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'There's Just Kind of, Sort of a Symmetry to It'

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021785/00001

Material Information

Title: 'There's Just Kind of, Sort of a Symmetry to It' 'Sort of' and 'Kind of' as Used in The Lord of the Rings Movie Appendices
Physical Description: 1 online resource (122 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jimenez, Melina Patric
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Linguistics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Linguistics thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examines the use of the pragmatic particles 'sort of' and 'kind of' in the Appendices of The Lord of the Rings films. The following issues will be addressed: Which pragmatic particle do speakers from various English-speaking countries use more frequently? What syntactic environments do they precede or follow? What are the syntactic environments that show 'sort of' and 'kind of' are not synonyms? What are the pragmatic uses that show 'sort of' and 'kind of' are not synonyms? The materials for the study are the six DVD Appendices to the Lord of the Rings films. There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF representing 5 English speaking sections of the world. The majority of the interviews are with men, since they were also the primary makeup of the films and the production crew. Since the data was taken from the making-of documentary of a movie, certain demographic information such as age, education and socio-economic status is hard to ascertain. The Appendices consist of all aspects of producing LOTRF, from wardrobe and set construction to the release of each film. The six DVDs contain over twenty and a half hours of dialogue. It was found that American, Canadian and British speakers tended to use 'kind of' more whereas Australian and New Zealander speakers used 'sort of' more frequently. Surrounding syntactic environment was coded for factors such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, adverbs, etc. This was done both for preceding as well as following syntactic information. The distribution of 'sort of' and 'kind of' varied depending on the syntactic element and whether it was preceding or following. For some elements, the use of either particle was fairly evenly split. For other elements, there was a higher tendency to choose one particle over the other. The use of 'sort of' and 'kind of' with verbs is the most interesting finding in the study. Infinitive verbs were categorically split by the particles. Auxiliary and main verbs also had a high tendency of being divided. Finally, 'sort of' and 'kind of' tended to occur after variations of 'be' but before other verbs. From the study, it was concluded that 'kind of' and 'sort of' are synonyms. However, this could be due to conflation of speakers of various dialects of English. Epistemic uses of the particles were also found. These were self-repair signals, lexical and, approximation signals, and special-style markers. There were also affective uses of 'sort of' and 'kind of.'
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melina Patric Jimenez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hardman, Martha J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021785:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021785/00001

Material Information

Title: 'There's Just Kind of, Sort of a Symmetry to It' 'Sort of' and 'Kind of' as Used in The Lord of the Rings Movie Appendices
Physical Description: 1 online resource (122 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Jimenez, Melina Patric
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Linguistics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Linguistics thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examines the use of the pragmatic particles 'sort of' and 'kind of' in the Appendices of The Lord of the Rings films. The following issues will be addressed: Which pragmatic particle do speakers from various English-speaking countries use more frequently? What syntactic environments do they precede or follow? What are the syntactic environments that show 'sort of' and 'kind of' are not synonyms? What are the pragmatic uses that show 'sort of' and 'kind of' are not synonyms? The materials for the study are the six DVD Appendices to the Lord of the Rings films. There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF representing 5 English speaking sections of the world. The majority of the interviews are with men, since they were also the primary makeup of the films and the production crew. Since the data was taken from the making-of documentary of a movie, certain demographic information such as age, education and socio-economic status is hard to ascertain. The Appendices consist of all aspects of producing LOTRF, from wardrobe and set construction to the release of each film. The six DVDs contain over twenty and a half hours of dialogue. It was found that American, Canadian and British speakers tended to use 'kind of' more whereas Australian and New Zealander speakers used 'sort of' more frequently. Surrounding syntactic environment was coded for factors such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, adverbs, etc. This was done both for preceding as well as following syntactic information. The distribution of 'sort of' and 'kind of' varied depending on the syntactic element and whether it was preceding or following. For some elements, the use of either particle was fairly evenly split. For other elements, there was a higher tendency to choose one particle over the other. The use of 'sort of' and 'kind of' with verbs is the most interesting finding in the study. Infinitive verbs were categorically split by the particles. Auxiliary and main verbs also had a high tendency of being divided. Finally, 'sort of' and 'kind of' tended to occur after variations of 'be' but before other verbs. From the study, it was concluded that 'kind of' and 'sort of' are synonyms. However, this could be due to conflation of speakers of various dialects of English. Epistemic uses of the particles were also found. These were self-repair signals, lexical and, approximation signals, and special-style markers. There were also affective uses of 'sort of' and 'kind of.'
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melina Patric Jimenez.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Hardman, Martha J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021785:00001


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"THERE'S JUST KIND OF, SORT OF A SYMMETRY TO IT":
'SORT OF' AND 'KIND OF' AS USED IN
THE LORD OF THE RINGS MOVIE APPENDICES




















By

MELINA PATRICIA JIMENEZ


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007




























2007 Melina Patricia Jimenez





























To my grandmother.









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. M.J. Hardman of the Program in Linguistics for the

immeasurable guidance she has provided not only on this study but also in life. I would also like

to thank Dr. Helene Blondeau of the Department of Romance Languages and Literatures and Dr.

Diana Boxer also of the Program in Linguistics for their insights, suggestions, and comments on

earlier drafts of this study. Their assistance has been invaluable in writing it. Any errors or

shortcomings remaining are my own. I thank my parents, my brothers, and Vincent Patrick

Norman for their loving encouragement and teaching me to love films which motivated me to

complete my study.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

L IS T O F T A B L E S .............. .... ....................................................................................................... 9

A B S T R A C T ........................................... .................................................................... 1 1

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... .............................. ............................. 13

T h e L a n g u a g e .........................................................................................................................1 3
T h e F ilm s ................... ...................1...................4..........
L iteratu re R ev iew .............................................................................17
G a p s ................... ...................2...................2..........
H y p o th e sis .......................................................................................................................2 3

2 METHODS .................................... ..... 25

The Lord of the Rings .......................................................... ................... 25
T h e B o o k ................................................................................................................... 2 5
T h e A p p e n d ic e s ......................................................................................................... 2 5
M e th o d o lo g y ...........................................................................................................................2 6
P articip an ts ................................................................2 6
M materials .........................................................................................................27
D ata C collection P procedure ................................................................................. 28

3 DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS ............................................... ...............30

V a riab le s ............................ .... ................................................................................................. 3 0
S o ciolin gu istic F eatu res............................................................................................. 3 0
L in gu istic b ack g rou n d ................................................................ .............................3 0
Sex .................................3...............................................
Syntactic Features................................................... 32
Syntactic Environments ..................................................................... ......... 32
Preceding Syntactic Environment ..................................................32
Following Syntactic Environment ..................................................... 36
Surrounding Syntactic Environment ....................................................... 38
P eter Jack so n ................................................................4 0

4 D IS C U S S IO N ........................................................................................................4 3

M ean in g .................. ........ .........................................................................................................4 3
L inguistic B background ..............................................................43
Syntactic Environments ................................. ........................... .... ..........44
E pistem ic Sign als ................................................................4 5
Special-style marker ..................................... ........ ..................45









A pproxim action signal ................................................................... ...... ................46
L exical im pression signal ................................................... ........................ 47
S e lf re p a ir .......................................................................................................4 7
A ffe ctiv e U se ............................................................................................................. 4 8
C o n clu sio n ................... ...................4...................9..........

APPENDIX

A LORD OF THE RINGS THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RINGS APPENDICES PART 1.... 50

In tro d u ctio n 1 :1 7 .............................................................................................................. 5 0
J.R.R. Tolkien Creator of M iddle-Earth 22:27 ..................................................................50
F rom B ook to Script 19:59 .............................................................50
V isu alizin g th e Story ................................................. ........................................52
Storyboards and Pre-Viz: Making Words into Images 13:29 ......................................52
Early Storyboards (pictures with possible dialogue) ....................................................52
Pre-Viz Animatics (pictures with possible dialogue) .................................................53
Animatic to Film Comparison (pictures with possible dialogue) ............... ................53
B ag E n d S et T e st 6 :3 3 ...................................................................................................... 5 3
Designing and Building Middle-Earth.......................... ...... ...............53
D signing M iddle-Earth41:11 ................................................................. 53
C ostum e D design 11:30 ..............................................................55
Weta Workshop 43:02 ................................. ....................................56
D design G allergies ................................................................... 57
M iddle-Earth A tlas ................................................................57
N ew Zealand as M iddle- Earth 9:50...................................................... 57

B LORD OF THE RINGS THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RINGS APPENDICES PART 2.... 59

In tro d u ctio n 0 0 :2 8 ............................................................................................................ 5 9
Film ing "The Fellow ship of the Ring" ......................................................................... ....... 59
The Fellow ship of the C ast 34:30 ........................................................................ ........... 59
A D ay in the Life of a H obbit 13:05.................................... .................. 61
Cam eras in M iddle-Earth 49:31 .............................................. ............... 62
P rodu action P hotos ................................................................................ 64
V isual Effects ................................................. 64
S c a le 1 5 :3 1 ..................................................................6 4
M in iatu res ................................................................................ 6 5
G a lle rie s ........................................................................................................................... 6 5
W eta D digital ............................................................................................................... 65
Post Production: Putting It A ll Together ...................................................................... ..... 67
D ig ital G rad in g 12 :0 7 ...................................................................................................6 7
S o u n d a n d M u sic ..................................................................................... ...............................6 8
The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 12:31 ........................................68
M u sic for M iddle-E arth 12 :24 ................................................................................... 69
The Road Goes Ever On...7:21 ............... .......................................................69




6









C LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TOWERS THE APPENDICES PART 3 .....................71

In tro d u ctio n 1 :4 9 .................................... .... ....................................... 7 1
J.R.R. Tolkien: Origins of M iddle-Earth 29:26 .............................................. ............... 71
From Book to Script: Finding the Story 20:54 ............................................ ............... 72
D signing and Building M iddle-Earth......................................................... ............... 72
D signing M iddle-Earth 45:53 .............................................. .............................. 72
W E T A W workshop 43 :44 ................................................................................ ...... ...75
G ollum .............. ....... ................................................................................................. 76
The Tam ing of Sm eagol 39:28 ............................................... ............................. 76
Gollum 's "Stand-In" 3:19............... .... ............... ...... .........78
N ew Zealand as M iddle Earth 14:23 ........................................ .......................... 78
E m y n M u il .....................................................................................................7 8
The D ead M arshes .................. .................................................. 79
R o h a n ...............................................................................7 9
Ith ilie n ..............................................................................7 9
F an g o rn F o re st.................................................................................................... 7 9
Helm 's Deep ..................................................................... ......... 79

D LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TOWERS THE APPENDICES PART 4 .....................80

In tro d u ctio n 1 :0 5 .............................................................................................................. 8 0
Film ing "The Tw o Tow ers" ............................................................................................ ......80
W warriors of the Third Age 20:55 ........................................................... ............... 80
Cameras in M iddle-Earth lhr 8:03 ................. ................................81
V isual E effects ................................................. 84
M in iatu res ................................................................................ 84
W eta D igital 27 :26 ............................................................85
Editorial: Refining the Script 21:53 ................................ .............................87
M music and Sound ................................................................88
M music for M iddle-Earth 25:15 ...........................................................................88
The Soundscapes of M iddle-Earth 21:22 ................................................................. 89
The Battle for Helm's Deep is Over... 9:26 ................................ ................... .......... 90

E THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 5 ...........92

Introduction 1:33 ........................................92
J.R.R. Tolkien: the Legagy of Middle-Earth 29:26 ...... ..........................................92
From B ook to Script .........................................92
Designing and building Middle-Earth ................................................94
D signing M iddle-Earth 29:52 ................................................................. 94
W eta W ork sh op 4 7 :17 ............................................................................................... 9 8
H om e of the H orse L ords 30:13 ................................................................... .................. 101
New Zealand as Middle-Earth 16:04 ................................ ....................... ......103






7










F THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 6 ............105

In tro d u ctio n 1 :3 9 ............................................................................................................ 1 0 5
Filming "The Return of the King"......................................................... .............. 105
V isual E ffects...................................... .............. 108
Post-Production: Journey's End ................................... ......... 111
Editorial: Completing the Trilogy 22:10 .............. .......... ........ .................... 111
M usic for M iddle-Earth 21:59.............................. .............. ....................... 12
The Soundscapes 22:05 ..................................... ........ .. ........ ................ 113
T he E nd of A ll T things 2 1:29 .............................................................. .................... 114
T he P passing of an A ge 2 5 :09 ..................................................................... ..................... 116

G NATIONALITIES ..................................................................... ....... ..... 118

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ..................................................................................... ..................119

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......................................................................... ... ..................... 122




































8









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Uses of 'sort of and 'kind of by nationalities condensed..................... ...............41

3-2 Preceding Syntactic environment of 'sort of and 'kind of ................... ................41

3-3 Phrasal constituents modified by 'sort of and 'kind of ......................................42

3-4 Following syntactic environment of 'kind of ....................................... ............... 42

G-1 Uses of 'sort of and 'kind of by nationalities. ............. .............................................. 118









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


LOTRB The Lord of the Rings book

LOTRF The Lord of the Rings films

PJ1 The initials of the speaker followed by the DVD on which the utterance
can be found. For example, this is Peter Jackson on the first Appendices.









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

"THERE'S JUST KIND OF, SORT OF A SYMMETRY TO IT":
'SORT OF' AND 'KIND OF' AS USED IN
THE LORD OF THE RINGS MOVIE APPENDICES

By

Melina Patricia Jimenez

December 2007

Chair: M.J. Hardman
Major: Linguistics

This study examines the use of the pragmatic particles 'sort of and 'kind of in the

Appendices of The Lord of the Rings films. The following issues will be addressed: Which

pragmatic particle do speakers from various English-speaking countries use more frequently?

What syntactic environments do they precede or follow? What are the syntactic environments

that show 'sort of and 'kind of are not synonyms? What are the pragmatic uses that show 'sort

of and 'kind of are not synonyms?

The materials for the study are the six DVD Appendices to the Lord of the Rings films.

There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF representing 5 English speaking sections of the world.

The majority of the interviews are with men, since they were also the primary makeup of the

films and the production crew. Since the data were taken from the making-of documentary of a

movie, certain demographic information such as age, education and socio-economic status is

hard to ascertain. The Appendices consist of all aspects of producing LOTRF, from wardrobe and

set construction to the release of each film. The six DVDs contain over twenty and a half hours

of dialogue.









It was found that American, Canadian and British speakers tended to use 'kind of more

whereas Australian and New Zealander speakers used 'sort of more frequently. Surrounding

syntactic environment was coded for factors such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, adverbs,

etc. This was done both for preceding as well as following syntactic information. The

distribution of 'sort of and 'kind of varied depending on the syntactic element and whether it

was preceding or following. For some elements, the use of either particle was fairly evenly split.

For other elements, there was a higher tendency to choose one particle over the other. The use of

'sort of and 'kind of with verbs is the most interesting finding in the study. Infinitive verbs

were categorically split by the particles. Auxiliary and main verbs also had a high tendency of

being divided. Finally, 'sort of and 'kind of tended to occur after variations of 'be' but before

other verbs.

From the study, it was concluded that 'kind of and 'sort of are synonyms. However, this

could be due to conflation of speakers of various dialects of English. Epistemic uses of the

particles were also found. These were self-repair signals, lexical and, approximation signals, and

special-style markers. There were also affective uses of 'sort of and 'kind of.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The Lord of the Rings is a popular book read by countless teenagers. Thanks to Peter

Jackson's adaptation, it is also a set of three movies that have been seen by countless more

children and adults. Just as the book has a set of Appendices, so do the Special Extended Edition

DVDs. These are a behind-the-scenes documentary on the making of the three films. I became

interested in 'sort of and 'kind of when I started watching The Lord of the Rings Appendices.

Jackson spends a great deal time talking, more than most others interviewed, and it is because of

him that I became aware of the use of 'sort of and 'kind of. To my ears it seemed like he used it

excessively, and I thought someone should write a paper on this. The following research came as

a result of taking this task upon myself and attempting to discover exactly how often Peter

Jackson (and the rest of those taking part in the narration of the Appendices) use 'sort of and

'kind of, where he uses it, and for what purpose.

The Language

Various scholars have written on the importance of language in LOTRB. Spacks, for

instance looked at power and meaning. ... Over and over we find similar statements denying

the existence of mere chance, insisting on some plan governing the activities of all" (Spacks,

2004, p.60). Spacks here is making the reader aware that LOTRB is about choices which govern

fate made by central characters. Segura and Peris (2005) state that because of Tolkien's love of

language he was able to sub-create a world which we understand, through his use of language.

He was a philologist; "the humus of his inspiration was not personal but linguistic" (Segura &

Peris, 2005, p. 35). Applicability is solely dependent on the reader and what the reader makes of

it.









Applicability is a notion shared by Curry (2004). "Reading this story, one therefore finds

oneself reading our own story. That is one reason why so many readers have taken it so to heart"

(Curry, 2004, p. 132). He defended Tolkien against critics who view LOTRB as not being true

literature. In the four decades since its publication, it has received negative criticism from literary

circles. It has also, however, earned the love and respect from many more fans. Tolkien's books

(The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion) have been translated into more than 30

languages and they have sold over 50 millions copies. In the 1960's, at the height of the hippie

culture, buttons started appearing that read "Frodo Lives". In 1978, Ralph Bakshi released the

animated film of The Lord of the Rings. It was to be a two part story with the first stopping

halfway through the second book. Due to frequent staff changes and issues in the budgeting,

United Artists released the film without the Part One subtitle (Pryor, 2003). It made a small

profit and can be found on video store shelves today. In the 1980's, the books were still quite

popular, and the BBC decided to try to their hand at a radio version of The Lord of the Rings.

Barker (2006) comments that what makes the BBC version so striking "is the simplicity of the

devices to evoke settings and make it 'real'" (p. 66). This notion of applicability is still very

much present in both Bakshi's 1978 animated film and the BBC's 1981 radio version; sales for

The Lord of the Rings are still high. It is the highest grossing work of fiction of the twentieth-

century (Curry, 2004). In England, since 1991, Tolkien's books have been borrowed from

libraries about 200,000 times a year (Curry, 2004). That is why, when the possibility arose for a

live-action film of The Lord of the Rings in the mid 1990's, Peter Jackson, along with a few other

screenwriters and directors jumped on the opportunity.

The Films

In the end, it was Jackson who won the right to direct the film version of the book, and

better still as three separate films to reflect Tolkien's division of the book into three smaller









parts. The Lord of the Rings films (LOTRF) were an international success. They earned over $3

billion worldwide. In December 2001, The Fellowship of the Ring, was released. A year later,

The Two Towers was released and in December 2003, The Return of the King was released. Each

theatrical release of the movie averages about three hours running time for a total of nine hours

and seventeen minutes. The films were later released on DVD and VHS in their original

theatrical version, as well as an extended version, plus an extended version with appendices. The

many versions of the film generated about $634 million in sales and approximately $70 million

in rental revenue (Mathijs, 2006).

The Lord of the Rings films were a labor of love, one that took 5 years and over $300

million dollars to make. It had an international cast as well as crew. Jackson has been described

as "controlling all elements of a film" (Pryor, 2003, p. 266). This was also true on the set of

LOTRF. Not only was Jackson aware of what was going on at any given moment, he required an

extraordinary amount of detail from everyone on set and off. The Shire took a year to prepare so

it had a "wild and wooly and sort of overgrown", lived-in look (Jackson, 2001). Almost every

prop was made on a small scale and a large scale, for scenes that needed to achieve an

authenticity in terms of scale. The special effects are unsurpassed in the level of detail given to

them, and Gollum, although entirely a computer generated (CG) character on screen, is able to

express as much emotion through his eyes as any of the live-actors.

The movie follows the same story laid out by Tolkien, the story of the Ring's journey

from the Shire, the land of the hobbits into Mordor, where it was created and where it must be

destroyed. It also tells the story of a man accepting his destiny as king (Aragorn); the coming of

age of four hobbits, albeit in three very different circumstances; the creation of a friendship

between two unlikely friends (Legolas, the elf and Gimli, the dwarf, two races who have long









looked at the other with suspicion); and a battle to save Middle-earth from the hand of Sauron.

Along the way, paths are altered, minor characters are deleted or even augmented, and a love

story is taken from the Appendices and placed at the heart of the films.

When writing the screenplay with Fran Walsh and Philipa Boyens, Peter Jackson had to

make those decisions as to what parts of the thousand-plus page book to keep and which to do

away with. Dedicated fans called into question these decisions, and where they deviated from

Tolkien's original work, fans were quick to call Jackson, Walsh, and Boyen's decisions "a gross

betrayal of the original novel" (Smith, 2005, p. 4). Smith (2005) calls the cast weak and even

making personal attacks on particular actors. He also questions the reduction of scenes such as

the one in Fangorn Forest with the ent, Treebeard and the inflation of others such as the battles in

the Mines of Moria. Smith believes there is very little left of Tolkien's work and instead we are

left with "a non-stop action-packed epic with state of the art special effects... rivaling in its

audience's appreciation of such low-brow blockbusters such as Gladiator..." (Smith, 2005, p. 7).

Smith is not the only one who objects to Jackson's choices. Hall (2007) sees LOTRF as nothing

more than another of Jackson's horror movies and uses the cannibalistic Orcs, and what the

author sees as a vampiric Gollum as examples of this. Shippey (2004), however, defends

Jackson's choices, and states "Jackson has certainly succeeded in conveying much of the more

obvious parts of Tolkien's narrative core, many of them quite strikingly alien to Hollywood

normality" (p.254).

The films have attracted attention from academics and a great many articles have been

written concerning its impact. There are those who have studied LOTRF's effects on New

Zealand, where it was filmed (Lawn & Beatty, 2006; Thornley, 2006; Jones, 2006). There are

essays on the economic influence of LOTRF (Wasko & Shanadi, 2006; Biltereyst & Meers,









2006; Buckland & Long, 2006). There is even an essay about pornographic spin-offs of LOTRF

(Hunter, 2006). Although much has been written on the films, there is only one essay to date

that offers a critical look at the bonus materials on the DVDs. Gray (2006) wrote about the

expansion of the fellowship beyond the screen. "The DVD, as such, fosters an intimate bond

between cast, crew, and audience..." (Gray, 2006, p.251). Beyond Gray's article, there have

been no other papers looking at the bonus material of LOTRF or other movies for that matter.

But then, no other movie's bonus material is equal that of The Lord of the Rings. Just as the films

were given every amount of detail possible for a comprehensive understanding of Middle-earth,

so too were the Appendices given the same amount of detail for a comprehensive understanding

of the creation of Middle-earth.

Literature Review

Until the 1980s and 1990s, 'sort of and 'kind of were treated as hedges or fillers. There

have been few studies focusing exclusively on what are called discourse particles, discourse

markers and pragmatic particles and none that looked only at 'kind of. Aijmer (1984) and

Holmes (1987; 1988; 1990) were the first to delve into the syntactic positioning and possible

uses of these discourse particles as something other than hedges or fillers.

'Sort of/'Kind of

Aijmer (1984) found a few functions of what she terms discourse particles 'sort of and

'kind of. She used the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English but unfortunately gives no

description of the data collection methods. In her paper, she describes the only use of 'sort of

and 'kind of as a hedge which Lakoff (1972) refers to as words whose job it is 'to make things

fuzzier or less fuzzy' (p. 195). Aijmer does, however, go on to say that the discourse particles are

used when people are at a lack of a better word, to disclaim responsibility and to assist in

communication by softening harsh words. Aijmer describes the syntactic positioning of 'sort of









and 'kind of. She found 302 examples of 'sort of in which it acts as a modifier of the Noun

Phrase. It was also found to modify the Verb Phrase though much less frequently (145

examples). 'Sort of also modified Preposition Phrases, Adjective Phrases and Adverbial

Phrases. In total, there were 482 tokens of 'sort of but only 81 of 'kind of. 'Kind of occurred

73 times with the Noun Phrase, 5 times with the Verb Phrase and 3 times in the Adjective

Phrase. It did not occur with any Prepositional Phrases nor Adverbial Phrases. Aijmer does not

give possible reasons as to why 'sort of and 'kind of occurred more frequently with Noun

Phrases than with other kinds of phrases. She does, however, make a good point that 'kind of

and 'sort of do not agree with a preceding determiner. In the example, 'these kinds of traditions'

(Aijmer, 1984, p. 119), this is important in that these likely signify a 'type of meaning rather

than a discursive meaning, or pragmatic particle.

The current study describes the syntactic environments in more detail than previously

done. Not only is the following syntactic environment described, the previous syntactic

environment is also taken into consideration as a possible cause for the use of 'sort of and 'kind

of. By looking at the surrounding environments, the present study was able to discover a

possible grammatical rule of using the particles not previously discussed.

Janet Holmes is the pioneer of the studies done on 'sort of and 'kind of. Her 1987 study

provided more functions of 'sort of than previously discussed. The study was based on the same

170,000 word corpus from the United Kingdom used by Aijmer as well as a smaller study done

with New Zealand speakers. Since Holmes is using the same British corpus used by Aijmer, she

does not give syntactic distributions. She also provides more detail in later articles as are

described below. She found 12 tokens of 'sort of for New Zealand women and 19 for New

Zealand men. The numbers for the British corpus were slightly higher; there were 23 token for









women and 43 for men. Holmes divides the data into three functions, focusing only on 'sort of.

It appears to be used most often as a lexical imprecision signal, followed by a hedge on a speech

act and also a few tokens which appear to be ambiguous. She found that the difference in use

between British women and men is statistically significant (p=.02), the same was not true for the

New Zealand women and men. Holmes states that there may be gender differentiation for British

speakers but that due to the small number of tokens in the two samples, she does "not want to

attach much weight to such small figures" (Holmes, 1987, p.68). She also noted that New

Zealand speakers used 'sort of less frequently than British speakers which is quite different from

the findings of the current study.

In her 1988 paper, Holmes describes the functions of 'sort of in more detail and delineates

two main functions of 'sort of: epistemic and affective. Holmes describes the epistemic meaning

of 'sort of as 'an imprecision signal' (94). Here she has a few subcategories. Approximation

signal is when the speaker approximates the meaning by using degree words such as 'something'

or 'about'. Lexical imprecision occurs when the speaker wishes to use a more precise word but

can't and instead the speaker conveys this lack of precision by including 'sort of. Semantic

imprecision occurs when the speaker is not able to find any words to convey the concept they are

trying to explain and are thus reduced to using 'sort of with vague descriptions instead. It can be

used as a self-repair signal in which the speaker changes syntactic structures because they can't

find the words to get their meaning across. Special-style marker use of 'sort of indicates the

speaker is using a technical word they are not comfortable with or they are using a common

word to have a more technical meaning. Holmes also found uses of 'sort of for protecting the

speaker's positive face when they have to admit to something unflattering or something they

know the listener would disapprove of. This was also true of protecting the addressee's positive









face, the addressee's negative face and the speaker's positive face. Holmes found 'sort of was

used 90 times and 'kind of was used 9 times. The majority of 'sort of (37.8%) was followed by

a verb phrase where as the majority of 'kind of (66.7%) was followed by a noun phrase. She

notes as Bolinger (1972) also noted, that 'sort of and 'kind of are not restricted in syntactic

positioning, which explains the possibility of them occurring before various kinds of

constituents. She does not however, go into detail as to why 'sort of primarily preceded verbal

phrases and 'kind of primarily preceded noun phrases. Since Holmes considers 'kind of and

'sort of synonyms, she gives no examples and gives no extra analysis for 'kind of. The current

study considers 'kind of a separate particle and provides an analysis for it as well as for 'sort

of.

In her 1990 paper, Holmes compared the use of hedges by women and men. In this study,

she focused more on the use of each hedge ('sort of, 'you know', 'I think', 'of course', and tag

questions). In her New Zealand data, Holmes found women used 53 instances of 'sort of and

men used '46'. Women used 'sort of as an epistemic modal 43.4% of the time, and men used it

54.4% of the time. Women used 'sort of with an affective meaning more often than men (19%

and 14% respectively) which Holmes takes to mean "women tend to emphasize the interpersonal

use... of 'sort of more than men do" (1990, p. 198). There were also ambiguous tokens of 'sort

of which accounted for 20.8% for women and 15.2% for men's data. The source of the data was

the same as that from the 1988 paper. The British data used by Aijmer and repeatedly by Holmes

is not given a careful description as to how the data were collected, by whom, under what

circumstances or the length of the recordings. All that is said, is that it consists of "about 170,000

words representing 34 texts each of 5000 words" (Aijmer 1984, p. 118) and that it is transcribed

and available on magnetic computer tape (Holmes 1987, p. 760). Presumably, these were data









that were elicited from participants although for what purposes is not clear. The New Zealand

data consist of three parts, the first part which is described as formal radio and TV interviews,

classroom discussions and casual conversation between friends. The second part consists of

interviews with women and men academics and housepersons once by a woman and once by a

man, where they were asked about their fitness and health. These were considered semi-formal

interviews rather than informal. The third part of Holmes's study was Meyerhoff s (1986)

research with 5 female and 5 male students who were asked to describe a picture.

In contrast to the studies described above which looked at New Zealand and British

speakers, the current study looks at these two same groups of speakers as well as American,

Australian, and Canadian speakers. By looking at a cross-section of English speakers, the present

study shows preferences in the use of 'sort of and 'kind of not previously discussed.

Coates (1988) also looked at the differences between female and male use of what she

terms epistemic models such as 'I mean', 'well', 'just', 'I think' and 'sort of. She found that

women used 'sort of more than men (35 tokens versus 10 tokens, respectively). She concludes

that women talk is more about negotiation, mutual support and co-operation, and the use of

epistemic models is a tool for that negotiation. Her study consisted of recording natural data

between 5 friends who met at Coates's house to talk. The male data come from 3 men but no

more information is given about them.

In recent years, very little has been done to sort out the possible linguistic differences

between 'sort of and 'kind of. All the current data refer back to Aijmer (1984) and Holmes

(1987; 1988; 1990). As such, the current study will also refer heavily to these two authors, as

they form the foundation of the literature. A major problem with the data is the lack of it.

Although, Holmes, Aijmer, and Coates provided a great starting point, research seems to have









stopped with them. There are is no research past 1990 that looked at the syntactic positioning nor

epistemic functions of 'sort of. The author was unable to find any studies that dealt solely with

'kind of as it has since the 1980's been considered a synonym of 'sort of. Aijmer, Holmes and

Meyerhoff (1986) (as quoted in Holmes, 1987) have looked at the syntactic information

following the pragmatic particles; none of the researchers looked at the preceding information.

While Aijmer studied only a British corpus by way of the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken

English, Meyerhoff studied only a New Zealand corpus. Holmes looked at a combination of the

two. There were no papers to date that looked at an American corpus (that incorporated both the

United States and Canada) nor one that looked at Australian data.

Gaps

The current study hopes to fill a few gaps in the literature. For reasons hinted at in the

aforementioned papers, the reasoning for only looking at following syntactic environments is

justified. However, by looking at preceding environments, we can hope to learn more about the

way both 'sort of and 'kind of are functioning in spoken language. Another major gap in the

literature is the lack of trans-anglophone research. By looking at speakers from a variety of

backgrounds, we can hope to find out any variations that single-nation research cannot tell us.

Previous studies have considered 'kind of to be a synonym of 'sort of but the current study

argues against this interpretation. Factors such as syntactic environment and the speakers'

linguistic background may influence whether 'kind of or 'sort of is used. By combining these

factors, 'kind of and 'sort of may actually be occurring in different environments.

One aspect of research and methodology that is not readily discussed in the

aforementioned papers is that of elicited data versus natural data. As was described above,

Aijmer's data were probably elicited as was part of Holmes's data. Meyerhoff s was definitely

elicited data. Another part of Holmes's data was natural data on the radio and television.









Coates's data were also natural data between friends. The studies have not discussed how this

difference in elicited versus natural data affects the occurrence of 'sort of and 'kind of. In fact,

they do not explicit label their data elicited or natural. The current study looks at natural data in

that the interviews were not done with a linguistic analysis in mind. They were created for the

enjoyment of The Lord of the Rings fans but are used for the present study because of the large

amount of data, more so than any previous study has used to date.

The linguistic literature does not seem to reflect a growing interest in movies. There are

few articles written on the language of movies, and none written on the extras on DVDs such as

Making of Documentaries or Commentaries. This is an area largely ignored by the academics but

an area which deserves more attention considering the growing interests in movies and

moviemaking.

Hypothesis

The idea that 'sort of and 'kind of are synonyms, while enticing is also seriously flawed.

It is apparent from previous data that 'kind of is less frequent than 'sort of. However, questions

need be asked to why it is less frequent. Could syntactic preferences by either pragmatic particle

be causing one to occur more frequently than another because the same syntactic environments

that are the catalyst also occur more frequently in the case of 'sort of or less frequently in the

case of 'kind of. Previous data seems to have disregarded 'kind of based merely on fewer

numbers. In Aijmer (1984) and Holmes (1988), although 'sort of and 'kind of were given

distributional statistics in charts, little or no explanation in the text is given solely to 'kind of.

The current research hopes to pull out the possible nuances of 'sort of and 'kind of.

Preceding environments have not been a consideration until this study. They may turn out

not to be statistically significant. However, as was hinted above, 'kind of and 'sort of may be

occurring in complimentary distribution in which one particle chooses a particular environment









more often than the other particle. If this is the case, it may also be the case that preceding

syntactic environment is also choosing 'sort of more often than 'kind of or vice versa.

The Lord of the Rings movies became a global success. Much of the success is, in my

personal opinion, indebted to the global cast. There were actors from New Zealand, Australia,

the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. There were also crew members working on

the film from every continent. This global presence is felt when one watches the Appendices in

which each of these accents are able to shine through. The varieties in the speech of all the cast

and crew remind of the many years the English language has been evolving to incorporate

everything from new sounds to new phrases. 'Sort of and 'kind of continue to be a presence

across the board. The use by this many varieties of English is intriguing, both in that it is used by

all, but also, in the way it is used. By looking at each of those varieties and detailing how each

uses them, we can hope to give more information on the topic.

As a secondary goal, more out of personal interest, I want to know exactly how often

Peter Jackson, the director really uses 'kind of and 'sort of. It is to him that I owe this research,

because without his use of these pragmatic particles, I would never have become interested in the

topic.









CHAPTER 2
METHODS

The Lord of the Rings

The Book

The Lord of the Rings (Tolkien, 1994) tells the story of a hobbit named Frodo Baggins who

is in possession of a ring with enormous power. The Ring was given to him by his older cousin,

Bilbo Baggins, whose account of procuring the ring is told in The Hobbit (Tolkien, 1982). Frodo

sets out in his adventure with Sam, Merry and Pippin who are also hobbits. Along the way they

meet up with various peoples of Middle-earth such as the men, Aragorn and Boromir, Gimli, a

dwarf, and Legolas, an elf. The fellowship of the Ring is led by the wizard, Gandalf. Along the

way, the fellowship breaks apart and it is up to Frodo and Sam to make sure that the ring is

destroyed in Mount Doom in the land of Mordor where it was originally created and the only

place where it can now be destroyed. Were the ring to fall back into the hands of Sauron, who

seeks it, he would become invincible and all hope for peace in Middle-earth would be lost. Frodo

and Sam are aided on their journey by the treacherous Gollum, once owner of the ring and

thousands of years before that, a hobbit. The other members of the fellowship follow their own

paths and meet Ents, sentient tree-like beings; Orcs, murderous henchmen sent by Saruman,

another wizard or Sauron; the Riders of Rohan, a horse culture led by King Theoden, and the

Gondorians, of which Aragorn is the rightful heir. The Lord of the Rings consists almost entirely

of male characters except for Eowyn, niece of King Theoden and Galadriel, the Lady of the

Wood.

The Appendices

As was described above, the film adaptations of LOTRB was an enormous undertaking. It

took over five years to film and almost eight years from preproduction to release of the final









film. The book already has a strong fan base, which meant the films were a gambit as they may

have offended fans by being too this or not enough that. Because of this, LOTRF production was

more secretive than most productions tend to be. Peter Jackson knew that this was also a movie

that could go on to inspire others to become filmmakers as he was once inspired, so he filmed

and catalogued every aspect of the making of LOTRF which became the Appendices. The

Appendices are the most comprehensive behind-the-scenes documentary ever made of the

production of the film and actually run longer than the films themselves.

Methodology

Participants

The Lord of the Rings films were an international production with a strong British

influence. The casting sheet definitely attests this since all the major races of Middle-earth such

as hobbits, elves, and dwarves were required to have a British accent. The only deviation on the

casting sheet from this was for those playing humans who could have either an American or

British accent. Jackson believed the majority of the roles should go to English actors out of

respect for Tolkien (Kendt, 2005). While the casting call called for British and American

accents, they actually had actors from most of the English-speaking world. This is important in

that the voices on the Appendices come from speakers from all over the English speaking world.

For this reason, one aspect of focus of the present study is linguistic background. The crew also

consisted of these nationalities as well as Canadians, Irish, and at least one non-native English

speaker. The crew consisted of those involved with the production, from the director all the way

to the two people who made the chain mail the actors wore on screen. Although there were over

a thousand actual cast and crew only one hundred and eighty-five members were interviewed.

The majority of the interviews are with men, since they were also the primary makeup of the

films. Given that this study was not conducted using regular demographic surveys, it is hard to









ascertain demographic characteristics generally included in a sociolinguistic study. It can be said

with some certainty that the cast and crew ranged from 19 years of age to about 80 years of age

(not including the children actors who played hobbit children). It is more difficult to ascertain the

education level for the participants as well as the socio-economic background.

Materials

The Lord of the Rings Special Extended Edition DVD consists of two DVDs for the actual

movie for each The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. There

were also two DVDs per movie dedicated to the Appendices. The Appendices are everything a

viewer would ever want to know about the making of the movie. This covers information about

pre-production such as researching Tolkien and writing the script; production such as filming in

New Zealand; and post-production such as the special effects and even release of the three films.

The six DVDs contain over twenty and a half hours of dialogue. The Appendices were chosen

because of the incredible wealth of data. The movie itself would be a poor source of data as the

movie was very tightly scripted and the number of 'sort of and 'kind of is negligible except as

'type of. Since 'sort of and 'kind of are discourse markers which primarily occur in

spontaneous speech, the movie was not transcribed at all.

The actual structure of the interviews is unknown because the interviewer's voice is only

heard once in all of the six DVDs. It appears many of the interviews for each of the movies were

conducted at the same time, while some were done after the release of each movie. There is also

behind-the-scenes footage on location, in which the actors are interacting before shooting a

scene, or the special effects crew is preparing prosthetic ears and feet, or Peter Jackson is settling

in for an editing session. These behind-the-scenes scenes were shot during principal photography

or in pick-ups. Pick-ups were extra scenes that were shot months after principal photography

took place.









Data Collection Procedure

Each of the Appendices consists of chapters named for example, 'Visual Effects' or

'Sound and Music'. Some chapters also have sub-chapters. 'Sound and Music' consists of

'Music for Middle-earth' and 'The Soundscapes of Middle-earth'. Each sub-chapter is between

twenty-eight seconds to an hour, eight minutes and three seconds long and consists of interviews

in a studio and also on set behind the scenes shots. These chapters were watched and where

instances of 'sort of and 'kind of occurred, they were transcribed with a surrounding context.

There are also chapters which do not consist of interviews such as the Galleries which are

collections of still photos, drawings, paintings, and computer animation stills. Some of the

gallery images have dialogue describing what the image consists of. The few that were watched

do not exhibit instances of 'sort of or 'kind of and were for this reason excluded from the

transcription and analysis.

All the speakers in each chapter were listed with their name, role and nationality. This

was given again when a speaker used 'sort of or 'kind of along with the time it occurs in the

chapter. Nationality was known for some speakers such as famous actors or producers. Most

were researched on the internet at the Internet Movie Data Base website as well as through

Google. Where no information on their nationality was found, a question mark remains. Their

role on or in the movies were also coded. This coding included what acting role they play

(Arwen, Frodo, Gimli, etc.) or what production role they had (executive producer, director,

animation designer and supervisor, etc.) Appendices A through F are the transcriptions for the

six DVDs. Appendix G Table G-1 shows all the speakers by nationality. As will be discussed

below, tokens produced by speakers of unknown nationalities were not used for the linguistic

background analysis. All speakers from the United Kingdom were condensed as Table 3-1

shows.









The linguistic analysis consisted of coding for preceding and following syntactic

environment, such as adjectives, adverbs, articles, conjunctions, demonstratives, nouns,

prepositions, pronouns, and verbs. There was a third division; surrounding syntactic environment

which consists only of verbs in the infinitive and complex verbs with auxiliaries. 'Just' was also

coded for as it appeared quite frequently. These environments were then run through Gold Varb

for a statistical analysis on the distribution of 'sort of and 'kind of.









CHAPTER 3
DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS

Variables

Sociolinguistic studies examine independent variables such as discourse markers, use of a

marked form or pronunciation over a non-marked form, etc. The dependent variables in this

study are 'sort of and 'kind of. Sociolinguistic independent variables can be age, sex, linguistic

background, and socio-economic status. The present study looks only at linguistic background or

nationality. Preceding and following syntactic environment are the independent linguistic

variables surrounding the use of 'sort of and 'kind of.

There were a total of 566 tokens of 'sort of (56.3%) and '439' of 'kind of (43.7%). These

are considerably closer percentages than those found in previous stories by Aijmer (1984): 482

tokens of 'sort of (86%) and 81 tokens of 'kind of (14%); Holmes (1988): 90 tokens of 'sort of

(91%) and 9 tokens of 'kind of (9%) or Meyerhoff (1986): 138 tokens of 'sort of (86%) and 23

tokens of 'kind of (14%). Part of the reason for this may be the wide range of English-speaking

backgrounds of the speakers.

Sociolinguistic Features

For the present study, nationality or linguistic background was the main sociolinguistic

independent variable studied. Unlike previous studies, sex was not considered a factor

determining use of 'sort of and 'kind of, as is discussed below.

Linguistic background

There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF representing 5 English speaking sections of the

world. There are Americans, Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, and British, which

includes Welsh and Scottish. Since there are only one Welsh, one Scottish, and one North

English speaker, these were all combined, along with the British speakers, into one category as









speakers from the United Kingdom. Individually, the single Welsh, Scottish and North English

speakers were not considered significant for the present study. There were also one non-native

speaker and four speakers of unknown linguistic backgrounds which were eliminated from the

analysis from the linguistic background analysis. They are however, included in the syntactic

analysis.

By far, the New Zealand speakers had more tokens than the other groups (46.5% or nearly

half of all the tokens) as is indicated in Table 3-1. New Zealanders had a preference for 'sort of.

They were almost two and half times more likely to say 'sort of than 'kind of. Americans

speakers represented about a third of the tokens (33.1%) but they were fairly split in their use of

'sort of (46.4%) and 'kind of (53.6%). When combined, the UK speakers represented 16.2% of

the tokens and used more 'kind of (67.9%) than 'sort of. Australian speakers were more likely

to say 'sort of than 'kind of, as were Canadian speakers.

Sex

LOTRF was mainly a male production and this is reflected in the DVD Appendices as well

as in this study. Female speakers produced 61 tokens of 'sort of and 'kind of accounting for

only 6.1% of the data. The male speakers had considerably more tokens, representing 93.8% of

the data. There was one speaker whose sex is unknown because of the way that particular scene

was filmed for the behind-the-scenes documentary. The female speakers used 'sort of almost

twice as often as 'kind of. The male speakers, however, used more 'kind of accounting for

three quarters of the data. Because of the large percentage of male speakers in comparison to

female speakers and the small amount of screen time the female speakers received, it is difficult

to ascertain that the difference in pragmatic particle use is due to gender differences or most to

do with dialectal differences.









Syntactic Features

Syntactic factors are an important aspect of a linguistic analysis. Aijmer (1984) and

Holmes (1987; 1988) looked only at following syntactic environment in terms of major syntactic

constituents. Both researchers gave distribution values for Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases,

Adjective Phrases, Preposition Phrases and Adverbial Phrases. They did not however, explain

why these choices were made. For the current study of 'sort of and 'kind of, both preceding and

following syntactic distribution were taken into account. Moreover, the current study coded for

more specific elements than previously done. These elements included general syntactic

elements like adjectives, adverbs, articles, conjunctions, demonstratives, nouns, prepositions,

pronouns, and verbs. While the research was in progress other elements came up such as 'kind

of, 'like', quotes, 'sort of, 'ums', and 'I don't know'. Distribution for each is described below.

The current study looks at the pragmatic use of 'sort of and 'kind of and disregards their

semantic use. Aijmer (1984) noted that the pragmatic particles 'sort of and 'kind of do not

agree with a preceding determiner. The following example is an instance where 'sort of is taking

a 'type of meaning, which is clear because sorts of agrees with all.

1 So we did a mix-mash of all sorts ofthings. (OB4)
2 ... whether it's tobacco or some sort of weed. (BB6)

Based on intonation and pauses, example (2) was also considered a 'type of use of 'sort

of. There were a total of one hundred and thirty-three tokens (11.6%) of a 'type of use. These

are not considered in the analysis done for this study.

Syntactic Environments

Preceding Syntactic Environment

Previous syntactic distribution was taken into account primarily because previous authors

have not taken it into account. Also, previous literature has not provided information on what









syntactic environments choose 'sort of versus 'kind of. Table 3-2 shows the number of tokens

and percentages of the distribution of preceding syntactic elements. As can be seen from the

table, some elements chose 'sort of two thirds more than 'kind of. Articles were more likely to

occur before 'sort of (65.6%) than 'kind of (34.3%). Conjunctions were also more likely to

occur before 'sort of than 'kind of, as were demonstratives. Prepositions also occurred more

frequently before 'sort of than 'kind of. Nouns were also more likely to choose 'sort of rather

than 'kind of.

Articles

3 We found a sort of rock formation down in Queenstown... (DH5)

Conjunctions

4 They were supposed to feel a little more lived in and kind of diseased. (BH5)

Demonstratives

5 ... and he's talking us through this kind of- idea of having (SA2)

Prepositions

6 Peter was really good at kind of visualizing that. (JR2)

Nouns

7 And then the whole thing sort of stops. (PJ6)

Most of the syntactic elements seemed to choose 'sort of only slightly more than 'kind of.

These were adjectives, pronouns, verbs, and verbs with infinitives. Adjectives chose 'sort of in

52.9 % of the instances, pronouns chose it in 55.8% of the instances and verbs chose 'sort of

53.9% of the time.

Adjectives

8 actually as it's moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it... (JR2)









Pronouns

9 We had already adopted some of their sort of stylistic interpretations... (DF 1)

Verbs

10 ...the buildings would have kind of openings which allowed for the trees... (AL1)

Quotes were somewhat rare before 'sort of and 'kind of occurring only three times. This is to

be expected since 'kind of and 'sort of are in this case acting like 'she said' or the more

colloquial 'I was like' which occur more often before the quote rather than after it. 'Sort of

occurred three times only with 'sort of as a repetition presumably because the speaker was using

'sort of here as a filler. Other syntactic elements like 'you know', 'like', 'um' and incomplete

utterances only occurred nine or ten times and were fairly evenly split. Just as 'sort of was

repeated to give the speaker more time to think, so were 'you know', 'like' and 'um'

Quotes

11 "Where'd that come from?" kind ofthing. (BB3)

Sort of

12 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire. (PJ2)

You Know

13 ...pretty aggressive, borderline psychotic, you know, sort of really saying... (MR5)

Like

14 And he has a way of, like sort of telling you -- It's like (JR5)

Incomplete utterances

15 # Kind of this big chunk of tooth just broke off and fell to the floor. (PJ4)

Incomplete utterances occurred a total of nine times. A note of caution should be placed here. In

the tokens found, the speaker started off with the particle and continued with the rest of their









utterance. It may be because of the way the DVDs were edited that 'sort of and 'kind of

seemed to occur at the beginning of the utterance. The editors may have edited a preceding

utterance, giving the appearance that the particle was the first thing the speaker said on the topic

when it may have not been. 'I don't know' was present after 'kind of but was not present before

either 'sort of nor 'kind of. Just as with 'sort of, 'kind of was also repeated in the same

utterance although only once. Adverbs were the only element which chose 'kind of (51.3%)

over 'sort of (48.7%).

General distribution for all the tokens in the preceding environment was fairly evenly split,

although a few syntactic elements did occur more frequently than others. Verbs, for instance,

occurred quite frequently (24% of the tokens). There are actually three categories of verbs; those

that occurred only before, those that occurred only after, and those that were split by 'sort of and

'kind of. The latter is described in more detail in the surrounding syntactic environment section.

There were 158 tokens of verbs that only occurred before 'sort of and 'kind of. This is the least

favored location for verbs accounting for a quarter of the data. They most often occurred after

'sort of and 'kind of.

Verbs occurring only before

16 The end of principal photography, I was sort of excited... (SA6)
17 ... it appeared to be that we were kind of the homecoming kings. (DM4)

Verbs that only occurred before 'sort of and 'kind of were primarily variations of the verb 'be'

such as the on in (16) and (17). Other verbs were also present before the particles such as 'knew'

in (18).

18 Well, I knew kind of what was coming up. (SR6)









Other high percentages of preceding elements were pronouns (11.9%), adverbs (11.8%),

adjectives (10.3) and articles (9.3%). Preceding distribution may contribute to the use of 'sort of

and 'kind of as is discussed in chapter 4.

Following Syntactic Environment

As Aijmer and Holmes did previously, this study also coded for following phrasal

constituents as shown in Table 3-3. The current study found that 37.2% of the data modified by

both pragmatic particles were Noun Phrases and 35.2 % of the data were Verb Phrases. This is

similar to the distribution of 'sort of found by Holmes (1988) where the NP and VP accounted

for about one third of the data each. When VP are combined with Infinitive VP, they account for

40.7% of the data. This is quite different from Aijmer's findings, in which 'sort of favored NPs

over VPs. The rest of the phrasal constituents accounted between almost 9% to less than 1% of

the data. NPs and VPs are more likely than other types of constituents to follow 'sort of and

'kind of because these are the meat and potatoes of language. These are the words that carry the

most meaning. It is for nouns and verbs that a speaker would need time to think.

The distribution for each particle was slightly different. Most phrasal constituents were

modified by 'sort of. Of the 374 NP, 61% were modified by 'sort of. Of the 354 VP, over two

thirds were also modified by 'sort of. Discourse markers such as 'you know', Preposition

Phrases and Infinitive Verbs showed a slight tendency to be modified by 'sort of. There were a

few constituents which showed preference to be modified by 'kind of 'Kind of modified

Adjective phrases two thirds more than 'sort of (67.4% of 89 AdjP) as well as quotes. Adverbial

phrases were slightly more likely to be modified by 'kind of.

Detailed following syntactic environments were also coded. 'Sort of occurred only 5

times but 4 of these were also with 'sort of as where described in the preceding syntactic

environment section. The one that occurred with 'kind of is given below and is also the title of









this study. Articles were more than two thirds more likely to occur after 'sort of (63.4%) rather

than 'kind of (36.6%). Verbs were also two thirds more likely to occur after 'sort of (61.3%)

than 'kind of (38.7%) as was 'you know' (65.2% for 'sort of and 38.7% for 'kind of).

'Sort of

19 There's just kind of, sort of a symmetry to it. (SA5)

Articles

20 He stays off our backs. It's sort of a brilliant scheme. (PJ2)

Verbs only occurring after

21 There were a lot of plot lines that -- we sort of- fleshed out (EW1)

Verbs were more likely to occur after either 'sort of or 'kind of than before accounting for

almost half of the syntactic positioning of verbs. The majority of the verbs occurring after the

particles were non-'be' verbs. For example, in (21) above and (22), 'fleshed out' and

'approached' are more complex verbs than the verb to be.

22 I sort of approached it on two fronts, really... (JL5)
23 So we sort of went for something a bit more skeletal... (JK5)

Variations of 'be' also occurred after 'sort of and 'kind of although not as frequently as they

did before the particles. Adverbs, nouns, 'um', infinite verbs were split fairly close between

'sort of and 'kind of. Adverbs represented 52.4 % out of 42 tokens, nouns represented 59.1%

out of 164 tokens, 'um' represented 54.5% out of 11 tokens and infinitive verbs represented

55.4% out of 56 tokens with 'sort of.

Adverbs

24 There needed to be sort of cuite a clear idea that the Rohan people... (ND5)

Nouns

25 Viggo had this sort of slogan written on a piece of paper... (KU4)









Um

26 It was a sort ofum, a really ridiculous fantastically foolish idea... (OM4)


It is interesting to note that while conjunctions occurred 53 times before 'sort of and 'kind of,

they did not occur a single time afterwards. There was also quite a difference in the use of

demonstratives after the particle versus before. While it occurred in 7.9% of the preceding

tokens, it occurred only .2% after tokens of 'sort of and 'kind of. The most often occurring

syntactic elements were verbs (32.9%), adjectives (20.7%) and nouns (16.3%). 'Sort of and

'kind of should logically be preceded by to and followed the rest of the infinitive. This was not

always the case because some of the tokens were not followed by the verbs itself, but rather a

complete pause or a different syntactic formulation, such as the example below shows.

27 It was all done to sort of-- Made sure that it married in very closely... (PJ5)

The utterance started to be an infinitive, possibly 'to make sure', but when it was split the

speaker changed 'make' to the past tense, creating an ungrammatical utterance. It is also possible

that the meaning with 'made' was different than that with 'make' and that was why the change

was made.

Surrounding Syntactic Environment

By examining previous and following syntactic environments in detail rather than only as

part of a larger constituent, the present study was able to discover a grammatical rule not

previously discussed. 'Sort of and 'kind of always occur between 'to' and its verb.

Infinitive verbs

28 I was trying to kind of establish the look. (AL1)
29 You had to sort of milk it a bit. (JS6)









There was only one case in which an infinitive verb did not get split. In (30), the verb is said

before 'sort of and again afterwards, in which case this is acting more as an incomplete

utterance rather than a split infinitive.

30 That would have been heartbreaking, to see sort of-- To see all these Gondorians...
(JH5)

In all the other 58 tokens of infinitive verbs, 'sort of and 'kind of are splitting the infinitive. It

was only by looking at both syntactic environments of the particles was this rule discovered. As

was briefly described above, verbs with auxiliaries are also split. Where there is an auxiliary

followed by the main verb, there is a tendency to separate the auxiliary from the main verb as in

(31) and (32).

31 over the years, her body has sort of smoothed out a sort of channel (DH5)
32 So she was sort of left out to a certain degree of the kind of camaraderie that we (EW2)

There were a few cases in which the particles did not split the auxiliary and main verb, occurring

rather before the entire verb or after it.

33 Gardens. They're doing sort of gardens (DH1)
34 ...but subconsciously, you really kind of can perceive. (DP5)

In (33), the auxiliary verb and main verb are said before 'sort of and in (34), they are said after

'kind of. The choice in particles does not seem to be affecting the syntactic positioning but

rather that which is to modified as is described below.

As the results show, there are some definite differences between previous syntactic

environments and following syntactic environments. The distribution patterns and their possible

meanings are also discussed as are the possible reasons for why certain elements occurred only

before 'sort of and 'kind of but not after. The most important finding is that of the surrounding

syntactic environment and split infinitives and the way they interact with the pragmatic particles.









Peter Jackson

Peter Jackson is the director of the three films, and appears on almost every chapter of the

Appendices. His interviews, therefore, are a large amount of the data used in this study. He uses

'sort of and 'kind of 245 times accounting for 24% of all tokens and 55% of the New Zealand

tokens. He uses 'sort of 156 times (63.7% of the tokens) and 'kind of 89 times (36.3%). His

distribution of syntactic environments is similar to those described above. Jackson showed a

slight preference for 'sort of by most preceding environments except for adverbs which showed

a slight preference for 'kind of (52.9% of 17 total tokens). Following syntactic environments

differed to some extent from the overall results. Some of the elements occurred slightly more

after 'sort of such as adjectives (56.2% with adjectives). Some occurred considerably more with

'sort of such as articles which accounted for 85% of Jackson's data with 'sort of. The only

element that occurred more frequently with 'kind of was prepositions (60% with 'kind of and

40% with 'sort of) but there were only 5 total tokens. Since he accounts for so much of the data,

an individual analysis is provided more for personal reasons rather than for the linguistic

community. It was because of his large amount of screen time and his high use of 'sort of and

'kind of that I became interested in this topic and decided to use it for my study. The analysis

described below focuses on group tendencies rather than individual ones.












Table 3-1. Uses of 'sort of and 'kind of by nationalities condensed.
Tokens Percentage Tokens Percentage of Total
Nationality 'sort of 'sort of 'kind of 'kind of percent
American 148 46.4 171 53.6 33.1
Australian 19 73.1 7 26.9 2.7
British (UK) 50 32.1 106 67.9 16.2
Canadian 9 60.0 6 40.0 1.6
New Zealand 317 70.8 131 29.2 46.5
Totals 543 56.3 421 43.7

Table 3-2. Preceding Syntactic environment of 'sort of and 'kind of
Before Percentage Before Percentage
Syntactic element 'sort of 'sort of 'kind of 'kind of
Adjective 54 52.9 50 48.1
Adverb 58 48.7 61 51.3
Article 61 65.6 32 34.3
Conjunction 32 60.4 21 39.6
Demonstrative 51 64.6 28 35.4
Kind Of 0 0.0 1 100.0
Like 5 55.6 4 44.4
Noun 43 58.9 30 41.1
Preposition 13 65.0 7 35.0
Pronoun 67 55.8 53 44.2
Quote 1 33.3 2 66.7
Sort Of 3 100.0 0 0.0
Uh Um 5 55.6 4 44.4
Verb 130 53.9 111 46.1
Verb Infinitive 33 57.6 25 42.4
You know 4 40.0 6 60.0
Unknown 0 0.0 0 0.0
I don't know 0 0.0 0 0.0
Incomplete 5 55.6 4 44.4










Table 3-3. Phrasal constituents modified by 'sort of and 'kind of
Phrasal Constituent 'Sort of Percentage 'Kind of Percentage Total
Noun Phrase 228 61.0 146 39.0 37.2
Verb Phrase 213 60.2 141 39.8 35.2
Adjective Phrase 29 32.6 60 67.4 8.9
Discourse Marker 35 53.0 31 47.0 6.6
Verb Infinitive 30 54.5 25 45.5 5.5
Preposition Phrases 12 52.2 11 47.8 2.3
Incomplete 9 45.0 11 55.0 2.0
Quotes 4 33.3 8 66.7 1.2
Adverbial Phrase 4 44.4 5 55.6 0.9

Table 3-4. Following syntactic environment of 'kind of
After Percentage After Percentage
Syntactic element 'sort of 'Sort of 'kind of 'kind of
Adjective 102 49.0 106 51.0
Adverb 22 52.4 20 47.6
Article 45 63.4 26 36.6
Conjunction 0 0.0 0 0.0
Demonstrative 2 100.0 0 0.0
Kind Of 0 0.0 1 100.0
Like 11 39.3 17 60.7
Noun 97 59.1 67 40.9
Preposition 11 50.0 11 50.0
Pronoun 4 36.4 7 63.6
Quote 4 33.3 8 66.7
Sort Of 4 80.0 1 20.0
Uh Um 6 54.5 5 45.5
Verb 203 61.3 128 38.7
Verb Infinitive 31 55.4 25 44.6
You know 15 65.2 8 34.8
Unknown 1 100.0 0 0.0
I don't know 0 0.0 1 100.0
Incomplete 8 50.0 8 50.0









CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION

Meaning

Linguistic Background

Certain nationalities or linguistic backgrounds are more prone to use one type of pragmatic

particle than another. For example, American, Canadian and British speakers said 'kind of more

than 'sort of. New Zealand and Australian speakers, however, used 'sort of rather than 'kind

of. Previous studies have looked at linguistic groups in isolation rather than by comparing their

use. Aijmer's (1984) study looked only at British speakers. Meyerhoff (1986) looked only at

New Zealand speakers. Holmes (1988) looked at both Aijmer and Meyerhoff s studies as well as

her own with New Zealand speakers. She did not, however, combine the three groups of speakers

to show a comparison of users. No previous studies have looked at English speakers from

multiple countries. This could be a reason why 'kind of has been considered a synonym of 'sort

of. Since there has been no research done solely on 'kind of, it is hard to determine how each

dialect group would be more likely to use it. They have also not considered 'kind of by a group

of speakers that was more prone to use that rather than 'sort of. Based on the information at

hand, it seems 'kind of is a synonym of 'sort of. As was noted above, the two largest groups,

Americans and New Zealanders had preference for different particles. By conflating the two

groups, the numbers may balance out giving the appearance that the two particles are

synonymous when they may not be. Due to time constraints, the present study was unable to

study the tokens based on nationality in relation to syntactic environments.

It appears from the data that 'sort of and 'kind of are occurring in the same environments,

although in general 'sort of is used slightly more frequently than 'kind of. In (27) and (28),

both particles are in analogous environments.









35 There's just kind of sort of a symmetry to it. (SA6)
36 And he kept kind of hesitating and sort of messing it up a bit. (RP4)

The first example has both 'kind of and 'sort of modifying "a symmetry". The second example

has 'kind of modifying "hesitating" and 'sort of modifying "messing it up" which are both past

continuous tenses.

Syntactic Environments

Aijmer (1984) noted 'sort of "does not modify a function word (auxiliary, determiner,

preposition or conjunction)" (p. 121). In the current study, adverbs occurred more often before

'sort of and 'kind of (119 tokens) rather than after (42 tokens). Conjunctions occurred only

before, never after. Demonstratives occurred 79 times before the particles but only twice after.

Pronouns also occurred more often before (120 tokens) than after (11 tokens). The possible

reason adverbs, conjunctions, demonstratives and pronouns occur more often before 'sort of and

'kind of rather than after is that these are function words. These are words that are not necessary

to understand the basic meaning of an utterance. They therefore do not require extra time to

choose the correct one. The syntactic structure of an utterance will dictate which demonstrative

should be used.

Adjectives, nouns and verbs, however, do require time to choose the correct word either

lexically or semantically. Adjectives occurred almost double after (208 tokens) 'sort of and

'kind of rather than before (104 tokens). Nouns occurred more than double often after (164

tokens) than before (73 tokens). Verbs occurred more often after (331) 'sort of and 'kind of

(241) than before. This is an important finding, especially in light of the fact that most of the

verbs that occurred before the particles were variations of 'be' whereas those following it were

not. This gives further support that verbs, and especially technical verbs are part of a group of

words that require more thought regardless the expertise of the speaker.









The fact that demonstratives only occurred before 'sort of and 'kind of indicates that the

particles are splitting the demonstrative and noun. This further suggests that the speaker needs

time to decide what noun to use but not what demonstrative. The fact that conjunctions occurred

only before 'sort of and 'kind of tells me the same thing. Here 'sort of and 'kind of are acting

like fillers giving the person time to think of what comes after the conjunction. This is also true

for splitting infinitives as well as splitting auxiliaries from the main verbs. The choice of an

auxiliary verb is dictated by the syntactic constraints of an utterance. There is little choice on

whether to use 'were' or 'are' when using the past tense passive. However, the speaker does have

a choice in whether to use 'tended' or another word with a similar meaning as in (37).

37 for about 18 months, they were sort of tended with loving care. (PJ3)

'Like', 'you know' and quotes occurred more often after the particles than before. 'Like' also

occurred more often after (28 tokens) than before (9 tokens). 'You know' also occurred more

often after (23) than before (10 tokens). Quotes occurred more often after (12 tokens) than before

(3 tokens). The reason could be that 'like' and 'you know' are acting as fillers, giving the

speaker more time to formulate their thoughts. The quotes appeared more frequently after

particles than before because the particles are introducing the quotes the way "she said" or "they

said" does.

Epistemic Signals

Following Holmes (1988), the following epistemic uses of the pragmatic particles were

found; special-style markers, approximation signals, lexical impression signals, and self-repair

signals. Each of these signals serves to tell the listener about the following utterance.

Special-style marker

A special-style marker is used to show the speaker is aware that the following word is a

technical word in an informal context or a non-technical word in what should be a technical









setting. These also include vulgar or colloquial words. 'Kind of in (38) is used as a special-style

marker to indicate that Monaghan is aware that describing a helmet as having a nipple is

inappropriate and is attenuating its use by including 'kind of.

38 It was the Gondorian helmet with the silver, kind of -- nipple at the top. (DM5)
39 It's not exaggerated and it's not sort of a science fiction kind of stylization. (PJ5)

In (39), Jackson uses both non-technical language ("science fictiony) and technical language

("stylization") and for each uses a pragmatic particle. This tells the listener that Jackson is aware

of this use and is hoping to balance out the non-technical language with the technical by

including 'sort of and 'kind of. Again, in (40), the speaker uses a technical word and goes on to

define it by using more technical language, but by attenuating that language by the use of 'kind

of.

40 Previsualization is kind of an advanced storyboard where you use a computer... (RM6)

As Holmes found in her study, Moore by be self-conscious of his use of a technical term and

defines it for the benefit of the listener, since he probably knows the listener will hear the word

"previsualization" again.

Approximation signal

An approximation signal is the use of 'sort of and 'kind of to convey the idea that the

actual word used is not important. The speaker is approximating their intended meaning, usually

on purpose by using the particles. In (41), the speaker, Tom Shippey, is a known-expert on

Tolkien. He uses 'kind of in front of '500,000 words long' not to show that he is unsure but

rather that the intended meaning is to show the impressive length of The Lord of the Rings.

Hennah in (42) uses 'sort of to approximate the meaning he is trying to convey rather than the

exact length of turnaround. Jackson in (43) wishes to reduce the meaning of being sneaky and

uses both particles and what Bolinger (1972) calls an intensifier 'rather'. Both 'sort of and 'kind









of are modifying sneaky by telling the listener that Jackson is deliberately trying to be attenuate

the force of his utterance by using the word sneaky. It may be that he could mean something

stronger than sneaky but chose not to use a different word.

41 It's kind of 500,000 words long. It has 100 pages of appendices. (TS4)
42 It's a sort of 10-hour turnaround. (DH5)
43 In my usual sort of rather kind of sneaky way, I had really pushed New Line...
(PJ5)

By using 'sort of and 'kind of, the speaker takes emphasis away from the exact meaning of the

utterance and places it on their intended meaning, which could be a written length, a time frame

or being sneaky.

Lexical impression signal

A lexical impression signal says that there is a more precise word that the speaker does not

know or cannot bring to mind at the time of speaking and is using the pragmatic particles to

convey this. In (44) and (45), Rygiel is describing a creature that the animation department spent

a great deal of time creating. It finally became a combination of features adapted from various

living creatures. By using 'kind of and 'sort of, Rygiel is telling the speaker that "living squid-

like", "gelatinous creature" and "blubbery skin texture" are not exactly the descriptions he is

trying to convey, but will settle for them.

44 It's this living kind of- squid-like you know gelatinous kind of creature. (JR2)
45 So actually as it's moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it (JR2)

He is also saying that the creature does not exactly have the skin texture since it is a computer

animated creature but has the appearance of having this "blubbery sort of skin texture".

Self repair

Self repair occurs when the speaker changes the syntactic construction because words fail

them. In (46), Jackson started saying that he was something but changed the emphasis of the

utterance to his emotions rather than himself.









46 I'm sort of-- My emotions are torn in all directions, you know. (PJ6)
47 I know they had a lot of fun um sort of- I think some of their training... (PJ2)

In (47), he also changes the syntactic construction of his utterance from describing the fun the

crew had to the training they were receiving.

Affective Use

Affective use focuses on the addressee's face needs. Holmes (1984) described it reducing

social distance between the speaker and the addressee. This use was found primarily in her study

which consisted of face to face interviews in the potentially facethreatening activity of

recounting personal experiences. Meyerhoff, however, did not find many affective uses of 'sort

of primarily because her participants were describing a picture and the need for protecting the

speaker and the addreesee's face needs was greatly reduced. This descriptive nature was also true

in LOTRF. Most of the time, the speakers were describing an aspect of the making in which the

need for protecting the interviewer and the audience's face needs were diminished some.

However, in (48), Selkirk is using the affective meaning of 'sort of to show respect for Jackson

and his partner, Fran Walsh's relationship and how that relates to being filmmakers.

48 Peter and Fran's sort of relationship as sort of filmmakers. (JS 1)

The decision to have Jackson as the public figure and Walsh as the private one discussed briefly

on the Appendices. Selkirk is commenting on their relationship and is trying to protect their

negative face by not imposing his opinions on their relationship even though presumably neither

one was present at his interview nor was the DVD intended solely for Jackson and Walsh. Other

than this example, there were few others showing concern for the addressee or audience's

negative or positive face.









Conclusion

This study looked at the distribution of the pragmatic particles 'sort of and 'kind of. It is

clear from the distributional analysis that certain syntactic elements play a key role in the

location of the particles. An important finding of the present study is that for verbs, syntactic

location is important. Infinitive verbs were categorically split by 'sort of and 'kind of while

auxiliary and main verbs were split the majority of the time. The auxiliary occurred before the

particle while the main verb or the one that required more decisions for the correct lexical or

semantic choice occurred after the particles. When verbs came before the pragmatic particles,

they were primarily 'be' verbs whereas when they occurred afterwards they tended not to be 'be'

verbs.

From the results described above, it seems 'sort of and 'kind of are performing two

simultaneous functions. They are used as fillers to decide what the most appropriate word should

be and also if there is no precise word to alert the listener to this fact. The epistemic uses of 'sort

of and 'kind of were also discussed in the study. They included a self-repair signal and an

approximation signal to tell the listener that the utterance is purposely not quite accurate. There

were also lexical imprecision signals in which the speaker could not find the most precise word

for their meaning. Finally, there was the special-style marker signal which told the listener that

the following word is technical in what the speaker would prefer to be a non-technical context or

not technical enough in what should be a rather technical or professional context. Due to the

expository nature of the data, affective meaning did not play a large role although it did occur.

Future studies could take into account those shortcomings described in this study and look

at larger groups of speakers from multiple English speaking countries. They could also examine

the forms in various settings. By continuing to examine 'sort of and 'kind of in a wider range of

contexts with a wider range of speakers, their apparent synonymy could show up to be false.









APPENDIX A
LORD OF THE RINGS: THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING APPENDICES PART 1


Introduction 1:17

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander


J.R.R. Tolkien Creator of Middle-Earth 22:27


Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Narrator (uncredited in featurette)
Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander
Tom Shippey Author of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century" British
Chris Upton Author of "The Tolkien Discovery Trail" British?
Rayner Unwin Tolkien's Publisher British
Jane Johnson (Author) Harper Collins British
Humphrey Carpenter Author of "J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography" British
Clive Revill Actor reading an excerpt from Lord of the Rings New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Dr. Patrick Curry Author of "Defending Middle-Earth Tolkien: Myth and Modernity" -
Canadian
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
00:30 ... extremely difficult to adapt to any sort of- movie
4:31 ... he died with this great sort of life-work partially complete
7:06 Even though the Lord of the Rings is regarded sort of as, you know, the Tolkien
Tom Shippey Author of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century" British
9:42 They told him all his life that he was a kind of- uh, you know, flogging a dead horse
Rayner Unwin Tolkien's Publisher British
9:59... and see -- sort of inscriptions on the walls say "Frodo Lives"
Dr. Patrick Curry Author of "Defending Middle-Earth Tolkien: Myth and Modernity" -
Canadian
15:35 Despair is not only a kind of- sin, theologically. *
16:57 Tolkien's view of evil -- kind of- a moral vacuum;
Tom Shippey Author of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century" British
18:14 When people say that this kind of fantasy fiction is escapist... *
18:50 If it's Frodo, then we're in a kind of Freudian universe. *


From Book to Script 19:59

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie









Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Alex Funke Miniatures Director of Photography American
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander
Brian Sibley Author/ Tolkien Scholar British
John Gilbert Editor New Zealander?
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander

Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
00:21 ... one of the first literary experiences that -- sort of- taught me...
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
00:27 You know, I read the books when I was sort of twenties.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
1:47 ... cracking the code of the Lord of the Rings is the way that I sort of think of it.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
3:05 And um, sort of towards the end there...
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
3:53 Bob's impossible to read. He's completely inscrutable, sort ofmeeting.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
5:40 He's like the only guy with these two women, sort of pounding away at these issues.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
6:46 whoever was involved in the scenes would go around and kind of -- chat...
6:52 And through that a lot of the script kind of morphed into something else.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
7:14 There were a lot of plot lines that -- we sort of- fleshed out.
7:25 The idea of Frodo kind of playing with the ring
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
9:00 That made for a degree of sort of combined chaos.
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
17:20 Peter and Fran's sort of relationship as sort of filmmakers.
17:23 ... as sort offilmmakers.









Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
18:32 That kind of bible. *
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander
1917 I mean, there were things that sort of-- happened.


Visualizing the Story

Storyboards and Pre-Viz: Making Words into Images 13:29

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Alex Funke Miniatures Director of Photography American
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Brian Van't Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American
Marion Davey Previs/VFX Department Coordinator New Zealander
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer and Supervisor American

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
00:55 That all sorts of pressures would... *
1:53 So you get a, a sort of an effect of the horses.
Barrie Osborne Producer American
2:56 Peter's not that kind of a director. *
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander
5:59 Sometimes you'd see you know just sort of puttering around.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
7:08 And I'm gonna sort of work through the space.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
8:06 And we sort of, we sort of
8:07 we sort of did a mock up of the entire scene.
8:32 which was sort of like bringing the storyboards to life.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
10:05 The kind of the kind of um, folks that love film
10:06 the kind of um, folks that love film
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
11:02 We built basically a copy of Allan's drawing sort of 3D in a computer.
12:15 Christian Rivers storyboarded the film with me, which is sort of continuing...


Early Storyboards (pictures with possible dialogue)









Pre-Viz Animatics (pictures with possible dialogue)


Animatic to Film Comparison (pictures with possible dialogue)



Bag End Set Test 6:33

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander

1:13 minutes of interview, 5:20 minutes of screen test for Bag End


Designing and Building Middle-Earth

Designing Middle-Earth41:11

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director Aussie
Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American
Uncredited Pipe expert New Zealander?
Rick Porras Co-Producer American

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
1:08 I didn't want fantasy movie Hollywood sort of style of design.
2:07 into what I actually sort of sort of wanted in term of a feeling of reality.
2:07 actually sort of sort of wanted in term of a feeling of reality.
2:24 calendars, album, and books covers and all sorts of things *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
4:12 I didn't really need to think about it, just sort of"Yes, I'll come out".
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
6:01 New Zealand has never done a project on this sort of scale before. I had never done
a project on this scale before.
6:06 So, we are sort of breaking new territory a lot...
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
6:51 I sort of tend to like, I mean I really like









6:57 I think it has a sort of elegance to it.
7:12 and being able to sort of work all these designs out.
Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
8:51 So that kind of thought went into it. *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
9:52 This presence would be felt in some sort of- strange way.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
12:41 and uh familiar so it has a kind of an Englishness to it.
13:50 with photographs and videos and kind of verbal questions and what have you,
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
14:11 We just need to get a lot of bushes and sort of- make it more wild and wooly
14:14 make it more wild and wooly and sort of overgrown.
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
14: 19 Gardens. They're doing sort of gardens
14:38 And as part of this sort of general process of building.
15:10 ... we had to build some sort of- little hillocks to have hobbit holes.
18:18 All the people were huge and XX the guys sort of slightly vulnerable.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
19:46 I guess they just sort of represent some element of the age of -- of this place.
19:55Also, kind of like a brooding presence, kind of foreboding.
19:57 ...brooding presence, kind of foreboding.
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
21:10 So we built up this sort of layer...
21:21 Then we waxed it which gave it even more sort of texture.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
22:03 for uh pleasure, and then kind of--- adding in the um various architectural elements
22:15 and its potential as a sort of-- as a place for the elves.
22:42 There are kind of elements that are art noveau and celtic designs
22:52 that's not easy to kind of endow.
23:11 And the whole thing would feel slightly -- kind of melancholic and quiet.
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
23:44It's much like Lothlorien was, at one with nature at one with sort of- foliage.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
24:04 ... the buildings would have kind of openings which allowed for the trees to grow.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
25:05 This is manifested in a lot of um sort of prop detail.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
26:48 Those that do feel very kind of crystalline.
26:52 That design was kind of filtered through into the armor and the weapons.
28:03 Except for a few kind of -- just the bottom ends of the pillars
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
28:43 And what he brought back to me was kind of pretty mind blowing.
28:56 on top of these huge viaduct like kind of pillars.
29:13 I started to sort of imagine other things happening.
29:26 extended sort of action sets pieces in the entire movie.
Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American









30:14 The camera will kind of pull back from them to reveal the city
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
30:57 And probably more a kind of spiritual place...
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
31:51 There's a sort of pavilion.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
32:34 I was trying to kind of establish the look.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
34:01 we're sort of on the outer reaches of what used to be the empire of the Nume...
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
34:29 It's like kind of ancient Rome or Egypt or Mesopotamia.
35:10 That that's kind of connected with what Frodo's going to see.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
35:35 Are we gonna have like sort of big pumpkins and stuff?
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
36:25 There was no sort of going out and picking something off a shelf.
Uncredited Pipe expert New Zealander?
36:37 So you've got it down in this sort of position. The bowl is straight.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
37:05 We had to look for people with there sorts of skills basic in the community. *
37:59 and finding these sorts of people who are willing to work um day and night. *
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
38:23 Something like fifteen rings made that sort of- vaguely fell into...
39:10 Anyway, it had a sort of shape to it that that just had a nuance that was slightly
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
39:24 they kind of rounded it off a bit but they used that ...
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
39:53 as painters find themselves sculpting or kind of hammering stuff together
39:58 so I've done my share of kind of heaving props around and gardening



Costume Design 11:30

Barrie Osborne Producer American
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British

Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
2:40 And I wanted to use a lot of that sort of 18th century design style...
3:04 So they're kind of wearing these wacky little half-mast pants...
4:43... when it, you know when it starts to sort of come apart...
4:48 ... it's got certain sort of medieval um, ideas in this attached sleeves
6:16 that these people sort of floated through the landscape









7:10 ... so we went for quite a sort of high collar smooth hanging...
7:24 ... sleeves brocades sort of got quite a lot of um, metal thread in them
8:29 and a lot of these sort of things don't come up on camera *
9:08 like we've actually sort of put quite
10:55 ... it was this imperious kind of"Hmmm".



Weta Workshop 43:02

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Rick Porras Producer American
Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander
Alex Funke Miniatures Director of Photography American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
Peter Lyon Sword Smith New Zealander
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
00:05 Weta Workshop was kind of like visiting some wild fantasy land
Rick Porras Producer American
3:14 kind of like a prehistory to English and European history.
3:26 that really you know kind of- worked its way through every fabric of the production
Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
5:39 We had already adopted some of their sort of stylistic interpretations
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British
6:27 I was like kind of thrown into the melting pot really and um,
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
10:36 that we didn't just create a sort of a bizarre tentacled kraken
10:55 it would increase in size sort of like the swelling of an octopus
12:21 We wanted the feeling that this was some sort of bizarre bull hybrid
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
15:57 But making them into these sort of insect like creatures with uncomfortable
Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander
17:28 the paint and the specific sort of- prosthetic materials and makeup









Sean Astin "Sam" American
18:57 the foot would kind of bounce and kind of- bounce a little bit
19:00 and kind of- bounce a little bit
19:16 when you like walk on the toe you learn to kind of work the foot a little bit.
19:20 kind of kind of have it sitting there.
19:20 kind of have it sitting there.
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
21:30 And I had this weird (makes face) -- kind of face.
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
21:50 to exaggerate the prominence of a nose just sort of keeps everything matching.
Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander
24:13 buckles and rivets and all the sorts of metal that would hold it together *
24:31 you couldn't help but feel like you were just sort of a part of middle-earth in there
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
28:44 Now we based this armor on a sort of a deep sea fish.
Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander
31:18 It had that sort of realism about it.
31:26 all those sorts of materials that are so modern today. *
31:35 that is really did sort of deceive people.
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
33:12 This guy happily sort of linking little bits of chain mail together.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
36:03 it was sort of in its infancy. It wasn't complete yet.
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
37: 56 Every race and every species has a different sort of arrow. *
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
40:29 At certain points you kind of miss deflect -
40:32 like kind of you can't keep that amount of energy going.
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander
41:33 He had this sort of steely look about him.



Design Galleries



Middle-Earth Atlas



New Zealand as Middle- Earth 9:50

Rick Porras Producer American
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander










Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
1:27 ... great, sort of limestone washed away.
Rick Porras Producer American
2:15 ... as a result, that was a location that you know, we could sort of you know...
2:19 ... you know chopper the equipment in to kind of kind of to kind of do on the day
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
2:59 she gets in the other side and sort of goes in across
3:04 because the scene is made up of like three primary kind of- angles.
3:28 old buildings, old kind of miners buildings. *?
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
4:18 it has a lovely river running through it, a sort ofRivendale type feeling.
Rick Porras Producer American
4:25 It's the kind of place that you would go and reflect at. *
4:29 sort of a very sacred place that you can go and rest
4:40 but still keeping a kind of in that Tolkien feel
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
7:02 so we're just looking, Andrew, at some sort ofxxx which will give us the ah
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
7:57 We had sort of whispered Amon Hen to sort of three elements
8:02 Amon Hen to sort of three elements
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
8:32 So yeah, this is the sort of thing we would shoot...
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
9:34 Lake Wakatipu which is sort of closer to Queenstown









APPENDIX B
LORD OF THE RINGS: THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING APPENDICES PART 2

Introduction 00:28

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
00:18 Keep in mind that there are all sorts of other things on this disc including, *
00:26 ... all kinds of things. *


Filming "The Fellowship of the Ring"

The Fellowship of the Cast 34:30

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
lan McKellen "Gandalf' British
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
lan Holm "Bilbo Baggins" British

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
1:47 ... having the hobbits sort of feeling like they really were connecting....
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
2:12 Everyone's trying to find their feet and sort of reacting...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
2:22 It was a real kind ofboyscout kind of yeah and a half.
2:24 boyscout kind of yeah and a half.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
2:58 It was this amazing kind of coming together. *?
Sean Astin "Sam" American
3:55 I sort of appointed myself as his kind of minder.
3:58 as his kind of minder.
4:35 Sam needed to look after Frodo as his sort of primary identity.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
5:00 Sean is a very kind of- untrusting individual when it comes to safety.
5:23 and we were in a kind of treacherous mountain area.
6:10 ... asking them all of these kind of safety questions...









Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
7:36 It was kind of traumatic.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
8:25 and everyone thought it was something really, really kind of serious.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
11:08 He goes slightly mental something kind of clicks. (kinda)
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
12:53 I was walking out of the gym all sort of sweaty in half my street clothes...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
14:32 He had no kind of you know, sideway vision.
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
14:54 Within hours it would swell and turn sort of lobster pink.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
15:56 All this kind of stuff *?
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
17:35 He was always sort of you know. Very, uh graceful.
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
18:54 Thus if he wanted something, he sort of came out and asked for it.
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
19:50 We were doing the sort of scene where I die and Viggo's...
19:58 We sort of did all my shots before lunch.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
21:41 So that became kind of difficult.
21:43 You know, you'd kind of hear him sort of"RRRR"
21:45 you'd kind of hear him sort of"RRRR"
21:51 protesting in some sort of you know can't really figure out what's he's saying
Ian Holm "Bilbo Baggins" British
22:48 He works in a way that I like which is a sort of ensemble way of thinking.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
25:47 I kind of feel bad for Liv because you know her character...
25:55 ... she would come to New Zealand for kind of stints.
25:58 So she was sort of left out to a certain degree of the kind of camaraderie that we
26:01 of the kind of camaraderie that we were able to gain. *
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
26:12 She became our Princess. We sort of looked out for her, you know.
26:18 she came in and sort of gave us that element, that, that uh female quality.
28:10 Hugo just sort of assumed that role of Elrond with the greatest of ease.
28:15 There was putting all this kind of- legwork into creating the character.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
29:42 Mine had this kind oftwitchy kind ofnervousy energy
29:44 twitchy kind ofnervousy energy that I think Merry
31:40 It was like a mother hen kind of relationship. *
Sean Astin "Sam" American
34:00 in most of human life you don't have that kind of closeness. *
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
34:06 ...but there was always a kind of a support system, you know.











A Day in the Life of a Hobbit 13:05


Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
:07 I'm kind of glad in this movie that I got to direct it and I didn't have to play a hobbit.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
:26 That's half of why this movie is so amazing. This kind of stuff everyday.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
1:11 because of the way that they're ankles would sort of be bent at the wrong angle.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
1:53 It was always kind ofum -
1:59 There was the kind of reading phase. *?
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
2:09 You know, just different kind of mood. *
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
2:28 So the hobbit ears encompass the whole ear and kind of fit on like um, ..
Sean Astin "Sam" American
3:29 ... then you can kind ofI don't know, it's just a useful tool.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
3:45 I don't think there was porridge on set until I kind of asked for it.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
8:05 Peter would wait until we were all sort of present and he would...
8:08 present and he would sort of talk us through things.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
8:50 I come up and then sort of you know plant your foot out there and just
8:52 your out there and just sort of settle yourself down.
9:02 The little tiny details that made up uh kind of a simple performance for us...
9:05 ... we had to kind of work them out with the scale doubles.
10:51 Suddenly I had to kind of remember my marks...
Sean Astin "Sam" American
11:38 And so you've got all these kind of- different technical
11:47 at a certain point you have to just kind of squeeze that out of your mind
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
12:40 Which took close to an hour you know in kind of soapy water with people...
12:50 ...pipe cleaners and toothpicks and all that kind of stuff. *









Cameras in Middle-Earth 49:31


Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Geoff Curtis Physical Effects Technician New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American
lan McKellen "Gandalf' British
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Rick Porras Producer American
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Jane Abbott Riding Double New Zealander
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
Stephen Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander?
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander

Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
00:44 I mean Peter's one of those classic sort of people. *
00:50 So he's one of those sort of people that can work several shoots at once.
2:59 we basically wanted to start of with sort of a very idealic place.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
5:18 We're getting sort of"ah, ah" which is nice.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
6:51 ...to uh just kind of scare us.
6:58 But Billy being this kind of slightly feminine character that he is ...
7:03 ... and made this girly kind of"wah, huh huh" shriek.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
7:58 ...to start to set up the sort of the opposition as it were.
8:28 you know it's just sort of- fun and a little bit unbelievable
Rick Porras Producer American
12:00 and uh we were kind of in and out of rain that whole weekend
12:04 and that kind of became the mantra for second unit.
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
12:33 added a huge shininess muddiness grungy sort of real element that no one...
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
13:51 If it's sort of crunch time and she has a problem you do everything in your power
Sean Astin "Sam" American
14:32 and he's talking us through this kind of idea of having our kind of spirit and souls
14:34 idea of having our kind of spirit and souls and our whole essences disturbed









15:29 That they could take a small piece of set and sort of build it into the earth.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
16:13 Made us feel smaller and kind of made that world more realistic.
16:45 ...with Strider trudging through these kind of marshy nasty wet lands.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
17:18 we were drinking lots of kind of hearty drinks like whisky, malt wine all that
17:22... malt wine all that kind of stuff. *
Sean Astin "Sam" American
18:05 I was bringing the full weight of my kind of anger and ferocity.
18:20 So you gotta kind of pull it back (kinda)
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
20:17 It was hard I mean purely guttural kind of"Lau hir neen" [Elvish]
21:41 on a barrel with this um you know kind of horse skin wrapped around it.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
22:20 So it's boundaries were sort of forested if you like.
Rick Porras Producer American
22:29 As a result Peter had the design team you know have this kind of indoor/outdoor set
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
23:02 you just try and sort of remember the qualities of nature
23:08 or the sort of qualities you try to achieve *
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
24:17 We spent a lot of time there cause we had to sort of cover it from more or less...
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
25:21 ...the helicopters kind of can't land or fly
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
26:27 and I was sort of gripping the seat, thinking "when are we getting there"
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
28:24 clambering up this mountainside all by himself to sort of get to the um location
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
28:39 ... like a real adventure getting over that sort of mountain to the set.
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
29:07 To taste it was kind of salty or something
29:09 it was kind of like, um almost like uh sawdust, salty sort of sawdust...
29:14 ... salty sort of sawdust. It was horrible.
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
32:03 These not a lot of people that really sort of understand the finer intricacies
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
32:47 That's fine you know, you can sort of deal with it.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
33:41 Its really giving this place a very uh subtropical jungle sort of feel. *?
34:54 had to be shot on this sort of edge of a pretty river bank
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
35:37 to that whole place with all of the kind of fog that we put through there
35:44 and the fact that we as the fellowship were kind of together in this sequence as well
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
36:10 It's sort of essential to the story...









36:20 cause it sort of sets things up for the next two films.
38:07 I know they had a lot of fun um sort of- I think some of their training...
38:38 It was Brett who was sort of a, a small
39:49 the one member of the Fellowship who kind of sunk his boat whilst on active duty.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
39:59 were pretty tippy, they were kind of flimsy in a way.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
45:57 He stays off our backs. It's sort of a brilliant scheme.
46:16 Any time you make a movie with the sort of physical action you know that we *
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
47:52 There was this sort of globular um, thing that this mass that came out of



Production Photos



Visual Effects

Scale 15:31

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Brian Van't Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh
lan McKellen "Gandalf' British
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Rick Porras Co-producer American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish

Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
1:19 we would try out all these techniques in order to sort of try out what worked
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American
3:10 There's still a sort of wonderful immediacy about uh
Brian Van't Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American
6:06 and does the same motion but sort of in a counter movement.
6:33 and the camera kind of crabs past from one side of the table...
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American
7:21 It's kind of fun to actually build these things.
John Rhys- Davies "Gimli" Welsh









8:28 I'm the tallest member of the fellowship. I'm sort of six-one.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
11:23 Peter was really good at kind of visualizing that.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
12:21 The jump and you sort of the jump the jump the hug is almost like a catch
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
13:05 and they would kind of do the action.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
13:34 We call him tall Paul which is sort of redundant
Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American
14:36 They're referring to this sort of sensibility that ...



Miniatures

Big-atures 16:13

Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Alex Funke Miniatures Directory of Photography American
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Mary Maclachlan Weta Workshop Miniature Builder New Zealander
John Baster Weta Workshop Miniature Builder New Zealander?

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
1:32 and I wanted lots and lots of shots these sorts of environments *
Alex Funke Miniatures Directory of Photography American
6:20...which are these wonderful sort of art-nouveau um, buildings
6:55 This is the kind of thing that you do to try to tie things together.
Mary Maclachlan Weta Workshop Miniature Builder New Zealander
9:40 carved out of this foam and put all this sort of stuff in there.
Alex Funke Miniatures Directory of Photography American
15:03 It's basically kind of a helicopter shot....



Galleries



Weta Digital 24:45
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American
Gray Horsefeld Weta Conceptual Digital Visualization Australian/New Zealander?
Matt Aiken Weta Digital Model Supervisor New Zealander?









Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American
Brian Van't Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American
Mark O. Forker Visual Effects Supervisor Digital Domain American
Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American
Stephen Regelous Weta Crowd Software Developer and Supervisor New Zealander

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
5:43 He's sort of escaped out into this lake and that's where he lives.
5:48 it's not much more than a tentacle that sort of squirms out of the water
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
6:42 it's this living kind of- squid like you know gelatinous kind of creature.
6:45 you know gelatinous kind of creature. *?
6:48 So actually as it's moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it
6:51 this blubbery sort of skin texture to it.
7:01 and that was really kind of the key.
7:06 It just kind of seemed like these were flying in space. (kinda)
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
7:40 He's just a sort of like a big um clumsy kid whose fallen with some bad friends.
8:05 It's kind of you know, it's sad.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
8:34You want to see stretching and muscles and all that sort of thing. *
8:37 so we actually went with a so- uh kind of a muscular
8:50 you get that nice kind of flexing thing.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
11:15 I was given a piece of wood, kind of like a lump of wood which was a camera.
11:39 I was now being able to sort of move a fake kind of camera within a
11:41 a fake kind of camera within a computer world of the set.
12:22 ... a solid Balrog and we sort of took our lead from John Howe's designs.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
13:48 decided How these flames would kind of- snake around.
16:45 Peter wanted to make this raith world a kind of a slightly scary place where...
Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American
16:57 Peter wanted it to be this kind of almost bleary white really fast moving...
17:17 So these bits and pieces of him are just kind of almost tearing off as he walks
17:43 other moving figures as a kind of trigger for the distortion.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
17:46 It was a combination of kind of 3-D 2-D effects (kinda)
Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American
20:43 We just sort of took the risk away and uh made them digital doubles.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
23:38 The pleasure kind of comes on that on that last day.












Post Production: Putting It All Together


Editorial: Assembling an Epic 12:45

John Gilbert Editor New Zealander?
Peter Skarratt First Assistant Editor Aussie
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Jamie Selkirk Co-Producer New Zealander
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Annie Collins Assistant Director New Zealander

John Gilbert Editor New Zealander?
1:46 I think he was planning a shot as he sort of choppered around Edoras
1:48 a sort of tracking shot into Edoras.
5:26 So there was a kind of a tension between those two things.
Mark Ordesky Producer American
6:36 in Peter's house sort ofrebashing out the story, you know on paper
Jamie Selkirk Co-Producer New Zealander
7:54 During the process of pickups and sort of- revamping film one a bit
7:58 They sort of- thought, "Oh what are we going to do about the prologue?"
John Gilbert Editor New Zealander?
8:26 This was kind ofunfinished business and we still hadn't dealt with it.
Barrie Osborne Producer American
9:15 to be peeking over their shoulder kind of figuring out the score for this sequence.


Digital Grading 12:07

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ?
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American

Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
1:23 but you've been able to sort of influence the image in between
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
3:06 we were able to make her skin this pearlescent kind of gleam
3:10 as if she had some radiance sort of coming from within her
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
3:17 to get the look of the film to have this kind of storybook look to it
3:21 that Peter Jackson would always kind of impress upon









Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
3:41 not sepia look or that silent movie kind of look *
Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ?
4:16 we take some of those magentas and sort of- swing it into a gold world
4:24 you know you can just see the different sort of layers happening there
4:28 gives that warm feel that's sort ofHobbiton
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
4:42 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire.
4:42 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire.
4:48 a sort of urine stained kind of look
4:50 a sort of urine stained kind of look
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
5:09 They could then take these sequences now and and kind of cress(?) them
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
5:26 There's gonna be quite a variety of different sources sort of landing in at one spot
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
5:51 even though they're the same color they might kind of- pop out from each other.
Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ?
7:00 In fact it's sort ofLegolas is delivering a line.
7:29 is just kind of tell the computer where Legolas is in this shot
7:35 So the computer is just kind of matching where that move is.
8:19 Now we can sort of emulate as if he's walking into the light a little bit
8:32 as Legolas moves into the shot sort of have him move into the light.
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
8:52 creates quite a sort of staggering huge contrast range.
9:04 Generally, film stock doesn't have that sort of range. *
Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ?
9:26 Then what we would do is just sort of go in and lift back up.
9:36 so we can sort of control the two.
9:47 and shifting it into a kind of yellow gold.
10:25 So it's definitely sort of all tunnel and golden hour
10:42 Or do we in fact sort ofrelight the shot a little bit so that you are definitely focused
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
11:41 Helps create a sort ofuh an emotional mood to what you're seeing.


Sound and Music

The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 12:31

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American
Barrie Osborne Producer American
David Farmer Sound Designer American
Rosemary Dority Post Production Supervisor New Zealander?
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American










Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
00:11 it was sort of comparable to how a lot of the other...
Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American ?
1:44...wet rubber floor mats sort ofum wafting through the air
2:01 The vocalization which came sort of very late
2:04 It sort of cries out from some sort of pain.
2:06 It sort of cries out from some sort of pain. *
2:14 a walrus, a pitched down sort ofwalrus groan there.
David Farmer Sound Designer American
2:23 The thing that becomes kind of difficult about doing orcs...
Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American
2:32 The approach that we sort of ended up with was taking animals, sort of vicious
2:35 was taking animals, sort of vicious attack animals
3:14 Part of their terror is is is about them being just sort of overwhelming mass.
David Farmer Sound Designer American
3:40 recorded ourselves just kind of scurrying around and making all these
Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American ?
3:53 The cave troll is um sort of a combination of tiger um and walrus.
5:11 so he needs to have this sort of very natural organic rocky feel
5:48 I mean it's this big sort of rocky scraping.
David Farmer Sound Designer American?
7:16 she stood there and she kind of took a deep breath in.
Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
9:25 Because of the sheer size of the production we sort of spread out around a series...
9:51 you occasionally kind of see the actors stopping in their tracks to allow a 737
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
10:18 not quite real you're not quite there but you are sort of feel.



Music for Middle-Earth 12:24

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Howard Shore Composer Canadian
Roisin Carty Dialect Coach British?
Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
4:12 Mines being a dwarven kingdom would really suit from having sort of male voices


The Road Goes Ever On...7:21

Peter Jackson Director/Co-writer/Producer New Zealander
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British









Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
Mark Ordesky Producer American
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Sean Bean "Boromir" British (Northern)
Barrie Osborne Producer American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American

Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
3:51 and people you know can kind of you can kind of forget what
3:54 you can kind of forget what we were doing









APPENDIX C
LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TOWERS THE APPENDICES PART 3

Introduction 1:49

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
1:00 Things got kind of stressful.


J.R.R. Tolkien: Origins of Middle-Earth 29:26

Brian Sibley Author of "The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy" British
Colin Duriez Author of "Tolkien and C.S. Lewis" British
Rayner Unwin Tolkien's Publisher British
Tom Shippey Authort of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
John Rhys-Davies "Gimli/Voice of Treebeard" Welsh
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American***
Dr. Patrick Curry Author of "Defending Middle Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and Modernity" -
Canadian
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Sean Astin "Sam" American

Brian Sibley Author of "The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy" British
:26 ... pick up and read the kind of books of stories that the liked to read. *
Rayner Unwin Tolkien's Publisher British
1:16 They use to meet and sort of drink in the pub.
Tom Shippey Authort of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
4:27 And instead of kind of what they do nowadays...
6:49 It's kind of 500,000 words long. It has 100 pages of appendices.
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
9:36 ... to suddenly fracture it in this sort of way.
Brian Sibley Author of "The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy" British
16:50 ... you would hear booming out this deep kind of. "rooom, rhooom"
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
17:36 Old Man Willow makes a sort of return in the midst of Fangorn Forest.
Tom Shippey Authort of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
19:30 There's a sort of feeling there, if you can do it ,you will.
20:35 Well, we're quite used to that kind of rhetoric, you might say. *
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander









23:20 ... as we tried sort of not to give the impression that Frodo was in any way...
Dr. Patrick Curry Author of "Defending Middle Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and Modernity"-
Canadian
27:08 So it's a kind of monism, a kind of single vision... **
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
27:39 And it's kind of not, really.

From Book to Script: Finding the Story 20:54

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American

Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
00:35 when we actually sat down and sort of you know, realized that there had been
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
00:57 And I kind of liked the idea we didn't have to do any of that...
1:15 ... that we have to sort of interweave together.
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
4:08 captured by a guy who kind of seemingly interrogates them, but not really.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
8:52 ...is just this slow gut-wrenching kind of build to the first shot being fired.
5:20 And I just thought it was somehow kind of a romantic notion...
14:20 ...which we were sort of happy not to go there, in a way, because it was...
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
15:12 they came to that conclusion very organically and were able to sort of innovate..
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
15:40 ... in the sense that we had to create a sort of an emotionally fulfilling climax.
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
20:17...who hold them selves as sort of like the guardians...


Designing and Building Middle-Earth

Designing Middle-Earth 45:53

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Chris Hennah Art Department Manager New Zealander









Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Australian
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Director New Zealander
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Roger Lewis Miniature Builder American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander
Roger Kupelian Senior Matte Painter American
Max Dennison Head of Matte Painting British?
Matt Cooper Location Administrator New Zealander?
Geoff Goss Carpenter New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Australian
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Joe Bleakley Art Director New Zealander
Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander
Mana Davis Stunt Perfomer New Zealander

Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
2:00 So I'll just kind of start drawing in the middle of a huge sheet
4:01 ... and see the bits that were falling off and kind of pin them back into place
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
4:07 Sometimes he was in such a hurry, he'd just sort of glance down ...
6:02 The sort of task there was really to make rock
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
6:32 ...and then we would reassemble them into all kinds of environments. *
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
6:40 ... tough guys were managing to sort of shape the rocks to get them dressed.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
7:12 You know, the kind of the Styrofoam-"sorry, we need a little ...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
9:12 ... and it's kind of funny because you keep hearing this train noise
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
9:37 They brought in all the sort of flora of that particular type of land
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
11:23 ... Richard Taylor make up some very realistic-looking silicone sort of dummies
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
11:36 and you had that lovely sort of reflection off the water
12:23 There was this sort of theory that we should think of them as Vikings...
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British









12:33 based loosely on a slightly kind of Anglo-Saxon, Germanic model.
12:38 we sort of took a cue from that in the design...
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
12:54 Celtic interlace and knot-work and that sort of thing *
Peter Jackson Director/Writer New Zealander
14:53 hill don't usually sort of pop out of the ground like that.
16:15 and we just sort ofwalked around this hill and looked around and though: ...
17:39 for about 18 months, they were sort of tended with loving care.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
18:44 we had to sort of teach ourselves how to thatch
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
19:15 and in this sort of raw environment
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
19:23...which is designed to kind of catch the light...
Viggo Mortensen Aragom American
20:29 and there were just the right sort of animals there. *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
20:44 that the only way to kind of reduce the scale of this production ...
Miranda Otto Eowyn Australian
21:32 rain and snow and all that just sort of added to the real Edoras/Rohan feeling
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
23:11 The design of the floor was such a fluid, kind of lines going through it.
Peter Jackson -Director New Zealander
25:08 ... huge vista like sort of John Ford cow-boy movie-type vista
25:29 ... little cottages, just kind of on the shores of the lake
26:01 ... and the whole wind kind of swept around towards the camera...
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
26:13 two guys on the camera had sort of suddenly smelled smoke
Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander
26:48 With Fangom, it evokes a definite sort of image in your mind.
26:54 It's sort of a forest that minds it's own business
Peter Jackson -Director New Zealander
27:14 we decided- it was sort of a reluctant decision because we knew...
27:22 The design of the main Fagom set was really kind of coming up with...
27:24 ...with the most kind of convenient way of being in the middle of a forest.
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
29:21 every sort of month of so, he would take his truck
30:36 but Brian who is sort of an Ent in his own way
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
31:28 In Henneth Annun where Faramir's group of people have a kind of hideout
31:40 although this cave was kind of a hide away
31:43 We sort of thought that they would probably have to carry everything...
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
33:36 as a sort of a rallying point, a meeting point...
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander
33:53 Alan did the aerial kind of shot, wide short of that.









Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
35:36 and the waters had risen and had just kind of spilled over the edges
36:52 .... Tolkien's description and the kind of topography that he outlines.*
Peter Jackson -Director New Zealander
37:50 So that was the one fundamental sort of change that we made.
Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander
39:04 The first sort of two or three months there was, literally, two big bulldozers
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
40:27 It was big enough to be able to sort of crawl around through and build
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
42:00 and then you look up and there's this sort of you know, British castle.
42:04 "Where'd that come from?" kind ofthing.



WETA Workshop 43:44

John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander Black shirt looks like Nick
Heckamen
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Warren Mahy WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander bald Jay-look alike
Shaun Bolton WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander shawn look-alike / i/h goatee
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
Bernard Hill Theoden British
Peter Lyon WETA Sword Smith New Zealander Burly librarian wrestler
Jason Docherty WETA Workshop Supervisor New Zealander
Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British
Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
Jed Brophy "Sharku" New Zealander
John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voice of Treebeard Welsh
Brad Dourif Grima Wormtongue American
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director New Zealander
Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British

Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
:38 so we could sort of constantly see what everyone else was doing.
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
1:04 We were sort of curious as to what he might bring as examples of some of the work
he'd done









John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
12:58 And this big burly guy who's sort of a cross between a librarian and a wrestler
Peter Lyon WETA Sword Smith New Zealander
19:01 ... double-edged swords that also have the sort ofT-bar arrangement at the top
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
21:00 Once they were on the rack, you sort of felt, "Right. I've created an army."
Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British
21:23 It was like some sort of freak show, these great big trucks with roller doors
21:26... would turn up, full to the gunnels of racks of these sort of limbs
Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
23:44 As far as sort of prosthetic design from workshop...
Bernard Hill Theoden British
27:23 put a little piece in here and do all that kind of stuff *
27:42 the poison and the kind of you know, exorcism taking place
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
28:26 like it's kind of a dead eye, where it's lost its pigment.
28:40 so he's gotten very pale and kind of sickly looking skin
Brad Dourif Grima Wormtongue American
29:13 We kind of forgot about the eyebrow thing.
John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voice of Treebeard Welsh
30:12 Well, having got the artificial fingertip on, we just had to sort of play it for what
it's worth
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director New Zealander
34:08 Something that looks like a sort of a cross between a pit bull and a hyena.
35:16... you'd poke at with your spear and they'd sort of disappear again.
Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British
40:25 So I'm not thinking that this is more of a complex kind of character
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
40:53 ... and someone who kind of moved it from side to side and stuff.

Note: Richard Taylor had a significant amount of screentime and never said sort of or kind of


Gollum

The Taming of Smeagol 39:28

Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American
Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Jason Schleifer WETA Senior Animator American
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British









Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American
Brian Van't Hul Visual Effects D.P. American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Bay Raitt WETA Creature Facial lead American
Joe Letteri WETA Visual Effects Supervisor American
Remington Scott Motion Capture Supervisor American
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
John Labrie WETA systems Architect American
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Adam Valdez WETA Animation Dept. Head American
Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish
Warren Mahy WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
Ken McGaugh WETA 3D Sequence Lead American

Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
2:16 1 used Iggy pop ... because he kind of had enough of a muscle/skin ratio.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
3:10 and it's easy to sort of say that, but it's a tall order.
Andy Serkis Gollum British
4:53 The original kind of way into the job
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
6:55 The motivating kind of unifying performance behind Gollum...
Peter Jackson -Director New Zealander
3:17 don't have to sort of explain to everybody
Andy Serkis Gollum British
7:55 and people were kind of giving me a bit of a wider berth
10:00 nor did Sean and Elijah, they kind of though, "Andy's just gonna do..."
Elijah Wood Frodo American
11:04 They made it and it was all kind of clean and pristine ...
12:07 and he would sort of sip on that so that the Gollum voice..
Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
16:22 ...got involved and did sort of sculptural maquettes.
Bay Raitt WETA Creature Facial lead American
16:56 It would just kind of go back and forth
Andy Serkis Gollum British
18:43 and the dots kind of are reference points to joints in my body.
Peter Jackson
19:27 doing the same thing. It was kind of a bit spooky.
Andy Serkis Gollum British
20:22 And I kind of was like, "well, yeah."
20:25 Because it just feels like it's this kind of confluence
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American









26:58 what we could do is sort of superimpose our Gollum character onto Andy...
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
20:09 And the animators then could be sort of motivated and inspired
Jason Schleifer WETA Senior Animator
29:08 So, what kind of thing could we do that would make Sam have that motion? *
29:34 it doesn't have that same sort of energetic and crazed feel that the animation ...
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
29:58 it was incredible how everything kind of came together
30:08 It was like the computer kind of did its own thing.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
35:17 It's not simply about Gollum being this greedy, covetous kind of creature. *
35:29 ... that is at way with his, sort of Smeagol nature.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
37:18 and I think it's sort of the defining moment of understanding...
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
38:40 ...and feeling that, communicating their, kind of energy into it


Gollum's "Stand-In" 3:19

Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Elijah Wood Frodo American
Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American

Rick Porras Co-Producer American
1:35 ..."Gollum pajama outfit" which is basically these, this kind of you know pasty...
Elijah Wood Frodo American
2:56 ...but then, you know, kind of proud to be working in that capacity.


New Zealand as Middle Earth 14:23

Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Photographer Aussie
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British

Emyn Muil

Rick Porras Co-Producer American
:30 It's just this fantastic landscape, very kind of lunar landscape at times.









:33 It's got all this very craggy rock, kind of feels like you're on another planet.

The Dead Marshes

Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
2:48 We got out on one of the little sort of islands, and Peter put his foot...

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
3:12 ...Because it doesn't have a solid kind of ground
3:30 and I kind of looked down at the landscape
Rohan

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
3:56 in the book, the plains of Rohan are kind of described as prairie-land.

Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
4:45 Just this, like, epic John Ford sort of landscape.

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
5:06 I remember us throwing stones on the lakes and kind of thinking...

Ithilien

Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
10:08 and looking at this sort of top of the face along here.

Fangorn Forest

Rick Porras Co-Producer American
11:50 we just needed that edge where we could get that sort ofplain-like feeling
11:52 sort of rolling hills leading up to an actual forest line

Helm's Deep

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
14:00 ... and secondly, the owners allowed us to sort of take the place over for a year.









APPENDIX D
LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TOWERS THE APPENDICES PART 4


Introduction 1:05

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American


Filming "The Two Towers"

Warriors of the Third Age 20:55

Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American
Rick Porras Producer American
Kirk Maxwell Assistant Swordmaster New Zealander
Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Tony Woolf Cultural Fighting Style ?
Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Lani Jackson Stunt Performer New Zealander
Bob Anderson Swordmaster British
Craig Parker "Haldir" Fiji/ New Zealand
Sean Bean "Boromir" British
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
Mana Davis Stunt Performer New Zealander
John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Augie Davis Stunt Performer New Zealander?
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American

Kirk Maxwell Assistant Swordmaster New Zealander
:59 So it's a real sort of bunch of athletes.
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
3:40 So we did a mix-mash of all sorts of things **
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
7:19 I was still sort of jet-lagged and was taken right over to this army base...
7:25 I look over and they're at the end of this sort of gym area and against the wall...
8:06 And I just sort of got ready, but what am I gonna do?
Rick Porras Producer American
8:12 It was just a great way to kind of get Viggo right into the moment.
Bob Anderson Swordmaster British









9:04 Any sort of sword fight has a story of its own within the main story. *
John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander
12:57 And really sort of wind them up and in the end, they started doing a Maori haka...
Rick Porras Producer American
15:16 and we would just sort of sit and enjoy it.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
16:17 ...which was to be totally kind of dedicated 100 percent in the movie.
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
17:16 It was a sort ofum, a really ridiculous fantastically foolish idea...
Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander
18:09 And so I was sort of a bit iffy about doing it but I went over and grabbed him...



Cameras in Middle-Earth lhr 8:03

Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Zane Weiner Unit Production Manager American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
John Rhys-Davies "Gimli/ voice of Treebeard" Welsh
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Brad Dourif "Grima/ Wormtongue" American
Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American
John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander
Jed Brophy "Sharku" New Zealander
Sean Bean "Boromir" British
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Rick Porras Co-producer American
Craig Parker "Haldir" Fiji/ New Zealand
Lani Jackson Stunt Performer New Zealander
Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander
George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American









Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
3:45 which is this little wonderful area jagged kind of rocks.
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
4:32 Like the sort of thing you could've done on a very small budget film.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
4:56 and then kind of hopefully recall them at will when you're on a set ...
5:24 the standard kind offallback plan was "Put up some polystyrene rocks."
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
5:35 it was monotonous and it was kind of tedious
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
7:42 It was probably a kind of lucky thing you know. *?
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
10:57 "... and make sure you kind of do a projectile vomit towards the camera."
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
12:28 What he did was, he wanted to capture a more sort of war documentary feel for the
scene.
12:48 jostling for different sort of sizes of frames.
12:53 ... we were shooting film, it sort of felt like we were doing theater, in a way...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
14:49 With a kind of strawberry-blond beard. *?
14:53 Never go for the kind of dark-brown beard, but strawberry blond.
15:08 She's also bearded which means I kind of get a different kind of spin on things.
15:10 a different kind of spin on things.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
16:20 each take he kind of (kinna) got closer and closer to the camera.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
17:25 Everyone went through a little bit of physical kind of pain.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
19:31 Nobody will have run this long, this hard, over this kind of terrain. *
(Quoting JRRT)
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
20:46 And we kind of went through the two days, it was, of shooting them ...
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
21:31 We were kind of running across this terrain...
22:40 That sort of blood-red, amazing sunrise...
23:31 They kind of put the trailers around, in like sort of in that
23:34 in like sort of in that sort of Western style all facing in.
23:35 in that sort of Western style all facing in.
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
23:56 There was sort of bottles of wine and people were ...
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
25:09 ... just in case it rains, as it sort of tends to do down there quite a bit...
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
25:25 Where Frodo and Sam and Gollum are kind of up against the rock...
25:29 about to make that move, that sort of run
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British









26:04 But you know, all our hackles are kind of risen slightly.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
26:30 It was kind of intense because Sean got really upset and kind of stormed off
26:34 ... really upset and kind of stormed off.
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
28:03 ... but to get this mystical, kind of slightly ominous forest...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
28:58 Spiny, big mouths, big antennae, kind of scary.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
29:03 And the next thing we hear, Pete "Oh, hey!" You know, kind of "What's that?"
30:18 ... Merry being pulled off by the Orc and me kind of on Treebeard's nose.
30:22 So that was a kind of you know-
31:06 And you were sitting kind of like that for the whole time.
32:20 ... me, Dom and this puppet just kind of sitting there, waiting for all the people...
33:07 going past to give the kind of shadow, so that there'd be shadows going past... *
33:40 And this was kind of it was such a surreal experience.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
36:54 And Ijust sort of managed to turn, and I saw these things
36:57 ...and I saw these things sort of like tumbling in the air
37: 04 It was a sort of surreal image of my glasses sort of tumbling and sort ofjust going.
37:05 ... image of my glasses sort of tumbling
37:06 ... tumbling and sort ofjust going.
37: 14 I didn't have a spare pair, so I was sort of blurry and kind of
37:17 and kind of peering at the monitor kind of...
37:20 the monitor kind of...
37:45 He had to do this English accent, this sort ofWormtongue-ish voice.
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
40:12 So she kind of choreographed the whole thing.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
41:26 ... of Rohan as this kind of ambush
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
42:56 When you're sort of slashing at things and firing at things that aren't there.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
43:38 We shot everything we could there on this sort of mechanical crazy-looking thing.
Jed Brophy "Sharku" New Zealander
44:02 It put a split on the prosthetic which we had to kind of glue together.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
45:36 You know, your lungs kind of come together, and you don't have that much air.
45:12 I would go out on a Sunday or in the evening sort of on a daily basis...
46:51 He's sort of doing that sort of kissing thing, which was
46:52 .... that sort of kissing thing, which was...
46:58 It's kind of perfect, in a way.
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
48:54 that I said I did on Gollum kind of completely went out the window
Zane Weiner Unit Production Manager American
49:41 It's kindof the way the whole movie was.









Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
50:33We wanted to sort of up the ante a little bit.
51:18 And camera's rolling and kind of everyone just freaks out
51:40 ... and Elijah just kind ofbarely -- He barely registers it.
Sean Bean "Boromir" North British
52:27 Similar sort of facial qualities.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
53:12 ... and is sort of talking about how he wants to take the Ring from him.
53:21 And Frodo's kind of backed up against the wall of the cave.
53:56 So it was great fun to sort of physically transform...
Rick Porras Co-producer American
54:22 ...to just sort of "Oh jeez, that could happen to Frodo."
Sean Bean "Boromir" British
55:46 It wasn't hard to sort of fall back into the character.
56:16 It's just gauging the sort of passion and volume...
56:34 That's the way I was sort of setting me pitch and me volume at.
George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American
3:15 ... that really got into it and sort of enjoyed barking out orders again.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
4:20 Kind of this big chunk of tooth just broke off and fell to the floor.
4:31And he kind of(kinna) just stood there, and he said, "Get some super glue...
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
5:40 He's got those kind ofj olly, sort of red cheeks, and a great sort of
5:41 of red cheeks,
5:42 and a great sort of "take the piss" sort of biting attitude.
5:45 "take the piss" sort ofbiting attitude that's just hilarious.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
6:14 They're both really sort of man's men.
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
6:24 I always worried that if I did too many of those sort of things, it'd be like...
Karl Urban "Eomer" Aussie
6:35 Viggo had this sort of slogan written on a piece of paper...
6:44 That sort of philosophy was central to how a lot of us... *?


Visual Effects

Miniatures

Big-atures 21:44

Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
John Baster WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander?
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian









Rick Porras Producer American
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander
John Harding Armour Weapons/ Standby Aussie/British/New Zealander??
Brian Van't Hul Visual Effects D.P. American
Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander
Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander

Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American
3:17 So a set that had been built in a fairly rough kind ofway...
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
5:08 ... like some sort of ungodly, gothic cathedral... *
6:04 ... and ended up designing these two sort of spires or horns...
Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander
7:04 ... and then there's sort of metal plates and panels sort of holding it together.
7:07 ... and panels sort of holding it together.
7:09 where there sort of built a bit and then that lot died or left and
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
9:48 ... would be to have them set on some kind of wheels. *
Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American
11:04 Here we have a kind of Hobbit' s-eye view of the whole gate ...
Brian Massey Greensmaster -
13:30 ... because we sort of knew what it need to look like.
John Harding Armour Weapons/ Standby Aussie/British/New Zealander?
14:36 And all these branches sort of you know curl over create this sort of..
14:39 ... create this sort of cathedral-like space, which is actually Treebeard's house.
Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American
16:12... that you're actually seeing sort of the both parties and how they...
Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander
19:26 If you don't think you can do it, sort of walk out now.
19:32 ... you won't be walking back in again, sort of thing. *?
Rick Porras Producer American
21:04 I'm thankful that we didn't just sort of cut to, you know, Isengard's destroyed.


Weta Digital 27:26

Eileen Moran WETA Visual Effects Producer American
Joe Letteri WETA Visual Effects Supervisor American
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Scott Houston WETA Chief Technology Officer New Zealander?









Roger Kupelian Senior Matte Painter American
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
Gray Horsfield WETA 3D Sequence Lead Aussie?
Matt Aitken WETA Models Supervisor New Zealander?
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish
Brian Van't Hul Visual Effects D.P. American
Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American
John Labrie WETA Systems Architect American
Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander
Jon Allitt Massive Crowd Supervisor ?
Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American
Mark Lewis WETA 3D Sequence Lead American
Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ?
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Duncan Nimmo IT Manager New Zealander

Christian Rivers Previsualization Supervisor New Zealander
1:41 The Balrog would sort of launch out of the water.
1:44 What you're left is a kind ofhalf-skeletal
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
2:38 ...he can actually grab rather than just sort of sitting on the blue-screen totem pole.
2:49 ... to this wide shot and just see this speck sort of floating down.
4:23 ... because he'll sort of present these shorts
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
5:12 1 had this kind of important battle scene that didn't really amount to anything...
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
5:27 ... waving their swords, and horse sort of galloping from one side to another...
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
5:34 ... in a way in which I thought it would make for a busy kind of fight.
6:20 I said, Look, the fight's kind of working now..."
6:36 I was able to take those four or five shots and sort of dot them in here and there...
6:38... in here and there just to kindofjazz it all up.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
6:48 When I first got her on Film One, I sort of was perusing through all the film...
6:59 And it was sort of one of those horrifying moments when you look at it...
7:18 It looked like this big tree just sort of looking forward.
Joe Letteri WETA Visual Effects Supervisor American
7:26...it's very hard to articulate the face on that kind of animatronic. *
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
10:30 And it was a very complicated scene that we addressed kind of a bit too late, really.
Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish
11:43 Pete is that kind of guy. *









Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
13:09 and you sort of treat each one of these guys as sort of an individual character...
13:11... these guys as sort of an individual character rather than this group.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
15:17 ... you end up with this sort of relatively realistic-looking fighting ...
16:32 And they all kind of fled the battlefield.
18:25 ... and then putting all these guys kind of way into the distance.
Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ?
20:07 As things sort of went from the mid to the far background...
20:42 and we had to sort of put that sort of 3-D Helm's Deep going back down there.
20:44 that sort of 3-D Helm's Deep going back down there.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
21:41 That big hole in the wall shouldn't be there so can we kind of patch up that hole?
21:47 They sort of looked at me like I was mad, because I said, "We need this..."
Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ?
23:04 ... I have ever seen, either before or since, that sort of matches the scope of it.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
23:54 They would be sending the images down the Net, over this sort of Internet...
24:03 It sounds like somebody sort of driving in a little car down a pipe ...
25:11 the WETA images for the Two Towers kind of like in his jacket.
26:01 ...made the meetings more efficient in a funny kind of a way. *?
John Labrie WETA Systems Architect American
27:04And just what sort of things are gonna be expected from WETA.


Editorial: Refining the Script 21:53

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Mike Horton Editor ?
Jabez Olssen Additional Editor New Zealander?
Rick Porras Producer American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colorist New Zealander?

Rick Porras Producer American
4:44 ... and it ends and Frodo kind of like- wakes up from this dream.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
5:05 We sort of wanted to have a prologue in the middle, rather than at the beginning.
5:16 ... this rather strange telepathic kind of connection with Galadriel.
Rick Porras Producer American
7:16 ... and you've got constant sort of drudgery, working your way through landscape...
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
7:45 He reminds me of the sort of--- you know, committee man.









10:53 We just sort of created this map moment from sort of nothing, really.
10:55 ... from sort of nothing, really.
13:03 If it's a global, strategic kind of purpose, you're trying to defend your castle... *
14:39 It sort of-- There seemed to be a natural conclusion to the film, you know:
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
15:02 We had sort of a basis of a cut of the film but it was not really sort ofthis...
15:06 but it was not really sort ofthis...
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
18:31 My sort of-- my head vanished into my neck and shoulders because I...
18:34 ... because I was just so sort of guarded, you know.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
19:40 I sort of have this philosophy that nothing's ever perfect...
20:40 Just kind of sit back and try and be critical and just say:
21:21... and I kind of go along, and I sit and look at this thing...
21:27 "I think whoever made this film should sort of you know...
21:35 ...total innocent sort of lack of knowledge...


Music and Sound

Music for Middle-Earth 25:15

Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American ?
Howard Shore Composer Canadian
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American
John Kuklander Score Engineer ?
Rick Porras Producer American
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
:58 We want there to be a build and a progression so it's like a sort of opera
6:23 To have this thudding, throbbing, percussive kind of music *
Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American ?
9:51 ... after Aragorn has fallen off the cliff, and he kind of comes to.
10:26 Elizabeth Fraser's sound in the Cocteau Twins was kind of what we were after.
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
12:20 It was kind of like one of those moments when she said:
Howard Shore Composer Canadian
14:22 ... so you're both sort of working together to tell the story.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
14:42 I talk in that sort of language. *
15:44 You'd sort of be holding a note on Gollum, similar to Frodo.
15:46 It's just this sort of sort of..
15:52 ... Frodo kind of accepts it.
Rick Porras Producer American









17:45 And he kept kind of hesitating and sort of messing it up a bit.
17:48 ... and sort of messing it up a bit.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
18:03...I got to do something which I sort of harbored a secret desire to do...
18:28 And he kind of looks up a second time, and she's not there.
18:32 And we just wanted this sort of:
18:33 This kind of gong sound.
Rick Porras Producer American
21:49 So, all these kind of things conspired...
24:43 I think it's very much a sort of precursor...


The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 21:22

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor American
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
Chris Ward ADR Recordist New Zealander?
David Farmer Sound Designer American
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Rick Porras Co-producer American
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Chris Boyes Re-recording mixer American
Michael Semanick Re-recording mixer American
Simon Hewit Foley Artist New Zealander
Phil Heywood Foley Artist New Zealander
Martin Oswin Foley Engineer ?
Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander?
Mike Horton Editor ?
Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
:15 the soundtrack has sort of mysteriously materialized.
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor -
1:00 Because we wanted them sort of basically quite clean and free of background...
David Farmer Sound Designer American
1:43 And the thing just kind of does and just tumbles end over end.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
2:41 I kind of had to stride onto the middle of this bloody cricket pitch.
2:51 They actually wanted some chanting and Black speech this sort of guttural language
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor -
3:37 So unfortunately it was only the chanting stuff which sort of worked out
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
3:54 and at all the appropriate moments, they would sort of cheer and clap.
4:19 and then you listen to what the 25,000 people do, it's sort of- you can see...
David Farmer Sound Designer American
4:57 You know, we wanted to make it sort of dank and wet and foreboding...









Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
8:04 and get them to kind ofmorph like that.
David Farmer Sound Designer American
9:01 ...we knew that that sort of thing might come up again.
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor American
9:07 There hasn't been any sort of major rethink on any sound design.
David Farmer Sound Designer American
10:08 ...I kindof knew I wanted it to be a donkey.
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
11:41 So it's a far sweeter, more soothing, enticing kind of character. *?
David Farmer Sound Designer American
And I would just take the faders and kind of go...
Chris Boyes Re-recording mixer American
15:32 ... and how pulled-back and sort of amorphous the sound becomes.
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor American
16:45 So you get this really sort of dynamic contrast...
Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander?
17:01 all the whiz-bys that you hear, all the kind of arrows going past.
17:08 And building that kind of thing up is --
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
18:38 Which was actually kind of cool because you could be in Wellington...
19:13 It was kind of ironic in that we had more what you'd call face time with Peter...
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor American
20:43 That was a sort of guiding philosophy towards the end of the final mix.


The Battle for Helm's Deep is Over... 9:26

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
John Rhys-Davies "Gimli/ voice of Treebeard" Welsh
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Rick Porras Producer American

Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American
:42 ... I still needed to keep a positive productive, constructive kind of attitude.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British









1:41 In the first movie, we arrived and people were kind of like:
1:49 We should get their autograph because they're gonna be famous," kind of thing.
1:56 ...it appeared to be that we were kind of the homecoming kings.
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
2:09 I sort of at that point, more than any other point...
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
2:17 It's kind of outrageous, what it is now.
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
2:44 ...they were all so proficient at it and kind of knew the score, knew the red-carpet ..
2:48 ... knew the red-carpet deal, knew all that sort of stuff
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
3:43 WETA designed the sort of--- I guess it's a kind of centerpiece
3:45 I guess it's a kind of centerpiece...
Rick Porras Producer American
5:01 Because in the end, for us, it is just kind of like one picture...
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
5:15 And we wanted it to be audacious, to have a sort of a courage about it.
5:22 ...we've got to do it. You know, you kind of-- And second
5:46 ...when it was re-released -- and it was kind of-- I was just lost in the world
6:02 you know, it the next kind of profound experience.
6:12 Films inspired me, and it's an important thing to kind of pass on...
6:15 To keep kind of getting kids excited about the idea of what films can be...









APPENDIX E
LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING THE APPENDICES PART 5

Introduction 1:33


Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander


J.R.R. Tolkien: the Legagy of Middle-Earth 29:26

Tom Shippey Authort of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
Brian Sibley Author of "The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy" British
John Garth Author of "Tolkien and the Great War" British
David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American
Bill Welden Tolkien Linguist American
Colin Duriez Author of "Tolkien and C.S. Lewis" British
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Dr. Patrick Curry Author of "Defending Middle Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and Modernity" -
Canadian
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
Rayner Unwin Tolkien's Publisher British
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander

David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American
2:19 And he wrote this sort of fantasy history to explain, you know,
Bill Welden Tolkien Linguist American
2:44 It was basically a fall from grace-A sort of fall from grace.
Tom Shippey Authort of "J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
9:40 He didn't sort of cut and paste chunks out and make it into the siege of Minas
Tirith...
17:12 One of the effects of the kind of strand-by-strand narration of the Lord of the *
20:32 I think, that actually, Tolkien has this in this head as a kind of infrantryman slogan.
John Garth Author of "Tolkien and the Great War" British
24:57 Tolkien's group of friends at school, eh kind of formalized the bond between the...
David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American
27:44 He was going to create a kind of grand tapestry.


From Book to Script

From Book to Script: Forging the Final Chapter 24:58

Brian Sibley Author of "The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy" British
John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voice of Treebeard Welsh









Tom Shippey Authort of"J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Elijah Wood Frodo American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn American
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
lan McKellen "Gandalf' British
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
Christopher Lee Saruman British
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American

Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
4:18 ...pretty aggressive, borderline psychotic, you know, sort of really saying...
4:23 ... get outta here, you can't help me, in a really, pretty venomous kind of tone.
Elijah Wood Frodo American
4:39 We realized that that was a kind of.. That it was a little bit too intense for Frodo.
4:45 They had me start doing additional dialogue recording, just kind of tone it down...
4:47 ... tone it down to sort of keep the intensity...
5:20 as we were able to kind of re-envision things and rethink things.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
8:52 ... storytelling and the uh and the parallel story lines is sort of was a disadvantage
9:40 ... you know, I've always had problems with my, sort of moviemaking hat on.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
10:29 The original thought was to have some sort of you know, angelic presence, you
know...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
11:04 Not the destroyed, sort of evil force that inhabits the rest of the film.
Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander
11:40 But Pete kind of knew that those 14-foot monsters very, very, very rarely work.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
12:40 Well, we have to have Viggo doing some sort of a heroic fight." *
13:54 We sort of got the best of both worlds, because we had that moment...
14:44...he's so overwhelmed with joy, he sort of dances--- I think in the book he does...
14:46 I think in the book he does sort of almost like -- It's described as a dance.
15:32 So Gollum and the Ring fall, and Frodo kind of disappears...
Elijah Wood Frodo American
16:32 We wanted it to kind of appear somewhat ambiguous...
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
19:26 You see him see that, sort of the Shire kind ofbecome like a horrible...
19:27 the Shire kind of become like a horrible almost horrible ...
19:28... almost holocaust, factory kind of environment.
19:31 So you have a -- you sort of have a tip of the hat to it there.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander









20:28... and then to sort of deviate into a completely different event in the story line...
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
20:56 We sort of tried to mold it together, so it flowed reasonably well.
21:00 But I can understand a lot of the uh, A lot of the viewers did sort of find there's too
many endings.
Elijah Wood Frodo American
21:25 "Well, yeah, I mean, it sort of depends on how you look at it..."
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
22:21 ...these movies having Aragorn and Arwen apart, the sort of the tension...


Designing and building Middle-Earth

Designing Middle-Earth 29:52

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Chris Hennah
David Kolfi Set Dresser New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Shane Rangi "Harad Leader 2"/Stunt Performer New Zealander
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American Aragorn American
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander
Uncredited construction man
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
John Noble "Denethor" Aussie
Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Author of "The Visual Companions" British
Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
Ian McKellen "Gandalf British
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Carolynne Cunningham First Assistant Director New Zealander?

Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
:29 ... and you read that book you kind of somehow feel that you're surrounded by
Middle-Earth
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
2:05 I was always kind of "How are we gonna make this better?
3:02...beginning part of the bridge that sort of had a bit of a force-perspective thing to it..
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British









5:08 And Tolkien describes them as though they're kind of more than vertical.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
6:35 Everyone associated with the movie had to endure some unique kind of suffering.*
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
6:48 ... was a result of some workshopping and, sort of dialogue that we'd had...
6:54 ... and we had kind of exhausted a lot of our ideas about rock...
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
7:14 And I found the same kind of rock just out our front door in Seatoum...
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
7:34 But also, over the years, her body has sort of smoothed out a sort of channel...
7:37 ... a sort of channel where she's been dragging this great big body around.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
7:48 ... and very creepy and twisty caverns that they had sort of created.
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
8:20 There was just this sort of feel of the architecture of somewhere.
10:10 ... lots of wonderful animals that we were able to sort of-- hang from strings.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
10:38 So, you know, the sort of horror of this environment...
11:04 ... to look out across Mordor and to sort of um be a watchtower.
11:15...they have changed parts of it in their Orc-ish kind of way. *?
11:39 ...of being inside this Orc-ish kind of environment. *?
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
12:50 And then part of the defenses of the original castle were these sort oftroughs.
13:23 It was one of those details that came out of uh sort of research into medieval
castles...
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
14:28 It's compacted, sort of gravel and grit...
14:30 ... that sort of solidified over the centuries.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
14:59 So that -- It's kind of cool. I mean for those people that know Peter's work.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
15:19 ... we took a lot of care in match the, sort of rock formation...
15:27 It was all done to sort of-- Made sure that it married in very closely...
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
15:47 ...which is where they're, they're sort of walking down...
16:05 We found a sort of rock formation down in Queenstown...
16:12 And we added to it and built a sort of doorway.
17:29 In out sort of early work, we'd done a lot of research...
17:38 ...and the sort of middle of Europe.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
18:53And it kind of fits in with the sort of approach we'd taken to Minas Tirith.
18:55 ...the sort of approach we'd taken to Minas Tirith which is it's this kind of
18:57 which is it's this kind of ancient civilization.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
19:28 ...in the quarry to kind of mimic the physical base of some of these Helm's Deep...
Uncredited construction man









19:44 The old bit sort of curved around here, the old Helm's Deep.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
19:53 And then Minas Tirith sort of got spread out from that central piece of set.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
20:48 It all kind of disappeared into this new city.
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
21:48 Just that kind of craftsmanship. *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
22:22 ...would be able to pull down this big, kind of wooden grid.
22:30 ...pull up into place another, kind of bolting mechanism at the top.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
24:58 And we did similar sorts of things in Minas Tirith. *
25:02 We did the Lampwrights' Street being kind of a metalworking area.
25:05 And you know, we did one or two of these other -- kind of little heraldic things.
25:12 ... but it's kind of fun to uh invent these significant details, if you like.
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
26:40 It really felt like you were walking in a strange, medieval kind of city...
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
26:47 I mean, it was the kind of location that, basically, if you had a visitor... *
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
28:40 So, you know, we were thinking of it in much the same sort of way. *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
31:53 Which is kind of borrowed from Charlemagne's Chapel...
32:26 Which is a much simple, kind of black stone.
32:36 And Tolkien describes a -- kind of stone canopy. *?
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
33:00 The Minas Tirith set had this great kind of feeling of age and dignity.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
33:06 I sort of would wander out there at weekends...
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
33:14 It's that sort of magical place you go to on holiday.
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
33:38 Well, we had -- we had sort of a very tight schedule...
Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Producer New Zealander
34:24 You'd sort of turn one direction, there would be Edoras.
34:32 It was kind of-- They were all over the place.
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
35:03 ...and just opened a sort of you know Disneyland for Middle-Earth.
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
36:40 It's a sort of 10-hour turnaround.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
38:32 I came to realize then kind of what it meant...









Big-atures 19:55


Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
John Baster WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander?
Paul van Ommen Head Model Technician New Zealander?
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Peter Lyon Weta Sword Smith New Zealander
David Tremont Weta Miniature Builder ?
Warren Mahy WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
Michael Daczynski Weta Miniature Builder ?
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Belindalee Hope Production Manager Miniature New Zealander?
Bruce McNaught VFX Model Technician New Zealander?
Peter Smith Grip-Miniatures Unit New Zealander?
Marty Walsh First A.D. Miniatures Unit New Zealander?

Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
:37 The film is kind of incidental, really.
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
1:56 ... and this dentist clamping my wisdom teeth with these sort ofjaws.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
2:31 ... describing a supernatural kind of-- swamp.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
4:06 So this is a -- This is kind of a special moment. *
Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American
4:41 Everything about it was sort of macabre, Gothic quality.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
5:15 The actual structures themselves have the same kind of feel of this place called... *
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
6:56 It was sort of fun. You know, people had bags and we were sort of like...
6:59 and we were sort of like shooting baskets.
7:03 And after a while, throwing skulls as each other. It was kind of--
7:05 Kind of a weird atmosphere.
Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American
7:19 ...like the avalanche just sort of stretched away into the distance.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
7:55 I sort of approached it on two fronts, really...
John Baster WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander?









10:33 I was just kind of intrigued to see if it would work.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
14:24 ... and then I did some kind of plan...
Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander
16:07 ... that we're sort of quite a good team now...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
18:15 ...and there was some sort of celebration... *
Belindalee Hope Production Manager Miniature New Zealander?
18:22 Everybody's sort of getting ready to go on holiday...


Weta Workshop 47:17

Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Ben Wooten Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
John Harding Armour Weapons/ Standby Aussie/British/New Zealander??
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Lawrence Makoare "Witch King"/ "Gothmog" New Zealander
Dominie Till Weta Prosthetics Supervisor ?
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
Warren Mahy Weta Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
Jason Docherty Weta Workshop Supervisor New Zealander
Bruce Spence "The Mouth of Sauron" New Zealander
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Matt Aitken Weta Models Supervisor New Zealander?
Tom Shippey Authort of"J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the century" British
Ben Hawker Weta Creatures/Prosthetics New Zealander American?
Shaun Bolton Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
Greg Tozer Weta Armour Weapons/ Standby New Zealander
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Director New Zealander
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British

John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian









3:46 ...then, you know, you can't sort of have the tailor let it out a bit.
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
3:53 ... did wear all that sort of stuff, and you just think, "God, who invented it?" *
4:02 Yeah, that's sort of the feel of it.
Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
5:38 Now, they're sort of a remnant left over from when the kinds ruled Gondor
John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian
5:53 ... in Middle-Earth that is kind of at odds with this overall absolutely beautiful
aesthetic.
6:14 That would have been heartbreaking, to see sort of-- To see all these Gondorians...
Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British
7:31 ...it was the Gondorian helmet with the silver, kind of-- nipple at the top
Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish
7:45 And I -- And I honestly thought I was on some sort of Candid Camera.
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
13:41 ...we played them as much more of a sort of a rabble the sort of schoolyard...
13:43 ... the sort of schoolyard bully, the rats of the battlefield...
Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American
15:12 The brief on the new Orcs was -- uh a kind ofuh Uber-Orcs.
Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander?
16:08 I guess it was sort of a long, extended nose.
16:11 So we sort of went for something a bit more skeletal...
Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American
16:19 They were supposed to feel a little more lived in and kind of diseased.
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
16:35 So the guys at the Workshop designed all this new, really kind of cool armour.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
17:10 ... but we had nobody on the battlefield sort of telling the Orcs what to do.
Lawrence Makoare "Witch King"/ "Gothmog" New Zealander
19:13 ...and then you sort of, like, fall asleep.
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
20:08 He just looks like a John Wayne kind of character on his coming in ... *
Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
20:38 ...which are these very tall, bucket sort of round helmets ... *?
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
21:47 I like the sort of-- I like the spikes.
21:52 I don't know what quite what that means, but it kind of-- He has this ring ...
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
22:46 And so I sort of hid it under my jacket as I walked through...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
24:34 I mean in the book it seems like he's some sort of human in service *
24:41 ...like a traitor, a treacherous sort of turncoat *
Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
25:13 It's kind of-- half warrior, half priest.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
27:38 And I kind of thought that people would be disappointed by it. (tranquilador)









27:54... to make this character a bit more -- kind of memorable.
28:17 You know, like it's there, and it's sort oftalking...
29:00 I like it. It's one of those slightly subtle but sort of disturbing effects.
Warren Mahy Weta Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
29:46 So it sort of-- uh mimicked the corpse or the skeleton that was underneath it.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
30:33 It was his sort of-- under-skull
30:35 and some sort of-- sinew and things.
31:09 ... or be threatening the skull would sort of-- thrust forward into prominence.
31:14 And then if he was more settled and just sort of being more relaxed...
31:17 you would see more of his rotten -- kind of skin.
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
31:20 ... and then someone sort of came into the room and said:
Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American
31:35 They did something-They same kind of- The same kind ofthing.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
33:19 everything that frightens me about spiders is kind of natural.
33:22 It's not exaggerated and it's not sort of a science fiction kind of stylization.
33:24...a science fiction kind of stylization.
Shaun Bolton Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
34:00 We sort of looked at things like tarantulas and hunting spiders.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
34:26 There's a spider that lives in those sorts of basements in New Zealand... *
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
35:06... than I expected it to be when I sort of managed to hook it out of the wall.
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
35:18 The body had this sort of soft, spongelike feel to it.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
35:37 It was tough because once you start enlarging a sort of microscopic spider face...
36:04 I wanted to capture the feeling of Shelob being sort of ancient
36:10 and evil and sick. Sort of in a -- Psychologically sick.
36:13 ...like she'd been struck with a sort of a paralysis and had fungus growths...
36:19 ... and had fungus growths on her head and all this sort of stuff. *
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
38:08 And then I had to sort of show it to everyone at Weta Digital
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
38:46 And he has a way of, like sort of telling you -- It's like
40:20 You know, all this stuff sort of happens digitally, you know.
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
41:26 And everyone's sort of-- You know, "What the hell are you doing?"
43:37 He sort of gave me a look as if to say:
Ben Wooten Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander
44:30 It was unbelievable actually. It was kind ofbizarre.
Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander
45:32 ... and for it to be the kind of project that the entire crew cares about... *










Costume Design 12:01


Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
John Noble "Denethor" Aussie
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American

Andy Serkis "Gollum" British
:57 It was kind of slightly spotted, and it slightly dandified him in some way.
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
2:00 You know, once again, sort of trying out new techniques...
3:57 We had this palette for Gondor, the sort of-- silvers and the blacks.
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
4:17 ... should nearly be sort of similar, in a way, to Aragorn.
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
5:01 ...is so much more genuine but this sort of-- This terrible desire.
6:14 There needed to be sort of quite a clear idea that the Rohan people...
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
7:20 And when you moved, it just kind of-- swayed from side to side.
7:34 You know, it had to have that sort of-- uh medieval, Lady of Rohan look.
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
7:51 ... and really -- sort of beautiful interior sleeve lining.
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
8:10 Ngila would sort of be whipping things up in about three days.
8:33 She's ended up designing something that sort of sits over that.
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
8:42... design style that has a sort of separate embroidered front piece.


Home of the Horse Lords 30:13

Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Grahame Ware Jr. Horse Trainer ?
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
Don Reynolds Horse Trainer ?
Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Riding Double New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Jane Abbott Riding Double New Zealander?
Chris Kirkham Riding Double New Zealander?
Uncredited Horse Riding Double









Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Len Baynes Riding Double New Zealander?
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Karl Urban "Eomer" Aussie
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Miranda Otto "Eowyn" Aussie
Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director New Zealander
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Liz Mullane NZ Casting Director New Zealander
Stephen Old Horse Coordinator New Zealander
John Scott Horse Technical Advisor American/ Canadian
Zoe Miller Horse Rider New Zealander
Shane Rangi "Harad Leader 2"/Stunt Performer New Zealander
Kirk Maxwell NZ Stunt Coordinator New Zealander?

Rick Porras Co-Producer American
:23 ... and they're not just sort of props, if you will.
Uncredited Horse Riding Double unknown sex
4:40 I'm kind of hoping that they don't bite me.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
5:01 ... so that Aragorn could sort of get on top of him, and then he'd rise up.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
5:42 And he did kind of freak out the first day, you know.
6:16 Which is great, but kind of a surprise from not liking it at all the first time.
Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Riding Double New Zealander
6:39 It was kind of tricky not to treat the horses as being special...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
7:41 You can't threaten them. You can't sort of plead with them.
Karl Urban "Eomer" Aussie
10:43 It was kind of challenging you know because I hadn't done much horse riding...
10:50 ...but I sort of really have grown to love them.
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
11:23 We have the same sort of-- Same measurements and everything.
Jane Abbott Riding Double New Zealander?
13:34 ...and you know, shoot off before the gun kind of thing. *
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
13:51 He's very kind of-- Very self-willed.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
15:54 You know, it makes you feel kind of foolish.
Zoe Miller Horse Rider New Zealander
20:23 and it's sort of become home.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
23:42 Bernard had come up with this idea of a sort of ritualistic warrior kind ofthing...









23:45 ...warrior kind ofthing...
23:54 ... as they put their spears down and sort of rattling the sword...
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
24:05 ... for the final kind of rousing battle thing for Pelennor Fields, you know?
24: 09 If you can kind ofjust --.
24:11 If I could ride down the line of spears and all that kind of stuff.
24:34 So that kind of spurred me on, really.
Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Riding Double New Zealander
25:08 It was like this overwhelming kind of surge of energy...
26:45 That kind of bond is something that people who've never been in that situation...*
Len Baynes Riding Double New Zealander?
29:24 He does all sorts of lovely little tricks and various things.


New Zealand as Middle-Earth 16:04

Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander?
Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director New Zealander
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander/Aussie?
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
David Wenham "Faramir" Aussie
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Cheryl Marriott Proprietor New Zealander
Liz Mullane NZ Casting Director New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American

Dan Hennah- Supervising Art Director/ Set Decorator New Zealander
00:32 All the beautiful, sort of tree trunks..
00:37 And the ground around was sort of grey and black.
00:44 So we sort of walked out and amongst it...
00:48 ... on the ground was this sort of layer of probably, you know, 2 or 3 inches of ash.
00:54 Ash and burn, sort of, foliage.
1:12 That sort of-- destruction of life.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander?
1:41 ...but it was kind of fairly close to the time where--
2:09 That comes down and meets the road which will -- sort of cross here.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
2:35 ...that have been sort of-- pushed around by these huge winds...









Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander female
4:32 There was a disused quarry that had sort of-- grassed over...
4:34 which is sort of park area in the middle of town.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
4:44 ... space in between and have this rocky -- kind of, you know, foliage behind it.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
6:08 ...with this kind of limestone rock formations.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
6:21 Just sort of a seemingly lifeless place.
Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander
6:39 ... because it has these incredibly steep, narrow, sort of crevices.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
7: 45 It kind of had that, you know, beige-y, sort of dry-ground landscape.
7:47 ...beige-y, sort of dry-ground landscape.
Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander
8:03 ...that the area's sort of named after, from the 19th century.
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
8:27 And then, as the dams were built, the town sort of dwindled.
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
10:12 ...it was also great just to kind of be there as a visitor.
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
11:07 It was flat, and it was --, you know It was -- kind of like a desert.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
11:59 And they looked at us, kind of horrified, and they said:
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
12:31 ...like you were sort of losing, you know, any of the view. *?









APPENDIX F
THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 6

Introduction 1:39

Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American

Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
00:16 On this disc you've find documentaries sort of documenting the beginning...
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
00:55 This is a sort of family album for us.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
1:07 It's kind of amazing. This is sort of the the last film
1:09 This is sort of the the last film.


Filming "The Return of the King"

Cameras in Middle-Earth lhr 13:04

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Carolynne Cunningham First Assistant Director New Zealander
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Andy Serkis "Gollum/ Smeagol" British
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Ian McKellen "Gandalf' British
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Karl Urban "Eomer" New Zealander
John Rhys-Davies "Gimli" Welsh
John Noble "Denethor" Aussie
Kirk Maxwell NZ Stunt Coordinator New Zealander
Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director -New Zealander
Bryan Van't Hul Weta Visual Effects D.P. American
Liz Mullane NZ Casting Director New Zealander?
Gino Acevedo Weta Prosthetics Supervisor American
Dominie Till Weta Prosthetics Supervisor New Zealander?
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander









Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Miranda Otto Eowyn" Aussie
Lawrence Makoare "Witch King/ "Gothmog" New Zealander
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
John Harding Armour Weapons/ Standby New Zealander, Aussie?
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Hugo Weaving "Elrond" Aussie
Shane Rangi "Harad Leader 2" / Stunt Performer New Zealander

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
1:10 ...that was sort of the right size to fit into the squash court...
Andy Serkis "Gollum/ Smeagol" British
2:51 ... looking very suave and kind of James Bond-y.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
4:31 ...then -- sort of was one of these scenes that was like an albatross around out necks.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
5:47 And reverting back to their Hobbit kind of sensibilities, was shot on set *?
6:12 "Your love of the Hobbit's weed has kind of you know...
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
6:19 ... whether it's tobacco or some sort of weed. *
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
6:42 The one that ended up in was sort of the mildly inebriated version...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
8:39 ... about what sort of-- sound he should make when he got stabbed.
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
8:49 "Have you any idea of what kind of noise happens when somebody if stabbed in the
back" *
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
9:02 He proceeded to sort of talk about some very clandestine part of WWII.
9:13 He seemed to have expert knowledge of exactly the sort of noise that they make... *
9:15 ... and so I just sort of-- didn't push the subject any further.
9:51 ... and I love the imagery, to of this -- of the wheel sort of rotating.
10:02 And it felt like sort of a just way for him to go out.
10:17 ... the people of Rohan are sort of celebrating their recent victory...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
12:07 The kind of athletic kicks that Billy does down the table...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
13:07 ... that had sort of splintered and split.
13:22 I think I kind of feel, at some point, it'll be better to have lunch.
Andy Serkis "Gollum/ Smeagol" British
13:27 One of the greatest thrills I had um -- kind of off set, if you like
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
14:34 ... I remember, sort of walking down the hill on this rather slippery...
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
18:12 And I kind of mentioned it'd be kind of fun to get a cameo.









18:14 ...it'd be kind of fun to get a cameo.
Gino Acevedo Weta Prosthetics Supervisor American
19:54 ...you know, would go through this kind of stuff *
21:21 I'm going, "Well, that's kind of like my fear attack kind of grin thing."
21:22 ... my fear attack kind of grin thing."
21:45 ...because he just kept doing this kind of move.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
22:00 ...with an admiring sort of gaze, you know...
22:09 a little surge of macho pride -- sort of swept through the set that day.
22:48 You know, kind of-- Make it kind of like an invitation to scrap.
22:49 Make it kind of like an invitation to scrap.
23:30 It's sort of a Clint Eastwood, sort of, you know.
23:31 sort of, you know.
23:56 I sort of like, threw off my shirt, I got Sam's shirt on.
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
26:12 ...because it was such a kind of massive battle.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
26:52 ... because you sort of know what you're doing...
Miranda Otto Eowyn" Aussie
27:48 It was one of those thing of being so kind of shell-shocked...
27:51 Just sort of sitting there and then realizing...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
30:25 I remember the army had sort of pointed out the zone that they'd cleared.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
32:04 Those guys really took it Took it kind of seriously.
32:37 Kind of dangerous.
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
34:11 I kind of mentioned that to Pete and you could just see him just...
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
35:15 Sean and I were both equally kind of nervous ...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
35:29 I sort of stuffed up the planning...
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
38:52 The main thing that I'm sort of looking for is how much we're impacting...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
40:15 We'll just tell the crew to kindofjust say...
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
40:22 It was kind of a happy moment...
Uncredited woman on set
41:11 It's very hot, so you may want to be sort ofback here and then just step in...
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
41:29 and they can kind of you know, imagine they're at a wedding
Sean Astin "Sam" American
43:12 I was kind ofjealous because I remember...
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
44:02 you know, in a sick kind of way, looking forward to it. *









Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
45:45 That this scene, that was just, like, so kind of emotional...
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
47:40 But it was just one of those kind of horrible moments.
48:07 Well, I'm sort of in a Quite a strange place, I guess...
48:16 I'm sort of-- My emotions are torn in all directions, you know.
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
48:57 And suddenly we really kind of ran out of time.
Sean Astin "Sam" American
49:47 The end of principle photography, I was sort of excited...
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
49:58 and the first time they're seeing each other again and kind of being reunited.
50:28 and then suddenly he was sort of whisked off...
Hugo Weaving "Elrond" Aussie
51:03 Gail, my makeup and hair artist, started to kind of think:
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
52:57 And we're kind ofbowing to him, going...
Sean Astin "Sam" American
52:12 There's just kind of, sort of a symmetry to it. !!!
52:13 sort of a symmetry to it.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
52:50 Sort of his new armour.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
53:00 It was kind of like a gift to Weta and a nice acknowledgement of Weta.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
55:57 So it was a mixture of all sorts of odd emotions. *
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
56:51 We corrected scenes, we kind of fine-tuned scenes.
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
57:52 It was very kind of emotional going back for the reshoots as well...
Ian McKellen "Gandalf British
Ihr 00:53 It was recognized that there was a need for some sort of closure. *
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
lhr 9:54 ...because I sort of don't want to say that.
lhr 12:43 It's kind of-- it does feel like we're all off to the Grey Havens.


Visual Effects

Visual Effects Demonstration: "The Mumakil Battle"

Weta Digital 41:56

Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
Eileen Moran Weta Visual Effects Producer American









Rick Porras Co-producer American
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander?
Eric Saindon Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American?
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
Theresa Ellis Rygiel Weta 3D Supervisor American
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Annette Wullems Weta Production Manager New Zealander?
Erik Winquist Weta 2D Sequence Lead American
Matt Aiken Weta Models Supervisor New Zealander?
Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British
Mark Lewis Weta 2D Sequence Supervisor American
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander
Jon Allitt Weta Massive Supervisor New Zealander/Aussie?
Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander
Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American
John Curtis Weta MOCAP Technician
Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer Canadian
Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American
Dana Peters Weta Creature Supervisor American?
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
Annette Wullems Weta Production Manager New Zealander?
Andrea Merlo Weta Lead Creature TD Non-native speaker
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Matt Logue Weta Senior Animator American?
Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American
Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur Destruction Lead New Zealander?
Andy Serkis "Gollum/ Smeagol" British
Mike Stevens Weta Senior Animator American?
Stephen Buckley Weta Senior Animator American?
Christopher White Weta 3D Sequence Lead American

Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
1:52 ... but it is a very big, central set piece -- kindofbattle.
Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander?
1:55 Previsualization is kind of an advanced storyboard where you use a computer...
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
2:58 ... and you know, run through any sort of -- you know 2D compositing package.
3:08 I have these trolls sort of towing them in ...
3:14 ... and start you know, sort of loading the boulders on, you know.
3:17 The Orcs are kind of cranking the machinery...
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
3:38 It was sort of like, it was sort of like a room in the Pentagon where the secret guys...
3:46 I think there was a big sort of feeling of that...
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
3:56 You know, the commander guys can sort of be doing a bit of a









4:09 blue screen guys who kind of do it, and you just put them in 2D on sort of CG horses
4:11 and you just put them in 2D on sort of CG horses
4:12 and just very quickly ... sort of have them squashed.
Erik Winquist Weta 2D Sequence Lead American
5:25 The kind of shots
5:28 that Peter was sort of formulating for these things
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
6:10 It would take you it would take you a few hours sort of
6:13 To sort of, like come to groups with what was just ---
Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
8:36 ...this is where I think art direction kind of reached new heights...
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
9:17 ... and you kind ofjoin them all together in your album, you know, like a montage.
9:29 ... and it becomes a sort of a cyclorama that you can use in the background.
Mark Lewis Weta 2D Sequence Supervisor American
10:11... once those were kind of in place, to take these little bits and pieces
Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
11:52 ... have the flexibility to drop in any kind of a shot that we needed. *?
Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander
13:05 Well, I knew kind of what was coming up.
Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer Canadian
14:38 ... just kind of irons out any kinks that might still be there.
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
16:31 As sort of graceful and gentle as you can do the whole thing too, the better.
16:36 So it you could just sort of roll down, mumakil walks over, and then get back up.
16:50 We basically did our best to sort of reference those previses...
19:34 He said -- You know, he sort of said something he's never said before.
Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander?
22:11 It's kind of a big question, really.
Andrea Merlo Weta Lead Creature TD Non-native speaker
26:35 And that kind of put me off sleep for a night or two.
Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American
29:09 You know, just all the different kind of material properties over the skin.
Dana Peters Weta Creature Supervisor American?
29:19 ...but subconsciously, you really kind of can perceive.
29:25 ... that they tried to kind of make look big.
Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
34:54 ...anything like that kind of a fall. *
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
35:22 ...you know, Pete sort of said: "Look, no, no...
35:22 And that's the -- Sort of the driving thought behind his reaction.
Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
37:01 ... and just kind of get a feel for what everyone else has been up to...
Christopher White Weta 3D Sequence Lead American
37:32 So I think that was when it was kind of sad that it was all over...
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander









38:35 There's this kind of great kind of anticipation that I have now.
38:36 ...great kind of anticipation that I have now.


Post-Production: Journey's End

Editorial: Completing the Trilogy 22:10

Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
John Gilbert Editor (The Fellowship of the Ring) ?
Mike Horton Editor (The Two Towers) New Zealander?
Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander?
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" German/British
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Barrie M. Osborne Co-producer American
Philipa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Andy Serkis "Gollum/Smeagol" British

Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
00:20 ... and we were sort of having a lot of fun...
1:10 ... we were doing budgeting and sort of deciding how we were gonna do the movie.
2:47 And then we also did a sort of assembly edit...
3:13 It was sort of very clunky in the visual look of it but the emotion was sort of so...
3:17 ... but the emotion was sort of so strong.
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
3:39 We kind of asked him, we said "do you think it would be okay..."
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
5:19 And I think that's what launched the whole kind of torturous editing process..
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
7:06 I remember Mike heaving a sign of relief and sort of saying:
9:08 So we came up with a shot of the palantir just sort of glowing in the water...
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
9:36 ...and so, therefore, it's kind of neat to put things back in it.
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
11:11 It would have really sort of disrupted the story line.
13:53... they didn't just leave me really and sort of- rotoscope the door, really.
14:09 I mean, it was all that sort of- tugging to and fro with this Ring idea.
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
15:00 I think there's more addict torment -- kind of at the beginning, you know.
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander
18:49 ... you couldn't just have it sort of happening like that, you know.
18:50 You had to sort of milk it a bit.









Barrie M. Osborne Co-producer American
19:23 The voice of the Ring is kind of subliminally calling out.
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
20:06 ...rather than sort ofjust doing it in a more perfunctory type of way.



Music for Middle-Earth 21:59

Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American
Howard Shore Composer Canadian
Rick Porras Co-producer American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Peter Cobbin Score Mixer Australian
Nigel Scott Music Editor New Zealander?
Andy Serkis "Gollum/Smeagol" British
Philipa Boyens Writer New Zealander
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
John Noble "Denethor" Aussie
Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander?
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American

Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
1:31 He can sort ofbe playing a keyboard while we're... (Behind scenes footage)
Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American
3:55 And when we heard it on the stage, we all kind of knew;
Peter Cobbin Score Mixer Australian
5:23 I love all that kind of- Brass under all this kind of screechy
5:26 Brass under all this kind of screechy
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
8:38 So I kind of thought about it and what type of song it would be.
9:41 ... and I was a bit, sort of you know -
9:49 ... which is, you know--, kind of great to hear.
9:53 That it kind of affected anyone is lovely.
Howard Shore Composer Canadian
10:21...which I kind of like to do.
10:25 I mean, I wrote the piece that -- kind of shape their vocals.
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
11:48 It was one of those scenes that sort of got pushed to Return of the King...
12:13 ...with the scene didn't kind of gel.
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
15:19 And I think that's kind of what Tolkien's doing overall in his story.
Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
This is sort of a part of The end of an era. (Behind scenes footage)
Howard Shore Composer Canadian









21:14 ...the concerts still keeps you kind of in touch with it.
21:15 It keeps you sort of part of it.



The Soundscapes 22:05

Peter Jackson Writer/Director/Producer New Zealander
Chris Ward ADR Editorial Recordist New Zealander?
Rosemary Dority Post Production Supervisor New Zealander?
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander
Katy Wood Foley Editor New Zealander
David Farmer Sound Designer American
Chris Boyes Re-recording Mixer American
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American
Matt Logue Weta Senior Animator American
Michael Semanick Re-recording Mixer American?
Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander?
Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander?
John Neill Park Road Post Sound Manager New Zealander?
Rick Porras Co-producer American

Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
1:04 But there's not a lot of sort of preconceived notions about ...
1:11 One of the scenes that we got a sort of initial version of...
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
1:21 ... and Peter just kind of said: "Well, have you actually heard a kind of 2-ton rock...
1:23 "Well, have you actually heard a kind of 2-ton rock landing?"
1:30 ...they're gonna be bits of this building kind of flying over...
1:31 ...then kind of-- Have you actually heard it?
Katy Wood Foley Editor New Zealander
1:55 And we'd spread out a number of mikes, just sort of at various different distances.
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
2:41 And then we kind of started filling the crater up with things,
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
2:45 And dropped them onto all kinds of different surfaces. *
David Farmer Sound Designer American
3:35 And coconuts, you know, -- sort of come to mind obviously.
Chris Boyes Re-recording Mixer American
4:25 It's kind of the arc of creating the track.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
4:45 Peter hates spiders, and so, rather than sort of shy away he wanted to sort of push
4: 48 he wanted to sort of push the Shelob sequence ...
David Farmer Sound Designer American









5:41 It's just sort of a hiss. Which is sort ofpersonality-less.
5:43 Which is sort ofpersonality-less.
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
6:24 ... and really sort of cross-pollination of all the different departments.
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
7:57 Although there's a tendency to kind of try and have everything playing at once...
8:05 ... it actually kind of tends to work against you.
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
8:59 And these sort of distant roars...
9:05 From that moment we just sort of increase.
9:45 "It needs to be some kind of horrific bellow" (quoting Jackson)
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
12:08 ...they realized there was really nothing kind of setting up the presence ...
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
12:16 ... are just having this sort of drunken party?
Uncredited foley cast member Male ?
12:32 there's you know, some sort of background filtering up through that hole *?
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
13:01 Dave's really kind of unique...
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
13:24 ... a few hours worth sort of-- putting this whole drunken rhythmic party scene
Chris Boyes Re-recording Mixer American
15:03 ...we go into this more affected sort of musical sound design
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
16:05 ...he wanted this sort of- unholy shriek...
David Farmer Sound Designer American
16:46 Sort of a monster sound, but still kept him in sort of the human realm.
16:48 but still kept him in sort of the human realm.
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
18:00 ... so when we get these sort of redesign areas of the film...
19:59 we're mixing some kind of room tone where we're listening for every little detail*
Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander?
21:15And being involved with the kind of-- caliber of person that..



The End of All Things 21:29

Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander
Rick Porras Co-producer American
Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Nigel Scott Music Editor New Zealander?
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander?
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
Michael Semanick Re-recording Mixer American?









Annette Wullems Weta Production Manager New Zealander?
Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American
Matt Aiken Weta Models Supervisor New Zealander?
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Brigitte Yorke Production Manager New Zealander?
Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American
Mark Willsher Associate Music Producer American?
Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur Destruction Lead New Zealander?
Eileen Moran Weta Visual Effects Producer American?
Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander?
Rosemary Dority Post Production Supervisor New Zealander?
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor British?
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American
Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander
David Farmer Sound Designer American
Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American
Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American
Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American
Eric Saindon Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American?
Theresa Ellis Rygiel Weta 3D Supervisor American?

Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander
1:38 I don't know how Peter copes with that -- sort of-- disparate number of calls on his
attention.
Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American
2:57 ... and chains moving and all sorts of things. *
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander
4:37 ... and never really sort of getting to grips of tightening things up too much.
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
4:50 Because we were still shooting all kinds of plates. *
Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur Destruction Lead New Zealander?
6:25 ... even though it seems like you're sort of up against the wall... (?)mumbled
7:20 It was kind of akin to being a very slow swimmer in a very big ocean.
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
9:20 ...would seem like -- kind of-- a distraction from where they should be focused.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
10:46 It's like, you know -- it's kind of like, everything is moving, and you're --
Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander
11:48 It was just too slow. It just sort of made it --
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
14:43 ... being in ADR and -- kind of-- suddenly getting that fear that:
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
15:00 Because there were sort of- rumors that the film was still unfinished.
15:31 ...there's this sort of- fear, especially in the studio, that, you know...









19:57 I think there was a few sort of stressed people there at the end.


The Passing of an Age 25:09

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American
Sean Astin "Sam" American
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
Orlando Bloom "Legolas" British
lan McKellan "Gandalf' British
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander
Billy Boyd "Pippin" Scottish
Barrie M. Osborne Producer American
Viggo Mortensen "Aragorn" American
Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
Dominic Monaghan "Merry" British/German
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
Jamie Sekirk Co-Producer and Editor New Zealander
Christopher Lee "Saruman" British
Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creative Supervisor New Zealander
John Rhys-Davies "Gimli" Welsh
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
Michael Semanick Re-recording Mixer American
Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American
Carolynne Cunningham First Assistant Director New Zealander
Sean Bean "Boromir" British
Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie
Howard Shore Composer Canadian

Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
1:36 In my usual sort of rather kind of sneaky way...
1:37 ... rather kind of sneaky way, I had really pushed New Line into a corner that they...
1:43 ... into a corner that they couldn't kind of back out of.
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
2:17 And I was sort of thinking, you know...
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
3:44 The parade was actually kind of extraordinary.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
4:30 I mean, it's the sort of thing I associate with landing on the moon. *
Rick Porras Co-Producer American
7:20 Kind of like the last one, but it wasn't as big as the others.









Liv Tyler "Arwen" American
10:52 ... I didn't believe it. I was sort of felt like "Oh my God, is this happening?
Elijah Wood "Frodo" American
11:46 They announced it, and we all kind ofjumped up, and we're hugging each other...
Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander
14:26 This was the sort of The resolution of years and years...
14:34 In that moment, people were able to sort of see the acknowledgement.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
15:22 And so the Extended Cut gave us an opportunity to kind of carry on.
15:29 We don't need to get all kind of funny about it, do we?
15:40 That's kind of the best way to do it, isn't it?
Carolynne Cunningham First Assistant Director New Zealander
16:10 ...because everybody's lives just kept happening in this, kind of-- place for...
Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander
16:18 ... you got sort of-- brought into the family.
Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander
17:12 And when I kind of came back for any decent stretches of time ...
17:14 ...he's kind of 3 and a half, 4 years old.
17:17 And I was kind of sad to have missed out on that fantastic, kind of time.
17:20 ... that fantastic -- kind of time.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
17:48 And then the whole thing sort of stops.
Bernard Hill "Theoden" British
18:07 But like a family, you kind of-- you forgive the cranky old uncle.
18:10 That kind of thing. You know what I mean.
Peter Jackson Director/Writer/Producer New Zealander
19:08 I kind of in a -- Don't think that Lord of the Rings is repeatable in that way.









APPENDIX G
NATIONALITIES


Table G-1. Uses of 'sort of and 'kind of by nationalities.
Tokens Percentage Tokens Percentage of
Nationality 'sort of 'sort of 'kind of 'kind of
American 148 46.4 171 53.6
Australian 19 73.1 7 26.9
British 29 25.4 85 74.6
Canadian 9 60.0 6 40.0
New Zealand 317 70.6 132 29.4
North British 13 100.0 0 0.0
Scottish 5 19.2 21 80.8
Welsh 3 100.0 0 0.0
Unknown 23 59.0 16 41.0
Non-Native 0 0.0 1 100.0
Totals 566 56.3 439 43.7









LIST OF REFERENCES


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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Melina Patricia Jimenez was born March 17, 1982, in Barranquilla, Colombia. The oldest

of three children, she grew up in Miami and Orlando, Florida. She graduated from Lake Brantley

High School in 2000. She earned her B.S. in linguistics with a minor in anthropology from the

University of Florida in 2005. Melina has been a teacher at the English Language Institute at UF

since 2006.





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1 THERES JUST KIND OF, SORT OF A SYMMETRY TO IT: SORT OF AND KIND OF AS USED IN THE LORD OF THE RINGS MOVIE APPENDICES By MELINA PATRICIA JIMENEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

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2 2007 Melina Patricia Jimenez

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3 To my grandmother.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. M.J. Hardman of the Program in Linguistics for the immeasurable guidance she has prov ided not only on this study but also in life. I would also like to thank Dr. Hlne Blondeau of the Departme nt of Romance Languages and Literatures and Dr. Diana Boxer also of the Program in Linguistics for their insights, suggestions, and comments on earlier drafts of this study. Their assistance has been invaluable in writing it. Any errors or shortcomings remaining are my own. I thank my parents, my brothers, and Vincent Patrick Norman for their loving encouragement and teachi ng me to love films which motivated me to complete my study.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................13 The Language................................................................................................................... ......13 The Films...................................................................................................................... ..........14 Literature Review.............................................................................................................. .....17 Gaps........................................................................................................................... ......22 Hypothesis..................................................................................................................... ..23 2 METHODS........................................................................................................................ .....25 The Lord of the Rings .............................................................................................................25 The Book....................................................................................................................... ..25 The Appendices...............................................................................................................25 Methodology.................................................................................................................... .......26 Participants................................................................................................................... ...26 Materials...................................................................................................................... ....27 Data Collection Procedure...............................................................................................28 3 DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS..........................................................................................30 Variables...................................................................................................................... ...........30 Sociolinguistic Features...................................................................................................30 Linguistic background.....................................................................................................30 Sex............................................................................................................................ .......31 Syntactic Features............................................................................................................32 Syntactic Environments......................................................................................................... .32 Preceding Syntactic Environment...................................................................................32 Following Syntactic Environment...................................................................................36 Surrounding Syntactic Environment...............................................................................38 Peter Jackson.................................................................................................................. ........40 4 DISCUSSION..................................................................................................................... ....43 Meaning........................................................................................................................ ..........43 Linguistic Background....................................................................................................43 Syntactic Environments...................................................................................................44 Epistemic Signals............................................................................................................45 Special-style marker.................................................................................................45

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6 Approximation signal...............................................................................................46 Lexical impression signal.........................................................................................47 Self repair.................................................................................................................47 Affective Use.................................................................................................................. .48 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... .........49 APPENDIX A LORD OF THE RINGS THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RINGS APPENDICES PART 1....50 Introduction 1:17.............................................................................................................. ......50 J.R.R. Tolkien Creator of Middle-Earth 22:27.....................................................................50 From Book to Script 19:59..................................................................................................50 Visualizing the Story.......................................................................................................... ....52 Storyboards and Pre-Viz: Maki ng Words into Images 13:29.........................................52 Early Storyboards (picture s with possible dialogue).......................................................52 Pre-Viz Animatics (pictures with possible dialogue)......................................................53 Animatic to Film Comparison (p ictures with possible dialogue)....................................53 Bag End Set Test 6:33.......................................................................................................... ..53 Designing and Building Middle-Earth....................................................................................53 Designing Middle-Earth41:11.........................................................................................53 Costume Design 11:30....................................................................................................55 Weta Workshop 43:02.....................................................................................................56 Design Galleries..............................................................................................................57 Middle-Earth Atlas..........................................................................................................57 New Zealand as MiddleEarth 9:50.......................................................................................57 B LORD OF THE RINGS THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RINGS APPENDICES PART 2....59 Introduction 00:28............................................................................................................. .....59 Filming The Fellowship of the Ring...................................................................................59 The Fellowship of the Cast 34:30....................................................................................59 A Day in the Life of a Hobbit 13:05................................................................................61 Cameras in Middle-Earth 49:31......................................................................................62 Production Photos............................................................................................................64 Visual Effects................................................................................................................. .........64 Scale 15:31.................................................................................................................... ..64 Miniatures..................................................................................................................... ...65 Galleries...................................................................................................................... .....65 Weta Digital................................................................................................................... ..65 Post Production: Putting It All Together................................................................................67 Digital Grading 12:07.......................................................................................................... ...67 Sound and Music................................................................................................................ ....68 The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 12:31........................................................................68 Music for Middle-Earth 12:24.........................................................................................69 The Road Goes Ever On:21.......................................................................................69

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7 C LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TO WERS THE APPENDICES PART 3.....................71 Introduction 1:49.............................................................................................................. ......71 J.R.R. Tolkien: Origins of Middle-Earth 29:26......................................................................71 From Book to Script: Finding the Story 20:54.......................................................................72 Designing and Building Middle-Earth....................................................................................72 Designing Middle-Earth 45:53........................................................................................72 WETA Workshop 43:44..................................................................................................75 Gollum......................................................................................................................... ...........76 The Taming of Smeagol 39:28........................................................................................76 Gollums Stand-In 3:19...............................................................................................78 New Zealand as Middle Earth 14:23...............................................................................78 Emyn Muil................................................................................................................78 The Dead Marshes....................................................................................................79 Rohan.......................................................................................................................79 Ithilien......................................................................................................................79 Fangorn Forest..........................................................................................................79 Helms Deep.............................................................................................................79 D LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TOWE RS THE APPENDICES PART 4.....................80 Introduction 1:05.............................................................................................................. ......80 Filming The Two Towers....................................................................................................80 Warriors of the Third Age 20:55.....................................................................................80 Cameras in Middle-Earth 1hr 8:03..................................................................................81 Visual Effects................................................................................................................. .........84 Miniatures..................................................................................................................... ...84 Weta Digital 27:26..........................................................................................................85 Editorial: Refining the Script 21:53........................................................................................87 Music and Sound................................................................................................................ ....88 Music for Middle-Earth 25:15.........................................................................................88 The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 21:22........................................................................89 The Battle for Helms Deep is Over 9:26...........................................................................90 E THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 5..............92 Introduction 1:33.............................................................................................................. ......92 J.R.R. Tolkien: the Legagy of Middle-Earth 29:26................................................................92 From Book to Script............................................................................................................ ...92 Designing and building Middle-Earth....................................................................................94 Designing Middle-Earth 29:52........................................................................................94 Weta Workshop 47:17.....................................................................................................98 Home of the Horse Lords 30:13...........................................................................................101 New Zealand as Middle-Earth 16:04....................................................................................103

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8 F THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 6............105 Introduction 1:39.............................................................................................................. ....105 Filming The Return of the King........................................................................................105 Visual Effects................................................................................................................. .......108 Post-Production: Journeys End...........................................................................................111 Editorial: Completing the Trilogy 22:10.......................................................................111 Music for Middle-Earth 21:59.......................................................................................112 The Soundscapes 22:05.................................................................................................113 The End of All Things 21:29.........................................................................................114 The Passing of an Age 25:09................................................................................................116 G NATIONALITIES................................................................................................................118 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................119 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................122

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Uses of sort of and kin d of by nationalities condensed................................................41 3-2 Preceding Syntactic environment of sort of and kind of..............................................41 3-3 Phrasal constituents modified by sort of and kind of...................................................42 3-4 Following syntactic environment of kind of...................................................................42 G-1 Uses of sort of and kind of by nationalities................................................................118

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LOTRB The Lord of the Rings book LOTRF The Lord of the Rings films PJ1 The initials of the speaker followed by the DVD on which the utterance can be found. For example, this is Peter Jackson on the first Appendices

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts THERES JUST KIND OF, SORT OF A SYMMETRY TO IT: SORT OF AND KIND OF AS USED IN THE LORD OF THE RINGS MOVIE APPENDICES By Melina Patricia Jimenez December 2007 Chair: M.J. Hardman Major: Linguistics This study examines the use of the pragmatic particles sort of and kind of in the Appendices of The Lord of the Rings films. The following issues will be addressed: Which pragmatic particle do speakers from various Engl ish-speaking countries use more frequently? What syntactic environments do they precede or follow? What are the syntactic environments that show sort of and kind of are not synonyms? What are the pr agmatic uses that show sort of and kind of are not synonyms? The materials for the study are the six DVD Appendices to the Lord of the Rings films. There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF represen ting 5 English speaking sections of the world. The majority of the interviews are with men, si nce they were also the primary makeup of the films and the production crew. Since the data we re taken from the making-of documentary of a movie, certain demographic information such as age, education and so cio-economic status is hard to ascertain. The Appendices consist of all aspects of pro ducing LOTRF, from wardrobe and set construction to the release of each film. The six DVDs co ntain over twenty and a half hours of dialogue.

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12 It was found that American, Canadian and Br itish speakers tended to use kind of more whereas Australian and New Zealander speakers used sort of more frequently. Surrounding syntactic environment was coded for factors such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, adverbs, etc. This was done both for preceding as we ll as following syntactic information. The distribution of sort of and k ind of varied depending on the s yntactic element and whether it was preceding or following. For some elements, the use of either particle was fairly evenly split. For other elements, there was a higher tendency to choose one particle over the other. The use of sort of and kind of with verbs is the most interesting finding in the study. Infinitive verbs were categorically split by the particles. Auxili ary and main verbs also had a high tendency of being divided. Finally, sort of and kind of tended to occur after variations of be but before other verbs. From the study, it was concluded that kind of and sort of are synonyms. However, this could be due to conflation of speakers of various dialects of English. Epistemic uses of the particles were also found. These were self-rep air signals, lexical and, approximation signals, and special-style markers. There were also aff ective uses of sort of and kind of.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Lord of the Rings is a popular book read by countle ss teenagers. Thanks to Peter Jacksons adaptation, it is also a set of three movies that have been seen by countless more children and adults. Just as the book has a set of Appendices, so do the Special Extended Edition DVDs. These are a behind-the-scenes documentary on the making of the three films. I became interested in sort of and k ind of when I started watching The Lord of the Rings Appendices. Jackson spends a great deal time talking, more th an most others interviewed, and it is because of him that I became aware of the use of sort of and kind of. To my ears it seemed like he used it excessively, and I thought someone should write a paper on this. The following research came as a result of taking this task upon myself and attempting to discover ex actly how often Peter Jackson (and the rest of those taking part in the narration of the Appendi ces) use sort of and kind of, where he uses it, and for what purpose. The Language Various scholars have written on the impor tance of language in LOTRB. Spacks, for instance looked at power and meaning. Over and over we find similar statements denying the existence of mere chance, insisting on some plan governing the activi ties of all (Spacks, 2004, p.60). Spacks here is making the reader awar e that LOTRB is about choices which govern fate made by central characters. Segura and Peri s (2005) state that because of Tolkiens love of language he was able to subcreate a world which we unders tand, through his use of language. He was a philologist; the humus of his inspir ation was not personal but linguistic (Segura & Peris, 2005, p. 35). Applicability is solely dependent on the reader and what the reader makes of it.

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14 Applicability is a notion shared by Curry (2004 ). Reading this stor y, one therefore finds oneself reading our own story. That is one reason why so many readers have taken it so to heart (Curry, 2004, p. 132). He defended Tolkien against critics who view LOTRB as not being true literature. In the four decades since its publicatio n, it has received negative criticism from literary circles. It has also, however, earned the love and respect from many mo re fans. Tolkiens books ( The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion ) have been translated into more than 30 languages and they have sold over 50 millions copies. In the 1960s, at the height of the hippie culture, buttons started appeari ng that read Frodo Lives. In 1978, Ralph Bakshi released the animated film of The Lord of the Rings It was to be a two part story with the first stopping halfway through the second book. Due to frequent staff changes and issues in the budgeting, United Artists released the film without the Part One subtitle (Pryor, 2003). It made a small profit and can be found on video store shelves to day. In the 1980s, the books were still quite popular, and the BBC decided to try to their hand at a radio version of The Lord of the Rings Barker (2006) comments that what makes the B BC version so striking is the simplicity of the devices to evoke settings and make it real (p. 66). This notion of appli cability is still very much present in both Bakshis 1978 animated f ilm and the BBCs 1981 radio version; sales for The Lord of the Rings are still high. It is the highest gros sing work of fiction of the twentiethcentury (Curry, 2004). In England, since 1991, To lkiens books have been borrowed from libraries about 200,000 times a year (Curry, 2004). Th at is why, when the possibility arose for a live-action film of The Lord of the Rings in the mid 1990s, Peter Jackson, along with a few other screenwriters and directors jumped on the opportunity. The Films In the end, it was Jackson who won the righ t to direct the film version of the book, and better still as three separate f ilms to reflect Tolkiens divisi on of the book into three smaller

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15 parts. The Lord of the Rings films (LOTRF) were an interna tional success. They earned over $3 billion worldwide. In December 2001, The Fellowship of the Ring was released. A year later, The Two Towers was released and in December 2003, The Return of the King was released. Each theatrical release of the movie averages about three hours running time for a total of nine hours and seventeen minutes. The films were later released on DVD and VHS in their original theatrical version, as well as an extended versi on, plus an extended vers ion with appendices. The many versions of the film generated about $634 million in sales and approximately $70 million in rental revenue (Mathijs, 2006). The Lord of the Rings films were a labor of love, one that took 5 years and over $300 million dollars to make. It had an international ca st as well as crew. Jackson has been described as controlling all elements of a film (Pryor 2003, p. 266). This was also true on the set of LOTRF. Not only was Jackson awar e of what was going on at any given moment, he required an extraordinary amount of detail from everyone on set and off. The Shire took a year to prepare so it had a wild and wooly and sort of overgrown lived-in look (Jackson, 2001). Almost every prop was made on a small scale and a large scal e, for scenes that needed to achieve an authenticity in terms of scale. The special effects are unsurpassed in the level of detail given to them, and Gollum, although entirely a computer ge nerated (CG) character on screen, is able to express as much emotion through his ey es as any of the live-actors. The movie follows the same story laid out by Tolkien, the story of the Rings journey from the Shire, the land of the hobbits into Mordor, where it wa s created and where it must be destroyed. It also tells the story of a man accep ting his destiny as king (Aragorn); the coming of age of four hobbits, albeit in th ree very different circumstance s; the creation of a friendship between two unlikely friends (Legolas, the elf a nd Gimli, the dwarf, two races who have long

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16 looked at the other with suspicio n); and a battle to save Middle -earth from the hand of Sauron. Along the way, paths are altered, minor characters are deleted or even augmented, and a love story is taken from the Appendices and placed at the heart of the films. When writing the screenplay with Fran Walsh and Philipa Boyens, Peter Jackson had to make those decisions as to what parts of the thousand-plus page book to keep and which to do away with. Dedicated fans called into question these decisions, and where they deviated from Tolkiens original work, fans were quick to call Jackson, Walsh, and B oyens decisions a gross betrayal of the original nove l (Smith, 2005, p. 4). Smith (2005) calls the cast weak and even making personal attacks on particular actors. He also questions the reduction of scenes such as the one in Fangorn Forest with the ent, Treebeard a nd the inflation of others such as the battles in the Mines of Moria. Smith believes there is very little left of Tolkiens work and instead we are left with a non-stop action-packed epic with state of the art speci al effects rivaling in its audiences appreciation of such low-brow blockbusters such as Gladiator (Smith, 2005, p. 7). Smith is not the only one who objects to Jackso ns choices. Hall (2007) sees LOTRF as nothing more than another of Jacksons horror movies and uses the cannibalistic Orcs, and what the author sees as a vampiric Gollum as exampl es of this. Shippey (2004), however, defends Jacksons choices, and states J ackson has certainly succeeded in conveying much of the more obvious parts of Tolkiens narrative core, many of them quite striking ly alien to Hollywood normality (p.254). The films have attracted attention from academics and a great many articles have been written concerning its impact. There are those who have st udied LOTRFs effects on New Zealand, where it was filmed (Lawn & Beatt y, 2006; Thornley, 2006; Jones, 2006). There are essays on the economic influence of LOTRF ( Wasko & Shanadi, 2006; Biltereyst & Meers,

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17 2006; Buckland & Long, 2006). There is even an essay about pornographic spin-offs of LOTRF (Hunter, 2006). Although much ha s been written on the films, th ere is only one essay to date that offers a critical look at the bonus mate rials on the DVDs. Gray (2006) wrote about the expansion of the fellowship beyond the screen. The DVD, as such, fosters an intimate bond between cast, crew, and audi ence (Gray, 2006, p.251). Beyond Gray s article, there have been no other papers looking at the bonus materi al of LOTRF or other movies for that matter. But then, no other movies bonus material is equal that of The Lord of the Rings Just as the films were given every amount of detail possible for a comprehensive understa nding of Middle-earth, so too were the Appendices given the same amo unt of detail for a comprehensive understanding of the creation of Middle-earth. Literature Review Until the 1980s and 1990s, sort of and kind of were treated as he dges or fillers. There have been few studies focusing exclusively on wh at are called discourse particles, discourse markers and pragmatic particles and none that looked only at kind of. Aijmer (1984) and Holmes (1987; 1988; 1990) were the first to de lve into the syntactic positioning and possible uses of these discourse particles as some thing other than hedges or fillers. Sort of/Kind of Aijmer (1984) found a few functions of what she terms discourse particles sort of and kind of. She used the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English but unfortunately gives no description of the data collection methods. In he r paper, she describes the only use of sort of and kind of as a hedge which Lakoff (1972) refers to as words whose job it is to make things fuzzier or less fuzzy (p. 195). Aijmer does, however go on to say that the discourse particles are used when people are at a lack of a better wor d, to disclaim responsibility and to assist in communication by softening harsh words. Aijmer describes the syntactic positioning of sort of

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18 and kind of. She found 302 examples of sort of in which it acts as a modifier of the Noun Phrase. It was also found to modify the Ve rb Phrase though much less frequently (145 examples). Sort of also modified Preposit ion Phrases, Adjective Phrases and Adverbial Phrases. In total, there were 482 tokens of sort of but only 81 of kind of. Kind of occurred 73 times with the Noun Phrase, 5 times with the Verb Phrase and 3 times in the Adjective Phrase. It did not occur with any Prepositional Phrases nor Adverbial Phrases. Aijmer does not give possible reasons as to w hy sort of and kind of occurr ed more frequently with Noun Phrases than with other kinds of phrases. She does, however, make a good point that kind of and sort of do not agree with a pr eceding determiner. In the exampl e, these kinds of traditions (Aijmer, 1984, p. 119), this is important in that th ese likely signify a type of meaning rather than a discursive meaning, or pragmatic particle. The current study describes the syntactic envi ronments in more de tail than previously done. Not only is the following syntactic envi ronment described, the previous syntactic environment is also taken into consideration as a possible cause for the use of sort of and kind of. By looking at the surrounding environments the present study was able to discover a possible grammatical rule of using the particles not previously discussed. Janet Holmes is the pioneer of the studies done on sort of and kind of. Her 1987 study provided more functions of sort of than previo usly discussed. The study was based on the same 170,000 word corpus from the United Kingdom used by Aijmer as well as a smaller study done with New Zealand speakers. Since Holmes is usi ng the same British corpus used by Aijmer, she does not give syntactic distributi ons. She also provides more deta il in later articles as are described below. She found 12 tokens of s ort of for New Zealand women and 19 for New Zealand men. The numbers for the British corpus were slightly higher; there were 23 token for

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19 women and 43 for men. Holmes divi des the data into three functi ons, focusing only on sort of. It appears to be used most of ten as a lexical imprecision signal followed by a hedge on a speech act and also a few tokens which appear to be ambiguous. She found that the difference in use between British women and men is statistically si gnificant (p=.02), the same was not true for the New Zealand women and men. Holmes states that there may be gender differentiation for British speakers but that due to the small number of toke ns in the two samples, she does not want to attach much weight to such small figures (Holmes, 1987, p.68). She also noted that New Zealand speakers used sort of le ss frequently than British speaker s which is quite different from the findings of the current study. In her 1988 paper, Holmes describes the functions of sort of in more detail and delineates two main functions of s ort of: epistemic and affective. Holmes describes the epistemic meaning of sort of as an imprecision signal (94). Here she has a few subcategories. Approximation signal is when the speaker approximates the m eaning by using degree words such as something or about. Lexical imprecision occurs when the sp eaker wishes to use a more precise word but cant and instead the speaker conveys this lack of precision by including sort of. Semantic imprecision occurs when the speaker is not able to find any words to convey the concept they are trying to explain and are thus reduc ed to using sort of with vague descriptions instead. It can be used as a self-repair signal in which the speaker changes syntactic structures because they cant find the words to get their meaning across. Specia l-style marker use of sort of indicates the speaker is using a technical word they are not comfortable with or they are using a common word to have a more technical meaning. Holmes also found uses of sort of for protecting the speakers positive face when they have to adm it to something unflattering or something they know the listener would disapprove of. This was also true of pr otecting the addr essees positive

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20 face, the addressees negative face and the speak ers positive face. Holm es found sort of was used 90 times and kind of was used 9 times. Th e majority of sort of (37.8%) was followed by a verb phrase where as the majority of k ind of (66.7%) was followed by a noun phrase. She notes as Bolinger (1972) also noted, that sort of and kind of are not re stricted in syntactic positioning, which explains the possibility of them occurring before various kinds of constituents. She does not however, go into detail as to why sort of primarily preceded verbal phrases and kind of primarily preceded noun phr ases. Since Holmes considers kind of and sort of synonyms, she gives no examples and give s no extra analysis for kind of. The current study considers kind of a separate particle and provides an analys is for it as well as for sort of. In her 1990 paper, Holmes compared the use of hedges by women and men. In this study, she focused more on the use of each hedge (sort of, you know, I think, of course, and tag questions). In her New Zealand data, Holmes fo und women used 53 instances of sort of and men used Women used sort of as an ep istemic modal 43.4% of the time, and men used it 54.4% of the time. Women used sort of with an affective meaning more often than men (19% and 14% respectively) which Holmes takes to me an women tend to emphasize the interpersonal use of sort of more than men do (1990, p. 198) There were also ambiguous tokens of sort of which accounted for 20.8% for women and 15.2% for mens data. The source of the data was the same as that from the 1988 paper. The Britis h data used by Aijmer and repeatedly by Holmes is not given a careful descrip tion as to how the data were collected, by whom, under what circumstances or the length of the recordings. All that is said, is that it consists of about 170,000 words representing 34 texts each of 5000 words (Aijmer 1984, p. 118) and that it is transcribed and available on magnetic computer tape (Hol mes 1987, p. 760). Presumably, these were data

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21 that were elicited from participants although fo r what purposes is not clear. The New Zealand data consist of three parts, the first part which is described as formal radio and TV interviews, classroom discussions and casual conversation between friends. Th e second part consists of interviews with women and men academics and housepersons once by a woman and once by a man, where they were asked about their fitness and h ealth. These were cons idered semi-formal interviews rather than informal. The third part of Holmess study was Meyerhoffs (1986) research with 5 female and 5 male student s who were asked to describe a picture. In contrast to the studies described a bove which looked at New Zealand and British speakers, the current study looks at these two same groups of speakers as well as American, Australian, and Canadian speakers. By looking at a cross-section of English speakers, the present study shows preferences in the use of sort of and kind of not previously discussed. Coates (1988) also looked at the differences between female and male use of what she terms epistemic modals such as I mean, well, just I think and sort of. She found that women used sort of more than men (35 tokens versus 10 tokens, respectively). She concludes that women talk is more about negotiation, mu tual support and co-ope ration, and the use of epistemic modals is a tool for that negotiati on. Her study consisted of recording natural data between 5 friends who met at Coatess house to talk. The male data come from 3 men but no more information is given about them. In recent years, very little has been done to sort out the possibl e linguistic differences between sort of and kind of. All the current data refer back to Aijmer (1984) and Holmes (1987; 1988; 1990). As such, the current study will al so refer heavily to th ese two authors, as they form the foundation of the literature. A majo r problem with the data is the lack of it. Although, Holmes, Aijmer, and Coates provided a gr eat starting point, res earch seems to have

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22 stopped with them. There are is no research past 1990 that looked at the syntactic positioning nor epistemic functions of sort of. The author was unable to find a ny studies that dealt solely with kind of as it has since the 1980s been consider ed a synonym of sort of. Aijmer, Holmes and Meyerhoff (1986) (as quoted in Holmes, 1987) have looked at the syntactic information following the pragmatic particles; none of the researchers looked at the preceding information. While Aijmer studied only a British corpus by way of the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English, Meyerhoff studied only a New Zealand co rpus. Holmes looked at a combination of the two. There were no papers to date that looked at an American co rpus (that incor porated both the United States and Canada) nor one th at looked at Australian data. Gaps The current study hopes to fill a few gaps in th e literature. For reasons hinted at in the aforementioned papers, the reasoning for only lo oking at following syntactic environments is justified. However, by looking at preceding enviro nments, we can hope to learn more about the way both sort of and kind of are functioning in spoken language. Another major gap in the literature is the lack of transanglophone research. By looking at speakers from a variety of backgrounds, we can hope to find out any variations that single-nation research cannot tell us. Previous studies have considered kind of to be a synonym of sort of but the current study argues against this inte rpretation. Factors such as syntac tic environment and the speakers linguistic background may influence whether kind of or sort of is used. By combining these factors, kind of and sort of may actuall y be occurring in different environments. One aspect of research and methodology th at is not readily discussed in the aforementioned papers is that of elicited data versus natura l data. As was described above, Aijmers data were probably elicited as was pa rt of Holmess data. Meyerhoffs was definitely elicited data. Another part of Holmess data was natural data on the radio and television.

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23 Coatess data were also natural data between friends. The studies have not discussed how this difference in elicited versus natural data affects th e occurrence of sort of and kind of. In fact, they do not explicit label their data elicited or natural. The cu rrent study looks at natural data in that the interviews were not done with a linguistic analysis in mind. They were created for the enjoyment of The Lord of the Rings fans but are used for the pr esent study because of the large amount of data, more so than any pr evious study has used to date. The linguistic literature does not seem to re flect a growing interest in movies. There are few articles written on the language of movies, and none written on the extras on DVDs such as Making of Documentaries or Commentaries. This is an area largely ignored by the academics but an area which deserves more attention consid ering the growing inte rests in movies and moviemaking. Hypothesis The idea that sort of and ki nd of are synonyms, while enticing is also seriously flawed. It is apparent from previous data that kind of is less frequent th an sort of. However, questions need be asked to why it is less frequent. Could sy ntactic preferences by eith er pragmatic particle be causing one to occur more frequently than an other because the same syntactic environments that are the catalyst also occur more frequently in the case of sort of or less frequently in the case of kind of. Previous da ta seems to have disregarded kind of based merely on fewer numbers. In Aijmer (1984) and Holmes (1988) although sort of and kind of were given distributional statistics in charts, li ttle or no explanation in the text is given solely to kind of. The current research hopes to pull out the pos sible nuances of sort of and kind of. Preceding environments have not been a cons ideration until this study. They may turn out not to be statistically significant. However, as was hinted above, kind of and sort of may be occurring in complimentary distribution in which one particle chooses a particular environment

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24 more often than the other particle. If this is the case, it may also be the case that preceding syntactic environment is also c hoosing sort of more often than kind of or vice versa. The Lord of the Rings movies became a global success. Mu ch of the success is, in my personal opinion, indebted to the global cast. There were actors from New Zealand, Australia, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom There were also crew members working on the film from every continent. This global pres ence is felt when one watches the Appendices in which each of these accents are ab le to shine through. The varieties in the spe ech of all the cast and crew remind of the many years the Englis h language has been evolving to incorporate everything from new sounds to ne w phrases. Sort of and kind of continue to be a presence across the board. The use by this ma ny varieties of English is intriguing, both in that it is used by all, but also, in the way it is used. By looking at each of those varietie s and detailing how each uses them, we can hope to give more information on the topic. As a secondary goal, more out of personal interest, I want to k now exactly how often Peter Jackson, the director really uses kind of and sort of. It is to him that I owe this research, because without his use of these pragmatic particle s, I would never have become interested in the topic.

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25 CHAPTER 2 METHODS The Lord of the Rings The Book The Lord of the Rings (Tolkien, 1994) tells the story of a hobbit named Frodo Baggins who is in possession of a ring with enormous power The Ring was given to him by his older cousin, Bilbo Baggins, whose account of procuring the ring is told in The Hobbit (Tolkien, 1982). Frodo sets out in his adventure with Sam, Merry a nd Pippin who are also hobbits. Along the way they meet up with various peoples of Middle-earth su ch as the men, Aragorn and Boromir, Gimli, a dwarf, and Legolas, an elf. The fellowship of the Ring is led by the wizard, Gandalf. Along the way, the fellowship breaks apar t and it is up to Frodo and Sam to make sure that the ring is destroyed in Mount Doom in the land of Mor dor where it was original ly created and the only place where it can now be destroyed. Were the ring to fall back into the hands of Sauron, who seeks it, he would become invincible and all hope for peace in Middle-earth would be lost. Frodo and Sam are aided on their journey by the tr eacherous Gollum, once owner of the ring and thousands of years before that, a hobbit. The other members of the fellowship follow their own paths and meet Ents, sentient tree-like beings; Orcs, murder ous henchmen sent by Saruman, another wizard or Sauron; the Riders of Roha n, a horse culture led by King Theoden, and the Gondorians, of which Aragor n is the rightful heir. The Lord of the Rings consists almost entirely of male characters except for Eowyn, niece of King Theoden and Galadriel, the Lady of the Wood. The Appendices As was described above, the film adaptations of LOTRB was an e normous undertaking. It took over five years to film and almost eight ye ars from preproduction to release of the final

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26 film. The book already has a strong fan base, whic h meant the films were a gambit as they may have offended fans by being too this or not e nough that. Because of this, LOTRF production was more secretive than most productions tend to be. Peter Jackson knew that this was also a movie that could go on to inspire others to become fi lmmakers as he was once inspired, so he filmed and catalogued every aspect of the making of LOTRF which became the Appendices. The Appendices are the most comprehensive behind -the-scenes documentary ever made of the production of the film and actually ru n longer than the films themselves. Methodology Participants The Lord of the Rings films were an international production with a strong British influence. The casting sheet definitely attests this since all the major race s of Middle-earth such as hobbits, elves, and dwarves were required to have a British accent. The only deviation on the casting sheet from this was for those playing hu mans who could have either an American or British accent. Jackson believed the majority of th e roles should go to English actors out of respect for Tolkien (Kendt, 2005). While the casting call called for British and American accents, they actually had actors from most of th e English-speaking world. This is important in that the voices on the Appendices come from speakers from all over the English speaking world. For this reason, one aspect of focus of the pr esent study is linguistic background. The crew also consisted of these nationalities as well as Canadi ans, Irish, and at leas t one non-native English speaker. The crew consisted of those involved w ith the production, from the director all the way to the two people who made the chain mail the actors wore on screen. Although there were over a thousand actual cast and crew only one hundred and eighty-five members were interviewed. The majority of the interviews are with men, si nce they were also the primary makeup of the films. Given that this study wa s not conducted using regular demographic surveys, it is hard to

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27 ascertain demographic characterist ics generally included in a sociol inguistic study. It can be said with some certainty that the cas t and crew ranged from 19 years of age to about 80 years of age (not including the children actors who played hobbit children). It is more difficult to ascertain the education level for the participants as well as the socio-economic background. Materials The Lord of the Rings Special Extended Edition DVD consists of two DVDs for the actual movie for each The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers and The Return of the King There were also two DVDs per movie dedicated to the Appendices. The Appendices are everything a viewer would ever want to know about the making of the movie. This covers information about pre-production such as researching Tolkien and wr iting the script; producti on such as filming in New Zealand; and post-production such as the special effects and even release of the three films. The six DVDs contain over twenty and a half hours of dialogue. The Appendices were chosen because of the incredible wealth of data. The movie itself would be a poor source of data as the movie was very tightly scripted and the number of sort of and kind of is negligible except as type of. Since sort of and kind of are discourse markers whic h primarily occur in spontaneous speech, the movie wa s not transcribed at all. The actual structure of the in terviews is unknown because the interviewers voice is only heard once in all of the six DVDs. It appears many of the interviews for each of the movies were conducted at the same time, while some were done after the release of each movie. There is also behind-the-scenes footage on lo cation, in which the actors are interacting before shooting a scene, or the special effects crew is preparing pros thetic ears and feet, or Peter Jackson is settling in for an editing session. These behind-the-scen es scenes were shot dur ing principal photography or in pick-ups. Pick-ups were extra scenes th at were shot months after principal photography took place.

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28 Data Collection Procedure Each of the Appendices consists of chapters named for example, Visual Effects or Sound and Music. Some chapters also have sub-chapters. Sound and Music consists of Music for Middle-earth and The Soundscapes of Middle-earth. Each s ub-chapter is between twenty-eight seconds to an hour, eight minutes a nd three seconds long and consists of interviews in a studio and also on set be hind the scenes shots. These chapters were watched and where instances of sort of and ki nd of occurred, they were transc ribed with a surrounding context. There are also chapters which do not consist of interviews such as the Galleries which are collections of still photos, drawings, paintings, and computer animation stills. Some of the gallery images have dialogue describing what the image consists of. The few that were watched do not exhibit instances of sort of or kind of and were for this reason excluded from the transcription and analysis. All the speakers in each chapter were listed with their name, role and nationality. This was given again when a speaker used sort of or kind of along with th e time it occurs in the chapter. Nationality was known for some speaker s such as famous actors or producers. Most were researched on the internet at the Intern et Movie Data Base we bsite as well as through Google. Where no information on their nationality was found, a question mark remains. Their role on or in the movies were also coded. Th is coding included what acting role they play (Arwen, Frodo, Gimli, etc.) or what production ro le they had (executive producer, director, animation designer and supervisor, etc.) Appendices A through F are the transcriptions for the six DVDs. Appendix G Table G-1 shows all the sp eakers by nationality. As will be discussed below, tokens produced by speakers of unknown na tionalities were not used for the linguistic background analysis. All speakers from the Un ited Kingdom were conde nsed as Table 3-1 shows.

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29 The linguistic analysis consisted of co ding for preceding and following syntactic environment, such as adjectives, adverbs, articles, conjunctions, demonstratives, nouns, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs. There was a th ird division; surrounding syntactic environment which consists only of verbs in the infinitive and complex verbs with auxiliaries. Just was also coded for as it appeared quite frequently. These environments were then run through Gold Varb for a statistical analysis on the distri bution of sort of and kind of.

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30 CHAPTER 3 DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS Variables Sociolinguistic studies examine independent vari ables such as discourse markers, use of a marked form or pronunciation over a non-marked fo rm, etc. The dependent variables in this study are sort of and kind of. Sociolinguistic independent variab les can be age, sex, linguistic background, and socio-economic status. The pres ent study looks only at linguistic background or nationality. Preceding and followi ng syntactic environment are the independent linguistic variables surrounding the use of sort of and kind of. There were a total of 566 tokens of sort of (56.3%) and of kind of (43.7%). These are considerably closer percentages than thos e found in previous stories by Aijmer (1984): 482 tokens of sort of (86%) and 81 tokens of kind of (14%); Holmes (1988): 90 tokens of sort of (91%) and 9 tokens of kind of (9%) or Meye rhoff (1986): 138 tokens of sort of (86%) and 23 tokens of kind of (14%). Part of the reason fo r this may be the wide range of English-speaking backgrounds of the speakers. Sociolinguistic Features For the present study, nationality or linguistic background was the main sociolinguistic independent variable studied. Unlike previous studies, sex was not considered a factor determining use of sort of and kin d of, as is discussed below. Linguistic background There are 183 interviewees in LOTRF repres enting 5 English speaking sections of the world. There are Americans, Australians, Cana dians, New Zealanders, and British, which includes Welsh and Scottish. Since there are only one Welsh, one Scottish, and one North English speaker, these were all combined, along w ith the British speakers, into one category as

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31 speakers from the United Kingdom. Individually, the single Wels h, Scottish and North English speakers were not considered significant for the present study. There were also one non-native speaker and four speakers of unknown linguistic backgrounds which were eliminated from the analysis from the linguistic b ackground analysis. They are howe ver, included in the syntactic analysis. By far, the New Zealand speakers had more t okens than the other gr oups (46.5% or nearly half of all the tokens) as is i ndicated in Table 3-1. New Zealanders had a preference for sort of. They were almost two and half times more likel y to say sort of than kind of. Americans speakers represented about a third of the tokens ( 33.1%) but they were fairly split in their use of sort of (46.4%) and k ind of (53.6%). When combined, th e UK speakers represented 16.2% of the tokens and used more kind of (67.9%) than sort of. Australian speakers were more likely to say sort of than kind of, as were Canadian speakers. Sex LOTRF was mainly a male production and this is reflected in the DVD Appendices as well as in this study. Female speakers produced 61 tokens of sort of and kind of accounting for only 6.1% of the data. The male speakers had cons iderably more tokens, representing 93.8% of the data. There was one speaker whose sex is unk nown because of the way that particular scene was filmed for the behind-the-scenes documentar y. The female speakers used sort of almost twice as often as kind of. The male speakers, however, used more kind of accounting for three quarters of the data. Because of the larg e percentage of male speakers in comparison to female speakers and the small amount of screen time the female speakers received, it is difficult to ascertain that the difference in pragmatic particle use is due to gender differences or most to do with dialectal differences.

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32 Syntactic Features Syntactic factors are an important aspect of a linguistic analysis. Aijmer (1984) and Holmes (1987; 1988) looked only at following syntact ic environment in terms of major syntactic constituents. Both researchers gave distribut ion values for Noun Phrases, Verb Phrases, Adjective Phrases, Preposition Ph rases and Adverbial Phrases. They did not however, explain why these choices were made. For the current stu dy of sort of and kind of, both preceding and following syntactic distribution were taken into account. Moreover, the current study coded for more specific elements than previously done These elements included general syntactic elements like adjectives, adverbs, articles, c onjunctions, demonstratives, nouns, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs. While the research was in progress other elements came up such as kind of, like, quotes, sort of, u ms, and I dont know. Distributi on for each is described below. The current study looks at the pr agmatic use of sort of and kind of and disregards their semantic use. Aijmer (1984) noted that the pr agmatic particles sort of and kind of do not agree with a preceding determiner. The following ex ample is an instance wh ere sort of is taking a type of meaning, wh ich is clear because sorts of agrees with all 1 So we did a mix-mash of all sorts of things. (OB4) 2 whether its tobacco or some sort of weed. (BB6) Based on intonation and pauses, example (2) was also considered a t ype of use of sort of. There were a total of one hundred and thirty -three tokens (11.6%) of a type of use. These are not considered in the an alysis done for this study. Syntactic Environments Preceding Syntactic Environment Previous syntactic distribution was taken into account primarily because previous authors have not taken it into account. Also, previous literature has not provided information on what

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33 syntactic environments choose sort of versus k ind of. Table 3-2 shows the number of tokens and percentages of the distribution of preceding syntactic elements. As can be seen from the table, some elements chose sort of two thirds more than kind of. Articles were more likely to occur before sort of (65.6%) than kind of (34.3%). Conjunctions were also more likely to occur before sort of than kind of, as were demonstratives. Prepositions also occurred more frequently before sort of than kind of. Nouns were also more likely to choose sort of rather than kind of. Articles 3 We found a sort of rock formation down in Queenstown (DH5) Conjunctions 4 They were supposed to feel a little more lived in and kind of diseased. (BH5) Demonstratives 5 and hes talking us through this kind of idea of having (SA2) Prepositions 6 Peter was really good at kind of visualizing that. (JR2) Nouns 7 And then the whole thing sort of stops. (PJ6) Most of the syntactic elements seemed to choose sort of only slightly more than kind of. These were adjectives, pronouns, verbs, and verbs w ith infinitives. Adjectives chose sort of in 52.9 % of the instances, pronouns ch ose it in 55.8% of the instan ces and verbs chose sort of 53.9% of the time. Adjectives 8 actually as its moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it... (JR2)

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34 Pronouns 9 We had already adopted some of their sort of stylistic interpretations (DF1) Verbs 10 the buildings would have kind of openings which allowed for the trees (AL1) Quotes were somewhat rare before sort of and kind of occurring only three times. This is to be expected since kind of and sort of are in this case actin g like she said or the more colloquial I was like which occu r more often before the quote ra ther than after it. Sort of occurred three times only with s ort of as a repetition presumably because the speaker was using sort of here as a filler. Other syntactic elemen ts like you know, like, um and incomplete utterances only occurred nine or ten times and we re fairly evenly split. Just as sort of was repeated to give the speaker more time to think, so were you know, like and um Quotes 11 Whered that come from? kind of thing. (BB3) Sort of 12 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire. (PJ2) You Know 13 ...pretty aggressive, bord erline psychotic, you know sort of really saying... (MR5) Like 14 And he has a way of, like sort of telling you -It's like (JR5) Incomplete utterances 15 # Kind of this big chunk of tooth just broke off and fell to the floor. (PJ4) Incomplete utterances occurred a total of nine times. A note of caution should be placed here. In the tokens found, the speaker started off with the particle and continued w ith the rest of their

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35 utterance. It may be because of the way the DVDs were edited that sort of and kind of seemed to occur at the beginning of the utterance. The editors may have edited a preceding utterance, giving the appearance th at the particle was the first thing the speaker said on the topic when it may have not been. I dont know was presen t after kind of but wa s not present before either sort of nor kind of. Just as with sor t of, kind of was also repeated in the same utterance although only once. Adverbs were th e only element which chose kind of (51.3%) over sort of (48.7%). General distribution for all the tokens in the preceding environment was fairly evenly split, although a few syntactic elements did occur more frequently than others. Verbs, for instance, occurred quite frequently (24% of the tokens). Th ere are actually three categories of verbs; those that occurred only before, those th at occurred only after, and those that were split by sort of and kind of. The latter is describe d in more detail in the surrou nding syntactic environment section. There were 158 tokens of verbs that only occurred before sort of a nd kind of. This is the least favored location for verbs accounting for a quarter of the data. They most often occurred after sort of and kind of. Verbs occurring only before 16 The end of principal photography, I was sort of excited (SA6) 17 it appeared to be that we were kind of the homecoming kings. (DM4) Verbs that only occurred before sort of and kin d of were primarily variations of the verb be such as the on in (16) and (17). Other verbs were also present before the particles such as knew in (18). 18 Well, I knew kind of what was coming up. (SR6)

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36 Other high percentages of preceding elemen ts were pronouns (11.9%), adverbs (11.8%), adjectives (10.3) and articles ( 9.3%). Preceding distribution may cont ribute to the use of sort of and kind of as is discussed in chapter 4. Following Syntactic Environment As Aijmer and Holmes did previously, th is study also coded for following phrasal constituents as shown in Table 3-3. The curren t study found that 37.2% of the data modified by both pragmatic particles were Noun Phrases and 35.2 % of the data were Verb Phrases. This is similar to the distribu tion of sort of found by Holmes ( 1988) where the NP and VP accounted for about one third of the data each. When VP ar e combined with Infinitive VP, they account for 40.7% of the data. This is quite different from Aijmers findings, in which sort of favored NPs over VPs. The rest of the phrasal constituents ac counted between almost 9% to less than 1% of the data. NPs and VPs are more likely than othe r types of constituents to follow sort of and kind of because these ar e the meat and potatoes of language. These are the word s that carry the most meaning. It is for nouns and verbs that a speaker would need time to think. The distribution for each particle was slightly different. Most phrasal constituents were modified by sort of. Of the 374 NP, 61% were modified by sort of. Of the 354 VP, over two thirds were also modified by sort of. Disc ourse markers such as you know, Preposition Phrases and Infinitive Verbs showed a slight tendency to be modi fied by sort of. There were a few constituents which showed preference to be modified by kind of Kind of modified Adjective phrases two thirds more than sort of (67.4% of 89 AdjP) as we ll as quotes. Adverbial phrases were slightly more likely to be modified by kind of. Detailed following syntactic environments were also coded. Sort of occurred only 5 times but 4 of these were also with sort of as where described in the preceding syntactic environment section. The one that occurred with ki nd of is given below and is also the title of

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37 this study. Articles were more than two thirds more likely to occur after sort of (63.4%) rather than kind of (36.6%). Verbs were also two thirds more likely to occur after sort of (61.3%) than kind of (38.7%) as was you know (65.2% for sort of and 38.7% for kind of). Sort of 19 Theres just kind of sort of a symmetry to it. (SA5) Articles 20 He stays off our backs. Its sort of a brilliant scheme. (PJ2) Verbs only occurring after 21 There were a lot of plot lines that -we sort of fleshed out (EW1) Verbs were more likely to occur after either s ort of or kind of th an before accounting for almost half of the syntactic pos itioning of verbs. The majority of the verbs occu rring after the particles were non-be verbs. For example, in (21) above and (22), fleshed out and approached are more complex ve rbs than the verb to be. 22 I sort of approached it on two fronts, really (JL5) 23 So we sort of went for something a bit more skeletal (JK5) Variations of be also occurred after sort of and kind of although not as frequently as they did before the particles. Adverbs, nouns, um, infinite verbs were spli t fairly close between sort of and kind of. Adverbs represente d 52.4 % out of 42 tokens, nouns represented 59.1% out of 164 tokens, um represented 54.5% out of 11 tokens and infinitive verbs represented 55.4% out of 56 tokens with sort of. Adverbs 24 There needed to be sort of quite a clear idea that the Rohan people(ND5) Nouns 25 Viggo had this sort of slogan written on a piece of paper (KU4)

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38 Um 26 It was a sort of um a really ridiculous fantastically foolish idea (OM4) It is interesting to note that while conjunctions occurred 53 times before sort of and kind of, they did not occur a single time afterwards. Ther e was also quite a difference in the use of demonstratives after the particle versus befo re. While it occurred in 7.9% of the preceding tokens, it occurred only .2% after tokens of sor t of and kind of. Th e most often occurring syntactic elements were verbs (32.9%), adject ives (20.7%) and nouns (1 6.3%). Sort of and kind of should logically be preceded by to and followed the rest of the infinitive. This was not always the case because some of the tokens we re not followed by the verbs itself, but rather a complete pause or a different syntactic form ulation, such as the example below shows. 27 It was all done to sort of -Made sure that it married in very closely (PJ5) The utterance started to be an infinitive, possibly to make su re, but when it was split the speaker changed make to the past tense, creating an ungrammatical utterance. It is also possible that the meaning with made was different than that with make and that was why the change was made. Surrounding Syntactic Environment By examining previous and following syntactic environments in detail rather than only as part of a larger constituent, the present study was able to discover a grammatical rule not previously discussed. Sort of and kind of always occur between to and its verb. Infinitive verbs 28 I was trying to kind of establish the look. (AL1) 29 You had to sort of milk it a bit. (JS6)

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39 There was only one case in which an infinitive verb did not get split. In (30), the verb is said before sort of and again afterw ards, in which case this is acting more as an incomplete utterance rather than a split infinitive. 30 That would have been heartbreaking, to see sort of -To see all these Gondorians (JH5) In all the other 58 tokens of infinitive verbs, sor t of and kind of are splitting the infinitive. It was only by looking at both syntactic environments of the particles was this rule discovered. As was briefly described above, verbs with auxiliarie s are also split. Where there is an auxiliary followed by the main verb, there is a tendency to se parate the auxiliary from the main verb as in (31) and (32). 31 over the years, her body has sort of smoothed out a sort of channel (DH5) 32 So she was sort of left out to a certain degree of the kind of camaraderie that we (EW2) There were a few cases in which the particles did not split the auxiliary and main verb, occurring rather before the entire verb or after it. 33 Gardens. Theyre doing sort of gardens (DH1) 34 but subconsciously, you really kind of can perceive (DP5) In (33), the auxiliary verb and main verb are said before sort of and in (34), they are said after kind of. The choice in particle s does not seem to be affectin g the syntactic positioning but rather that which is to modifi ed as is described below. As the results show, there are some defin ite differences between previous syntactic environments and following syntactic environmen ts. The distribution patterns and their possible meanings are also discussed as are the possibl e reasons for why certain elements occurred only before sort of and kind of but not after. The most important finding is that of the surrounding syntactic environment and split infinitives and the wa y they interact with the pragmatic particles.

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40 Peter Jackson Peter Jackson is the director of the three films, and appears on almost every chapter of the Appendices His interviews, therefore, ar e a large amount of the data us ed in this study. He uses sort of and kind of 245 times accounting for 24 % of all tokens and 55% of the New Zealand tokens. He uses sort of 156 times (63.7% of the tokens) and kind of 89 times (36.3%). His distribution of syntactic environments is similar to those described above. Jackson showed a slight preference for sort of by most precedi ng environments except for adverbs which showed a slight preference for kind of (52.9% of 17 total tokens). Fo llowing syntactic environments differed to some extent from the overall results. Some of the elements occurred slightly more after sort of such as adjectives (56.2% with adjectives). Some o ccurred considerably more with sort of such as articles which accounted for 85% of Jacksons data with sort of. The only element that occurred more frequently with kin d of was prepositions ( 60% with kind of and 40% with sort of) but there were only 5 total to kens. Since he accounts for so much of the data, an individual analysis is provi ded more for personal reasons rather than for the linguistic community. It was because of his large amount of screen time and his high use of sort of and kind of that I became interested in this topi c and decided to use it fo r my study. The analysis described below focuses on group tenden cies rather than individual ones.

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41 Table 3-1. Uses of sort of and kind of by nationalities condensed. Tokens Percentage Tokens Percentage of Total Nationality sort of sort of kind of kind of percent American 148 46.4 171 53.6 33.1 Australian 19 73.1 7 26.9 2.7 British (UK) 50 32.1 106 67.9 16.2 Canadian 9 60.0 6 40.0 1.6 New Zealand 317 70.8 131 29.2 46.5 Totals 543 56.3 421 43.7 Table 3-2. Preceding Syntactic environment of sort of and kind of Before Percentage Before Percentage Syntactic element sort of sort of kind of kind of Adjective 54 52.9 50 48.1 Adverb 58 48.7 61 51.3 Article 61 65.6 32 34.3 Conjunction 32 60.4 21 39.6 Demonstrative 51 64.6 28 35.4 Kind Of 0 0.0 1 100.0 Like 5 55.6 4 44.4 Noun 43 58.9 30 41.1 Preposition 13 65.0 7 35.0 Pronoun 67 55.8 53 44.2 Quote 1 33.3 2 66.7 Sort Of 3 100.0 0 0.0 Uh Um 5 55.6 4 44.4 Verb 130 53.9 111 46.1 Verb Infinitive 33 57.6 25 42.4 You know 4 40.0 6 60.0 Unknown 0 0.0 0 0.0 I don't know 0 0.0 0 0.0 Incomplete 5 55.6 4 44.4

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42 Table 3-3. Phrasal constituents modi fied by sort of and kind of Phrasal Constituent Sort of Percentage Kind of Percentage Total Noun Phrase 228 61.0 146 39.0 37.2 Verb Phrase 213 60.2 141 39.8 35.2 Adjective Phrase 29 32.6 60 67.4 8.9 Discourse Marker 35 53.0 31 47.0 6.6 Verb Infinitive 30 54.5 25 45.5 5.5 Preposition Phrases 12 52.2 11 47.8 2.3 Incomplete 9 45.0 11 55.0 2.0 Quotes 4 33.3 8 66.7 1.2 Adverbial Phrase 4 44.4 5 55.6 0.9 Table 3-4. Following syntactic environment of kind of After Percentage After Percentage Syntactic element sort of Sort of kind of kind of Adjective 102 49.0 106 51.0 Adverb 22 52.4 20 47.6 Article 45 63.4 26 36.6 Conjunction 0 0.0 0 0.0 Demonstrative 2 100.0 0 0.0 Kind Of 0 0.0 1 100.0 Like 11 39.3 17 60.7 Noun 97 59.1 67 40.9 Preposition 11 50.0 11 50.0 Pronoun 4 36.4 7 63.6 Quote 4 33.3 8 66.7 Sort Of 4 80.0 1 20.0 Uh Um 6 54.5 5 45.5 Verb 203 61.3 128 38.7 Verb Infinitive 31 55.4 25 44.6 You know 15 65.2 8 34.8 Unknown 1 100.0 0 0.0 I don't know 0 0.0 1 100.0 Incomplete 8 50.0 8 50.0

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43 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION Meaning Linguistic Background Certain nationalities or linguistic backgrounds ar e more prone to use one type of pragmatic particle than another. For example, American, Ca nadian and British speakers said kind of more than sort of. New Zealand and Australian speakers, however, used sort of rather than kind of. Previous studies have looked at linguistic groups in isolati on rather than by comparing their use. Aijmers (1984) study looked only at Br itish speakers. Meyerho ff (1986) looked only at New Zealand speakers. Holmes (1988) looked at bot h Aijmer and Meyerhoffs studies as well as her own with New Zealand speakers. She did not however, combine the three groups of speakers to show a comparison of users. No previous studies have looked at English speakers from multiple countries. This could be a reason why k ind of has been considered a synonym of sort of. Since there has been no rese arch done solely on kind of, it is hard to determine how each dialect group would be more likely to use it. Th ey have also not consid ered kind of by a group of speakers that was more prone to use that rath er than sort of. Based on the information at hand, it seems kind of is a synonym of sort of As was noted above, the two largest groups, Americans and New Zealanders had preference fo r different particles. By conflating the two groups, the numbers may balance out giving th e appearance that th e two particles are synonymous when they may not be. Due to time constraints, the present study was unable to study the tokens based on na tionality in relation to syntactic environments. It appears from the data that s ort of and kind of are occurr ing in the same environments, although in general sort of is used slightly more frequently than kind of. In (27) and (28), both particles are in an alogous environments.

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44 35 Theres just kind of, sort of a symmetry to it. (SA6) 36 And he kept kind of hesitating and sort of messing it up a bit. (RP4) The first example has both kind of and sort of modifying a symmetry. The second example has kind of modifying hesitating and sort of modifying messing it up which are both past continuous tenses. Syntactic Environments Aijmer (1984) noted sort of does not modify a function word (auxiliary, determiner, preposition or conjunction) (p. 121). In the current study, adverb s occurred more often before sort of and kind of (119 toke ns) rather than after (42 toke ns). Conjunctions occurred only before, never after. Demonstrativ es occurred 79 times before the particles but only twice after. Pronouns also occurred more often before (120 tokens) than after (11 tokens). The possible reason adverbs, conjunctions, demonstratives and pronouns occur more often before sort of and kind of rather than after is th at these are function words. Thes e are words that are not necessary to understand the basic meaning of an utterance. They therefore do not require extra time to choose the correct one. The syntactic structure of an utterance will dictate which demonstrative should be used. Adjectives, nouns and verbs, how ever, do require time to choos e the correct word either lexically or semantically. Adjectives occurred almost double after (208 tokens) sort of and kind of rather than before (104 tokens). N ouns occurred more than double often after (164 tokens) than before (73 tokens). Verbs occurred more often after (331) sort of and kind of (241) than before. This is an important finding, esp ecially in light of the fact that most of the verbs that occurred before the particles were vari ations of be whereas those following it were not. This gives further support that verbs, and es pecially technical verbs are part of a group of words that require more thought regard less the expertise of the speaker.

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45 The fact that demonstratives only occurred befo re sort of and kind of indicates that the particles are splitting the demons trative and noun. This further s uggests that the speaker needs time to decide what noun to use but not what dem onstrative. The fact that conjunctions occurred only before sort of and kind of tells me the sa me thing. Here sort of and kind of are acting like fillers giving the person time to think of what comes after the conjuncti on. This is also true for splitting infinitives as well as splitting auxi liaries from the main verbs. The choice of an auxiliary verb is dictated by the syntactic constraints of an uttera nce. There is little choice on whether to use were or are when using the pa st tense passive. However, the speaker does have a choice in whether to use ten ded or another word with a similar meaning as in (37). 37 for about 18 months, they were sort of tended with loving care. (PJ3) Like, you know and quotes occurr ed more often after the partic les than before. Like also occurred more often after (28 tokens) than be fore (9 tokens). You know also occurred more often after (23) than before (10 tokens). Quotes occurred more often after (12 tokens) than before (3 tokens). The reason could be that like and you know ar e acting as fillers, giving the speaker more time to formulate their thoughts. The quotes appeared more frequently after particles than before because the particles are introducing the quotes the wa y she said or they said does. Epistemic Signals Following Holmes (1988), the following epistemi c uses of the pragmatic particles were found; special-style markers, approximation sign als, lexical impression signals, and self-repair signals. Each of these signals serves to tell the listener a bout the following utterance. Special-style marker A special-style marker is used to show the speaker is aware that the following word is a technical word in an informal context or a nontechnical word in what should be a technical

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46 setting. These also include vulgar or colloquial words. Kind of in ( 38) is used as a special-style marker to indicate that Monaghan is aware that describing a helmet as having a nipple is inappropriate and is attenuating its use by including kind of. 38 It was the Gondorian helmet with the silver, kind of -nipple at the top. (DM5) 39 Its not exaggera ted and its not sort of a science fictiony kind of stylization (PJ5) In (39), Jackson uses both non-technical language (science fictiony) and technical language (stylization) and for each uses a pragmatic particle. This tells the listener that Jackson is aware of this use and is hoping to balance out the non-technical language w ith the technical by including sort of and kind of. Again, in (40), the speaker uses a technical word and goes on to define it by using more technical language, but by attenuating th at language by the use of kind of. 40 Previsualization is kind of an advanced storyboard where you use a computer(RM6) As Holmes found in her study, Moore by be self-c onscious of his use of a technical term and defines it for the benefit of the listener, since he probably knows the listener will hear the word previsualization again. Approximation signal An approximation signal is the use of sort of and kind of to c onvey the idea that the actual word used is not important. The speaker is approximating their intended meaning, usually on purpose by using the particles. In (41), th e speaker, Tom Shippey, is a known-expert on Tolkien. He uses kind of in front of ,000 wo rds long not to show that he is unsure but rather that the intended meaning is to show the impressive length of The Lord of the Rings Hennah in (42) uses sort of to approximate the meaning he is trying to convey rather than the exact length of turnaround. Jackson in (43) wish es to reduce the meaning of being sneaky and uses both particles and what Boli nger (1972) calls an intensifier r ather. Both sort of and kind

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47 of are modifying sneaky by telling the listener that Jackson is deliberately trying to be attenuate the force of his utterance by using the word sn eaky. It may be that he could mean something stronger than sneaky but chose not to use a different word. 41 Its kind of 500,000 words long. It has 100 pages of appendices. (TS4) 42 Its a sort of 10-hour turnaround. (DH5) 43 In my usual sort of rather kind of sneaky way, I had really pushed New Line (PJ5) By using sort of and kind of, the speaker ta kes emphasis away from the exact meaning of the utterance and places it on their intended meani ng, which could be a written length, a time frame or being sneaky. Lexical impression signal A lexical impression signal says that there is a more precise word that the speaker does not know or cannot bring to mind at the time of sp eaking and is using the pragmatic particles to convey this. In (44) and (45), Rygi el is describing a creature that the animation department spent a great deal of time creating. It finally became a combination of features adapted from various living creatures. By using kind of and sort of, Rygiel is telli ng the speaker that living squidlike, gelatinous creature and blubbery skin te xture are not exactly th e descriptions he is trying to convey, but will settle for them. 44 Its this living kind of squid-like you know gelatinous kind of creature (JR2) 45 So actually as its moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it (JR2) He is also saying that the creature does not exac tly have the skin texture since it is a computer animated creature but has the appe arance of having this blubbery sort of skin texture. Self repair Self repair occurs when the speaker change s the syntactic construction because words fail them. In (46), Jackson started saying that he was something but changed the emphasis of the utterance to his emotions rather than himself.

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48 46 Im sort of -My emotions are torn in all directions, you know. (PJ6) 47 I know they had a lot of fun um sort of I think some of their training (PJ2) In (47), he also changes the syntactic construc tion of his utterance from describing the fun the crew had to the training they were receiving. Affective Use Affective use focuses on the a ddressees face needs. Holmes (1984) described it reducing social distance between the speaker and the addr essee. This use was found primarily in her study which consisted of face to face interviews in the potentially facethr eatening activity of recounting personal experiences. Me yerhoff, however, did not find many affective uses of sort of primarily because her participants were desc ribing a picture and the need for protecting the speaker and the addreesees face needs was greatly reduced. This descriptive nature was also true in LOTRF. Most of the time, the speakers were describing an aspect of the making in which the need for protecting the interviewer and the audiences face needs were diminished some. However, in (48), Selkirk is usi ng the affective meaning of sort of to show respect for Jackson and his partner, Fran Walshs relationship a nd how that relates to being filmmakers. 48 Peter and Frans sort of relationship as sort of filmmakers. (JS1) The decision to have Jackson as the public figur e and Walsh as the private one discussed briefly on the Appendices Selkirk is commenting on their relati onship and is trying to protect their negative face by not imposing his opinions on their relationship even though presumably neither one was present at his intervie w nor was the DVD intended solely for Jackson and Walsh. Other than this example, there were few others showing concern for the addressee or audiences negative or positive face.

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49 Conclusion This study looked at the distributi on of the pragmatic particles s ort of and kind of. It is clear from the distributional anal ysis that certain syntactic elem ents play a key role in the location of the particles. An important finding of the present study is that for verbs, syntactic location is important. Infinitive verbs were cate gorically split by sort of and kind of while auxiliary and main verbs were sp lit the majority of the time. Th e auxiliary occurred before the particle while the main verb or the one that re quired more decisions for the correct lexical or semantic choice occurred after the particles. Wh en verbs came before the pragmatic particles, they were primarily be verbs whereas when they occurred afterwards they tended not to be be verbs. From the results described above, it seem s sort of and kind of are performing two simultaneous functions. They are used as fillers to decide what the most appropriate word should be and also if there is no precise word to alert the listener to this fact. The epistemic uses of sort of and kind of were also discussed in the st udy. They included a self-repair signal and an approximation signal to tell the listener that th e utterance is purposely not quite accurate. There were also lexical imprecision signa ls in which the speaker could not find the most precise word for their meaning. Finally, there was the special-st yle marker signal which to ld the listener that the following word is technical in what the spea ker would prefer to be a non-technical context or not technical enough in what shoul d be a rather technical or pr ofessional context. Due to the expository nature of the data, affective meaning did not play a large ro le although it did occur. Future studies could take into account those shortcomings described in this study and look at larger groups of speakers from multiple Engl ish speaking countries. They could also examine the forms in various settings. By continuing to ex amine sort of and kind of in a wider range of contexts with a wider range of speakers, their apparent synonymy could show up to be false.

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50 APPENDIX A LORD OF THE RINGS: THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING APPENDICES PART 1 Introduction 1:17 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander J.R.R. Tolkien Creator of Middle-Earth 22:27 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Narrator (uncredited in featurette) Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander Tom Shippey Author of J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century British Chris Upton Author of The Tolk ien Discovery Trail British? Rayner Unwin Tolkiens Publisher British Jane Johnson (Author) Harper Collins British Humphrey Carpenter Author of J.R .R. Tolkien: A Biography British Clive Revill Actor reading an excerpt from Lord of the Rings New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Dr. Patrick Curry Author of Defending Midd le-Earth Tolkien: Myth and Modernity Canadian Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 00:30 extremely difficult to adapt to any sort of movie 4:31 he died with this great sort of life-work partially complete 7:06 Even though the Lord of the Rings is regarded sort of as, you know, the Tolkien Tom Shippey Author of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the Century British 9:42 They told him all his life that he was a kind of uh, you know, flogging a dead horse Rayner Unwin Tolkiens Publisher British 9:59 and see -sort of inscriptions on the walls say Frodo Lives Dr. Patrick Curry Author of Defending Midd le-Earth Tolkien: Myth and Modernity Canadian 15:35 Despair is not only a kind of sin, theologically. 16:57 Tolkiens view of evil -kind of a moral vacuum; Tom Shippey Author of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the Century British 18:14 When people say that this kind of fantasy fiction is escapist 18:50 If its Frodo, then were in a kind of Freudian universe. From Book to Script 19:59 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie

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51 Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop De signer/ Sculptor New Zealander Alex Funke Miniatures Direct or of Photography American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander Brian Sibley Author/ Tolkien Scholar British John Gilbert Editor New Zealander? Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Rick Porras Co-Producer American Barrie Osborne Producer American Christopher Lee Saruman British Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Elijah Wood Frodo American Liv Tyler Arwen American John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander Ian McKellen Gandalf British Orlando Bloom Legolas British Sean Astin Sam American Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 00:21 one of the first lit erary experiences that -sort of taught me Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 00:27 You know, I read the books when I was sort of twenties. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 1:47 cracking the code of the Lord of the Rings is the way that I sort of think of it. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 3:05 And um, sort of towards the end there Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 3:53 Bobs impossible to read. Hes completely inscrutable, sort of meeting. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 5:40 Hes like the only guy with these two women, sort of pounding away at these issues. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 6:46 whoever was involved in the scenes would go around and kind of -chat 6:52 And through that a lot of the script kind of morphed into something else. Elijah Wood Frodo American 7:14 There were a lot of plot lines that -we sort of fleshed out. 7:25 The idea of Frodo kind of playing with the ring Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 9:00 That made for a degree of sort of combined chaos. Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 17:20 Peter and Frans sort of relationship as sort of filmmakers. 17:23 as sort of filmmakers.

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52 Orlando Bloom Legolas British 18:32 That kind of bible. Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander 1917 I mean, there were things that sort of -happened. Visualizing the Story Storyboards and Pre-Viz: Making Words into Images 13:29 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Alex Funke Miniatures Direct or of Photography American Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Brian Vant Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American Marion Davey Previs/VFX Departme nt Coordinator New Zealander Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer and Supervisor American Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 00:55 That all sorts of pressures would 1:53 So you get a, a sort of an effect of the horses. Barrie Osborne Producer American 2:56 Peters not that kind of a director. Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander 5:59 Sometimes youd see you know just sort of puttering around. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 7:08 And Im gonna sort of work through the space. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 8:06 And we sort of, we sort of 8:07 we sort of did a mock up of the entire scene. 8:32 which was sort of like bringing the storyboards to life. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 10:05 The kind of the kind of um, folks that love film 10:06 the kind of um, folks that love film Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 11:02 We built basically a copy of Allans drawing sort of 3D in a computer. 12:15 Christian Rivers storyboarded the film with me, which is sort of continuing ______________________________________________________________________________ Early Storyboards (pictures with possible dialogue) ______________________________________________________________________________

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53 Pre-Viz Animatics (pictures with possible dialogue) ______________________________________________________________________________ Animatic to Film Comparison (p ictures with possible dialogue) ______________________________________________________________________________ Bag End Set Test 6:33 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Rick Porras Co-Producer American Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander 1:13 minutes of interview, 5:20 minut es of screen test for Bag End Designing and Building Middle-Earth Designing Middle-Earth41:11 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creat ive Supervisor New Zealander Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director Aussie Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop De signer/ Sculptor New Zealander Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American Uncredited Pipe expe rt New Zealander? Rick Porras Co-Producer American Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 1:08 I didnt want fantasy movie Hollywood sort of style of design. 2:07 into what I actually sort of sort of wanted in term of a feeling of reality. 2:07 actually sort of sort of wanted in term of a feeling of reality. 2:24 calendars, album, and books cove rs and all sorts of things Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 4:12 I didnt really need to think about it, just sort of Yes, Ill come out. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 6:01 New Zealand has never done a project on this sort of scale before. I had never done a project on this scale before. 6:06 So, we are sort of breaking new territory a lot Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 6:51 I sort of tend to like, I mean I really like

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54 6:57 I think it has a sort of elegance to it. 7:12 and being able to sort of work all these designs out. Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop De signer/ Sculptor New Zealander 8:51 So that kind of thought went into it. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 9:52 This presence would be felt in some sort of strange way. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 12:41 and uh familiar so it has a kind of an Englishness to it. 13:50 with photographs and videos and kind of verbal questions and what have you, Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 14:11 We just need to get a lot of bushes and sort of make it more wild and wooly 14:14 make it more wild and wooly and sort of overgrown. Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 14: 19 Gardens. Theyre doing sort of gardens 14:38 And as part of this sort of general process of building. 15:10 we had to build some sort of little hillocks to have hobbit holes. 18:18 All the people were huge and XX the guys sort of slightly vulnerable. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 19:46 I guess they just sort of represent some element of th e age of -of this place. 19:55Also, kind of like a brooding presence, kind of foreboding. 19:57 brooding presence, kind of foreboding. Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 21:10 So we built up this sort of layer 21:21 Then we waxed it which gave it even more sort of texture. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 22:03 for uh pleasure, and then kind of --adding in the um vari ous architectural elements 22:15 and its potential as a sort of -as a place for the elves. 22:42 There are kind of elements that are art noveau and celtic designs 22:52 thats not easy to kind of endow. 23:11 And the whole thing w ould feel slightly -kind of melancholic and quiet. Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 23:44Its much like Lothlorien was, at one with nature at one with sort of foliage. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 24:04 the buildings would have kind of openings which allowed for the trees to grow. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 25:05 This is manifested in a lot of um sort of prop detail. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 26:48 Those that do feel very kind of crystalline. 26:52 That design was kind of filtered through into the armor and the weapons. 28:03 Except for a few kind of -just the bottom e nds of the pillars Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 28:43 And what he brought back to me was kind of pretty mind blowing. 28:56 on top of these huge viaduct like kind of pillars. 29:13 I started to sort of imagine other things happening. 29:26 extended sort of action sets pieces in the entire movie. Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American

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55 30:14 The camera will kind of pull back from them to reveal the city Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 30:57 And probably more a kind of spiritual place Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 31:51 Theres a sort of pavilion. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 32:34 I was trying to kind of establish the look. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 34:01 were sort of on the outer reaches of what used to be the empire of the Nume Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 34:29 Its like kind of ancient Rome or Egypt or Mesopotamia. 35:10 That thats kind of connected with what Frodos going to see. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 35:35 Are we gonna have like sort of big pumpkins and stuff? John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 36:25 There was no sort of going out and picking so mething off a shelf. Uncredited Pipe expe rt New Zealander? 36:37 So youve got it down in this so rt of position. The bowl is straight. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 37:05 We had to look for people with there sorts of skills basic in the community. 37:59 and finding these sorts of people w ho are willing to work um day and night. Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 38:23 Something like fifteen rings made that sort of vaguely fell into 39:10 Anyway, it had a sort of shape to it that that just ha d a nuance that was slightly Rick Porras Co-Producer American 39:24 they kind of rounded it off a bit but they used that Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 39:53 as painters find themselves sculpting or kind of hammering stuff together 39:58 so Ive done my share of kind of heaving props around and gardening ______________________________________________________________________________ Costume Design 11:30 Barrie Osborne Producer American Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Christopher Lee Saruman British Ian McKellen Gandalf British Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 2:40 And I wanted to use a lot of that sort of 18th century design style 3:04 So theyre kind of wearing these wacky little half-mast pants 4:43 when it, you know when it starts to sort of come apart 4:48 its got certain sort of medieval um, ideas in this attached sleeves 6:16 that these people sort of floated through the landscape

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56 7:10 so we went for quite a sort of high collar smooth hanging 7:24 sleeves brocades sort of got quite a lot of um, metal thread in them 8:29 and a lot of these sort of things dont come up on camera 9:08 like weve actually sort of put quite 10:55 it was this imperious kind of Hmmm. ______________________________________________________________________________ Weta Workshop 43:02 Elijah Wood Frodo American Christopher Lee Saruman British Barrie Osborne Producer American Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Ian McKellen Gandalf British John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Rick Porras Producer American Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop De signer/ Sculptor New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander Alex Funke Miniatures Direct or of Photography American Sean Astin Sam American Liv Tyler Arwen American John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh Peter Lyon Sword Smith New Zealander Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American 00:05 Weta Workshop was kind of like visiting some wild fantasy land Rick Porras Producer American 3:14 kind of like a prehistory to English and European history. 3:26 that really you know kind of worked its way through ev ery fabric of the production Daniel Falconer Weta Workshop De signer/ Sculptor New Zealander 5:39 We had already adopted some of their sort of stylistic interpretations Alan Lee Conceptual Designer British 6:27 I was like kind of thrown into the melti ng pot really and um, Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 10:36 that we didnt just create a sort of a bizarre tentacled kraken 10:55 it would increase in size sort of like the swelling of an octopus 12:21 We wanted the fee ling that this was some sort of bizarre bull hybrid John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 15:57 But making them into these sort of insect like creature s with uncomfortable Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander 17:28 the paint and the specific sort of prosthetic materials and makeup

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57 Sean Astin Sam American 18:57 the foot would kind of bounce and kind of bounce a little bit 19:00 and kind of bounce a little bit 19:16 when you like walk on the toe you learn to kind of work the foot a little bit. 19:20 kind of kind of have it sitting there. 19:20 kind of have it sitting there. Liv Tyler Arwen American 21:30 And I had this weird (makes face) -kind of face. Ian McKellen Gandalf British 21:50 to exaggerate the prominence of a nose just sort of keeps everything matching. Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander 24:13 buckles and rivets and all the sort s of metal that would hold it together 24:31 you couldnt help but feel like you were just sort of a part of middle-earth in there Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 28:44 Now we based this armor on a sort of a deep sea fish. Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander 31:18 It had that sort of realism about it. 31:26 all those sorts of materials that are so modern today. 31:35 that is really did sort of deceive people. John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh 33:12 This guy happily sort of linking little bits of chain mail together. Elijah Wood Frodo American 36:03 it was sort of in its infancy. It wasnt complete yet. Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 37: 56 Every race and every species has a different sort of arrow. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 40:29 At certain points you kind of miss deflect 40:32 like kind of you cant keep that amount of energy going. Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander 41:33 He had this sort of steely look about him. ______________________________________________________________________________ Design Galleries Middle-Earth Atlas New Zealand as Mi ddleEarth 9:50 Rick Porras Producer American Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander

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58 Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 1:27 great, sort of limestone washed away. Rick Porras Producer American 2:15 as a result, that was a location that you know, we could sort of you know 2:19 you know chopper the equipment in to kind of, kind of to kind of do on the day Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 2:59 she gets in the other side and sort of goes in across 3:04 because the scene is made up of like three primary kind of angles. 3:28 old buildings, old kind of miners buildings. *? Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 4:18 it has a lovely ri ver running through it, a sort of Rivendale type feeling. Rick Porras Producer American 4:25 Its the kind of place th at you would go and reflect at. 4:29 sort of a very sacred place that you can go and rest 4:40 but still keeping a kind of in that Tolkien feel Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 7:02 so were just looking, Andrew, at some sort of xxx which will give us the ah Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 7:57 We had sort of whispered Amon Hen to sort of three elements 8:02 Amon Hen to sort of three elements Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 8:32 So yeah, this is the sort of thing we would shoot Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 9:34 Lake Wakatipu which is sort of closer to Queenstown

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59 APPENDIX B LORD OF THE RINGS: THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING APPENDICES PART 2 Introduction 00:28 Elijah Wood Frodo American Elijah Wood Frodo American 00:18 Keep in mind that there are all sort s of other things on this disc including, 00:26 all kinds of things. Filming The Fellowship of the Ring The Fellowship of the Cast 34:30 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Orlando Bloom Legolas British Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Elijah Wood Frodo American Ian McKellen Gandalf British Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) Liv Tyler Arwen American Sean Astin Sam American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh Christopher Lee Saruman British Ian Holm Bilbo Baggins British Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 1:47 having the hobbits sort of feeling like they really were connecting. Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 2:12 Everyones trying to find their feet and sort of reacting Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 2:22 It was a real kind of boyscout kind of yeah and a half. 2:24 boyscout kind of yeah and a half. Elijah Wood Frodo American 2:58 It was this amazing ki nd of coming together. *? Sean Astin Sam American 3:55 I sort of appointed myself as his kind of minder. 3:58 as his kind of minder. 4:35 Sam needed to look after Frodo as his sort of primary identity. Elijah Wood Frodo American 5:00 Sean is a very kind of untrusting individual when it comes to safety. 5:23 and we were in a kind of treacherous mountain area. 6:10 asking them all of these kind of safety questions

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60 Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 7:36 It was kind of traumatic. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 8:25 and everyone thought it was something really, really kind of serious. Elijah Wood Frodo American 11:08 He goes slightly mental something kind of clicks. (kinda) Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 12:53 I was walking out of the gym all sort of sweaty in half my street clothes Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 14:32 He had no kind of you know, sideway vision. John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh 14:54 Within hours it would swell and turn sort of lobster pink. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 15:56 All this kind of stuff *? Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 17:35 He was always sort of you know. Very, uh graceful. Ian McKellen Gandalf British 18:54 Thus if he wanted something, he sort of came out and asked for it. Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 19:50 We were doing the sort of scene where I die and Viggos 19:58 We sort of did all my shots before lunch. Elijah Wood Frodo American 21:41 So that became kind of difficult. 21:43 You know, youd kind of hear him sort of RRRR 21:45 youd kind of hear him sort of RRRR 21:51 protesting in some sort of you know cant really figure out whats hes saying Ian Holm Bilbo Baggins British 22:48 He works in a way that I like which is a sort of ensemble way of thinking. Elijah Wood Frodo American 25:47 I kind of feel bad for Liv because you know her character 25:55 she would come to New Zealand for kind of stints. 25:58 So she was sort of left out to a certain degree of th e kind of camaraderie that we 26:01 of the kind of camaraderie th at we were able to gain. Orlando Bloom Legolas British 26:12 She became our Princess. We sort of looked out for her, you know. 26:18 she came in and sort of gave us that element, that, that uh female quality. 28:10 Hugo just sort of assumed that role of Elrond with the greatest of ease. 28:15 There was putting all this kind of legwork into creating the character. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 29:42 Mine had this kind of twitchy kind of nervousy energy 29:44 twitchy kind of nervousy energy that I think Merry 31:40 It was like a mother hen kind of relationship. Sean Astin Sam American 34:00 in most of human life you dont have that kind of closeness. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 34:06 but there was always a kind of a support system, you know.

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61 _________________________________________________________________________ A Day in the Life of a Hobbit 13:05 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Sean Astin Sam American Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander :07 Im kind of glad in this movie that I got to direct it and I di dnt have to play a hobbit. Elijah Wood Frodo American :26 Thats half of why this movie is so amazing. This kind of stuff everyday. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 1:11 because of the way that theyre ankles would sort of be bent at the wrong angle. Elijah Wood Frodo American 1:53 It was always kind of um 1:59 There was the kind of reading phase. *? Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 2:09 You know, just different kind of mood. Elijah Wood Frodo American 2:28 So the hobbit ears encompass the whole ear and kind of fit on like um, Sean Astin Sam American 3:29 then you can kind of I dont know, its just a useful tool. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 3:45 I dont think there wa s porridge on set until I kind of asked for it. Sean Astin Sam American 8:05 Peter would wait until we were all sort of present and he would 8:08 present and he would sort of talk us through things. Elijah Wood Frodo American 8:50 I come up and then sort of you know plant your foot out there and just 8:52 your out there and just sort of settle yourself down. 9:02 The little tiny details that made up uh kind of a simple performance for us 9:05 we had to kind of work them out with the scale doubles. 10:51 Suddenly I had to kind of remember my marks Sean Astin Sam American 11:38 And so youve got all these kind of different technical 11:47 at a certain point you have to just kind of squeeze that out of your mind Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 12:40 Which took close to an hour you know in kind of soapy water with people 12:50 pipe cleaners and toothpicks and all that kind of stuff. ______________________________________________________________________________

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62 Cameras in Middle-Earth 49:31 Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Elijah Wood Frodo American Geoff Curtis Physical Effect s Technician New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Ian McKellen Gandalf British Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Christopher Lee Saruman British Rick Porras Producer American Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Liv Tyler Arwen American Jane Abbott Riding Double New Zealander Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Orlando Bloom Legolas British Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) Stephen Ingram Physical Effect s Supervisor New Zealander? John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 00:44 I mean Peters one of t hose classic sort of people. 00:50 So hes one of those sort of people that can work several shoots at once. 2:59 we basically wanted to start of with sort of a very idealic place. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 5:18 Were getting sort of ah, ah which is nice. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 6:51 to uh just kind of scare us. 6:58 But Billy being this kind of slightly feminine character that he is 7:03 and made this girly kind of wah, huh huh shriek. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 7:58 to start to set up the sort of the opposition as it were. 8:28 you know its just sort of fun and a little bit unbelievable Rick Porras Producer American 12:00 and uh we were kind of in and out of rain that whole weekend 12:04 and that kind of became the mantra for second unit. Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 12:33 added a huge shininess muddiness grungy sort of real element that no one Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 13:51 If its sort of crunch time and she has a problem you do everything in your power Sean Astin Sam American 14:32 and hes talking us through this kind of idea of having our kind of spirit and souls 14:34 idea of having our kind of spirit and souls and our whole essences disturbed

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63 15:29 That they could take a small piece of set and sort of build it into the earth. Elijah Wood Frodo American 16:13 Made us feel smaller and kind of made that world more realistic. 16:45 with Strider tr udging through these kind of marshy nasty wet lands. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 17:18 we were drinking lots of kind of hearty drinks like whis ky, malt wine all that 17:22 malt wine all that kind of stuff. Sean Astin Sam American 18:05 I was bringing the full weight of my kind of anger and ferocity. 18:20 So you gotta kind of pull it back (kinda) Liv Tyler Arwen American 20:17 It was hard I mean purely guttural kind of Lau hir neen [Elvish] 21:41 on a barrel with this um you know kind of horse skin wrapped around it. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 22:20 So its boundaries were sort of forested if you like. Rick Porras Producer American 22:29 As a result Peter had the design team you know have this kind of indoor/outdoor set Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 23:02 you just try and sort of remember the qualities of nature 23:08 or the sort of qualities you try to achieve Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 24:17 We spent a lot of time there cause we had to sort of cover it from more or less Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 25:21 the helicopters kind of cant land or fly Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 26:27 and I was sort of gripping the seat, thinking when are we getting there Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 28:24 clambering up this mountainside all by himself to sort of get to the um location Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 28:39 like a real adventure getting over that sort of mountain to the set. Orlando Bloom Legolas British 29:07 To taste it was kind of salty or something 29:09 it was kind of like, um almost like uh sawdust, salty sort of sawdust 29:14 salty sort of sawdust. It was horrible. Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 32:03 These not a lot of people that really sort of understand the finer intricacies Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) 32:47 Thats fine you know, you can sort of deal with it. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 33:41 Its really giving this place a very uh subtropical jungle sort of feel. *? 34:54 had to be shot on this sort of edge of a pretty river bank Elijah Wood Frodo American 35:37 to that whole pl ace with all of the kind of fog that we put through there 35:44 and the fact that we as the fellowship were kind of together in this sequence as well Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 36:10 Its sort of essential to the story

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64 36:20 cause it sort of sets things up for the next two films. 38:07 I know they had a lot of fun um sort of I think some of their training 38:38 It was Brett who was sort of a, a small 39:49 the one member of the Fellowship who kind of sunk his boat whilst on active duty. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 39:59 were pretty tippy, they were kind of flimsy in a way. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 45:57 He stays off our backs. Its sort of a brilliant scheme. 46:16 Any time you make a movie with the sort of physical action you know that we Elijah Wood Frodo American 47:52 There was this sort of globular um, thing that this mass that came out of ______________________________________________________________________________ Production Photos Visual Effects Scale 15:31 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Brian Vant Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American Barrie Osborne Producer American Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh Ian McKellen Gandalf British Elijah Wood Frodo American Rick Porras Co-producer American Sean Astin Sam American Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 1:19 we would try out all th ese techniques in order to sort of try out what worked Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American 3:10 Theres still a sort of wonderful immediacy about uh Brian Vant Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American 6:06 and does the same motion but sort of in a counter movement. 6:33 and the camera kind of crabs past from one side of the table Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American 7:21 Its kind of fun to actually bui ld these things. John RhysDavies Gimli Welsh

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65 8:28 Im the tallest member of the fellowship. Im sort of six-one. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 11:23 Peter was really good at kind of visualizing that. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 12:21 The jump and you sort of the jump the jump the hug is almost like a catch Elijah Wood Frodo American 13:05 and they would kind of do the action. Sean Astin Sam American 13:34 We call him tall Paul which is sort of redundant Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American 14:36 Theyre referring to this sort of sensibility that ______________________________________________________________________________ Miniatures Big-atures 16:13 Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Alex Funke Miniatures Direct ory of Photography American Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Mary Maclachlan Weta Workshop Miniature Builder New Zealander John Baster Weta Workshop Mini ature Builder New Zealander? Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 1:32 and I wanted lots and lots of shots these sorts of environments Alex Funke Miniatures Direct ory of Photography American 6:20which are these wonderful sort of art-nouveau um, buildings 6:55 This is the kind of thing that yo u do to try to tie things together. Mary Maclachlan Weta Workshop Miniature Builder New Zealander 9:40 carved out of this foam and put all this sort of stuff in there. Alex Funke Miniatures Direct ory of Photography American 15:03 Its basically kind of a helicopter shot. ______________________________________________________________________________ Galleries ______________________________________________________________________________ Weta Digital 24:45 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Jon Labrie Weta Chief Technical Officer American Gray Horsefeld Weta Conceptual Digital Visualization Austra lian/New Zealander? Matt Aiken Weta Digital Model Supervisor New Zealander?

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66 Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Christian Rivers Weta VFX Art Director New Zealander Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American Brian Vant Hul Weta VFX Cinematographer American Mark O. Forker Visual Effects Su pervisor Digital Domain American Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American Stephen Regelous Weta Crowd Software Developer and Supervisor New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 5:43 Hes sort of escaped out into this lake and thats where he lives. 5:48 its not much more than a tentacle that sort of squirms out of the water Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 6:42 its this living kind of squid like you know gela tinous kind of creature. 6:45 you know gelatinous kind of creature. *? 6:48 So actually as its moving it kind of has this blubbery sort of skin texture to it 6:51 this blubbery sort of skin texture to it. 7:01 and that was really kind of the key. 7:06 It just kind of seemed like these were flying in space. (kinda) Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 7:40 Hes just a sort of like a big um clumsy kid whos e fallen with some bad friends. 8:05 Its kind of you know, its sad. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 8:34You want to see stretching and musc les and all that sort of thing. 8:37 so we actually went with a souh kind of a muscular 8:50 you get that nice kind of flexing thing. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 11:15 I was given a piece of wood, kind of like a lump of wood which was a camera. 11:39 I was now being able to sort of move a fake kind of camera within a 11:41 a fake kind of camera within a computer world of the set. 12:22 a solid Balrog and we sort of took our lead from John Howes designs. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 13:48 decided How these flames would kind of snake around. 16:45 Peter wanted to make this raith world a kind of a slightly scary place where Paul Lasaine Visual Effects Art Director American 16:57 Peter wanted it to be this kind of almost bleary white really fast moving 17:17 So these bits and pieces of him are just kind of almost tearing off as he walks 17:43 other moving figures as a kind of trigger for the distortion. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 17:46 It was a combination of kind of 3-D 2-D effects (kinda) Randall William Cook Weta Animation Designer & Supervisor American 20:43 We just sort of took the risk away and uh made them digital doubles. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 23:38 The pleasure kind of comes on that on that last day.

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67 Post Production: Putting It All Together Editorial: Assembling an Epic 12:45 John Gilbert Editor New Zealander? Peter Skarratt First Assistant Editor Aussie Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Jamie Selkirk Co-Producer New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Annie Collins Assistant Director New Zealander John Gilbert Editor New Zealander? 1:46 I think he was pl anning a shot as he sort of choppered around Edoras 1:48 a sort of tracking shot into Edoras. 5:26 So there was a kind of a tension between those two things. Mark Ordesky Producer American 6:36 in Peters house sort of rebashing out the story, you know on paper Jamie Selkirk Co-Producer New Zealander 7:54 During the process of pickups and sort of revamping film one a bit 7:58 They sort of thought, Oh what are we goi ng to do about the prologue? John Gilbert Editor New Zealander? 8:26 This was kind of unfinished business and we s till hadnt dealt with it. Barrie Osborne Producer American 9:15 to be peeking over their shoulder kind of figuring out the score for this sequence. Digital Grading 12:07 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Barrie Osborne Producer American Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ? Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 1:23 but youve been able to sort of influence the image in between Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 3:06 we were able to make her sk in this pearlescent kind of gleam 3:10 as if she had some radiance sort of coming from within her Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 3:17 to get the look of the film to have this kind of storybook look to it 3:21 that Peter Jackson would always kind of impress upon

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68 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 3:41 not sepia look or that silent movie kind of look Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ? 4:16 we take some of those magentas and sort of swing it into a gold world 4:24 you know you can just see the different sort of layers happening there 4:28 gives that warm feel thats sort of Hobbiton Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 4:42 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire. 4:42 I wanted not to be a warm yellow sort of sort of warm yellow cozy fire. 4:48 a sort of urine stained kind of look 4:50 a sort of urine stained kind of look Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 5:09 They could then take these sequences now and and kind of cress(?) them Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 5:26 Theres gonna be quite a va riety of different sources sort of landing in at one spot Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 5:51 even though theyre the same color they might kind of pop out from each other. Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ? 7:00 In fact its sort of Legolas is delivering a line. 7:29 is just kind of tell the computer where Le golas is in this shot 7:35 So the computer is just kind of matching where that move is. 8:19 Now we can sort of emulate as if hes walking into the light a little bit 8:32 as Legolas moves into the shot sort of have him move into the light. Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 8:52 creates quite a sort of staggering huge contrast range. 9:04 Generally, film stock doesnt have that sort of range. Peter Doyle Supervising Digital Colourist ? 9:26 Then what we would do is just sort of go in and lift back up. 9:36 so we can sort of control the two. 9:47 and shifting it into a kind of yellow gold. 10:25 So its definitely sort of all tunnel and golden hour 10:42 Or do we in fact sort of relight the shot a little bit so that you are definitely focused Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 11:41 Helps create a sort of uh an emotional mood to what youre seeing. Sound and Music The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 12:31 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American Barrie Osborne Producer American David Farmer Sound Designer American Rosemary Dority Post Producti on Supervisor New Zealander? Elijah Wood Frodo American

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69 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 00:11 it was sort of comparable to how a lot of the other Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American ? 1:44wet rubber floor mats sort of um wafting through the air 2:01 The vocalization which came sort of very late 2:04 It sort of cries out from some sort of pain. 2:06 It sort of cries out from some sort of pain. 2:14 a walrus, a pitched down sort of walrus groan there. David Farmer Sound Designer American 2:23 The thing that becomes kind of difficult about doing orcs Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American 2:32 The approach that we sort of ended up with was taking animals, sort of vicious 2:35 was taking animals, sort of vicious attack animals 3:14 Part of their terror is is is about them being just sort of overwhelming mass. David Farmer Sound Designer American 3:40 recorded ourselves just kind of scurrying around and making all these Ethan Van der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-Designer American ? 3:53 The cave troll is um sort of a combination of tiger um and walrus. 5:11 so he needs to have this sort of very natural or ganic rocky feel 5:48 I mean its this big sort of rocky scraping. David Farmer Sound Designer American? 7:16 she stood there and she kind of took a deep breath in. Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 9:25 Because of the shee r size of the production we sort of spread out around a series 9:51 you occasionally kind of see the actors stopping in their tracks to allow a 737 Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? 10:18 not quite real youre not quite there but you are sort of feel. ______________________________________________________________________________ Music for Middle-Earth 12:24 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Barrie Osborne Producer American Howard Shore Composer Canadian Roisin Carty Dialect Coach British? Philippa Boyens Co-writer New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander 4:12 Mines being a dwarven kingdom would really suit from having sort of male voices The Road Goes Ever On:21 Peter Jackson Director/Co-wr iter/Producer New Zealander Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British

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70 Elijah Wood Frodo American Ian McKellen Gandalf British Mark Ordesky Producer American Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Sean Bean Boromir British (Northern) Barrie Osborne Producer American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Liv Tyler Arwen American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 3:51 and people you know can kind of you can kind of forget what 3:54 you can kind of forget what we were doing

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71 APPENDIX C LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TO WERS THE APPENDICES PART 3 Introduction 1:49 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 1:00 Things got kind of stressful. J.R.R. Tolkien: Origins of Middle-Earth 29:26 Brian Sibley Author of The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy British Colin Duriez Author of Tolkien and C.S. Lewis British Rayner Unwin Tolkiens Publisher British Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British Christopher Lee Saruman British John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voice of Treebeard Welsh Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American*** Dr. Patrick Curry Author of Defending Midd le Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and Modernity Canadian Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Sean Astin Sam American Brian Sibley Author of The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy British :26 pick up and read the kind of books of stories that the liked to read. Rayner Unwin Tolkiens Publisher British 1:16 They use to meet and sort of drink in the pub. Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British 4:27 And instead of kind of what they do nowadays 6:49 Its kind of 500,000 words long. It has 100 pages of appendices. Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British 9:36 to suddenly fr acture it in this sort of way. Brian Sibley Author of The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy British 16:50 you would hear booming out this deep kind of : rooom, rhooom Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British 17:36 Old Man Willow makes a sort of return in the midst of Fangorn Forest. Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British 19:30 Theres a sort of feeling there, if you can do it ,you will. 20:35 Well, were quite used to th at kind of rhetoric, you might say. Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander

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72 23:20 as we tried sort of not to give the impression that Frodo was in any way Dr. Patrick Curry Author of Defending Midd le Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and ModernityCanadian 27:08 So its a kind of monism, a kind of single vision ** Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 27:39 And its kind of not, really. From Book to Script: Finding the Story 20:54 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American David Wenham Faramir Aussie Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Liv Tyler Arwen American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Elijah Wood Frodo American Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander 00:35 when we actually sat down and sort of you know, realized th at there had been Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 00:57 And I kind of liked the idea we didnt have to do any of that 1:15 that we have to sort of interweave together. Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander 4:08 captured by a guy who kind of seemingly interrogates them, but not really. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 8:52 is just this slow gut-wrenching kind of build to the first shot being fired. 5:20 And I just thought it was somehow kind of a romantic notion 14:20 which we were sort of happy not to go there, in a way, because it was Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 15:12 they came to that conclusion very organically and were able to sort of innovate Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 15:40 in the sense that we had to create a sort of an emotionally fulfilling climax. Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander 20:17who hold them selves as sort of like the guardians Designing and Building Middle-Earth Designing Middle-Earth 45:53 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Ian McKellen Gandalf British John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Chris Hennah Art Department Manager New Zealander

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73 Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Australian Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Director New Zealander Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander Rick Porras Co-Producer American Roger Lewis Miniature Builder American Sean Astin Sam American Elijah Wood Frodo American Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander Roger Kupelian Senior Matte Painter American Max Dennison Head of Ma tte Painting British? Matt Cooper Location Admini strator New Zealander? Geoff Goss Carpenter New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Bernard Hill Theoden British Miranda Otto Eowyn Australian Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Joe Bleakley Art Director New Zealander Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander Mana Davis Stunt Perfomer New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 2:00 So Ill just kind of start drawing in the middle of a huge sheet 4:01 and see the bits that were falling off and kind of pin them back into place Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director / Set Decorator New Zealander 4:07 Sometimes he was in such a hurry, hed just sort of glance down 6:02 The sort of task there was really to make rock Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 6:32 and then we would reassemble them into all kinds of environments. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 6:40 tough guys were managing to sort of shape the rocks to get them dressed. Sean Astin Sam American 7:12 You know, the kind of the Styrofoamsorry, we need a little Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 9:12 and its kind of funny because you keep hearing this train noise Elijah Wood Frodo American 9:37 They brought in all the sort of flora of that particular type of land Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 11:23 Richard Taylor make up some very realistic-l ooking silicone sort of dummies Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 11:36 and you had that lovely sort of reflection off the water 12:23 There was this sort of theory that we should think of them as Vikings Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British

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74 12:33 based loosely on a slightly kind of Anglo-Saxon, Germanic model. 12:38 we sort of took a cue from that in the design John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 12:54 Celtic interlac e and knot-work and that sort of thing Peter Jackson Director/Writer New Zealander 14:53 hill dont usually sort of pop out of the ground like that. 16:15 and we just sort of walked around this hill and looked around and though: ... 17:39 for about 18 months, they were sort of tended with loving care. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 18:44 we had to sort of teach ourselves how to thatch Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 19:15 and in this sort of raw environment Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 19:23which is designed to kind of catch the light Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 20:29 and there were just the ri ght sort of animals there. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 20:44 that the only way to kind of reduce the scale of this production Miranda Otto Eowyn Australian 21:32 rain and snow and all that just sort of added to the real Edoras/Rohan feeling Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 23:11 The design of the floor was such a fluid, kind of lines going through it. Peter Jackson Director New Zealander 25:08 huge vista like sort of John Ford cow-boy movie-type vista 25:29 little cottages, just kind of on the shores of the lake 26:01 and the whole wind kind of swept around towards the camera Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 26:13 two guys on the camera had sort of suddenly smelled smoke Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander 26:48 With Fangorn, it evokes a definite sort of image in your mind. 26:54 Its sort of a forest that minds its own business Peter Jackson Director New Zealander 27:14 we decidedit was sort of a reluctant decision because we knew 27:22 The design of the main Fagorn set was really kind of coming up with 27:24 with the most kind of convenient way of being in the middle of a forest. Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 29:21 every sort of month of so, he would take his truck 30:36 but Brian who is sort of an Ent in his own way Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 31:28 In Henneth Annun where Faramirs group of people have a kind of hideout 31:40 although this cave wa s kind of a hide away 31:43 We sort of thought that they would proba bly have to carry everything Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 33:36 as a sort of a rallying point, a meeting point Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander 33:53 Alan did the aerial kind of shot, wide short of that.

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75 Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 35:36 and the waters had risen and had just kind of spilled over the edges 36:52 Tolkiens description and th e kind of topography that he outlines.* Peter Jackson Director New Zealander 37:50 So that was the one fundamental sort of change that we made. Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander 39:04 The first sort of two or three months there was, literally, two big bulldozers Rick Porras Co-Producer American 40:27 It was big enough to be able to sort of crawl around through and build Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 42:00 and then you look up and theres this sort of you know, British castle. 42:04 Whered that come from? kind of thing. ____________________________________________________________________________ WETA Workshop 43:44 John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Jamie Beswarick WETA Desi gner/Sculptor New Zealander Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander Black shirt looks like Nick Heckamen Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British Warren Mahy WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander bald Jay-look alike Shaun Bolton WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander shawn look-alike with goatee Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander Bernard Hill Theoden British Peter Lyon WETA Sword Smith New Zealander Burly librarian wrestler Jason Docherty WETA Workshop Supervisor New Zealander Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American Jed Brophy Sharku New Zealander John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voi ce of Treebeard Welsh Brad Dourif Grima Wormtongue American Peter Jackson Writer/ Director New Zealander Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Orlando Bloom Legolas British Jamie Beswarick WETA Designe r/Sculptor New Zealander :38 so we could sort of constantly see what everyone else was doing. Tania Rodger WETA Works hop Manager New Zealander 1:04 We were sort of curious as to what he might bring as examples of some of the work hed done

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76 John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 12:58 And this big burly guy whos sort of a cross between a librarian and a wrestler Peter Lyon WETA Sword Smith New Zealander 19:01 double-edged swords that also have the sort of T-bar arrangement at the top Tania Rodger WETA Works hop Manager New Zealander 21:00 Once they were on the rack, you sort of felt, Right. Ive created an army. Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British 21:23 It was like some sort of freak show these great big trucks with roller doors 21:26 would turn up, full to the gunnels of racks of these sort of limbs Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander 23:44 As far as sort of prosthetic design from workshop Bernard Hill Theoden British 27:23 put a little piece in here a nd do all that kind of stuff 27:42 the poison and the kind of you know, exorcism taking place Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American 28:26 like its kind of a dead eye, where its lost its pigment. 28:40 so hes gotten very pale and kind of sickly looking skin Brad Dourif Grima Wormtongue American 29:13 We kind of forgot about the eyebrow thing. John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voi ce of Treebeard Welsh 30:12 Well, having got the artificial fingertip on, we just had to sort of play it for what its worth Peter Jackson Writer/ Director New Zealander 34:08 Something that looks like a sort of a cross between a pit bull and a hyena. 35:16 youd poke at with your spear and theyd sort of disappear again. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 40:25 So Im not thinking that this is more of a complex kind of character Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 40:53 and someone who kind of moved it from side to side and stuff. Note: Richard Taylor had a significant amount of screentime and never said sort of or kind of Gollum The Taming of Smeagol 39:28 Rick Porras Co-Producer American Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Jamie Beswarick WETA Designe r/ Sculptor New Zealander Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Jason Schleifer WETA Seni or Animator American Andy Serkis Gollum British

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77 Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American Brian Vant Hul Visual Effects D.P. American Elijah Wood Frodo American Sean Astin Sam American Bay Raitt WETA Creature Facial lead American Joe Letteri WETA Visual E ffects Supervisor American Remington Scott Motion Capture Supervisor American Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American John Labrie WETA systems Architect American Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander Adam Valdez WETA Animati on Dept. Head American Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish Warren Mahy WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American Ken McGaugh WETA 3D Sequence Lead American Jamie Beswarick WETA Designe r/ Sculptor New Zealander 2:16 I used Iggy pop because he kind of had enough of a muscle/skin ratio. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 3:10 and its easy to sort of say that, but its a tall order. Andy Serkis Gollum British 4:53 The original kind of way into the job Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 6:55 The motivating kind of unifying performance behind Gollum Peter Jackson Director New Zealander 3:17 dont have to sort of explain to everybody Andy Serkis Gollum British 7:55 and people were kind of giving me a bit of a wider berth 10:00 nor did Sean and Elijah, they kind of though, Andys just gonna do Elijah Wood Frodo American 11:04 They made it and it was all kind of clean and pristine 12:07 and he would sort of sip on that so that the Gollum voice.. Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander 16:22 got involved and did sort of sculptural maquettes. Bay Raitt WETA Creature Facial lead American 16:56 It would just kind of go back and forth Andy Serkis Gollum British 18:43 and the dots kind of are reference points to joints in my body. Peter Jackson 19:27 doing the same thing. It was kind of a bit spooky. Andy Serkis Gollum British 20:22 And I kind of was like, well, yeah. 20:25 Because it just feels like its this kind of confluence Jim Rygiel Visual Effects Supervisor American

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78 26:58 what we could do is sort of superimpose our Gollum character onto Andy Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 20:09 And the animators then could be sort of motivated and inspired Jason Schleifer WETA Senior Animator 29:08 So, what kind of thing could we do th at would make Sam ha ve that motion? 29:34 it doesnt have that same sort of en ergetic and crazed feel that the animation Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American 29:58 it was incredible how everything kind of came together 30:08 It was like the computer kind of did its own thing. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 35:17 Its not simply about Gollum being this greedy, covetous kind of creature. 35:29 that is at way with his, sort of Smeagol nature. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 37:18 and I think its sort of the defining moment of understanding Andy Serkis Gollum British 38:40 and feeling that, communicating their, kind of energy into it ____________________________________________________________________________ Gollums Stand-In 3:19 Andy Serkis Gollum British David Wenham Faramir Aussie Elijah Wood Frodo American Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American Sean Astin Sam American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Rick Porras Co-Producer American 1:35 Gollum pajama outfit which is basically these, this kind of you know pasty Elijah Wood Frodo American 2:56 but then, you know, kind of proud to be working in that capacity. New Zealand as Middle Earth 14:23 Barrie M. Osbourne Producer American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Dan Hennah Supervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Andrew Lesnie Director of Photogr aphy Aussie Photographer Aussie Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Bernard Hill Theoden British Emyn Muil Rick Porras Co-Producer American :30 Its just this fantastic landscape, very kind of lunar landscape at times.

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79 :33 Its got all th is very craggy rock, kind of feel s like youre on another planet. The Dead Marshes Dan Hennah Supervising Art Director / Set Decorator New Zealander 2:48 We got out on one of the little sort of islands, and Peter put his foot Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 3:12 Because it does nt have a solid kind of ground 3:30 and I kind of looked down at the landscape Rohan Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 3:56 in the book, the plains of Rohan are kind of described as prairie-land. Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 4:45 Just this, like, epic John Ford sort of landscape. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 5:06 I remember us throwing stone s on the lakes and kind of thinking Ithilien Dan HennahSupervising Art Director / Set Decorator New Zealander 10:08 and looking at this sort of top of the face along here. Fangorn Forest Rick Porras Co-Producer American 11:50 we just needed that e dge where we could get that sort of plain-like feeling 11:52 sort of rolling hills leading up to an actual forest line Helms Deep Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 14:00 and secondly, the owners allowed us to sort of take the place over for a year.

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80 APPENDIX D LORD OF THE RINGS THE TWO TO WERS THE APPENDICES PART 4 Introduction 1:05 Elijah Wood Frodo American Filming The Two Towers Warriors of the Third Age 20:55 Barrie M. Osborne Producer American George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American Rick Porras Producer American Kirk Maxwell Assistant Sw ordmaster New Zealander Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Tony Woolf Cultural Fighting Style ? Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American Orlando Bloom Legolas British Peter Jackson Writer/ Director / Producer New Zealander Lani Jackson Stunt Performer New Zealander Bob Anderson Swordmaster British Craig Parker Haldir Fiji/ New Zealand Sean Bean Boromir British Bernard Hill Theoden British Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie Mana Davis Stunt Perf ormer New Zealander John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Augie Davis Stunt Performer New Zealander? Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Elijah Wood Frodo American Kirk Maxwell Assistant Sw ordmaster New Zealander :59 So its a real sort of bunch of athletes. Orlando Bloom Legolas British 3:40 So we did a mix-mash of all sorts of things ** Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 7:19 I was still sort of jet-lagged and was taken right over to this army base 7:25 I look over and theyre at the end of this sort of gym area and against the wall 8:06 And I just sort of got ready, but what am I gonna do? Rick Porras Producer American 8:12 It was just a great way to kind of get Viggo right into the moment. Bob Anderson Swordmaster British

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81 9:04 Any sort of sword fight has a stor y of its own within the main story. John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander 12:57 And really sort of wind them up and in the end, th ey started doing a Maori haka Rick Porras Producer American 15:16 and we would just sort of sit and enjoy it. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 16:17 which was to be totally kind of dedicated 100 percent in the movie. Orlando Bloom Legolas British 17:16 It was a sort of um, a really ridiculous fantastically foolish idea Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander 18:09 And so I was sort of a bit iffy about doing it but I went over and grabbed him ____________________________________________________________________________ Cameras in Middle-Earth 1hr 8:03 Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Zane Weiner Unit Production Manager American Elijah Wood Frodo American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie John Rhys-Davies Gimli/ voice of Treebeard Welsh Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Sala Baker Stunt Performer New Zealander Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander Orlando Bloom Legolas British Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Bernard Hill Theoden British Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie Andy Serkis Gollum British Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Brad Dourif Grima/ Wormtongue American Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American John Mahaffie Second Unit Director New Zealander Jed Brophy Sharku New Zealander Sean Bean Boromir British David Wenham Faramir Aussie Rick Porras Co-producer American Craig Parker Haldir Fiji/ New Zealand Lani Jackson Stunt Performer New Zealander Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American

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82 Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 3:45 which is this little wonderful area jagged kind of rocks. Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie 4:32 Like the sort of thing you coul dve done on a very small budget film. Sean Astin Sam American 4:56 and then kind of hopefully recall them at will when youre on a set 5:24 the standard kind of fallback plan was Put up some polystyrene rocks. Elijah Wood Frodo American 5:35 it was monotonous and it was kind of tedious Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 7:42 It was probably a kind of lucky thing you know. *? Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 10:57 and make sure you kind of do a projectile vomit towards the camera. Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander 12:28 What he did was, he wanted to capture a more sort of war documentary feel for the scene. 12:48 jostling for different sort of sizes of frames. 12:53 we were shooting film, it sort of felt like we were doing theater, in a way Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 14:49 With a kind of strawberry-blond beard. *? 14:53 Never go for the kind of dark-b rown beard, but strawberry blond. 15:08 Shes also bearded which means I kind of get a different kind of spin on things. 15:10 a different kind of spin on things. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 16:20 each take he kind of (kinna) got closer and closer to the camera. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 17:25 Everyone went thr ough a little bit of physical kind of pain. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 19:31 Nobody will have run this long, this hard, over this kind of terrain. (Quoting JRRT) Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 20:46 And we kind of went through the two days, it was, of shooting them Orlando Bloom Legolas British 21:31 We were kind of running across this terrain 22:40 That sort of blood-red, amazing sunrise 23:31 They kind of put the trailers around, in like sort of in that 23:34 in like sort of in that sort of Western style all facing in. 23:35 in that sort of Western style all facing in. Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander 23:56 There was sort of bottles of wine and people were Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 25:09 just in case it rains, as it sort of tends to do down there quite a bit Elijah Wood Frodo American 25:25 Where Frodo and Sam and Gollum are kind of up against the rock 25:29 about to make that move, that sort of run Andy Serkis Gollum British

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83 26:04 But you know, all our hackles are kind of risen slightly. Elijah Wood Frodo American 26:30 It was kind of intense because Sean got really upset and kind of stormed off. 26:34 really upset and kind of stormed off. Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 28:03 but to get this mystical, kind of slightly ominous forest Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 28:58 Spiny, big mouths, big antennae, kind of scary. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 29:03 And the next thing we hear, Pete Oh, hey! You know, kind of, Whats that? 30:18 Merry being pulled off by the Orc and me kind of on Treebeards nose. 30:22 So that was a kind of you know 31:06 And you were sitting kind of like that for the whole time. 32:20 me, Dom and this puppet just kind of sitting there, waiting for all the people 33:07 going past to give the kind of shadow, so that thered be shadows going past 33:40 And this was kind of it was such a surreal experience. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 36:54 And I just sort of managed to turn, and I saw these things 36:57 and I saw these things sort of, like tumbling in the air 37: 04 It was a sort of surreal image of my glasses sort of tumbling and sort of just going. 37:05 image of my glasses sort of tumbling 37:06 tumbling and sort of just going. 37: 14 I didnt have a spare pair, so I was sort of blurry and kind of 37:17 and kind of peering at the monitor kind of 37:20 the monitor kind of 37:45 He had to do this English accent, this sort of Wormtongue-ish voice. Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie 40:12 So she kind of choreographed the whole thing. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 41:26 of Rohan as this kind of ambush Orlando Bloom Legolas British 42:56 When youre sort of slas hing at things and fi ring at things that arent there. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 43:38 We shot everything we could there on this sort of mechanical crazy-looking thing. Jed Brophy Sharku New Zealander 44:02 It put a split on the pr osthetic which we had to kind of glue together. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 45:36 You know, your lungs kind of come together, and you don t have that much air. 45:12 I would go out on a Sunday or in the evening sort of on a daily basis 46:51 Hes sort of doing that sort of kissing thing, which was 46:52 .that sort of kissing thing, which was 46:58 Its kind of perfect, in a way. Andy Serkis Gollum British 48:54 that I said I did on Gollum kind of completely went out the window Zane Weiner Unit Production Manager American 49:41 Its kind of the way the whole movie was.

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84 Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 50:33We wanted to sort of up the ante a little bit. 51:18 And cameras rolling and kind of everyone just freaks out 51:40 and Elijah just kind of barely -He barely registers it. Sean Bean Boromir North British 52:27 Similar sort of facial qualities. Elijah Wood Frodo American 53:12 and is sort of talking about how he wants to take the Ring from him. 53:21 And Frodos kind of backed up against the wall of the cave. 53:56 So it was great fun to sort of physically transform Rick Porras Co-producer American 54:22 to just sort of, Oh jeez, that could happen to Frodo. Sean Bean Boromir British 55:46 It wasnt hard to sort of fall back into the character. 56:16 Its just gauging the sort of passion and volume 56:34 Thats the way I was sort of setting me pitch and me volume at. George M. Ruge Stunt Coordinator American 3:15 that really got into it and sort of enjoyed barking out orders again. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 4:20 Kind of this big chunk of tooth just br oke off and fell to the floor. 4:31And he kind of (kinna) just stood there, and he said, Get some super glue Elijah Wood Frodo American 5:40 Hes got those kind of jolly, sort of red cheeks, and a great sort of 5:41 of red cheeks, 5:42 and a great sort of take the piss sort of biting attitude. 5:45 take the piss sort of biting attitude that s just hilarious. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 6:14 Theyre both really sort of mans men. Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie 6:24 I always worried that if I did too many of those sort of things, itd be like Karl Urban Eomer Aussie 6:35 Viggo had this sort of slogan written on a piece of paper 6:44 That sort of philosophy was central to how a lot of us *? Visual Effects Miniatures Big-atures 21:44 Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander John Baster WETA Miniatur e Builder New Zealander? John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian

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85 Rick Porras Producer American Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander John Harding Armour Weapons/ Sta ndby Aussie/British/New Zealander?? Brian Vant Hul Visual E ffects D.P. American Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American 3:17 So a set that had been built in a fairly rough kind of way John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 5:08 like some sort of ungodly, gothic cathedral 6:04 and ended up designing these two sort of spires or horns Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander 7:04 and then theres sort of metal plates and panels sort of holding it together. 7:07 and panels sort of holding it together. 7:09 where there sort of built a bit and then that lot died or left and John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 9:48 would be to have them set on some kind of wheels. Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American 11:04 Here we have a kind of Hobbits-eye view of the whole gate Brian Massey Greensmaster 13:30 because we sort of knew what it need to look like. John Harding Armour Weapons/ Sta ndby Aussie/British/New Zealander? 14:36 And all these branches sort of you know curl over create this sort of 14:39 create this sort of cathedral-like space, which is actually Treebeards house. Alex Funke Visual Effects D.P. American 16:12 that youre actually seeing sort of the both partie s and how they Steve Ingram Physical Effects Supervisor New Zealander 19:26 If you dont think you can do it, sort of walk out now. 19:32 you wont be walking back in again, sort of thing. *? Rick Porras Producer American 21:04 Im thankful that we didnt just sort of cut to, you know, Isengards destroyed. ______________________________________________________________________________ Weta Digital 27:26 Eileen Moran WETA Visual Effects Producer American Joe Letteri WETA Visual E ffects Supervisor American Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Scott Houston WETA Chief Tec hnology Officer New Zealander?

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86 Roger Kupelian Senior Matte Painter American Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander Gray Horsfield WETA 3D Sequence Lead Aussie? Matt Aitken WETA Models S upervisor New Zealander? John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Orlando Bloom Legolas British Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish Brian Vant Hul Visual E ffects D.P. American Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American John Labrie WETA Systems Architect American Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander Jon Allitt Massive Crowd Supervisor ? Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer American Mark Lewis WETA 3D Sequence Lead American Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ? Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Duncan Nimmo IT Manager New Zealander Christian Rivers Previsualizati on Supervisor New Zealander 1:41 The Balrog would sort of launch out of the water. 1:44 What youre left is a kind of half-skeletal Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 2:38 he can actually gr ab rather than just sort of sitting on the blue-screen totem pole. 2:49 to this wide shot and just see this speck sort of floating down. 4:23 because hell sort of present these shorts Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 5:12 I had this kind of important battle scene that di dnt really amount to anything Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 5:27 waving their swords, and horse sort of galloping from one si de to another Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 5:34 in a way in which I t hought it would make for a busy kind of fight. 6:20 I said, Look, the fights kind of working now 6:36 I was able to take t hose four or five shots and sort of dot them in here and there 6:38 in here and there just to kind of jazz it all up. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 6:48 When I first got her on Film One, I sort of was perusing through all the film 6:59 And it was sort of one of those horrifying mome nts when you look at it 7:18 It looked like this big tree just sort of looking forward. Joe Letteri WETA Visual E ffects Supervisor American 7:26its very hard to articulate th e face on that kind of animatronic. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 10:30 And it was a very compli cated scene that we addressed kind of a bit too late, really. Richie Baneham Animation Supervisor Irish 11:43 Pete is that kind of guy.

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87 Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 13:09 and you sort of treat each one of these guys as sort of an individual character 13:11 these guys as sort of an individual character ra ther than this group. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 15:17 you end up with this sort of relatively realistic -looking fighting 16:32 And they all kind of fled the battlefield. 18:25 and then put ting all these guys kind of way into the distance. Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ? 20:07 As things sort of went from the mid to the far background 20:42 and we had to sort of put that sort of 3-D Helms Deep going back down there. 20:44 that sort of 3-D Helms Deep going back down there. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 21:41 That big hole in the wall shouldnt be there so can we kind of patch up that hole? 21:47 They sort of looked at me like I was mad, because I said, We need this Wayne Stables WETA 3D Sequence Lead ? 23:04 I have ever seen, eith er before or since, that sort of matches the scope of it. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 23:54 They would be sending the images down the Net, over this sort of Internet 24:03 It sounds like somebody sort of driving in a little car down a pipe 25:11 the WETA images for the Two Towers kind of like in his jacket. 26:01 made the meetings more efficient in a funny kind of a way. *? John Labrie WETA Systems Architect American 27:04And just what sort of things are gonna be expected from WETA. Editorial: Refining the Script 21:53 Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Produ cer New Zealander Mike Horton Editor ? Jabez Olssen Additional Editor New Zealander? Rick Porras Producer American Elijah Wood Frodo American Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander Peter Doyle Supervising Digita l Colorist New Zealander? Rick Porras Producer American 4:44 and it ends and Frodo kind of likewakes up from this dream. Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Produ cer New Zealander 5:05 We sort of wanted to have a prologue in the middl e, rather than at the beginning. 5:16 this rather strange telepathic kind of connection with Galadriel. Rick Porras Producer American 7:16 and youve got constant sort of drudgery, working your way through landscape Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Produ cer New Zealander 7:45 He reminds me of the sort of --you know, committee man.

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88 10:53 We just sort of created this map moment from sort of nothing, really. 10:55 from sort of nothing, really. 13:03 If its a global, stra tegic kind of purpose, youre tr ying to defend your castle 14:39 It sort of -There seemed to be a natural conclusion to th e film, you know: Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 15:02 We had sort of a basis of a cut of the film but it was not really sort of this 15:06 but it was not really sort of this Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 18:31 My sort of -my head vanished into my neck and shoulders because I 18:34 because I was just so sort of guarded, you know. Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Produ cer New Zealander 19:40 I sort of have this philosophy that nothings ever perfect 20:40 Just kind of sit back and try and be critical and just say: 21:21and I kind of go along, and I sit and l ook at this thing 21:27 I think whoever made this film should sort of, you know 21:35 total innocent sort of lack of knowledge Music and Sound Music for Middle-Earth 25:15 Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American ? Howard Shore Composer Canadian Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American John Kuklander Score Engineer ? Rick Porras Producer American Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander :58 We want there to be a build and a progression so its like a sort of opera 6:23 To have this thudding, throbbi ng, percussive kind of music Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American ? 9:51 after Aragor n has fallen off the cliff, and he kind of comes to. 10:26 Elizabeth Frasers s ound in the Cocteau Twins was kind of what we were after. Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander 12:20 It was kind of like one of those moments when she said: Howard Shore Composer Canadian 14:22 so youre both sort of working together to tell the story. Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander 14:42 I talk in that sort of language. 15:44 Youd sort of be holding a note on Gollum, similar to Frodo. 15:46 Its just this sort of sort of .. 15:52 Frodo kind of accepts it. Rick Porras Producer American

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89 17:45 And he kept kind of hesitating and sort of messing it up a bit. 17:48 and sort of messing it up a bit. Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander 18:03I got to do something which I sort of harbored a secret desire to do 18:28 And he kind of looks up a second time, and shes not there. 18:32 And we just wanted this sort of : 18:33 This kind of gong sound. Rick Porras Producer American 21:49 So, all these kind of things conspired 24:43 I think its very much a sort of precursor ______________________________________________________________________________ The Soundscapes of Middle-Earth 21:22 Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervis ing Sound Editor American Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? Chris Ward ADR Record ist New Zealander? David Farmer Sound Designer American Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Rick Porras Co-producer American Christopher Lee Saruman British Chris Boyes Re-recording mixer American Michael Semanick Re-reco rding mixer American Simon Hewit Foley Artist New Zealander Phil Heywood Foley Artist New Zealander Martin Oswin Foley Engineer ? Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander? Mike Horton Editor ? Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander :15 the soundtrack has sort of mysteriously materialized. Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor 1:00 Because we wanted them sort of basically quite clean and free of background David Farmer Sound Designer American 1:43 And the thing just kind of does and just tumbles end over end. Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander 2:41 I kind of had to stride onto the middle of this bloody cricket pitch. 2:51 They actually wanted some chanting and Black speech this sort of guttural language Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor 3:37 So unfortunately it was only the chanting stuff which sort of worked out Peter Jackson Writer/ Director/ Pr oducer New Zealander 3:54 and at all the approp riate moments, they would sort of cheer and clap. 4:19 and then you listen to what the 25,000 people do, its sort of you can see David Farmer Sound Designer American 4:57 You know, we wanted to make it sort of dank and wet and foreboding

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90 Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? 8:04 and get them to kind of morph like that. David Farmer Sound Designer American 9:01 we knew that that sort of thing might come up again. Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervis ing Sound Editor American 9:07 There hasnt been any sort of major rethink on any sound design. David Farmer Sound Designer American 10:08 I kind of knew I wanted it to be a donkey. Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? 11:41 So its a far sweeter, more soothing, enticing kind of character. *? David Farmer Sound Designer American And I would just take the faders and kind of go Chris Boyes Re-recording mixer American 15:32 and how pulled-back and sort of amorphous the sound becomes. Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervis ing Sound Editor American 16:45 So you get this really sort of dynamic contrast Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander? 17:01 all the whiz-bys that you hear, all the kind of arrows going past. 17:08 And building that kind of thing up is -Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? 18:38 Which was actually kind of cool because you could be in Wellington 19:13 It was kind of ironic in that we had more what youd call face time with Peter Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervis ing Sound Editor American 20:43 That was a sort of guiding philosophy towards the end of the final mix. The Battle for Helms Deep is Over 9:26 Peter Jackson Writer/ Director / Producer New Zealander Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American Elijah Wood Frodo American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Andy Serkis Gollum British Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander John Rhys-Davies Gimli/ voice of Treebeard Welsh Sean Astin Sam American Rick Porras Producer American Mike Ordesky Executive Producer American :42 I still needed to keep a positive productive, constructive kind of attitude. Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British

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91 1:41 In the first movie, we arrived and people were kind of like: 1:49 We should get their autogra ph because theyre gonna be famous, kind of thing. 1:56 it appeared to be that we were kind of the homecoming kings. Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander 2:09 I sort of at that point, more than any other point Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 2:17 Its kind of outrageous, what it is now. Andy Serkis Gollum British 2:44 they were all so proficient at it and kind of knew the score, knew the red-carpet 2:48 knew the red-carpet deal, kn ew all that sort of stuff. Elijah Wood Frodo American 3:43 WETA designed the sort of --I guess its a kind of centerpiece 3:45 I guess its a kind of centerpiece Rick Porras Producer American 5:01 Because in the end, for us, it is just kind of like one picture Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 5:15 And we wanted it to be audacious, to have a sort of a courage about it. 5:22 weve got to do it. You know, you kind of -And second 5:46 when it was re-r eleased -and it was kind of -I was just lost in the world 6:02 you know, it the next kind of profound experience. 6:12 Films inspired me, and its an important thing to kind of pass on 6:15 To keep kind of getting kids excited about th e idea of what films can be

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92 APPENDIX E LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING THE APPENDICES PART 5 Introduction 1:33 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander J.R.R. Tolkien: the Legagy of Middle-Earth 29:26 Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British Brian Sibley Author of The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy British John Garth Author of Tolkien and the Great War British David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American Bill Welden Tolkien Linguist American Colin Duriez Author of Tolki en and C.S. Lewis British Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Dr. Patrick Curry Author of Defending Midd le Earth: Tolkien, Myth, and Modernity Canadian Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British Rayner Unwin Tolkiens Publisher British Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American 2:19 And he wrote this sort of fantasy history to explain, you know, Bill Welden Tolkien Linguist American 2:44 It was basically a fall from graceA sort of fall from grace. Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British 9:40 He didnt sort of cut and paste chunks out and make it into the siege of Minas Tirith 17:12 One of the effects of the kind of st rand-by-strand narration of the Lord of the 20:32 I think, that actually, Tolkien has this in this head as a kind of infrantryman slogan. John Garth Author of Tolkien and the Great War British 24:57 Tolkiens group of friends at school, eh kind of formalized the bond between the David Salo Tolkien Language Translator American 27:44 He was going to create a kind of grand tapestry. From Book to Script From Book to Script: Forging the Final Chapter 24:58 Brian Sibley Author of The lord of the rings: the making of the movie trilogy British John Rhys-Davies Gimli/Voi ce of Treebeard Welsh

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93 Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Ian McKellen Gandalf British Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Andy Serkis Gollum British Christopher Lee Saruman British Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 4:18 pretty aggressive, bor derline psychotic, you know, sort of really saying 4:23 get outta here, you cant help me, in a really, pretty venomous kind of tone. Elijah Wood Frodo American 4:39 We realized that that was a kind of That it was a little b it too intense for Frodo. 4:45 They had me start doing a dditional dialogue recording, just kind of tone it down 4:47 tone it down to sort of keep the intensity 5:20 as we were able to kind of re-envision things a nd rethink things. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 8:52 storytelling and the uh an d the parallel story lines is sort of was a disadvantage 9:40 you know, Ive always had problems with my, sort of, moviemaking hat on. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 10:29 The original thought was to have some sort of you know, angelic presence, you know Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 11:04 Not the destroyed, sort of, evil force that inhabits the rest of the film. Philippa Boyens Writer New Zealander 11:40 But Pete kind of knew that those 14-foot monsters very, very, very rarely work. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 12:40 Well, we have to have Viggo doing some sort of a heroic fight. 13:54 We sort of got the best of both worlds, because we had that moment 14:44hes so overwhelmed with joy, he sort of dances--I think in the book he does 14:46 I think in the book he does sort of, almost like -It's described as a dance. 15:32 So Gollum and the Ring fall, and Frodo kind of disappears Elijah Wood Frodo American 16:32 We wanted it to kind of appear somewhat ambiguous Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 19:26 You see him see that, sort of, the Shire kind of become like a horrible 19:27 the Shire kind of become like a horrible almost horrible 19:28almost holocaust, factory kind of environment. 19:31 So you have a -you sort of have a tip of the hat to it there. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander

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94 20:28 and then to sort of deviate into a completely diffe rent event in the story line Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 20:56 We sort of tried to mold it together, so it flowed reasonably well. 21:00 But I can understand a lot of the uh, A lot of the viewers did sort of find theres too many endings. Elijah Wood Frodo American 21:25 Well, yeah, I mean, it sort of depends on how you look at it Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 22:21 these movies having Ar agorn and Arwen apart, the sort of the tension Designing and building Middle-Earth Designing Middle-Earth 29:52 Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Rick Porras Co-Producer American Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Chris Hennah David Kolfi Set Dresser New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Elijah Wood Frodo American Shane Rangi Harad Leader 2/S tunt Performer New Zealander Orlando Bloom Legolas British Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Aragorn American Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Ed Mulholland Construction Supervisor New Zealander Uncredited construction man David Wenham Faramir Aussie John Noble Denethor Aussie Jude Fisher (real name Jane Johnson) Aut hor of The Visual Companions British Brian Massey Greensmaster New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Ian McKellen Gandalf British Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Carolynne Cunningham First Assistan t Director New Zealander? Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander :29 and you read that book you kind of somehow feel that youre surrounded by Middle-Earth Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 2:05 I was always kind of, How are we gonna make this better? 3:02beginning part of the bridge that sort of had a bit of a force-pe rspective thing to it.. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British

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95 5:08 And Tolkien describes them as though theyre kind of more than vertical. Sean Astin Sam American 6:35 Everyone associated with the movie ha d to endure some unique kind of suffering.* Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 6:48 was a result of some workshopping and, sort of, dialogue that wed had 6:54 and we had kind of exhausted a lot of our ideas about rock John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 7:14 And I found the same kind of rock just out our front door in Seatoum Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 7:34 But also, over th e years, her body has sort of smoothed out a sort of channel 7:37 a sort of channel where shes been dragging this great big body around. Elijah Wood Frodo American 7:48 and very creepy and twis ty caverns that they had sort of created. Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 8:20 There was just this sort of feel of the architecture of somewhere. 10:10 lots of wonderful animals that we were able to sort of -hang from strings. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 10:38 So, you know, the sort of horror of this environment 11:04 to look out across Mordor and to sort of, um be a watchtower. 11:15they have changed parts of it in their Orc-ish kind of way. *? 11:39 of being inside this Or c-ish kind of environment. *? Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 12:50 And then part of the defenses of the original castle were these sort of troughs. 13:23 It was one of those details that came out of uh sort of research into medieval castles Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 14:28 Its compacted sort of gravel and grit 14:30 that sort of solidified over the centuries. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 14:59 So that -Its kind of cool. I mean for those peopl e that know Peters work. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 15:19 we took a lot of care in match the, sort of, rock formation 15:27 It was all done to sort of -Made sure that it ma rried in very closely Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 15:47 which is where theyre, theyre sort of walking down 16:05 We found a sort of rock formation down in Queenstown 16:12 And we added to it and built a sort of doorway. 17:29 In out sort of early work, wed done a lot of research 17:38 and the sort of middle of Europe. Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British 18:53And it kind of fits in with the sort of approach wed taken to Minas Tirith. 18:55 the sort of approach wed taken to Minas Tirith which is its this kind of 18:57 which is its this kind of ancient civilization. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 19:28 in the quarry to kind of mimic the physical base of so me of these Helms Deep Uncredited construction man

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96 19:44 The old bit sort of curved around here, the old Helms Deep. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 19:53 And then Minas Tirith sort of got spread out from that central piece of set. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 20:48 It all kind of disappeared into this new city. Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 21:48 Just that kind of craftsmanship. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 22:22 would be able to pull down this big, kind of wooden grid. 22:30 pull up into place another, kind of bolting mechanism at the top. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 24:58 And we did similar sorts of things in Minas Tirith. 25:02 We did the Lampwrights Street being kind of a metalworking area. 25:05 And you know, we did one or two of these other -kind of little heraldic things. 25:12 but its kind of fun to uh invent these significant details, if you like. Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 26:40 It really felt like you were walking in a strange, medieval kind of city Rick Porras Co-Producer American 26:47 I mean, it was the kind of location th at, basically, if you had a visitor Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 28:40 So, you know, we were thinking of it in much the same sort of way. Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British 31:53 Which is kind of borrowed from Charlemagnes Chapel 32:26 Which is a much simple, kind of, black stone. 32:36 And Tolkien describes a -kind of stone canopy. *? Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 33:00 The Minas Tirith set had this great kind of feeling of age and dignity. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 33:06 I sort of would wander out there at weekends Ian McKellen Gandalf British 33:14 Its that sort of magical place you go to on holiday. Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 33:38 Well, we had -we had sort of a very tight schedule Peter Jackson Writer/ Direct or/ Producer New Zealander 34:24 Youd sort of turn one direction, there would be Edoras. 34:32 It was kind of -They were all over the place. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 35:03 and just opened a sort of you know Disneyland for Middle-Earth. Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 36:40 Its a sort of 10-hour turnaround. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 38:32 I came to realize then kind of what it meant ______________________________________________________________________________

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97 Big-atures 19:55 Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Rick Porras Co-Producer American John Baster WETA Miniatur e Builder New Zealander? Paul van Ommen Head Model Technician New Zealander? Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Peter Lyon Weta Sword Smith New Zealander David Tremont Weta Miniature Builder ? Warren Mahy WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Michael Daczynski Weta Miniature Builder ? Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Belindalee Hope Production Manage r Miniature New Zealander? Bruce McNaught VFX Model Technician New Zealander? Peter Smith Grip-Miniatures Unit New Zealander? Marty Walsh First A.D. Miniatures Unit New Zealander? Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British :37 The film is kind of incidental, really. John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 1:56 and this dentist clamping my wisdom teeth with these sort of jaws. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 2:31 describing a supernatural kind of -swamp. Elijah Wood Frodo American 4:06 So this is a -This is kind of a special moment. Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American 4:41 Everything about it was sort of macabre, Gothic quality. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 5:15 The actual structures themselves have th e same kind of feel of this place called Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 6:56 It was sort of fun. You know, people had bags and we were sort of like 6:59 and we were sort of like shooting baskets. 7:03 And after a while, throwing skulls as each other. It was kind of -7:05 Kind of a weird atmosphere. Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American 7:19 like the avalanche just sort of stretched away into the distance. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 7:55 I sort of approached it on two fronts, really John Baster WETA Miniatur e Builder New Zealander?

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98 10:33 I was just kind of intrigued to see if it would work. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 14:24 and then I did some kind of plan Mary MacLachlan WETA Miniature Builder New Zealander 16:07 that were sort of quite a good team now Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 18:15 and there was some sort of celebration Belindalee Hope Production Manage r Miniature New Zealander? 18:22 Everybodys sort of getting ready to go on holiday ______________________________________________________________________________ Weta Workshop 47:17 Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander Rick Porras Co-Producer American Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian David Wenham Faramir Aussie Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British Ben Wooten Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander John Harding Armour Weapons/ Sta ndby Aussie/British/New Zealander?? Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American Jamie Beswarick WETA Designe r/ Sculptor New Zealander Lawrence Makoare Witch King/ Gothmog New Zealander Dominie Till Weta Prosthetics Supervisor ? Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander Warren Mahy Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Jason Docherty Weta Workshop Supervisor New Zealander Bruce Spence The Mouth of Sauron New Zealander Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Matt Aitken Weta Models Supe rvisor New Zealander? Tom Shippey Authort of J.R.R. Tolkie n: Author of the century British Ben Hawker Weta Creatures/Prost hetics New Zealander American? Shaun Bolton Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander Greg Tozer Weta Armour Wea pons/ Standby New Zealander Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Director New Zealander Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Jamie Wilson Weta On-set Coordinator British John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian

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99 3:46 then, you know, you cant sort of have the tailor let it out a bit. David Wenham Faramir Aussie 3:53 did wear all that sort of stuff, and you just think, God, who invented it? 4:02 Yeah, thats sort of the feel of it. Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander 5:38 Now, theyre sort of a remnant left over from when the kinds ruled Gondor John Howe Conceptual Designer Canadian 5:53 in Middle-Earth that is kind of at odds with this overall absolutely beautiful aesthetic. 6:14 That would have been heartbreaking, to see sort of -To see all these Gondorians Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British 7:31 it was the Gondorian helmet with the silver, kind of -nipple at the top Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 7:45 And I -And I hones tly thought I was on some sort of Candid Camera. Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 13:41 we played them as much more of a sort of a rabble the sort of schoolyard 13:43 the sort of schoolyard bully, the ra ts of the battlefield Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American 15:12 The brief on the new Orcs was -uh a kind of uh Uber-Orcs. Jamie Beswarick WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander? 16:08 I guess it was sort of a long, extended nose. 16:11 So we sort of went for something a bit more skeletal Bill Hunt Prosthetics Make-up American 16:19 They were supposed to feel a little more lived in and kind of diseased. Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American 16:35 So the guys at the Workshop designed all this new, really kind of cool armour. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 17:10 but we had nobody on the battlefield sort of telling the Orcs what to do. Lawrence Makoare Witch King/ Gothmog New Zealander 19:13 and then you sort of like, fall asleep. Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American 20:08 He just looks like a John Wayne kind of character on his coming in Ben Wooten WETA Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander 20:38 which are these very tall, bucket sort of round helmets *? Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 21:47 I like the sort of -I like the spikes. 21:52 I dont know what quite what that means, but it kind of -He has this ring Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 22:46 And so I sort of hid it under my jacket as I walked through Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 24:34 I mean in the book it seems like hes some sort of human in service 24:41 like a traitor, a treacherous sort of turncoat Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander 25:13 Its kind of -half warrior, half priest. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 27:38 And I kind of thought that people would be disappointed by it. (tranquilador)

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100 27:54 to make this character a bit more -kind of memorable. 28:17 You know, like its there, and its sort of talking 29:00 I like it. Its one of those slightly subtle but sort of disturbing effects. Warren Mahy Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander 29:46 So it sort of -uh mimicked the corpse or the skeleton that was underneath it. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 30:33 It was his sort of -under-skull 30:35 and some sort of -sinew and things. 31:09 or be threaten ing the skull would sort of -thrust forward into prominence. 31:14 And then if he was more settled and just sort of being more relaxed 31:17 you would see more of his rotten -kind of skin. Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander 31:20 and then someone sort of came into the room and said: Gino Acevedo Prosthetics Supervisor American 31:35 They did somethingThey same kind of The same kind of thing. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 33:19 everything that fright ens me about spiders is kind of natural. 33:22 Its not exagge rated and its not sort of a science fictiony kind of stylization. 33:24a science fictiony kind of stylization. Shaun Bolton Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander 34:00 We sort of looked at things like tara ntulas and hunting spiders. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 34:26 Theres a spider that lives in thos e sorts of basements in New Zealand Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander 35:06 than I expected it to be when I sort of managed to hook it out of the wall. Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British 35:18 The body had this sort of soft, spongelike feel to it. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 35:37 It was tough because once you start enlarging a sort of microscopic spider face 36:04 I wanted to capture the feeling of Shelob being sort of ancient 36:10 and evil and sick. Sort of in a -Psychologically sick. 36:13 like shed been struck with a sort of a paralysis and had fungus growths 36:19 and had fungus growths on her head and all this sort of stuff. Alan Lee Conceptual Designer/ Set Decorator British 38:08 And then I had to sort of show it to everyone at Weta Digital Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 38:46 And he has a way of, like sort of telling you -It's like 40:20 You know, all this stuff sort of happens digitally, you know. Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander 41:26 And everyones sort of -You know, What the hell are you doing? 43:37 He sort of gave me a look as if to say: Ben Wooten Weta Designer/ Sculptor New Zealander 44:30 It was unbelievable actually. It was kind of bizarre. Daniel Falconer WETA Designer/Sculptor New Zealander 45:32 and for it to be the kind of projec t that the entire crew cares about ______________________________________________________________________________

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101 Costume Design 12:01 Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander Andy Serkis Gollum British Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Ian McKellen Gandalf British David Wenham Faramir Aussie John Noble Denethor Aussie Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie Liv Tyler Arwen American Andy Serkis Gollum British :57 It was kind of slightly spotted, and it slightly dandified him in some way. Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 2:00 You know, once again, sort of trying out new techniques 3:57 We had this palette for Gondor, the sort of -silvers and the blacks. David Wenham Faramir Aussie 4:17 should nearly be sort of similar, in a way, to Aragorn. Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 5:01 is so much more genuine but this sort of -This terrible desire. 6:14 There needed to be sort of quite a clear idea th at the Rohan people Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie 7:20 And when you moved, it just kind of -swayed from side to side. 7:34 You know, it had to have that sort of -uh medieval, Lady of Rohan look. Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 7:51 and really -sort of beautiful interior sleeve lining. Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie 8:10 Ngila would sort of be whipping things up in about three days. 8:33 Shes ended up designing something that sort of sits over that. Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 8:42 design style that has a sort of separate embroidered front piece. Home of the Horse Lords 30:13 Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Grahame Ware Jr. Horse Trainer ? Ian McKellen Gandalf British Don Reynolds Horse Trainer ? Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Ridi ng Double New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Jane Abbott Riding Doubl e New Zealander? Chris Kirkham Riding Doubl e New Zealander? Uncredited Horse Riding Double

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102 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Len Baynes Riding Double New Zealander? Orlando Bloom Legolas British Karl Urban Eomer Aussie Bernard Hill Theoden British Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director New Zealander Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British David Wenham Faramir Aussie Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Richard Taylor WETA Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Liz Mullane NZ Casting Director New Zealander Stephen Old Horse Coor dinator New Zealander John Scott Horse Technical A dvisor American/ Canadian Zoe Miller Horse Rider New Zealander Shane Rangi Harad Leader 2/S tunt Performer New Zealander Kirk Maxwell NZ Stunt C oordinator New Zealander? Rick Porras Co-Producer American :23 and theyre not just sort of props, if you will. Uncredited Horse Riding Double unknown sex 4:40 Im kind of hoping that they dont bite me. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 5:01 so that Aragorn could sort of get on top of him, and then hed rise up. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 5:42 And he did kind of freak out the first day, you know. 6:16 Which is great, but kind of a surprise from not liking it at all the first time. Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Ri ding Double New Zealander 6:39 It was kind of tricky not to treat the horses as being special Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 7:41 You cant threaten them. You cant sort of plead with them. Karl Urban Eomer Aussie 10:43 It was kind of challenging you know because I hadnt done much horse riding 10:50 but I sort of really have grown to love them. Bernard Hill Theoden British 11:23 We have the same sort of -Same measurements and everything. Jane Abbott Riding Doubl e New Zealander? 13:34 and you know, shoot off before the gun kind of thing. Bernard Hill Theoden British 13:51 Hes very kind of -Very self-willed. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 15:54 You know, it makes you feel kind of foolish. Zoe Miller Horse Rider New Zealander 20:23 and its sort of become home. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 23:42 Bernard had come up with this idea of a sort of ritualistic warrior kind of thing

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103 23:45 warrior kind of thing 23:54 as they put their spears down and sort of rattling the sword Bernard Hill Theoden British 24:05 for the final kind of rousing battle thing fo r Pelennor Fields, you know? 24: 09 If you can kind of just --. 24:11 If I could ride down the line of spears and all that kind of stuff. 24:34 So that kind of spurred me on, really. Jed Brophy Featured Orc/Ri ding Double New Zealander 25:08 It was like this overwhelming kind of surge of energy 26:45 That kind of bond is something that peop le whove never been in that situation* Len Baynes Riding Double New Zealander? 29:24 He does all sorts of lovely li ttle tricks and various things. New Zealand as Mi ddle-Earth 16:04 Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander? Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander Rick Porras Co-Producer American Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director New Zealander Orlando Bloom Legolas British John Mahaffie Second Unit Direct or New Zealander/Aussie? Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British David Wenham Faramir Aussie Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Cheryl Marriott Proprietor New Zealander Liz Mullane NZ Casting Director New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Dan HennahSupervising Art Direct or/ Set Decorator New Zealander 00:32 All the beautiful, sort of, tree trunks.. 00:37 And the ground around was sort of, grey and black. 00:44 So we sort of walked out and amongst it 00:48 on the ground was this sort of layer of probably, you know, 2 or 3 inches of ash. 00:54 Ash and burn, sort of foliage. 1:12 That sort of -destruction of life. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander? 1:41 but it was kind of fairly close to the time where-2:09 That comes down and meets the road which will -sort of cross here. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 2:35 that have been sort of -pushed around by these huge winds

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104 Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander female 4:32 There was a disused quarry that had sort of -grassed over 4:34 which is sort of park area in the middle of town. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 4:44 space in between and have this rocky -kind of you know, foliage behind it. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 6:08 with this kind of limestone rock formations. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 6:21 Just sort of a seemingly lifeless place. Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander 6:39 because it has these incredibly steep, narrow, sort of crevices. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 7: 45 It kind of had that, you know, beige-y, sort of dry-ground landscape. 7:47 beige-y, sort of dry-ground landscape. Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander 8:03 that the areas sort of named after, from the 19th century. Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 8:27 And then, as the dams were built, the town sort of dwindled. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 10:12 it was also great just to kind of be there as a visitor. Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 11:07 It was flat, and it was --, you know It was -kind of like a desert. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 11:59 And they looked at us, kind of horrified, and they said: Rick Porras Co-Producer American 12:31 like you were sort of losi ng, you know, any of the view. *?

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105 APPENDIX F THE LORD OF THE RINGS RETURN OF THE KING APPENDICES PART 6 Introduction 1:39 Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German Elijah Wood Frodo American Elijah Wood Frodo American 00:16 On this disc youve find documentaries sort of documenting the beginning Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 00:55 This is a sort of family album for us. Elijah Wood Frodo American 1:07 Its kind of amazing. This is sort of the the last film 1:09 This is sort of the the last film. Filming The Return of the King Cameras in Middle-Earth 1hr 13:04 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Robin Murphy Supervising Location Manager New Zealander Elijah Wood Frodo American Carolynne Cunningham First Assist ant Director New Zealander Sean Astin Sam American Andy Serkis Gollum/ Smeagol British Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American Rick Porras Co-Producer American Christopher Lee Saruman British Ian McKellen Gandalf British Orlando Bloom Legolas British Karl Urban Eomer New Zealander John Rhys-Davies Gimli Welsh John Noble Denethor Aussie Kirk Maxwell NZ Stunt C oordinator New Zealander Geoff Murphy Second Unit Director New Zealander Bryan Vant Hul Weta Visual Effects D.P. American Liz Mullane NZ Casting Di rector New Zealander? Gino Acevedo Weta Prosthetics Supervisor American Dominie Till Weta Prosthetic s Supervisor New Zealander? Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Cr eative Supervisor New Zealander Tania Rodger Weta Workshop Manager New Zealander

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106 Bernard Hill Theoden British Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie Lawrence Makoare Witch King/ Gothmog New Zealander Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American John Harding Armour Weapons/ Standby New Zealander, Aussie? Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Liv Tyler Arwen American Hugo Weaving Elrond Aussie Shane Rangi Harad Leader 2 / Stunt Performer New Zealander Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 1:10 that was sort of the right size to fit into the squash court Andy Serkis Gollum/ Smeagol British 2:51 looking very suave and kind of James Bond-y. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 4:31 then -sort of was one of these scenes that was like an albatross around out necks. Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German 5:47 And reverting back to their Hobbit ki nd of sensibilities, was shot on set *? 6:12 Your love of the Hobbits weed has kind of, you know Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 6:19 whether its tobacco or some sort of weed. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 6:42 The one that ended up in was sort of the mildly inebriated version Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 8:39 about what sort of -sound he should make when he got stabbed. Christopher Lee Saruman British 8:49 Have you any idea of what kind of noise happens when somebody if stabbed in the back Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 9:02 He proceeded to sort of talk about some very clandestine part of WWII. 9:13 He seemed to have expert knowledge of exactly the sort of noi se that they make 9:15 and so I just sort of -didnt push the subject any further. 9:51 and I love the imagery, to of this -of the wheel sort of rotating. 10:02 And it felt like sort of a just way for him to go out. 10:17 the people of Rohan are sort of celebrating their recent victory Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German 12:07 The kind of athletic kicks that Billy does down the table Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 13:07 that had sort of splintered and split. 13:22 I think I kind of feel, at some point, itll be better to have lunch. Andy Serkis Gollum/ Smeagol British 13:27 One of the greatest thrills I had um -kind of off set, if you like Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 14:34 I remember, sort of walking down the hill on this rather slippery Rick Porras Co-Producer American 18:12 And I kind of mentioned itd be kind of fun to get a cameo.

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107 18:14 itd be kind of fun to get a cameo. Gino Acevedo Weta Prosthetics Supervisor American 19:54 you know, would go through this kind of stuff 21:21 Im going, Well, thats kind of like my fear attack kind of grin thing. 21:22 my fear attack kind of grin thing. 21:45 because he just kept doing this kind of move. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 22:00 with an admiring sort of gaze, you know 22:09 a little surge of macho pride -sort of swept through the set that day. 22:48 You know, kind of -Make it kind of like an invitation to scrap. 22:49 Make it kind of like an invitation to scrap. 23:30 Its sort of a Clint Eastwood, sort of you know. 23:31 sort of you know. 23:56 I sort of like, threw off my shirt, I got Sams shirt on. Bernard Hill Theoden British 26:12 because it was such a kind of massive battle. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 26:52 because you sort of know what youre doing Miranda Otto Eowyn Aussie 27:48 It was one of those thing of being so kind of shell-shocked 27:51 Just sort of sitting there and then realizing Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 30:25 I remember the army had sort of pointed out the zone that theyd cleared. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 32:04 Those guys really took it Took it kind of seriously. 32:37 Kind of dangerous. Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German 34:11 I kind of mentioned that to Pete and you could just see him just Elijah Wood Frodo American 35:15 Sean and I were both equally kind of nervous Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 35:29 I sort of stuffed up the planning Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 38:52 The main thing that Im sort of looking for is how much were impacting Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 40:15 Well just tell the crew to kind of just say Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 40:22 It was kind of a happy moment Uncredited woman on set 41:11 Its very hot, so you may want to be sort of back here and then just step in Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 41:29 and they can kind of you know, imagine theyre at a wedding Sean Astin Sam American 43:12 I was kind of jealous because I remember Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German 44:02 you know, in a sick kind of way, looking forward to it.

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108 Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 45:45 That this scene, that was just, like, so kind of emotional Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 47:40 But it was just one of those kind of horrible moments. 48:07 Well, Im sort of in a Quite a strange place, I guess 48:16 Im sort of -My emotions are torn in all directions, you know. Liv Tyler Arwen American 48:57 And suddenly we really kind of ran out of time. Sean Astin Sam American 49:47 The end of principle photography, I was sort of excited Liv Tyler Arwen American 49:58 and the first time theyre seeing each other again and kind of being reunited. 50:28 and then suddenly he was sort of whisked off Hugo Weaving Elrond Aussie 51:03 Gail, my makeup and hair artist, started to kind of think: Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German 52:57 And were kind of bowing to him, going Sean Astin Sam American 52:12 Theres just kind of sort of a symmetry to it. !!!! 52:13 sort of a symmetry to it. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 52:50 Sort of his new armour. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 53:00 It was kind of like a gift to Weta and a nice acknowledgement of Weta. Elijah Wood Frodo American 55:57 So it was a mixture of all sorts of odd emotions. Bernard Hill Theoden British 56:51 We corrected scenes, we kind of fine-tuned scenes. Orlando Bloom Legolas British 57:52 It was very kind of emotional going back for the reshoots as well Ian McKellen Gandalf British 1hr 00:53 It was recognized that there was a need for some sort of closure. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 1hr 9:54 because I sort of dont want to say that. 1hr 12:43 Its kind of -it does feel like were all off to the Grey Havens. Visual Effects Visual Effects Demonstration: The Mumakil Battle Weta Digital 41:56 Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander Eileen Moran Weta Visual Effects Producer American

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109 Rick Porras Co-producer American Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander? Eric Saindon Weta 3D Seque nce Supervisor American? Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander Theresa Ellis Rygiel Weta 3D Supervisor American Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Annette Wullems Weta Producti on Manager New Zealander? Erik Winquist Weta 2D Sequence Lead American Matt Aiken Weta Models S upervisor New Zealander? Alan Lee Conceptual Designe r/ Set Decorator British Mark Lewis Weta 2D Sequence Supervisor American Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander Jon Allitt Weta Massive Supervisor New Zealander/Aussie? Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American John Curtis Weta MOCAP Technician Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer Canadian Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American Dana Peters Weta Creatu re Supervisor American? Orlando Bloom Legolas British Annette Wullems Weta Producti on Manager New Zealander? Andrea Merlo Weta Lead Creat ure TD Non-native speaker Sean Astin Sam American Matt Logue Weta Senior Animator American? Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur De struction Lead New Zealander? Andy Serkis Gollum/ Smeagol British Mike Stevens Weta Senior Animator American? Stephen Buckley Weta Senior Animator American? Christopher White Weta 3D Sequence Lead American Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 1:52 but it is a very big, central set piece -kind of battle. Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander? 1:55 Previsualization is kind of an advanced storyboard where you use a computer Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander 2:58 and you know, run through any sort of -you know 2D co mpositing package. 3:08 I have these trolls sort of towing them in 3:14 and start you know, sort of loading the boulders on, you know. 3:17 The Orcs are kind of cranking the machinery Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American 3:38 It was sort of like, it was sort of like a room in the Pentagon where the secret guys 3:46 I think there was a big sort of feeling of that Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 3:56 You know, the commander guys can sort of be doing a bit of a

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110 4:09 blue screen guys who kind of do it, and you just put them in 2D on sort of CG horses 4:11 and you just put them in 2D on sort of CG horses 4:12 and just very quickly sort of have them squashed. Erik Winquist Weta 2D Sequence Lead American 5:25 The kind of shots 5:28 that Peter was sort of formulating for these things Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American 6:10 It would take you it would take you a few hours sort of 6:13 To sort of like come to grups w ith what was just --Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American 8:36 this is where I think art direction kind of reached new heights Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 9:17 and you kind of join them all together in your album, you know, like a montage. 9:29 and it becomes a sort of a cyclorama that you can use in the background. Mark Lewis Weta 2D Sequence Supervisor American 10:11once those were kind of in place, to take these little bits and pieces Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American 11:52 have the flexibility to drop in any kind of a shot that we needed. *? Steve Regelous Software Developer New Zealander 13:05 Well, I knew kind of what was coming up. Carrie Thiel MOCAP Combat Choreographer Canadian 14:38 just kind of irons out any kinks that might still be there. Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American 16:31 As sort of graceful and gentle as you can do the whole thing too, the better. 16:36 So it you could just sort of roll down, mumakil walks over, and then get back up. 16:50 We basically did our best to sort of reference those previses 19:34 He said -You know, he sort of said something hes never said before. Richard Moore Weta Senior Animator New Zealander? 22:11 Its kind of a big question, really. Andrea Merlo Weta Lead Creat ure TD Non-native speaker 26:35 And that kind of put me off sleep for a night or two. Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American 29:09 You know, just all the different kind of material properties over the skin. Dana Peters Weta Creatu re Supervisor American? 29:19 but subconsciously, you really kind of can perceive. 29:25 that they tried to kind of make look big. Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American 34:54 anything like that kind of a fall. Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander 35:22 you know, Pete sort of said: Look, no, no 35:22 And thats the -Sort of the driving thought behind his reaction. Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American 37:01 and just kind of get a feel for what everyone else has been up to Christopher White Weta 3D Sequence Lead American 37:32 So I think that was when it was kind of sad that it was all over Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander

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111 38:35 Theres this kind of great kind of anticipation that I have now. 38:36 great kind of anticipation that I have now. Post-Production: Journeys End Editorial: Completing the Trilogy 22:10 Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander John Gilbert Editor (The Fellowship of the Ring) ? Mike Horton Editor (The Tw o Towers) New Zealander? Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander? Elijah Wood Frodo American Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Dominic Monaghan Merry German/British Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Barrie M. Osborne Co-producer American Philipa Boyens Writer New Zealander Christopher Lee Saruman British Rick Porras Co-Producer American Andy Serkis Gollum/Smeagol British Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 00:20 and we were sort of having a lot of fun 1:10 we were doing budgeting and sort of deciding how we were gonna do the movie. 2:47 And then we also did a sort of assembly edit 3:13 It was sort of very clunky in the visual l ook of it but the emotion was sort of so 3:17 but the emotion was sort of so strong. Elijah Wood Frodo American 3:39 We kind of asked him, we said do you think it would be okay Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 5:19 And I think thats what launched the whole kind of torturous editing process.. Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 7:06 I remember Mike h eaving a sign of relief and sort of saying: 9:08 So we came up with a shot of the palantir just sort of glowing in the water Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 9:36 and so, therefore, its kind of neat to put things back in it. Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 11:11 It would have really sort of disrupted the story line. 13:53 they didnt just leave me really and sort of rotoscope the door, really. 14:09 I mean, it was all that sort of tugging to and fro w ith this Ring idea. Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 15:00 I think theres more addict torment -kind of at the beginning, you know. Jamie Selkirk Co-producer New Zealander 18:49 you couldnt just have it sort of happening like that, you know. 18:50 You had to sort of milk it a bit.

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112 Barrie M. Osborne Co-producer American 19:23 The voice of the Ring is kind of subliminally calling out. Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 20:06 rather than sort of just doing it in a more perfunctory type of way. ______________________________________________________________________________ Music for Middle-Earth 21:59 Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American Howard Shore Composer Canadian Rick Porras Co-producer American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Peter Cobbin Score Mixer Australian Nigel Scott Music Editor New Zealander? Andy Serkis Gollum/Smeagol British Philipa Boyens Writer New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish John Noble Denethor Aussie Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander? Liv Tyler Arwen American Elijah Wood Frodo American Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 1:31 He can sort of be playing a keyboard while we re (Behind scenes footage) Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American 3:55 And when we heard it on the stage, we all kind of knew; Peter Cobbin Score Mixer Australian 5:23 I love all that kind of Brass under all this kind of screechy 5:26 Brass under all this kind of screechy Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish 8:38 So I kind of thought about it and what t ype of song it would be. 9:41 and I was a bit, sort of, you know 9:49 which is, you know--, kind of great to hear. 9:53That it kind of affected anyone is lovely. Howard Shore Composer Canadian 10:21which I kind of like to do. 10:25 I mean, I wrote the piece that -kind of shape their vocals. Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander 11:48 It was one of those scenes that sort of got pushed to Return of the King 12:13 with the scene didnt kind of gel. Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American 15:19 And I think thats kind of what Tolkiens doing overall in his story. Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander This is sort of a part of The end of an era. (Behind scenes footage) Howard Shore Composer Canadian

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113 21:14 the concerts still keeps you kind of in touch with it. 21:15 It keeps you sort of part of it. ______________________________________________________________________________ The Soundscapes 22:05 Peter Jackson Writer/Direct or/Producer New Zealander Chris Ward ADR Editorial Recordist New Zealander? Rosemary Dority Post Producti on Supervisor New Zealander? Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander Katy Wood Foley Editor New Zealander David Farmer Sound Designer American Chris Boyes Re-recordi ng Mixer American Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Barrie M. Osborne Co-Producer American Matt Logue Weta Senior Animator American Michael Semanick Re-reco rding Mixer American? Christian Rivers Visual Effects Concept Designer New Zealander Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor New Zealander? Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander? John Neill Park Road Post Sound Manager New Zealander? Rick Porras Co-producer American Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 1:04 But theres not a lot of sort of preconceived notions about 1:11 One of the scenes that we got a sort of initial version of Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 1:21 and Peter just kind of said: Well, have you actually heard a kind of 2-ton rock 1:23 Well, have you actually heard a kind of 2-ton rock landing? 1:30 theyre gonna be bits of this building kind of flying over 1:31 then kind of -Have you actually heard it? Katy Wood Foley Editor New Zealander 1:55 And wed spread out a number of mikes, just sort of at various differe nt distances. Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 2:41 And then we kind of started filling the crater up with things, Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 2:45 And dropped them onto all kinds of different surfaces. David Farmer Sound Designer American 3:35 And coconuts, you know, -sort of come to mind obviously. Chris Boyes Re-record ing Mixer American 4:25 Its kind of the arc of creating the track. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 4:45 Peter hates spiders, and so, rather than sort of shy away he wanted to sort of push 4: 48 he wanted to sort of push the Shelob sequence David Farmer Sound Designer American

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114 5:41 Its just sort of a hiss. Which is sort of personality-less. 5:43 Which is sort of personality-less. Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 6:24 and really sort of cross-pollination of all th e different departments. Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 7:57 Although theres a tendency to kind of try and have everything playing at once 8:05 it actually kind of tends to work against you. Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 8:59 And these sort of distant roars 9:05 From that moment we just sort of increase. 9:45 It needs to be some kind of horrific bellow (quoting Jackson) Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 12:08 they realized th ere was really nothing kind of setting up the presence Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 12:16 are just having this sort of drunken party? Uncredited foley cast member Male ? 12:32 theres you know, some sort of background filtering up through that hole *? Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 13:01 Daves really kind of unique Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 13:24 a few hours worth sort of -putting this whole drunk en rhythmic party scene Chris Boyes Re-record ing Mixer American 15:03 we go into this more affected sort of musical sound design Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 16:05 he wanted this sort of unholy shriek David Farmer Sound Designer American 16:46 Sort of a monster sound, but still kept him in sort of the human realm. 16:48 but still kept him in sort of the human realm. Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American 18:00 so when we get these sort of redesign areas of the film 19:59 were mixing some kind of room tone wh ere were listening for every little detail* Brent Burge Sounds Effects Editor New Zealander? 21:15And being involved with the kind of -caliber of person that.. ______________________________________________________________________________ The End of All Things 21:29 Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander Rick Porras Co-producer American Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Nigel Scott Music Editor New Zealander? Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander? Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American Michael Semanick Re-reco rding Mixer American?

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115 Annette Wullems Weta Production Manager New Zealander? Guy Williams Weta 3D Sequence Supervisor American Matt Aiken Weta Models Supe rvisor New Zealander? Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Brigitte Yorke Production Manager New Zealander? Paul Broucek Executive Music Producer, NLC American Mark Willsher Associate Music Producer American? Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur De struction Lead New Zealander? Eileen Moran Weta Visual Effects Producer American? Brent Burge Sound Effects Editor New Zealander? Rosemary Dority Post Producti on Supervisor New Zealander? Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Mike Hopkins Supervising Sound Editor British? Elijah Wood Frodo American Alex Funke Visual Effects DP American Jeremy Bennett Visual Effects Art Director New Zealander David Farmer Sound Designer American Ethan Van Der Ryn Supervising Sound Editor/ Co-designer American Joe Letteri Weta Visual Effects Supervisor American Randy Cook Animation Designer & Supervisor American Eric Saindon Weta 3D Seque nce Supervisor American? Theresa Ellis Rygiel Weta 3D Supervisor American? Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander 1:38 I dont know how Peter copes with that -sort of -disparate number of calls on his attention. Dean Wright Visual Effects Producer American 2:57 and chains moving a nd all sorts of things. Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander 4:37 and never really sort of getting to grips of tightening things up too much. Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American 4:50 Because we were still shooting all kinds of plates. Gray Horsfield Weta Barad-Dur De struction Lead New Zealander? 6:25 even though it seems like youre sort of up against the wall (?)mumbled 7:20 It was kind of akin to being a very slow swimmer in a very big ocean. Barrie M. Osborne Producer American 9:20 would seem like -kind of -a distraction from where they should be focused. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 10:46 Its like, you know -it's kind of like, everything is moving, and youre -Jamie Selkirk Co-producer and editor New Zealander 11:48 It was just too slow. It just sort of made it -Elijah Wood Frodo American 14:43 being in ADR and -kind of -suddenly getting that fear that: Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 15:00 Because there were sort of rumors that the film was still unfinished. 15:31 theres this sort of fear, especially in th e studio, that, you know

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116 19:57 I think there was a few sort of stressed people there at the end. The Passing of an Age 25:09 Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander Mark Ordesky Executive Producer American Sean Astin Sam American Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander Orlando Bloom Legolas British Ian McKellan Gandalf British Elijah Wood Frodo American Mike Hedges Re-recording Mixer New Zealander Billy Boyd Pippin Scottish Barrie M. Osborne Producer American Viggo Mortensen Aragorn American Liv Tyler Arwen American Dominic Monaghan Merry British/German Rick Porras Co-Producer American Jamie Sekirk Co-Producer and Editor New Zealander Christopher Lee Saruman British Richard Taylor Weta Workshop Creat ive Supervisor New Zealander John Rhys-Davies Gimli Welsh Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander Michael Semanick Re-reco rding Mixer American Jim Rygiel Visual Effect s Supervisor American Carolynne Cunningham First Assist ant Director New Zealander Sean Bean Boromir British Annie Collins Additional Editor New Zealander Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander Bernard Hill Theoden British Andrew Lesnie Director of Photography Aussie Howard Shore Composer Canadian Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 1:36 In my usual sort of rather kind of sneaky way 1:37 rather kind of sneaky way, I had really pushed New Line into a corner that they 1:43 into a corner that they couldnt kind of back out of. Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander 2:17 And I was sort of thinking, you know Elijah Wood Frodo American 3:44 The parade was actually kind of extraordinary. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 4:30 I mean, its the sort of thing I associate with landing on the moon. Rick Porras Co-Producer American 7:20 Kind of like the last one, but it wasn t as big as the others.

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117 Liv Tyler Arwen American 10:52 I didnt believe it. I was sort of felt like Oh my God, is this happening? Elijah Wood Frodo American 11:46 They announced it, and we all kind of jumped up, and were hugging each other Ngila Dickson Costume Designer New Zealander 14:26 This was the sort of The resolution of years and years 14:34 In that moment, people were able to sort of see the acknowledgement. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 15:22 And so the Extended Cut gave us an opportunity to kind of carry on. 15:29 We dont need to get all kind of funny about it, do we? 15:40 Thats kind of the best way to do it, isnt it? Carolynne Cunningham First Assist ant Director New Zealander 16:10 because everybodys lives ju st kept happening in this, kind of -place for Tania Rodger WETA Workshop Manager New Zealander 16:18 you got sort of -brought into the family. Grant Major Production Designer New Zealander 17:12 And when I kind of came back for any decent stretches of time 17:14 hes kind of 3 and a half, 4 years old. 17:17 And I was kind of sad to have missed out on that fantastic, kind of, time. 17:20 that fantastic -kind of, time. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 17:48 And then the whole thing sort of stops. Bernard Hill Theoden British 18:07 But like a family, you kind of -you forgive the cranky old uncle. 18:10 That kind of thing. You know what I mean. Peter Jackson Director/Write r/Producer New Zealander 19:08 I kind of in a -Don't think that Lord of th e Rings is repeatable in that way.

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118 APPENDIX G NATIONALITIES Table G-1. Uses of sort of and kind of by nationalities. Tokens Percentage Tokens Percentage of Nationality sort of sort of kind of kind of American 148 46.4 171 53.6 Australian 19 73.1 7 26.9 British 29 25.4 85 74.6 Canadian 9 60.0 6 40.0 New Zealand 317 70.6 132 29.4 North British 13 100.0 0 0.0 Scottish 5 19.2 21 80.8 Welsh 3 100.0 0 0.0 Unknown 23 59.0 16 41.0 Non-Native 0 0.0 1 100.0 Totals 566 56.3 439 43.7

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119 LIST OF REFERENCES Aijmer, K. (1984). Sort of and K ind of in English Conversation. Studia Linguistica, 38, 118-128. Barker, Martin. (2006). Maki ng Middle-earth Sound Real: The Lord of the Rings and the Cultural Politics of the BBC Radi o Edition. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 6170). London: Wallflower Press. Biltereyst, D. & Meers, P. (2006). Blockbuste rs and/as Events: Distributing and Launching The Lord of the Rings In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 71-87 ). London: Wallflower Press. Bolinger, D. (1972). Degree Words Paris: Mouton. Buckland, W. & Long, C. (2006). Following the Money: The Lord of the Rings and the Culture of Box Office Figures. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 88-98 ). London: Wallflower Press. Coates, J. (1988). Gossip Revisited: Language in All-Female Groups. In J. Coates & D. Cameron (Eds.), Women in Their Speech Communities: New Perspectives on Language and Sex (pp. 94-122). London: Longman Group UK Limited. Curry, P. (2004). Defending Middle-Earth: Tolkien: Myth and Modernity. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Gray, J. (2006). Bonus Material: The DVD Layering of The Lord of the Rings In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 238253). London: Wallflower Press. Hall, R.D. (2007). Through a Dark Lens: Jacksons Lord of the Rings as Abject Horror. Mythlore, 25 55-59. Holmes, J. (1987). Hedging, Fencing and Other Conve rsational Gambits: An Analysis of Gender Differences in New Zealand Speech. In A. Pauwels (Ed.), Women and Language in Australian and New Zealand Society (pp. 59-79). Sydney: Au stralian Professional Publications. Holmes, J. (1988). Sort of in New Zealand Womens and Mens Speech. Studia Linguistica, 42, 85-121. Holmes, J. (1990). Hedges and Boosters in Womens and Mens Speech. Language and Communication, 10, 185205. Hunter, I.Q. (2006). Tolkien Dirty. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 317-333). London: Wallflower Press.

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120 Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring [Motion Picture]. United States : New Line Cinema. Jackson, P. (Director). (2002). The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers [Motion Picture]. United States: New Line Cinema. Jackson, P. (Director). (2003). The Lord of the Rings: Return of the King [Motion Picture]. United States: New Line Cinema. Jones, S. (2006). Fixing a Heri tage: Inscribing Middle Earth onto New Zealand. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 285-300). London: Wallflower Press. Kendt, R. (2005). How They Cast It: An Insider Look at Film and TV Casting Los Angeles: Lone Eagle Publishing Company. Lakoff, G. (1972). Hedges: A Study in Meaning Criteria and the Logic of Fuzzy Concepts. Papers from the Eighth Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society edited by Peranteau, P.M. et al. Chicago. Lawn, J. & Beatty, B. (2006). On the Bri nk of a New Threshold of Opportunity: The Lord of the Rings and New Zealand Cultural Po licy. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 43-60 ). London: Wallflower Press. Mathijs, E. (Ed.). (2006). The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context London: Wallflower Press. Meyerhoff, M. (1986). The Kind of Women Who Put ish Behind Everything and Sort of in Front of It: A Study of Sex D ifferences in New Zealand English (Unpublished M.A. thesis, Victoria University of Wellington). Pryor, I. (2003). Peter Jackson: From Prince of Splatter to Lord of the Rings New York: Thomas Dunne Books. Segura, E. & Peris, G. (2005). Tolkien as Philo-Logist. In T. Honegger (Ed.), Reconsidering Tolkien (pp. 31-43). Zurich: Walking Tree Publishers. Shippey, T. (2004). Another Road to Middle-eart h: Jackson Movie Trilogy. In R.A. Zimbardo & N.D. Isaacs (Eds.), Understanding The Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism (pp. 233-254). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Smith, R. (2005). Why the Film Version of The Lord of the Rings Betrays Tolkiens novel [Part 1]. English Today 83, 21, 3, 3-7.

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121 Spacks, P.M. (2004). Power and Meaning in the Lo rd of the Rings. In R.A. Zimbardo & N.D. Isaacs (Eds.), Understanding The Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism (pp. 52-67). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Thornley, D. (2006). Wellywood and Pe ter Jackson: The Local Reception of The Lord of the Rings in Wellington, New Zealand. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 101-142 ). London: Wallflower Press. Tolkien, J.R.R. (1982). The Hobbit or There and Back Again New York: Ballantine Books. Tolkien, J.R.R. (1994). The Lord of the Rings Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Wasko, J. & Shanadi, G. (2006) More than Just Ri ngs: Merchandise for Them All. In E. Mathijs (Ed.), The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context (pp. 23-42). London: Wallflower Press.

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122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Melina Patricia Jimenez was born March 17, 198 2, in Barranquilla, Colombia. The oldest of three children, she grew up in Miami and Orla ndo, Florida. She graduated from Lake Brantley High School in 2000. She earned her B.S. in linguis tics with a minor in anthropology from the University of Florida in 2005. Melina has been a t eacher at the English Language Institute at UF since 2006.