990218c2e096c5f6ab3010a6a56c
61183 F20110331_AACTHJ dettore_p_Page_16.pro
7b5f9cb6cef25bc736c07ec4a98cbfc4
315d300068f3eaedeea2535389b2e618a1cf31e6
2218 F20110331_AACTCN dettore_p_Page_10.txt
d4361ead8371304c28fdcd66be7d81f5
0027446c82c75fd989d2de63afc5dac1c35fcdd7
113199 F20110331_AACTMH dettore_p_Page_30.jpg
409d2c08550ced2f78376b73043c4fda
6677f267f77c409306be0db2ab8739e78b8d9c44
15873 F20110331_AACTHK dettore_p_Page_08.pro
5cc8de0bb686075f527352c2230becab
2d6f6001c1a4e3f69df173d48103b94f918377f8
114819 F20110331_AACTCO dettore_p_Page_32.jpg
208cf1559e686fdf13cc75dd05e72c77
c9b0d15fbb9576d31578e3648264251840ff3a02
77162 F20110331_AACTMI dettore_p_Page_31.jpg
6aa43af983bc9439197c334012a8e227
22fb6495765588a33f3464a81f628c8bddf6f6d4
42233 F20110331_AACTHL dettore_p_Page_51.pro
d775c8277940ca0d73e572753a7cbd6a
bd7d721a45d145282f278771ea819795165b484c
1051942 F20110331_AACTCP dettore_p_Page_14.jp2
f13ad0331a8e04eab90e8e80c649beb3
4bfc73e1e4e624fe60aa0e9a285d49205b2cd0fc
113020 F20110331_AACTMJ dettore_p_Page_34.jpg
c1e8889f474e869d05509beefc578dc2
181f681d199271aedb766ffc7586e75a53fd30f7
22685 F20110331_AACTHM dettore_p_Page_41.pro
db3ebe3ced6c403036b156e35aad8185
a004d10fa58e388fcc8f4e50ecb54ebbfb884637
F20110331_AACTCQ dettore_p_Page_18.tif
2a273f8db38762bd0b12b0cf7c8e1612
ff66920d5cfa90e3516a75a7018b9dd333afff74
77687 F20110331_AACTMK dettore_p_Page_35.jpg
a4c6334ff791b703bc48c681164524f3
b189a254c2e37c9095225286207e14917b79e54c
1480 F20110331_AACTHN dettore_p_Page_32.txt
5ca74eafff3cba4e8d835ee497bb2d40
41c4a953a0193ae991938988a2337ac63632b849
1051977 F20110331_AACTCR dettore_p_Page_33.jp2
c545387baeab8e105f655173fb895a33
d8ef4f0528700867b7fe28384dc0ae62927cdf0d
128563 F20110331_AACTML dettore_p_Page_38.jpg
a4e5cee860dffb041d16ccc59150794f
ab3a5d7a61a6cd9f4492ccabe06306f178d5c6c1
34280 F20110331_AACTHO dettore_p_Page_08.jpg
743b43c4e5ea318d2c70a785a4e94d54
b6430d5ac33f65a006f21f8ad1d447935c2fc767
54986 F20110331_AACTCS dettore_p_Page_46.pro
2be10d7ab7db12b66461e5a379552acc
8d3f3d787e5991e795c7ffe523a92d4ede43a19c
73094 F20110331_AACTMM dettore_p_Page_42.jpg
cf374ccad5a1002469e7ca5faa33e4fa
869e5b75db8caa0616622f8d3ba4c6d5be723d27
8839 F20110331_AACTHP dettore_p_Page_46thm.jpg
d375db35b805ab8e84cca451d7ee050f
8ad43849aae31ccc372c7e466cb33a779bacd9b2
33928 F20110331_AACTCT dettore_p_Page_20.QC.jpg
f490a97966979b744e2a664f7a55cc1f
e9869b582f8ed2103ebdedbad57d9524f37954d2
114410 F20110331_AACTMN dettore_p_Page_45.jpg
23be3346dcfd431bf4e62a4beda2ce85
c2d529c57156be166f30f18da57d0db4e105b97a
50769 F20110331_AACTHQ dettore_p_Page_37.pro
0c064fe789350b10193ab0561468a689
ba76ee1e4ac6896362737867981401088364d225
2426 F20110331_AACTCU dettore_p_Page_11.txt
cfa40bd746db2c10d9ffdf4325aad3dd
7e7b21bc1d219b933ba9908c65c8b5e2aa227137
110275 F20110331_AACTMO dettore_p_Page_46.jpg
1580f22240fe5d7058dc14762652c88b
2fdf401ef22354b0369752a204ce43cd97221f6b
38748 F20110331_AACTHR dettore_p_Page_47.pro
cbbf8ae89c3755ad1513c509e6ca477f
c7ab9d640f43f12f9308b1e36aa9338bc6e7782b
11901 F20110331_AACTCV dettore_p_Page_08.QC.jpg
bf4b7f7b6c624a92b583e31c47ec5af4
9e25388fc5f4fcdc4b35defd3a65491405ef40b3
101755 F20110331_AACTMP dettore_p_Page_50.jpg
4de78678346fc9b1b3e64a82778f8593
9ee360fe5808d4b34a22c6268d50b48876051e4f
21613 F20110331_AACTHS dettore_p_Page_04.pro
11abed403ce4ef3b1f6d66b4cf7cbb34
6db058a201ee12ad973401529a5b3eb0330dc88e
2198 F20110331_AACTCW dettore_p_Page_39.txt
ab08b62c6c5d87dee98cec29b66fb70d
5e99bbe7625d6f340dbab01e6a847bd281a025c5
1049286 F20110331_AACTMQ dettore_p_Page_07.jp2
19e043289d5a3e7599cf464b449f1549
8747ec5fda7c92ba2e3725c130acf14284ea2c8a
11923 F20110331_AACTHT dettore_p_Page_06.QC.jpg
db57ab9fa221169e44c0bf54ddf1ee36
6f011c469fac35613c19a21349e1d6fc3500cae1
360156 F20110331_AACTMR dettore_p_Page_08.jp2
537f36c0eed0f2c5182d225f7533b9f8
3d9dcdf4f7da5ba9de86e0c5029efacac55eeb96
F20110331_AACTHU dettore_p_Page_04.tif
39317f38d4d4829a00ff966c0cedfc1e
709291a5c2f8026e8e9c64564887062aec3b32e6
1051954 F20110331_AACTCX dettore_p_Page_34.jp2
4b907d0f9f2b827f2750c977dac0420e
a955fc4e142e768f69378f239fd1c007a7b7cdbd
1051950 F20110331_AACTMS dettore_p_Page_10.jp2
c883d3a1dcfb56f02fbf154bc76433f6
0c392bec6cbd98cef855286f897c35a90472f584
F20110331_AACTHV dettore_p_Page_49.tif
76cc57b84ef8a7fe3326cfeceda44f2c
7c2461cd87634defdf89f9c9a87b09334020577c
24152 F20110331_AACTCY dettore_p_Page_43.pro
229d4d757692fe085592551a1db05166
165f511f1d6f289319492ad63d10dca3b3cbac1e
1051985 F20110331_AACTMT dettore_p_Page_11.jp2
51e1df77fd1a79a15e7cdcc22ac80009
c371098228271a05aa6e538238e0bebef60a84ab
94047 F20110331_AACTHW dettore_p_Page_41.jpg
8fa9d872b5c0c44dfd8453b07088e744
3d804534b25bb88ed724b33ab27f28340a07749d
F20110331_AACTCZ dettore_p_Page_32.tif
f6c12e919d5b7e46aea9258b9e5fa394
b1f6f7edd19064fe9c5ba73d1d40f70725008143
1051975 F20110331_AACTMU dettore_p_Page_13.jp2
38b7ccbbed2980c44c62476a870498fa
a88328a10fdb70f909e2cd1ca369bc0a7b8add2f
34813 F20110331_AACTHX dettore_p_Page_09.QC.jpg
e6c5fb64f3502d471152d1ad413523cf
7e7b81fc6c3c887ab3db4666246c4db1f3bc0dcd
F20110331_AACTMV dettore_p_Page_15.jp2
c383c9877824dd8b67a905362b3ec00d
939cec90b3d751df47694f44a32c88ef969409b6
35722 F20110331_AACTHY dettore_p_Page_46.QC.jpg
82e863fc24b8773152fa7a77e89ace6e
9f3ba9ad64ded338c1d1ca841ba11f17724e2df1
1051941 F20110331_AACTMW dettore_p_Page_17.jp2
a82f151d43c8be11b356954f490300a4
dba8bef0e178d6ce2c0082a1f081bce32d767a55
F20110331_AACTFA dettore_p_Page_29.tif
bfc0ededc363f9da9cf385838b0caed7
a6b5b79bb0634ef003516f27ecbdb8cab7ce099f
F20110331_AACTHZ dettore_p_Page_42.tif
8915588ce7610f67548713cac8a624b9
f92eded26d3d59480efd88ea252e3bb34cb90ec3
1051983 F20110331_AACTMX dettore_p_Page_19.jp2
edf86543279f1ce54aee357afeeeb9c2
817eb64e34feb85aaf43982986acd9ae621ddaa5
52285 F20110331_AACTFB dettore_p_Page_09.pro
78df867954541069a334668415b335da
8444111a2b4bc72f4eff72111c76eb7794974708
1051958 F20110331_AACTMY dettore_p_Page_20.jp2
d5ce0ebee082263b8ed1e85efde1f8a8
47f1e8eac92cb399d69751155878fc08cdcb8405
2179 F20110331_AACTFC dettore_p_Page_12thm.jpg
52fc9ba8d29f626d6fac0c8f2fe21c46
9a533f7086c0f440b25404d60dc049c2f3e0b38a
1051974 F20110331_AACTMZ dettore_p_Page_24.jp2
e5f0d38e2e7a3999e231efc79df7245b
5cd6cd8dc47881d6812d9081c2edde76c148cfd8
112200 F20110331_AACTFD dettore_p_Page_24.jpg
a3beb98b5f30a45e618235832ed97308
e58029bff6165bb120c500d0f2eb54f9ebb8c5fb
F20110331_AACTKA dettore_p_Page_51.tif
13bfe11478f9eee57fcd3e976ca6dfb5
8497436fe328379684247b5bd0087c6e2b9fd907
8248 F20110331_AACTFE dettore_p_Page_37thm.jpg
ec4e879afab320d9ff9da37cdf93a35a
b4dd8e724904cce4118580a4ed73a6da8fd27a96
F20110331_AACTKB dettore_p_Page_52.tif
8981b8084a185cd31b29592785659631
3667b3a92a3e7712299031cdb28b1897919179ff
F20110331_AACTFF dettore_p_Page_27.tif
3e161f0e4d89f8759b0d622ee661234d
453109ea07caa37b7e2de72d2ac40cced4a1b3ee
8792 F20110331_AACTPA dettore_p_Page_22thm.jpg
0b3de1a3be2daa912bf564167812142a
40243c886450ec9a5d7884feedcab792749cdbda
543 F20110331_AACTKC dettore_p_Page_01.txt
54fa6aa4fbd8cbb2cd844999dcc180b1
94bd20fe2cff8a6bc38ee2c5d0c0f28e5f295108
405 F20110331_AACTFG dettore_p_Page_12.txt
38bc9d5d7f5c2c1c59381e3e2c114bd2
2db3afdd7af32d27244fe8dee04c99ed0443d6d2
9883 F20110331_AACTPB dettore_p_Page_34thm.jpg
59d2b4275a03402d448986bfb1a32f36
3ea0e382f7314c4d4e4f921ff94002f1fcb846c8
80 F20110331_AACTKD dettore_p_Page_02.txt
de7a48e04ea42552b569b110ebe83791
44d11b03f80d47288af76f65fe71bbbabb72d23e
38075 F20110331_AACTFH dettore_p_Page_44.QC.jpg
a48bf5c71810b933dcb8250b9b4533f3
78760e28578eb38d2047a4160b26ac7083da5f6a
1089310 F20110331_AACTPC dettore_p.pdf
e7f93db721f6e4551d79fd93f600f7a3
d388ba1ce6d4d22ef2c1ab71ecfe4dadd65a43c0
1977 F20110331_AACTKE dettore_p_Page_05.txt
b197882c81a72d13175ad17b73d368aa
6fcb928de82ec3d96d9ec6725942296ae7056bbe
F20110331_AACTFI dettore_p_Page_40.tif
b743bb9681330e730eb365ee4f9e33c9
8ee068c3f5a06217f9a4c12c24ee7fd5a1a26f09
1129 F20110331_AACTKF dettore_p_Page_06.txt
cda5626ea2fa5084f01d29886bb9015f
12df9370ee3b6fce7b5ff8f9fa01472ea09814cd
1051972 F20110331_AACTFJ dettore_p_Page_05.jp2
52b33c991dd27dc8d148c0ebbb939141
edf2e50db8d4a0f8fd40920d503c0110323fd247
631 F20110331_AACTKG dettore_p_Page_08.txt
57391f3d07fb3bc57a836fddab71e31d
d45c439dbbba6fe29a229808dfb6c1ac7dabedd3
2301 F20110331_AACTFK dettore_p_Page_03.QC.jpg
e45e4aae1f87262a1071a366871c18a3
5f191a6998f2f4a96aede318ef38dc62b4ab5d25
2096 F20110331_AACTKH dettore_p_Page_09.txt
993fed187efa794eff589f122b25d441
9e33b2cc7210038983b690a524ff5134f83f9934
55873 F20110331_AACTFL dettore_p_Page_44.pro
2463327c5afa37a654dfed42ddd90db1
06fdf1847218b75c8103d4bb50f3e4cf5b8983aa
2364 F20110331_AACTKI dettore_p_Page_15.txt
14e2842b46f74757a826811776005301
a19d20b5d4a86359d079d1ad45040f25a577befc
35018 F20110331_AACTFM dettore_p_Page_32.QC.jpg
58944034ca449192624a503e01f19437
8c7d455510a7bac94d7516f27aa8db9811cee0d1
2419 F20110331_AACTKJ dettore_p_Page_19.txt
20773a8fb9fa825ddf322ffb061f1f48
96630e066b5a450d7e84ebda0124fcc1bd07c085
30148 F20110331_AACTFN dettore_p_Page_29.QC.jpg
58ba923267f26a9af82c4f592cc8212d
74058eec42614d7298d839d3f00bdaab2b6cb49e
2204 F20110331_AACTKK dettore_p_Page_20.txt
21dde8a8d976017c017d2ab46b68a6bf
b8e33857542636d9997f8eb0d5cd494dca84a5e9
847959 F20110331_AACTFO dettore_p_Page_35.jp2
47c98e193a94a6ab5267ef241800edb3
e6ec476ef55f97c13fa89a8ec1fa36b8abb66900
1156 F20110331_AACTKL dettore_p_Page_21.txt
5fde1365df1ca9812744b907e8f04fa4
ac53ed4135fc49d60d258ea51046535d13403424
F20110331_AACTFP dettore_p_Page_20.tif
4a4eb8b43d7760de2e195d27a8546abb
19d2a71df36420a6564de8c850e3465e277a9181
2200 F20110331_AACTKM dettore_p_Page_22.txt
6a6b758f6f2307ff9bbe3f0808181f00
be5051f31579953811bb102b2398a556971a45bb
23666 F20110331_AACTFQ dettore_p_Page_42.QC.jpg
abf5c3786f0d0cd703f0e99a4fce6b42
d5a542c1a0507a1799a4b069e19bb97e6f49a02a
2011 F20110331_AACTKN dettore_p_Page_26.txt
8bee922c1a6e39fbb8d0e2405fe20907
6a50f44800d157a1bde853ba27fa3976a71fcb58
66091 F20110331_AACTFR dettore_p_Page_38.pro
57ba7358be883f7be85775bf257c17f0
5db649466e170faff2344f0efa891a434a1004fc
2308 F20110331_AACTKO dettore_p_Page_27.txt
7727197b36649668d1c3332b6f977485
382782645ccd3b0e47a6b43491d09075b4d3d700
7333 F20110331_AACTFS dettore_p_Page_29thm.jpg
ba409418e6d62c5d0ddf6851a81d1b8a
6c9027a663f524386e0ffa34205477cb83b2a445
1786 F20110331_AACTKP dettore_p_Page_29.txt
862aaccd2e9bef077f63e12b59c36e68
99e1926b6248ed9246f938d4ccc7970a8e772d64
62278 F20110331_AACTFT dettore_p_Page_11.pro
a4ae73bee7ee068bbf57201d2ccabd03
2e4f5c0cfbe8f664fe55af9b158e143e882177ca
2213 F20110331_AACTKQ dettore_p_Page_30.txt
4889c5d12376b68e06304838a2f46192
cd0ade9209bc0be5bbf2b66e0401f2ba802c7dbd
8933 F20110331_AACTFU dettore_p_Page_38thm.jpg
190d6bca2dec9b30fbb6459188e84c63
3951203ab0952f7a23a853d8abdb915de789e60e
2143 F20110331_AACTKR dettore_p_Page_33.txt
f4ff2bef97c1d4a8e0fc8c7687f619e1
f2ffb551fcbf4e9a0c0e6cda52c1bca6bd2c8601
9288 F20110331_AACTFV dettore_p_Page_19thm.jpg
c93ac8ca4c0f5b5d8ff8aad734cb8c1c
4827b5029d312d574653d909eac35ebf904700d9
1496 F20110331_AACTKS dettore_p_Page_35.txt
de9ccd6a9fd56caae75f6907a20afadb
1ee745a7c14f7b6f2f9a91320eadb7b93d645391
9106 F20110331_AACTFW dettore_p_Page_44thm.jpg
fae07f7bd0e5aa22a91e62fad57e0bc0
3eae476da86c58b559040ee58c17dae264c77f30
2885 F20110331_AACTAY dettore_p_Page_08thm.jpg
5da33f9792d0e96d5ac9463ad6637bea
0f67d072514c6e06a0ef7fd67b95e54226605789
1918 F20110331_AACTKT dettore_p_Page_36.txt
f473b0d7a00a0992195c79cb589ef1a3
34143c02af3b782c05d9babcee85bfdbbea807a2
8876 F20110331_AACTAZ dettore_p_Page_45thm.jpg
13d1cace705f56bcced70b31ab0d6d58
63c711072867236ba56cbb6d0ecc2b6935f90f7b
2741 F20110331_AACTKU dettore_p_Page_38.txt
61d8187f4c10a2c09d93365e5d88261a
27fdd3d4f7e4d5c3822f278a2ebd03d3f1ec7cfb
283951 F20110331_AACTFX dettore_p_Page_01.jp2
728e9693fd0f3d9f85cc274183e9daf8
8bc5b2eaca56719256e845aa32731ae0a2fcfca9
1068 F20110331_AACTKV dettore_p_Page_43.txt
adf85e05fe6a71ed70422bc9934d8e18
ec4236b9cdcb04f8dd9d405e31a01230be5ffa49
8795 F20110331_AACTFY dettore_p_Page_14thm.jpg
89282af502b7219489f8cff70fa77929
8992038f6ad64bcb9fe31be107b4acb2a8317a9d
2199 F20110331_AACTKW dettore_p_Page_44.txt
71c08bf7bc68726bad932ce5698858b7
5f6f8bbb62b4a23a070a3b83909cfcb259767162
F20110331_AACTDA dettore_p_Page_48.jp2
34698795fa0226bd498c2cefceff481d
2ccdfa31bb3c67f1137542ad45f0c709182022b9
1051976 F20110331_AACTFZ dettore_p_Page_18.jp2
b5bf8681b2be7fca476bf05f8821f2ab
b206e56968c8662fe88cdce36bb2725ae99907b0
2248 F20110331_AACTKX dettore_p_Page_45.txt
f03d76222b3fa0e01840d2bec3dc1071
2a23674590d7715bdd9cde5a272d0a322e2046cf
208 F20110331_AACTDB dettore_p_Page_03.txt
21be8a722e4769c6ae574b657e1320e2
3c5797a61271fd5b1a4d88b07c34e59291a3a14d
1542 F20110331_AACTKY dettore_p_Page_47.txt
c1e609b4a58be4988b62c98c6b447de3
80003c46e6a17f0b1a6f62493066c3a46590219d
1997 F20110331_AACTDC dettore_p_Page_37.txt
e1b69e4403601ff75e520df890af7adc
03f0993a643a532b845eb53a78d9af6a23e4cf49
2431 F20110331_AACTIA dettore_p_Page_13.txt
b9bf9c50c7162cb015c83df8eaf3e600
fdbcb0c67625e6eb29568205c8126a496e1ceeac
2255 F20110331_AACTKZ dettore_p_Page_48.txt
f60a3aa4a1a489ae04dc0517f91a4a19
ba8a5b25d69e4134df6e3608fb62cc6f29f42bbd
37247 F20110331_AACTDD dettore_p_Page_17.QC.jpg
5965cac3e0ac8a84e186dffca06ca5a3
fdb86b077b81da600eb783ca805f4d1136671533
493496 F20110331_AACTIB dettore_p_Page_04.jp2
320bce644bfe954939c52bf60ba0a4a3
73e65f3601479a9cb787a4577a69d0bb5e4db52b
9304 F20110331_AACTDE dettore_p_Page_11thm.jpg
8a32284564511b0426a41aad0b176ba6
14e7186a920b3245fbbca227d877d0381df199f7
8726 F20110331_AACTIC dettore_p_Page_01.QC.jpg
04dc84becef1a45536e055d815c2be3d
7aab4ab2a455b1c8c6d26d8bef0da4dc2b5bb41b
2159 F20110331_AACTDF dettore_p_Page_14.txt
2a71207c9a57bcd429ef106a871f0ca3
00522458358306da290f44e095c34af7406b1319
1051911 F20110331_AACTNA dettore_p_Page_25.jp2
0e5d78cf0a64c9f1151b78432f796331
5fb45ba014cdd12103bfeb1f6a82d7ee2b835e31
6342 F20110331_AACTID dettore_p_Page_31thm.jpg
5b3f2c54e6ac4ec61fba2aced7598e0a
a548857f22f2db6754e0de233a6345eea8eadc69
29467 F20110331_AACTDG dettore_p_Page_07.QC.jpg
66ae604e110cd5d001c88fa47d067fe1
990291f2a72b85360cc23fe5f30f6c5489087607
1051933 F20110331_AACTNB dettore_p_Page_26.jp2
04b2d0cdbdefd8840d1a5141478bf785
5e1e81d32f8d02e3df06f11868ead03297699adb
102546 F20110331_AACTIE dettore_p_Page_37.jpg
2762fdfc04a617dcee49789939c1e1ed
db9549046c5cb32ad7adcc4341df33fe3e563f8c
37177 F20110331_AACTDH dettore_p_Page_15.QC.jpg
a6020457fdcea043a45d494d6b2603eb
ba9a579c95fed9748a5ddc06bdba990284e46057
37025 F20110331_AACTIF dettore_p_Page_23.QC.jpg
3f2f5825f68d674de2859e06484005eb
e4807c745c88629ce3f268123cb0fe7763f6d38c
15437 F20110331_AACTDI dettore_p_Page_04.QC.jpg
f6ca6bec8b69fd68431838a1b6ce36f0
1ed68154cf4e7146fa3acf65cf2ca08a1515e4b1
1006778 F20110331_AACTNC dettore_p_Page_29.jp2
9c8b8ff41f6f0a9e93f4a3d640cc3365
ea00fc6b1122023ad2a684abac236ccb3d3f94c8
5182 F20110331_AACTIG dettore_p_Page_21thm.jpg
a5a11bda298b97775f58bf99132cd411
4741ce93be8f2f3174520d025e8f0d0da33fe774
2229 F20110331_AACTDJ dettore_p_Page_23.txt
44076dfca82b18b29fce021cfe844c93
2a7215edfece1bbb1373222503f5397c721e47b9
848822 F20110331_AACTND dettore_p_Page_31.jp2
d63871b728c7b3b629c4ed7f82a8dc86
4669ab23ef6724ae8dc9385df6c4a4c55a76e7f1
F20110331_AACTIH dettore_p_Page_25.tif
a2d488269a21e22b552f418336670c51
13269863cac372c21298a975652e1a2a3c8d0556
8771 F20110331_AACTDK dettore_p_Page_48thm.jpg
20e098919c55c18186824be08d13dfb5
eba924360aadaec686d6c3fc31b5f98d7efd4e51
1051946 F20110331_AACTNE dettore_p_Page_36.jp2
211ab7c02061e322ac27f7e44bb1b479
ffe52ce0581579324c0a972e08284c76cc649e10
56436 F20110331_AACTII dettore_p_Page_45.pro
f9ad0da015cf98091bfe3c1fdfbd6c3e
831ee41b2a1201fbdf5536f8e1a55b955d07b7e4
55000 F20110331_AACTDL dettore_p_Page_30.pro
c4b0ce6edac3ba355de45b8119e76336
b01e3fb67971cc2498d2db7e0480ebc89c9cc754
1051982 F20110331_AACTNF dettore_p_Page_39.jp2
c4cf99ad623b800034923274d59a4470
52b00aa3f76c524b3698d52361f5fca23ac66618
100615 F20110331_AACTIJ dettore_p_Page_18.jpg
99ecd829e7e521d8cd141344b3778726
7a686c31cccc9628cc4807c3ab9735985f0c1781
7470 F20110331_AACTDM dettore_p_Page_43thm.jpg
1a983bcd8fab3d83caf5f4ff9432ff70
c5064430a2da0efe3b05fb2c7f4615bbacdaea14
1051965 F20110331_AACTNG dettore_p_Page_40.jp2
ffb8290c7cbe7ee9dfcf26fdebf8e481
a318105b8770bf9aa538ca38c994ed69bc51ebd0
79499 F20110331_AACTIK dettore_p_Page_47.jpg
4d58d804af8312ff99b05be30ce5b011
4a99497ef04c76c1b78d1193975a772e80b8880a
56697 F20110331_AACTDN dettore_p_Page_10.pro
6416d38521277030a6309595f2e6956c
ff5b4037d388bbee62b49e5730c852b5409eb60a
1051978 F20110331_AACTNH dettore_p_Page_41.jp2
f02d7e7771d9b8010905c2d0be12c20f
ccbd47bef057776586641fc82e6b0dd9d3a88dd8
3685 F20110331_AACTIL dettore_p_Page_02.jpg
e2253ad914f233cce4e15574e2ad8fb2
ec1d6433d848ca2a6ca527111a82f707a22843e6
104070 F20110331_AACTDO dettore_p_Page_25.jpg
44ff3af68c6ee2a468aa50f9b34448f5
af008cecb217c5205c011d95a31b3ac75cb28537
948601 F20110331_AACTNI dettore_p_Page_42.jp2
40fe3c866dedd9650cb4063a81ca1097
eae6700626a0d9c43b21f5c0ae353069d6a9a42b
54954 F20110331_AACTIM dettore_p_Page_14.pro
598d65ddf9223340a55b6926397e60d8
27c42b102a1fd4770fc82ebb1ac0de9d740b1fbf
1504 F20110331_AACTDP dettore_p_Page_31.txt
6086f5e4372b4231b560941ad280ed32
fb6bc50076f8620201eed0847d2eb0d181034763
1051967 F20110331_AACTNJ dettore_p_Page_44.jp2
600acdd08cf9ad53930fc729f3799178
202591bf1c4bd798f3910a7686ec350519d9743e
37259 F20110331_AACTIN dettore_p_Page_28.QC.jpg
c3d3aca535eb68fcd4ac1e41b75b50f4
917abe957cd332c5d2cac064272f3644c74524f5
113880 F20110331_AACTDQ dettore_p_Page_39.jpg
fdece01aae42157206c8581fe6128346
196478a3be993a73ecbeaf8a6ec56bf5bf0380a2
1051934 F20110331_AACTNK dettore_p_Page_45.jp2
f22ab77cf65a916896bf904ae3acf9e3
9cc6f9b07c4b5006e5a9e995abe6c2f38c638623
F20110331_AACTIO dettore_p_Page_38.jp2
71f8b9752cd5b7979cb3bb3a4dea9055
742edb96afe243d735dea9db2b38cc7fc26eb58e
1051981 F20110331_AACTDR dettore_p_Page_46.jp2
b60d62b4ee68c55c27cf168425d5cd83
0b452f6bc1684485c79776cf5d721b92bd701d06
882111 F20110331_AACTNL dettore_p_Page_47.jp2
75348904e1ce883f82d2a10bfabc382a
ea5080bc3fb4433a89f3e1b5b5fbea4be9e5dad5
F20110331_AACTIP dettore_p_Page_43.tif
f5dc50663c77377652599b3a8ecca9af
c96110ae1930c9efe1b456506fa947a83562cac5
2040 F20110331_AACTDS dettore_p_Page_25.txt
6863cce7683aab3d433280a8a332d199
b7da7bf261f60cb61123c7f87bec905ebf0b2b17
210801 F20110331_AACTNM dettore_p_Page_49.jp2
ba15c1892ab198f479b6fcb902fd344d
20df3a842d14907ff2e4d0cec9bd156c5bf82e7c