<%BANNER%>

Fibulae of the Ninth through Seventh Centuries BC in Central Italy

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021783/00001

Material Information

Title: Fibulae of the Ninth through Seventh Centuries BC in Central Italy
Physical Description: 1 online resource (122 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hambleton, Jennifer
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: colonization, etruria, fibula, greek, italic
Art and Art History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Art History thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis addresses the development of fibulae in the region of the Italian peninsula. The fibula is a device that had been used in antiquity to fasten garments. The tradition of the Italic fibula is a small, but significant part of a much larger and older tradition within the Mediterranean region. Certain types were held in common among cultures in southern Europe, Greece, Italy, and the Near East during the 13th-11th centuries BC. These early types became the ancestors of forms that came to define the Italic sequence. This sequence benefited from these diverse influences during its maturation in the 9th through 7th centuries BC. The rise of the Italic sequence during the 9th century overlapped with the arrival of the Greeks in the 8th century at Pithekoussai in the Bay of Naples. This overlap was significant and has been troublesome to scholars in the past because certain types of Italic fibulae and Italic-looking fibulae appear at Pithekoussai, and subsequently in Sicily at the Greek colony of Syracuse. In the past, archaeologists had trouble in determining which ones were Greek and which were Italic because the rise of the Italic sequence was so close in time to the arrival of the Greeks. The types that have sparked the most debate are the knobbed serpentine, the composite leech, and the knobbed leech fibulae. The elongated catch-plate of these types has been a subject of debate, too, mainly because certain archaeologists insisted that it was Greek in origin. Their claims are not supported by secure evidence, which will be discussed in the thesis. These three types of fibulae occur in both Italic and Greek sites of the 8th and 7th centuries, including Pithekoussai and Syracuse. Some archaeologists argued for a Greek origin while others demonstrated that they had always been part of the Italic tradition. The inability to identify them as either Greek or Italic in origin seems still to be present today, but this thesis aims to present the available evidence on the knobbed serpentine, composite leech, and knobbed leech fibulae in order to make a fair assessment on the origin of these types. Apart from the controversy concerning the appearance of certain types of Italic fibulae and western Greek composite leech fibulae at Greek sites in Italy, the period of time spanning the 8th through the 7th centuries also marks the sudden increase of wealth in Etruria. Fibulae appear in luxurious materials and sophisticated techniques during the 7th century, especially in Etruria. This change is important for the information it reveals about the effects of foreign cultures in central Italy, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians. The study of fibulae is important for the information that these objects reveal about the interactions between the Greeks and the indigenous peoples of Italy. They also crucial for understanding that the Italic people were influencing the Greeks and the Greeks were influencing the Italic people as opposed to the outdated thought that culture was passing in one direction only. This direction was believed to have been from Greece to Italy.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jennifer Hambleton.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Barletta, Barbara A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021783:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021783/00001

Material Information

Title: Fibulae of the Ninth through Seventh Centuries BC in Central Italy
Physical Description: 1 online resource (122 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Hambleton, Jennifer
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: colonization, etruria, fibula, greek, italic
Art and Art History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Art History thesis, M.A.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This thesis addresses the development of fibulae in the region of the Italian peninsula. The fibula is a device that had been used in antiquity to fasten garments. The tradition of the Italic fibula is a small, but significant part of a much larger and older tradition within the Mediterranean region. Certain types were held in common among cultures in southern Europe, Greece, Italy, and the Near East during the 13th-11th centuries BC. These early types became the ancestors of forms that came to define the Italic sequence. This sequence benefited from these diverse influences during its maturation in the 9th through 7th centuries BC. The rise of the Italic sequence during the 9th century overlapped with the arrival of the Greeks in the 8th century at Pithekoussai in the Bay of Naples. This overlap was significant and has been troublesome to scholars in the past because certain types of Italic fibulae and Italic-looking fibulae appear at Pithekoussai, and subsequently in Sicily at the Greek colony of Syracuse. In the past, archaeologists had trouble in determining which ones were Greek and which were Italic because the rise of the Italic sequence was so close in time to the arrival of the Greeks. The types that have sparked the most debate are the knobbed serpentine, the composite leech, and the knobbed leech fibulae. The elongated catch-plate of these types has been a subject of debate, too, mainly because certain archaeologists insisted that it was Greek in origin. Their claims are not supported by secure evidence, which will be discussed in the thesis. These three types of fibulae occur in both Italic and Greek sites of the 8th and 7th centuries, including Pithekoussai and Syracuse. Some archaeologists argued for a Greek origin while others demonstrated that they had always been part of the Italic tradition. The inability to identify them as either Greek or Italic in origin seems still to be present today, but this thesis aims to present the available evidence on the knobbed serpentine, composite leech, and knobbed leech fibulae in order to make a fair assessment on the origin of these types. Apart from the controversy concerning the appearance of certain types of Italic fibulae and western Greek composite leech fibulae at Greek sites in Italy, the period of time spanning the 8th through the 7th centuries also marks the sudden increase of wealth in Etruria. Fibulae appear in luxurious materials and sophisticated techniques during the 7th century, especially in Etruria. This change is important for the information it reveals about the effects of foreign cultures in central Italy, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians. The study of fibulae is important for the information that these objects reveal about the interactions between the Greeks and the indigenous peoples of Italy. They also crucial for understanding that the Italic people were influencing the Greeks and the Greeks were influencing the Italic people as opposed to the outdated thought that culture was passing in one direction only. This direction was believed to have been from Greece to Italy.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jennifer Hambleton.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Barletta, Barbara A.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021783:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID E20110331_AAAACI INGEST_TIME 2011-03-31T17:29:42Z PACKAGE UFE0021783_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES
FILE SIZE 283416 DFID F20110331_AACBIL ORIGIN DEPOSITOR PATH hambleton_j_Page_078.jp2 GLOBAL false PRESERVATION BIT MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM MD5
2b8172268ec28a127852d9fae88a34a7
SHA-1
5151729969695dd9cfd353f98e5cdaf688be88e6
878047 F20110331_AACBHW hambleton_j_Page_031.jp2
3a917e6e5f6b64cd1d387ce49337f289
bc54c88e63a30b3dcba1c15c661b3c4365b714cd
907666 F20110331_AACBJA hambleton_j_Page_117.jp2
c1791b654d1e7d906f3a92e16d506957
7a4ee12091a48caec460bab94b82da1fa3b93aa5
897974 F20110331_AACBIM hambleton_j_Page_081.jp2
a57248cc6ee2aba0e698e9f77af5fe09
a4ff9cc501c6f240babe9078e119e206719abef6
977660 F20110331_AACBHX hambleton_j_Page_037.jp2
5c8cc0dfa2b997af88b958c9991d4c06
c841c5e5f5fe615cd25c4f9e41977adef1e235a3
478136 F20110331_AACBJB hambleton_j_Page_118.jp2
2d9284117adac49146ad51b1cc4ae592
7cbdc9fb790b0ab6dde9e969a629dbc75646cdb7
943368 F20110331_AACBIN hambleton_j_Page_091.jp2
88cb51bb0daaf73ef9e9a93b3a31f812
1daacad0a6a80f161e5a08732cd66683c48ca8dd
1051957 F20110331_AACBHY hambleton_j_Page_040.jp2
71abbcac8c44c1afee0d39093b15925c
40d918d8f418ebfb48c4152907f6d4d6fc291111
8526 F20110331_AACAGA hambleton_j_Page_015.QC.jpg
21320fda8c7209fad25d2586bec13408
358f85fc726f548885d4e0ac58faa3c287f8aad7
1051979 F20110331_AACBJC hambleton_j_Page_121.jp2
92ba351d9bcfbf2d479a6e8ab8bfb2a5
325fe03f7a6bfc4be758036688aac3cd0442998f
1015577 F20110331_AACBIO hambleton_j_Page_093.jp2
4464dd2435c3091e14232034fc293511
e0f785d356ead43b51e3d56eb393b659f1777ed1
668531 F20110331_AACBHZ hambleton_j_Page_043.jp2
90d8fa9a7c7d3f1663140699e1cf38df
66022781fd4934f01c6997843a6899528c035afe
920478 F20110331_AACAGB hambleton_j_Page_087.jp2
3e5ee02fb91b84dbfc655425b27d0b61
65a16fea67a2f9d321f8d590cb0ad22d395d7d75
226291 F20110331_AACBJD hambleton_j_Page_122.jp2
c0f8664e375ec1850a47039c43525606
2b0af5ea39ec403f37f5fdf8c9032e992f29a48f
2067 F20110331_AACAGC hambleton_j_Page_095.txt
c662e1723ca23ba6272b4d33c238679d
a9ac9ce68801d02bbe930cb3f1da93353f1f10a9
33132 F20110331_AACBJE hambleton_j_Page_068.QC.jpg
0199f417b88f25565e42b6f66649486c
c9368d12d81b10d3cc87f73a863473a666b7dc6d
1051955 F20110331_AACBIP hambleton_j_Page_094.jp2
20b9c807b31ac4f5acf0156b90005c6d
a158ed702ef994e3118c2c71f5afd6fd107c5383
25271604 F20110331_AACAGD hambleton_j_Page_082.tif
6860999318c5fae8534d81fa42520c9c
89c9d91a0f71d46e60759dee1d22b7871436f087
8474 F20110331_AACBJF hambleton_j_Page_085thm.jpg
3d53e283c884b3927a26ba8edef644ef
09f841474df35f59a5aa5e5d85c446b8d704c415
209327 F20110331_AACBIQ hambleton_j_Page_098.jp2
5a41e6f06fb70601e46775345f627372
57d2b19278ae49f0621f29b43552fd9426a26f78
42759 F20110331_AACAGE hambleton_j_Page_052.pro
777a3715bf2716cb0964a6e2c5d32f4f
b90b092fd4b389890fb1c7322dc7a6477a87ce2c
7960 F20110331_AACBJG hambleton_j_Page_110thm.jpg
4ac1ec62a605bcba459e8efeb20af5cc
6a8b2ef8e19e14fed51fe1d4726e0f0bed578d1a
1051921 F20110331_AACBIR hambleton_j_Page_102.jp2
06dbd150b489df298e8bfe50e975aaf0
4ad7bbc07df43becf2438ddcb683f9939fe1ea6f
44913 F20110331_AACAGF hambleton_j_Page_011.pro
f6185a85cea89909a5e2a57564093c01
d1fe0f310a1df940c4ef32de8312a028ae7553d8
33613 F20110331_AACBJH hambleton_j_Page_055.QC.jpg
894bd71be9cebfa54df1718c3119c487
6a89b74ef56ae6bad07681c39637940b3a1fbb67
1031992 F20110331_AACBIS hambleton_j_Page_104.jp2
da3395387a839aa4a3334e93b473f721
1b75dd2f966e9ab0bf0f249490b36891e5f3e637
7464 F20110331_AACAGG hambleton_j_Page_040thm.jpg
54d95ce4ded2ff67ab506979fcd26485
042708d87d6146d3a46217ba5375a132d74f81c6
199903 F20110331_AACBJI UFE0021783_00001.xml FULL
57e4acef0594798eab5ca419cf8f619d
6b83fb8cedee3afc7ec7bfb44b9921058d23068f
1051929 F20110331_AACBIT hambleton_j_Page_105.jp2
ff59b61bd6dd5a56a387af0050076cff
2ee1ec73f623e39ef91307801b0863cd06768618
2005 F20110331_AACAGH hambleton_j_Page_026.txt
e652f8fad3e0acdc69a0edcb935e539d
1c42f377fb92b97f85cc39ea363f75e27f4ef53f
7741 F20110331_AACBJJ hambleton_j_Page_001.QC.jpg
c4b2e5b782170184faaa9e3450920ba3
397d4f3f67b1bad817380db3b5e52e61113778bf
1051965 F20110331_AACBIU hambleton_j_Page_106.jp2
c03b5b51d1677406b3e3af7217955420
35a9c1823fea75730d9dbe1d217c984e4a32580d
9446 F20110331_AACAGI hambleton_j_Page_121thm.jpg
f62fb78436bbdaafda729ac6d1539410
01f517474f47c17ac44fd900d56d6f103f79a780
2134 F20110331_AACBJK hambleton_j_Page_003.QC.jpg
0b65b64a3885629f20fd2e8ca96e3782
46135d34139c77bdf6b1b92ed9d6471ab8e73b47
1051920 F20110331_AACBIV hambleton_j_Page_108.jp2
4c134cfb7227beee298f9cdde11090d7
ab666a99468a04273c1a8287ad8abb3e2d090a4f
66538 F20110331_AACAGJ hambleton_j_Page_070.pro
f296b43eddeb7d918673739144b807b0
f42568f25de1e78bd3df39fe3ca6b0786fa87424
18290 F20110331_AACBJL hambleton_j_Page_004.QC.jpg
0c6c732368bd1d5ef40e04b1900a94ec
9a5ed2f8dd08e6853e343bf1a7d5cfc2e51b5fe2
1051983 F20110331_AACBIW hambleton_j_Page_111.jp2
f955933fcac9301eed39b8c60ab444e1
477d5a0fa527407a7c2f7e36206307088d2bc2e4
100373 F20110331_AACAGK hambleton_j_Page_074.jpg
c57bef67cdeedc6d5c53892396d9fe7f
c5484040d3a73816f01a8234a79ee6aa7ef49ff0
28841 F20110331_AACBJM hambleton_j_Page_005.QC.jpg
02b56f99087bdee10cdc342cebd9595f
f6c4ac6b8ab217eacbfed2edfa6fd52093b46858
1051972 F20110331_AACBIX hambleton_j_Page_112.jp2
1b08fd21868dfc2a368fad62b2db7606
59f5273181b78f47dbf4540960da597e1a1592bd
9913 F20110331_AACBKA hambleton_j_Page_033.QC.jpg
6d33bb6761a7883cb7629355fbc2dafb
2320fb2b0478b44c3950f0e279bc4f31b130f3d6
F20110331_AACAGL hambleton_j_Page_110.tif
a34e23ebfd9e371702313a7b3208bb16
e1446398200ad78012cf27e6f37bfc756963d323
10037 F20110331_AACBJN hambleton_j_Page_006.QC.jpg
ac805aa7021504aba32b579f701d7414
5d265b20e654b0de6414c207f1b9b1da20244dce
F20110331_AACAFW hambleton_j_Page_024.tif
44fcf004188d9aed828d0ca2ab7b0c60
4a52593d1e6d80a16a9d94360aedb9058ecbb2e8
1051969 F20110331_AACBIY hambleton_j_Page_113.jp2
7a019eb33c2db304fc257c606de569fa
362720af22af2077837cbe2560622a087fb6f0c8
10835 F20110331_AACBKB hambleton_j_Page_034.QC.jpg
89acc677c46327078cdec3e497e1b3f8
8d339328544dffa4f76f3968309e94549ad5884b
18427 F20110331_AACBKC hambleton_j_Page_037.QC.jpg
2450b9972ab1955521c6c5dcff1f41bc
700981ee43a81ea7a0ba02570f567c1ac650854f
8619 F20110331_AACAGM hambleton_j_Page_022thm.jpg
3916125a7ecc4fefcd5654b527d83e16
a4e1711ad59b3f10e40c5e9e90ce09d6ca794b96
28496 F20110331_AACBJO hambleton_j_Page_007.QC.jpg
fb87634865e1c9d00146c297c9c2e602
d3e74eb5170a17e6ecc0772695a61f1b6e2f6d89
8464 F20110331_AACAFX hambleton_j_Page_047.pro
03c52b2d19719071d38242cf56b87cca
c064d7513c41efb5f3e7620c8bd48b97bc68c9c7
1051939 F20110331_AACBIZ hambleton_j_Page_114.jp2
59edaadeb6a1e287b47564bda393031b
24f5c9e3c53947588601f69fde9f1fbd865508a4
24029 F20110331_AACAHA hambleton_j_Page_122.jpg
25871e12d1850ec88d59c4c2e10da1fe
6b0f1c4b3c032fb16f6f1146d6f668637099f100
13084 F20110331_AACBKD hambleton_j_Page_038.QC.jpg
dab38e9edfca9b4225b98f25957629ce
c89800f63e0988e19a89e064a317f8fba1413bf0
538425 F20110331_AACAGN hambleton_j_Page_038.jp2
816ed8bd5b9ca7e22e8dd2f58086dd19
b5914cb7599c59044baec2624d8cabaab87e4ffb
31090 F20110331_AACBJP hambleton_j_Page_008.QC.jpg
026a82b7ef413ff2ef0d588c13272dee
8ef3c59c32ccca0cce3167929b6ff31e1f420457
1051940 F20110331_AACAFY hambleton_j_Page_095.jp2
73800570030d3dbb52cd03ffe3750771
af001419471f7557932c79a647d8a76fb3bc6844
921277 F20110331_AACAHB hambleton_j_Page_062.jp2
918fae5a92519e3b3db88f4579b98a62
0dff8076e73ea11899660ec607f4e32321e1c4a0
27013 F20110331_AACBKE hambleton_j_Page_040.QC.jpg
26bbd87e533df18e42f0b99e7d9c2f10
78c940012d802b28e257275ec9ce83d7a5ff6ff5
1728 F20110331_AACAFZ hambleton_j_Page_097.pro
3480566203379b46ec3a3f8e9614717d
ddf93eb4623a7c309294b38f7391d23a9b168e28
34428 F20110331_AACAHC hambleton_j_Page_076.QC.jpg
9b6c7c2021c4d5fa083604aef9d83e63
559db722ce65116dbea1deada99147283bd2459c
16436 F20110331_AACBKF hambleton_j_Page_042.QC.jpg
0f2c606f2a698a34c837d70e7a5d4bb2
42d518b97315b7eed67fdd5fc748a1534caf8b40
F20110331_AACAGO hambleton_j_Page_106.tif
7936269559cfa2b474e135671d6dc62e
3ba977fc48ae21441cec47bc8fc41cec50e7958b
34743 F20110331_AACBJQ hambleton_j_Page_014.QC.jpg
cb2052e8f8e18ddcfdc08cced9921296
53c334d7a4992d13919194f3e9fc1c2f45566d59
2519 F20110331_AACAHD hambleton_j_Page_029.txt
71b87894f8bc97777698061da8443e39
77a93ee1100116ccb8e4ff117f677800ef78136e
15984 F20110331_AACBKG hambleton_j_Page_043.QC.jpg
08a6429c71eba3a90a8f588ee98582f7
e03da34598837ad1430ad5400eb45944e0cdcea0
35052 F20110331_AACAGP hambleton_j_Page_103.QC.jpg
83c4f7ce9d0a5c56fc02ccb3ef0357c7
e73bb4b60091b0be7554e7e6af117f98d2988cc8
35398 F20110331_AACBJR hambleton_j_Page_017.QC.jpg
8203fafe8dcca44c89d06ece631cc7e5
dfafa5282304ff620b4bdafaee966fe4822b59b8
51933 F20110331_AACAHE hambleton_j_Page_056.pro
7f462b90ac03990e89a93e3d312fc78e
1b0404a60b2f92c17446a9e63190028f610fbea1
23111 F20110331_AACBKH hambleton_j_Page_044.QC.jpg
03c09f41a37921c0e8c7a969950ce43b
2afcedae6f2124b3da88f01c81f37ecb56636ceb
47537 F20110331_AACAGQ hambleton_j_Page_049.pro
1dbd4759f91088e9bd94a6024abd8029
d5205d94de65f88d6928ef62714b235823ac0d9c
31899 F20110331_AACBJS hambleton_j_Page_018.QC.jpg
1c71455477a6db35dd6efd3d3b0e2c49
6275e891e52471fdb662861f2ad0cb686d83526c
1051924 F20110331_AACAHF hambleton_j_Page_080.jp2
ea9f295eaf7ef7f4252a6d8b39c23314
f4cca62ce64ff7e3f79babb932e51f8f5cf5ded3
21875 F20110331_AACBKI hambleton_j_Page_045.QC.jpg
1d33e7ddd4650c3d17556f0a3b0bff6a
28e2917a377a27293e5cb310c7ddf24b7f2a521f
4880 F20110331_AACAGR hambleton_j_Page_039thm.jpg
87eb840816083de0ea55f307e6ead759
2ba6cc6f849fbee2f417ef9d0b59892dc6cefa19
34008 F20110331_AACBJT hambleton_j_Page_020.QC.jpg
039753fd2c224bc86f2182a82bfa6e3f
d5ca3cad1abe245e77599d8d1def9a82039ea693
2014 F20110331_AACAHG hambleton_j_Page_054.txt
3d96712a5b65f87d91f87801c734956d
e2f1f821b2cdb6fc240428e866ba9b35686510d1
22922 F20110331_AACBKJ hambleton_j_Page_047.QC.jpg
8b94d970d4f684ba747f194c2656a9cc
4e2dc3bc3cc0891521b377611392d64991b9773a
41050 F20110331_AACAGS hambleton_j_Page_081.pro
d7a0c130a8ce91d03f54d0dac06a1237
025403c562add9932544898494e3f378ede2f063
35552 F20110331_AACBJU hambleton_j_Page_021.QC.jpg
17e69b8d9abacf798db1326b74c63e79
0d0ec268fcbcf484b6ce37a9ad7f9c1b18b615ca
2132 F20110331_AACAHH hambleton_j_Page_114.txt
570b34fcc55d800a846bc04fcc653090
bb5f9bdc805943fe1b83bec73e6893c5cb626188
29869 F20110331_AACBKK hambleton_j_Page_049.QC.jpg
d7cf6bf1342ee73c6a2e8b28ef21748f
25616eac4f2c2f0dd30f074fd71403a162c08ab7
114705 F20110331_AACAGT hambleton_j_Page_008.jpg
12a48e47a47e58db176ff532e3178ecf
0ab07b7a5297da23d513c0dcd85cfa15611081dd
35140 F20110331_AACBJV hambleton_j_Page_022.QC.jpg
e6921b3420a99bacd2e3b867d8940979
7cf4b607fa4fc680f01e42e309f8d451f8463ee4
2084 F20110331_AACAHI hambleton_j_Page_001thm.jpg
55bb331c55ab018434bf8aa3f326215e
bad35362c969c9f4f3558defb0ef6d1df705ae30
27584 F20110331_AACBKL hambleton_j_Page_050.QC.jpg
095ba630fb6175657b69b822d190c93a
7f54d4f71dfc2704acd6efa0abf794a90253aa23
1051985 F20110331_AACAGU hambleton_j_Page_019.jp2
3e8dc64af09f8bd06df956336d2a03fa
c91431bf3b0261561fcfe4cce524f9b62dded6b5
37049 F20110331_AACBJW hambleton_j_Page_023.QC.jpg
2b7d10688ebb75378457d4ef05062e41
d9c02bc2f98723fd3fa020f3f739e7dc66c6924f
53778 F20110331_AACAHJ hambleton_j_Page_014.pro
aa539ea5f3af13b51ec3632b4e65adca
e872750c06184edf44cdb96ca8bc3ff4fca7fb9e
30617 F20110331_AACBLA hambleton_j_Page_104.QC.jpg
03cc25737c30e426660b7ab09644828c
12f59e79cd5c6311bc5c2e00f4bf26a8544a2445
28409 F20110331_AACBKM hambleton_j_Page_051.QC.jpg
5bb28a72de68078a0f032fcb587956f4
167350e061b39bc166b02af056f8266dbbab9653
9330 F20110331_AACAGV hambleton_j_Page_099.QC.jpg
fcd39049530781de4039630a79e050eb
51f5c6e7173f9b305cf20c04c3282b2de024f276
37517 F20110331_AACBJX hambleton_j_Page_027.QC.jpg
5ca1a6e2582e81312998096b4f297eb5
f0fffc217b03be6b25bc7199d50619ddad46ef4a
49497 F20110331_AACAHK hambleton_j_Page_116.pro
79e2607712c61030ab6110c4fa741994
e992ae41b208868c335ade3774d631d70266a61d
33052 F20110331_AACBLB hambleton_j_Page_105.QC.jpg
f68cfbc5c3093c22f9dbee7be3254469
17c49300669ab04a8a709d7824c1acac91dc1f53
35054 F20110331_AACBKN hambleton_j_Page_053.QC.jpg
19eba29f68e01a62611300b99d9198bb
a92e2d4143279f837a0d7478f05e4ef9b0111e5c
F20110331_AACAGW hambleton_j_Page_007.jp2
b8bef59603ff5f444feeaf284f2ae5d8
8e3d7baf68522b28ed1ee630241832951d03e9c5
31164 F20110331_AACBJY hambleton_j_Page_030.QC.jpg
fcc0715ccaac1fa1eb7e37d7cbbd909c
c833ab4db1c527649c352e0c36d5015a9beb1972
26703 F20110331_AACAHL hambleton_j_Page_081.QC.jpg
c48074fc2ebd50508d41e2c6990978f4
7a6ca9c3889fd93aeb6fb1212f00998180e41b30
33582 F20110331_AACBLC hambleton_j_Page_107.QC.jpg
e09f544ef6d1f8c3f3e512c94111e29d
fa4e5266a3857a3c8b7d5d1a004a690b0dd1be61
31834 F20110331_AACBKO hambleton_j_Page_054.QC.jpg
cf473e31efe965f82b455fd9c63bc377
4f554626510827a47934ef9fff80f05f2f9954bf
1882 F20110331_AACAGX hambleton_j_Page_122thm.jpg
d65816a0e68dbde3854ffaeac96e119d
efde20701d0f20a99b72fb66416eac5e0d454206
11059 F20110331_AACBJZ hambleton_j_Page_032.QC.jpg
c418704a6a39eb4ed07bcbb108f27fbf
6fb9a99b2b77fc64be65b53a1fdf60a3305a96bf
116248 F20110331_AACAIA hambleton_j_Page_017.jpg
4813a177431cf63bb40c4befc58f589c
78e7540c758ebe04fa2da360c1407d938b00cf12
8004 F20110331_AACAHM hambleton_j_Page_105thm.jpg
b5526c941e0f81fb52bb9a86d9d5f1f8
c2898451a282f90ecaf01bae60647bc252835c36
33297 F20110331_AACBLD hambleton_j_Page_109.QC.jpg
6b8abaf7237b774cbebfbee7b0fbb938
f69f7bff90afd12c9ab0e24345d3efdf70158c9a
34025 F20110331_AACBKP hambleton_j_Page_057.QC.jpg
1a2d0162c535fa927ab61fe18e4821a7
f0b6a893fb867a467fc2599921980e8921c8c749
47155 F20110331_AACAGY hambleton_j_Page_115.pro
3e0bc2862048fa7219a327e0e34b5a7a
a04e165ccea9f89b27d53de7277b65ef6c0c5a5b
44796 F20110331_AACAIB hambleton_j_Page_087.pro
ab4bdbced2bad4357da20718f24236d9
657f4055d203c337a23267deeae4cc17edbcfdd2
F20110331_AACAHN hambleton_j_Page_096.tif
a75205b215f7c61735c0e990a85da47b
cc1816a781a9ad6bf3b46748ddc14abc7922272e
35342 F20110331_AACBLE hambleton_j_Page_113.QC.jpg
d4192bdf136255841876f37a210a7ea0
3ed8222612095373c3748d71c8e00d6948e5558f
29090 F20110331_AACBKQ hambleton_j_Page_059.QC.jpg
fa59a3b0c0e0a0803d7e423deb0fe5cb
369ffc2c53e8ae70060cfa3c20e023a57dc19dab
1937 F20110331_AACAGZ hambleton_j_Page_067.txt
849f105c580a559c08dbf800d3cabb74
93efe08b54ce53ae754338973d9c454060f83ec9
364 F20110331_AACAIC hambleton_j_Page_047.txt
6194c84cda615445bdbdd5ba2ca96631
902755e497c7fd919175f82f366af7084c3883e3
2267 F20110331_AACAHO hambleton_j_Page_024.txt
bf605d030666d08a97ab55e9d3ba6fbb
fa79c782375dc5c2415fbc2daee1f3239589e759
29221 F20110331_AACBLF hambleton_j_Page_115.QC.jpg
81ed195cca2ca9c009268c18cd6c668b
d4b4d6a47f377a24d353130251eec31acce712c5
29383 F20110331_AACAID hambleton_j_Page_083.QC.jpg
9b2e6a80bc3313f6c46bd0833c35759b
dbb08cd5b27f582938927b1f8d22115e153b616a
24896 F20110331_AACBLG hambleton_j_Page_117.QC.jpg
8864da636bd81aafc5e9e718e3d491b2
402a3b1023203e31a355018789531d4348a57f78
30972 F20110331_AACBKR hambleton_j_Page_061.QC.jpg
b68a01ba67cb73115becdc091b799416
85183d76af74b5de2cdaff99d170cba32bd5cce7
2224 F20110331_AACAIE hambleton_j_Page_012.txt
8943bb71df7a8a4dc0f37cb1988690da
4bb31f40971c1965935752db4f46d26942844956
1028460 F20110331_AACAHP hambleton_j_Page_049.jp2
db0e3382471dd80eccd5dac3b670cf2f
f416d25448d3e2abad54ba89e40efc1c6dcbf72f
38135 F20110331_AACBLH hambleton_j_Page_119.QC.jpg
79efd6e35066e2f8cee8b87c84bc9a79
47a5bcff830f56c1a4c1753b5840c6fb677391cc
27734 F20110331_AACBKS hambleton_j_Page_063.QC.jpg
d5095b554351a77a34162a10a2154217
48a19d79af52e67a2b5e192e16decb274e3036b4
1697 F20110331_AACAIF hambleton_j_Page_089.txt
43af902100ab2bd607d19c2407069096
e490dfc07c57dbf1e776183929e9845b082e1448
53617 F20110331_AACAHQ hambleton_j_Page_069.pro
8d46b54a9d9544908ad8c9cce9f5130b
ea505891778f4ec0f9852c869d56c6df66f747f8
40566 F20110331_AACBLI hambleton_j_Page_121.QC.jpg
66a692d364aa404bcf47b7943e4566bc
8a406b1ccd6d5955b30f9f9bc064ff4958d28d59
34448 F20110331_AACBKT hambleton_j_Page_065.QC.jpg
6a1f6661d776d51e31c48ea89e64b302
a273bfaf3a1d55480a6d779cebcc1ea140a6077f
27633 F20110331_AACAIG hambleton_j_Page_048.QC.jpg
6062680b79bf15ba4047ffcf061a9754
a3286317993e4cec8158f16ae3ad9519b333149b
643 F20110331_AACAHR hambleton_j_Page_031.txt
ba5d4777f1d40bfc981fd19111675336
bea820747f9cfd682affaeec250e2dd94368d0f4
7436 F20110331_AACBLJ hambleton_j_Page_122.QC.jpg
6f2780eda86a5da1a19b21d922f3136a
b8064e99dc5df06aff4e2741168ce6ab138f1e33
36090 F20110331_AACBKU hambleton_j_Page_070.QC.jpg
b8fcf8a87be50c047619e0eca5899013
839da397c5282dfeab747df4e0fc2eb06e194be8
1051963 F20110331_AACAIH hambleton_j_Page_013.jp2
41d4bd3382200388ac14e6372092d49e
6b7e22c4e4f2e06b2652148bdb87c27c2a22a78c
89755 F20110331_AACAHS hambleton_j_Page_090.jpg
2a4b3149a9809653d09efe9359a79875
68ff558a243829876cf89c2957a0273212ce0003
544 F20110331_AACBLK hambleton_j_Page_002thm.jpg
20de39dbc3049ec57b1a5bd123aadfd9
4d75132bd4ad8919d8953a8bfd9e383b4a807d1b
35177 F20110331_AACBKV hambleton_j_Page_073.QC.jpg
bc01651d409273bb7cbb89a06321fae2
bc83f9dd4a88208270defa32590ef2ed5685b0ca
56623 F20110331_AACAII hambleton_j_Page_112.pro
d3fd01c213adaced8d7996d5573dc724
1f2baa0646bf6e5134ca7166622927fd69670896
7360 F20110331_AACAHT hambleton_j_Page_062thm.jpg
d4c9ea82c26bd86f0acc557c86ff6c65
dbae04e08a18d915bdcb4f6fa62feffb1b07529e
880 F20110331_AACBLL hambleton_j_Page_003thm.jpg
04f641a53fc3cc64a7d18c654c6c7ece
b16e00541b9c5d1e9c2da9d7391e352f9f88c3cb
34272 F20110331_AACBKW hambleton_j_Page_074.QC.jpg
0ca78f8f3d65f42573d1f2a8e694dfb5
cd99ffc42db30e6dd4a541bdb8434575de804056
F20110331_AACAIJ hambleton_j_Page_104.tif
2528387d777b7752d5506377b652f895
cca79c1c766993ec5683e055f176248188e60e86
393 F20110331_AACAHU hambleton_j_Page_046.txt
ad8c9ada2e1d6314f504110442026939
14f2875b83be66df65ab9845de7753d8a9efde03
7629 F20110331_AACBMA hambleton_j_Page_049thm.jpg
8babf67c22f0053898758ae70120bee3
e8c714c79f0742300518610cdfe0ea1501585c5d
7951 F20110331_AACBLM hambleton_j_Page_008thm.jpg
3f19fd0499baf071bd050a58b0dc515a
e4b2e66b17e109ff624cefc769d65f62abd0b507
35837 F20110331_AACBKX hambleton_j_Page_084.QC.jpg
e540e458c820046876444ad0c32a7638
2ff96c07d324a5fcf898cde4edb7147bc45d82fd
54638 F20110331_AACAIK hambleton_j_Page_021.pro
89f0d696b9a7bd3a6c82ce16d5f41e3b
27bd2b8a3240e1b70b191b91cc7b23561b5500b3
1881 F20110331_AACAHV hambleton_j_Page_104.txt
970f3ac841d2f39f3750d084e1bc1b5a
1a0bbc11793e0603ab4721f1d9b43ba3fef1ef3f
7109 F20110331_AACBMB hambleton_j_Page_052thm.jpg
4e6828c5aba6fc3115c1614e27c31abf
7e54947e9eec3a52b4ac32e9c97a125c78bbf56e
7638 F20110331_AACBLN hambleton_j_Page_010thm.jpg
09595577fac0dc1f4339d46573d322dd
963eb829865348829d3c8e1e89376dd2ceafff63
25969 F20110331_AACBKY hambleton_j_Page_096.QC.jpg
37c1ed58293446427b0f396cd6066221
629587661133c3f857b0c33b8af97eb25d3157ca
2970 F20110331_AACAIL hambleton_j_Page_015thm.jpg
d58fc1b217f9a86972e02b7a2e14d198
6ec2b977c4c3260cbbb142cec717cd3f802ea3d1
27512 F20110331_AACAHW hambleton_j_Page_062.QC.jpg
b0f43e03dd702868aebd8f35d81f2fce
0dc994611f68f83267de26928e7576602e69f313
8141 F20110331_AACBMC hambleton_j_Page_054thm.jpg
6914e3cbf03de84c1bb1d27a3227eaaf
ae8e00bcc26a7b76dc2af27dd10b40247590339c
2560 F20110331_AACBLO hambleton_j_Page_016thm.jpg
499f6b8c39644aa16f4651bc98ac71d9
061fb9e7476834b698eca665f51fe63417a0f928
36267 F20110331_AACBKZ hambleton_j_Page_102.QC.jpg
c47cca1c925e6b6a353b7e7a504af81e
6b9a6d813925d792303f9b03a57c9002d6dfe2bd
72635 F20110331_AACAJA hambleton_j_Page_031.jpg
bc9a8f57490a159951b6ae85da0b7352
94ced8ca19c730c9fcc24e50561559319f9e3aca
1051916 F20110331_AACAIM hambleton_j_Page_082.jp2
951dc5f4a9aa8e00a46a2e5f9deeb9e1
56fab26682634c586e3fab8aaf7630b24802073c
97513 F20110331_AACAHX hambleton_j_Page_115.jpg
a7b4d6d15e9b22e9de9ba8c7a3167a40
3073da55af9eddeb946423c43e36fde4a64f8ce9
8058 F20110331_AACBMD hambleton_j_Page_055thm.jpg
a8d9a157b2351d5319abe0cd4d72653c
f1c253c311a6adb809ba6b18423e2524723f2229
8678 F20110331_AACBLP hambleton_j_Page_017thm.jpg
2e309c1232afe58242bde1bef908f07d
f6cc1a226d0603be34c29f92e865a5028e937cc8
F20110331_AACAJB hambleton_j_Page_087.tif
07a99ca250d4712df0c8a5b6f23df8a7
36cfd929f74f6b63fcc15833b075bc51666fe3e5
952018 F20110331_AACAIN hambleton_j_Page_044.jp2
b89ac4df5f141d2c183d7a78ff60a59c
0ac73e36e647668759ff629c7aad41b8713165ca
2011 F20110331_AACAHY hambleton_j_Page_115.txt
35c82215f03ec7e4b0107c19afd943b9
88021303490e1649228c30f66ff2ed39fe5590b4
7735 F20110331_AACBME hambleton_j_Page_058thm.jpg
5ede764883b7a12d658d4a2d157bd4db
3a0247a8ed044c296070ba0a397173598b9e2a79
8165 F20110331_AACBLQ hambleton_j_Page_019thm.jpg
74ed81808c7caf34ce05c1dd09137918
b8f8e4ab0b4dfa4e4f02ad673b55a310a8f80faf
4228 F20110331_AACAJC hambleton_j_Page_043thm.jpg
543ecfac392ee10afaeb1c49a171e2cb
37577d9e9fd1edd29a6363856883a8586b955620
154 F20110331_AACAIO hambleton_j_Page_003.txt
a0d93a1ecebad866506a9e5d8fc9b4f4
aadf292c6135abf6608c3a3f1c608e37e7b6d0c5
1051958 F20110331_AACAHZ hambleton_j_Page_107.jp2
ce923f07d53789df9fbc25a76ef826ea
93f3bebfa71212b8e874fe58718b523e2abf2d0e
7790 F20110331_AACBMF hambleton_j_Page_061thm.jpg
9d714b6084b405330a330b29927a2856
dfa49bc50764dcb38f707c8c1467af6faca44fa5
8848 F20110331_AACBLR hambleton_j_Page_024thm.jpg
065abfb33e305845ac52cb88e343592c
1c218c7c80634a3aab80fd897903ba747ebb3bbd
2006 F20110331_AACAJD hambleton_j_Page_010.txt
73394394f5531d68d3fddd808cb34664
c62be32dcedf1dcd5660079b124b82c1d134fbae
F20110331_AACAIP hambleton_j_Page_008.tif
bc317892f982cb44ee92e809278de204
d771695edbf13bd829df49c825d8befcf389910a
6795 F20110331_AACBMG hambleton_j_Page_063thm.jpg
9e86a1d127a3030b174b8b05252050f8
eddadf967f37d0de0f0afb7b75aa0ab303fe3e2b
8485 F20110331_AACAJE hambleton_j_Page_108thm.jpg
7566bc2205cd0ffaaae21c5ce17bacc2
219f7b75cd751026a563b6edf64f84bcadd128bd
8023 F20110331_AACBMH hambleton_j_Page_067thm.jpg
85f8e3efa5386f60b3df387f4a1c4ce5
a02a2fe73dae7c02a951d8d7f0d06c6679aca7bd
8585 F20110331_AACBLS hambleton_j_Page_028thm.jpg
6ba716f4afc8e95a94229372da9fc451
24ed453899bba17000f67c440498774891487018
F20110331_AACAJF hambleton_j_Page_023.txt
77248541b5e41b117095ab561e7c3f20
9df2c254b56f6bd6838abb38c48efbc79788a343
7492 F20110331_AACAIQ hambleton_j_Page_005thm.jpg
72dd1453209fb91b7fe23a951aaa5409
13092ae7779ccddbfe23aae5d650cbb80f5b5238
8736 F20110331_AACBMI hambleton_j_Page_073thm.jpg
cac9cc61f1483421c8f6beb546b32606
1b806d745c04981057b67bf4a9f91f4d7a055f73
8386 F20110331_AACBLT hambleton_j_Page_029thm.jpg
24798765991617a6da429ca754aa82b1
3757e44683695f0eac5163cc7fbda7d37f97b14f
1051947 F20110331_AACAJG hambleton_j_Page_073.jp2
6382f79ffa941e3966773f5390260eab
9c62739a22beee0f88abcd693e458ccf3e1249ea
F20110331_AACAIR hambleton_j_Page_088.tif
5202dbbc6d43683ca307c4ce64d6b7fd
8948ea2063b5a184a40949de173ca6803e394954
4852 F20110331_AACBMJ hambleton_j_Page_077thm.jpg
214296b83d9e2013f0b34a7d8ad011fb
72a32a9bfaf5a9cead36483768f776e777503ac8
7614 F20110331_AACBLU hambleton_j_Page_030thm.jpg
59c758b0b77586f4a431e0512141d153
e30edd5d82673a03c421d3802d648b3a4858eb86
81856 F20110331_AACAJH hambleton_j_Page_050.jpg
934653a4cec6df49505e30694fc20803
885ce89386528527a0a8be6bb645c2d19ca931f5
F20110331_AACAIS hambleton_j_Page_005.tif
c9f87dd86ac4dc7b4eb99bdb78ce9001
32ae5a107746e8d9ad5ae5128d7e21c04523cd85
2377 F20110331_AACBMK hambleton_j_Page_078thm.jpg
d229aee5ef6a8f922f70f4115e8c0b15
7c6b8761f5b1a6749c1289b39b9abe05076c4204
3322 F20110331_AACBLV hambleton_j_Page_032thm.jpg
e784e1c13fe80531b93350bf7d7315ef
4f1434c1fff9e87c03bf947abd4a008206baa07c
1511 F20110331_AACAJI hambleton_j_Page_096.txt
f472cbf742388771dd1d88b38256cf14
96643cad314d1a9ca3c03570aab81d18f803dd66
124975 F20110331_AACAIT hambleton_j_Page_028.jpg
3597732d1061be0bcf9013fa4dc76d49
3effa944ac859c26da42e8969457dec50cb8742a
7554 F20110331_AACBML hambleton_j_Page_079thm.jpg
7b12f3e62bf630be474dcddd13d1fdc7
cda683308693ab93510adbfc49aaa78dc40e34e4
2748 F20110331_AACBLW hambleton_j_Page_033thm.jpg
a3b03a18fec3e18f13f6e90938ad51cd
4126ace503d75909678659b0bec736d9aa69627b
33179 F20110331_AACAIU hambleton_j_Page_101.QC.jpg
c478fc843481e2124fe36b0e461708fd
738a69441c3fa770ceb305d5b47b3724c63bcc17
1051986 F20110331_AACAJJ hambleton_j_Page_009.jp2
9d2b1de2c0faac133367b0f2d25f2805
a16353ee57bfa402558cbd675a69d5c681f4dce1
8305 F20110331_AACBMM hambleton_j_Page_080thm.jpg
e601017577e8e5e1e4edcd7f82daa034
ef997a43fff34aa97237991727f818c99d3024c1
3473 F20110331_AACBLX hambleton_j_Page_034thm.jpg
fe60579ac55c2897849160cf73a336ec
2d483763cd2d0eb6f15963c73b72eb53b0ad8260
F20110331_AACAIV hambleton_j_Page_074.tif
f855db13904faa01dff08a3ee054dcb5
8de0827ead5765d5da093333ad5d6970f0fe1102
96344 F20110331_AACAJK hambleton_j_Page_110.jpg
fece642399d8214d782c3e1fcad1f36e
937cd314840eac66271e6fd6487f3db482e0d87d
7257 F20110331_AACBMN hambleton_j_Page_087thm.jpg
97bcfd7c83caa6f55ea827ba3bf35c6e
73465e26e53209eacfdbe0adf32861651f83f239
6432 F20110331_AACBLY hambleton_j_Page_047thm.jpg
d02ff218aee9181e8c27066d020716f0
9d32c884a4e7b418b2c153a8abeb5c3de56c5ce2
9309 F20110331_AACAIW hambleton_j_Page_025thm.jpg
c69c2579f2fcde1a5bd8aebf304fad07
56fa3d02f8ebc38a1feebb8d89818bcab2b46629
31505 F20110331_AACAJL hambleton_j_Page_082.QC.jpg
2f08c0db9524de946bf9a79e5f8517dc
5f1a691b2391e73c6bdd1a00250da9374324fe6c
6342 F20110331_AACBMO hambleton_j_Page_088thm.jpg
0f56b10d6ba2a5bfcad8acd01d9f162d
75d263fe2d3cae5b5dd9c01f197ea395af116b35
7431 F20110331_AACBLZ hambleton_j_Page_048thm.jpg
4382292b95034ae10a1d074cb166bf94
e42a17c06855a9cc13cc745ace3531a1f6169958
832820 F20110331_AACAIX hambleton_j_Page_064.jp2
99dda5a95f07e4006e6b066be26c7754
ff1579b664ef9ae7519fbaacb147482141bef754
7200 F20110331_AACAKA hambleton_j_Page_051thm.jpg
ca85ef9c17cad130c5d5f6383e083451
e01e345b125ebf0dc84a1e9ca35c73960ff18b49
47006 F20110331_AACAJM hambleton_j_Page_060.pro
c4ebc1a8b8bacaf03ebe2731ffaedcf9
c6b0ce3f11061b2e4044adcd983dcb5e99be78f8
7152 F20110331_AACBMP hambleton_j_Page_089thm.jpg
5dcfca1bd5e48b533bcded9956273556
c7a2a64f79dfc6db2d089974859c47ce872b65bd
43794 F20110331_AACAIY hambleton_j_Page_092.pro
aa0538aef2fc6567643cccc3f1f2eef2
c7061268b63c13261db2b02c4adfea7cad9c6ed9
34914 F20110331_AACAKB hambleton_j_Page_108.QC.jpg
10e1fd25b05691a415b9632671f7ddfe
d7ca16a39947f485ae989187efa2afb9397cb3b5
29372 F20110331_AACAJN hambleton_j_Page_079.QC.jpg
9708f034792fb9cfb7da159cd1bb2494
0002d0dfda8407f6cb87020064df1d2fdba86769
7423 F20110331_AACBMQ hambleton_j_Page_091thm.jpg
c874b802c2094e4d8dbfe9382b5522b0
b4a47254e6bfc01d7720e69d7d35f6738639d26f
6445 F20110331_AACAIZ hambleton_j_Page_016.QC.jpg
fa253c5714b40cfde33e8591b5a126ad
512ea599dc0f6e258afbb393d49801b16b2eac87
1789 F20110331_AACAKC hambleton_j_Page_011.txt
3efef6c05227e1c7f89235001aac515c
b30bc5f04a58e6ec1bc363ce465341912cdbe8b8
43619 F20110331_AACAJO hambleton_j_Page_118.jpg
f830120257963c058de46b9e9931a1ff
ce5bfd1a07a9186844672af6cb323f2c47cc92fd
3495 F20110331_AACBMR hambleton_j_Page_098thm.jpg
06307e6123dcea3aa390c23000f0694c
905b8f7ec61ed12b666c48c2b88ec61477a587f1
2247 F20110331_AACAKD hambleton_j_Page_055.txt
d44f43a337b83a08db60be4aa9f6489f
ded74f2aaa5d8d2cbd7185fc8ad2818d9aeeb124
8977 F20110331_AACAJP hambleton_j_Page_120thm.jpg
18b52d86a58fd05844de50f5e82a4277
0e5aba58cebfa1ee669a45ebd8a65f43a8c85360
7574 F20110331_AACBMS hambleton_j_Page_104thm.jpg
4a683a122adb6dd2a58b7c82db8510b3
2b85e3c3ceb9492eabb9fea1007807272e4a21bb
F20110331_AACAKE hambleton_j_Page_102.tif
438e0c5d5cbd35a0bbbc639d3e5daf36
c77d492b775b5548534df81bc335261833d9b148
F20110331_AACAJQ hambleton_j_Page_064.tif
3cea91436725b57402fe28c07383e264
ef1547fb7f00366ea2774498f914987c8d49edc2
F20110331_AACAKF hambleton_j_Page_090.tif
b3b550f4beaa36947db4c271affccf67
dfca029f7c0c4adc5dc39b3204a9932d488d09f5
8421 F20110331_AACBMT hambleton_j_Page_109thm.jpg
ca9754b7f75c0473904cfe8cccf1cc37
8fe5a929252fdcc94b758c39aa957288d0edad2a
F20110331_AACAKG hambleton_j_Page_060.tif
c28c38ee0f70e90a6ddd53625b9bb45b
963be422fbc0c36be003fea225b4ef100abe3731
108787 F20110331_AACAJR hambleton_j_Page_113.jpg
867b78cb14df9f104008fbc91a71ff62
76432331e74453f404e64d24cf6df3a57a744eae
8052 F20110331_AACBMU hambleton_j_Page_111thm.jpg
66f216aaae84329fbf7209b213db3aff
a3315df99b333b035d787cc9acd181ac2e3bfcd8
982 F20110331_AACAKH hambleton_j_Page_006.txt
683ed0e1534ea91051f1d32bfe7c8b65
1087da7bfc26c86cb28f400ed8a3f34ff1253c64
104608 F20110331_AACAJS hambleton_j_Page_076.jpg
6436fd6bd5ff7a42424c7bdeac4ed2f1
745519fa2ae9b06b865ff203f3c97c6f5459f5ee
8757 F20110331_AACBMV hambleton_j_Page_114thm.jpg
ebe817d642a6f4e6ba0e76c9655571a7
b5b8d17c5a32807fa858283505d0e84259a097af
F20110331_AACAKI hambleton_j_Page_043.tif
ca2a3665b30364881dc8b44bcf38cc70
105fbfb80f2d0b1f421f9fa78cf70f44eba8cb43
6809 F20110331_AACAJT hambleton_j_Page_007thm.jpg
33140e9f9a1df48afac9104fee8895c9
8905cf55f1c07d353be46795a48f84f80f966aee
7523 F20110331_AACBMW hambleton_j_Page_115thm.jpg
51c712b418c478c93bbf5b337764cb7e
c814bfad379fdbe7eff46980b6b9d38bcf0a45ed
96647 F20110331_AACAKJ hambleton_j_Page_082.jpg
348ffcca596068665fc840b1ee668831
7194701b783b63c9479c5d87750ff4c0bb7f66f9
F20110331_AACAJU hambleton_j_Page_046.tif
703ea0f7af559e9a2adb65c77371e95b
321a22175a2b983566b9e21acda27eb99f62d32e
4127 F20110331_AACAKK hambleton_j_Page_039.pro
49b138d9814a9dbd414912bf3b2e2512
b22389928bc1c2f2fc5064288c47ca4108da42c9
96531 F20110331_AACAJV hambleton_j_Page_066.jpg
20df24b83c5870c0312559fe68a5c700
fb3358e3d0b531bf1671a21a91482510e73bc4b3
F20110331_AACAKL hambleton_j_Page_038.tif
815bfe615746aa67656a5b87e07e4ee3
3d8c7303de615bc7fd0b9b4cab47eb2d14fffed1
F20110331_AACAJW hambleton_j_Page_119.tif
26e6040c1c25a8e63570cffe2771b245
0899b689c274de6b142e2b3ec53f3bc414aa624d
21041 F20110331_AACALA hambleton_j_Page_031.QC.jpg
16877b908b8a7490a6149e9abb210eb4
04f55d2b7452ab5d84bc4561e327875391975cfe
43649 F20110331_AACAKM hambleton_j_Page_091.pro
7320a9665a1510bdda89e9179e635400
6c65074d1c602b66b4d2b8f0dcb9ae95f7c984a9
8932 F20110331_AACAJX hambleton_j_Page_023thm.jpg
11e5c2280c97d7047de7cf7dc337c9dd
f17e6692a3d0612f066775ebe4efc799d9948f1c
2012 F20110331_AACALB hambleton_j_Page_057.txt
7c5b5739eef2bffe1c391fb02e1cc225
8142e8c0ad7bf823b8f718c220bd763edfcc45ca
86890 F20110331_AACAKN hambleton_j_Page_059.jpg
c28da3389354addfba08b4297bc0bb90
c599110f3cff22ebee710b19a21274293a9c3518
4444 F20110331_AACAJY hambleton_j_Page_004thm.jpg
f335375ef8c266ee0762f887c860880c
5d4180a206c2c2431dd7086bf9392daa5ff6e831
5635 F20110331_AACALC hambleton_j_Page_045thm.jpg
d757688648a54ba35393cdc7ba12b5a6
cadbd3e3b2207d23399652e7fe68079d2573d504
F20110331_AACAKO hambleton_j_Page_067.tif
9906bd46996d9e1aeb4321f465be78ba
91f62ef4acfce6b58d228e0fb88fc9f0fc9c7829
63606 F20110331_AACAJZ hambleton_j_Page_101.pro
d1573ee2b47234c136495d748e23df29
ba54f298609e338a1a76d9f7b667d3a84b931925
1513 F20110331_AACALD hambleton_j_Page_064.txt
76f1f0c4d1aed1d474b4686b8e9b6a8a
84ca7543900f827eac6250b1bfda4945e7cf5b49
1051975 F20110331_AACAKP hambleton_j_Page_029.jp2
57723cc93a3371319921dccceb03e6f1
435c854732c6203fa6d843ce304db25a502b4fd0
906110 F20110331_AACALE hambleton_j_Page_063.jp2
8c8e1439b02af7ffe6a380d7a71d3a7c
761bcc4b6e20ad9f35534062feaa8f75a0729ae2
197717 F20110331_AACAKQ hambleton_j_Page_099.jp2
49ac71abd0ad0228a31bd6366adbb601
2a3da12b663318456d49ed23ce042a0eadad4897
2228 F20110331_AACALF hambleton_j_Page_073.txt
957dcd26867fcccf9ad4009ba687bd8b
2919d446c9059a9b0c7b77d8d9e49bf9681a0c53
240 F20110331_AACAKR hambleton_j_Page_032.txt
17571c3a2ff6be087a8e0ea81e886696
b1932d8ec35c10fbc55e0ec74abea3c6bad70932
8187 F20110331_AACALG hambleton_j_Page_107thm.jpg
efafe61c3369ed86228adc3bde5e43aa
48d719f09dd6e7744912c1429e9905465b9d7e16
F20110331_AACALH hambleton_j_Page_042.tif
a11454c98220ff53927fac03f7c39802
280ecfca7deee7c1ff89ef716d6f84f406f9306a
1038226 F20110331_AACAKS hambleton_j_Page_047.jp2
6c35fa50c50b27a7c6cc3c6d2e9fa64f
f0845106152178fd104923a49ac3ac2a9e23cbd2
1032423 F20110331_AACALI hambleton_j_Page_041.jp2
7235a08b3b9f2962afb4363143422070
ee6dd896755c417879fd43d822036702dafb585a
10027 F20110331_AACAKT hambleton_j_Page_045.pro
0ebe88951cab0c18e3c06280e9980d76
89d2615d7163d946b799f2aeba0c940a2f169cbe
429 F20110331_AACALJ hambleton_j_Page_001.txt
9411fee5985cebf9bc7ea81e7285fb80
c3f0b40945738e9f010c5761a70e5da1548d2697
8403 F20110331_AACAKU hambleton_j_Page_037.pro
372a3d0222e827c9896a05555b953c28
d83742f9d78be121a1efce5f001db6c68056c219
90746 F20110331_AACALK hambleton_j_Page_079.jpg
632c63dc83cd4c2db94228cdf55e7231
968ed2cf0a84f942b5169e62f0d62b5c6de632ff
722799 F20110331_AACAKV hambleton_j_Page_039.jp2
7a7ab81fc4524a11f07880660452d74e
68a5c80ee60313d4a663e3a7965e51b8aa069a4c
496989 F20110331_AACALL hambleton_j_Page_034.jp2
da1b0d946412860b67d2109d1f561612
1e6d2ff6fb67feaf169f9247f75976bae4279517
9814 F20110331_AACAKW hambleton_j_Page_122.pro
4268c2a96ada97014819253bd8a4ffe1
a57390c503c983dc97d568eb92249c117a05e978
24658 F20110331_AACALM hambleton_j_Page_006.pro
8d0e686e30e4a9352f8c8b99ba57b306
77bcb5176c979631c519f9118b017ce0ea2f8c17
F20110331_AACAKX hambleton_j_Page_015.tif
fd4117a93a6a7f2e3b0c20ca38966bea
1a7265b683a0b671c9f200ccc0638f556b11b730
8319 F20110331_AACAMA hambleton_j_Page_086thm.jpg
9035a557f885ca8a513ed0957d671a3d
94d4603767c2fac485bdabd81ac98a3c0b7b34bd
F20110331_AACALN hambleton_j_Page_019.tif
47c9f1ecc8f6930adb43772424eb006d
e378ca9aa1f17f6af6763f8efac85135f7404176
3819 F20110331_AACAKY hambleton_j_Page_038thm.jpg
a53047435b9438472e7cbb3765f3ba62
eb974a7f6006dc6d69a05add81e290ec20235f4b
27053 F20110331_AACAMB hambleton_j_Page_089.QC.jpg
991c4d62fd258871371fba5e4652eb31
7b1a963bd1dc656f1f895069902eb26288479151
F20110331_AACALO hambleton_j_Page_031.tif
ffef470f7e7249df3a9524b8358f765f
c63e2a0c5e4040d594ba81cd14a6e0fed10864de
F20110331_AACAKZ hambleton_j_Page_028.tif
e20cc1e508534853b395d50bece07f4d
340babbe23cfe0262c3a0212ef7b6feec8a2e0a6
24530 F20110331_AACAMC hambleton_j_Page_001.jpg
3177d851b50f0c45c127007dca98cc8e
5ac8b949818bbec03521b67221672e95e3f59f04
9140 F20110331_AACALP hambleton_j_Page_027thm.jpg
9ab10e653018676763a3b600e2564d40
191982595a362037bfe4da8273c16261f64514b6
F20110331_AACAMD hambleton_j_Page_050.tif
757b8a8f55436d7b680115f9139eaaa9
f1760fc94028e383654883a67c35bb37337c6304
2628 F20110331_AACALQ hambleton_j_Page_028.txt
8f73d24db9fee0f3334ac6b910bf1c64
8cadce3b56268484f44bc2ef21c061c9220f45da
F20110331_AACAME hambleton_j_Page_086.tif
2ff2c579c658047743e496d21f54c318
99eeaed43c01440e7425be54c82fb16226e49a69
2133 F20110331_AACALR hambleton_j_Page_075.txt
b9e0fe9392a6cbd2a26402de524940fb
9bd0e8739f9d1c902f588c1682fae0dc531f17ad
1051962 F20110331_AACAMF hambleton_j_Page_048.jp2
5a0e4c8a6ae42a44263f3f448c681dfc
1d536a7d87816c5bcf73584420bde77500f786a8
2223 F20110331_AACALS hambleton_j_Page_113.txt
d1eaddc062f10657494fdc30912fe57a
dc025c7753805a9aece044e5188e7b601e6594bc
F20110331_AACAMG hambleton_j_Page_057.tif
8218c65484b6759f81319c1f93ad53f3
5a0895a11a79ddb0aacf388c711d42082cb908f6
18910 F20110331_AACAMH hambleton_j_Page_041.QC.jpg
4cb5ac4b712f074e762c84a1448c2517
1af9fd2f20f7cae388aac6b92291b0390a2dc48e
32880 F20110331_AACALT hambleton_j_Page_071.QC.jpg
07c04b7497a10b5af7cdef483409a480
94657def43ebe99227539b52afffc7d7ef85b66f
213752 F20110331_AACAMI hambleton_j_Page_097.jp2
4e3ea28e96865c2b42bb6ae3b1345a00
3078cc596480665ae253f44564e900fbacca929b
42641 F20110331_AACALU hambleton_j_Page_062.pro
38b57db344e47ec52acdd92b60f0ab55
33f7318fffee4d352de0b10621c25bad724d9b3c
F20110331_AACAMJ hambleton_j_Page_055.tif
8e1a25ecadf52673ddaa1620cc6d240e
5fb09cef3dfc6e34b1c2d7c7f5e476f1bc8fbc3f
3659 F20110331_AACALV hambleton_j_Page_118thm.jpg
71dace9317ff62d669928ac146589f16
4c751e25a357691e97217f8be74389b9249778bb
1590 F20110331_AACAMK hambleton_j_Page_015.pro
41e75242f5d7fa422de334327fc16707
6fbbcdf74cd883242257a899443684de49249910
52236 F20110331_AACALW hambleton_j_Page_009.pro
192a98ea686817c8ff77894af7c842c6
21b7a1dc37f37d7b07e5dbc6a115260aa7455956
98905 F20110331_AACAML hambleton_j_Page_040.jpg
815993c6ac6f11d9d74bbb4434d9add4
356fd49e4d700267a5506b76cc517eccd92b0893
1644 F20110331_AACALX hambleton_j_Page_117.txt
84a25663780442a42209e0bc7f85a51b
22f904cd05438fa9520f2c328115d7cff25f8f60
17552 F20110331_AACANA hambleton_j_Page_016.jpg
e9ef4589cc1592e874ae3a777c8dddc0
5d827c4371e6b983c6549139eb72b9020b4dca08
116625 F20110331_AACAMM hambleton_j_Page_070.jpg
d04f67d13487166470cc7835768b43e5
48784d092ca9c43cded3cd0a5400d62f329f9b13
F20110331_AACALY hambleton_j_Page_025.tif
7c6ee29dd0165287b7060d7599a5bed0
90ec2c0b3a76ea29a96c87c37fa6eecd7b5ba209
1778879 F20110331_AACANB hambleton_j.pdf
1786b40aac5946e33696a03f18447d0e
af62d342f5eded4be747e982cd173dba6513fe4f
25626 F20110331_AACAMN hambleton_j_Page_009.QC.jpg
4f4111d2631104d02c46da476c1d9a08
30ed6f55056ff972b27e43616e59fb9bc24e72b8
56119 F20110331_AACALZ hambleton_j_Page_102.pro
008e15806574b1ac5d207ab6bac2a383
55a97e9db21cc7377505aca83e2c2b9aa302352c
F20110331_AACANC hambleton_j_Page_001.tif
1203e0dc74078d2f5fc706b0af9ae076
79a28464b179360c514c3426fecea0a87ddf964c
8743 F20110331_AACAMO hambleton_j_Page_065thm.jpg
35c6951544ad5ccc858b7f9094d193d0
7ebc16bc8a3cb1ad16809639d54bb556b3918097
7221 F20110331_AACAND hambleton_j_Page_116thm.jpg
3fd064e5f8602e2b703a3982178ef4e6
9a65e68800b5e017ba485e01143772cc1b61246c
111949 F20110331_AACAMP hambleton_j_Page_072.jpg
cdfd87c0407391dabec16a27628eb937
4887ed1197f4279c09b1ab2c78d7d29715bfee5d
892527 F20110331_AACANE hambleton_j_Page_050.jp2
fb2b563950f086191e4c4da410269ee4
c108231e865a02176bad05a0786c7c5398d8dca7
F20110331_AACAMQ hambleton_j_Page_086.jp2
fb8cb02ad1c8452c82b5fdc1304b1a6d
11ed7f88d70ad1e31e78be28544eeca4538a6799
2060 F20110331_AACANF hambleton_j_Page_110.txt
549afff19e640f231b97dcf7e8e07d95
04cd82087599748ea68dcb01572623e1f112f03d
651274 F20110331_AACAMR hambleton_j_Page_006.jp2
e842825ec6c2a0c9d0f79ca67599cb27
e0bab3e0faa2c2b857ab42049c5cb683ddafe60b
7817 F20110331_AACANG hambleton_j_Page_093thm.jpg
51f5b8b0d8ed4f9f3448e2ed1eb424fb
f2c33865633088c4b840ebd56b7a3db6a5e06840
29353 F20110331_AACAMS hambleton_j_Page_091.QC.jpg
9bfda46889b9631949602b702d9ea2f2
5a18c32e5b223cc24b2fe658a29dfceae997f3b7
8679 F20110331_AACANH hambleton_j_Page_070thm.jpg
f4511943cb2b7f22925910b465c712b5
3562545531e99a2ae44af707acdcb373fcae1b34
65506 F20110331_AACAMT hambleton_j_Page_028.pro
e98b2df00e22f0d55b5d0fe161204071
1ab6b0cf1ef2c63b9ce9051eeaa6cefd80ce50e8
92496 F20110331_AACANI hambleton_j_Page_060.jpg
4508c54031d6d9412c04ce20f9ab76da
04842ad8d275b4c5ff1b48b73abea766a1233b27
F20110331_AACANJ hambleton_j_Page_068.jp2
5c1d7293338dba9825fbb5dd493bd68e
40079b990a9ca8bf0c1bd2f89f02f45559100dbf
1051977 F20110331_AACAMU hambleton_j_Page_066.jp2
9ce6f01c895e1414bb76ed8e393bd5b9
29d541f82fd82c1d02187273e86c9ff6fffbf805
2021 F20110331_AACANK hambleton_j_Page_080.txt
e91a52523fd2975b63606ba8aa680051
4d74da8c0288023e310eb2dbc2821610428ba0d8
2165 F20110331_AACAMV hambleton_j_Page_105.txt
3a3f7f840c2920256ab4de1790d148b0
4c4beb72f7e9a5ef7a7328738cbc9ecef7044196
93651 F20110331_AACANL hambleton_j_Page_061.jpg
29c6bdcfea421f0ad131f0972f7e1c7f
c8092392c283263fe835d95c3ef07e747772bde5
75484 F20110331_AACAMW hambleton_j_Page_096.jpg
06758445e9d2f6040a6bfcc7d917445e
ae037339b677b98e7f46331685532e605340a1f1
1023323 F20110331_AACAOA hambleton_j_Page_010.jp2
19970a94aa0e89443bfe525b0149b6f0
ba0841c221c63695f929ae3d58135dc8386f2c8c
F20110331_AACANM hambleton_j_Page_076.tif
177125e85397c887c32c363250b6d5e0
523365770ad6d2dc2767e774f6cdc761caef75fc
F20110331_AACAMX hambleton_j_Page_121.tif
599f517996000bdb7d442788b4b4b0ec
d9170feaca482fb7e0268cab8584a450832e4c52
1051980 F20110331_AACAOB hambleton_j_Page_120.jp2
6ea03301d0c7edb6dd7cd198651074d3
e3de3ac894b8d39537cf0c47fa4d420f714aaf2c
5943 F20110331_AACANN hambleton_j_Page_044thm.jpg
a9520b987e1253a1163520c54ae79668
db3965c389b9928aa9fcde2cc8c99c8b359de047
8337 F20110331_AACAMY hambleton_j_Page_053thm.jpg
729e112896dafedaf0ab9073b43839a1
3179ceb7499b55f0d67cac53ec0a16cbb621053b
1051907 F20110331_AACAOC hambleton_j_Page_069.jp2
e5ae46fbaf3bdd68f51c1ce85328f807
cec47bf4571bf8015e33537a14d11a7edf84343d
7751 F20110331_AACANO hambleton_j_Page_078.QC.jpg
f0d6022b5b4abc581cd9061f1d4cc64f
c98596aef139826073b792d1707419cb0fd4a21d
112339 F20110331_AACAMZ hambleton_j_Page_024.jpg
f9802b6efbc388b8898536f661caf036
4a35e86f84ad61f935f3f3cd69ee1f113e39e1a9
F20110331_AACAOD hambleton_j_Page_034.tif
05b15598453f3b2f9c668181185a6238
84bc890d3a5efed52907f6c9ae009c509e62449a
F20110331_AACANP hambleton_j_Page_056.jp2
1e06341631a0d52cfe845a5e577f56b8
1984d274b2d5a816d64c8d470bb921662b46c16c
33040 F20110331_AACAOE hambleton_j_Page_019.QC.jpg
713c5aa9aa6fa844c3d5e78c46016653
44bd1959cdba73bbf24409d099545de3bab55366
7143 F20110331_AACANQ hambleton_j_Page_059thm.jpg
2ac552dd007faae531f6036451dfd1d1
2c9330f9a63072031e666504c464c3e76cff2360
F20110331_AACAOF hambleton_j_Page_119.jp2
8d15b24a3030c6adc7f1fe87efcf75db
990e2395227d48cdd24f99eabf8b7dc5f7718e79
8549 F20110331_AACANR hambleton_j_Page_020thm.jpg
76f54167604df695dd410341fe3c66a2
616fb1c68b08a73d0712df602a83d16f8c64f781
63725 F20110331_AACANS hambleton_j_Page_003.jp2
c29cc68459824d8534e4c614155955a9
e776380f2199772a8970208b8e3cb156fc110ab1
7405 F20110331_AACAOG hambleton_j_Page_081thm.jpg
6c9201a22d7b130767b0dfbf8854a049
ef12d8f1f27d36abad64751541cbe650f4e8297d
8732 F20110331_AACANT hambleton_j_Page_046.pro
d9dd18134f8a724612ecb310d419254d
b04fccc32a13b3a5be697bc944098dc4f676f69e
8862 F20110331_AACAOH hambleton_j_Page_013thm.jpg
8c93055b9b0b00b9d33ace6ee2cc559d
3a42c45254ac3a49c18d6211837074b3c0c5e3bc
53636 F20110331_AACANU hambleton_j_Page_053.pro
db37abe727f7fd5c75604015221cf9ba
4393de5cb26fb3c86524897bedb71330a1e77389
F20110331_AACAOI hambleton_j_Page_020.tif
5f317a88c490f7c5068ca90c412e4165
8e73c767353604d736ac5c6afda7e68bdec64194
F20110331_AACAOJ hambleton_j_Page_056.tif
9f4ac143b1e2a97289dfed5171270d7c
389ae6ce56e6b57c2bf80d23567387c2af94dfc4
8543 F20110331_AACANV hambleton_j_Page_113thm.jpg
52a4c4df6983b8db3983f22e70b21eb1
815023c9c533889114758b1139da7db1ea4945d1
1051922 F20110331_AACAOK hambleton_j_Page_085.jp2
7dbb17f064313913abc3a187d53a9a47
b5aacbadbe5da865c7c321034a9b501f33ba908c
27957 F20110331_AACANW hambleton_j_Page_092.QC.jpg
83945929ec247dcbbf3bf3e3fb45a580
b99d00cfdfe3bbd580997c6313cbb7953ffe509b
477 F20110331_AACAOL hambleton_j_Page_042.txt
a3370927c16c1fdf064182ec925a1c50
ff5d87e8b4ddcca376a47c60d5b1068ac23d82f4
97224 F20110331_AACANX hambleton_j_Page_030.jpg
6ceca810ad8a9a01d488eb5e67859d53
06a06b26636375a782053637587429759ebf588a
F20110331_AACAPA hambleton_j_Page_074.jp2
6c2487b5a708dbe959ddbed8ea4259be
0a4c0e1e22a75582452c042c71783c20b1607df6
100808 F20110331_AACAOM hambleton_j_Page_048.jpg
22207e6168008c4df83d2b67056f2861
dcc977e860691d031f427c83271b6a1059ffde0a
1908 F20110331_AACANY hambleton_j_Page_058.txt
e95cd0fff53f645a3e1aff334b533376
855980a5a4f824cc6e42f87e935f7646f11b2126
84470 F20110331_AACAPB hambleton_j_Page_081.jpg
90543ca43ca735cb20ba759002f9802c
172603beaa77337c69161ab22c60f68f928b067b
2604 F20110331_AACAON hambleton_j_Page_003.pro
84198747b5d9649607a06cdaaffda128
e6222966b68716da7acb9f1195a7f359327e9582
3018 F20110331_AACANZ hambleton_j_Page_027.txt
a052fdc10c2a20ed75801501ae5632dc
000da071f492727cf91cc7fde195cc20ae3b1636
51761 F20110331_AACAPC hambleton_j_Page_107.pro
c81bd8574ab2891e7ea34c5fd81e54b9
65b62328c3d34d939ceddd68ec368b3f3782989b
1764 F20110331_AACAOO hambleton_j_Page_092.txt
f870a40cdc4fad26fb1b251fdf07a9c3
d16df294fd0ff05d716e005b272de713c87db31b
26274 F20110331_AACAPD hambleton_j_Page_004.pro
90242f3656bf47b92aa54358f5a7b36e
8a7e5581ad8e4be8204530dd99000b3af3e25cbb
8341 F20110331_AACAOP hambleton_j_Page_057thm.jpg
d42d65a357d578efadf1820968396976
7aa94d26d1b19caa4ba2c5a2c168a422ca4192f9
33648 F20110331_AACAPE hambleton_j_Page_100.QC.jpg
5c202227b22a54959522d1b47bf81d71
62e960b5bedda0f9af5a201bab89fc94dd320cfc
52449 F20110331_AACAOQ hambleton_j_Page_108.pro
b02b73b0c571a8bd6317197434d22b19
9d9f62a950f86afccbf33957595f19a86442bac6
F20110331_AACAPF hambleton_j_Page_062.tif
51b14bf3252aea0bc9be35563dccc35a
344359ec537531dafab916bde2910bd558b8daa3
55449 F20110331_AACAOR hambleton_j_Page_004.jpg
3994d80d6c1e78cf80579a1866a21bd0
0ff0c2110fff0034bdb015762a4e8d4266f321da
53116 F20110331_AACAPG hambleton_j_Page_114.pro
d9b7f1e4407ef20273e5a6554751d09c
f7670cfec8a8063f54d534251d26af560099706f
34684 F20110331_AACAOS hambleton_j_Page_075.QC.jpg
b1f768e1e4619926d6861bea4afa0d70
493784c5128dfe53eea8568ad9da7c4ea7f1cabb
40348 F20110331_AACAPH hambleton_j_Page_034.jpg
7f5cbfcac4d680f82da18b79bfa63b84
ca8376a7ac37d4ed0ec2e9ff74e34b17d0bc071c
35348 F20110331_AACAOT hambleton_j_Page_029.QC.jpg
89d219c99a19497327d551f197636514
22849ef9c7309263fd09cb6c8eb5ec84fe9e7695
F20110331_AACAPI hambleton_j_Page_023.jp2
9d7d14ba44371136c899bf4e1e92b049
9fa0f8a57d15063988cda00e61c129e0ebd53d93
107204 F20110331_AACAOU hambleton_j_Page_021.jpg
bd1ea6e17bce293f2a8decfaf8da089a
b8c5eeaa9b75f105bed5afcb824268288b1fe3da
82659 F20110331_AACAPJ hambleton_j_Page_089.jpg
d0fcac84e5c99a091e6ea27839d553b5
f0fc8c9a55b9824b88c5db591ca276cbc14744c4
1550 F20110331_AACAOV hambleton_j_Page_088.txt
e570fe29072e031f40f3d3d45bdacaa4
e7f59e21be5f9c4add60e5952a373bd67da3c0fd
31191 F20110331_AACAPK hambleton_j_Page_010.QC.jpg
8b2bbcac8abdba7100e95f9f006e80d3
996a7f40daa2cda8f896b5a74e1bc37f79c94eb4
77929 F20110331_AACAPL hambleton_j_Page_008.pro
e8600aa767a04c68080695f18e267669
d74db699a0cf53418ce3873bf760e2d2541d7e3f
2326 F20110331_AACAOW hambleton_j_Page_072.txt
d436e2a0ba54930c942ac40fdc2e5298
f776e5ad27896ea19b828b5632a2e6459ebbd678
31647 F20110331_AACAQA hambleton_j_Page_110.QC.jpg
eef3b810a9a73fead49e120d65d91a46
476efdc62d5f72885b79ea0b9403665cd5d7d6f7
F20110331_AACAPM hambleton_j_Page_117.tif
c3a29b784532e182777f2f145cea7f3d
093016b9b80437d761b7bf34ce20d6974d83aa03
1051899 F20110331_AACAOX hambleton_j_Page_046.jp2
df8b2e20f60fed0de159d44914029729
c89064b77a9b3e641b28cd21b20d982a49355792
F20110331_AACAQB hambleton_j_Page_097.tif
b33b78b0a7216a3f65c0514caa4189ab
dd600989cbf382f861e108bb3e34e9b1c0ee9e1f
F20110331_AACAPN hambleton_j_Page_081.tif
e047d066161be6e45a87a279601606ca
ea06ea268f90d542429d5fd76c13f8058469ab95
F20110331_AACAOY hambleton_j_Page_083.tif
521813b2ca196d60eb372b858cba47c2
ee3e2c1e11d9b727e604527f6a3c4d5c383b479c
30975 F20110331_AACAQC hambleton_j_Page_067.QC.jpg
76fdd6f80b119ca94bc190a4f75e7876
bd69eb9174b53fa4a1d366ee3b5365b1a6eb2736
F20110331_AACAPO hambleton_j_Page_107.tif
7c3c042777cc096502700c196b99eb38
9c16b3fb9f4b13e76e07a117c1a9c5cf53981afd
31171 F20110331_AACAOZ hambleton_j_Page_058.QC.jpg
26db779dad4c55c146cbddd2c1725fc3
01ed6ff908f47663b16d054eaff3f0ad6f7fa411
7848 F20110331_AACAQD hambleton_j_Page_094thm.jpg
74006991865e244c5d4eb90d4c35013c
f6e3dc5b16e09a9700ed7c56ce2daaf51346276b
49579 F20110331_AACAPP hambleton_j_Page_100.pro
0ad5f0937b88e21c5dad484da9cfd901
c92d0bbad81284850b4c2c1a48f6b7a950c12946
110889 F20110331_AACAQE hambleton_j_Page_073.jpg
4e87ad9d61d0218fbc0306aaca7a2eb3
f9b8d6a91a2305c4a567745ff1e0ef1a8404a404
50959 F20110331_AACAPQ hambleton_j_Page_080.pro
a1e89077018b4a0385f1e7b545d4db70
83c09c73021989df3688d4a791ccc7a3569e572a
3059 F20110331_AACAQF hambleton_j_Page_008.txt
3b013c8c0ae3dd56b81e6ec7face0dff
70e5bb722c822a6a2d835073464c71dd389b20b5
35603 F20110331_AACAPR hambleton_j_Page_012.QC.jpg
17332fd9408dc182a948440d30f1f836
f46d1f0b3dd59a073787190f7e057a56908d83c3
2542 F20110331_AACAQG hambleton_j_Page_006thm.jpg
56a9476c001d3c14a44341ca8294356a
a8ce5244540fced069ddb2ed3bea8c3beeb8c188
55263 F20110331_AACAPS hambleton_j_Page_103.pro
5a7758d81aa5c65f1e55c627170de88f
78116b68144d5d7f71fa14f992cd4d2432704812
7327 F20110331_AACAQH hambleton_j_Page_083thm.jpg
0ce4b073ba46c80efa8adc9565c5bb57
51f218037dec34ad9372bc8114067af4c53d866a
438 F20110331_AACAPT hambleton_j_Page_045.txt
028b0aa06de1a38b43dd26b0231d4b4d
e03935fb359a11dc68461d18831e25c17124395a
25240 F20110331_AACAQI hambleton_j_Page_088.QC.jpg
1b553717623b5e83818bce77e2e2e2df
a0fdbadd75f5cb355f8b4f72f313e77d2320f117
55636 F20110331_AACAPU hambleton_j_Page_039.jpg
8f7b3b995814ba01a8ffd0173b644bb2
a01b055af6911213348f6dcc36986ef352609c1d
3968 F20110331_AACAQJ hambleton_j_Page_035thm.jpg
fc2e036972f81ed6bd48750ca0cde3ac
ef2131bd98cb8789cd0b06c5b809d6f9297a1a74
8753 F20110331_AACAPV hambleton_j_Page_069thm.jpg
5b5cf9647469eb81085f061ca8994c25
8ed37e55ae23b4990a6a7d37b0bbe3bb80fcc834
127540 F20110331_AACAQK hambleton_j_Page_120.jpg
638f3a400bcea63419c679f95c7cd71b
d3948c87602d1e425aeffe5321be6b70b4ba8a4e
138268 F20110331_AACAPW hambleton_j_Page_121.jpg
2b8c1ed452ed058448469da90f64fae6
1d621a03d629f68932313042fa0e0a1b32d61219
1051936 F20110331_AACAQL hambleton_j_Page_026.jp2
ac2be265ead6373ccf3197bd24c2d701
771e56c6c9caa2f5001f83062beaa71ff7ae212a
39087 F20110331_AACAQM hambleton_j_Page_117.pro
158e656a8d1af55c6459e8d9c1c22da6
166a078370697ccdf01427adcf7e4e46f7ac09f7
75012 F20110331_AACAPX hambleton_j_Page_027.pro
7a74b499ea20f4b021058e43069efd4b
a9d99e53dc4e0568d52966cb15deb3f23e57be07
421518 F20110331_AACARA hambleton_j_Page_032.jp2
438a8e29c97b95291bc7921f2bd51cf8
9bf72cbe9422b785bf01e98aca48538a29a03e1c
2097 F20110331_AACAQN hambleton_j_Page_020.txt
e5fd6553245c40c9f7fcf5d6a6bcddf5
41e8a87f593458f934f126c084c64bf16ba96a6f
F20110331_AACAPY hambleton_j_Page_077.tif
d4de15329a5267839d7737c14e54d7c6
6344add3590339589a57f37a837c4f4047e98a94
3648 F20110331_AACARB hambleton_j_Page_005.txt
9f436720ca8a36f8b333dee57e2952d2
32f6afad7c4f0b8967719cdc70cc2839be479176
962020 F20110331_AACAQO hambleton_j_Page_083.jp2
aada404d3d59cc0da98fe1aabcfa7df9
45dd6c9f6cbeec498c667d83584e6fec8a7a271e
F20110331_AACAPZ hambleton_j_Page_068.tif
6ddf530cd934c4cb5fa54e89752bb6c4
5b7e5e987130dd30ace87a687ad259dcf6b1ce30
102122 F20110331_AACARC hambleton_j_Page_007.jpg
b6fa7a972ae33ff3b09da8612a3d7d65
98bbc0bf313d46661d425245a21127b4f40bf490
8022 F20110331_AACAQP hambleton_j_Page_056thm.jpg
d90d85933f77485e0cf4f495432f0fb4
35c2804a3004c6b1f484ab2fc8ec3de0e4f74674
107392 F20110331_AACARD hambleton_j_Page_069.jpg
dfac7f193c8cb3a4f6e36e742b7272ee
958375e077d3e79e70f19c631fd1ba94fcb189ec
7578 F20110331_AACAQQ hambleton_j_Page_092thm.jpg
4af453e3e73b709b8245294297799dd0
f8070c1a754a2a0a515929889f8053076fc87c8d
32050 F20110331_AACARE hambleton_j_Page_106.QC.jpg
3e1018bef7db3cd82eaf3572114fb5dd
e9679b1a55e7c3fda490df00d5cef071029d5fab
38394 F20110331_AACAQR hambleton_j_Page_088.pro
b84fe5190915e814b04c118774ccc9e0
9cd9f5d5e514060e2a654bfe0e5aab0430565764
1828 F20110331_AACARF hambleton_j_Page_079.txt
b3969cbf1de96c16767aa3d837c90c8d
5aec7ae5e64f2832c21e1243f87c85725e9fc397
105784 F20110331_AACAQS hambleton_j_Page_055.jpg
bfe22db2396f93689e322e5eae5bc7af
fdaedf7094eb74ea12db660a0bbb68b7e8802eae
600 F20110331_AACARG hambleton_j_Page_036.txt
8a7158633caf01b7464fbd5500f77996
197f8208c04634627bab471b06324c1976178b37
F20110331_AACAQT hambleton_j_Page_021.tif
321ba4901f69f28af226d0b49dfbbec1
54b4d9d451f93ee68f0a818ec0d43e58d706200c
F20110331_AACARH hambleton_j_Page_003.tif
4707a60efd95db8f8242e63b39ca9bbd
7342c474de02f19d1250d0769d3a57c1f681afd7
F20110331_AACAQU hambleton_j_Page_109.tif
5a3338b25b1c6ad59e6bbb3ed626233d
f7f3b19cfbd16512f71a6b5729effa34ab6ca7a1
824782 F20110331_AACARI hambleton_j_Page_096.jp2
9c98637652c8131c308377b063abaed0
7117d83022b3453ac8870080db7e425ac1cce09c
F20110331_AACAQV hambleton_j_Page_040.tif
6fe1465f7842ad1c9df7c445d2b1f221
146bed4936bcbca5262b103c83687449b2c8ec84
F20110331_AACARJ hambleton_j_Page_105.tif
17c5fb0ea14c4b0a62ad13acd20b63c7
05c99d18c55c175e5fdd719dff66a909e4f84350
32709 F20110331_AACAQW hambleton_j_Page_056.QC.jpg
6a3929060a2b973eaca00fcd11ba858b
c2cc9f96f78acda9817790d3a589de2c577e5352
F20110331_AACARK hambleton_j_Page_111.tif
572a869370e9fcf1cfadcc4e19a45edf
6c564288275f4b07de8df8136f4a36401f24799f
F20110331_AACAQX hambleton_j_Page_008.jp2
8562605ca2e55b6f7e493a3ce8e6d2c3
624619bd14226e996b17555e258452635dc38cbc
8513 F20110331_AACARL hambleton_j_Page_018thm.jpg
3838a5cab6c2a33b3edf7c86b6d1e67f
960abdc2faaf7526f2dd4b858bebad04e863a1eb
F20110331_AACASA hambleton_j_Page_120.tif
0cdfaab04af3736a0e65290bbd12454e
1ae5da9a5cf101e1134d5cc3164969fbef06cf72
75424 F20110331_AACARM hambleton_j_Page_088.jpg
84beea3377de3a742d6b3f4cb88df9ff
7d62d1e670ae85bc5a7a46fcb3b4309da2535f88
931864 F20110331_AACAQY hambleton_j_Page_059.jp2
d00582cf69405554cd430e0f6e3e6afd
b6146320ad47f8eb50049c94cd5aaf73228fd5e3
1051942 F20110331_AACASB hambleton_j_Page_027.jp2
76cab737cae4e003a6b2ef265cc56e15
140ab4f9c94ae16a89e42bcfa289b8e56a846509
1684 F20110331_AACARN hambleton_j_Page_063.txt
874187059ff97a298d380e284309c152
1fae191ef66e8913035a34fe3b352e416afc01bf
29753 F20110331_AACAQZ hambleton_j_Page_002.jp2
b57d294232e1cee3c181a396cbf376a0
0e972d35944b524dafaa560da436cd2b6da7d264
5453 F20110331_AACASC hambleton_j_Page_041thm.jpg
81cbbce9eeedf61298e894f13a17beca
0fafa6cf7f7c48509c18f9f2af9bc219d9762c5d
F20110331_AACARO hambleton_j_Page_113.tif
20f24545b4d91a7d599d3a09e82e3583
aabc62ff75cc61611bc8894efb3a2e4245d92cc6
F20110331_AACASD hambleton_j_Page_071.tif
d9e75ab45cf1f4480ff272a800e929be
70cd48757770bdd370bd0e4d70a0872161cb6022
1051968 F20110331_AACARP hambleton_j_Page_005.jp2
9d9d7e216e81f82c18d3a6c4dd9be0db
364704928df92945fb06f9cb3aaf3af69c984254
1727 F20110331_AACASE hambleton_j_Page_052.txt
6c56bac3f88da896bef311df12a17b6a
6591cd12e0373a5aaea2b54936fa1277334c921c
50423 F20110331_AACARQ hambleton_j_Page_086.pro
73788be5b02e24332e3fef7bb4b4c2c9
a5dad1131f38e0309b2ee1ce7ebdc579c01dfaa5
8605 F20110331_AACASF hambleton_j_Page_068thm.jpg
39cb9e2076bc2d50d4b71ac61b0c46c0
1be1c5f37419eb2a240c793071f7fa3ac23d038c
41647 F20110331_AACARR hambleton_j_Page_063.pro
dcdf5f526b5d4e4245516c3ea1474ed8
8f1fd64a1c78952a992adbc40247d2511c7f5c56
12526 F20110331_AACASG hambleton_j_Page_118.QC.jpg
1a2def49d1f12ab473ea4f3243249238
9a132c2c042fd223a69e68ff2de3021024083d8d
34372 F20110331_AACARS hambleton_j_Page_086.QC.jpg
b0234da71851dcfffdfb855bf02807ac
ed1b34c5cea22ef2013932e26d4886d237415b24
5305 F20110331_AACASH hambleton_j_Page_032.pro
f798685ff967ceba9ef8666d40245478
56a19117b4e5029264ce6dff9d449a96b6f11a91
7394 F20110331_AACART hambleton_j_Page_090thm.jpg
fd5d1b0deb65f01271012f11d8665ca8
e55780887a3f3645d6505fa379693540e20f75d6
31192 F20110331_AACASI hambleton_j_Page_060.QC.jpg
fea71702f54a1e52986000db14d4be82
9eacf307db14baa94a093f607921f7403a076e34
2129 F20110331_AACARU hambleton_j_Page_014.txt
6cbc0229f2c74e096090c423354380b7
d2e952cf8d0d3e03fe87a7f423669fab7c5bb478
29871 F20110331_AACASJ hambleton_j_Page_093.QC.jpg
ae6f14499d6b1836eeea6d4fd49d3244
a78efea0707a97d055223c5cefc665e50f191d66
40405 F20110331_AACARV hambleton_j_Page_006.jpg
3180cd06898f9383d58f82b60ad2aa0e
3cae9bac03e8a9ff00e329113d950e87f7a27f63
5735 F20110331_AACASK hambleton_j_Page_031thm.jpg
107c56c74c53524b13d1581d1f072ad6
feb31d45872f80572033dd1047cea755e8987fcb
4257 F20110331_AACARW hambleton_j_Page_038.pro
af56c522527589ba34ced95271d2debf
31a9d6e61bb827dfceba78cf374d3a12729fe2b5
8060 F20110331_AACASL hambleton_j_Page_106thm.jpg
3dc7038cd0d36629e54159a14d78678f
b3dd6104ff6c7f04145f49b086d364a43502de59
4568 F20110331_AACARX hambleton_j_Page_042thm.jpg
0c2b603a25707c82eb90c1d3569f24f9
30137cbee8f8a373f2cfb603b25701cf5f167704
105782 F20110331_AACATA hambleton_j_Page_108.jpg
ffe48a7e3d95b0c1e2a9554a47d68504
de1d803812ce7c7ba792a3c8fb7e59205d0e140d
F20110331_AACASM hambleton_j_Page_066.tif
6204827286c12351b7fd7c1f5ac1abad
c427acd2231dc0c71b08f903b3da639e4cc14c32
F20110331_AACARY hambleton_j_Page_108.tif
74afecd5dc81273325f1dbb37f0eb4e7
6dce99a81039b12cf01a47c7785ab79ccbf8c5b4
83006 F20110331_AACATB hambleton_j_Page_117.jpg
398212db2ec2f539b21862da82879d06
d1c62e55a76d820e41a4df6cfcaed3cb96442362
18027 F20110331_AACASN hambleton_j_Page_039.QC.jpg
0c9d7a0842b222ce5dcdce30813be809
1f723b2f56246189b6c52a70799241eb42ab5a73
43850 F20110331_AACATC hambleton_j_Page_059.pro
3e952246c9a4573fb6bda484ad1230b5
5e07dcf020744548416f215ec124e95c4d44acad
46684 F20110331_AACASO hambleton_j_Page_093.pro
7581c0a64648da8d9a9bbd48fcbf6461
c9324daf9399aecb5167aa916fa49da0895e7e78
7126 F20110331_AACARZ hambleton_j_Page_011thm.jpg
dd85114934fc441260e303280775c2e7
27d1667338bc56522b38cf867c7c188fd80acafc
1969 F20110331_AACASP hambleton_j_Page_082.txt
bb4cd4e7dd6c2d178a3201fb26342e9e
05b106be52498ca8da82e8479a164c5dfc1f7a7a
1037396 F20110331_AACATD hambleton_j_Page_058.jp2
4f728524d21faaad52b53ae0f97f8b40
e48970c9f3e0864c19436146a41bc93717d25f07
F20110331_AACASQ hambleton_j_Page_017.tif
56a34ca29342b11f8badb4aeca87e766
7306bb1b8f407e54506ca0afc429bde2da4ee106
46883 F20110331_AACATE hambleton_j_Page_058.pro
18c26f673a1f842d27811555044b14ed
d1d781f1dc86a5c344d1288026678bca48fca7e6
2031 F20110331_AACASR hambleton_j_Page_094.txt
4679d805f465dac87535fff05949709b
fcdce9e305d355b28b3c022787f821118390e224
1051982 F20110331_AACATF hambleton_j_Page_076.jp2
cfc0a58b474b984af2c89fb3eeb0baad
6d6b1365d8b112b5f2a696baf31dec2a1419ad27
5705 F20110331_AACASS hambleton_j_Page_046thm.jpg
07e49a61ac9f3aef2dd902ebb2f2e488
e58a52aa54ef4c8c20eddc054e478ce249492742
2149 F20110331_AACATG hambleton_j_Page_069.txt
0832ea3de39609358867a0c4a32ea4ca
a51874c14ac591b1f1a7c40509b1e11083e093ee
105032 F20110331_AACAST hambleton_j_Page_014.jpg
a4ece71cb44c5ae7abf002f335cf4162
6f6956f3c353946485109d2c60e557ae90376b3f
592504 F20110331_AACATH hambleton_j_Page_004.jp2
458ace67bd8bae40969c5fad72fee0f2
4a24f6a89fd984980e2da5694f497b81138c133d
33805 F20110331_AACASU hambleton_j_Page_095.QC.jpg
a72d9de70003e6e34381966774814192
dde5d9f60ebbbd181213bfa2275870c86c604ad8
72802 F20110331_AACATI hambleton_j_Page_041.jpg
79b2c5deb76a7ab47411148a63d65b76
33378323558345a6d80d1fc47c204964d30499c9
34151 F20110331_AACASV hambleton_j_Page_033.jpg
2daee90600f511661f45b3c2054f121f
9ea9258b9d2b45ec5f756f6d0b6c30ce3dd616fb
F20110331_AACATJ hambleton_j_Page_055.jp2
06d1942e80408e3222a3edd35f8de978
682ff8f5e7f51751fbae384b84be47fa4e7b0dbf
13411 F20110331_AACASW hambleton_j_Page_048.pro
5ffcc5c3d91b0adc55ad48e8d2b90cc7
5ad56af45e912af83422999a16112b31d1c5091b
84623 F20110331_AACATK hambleton_j_Page_062.jpg
fc85e15dd9c62e82704b7199dd74f571
7083c83d1a2532db93dcc94a8c299582dcdafa8c
22503 F20110331_AACASX hambleton_j_Page_015.jpg
2bcf7681e31f76bbb6c21dfe2e357c5d
24c3d9c36558fafffdc293d44603fcb5a15dbcfd
30045 F20110331_AACATL hambleton_j_Page_011.QC.jpg
ff3d807680160337c044e0c029fdb5e3
f7f982ad5af54310893aebf30e3208a230dd6628
8148 F20110331_AACASY hambleton_j_Page_071thm.jpg
648c935001f491992ae81ee1ed07794e
291af105b00aea638958d8c41437adab2d026a36
73234 F20110331_AACAUA hambleton_j_Page_025.pro
4281020f53157b3f6e65f75ad41d29cc
5d735c6967c5d5e0621098283531889800d43df2
F20110331_AACATM hambleton_j_Page_026.tif
2a450a77ac1673fc2061e20b64b59b23
58875ea89857cca959563f850636d6b2cb697985
890377 F20110331_AACASZ hambleton_j_Page_089.jp2
bffd94aedb916e236284c39995223d40
6a6577d077cb2cc3f640cbc8d619cd234fd22d84
81214 F20110331_AACAUB hambleton_j_Page_046.jpg
6277f416c2a95569329d2a603fa1c389
ee5c9575f96ab83add3fee8b271269288a605fed
2051 F20110331_AACATN hambleton_j_Page_066.txt
9acec0434a804e883adf7ecbe771f48f
aa4fe81f5d694be924251c82196fdad73b20c7ad
F20110331_AACAUC hambleton_j_Page_045.tif
0a13578750fb8f49f0f66b16099fa80b
b332c6eaac67863c46e74ab977339582f836c28c
46265 F20110331_AACATO hambleton_j_Page_010.pro
7f8f30af72e2b6c499c3d267a5ef4bfc
8eb8172ac39f4fc24834eccc339bac7f230cfe70
64897 F20110331_AACAUD hambleton_j_Page_119.pro
626029b2effcdcdd14a0e74710e81afc
d9b6dee4e8f838643b36a29f76141d86886027e4
378 F20110331_AACATP hambleton_j_Page_035.txt
66ed21900b8270132bf89563c79749a9
f5f46ca122abe798a782c5875ec7087f47ca3fcb
2057 F20110331_AACAUE hambleton_j_Page_056.txt
b8c746328f4775b001602c8e2196328b
105a6aa813726de786a71a113b6361cf761e792a
8645 F20110331_AACATQ hambleton_j_Page_012thm.jpg
6e2d041c3ca67c1936110ba58633957a
05f46c252a1e9b8e1b5ea6b620b22b4ac0c6ed36
392 F20110331_AACBAA hambleton_j_Page_041.txt
a7bb71b7979a4276b15644f093dc126c
4856db9f45db0c4a6bf39309131ae41ddcb00d9e
2017 F20110331_AACAUF hambleton_j_Page_106.txt
13dffaedd0d57df22126124cb5674d03
6036bf2d61d39474c9ccb03439f945e275489a00
1986 F20110331_AACATR hambleton_j_Page_111.txt
a4b4e9fa9b98a728b05f5cba080a1ca5
53d8088a10ef15acaf95961a455559f519512713
8529 F20110331_AACAUG hambleton_j_Page_084thm.jpg
205639a73bea41fecbeba6b8d7c55a91
d7cad6d309994bdd717e8a30088ce1aaa9bb477a
77653 F20110331_AACATS hambleton_j_Page_044.jpg
016ab9563425e34974c4b5a8a925702e
d6cabbbd85f361f823de3f13a2cf55c3baeb6022
59307 F20110331_AACBAB hambleton_j_Page_072.pro
68bd8cdf3797e46cae3c7e570c80a867
923e593d80411236bad7325999369765323b2364
99 F20110331_AACAUH hambleton_j_Page_016.txt
0ab45e10873a227ee5175231c881219a
14be57cb9a9be3cd3f3bec6d8268b32192cba5f2
1866 F20110331_AACATT hambleton_j_Page_060.txt
782f33b62a5624c5dea7c10f10aa3e37
2ca401f1d7d08bbd09e8d002d96d095239d8734f
8970 F20110331_AACBAC hambleton_j_Page_102thm.jpg
3ccee39c487c1c28c185da4b7e4fca78
977ddab664140db4961e01d524ddb37c7c4e2a0a
8616 F20110331_AACAUI hambleton_j_Page_035.pro
df7e3abd63d2f42210c2b95af60e3191
69d64a83f55302bf8eaac87b12c48811dc3cafb8
113 F20110331_AACATU hambleton_j_Page_015.txt
c36d85c28c0b777ce2a23f304e2cd74b
c750c9c9de28ec74078210ff63cac74e159f5409
5094 F20110331_AACBAD hambleton_j_Page_034.pro
72c32a3279bda671ae54f97893fcd02d
a6c2c034964bdb5d0218bf639cbafc4c264072db
9177 F20110331_AACAUJ hambleton_j_Page_119thm.jpg
ea4cb5fdb8067d3e7d34b6f5989e8e94
27e6dec7c167643f4004f7f23f23dfa9ccfd82f6
846 F20110331_AACATV hambleton_j_Page_118.txt
bd9bb7aa929d253828659b7201db4c97
b84f71c5bdbee0f282dbd3afd6ed0e2e6bd3064c
F20110331_AACBAE hambleton_j_Page_085.tif
3aa64c07be0cf3735d2652bc9e8371b2
0f1251488cf75ea921acfa9f5845fcfd49ed8a03
5999 F20110331_AACAUK hambleton_j_Page_009thm.jpg
6a502f6a262b7292339ba268addcf9a0
0a62e296baeff9cb6ae3e5bfe21f8497852bc364
F20110331_AACATW hambleton_j_Page_115.jp2
16c2dd99c0cc429738eb976e5c58e2fc
82956d5cbfaf9a8b1ad0889bdf5bbe88d731ee27
F20110331_AACBAF hambleton_j_Page_116.jp2
3951284cffbf4ee2b98d4d03397c53a2
b2e3dc47f31895112b197e7ef66bc9e9203143df
1047646 F20110331_AACAUL hambleton_j_Page_018.jp2
6966837c11eeea71b82e8e0cbb2f8696
23e93a3cbd7df027e5ccc007eb7451c9fd0b1324
60627 F20110331_AACATX hambleton_j_Page_077.jpg
02ebcb37da3a419263f7acb4b7328f8e
8c84555b3b7e4d326f03cba8af1716715a720b2c
101872 F20110331_AACBAG hambleton_j_Page_085.jpg
608fb411ccad6fbe51dd7dd809edcfd5
9fe76275e3573881b72eaa206a2d5c9a4fa93f09
90131 F20110331_AACAVA hambleton_j_Page_009.jpg
e96b22938e419bb1bcbe2c29c368f3db
fd8e45845568047d7d6b6da14ca246e44b293084
28433 F20110331_AACAUM hambleton_j_Page_090.QC.jpg
dd6d2f691117a258404f80cc8910b9c6
7e03e97cd6b757e405e72baf21a4661013e7209d
102407 F20110331_AACATY hambleton_j_Page_056.jpg
5e075939fbb9396e9acdb04ddc73e4be
d34f60a40e72d36ceb0b9ff6fcc44f310caca614
1034041 F20110331_AACAVB hambleton_j_Page_036.jp2
12f4345ef8a5ffa8e5e7d238016f8f23
383657331c16d9f3c0c45ac622c154fd4d6b699f
5098 F20110331_AACAUN hambleton_j_Page_037thm.jpg
ee07947c4db4d3a83ddcfdf0b0a1f97d
f0821a8c68d417e4b55e8293f8d9fd96f9a71beb
8825 F20110331_AACATZ hambleton_j_Page_112thm.jpg
f85bad6c62291cb0b90a9b6a921e2d33
1bc6f250d0ec876805dd2e5664c7e0956cbfb68b
1051944 F20110331_AACBAH hambleton_j_Page_072.jp2
0111442580410e5bc0cafb74309094b7
1fd5786ac420fbb14303cb255e5f3d9ab7b94c29
42458 F20110331_AACAVC hambleton_j_Page_051.pro
d4e03aa6748316a42d1d5346d9e7177f
580d7fbec1322048f90474776f56b863887afc59
2584 F20110331_AACAUO hambleton_j_Page_070.txt
4f7e94b93306409bfdc5056d61460517
2e74c4a4b4d74d6d9b9fdcd3685ceaca925b6ddd
F20110331_AACBAI hambleton_j_Page_033.tif
f0e3b90887db2e3469722a625554dcbb
6124ed62a037f83a088d42fbc602053a65a24beb
35600 F20110331_AACAVD hambleton_j_Page_024.QC.jpg
7d021e1b1cc7abe2be1fe4436744ab18
74c1e227d16a670e338210d2e43054fea1134b3e
39228 F20110331_AACAUP hambleton_j_Page_025.QC.jpg
854b2a589408e69344d7a84699a09d12
ee7bd46eb1ff2d7635576b8a201eb2c6e6c477b8
2248 F20110331_AACBAJ hambleton_j_Page_102.txt
5ceeeb582476973a8d6c041d02135470
61370c87948bd73413a43cd9c67b2ece64a1b688
13913 F20110331_AACAVE hambleton_j_Page_035.QC.jpg
5acf397c8c84fa7259fc8d567157bbb1
86d384c18826119bef7dc6a0e7c106e755f120db
97 F20110331_AACAUQ hambleton_j_Page_002.txt
7ebb71b74b949e6efc322c4558912392
068b70988bc57e8653b9f1ddacb28085eceb4bb9
8780 F20110331_AACBAK hambleton_j_Page_075thm.jpg
c20ab9fd7b73dbfb3b6f24ee618ad77d
4467b328954f260d6e4a5947bc5503433924442d
F20110331_AACAVF hambleton_j_Page_075.tif
b59957c122627b59bebb54dfd1176bba
12a01c351d82daab72fdab5e2d454807cd4a3ca6
1897 F20110331_AACAUR hambleton_j_Page_093.txt
d4e32797dfe95bbe6b8a02ac0d961dd7
be9d20bced61a7d2f920552305ebd0bc068799b6
F20110331_AACBBA hambleton_j_Page_013.tif
905c95f1ece6da4a55ad2b43f1960ed0
9150a030730c7645fd3046d10f3a49df7f22246f
986453 F20110331_AACBAL hambleton_j_Page_079.jp2
00170f3be2b9a7b531071853aea52155
e3fab2b1d8222a7eb5b6c1f39f4585d3a09c842f
1330 F20110331_AACAVG hambleton_j_Page_098.pro
db4fddd4999b2fc51b2128e9862f9b8a
328be8507181c564d6d5cc65423ea5b71ee5cfc1
50579 F20110331_AACAUS hambleton_j_Page_074.pro
3601cd8f7c162ffc6d0a2111cc482070
e5ddf892894ad7b9eddd8e43985488017df4de1f
F20110331_AACBBB hambleton_j_Page_018.tif
519ae600d37e2a7d194d29bad4a73c5c
dcd1bfe14ce64e1b70d83815e92685a80e0b7fb1
8608 F20110331_AACBAM hambleton_j_Page_021thm.jpg
c7ae856d6f1adb0f3e7dfe34a57ed5fd
179598c641880188df995a1c23d67f4b37e0d343
F20110331_AACAVH hambleton_j_Page_106.jpg
ac39e4125fc61dd698d9dd87d9017929
7d71f6b7ef702b68eb58b179d4cc582f22a687cb
1051978 F20110331_AACAUT hambleton_j_Page_028.jp2
de63d96fd26a08f4afe29a06277b65fb
13fe09e8131a7a07f4b29672364263f112236c6d
F20110331_AACBBC hambleton_j_Page_022.tif
9a200690bba709ca426b9b89e9423124
6b5a2bd297b86a858f6a83ac50da58222ce4460b
F20110331_AACBAN hambleton_j_Page_021.jp2
50c0809dc6ce723826d63f12d2a813a4
32fb43f4d4f6130887bed28b491f8ad086e5a1d8
53996 F20110331_AACAVI hambleton_j_Page_085.pro
465720ed417249ab5816d0046191f4ef
3e60f34485e7acb80cc561f522e4bbbe7de02853
8274 F20110331_AACAUU hambleton_j_Page_100thm.jpg
79c8aa154231fb67d5a6a1ba3b17d0d7
04c762fec7ba87cabaab0e3f119c1ff249fd693a
F20110331_AACBBD hambleton_j_Page_023.tif
e327442b509a11f09d11c159c38056fb
7135a9aa6e3adf64b849e5aad0439579b2ff41f7
54380 F20110331_AACBAO hambleton_j_Page_013.pro
747de284b2b1db86e94732fde6c6dbb2
a94ec4d57dbed92c7c6869089abd384c1609abe1
54347 F20110331_AACAVJ hambleton_j_Page_065.pro
b546493abfee8ce0eba5d52b812e95db
9ccd1a611c07d7f9185741dcb7bde5ecb39bc631
101444 F20110331_AACAUV hambleton_j_Page_107.jpg
74adcdf6dfe4aeac8ec79522a7d7fb8e
f1b5ee40cbbe7673a7ae4a74b02e073931485dfa
F20110331_AACBBE hambleton_j_Page_027.tif
32436e20adeedc97dd168ffc47e591e2
58956d28b37f318fe40cc4ad67f5d1c2e7d18739
32209 F20110331_AACBAP hambleton_j_Page_111.QC.jpg
820b72c3a3592ef77be9b6f05a4020cf
7650c0630c7bcbb4e34bcd39314932465670c626
2206 F20110331_AACAVK hambleton_j_Page_065.txt
d00edc7ceabd6d58e2482128e8d50d2a
151b86d7f228d34c9bbe4924fe587842300845fa
101050 F20110331_AACAUW hambleton_j_Page_026.jpg
8b4969e482e8d71325053466b9dc6540
5d2bfed3daa8c445a2a9c6f2806cc3da650fa5f4
F20110331_AACBBF hambleton_j_Page_030.tif
880e0e2d16bedc858aa31fdbd0dc1a4a
acad2adc0500507ee4a0feed08a5d86c82fa7d41
145498 F20110331_AACBAQ UFE0021783_00001.mets
74c5560121651f9b42a49d48a9df39d8
0d50f806603cea87a737ee7976cf5f0e50af9b3b
F20110331_AACAVL hambleton_j_Page_103.tif
e52d6c7269a9a8a8884687fbdd512b6d
e61586879a27bf11d30eec268742a7f311cc279d
F20110331_AACAUX hambleton_j_Page_072thm.jpg
1052def042b045ff188fe949165d3bb6
d11f9d56801ae1200d174cbe19263e0d70edfdce
F20110331_AACBBG hambleton_j_Page_032.tif
9be8abfc6ebc9818c20cbf1d26725352
3cf50037ff994a2453cf4676dd79b2fe52828e33
2157 F20110331_AACAVM hambleton_j_Page_022.txt
c566f6f47688c55f84ab98c6a19324f5
c635ed805fab8eef52462f600d204cb9c2aeb993
1082 F20110331_AACAUY hambleton_j_Page_004.txt
fb665bca1d9ddf310cab013eb1bdfbb9
7db9ac8939eb76d9076251c3c51840c700577bd7
F20110331_AACBBH hambleton_j_Page_035.tif
527d6d017891279ed5e0b75f910d3990
724938dd6f83a0cb0bd9613bd848280a3f1263ea
8465 F20110331_AACAWA hambleton_j_Page_101thm.jpg
f6c80dd5a28c593b22ccd093c29bd550
f134783156d42e798916ce6756675ec10e48ec19
31944 F20110331_AACAVN hambleton_j_Page_094.QC.jpg
be679f601b0d5e51e3d39e4c44758581
063db57852e244b34dd00faaa8102f8b999ccd6e
35049 F20110331_AACAUZ hambleton_j_Page_013.QC.jpg
9fc6013cd54e09f1c16724f31dd091b5
4a5f66eddce2223148a9929a4c5bfad4e6a0b6ec
F20110331_AACAWB hambleton_j_Page_016.tif
37f7cf8bb2dead8767c664976a6f03e7
1c48d882e712fb746f894217745d0e5bf31e89b5
F20110331_AACBAT hambleton_j_Page_002.tif
bd19b0b9fbb2c43686eccb1c73da68d4
a750f5266f316b7d58e09b99c96370eb0b306aaf
52305 F20110331_AACAVO hambleton_j_Page_110.pro
f5ee9cce5408fd1c63a16d22f40977b2
45244c5845ea152975dcc8eb5ee9d45bbb230c51
F20110331_AACBBI hambleton_j_Page_036.tif
57fa38e7bf1a356e65afb766061d4dbb
264fa5c7d49b3b8c5138a010d4f2e535cfcc2089
8132 F20110331_AACAWC hambleton_j_Page_095thm.jpg
c0741f63c080dd57feab18da318ff4f8
d084e266d93e839d7ecd4f9a9db45710332b3ecd
F20110331_AACBAU hambleton_j_Page_006.tif
1f132d1ffd2b57c12f65e43381d14913
84e7a3cebd252d798a8f6c800f12408379cd5f04
F20110331_AACAVP hambleton_j_Page_014.tif
310663f8be4e5e93e4633f7646c23bce
02f01baf85cccceb97068bae2f3bc1d15af0ad3e
F20110331_AACBBJ hambleton_j_Page_037.tif
9a860663368419d305753186796dfb34
bf661cbaf1bb9f5ac87204203986188eadbf62b3
63207 F20110331_AACAWD hambleton_j_Page_023.pro
889930d9f7c5ecc0466616b214dd447e
6976a606874b92a21bd396d50a03f42d40e1313a
F20110331_AACBAV hambleton_j_Page_007.tif
ef29bdd36755d61bb8461437f5a72242
c61653d9c31da30865a82251c7a0566a59744be2
8392 F20110331_AACAVQ hambleton_j_Page_103thm.jpg
09ed7186c6bb4d6298def6f5a05705fd
7b79b192b07e39ac7e7e0db6d172917a36b0eab3
F20110331_AACBBK hambleton_j_Page_039.tif
89ab949eb016f0ff9f0a7da09fcf4911
c035870e5bceadb8d4520d1779eafed2d943ab34
26064 F20110331_AACAWE hambleton_j_Page_064.QC.jpg
2a48c06b96c75259c0a4c5ee04714a6c
a6ff432ef057d687e8bb27ab2534e2b3e14e0eb8
F20110331_AACBAW hambleton_j_Page_009.tif
b7ab7b1a69e15d607930896c59f10efb
7d3772f98d67317b5843bd7c348472d2bb34fca1
33345 F20110331_AACAVR hambleton_j_Page_026.QC.jpg
9096281dc6a66ccf908b5ab73d8adc53
edf08284e7f23d7fccbd81839e9ade08e088264e
F20110331_AACBCA hambleton_j_Page_080.tif
0e44514227fa23dd321739f8da56e202
2359851e8bcbf8a3502695b7220477d140599e4e
F20110331_AACBBL hambleton_j_Page_041.tif
96ef287123fb46eb92ec0f0c789e669f
659d0ab1294be59991b698ee6e522f0137ab121f
35325 F20110331_AACAWF hambleton_j_Page_072.QC.jpg
2ecabc73d8881fdb4ae794f96504320c
698060b5da29c94051dd74e8ca7c9e736eba5238
F20110331_AACBAX hambleton_j_Page_010.tif
50f491098eab42a059240d5319e0c384
37c0b7123ea84cc36309ecfe5a7567726c46e291
813916 F20110331_AACAVS hambleton_j_Page_088.jp2
41498310a3b6d2784dfb02d47d48bc2f
654f53225a54d1de5af243a9406c965aba340e42
F20110331_AACBCB hambleton_j_Page_084.tif
e5b4ef6216b6959aecc77116f5e01472
3401cdd65b51283d93fe88f529c2fe75bc815a41
F20110331_AACBBM hambleton_j_Page_044.tif
3f4f5a5264f4912a91625468a5e6a844
919dd74eb89d3e9e6ac0dfe1fb414ec08fe4180d
105565 F20110331_AACAWG hambleton_j_Page_075.jpg
24e1743336a2746ca0fe94c7819cd980
f794c51947a879676c4da89c2aa93db4e5ddf613
F20110331_AACBAY hambleton_j_Page_011.tif
ac7e37c2eca7d30e7ac1b5e2ca61db81
8cf1c8d09f8a6b73999b7c653f776e74e76c49ae
53824 F20110331_AACAVT hambleton_j_Page_105.pro
144d9157ac3ee43c811189a4022e9fc9
9a9530221bfd357b1f827ebac7f41ca960b11926
F20110331_AACBCC hambleton_j_Page_089.tif
219f9682d4988be157852688effc47bd
97973d5cca7486d62b943c7a55fdb836f3f6c280
F20110331_AACBBN hambleton_j_Page_047.tif
129d6126e0a0c204f1a2df58b329b794
8a46b359a6a89439ee4551a1589fa5aed58e2c24
95441 F20110331_AACAWH hambleton_j_Page_010.jpg
e1c1addf3bda824a616e3f197d086cbf
0d012d028210aefd0092a9afaf56e286e6a42dbf
F20110331_AACBAZ hambleton_j_Page_012.tif
d3b28dafe206c192f5f98a32429222c6
72aac1d1424ca6da08e6378c0e8b541034a63a35
480 F20110331_AACAVU hambleton_j_Page_044.txt
a5a8dd9d4d378f0aa6408e77c7eff211
8dd378006c4fd1352d396e945aa0bd55e98541da
F20110331_AACBCD hambleton_j_Page_091.tif
ddffc22cc3328bfd3b626142285d0307
3647e0da07d6bb19920790416735cbc6a5541140
F20110331_AACBBO hambleton_j_Page_048.tif
9d9a496d166660fff9588f19469ebd6e
5a870d958defa193fcd8348b464fbaddd894f833
35848 F20110331_AACAWI hambleton_j_Page_028.QC.jpg
900cc9075b2b9989f96ec16ebca2050d
e6cad71a8bdfaeebb405601a2e675754776ddd8b
F20110331_AACAVV hambleton_j_Page_100.tif
959d8e292e92c8625380903f2d0fb653
df0ef0a3d8ee4160f9894339bdf2e5e6cd0c2ff3
F20110331_AACBCE hambleton_j_Page_092.tif
14cb8b5a6c74386596e2bdc8f80a1c4c
06aaf5ef4a9e31ae5a4f6d58b4d117da2df944fb
F20110331_AACBBP hambleton_j_Page_049.tif
f4a49ec8b11607631dea3a4e508f0336
a60a3d94cd4223155ca4004bc5542ad58a1be56b
34755 F20110331_AACAWJ hambleton_j_Page_069.QC.jpg
098ab3747efb58e0af2464d744a0981f
ee46f53091b49bb160f657140d9633335d3cfaf4
2050 F20110331_AACAVW hambleton_j_Page_107.txt
e14ae5f62c26c368a0bbd9bb7be130d9
d560d799a043c9577b88c7e4a6836c5c3c4fe807
F20110331_AACBCF hambleton_j_Page_093.tif
0010372a39201d5fd838dd85826c9c62
3fb948450e2e0be5e83e511393730a482c6edc1f
F20110331_AACBBQ hambleton_j_Page_051.tif
bdec79426c3a9bf1571f0b77e7378dd3
4c12181bab5c92c23e2cc2fba71ea044f4493c90
F20110331_AACAWK hambleton_j_Page_009.txt
f716b386045ff1fb402aa95589481923
5b68fbacfa55aacc78d0732954bd7d4f087d72d6
93331 F20110331_AACAVX hambleton_j_Page_093.jpg
55f4c6c8a6f85464e21906102594d4f5
34c1eb12b531e15117a5bb961bca2cef641d53d6
F20110331_AACBCG hambleton_j_Page_095.tif
35197a88b7a6788aec2ec9ff3053fea0
3d664b977c47f80eb03f0102b9be8b79e2ba148e
F20110331_AACBBR hambleton_j_Page_053.tif
606631008bade3ea3c0a3473ca59c663
329b583ae85ba72f212cc8071003b205dfef5e46
F20110331_AACAWL hambleton_j_Page_065.tif
e61c0bc586393fc1f84f1d457eddb03c
e51499aafa960afa742a5e540d6820385533f798
3523 F20110331_AACAVY hambleton_j_Page_097thm.jpg
692af657d199d128a097a9ee2d55ff0f
fdf0ee62c6194e8fcb3223b18a0355cb32c65697
F20110331_AACBCH hambleton_j_Page_098.tif
1e1107c1db064c5c5b2dd27767e5647b
0c0fd787251624080f75f71333a8944eed4b2935
578644 F20110331_AACAXA hambleton_j_Page_035.jp2
b348ade40104a049323c59070c2bd380
779e912d5af0bfe8187afd6f65ff8e417e8000bf
F20110331_AACBBS hambleton_j_Page_054.tif
b622fbda88adcc0959fce769c954a345
3bdf2516ff08ac4297670b2cf52a1c790ecb5027
53075 F20110331_AACAWM hambleton_j_Page_075.pro
c6b7bc4fb1a94890561e1b5bf47994d4
6c5e341b29dd58f918a0e233513b1618376e9295
1051946 F20110331_AACAVZ hambleton_j_Page_065.jp2
4aab62695655abed784f4dc2eb9f8f71
cd5ff80fef0b9636c7be358b9971a8def8e6fe88
F20110331_AACBCI hambleton_j_Page_099.tif
5bbe6971e033a450bc79749568cf6ef2
1edc82422e8d62a65654cdbeb415061ad0f19323
52141 F20110331_AACAXB hambleton_j_Page_095.pro
f0900d5a8fa4d5a97a57c5bb95facb6e
b7855e53a3e0f2df983f2120c4530070c5cb162b
F20110331_AACBBT hambleton_j_Page_058.tif
09211a8c745067633e12bf70be674780
106860f233f0f50d0619c9453c95b1c5bf078b6b
104014 F20110331_AACAWN hambleton_j_Page_071.jpg
056791acbb7371186ddb2bde1e474a1b
b47aae850283d45150297a6fed08a79a9d846a42
94517 F20110331_AACAXC hambleton_j_Page_104.jpg
4567a376bd4f23abc7564c1a439b43eb
3a108af9cb5fdeb0099d807f26e26ac36632d974
F20110331_AACBBU hambleton_j_Page_061.tif
7f1e916ba1be6c2d2a8072a0cbfd9cf7
e14ffdeebe9aa6be8b61e0353718be2aa302e680
85905 F20110331_AACAWO hambleton_j_Page_091.jpg
588da60ce2884e84c6c315f35cb36940
a77abf6af670d22d11c9ec26f4f9b015f1272af2
F20110331_AACBCJ hambleton_j_Page_101.tif
21fbd0b5f0099c04d49e31c79229f69d
9eac09be6fdf3c57b767052ec8be3b406fb8ad1c
102291 F20110331_AACAXD hambleton_j_Page_057.jpg
a8cc757b4ac6c9be305152fd4d6e2294
1035336e9797658b8a7690672b98e4e6efb0c681
F20110331_AACBBV hambleton_j_Page_063.tif
15de86abed5edc1644a530a58ea0b786
54a7fd73712e7e7ea8b03387d754ba7d7f13431c
2070 F20110331_AACAWP hambleton_j_Page_076.txt
b767ad9cf3c71a4ebbdfaa043dcddeff
8b2ede5446fe8d586d0f9124ff377e367c709207
F20110331_AACBCK hambleton_j_Page_112.tif
4b73fccd145c370cd3a6664a2162371e
2817e9acacdf3a12293f08a63ef0e1b3d3a609ea
32326 F20110331_AACAXE hambleton_j_Page_080.QC.jpg
dfe6eb821fb5b8a919b21b9469c49292
2816b8b3db5d74d75013c7b556d2d9fa12fcf5e0
F20110331_AACBBW hambleton_j_Page_070.tif
10255cb8f92b6750505adaf42e6d1177
104c0da82cbf469e746c049ab25322627b36c685
F20110331_AACAWQ hambleton_j_Page_094.tif
9e98de03d774a93aec93fdace6784561
d96a74be3b41099e73a9bd54b52685e7034d4dcb
F20110331_AACBCL hambleton_j_Page_114.tif
85ebb9f2963266c514e0b8c290ca898a
0b08cdef1dbdffdadafd5799071f7a6b623d8718
21765 F20110331_AACAXF hambleton_j_Page_036.QC.jpg
93fc5c0c1acd4c9fbde02cbf22c12f5c
602ac6c6439e1333db67d7fb5bc8095256844646
F20110331_AACBBX hambleton_j_Page_072.tif
0ad8dfd6e2490df1ea3b73e53e918bd6
f8f9dcaa3e34e6088767ffd3b0b59643961d91ab
956195 F20110331_AACAWR hambleton_j_Page_090.jp2
b6ee0f19dbb3bdc6452ced3381bd4f91
1df969daeaa0115c75bc99adcb90c9f086348a1d
384 F20110331_AACBDA hambleton_j_Page_040.txt
0689c72b6eba587fc825845ad2b07bb5
05663ef6322bea3a464c32bcf3d665d71c724227
F20110331_AACBCM hambleton_j_Page_116.tif
de81c8fb53a6303681645b5a01aa879f
006e253408e75e87f3cf78d8943ef1e94b718c28
1267 F20110331_AACAXG hambleton_j_Page_002.QC.jpg
031d254a52a3ea733514c52f21475872
f15022b1ee38d5733c055fa1750a6b03b96cb698
F20110331_AACBBY hambleton_j_Page_073.tif
9eddb4f99aa398ca62c5958bd663b022
b3149ca79dd1a29dc88a4d290f1041cada78b4df
F20110331_AACAWS hambleton_j_Page_050thm.jpg
ea790d9bd236f2ca1c269f4290fe17ea
0602596e851623333de1e1f350eafe8a76ead03a
376 F20110331_AACBDB hambleton_j_Page_043.txt
5c1a741bedc26aff06d33567bca63471
28e409ad099796410acb770118af170282594dd8
F20110331_AACBCN hambleton_j_Page_118.tif
42b7adf49c2676730962c50ffe7675da
8d779817e20fe59b146e34edcde056b53b45e40a
F20110331_AACAXH hambleton_j_Page_101.jp2
965fb117605a620bfd6d78770120bf40
a42af55206a48d961cfac58c60ffd0ad89aee40b
F20110331_AACBBZ hambleton_j_Page_078.tif
c34a30eef719734cd61d3a55157e4cdb
fcc86af01f62828263bade20cb4b34f4412a7c57
56868 F20110331_AACAWT hambleton_j_Page_042.jpg
265919372525d6bfb85b36254aaf7785
a27c1f0af63c5d85e1d6687aef3b762abe6c210a
568 F20110331_AACBDC hambleton_j_Page_048.txt
3ee2bfafac44bae194a480922a316b71
40d3bec3384fa0a49cdbc24afa60c2e12bc365bc
F20110331_AACBCO hambleton_j_Page_122.tif
40badc96aee9347121de2801c94eb29b
df6212e4055da0f0279ba8ced06b3d0f2c39a4ba
56529 F20110331_AACAXI hambleton_j_Page_113.pro
c373d7349684b70c99ec5570e7bf2de7
85bf07602fc651d6fb08d4757bcc7f0030a12d62
49246 F20110331_AACAWU hambleton_j_Page_035.jpg
9894d1cfb392943863cde37051f94638
ec99e3103a98561b93f4a7a5fd648905fbb592b1
1971 F20110331_AACBDD hambleton_j_Page_049.txt
c70145a20afe98384897f90ce2ee3ff1
03daa70da5881115f1b8d5706d5203cfd1802183
2558 F20110331_AACBCP hambleton_j_Page_017.txt
0ee680aee14795c266eb0651bf58e4ae
912100a161437d3a2c1384af8de98fc7f0575f05
32713 F20110331_AACAXJ hambleton_j_Page_085.QC.jpg
03fa9c8581149a7655d8716f19d2b8f9
8a251e5dc642067af5233096a99cb6223ebc8504
62243 F20110331_AACAWV hambleton_j_Page_029.pro
ea64559826aefb3bb206cf3db3ea6115
1d7387f85a672482bb740dc6cd4595282f7f5ef6
1656 F20110331_AACBDE hambleton_j_Page_050.txt
eb0f3195dba40078eb791925bcd652ca
9a262e6edba57b7febb25bf03aa29baa3e236849
1900 F20110331_AACBCQ hambleton_j_Page_018.txt
e37874fb68f0d68ad3ba5504db309b56
ae1c6a1605ae9810e947b51adc466a2567e15dab
52903 F20110331_AACAXK hambleton_j_Page_020.pro
0bc232c5cb5f7169bfa173b791c1b13f
4d417215ca088577fc04735ef35798428c7a35c7
6521 F20110331_AACAWW hambleton_j_Page_117thm.jpg
6900171ee5db112cb350c8e1a2b8fc2d
1dc2f15a7c6b2b8ad804125c4768c7e658cf836d
1712 F20110331_AACBDF hambleton_j_Page_051.txt
9ac34f0e0d0688c9db36c5feb56f0873
4d1b3029a586cdd58bfdf56164dc1f2785ae6f03
1999 F20110331_AACBCR hambleton_j_Page_019.txt
3aec823acb11ce3a3e037dab765235f6
d5c51c313993075f39b863d755d4c7cee950e94b
8329 F20110331_AACAXL hambleton_j_Page_074thm.jpg
c2b2552eb220c578110424793e04dee1
3bc7844419de3ca9a95896608a4990d3686627fd
2928 F20110331_AACAWX hambleton_j_Page_007.txt
af44a47d4d96b18793b886cf8e606b9d
198eb58cc68abb9620ea12258690062564020569
2154 F20110331_AACBDG hambleton_j_Page_053.txt
3cc9625ab92566d1614402e3cc5fe1ad
b5c1699498e79883b986f3f1421ba5b9ecd5a1bc
2159 F20110331_AACBCS hambleton_j_Page_021.txt
f2fa1ca5d0cbf12b7e5f6f4d24236037
82cd101ae9333f395ad8ae76ca96ce25d3c52ad3
1051956 F20110331_AACAXM hambleton_j_Page_024.jp2
ba225b213b9bdaa1b2cc4c15b624a109
c1191cca51994da6703e83d0d1f67d1394d8ed88
1051959 F20110331_AACAWY hambleton_j_Page_025.jp2
398dcdc98d0d88c3b4960ec375b3957b
d2527094b8a111cfad91aaece276cc77da295757
1758 F20110331_AACBDH hambleton_j_Page_059.txt
4775dfad693041875851120d7ac4276a
8f8132a1faae7be09b0500795bd45725b991ff77
2139 F20110331_AACAYA hambleton_j_Page_013.txt
935be1447c2a98ea3a17488751941b50
1148aa8b3bbaa5103fa4e3690362669eea051a9e
2955 F20110331_AACBCT hambleton_j_Page_025.txt
00ce361514dd9eb5ec75897b931048bc
bde196cfe46c6a2bf611e9d7fd7c60714b2b4136
F20110331_AACAXN hambleton_j_Page_052.tif
3ea92a42f0e311f3c02f74a477778c5a
c78ba21a2d0f202b087d7f3820df62b1e5d5fd9d
44139 F20110331_AACAWZ hambleton_j_Page_038.jpg
6917a11a96610d8d2a61cfc973ae2838
fcca3b6821240e275f32650fde798b60d7546a53
1879 F20110331_AACBDI hambleton_j_Page_061.txt
c1f62ffaaf72989641d0b5b7ac3a8e65
4843a6c646b79d873c375230a16252b2c9680f46
84485 F20110331_AACAYB hambleton_j_Page_087.jpg
d67c19205c37ffa132fff0ecbc5aaf5a
959150ce608ea5c1b1a85943c2c68785956cde44
1974 F20110331_AACBCU hambleton_j_Page_030.txt
a7138f96e7567b0d50c5da61199c037b
32ba27666ec6791e9d7526f58276af9f29a672da
F20110331_AACAXO hambleton_j_Page_100.jp2
4ccfa3079f30935e9f2a617780219aac
2762b2563dc732f3a806621ac423438fa41c0c0d
1717 F20110331_AACBDJ hambleton_j_Page_062.txt
194d12c486e40466eaeedcfede26044b
ab7efad79d59ed28637bd06d58fbdef28029dec8
647065 F20110331_AACAYC hambleton_j_Page_077.jp2
1332c09817fd6aba9aa5a761cc3c25d4
0660dd906e50ac5d456f81fb78d7e2bfd1d4b948
248 F20110331_AACBCV hambleton_j_Page_033.txt
513b38008d3b1b75ec2d7ce686a76b4b
18e0d9221bf9e771ba9cfeade1fa039cb9dee4a5
99789 F20110331_AACAXP hambleton_j_Page_080.jpg
48b802e9873111d7fca101db3c41b818
85fa40b489a412d0dbf4569a89c80bd0d1b99da4
F20110331_AACAYD hambleton_j_Page_029.tif
80e7fe61bd84d20f37ff46293009c07e
c4bedf7d511a210bc6635d81fdf71a1271c1d0a6
321 F20110331_AACBCW hambleton_j_Page_034.txt
b7f55415d1a4a502f800a3db213c8999
fdf5884fff4200b28d5f2adee5732a7d03ffefb5
F20110331_AACAXQ hambleton_j_Page_079.tif
09209f4391c69ec53b6aefec8552c5a5
801e689b847359668db391c908c4c46f7bc63bd3
2152 F20110331_AACBDK hambleton_j_Page_068.txt
a0c07c38958f93519fc0f6377f092abb
0814e0cf73f1d62a54f9cec60a9bb0521ceaa5c1
14224 F20110331_AACAYE hambleton_j_Page_036.pro
4f5a6366b6eb80ab0ade196e4b85d97a
b7f65a62215d4d15cf9846148f229c60c2f8c062
371 F20110331_AACBCX hambleton_j_Page_037.txt
85d8bb90ae5e12f7ba5fbf86358c03da
c3a904e73ee04c3fbacbedb96485b1bc31f5efe4
28178 F20110331_AACAXR hambleton_j_Page_087.QC.jpg
fb42e7be2ac05182e12124807e14998b
ade71a04ef80a707b3142699937e4759f167e1e2
2487 F20110331_AACBEA hambleton_j_Page_101.txt
a8bf206847f40ed64c5cedca3dfaf493
1a3dcaca5dcb2ee0af74f248c224ab29f8079dd2
F20110331_AACBDL hambleton_j_Page_071.txt
950d7641203609edd0866eb6e3ee52ab
588edf4dc448469adcd96fa05da0e66ab26246a2
50309 F20110331_AACAYF hambleton_j_Page_109.pro
d0d41db670512dcfbee057b04d4485ad
104f3c326469ca3082ec5c6040edd198f672a48b
F20110331_AACBCY hambleton_j_Page_038.txt
9c6424ebcb0abb78c9955f0d27e42790
7ca3587dffebc4e661a2631cd0eeb88299f1cfe0
F20110331_AACAXS hambleton_j_Page_109.jp2
10c3ec4f973e58a3051ba2ea6a60122b
7b05a88bacf83739142018f4e1e1df14c8046a20
2168 F20110331_AACBEB hambleton_j_Page_103.txt
deec3c5c7678e7c7973613793c81ac39
f0407ff5fb7a0c3a5102c8c79ab2276c120f344d
F20110331_AACBDM hambleton_j_Page_074.txt
77741b5793121fa2315008477e266f29
493bb8b6aae59f1e9c4a55e9cb38e8f8c1ec2714
21801 F20110331_AACAYG hambleton_j_Page_046.QC.jpg
423aac88b382000d6b8aab3f349ea340
99e83afc9a296026422d405891fc61a395e12740
F20110331_AACAXT hambleton_j_Page_026thm.jpg
669706dbb91c681f54c01c89d86ebae9
fc0bcf81538affb3cccdea9ac1daa39372aacce8
2074 F20110331_AACBEC hambleton_j_Page_108.txt
66a130fed9bf605b55a3908cdf1bc9b4
9393ae13bddf73f409d50886f762e02e40527aa2
1144 F20110331_AACBDN hambleton_j_Page_077.txt
38523b0d1113716fb92a00d5a53cc7e7
333f863fc78a4cdf87de3ca708812b227bfe8813
35382 F20110331_AACAYH hambleton_j_Page_112.QC.jpg
bbbaa2b009d2c6ae0c6afd1f349fbb71
0a5a26e0014f078444a6f425308b21d0bcaca0a2
253 F20110331_AACBCZ hambleton_j_Page_039.txt
b9b5a004a1a5295c6217d34ec5f0a901
ad40ae6ec63e327ef51734accc3bbf80cc24e926
7712 F20110331_AACAXU hambleton_j_Page_001.pro
686a0360ba35e336973d703a8af0c606
304aeb620962bcc043ffc458b4a5b7869c7452aa
F20110331_AACBED hambleton_j_Page_109.txt
64310b97255f0668a0a10ac7f291a4f9
f28fce3d19db3726e8da8c174438fee741156734
226 F20110331_AACBDO hambleton_j_Page_078.txt
8103a92407b5b0ca31937272d2c4e988
6abd4704373713267c0a321a9976a9764fd55bec
F20110331_AACAYI hambleton_j_Page_103.jp2
5d27cf59ea9b4ea27245e28e15e980c1
e9f6a7151d966bbc50a43a1a0771c95aaa4312ff
67610 F20110331_AACAXV hambleton_j_Page_121.pro
529c70ab43b447e9f5a24c1781649e7c
3cfff4076c29a5e6798e58bc25842f99d09d6ea2
2652 F20110331_AACBEE hambleton_j_Page_119.txt
5a3ae8737662c5dce32ac360ababafef
e8aa928e0751903927b5cf635e7c9644882317ac
1658 F20110331_AACBDP hambleton_j_Page_081.txt
92c99a1afd6831b45a8886a55c3ada14
6f3122e8f58ca0932728e9ee4e5f208ce2cf7a02
6414 F20110331_AACAYJ hambleton_j_Page_064thm.jpg
6efd77f91a41e7a902abf3e4142999fc
9b3e6f73d556bd2f056e9f80aa04991db2315a4d
1020 F20110331_AACAXW hambleton_j_Page_002.pro
01020446bb2ecaa6179a049526de3cf0
4f832d3ec015340e6230da7f84977025772b4a19
2579 F20110331_AACBEF hambleton_j_Page_120.txt
aee3069b00ae14c66081731c362c0f11
0c021df60ccb08ec43a8f83badcaf359a59df619
1777 F20110331_AACBDQ hambleton_j_Page_083.txt
42e8736f35689934dd020831c9b989ba
f34b5fe82365d3c3c5888525ce4aeb2b5e19bd72
31342 F20110331_AACAYK hambleton_j_Page_066.QC.jpg
6ae88b7724ebc501fd8ba6d8e10da175
4fbb2e665f6d5ccc72d6e5307e4b7bb24f63f018
56310 F20110331_AACAXX hambleton_j_Page_024.pro
d1036b97ad7a7bfd5a1659150e9e9a62
d149cc4de069997bffeb7792c73744a2c84d73c3
2740 F20110331_AACBEG hambleton_j_Page_121.txt
c74bfc1edcfb745c51616636b07b81ec
0425922dec02e6b057836786da4aa2b877533539
713002 F20110331_AACAZA hambleton_j_Page_042.jp2
24cd6ec4cefb569e9c5e999bf23d1d2c
3d270c51fe95590c6c9c04b2be20da57eed432da
2177 F20110331_AACBDR hambleton_j_Page_084.txt
3d839ce0afb72b1f34964f7bdb73ece4
53df075fbd42eb37b7ac226751de0773fec630b3
80326 F20110331_AACAYL hambleton_j_Page_047.jpg
0481292dd0515579ed6fe54be1d1a806
4b6531de36fff1f1d3f643b44e7043dca613d28c
6546 F20110331_AACAXY hambleton_j_Page_096thm.jpg
efd9a037a6c68c4f36e8cf039b1e6a22
d7323b490dc787d9585036199229e83168801974
432 F20110331_AACBEH hambleton_j_Page_122.txt
371003dfeac51f34a2049bd9a3b86f52
0b5e85848b283643f429845ea13137b789e82b8e
2127 F20110331_AACBDS hambleton_j_Page_085.txt
c06ae0b10504ef26274d2d02fa5dd86d
ade81629eb85914d36265f4a9acfd08ee900d569
966 F20110331_AACAYM hambleton_j_Page_099.pro
860bd36fffad26fe8fa0a912aea7dae8
79b608529559ad52c5fa3b9f226524a99d4cfb85
9893 F20110331_AACAXZ hambleton_j_Page_098.QC.jpg
468ac97c1b2ab2c791b2f89083f946f3
da755eb7ed7aa6f7171107bb7d8ded68e640912a
88309 F20110331_AACBEI hambleton_j_Page_005.pro
bd9a6b1e4d7d893c5d01a6e4369e43da
561fd424a8374b19dfc59aaf66b8a058c8589047
F20110331_AACAZB hambleton_j_Page_115.tif
7cbd097713ee98f194c0282261acc324
60260176cc24b2a90c18db7f853b71db102c59cd
2009 F20110331_AACBDT hambleton_j_Page_086.txt
b7f9477559937422598b0fc174fbf0ab
a5b3158167ba94183805f9a09b27183852a80989
2996 F20110331_AACAYN hambleton_j_Page_099thm.jpg
f0912f16e8650c368cbe59310db515ee
86b6b5eba190d8aaf1995c9c81294a0baf37f62c
54681 F20110331_AACBEJ hambleton_j_Page_012.pro
741ea6aca4b9a27ab38c83e803c5a081
e5f8a737a0bc0c11ae4f1b64b7cc41ae165f3fb8
8709 F20110331_AACAZC hambleton_j_Page_076thm.jpg
350ddec6db03bee6cb8fb10bfe31f692
02021263aa78f3a7d9b46429246582afeda3ed59
1817 F20110331_AACBDU hambleton_j_Page_087.txt
d163329a25630a464507d9cb72eaebdc
66965eb20044f1c49613dcab2d224038ba03cf6f
29939 F20110331_AACAYO hambleton_j_Page_116.QC.jpg
043134f2437e507ed0429187dacc01d3
2bc9c12bd811e94371bb51c8ce9239fda6773a99
1732 F20110331_AACBEK hambleton_j_Page_016.pro
fa341a9d8c51cd698449178f7486aeb5
de093b3a75f7132bc6c51e370cd4efa88fa483e8
106440 F20110331_AACAZD hambleton_j_Page_114.jpg
0a76c14c621f26c5973df06632c51dc1
a24e795a528122b65c0134dfa7f6134d2c92e3c5
1796 F20110331_AACBDV hambleton_j_Page_090.txt
1e2c5cea41846eaa33690eb18abf1400
8cf2a8b9901edcaec40e47563dd295c529f3a658
385899 F20110331_AACAYP hambleton_j_Page_033.jp2
ad3487bfe467d2389bb2b0a517f3e088
79514a3f0a67715db228acf0f8da3d3739b79c20
7877 F20110331_AACAZE hambleton_j_Page_082thm.jpg
8d0d826f12702762817cfe5ef94d1514
5a980ac108722358dd11df51fbb64fb15096f3a3
1772 F20110331_AACBDW hambleton_j_Page_091.txt
15b39b12ae2f72735e3d6a669d5e0275
c846c086302dbf83d07ce6626fcfa00b2a259c0b
24671 F20110331_AACAYQ hambleton_j_Page_099.jpg
c32fb60beaf9ccb9eea2eb4e4569bf0e
1949848bee09d63451164b90bc18ea80101d8282
63273 F20110331_AACBEL hambleton_j_Page_017.pro
d41330026f3230a012c681817cdfef72
2d1ebfc53bac18b29f862a04fb3867c7b3919e93
34615 F20110331_AACAZF hambleton_j_Page_114.QC.jpg
bf6be4c8ca557409917920e8edcbc69f
3ef9b63d99d325d1c1401191e3d605e59bf9552f
137 F20110331_AACBDX hambleton_j_Page_098.txt
f5d8c2bd558fcb1baedaeda4abfdec8b
0ae11b51fad80056defc06b765992251960e5300
135649 F20110331_AACAYR hambleton_j_Page_027.jpg
54bac978d840dedb84c1edcc2df37db1
1453ea8ccb45d22b764dec0cb0726facec4d274f
57335 F20110331_AACBFA hambleton_j_Page_055.pro
8c6262866af1b7c2f1899d7010ee67c7
44952707d814908e05d4578f6792d03e5f6e450d
47781 F20110331_AACBEM hambleton_j_Page_018.pro
485ed7730ab86c769c62bcd54af0e28b
58c283a5e4f5021e742eda1f73de1c754652118d
7816 F20110331_AACAZG hambleton_j_Page_060thm.jpg
99fd277c51e7b7cb9ef5f9d2b724ab3c
3866f47d22cfa2ba2800d4c8470fdc33f9e9ed48
121 F20110331_AACBDY hambleton_j_Page_099.txt
f1099b5050936a6873b463fc95fc9f6e
49cb7a834183d236e4a8f71f809419816307d759
28718 F20110331_AACAYS hambleton_j_Page_077.pro
e92ca60c08901b126cb510105a4147e8
a2ecd32bde1b311cc9ec62f212bbe904c82c880b
50853 F20110331_AACBFB hambleton_j_Page_057.pro
9ab74f996a80c1ffd359d8725d5e2530
e2a10f9d10259fac182e3ab292230e75a577a5c0
50257 F20110331_AACBEN hambleton_j_Page_019.pro
19e95186901941db8aa8bdff75b16239
c32465cc84bf69f7d630b44486d74963890545c5
8519 F20110331_AACAZH hambleton_j_Page_014thm.jpg
62a5e29d0d8f788996878d768dac52ff
2d1a5eb5057e871db61da21627db89dc3d79b6f3
2055 F20110331_AACBDZ hambleton_j_Page_100.txt
0a0157b27aaff9cb97f28814c325e224
1565fdda00aaac146b233e4441f7babe1f0fcfdd
47226 F20110331_AACAYT hambleton_j_Page_104.pro
9435e7cb3b557041be45fcb685b2b82b
ffd44ed37395f1ee626cf74e073e5c9d7fb5022c
37809 F20110331_AACBFC hambleton_j_Page_064.pro
f56ee48e0b84701052bba848e891eb57
ccac37c0637c42873dfa2b270687a0544cb08120
54365 F20110331_AACBEO hambleton_j_Page_022.pro
4e3328d92d0238422d40ce85da442ad9
35d50b3c826a6d9c139e0ceada71242b282ff4a3
1051984 F20110331_AACAZI hambleton_j_Page_030.jp2
c04e1aa4d91cc50546223ea5d387e0e4
0afc43c797326eeee578bd306c26e11e37b66415
2216 F20110331_AACAYU hambleton_j_Page_112.txt
4b5c503704036c3a331001568cb3b937
736d0212681f7d65f0ce6307609e7bf4e5d5ed6f
51960 F20110331_AACBFD hambleton_j_Page_066.pro
bb11ca8791446d1255fdcdbc5c9ce3e1
ffe0a025a48148e47f0374a08498d9f555adbd5c
50411 F20110331_AACBEP hambleton_j_Page_026.pro
300f1cfac64fa1fe0e9082bdca08251e
376c942bd1944a5b1d3222914b8c3f4b145212b1
37057 F20110331_AACAZJ hambleton_j_Page_120.QC.jpg
9d419429b51e3f05f7b7bb02e0f65518
122a444474842b9efed293c4359c5677c9184d43
75935 F20110331_AACAYV hambleton_j_Page_045.jpg
8a506257a7b763494876920fba06ba4d
5fd0e2acde20f473d89cc00faa0c60a0c15de147
49030 F20110331_AACBFE hambleton_j_Page_067.pro
690bab856ff0f2526221c7b0df07713e
64428d1b9f0c44ecc4807a0dbf1475bef1c99317
49489 F20110331_AACBEQ hambleton_j_Page_030.pro
596c7b75d96b67c9905efc3576352dd3
362b8d62289612b6bc5a842080a3b06b3bfdb386
6145 F20110331_AACAZK hambleton_j_Page_036thm.jpg
c04fe27c8ae63159a6b0b7695dff1c55
91adddbaf2cd2c7be76b176100898f0ebdfafc47
20133 F20110331_AACAYW hambleton_j_Page_077.QC.jpg
760f3fa8a6702de595423c2a13250a0b
70ef3b9916a9ffd549c56dfdc53dd9a674b117a8
54687 F20110331_AACBFF hambleton_j_Page_068.pro
1cdf4bf4562db11ad4eb816e3746802a
8fe6aafdded75bee019914d2af1f383504623ee9
14566 F20110331_AACBER hambleton_j_Page_031.pro
55365dcb51e653fcac314036d3bdc5d7
d0a0d85778b792a5d56f1a1e1147c2579dda3aec
136 F20110331_AACAZL hambleton_j_Page_097.txt
0e62b242cf511291cabc2745b7a0fe08
dd0de14a1d866c7895bf71b491b6ac9f424dd350
F20110331_AACAYX hambleton_j_Page_059.tif
b3fdf0f8ac45b41aa4f088a7cbfecffc
1a6e51dd87de9a9cc530c2484216a71216de8909
55313 F20110331_AACBFG hambleton_j_Page_071.pro
f53ded4fe66704528c30944aeb753f93
14a63b7403efa03ae56c222079ac636f8b7129a7
5275 F20110331_AACBES hambleton_j_Page_033.pro
90603928bfc078644ba4b753847c9c6b
69554ab8668f4b707a59f1eee524e7389f86438d
F20110331_AACAZM hambleton_j_Page_069.tif
cafaa6ff6abc73eddce20877bdfd9832
7cd6b675aa74679fa6935711d3572b83e1f68f64
F20110331_AACAYY hambleton_j_Page_110.jp2
d70e6c7ee8df7e9228841b561deb26d8
2aa202378f6d21dcb0d5d6b6ec8dfa3eb63eb76e
56259 F20110331_AACBFH hambleton_j_Page_073.pro
7c8d89de323130545c11bb8f15b90791
e883175ec4a30e44d9ffed768c73d4e78c604d24
8440 F20110331_AACBET hambleton_j_Page_040.pro
4e09e0a1a39a4d98846c6d7ab58edda9
8072935cd46829ee3d6e512e5509301858a87634
1051981 F20110331_AACAZN hambleton_j_Page_084.jp2
a1df77418584a3d1646e444c803448ba
17b1eecedf7dbf675c98f05a078a399adf5ec1f5
10422 F20110331_AACAYZ hambleton_j_Page_097.QC.jpg
c26279468ac164472f7d3cd29a8facfa
cd13dc4b8357f7aa63f70d2f8886018a64cfe916
52397 F20110331_AACBFI hambleton_j_Page_076.pro
f8ad2516a6883dfa5aafd2699ecd9b09
2aff5711f502e29e44bb1ad3c4636b26111d3468
9052 F20110331_AACBEU hambleton_j_Page_041.pro
7e800b391e3e039ea09a24ebee1422f5
7ad93659a75927adf37022e73a1eaa9d8898e3e7
954229 F20110331_AACAZO hambleton_j_Page_092.jp2
7bee25aadfa48c307238ed6b875231e1
3756ba4ef3b3c9869575b5fb093aa579f6610b2c
3997 F20110331_AACBFJ hambleton_j_Page_078.pro
7e4e0c2d93ccf5b698ffe4da6404e9e1
56d46e264b9b85c16d2d4f7496bf8db1a09debdd
10612 F20110331_AACBEV hambleton_j_Page_042.pro
fbb139eabd4f46bc6bb9bc09ce7cd060
87f42c647eccccb5ef0ade8d50bf6fff19bfad94
F20110331_AACAZP hambleton_j_Page_004.tif
197925c22410a6235db9241cac15ee53
1484dc36215f12305ffe7aa29cefdd491a79ab2f
43503 F20110331_AACBFK hambleton_j_Page_079.pro
fdd0ade2ba681edd4df6719eeff5ce7f
9a3ff4fb162ae726ba7045bf477cfdaea80ce0ec
5286 F20110331_AACBEW hambleton_j_Page_043.pro
3b8fe39175fa8f7a66c9d37ee8e0abb5
d392cae6ffa771603d91eb3b2934bed3145c45b2
7796 F20110331_AACAZQ hambleton_j_Page_066thm.jpg
d633710e6d9357905a882a62daba6180
ce3ed298514d9427a1af1be2bfbc2a9deefffe08
49363 F20110331_AACBFL hambleton_j_Page_082.pro
32e0257b681401c6627c19f909dcd2f7
55959eb439d275ac43b709c5b7370fbdffd78015
10971 F20110331_AACBEX hambleton_j_Page_044.pro
2d0223832786fb94bbd9a099bf60d505
4da65546b8cfe83cd431272df0c8aa430a4fec87
73599 F20110331_AACAZR hambleton_j_Page_007.pro
886b1a7f4e01ee5dc7e4bab059092c01
483851077c738038d145c05a9347fea43ea7ac4f
108264 F20110331_AACBGA hambleton_j_Page_013.jpg
45527f47dcbf6e4dfdec863f7f4b056c
c190e0fe95813f704936d5845a2d8ac8b00eb62e
41144 F20110331_AACBEY hambleton_j_Page_050.pro
89cfef6915937efe48ebcf3badf0ccb7
4076c5242ada496af220c89a694837a6ccea97b4
42503 F20110331_AACAZS hambleton_j_Page_089.pro
6847e2dc89e7a4741e012fe1ccd7071c
2d9b6384d56fef0df570d145cea458f8746e3aab
96043 F20110331_AACBGB hambleton_j_Page_018.jpg
fa70d562c5c2d68d14bd4a1094dd0806
c6b78fca49b498097b5753ea82f7e0062dec0270
44439 F20110331_AACBFM hambleton_j_Page_083.pro
b8d0258226396979347942d29b6c4033
029ca79bfe1ff44fbda25d8097d5105bb5cc3cec
51225 F20110331_AACBEZ hambleton_j_Page_054.pro
b7095373178eee159fcc3db6cbe4b773
57caf2b596010f940949bcfab282832778647d6f
85563 F20110331_AACAZT hambleton_j_Page_051.jpg
1d4a1685d6ddbb97edb1fc79bb51d147
5567e8a14a8298ec8e288820ba22e223f08d0f95
98875 F20110331_AACBGC hambleton_j_Page_019.jpg
024560963542a0a519b9e518f091ced7
5c05b70397117f0478a1174a56fe038602f794db
55292 F20110331_AACBFN hambleton_j_Page_084.pro
05a2b550bb6a4055efb7c796a8190b8f
cd1ea16aa6b6e98fb5ae93815375572678c14440
47296 F20110331_AACAZU hambleton_j_Page_061.pro
da9c66c848bc6e84425794aa02a6977f
c06293b3a84a7045e92be804f05cbf7fde8eac61
104898 F20110331_AACBGD hambleton_j_Page_020.jpg
e1ba05378902ceb1f7f10d1eaa1ffa68
b747a66cbded93e4c9177b695d821a1f2c5db534
44828 F20110331_AACBFO hambleton_j_Page_090.pro
9cf5a9e6407b78c059eb29602cb1f256
cdb03ce8a75ef137ba78f01ccfd7b8eefb3ad5a1
121770 F20110331_AACAZV hambleton_j_Page_023.jpg
36a22fe371698028ca88c6958ff41151
583a2a52ad54f3adc850d7c7249d7ab0f6c89463
106581 F20110331_AACBGE hambleton_j_Page_022.jpg
1f1ec58b53b28fdd6bbe53f771b78b87
ac22e656b4208b1e0205999916f66b8739803960
51164 F20110331_AACBFP hambleton_j_Page_094.pro
96e9ca5d1fd2e430254045b6e5b6e136
f2b59e545159fd79317d07f6eb2e01178ed3761e
F20110331_AACAZW hambleton_j_Page_070.jp2
3e1c4bd9302b6ed47af14b9812d5d181
93a72c47252e5d92f0343cba124641264d620f1c
139390 F20110331_AACBGF hambleton_j_Page_025.jpg
a92d9fd6cef163782092d9812c5eb2ab
7bb44249727ea2f9b086b6e13449f862312caea5
37084 F20110331_AACBFQ hambleton_j_Page_096.pro
5424688cc0ae4fa2ab47a41f66e22b4a
297733356125efb552f32b560b16ec573184d98c
F20110331_AACAZX hambleton_j_Page_014.jp2
897522974dec358453b2e4a609c94438
b199b790cc0cc0574fc62ea0b27ff857cfb6a875
121253 F20110331_AACBGG hambleton_j_Page_029.jpg
d8ad8b740d02b571ef47c8fdf6d10789
f638deb0877a1222f42af41a8097a70c34e5d15f
50667 F20110331_AACBFR hambleton_j_Page_106.pro
9e5771548dddd972bb539a3128281696
79a1f2399214381e14070f45eb537d454c7f87ea
28474 F20110331_AACAZY hambleton_j_Page_052.QC.jpg
64174216f181140cf4e7e5dd6af783d1
c6f4c54101b3bdfbde0baa58c0b5632cbb75d77a
36179 F20110331_AACBGH hambleton_j_Page_032.jpg
a67553117a33625dcb67cc18b93170d1
79bd9c1609aa5bd305548e2bf594b043ae6d26c6
49774 F20110331_AACBFS hambleton_j_Page_111.pro
b0f4de2f6740801f5e1f5d5364a2673e
3021674d07334b025eedb22913da749d72305a5c
2036 F20110331_AACAZZ hambleton_j_Page_116.txt
c4345ff04f46f4a705b79022ca424d03
d75e571959fb87c06517e096b16c5071ee1cd672
78587 F20110331_AACBGI hambleton_j_Page_036.jpg
90d113f693c2e8e642ac642b880804e3
58ad68be3f18c74d9d370720c1984680bf012010
20227 F20110331_AACBFT hambleton_j_Page_118.pro
d33423be0569015e4b76d1827c1107d3
a189e0971f96ce7d84f2ff1cb28762db3d4d8c75
66734 F20110331_AACBGJ hambleton_j_Page_037.jpg
566a89141b4e56cc6b61d073e8e2ce30
d7b671cab3d59e69c35ac16900960f7f8ac72081
63506 F20110331_AACBFU hambleton_j_Page_120.pro
3a4049eacdad656a1dd5bf51f7d95f33
c4129306b10326f6d0b7e7ad6567085839568e4d
51546 F20110331_AACBGK hambleton_j_Page_043.jpg
05f53f3a786e0f42c233798b319ccb47
18e9fd8c842e61819d8fc9025564fdb22569241e
4329 F20110331_AACBFV hambleton_j_Page_002.jpg
2501c3d3b36eb95dd88269c55226cc20
a23dde33a2bb758b7657c6d85242032d070892b0
96350 F20110331_AACBGL hambleton_j_Page_049.jpg
ff2a7595c68af6d56f96e40bf207f497
829e6f556647f4ece2e74d2730c699b98b22c386
7908 F20110331_AACBFW hambleton_j_Page_003.jpg
f0c23128f3abaf8156be9a1e8d9557fa
d1749198c9d975046c7541b454e97623e881d78f
97426 F20110331_AACBHA hambleton_j_Page_094.jpg
04c0f8d8ea4b71b70df4095a844bff44
f2d90afa2ae8b1177077669f3baebd9b9561c060
86077 F20110331_AACBGM hambleton_j_Page_052.jpg
2c8e9d75a903d7b9f20b2e8ef0a44270
80546d64478afa01472fadd5a58ff7b5f1ebb86c
123232 F20110331_AACBFX hambleton_j_Page_005.jpg
ade1d7d3e3010ff35c3e652c4da35b2e
6ed90a10efc2e8558cee4f53bee354b5a1e5f3e8
103461 F20110331_AACBHB hambleton_j_Page_095.jpg
23b931c32a440faf091590fe05602a7a
af5d73f5d4694e55538898b7cf6670c27d349655
91050 F20110331_AACBFY hambleton_j_Page_011.jpg
db868e4b48cc9f9283b8b1e59e003901
40eec7a852d9ad0b3aab81f7859dd9a10d9aadfc
26218 F20110331_AACBHC hambleton_j_Page_097.jpg
e3a30b2cc1a062e83603c400336cd4cd
53fe1e05ffc21a1ce904596a2764cc4d5d612d92
104907 F20110331_AACBGN hambleton_j_Page_053.jpg
36d2fcb7c43033bc9ab387f9a8e55b63
7fa09aa5ee4ee36a0f88dd55cc1b0a88e15d4ce1
109716 F20110331_AACBFZ hambleton_j_Page_012.jpg
808303c68e86684110ab31fb24e38b4f
311c488dfea0aa064f86e0c1ea809524c48fe806
25933 F20110331_AACBHD hambleton_j_Page_098.jpg
61a8a047f7e04aaf3fdd2b8e094c42fd
31bb1dec8f31fc94d4b9bbf5546c73a7f13af985
97238 F20110331_AACBGO hambleton_j_Page_054.jpg
a543050cccdf1b81f3ebd882e52d41d7
b03b137cb9df40965c1837585bd4a7ec9fc1208a
99384 F20110331_AACBHE hambleton_j_Page_100.jpg
d48f5fd49b48be16e3725cb6d371c4f1
da132c091e931187f8759689fbd968074ee01405
96213 F20110331_AACBGP hambleton_j_Page_058.jpg
0e9acfcefa6d058ee8d752dbfb49a5f4
0e57761fe3ec63f3a1e7411f8060a3b269bd3b63
111440 F20110331_AACBHF hambleton_j_Page_101.jpg
8dc810fc9b7f99f88ded2cedcaf80fd9
b88388a72702f6fe2558d83c0fb1ac48339b230c
82865 F20110331_AACBGQ hambleton_j_Page_063.jpg
32c61105419a5f466d46caffb624e241
ff45b704fbab7b74279265e8a98f933b8c21a99e
110897 F20110331_AACBHG hambleton_j_Page_102.jpg
d9f866547fb37173d41f8878e6cb4755
7dcc94c5e53b96e5f3611bb1063fcf8a669acfa0
76875 F20110331_AACBGR hambleton_j_Page_064.jpg
87a33329b0b53b1148e6fff376478e03
268ceda74e423582f7df0737024d34ea845df18f
107968 F20110331_AACBHH hambleton_j_Page_103.jpg
b5070fadf74c709488495102f1861953
4f744a2b606c915cc9eb415903ee7bbeb6dabf36
106599 F20110331_AACBGS hambleton_j_Page_065.jpg
71798bd2f6b733e22eb49af374c1e2c4
e0bac190995be82db320c813d390d1b36f23b3c7
103596 F20110331_AACBHI hambleton_j_Page_105.jpg
72199703ffe86ddbe3d676ea33751cda
f9e031227f58accf6b798abe501ff6d527494fb2
94951 F20110331_AACBGT hambleton_j_Page_067.jpg
91483d0426a03e48ed8ffc403d465772
d42087b1baf10da9edf41a249ac681405bc69752
101068 F20110331_AACBHJ hambleton_j_Page_109.jpg
8776f5e1badd30cb873493fd758a4a44
be37521ae4d40ef59eb64fe04d3082a046064579
104257 F20110331_AACBGU hambleton_j_Page_068.jpg
5289380389350ceba5dbe5b7d3d59f27
c60e01bcf71c2e789d9cee8bc22e07c1ca55aeca
98786 F20110331_AACBHK hambleton_j_Page_111.jpg
3a829b22d6e65d3607ff996f40d3de30
72856b58bc7f348912f262666f27e834d6d9a78f
24515 F20110331_AACBGV hambleton_j_Page_078.jpg
eec897117eddcb8061126dd328086a6d
84e786ba1975b25ca9351866e7ecf01f82adb70f
108200 F20110331_AACBHL hambleton_j_Page_112.jpg
fe3a906129f533b099e4a592a6fd22a4
24ae31d5a8d412ede8cdecb25b9b25127a47be7d
89398 F20110331_AACBGW hambleton_j_Page_083.jpg
6b9607ac09ec6fa7abca5efa1155160b
2b19aa7c164e32642eb450c03807ac943ae3ee8f
99622 F20110331_AACBHM hambleton_j_Page_116.jpg
82e203fa47585dc6675026b6a671afff
4419b858b6dfacc41d0140a1b5656c2769066d00
108970 F20110331_AACBGX hambleton_j_Page_084.jpg
b48ac8dd8a4596f22147305ac7d599cb
8de80e99635d95a09edc3f84cce5a4b571168468
951408 F20110331_AACBIA hambleton_j_Page_045.jp2
37daffe84eb88fc5b1f3f90422c11d4b
ca6e5186d89179b97ce5ea07590c7d71899bb9ac
129093 F20110331_AACBHN hambleton_j_Page_119.jpg
3a2047b7ef98d262927d62c56b72a146
3e5b84e237ebb150856c3087388432814cee5abf
101908 F20110331_AACBGY hambleton_j_Page_086.jpg
6e077a45f192c08c722666f3282b844f
588367fda282813498f47f240c54e7b805e43832
929147 F20110331_AACBIB hambleton_j_Page_051.jp2
c59fb1110f7af458d5b1cdac17506839
d8ecf0d9a22b1d5ddb21b5fcb67d8a8950e55361
87591 F20110331_AACBGZ hambleton_j_Page_092.jpg
3287861e2562b5a9c222f5f41889ac43
94cf34e222954970647804b935ee6618456bc52d
930538 F20110331_AACBIC hambleton_j_Page_052.jp2
5abfb7c0697e04a5acbe1d3666e0af92
de169c01dd57b0061c86ed756af4b1a14510a367
227628 F20110331_AACBHO hambleton_j_Page_001.jp2
3a4cefa69f023e2049e51abad2afe04d
cc74f1cbe490150fb76afd2a3c5862a47d8206c7
1051976 F20110331_AACBID hambleton_j_Page_053.jp2
888d580722a03bc2099b3463bcd48461
61b37c34dda7dc896b38d519d3e1c02e94e270b5
987399 F20110331_AACBHP hambleton_j_Page_011.jp2
52161e086c9cb1887314a5896323588c
21af2343afa4c93ae1f8f28d311ea3a475034ccb
F20110331_AACBIE hambleton_j_Page_054.jp2
dadaa2da3e439cfd366d84fafec69fe8
68ccb8bef60ea6eaba4056e6dd612750a7e07574
F20110331_AACBHQ hambleton_j_Page_012.jp2
42f4cf8a7212250b463d5019101e3002
22e56dd5bcb324f4c18c07d912d901c4eb62b630
1051974 F20110331_AACBIF hambleton_j_Page_057.jp2
a23abe16431069d95b75394e0d3cd1a2
2a55ed48b0d7e9f277e5200b3c906f99d0c30a4d
176910 F20110331_AACBHR hambleton_j_Page_015.jp2
ae2d6692b944c03b595559d9d3737708
b8c3bd0e9d6d21b4c7c4f5c36442085c8dd913bd
998931 F20110331_AACBIG hambleton_j_Page_060.jp2
d4bf3352dc7a9560ab05e52851421922
e8d5ff5db20e952966e9bbba341f7e98e5d718c9
137445 F20110331_AACBHS hambleton_j_Page_016.jp2
a9e203332e34061e8ee36fcc4498f685
1dc11fbfb4d128c139f6060a89f5b383828ed321
1021087 F20110331_AACBIH hambleton_j_Page_061.jp2
95e840ceab25ed875f365dd9924a52c0
11a4ac2a8e79f50ca9eacbbb0df0b15af06a9d70
F20110331_AACBHT hambleton_j_Page_017.jp2
249086c217ea1de2b654a815639e54dd
e5c21fee522f7054c7810ce9bb507643b84f2ea0
1038425 F20110331_AACBII hambleton_j_Page_067.jp2
0f0235857d4e2b82d29073db09fecce8
9900172b9ffe275175e1653c5eacee16b0d76965
F20110331_AACBHU hambleton_j_Page_020.jp2
37d1b0465b761e8cfd073e1fa0a04de5
3416d9cad0fa6d1503915694a94f99854237d741
1051925 F20110331_AACBIJ hambleton_j_Page_071.jp2
2b58d14840d0e1b513411528248bf77e
fcf12a45d0a8527e3ff2317a801e2c2040b0c2f9
F20110331_AACBHV hambleton_j_Page_022.jp2
e35ddc549814660ff12b0a2e3736bd20
d17d3cc9e905b1cdaecf9078b38b26c8749a277a
1051904 F20110331_AACBIK hambleton_j_Page_075.jp2
32dfb98fef11af9052f8aae1da3b4130
dfc8b5bd9950156bc6538871f2cc1f301e103178







FIBULAE OF THE NINTH THROUGH SEVENTH CENTURIES BC IN CENTRAL ITALY


By

JENNIFER M. HAMBLETON

















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008


































2008 Jennifer M. Hambleton

































To my mom for the time we spent together in Paris and our shared love of art and history.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere appreciation is given to Dr. Barbara Barletta for her guidance throughout my years

of graduate study, but especially in researching the Italic fibula. Gratitude is expressed to Dr.

Robin Poynor for his helpful comments and suggestions on my thesis. To my family and friends

whose encouragement has meant so much, thank you. Your constant support of my education has

inspired me. I would like to express my appreciation to the library staff at the University of

Florida for their hard work in helping me to obtain items that were not readily accessible. Special

acknowledgement is given to Janice Kahler of the University of Florida interlibrary loan staff for

her effort in overseeing the delivery of items that were requested for this thesis. I want to

recognize Jennifer Testa for her help with the Italian translations. Finally, I thank Dr. Hartigan

and Dr. Eaverly, who first sparked my interest in the ancient world as an undergraduate while

studying architecture.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S ..............................................................................................................4

LIST OF FIGURES ................................... .. .... ..... ................. .7

A B S T R A C T ............ ................... ............................................................ 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ............... ................. ........... .............................. 12

2 T Y P O L O G Y ..................................................................................................................... 1 7

3 FIBULA TYPES OF THE 13TH THROUGH 7TH CENTURIES BC: DEVELOPMENT
AND DIFFUSION........... ...... .. .........................................49

T he E elongated C atch-P late .......................................................................... .....................53
G geographical D distribution ................................................................................ ............... 58
Fibula Types from the 13th tol lth Centuries BC............... .............................................58
Fibula Types from the 9th to 7th Centuries BC..................................... .................62

4 CONTROVERSIAL TYPES OF THE 8TH THROUGH THE 6TH CENTURIES BC...........65

T he K nobbed Serpentine F ibula ............................ ...................................... .....................65
The Com posite Leech B ow Fibula ........................................ ................... ............... 69
Italic fibulae at Syracuse, Pithekoussai and Cumae .................................... ............... 73
T he K nobbed L eech F ibula .......................................................................... ....................74
Sum m ary ......... ....... .................................. ............................ 75

5 PROVENIENCE, MATERIALS, TECHNIQUES, AND ICONOGRAPHY ......................79

S ite s ........................................... .......... ......... ..... .. ... ........................... 7 9
Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicily, Southern Italy, and Campania: The
Indigenous Sites ........................... ......... ........ ....... ........ 79
Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries ................... ..... ............... 83
The Greek Colonies in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries ...........................................84
Etruria and Latium in the Seventh Century ................. ..... ...............85
M a te ria ls ........................................ .. ............. ........ .. ................................. 8 7
Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicily, Southern Italy, and Campania.................................87
Etruria and Latium in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries............................... .................89
The Greek Colonies in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries ...........................................90
Etruria in the Seventh C century ............................................... ............................. 91
Processes and Techniques of Production.................................................................... ...... 91
Icon ography .................................................................................93









6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FIBULAE FOR CULTURAL INTERACTIONS.....................100

P ith ek o u ssai ............................................................................. 10 0
C um ae ........................ .............................................102
S y ra cu se ................... ...................1...................0.........5
Change in Production .................................. ... .. ...... ..... .. ............109
C onclu sions..... .........................................................114

APPENDIX: LIST OF FIGURES NOT SHOWN.....................................................................115

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ..................................................................................... ...................119

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ............................................................................... ............... ..... 122









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

1-1 P ithekou ssai and C um ae ................................................................... ........................... 15

1-2 The Sicilian G reek colonies ............................... .............. ...................... ............... 16

2-1 A diagram of an arch bow fibula ......................................... ...... .............................. 31

2-2 Spectacle fibula type I.......................... ......... .. ......... .......... .... 31

2-3 Spectacle fibula type II ............................................ ... .... ........ ......... 32

2-4 Spectacle fibula type III .................... ............................................................ 33

2-5 Spectacle fibula type IV ........................................................................... .................... 34

2-6 Spectacle fibula type V .................................... .. .. ........ .. ........... 35

2-7 Spectacle fibula type V I........................................................................... .................... 35

2-8 A knobbed violin bow fibula .................................................. ............................... 36

2-9 A striated violin bow fibula with a disc catch-plate .................................. ...............36

2-10 A coiled violin bow fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate...............................36

2-11 A leaf violin b ow fibula ........................................................................ ................... ..... 37

2-12 A double-knobbed arch bow fibula......................................................... ............... 37

2-13 A deep ridge arch bow fibula.................................................. ............................... 38

2-14 A ringed arch bow fibula ......................................................................... ....................39

2-15 A large disc arch bow fibula .............. ............................... ............... 40

2-16 A foliated bow fibula ......................... ........... .. .. ......... ..... ..... 40

2-17 The Sicilian elbow type fibula ....................................................................... 41

2-18 Serpentine fibula w ith a disc catch-plate ........................................ ....................... 41

2-19 Sserpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate.................. ...... ............42

2-20 Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate.............42

2-21 Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate.............................43









2-22 A triple coil serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate............................. ...............44

2-23 A triple coil serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate...........................44

2-24 A rectangular double coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate..............................45

2-25 A sm all leech bow fibula with decoration ........................................ ...... ............... 45

2-26 A sm all leech fibula w ith decoration ........................................ ........................... 46

2-27 A large leech bow fibula .................................................. ...... .... ............... 46

2-28 A drago bow fibula ................................ .. ... ..... .................. 47

2-29 A n am orphous drago bow fibula................................................ ............................ 47

2-30 A knobbed drago bow fibula.................................................. ................................ 48

2-31 A knobbed drago bow fibula with decoration............................ ............................ 48

2-32 A figural drago bow fibula from Marsiliana.................................. ........................ 48

4-1 A serpentine fibula from Cum ae............... .............................................. ............... 78

5-1 Indigenous sites in southern Italy ............................................. ............................. 97

5-2 Indigenous sites in C am pania .................................................. .............................. 98

5 -3 E tru sc a n site s ............................................................................................................... 9 9

A -i A stilted bow fibula ......... .... ........ ...................... .. .... ...... ............ 115

A-2 A multiple knobbed arch bow fibula ......... ....................................... ........... .....115

A -3 A spiral arch bow fibula ......................................... .......................... ............... 115

A-4 A knobbed serpentine fibula, Numerous examples of this type appear throughout the
catalog g u e. ........ ..... ........... ...................................... ...........................1 15

A-5 A small knobbed leech bow fibula with an elongated catch-plate from Monte
Finocchito in Sicily.............................. ......... ......... ..... .........115

A-6 Small knobbed leech bow fibulae with elongated catch-plates from Pithekoussai and
S y ra c u se ..................................................................................................................... 1 1 5

A-7 Knobbed leech bow fibulae from Syracuse, Monte Finocchito, and Pithekoussai ..........115

A -8 A com posite leech bow fibula ......... ......... .......................................... ............... 116









A-9 A bolt fibula from the Bemardini tomb ............................... .................116

A-10 A comb fibula: provenance unknown....... .. ......... .. ......................... ............... 116

A-11 Leech fibulae with short catch-plates from Vrokastro...............................................116

A-12 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type I................................................................... 116

A-13 Distribution map of Spectacle fibula type I ........................................ ...............116

A-14 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type II. ............................................. .............116

A-15 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type III ......................................... .............116

A-16. Distribution map of spectacle fibulae types IV and V................... ................... ................117

A-17 Greek style composite leech fibula at Syracuse from grave 428 ................................117

A-18 A Greek composite leech fibula from Cumae ........................... .......................... 117

A-19 A Greek composite leech fibula from tomb 272 on Pithekoussai .................................117

A-20 Italic composite leech fibulae from tomb 599 on Pithekoussai ............ ... ................117

A-21 Simple arch bow and ringed arch bow Italic fibulae from Cumae ........................... 117

A -22 Blinkenberg's types IX and X ...................................................................... ..117

A-23 Leech fibulae from Vetulonia ...................................................................... 118

A -24 The R egolini-G alassi fibula from Caere................................... .................................... 118

A-25 Drago and comb fibulae from the Bemardini tomb at Praeneste...................................118

A-26 A detail of the scene of the Bernardini comb fibula....................................................... 118









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts

FIBULAE OF THE NINTH THROUGH SEVENTH CENTURIES BC IN CENTRAL ITALY

By

Jennifer M. Hambleton

August, 2008

Chair: Barbara Barletta
Cochair: Robin Poynor
Major: Art History

This thesis addresses the development of fibulae in the region of the Italian peninsula. The

fibula is a device that had been used in antiquity to fasten garments. The tradition of the Italic

fibula is a small, but significant part of a much larger and older tradition within the

Mediterranean region. Certain types were held in common among cultures in southern Europe,

Greece, Italy, and the Near East during the 13th -1th centuries BC. These early types became the

ancestors of forms that came to define the Italic sequence. This sequence benefited from these

diverse influences during its maturation in the 9th through 7th centuries BC.

The rise of the Italic sequence during the 9th century overlapped with the arrival of the

Greeks in the 8th century at Pithekoussai in the Bay of Naples. This overlap was significant and

has been troublesome to scholars in the past because certain types of Italic fibulae and Italic-

looking fibulae appear at Pithekoussai, and subsequently in Sicily at the Greek colony of

Syracuse.

In the past, archaeologists had trouble in determining which ones were Greek and which

were Italic because the rise of the Italic sequence was so close in time to the arrival of the

Greeks. The types that have sparked the most debate are the knobbed serpentine, the composite

leech, and the knobbed leech fibulae. The elongated catch-plate of these types has been a subject









of debate, too, mainly because certain archaeologists insisted that it was Greek in origin. Their

claims are not supported by secure evidence, which will be discussed in the thesis. These three

types of fibulae occur in both Italic and Greek sites of the 8th and 7th centuries, including

Pithekoussai and Syracuse. Some archaeologists argued for a Greek origin while others

demonstrated that they had always been part of the Italic tradition. The inability to identify them

as either Greek or Italic in origin seems still to be present today, but this thesis aims to present

the available evidence on the knobbed serpentine, composite leech, and knobbed leech fibulae in

order to make a fair assessment on the origin of these types.

Apart from the controversy concerning the appearance of certain types of Italic fibulae and

western Greek composite leech fibulae at Greek sites in Italy, the period of time spanning the 8th

through the 7th centuries also marks the sudden increase of wealth in Etruria. Fibulae appear in

luxurious materials and sophisticated techniques during the 7th century, especially in Etruria.

This change is important for the information it reveals about the effects of foreign cultures

in central Italy, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians. The study of fibulae is important for the

information that these objects reveal about the interactions between the Greeks and the

indigenous peoples of Italy. They also crucial for understanding that the Italic people were

influencing the Greeks and the Greeks were influencing the Italic people as opposed to the

outdated thought that culture was passing in one direction only. This direction was believed to

have been from Greece to Italy.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Fibulae were utilitarian and/or ornamental devices used for securing garments. They were

used by the ancient peoples of Italy, Greece, central and southern Europe, Spain, and Cyprus.

While these were not the only places that fibulae must have been used, they are the countries that

share in the development of the Italic fibulae tradition. Fibulae are made of metal, which may be

bronze, iron, gold, or a combination of gold with bronze or gold with iron. The ancient peoples

of Italy used them in a similar way to how modern people use a safety pin. In the modern world,

safety pins are small, quite simple-looking in appearance, and fairly straightforward in how they

are intended to be used. Not only are they easy to wear, but there is little differentiation in form,

if any, between them. In stark contrast to the modern era, those from antiquity are not all of the

same type, size, and weight. Some are quite large and cumbersome, which would not have

afforded the wearer the same ease of use and convenience that people today appreciate. A

number of varieties of fibulae developed over time in Italy beginning with the basic spectacle,

violin, stilted, and arch bow types. From here, they started to become increasingly more intricate

in form and decoration.

Evidence for the origins of fibulae comes from the Mediterranean area, where they were

produced as early as the 13th century BC. Fibulae continued to be made in this region into the

21st century AD, but by this time they are safety pins and no longer fibulae. Any notion of

craftsmanship and attention to detail is lost on a modern safety pin. They are strictly utilitarian

objects. Although the production of fibulae translated into the production of safety pins over a

span of two thousand years, the intent of this thesis is to look first at the development and

diffusion of the form during the 13th through the 9th centuries BC as it developed in Italy and/or

neighboring regions of Italy in its vicinity. These areas include central Europe, Greece, Spain,









and Cyprus. The examination of the development and diffusion of the fibula during the 13th

through the 9th centuries is important for understanding how the development of the Italic fibula

fits into the larger historical context in the Italian region. The second and more important

objective of this paper is to trace the development of the Italic fibula specifically from the 9th

through the 7th centuries BC. A wide variety of fibulae were being produced during the six

hundred years from the 13th through the 7th centuries. In order to prepare the reader for my

conclusions, the typology of fibulae will be addressed.

Methodology and aims: An attempt has been made to collect and sort through the work of

the relatively limited number of scholars who have studied Italian fibulae. Primary sources have

been used whenever possible as the preferred method of research. These sources are books,

excavation reports, and articles carried out and written by different archaeologists depending

upon whether the material is from the Italian mainland or Sicily. One of the most helpful sources

for understanding the chronological development of the fibula is by Johannes Sundwall.1

Excavations yielding fibulae range in date, with some of the earliest carried out in the middle of

the 19th century and some of the latest in the middle 20th century. They yielded fibulae dating

from the middle of the 8th century BC to well into the 7th century BC. To clarify, all of the

material in this thesis is of a BC date so sometimes the specific century will only be referenced

throughout this paper.

The chief aim of this investigation has been to compare the original excavation reports to

the secondary literature in the fields of archaeology and art history in an attempt to deconstruct

the intricacies of the confusion. Since the original excavations, new research has been

undertaken, which questions out-dated ideas and opinions from the time of the excavations


1 Johannes Sundwall, Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln (Berlin: Gruyter and Company, 1943).









concerning the relationship between the Greek colonists and the Italic peoples. Two Greek

colonies, Pithekoussai (Figure 1-1) and Syracuse (Figure 1-2), will be studied in detail to

understand the intricate relationship that the Greeks and the Italic peoples maintained with each

other at these two sites.

The types to be presented in chapter 1 are the most significant ones known from the

Villanovan and Etruscan cultures of central Italy and Campania in the 13th 7th centuries.

Sundwall's catalogue documents fibulae from 150 sites across Italy, with half of these sites in

Central Italy.2 However, Sundwall's examples also come from southern and northern Italy as

well as the Greek colonies in Sicily and mainland Italy. Examples are here provided for all of the

types and their variants. The examples represent the most basic form of the type and the most

basic form of each variant. This approach has been taken due to the overwhelming number of

variants of each type. The types are grouped according to the shape of the bow. The types have

been placed in chronological order, as traced in terms of increasing complexity.

As already mentioned, study of the fibula is really a study of cultural interaction between

the Greeks and Italic peoples. By studying the typology of the Italic fibulae as well as where the

types appear geographically, it is hoped that old ideas regarding the development of the fibula

will once again be questioned to arrive at a more accurate assessment of the relations between

the Greeks and the Italic peoples. The one fibula type that will be discussed, but not described in

the typology, is the Greek style composite leech fibula. The typology is exclusive to Italic fibula

types, and the Greek adaptations will not be listed to avoid confusion.





2 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy," in AncientItaly in its Mediterranean "',,, Studies in
Honor of Ellen MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, Ellen and David Ridgway (London: Accordia Research Institute,
2000), esp. 114, footnote 14.































Pithekoussai


Figure 1-1. Pithekoussai and Cumae





















MegP
iHyblae


Figure 1-2. The Sicilian Greek colonies









CHAPTER 2
TYPOLOGY

Scholarship on the study of the fibula has been a collective contribution. Johannes

Sundwall is the authority on the Italic types from the Early Iron Age through the 6th century BC,

while John Alexander provides a survey on the distribution of the spectacle fibula.' Anna Maria

Bietti Sestieri offers limited examples of the types classified by Sundwall and Alexander,2 while

Ellen MacNamara3 and Judith Toms4 offer commentary on the history and interrelation of the

early types, namely the spectacle, arch, and serpentine fibula forms. The component parts of the

fibula regardless of type are the bow, spring, pin, and catch-plate. The catch-plate may be short,

elongated, or long channel. If not one of these three types, then it may be less commonly in the

form of a small or large disc (Figure 2-1).

The pin passes through the garment and is held in place by the catch-plate, much like a

modern safety pin. The bow is the element that is normally visible to the eye, and for this reason

a number of decorative styles of bow developed over time. In this paper, an attempt will be made

to categorize fibulae according to forms and techniques of manufacture and decoration. Fibulae

of the 9th through the 7th centuries may be made in a variety of ways, which include using the

piece-mold, lost wax method, cold working, and annealing processes. Fibulae of the 9th and 8th

century have fairly simple decoration compared to those of the 7th century, which utilize the

techniques of filigree and granulation. Some thirty-four types of fibulae may be organized into

1 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe," American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965)
2 Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri, "Italian Swords and Fibulae of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages," Italian Iron Age
Artefacts: in the British Museum: Papers of the Sixth British Museum Classical Coloquium (1986): esp. 20-23.

3 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies in Sardinia and Italy from 1200 to 700 BC: Their Origin and
Development," in Etruria e Sardegna Centro-Settentrionale tra L 'Eta del Bronzo Finale e L 'Arcaismo: Atti del XXI
Convegno di Studi Etruschi edltalici, Sassari, Alghero, Oritano, Torralba, 13-17 Ottobre 1998, ed. Convegno di
Studi Etruschi e Italici (Pisa: Instituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 2002).

4 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," 91-113.









twelve major groups including the spectacle, violin bow, stilted bow, arch bow, foliated bow,

serpentine bow, leech and boat types, composite leech bow, the drago type, and bolt and comb

fibulae.

Bolt and comb fibulae have been defined by some scholars as being clasps although they

still categorized them under the typology of fibulae. If they were indeed functional, they clearly

did not fasten to a garment in the same way as the other types. Despite the fact that the comb and

bolt types attach differently to fabric from the other types, they will be included in the typology.

The possibility should not be ruled out that the method of attachment may have made no

difference to the ancient peoples of Italy and they may have used them as fibulae. The following

pages describe the identifying features of a wide range of fibulae beginning with the spectacle

fibula.

Alexander recognizes that the spectacle fibula type is divided into five main and twenty

sub-types based on the shape of the fibula as well as the design of the bow and catch-plate.5

Alexander categorizes spectacle fibulae into five main types, even though one example from type

IV does not resemble the other examples from this type.6 In addition to this peculiarity, he

groups together an assortment of fibulae of dissimilar shape and asserts that they all belong to

type V.7

Because of the confusion in Alexander's method of categorization, spectacle fibulae will

be sorted into six main types in this thesis. Depending on the specific type, spectacle fibulae are

easily distinguishable from other types of fibulae because of the unique shapes of their arms,

which are either one or two pairs of spirally wound wire. These pairs of wire may be either

5 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula," esp. 9-17.
6 Ibid., 17

7Ibid.









circular or square in cross-section.8 If only a single pair comprises the arm (as in type I-III) then

the central connecting device of the two spirals may be circular or linear. Generally, these

connecting devices are in the form of a figure eight loop, a diagonal pin, or a flat panel.9

The figure eight loop in particular is a form shared by the first three types of spectacle

fibulae as it is used in combination with a thin, flat panel in types II and III. In both of these, the

bow and catch-plate mechanism is attached to the panel, which wraps around and holds both

arms of the fibula. The main difference between Types II and III that utilize the figure eight loop

is the physical relationship between the loop and the panel. In type II, the loop does not

physically engage the panel the way it does in type III, and it does not hold the two arms of the

fibula as tightly, as some of the more sophisticated variations of type III.

Local variations of types I-III exist and they will be explored in more detail below, but

eventually the early spectacle fibula with its central figure eight loop evolves into a new type.

This new type of spectacle fibula, known as the four-spiral fibula, is built upon the standard form

of types I-III but it no longer has two spirals. Instead it has four spirals, which results in two

arms. The connection devices of the four-spiral fibula are similar to the earlier types, but

innovations also appear to accommodate the second arm.

The fifth type of spectacle fibulae is different from types I-IV in that it has a fifth spiral.

Alexander sees this type as a final variation of type IV spectacle fibulae, even though it has five

spirals and not four. The presence of the extra coil sets this type apart from those in group four,

and thus seems proper to designate it as an example of type V spectacle fibulae. Although a


8 Ibid., 69
9 Ibid., 9, 12, 16, & 17









preliminary introduction to the spectacle fibula types has been made, an attempt will now be

made to distinguish them more clearly from each other.

A. Spectacle Fibula type I (Figure 2-2): Type I spectacle fibulae are made from one piece

of wire, are round in cross-section10, and have a figure eight loop in the center that joins the pair

of coiled discs. These discs form the arms of the fibula with the pin and the catch-plate slightly

unwinding from the center of each coil. The center of one coil slightly projects out to the rear to

form the pin, which hooks onto the foot projecting from the back of the opposite coil. The catch-

plate is formed in the same fashion as the pin, in that it is also an extension of the center of the

coil. The pin and catch-plate mechanism are suspended from the back of the fibula by two small

metal rods that project from the center of each coil. The pin pierces, slides behind the fabric, and

then pierces it again on the outside of the fabric to attach to the catch-plate.

The discs of type I spectacle fibulae may be decorated if the disc is not coiled. In this

case, the entire or selected parts of the surface are decorated with unique combinations of

geometric patterns. Concentric bands of incised lines and small circles are common.

Seven variations occur under this type with modifications made to the discs of the fibulae

as well as the central connecting device of the figure eight. In the first and second variations

(figs. 2-2a and 2-2b), the discs are coiled, whereas in the third and fourth the center of the coil is

left open (figs. 2-2c and 2-2d). The figure eight loop also becomes shorter and wider in the

fourth variant. (2-2d)

The closed coil remains present in variations five through seven of type I (figs. 2-2e-2-2g),

but the figure eight is no longer present. Instead, a small spring, a second smaller spiral, or a

chain of hoops may connect the two discs of the fibula. The final and eighth variant to consider


10Ibid., 8









(fig. 2-2h) is slightly more sophisticated than the others. Instead of a figure eight loop, chain of

hoops or smaller spiral, the empty space is filled by a solid disc."

Spectacle Fibula type II (Figure 2-3): The second type of spectacle fibula is made from

one piece of wire. Four variations occur (figs. 2-3a, 2-3b, 2-3c, and 2-3d) and other than

modifications made to the discs and structure, each is similar to those of type I in the way that

they attach to the fabric. The straight line moving diagonally from one coiled disc to the other

replaces the central figure-eight as a connecting device in the four variations of this type. The

centers of the coiled discs of the last three variations of this type (figs. 2-3b, 2-3c, and 2-3d)

remain open as opposed to the solid form of the first variant (fig. 2-3a). A thin, flat metal panel

usually made of bronze attaches to the backside of the middle two variations (figs. 2-3c and 2-

3d) upon which the bow and pin mechanism is affixed. The panel is wrapped around the sides of

the fibula in the third variant (fig. 2-3c), but does do so in the last and final variant (fig. 2-3d).

Spectacle Fibula type III (Figure 2-4): The third type of spectacle fibula is also made

from one piece of wire. It has four variations (figs. 2-4a, 2-4b, A-4c, and 2-4d), which are similar

to type II spectacle fibulae except for the re-appearance of the central figure-eight loop. The

panel that is present on the backside of the last two variations of the type II spectacle fibula (figs.

2-3c and 2-3d) is present on all four variations of the type III spectacle fibula. The first variation

(fig. 2-4a) utilizes the figure eight loop to connect the two discs of the fibula, but it does not

engage the panel the way the second (fig. 2-4b) and third (fig. 2-4c) variations do. In both of

these cases, the loop engages the panel, and in the third the panel slightly expands outward at the

center.




" Additional examples of spectacle fibulae type I and subsequent variations appear in Sundwall on 170-171, which
are E I, and E IB.









A short panel-like element appears on the front side of the fourth variation (fig. 2-4d),

which partially conceals the figure-eight loop. In all of the examples of this group, the panel

wraps around and holds the sides of the fibula more firmly than in those of type II. This

characteristic is especially pronounced in the fourth variation. As in variations A-3c and A-3d of

type II, the pin and catch-plate mechanism is attached to the panel of the fibula.

Spectacle Fibula type IV (Figure 2-5) The fourth type of spectacle fibula is also known

as the four-spiral type and it has four variations (figs. 2-5a, 2-5b, 2-5c, and 2-5d). Each of the

pairs of discs is made from one piece of wire, but it is dissimilar to the previous three types in

that it has four discs instead of two. The type IV fibula is essentially two type-II fibulae joined at

the center point by a rivet. The rivet may be left visible, as in the second variant of this type (fig.

2-5b) or it may be covered by a solid disc as in Figure 2-5a. The third variation (fig. 2-5c) of this

group highlights the rivet with an ornament (which is formed from looping the wire on each of

the four arms of the fibula). In the fourth variation (fig. 2-5d), wire from one pair of discs is

coiled around wire from the other pair at the center.

Although the design of the central connecting device is different in each of the variations

of type IV, their arms retain the form of the coiled disc. As a result of the nature of the four arms,

the linear panel element upon which the pin and foot mechanism attaches is not present. Instead,

the form of this mechanism is similar to that of the type I fibula in that the pin and foot

mechanism are suspended from the back of the fibula by a small metal rod.12

Spectacle Fibula type V (Figure 2-6): The fifth type of spectacle fibula has a wholly

different shape from any of the previous four types. There are four coiled discs plus one coiled




12 Examples of type IV spectacle fibulae appear in Sundwall 174-176, E II and in Bietti Sestieri 50-51.









disc radiating from one side. In profile, this additional disc is somewhat lowered, and carries the

catch-plate apparatus upon which the pin of the fibula rests.

Spectacle Fibula type VI (Figure 2-7): The sixth type of spectacle fibula is made from

one piece of wire, has one variation, and is dissimilar to types one through five in that only one

arm is present. This single arm is comprised of three spirals in a row and like types I and IV, the

panel element upon which the pin and foot mechanism attaches is not present. Instead, both of

these elements attach to the back of the fibula in a similar fashion to types I and IV.

B. The Violin Bow type: The second major type of fibula is referred to as the violin bow

because of its shape, not unlike its namesake. The bow may be slightly curved and often has two

knobs on the exposed portion. Occasionally multiple knobs may appear. It is connected with a

one-coiled spring, which may be a small channel or coil disc catch-plate. Over time, the bow

widens in the center to resemble the shape of a leaf. Decoration on this type may be in the form

of a single group or groups of incised transverse lines or chevrons on the exposed portion

between the knobs. If the bow is widened in the center, then the incised decoration usually

consists of circular and linear arrangements.

Variations within this type include:

1. Knobbed Violin Bow (Figure 2-8) The knobbed violin bow fibula has a straight bow
with knobs at equal intervals along its length. It has a one-coil spring and may have a small
channel or disc catch-plate. The disc catch-plate may be solid or spiral. Decoration usually
consists of incised transverse lines.

2. Striated Violin Bow (Figures 2-9) The striated violin bow fibula has striations along the
length of its bow. It has a one-coil spring and may have a small channel or disc catch-plate.
The disc catch-plate may be solid or a spiral wire. Decoration consists of the wire of the
exposed portion striated along its length.

3. Coiled Violin Bow (Figure 2-10) The coiled violin bow fibula is similar to the striated
violin bow fibula except that the bow is twisted instead of striated. This manipulation of
the bow gives a more three-dimensional effect to the shape of the bow compared to the
striated variation. It has a one-coil spring, and may have a small channel or disc catch-









plate. The disc catch-plate may be solid or a spiral wire. Decoration consists of the wire of
the exposed portion coiled along its length.

4. Violin Leaf Bow (Figure 2-11) The violin leaf bow fibula consists of the central portion
of the top of the bow flattened out to form a "leaf' shape. There are double knob-like
forms worked into the wire on either side of the leaf shape. The leaf shape may be
decorated with a border of incised lines while various circular and linear designs are
impressed on the flat leaf-like surface.13

C. The Stilted Bow type (Figure A-i): The stilted bow fibula is so named because the

bow is triangular in shape. The bow rises to form a point at the apex. The apex would then be

seen as the steepest point on the bow. The stilted bow fibula is similar to the knobbed arch bow

fibula except for the triangular shape of the bow. There is usually a single spring, and the catch-

plate may be a small or large symmetrical channel. It may either be decorated with two knobs or

with multiple knobs. There may also be geometric incised designs in between the knobs or along

the entire length of the bow.

D. The Double Knobbed Arch Bow type (Figure 2-12): The double knobbed arch bow is

so named because the semicircular bow is formed with a pair of knobs at either end of the arch. It

works with a single coil spring and may have a small or medium-sized channel catch-plate.

Incised geometric patterns on the exposed portion may consist of triangles, chevrons, or straight

lines, sometimes positioned only in between the knobs or to the outside of the knobs as well.

E. The Multiple Knobbed Arch Bow type (Figure A-2) The multiple knobbed arch

bow is of the same shape and decoration as the double knobbed arch bow, but rather than two

knobs, as many as four or even up to six knobs may be worked into the exposed portion.

F. The Simple Arch Bow type: The arch bow fibula consists of a semicircular bow, a

single-coil spring, and small or medium sized channel catch-plate. In some examples, the catch-




13 Examples of the violin bow type and subsequent variations appear in Sundwall on 66-76.









plate may also be a large disc. The arch bow may be decorated with any combination of a group

or groups of incised lines, spirals, or chevrons.

Variations under this type include:

1. Spiral Bow Arch Bow (Figure A-3) The striated or carved spiral semicircular bow may
have single or double coil spring. The spring may be small or large. The fibula may have a
small or medium sized channel catch-plate or a small or large disc catch-plate. The disc
catch-plate fibula may have incised lines along the top of the bow as well as along
the perimeter of the disc. Incised lines may articulate the spiral of the disc and various
circular and geometric motifs may appear in the center.

2. Deep Ridge Arch Bow (Figure 2-13) The deep ridge arch bow presents a semi-circular
arch bow with a heavy body with deep ridges either carved in relief or cast hollow.
Because of the heavy three-dimensional articulation, no incised decoration is necessary on
this type.

3. Ringed Arch Bow (Figure 2-14) This type of fibula consists of a semi-circular arch bow,
but two or more rings are attached to the exposed portion to function as decoration. The
type usually has a small channel catch-plate. The fibula may be worn upside down, which
allows the rings to hang freely from the arch. In this case, the pin would be above the bow
when viewed from the front.

4. Large Disc Arch Bow (Figure 2-15) The large disc arch bow fibula consists of a semi-
circular arch bow with a single or double coil spring. The catch-plate consists of a large
disc decorated with a border as well as surface patterns consisting of geometric motifs.
These designs may include zig-zags, circles, squares, and linear motifs. A bar, suggesting
cattle horns perhaps, projects from the large disc. A short "foot section" projects
underneath the horns and lies perpendicular to the disc. In contrast to the short "foot
section" the "horns" of the fibula lie parallel to the disc.14

G. The Foliated Bow type (Figure 2-16): The foliated bow type fibula is very similar in

shape to the arch bow except that the exposed portion is noticeably wider. This becomes a broad,

flat surface decorated with borders and geometric patterns, suggesting a leaf form, as attested by

its name. Like the large disc bow fibula, the foliated bow of this type transitions into a large disc

catch-plate, which may or may not attach to a thin or thick decorative bar. If a bar is present, then

it is normally positioned below the bow, but above the disc-catch-plate when viewed in profile


14 Examples of the arch bow type and its variants appear in Sundwall on 78-118, B I-III. Examples also appear in
Toms on 102, 103, and 105, numbers 1-14. Bietti Sestieri offers more examples on 20-23, numbers 1-2 and 15-44.









creating a tiered design. The decoration is located on the perimeters and centers of the disc and

on the bow. These patterns may include squares and/or triangles of incised lines, circles, and

occasionally figures. Small rings may attach to the perimeter of the bow as well.1

H. Sicilian Elbow type (Figure 2-17) The Sicilian elbow fibula bow that angles upwards

and then bends downwards to form an elbow. The elbow bow may have a small or large single or

double-coiled spring usually accompanied with an elongated channel catch-plate. Alternating

bands of incised vertical lines, along with plain or decorated areas of geometric patterns,

decorate the exposed portion. The decorated bands are on either side of the elbow, but they are

not located on the bend itself. The Sicilian fibula bow type may also consist of a curvilinear bow

upon which are two small coils. Both coils are usually the same size and the one further away

from the pin is higher than the one closer to the pin. The pin rests on an elongated channel catch-

plate.

I. The Serpentine Bow type (Figures 2-18 and 2-19): The serpentine bow type is

comprised of a curvilinear bow with a single, double or triple coil. If a double coil, then each

may be the same size or one noticeably larger than the other. If three coils exist, then they may

either be in succession along the length of the bow or two of them may be a similar size, with the

third one noticeably larger. The pin may be straight or curvilinear and it may rest on a small

channel catch-plate, an elongated channel catch-plate, or a spiral disc-catch-plate, which may be

small or large. Decoration may include incised lines in assorted geometric patterns along the bow

or in shallow relief carving.

Variations of the serpentine bow type include:




15 Examples of this type appear in Sundwall on 122-131, C I. Examples also appear in Bietti Sestieri on 23 numbers
46-47.









1. Knobbed Serpentine Bow (Figure A-4) The exposed portion of the bow may widen
slightly in the center. One or two pairs of knobs project from the center portion of the bow.
The spring may be either a single or double coil, and the catch-plate is usually elongated or
long channel.

2. Large and Small Coils Serpentine Bow (Figures 2-20 and 2-21) The large and small coil
bow is distinguished by a noticeably larger coil that serves as the spring and a smaller one
that functions only as decoration. The catch-plate may be a small to medium sized channel
or a small disc catch-plate. The part of the bow between the coils may have an incised
linear design. The section between the smaller coil and the catch-plate may also have the
same design.

3. Triple Coils Serpentine Bow (Figures 2-22 and 2-23) The exposed portion of the triple
coils serpentine bow contains three small coils, two on one end, one of which serves as the
spring, and the third on the opposite end. The catch-plate may be a small channel or a
small disc. Incised linear designs may be worked between the pair of coils on one side and
the third on the other.

4. Rectangular Double Coils Serpentine Bow (Figure 2-24) Although Sundwall classifies
this type as serpentine16 the only feature in common with members of this group is the pair
of double coils along the bow. An articulated knob appears opposite the catch-plate, and
coils are located almost directly above the knob and the pin on the disc catch-plate,
resulting in a somewhat rectangular shape. The spring is absent in this variety, but there
may be an elongated channel catch-plate, small disc catch-plate, or a large disc catch-plate.
Groups of incised lines or shallow relief carving may be present along the length of the
bow.17

J. The Small Leech Bow type18 (Figures 2-25 and 2-26): The small leech bow type may

have a solid, hollow, or composite semicircular bow that resembles the shape of a leech or a

gondola. The single or double coil spring is relatively small. The channel foot may be small or

elongated. Decorative motifs consisting of zig-zag patterns or other unique geometric patterns

may be incised on the entire surface of the bow or in some cases restricted to certain areas.

Variations of the small leech type include:


16 These types appear on pgs 158-160

17 Examples of the serpentine bow type fibula appear in Sundwall on 137-169, D I-IV. Examples also appear in
Bietti Sestieri on 20, 21, and 23; numbers 3-14 and 45.

18 One type that will not be described in the text, but has been associated with the leech type is the boat type. The
boat fibula has been associated with the leech type because the shapes of the bows of both types are very similar
with no discernable differences. For this reason, the boat fibula will not be discussed in the text.









1. Small knobbed leech bow (Figure A-5, A-6, and A-7) The small knobbed leech type is
similar in shape to the simple leech type that does not have knobs. Short stems may project
from the sides of the fibula to terminate in small round knobs. Sometimes the knobs do not
project from the sides of the fibula on short stems, but instead take the form of simple
lateral projections. A small single or double coil spring transitions into an elongated catch-
plate. Decorative lines on the widest area of the bow may be incised between the knobs.

K. The Large Leech Bow type: The large leech bow type may have a solid, hollow, or

composite semicircular bow, a small single or double coil spring and an elongated or long

channel catch-plate that may extend as much as twice the length of the leech portion. The long

nature of the catch-plate and the compact form of the bow distinguish this type from the small

leech group. Unique geometric motifs consisting of circular and linear patterns as well as figural

compositions may be worked on the bow and catch-plate, and an articulated catch-plate and knob

may be present.

Variations of the large leech bow type include:

1. Large Leech Bow (Figures 2-27) The large leech bow may have a solid, hollow, or
semicircular shaped bow is wider in the center compared to the small leech types. A single
or double coil spring transitions into an elongated channel catch-plate, but usually the
catch-plate is a long channel. The long channel catch-plate is significantly longer than the
elongated versions. Unique combinations of geometric patterns or three-dimensional
conical elements are distributed over the entire surface or selected areas.

L. The Composite Leech Bow type19 (Figure A-8) The composite leech bow is a

semicircular bow with a single or double spring. The spring transitions into a small channel or

elongated channel catch-plate. Various accompanying materials such as amber and bone discs,

glass paste, and ivory are strung along its entire length or restricted to particular areas of the

bow. If restricted, then they may be thick in nature and either spaced evenly or located in the





19 Some scholars, such as Toms, have categorized the composite leech bow as an arch bow. The shape of the bow is
not a simple arch, but rather is leech in form. For this reason, Tom's "composite arch bow type" will be categorized
in the typology and later discussed throughout the thesis as the composite leech bow type.









center of the bow. Whether spaced evenly or grouped together in the center of the bow, both of

these compositions results in a bow that is leech shaped.

M. The Drago Bow type (Figure 2-28): The drago bow type fibula has a curvilinear bow

that smoothly transitions into a long pin underneath. The catch-plate may be either elongated or

formed as a long channel. An assortment of knobs, loops, discs and/or conical elements may

decorate either the bow and/or the pin.

Variations of the drago bow type include:

1. Amorphous Drago Bow (Figure 2-29) The amorphous drago bow type is distinguished by
a tall, thick bow, which transitions into a relatively thin pin underneath. The catch-plate
may be either elongated or long-channel. Unique combinations of geometric patterns and
three-dimensional elements may be worked on the pin and bow.

2. Knobbed Drago Bow (Figure 2-30 and 2-31) The knobbed drago bow type is similar to
the amorphous bow type except for the addition of spherical knobs, discs, or other three-
dimensional elements on the bow. The catch-plate may be either elongated or long-channel
foot. Geometric patterns and three-dimensional elements may be worked onto the bow
similarly to that of the decoration on the amorphous drago bow type.

3. Figural Drago Bow (Figure 2-32)- The figural drago bow type is similar in shape to the
amorphous drago bow and the knobbed drago bow types except that the overall form
usually resembles a figure of an animal. In addition to the form taking the shape of an
animal, the three-dimensional decoration of this type may be in the form of animals. The
catch-plate may be elongated or long channel.20

Exceptional varieties: The last two types to be described are the bolt and comb fibulae,

respectively. They are not listed or included in the discussion of the development of the Italic

fibula, since most scholars do not acknowledge them as belonging to that tradition. Curiously,

they are found in wealthy tomb contexts of the 7th century BC from Southern Etruria and Latium.

These tombs and the material in them will be accounted for shortly, but first the unique

characteristics of the comb and bolt fibulae types will be discussed.



20 Examples of the drago type fibula and subsequent variations appear in Sundwall on 233-253, H I-IV. Examples
also appear in Bietti Sestieri on 23, number 49.









N. The Bolt Fibula (Figure A-9): This type differs from all of the above types in the way

it is constructed. The recognizable parts of a violin, arch, or serpentine bow fibula is the bow,

pin, and catch-plate. However, this type does not feature a traditional bow, pin, or catch-plate.

Instead, the fibula consists of two separate sets of tubes that are joined together in the center. The

outermost tubes connect both sides of the fibula together. Various plastic figures in bronze, gold,

and silver may adorn the fibula.21

O. The Comb Fibula (Figure A-10): The construction of the comb fibula is somewhat

more intricate than that of the bolt fibula in that it consists of three parts. A thin wire is soldered

to the central element of the fibula, the cylinder. Metal hooks are soldered along the length of

two metal plates and each one slides in between the strip of wire soldered to the cylinder. Holes

are punched along the length of the plates, so that once the plates are secured between the strips

of wire they are sewn to the fabric. In this way, the fibula must be assembled before it functions

as a dress fastener like the bolt fibula. The cylinder may display examples of filigree or

granulation, or both.22

An attempt has been made to categorize the great number of major types and their

variants in a clear and concise way. This chapter sought to look specifically at the identifying

features of the major types as well as those of their variants. The next chapter will expound upon

the typology and framework thus far established by addressing the important issue of

geographical origin and diffusion of the types discussed in chapter two.






21 Ingrid Strom, Problems concerning the Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style (Odense:
Odense University Press, 1971), esp. 97-99, catalogue numbers 69-70.
22 Ibid., 100-101, catalogue number 71








Image not shown due to copyright


Figure 2-1. A diagram of an arch bow fibula. Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age
Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studies in Honor of Ellen
MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway, 91-113. London: Accordia
Research Institute, 2000. 93.


2-2b


2-2c


2-2d


2-2e


2-2g


2-2f 2-2
2-2h


Figure 2-2. Spectacle fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965): 9.






















2-a _:,


2 -..:.


Figure 2-3. Spectacle fibula type II. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965):12.


2-3a






















2-41b


2-4c


2 4.1


Figure 2-4. Spectacle fibula type III. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965):12.


2-4A1





















2-5a


2--1-


2-5b-





2-Th I


Figure 2-5. Spectacle fibula type IV. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965):16.

























Figure 2-6. Spectacle fibula type V. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965): 17.


Figure 2-7. Spectacle fibula type VI. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern
Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January 1965): 17.


















Figure 2-8. A knobbed violin bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 67.


Figure 2-9. A striated violin bow fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain)
Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 66.


Figure 2-10. A coiled violin bow fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in
public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter &
Co, 1943. 67.





















Figure 2-11. A leaf violin bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 75.


Figure 2-12. A double-knobbed arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes.
Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 80.











































Figure 2-13. A deep ridge arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 103.
















































Figure 2-14 A ringed arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 106.






























Figure 2-15. A large disc arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 113.


Figure 2-16. A foliated bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren
Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 128.























Figure 2-17. The Sicilian elbow type fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 137.


Figure 2-18. Serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall,
Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 153.























Figure 2-19. Serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in public
domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co,
1943. 149.


Figure 2-20. Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate.
(Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin:
Gruyter & Co, 1943. 143.














































Figure 2-21. Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public
domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co,
1943. 144.














43

























Figure 2-22. A triple coil serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain)
Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 155.


Th-~-lrl -___


Figure 2-23. A triple coil serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in
public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter &
Co, 1943. 143.






















Figure 2-24. A rectangular double coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in
public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter &
Co, 1943. 159.


Figure 2-25. A small leech bow fibula with decoration. (Source in public domain) Sundwall,
Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 179.





























Figure 2-26. A small leech fibula with decoration. (Source in public domain) Sundwall,
Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 183.


Figure 2-27. A large leech bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 201.





















Figure 2-28. A drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren
Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 242.


Figure 2-29. An amorphous drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes.
Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 233.





















Figure 2-30. A knobbed drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die
Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 244.


Figure 2-31. A knobbed drago bow fibula with decoration. (Source in public domain) Sundwall,
Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 249.


Figure 2-32. A figural drago bow fibula from Marsiliana. (Source in public domain) Sundwall,
Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 246.









CHAPTER 3
FIBULA TYPES OF THE 13TH THROUGH 7TH CENTURIES BC: DEVELOPMENT AND
DIFFUSION

The date for the beginning of the history and development of the Italian fibula remains

inexact at the present time, but there is an adequate amount of evidence to support a starting date

falling sometime between the 13th and 11th centuries BC.' This evidence comes in the form of a

few select types of fibulae, which appeared in Italy and elsewhere in both the eastern and

western Mediterranean during these centuries.2

These early types had a wide distribution during the 13th through 11th centuries and they

exerted a strong influence on the development of the Italic sequence, which started

distinguishing itself during the 9th century. They were influential in that they were the ancestors

of the types that came to flourish during the 9th through the 7th centuries in Italy. Simplicity in

form, technique of manufacture, and decoration are the ancestral qualities of the violin bow and

spectacle fibulae. MacNamara identifies the violin bow fibula, including the knobbed variations,

and the spectacle fibula as two early types that appeared in the eastern and western

Mediterranean regions during 13t through 11th centuries.3

In addition to the spectacle and violin bow fibulae, Bietti Sestieri includes the double and

multiple knobbed arch bow fibulae as two types that appeared in Italy and the Aegean as early as

early as the 12th century.4 The double knobbed stilted bow is another type that appeared in the





1 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 151.
2 Ibid., 151-172

3 Ibid., 153-160
4 Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri, "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its Connections
with the Aegean," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (1973): 407-412









Aegean and Italy during the 11th century BC.5 These types display the ancestral qualities of

simplicity in form, technique of manufacture, and decoration.

Bietti Sestieri notes how the knobbed violin bow transitioned into the stilted fibula with

knobs, which then transitioned into the knobbed arch bow type. The stilted fibula is similar in

shape to the arch bow fibula except that the bow is not as round as the arch bow type. Instead,

the stilted bow comes to a point at the apex of the bow. In time, this point became softened and

more rounded to form the arch bow type. The preference for decorating the bow with multiple

knobs appeared first on the violin bow fibula, but then is transferred to the stilted and arch bow

fibulae as noted by Bietti Sestieri.

Stilted bow fibulae from Sicily usually have just two knobs, while those in Tuscany,

Umbria, Abruzzi, and Latium have multiple knobs.6 Another way to distinguish between stilted

bow fibulae from Sicily and those from central and southern Italy is that those from the mainland

usually have a decorated catch-plate.' A similar development concerning knobs is seen with arch

bow fibulae in Sicily compared to those of central Italy. In Sicily, it was more common to

decorate the bow with two knobs as opposed to central Italy, where using multiple knobs was the

style.8 Eventually the knobs disappeared on arch bow fibulae from the central Tyrrhenian

region,9 but they did not go out of style in Sicily.o1





5 Ibid., 410
6 Ibid., esp. 403-404

Ibid.

8 Ibid., esp. 404-405

9 Ibid. 405

10 Ibid. 404









Violin, knobbed arch bow, and knobbed stilted bow fibulae had been found in hoards"

throughout Italy dating mainly to the Protovillanovan period. Bietti Sestieri quotes Mueller-

Karpe in dating these hoards to the years 1200-900 BC.12 Before this period, there was the

Peschiera period in the north, which dates ca. 13-12th centuries BC.13

Fibulae do not seem to be as abundant in the Peschiera period as in the Protovillanovan

period, but examples have been found in Greece and Crete of Peschiera type.14 The concentration

of Mycenaean pottery in southern Italy (mainly Apulia) and Sicily and the occurrence of

Peschiera bronzes, (mainly violin bow fibulae and daggers) in Greece and Crete reflect the early

contacts that had been made during this time between the Greeks and the Italic peoples.15

Strangely, the fibulae that have been found in Greece and Crete are similar to those from

northern Italy, the region where the pottery is not the most abundant as noted by Bietti Sestieri.

One would expect the fibulae found in Greece and Crete to have originated from southern Italy,

but their typological similarity to those in the north suggests that the Greeks came upon them in a

way other than through direct contact in southern Italy.

At first the Mycenaean Greeks appear to have been motivated to travel to southern Italy

and Sicily because of the opportunity to trade their pottery for Italian bronzes.16 Gradually, the

pattern in traffic routes shifted and during the Peschiera period, Greek products started arriving





1 Ibid., 402-406
12 Ibid., 384

13 Ibid.
14 Ibid.

15 Ibid., 383-384
16 Ibid., 383









in Italy through central Europe." This suggests that motivations for trade changed and Aegean

peoples or traders were now interested in obtaining not only finished goods in metal, but also

other precious metals and materials such as amber, which was available in northern Italy.18

Double knobbed stilted bow fibulae found in southern Italy, Sicily, and the Aegean

resemble each other during the Protovillanovan period as observed by Bietti Sestieri. This

resemblance reflects how the Aegean area might have been able to re-establish direct contact

with the central and southern regions of Italy.19 Or, the resemblance could also be explained

through trade, which might have been a quite complex set of exchanges.

Double knobbed arch bow fibulae dating to the end of the 11th century in central Europe

closely resemble ones found in Sicily.20 Amber beads found in central Europe are similar to ones

found in central and southern Italy.21 Bietti Sestieri maintains that an Adriatic route was still in

existence during the 1 1th century and it linked central Italy with central Europe.22 Thus, violin,

stilted arch, and knobbed arch bow fibulae appear to have been connected to a large scale-trading

operation that was transpiring in Italy between the indigenous people, peoples of the Aegean

area, and central Europeans from the 13th through the 10th centuries.23

The historical reconstruction offered by Bietti Sestieri is persuasive, but it should be

made clear that her thoughts concerning the interactions between Aegean peoples and the Italic



17 Ibid., 408

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid., 410
20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Ibid.









people during the 13th-1 1th centuries are not accepted as a proven explanation for the

resemblance of fibula types between Italy and the Aegean area during these centuries.

In addition to the spectacle, violin, stilted bow, and arch bow fibulae (including the

knobbed variations) MacNamara identifies the Sicilian elbow fibula as the fifth early type. She

claims that it originates from the stilted bow fibula of Italy,24 although the shape of the elbow

fibula bears no resemblance to the stilted bow type. On the other hand, Sundwall classifies the

Sicilian elbow fibula as a variation of the serpentine fibula bow type.25 However, the early

history and widespread distribution of the Sicilian elbow type across the Mediterranean merits

that it should be distinguished from the serpentine type. Not only does the Sicilian elbow fibula

have a history that starts as early as the 1 1th century and a wide distribution,26 but the elongated

catch-plate is first associated with this type as demonstrated through the research of MacNamara

and Toms. For these reasons, the Sicilian elbow fibula is classified as its own type in this thesis.

The Elongated Catch-Plate

MacNamara and Toms have recognized that the elongated catch-plate had been part of

the Italic tradition since the late 11th century BC. In Italy, there had always been a strong

tradition of utilizing an elongated or long channel foot, which was seen as early as 1000 BC on

the Sicilian elbow type.27 The elongated catch-plate appeared first in Italy on the Sicilian elbow

fibula and then was transferred to the serpentine, arch and composite leech bows by the early 8th

century BC.28 By the 7th century BC, the elongated catch-plate had been transferred to the solid


24 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 155.
25 Johannes Sundwall, Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln, esp. 137, 138, and 148

26 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 154.

27 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 95. The Sicilian type appears in Sundwall on 148.

28 Ibid., 94









leech bow fibula as noted by Toms. The elongated catch-plate can be seen in its most

exaggerated form, the long channel catch-plate, on the elaborate examples of leech and drago

fibulae from Etruria.

Before it was known that the elongated catch-plate was an Italic innovation, the

archaeological community believed it was a Greek invention. One reason is because of its

appearance on the composite leech fibula in the Greek colonies of Pithekoussai, Cumae,

Syracuse, and Megara Hyblaea during the 8th through the 6th centuries. The second reason is

related to the occurrence of the leech fibula at the site of Vrokastro on Crete during the 9th

century, which will be shortly discussed.

Examples of solid leech, composite leech, and serpentine fibulae with elongated catch-

plates had been found at the Fusco cemetery at Syracuse during the late 19th century by Paolo

Orsi,29 and then sixty years later during the middle 20th century when Giorgio Buchner conducted

his excavations in the San Montano cemetery at Pithekoussai off the Bay of Naples.30 Most

examples of the fibulae at Syracuse date from the middle of the 8th century down to the

beginning of the sixth century,31 and at Pithekoussai, they may date before 750 BC.32

The elongated catch-plate does not appear in Greece until the period of colonization. A

total of nearly 50 examples of composite leech fibulae with the elongated catch-plate have been





29 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons," American Journal ofArchaeology 62
(1958): esp. plates 56-65.

30 Many examples of the serpentine type and composite leech types with an elongated catch-plate appear in the
catalogue. The corresponding descriptions of the fibulae appear in the book with the same title that accompanies the
catalogue. Giorgio Buchner and David Ridgway, Pithekoussai I (Roma: G. Bretscheider, 1993)
31 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270.
32 Ibid.










found in Greece,33 and they are similar to composite leech fibulae found at Syracuse and Megara

Hyblaea.34 The composite leech fibulae found in the western Greek colonies are in turn similar to

native Italic ones except for slight differences in style. The differences in the style of composite

leech fibulae in the Greek colonies compared to those traditionally worn by the Italic people will

be discussed in more detail below, but for now the focus will be on the origin of the elongated

catch-plate.

Since composite leech fibulae with elongated catch-plates in the western Greek colonies

are similar to native Italic types, and because they appear in Greece after the period of

colonization, it leads to the conclusion that arrival of the elongated catch-plate in Greece must

have been induced by the contacts with Sicily. The most likely explanation for their occurrence

in Greece is that the western Greeks were transporting these fibulae back to Greece from Sicily.35

Out of the 50 examples of leech fibulae with elongated catch-plates in Greece, 16 have come

from the sanctuary at Perachora.36 The rest of the fibulae have been found at other sanctuaries in

Greece, with the most Italian goods, including jewelry, being discovered at the sanctuary of

Olympia.37 The reasoning behind the western Greeks dispatching their adaptations of Italic

composite fibulae to Greek sanctuaries will be discussed more in the final chapter.





33 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," in Perachora, the Sactuaries ofHera Akraia and Limenia; Excavations of the
British School ofArchaeology atAthens, 1930-1933, ed. Dunbabin, T.J. and Alan Blakeway (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1940), esp. 439-441.
34 Ibid., 439

35 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females: Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies and the Evidence from the
Cemeteries," inAncient Greeks West and East, ed. Tsetskhladze, Gocha R (Boston: Brill, 1999), esp. 288-289.
36 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," esp. 439.

37 Gillian Shepherd, "The Pride of Most Colonials: Burial and Religion in the Sicilian Colonies," inActa
Hyperborea 6, ed. Fischer-Hansen, Tobias (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1995), esp. 74.









But for now, the conversation will continue with the second reason why the elongated

catch-plate was believed to have been a Greek invention. Leech fibulae with short catch-plates

had been unearthed at Vrokastro on Crete, dating to the 9th century BC (Figure A-11).38

Archaeologist Sylvia Benton noted during the middle 20th century that that these fibulae were

older than any types found in Italy including those from the Greek colonies of Syracuse and

Pithekoussai.39

Although the catch-plates on the types from Vrokastro were short, she claimed that they

must have been the predecessors to those at Syracuse and Pithekoussai.40 At the time of Benton's

publications from Vrokastro, Orsi and Buchner seemed in agreement with Benton that leech

fibulae with the elongated catch-plates in the western Greek colonies and mainland sites in Italy,

especially central Italy, were a result of Greek influence.41 Benton asserted that the elongated

catch-plate itself must have been a natural progression of the short catch-plate. She was

essentially tracing the development of the elongated catch-plate back to Vrokastro and thereby

declaring that it was Greek in origin.

MacNamara's research of the elongated catch-plate and its association with the Sicilian

elbow fibula as early as the 11th century has certainly helped to clarify this thorny issue. Looking

back, it is not surprising that Benton, Orsi, and Buchner believed the invention of the elongated

catch-plate to be a Greek rather than an Italic one. They did not have the knowledge of the

Sicilian elbow type, which has shown that the elongated catch-plate occurred first on this type



38 E.H Hall, Excavations in Eastern Crete (Philadelphia: University Museum, 1913), esp. 144 and 165.
39 Hencken's summary of Benton's conclusions is noted because Benton's publication is inaccessible. Hugh Hencken,
"Syracuse,"esp. 271.
40 Ibid

41 The views of Orsi and Buchner are noted by Hencken in, "Syracuse."









and was then eventually transferred to the leech type. The progression of the elongated catch-

plate from the Sicilian elbow type to the leech type makes sense because the Sicilian elbow type

appears before the leech type in time and space.

To summarize, the cumulative evidence proves that the elongated catch-plate is securely

identified as an Italic innovation. It first appeared on the Sicilian elbow type during the 11th

century and then gradually started to appear throughout central and southern Italy and Sicily

during the 8th century on the serpentine, arch, composite leech, and regular leech bow types. As

for the manifestation of the elongated catch-plate in the Greek colonies, it is now clear that the

western Greeks adapted the Italic composite leech fibula to suit their tastes. They chose to

display the Italic elongated catch-plate on these fibulae. The appearance of Greek style

composite leech fibulae with elongated catch-plates at sanctuaries in Greece reflects how the

elongated catch-plate was carried east and not west.

Now that the story of the elongated catch-plate has been summarized, the conversation

will return to development of the fibula. It has been shown that the spectacle fibula, double or

multiple knobbed violin bow fibula, stilted bow fibula, double or multiple knobbed arch bow

fibula, and the Sicilian elbow fibula were the five types of fibulae appearing in Italy and the

greater Mediterranean and Adriatic countries during the 13th through 1 1th centuries BC. The 10th

century is not discussed much in literature concerning the development of the fibula, but the 9th

century is continuously referred to in relation to the appearance of the fibula in Italy. During the

years within this century, new types of fibulae appeared in central and southern Italy and Sicily.

These types include the simple arch bow fibula, the composite leech bow fibula, and the

serpentine fibula.









The development of these three Italic types is a result of the knowledge of manufacturing

and decorative techniques that the native peoples of Italy and Sicily acquired through their

exposure to the spectacle, knobbed violin, stilted bow, knobbed arch, and elbow fibula types.

This accumulation of knowledge and the subsequent appearance of the simple arch bow fibula,

the composite leech bow fibula, and the serpentine fibula indicate that by 900 BC the local Italic

sequence was underway.

Throughout the 8th and into the 7th centuries other, more elaborate types start to emerge

such as the drago, large leech, and comb and bolt types. There are differences in materials,

techniques, and decoration between the Early Iron Age fibulae such as the spectacle, violin,

serpentine, and arch bow and those of the late 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries. The progression from

fairly simple fibulae to those with more intricate shape and decoration will be discussed more in

the next chapter.

Geographical Distribution

Fibula Types from the 13th to 11th Centuries BC

The spectacle fibula originated from the Balkan regions and central Europe, but it

subsequently appeared in both Italy and Greece.42 Some variations of the Type I spectacle fibula

(figs. 2-2a, 2-2c, 2-2e, and 2-2g) appeared in southern Europe (Figure A-12). Other variations of

the Type I spectacle fibula (figs. 2-2b, 2-2d, 2-2f, and 2-2h) appeared in southern Europe,

Greece, and they were scattered throughout Sicily and mainland Italy (Figure A-13). The first

variant of the type I spectacle fibula (fig. 2-2a) appeared during the 10th through the middle 7th

century while the next two variants (figs. 2-2b and 2-2c) appeared mostly during the 11th through





42 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibulae," esp. 7









the 6th centuries.4 The next four variants (figs. 2-2d-g) appeared mostly during the 9th through 8th

centuries.44 The first three variations of the Type II spectacle fibula (figs. 2-3a, 2-3b, and 2-3c)

were scattered throughout southern Europe but rare in Italy (Figure A-14). The first variant of the

type II spectacle fibula (fig. 2-3a) appeared during the mid 9th through middle 6th century while

the second variant of the type II spectacle fibula (fig. 2-3b) was found mostly dating to before the

11th century through to the middle 6th century.45 The third variant (fig. 2-3c) was found dating to

the 6th century.46

The four variations of the Type III spectacle fibula (figs. 2-4a, 2-4b, 2-4c, and 2-4d) were

thinly spread along the east coast of Italy as well as in southern Europe (Figure A-15). The first

variant (fig. 2-4a) dated mainly to the middle 9th through the middle 6th century while the second

variant (fig. 2-4b) dated to the middle 7th through the middle 3rd centuries.47 The final variants

(figs. 2-4c-d) appeared during the middle 9th through the middle 7th centuries.48

The four spiral shapes of the type IV spectacle fibula (figs. 2-5a-7d), the type V spectacle

fibula, and the type VI spectacle fibula were scattered along the western coast of Italy and in

Greece (Figure A-16). A couple of the variants of the type IV spectacle fibula (figs. 2-5b and 2-

5d) were found dating to the middle of the 9th to the middle or end of the 6th century.49 The third

variant of type IV (fig. 2-5c) dated mainly to middle of the 9th through the middle 7th centuries.50


43 Ibid., esp. 8

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.
46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.
48 Ibid.

49 Ibid.
50 Ibid.









Type V and VI spectacle fibulae were found dating from roughly 900-700 BC.51 At least one

variation of all six types was present in Italy by the eighth century BC with the exception of the

Po Valley in the North.52

The distribution of violin bow fibulae (including the knobbed variations) is similar to

spectacle fibulae in that they have been found throughout central and southern Europe, Greece,

and Italy, as noted by Toms.53 Sestieri's research on the metal industry in Italy during the 13th

through 11th centuries BC reflects how contacts were being made between the Greeks and Italic

people prior to the period of colonization. Stronach suggests that taste for the violin bow was

established by the 14th century in either Italy or Greece,54 but offers no evidence for why he

believes it to have originated in Greece. MacNamara claims that the violin bow fibula originated

in Italy,55 but like Stronach she offers no reason why she believes this to be true. The earlier part

of this chapter might persuade one to believe that the violin bow fibula did originate in Italy

because of Bietti Sestieri's research on the Italic metal industry.

The resemblance of Peschiera violin bow fibulae of Italy and arch bow fibulae in Greece

to specimens in the Protovillanovan hoards in Italy encourage the possibility that they are most

likely of Italic manufacture. At any rate, the type spread east to both Cyprus and Crete, where it

developed local variations.56 The violin bow has been found in Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania,





51 Ibid.
52 Ibid., esp. 7-9

53 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 95
54 David Stronach, "The Development of the Fibula in the Near East," Iraq 21 (1959): esp. 182

55 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 153.
56 Ibid., esp. 153 -154









central Europe, and Italy where it was most abundant in the north." Thus, like the spectacle

fibula, the violin bow and arch bow fibulae were two additional types held in common between

the east and west.

The elbow fibula has Sicilian origins, includes many variations, and is another type that

was held in common between the East and West.58 Like the violin bow fibula, this type spread

east to Cyprus by 1000 BC, and also west to Spain and developed into the respective Huelva and

Cypriot types.59 In particular, MacNamara sees the Huelva and the Cypriot types as part of a

cycle that started in Sicily, extended East and West to develop local variations and then returned

to Italy.60 Huelva and Cypriot typologies are outside of the limits of this discussion, but they are

significant in that they are reminders that the sequence of development in Italian fibulae is but

one component of a much larger sequence in the development of fibulae throughout the

Mediterranean during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age.

The wide distribution of the Sicilian elbow type back and forth across the Mediterranean

recalls the same distribution patterns of the spectacle and violin bow fibulae in central and

southern Europe, Greece and Italy.61 MacNamara regards such wide distributions as being

symptomatic of the types radiating from their respective locations. As with the distribution of the

spectacle fibula, that of the Sicilian elbow type across the western and eastern Mediterranean

does not necessarily reflect any direct contact between these two regions. Rather, the wide




7 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 94-95
58 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 154 -156

59 Ibid., esp. 154 -155
60 Ibid., esp. 158

61 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula," esp. 10, 14, 18









distribution of the Sicilian type may reflect an indirect dissemination, such as through travel and

trade.62

In summary, between the 13th and 1 1th centuries the Italic fibula was influenced by those

of Greece and central and southern Europe. Italy was influencing these foreign peoples as well,

and so it is important to recognize that the contacts that were being made within this period were

reciprocal exchanges. This reciprocity is demonstrated through the wide distributions of the

spectacle, violin, and Sicilian elbow fibulae. Around the 9th century, after being left with the

imprints from other cultures, a native tradition started to develop in Italy, which led to the simple

arch bow, composite leech bow, and serpentine types.63

Fibula Types from the 9th to 7th Centuries BC

The simple arch, composite leech, and serpentine forms were the staples of the Italic

tradition during the 9th through 7th centuries. As stated above, the elongated catch-plate is

securely identified as an Italic invention. It appeared first on the Sicilian elbow type during the

11th century, but was transferred to the simple arch, serpentine, and composite leech fibulae by

the early 8th century BC.64 The composite leech bow was found at the beginning of the Early Iron

Age around 900 BC in the north.65

In Greece at this time, there was no record of the serpentine or composite leech bow

forms.66 Toms notes how simple arch bows were common in Greece, but they are noticeably




62 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 151 & 158

63 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 94

64 Ibid., 94

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid., 95









different from Italic variations because the catch-plate often takes the form of a square or

rectangle.67

Arch bows have also been found in the Balkans, but were rare in central Europe until the

eighth century.68 Arch bows came in two main varieties according to the shape of the bows, and

they were distinguished culturally as well as geographically.69 Semi-circular arch bows were

more common in the Fossa culture areas of southern and central Italy. Fibulae with lowered arch

bows were common in the areas of Etruscan culture in Po Valley in the north as well as parts of

Campania in southern Italy.70

Those examples from northern and southern Italy display small channel catch-plates with

a small to medium double coil spring, while those in the south feature large channel catch-plates

and a single coil spring, which may have beads attached to the thread of the bow.71 During this

time, disc catch-plates first appeared on the violin bow fibula in Italy, but soon they became

limited to the central region of the country.72

New and more elaborate types emerged throughout the end of the eighth century and into

the beginning of the seventh century. They were the small and large leech, drago, and comb and

bolt types. The leech and drago types seem to have appeared throughout Italy, although elaborate

examples have been unearthed especially from the region of Etruria, dating to the 7th though 6th

centuries. In contrast to all of the types mentioned thus far in the study of the Italic fibula, the



67 Ibid.

68 Ibid., 94-95

69 Ibid., 95

70 Ibid., 95

71 Ibid.
72 Ibid.









comb and bolt types appear to be localized to the region of Etruria during the 7th and 6th centuries

BC. The exact proveniences of the fibulae that have been discussed thus far in this paper will be

further commented on in chapter five. They will be considered in relation to tombs, materials,

techniques, and iconography of the fibulae.

In conclusion, the study of the Italic fibula is really a reflection of different cultural

groups within the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Aegean countries from the 13th to 7th centuries

BC. The wide distribution of certain early types of fibulae suggests that Greece, Cyprus, Crete,

central and southern Europe, and Italy were in contact with each other perhaps indirectly though

from an early date, which becomes increasingly apparent during the ninth century. A concise

background on these early types has been provided in order to understand how and where the

Italic tradition fits into the larger Mediterranean context. Understanding this context involves

recognizing that the spectacle fibula, violin bow fibula, stilted bow fibula, double and multiple

knobbed arch bow fibulae, and the Sicilian elbow type were the earliest participants in the

historical development of the fibula.

At this point, the conversation must take a slight detour to acknowledge three types of

fibulae that have received much attention because of the inability to identify them as either Italic

or Greek in origin.









CHAPTER 4
CONTROVERSIAL TYPES OF THE 8TH THROUGH THE 6TH CENTURIES BC

Serpentine fibulae with knobs on the sides, leech fibulae with bone and amber strung on

the bow, and knobbed leech fibulae have received much attention since Paolo Orsi first

conducted his excavations at Syracuse in Sicily during the course of the late nineteenth century.

All three types appeared not only at Syracuse, but also Pithekoussai and Cumae. Besides the

Greek colonies, these types have been unearthed at native sites in Sicily and the Italian mainland.

Since they have been found at both Greek colonies and Italic sites, archaeologists have long

questioned their origin. Some thought they were Italic in origin while others believed them to be

Greek. This chapter will present the locations in Sicily and the mainland where knobbed

serpentine fibulae, composite leech fibulae, and knobbed leech fibulae have been found. This

chapter will also list the other objects found in the presence of these fibulae. Understanding the

context in which these fibulae occur will help to determine their most probable origin.

The Knobbed Serpentine Fibula

Examples of the knobbed serpentine type have been found at Syracuse, Pithekoussai, and

Cumae (see Figure A-4). In the Fusco cemetery at Syracuse, they occur in graves 326 and 308

both dating to the first half of the 7th century.' At Pithekoussai and Cumae, they date to the

second half of the 8th century.2 The knobbed serpentine type also occurs at the native sites of

Monte Finocchito on Sicily,3 Pontecagnano in Campania at the necropolises of the Picento4 and



1 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 269.
2 Ibid., 269-270

3 D.C Steures, Monte Finocchito Revisited (Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press, 1980). Examples of the knobbed
serpentine type appear throughout the catalogue.
4 Bruno D'Agostino and Patrizia Gastaldi, Pontecagnano: II. La Necropoli del Picento: 1. Le Tombe della Prima Eta
del Ferro (Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo Antico,
1988).









S. Antonio,5 Veii and Tarquinia in southern Etruria,6 Sala Consilina in Basilicata,7 and at Canale

in Calabria.8

At Monte Finocchito (see Figures A-4) knobbed serpentine fibulae date to 730-650 BC,

during the main phase of occupation of the site.9 At Veii and Tarqunia, they date to 900-720

BC.'1 De la Geniere does not readily give dates for the examples from Sala Consilina, but instead

describes the objects that have been found in graves from the same period as the knobbed

serpentine fibulae. In this way, she indicates the most likely date of the knobbed serpentine

fibulae by association with other grave objects. Unless one is very familiar with Early Iron Age

grave objects, it is not possible to establish the exact date of the knobbed serpentine type in

Basilicata. If consistent with the appearance of this type elsewhere in Italy, however, it is likely

to date to the 8th or 7th centuries. At Canale, in Calabria in general the evidence allows de la

Geniere to be a little more specific about dates. She offers a date of around 700 BC for the

appearance of the knobbed serpentine type."

Hencken suggested that knobbed serpentine fibulae might be Greek adaptations of local

Italic serpentine fibulae because they were being worn by the Greeks at Pithekoussai as early as






5 Serenella De Natale, Pontecagnano: II, La Necropoli di S. Antonio-Propr. ECI (Napoli: Instituto Universitario
Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992).
6 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender in Early iron Age Etruria," Italian Archaeology (1998): esp. 167.

7 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," in Italy before the Romans, (New York: Academic Press,
1979), esp. 82

8 Ibid., 85

9 Robert Leighton, Sicily before History (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999), esp. 242.

10 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 157

1 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 85









the peoples of Italy were wearing them.1 Just because they were being worn by the Greeks in

Italy as early as the Italic people does not prove that they are Greek adaptations of the Italic

serpentine fibula, however.

There is a lack of literature discussing knobbed serpentine fibulae in native Italic

contexts, except for Monte Finocchito. Though the lack of evidence certainly does not help to

clarify the issue, it is unreasonable to conclude that the occurrence of these fibulae at the Greek

colonies of Pithekoussai, Syracuse, and Cumae reflects the Greeks modifying the Italic

serpentine type. They appeared with other fibulae of Italic origin at Monte Finocchito, such as

serpentine bow fibulae, leech bow fibulae, and with other indigenous jewelry such as chains,

beads, bronze and iron rings,1 which encourages the idea that they are Italic.'4 This occurrence

coupled with the absence of the Greek dress pin15 at Monte Finocchito supports the conclusion

that knobbed serpentine fibulae are Italic in origin.

As at Monte Finocchito, the knobbed serpentine type was found in the presence of other

fibulae of Italic origin at Pontecagnano, Veii at the Quattro Fontanili cemetery, Tarquinia, and

Sala Consilina. At Pontecagnano these types include the simple arch bow fibula with elongated

catch-plate, the foliated fibula, the serpentine form, the composite leech bow, and the solid leech

form.16 Hodos acknowledges the ample collection of Italic fibulae present at Pontecagnano, Veii,






12 Hencken declares that the Greeks were wearing them just as early as the native Italic peoples, but he doess not
make reference to the sites he is referring to. Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270.

13 Ibid.
14 Robert Leighton, Sicily before History, esp. 242.

1 Ibid.
16 All of these types appear in the catalogues by D'Agostino and De Natale.









and Tarquinia. 1 He sites the serpentine fibula, Italic composite leech bow fibula, and the solid

leech bow fibula among the types present at the southern Etruscan sites of Veii and Tarquinia. In

addition to these later types, Close-Brooks and Ridgway document the appearance of the simple

arch bow fibula at Veii,18 but it seems to have been present at Tarquinia as well.19

At Sala Consilina, the knobbed serpentine type is found alongside the simple arch bow,

the leaf fibula, and the Italic composite leech bow fibula.20 At Canale the situation is similar to

the other sites already mentioned, which means that the knobbed serpentine type has been found

in the presence of other Italic fibulae such as the four-spiral spectacle, the serpentine, and the

leech types.21

The evidence from Monte Finocchito, Pontecagnano, Veii, Tarquinia, Sala Consilina, and

Canale on the knobbed serpentine type reaffirms that a tradition already been old in Italy. It is

clear from the examples of violin, stilted, and arch bow fibulae of the Peschiera and

Protovillanovan periods in Italy that the Italic people had a fondness for decorating the bow with

knobs.

The knobs on the serpentine type are more three-dimensional and they project from the

sides of the bow in a different way from the knobs on the violin and arch bow fibulae of the

Peschiera period. Even though the knobs on the serpentine type are more exaggerated than those

on the violin and arch bow examples from the Peschiera period, it does not seem unreasonable


17 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies," Oxford Journal ofArchaeology 18 (1999): esp. 63-
64.

18 Joanna Close-Brooks and David Ridgway, "Veii in the Iron Age," in Italy before the Romans, (New York:
Academic Press, 1979), esp. 102

19 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 167
20 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 82
21 de la Geniere does not focus much on Canlae in her article, but she does make note of the types of Italic fibulae
that have been unearthed at this site.









that, during the Early Iron Age and well into the seventh century BC, the Italic people would

have continued the tradition of decorating the bow with knobs on the serpentine fibula.

The Composite Leech Bow Fibula

This type has been briefly introduced above while explaining the origins of the elongated

catch-plate. It is accepted that the tradition of decorating the bow of leech fibulae with rings or

segments of bone and amber was a true Italic one. However certain examples of composite leech

fibulae had received special attention in the past by archaeologists because the elements

decorating the bow were in a different style compared to those traditionally worn by the Italic

people. These differences in style raised questions regarding their origin. Orsi seems to be the

first archaeologist to have recognized in the early 20th century that there were composite leech

fibulae in existence in Italy that did not resemble true Italic composite leech fibulae.

He speculated on the origin of the composite leech fibulae in the different style, but his

account was quite brief and he did not consider all of the available evidence when drawing his

conclusions on their origin. Later in the middle to late 20th century, the question of the origin of

composite leech fibulae in the alternative style once again resurfaced because more research had

been conducted on them since the time Orsi wrote his article. This new research resulted in the

classification of two types of composite leech fibulae in the alternative style, which were

distinguished from true Italic ones by J.M. Stubbings.

In order to make conclusions regarding the most likely origin of the composite leech

fibulae in the alternative style, it is necessary to contrast them to traditional Italic composite

leech fibulae. In general, true Italic composite leech fibulae have discs of amber, bronze, and/or

bone strung along the bow that may be thick in nature and evenly spaced (see Figure A-8).22


22 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 93-94.










Examples of these fibulae have surfaced from Veii and Tarquinia in southern Etruria23 and from

tombs 3214, 3248, 3266, 3276, and 3280 at Pontecagnano in Campania.24

Compared to traditional Italic fibulae, those described by Orsi and Stubbings as being

different had a single piece of amber placed in between two pieces of bone. Stubbings

acknowledges that there are two variations of composite leech fibulae with lengthened bone

segments.25 In both types, the center of the bow is decorated with an amber bead or a piece of

ivory inlaid with amber and they both have elongated catch-plates. The only difference between

them is that one has longer bone segments than the other.26 This variant has been referred to as

the trapezium form by Stubbings because of the lengthened bone segments. The Greek styles are

different from the discs of bone and amber that often times are placed close together on the bow

of Italic composite leech fibulae.

The composite leech fibulae in the alternative style were found mostly in the Greek

colonies of Syracuse (Figure A-17), Cumae (Figure A-18), and Pithekoussai (Figure A-19).

Hencken notes that at the cemetery of Fusco at Syracuse the most common design was a single

piece of amber or bone placed in between two pieces of bone as seen in figure 51.27 Syracuse

seems to have provided the most adequate examples of composite leech fibulae in the Greek


23 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 170

24 Examples of composite arch bow and leech bow fibulae appear in the catalogue. Serenella De Natale,
Pontecagnano II. La Necropoli di S. Antonio: Propr. ECI 2. Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro (Napoli: Instituto
Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di studi del mondo e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992). Examples of composite
arch bow and leech bow fibulae appear in the catalogue.

25 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," esp. 439.
26 Stubbings does not provide any illustrations of the composite leech fibula that has the longer bone segments.
Similarly to the case with the boat and leech fibulae, the stylistic differences between the two variations of the
composite leech fibulae are noted, but the differences in the length of the bone segemnts may be barely noticeable.
Perhaps this is why Stubbings did not feel it was necessary to include and illustration, but he did not ignore the fact
that he had seen composite leech fibulae with bone segments of differing lengths by stating this in his article.
27 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270.









style. They exhibit a distinctly different composition of bone and amber from Italic composite

leech fibulae.28

In many of the examples from Pithekoussai the two pieces of bone are long and

cylindrical in contrast to the discs that characterize Italic composite fibulae. An example of a

Greek composite leech fibula has been unearthed from tomb 272 (see Figure A-19) on Ischia that

looks similar to the ones from Syracuse. In contrast to the Greek composite leech fibula from

tomb 272, the Italic one from tomb 599 (Figure A-20) on Pithekoussai resembles the same type

from native sites such as Veii and Pontecagnano. It is in keeping with the Italic tradition in that it

has discs of amber and bone strung evenly along the length of the bow instead of the lengthened

bone segments that characterize the Greek composite leech fibula. Examples of fibulae of Italic

type have also come from Cumae (Figure A-21) and (Figure 4-1). Comparing the Italic

composite leech fibulae from tomb 653 on Pithekoussai to the Greek example from tomb 272 on

Pithekoussai reveals the differences in style between Greek adaptations of Italic composite leech

fibulae and actual Italic composite leech fibulae.

Greek composite leech fibulae have also been found at other Greek colonies in southern

Italy, but this type was not exclusive to the Greek colonies since it has also been discovered at

indigenous sites in southern Italy and Campania. That the Greek composite leech bow fibula has

been found at both Greek and Italic sites in southern Italy, was affirmed by Orsi and later

reaffirmed by Guzzo.29




28 Pier Giovanni Guzzo, "Ipotesti Interpretativa su due Tipi di Fibula con Arco Ricoperto," Aparchai; Nuove
Ricerche e Studi sullaMagna Grecia e la SiciliaAntica in Onore di Paolo Orsi 1 (1982): esp. 55.
29 P.G. Guzzo describes the composite leech fibula found in each region of Italy and Sicily. He provides the
material, dimensions, and date (if possible) of manufacture of these fibulae. Like Orsi, he associates this type with
the colonizing Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily.









Orsi listed all of the sites in Calabria and Campania that had produced examples of Greek

composite leech fibulae. In his study, he concentrated on ones that were in iron with an elongated

catch-plate. In Sicily, the sites include such sites as Centuripe, Grammichele, Licodia.30 In

southern Italy, they include Locri, Canneto, Taranto, and the necropolises of Piceno.31 In his

declaration he acknowledged the widespread use of the composite leech type among the

indigenous cultures of Sicily and southern Italy and the almost complete absence of them from

the Greek colonies of Megara Hyblaea and Gela.

Orsi saw the widespread appearance of the Greek composite leech fibula in iron among

the native sites of Sicily and southern Italy as a reflection of Greek cultural superiority.32 He

theorized that the Greek colonists were making these fibulae solely for the purpose of exporting

them to the Italic people. Although it is hard to believe, he must have overlooked the appearance

of this type at Syracuse, which disputes his view.

The presence of composite leech fibulae at Pithekoussai, Cumae, and the Greek colonies

in southern Italy and Sicily reinforces the fact that these fibulae were not being made simply to

be exported. Orsi did not have the knowledge of the finds from Pithekoussai and Cumae at the

time he wrote his article, but the evidence from Syracuse, the Greek sites in southern Italy, and

the Greek sites in Sicily should have prompted him to question his exportation theory. The

presence of Greek composite leech fibulae at native sites in southern Italy and Sicily is most

likely a result of dissemination of ideas or trade between the Greeks and the native peoples.


30 Paolo Orsi, "Contributi alla storia della fibula greca," Opuscula Archaeologica Oscari Montello, Septuagenario,
dicta d. ix m. sept. MCALVII (1913): esp. 201.

31 Ibid.
32 He insinuates that the main reason these fibulae were being produced by the Greek colonists in Italy was for
export to the native Italic people. He did not realize that the Greeks had actually adopted and adapted the Italic
composite leech type to suit their tastes. His view is severely outdated and typifies the time period in which he wrote
his article.









Lyons contradicts Orsi in saying that there are "numerous instances" of this type at

Megara Hyblaea.33 There is some discrepancy in the findings from Megara Hyblaea, but it is

probable that Orsi did not have all of the available evidence at his disposal to make a fair

assessment of the findings from Megara Hyblaea regarding fibulae. Based on Lyons' account it

does not seem as if there was an absence of this type at Megara Hyblaea. There may or may not

have been an absence of Greek composite leech fibulae at Gela, but at present there is no way to

tell whether or not the Geloans were using this type.

Regardless of whether or not this type was being used at Gela, it was certainly being

employed to secure garments in the communities of Syracuse and Pithekoussai. The presence of

Greek composite leech fibulae at sanctuaries in Greece reflects the other way that this type was

employed by the western Greeks, which was for dedication It has been shown that the Greek

composite leech fibula has been found not only in the Greek colonies, but also the native sites

and Italic fibula types have been found in the Greek colonies.

Italic Fibulae at Syracuse, Pithekoussai and Cumae

As in the case of the knobbed serpentine type, composite leech fibulae at Pithekoussai

and Cumae were found in the presence of Italic fibulae. The archaeological community has

recognized the close correspondence of fibula types of these two Greek colonies in particular to

native sites in Campania and Etruria. Coldstream iterates, "Right from the beginning, the Greek

colonists of Pithekoussai and Cumae used non-Greek, indigenous, personal ornaments,

especially fibulae."34 The Fusco cemetery at Syracuse did not contain as many indigenous fibula

types as Pithekoussai and Cumae, a point that relates to the social milieu of the colony. The types

3 Claire Lyons, The Archaic Cemeteries, ed. Bell, Malcolm and Christopher Moss, vol. 5 (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1996), esp. 97.
4 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages at the Frontiers of the Early Greek World," Oxford Journal ofArchaeology
12.1 (1993): esp. 91.









that are present at Syracuse include mostly small and large leech fibulae, serpentine fibulae with

knobs on the sides, and knobbed leech fibulae.35 The knobbed leech fibula will be discussed

below.

The variety of Italic fibulae at Pithekoussai includes the simple arch, serpentine, small

and large leech, composite leech, and drago types. Hodos recognizes that the types recovered

from the tombs at Cumae are similar to those from Pithekoussai, and they include the simple

arch bow, the ringed arch bow, the serpentine form, the leech fibula, and the drago type.36 Two

types appear at Cumae that were not present at Pithekoussai and Syracuse. They are the comb

and bolt fibulae. Though not known to have appeared in other Greek colonies excluding Cumae,

they have been unearthed from graves in Etruria dating to the 7th and 6th centuries. The reasons

why the comb and bolt types were only present at the Greek colony of Cumae, but had been

present in Etruscan graves, will be further explored in the final chapter.

The Knobbed Leech Fibula

The third type of fibula that has received attention in the past decades because of its

questionable origins is the knobbed leech bow (Figure A-5), (Figure A-6), and (Figure A-7).

Like the knobbed serpentine fibula and the composite leech fibula in the Greek style, this type

has appeared in both Italic and Greek sites in Italy. Examples have survived from Syracuse,

Pithekoussai, and Cumae. The type has provenances at the native sites of Monte Finocchito,

Veii, Pontecagnano, Tarqunia, and Sala Consilina. 3 It is difficult to distinguish the origin of this

type because not much literature has been produced on it. Hencken did make note of it in his


35 A brief perusal of the catalogue and the text by Hencken reveals that these are the most prevalent types at
Syracuse.
36 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarraige," esp. 63.

37 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 69-70.









article while discussing the possible origin and date of the knobbed serpentine and the Greek

composite leech fibula. It seems quite natural that like the serpentine type with knobs, the leech

type might have developed to display knobs as well. In this case, the appearance of the leech

type with knobs would be in keeping with the tradition of decorating the bow with knobs, which

was first seen in Italy long before the 8th century.

Summary

To recapitulate, the knobbed serpentine and knobbed leech bows do seem to derive from

the Italic sequence. The appearance of these types at Monte Finocchito and Veii along with other

Italic fibulae demonstrates that they are most likely native to Italy. Their appearance in the Greek

colonies of Pithekoussai and Cumae suggests that, like the simple arch, serpentine, leech, and

drago fibulae, they must have been adopted and worn by the peoples in both of these colonies.

These fibulae may have been imported from the mainland since they have such close parallels in

certain Italic sites. Or, they could have possibly been produced at Pithekoussai since there is

evidence that a metal working quarter existed on this island in antiquity.38 That the collection of

fibulae at Pithekoussai and Cumae "find exact parallels in the contemporary tombs of Etruria" is

evidenced by comparing the repertoire of fibulae at Veii with Pithekoussai and Cumae.39

The one type that does seem to be Greek inspired from the native tradition is the

composite leech fibula in the Greek style. After comparing the placement and style of the bone

and amber segments of composite leech fibulae found in the Greek colonies to that of those

traditionally worn by the native Italic peoples, we conclude that the Greeks were influenced by

the Italic tradition. The examination of the finds from Syracuse, Pithekoussai, and key



38 David Ridgway, The First Western Greeks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), esp. 93-100.
39 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages," esp. 91.









indigenous sites leads to a conclusion that had gone unrecognized by many archaeologists for

some time. This conclusion is that the Greeks were responsible for fashioning composite leech

fibulae at Syracuse and Pithekoussai that were based upon the Italic composite leech type, but in

their own style.

They adopted the Italic tradition of decorating the bow with bone and amber segments,

but made it their own by fashioning bone segments instead of discs and carefully articulating the

position of the amber and/or bone with amber inlay as the center piece. Even Blinkenberg

acknowledged that the types he designated as IX and X, which were found in Greece, had

originated in Italy (Figure A-22).40 The addition of amber and bone in the style as they appear at

Syracuse and Pithekoussai is the Greek contribution. The elongated catch-plate, which had been

thought for some time by certain members of the archaeological community to be a Greek

contribution, is not.

It is noted that once the Greeks start producing Italic type fibulae at Pithekousaai they

add special features. For example, a lowered and angular bow with lengthened bone segments

has been found on composite leech bow fibulae at Pithekoussai and at Roggiano-Prunetta in

Calabria.41 Even though there are differences in style between Greek colonial composite leech

fibulae and true Italic ones, at first glance, it would seem as if they were simply borrowing and

imitating what they had seen the Italic people fasten their garments with. However, upon closer

inspection, this situation reflects a larger sociological phenomenon that has two aspects.

The first aspect concerns the reason why the Greeks chose to borrow from the Italic

tradition in the first place instead of producing fibulae at Pithekoussai that they were accustomed


40 Christian Blinkenberg, Lindiaka VFibules Grecques et Orientales (Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred. Host & Son, 1926),
esp. 197-199
41 Pier Giovanni Guzzo, "Ipotesi," esp. 56.









to wearing in Greece. The second one speaks to the reason why the western Greeks were trying

to differentiate themselves from the natives by producing Italic looking fibulae, but making it

their own by changing the style. These two aspects of relations between the Greeks and the Italic

people at Pithekoussai, in particular, will be discussed in more detail in the final chapter.

On the other hand Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela, have not yielded the same

evidence that Pithekoussai has in terms of fibulae and their supposed use. Out of three Sicilian

colonies, Syracuse has provided the most amount of information. The differences in the

prevalence and deposition locations of Greek imitations of Italic fibulae at Pithekoussai and

Syracuse will be compared in the last chapter. Megara Hyblaea and Gela do not provide as much

information on fibulae as Syracuse does. However, the funerary practices of these three colonies

reveal an important aspect of their relationship. This relationship and the implications it had at

home in Greece will also be examined in the final chapter.







































Figure 4-1. A serpentine fibula from Cumae. (Source in public domain) Gabrici, E. "Cuma."
Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). Catalogue figure 3 2:3.









CHAPTER 5
PROVENIENCE, MATERIALS, TECHNIQUES, AND ICONOGRAPHY

The body of this chapter will expound upon the historical reconstruction of the previous

chapter by examining the chronological evolution of the fibula in Italy from the years around 900

BC through the 6th century BC in relation to materials, techniques, and iconography. An attempt

has been made below to compile a wide assortment of information and make connections

between information contained in various sources. Since the information concerning each of

these criteria is scattered across disparate sources, no clear outline is available concerning the

relationship between material, techniques, and iconography of fibulae dating to the 9th through

the 7th centuries BC. Despite the lack of specific reconstructions, a general idea regarding the

time periods and the corresponding characteristics of fibulae within those periods can be gleaned

from the cumulative research on the Italic fibula. The survey below seeks to illuminate the

relationship between fibulae dating to the 9th through the 7th centuries and the respective

characteristics of each.

Sites

Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicily, Southern Italy, and Campania: The Indigenous Sites

The native sites ofPantalica, Dessueri, Carcarella, and Cassible in Sicily yield common

types of Early Iron Age fibulae, which include the simple arch, the elbow, and the serpentine

form.' Grave goods associated with these types include rings, buttons, and small tools such as

knives, spearheads, and razors.2 As in Sicily, the southern Italian regions of Apulia, Basilicata,


1 Robert Leighton, Sicily, esp. 200-201.
2 Ibid., 200









and Calabria have yielded similar types of fibulae including the simple arch and serpentine types

during the 9th -8th centuries.3

De la Geniere also identifies the spectacle fibula, the simple arch fibula with symmetrical

channel catch-plate, the leaf fibula with, and later without, the disc-foot, the composite leech

bow fibula, the triple coil serpentine fibula, and the double-coil spectacle fibula as the types

known to exist in southern Italian graves.4 The serpentine fibula may have a symmetrical channel

or a disc catch-plate as noted by de la Geniere. The elongated channel catch-plate appears in

Sicily as early as the 11th century BC, but in southern Italy the evidence suggests that it does not

occur until sometime in the Early Iron Age, which would be 900-720 BC. The elongated channel

catch-plate appears on the knobbed serpentine type at Sala Consilina and at Torre Mordillo

during these years.

More information on early fibula types is available from Calabria, and in particular from

the native sites of Torre Mordillo, Francavilla Marittima, and Torre Galli during the ninth

through the eighth centuries BC (Figure 5-1). The spectacle, serpentine, Sicilian elbow, and

leech types appear at Torre Mordillo, but the spectacle seems to be less common than the Sicilian

elbow form.6 Eventually, the serpentine form with an elongated channel catch-plate starts to take

shape by 725 BC, and it gradually supersedes the older Sicilian elbow model.7

The four-spiral spectacle fibula with and without the lozenge-shaped plaque in the center,

the Sicilian elbow type, the simple arch bow fibula, and the composite leech bow fibula have

3 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 78-85

4 Ibid., 79-85

5 Ibid., 82 and 85
6 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries BC" (PhD diss., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), esp. 37-42

7 Ibid., 41









been unearthed at Francavilla Marittima and Torre Galli.8 At Francavilla Marittima the four-

spiral form with the lozenge-shaped plaque in the center and Sicilian elbow forms date no later

than the first half of the eighth century.9 The majority of examples of the arch fibula display the

long channel catch-plate. Bone and amber segments may rest on the bow of the composite leech

bow fibula.i0

At Torre Galli, located on the western coast of Calabria, the Sicilian elbow fibula and the

simple arch bow fibula are the predominant forms from this area with the former dating as early

as the ninth century." Many of the arch fibulae display the symmetrical channel catch-plate.12

While the listing of fibula types from this site is quite brief, it nonetheless reinforces which types

of fibulae were in use during the Early Iron Age not just in Calabria, but elsewhere in southern

Italy and in Sicily.

In Campania on the Tyrrhenian side of Italy, Moser categorizes the finds from each of the

significant sites into distinct phases based upon the appearance of other archaeological artifacts.

Her method of dating is similar to that of de la Geniere, which makes it difficult for one who is

not an archaeologist to get an idea of the exact time periods of the phases that she divides her

evidence into.

One Early Iron Age site in Campania is Capua, (see Figure 5-2) which displays examples

of early types similar to those of Calabria and Basilicata. These include the arch, serpentine,




8 Ibid., 132-148

9 Ibid., 148-151
10 Ibid., 151

" Ibid., 189
12 Ibid.









leech, four-spiral spectacle, and drago fibulae.13 The arch and serpentine types emerge before the

leech and drago types.14 The four-spiral spectacle type makes its debut after the arch, serpentine,

leech, and drago types are already present.'5 The short symmetrical channel, small spiral disc,

and small solid disc catch-plates appear earlier than the elongated catch-plate at this site.16 The

elongated channel catch-plate emerges first on the simple arch bow fibula with discs on the bow

as noted by Moser.

Finds attributed to Pontecagnano (see Figure 5-2), another site in Campania that Moser

studied, include the simple arch bow, serpentine, knobbed serpentine, simple leech, knobbed

leech, Italic composite leech, and four-spiral spectacle fibulae. Similar to the situation in Capua,

the arch and serpentine shapes with a spiral or solid disc catch-plate appear before the leech and

four-spiral types as explained by Moser. The catch-plates on these types may also be in the form

of a short or medium length channel." The long channel catch-plate materializes earlier at

Pontecagnano than at Capua, and it is found only on the leech form as observed by Moser.

A third site, which showcases the same type of fibula forms as other sites previously

mentioned in southern Italy and Campania is Sala Consilina (see Figure 5-2). This site, in

particular, has gained a reputation for keeping a representative sample of standard eighth century

forms. On this list are the arch, serpentine, knobbed serpentine, simple leech, knobbed leech,

Italic composite leech, foliated, drago, and four-spiral spectacle fibulae types.18 The catch-plate


13 Mary Elizabeth Moser, "The "Southern Villanovan" Culture of Campania" (PhD diss., University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1982), esp. 31-94
14 Ibid., esp. 75

15 Ibid., 90

16 Ibid., 14-47

17 Ibid., 151-155

18 Ibid., 279-408









on the arch bow and serpentine forms may be a short or medium-length channel as noted by

Moser. If the catch-plate is not a channel, then Moser states that it may be a spiral or solid disc.

Like Capua, Pontecagnano, and Sala Consilina, the foliated, drago, and four-spiral spectacle

fibula types emerge after the arch and serpentine fibulae. The catch-plates on foliated, drago, and

four-spiral types may be an elongated or short symmetrical channel.19 At Sala Consilina, the

leech form is strongly associated with the long channel foot.20

Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries

In southern Etruria, some of the same types of fibulae that have been unearthed from

southern Italy have been discovered at the sites of Veii and Tarquinia (Figure 5-3). During the

years 900-720 BC, the simple arch, Italic composite leech, simple leech, serpentine, drago,

knobbed serpentine, and knobbed leech fibulae emerge at these two sites.21

At Tarquinia, just northwest of Veii, the fibulae types find parallels to those of Veii.22

Hodos also notes how the assemblages at other Italic sites, such as Caere and Pontecagnano, are

similar to those of Veii and Tarquinia. Thus, it is fair to conclude that the finds from Veii and

Tarquinia complement not only each other, but they also seem to augment the finds from Sicily

and southern Italy in regard to the types of fibulae present. Although the typology of fibulae in

Etruria is similar to that of southern Italy and Sicily during the Early Iron Age, by the 7th century

changes are definitely under way.






19 Ibid., 365-377
20 Ibid., 472-478

21 Joanna Close-Brooks, "Veii in the Iron Age," esp. 102
22 Tamar Hodos, "Interrmarriage," esp. 63









The Greek Colonies in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries

Some Greek colonies in Italy, namely Pithekoussai, Cumae, and Syracuse are equipped

with Italic types dating to the first half of the 8th century. At Pithekoussai, the types include the

simple arch bow, the serpentine, knobbed serpentine, solid leech, Italic composite leech, Greek

composite leech, knobbed leech, and drago types.23 Cumae is situated on the coast of Campania

opposite Pithekoussai. As in the similarity between the fibulae of Veii and Tarqunia, Cumae has

a similar assemblage of fibulae compared to that of Pithekoussai.24

Cumae was excavated in the early 20th century by two different archaeologists. Pellegrini,

the first one, was responsible for excavating the Fondo Artiaco tomb in 1903 and bringing to

light its luxurious contents.25 The Fondo Artiaco tomb and its contents will be discussed shortly

in relation to the foundation of Cumae in the next chapetr of this thesis. Cumae was excavated

again in 1913 by Stevens and the fibulae were published by Gabrici. The fibulae published by

Gabrici are very similar to those found at native Italic sites.26 As noted in chapter four, the

assemblages of both Cumae and Pithekoussai are similar to those from Italic sites. The fibula

types that appear at Syracuse find parallels to the types at Pithekoussai. The types present at

Syracuse include the knobbed serpentine, the knobbed leech, the solid leech, and the Greek

composite leech forms.2 Although Shepherd states that the types at Syracuse are similar to those

at Pithekoussai, the simple arch, drago, and spectacle fibulae types do not seem to have been

popular. Most of the eighty fibulae discovered at Syracuse were excavated by Paolo Orsi in

23 Giorgio Buchner and David Ridgway, Pithekoussai I (Rome: Bretschneider, 1993)

24 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 63
25 G. Pellegrini, "Tombe greche archaiche e tomba greco-sannitica a tholos della necropoli di Cuma," Monumenti
Antichi 13 (1903).
26 E. Gabrici, "Cuma," Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913).

27 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 278










1895.28 Of the eighty examples, 36 were of the Greek composite leech type. Shepherd notes how

the Greek composite leech fibula is the most common at Syracuse, and this is evident from the

graves described by Hencken. Hencken based his article and the accompanying illustrations on

the excavations by Orsi.29

Etruria and Latium in the Seventh Century

Tomb contents from the period of 725-575 BC have been surveyed by Winthur from sites

such as Tarquinia, Rome, Vetulonia, Marsiliana, Praeneste, Veii, Caere, and Populonia (see

Figure 5-3).30 The following items are included in this assortment: elaborate fibulae, warrior's

equipment, metal vases, faience objects (although somewhat scarce), and ivory items.31 The

contents from Vetulonia, Marsiliana, and Caere, and will be looked at more closely for the

examples they provide in work executed in luxurious materials and for the utilization of the new

techniques of filigree and granulation.

Two leech fibulae come from the tomb of the Lictor (dated 625 BC) at Vetulonia in

northern Etruria (Figure A-23).32 At Marsiliana during the years 675-650 BC there are a number

of drago fibulae.33 Besides the leech and drago types, two new fibula forms appear during this

period in Etruria, and they are the comb and bolt types. An example of the comb type appears at




28 Paolo Orsi, "Gli Scavi nella Necropoli fel Fusco a Siracusa nel Giugno, Novembre e Dicembre del 1893," Notizie
degli Scavi diAntichita (1895).
29 Hencken neatly summarizes the results from Orsi's excavations in his article published in 1958. He includes the
tomb number, the metal contents, their material, and the date if possible. This summarization is extremely helpful
compared to trying to sift through the 100 some-odd pages in NSc.
30 Caroline Winthur, "Princely Tombs of the Orientalizing Period in Etruria and Latium Vetus," Acta Hyperborea 7
(1997): esp. 434-441.

31 Ibid., 435-441

32 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans and Early Etruscans (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924), esp. 29

33 Ibid., 187-192









Marsiliana.4 Like other types of fibulae, they were used to fasten garments on the shoulder, but

they work in a different manner from the usual pin and catch-plate method of all of the other

types from the Italic sequence.

These types were first described in the early 20th century in an Italian journal and then

later in the century by Strom. These accounts explain how both of these fibulae are fastened to

garments, but is very difficult to understand. Strom focuses more on the plastic decoration on

comb and bolt examples, but less on how they might have been worn. The presence of more than

one comb and bolt fibula in the specific tombs in Etruria implies that that they must have been

intended as jewelry for tomb deposition rather than practical use since it would have been

extremely awkward to wear all of them at the same time while alive.35 The presence of the comb

and bolt fibulae from Marsiliana and Praeneste (as one is known from the Bernardini tomb) serve

to reflect the surge of wealth that Etruria is experiencing during the 7th century.

The finds from the Regolini Galassi tomb (dated 650-625 BC) at Caere augment those

from Vetulonia and Marsiliana. Many items in luxurious materials have been unearthed from this

tomb, including a pectoral, bracelets, an extraordinary large foliated fibula (Figure A- 24), and a

number of leech fibulae.36 The inventory of this tomb is extensive, but other items are known

including domestic utensils such as cups and a bed as noted by Randall-MacIver.

The Bernardini tomb (dated 675 BC) and the Barberini tomb (dated 650 BC), both from

Praeneste, serve to demonstrate further the use of luxurious materials and new techniques. A

drago fibula and a comb fibula have been found in the Bernardini tomb (Figure A-25) and



34 Ingrid Strom, Problems, esp. 140-72.
35 Ingrid Strom, Problems, esp. 101.
36 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 195-208.










(Figure A-26).3 In addition to these pieces, a plaque, a serpentine fibula, bowls, and a dagger

and sheath are also included on the extensive list of objects discovered in this tomb.38A few

comb clasps come from the Barberini tomb as well as three serpentine fibulae, cups, figurines,

and masks.39

Materials

Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicily, Southern Italy, and Campania

Even though the 9th century traditionally marks the rise of the Early Iron Age, bronze

working was still in existence for jewelry and other items. This is true of certain sites on Sicily,

and in southern and central Italy. For example, types of fibulae from the native sites of Pantalica,

Dessueri, Carcarella, and Cassible on Sicily are of bronze.40 Although scholars agree that there

are early objects in iron from Sicily,41 it is not until the period from about 730-650 BC that iron

starts to figure prominently in the production of fibulae.42

Iron examples of the simple arch, serpentine, and spectacle fibula types were slowly

being introduced in southern Italy in the regions of Apulia, Basilicata, and Calabria during the

9th-8th centuries B.C.4 De la Geniere notices that the serpentine type occurs alongside bronze and

iron weapons, such as spearheads and razors.





7 Ibid,, esp. 217

38 Ibid., esp. 262

39 Ibid., esp. 267
40 Robert Leighton, Sicily, esp. 200

41 MacNamara and Sestieri both cite the early finds from Sicily, which include the Sicilian elbow fibula in bronze
since iron examples do not come about until the middle of the eighth century.
42 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria" (PhD diss.), esp. 217.

43 Juliette de La Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 78-85










The spectacle fibula is found more frequently in bronze than in iron at Torre Mordillo,

although the studs in a bronze fibula, which hold the arms of the fibula together, may be in iron.44

Whereas the spectacle form occurs largely in bronze at this site, the Sicilian elbow fibula is

mostly present in iron, and Gualtieri notes that this holds true for other sites in Calabria besides

Torre Mordillo.45 The serpentine fibula may be in bronze or iron and specimens of both materials

may occur in the same tomb as observed by Gualtieri. The association of bronze and iron

serpentine forms in the same tomb suggests that the appeal of bronze did not wane during this

period, even in the presence of iron.46

At Francavilla Marittima, the four-spiral spectacle fibula that has a lozenge shaped

plaque in the center appears mostly in bronze, although the rivets and the bow may be in iron.47

This type dates no later than the first half of the eighth century here.48 The Sicilian elbow type is

usually in iron.49 Bronze is the chief material of the arch fibula, and at this site the majority of

examples have the long channel foot. Bone and amber segments may rest on the bow.s5 The arch

fibula at Torre Galli occurs chiefly in bronze, and many examples display the symmetrical

channel foot.51




44 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria" (PhD diss.), esp. 39.

45 Ibid., 40
46 Ibid., 46

47 Ibid., esp. 148-149
48 Ibid.

49 Ibid., esp. 151
50 Ibid.

51 Ibid., 189










Iron leech forms appear at Capua during the eighth century.52 The simple arch fibula, the

serpentine, the knobbed serpentine, the simple leech, the knobbed leech, the Italic composite

leech fibula, and the four-spiral spectacle types have been discovered in bronze at

Pontecagnano.53 The only form found regularly in iron at Pontecagnano is the serpentine.54 At

Sala Consilina, the arch, serpentine, knobbed serpentine, leech, knobbed leech, foliated, drago,

and four-spiral spectacle types of fibulae all come in bronze.55 However, as seen in the previous

sites, the Sicilian elbow type continues to remain popular in iron at Sala Consilina as well,56 and

objects in amber and gold exist but not in the same number as bronze and iron objects.5

Etruria and Latium in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries

The serpentine form at Veii may be in bronze or iron.58 Hartmann recognizes that fibulae

are common iron objects during the period 900-760 BC, mostly of the serpentine form, but that

far more examples of bronze than iron serpentine fibulae have been unearthed.59 Interestingly,

the number of both iron and bronze fibulae decreases between 760-720 BC, but their ratio does

not change significantly during these years.60






52 Mary Moser, "The "Southern Villanovan" Culture" (PhD diss.), esp. 94

3 Ibid., esp. 151-242

54 Ibid., esp. 475

55 Ibid., esp. 279-408
56 Ibid., esp. 279-307.

57 Ibid., esp. 391
58 Nicholas Hartmann, "Iron-Working in Southern Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries BC" (PhD diss.,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1982), esp. 18-24.

59 Ibid., esp. 55
60 Ibid.









The disc catch-plate and other decorative elements such as crystal knobs and gold tubes

eventually materialize at Tarquinia.61 Similarly to Veii, the serpentine fibula is far more

numerous in the earliest phase at Tarquinia than other classes of objects in iron,62 and bronze

examples of the serpentine type are far more common than the iron ones. Hartmann also

observes that in the later phases at Tarquinia, fibulae are less common than other classes of

objects, although the ratio between iron and bronze types remains roughly the same.

In addition to iron, by the middle of the 8th century at Veii and by the end of the 8th

century at Tarquinia, tombs contain "precious and exotic materials," such as gold, amber,

faience, and glass.63 The social aspects of iron production during this time and its association

with these new materials and the wealthy Etruscan class will be further explored in the final

chapter.

The Greek Colonies in the Eighth and Seventh Centuries

At Syracuse, the serpentine, knobbed serpentine, leech, knobbed leech, and Greek

composite leech types date to the 7t century.64 Many of them are in bronze, while iron is

preferred for the Greek composite leech type,65 as noted by Shepherd.66 While bronze and iron

are still in use at Syracuse by the 7th century, amber and ivory appear at this site, which has been

observed by Orsi, Hencken, and Shepherd. The materials of the fibulae at Pithekoussai and





61 Ibid., esp. 69

62 Ibid., esp. 76

63 Ibid., esp. 163-164

64 Hencken opens his article by stating the age of the objects recovered from the tombs at Syracuse.

65 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 259-265.

66 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 278










Cumae include bronze, iron, amber, and ivory, as at Syracuse, but silver appeared on Ischia and

Cumae before it was seen at Syracuse.6

Etruria in the Seventh Century

The leech fibula from Vetulonia is gold,68 and the examples of drago fibulae from

Marsiliana are gold, silver, or silver and gold-plated.69 The comb and bolt types from Marsiliana

chiefly occur in silver and gold.70 Many objects from the Regolini Galassi tomb are gold and

silver such as the extraordinary foliated fibula. The drago, comb, and serpentine fibulae from the

Bemardini tomb are in gold.71 There are also bowls of silver and an iron dagger in a silver sheath

from the same tomb as noted by MacIver. The comb clasps from the Barberini tomb are gold.

Gold serpentine fibulae, and objects in ivory such as cups, figurines, and masks were discovered

from the Barberini tomb as well.72

Processes and Techniques of Production

Ninth and Eighth centuries : Early Iron Age fibulae may be made in a variety of ways,

which include the piece-mold, lost-wax method, cold working, and annealing processes.73 Cold

working is simply the process of continual hammering of the bronze in order to obtain the

desired shape, whereas annealing involves heating the metal to a very high temperature, which

when cooled results in a metal that is easier to work with compared to that used in cold-working

alone.


67 Lyons, Claire, The Archaic Cemeteries, esp. 97

68 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 29

69 Ibid., esp. 187-192

70 Caroline Winthur, "Princely Tombs," esp. 435

71 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 217.
72 Ibid., esp. 267

73 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 96









The techniques of cold-working and annealing are used together, and the combination has

proved successful for the fashioning of catch-plates, pins, and springs.74 The hammer marks on

the underside of the bow of the examples of arch fibulae suggest that this method was also used

at least for that part of the fibula.75 The leech and boat forms may have used the piece-mould or

lost-wax casting methods."6 Piece-mold casting involves producing a core for the fibula and

piercing it with a pin, which was to be inserted into prepared slits in each part of the fibula.7

Once these preparations have been made, the fibula is cast. A small support structure is built

around a wax mould of the fibula to be produced.78 The wax is heated and allowed to melt away,

leaving a hollow mould in which the fibula is cast. The support structure is broken open to reveal

the new fibula.

Toms offers these casting techniques as possibilities because of the evidence revealed in

miscast fibulae from Pithekoussai and Bologna. Apparently the piece-mould method was more

economical than the lost wax method since their moulds could have been used to make a whole

series of fibulae.79 In contrast, the lost wax method was seemingly employed to create a unique

product, and the maker might also use the lost wax process for the creation of plastic

decoration.8

As an alternative to plastic decoration, incised decoration may have been made using a

punta a stilo, a device for pushing or pulling across the metal in such a way as to render an

74 Ibid., esp. 97

75 Ibid., esp. 97-99
76 Ibid., esp. 99-101

SIbid., esp. 99

8 Ibid., esp. 100

79 Ibid., esp. 99-101

80 Ibid., esp. 101









indention.81 Another way to decorate the surface is by manipulating the wide edge of a chisel-

like tool, thereby creating a temolo line or ziz-zag motif.82 Richard and Sadow note that the zig-

zag and meander are associated with the Geometric Period in Greece, and these motifs may be

seen on various examples of Early Iron Age fibulae from Italy. The majority of these early eighth

century types of fibulae in Italy display the type of geometric design that is most likely the result

of the repertoire of the time.

Eighth-century decorative processes give way to the techniques of filigree and granulation during

the 7th century. Filigree manipulates metal wires formed from sheet metal in various ways to

produce ornament on jewelry.83 Granulation uses granules of metal for ornamentation.84

Iconography

The characteristic motifs on the violin, simple arch, serpentine, Sicilian elbow, and leech

fibulae of the eighth and ninth centuries in Sicily, southern Italy, and central Italy consist of

incised geometric patterns utilizing triangular, circular, and linear shapes. These geometric

motifs can be seen on fibulae from such Italic sites as Veii, Pontecagnano, Tarquinia, and Sala

Consilina. They also occur at native Sicilian sites such as Pantalica, Dessueri, Cassible, and

Monte Finocchito. The Greek colonies of Pithekoussai and Cumae have yielded examples of

Italic fibulae with geometric designs as well.

Geometric decoration combines with animal imagery during the 7th century on a leech

fibula from the tomb of the Lictor in Vetulonia as seen in figure 60.85 The animals are rendered


81 Ibid., esp. 104
82 Ibid., esp. 104-105.

83 Ivette Richard and Richard Sadow, "Etruria," esp. 197-204.
84 Ibid.

85 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 29.









in the granulated pulviscolo or silhouette style.86 On this fibula, the silhouette style articulates the

shape of a sphinx in outline form, which results in an overall shape that is linear and unnatural.8

The tombs of Le Migliarine, which are also located in Vetulonia, contain an example of a

gold leech fibula in which the figure of a sphinx is worked in repousse at the top.88 In some

cases, the bow of the fibula may be in the form of a feline, such as a lion or sphinx.89 Also from

this tomb a gold bracelet is decorated with alternating bands of filigree and plain areas

terminating in a series of three human masks rendered in repousse.90

The drago fibulae from Marsiliana display unique designs executed in filigree,

granulation, and plastic decoration.91 The plastic decoration may be geometric in nature or

figural, there being examples with spherical balls along the curved length of the bow of the

fibula and others with a row of ducks. The duck is one of the key animal motifs appearing at the

beginning of the Orientalizing period ca. 675 BC, but it becomes less evident toward the end of

the period, as reflected in the examples below.92 The duck is believed to have functioned as a

friendly escort to the afterlife.93 The function of this motif seems to be in opposition to the

apotropaic function associated with icons such as sphinxes, chimerae, griffins, and lions as noted

by Skalsky.



86 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), esp. 44

87 Ibid.

88 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 151

89 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion, esp. 44

90 Repousse is defined as metalwork decoration in relief, achieved by beating the metal from behind.

91 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 187-192
92 Randall L. Skalsky, "The Waterfowl of Etruria: A Study of Duck, Goose, and Swan Iconography" (PhD diss.,
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 1997), esp. 89.

93 Ibid., esp. 124









Animals used for apotropaic purposes were in use towards the end of the Orientalizing

period.94 Three-dimensional figures of creatures such as ducks, lions, and seated sphinxes appear

not only on fibulae but also on other objects in the tombs at Marsiliana.95 The Regolini-Galassi

foliated disc fibula, which measures approximately 12in. x 12in., deserves special attention not

only because of its size but also because of its decoration. The decoration incorporates and mixes

filigree, granulation, and plastic figural decoration over all of the surfaces of the fibula. Five

lions executed in repousse walk in different directions. Intertwining crescents are worked in

granulation on the disc. The lions on this fibula, in particular, seemingly correspond to a typical

Etruscan lion by virtue of their sturdy, compact, and almost square bodies.96 These characteristics

are applied to depictions of lions from other locales in southern Etruria, and the style is

distinguishable from the silhouette style of northern Etruria.97 The two central bars, which are

decorated in a zig-zag motif, are connected to the final portion of the fibula, which is decorated

with rows of birds in the round. Rows of animal figures in repouse with details in granulation

alternate with the rows of birds.

From the Bernardini tomb, two lions standing back-to-back occupy the center of the bar

of the comb fibula, with three flying birds on either side of them as seen in figures 62-63. A

walking lion closes the scene on both ends and a band of filigree borders the entire composition.

Each half of the comb clasp from the Barberini tomb is made from two plates, which rest upon

three curving tubes that terminate in flower buds. Twelve sphinxes in the round rest on top of

these tubes, although the same animal motif is rendered in the space in between the tubes,


94 Ibid., esp. 89

95 Ingrid Strom, Problems, esp. 104.
96 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion, esp. 4

97 Ibid., esp. 41-43









essentially creating twenty-four sphinxes in all. A few comb clasps come from the Barberini

tomb and some of them use plastic figural decoration in the form of panther-heads and birds,

filigree and granulation.98

In summary, this chronological survey seeks to illustrate the dramatic changes in

material, techniques and decoration and/or iconography from the Early Iron Age down to the 7th

century. Types such as the spectacle, arch, and serpentine fibulae are often associated with

bronze and iron and simple geometric design. By contrast, luxurious materials such as gold,

silver, and ivory may now be associated with the sophisticated techniques of filigree,

granulation, and figural decoration in relief.

One thus notes a gradual change in the production of fibulae regarding materials,

techniques, and iconography. The change encompasses the introduction of new and luxurious

materials and techniques into central Italy during the late eighth and seventh centuries. The next

chapter will question why this change in the manufacture of fibulae came about, especially in

central Italy and southern Italy in the region of Campania. The effects of foreign influences on

Italy will be examined as well the possible places of manufacture of the elaborate fibulae that

have been recovered from the wealthy tombs in the central and southern regions of Italy.















98 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans, esp. 267.








































Galli


Figure 5-1. Indigenous sites in southern Italy

















































Figure 5-2. Indigenous sites in Campania
















































Figure 5-3. Etruscan sites









CHAPTER 6
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FIBULAE FOR CULTURAL INTERACTIONS

This chapter will explore Italic fibulae in relation to internal and external interactions.

One issue in the development of fibulae is the question of intermarriage between the Italic

peoples and the Greek settlers at such sites as Pithekoussai and possibly Cumae. Syracuse,

Megara Hyblaea, and Gela do not display signs that indicate the occurrence of intermarriage.

Interrmarriage has been postulated at Pithekoussai since this site has produced such a large

number of Italic fibulae.

Cumae is similar to Pithekoussai in that it has also yielded an assortment of Italic fibulae,

but Cumae was founded after Pithekoussai, and thus the population there might not be first

generation Greek colonists. This situation might lead to a conclusion other than intermarriage for

the appearance of Italic fibulae at the site. Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela are different

from Pithekoussai and Cumae because they do not exhibit as many Italic fibulae as the two

colonies from the region of Campania. The Italic fibulae at these three Sicilian colonies may thus

require a different explanation. Fibulae discovered at Pithekoussai and Cumae will be examined

first, since these two sites have yielded the most Italic fibulae.

Pithekoussai

At Ischia, 524 fibulae come from 192 graves out of the 592 graves that were excavated

by Buchner in the valley of San Montano.' As stated in chapters four and five, these fibulae

include the simple arch, the serpentine, the knobbed serpentine, the Italic composite leech, the

Greek composite leech, the knobbed leech, and the drago types. The Greek composite leech type

would have been the only type worn by the peoples of Pithekoussai that was in fact a Greek

product, although derived from the Italic repertoire.


1 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 296










Half of the 192 graves containing fibulae are those of children.2 Some of these child

graves contain a large number of fibulae, such as tomb 652, of a baby. This tomb had been

discovered containing 22 fibulae of Italic type.3 The 22 fibulae from tomb 652 could never have

been worn by the baby of this grave. Rather, in this case and in similar cases, these fibulae

functioned as a lavish assortment of grave goods perhaps in remembrance of a short life.4 The

Greek pin is not documented from any of the graves thus far excavated on Ischia.

When not found with children, the fibulae as well as other items of jewelry were mostly

associated with women.5 The fibulae were found at the shoulders of the women, suggesting that

this was how they were used in life, which was to fasten the garment. Shepherd also notes how

fibulae were sometimes found in high numbers similarly to child burials.6 The serpentine fibula

is the only type that has been found to be associated with men.7

Buchner first proposed the theory of intermarriage because of the large amount of Italic

fibulae present in the tombs on this island and because they were associated with women.8 He as

well as other members of the archaeological community believes that it must have been the




2 Ibid., esp. 295

3 Shepherd does not specify whether the fibulae found in tomb 652 are all Italic or a mixture of Greek or Italic, but
her comments on pp. 274-275 would incline one to believe that they were all of Italic type. On these pages, she
notes how the metalwork from Greek graves on Ischia is exactly similar to metal items from contemporary tombs in
Etruria. On p. 283, she specifies how the fibulae at Pithekoussai were "not as yet matched by anything in Euboea."

4 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 295

5 Ibid., esp. 276
6 Ibid.

7 The association of the serpentine type with men has been widely acknowledged by the archaeological community
for sometime. de la Geniere first documented it in her review of the sites of southern Italy. Other scholars such as
Moser and Gualtieri noted the same association in their dissertations. Buchner later made mention of this type being
associated with men at Ischia too.

8 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing: Aspects of the Euboean Connection," in Italy before the Romans, ed.
Ridgway, David and Francesca Ridgway (New York: Academic Press, 1979), esp, 135.









(Italic) women who introduced these types to the Greeks since they were found mostly with them

and with children rather than with men.

However, one should not be quick to discount the fact that half of the fibula found on

Ischia has come from the graves of children. If the Italic fibula is an index of intermarriage, then

actual occurrence of intermarriage may not have been as commonplace as Buchner believed. He

seems to have placed all the emphasis on the appearance of the Italic fibula in the graves of

women to uphold his theory of intermarriage, when, in reality, the evidence speaks to a situation

in which children were distinguished archaeologically just as much as the women were on Ischia.

The evidence seems to indicate that intermarriage probably did exist on Pithekoussai at

some scale because the total number of Italic fibulae, which is 524 in all, found in women and

child graves together would be difficult to explain as a result of trade alone. The presence of the

Italic fibulae in the graves of women is a reflection of what they used in everyday life to fasten

their garments with, while they used them in a different manner when one of their young died at

an early age. In this case, they would have been used to honor a short life as noted by Shepherd.

The children of mixed parentage may have been honored with Italic ornaments and not Greek

ones, which gives more weight to the theory of intermarriage. The serpentine type is the only

type exclusively associated with men on Ischia, which is an influence of the Italic culture since

the serpentine type was regularly found in Italic graves of men.

Cumae

The relationship between the Greek settlers and the native peoples at Cumae is more

difficult to understand than that of Pithekoussai because the early excavation reports were not as

systematic and detailed as those of Pithekoussai, as noted by Shepherd. Regardless, the catalogue

by Gabrici at least helps to mitigate the lack of information by providing visual images of some

of the types of fibulae discovered at this mainland Greek colony. These types are closely









paralleled at Pithekoussai. One tomb in particular, the Fondo Artiaco, had been meticulously

excavated and has received much attention in the past because of the elaborate nature of its

contents. This tomb dates roughly 710 BC and the objects recovered from it include "weapons

and metal vases, horse bits, and possibly the remains of a wheeled vehicle."9 Strom notes that

this warrior's equipment as well as his jewelry is purely Etruscan. The jewelry includes an

electrum (amber) bracelet and necklace, and a gold pendant. This tomb also contains five

electrum fibulae, all of them being the knobbed serpentine type, two bronze simple arch fibulae,

and one bolt fibula and two comb fibulae.10 All of the nearly 52 metal ornaments discovered

from this tomb are also Italic, as noted by Strom and acknowledged by Buchner and many other

archaeologists. Strom noted how these fibulae are from the Italic (Etruscan) tradition. She

postulated that this must have been the tomb of an Etruscan based on its contents and therefore

their presence in this tomb is indicative of Etruscan trade.

Buchner disagrees with Strom. He believes that the Fondo Artiaco tomb belonged to a

member of the first generation of Euboean gentry because the excavations at Pithekoussai and

other graves at Cumae have yielded the same types of fibulae dating to the second half of the

eighth century, with the exception of the comb and bolt types." Buchner observes that if her idea

was correct, all of the graves at Pithekoussai and Cumae containing Italic fibulae must also be

those of Etruscans. Since we know this not to be the case, the only difference between the

contents of this tomb and those of Pithekoussai and Cumae is the rich character of objects found




9 Jan Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," in Die Akten Internationalen Kolloquiums "Interactions in the Iron
Age: Phoenicians, Greeks, and the Indigenous Peoples of the Western Mediterranean", ed. NIemeyer, N.G (Mainz:
P. von Zabern, 1996), esp. 238.
10 Ingrid Strom, Problems, esp. 147.

1 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing," esp. 133









in it.1 The fibulae from Cumae might be able to be explained in terms of intermarriage as at

Pithekoussai, if the Greeks who first founded the colony were first generation colonists from

Euboea as noted by Crielaard. In this way, they would have migrated to Italy and married Italic

women similarly to the events at Pitheloussai. If this is the case, then it would have been the

Euboean aristocrats who formed the first colonizing expedition to Cumae because of the similar

"high status funerary ritual in Eretria and Cumae."13

According to Crielaard's theory of the foundation of Cumae, the first generation of

aristocrats would have been spurred to sail off to Italy due to the emergence of the polis and the

increasing competition among the members of the elite society.14 In addition to the competition

between themselves, the aristocrats may have also been prompted to travel to and settle in Italy

because of the trade contacts that they would be offered by the native peoples and they may also

have been seeking larger plots of land compared to what they owned in Greece.'5

Although the graves of Cumae strongly suggest that it was the first generation colonists

who were responsible for its foundation, Coldstream has advanced a different theory on the

foundation of Cumae. This second theory relates to the Fondo Artiaco tomb. Coldstream believes

it is the tomb of a person of mixed parentage.16 His views this tomb and the other six wealthy

cremation burials at Cumae as representing the peoples of mixed parentage who migrated from

Pithekoussai to Cumae. If he is correct in his thinking, then the wealthy contents of these tombs




12 Ibid.

13 Jan Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," esp. 238
14 Ibid., esp. 240-241.

15 Ibid.
16 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages," esp. 95-96









(including fibulae) and those of the other tombs from Cumae that are not as rich would not be

viewed as a reflection of intermarriage.

Whether or not intermarriage existed at Cumae, the question of where the Italic fibulae

from Pithekoussai and Cumae might have been produced will be examined shortly when

discussing the second major theme of this paper, which relates to the change in the production of

fibulae in terms of materials, techniques, and iconography.

Syracuse

In comparison to Pithekoussai and Cumae, the Greek colony of Syracuse has furnished a

much smaller number of Italic fibulae dating to the 8th and 7th centuries BC. At Syracuse only

eighty fibulae come from roughly 350 tombs.1 The majority of these examples are the serpentine

fibula (with small knobs on the side of the bow) and the leech fibula. It is worth noting that

although both Pithekoussai and Syracuse display similar ornaments, they appear to have been

used differently at each site. The types from Pithekoussai were mostly found singly in graves of

adult women although a considerable quantity came from female infant graves. When found with

adult women at Pithekoussai, they had the utilitarian function of fastening a garment.

Italic fibulae18 from Syracuse were primarily associated with children and several may

have occurred in one grave along with the Greek pin.19 The use of the fibula in child burials at

Syracuse was not functioning in association with a garment. As at Pithekoussai, Italic fibulae

could have been reserved to honor a pre-mature departure from earth or they could represent a




17 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 277
18 All of the fibulae found at Syracuse must have been Italic or in the case of the Greek composite leech type and
adaptation of an Italic type. Like the disassociation of fibula types between Pithekoussai and Euboea, Syracuse did
not yield any types that were contemporary at Corinth, which Shepherd states on p. 283.

19 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 286-87










lavish assortment of grave goods when found in the grave of a child.20 This is reflected most

clearly in the example of tomb 428 in the Fusco cemetery since this grave contained a total of 26

fibulae of various types21 and four Greek pins.22 This tomb alone provided one third of the total

eighty fibulae that were discovered at the Fusco necropolis as observed by Shepherd.

The Italic fibula rarely was found in adult graves, and when it did occur, it was usually

accompanied by the Greek pin.23 Tombs 129 and 412 appear to provide the best examples of

graves containing only Italic types or the one type derived from the Italic tradition, the Greek

composite leech bow.24 For example, tomb 129 contained six simple leech fibulae and four silver

rings while tomb 412 contained one simple leech and one Greek composite leech bow fibula. On

the other hand, tomb 276 is a good example of what actually seems to have been fairly common

at Syracuse, which was the mixing of Italic fibulae or the Greek composite leech type with the

Greek pin in the same tomb. Tomb 27625 had two iron Greek pins and two Greek composite

leech fibulae. Shepherd notes how the Greek pin was just as popular at Syracuse as the fibulae,

and even more so as the 6th century progressed.26

What the evidence seems to indicate, then, is that fibulae at Syracuse because of their

strong association with children do not reflect intermarriage. Child burials seem to be more

abundant in metalwork, especially fibulae, than adult burials at this Sicilian colony. Shepherd

20 Ibid., esp. 287

21 Shepherd does not state the exact types of Italic fibulae that were present in tomb 428, but if cross-referenced with
Hencken's catalogue, then they include the Italic leech and knobbed leech types and also the Greek composite leech
type.
22 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 286
23 Ibid.

24 Ibid., esp. 286

25 Ibid., esp. 286

26 Ibid., esp. 287









states that the disposal of many items, fibulae and otherwise, in child graves conforms to the

practices of burying children in Greece.27 The concentration of fibulae in child graves is viewed

as a result of trade. The concentration of these fibulae in child graves suggests that they

functioned as grave offerings and were not strictly functional as items of clothing. This situation

differs from Pithekoussai where they were found with women and would have been worn by

them in life.

The Greek sites of Megara Hyblaea and Gela on Sicily exhibit similar circumstances to

those of Syracuse regarding the use of the fibula. At Megara Hyblaea, pins were more common

than Italic fibulae as noted by Shepherd. When fibulae did occur, they were found in wealthy

graves of children.28 Greek pins were even more common at Gela than Megara Hyblaea, while

the deposition of Italic fibulae was very rare.29 When fibulae did occur at Gela, they were

associated with wealthy child burials similarly to Megara Hyblaea and Syracuse.30

The evidence from Ischia and Sicily serves to demonstrate the fusion of Greek and Italic

culture. The large amount of native fibulae present in the graves of adult women and children on

Ischia and the association of native fibula types with children at Syracuse highlights the

interactions of the Italic and Greek cultures in these two regions of Italy. These interactions are

seen as early as the 8th century at Ischia and continue into down into the 7th century in Sicily.

The finds from the cemeteries of the Greek colonies has been examined in order to

understand the relationship that the Greek settlers at each colony maintained with the native

peoples. The finds from Sicily demonstrate that the fibulae found there are likely better

27 Shepherd notes how sometimes the burials of children in Greece are often richer than those of adults on p. 287.
28 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 293
29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.









explained as a result of trade.31 The relationship of Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela with

each other is most clearly reflected in the burial rituals of these three Greek colonies and the

appearance of the Greek composite leech fibula in the Greek sanctuaries, especially Olympia.

At Syracuse, the normal burial practices were rock-cut fossa tombs for the low to middle

class members of the society, while monolithic sarcophagia were reserved for members of the

upper class.32 At Megara Hyblaea, the monolithic sarcophagus was used by the average member

of society while the hypogeic cella was reserved for the upper class. The hypogeic cella was "a

spacious tomb built of large cut stone blocks."33 The adoption and use of the monolithic

sarcophagus at Megara Hyblaea for the average person devalues its use for the upper class at

Syracuse as noted by Shepherd. This is viewed as peer competition to see who can outshine the

other. At Gela the monolithic sarcophagus was also used, but then the baule, or terracotta

sarcophagus, was introduced, which created a tiered burial system similar to Syracuse and

Megara Hyblaea.34 Shepherd notes how the Geloans used the monolithic sarcophagus on a scale

comparable to or even greater than Syracuse, thereby competing with her neighbor.

The competition that is being observed between Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela in

terms of burial practices and self-assertion of the colonies is seen back in Greece at the Pan-

Hellenic sanctuaries. The appearance of Italic goods including the Greek composite leech fibula

at the Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries in Greece such as Olympia instead of the mother city sanctuaries

was just another form of competition. Shepherd sums up the motivations behind the rich

dedications in Greek Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries by stating how this was just another form of self


31 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 73
32 Gillian Shepherd, "Burial and Religion," esp. 58

3 Ibid., esp. 56-58.
34 Ibid., esp. 60-63.









assertion and "self-advertisement" for the colony compared to the dedications of her peers.35

When viewed from this angle, the appearance of Greek composite leech fibulae in Greece

reaffirms how the Greeks modified the Italic composite leech fibulae and transported them back

to Greece for the important reason of promoting the independence and status of the colony. This

is in reversal of the long held idea until recently of the thought that the Greek composite leech

type was a Greek invention.

Change in Production

The second half of this chapter will focus on the second major theme of this paper, which

is the change in the production of fibulae, which starts in the last quarter of the eighth century. At

the end of the 8th century and throughout the 7th century BC, significant changes start to take

place in the production of fibula. This change is especially noticeable in Pithekoussai, Cumae,

and Etruria where the new materials of gold and silver have been detected for fashioning fibulae.

The next logical question is why did this change take place? There is no doubt that the jewelry

from these tombs reflects eastern influence and Strom considers them to be direct imports from

the Near East, either through trade or resulting from the presence of immigrant eastern craftsmen

in Etruria.36

Knowing that Ischia had an active industry in working metal and that Greeks were

familiar with working metal, Buchner hypothesized that the Euboeans might have been attracted

to the island for metals and may have been exporting these luxury items to Etruria.37 He supports

his conclusion by noting the familiarity the Greeks had in working gold as well as their

knowledge of eastern motifs. Other scholars such as Guzzo prefer to see the luxury gold items as

35 Ibid., esp. 75.
36 Ingrid Strom, Problems, esp. 205, 212, & 216.

37 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing," esp. 137-138.









products of workshops in central Italy,38 but Buchner highly doubts this hypothesis. He does not

see where local craftsmen would have acquired the technical expertise or knowledge of foreign

motifs to produce ornaments like these. Gold is not native to Italy and the arrival of the mature

techniques of filigree and granulation in the 7th century on fibulae from Etruria is very unlikely.39

Since gold is not native to Italy, it may have been imported to Pithekoussai from the Iberian

coast via Phoenician merchants, the other foreign element in Italy during the period of

colonization.40

Markoe affirms that the Greeks were not the only peoples voyaging to Italy and Sicily

during the period of colonization.41 He notes the strong Phoenician interest in silver in central

Italy, specifically the metal rich area of the Colline Metallifere during the last quarter of the

eighth through the first half of the seventh century. The Colline Metallifere area is located

opposite the island of Elba in northern Etruria.42

The appearance of certain fibulae in silver such as comb, bolt, leech, and drago types

could reflect Phoenician influence in Italy. Or the appearance of these types in silver could

simply reflect the knowledge that the Etruscans had with mining silver as noted by Markoe.43 If

not produced by the Phoenicians or the Etruscans in central Italy, then silver fibulae could have

been made at Pithekoussai as silver was one of the materials being imported onto the island.



38 Ibid., esp. 140

39 Ivette Richard and Richard Sadow, "Etruria," in Gold Jewekry: Craft, Style, and Meaning from Mycenae to
Constantinopolis, ed. Hackens, T (Louvain-la-Neuve: College Erasme, 1983), esp. 92-93.

40 Ibid esp. 88
41 Glenn Markoe, "In Pursuit of Metal: Phoenicians and Greeks in Italy," in Greece between East and West: 10th -
8th Centuries BC, ed. Kopcke, G. and Isabelle Tokumaru (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990), esp. 67-84.
42 Ibid., esp. 71-72

43 Ibid., esp. 73









Silver would have been imported onto Ischia from the Colline Metallifere or possibly from the

Iberian coast along with gold, both of which would have been the work of the Phoenicians.44

Whether it is the Greeks on Pithekoussai or the Phoenicians in central Italy, or both, who

are responsible for the change in materials of fibula production, the question of interest is why is

an accumulation of wealth associated exclusively with the central and southern regions of Italy?

The answer to this question goes back to the middle or second half of the 8th century in Etruria,

particularly at Veii and Tarquinia. In addition to iron implements and personal objects and

ornaments, the tomb contents include "precious and exotic materials" such as gold, amber,

faience, and glass as noted by Hartmann.

This phenomenon suggests iron was valued as a rare commodity because of the "large

investment of skilled labor to produce a single artifact," and thus would have been sought after

by peoples who wished to emphasize their elevated social status.45 Hartmann associates these

tombs with an elite group people such as a warrior aristocracy due to the presence of other iron

war-like items and because they are geographically clustered within central Italy.46

Just as in the case of silver, there seems to be a few different possibilities concerning

where iron was obtained by the Italic peoples. Hartmann believes that the Greeks were voyaging

to Italy not to buy iron, but to sell their iron.47 He states that it was neither Elba nor the Colline

Metallifere that was being exploited by the Greeks for iron, but that they were transporting their

own iron from Greece to Pithekoussai to later be exported to Etruria, especially southern Etruria




44 Ivette Richard and Richard Sadow, "Etruria," esp. 88.
45 Nicholas Hartmann, "Iron-Working" esp. 163-164
46 Ibid., esp. 163

47 Ibid., esp. 179









since this is the region that shows the most Greek contact.48 On the other hand, Markoe cites how

the Greeks have always been interested in the resources of Italy, particularly iron, and he implies

that their commercial interest in this metal was the reason why they traveled to Italy.49 The

commercial benefits that the Greeks would have gained through access and exploitation of the

Italic iron ore deposits would have been a strong factor for leaving Greece, but Crielaard has

effectively demonstrated that this was probably not the only reason they left their home. The

Euboean aristocrats were probably wanting to escape the competition that was building at home

in Greece and saw Italy as way to achieve independence and to make a profit from the iron goods

that they would have furnished to the Italic peoples.50

Curiously enough, the rise of the Italic aristocracy and the subsequent deposition of these

grave goods in the wealthy tombs of Etruria and Campania in the 8th century BC coincide with

the arrival of the Greeks at Pithekoussai and later at Cumae. Crielaard stresses the similarities of

high-status funerary ritual, which consists of urn cremation stored in a metal vase with

accompanying metal grave goods, between the first generation of tombs from Cumae such as the

Fondo Artiaco tomb and the burials from Eretria in Greece.51 This information allows one to

infer that members of the Greek aristocracy must have formed the colonizing party, and he goes

one step further by addressing the similarities of funerary rituals and grave goods not just

between Greek colonies and the motherland, but between Greek colonies and Italic sites.

Pontecagnano, Calatia, Caere, and Vetulonia are included among the Italic sites.52


48 The contact with Greece is most clearly demonstrated through Veii where the largest number of Greek-made
vessels and iron objects has been found. Ibid., esp. 174-175
49 Glenn Markoe, "In Purstui of Metal," esp. 80
50 Crielaard's thoughts on the Euboean aristocracy were summarized in the previous chapter.

51 Jan P. Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," esp. 240-247

52 Ibid., esp. 246









That the Italic sites welcomed goods from southern Etruria, the Aegean, Greek colonies,

and the Eastern Mediterranean permits Crielarrd to judge that a "cultural homogeneity" must

have been in effect since the Italic peoples came to espouse Greek customs. The phenomenon of

class-identification that is transpiring between Greek and Etruscan elites is foreshadowed by a

period in Greek history having communications with the eastern Mediterranean, specifically

Cyprus.53 Crielaard essentially declares that members of the Euboean aristocracy were actively

participating in friendly relations with members of the same class from Cyprus through a system

of gift-exchange.

The distinguished heroon at Lefkandi and other wealthy burials from this site include

luxury goods from the east such as small metal ornaments, vases, and faience beads. Imports of

the same quality have been discovered on Cyprus as well, which implies that members of both

cultures are identifying with each other in the sense that they "share similar life-styles," as noted

by Crielaard. The amicable and receptive rapport that the Greeks experienced with the elite

Cypriots in the east comes to the fore once again in their dealings with the Italic nobles

approximately a century later in Etruria.

The rise of the native aristocratic ranks in the 8th century BC is thought to be a result of

increasing social organization and the creation of individual settlements as opposed to the

previous lack of formal settlement structures.54 In addition to the creation of these structures,

elaborate tombs, extravagant grave goods, and the construction of ritual space55 signaled the

political and sociological change that was happening in Etruria during this time. The existence of


3 Jan P. Crielaard, "The Social Organization of Euboean Trade with the Eastern Mediterranean during the 10th to
8th Centuries BC," Journal of the Netherlands Institute atAthens (1993): esp. 141-144.
54 Carrie Roth-Murray, "A Disclosure of Power: Elite Etruscan Iconography during the 8th-6th Centuries BC,"
Papers in Italian Archaeology (2005): esp. 186.
55 Ibid., esp. 186









wealthy Etruscan tombs and their contents, specifically the ceremonial axe and knives, was the

result of deliberate efforts of the newly formed upper echelons of society at emphasizing their

authority. By making the functional object beautiful, Roth-Murray argues that they were able to

command more respect and distinguish themselves more sharply from the classes beneath them.

Conclusions

From the study of the fibula, it is evident that significant sociological events and changes

were taking place beginning in the 8th century at Pithekoussai and Cumae. Foremost among these

events was the incidence of intermarriage between the Greek settlers and the Italic women,

which resulted in the borrowing of ideas and traditions from one culture to the other. The

discovery of certain types of fibulae from the Italic tradition in the San Mantono cemetery on

Ischia proves that the Italic culture was influencing that of the Greeks. The examples of native

Italic fibulae from graves at the Fusco cemetery in Syracuse and the appearance of the Greek

composite leech fibula at native sites in Italy serves to further reinforce the reciprocal exchange

that was occurring between the Greek and Italic peoples.

In order to understand the development of the fibula from the 9th century through the 7th

century BC in Italy, one must consider not only the genesis of the Italic tradition, but also the

way in which other geographical areas participated in its creation by means of their influence.

These areas include pre-Greek Sicily, where one of the earliest serpentine forms is found and

central and southern Europe, which is claimed to be the birth-place of spectacle types discovered

on the Italian mainland and elsewhere in the pan-Mediterranean and Aegean countries. Viewing

the Italic sequence as a small, but significant piece of a larger and older puzzle is helpful in

comprehending the course of events that followed beginning in the 9th century BC between the

eastern and western Mediterranean.









APPENDIX A
LIST OF FIGURES NOT SHOWN

Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-1. A stilted bow fibula. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "The Metal Industry of
Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean."
Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 403.


Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-2. A multiple knobbed arch bow fibula. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "The Metal
Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the
Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 402.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-3. A spiral arch bow fibula. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "The Metal Industry of
Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean." Proceedings of
the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 402.

Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-4. A knobbed serpentine fibula. Numerous examples of this type appear throughout the
catalogue. Steures, D.C. Monte Finocchito Revisited. Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press,
1980.


Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-5. A small knobbed leech bow fibula with an elongated catch-plate from Monte
Finocchito in Sicily. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies."
Oxford Journal ofArchaeology 18 (1999): 70.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-6. Small knobbed leech bow fibulae with elongated catch-plates from Pithekoussai and
Syracuse. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford
Journal ofArchaeology 18 (1999): 70.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-7. Knobbed leech bow fibulae from Syracuse, Monte Finocchito, and Pithekoussai..
Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of
Archaeology 18 (1999): 70.









Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-8. A composite leech bow fibula. Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age
Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studies in Honor of Ellen
MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway, 91-113. London: Accordia
Research Institute, 2000. 93.


Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-9. A bolt fibula from the Bernardini tomb. Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the
Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style. Odense: Odense University
Press, 1971. figure 69.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-10. A comb fibula: provenance unknown. Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the
Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style. Odense: Odense
University Press, 1971. figure 71.

Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-11. Leech fibulae with short catch-plates from Vrokastro. Hencken, Hugh. "Syracuse,
Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of Archaeology 62
(1958): figure 40.1 and 2 (after Hall).


Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-12. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle
Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 10.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-13. Distribution map of Spectacle fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle
Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 10.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-14. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type II. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle
Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 14.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-15. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type III. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle
Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 14.









Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-16. Distribution map of spectacle fibulae types IV, V and VI. Alexander, John. "The
Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology 69 (January
1965): 18.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-17. Greek style composite leech fibula at Syracuse from grave 428. Hencken, Hugh.
"Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of
Archaeology 62 (1958): figure 11.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-18. A Greek composite leech fibula from Cumae. Pelligrini, G. "Tombe Greche
Archaiche e Tomba Greco-Sannitica a Tholos della Necropoli di Cuma." Monumenti
Antichi 13 (1903): figure 46.

Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-19. A Greek composite leech fibula from tomb 272 on Pithekoussai. Buchner, Giorgio
and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I. Rome: Bretschneider, 1993. Catalogue number 272.


Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-20. Italic composite leech fibulae from tomb 599 on Pithekoussai. Buchner, Giorgio
and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I. Rome: Bretschneider, 1993. Catalogue number
599.

Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-21. Simple arch bow and ringed arch bow Italic fibulae from Cumae. Gabrici, E.
"Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). Figures 1 1:1 and 3 3:4.


Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-22. Blinkenberg's types IX and X. Blinkenberg, Christian. Lindiaka VFibules
Grecques et Orientales. Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred. Host & Son, 1926. 99.










Image not shown due to copyright


Figure A-23. Leech fibulae from Vetulonia. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans andEarly
Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 29.


Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-24. The Regolini-Galassi fibula from Caere. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and
Early Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 195-208.

Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-25. Drago and comb fibulae from the Bernardini tomb at Praeneste. Randall-MacIver,
David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 217.



Image not shown due to copyright

Figure A-26. A detail of the scene of the Bernardini comb fibula. Randall-MacIver, David.
Villanovans and Early Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 217.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal ofArchaeology
69 (January 1965): 7-23.

Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "Italian Swords and Fibulae of the Late Bronze and Early Iron
Ages." Italian Iron Age Artefacts: in the British Museum: Papers of the Six\ih British
Museum Classical Coloquium (1986): 3-23.
- "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11 th Centuries BC and its connection
with the Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 383-424.

Blinkenberg, Christian. Lindiaka VFibules Grecques et Orientales. Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred.
Host & Son, 1926.

British Museum Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. British Museum Catalogue of
Greek Etruscan, and Roman Jewellery. London: British Museum, 1911.

Buchner, Giorgio and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I. Rome: Bretschneider, 1993.

Buchner, Giorgio. "Early Orientalizing: Aspects of the Euboean Connection." In Italy before the
Romans, ed. Ridgway, David and Francesca Ridgway, 129-144. New York: Academic
Press, 1979.

Close-Brooks, Joanna and David Ridgway. "Veii in the Iron Age." In Italy before the Romans.
New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Coldstream, J.N. "Mixed Marriages at the Frontiers of the Early Greek World." Oxford Journal
ofArchaeology 12.1 (1993): 89-107.

Crielaard, Jan. "How the West Was Won." In Die Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums "
Interactions in the Iron Age: Phoenicians, Greeks, and the Indigenous Peoples of the
Western Mediterranean", ed. Niemeyer, 235-260. Mainz: P. von Zabem, 1996.
- "The Social Organization of Euboean Trade with the Eastern Mediterranean during the
10th to 8th Centuries BC." Journal of the Netherlands Institute atAi/,wn, (1993): 138-
145.

D'Agostino, Bruno and Patrizia Gastaldi. Pontecagnano: II. La Necropoli del Picento: 1. Le
Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro. Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento
del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1988.

D'Agostino, Bruno. Tombs Principesche dell'orientalizzanye antico da Pontecagnano. Rome:
Accademia nazionale dei lincei, 1977.

de la Geniere, Juliette. "The Iron Age in Southern Italy." In Italy before the Romans. New York:
Academic Press, 1979.

De Natale, Serenella. Pontecagnano II. La Necropoli di S. Antonio: Propr. ECI 2. Tombe della
Prima Eta delFerro. Napoli: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di studi del
mondo e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992.









Gabrici, E. "Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913).


Gaultieri, Maurizio. "Iron in Calabria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries B.C." PhD diss.,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1977

Guzzo, Pier Giovanni. "Ipotesti Interpretativa su due Tipi di Fibula con Arco Ricoperto."
Aparchai; Nuove Ricerche e Studi sulla Magna Grecia e la Sicilia Antica in Onore di
Paolo Orsi 1 (1982): 53-61.

Hall, E.H. Excavations in Eastern Crete. Philadelphia: University Museum, 1914.

Hartmann, Nicholas. "Iron-Working in Southern Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries BC."
PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1982.

Hencken, Hugh. "Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of
Archaeology 62 (1958): 259-272.

Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of Archaeology
18 (1999): 61-74.

Jacobsthal, Paul. Greek Pins and Their Connexions n i/h Europe and Asia. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1956.

Leighton, Robert. Sicily Before History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Lyons, Claire. The Archaic Cemeteries. ed. Bell, Malcolm and Christopher Moss, vol. 5.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

MacNamara, Ellen. "Some Bronze Typologies in Sardinia and Italy from 1200 to 700 BC; Their
Origin and Development." Etruria e Sardegna Centro-Settentrionale tra l'eta' del Bronzo
Finale e L'arcaismo : atti del XXI Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Sassari,
Alghero, Oristano, Torralba, 13-17 Ottobre 1998 (1998): 150-170.

Markoe, Glenn. "In Pursuit of Metal: Phoenicians and Greeks in Italy." In Greece between East
and West: 10th 8th Centuries BC, ed. Kopcke, G. and Isabelle Tokumaru, 61-84. Mainz:
P. von Zabern, 1990.

Moser, Mary Elizabeth. "The "Southern Villanovan" Culture of Campania." PhD diss.,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1982

Orsi, Paolo. "Contributi alla Storia della Fibula Greca." Opuscula Archaeologica Oscari
Montello, Septuagenario, dicta d. ix m. sept. a. MCMXLI (1913): 189-203.
- "Gli Scavi nella Necropoli fel Fusco a Siracusa nel Giugno, Novembre e Dicembre del
1893." Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita (1895): 109-92.

Pelligrini, G. "Tombe Greche Archaiche e Tomba Greco-Sannitica a Tholos della Necropoli di
Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 13 (1903): 201-94.

Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924.









Richard, Ivette and Richard Sadow. "Etruria." In GoldJewekry: Craft, Style, and Meaning from
Mycenae to Constantinopolis, ed. Hackens, T. Louvain-la-Neuve: College Erasme, 1983.

Ridgway, David. The First Western Greeks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Roth-Murray, Carrie. "A Disclosure of Power: Elite Etruscan Iconography during the 8th-6th
Centuries BC." Papers in Italian Archaeology (2005): 186-195.

Shepherd, Gillian. "Fibulae and Females: Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies and the
Evidence from the Cemeteries." In Ancient Greeks West and East, ed. Tsetskhladze,
Gocha R. Boston: Brill, 1999.
- "The Pride of Most Colonials: Burial and Religion in the Sicilian Colonies." In Acta
Hyperborea 6, ed. Fischer-Hansen, Tobias. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press,
1995.

Skalsky, Randall L. "The Waterfowl of Etruria: A Study of Duck, Goose, and Swan
Iconography." PhD diss., Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 1997

Snodgrass, Anthony. The Dark Age of Greece. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1971.

Steures, D.C. Monte Finocchito Revisited. Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press, 1980.

Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing
Style. Odense: Odense University Press, 1971.

Stronach, David. "The Development of the Fibula in the Near East." Iraq 21 (1959): 181-206.

Stubbings, J.M. "Bow Fibulae." In Perachora, the Sactuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia;
Excavations of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, 1930-1933, ed. Dunbabin,
T.J. and Alan Blakeway. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln. Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943.

Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean
Setting: Studies in Honor of Ellen MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway,
91-113. London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000.
- "The Construction of Gender in Early Iron Age Etruria." Italian Archaeology (1998):
157-179.

Vida Navarro, M. Carmen. "Warriors and Weavers: Sex and Gender in Early Iron Age Graves
from Pontecagnano." The Accordia Research Papers; the Journal of the Accordia
Research Centre 3 (1992): 67-99.

Von Eles Masi, Patrizia. Prahistorische Bronzefunde: Le Fibule dell'Italia Settentrionale.
Munchen: C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1986.

Winthur, Caroline. "Princely Tombs of the Orientalizing Period in Etruria and Latium Vetus."
Acta Hyperborea (1997): 423-446.

Wolters, Jochem. "The Ancient Craft of Granulation." GoldBulletin (1981): 119-127.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jennifer Hambleton received her bachelor's degree from the University of Florida with a

major in architecture and a minor in classics. On completion of that degree, she chose to stay at

the University of Florida to pursue a master's degree in art history with a focus on the art of

antiquity. She intends to pursue a career in art conservation.





PAGE 1

1 FIBULAE OF THE NINTH THROUGH SEVENT H CENTURIES BC IN CENTRAL ITALY By JENNIFER M. HAMBLETON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

PAGE 2

2 2008 Jennifer M. Hambleton

PAGE 3

3 To my mom for the time we spent together in Paris and our shared love of art and history.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere appreciation is given to Dr. Barbara Barletta for her guid ance throughout m y years of graduate study, but especially in researching the Italic fibula. Gratitude is expressed to Dr. Robin Poynor for his helpful comments and sugges tions on my thesis. To my family and friends whose encouragement has meant so much, thank you. Your constant support of my education has inspired me. I would like to express my appreciation to the library staff at the University of Florida for their hard work in helping me to obtai n items that were not readily accessible. Special acknowledgement is given to Janice Ka hler of the University of Flor ida interlibrary loan staff for her effort in overseeing the deliv ery of items that were requested for this thesis. I want to recognize Jennifer Testa for her help with the Italian translations Finally, I thank Dr. Hartigan and Dr. Eaverly, who first sparked my interest in the ancient world as an undergraduate while studying architecture.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................7 ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10 CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................12 2 TYPOLOGY...........................................................................................................................17 3 FIBULA TYPES OF THE 13TH THROUGH 7TH CENTURIES BC: DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION.................................................................................................................. 49 The Elongated Catch-Plate..................................................................................................... 53 Geographical Distribution......................................................................................................58 Fibula Types from the 13th to11th Centuries BC..............................................................58 Fibula Types from the 9th to 7th Centuries BC.................................................................62 4 CONTROVERSIAL TYPES OF THE 8TH THROUGH THE 6TH CENTURIES BC........... 65 The Knobbed Serpentine Fibula.............................................................................................65 The Composite Leech Bow Fibula......................................................................................... 69 Italic fibulae at Syracuse, Pithekoussai and Cumae...............................................................73 The Knobbed Leech Fibula.................................................................................................... 74 Summary.................................................................................................................................75 5 PROVENIENCE, MATERIALS, TE CHNIQUES, AND ICONOGRAPHY ........................ 79 Sites.........................................................................................................................................79 Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicil y, Southern Italy, and Campania: The Indigenous Sites ........................................................................................................... 79 Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries ....................................................................... 83 The Greek Colonies in the Ei ghth and Seventh Centuries .............................................. 84 Etruria and Latium in the Seventh Century.....................................................................85 Materials.................................................................................................................................87 Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sic ily, Southern Italy, and Campania ............................. 87 Etruria and Latium in the Ni nth and Eighth Centuries .................................................... 89 The Greek Colonies in the Ei ghth and Seventh Centuries .............................................. 90 Etruria in the Seventh Century........................................................................................ 91 Processes and Techniques of Production................................................................................ 91 Iconography.................................................................................................................... ........93

PAGE 6

6 6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FIBULA E FOR CULTURAL INTERACTIONS ..................... 100 Pithekoussai..........................................................................................................................100 Cumae...................................................................................................................................102 Syracuse................................................................................................................................105 Change in Production...........................................................................................................109 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................114 APPENDIX: LIST OF FIGURES NOT SHOWN....................................................................... 115 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................119 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................122

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Pithekoussai and Cumae....................................................................................................15 1-2 The Sicilian Greek colonies............................................................................................... 16 2-1 A diagram of an arch bow fibula.......................................................................................31 2-2 Spectacle fibula type I.................................................................................................... ....31 2-3 Spectacle fibula type II................................................................................................... ...32 2-4 Spectacle fibula type III.................................................................................................. ...33 2-5 Spectacle fibula type IV................................................................................................... ..34 2-6 Spectacle fibula type V.................................................................................................... ..35 2-7 Spectacle fibula type VI.....................................................................................................35 2-8 A knobbed violin bow fibula.............................................................................................36 2-9 A striated violin bow fibula with a disc catch-plate..........................................................36 2-10 A coiled violin bow fibula with a symmetrical cha nnel catch-plate .................................. 36 2-11 A leaf violin bow fibula.....................................................................................................37 2-12 A double-knobbed arch bow fibula.................................................................................... 37 2-13 A deep ridge arch bow fibula.............................................................................................38 2-14 A ringed arch bow fibula...................................................................................................39 2-15 A large disc arch bow fibula.............................................................................................. 40 2-16 A foliated bow fibula.........................................................................................................40 2-17 The Sicilian el bow type fibula ...........................................................................................41 2-18 Serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate ........................................................................... 41 2-19 Sserpentine fibula with a sy mmetrical channel catch-plate ............................................... 42 2-20 Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate ..............42 2-21 Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate......................................... 43

PAGE 8

8 2-22 A triple coil serpentine fi bula with a disc catch-plate ........................................................ 44 2-23 A triple coil serpentine fibula w ith a symm etrical ch annel catch-plate............................. 44 2-24 A rectangular double co ils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate ................................. 45 2-25 A small leech bow fibula with decoration......................................................................... 45 2-26 A small leech fibula with decoration................................................................................. 46 2-27 A large leech bow fibula....................................................................................................46 2-28 A drago bow fibula............................................................................................................47 2-29 An amorphous drago bow fibula........................................................................................47 2-30 A knobbed drago bow fibula..............................................................................................48 2-31 A knobbed drago bow fibula with decoration.................................................................... 48 2-32 A figural drago bow fibula from Marsiliana...................................................................... 48 4-1 A serpentine fibula from Cumae........................................................................................ 78 5-1 Indigenous sites in southern Italy...................................................................................... 97 5-2 Indigenous sites in Campania............................................................................................ 98 5-3 Etruscan sites............................................................................................................. ........99 A-1 A stilted bow fibula..........................................................................................................115 A-2 A multiple knobbed arch bow fibula............................................................................... 115 A-3 A spiral arch bow fibula...................................................................................................115 A-4 A knobbed serpentine fibula, Numerous exam ples of this type appear throughout the catalogue. .........................................................................................................................115 A-5 A small knobbed leech bow fibula with an elong ated catch-plate from Monte Finocchito in Sicily.......................................................................................................... 115 A-6 Small knobbed leech bow fibulae with elongated catch-plates from Pithekoussai and Syracuse ...........................................................................................................................115 A-7 Knobbed leech bow fibulae from Syracuse Monte Finocchito, and Pithekoussai ..........115 A-8 A composite leech bow fibula.......................................................................................... 116

PAGE 9

9 A-9 A bolt fibula from the Bernardini tomb........................................................................... 116 A-10 A comb fibula: provenance unknown.............................................................................. 116 A-11 Leech fibulae with short catch -plates fr om Vrokastro..................................................... 116 A-12 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type I ...................................................................... 116 A-13 Distribution map of Sp ec tacle fibula type I..................................................................... 116 A-14 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type II. ................................................................... 116 A-15 Distribution map of spectacle fibula type III ................................................................... 116 A-16. Distribution map of spectacle fibulae types IV and V. ...................................................... 117 A-17 Greek style composite leech fi bula at Syracuse from grave 428..................................... 117 A-18 A Greek composite leech fibula from Cumae..................................................................117 A-19 A Greek composite leech fibul a from tom b 272 on Pithekoussai................................... 117 A-20 Italic composite leech fibul ae from tomb 599 on Pithekoussai.......................................117 A-21 Simple arch bow and ringed arch bow Italic fibulae from Cumae..................................117 A-22 Blinkenbergs types IX and X.......................................................................................... 117 A-23 Leech fibulae from Vetulonia.......................................................................................... 118 A-24 The Regolini-Galassi fibula from Caere..........................................................................118 A-25 Drago and comb fibulae from th e Bernardini tomb at Praeneste ..................................... 118 A-26 A detail of the scene of the Bernardini comb fibula........................................................ 118

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presen ted to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts FIBULAE OF THE NINTH THROUGH SEVENT H CENTURIES BC IN CENTRAL ITALY By Jennifer M. Hambleton August, 2008 Chair: Barbara Barletta Cochair: Robin Poynor Major: Art History This thesis addresses the deve lopment of fibulae in the region of the Italian peninsula. The fibula is a device that had been used in antiquity to fasten garments. The tradition of the Italic fibula is a small, but significant part of a much larger a nd older tradition within the Mediterranean region. Certain t ypes were held in common among cultures in southern Europe, Greece, Italy, and the Near East during the 13th-11th centuries BC. These early types became the ancestors of forms that came to define the Italic sequence. This seque nce benefited from these diverse influences during its maturation in the 9th through 7th centuries BC. The rise of the Italic sequence during the 9th century overlapped with the arrival of the Greeks in the 8th century at Pithekoussai in the Bay of Naples. This overlap was significant and has been troublesome to scholars in the past be cause certain types of Italic fibulae and Italiclooking fibulae appear at Pithekoussai, and subs equently in Sicily at the Greek colony of Syracuse. In the past, archaeologists had trouble in determining which ones were Greek and which were Italic because the rise of the Italic sequence was so close in time to the arrival of the Greeks. The types that have sparked the most debate are the knobbed serpentine, the composite leech, and the knobbed leech fibulae. The elongated cat ch-plate of these type s has been a subject

PAGE 11

11 of debate, too, mainly because ce rtain archaeologists insisted that it was Greek in origin. Their claims are not supported by secure evidence, whic h will be discussed in the thesis. These three types of fibulae occur in both It alic and Greek sites of the 8th and 7th centuries, including Pithekoussai and Syracuse. Some archaeologist s argued for a Greek origin while others demonstrated that they had always been part of the It alic tradition. The inabil ity to identify them as either Greek or Italic in origin seems still to be present today, but this thesis aims to present the available evidence on the knobbed serpentine, composite leech, and knobbed leech fibulae in order to make a fair assessment on the origin of these types. Apart from the controversy concerning the appe arance of certain types of Italic fibulae and western Greek composite leech fibulae at Greek s ites in Italy, the period of time spanning the 8th through the 7th centuries also marks the sudden increase of wealth in Etruria. Fibulae appear in luxurious materials and sophistic ated techniques during the 7th century, especially in Etruria. This change is important for the information it reveals about the effects of foreign cultures in central Italy, such as the Greeks and Phoenici ans. The study of fibulae is important for the information that these objects reveal about the interactions between the Greeks and the indigenous peoples of Italy. They also crucial for understanding that th e Italic people were influencing the Greeks and the Greeks were infl uencing the Italic peop le as opposed to the outdated thought that culture was passing in one direction only. Th is direction was believed to have been from Greece to Italy.

PAGE 12

12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Fibulae were utilitarian and/or ornam ental devices used for securing garments. They were used by the ancient peoples of Italy, Greece, cen tral and southern Europe, Spain, and Cyprus. While these were not the only places that fibulae must have been us ed, they are the countries that share in the development of the Italic fibulae tr adition. Fibulae are made of metal, which may be bronze, iron, gold, or a combination of gold with bronze or gold with iron. The ancient peoples of Italy used them in a similar way to how mode rn people use a safety pin. In the modern world, safety pins are small, quite simple-looking in appearance, and fairly stra ightforward in how they are intended to be used. Not only are they easy to wear, but there is little differentiation in form, if any, between them. In stark contrast to the modern era, those from antiquity are not all of the same type, size, and weight. Some are quite large and cumbersome, which would not have afforded the wearer the same ease of use a nd convenience that people today appreciate. A number of varieties of fibulae developed over time in Italy be ginning with the basic spectacle, violin, stilted, and arch bow types. From here, th ey started to become increasingly more intricate in form and decoration. Evidence for the origins of fibulae comes from the Mediterranean area, where they were produced as early as the 13th century BC. Fibulae continued to be made in this region into the 21st century AD, but by this time they are safe ty pins and no longer fibulae. Any notion of craftsmanship and attention to detail is lost on a modern safety pin. They are strictly utilitarian objects. Although the production of fibulae translated into the production of safety pins over a span of two thousand years, the intent of this thesis is to l ook first at the development and diffusion of the form during the 13th through the 9th centuries BC as it deve loped in Italy and/or neighboring regions of Italy in its vicinity. These areas includ e central Europe, Greece, Spain,

PAGE 13

13 and Cyprus. The examination of the developm ent and diffusion of the fibula during the 13th through the 9th centuries is important for understanding how the development of the Italic fibula fits into the larger historical context in the Italian region. The second and more important objective of this paper is to tr ace the development of the Italic fibula specifically from the 9th through the 7th centuries BC. A wide variety of fi bulae were being produced during the six hundred years from the 13th through the 7th centuries. In order to prepare the reader for my conclusions, the typology of fibulae will be addressed. Methodology and aims: An attempt has been made to collect and sort through the work of the relatively limited number of scholars who have studied Italian fibulae. Primary sources have been used whenever possible as the preferre d method of research. These sources are books, excavation reports, and articles carried out and written by di fferent archaeologists depending upon whether the material is from the Italian main land or Sicily. One of the most helpful sources for understanding the chronological developmen t of the fibula is by Johannes Sundwall.1 Excavations yielding fibulae range in date, with some of the earliest carried out in the middle of the 19th century and some of the latest in the middle 20th century. They yielded fibulae dating from the middle of the 8th century BC to well into the 7th century BC. To clarify, all of the material in this thesis is of a BC date so some times the specific century will only be referenced throughout this paper. The chief aim of this investigation has been to compare the original excavation reports to the secondary literature in the fields of archaeolo gy and art history in an attempt to deconstruct the intricacies of the confusion. Since the or iginal excavations, new research has been undertaken, which questions out-dated ideas and opinions from the time of the excavations 1 Johannes Sundwall, Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln (Berlin: Gruyter and Company, 1943).

PAGE 14

14 concerning the relationship between the Greek co lonists and the Italic peoples. Two Greek colonies, Pithekoussai (Figure 1-1) and Syracuse (Figure 1-2), will be studied in detail to understand the intricate relationship that the Greeks and the Italic peoples maintained with each other at these two sites. The types to be presented in chapter 1 are the most si gnificant ones known from the Villanovan and Etruscan cultures of cen tral Italy and Campania in the 13th 7th centuries. Sundwalls catalogue documents fibu lae from 150 sites across Italy, with half of these sites in Central Italy.2 However, Sundwalls examples also come from southern and northern Italy as well as the Greek colonies in Si cily and mainland Italy. Examples are here provided for all of the types and their variants. The examples represent the most basic form of the type and the most basic form of each variant. This approach ha s been taken due to the overwhelming number of variants of each type. The types are grouped acco rding to the shape of the bow. The types have been placed in chronological order, as tr aced in terms of increasing complexity. As already mentioned, study of the fibula is re ally a study of cultura l interaction between the Greeks and Italic peoples. By studying the typology of the Italic fibulae as well as where the types appear geographically, it is hoped that old ideas regardi ng the development of the fibula will once again be questioned to arrive at a mo re accurate assessment of the relations between the Greeks and the Italic peoples. The one fibula type that will be discussed, but not described in the typology, is the Greek style composite leech fi bula. The typology is exclusive to Italic fibula types, and the Greek adaptations will not be listed to avoid confusion. 2 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy," in Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studies in Honor of Ellen MacNamara ed. MacNamara, Ellen and David Ridgwa y (London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000), esp. 114, footnote 14.

PAGE 15

15 Figure 1-1. Pithekoussai and Cumae

PAGE 16

16 Figure 1-2. The Sicilian Greek colonies

PAGE 17

17 CHAPTER 2 TYPOLOGY Scholarship on the study of the fibula has been a collective contribution. Johannes Sundwall is the authority on the Italic t ypes from the Early Iron Age through the 6th century BC, while John Alexander provides a survey on the distribution of the spectacle fibula.1 Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri offers limited examples of the types classified by Sundwall and Alexander,2 while Ellen MacNamara3 and Judith Toms4 offer commentary on the hist ory and interrelation of the early types, namely the spectacle, arch, and serp entine fibula forms. The component parts of the fibula regardless of type are the bow, spring, pin, and catch-plate. The catch-plate may be short, elongated, or long channel. If not one of these th ree types, then it may be less commonly in the form of a small or large disc (Figure 2-1). The pin passes through the garment and is he ld in place by the catch-plate, much like a modern safety pin. The bow is the element that is normally visible to the eye, and for this reason a number of decorative styles of bow developed over time. In this paper, an attempt will be made to categorize fibulae according to forms and techniques of manufactur e and decoration. Fibulae of the 9th through the 7th centuries may be made in a variety of ways, which include using the piece-mold, lost wax method, cold working, a nd annealing processes. Fibulae of the 9th and 8th century have fairly simple decoration compared to those of the 7th century, which utilize the techniques of filigree and granulation. Some thirty-four types of fibulae may be organized into 1 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe," American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965) 2 Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri, "Italian Swords and Fi bulae of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages," Italian Iron Age Artefacts: in the British Museum: Papers of the Sixth British Museum Classical Coloquium (1986): esp. 20-23. 3 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies in Sardinia and Italy from 1200 to 700 BC: Their Origin and Development," in Etruria e Sardegna Centro-Settentrionale tra L'Eta del Bronzo Finale e L'Arcaismo: Atti del XXI Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Sassari, Alghero, Oritano, Torralba, 13-17 Ottobre 1998 ed. Convegno di Studi Etruschi e Italici (Pisa: Instituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 2002). 4 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," 91-113.

PAGE 18

18 twelve major groups including th e spectacle, violin bow, stilte d bow, arch bow, foliated bow, serpentine bow, leech and boat types, composite leech bow, the drago type, and bolt and comb fibulae. Bolt and comb fibulae have been defined by so me scholars as being clasps although they still categorized them unde r the typology of fibulae. If they were indeed functiona l, they clearly did not fasten to a garment in the same way as th e other types. Despite the fact that the comb and bolt types attach differently to fabric from the other types, they will be included in the typology. The possibility should not be ruled out that the method of attachment may have made no difference to the ancient peoples of Italy and th ey may have used them as fibulae. The following pages describe the identifying features of a wide range of fi bulae beginning with the spectacle fibula. Alexander recognizes that the sp ectacle fibula type is divided into five main and twenty sub-types based on the shape of the fibula as well as the design of the bow and catch-plate.5 Alexander categorizes spectacle fi bulae into five main types, even though one example from type IV does not resemble the other examples from this type.6 In addition to th is peculiarity, he groups together an assortment of fibulae of dissimilar shape and asserts that they all belong to type V.7 Because of the confusion in Alexanders method of categorizati on, spectacle fibulae will be sorted into six main types in this thesis. Depending on the specific t ype, spectacle fibulae are easily distinguishable from other types of fibulae because of the unique shapes of their arms, which are either one or two pairs of spirally wound wire. These pairs of wire may be either 5 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula," esp. 9-17. 6 Ibid., 17 7 Ibid.

PAGE 19

19 circular or square in cross-section.8 If only a single pair comprises the arm (as in type I-III) then the central connecting device of the two spirals may be circular or linear. Generally, these connecting devices are in the form of a figure eight loop, a diagonal pin, or a flat panel.9 The figure eight loop in particul ar is a form shared by the fi rst three types of spectacle fibulae as it is used in combination with a thin, flat panel in types II and III. In both of these, the bow and catch-plate mechanism is attached to the panel, which wraps around and holds both arms of the fibula. The main difference between Types II and III that util ize the figure eight loop is the physical relationship between the loop and the panel. In type II, the loop does not physically engage the panel the wa y it does in type III, and it does not hold the two arms of the fibula as tightly, as some of the more sophisticated variations of type III. Local variations of types I-III ex ist and they will be explored in more detail below, but eventually the early spectacle fibula with its cen tral figure eight loop ev olves into a new type. This new type of spectacle fibula, known as the four-spiral fibula, is bu ilt upon the standard form of types I-III but it no longer has two spirals. Instead it has four spirals, which results in two arms. The connection devices of the four-spiral fibula are similar to th e earlier types, but innovations also appear to accommodate the second arm. The fifth type of spectacle fibul ae is different from types I-IV in that it has a fifth spiral. Alexander sees this type as a final variation of type IV spectacle fibulae, even though it has five spirals and not four. The presence of the extra coil sets this type apart from those in group four, and thus seems proper to designate it as an ex ample of type V spectacle fibulae. Although a 8 Ibid., 69 9 Ibid., 9, 12, 16, & 17

PAGE 20

20 preliminary introduction to the spectacle fibula types has been made, an attempt will now be made to distinguish them more clearly from each other. A. Spectacle Fibula type I (Figure 2-2): Type I spectacle fibulae are made from one piece of wire, are round in cross-section10, and have a figure eight loop in the center that joins the pair of coiled discs. These discs form the arms of th e fibula with the pin and the catch-plate slightly unwinding from the center of each coil. The center of one coil slightly projects out to the rear to form the pin, which hooks onto the foot projecting from the back of the opposite coil. The catchplate is formed in the same fashi on as the pin, in that it is also an extension of the center of the coil. The pin and catch-plate mechanism are suspended from the back of the fibula by two small metal rods that project from the center of each co il. The pin pierces, slides behind the fabric, and then pierces it again on the outside of the fabric to attach to the catch-plate. The discs of type I spectacle fibulae may be decorated if the disc is not coiled. In this case, the entire or selected parts of the su rface are decorated with unique combinations of geometric patterns. Concentr ic bands of incised lines and small circles are common. Seven variations occur under this type with m odifications made to the discs of the fibulae as well as the central connecting device of the figure eight. In the firs t and second variations (figs. 2-2a and 2-2b), the discs are coiled, whereas in the third and fourth the center of the coil is left open (figs. 2-2c and 2-2d). The figure eigh t loop also becomes shorter and wider in the fourth variant. (2-2d) The closed coil remains present in variations fi ve through seven of type I (figs. 2-2e-2-2g), but the figure eight is no longer present. Instea d, a small spring, a second smaller spiral, or a chain of hoops may connect the two discs of the fibula. The final a nd eighth variant to consider 10 Ibid., 8

PAGE 21

21 (fig. 2-2h) is slightly more sophisticated than th e others. Instead of a fi gure eight loop, chain of hoops or smaller spiral, the empt y space is filled by a solid disc.11 Spectacle Fibula type II (Figure 2-3): The second type of spectacle fibula is made from one piece of wire. Four variations occur (fig s. 2-3a, 2-3b, 2-3c, and 2-3d) and other than modifications made to the discs a nd structure, each is similar to those of type I in the way that they attach to the fabric. The straight line m oving diagonally from one coiled disc to the other replaces the central figure-eight as a connecting device in the four variations of this type. The centers of the coiled disc s of the last three variations of th is type (figs. 2-3b, 2-3c, and 2-3d) remain open as opposed to the solid form of the fi rst variant (fig. 2-3a). A thin, flat metal panel usually made of bronze attaches to the backside of the middle two variations (figs. 2-3c and 23d) upon which the bow and pin mechanism is affi xed. The panel is wrapped around the sides of the fibula in the third variant (fi g. 2-3c), but does do so in the last and final variant (fig. 2-3d). Spectacle Fibula type III (Figure 2-4): The third type of spectacle fibula is also made from one piece of wire. It has four variations (f igs. 2-4a, 2-4b, A-4c, and 2-4d), which are similar to type II spectacle fibulae excep t for the re-appearance of the central figure-eight loop. The panel that is present on the backside of the last two variations of the type II spectacle fibula (figs. 2-3c and 2-3d) is present on all four variations of the type III spectacle fi bula. The first variation (fig. 2-4a) utilizes the figure eigh t loop to connect the two discs of the fibula, but it does not engage the panel the way the second (fig. 2-4b) an d third (fig. 2-4c) variations do. In both of these cases, the loop engages the panel, and in th e third the panel slightly expands outward at the center. 11 Additional examples of spectacle fibulae type I and subs equent variations appear in Sundwall on 170-171, which are E I, and E IB.

PAGE 22

22 A short panel-like element appears on the front side of the fourth variation (fig. 2-4d), which partially conceals the figure-eight loop. In all of the examples of this group, the panel wraps around and holds the sides of the fibula mo re firmly than in those of type II. This characteristic is especially pronounced in the four th variation. As in variations A-3c and A-3d of type II, the pin and catch-plate mechanism is attached to the pane l of the fibula. Spectacle Fibula type IV (Figure 2-5) The fourth type of spect acle fibula is also known as the four-spiral type and it ha s four variations (figs. 2-5a, 2-5b, 2-5c, and 2-5d). Each of the pairs of discs is made from one piece of wire, but it is dissimilar to the previous three types in that it has four discs instead of two. The type IV fibula is essentia lly two type-II fibulae joined at the center point by a rivet. The rivet may be left visi ble, as in the second vari ant of this type (fig. 2-5b) or it may be covered by a solid disc as in Figure 2-5a. The thir d variation (fig. 2-5c) of this group highlights the rivet with an ornament (which is formed from looping the wire on each of the four arms of the fibula). In the fourth variation (fig. 2-5d), wire from one pair of discs is coiled around wire from the ot her pair at the center. Although the design of the central connecting devi ce is different in each of the variations of type IV, their arms retain the form of the coiled disc. As a result of the nature of the four arms, the linear panel element upon which the pin and foot mechanism attaches is not present. Instead, the form of this mechanism is similar to that of the type I fibula in that the pin and foot mechanism are suspended from the back of the fibula by a small metal rod.12 Spectacle Fibula type V (Figure 2-6): The fifth type of spectacle fibula has a wholly different shape from any of the previous four t ypes. There are four coiled discs plus one coiled 12 Examples of type IV spectacle fibulae appear in Sundwall 174-176, E II and in Bietti Sestieri 50-51.

PAGE 23

23 disc radiating from one side. In profile, this a dditional disc is somewhat lowered, and carries the catch-plate apparatus upon which the pin of the fibula rests. Spectacle Fibula type VI (Figure 2-7): The sixth type of spectacle fibula is made from one piece of wire, has one variation, and is dissim ilar to types one through five in that only one arm is present. This single arm is comprised of three spirals in a row and like types I and IV, the panel element upon which the pin and foot mechanis m attaches is not present. Instead, both of these elements attach to the back of the fi bula in a similar fashion to types I and IV. B. The Violin Bow type: The second major type of fibula is referred to as the violin bow because of its shape, not unlike its namesake. The bow may be slig htly curved and often has two knobs on the exposed portion. Occasionally multiple knobs may appear. It is connected with a one-coiled spring, which may be a small channel or coil disc cat ch-plate. Over time, the bow widens in the center to resemble the shape of a leaf. Decoration on this ty pe may be in the form of a single group or groups of incised transv erse lines or chevrons on the exposed portion between the knobs. If the bow is widened in th e center, then the inci sed decoration usually consists of circular and linear arrangements. Variations within this type include: 1. Knobbed Violin Bow (Figure 2-8) The knobbe d violin bow fibula has a straight bow with knobs at equal intervals along its length. It has a one-coil spring and may have a small channel or disc catch-plate. The disc catch-pla te may be solid or spiral. Decoration usually consists of incised transverse lines. 2. Striated Violin Bow (Figures 2-9) The striated violin bow fibula has striations along the length of its bow. It has a one-coil spring and ma y have a small channel or disc catch-plate. The disc catch-plate may be solid or a spiral wire. Decoration consists of the wire of the exposed portion striated along its length. 3. Coiled Violin Bow (Figure 2-10) The coiled vi olin bow fibula is similar to the striated violin bow fibula except that th e bow is twisted instead of striated. This manipulation of the bow gives a more three-dimensional effect to the shape of the bow compared to the striated variation. It has a one-coil spring, and may have a small channel or disc catch-

PAGE 24

24 plate. The disc catch-plate may be solid or a sp iral wire. Decoration consists of the wire of the exposed portion coiled along its length. 4. Violin Leaf Bow (Figure 2-11) The violin l eaf bow fibula consists of the central portion of the top of the bow flattened out to fo rm a leaf shape. There are double knob-like forms worked into the wire on either side of the leaf shape. The leaf shape may be decorated with a border of incised lines wh ile various circular a nd linear designs are imprssed on the flat leaf-like surface.13 C. The Stilted Bow type (Figure A-1): The stilted bow fibula is so named because the bow is triangular in shape. The bow rises to fo rm a point at the apex. The apex would then be seen as the steepest point on the bow. The stilte d bow fibula is similar to the knobbed arch bow fibula except for the triangular shape of the bow. There is usually a single spring, and the catchplate may be a small or large symmetrical channel. It may either be decorated with two knobs or with multiple knobs. There may also be geometric incised designs in between the knobs or along the entire length of the bow. D. The Double Knobbed Arch Bow type (Figure 2-12): The double knobbed arch bow is so named because the semicircular bow is formed w ith a pair of knobs at either end of the arch. It works with a single coil spring and may have a small or medium-sized channel catch-plate. Incised geometric patterns on the exposed portion may consist of triangles, chevrons, or straight lines, sometimes positioned only in between the k nobs or to the outside of the knobs as well. E. The Multiple Knobbed Arch Bow type (Figure A-2) The multiple knobbed arch bow is of the same shape and decoration as th e double knobbed arch bow, but rather than two knobs, as many as four or even up to six knobs may be worked into the exposed portion. F. The Simple Arch Bow type: The arch bow fibula consists of a semicircular bow, a single-coil spring, and small or medium sized cha nnel catch-plate. In so me examples, the catch13 Examples of the violin bow type and subsequent variations appear in Sundwall on 66-76.

PAGE 25

25 plate may also be a large disc. The arch bow ma y be decorated with a ny combination of a group or groups of incised lines, spirals, or chevrons. Variations under this type include: 1. Spiral Bow Arch Bow (Figure A3) The striated or carved spiral semicircular bow may have single or double coil spri ng. The spring may be small or large. The fibula may have a small or medium sized channel catch-plate or a small or large disc catch-plate. The disc catch-plate fibula may have incised lines along the t op of the bow as well as along the perimeter of the disc. Incised lines may ar ticulate the spiral of the disc and various circular and geometric motifs may appear in the center. 2. Deep Ridge Arch Bow (Figure 2-13) The deep ridge arch bow presents a semi-circular arch bow with a heavy body with deep ridges either carved in relief or cast hollow. Because of the heavy three-dimensional artic ulation, no incised decoration is necessary on this type. 3. Ringed Arch Bow (Figure 2-14) This type of fibula consists of a se mi-circular arch bow, but two or more rings are attached to the exposed portion to function as decoration. The type usually has a small channel catch-plate. The fibula may be worn upside down, which allows the rings to hang freely from the arch. In this case, the pin would be above the bow when viewed from the front. 4. Large Disc Arch Bow (Figure 2-15) The large disc arch bow fibula consists of a semicircular arch bow with a singl e or double coil spring. The catch-plate consists of a large disc decorated with a border as well as su rface patterns consisting of geometric motifs. These designs may include zig-zags, circles, sq uares, and linear motifs. A bar, suggesting cattle horns perhaps, projects from the larg e disc. A short foot section projects underneath the horns and lies perpendicular to the disc. In contrast to the short foot section the horns of the fibula lie parallel to the disc.14 G. The Foliated Bow type (Figure 2-16): The foliated bow type fibula is very similar in shape to the arch bow ex cept that the exposed porti on is noticeably wider. This becomes a broad, flat surface decorated with borders and geometric patterns, suggesting a leaf form, as attested by its name. Like the large disc bow fibula, the foliated bow of this type transitions into a large disc catch-plate, which may or may not att ach to a thin or thick decorative bar. If a bar is present, then it is normally positioned below the bow, but above the disc-catch-plate when viewed in profile 14 Examples of the arch bow type and its variants appear in Sundwall on 78-118, B I-III. Examples also appear in Toms on 102, 103, and 105, numbers 1-14. Bietti Sestieri offers more examples on 20-23, numbers 1-2 and 15-44.

PAGE 26

26 creating a tiered design. The decora tion is located on the perimeters and centers of the disc and on the bow. These patterns may include squares a nd/or triangles of incised lines, circles, and occasionally figures. Small rings may attach to the perimeter of the bow as well.15 H. Sicilian Elbow type (Figure 2-17) The Sicilian elbow fibula bow that angles upwards and then bends downwards to form an elbow. The elbow bow may have a small or large single or double-coiled spring usually accompanied with an elongated channel catch-plate. Alternating bands of incised vertical lines along with plain or decorated areas of geometric patterns, decorate the exposed portion. The decorated bands are on either side of the elbow, but they are not located on the bend itself. The Sicilian fibula bow type may also consist of a curvilinear bow upon which are two small coils. Both coils are us ually the same size and the one further away from the pin is higher than the one closer to the pin. The pin rests on an elongated channel catchplate. I. The Serpentine Bow type (Figures 2-18 and 2-19): The serpentine bow type is comprised of a curvilinear bow w ith a single, double or triple coil. If a double coil, then each may be the same size or one noticeably larger than the other. If three coils exist, then they may either be in succession along the length of the bow or two of them may be a similar size, with the third one noticeably larger. The pin may be stra ight or curvilinear and it may rest on a small channel catch-plate, an elongated channel catch-plate, or a spiral disc-catch-plate, which may be small or large. Decoration may include incised lin es in assorted geometric patterns along the bow or in shallow relief carving. Variations of the serpentine bow type include: 15 Examples of this type appear in Sundwall on 122-131, C I. Examples also appear in Bietti Sestieri on 23 numbers 46-47.

PAGE 27

27 1. Knobbed Serpentine Bow (Figure A-4) The exposed portion of the bow may widen slightly in the center. One or two pairs of knobs project from the center portion of the bow. The spring may be either a single or double coil and the catch-plate is usually elongated or long channel. 2. Large and Small Coils Serpentine Bow (Figures 2-20 and 2-21) The large and small coil bow is distinguished by a noticeably larger coil that serves as the spring and a smaller one that functions only as decorati on. The catch-plate may be a small to medium sized channel or a small disc catch-plate. The part of the bow between the coils may have an incised linear design. The section between the smaller coil and the catch-plate may also have the same design. 3. Triple Coils Serpentine Bow (Figures 2-22 and 2-23) The exposed portion of the triple coils serpentine bow contains three small coils two on one end, one of which serves as the spring, and the third on the opposite end. The cat ch-plate may be a small channel or a small disc. Incised linear designs may be worked between the pair of coils on one side and the third on the other. 4. Rectangular Double Coils Serpentine Bow (F igure 2-24) Although Sundwall classifies this type as serpentine16 the only feature in common with me mbers of this group is the pair of double coils along the bow. An articulated knob appears opposite th e catch-plate, and coils are located almost directly above th e knob and the pin on the disc catch-plate, resulting in a somewhat rectangular shape. Th e spring is absent in this variety, but there may be an elongated channel catch-plate, small disc catch-plate, or a la rge disc catch-plate. Groups of incised lines or shallow relief carving may be present along the length of the bow.17 J. The Small Leech Bow type18 (Figures 2-25 and 2-26): The small leech bow type may have a solid, hollow, or composite semicircular bow that resembles the shape of a leech or a gondola. The single or double coil spring is relatively small. The channel foot may be small or elongated. Decorative motifs consis ting of zig-zag patterns or ot her unique geometric patterns may be incised on the entire surface of the bow or in some cases restricted to certain areas. Variations of the small leech type include: 16 These types appear on pgs 158-160 17 Examples of the serpentine bow type fibula appear in Sundwall on 137-169, D I-IV. Examples also appear in Bietti Sestieri on 20, 21, and 23; numbers 3-14 and 45. 18 One type that will not be described in the text, but has been associated with the leech type is the boat type. The boat fibula has been associated with th e leech type because the shapes of the bows of both types are very similar with no discernable differences. For this reason, the boat fibula will not be discussed in the text.

PAGE 28

28 1. Small knobbed leech bow (Figure A-5, A-6, and A-7) The small knobbed leech type is similar in shape to the simple leech type that does not have knobs. Short stems may project from the sides of the fibula to terminate in small round knobs. Sometimes the knobs do not project from the sides of the fibula on short stems, but instead take the form of simple lateral projections. A small si ngle or double coil spring transi tions into an elongated catchplate. Decorative lines on the widest area of the bow may be incised between the knobs. K. The Large Leech Bow type: The large leech bow type may have a solid, hollow, or composite semicircular bow, a small single or double coil spring and an elongated or long channel catch-plate that may extend as much as twice the length of the leech portion. The long nature of the catch-plate and the compact form of the bow distinguish this type from the small leech group. Unique geometric motifs consisting of ci rcular and linear patterns as well as figural compositions may be worked on the bow and catch-plate, and an articulate d catch-plate and knob may be present. Variations of the large leech bow type include: 1. Large Leech Bow (Figures 2-27) The large leech bow may have a solid, hollow, or semicircular shaped bow is wider in the cente r compared to the small leech types. A single or double coil spring transitions into an elongated channel catch-plate, but usually the catch-plate is a long channel. The long channe l catch-plate is signifi cantly longer than the elongated versions. Unique combinations of geometric patterns or three-dimensional conical elements are distributed over the entire surface or selected areas. L. The Composite Leech Bow type19 (Figure A-8) The composite leech bow is a semicircular bow with a single or double spring. The spring transitions in to a small channel or elongated channel catch-plate. Various accompanyi ng materials such as amber and bone discs, glass paste, and ivory ar e strung along its entire length or restricted to particular areas of the bow. If restricted, then they may be thick in na ture and either spaced evenly or located in the 19 Some scholars, such as Toms, have categorized the compos ite leech bow as an arch bo w. The shape of the bow is not a simple arch, but rather is leech in form. For this reason, Tom's "composite arch bow type" will be categorized in the typology and later discussed throughout the thesis as the composite leech bow type.

PAGE 29

29 center of the bow. Whether spaced evenly or gro uped together in the cente r of the bow, both of these compositions results in a bow that is leech shaped. M. The Drago Bow type (Figure 2-28): The drago bow type fibul a has a curvilinear bow that smoothly transitions into a long pin underneath. The catch-pl ate may be either elongated or formed as a long channel. An assortment of knobs, loops, discs and/or conical elements may decorate either the bow and/or the pin. Variations of the drago bow type include: 1. Amorphous Drago Bow (Figure 2-29) The amor phous drago bow type is distinguished by a tall, thick bow, which transitions into a re latively thin pin undern eath. The catch-plate may be either elongated or longchannel. Unique combinations of geometric patterns and three-dimensional elements may be worked on the pin and bow. 2. Knobbed Drago Bow (Figure 2-30 and 2-31) The knobbed drago bow type is similar to the amorphous bow type except for the addition of spherical knobs, discs, or other threedimensional elements on the bow. The catch-plate may be either elong ated or long-channel foot. Geometric patterns and three-dimensi onal elements may be worked onto the bow similarly to that of the decorati on on the amorphous drago bow type. 3. Figural Drago Bow (Figure 2-32)The figural dr ago bow type is similar in shape to the amorphous drago bow and the knobbed drago bo w types except that the overall form usually resembles a figure of an animal. In addition to the form taking the shape of an animal, the three-dimensional decoration of this type may be in the form of animals. The catch-plate may be elongated or long channel.20 Exceptional varieties: The last two types to be descri bed are the bolt and comb fibulae, respectively. They are not listed or included in the discussion of the development of the Italic fibula, since most scholars do not acknowledge them as belonging to that tradition. Curiously, they are found in wealthy tomb contexts of the 7th century BC from Southern Etruria and Latium. These tombs and the material in them will be accounted for shortly, but first the unique characteristics of the comb and bolt fibulae types will be discussed. 20 Examples of the drago type fibula and subsequent variations appear in Sundwall on 233-253, H I-IV. Examples also appear in Bietti Sestieri on 23, number 49.

PAGE 30

30 N. The Bolt Fibula (Figure A-9): This type differs from all of the above types in the way it is constructed. The recognizable parts of a viol in, arch, or serpentine bow fibula is the bow, pin, and catch-plate. However, this type does not feature a traditional bow, pin, or catch-plate. Instead, the fibula consists of two se parate sets of tubes that are joined together in the center. The outermost tubes connect both sides of the fibula together. Various plastic figures in bronze, gold, and silver may adorn the fibula.21 O. The Comb Fibula (Figure A-10): The construction of the comb fibula is somewhat more intricate than that of the bolt fibula in that it consists of thr ee parts. A thin wire is soldered to the central element of the fibula, the cylinder. Metal hooks are soldered al ong the length of two metal plates and each one slides in between the strip of wi re soldered to the cylinder. Holes are punched along the length of the pl ates, so that once the plates are secured between the strips of wire they are sewn to the fabric. In this wa y, the fibula must be assembled before it functions as a dress fastener like the bolt fibula. The cylinder may display examples of filigree or granulation, or both.22 An attempt has been made to categorize the great number of ma jor types and their variants in a clear and concise way. This chapter sought to look specifically at the identifying features of the major types as well as those of their variants. The next chapter will expound upon the typology and framework thus far estab lished by addressing the important issue of geographical origin and diffusion of the types discussed in chapter two. 21 Ingrid Strom, Problems concerning the Origin and Develop ment of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style (Odense: Odense University Press, 1971), esp. 97-99, catalogue numbers 69-70. 22 Ibid., 100-101, catalogue number 71

PAGE 31

31 Image not shown due to copyright Figure 2-1. A diagram of an arch bow fibula. Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studi es in Honor of Ellen MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway, 91-113. London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000. 93. Figure 2-2. Spectac le fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 9.

PAGE 32

32 Figure 2-3. Spectacle fibula type II. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965):12.

PAGE 33

33 Figure 2-4. Spectacle fibula type III. Alexander, John. "The Spect acle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965):12.

PAGE 34

34 Figure 2-5. Spectacle fibula t ype IV. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965):16.

PAGE 35

35 Figure 2-6. Spectacle fibula type V. Alexander, John. "The Spect acle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 17. Figure 2-7. Spectacle fibula t ype VI. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 17.

PAGE 36

36 Figure 2-8. A knobbed violin bow fibula. (Source in public do main) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 67. Figure 2-9. A striated violin bow fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 66. Figure 2-10. A coiled violin bow fibula with a symmetrical channel catc h-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 67.

PAGE 37

37 Figure 2-11. A leaf violin bow fibula. (S ource in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 75. Figure 2-12. A double-knobbed arch bow fibula. (S ource in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 80.

PAGE 38

38 Figure 2-13. A deep ridge arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain ) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 103.

PAGE 39

39 Figure 2-14 A ringed arch bow fibula. (Sour ce in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 106.

PAGE 40

40 Figure 2-15. A large disc arch bow fibula. (Source in public domain ) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 113. Figure 2-16. A foliated bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 128.

PAGE 41

41 Figure 2-17. The Sicilian elbow type fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 137. Figure 2-18. Serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Sour ce in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 153.

PAGE 42

42 Figure 2-19. Serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 149. Figure 2-20. Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 143.

PAGE 43

43 Figure 2-21. Large and small coils serpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 144.

PAGE 44

44 Figure 2-22. A triple coil serp entine fibula with a disc catch-pl ate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 155. Figure 2-23. A triple coil serp entine fibula with a symmetrical channel catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 143.

PAGE 45

45 Figure 2-24. A rectangular double coils se rpentine fibula with a disc catch-plate. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 159. Figure 2-25. A small leech bow fibula with decoration. (Source in publ ic domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 179.

PAGE 46

46 Figure 2-26. A small leech fibula with deco ration. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 183. Figure 2-27. A large leech bow fibula. (S ource in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 201.

PAGE 47

47 Figure 2-28. A drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 242. Figure 2-29. An amorphous drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 233.

PAGE 48

48 Figure 2-30. A knobbed drago bow fibula. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 244. Figure 2-31. A knobbed drago bow fibula with d ecoration. (Source in public domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 249. Figure 2-32. A figural drago bow fibula from Ma rsiliana. (Source in pub lic domain) Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. 246.

PAGE 49

49 CHAPTER 3 FIBULA TYPES OF THE 13TH THROUGH 7TH CENTURIES BC: DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION The date for the beginning of the history a nd development of the Italian fibula remains inexact at the present time, but th ere is an adequate amount of ev idence to support a starting date falling sometime between the 13th and 11th centuries BC.1 This evidence comes in the form of a few select types of fibulae, which appeared in Italy and elsewhere in both the eastern and western Mediterranean during these centuries.2 These early types had a wide distribution during the 13th through 11th centuries and they exerted a strong influence on the developmen t of the Italic sequence, which started distinguishing itself during the 9th century. They were influential in that they were the ancestors of the types that came to flourish during the 9th through the 7th centuries in Italy. Simplicity in form, technique of manufacture, and decoration are the ancestral qualities of the violin bow and spectacle fibulae. MacNamara identifies the vio lin bow fibula, including the knobbed variations, and the spectacle fibula as two early types th at appeared in the eastern and western Mediterranean regions during 13th through 11th centuries.3 In addition to the spectacle and violin bow fibulae, Bietti Sestieri includes the double and multiple knobbed arch bow fibulae as two types that appeared in Italy and the Aegean as early as early as the 12th century.4 The double knobbed stilted bow is anot her type that appeared in the 1 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 151. 2 Ibid., 151-172 3 Ibid., 153-160 4 Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri, "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its Connections with the Aegean," Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (1973): 407-412

PAGE 50

50 Aegean and Italy during the 11th century BC.5 These types display the ancestral qualities of simplicity in form, technique of manufacture, and decoration. Bietti Sestieri notes how the knobbed violin bow transitioned into the stilted fibula with knobs, which then transitioned into the knobbed arch bow type. The stilted fibula is similar in shape to the arch bow fibula except that the bow is not as round as the arch bow type. Instead, the stilted bow comes to a point at the apex of the bow. In time, this point became softened and more rounded to form the arch bow type. The preference for decorating the bow with multiple knobs appeared first on the violin bow fibula, but th en is transferred to th e stilted and arch bow fibulae as noted by Bietti Sestieri. Stilted bow fibulae from Sicily usually ha ve just two knobs, while those in Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, and Latium have multiple knobs.6 Another way to distinguish between stilted bow fibulae from Sicily and those from central and southe rn Italy is that those from the mainland usually have a deco rated catch-plate.7 A similar development concerning knobs is seen with arch bow fibulae in Sicily compared to those of cen tral Italy. In Sicily, it was more common to decorate the bow with two knobs as opposed to central Italy, where usi ng multiple knobs was the style.8 Eventually the knobs disappeared on arch bow fibulae from the central Tyrrhenian region,9 but they did not go out of style in Sicily.10 5 Ibid., 410 6 Ibid., esp. 403-404 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid., esp. 404-405 9 Ibid. 405 10 Ibid. 404

PAGE 51

51 Violin, knobbed arch bow, and knobbed stilted bow fibulae had been found in hoards11 throughout Italy dating mainly to the Protovilla novan period. Bietti Se stieri quotes MuellerKarpe in dating these hoar ds to the years 1200-900 BC.12 Before this period, there was the Peschiera period in the north, which dates ca. 13-12th centuries BC.13 Fibulae do not seem to be as abundant in the Peschiera period as in the Protovillanovan period, but examples have been found in Greece and Crete of Peschiera type.14 The concentration of Mycenaean pottery in southe rn Italy (mainly Apulia) and Sicily and the occurrence of Peschiera bronzes, (mainly violin bow fibulae an d daggers) in Greece and Crete reflect the early contacts that had been made during this tim e between the Greeks and the Italic peoples.15 Strangely, the fibulae that have been found in Greece and Crete are similar to those from northern Italy, the region where th e pottery is not the most abundant as noted by Bietti Sestieri. One would expect the fibulae found in Greece and Crete to have originated from southern Italy, but their typological similarity to those in the north suggests that the Greeks came upon them in a way other than through direct contact in southern Italy. At first the Mycenaean Greeks appear to have b een motivated to travel to southern Italy and Sicily because of the opportunity to trade their pottery for Italian bronzes.16 Gradually, the pattern in traffic routes shifted and during th e Peschiera period, Greek products started arriving 11 Ibid., 402-406 12 Ibid., 384 13 Ibid. 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid., 383-384 16 Ibid., 383

PAGE 52

52 in Italy through central Europe.17 This suggests that motivations for trade changed and Aegean peoples or traders were now inte rested in obtaining not only finished goods in metal, but also other precious metals and materials such as amber, which was available in northern Italy.18 Double knobbed stilted bow fibulae found in s outhern Italy, Sicily, and the Aegean resemble each other during the Protovillanovan period as observed by Bietti Sestieri. This resemblance reflects how the Aegean area might ha ve been able to re-e stablish direct contact with the central and southern regions of Italy.19 Or, the resemblance could also be explained through trade, which might have been a quite complex set of exchanges. Double knobbed arch bow fibulae dating to the end of the 11th century in central Europe closely resemble ones found in Sicily.20 Amber beads found in central Europe are similar to ones found in central and southern Italy.21 Bietti Sestieri maintains that an Adriatic route was still in existence during the 11th century and it linked central Italy with central Europe.22 Thus, violin, stilted arch, and knobbed arch bow fi bulae appear to have been conn ected to a large scale-trading operation that was transpiring in Italy between the indigenous people, peoples of the Aegean area, and central Europeans from the 13th through the 10th centuries.23 The historical reconstruction offered by Bietti Sestieri is persuasive, but it should be made clear that her thoughts conc erning the interactions between Aegean peoples and the Italic 17 Ibid., 408 18 Ibid. 19 Ibid., 410 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Ibid.

PAGE 53

53 people during the 13th-11th centuries are not accepted as a proven explanation for the resemblance of fibula types between Italy a nd the Aegean area during these centuries. In addition to the spectacle, violin, stilted bow, and ar ch bow fibulae (including the knobbed variations) MacNamara identifies the Sicili an elbow fibula as the fifth early type. She claims that it originates from the stilted bow fibula of Italy,24 although the shape of the elbow fibula bears no resemblance to th e stilted bow type. On the other hand, Sundwall classifies the Sicilian elbow fibula as a variati on of the serpentine fibula bow type.25 However, the early history and widespread distributi on of the Sicilian elbow type across the Mediterranean merits that it should be distinguished from the serp entine type. Not only does the Sicilian elbow fibula have a history that star ts as early as the 11th century and a wide distribution,26 but the elongated catch-plate is first associated w ith this type as demonstrated through the research of MacNamara and Toms. For these reasons, the Sicilian elbow fibula is classified as its own type in this thesis. The Elongated Catch-Plate MacNam ara and Toms have recognized that the elongated catch-plate had been part of the Italic tradition since the late 11th century BC. In Italy, ther e had always been a strong tradition of utilizing an elongate d or long channel foot, which wa s seen as early as 1000 BC on the Sicilian elbow type.27 The elongated catch-plate appeared fi rst in Italy on the Sicilian elbow fibula and then was transferred to the serpenti ne, arch and composite leech bows by the early 8th century BC.28 By the 7th century BC, the elongated catch-plate had been transferred to the solid 24 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 155. 25 Johannes Sundwall, Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln esp. 137, 138, and 148 26 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 154. 27 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 95. The Sicilian type appears in Sundwall on 148. 28 Ibid., 94

PAGE 54

54 leech bow fibula as noted by Toms. The elongate d catch-plate can be seen in its most exaggerated form, the long channel catch-plate, on the elaborate examples of leech and drago fibulae from Etruria. Before it was known that the elongated cat ch-plate was an It alic innovation, the archaeological community believed it was a Gr eek invention. One reason is because of its appearance on the composite leech fibula in th e Greek colonies of Pithekoussai, Cumae, Syracuse, and Megara Hyblaea during the 8th through the 6th centuries. The second reason is related to the occurrence of the leech fibula at the site of Vrokastro on Crete during the 9th century, which will be shortly discussed. Examples of solid leech, composite leech, a nd serpentine fibulae w ith elongated catchplates had been found at the Fusco ceme tery at Syracuse during the late 19th century by Paolo Orsi,29 and then sixty years later during the middle 20th century when Giorgio Buchner conducted his excavations in the San Montano cemeter y at Pithekoussai off the Bay of Naples.30 Most examples of the fibulae at Syracuse date from the middle of the 8th century down to the beginning of the sixth century,31 and at Pithekoussai, they may date before 750 BC.32 The elongated catch-plate does not appear in Greece until the peri od of colonization. A total of nearly 50 examples of composite leech fibulae with the elongated catch-plate have been 29 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons," American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1958): esp. plates 56-65. 30 Many examples of the serpentine type and composite l eech types with an elongated catch-plate appear in the catalogue. The corresponding de scriptions of the fibulae appear in the b ook with the same title that accompanies the catalogue. Giorgio Buchner and David Ridgway, Pithekoussai I (Roma: G. Bretscheider, 1993) 31 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270. 32 Ibid.

PAGE 55

55 found in Greece,33 and they are similar to composite leech fibulae found at Syracuse and Megara Hyblaea.34 The composite leech fibulae found in the west ern Greek colonies are in turn similar to native Italic ones except for slight differences in style. The differences in the style of composite leech fibulae in the Greek colonies compared to those traditionally worn by the Italic people will be discussed in more detail below, but for now the focus will be on the origin of the elongated catch-plate. Since composite leech fibulae with elongated cat ch-plates in the western Greek colonies are similar to native Italic types, and because they appear in Greece after the period of colonization, it leads to the conclusion that arri val of the elongated catch-plate in Greece must have been induced by the contacts with Sicily. The most likely explanation for their occurrence in Greece is that the western Greeks were tran sporting these fibulae back to Greece from Sicily.35 Out of the 50 examples of leech fibulae with el ongated catch-plates in Greece, 16 have come from the sanctuary at Perachora.36 The rest of the fibulae have b een found at other sanctuaries in Greece, with the most Italian goods, including je welry, being discovered at the sanctuary of Olympia.37 The reasoning behind the western Greeks dispatching their adaptations of Italic composite fibulae to Greek sanctuaries will be discussed more in the final chapter. 33 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," in Perachora, the Sactuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia; Excavations of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, 1930-1933, ed. Dunbabin, T.J. and Alan Blakeway (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940), esp. 439-441. 34 Ibid., 439 35 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females: Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies and the Evidence from the Cemeteries," in Ancient Greeks West and East ed. Tsetskhladze, Gocha R (Boston: Brill, 1999), esp. 288-289. 36 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," esp. 439. 37 Gillian Shepherd, "The Pride of Most Colonials: Burial and Religion in the Sicilian Colonies," in Acta Hyperborea 6 ed. Fischer-Hansen, Tobias (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1995), esp. 74.

PAGE 56

56 But for now, the conversation will continue with the s econd reason why the elongated catch-plate was believed to have been a Greek invention. Leech fibulae with short catch-plates had been unearthed at Vrokast ro on Crete, dating to the 9th century BC (Figure A-11).38 Archaeologist Sylvia Benton noted during the middle 20th century that that these fibulae were older than any types found in Italy including those from the Greek colonies of Syracuse and Pithekoussai.39 Although the catch-plates on the types from Vrokastro were short, she claimed that they must have been the predecessors to those at Syracuse and Pithekoussai.40 At the time of Bentons publications from Vrokastro, Orsi and Buchner seemed in agreement with Benton that leech fibulae with the elongated catch-plates in the west ern Greek colonies and mainland sites in Italy, especially central Italy, were a result of Greek influence.41 Benton asserted that the elongated catch-plate itself must have been a natural progression of th e short catch-plate. She was essentially tracing the development of the elongate d catch-plate back to Vrokastro and thereby declaring that it was Greek in origin. MacNamaras research of the elongated catch-pla te and its association with the Sicilian elbow fibula as early as the 11th century has certainly helped to clarify this thorny issue. Looking back, it is not surprising that Benton, Orsi, and Buchner believed the invention of the elongated catch-plate to be a Greek rather than an Ita lic one. They did not ha ve the knowledge of the Sicilian elbow type, which has shown that the elongated catch-pl ate occurred first on this type 38 E.H Hall, Excavations in Eastern Crete (Philadelphia: University Museum, 1913), esp. 144 and 165. 39 Hencken's summary of Benton's conclusions is noted beca use Benton's publiation is inaccessible. Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse,"esp. 271. 40 Ibid 41 The views of Orsi and Buchner are noted by Hencken in, "Syracuse."

PAGE 57

57 and was then eventually transferred to the le ech type. The progression of the elongated catchplate from the Sicilian elbow type to the leech ty pe makes sense because the Sicilian elbow type appears before the leech type in time and space. To summarize, the cumulative evidence proves that the elongated catc h-plate is securely identified as an Italic innova tion. It first appeared on the Si cilian elbow ty pe during the 11th century and then gradually started to appear th roughout central and sout hern Italy and Sicily during the 8th century on the serpentine, arch, composite leech, and regular leech bow types. As for the manifestation of the elongated catch-plate in the Greek colonies, it is now clear that the western Greeks adapted the Italic composite le ech fibula to suit their tastes. They chose to display the Italic elongated catch-plate on these fibulae. The appearance of Greek style composite leech fibulae with elonga ted catch-plates at sanctuarie s in Greece reflects how the elongated catch-plate was carried east and not west. Now that the story of the elongated catch-plate has been summarized, the conversation will return to development of the fibula. It ha s been shown that the spectacle fibula, double or multiple knobbed violin bow fibula, stilted bow fibula, double or multiple knobbed arch bow fibula, and the Sicilian elbow fibula were the five types of fibulae appearing in Italy and the greater Mediterranean and Adri atic countries during the 13th through 11th centuries BC. The 10th century is not discussed much in literature concerning the devel opment of the fibula, but the 9th century is continuously referred to in relation to the a ppearance of the fibula in Italy. During the years within this century, new t ypes of fibulae appeared in centra l and southern Italy and Sicily. These types include the simple arch bow fibula, the composite leech bow fibula, and the serpentine fibula.

PAGE 58

58 The development of these three Italic types is a result of the know ledge of manufacturing and decorative techniques that the native peopl es of Italy and Sicily acquired through their exposure to the spectacle, knobbed violin, sti lted bow, knobbed arch, and elbow fibula types. This accumulation of knowledge and the subsequent appearance of the simple arch bow fibula, the composite leech bow fibula, and the serpentin e fibula indicate that by 900 BC the local Italic sequence was underway. Throughout the 8th and into the 7th centuries other, more ela borate types start to emerge such as the drago, large leech, and comb and bolt types. There are differences in materials, techniques, and decoration betw een the Early Iron Age fibulae such as the spectacle, violin, serpentine, and arch bow and those of the late 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries. The progression from fairly simple fibulae to those with more intricat e shape and decoration will be discussed more in the next chapter. Geographical Distribution Fibula Types from the 13th to 11th Centuries BC The spectacle fibula originated from the Ba lkan regions and central Europe, but it subsequently appeared in both Italy and Greece.42 Some variations of the Type I spectacle fibula (figs. 2-2a, 2-2c, 2-2e, and 2-2g) appeared in southern Europe (Fi gure A-12). Other variations of the Type I spectacle fibula (figs. 2-2b, 2-2d, 22f, and 2-2h) appeared in southern Europe, Greece, and they were scattered throughout Sicily and mainland Italy (Figure A-13). The first variant of the type I spectacle fibula (fig. 2-2a) appeared during the 10th through the middle 7th century while the next two variants (figs. 2-2b and 2-2c) appeared mostly during the 11th through 42 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibulae," esp. 7

PAGE 59

59 the 6th centuries.43 The next four variants (figs. 2-2d-g) appeared mostly during the 9th through 8th centuries.44 The first three variations of the Type II spectacle fibula (figs. 2-3a, 2-3b, and 2-3c) were scattered throughout southern Europe but rare in Italy (Figure A-14). The first variant of the type II spectacle fibula (fig. 23a) appeared du ring the mid 9th through middle 6th century while the second variant of the type II spectacle fibula (fig. 2-3b) was f ound mostly dating to before the 11th century through to the middle 6th century.45 The third variant (fig. 2-3c) was found dating to the 6th century.46 The four variations of the Type III spectacle fibula (figs. 2-4a, 2-4b, 2-4c, and 2-4d) were thinly spread along the east coast of Italy as well as in southern Europe (Figure A-15). The first variant (fig. 2-4a) dated mainly to the middle 9th through the middle 6th century while the second variant (fig. 2-4b) dated to the middle 7th through the middle 3rd centuries.47 The final variants (figs. 2-4c-d) appeared during the middle 9th through the middle 7th centuries.48 The four spiral shapes of the type IV spectacle fibula (figs. 2-5a-7d), the type V spectacle fibula, and the type VI spectacle fibula were scattered along the western coast of Italy and in Greece (Figure A-16). A couple of the variants of the type IV spectacle fibula (figs. 2-5b and 25d) were found dating to the middle of the 9th to the middle or end of the 6th century.49 The third variant of type IV (fig. 2-5c) da ted mainly to middle of the 9th through the middle 7th centuries.50 43 Ibid., esp. 8 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid. 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. 50 Ibid.

PAGE 60

60 Type V and VI spectacle fibulae were found dating from roughly 900-700 BC.51 At least one variation of all six types was pr esent in Italy by the eighth cent ury BC with the exception of the Po Valley in the North.52 The distribution of violin bow fibulae (inc luding the knobbed variations) is similar to spectacle fibulae in that they have been f ound throughout central and southern Europe, Greece, and Italy, as noted by Toms.53 Sestieris research on the meta l industry in Italy during the 13th through 11th centuries BC reflects how contacts were be ing made between the Greeks and Italic people prior to the period of colonization. Stronach suggests that taste for the violin bow was established by the 14th century in either Italy or Greece,54 but offers no evidence for why he believes it to have originated in Greece. MacNamara claims that the violin bow fibula originated in Italy,55 but like Stronach she offers no reason why she believes this to be true. The earlier part of this chapter might persuade one to believe th at the violin bow fibula did originate in Italy because of Bietti Sestieris rese arch on the Italic metal industry. The resemblance of Peschiera violin bow fi bulae of Italy and arch bow fibulae in Greece to specimens in the Protovillanovan hoards in Ital y encourage the possibility that they are most likely of Italic manufacture. At any rate, the type spread east to both C yprus and Crete, where it developed local variations.56 The violin bow has been found in Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania, 51 Ibid. 52 Ibid., esp. 7-9 53 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 95 54 David Stronach, "The Development of the Fibula in the Near East," Iraq 21 (1959): esp. 182 55 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 153. 56 Ibid., esp. 153 -154

PAGE 61

61 central Europe, and Italy where it was most abundant in the north.57 Thus, like the spectacle fibula, the violin bow and arch bow fibulae were two additional types held in common between the east and west. The elbow fibula has Sicilian or igins, includes many variations and is another type that was held in common between the East and West.58 Like the violin bow fibula, this type spread east to Cyprus by 1000 BC, and also west to Spai n and developed into th e respective Huelva and Cypriot types.59 In particular, MacNamara sees the Huel va and the Cypriot types as part of a cycle that started in Sicily, exte nded East and West to develop local variations and then returned to Italy.60 Huelva and Cypriot typologies are outside of the limits of this discussion, but they are significant in that they are reminders that the sequence of development in Italian fibulae is but one component of a much larger sequence in the development of fibulae throughout the Mediterranean during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age. The wide distribution of the Sicilian elbow type back and forth across the Mediterranean recalls the same distribution pa tterns of the spectacle and violin bow fibulae in central and southern Europe, Greece and Italy.61 MacNamara regards such wide distributions as being symptomatic of the types radiating from their resp ective locations. As with the distribution of the spectacle fibula, that of the Sicilian elbow t ype across the western and eastern Mediterranean does not necessarily reflect any direct contact between these two regions. Rather, the wide 57 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 94-95 58 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 154 -156 59 Ibid., esp. 154 -155 60 Ibid., esp. 158 61 John Alexander, "The Spectacle Fibula," esp. 10, 14, 18

PAGE 62

62 distribution of the Sicilian type may reflect an indirect dissemination, such as through travel and trade.62 In summary, between the 13th and 11th centuries the Italic fibu la was influenced by those of Greece and central and southern Europe. Italy was influencing these foreign peoples as well, and so it is important to recognize that the contacts that were being made within this period were reciprocal exchanges. This reci procity is demonstrated through the wide distributions of the spectacle, violin, and Sicilian elbow fibulae. Around the 9th century, after being left with the imprints from other cultures, a na tive tradition started to develop in Italy, which led to the simple arch bow, composite leech bow, and serpentine types.63 Fibula Types from the 9th to 7th Centuries BC The simple arch, composite leech, and serpenti ne forms were the staples of the Italic tradition during the 9th through 7th centuries. As stated above, the elongated catch-plate is securely identified as an Italic invention. It a ppeared first on the Sicilian elbow type during the 11th century, but was transferred to the simple arch, serpentine, and composite leech fibulae by the early 8th century BC.64 The composite leech bow was found at the beginning of the Early Iron Age around 900 BC in the north.65 In Greece at this time, there was no record of the serpentine or composite leech bow forms.66 Toms notes how simple arch bows were common in Greece, but they are noticeably 62 Ellen MacNamara, "Some Bronze Typologies," esp. 151 & 158 63 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 94 64 Ibid., 94 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid., 95

PAGE 63

63 different from Italic variations because the ca tch-plate often takes the form of a square or rectangle.67 Arch bows have also been found in the Balkans, but were rare in cen tral Europe until the eighth century.68 Arch bows came in two main varieties ac cording to the shape of the bows, and they were distinguished cultura lly as well as geographically.69 Semi-circular arch bows were more common in the Fossa culture areas of southe rn and central Italy. Fibu lae with lowered arch bows were common in the areas of Etruscan culture in Po Valley in the north as well as parts of Campania in southern Italy.70 Those examples from northern and southern Italy display sma ll channel catch-plates with a small to medium double coil spring, while those in the south feature larg e channel catch-plates and a single coil spring, which may have b eads attached to the thread of the bow.71 During this time, disc catch-plates first appeared on the violin bow fibula in Italy, but soon they became limited to the central region of the country.72 New and more elaborate types emerged throughout the end of the eighth century and into the beginning of the seventh cen tury. They were the small and large leech, drago, and comb and bolt types. The leech and drago types seem to have appeared throughout Italy, although elaborate examples have been unearthed especially fr om the region of Etruria, dating to the 7th though 6th centuries. In contrast to all of the types mentioned thus far in the study of the Italic fibula, the 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid., 94-95 69 Ibid., 95 70 Ibid., 95 71 Ibid. 72 Ibid.

PAGE 64

64 comb and bolt types appear to be localiz ed to the region of Etruria during the 7th and 6th centuries BC. The exact proveniences of the fibulae that have been discussed t hus far in this paper will be further commented on in chapter five. They will be considered in relation to tombs, materials, techniques, and iconography of the fibulae. In conclusion, the study of the Italic fibula is really a refl ection of different cultural groups within the Mediterranean, Adriat ic, and Aegean countries from the 13th to 7th centuries BC. The wide distribution of certain early type s of fibulae suggests that Greece, Cyprus, Crete, central and southern Europe, and Italy were in contact with each other perhaps indirectly though from an early date, which becomes increasingl y apparent during the ni nth century. A concise background on these early types has been provided in order to understand how and where the Italic tradition fits into the larger Mediterranean context. Un derstanding this context involves recognizing that the spectacle fi bula, violin bow fibula, stilte d bow fibula, double and multiple knobbed arch bow fibulae, and the Sicilian elbow type were the earliest participants in the historical development of the fibula. At this point, the conversation must take a slight detour to acknow ledge three types of fibulae that have received much attention because of the inability to identify them as either Italic or Greek in origin.

PAGE 65

65 CHAPTER 4 CONTROVERSIAL TYPES OF THE 8TH THROUGH THE 6TH CENTURIES BC Serpentine fibulae with knobs on the sides, leech fibulae with bone and amber strung on the bow, and knobbed leech fibulae have received much attention since Paolo Orsi first conducted his excavations at Syracu se in Sicily during the course of the late nine teenth century. All three types appeared not only at Syracuse, but also Pithekoussai and Cumae. Besides the Greek colonies, these types have be en unearthed at native sites in Sicily and the Italian mainland. Since they have been found at both Greek coloni es and Italic sites, archaeologists have long questioned their origin. Some thought they were Italic in origin while others believed them to be Greek. This chapter will present the locatio ns in Sicily and the mainland where knobbed serpentine fibulae, composite leech fibulae, and knobbed leech fibulae have been found. This chapter will also list the othe r objects found in the presence of these fibulae. Understanding the context in which these fibulae occur will help to determine their most probable origin. The Knobbed Serpentine Fibula Exam ples of the knobbed serpentine type have been found at Syracuse, Pithekoussai, and Cumae (see Figure A-4). In the Fusco cemetery at Syracuse, they occur in graves 326 and 308 both dating to the first half of the 7th century.1 At Pithekoussai and Cumae, they date to the second half of the 8th century.2 The knobbed serpentine type also o ccurs at the native sites of Monte Finocchito on Sicily,3 Pontecagnano in Campania at the necropolises of the Picento4 and 1 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 269. 2 Ibid., 269-270 3 D.C Steures, Monte Finocchito Revisited (Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press, 1980). Examples of the knobbed serpentine type appear th roughout the catalogue. 4 Bruno D'Agostino and Patrizia Gastaldi, Pontecagnano: II. La Necropoli del Picento: 1. Le Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro (Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orie ntale, Dipartimento del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1988).

PAGE 66

66 S. Antonio,5 Veii and Tarquinia in southern Etruria,6 Sala Consilina in Basilicata,7 and at Canale in Calabria.8 At Monte Finocchito (see Figures A-4) knobbed serpentine fibulae date to 730-650 BC, during the main phase of occupation of the site.9 At Veii and Tarqunia, they date to 900-720 BC.10 De la Geniere does not readily give dates for the examples from Sala Consilina, but instead describes the objects that have been found in graves from the same period as the knobbed serpentine fibulae. In this way, she indicates the most likely date of the knobbed serpentine fibulae by association with other grave objects. Un less one is very familiar with Early Iron Age grave objects, it is not possible to establish the exact date of the knobbed serpentine type in Basilicata. If consistent with th e appearance of this type elsewh ere in Italy, however, it is likely to date to the 8th or 7th centuries. At Canale, in Calabria in general the evidence allows de la Geniere to be a little more specific about dates. She offers a date of around 700 BC for the appearance of the knobbe d serpentine type.11 Hencken suggested that knobbed serpentine fibu lae might be Greek adaptations of local Italic serpentine fibulae because they were being worn by the Greeks at Pithekoussai as early as 5 Serenella De Natale, Pontecagnano: II, La Necropoli di S. Antonio-Propr. ECI (Napoli: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi del Mondo Classico e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992). 6 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender in Early iron Age Etruria," Italian Archaeology (1998): esp. 167. 7 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," in Italy before the Romans (New York: Academic Press, 1979), esp. 82 8 Ibid., 85 9 Robert Leighton, Sicily before History (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999), esp. 242. 10 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 157 11 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 85

PAGE 67

67 the peoples of Italy were wearing them.12 Just because they were being worn by the Greeks in Italy as early as the Italic people does not prove that they are Greek adaptations of the Italic serpentine fibula, however. There is a lack of literature discussing knobbed serpentine fibulae in native Italic contexts, except for Monte Finocchito. Though the l ack of evidence certainly does not help to clarify the issue, it is unreasonable to conclude that the occurrence of these fibulae at the Greek colonies of Pithekoussai, Syracuse, and Cu mae reflects the Greeks modifying the Italic serpentine type. They appeared with other fibulae of Italic origin at Monte Finocchito, such as serpentine bow fibulae, leech bow fibulae, and w ith other indigenous jewelry such as chains, beads, bronze and iron rings,13 which encourages the idea that they are Italic.14 This occurrence coupled with the absence of the Greek dress pin15 at Monte Finocchito su pports the conclusion that knobbed serpentine fibulae are Italic in origin. As at Monte Finocchito, the knobbe d serpentine type was found in the presence of other fibulae of Italic origin at Pontecagnano, Veii at the Quattro Fontanili cemetery, Tarquinia, and Sala Consilina. At Pontecagnano these types in clude the simple arch bow fibula with elongated catch-plate, the foliated fibula, the serpentine fo rm, the composite leech bow, and the solid leech form.16 Hodos acknowledges the ample collection of Italic fibulae present at Pontecagnano, Veii, 12 Hencken declares that the Greeks were wearing them just as early as the native Italic peoples, but he doess not make reference to the sites he is referring to. Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270. 13 Ibid. 14 Robert Leighton, Sicily before History esp. 242. 15 Ibid. 16 All of these types appear in the catalogues by D'Agostino and De Natale.

PAGE 68

68 and Tarquinia.17 He sites the serpentine fibula, Italic composite leech bow fibula, and the solid leech bow fibula among the types present at the sout hern Etruscan sites of Veii and Tarquinia. In addition to these later types, Close-Brooks and Ridgway document the appearance of the simple arch bow fibula at Veii,18 but it seems to have been present at Tarquinia as well.19 At Sala Consilina, the knobbed serpentine type is found alongside the simple arch bow, the leaf fibula, and the Ita lic composite leech bow fibula.20 At Canale the situation is similar to the other sites already mentioned, which means th at the knobbed serpentine type has been found in the presence of other Italic fibulae such as the four-spiral spectacle, the serpentine, and the leech types.21 The evidence from Monte Finocchito, Ponteca gnano, Veii, Tarquinia, Sala Consilina, and Canale on the knobbed serpentine type reaffirms that a tradition alre ady been old in Italy. It is clear from the examples of violin, stilte d, and arch bow fibulae of the Peschiera and Protovillanovan periods in Italy that the Italic people had a f ondness for decorating the bow with knobs. The knobs on the serpentine type are more th ree-dimensional and they project from the sides of the bow in a different way from the knobs on the violin and arch bow fibulae of the Peschiera period. Even though the k nobs on the serpentine type are more exaggerated than those on the violin and arch bow examples from the Peschiera period, it does not seem unreasonable 17 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies," Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (1999): esp. 6364. 18 Joanna Close-Brooks and David Ridgway, "Veii in the Iron Age," in Italy before the Romans (New York: Academic Press, 1979), esp. 102 19 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 167 20 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 82 21 de la Geniere does not focus much on Canlae in her article, but she does make note of the types of Italic fibulae that have been unearthed at this site.

PAGE 69

69 that, during the Early Iron Age a nd well into the seventh century BC, the Italic people would have continued the tradition of decorating the bow with knobs on th e serpentine fibula. The Composite Leech Bow Fibula This type has been briefly introduced above while explaining the origins of the elongated catch -plate. It is accepted that the tradition of de corating the bow of leech fibulae with rings or segments of bone and amber was a true Italic on e. However certain examples of composite leech fibulae had received special atte ntion in the past by archaeologists because the elements decorating the bow were in a different style comp ared to those traditionally worn by the Italic people. These differences in style raised questions regarding their origin. Orsi seems to be the first archaeologist to have recognized in the early 20th century that there were composite leech fibulae in existence in Italy that did not rese mble true Italic com posite leech fibulae. He speculated on the origin of the composite leech fibulae in the diffe rent style, but his account was quite brief and he did not consider al l of the available evidence when drawing his conclusions on their origin. Later in the middle to late 20th century, the question of the origin of composite leech fibulae in the alternative style once again resurfaced because more research had been conducted on them since the time Orsi wrote his article. This new research resulted in the classification of two types of composite leech fibulae in the alternat ive style, which were distinguished from true Ital ic ones by J.M. Stubbings. In order to make conclusions regarding the most likely origin of the composite leech fibulae in the alternative style, it is necessary to contrast them to traditional Italic composite leech fibulae. In general, true Italic composite leech fibulae have discs of amber, bronze, and/or bone strung along the bow that may be thick in nature and evenly spac ed (see Figure A-8).22 22 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 93-94.

PAGE 70

70 Examples of these fibulae have surfaced fr om Veii and Tarquinia in southern Etruria23 and from tombs 3214, 3248, 3266, 3276, and 3280 at Pontecagnano in Campania.24 Compared to traditional Italic fibulae, thos e described by Orsi and Stubbings as being different had a single piece of amber placed in between two pieces of bone. Stubbings acknowledges that there are two variations of com posite leech fibulae with lengthened bone segments.25 In both types, the center of the bow is d ecorated with an amber bead or a piece of ivory inlaid with amber and they both have elong ated catch-plates. The only difference between them is that one has longer bone segments than the other.26 This variant has been referred to as the trapezium form by Stubbings because of the le ngthened bone segments. The Greek styles are different from the discs of bone and amber that often times are placed close together on the bow of Italic composite leech fibulae. The composite leech fibulae in the alternative style were found mostly in the Greek colonies of Syracuse (Figure A-17), Cumae (Figure A-18), and Pithekoussai (Figure A-19). Hencken notes that at the cemetery of Fusco at Syracuse the most co mmon design was a single piece of amber or bone placed in between two pieces of bone as seen in figure 51.27 Syracuse seems to have provided the most adequate exam ples of composite leech fibulae in the Greek 23 Judith Toms, "The Construction of Gender," esp. 170 24 Examples of composite arch bow and leech bow fibu lae appear in the catalogue. Serenella De Natale, Pontecagnano II. La Necropoli di S. Antonio: Propr. ECI 2. Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro (Napoli: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di studi del mondo e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992). Examples of composite arch bow and leech bow fibul ae appear in the catalogue. 25 J.M Stubbings, "Bow Fibulae," esp. 439. 26 Stubbings does not provide any illustra tions of the composite leech fibula that has the longer bone segments. Similarly to the case with the boat an d leech fibulae, the stylistic differences between the two variations of the composite leech fibulae are noted, but the differences in the length of the bo ne segemnts may be barely noticeable. Perhaps this is why Stubbings did not feel it was necessary to include and illustration, but he did not ignore the fact that he had seen composite leech fibulae with bone segmen ts of differing lengths by stating this in his article. 27 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 270.

PAGE 71

71 style. They exhibit a distinctly different com position of bone and amber from Italic composite leech fibulae.28 In many of the examples from Pithekou ssai the two pieces of bone are long and cylindrical in contrast to the discs that charact erize Italic composite fibulae. An example of a Greek composite leech fibula has been unearthed fr om tomb 272 (see Figure A-19) on Ischia that looks similar to the ones from Syracuse. In cont rast to the Greek composite leech fibula from tomb 272, the Italic one from tomb 599 (Figure A-20) on Pithekoussai resembles the same type from native sites such as Veii and Pontecagnano. It is in k eeping with the Italic tradition in that it has discs of amber and bone strung evenly along th e length of the bow instead of the lengthened bone segments that characterize the Greek composite leech fibula. Examples of fibulae of Italic type have also come from Cumae (Figure A-21) and (Figur e 4-1). Comparing the Italic composite leech fibulae from tomb 653 on Pithek oussai to the Greek example from tomb 272 on Pithekoussai reveals the differences in style betw een Greek adaptations of Italic composite leech fibulae and actual Italic composite leech fibulae. Greek composite leech fibulae have also been found at other Greek colonies in southern Italy, but this type was not exclusive to the Gree k colonies since it has also been discovered at indigenous sites in southern Italy and Campania That the Greek composite leech bow fibula has been found at both Greek and Italic sites in so uthern Italy, was affirmed by Orsi and later reaffirmed by Guzzo.29 28 Pier Giovanni Guzzo, "Ipotesti Interpretativa su due Tipi di Fibula con Arco Ricoperto," Aparchai; Nuove Ricerche e Studi sulla Magna Grecia e la Sicilia Antica in Onore di Paolo Orsi 1 (1982): esp. 55. 29 P.G. Guzzo describes the composite leech fibula found in each region of Italy and Sicily. He provides the material, dimensions, and date (if possible) of manufacture of these fibulae. Like Orsi, he associates this type with the colonizing Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily.

PAGE 72

72 Orsi listed all of the sites in Calabria and Campania that had produced examples of Greek composite leech fibulae. In his study, he concentr ated on ones that were in iron with an elongated catch-plate. In Sicily, the sites include such sites as Centuripe, Grammichele, Licodia.30 In southern Italy, they include Locri, Canne to, Taranto, and the necropolises of Piceno.31 In his declaration he acknowledged the widespread use of the composite leech type among the indigenous cultures of Sicily and southern Italy and the almost co mplete absence of them from the Greek colonies of Me gara Hyblaea and Gela. Orsi saw the widespread appearance of th e Greek composite leech fibula in iron among the native sites of Sicily and southern Italy as a reflection of Greek cultural superiority.32 He theorized that the Greek colonists were making these fibulae solely for the purpose of exporting them to the Italic people. Alt hough it is hard to believe, he must have overlooked the appearance of this type at Syracuse, which disputes his view. The presence of composite leech fibulae at Pithekoussai, Cumae, and the Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily reinforces the fact that these fibulae were not being made simply to be exported. Orsi did not have the knowledge of the finds from Pithekoussai and Cumae at the time he wrote his article, but the evidence from Syracuse, the Greek sites in southern Italy, and the Greek sites in Sicily should have prompted him to question his exportation theory. The presence of Greek composite leech fibulae at nativ e sites in southern Italy and Sicily is most likely a result of dissemination of ideas or tr ade between the Greeks and the native peoples. 30 Paolo Orsi, "Contributi alla storia della fibula greca," Opuscula Archaeologica Oscari Montello, Septuagenario, dicta d. ix m. sept. MCMXII (1913): esp. 201. 31 Ibid. 32 He insinuates that the main reason these fibulae were being produced by the Greek colonists in Italy was for export to the native Italic people. He did not realize that the Greeks had actually adopted and adapted the Italic composite leech type to suit their tastes. His view is severely outdated and typifies the time period in which he wrote his article.

PAGE 73

73 Lyons contradicts Orsi in sa ying that there are numerous instances of this type at Megara Hyblaea.33 There is some discrepancy in the fi ndings from Megara Hyblaea, but it is probable that Orsi did not have all of the ava ilable evidence at his dis posal to make a fair assessment of the findings from Megara Hybl aea regarding fibulae. Based on Lyons account it does not seem as if there was an absence of this type at Megara Hyblaea. There may or may not have been an absence of Greek composite leech fi bulae at Gela, but at present there is no way to tell whether or not the Gelo ans were using this type. Regardless of whether or not this type was being used at Gela, it was certainly being employed to secure garments in the communities of Syracuse and Pithekoussai. The presence of Greek composite leech fibulae at sanctuaries in Gr eece reflects the other way that this type was employed by the western Greeks, which was for dedication It has been shown that the Greek composite leech fibula has been found not only in the Greek colonies, but also the native sites and Italic fibula types have b een found in the Greek colonies. Italic Fibulae at Syracuse, Pithekoussai and Cumae As in the case of the knobbed serpentine t ype, com posite leech fibulae at Pithekoussai and Cumae were found in the presence of Ital ic fibulae. The archaeological community has recognized the close correspondence of fibula types of these two Greek colonies in particular to native sites in Campania and Etruria. Coldstream iterates, Right from the beginning, the Greek colonists of Pithekoussai and Cumae used non-Greek, indigenous, personal ornaments, especially fibulae.34 The Fusco cemetery at Syracuse did not contain as many indigenous fibula types as Pithekoussai and Cumae, a point that rela tes to the social milieu of the colony. The types 33 Claire Lyons, The Archaic Cemeteries ed. Bell, Malcolm and Christopher Moss, vol. 5 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), esp. 97. 34 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages at the Frontiers of the Early Greek World," Oxford Journal of Archaeology 12.1 (1993): esp. 91.

PAGE 74

74 that are present at Syracuse include mostly sma ll and large leech fibulae, serpentine fibulae with knobs on the sides, and knobbed leech fibulae.35 The knobbed leech fibula will be discussed below. The variety of Italic fibulae at Pithekoussai includes the simple arch, serpentine, small and large leech, composite leech, and drago types. Hodos recognizes that the types recovered from the tombs at Cumae are similar to those fr om Pithekoussai, and they include the simple arch bow, the ringed arch bow, the serpentine form, the leech fibula, and the drago type.36 Two types appear at Cumae that were not present at Pithekoussai and Syracuse. They are the comb and bolt fibulae. Though not known to have appear ed in other Greek colonies excluding Cumae, they have been unearthed from gr aves in Etruria dating to the 7th and 6th centuries. The reasons why the comb and bolt types were only present at the Greek colony of Cumae, but had been present in Etruscan graves, will be further explored in the final chapter. The Knobbed Leech Fibula The third ty pe of fibula that has received at tention in the past decades because of its questionable origins is the knobbed leech bow (F igure A-5), (Figure A6), and (Figure A-7). Like the knobbed serpentine fibula and the composite leech fibula in the Greek style, this type has appeared in both Italic and Greek sites in Italy. Examples have survived from Syracuse, Pithekoussai, and Cumae. The type has provenan ces at the native sites of Monte Finocchito, Veii, Pontecagnano, Tarqunia, and Sala Consilina.37 It is difficult to distinguish the origin of this type because not much literature has been produced on it. Hencken did make note of it in his 35 A brief perusal of the catalogue and the text by Hencke n reveals that these are the most prevalent types at Syracuse. 36 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarraige," esp. 63. 37 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 69-70.

PAGE 75

75 article while discussing the possi ble origin and date of the knobbed serpentine and the Greek composite leech fibula. It seems quite natural th at like the serpentine type with knobs, the leech type might have developed to display knobs as we ll. In this case, the appearance of the leech type with knobs would be in keeping with th e tradition of decorating the bow with knobs, which was first seen in Italy long before the 8th century. Summary To recapitulate, th e knobbed serpentine and knobbed leech bows do seem to derive from the Italic sequence. The appearance of these t ypes at Monte Finocchito an d Veii along with other Italic fibulae demonstrates that they are most lik ely native to Italy. Their appearance in the Greek colonies of Pithekoussai and Cumae suggests that like the simple arch, serpentine, leech, and drago fibulae, they must have been adopted and worn by the peoples in both of these colonies. These fibulae may have been imported from the ma inland since they have such close parallels in certain Italic sites. Or, they could have possibly been produced at Pithekoussai since there is evidence that a metal working quarter existed on this island in antiquity.38 That the collection of fibulae at Pithekoussai and Cumae find exact parall els in the contemporary tombs of Etruria is evidenced by comparing the repertoire of fibulae at Veii with Pithekoussai and Cumae.39 The one type that does seem to be Greek inspired from the native tradition is the composite leech fibula in the Greek style. Afte r comparing the placement and style of the bone and amber segments of composite leech fibulae f ound in the Greek colonies to that of those traditionally worn by the native Italic peoples, we conclude that the Greeks were influenced by the Italic tradition. The examination of the finds from Syracuse, Pithekoussai, and key 38 David Ridgway, The First Western Greeks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), esp. 93-100. 39 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages," esp. 91.

PAGE 76

76 indigenous sites leads to a conc lusion that had gone unrecogn ized by many archaeologists for some time. This conclusion is that the Greeks were responsible for fashioning composite leech fibulae at Syracuse and Pithekoussai that were ba sed upon the Italic composite leech type, but in their own style. They adopted the Italic tradition of deco rating the bow with bone and amber segments, but made it their own by fashioning bone segments instead of discs and carefully articulating the position of the amber and/or bone with amber in lay as the center piece. Even Blinkenberg acknowledged that the types he designated as IX and X, which were found in Greece, had originated in Italy (Figure A-22).40 The addition of amber and bone in the style as they appear at Syracuse and Pithekoussai is the Greek contribu tion. The elongated catch-plate, which had been thought for some time by certain members of the archaeological community to be a Greek contribution, is not. It is noted that once the Greek s start producing Italic type fibulae at Pithekousaai they add special features. For example, a lowered a nd angular bow with lengthened bone segments has been found on composite leech bow fibulae at Pithekoussai and at Roggiano-Prunetta in Calabria.41 Even though there are differences in styl e between Greek colonial composite leech fibulae and true Italic ones, at first glance, it would seem as if they were simply borrowing and imitating what they had seen the Italic people fa sten their garments with. However, upon closer inspection, this situation reflect s a larger sociological phenomenon that has two aspects. The first aspect concerns the reason why th e Greeks chose to borrow from the Italic tradition in the first place instead of producing fi bulae at Pithekoussai that they were accustomed 40 Christian Blinkenberg, Lindiaka V Fibules Grecques et Orientales (Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred. Host & Son, 1926), esp. 197-199 41 Pier Giovanni Guzzo, "Ipotesi," esp. 56.

PAGE 77

77 to wearing in Greece. The second one speaks to the reason why the western Greeks were trying to differentiate themselves from the natives by producing Italic looki ng fibulae, but making it their own by changing the style. These two aspect s of relations between the Greeks and the Italic people at Pithekoussai, in particular, will be di scussed in more detail in the final chapter. On the other hand Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela, have not yielded the same evidence that Pithekoussai has in terms of fibulae and their supposed use. Out of three Sicilian colonies, Syracuse has provide d the most amount of informat ion. The differences in the prevalence and deposition locations of Greek imitations of Ital ic fibulae at Pithekoussai and Syracuse will be compared in the last chapter. Megara Hyblaea and Gela do not provide as much information on fibulae as Syracuse does. However, the funerary practices of these three colonies reveal an important aspect of their relationship. This relationship and th e implications it had at home in Greece will also be examined in the final chapter.

PAGE 78

78 Figure 4-1. A serpentine fibula from Cumae. (Source in public domain) Gabrici, E. "Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). Catalogue figure 3 2:3.

PAGE 79

79 CHAPTER 5 PROVENIENCE, MATERIALS, TECHNIQUES, AND ICONOGRAPHY The body of this ch apter will expound upon the hi storical reconstruction of the previous chapter by examining the chronolog ical evolution of the fibula in Italy from the years around 900 BC through the 6th century BC in relation to materials, techniques, and iconography. An attempt has been made below to compile a wide asso rtment of information and make connections between information contained in various source s. Since the information concerning each of these criteria is scattered across disparate sources, no clear outline is available concerning the relationship between material, techniques, and iconography of fibulae dating to the 9th through the 7th centuries BC. Despite the lack of specific r econstructions, a general idea regarding the time periods and the corresponding characteristics of fibulae within those periods can be gleaned from the cumulative research on the Italic fibul a. The survey below seeks to illuminate the relationship between fibulae dating to the 9th through the 7th centuries and the respective characteristics of each. Sites Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sicily, Southern Italy, and Campania: The Indigenous Sites The native s ites of Pantalica, Dessueri, Carc arella, and Cassible in Sicily yield common types of Early Iron Age fibulae, which include the simple arch, the elbow, and the serpentine form.1 Grave goods associated with these types incl ude rings, buttons, and small tools such as knives, spearheads, and razors.2 As in Sicily, the southern Ital ian regions of Apulia, Basilicata, 1 Robert Leighton, Sicily esp. 200-201. 2 Ibid., 200

PAGE 80

80 and Calabria have yielded similar types of fibulae including the simple ar ch and serpentine types during the 9th -8th centuries.3 De la Geniere also identifies the spectacle fibul a, the simple arch fibula with symmetrical channel catch-plate, the leaf fibula with, and later without, the disc-f oot, the composite leech bow fibula, the triple coil serpentine fibula, and the double-coil spect acle fibula as the types known to exist in southern Italian graves.4 The serpentine fibula may have a symmetrical channel or a disc catch-plate as noted by de la Genier e. The elongated channel catch-plate appears in Sicily as early as the 11th century BC, but in southern Italy the evidence suggests that it does not occur until sometime in the Early Iron Age, wh ich would be 900-720 BC. The elongated channel catch-plate appears on the knobbed serpentine type at Sala Consilina and at Torre Mordillo during these years.5 More information on early fibula types is availa ble from Calabria, and in particular from the native sites of Torre Mordillo, Francavi lla Marittima, and Torre Galli during the ninth through the eighth centuries BC (F igure 5-1). The spectacle, serp entine, Sicilian elbow, and leech types appear at Torre Mordillo, but the spec tacle seems to be less common than the Sicilian elbow form.6 Eventually, the serpentine form with an el ongated channel catch-pl ate starts to take shape by 725 BC, and it gradually supers edes the older Sicilian elbow model.7 The four-spiral spectacle fibula with and wit hout the lozenge-shaped plaque in the center, the Sicilian elbow type, the si mple arch bow fibula, and the composite leech bow fibula have 3 Juliette de la Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 78-85 4 Ibid., 79-85 5 Ibid., 82 and 85 6 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria in the Nint h and Eighth Centuries BC" (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1977), esp. 37-42 7 Ibid., 41

PAGE 81

81 been unearthed at Francavilla Marittima and Torre Galli.8 At Francavilla Marittima the fourspiral form with the lozenge-shaped plaque in the center and Sicilian elbow forms date no later than the first half of the eighth century.9 The majority of examples of the arch fibula display the long channel catch-plate. Bone and amber segments may rest on the bow of the composite leech bow fibula.10 At Torre Galli, located on the western coast of Calabria, the Sicilian elbow fibula and the simple arch bow fibula are the predominant forms from this area with the former dating as early as the ninth century.11 Many of the arch fibulae display th e symmetrical channel catch-plate.12 While the listing of fibula types from this site is quite brief, it nonetheless reinforces which types of fibulae were in use during the Early Iron Age no t just in Calabria, but elsewhere in southern Italy and in Sicily. In Campania on the Tyrrhenian side of Italy, Moser categorizes the finds from each of the significant sites into distinct phases based upon the appearance of other archaeological artifacts. Her method of dating is similar to that of de la Geniere, which makes it difficult for one who is not an archaeologist to get an idea of the exac t time periods of the phases that she divides her evidence into. One Early Iron Age site in Campania is Capua (see Figure 5-2) which displays examples of early types similar to those of Calabria a nd Basilicata. These include the arch, serpentine, 8 Ibid., 132-148 9 Ibid., 148-151 10 Ibid., 151 11 Ibid., 189 12 Ibid.

PAGE 82

82 leech, four-spiral specta cle, and drago fibulae.13 The arch and serpentine types emerge before the leech and drago types.14 The four-spiral spectacle type makes its debut after the arch, serpentine, leech, and drago types are already present.15 The short symmetrical channel, small spiral disc, and small solid disc catch-plates appear earlier than the elongat ed catch-plate at this site.16 The elongated channel catch-plate emer ges first on the simple arch bow fibula with discs on the bow as noted by Moser. Finds attributed to Pontecagnano (see Figure 5-2), another site in Campania that Moser studied, include the simple arch bow, serpen tine, knobbed serpentine, simple leech, knobbed leech, Italic composite leech, and four-spiral spectacle fibulae. Similar to the situation in Capua, the arch and serpentine shapes with a spiral or solid disc catch-plate appear before the leech and four-spiral types as explained by Moser. The catch-plates on these types may also be in the form of a short or medium length channel.17 The long channel catch-plat e materializes earlier at Pontecagnano than at Capua, and it is found only on the leech form as observed by Moser. A third site, which showcases the same type of fibula forms as ot her sites previously mentioned in southern Italy and Campania is Sala Consilina (see Figure 5-2). This site, in particular, has gained a reputation for keeping a representative samp le of standard eighth century forms. On this list are the arch, serpentine, knobbed serpentine, simple leech, knobbed leech, Italic composite leech, foliated, drago, and four-spiral spectacle fibulae types.18 The catch-plate 13 Mary Elizabeth Moser, "The "Southern Villanovan" Culture of Campania" (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1982), esp. 31-94 14 Ibid., esp. 75 15 Ibid., 90 16 Ibid., 14-47 17 Ibid., 151-155 18 Ibid., 279-408

PAGE 83

83 on the arch bow and serpentine forms may be a short or medium-length channel as noted by Moser. If the catch-plate is not a channel, then Moser states that it may be a spiral or solid disc. Like Capua, Pontecagnano, and Sala Consilina, th e foliated, drago, and four-spiral spectacle fibula types emerge after the arch and serpentine fibulae. The catch-pla tes on foliated, drago, and four-spiral types may be an elonga ted or short symmetrical channel.19 At Sala Consilina, the leech form is strongly associated with the long channel foot.20 Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries In southern Etruria, some of the same type s of fibulae that have been unearthed from southern Italy have been discove red at the sites of Veii and Ta rquinia (Figure 5-3). During the years 900-720 BC, the simple arch, Italic com posite leech, simple leech, serpentine, drago, knobbed serpentine, and knobbed leech fi bulae emerge at these two sites.21 At Tarquinia, just northwest of Veii, the fibulae types find parallels to those of Veii.22 Hodos also notes how the assemblages at other It alic sites, such as Caere and Pontecagnano, are similar to those of Veii and Tarqui nia. Thus, it is fair to concl ude that the finds from Veii and Tarquinia complement not only each other, but they also seem to augment the finds from Sicily and southern Italy in regard to the types of fibulae present. Although the typology of fibulae in Etruria is similar to that of southern Ital y and Sicily during the Early Iron Age, by the 7th century changes are definitely under way. 19 Ibid., 365-377 20 Ibid., 472-478 21 Joanna Close-Brooks, "Veii in the Iron Age," esp. 102 22 Tamar Hodos, "Interrmarriage," esp. 63

PAGE 84

84 The Greek Colonies in the Ei ghth and Seventh Centuries Som e Greek colonies in Italy, namely Pith ekoussai, Cumae, and Syracuse are equipped with Italic types dating to the first half of the 8th century. At Pithekoussai, the types include the simple arch bow, the serpentine, knobbed serpenti ne, solid leech, Italic composite leech, Greek composite leech, knobbed leech, and drago types.23 Cumae is situated on the coast of Campania opposite Pithekoussai. As in the similarity betw een the fibulae of Veii and Tarqunia, Cumae has a similar assemblage of fibulae co mpared to that of Pithekoussai.24 Cumae was excavated in the early 20th century by two different archaeologists. Pellegrini, the first one, was responsible for excavating th e Fondo Artiaco tomb in 1903 and bringing to light its luxurious contents.25 The Fondo Artiaco tomb and its c ontents will be discussed shortly in relation to the foundation of Cumae in the next chapetr of this thesis. Cumae was excavated again in 1913 by Stevens and the fibulae were published by Gabrici. The fibulae published by Gabrici are very similar to thos e found at native Italic sites.26 As noted in chapter four, the assemblages of both Cumae and Pithekoussai are si milar to those from Italic sites. The fibula types that appear at Syracuse find parallels to the types at Pi thekoussai. The types present at Syracuse include the knobbed serpentine, the knobbed leech, the solid leech, and the Greek composite leech forms.27 Although Shepherd states that the type s at Syracuse are similar to those at Pithekoussai, the simple ar ch, drago, and spectacle fibulae type s do not seem to have been popular. Most of the eighty fibulae discovered at Syracuse were excavated by Paolo Orsi in 23 Giorgio Buchner and David Ridgway, Pithekoussai I (Rome: Bretschneider, 1993) 24 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 63 25 G. Pellegrini, "Tombe greche archaiche e tomba greco-sannitica a tholos della necropoli di Cuma," Monumenti Antichi 13 (1903). 26 E. Gabrici, "Cuma," Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). 27 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 278

PAGE 85

85 1895.28 Of the eighty examples, 36 were of the Greek composite leech type. Shepherd notes how the Greek composite leech fibula is the most comm on at Syracuse, and this is evident from the graves described by Hencken. Hencken based hi s article and the accompanying illustrations on the excavations by Orsi.29 Etruria and Latium in the Seventh Century Tom b contents from the period of 725-575 BC ha ve been surveyed by Winthur from sites such as Tarquinia, Rome, Vetulonia, Marsil iana, Praeneste, Veii, Caere, and Populonia (see Figure 5-3).30 The following items are included in this assortment: elaborate fibulae, warriors equipment, metal vases, faience objects (a lthough somewhat scarce), and ivory items.31 The contents from Vetulonia, Marsiliana, and Caer e, and will be looked at more closely for the examples they provide in work executed in luxur ious materials and for th e utilization of the new techniques of filigree and granulation. Two leech fibulae come from the tomb of the Lictor (dated 625 BC) at Vetulonia in northern Etruria (Figure A-23).32 At Marsiliana during the ye ars 675-650 BC there are a number of drago fibulae.33 Besides the leech and drago types, tw o new fibula forms appear during this period in Etruria, and they are th e comb and bolt types. An exampl e of the comb type appears at 28 Paolo Orsi, "Gli Scavi nella Necropoli fel Fusco a Si racusa nel Giugno, Novembre e Dicembre del 1893," Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita (1895). 29 Hencken neatly summarizes the results from Orsi's excavations in his article published in 1958. He includes the tomb number, the metal contents, their material, and the date if possible. This summarization is extremely helpful compared to trying to sift through the 100 some-odd pages in NSc 30 Caroline Winthur, "Princely Tombs of the Orientalizing Period in Etruria and Latium Vetus," Acta Hyperborea 7 (1997): esp. 434-441. 31 Ibid., 435-441 32 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans and Early Etruscans (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924), esp. 29 33 Ibid., 187-192

PAGE 86

86 Marsiliana.34 Like other types of fibulae, they were used to fasten garments on the shoulder, but they work in a different manner from the usual pin and catch-plate method of all of the other types from the Italic sequence. These types were first de scribed in the early 20th century in an Italian journal and then later in the century by Strom. Th ese accounts explain how both of these fibulae are fastened to garments, but is very difficult to understand. Strom focuses more on the plastic decoration on comb and bolt examples, but less on how they might have been worn. The presence of more than one comb and bolt fibula in the specific tombs in Et ruria implies that that they must have been intended as jewelry for tomb deposition rather than practical use sin ce it would have been extremely awkward to wear all of th em at the same time while alive.35 The presence of the comb and bolt fibulae from Marsiliana and Praeneste (a s one is known from the Bernardini tomb) serve to reflect the surge of wealth that Etruria is experiencing during the 7th century. The finds from the Regolini Galassi tomb (dated 650-625 BC) at Caere augment those from Vetulonia and Marsiliana. Many items in luxur ious materials have been unearthed from this tomb, including a pectoral, bracelets, an extraord inary large foliated fibula (Figure A24), and a number of leech fibulae.36 The inventory of this tomb is extensive, but other items are known including domestic utensils such as cups and a bed as noted by Randall-MacIver. The Bernardini tomb (dated 675 BC) and th e Barberini tomb (dated 650 BC), both from Praeneste, serve to demonstrate further the use of luxurious materials and new techniques. A drago fibula and a comb fibula have been found in the Bernar dini tomb (Figure A-25) and 34 Ingrid Strom, Problems esp. 140-72. 35 Ingrid Strom, Problems esp. 101. 36 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 195-208.

PAGE 87

87 (Figure A-26).37 In addition to these pieces, a plaque, a serpentine fibula, bowls, and a dagger and sheath are also included on the extensiv e list of objects discovered in this tomb.38A few comb clasps come from the Barberini tomb as we ll as three serpentine fibulae, cups, figurines, and masks.39 Materials Ninth and Eighth Centuries in Sic ily, Southern Italy, and Campania Even though the 9th century traditionally marks the ri se of the Early Iron Age, bronze working was still in existence for jewelry and other items. This is true of certain sites on Sicily, and in southern and central Italy. For example, t ypes of fibulae from the native sites of Pantalica, Dessueri, Carcarella, and Cassible on Sicily are of bronze.40 Although scholars agree that there are early objects in iron from Sicily,41 it is not until the period from about 730-650 BC that iron starts to figure prominently in the production of fibulae.42 Iron examples of the simple arch, serpentin e, and spectacle fibula types were slowly being introduced in southern It aly in the regions of Apulia, Ba silicata, and Calabria during the 9th-8th centuries B.C.43 De la Geniere notices that the serp entine type occurs alongside bronze and iron weapons, such as spearheads and razors. 37 Ibid,, esp. 217 38 Ibid., esp. 262 39 Ibid., esp. 267 40 Robert Leighton, Sicily esp. 200 41 MacNamara and Sestieri both cite the early finds from Sicily, which include the Sicilian elbow fibula in bronze since iron examples do not come about until the middle of the eighth century. 42 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria" (PhD diss.), esp. 217. 43 Juliette de La Geniere, "The Iron Age in Southern Italy," esp. 78-85

PAGE 88

88 The spectacle fibula is found more frequently in bronze than in ir on at Torre Mordillo, although the studs in a bronze fibul a, which hold the arms of the fibula together, may be in iron.44 Whereas the spectacle form occurs largely in br onze at this site, the Sicilian elbow fibula is mostly present in iron, and Gualtieri notes that this holds true for other sites in Calabria besides Torre Mordillo.45 The serpentine fibula may be in bronze or iron and specimens of both materials may occur in the same tomb as observed by Gu altieri. The associa tion of bronze and iron serpentine forms in the same tomb suggests that the appeal of bronze di d not wane during this period, even in the presence of iron.46 At Francavilla Marittima, the four-spiral sp ectacle fibula that has a lozenge shaped plaque in the center appears mo stly in bronze, although the rivets and the bow may be in iron.47 This type dates no later than the first half of the ei ghth century here.48 The Sicilian elbow type is usually in iron.49 Bronze is the chief material of the arch fibula, and at this site the majority of examples have the long channel foot. Bone and amber segments may rest on the bow.50 The arch fibula at Torre Galli occurs chiefly in bron ze, and many examples display the symmetrical channel foot.51 44 Maurizio Gualtieri, "Iron in Calabria" (PhD diss.), esp. 39. 45 Ibid., 40 46 Ibid., 46 47 Ibid., esp. 148-149 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid., esp. 151 50 Ibid. 51 Ibid., 189

PAGE 89

89 Iron leech forms appear at Capua during the eighth century.52 The simple arch fibula, the serpentine, the knobbed serpentine, the simple leech, the knobbed leech, the Italic composite leech fibula, and the four-spiral spectacle types have been discovered in bronze at Pontecagnano.53 The only form found regularly in ir on at Pontecagnano is the serpentine.54 At Sala Consilina, the arch, serpentine, knobbed serpentine, leech, knobbed leech, foliated, drago, and four-spiral spectacle types of fibulae all come in bronze.55 However, as seen in the previous sites, the Sicilian elbow type continues to remain popular in iron at Sala Consilina as well,56 and objects in amber and gold exist but not in the same number as bronze and iron objects.57 Etruria and Latium in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries The serpentine for m at Veii may be in bronze or iron.58 Hartmann recognizes that fibulae are common iron objects during th e period 900-760 BC, mostly of the serpentine form, but that far more examples of bronze than iron serpentine fibulae have been unearthed.59 Interestingly, the number of both iron and bronze fibulae decr eases between 760-720 BC, but their ratio does not change significantly during these years.60 52 Mary Moser, "The "Southern Villano van" Culture" (PhD diss.), esp. 94 53 Ibid., esp. 151-242 54 Ibid., esp. 475 55 Ibid., esp. 279-408 56 Ibid., esp. 279-307. 57 Ibid., esp. 391 58 Nicholas Hartmann, "Iron-Working in Southern Etruria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries BC" (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philade lphia, PA, 1982), esp. 18-24. 59 Ibid., esp. 55 60 Ibid.

PAGE 90

90 The disc catch-plate and other decorative el ements such as crystal knobs and gold tubes eventually materialize at Tarquinia.61 Similarly to Veii, the serpentine fibula is far more numerous in the earliest pha se at Tarquinia than othe r classes of objects in iron,62 and bronze examples of the serpentine type are far mo re common than the iron ones. Hartmann also observes that in the later phase s at Tarquinia, fibulae are less common than other classes of objects, although the ratio be tween iron and bronze types remains roughly the same. In addition to iron, by the middle of the 8th century at Veii and by the end of the 8th century at Tarquinia, tombs c ontain precious and exotic mate rials, such as gold, amber, faience, and glass.63 The social aspects of iron production during this time and its association with these new materials and the wealthy Etruscan class will be further explored in the final chapter. The Greek Colonies in the Ei ghth and Seventh Centuries At Syracuse, the serpentine, knobbed serp entine, leech, knobbed leech, and Greek composite leech types date to the 7th century.64 Many of them are in bronze, while iron is preferred for the Greek composite leech type,65 as noted by Shepherd.66 While bronze and iron are still in use at Syracuse by the 7th century, amber and ivory appear at this site, which has been observed by Orsi, Hencken, and Sh epherd. The materials of the fibulae at Pithekoussai and 61 Ibid., esp. 69 62 Ibid., esp. 76 63 Ibid., esp. 163-164 64 Hencken opens his article by stating the age of the objects recovered from the tombs at Syracuse. 65 Hugh Hencken, "Syracuse," esp. 259-265. 66 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 278

PAGE 91

91 Cumae include bronze, iron, amber, and ivory, as at Syracuse, but silver appeared on Ischia and Cumae before it was seen at Syracuse.67 Etruria in the Seventh Century The leech fibula from Vetulonia is gold,68 and the examples of drago fibulae from Marsiliana are gold, silver, or silver and gold-plated.69 The comb and bolt types from Marsiliana chiefly occur in silver and gold.70 Many objects from the Regolini Galassi tomb are gold and silver such as the extraordinary foliated fibula. The drago, comb, and serpentine fibulae from the Bernardini tomb are in gold.71 There are also bowls of silver and an iron dagger in a silver sheath from the same tomb as noted by MacIver. The comb clasps from the Barberini tomb are gold. Gold serpentine fibulae, and objects in ivory such as cups, figurines, and masks were discovered from the Barberini tomb as well.72 Processes and Techniques of Production Ninth and Eighth centuries : Early Iron Age fibulae m ay be made in a variety of ways, which include the piece-mold, lost-wax met hod, cold working, and annealing processes.73 Cold working is simply the process of continual ha mmering of the bronze in order to obtain the desired shape, whereas annealing involves heating the metal to a very high temperature, which when cooled results in a metal that is easier to work with compared to that used in cold-working alone. 67 Lyons, Claire, The Archaic Cemeteries esp. 97 68 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 29 69 Ibid., esp. 187-192 70 Caroline Winthur, "Princely Tombs," esp. 435 71 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 217. 72 Ibid., esp. 267 73 Judith Toms, "The Arch Fibula," esp. 96

PAGE 92

92 The techniques of cold-working and annealing are used together, and the combination has proved successful for the fashioning of catch-plates, pins, and springs.74 The hammer marks on the underside of the bow of the ex amples of arch fibulae suggest th at this method was also used at least for that part of the fibula.75 The leech and boat forms may have used the piece-mould or lost-wax casting methods.76 Piece-mold casting involves producing a core for the fibula and piercing it with a pin, which was to be inserted into prepared slits in each part of the fibula.77 Once these preparations have been made, the fi bula is cast. A small support structure is built around a wax mould of the fibula to be produced.78 The wax is heated and allowed to melt away, leaving a hollow mould in which the fibula is cast. The support structure is broken open to reveal the new fibula. Toms offers these casting techniques as possibi lities because of the evidence revealed in miscast fibulae from Pithekoussai and Bologna. Apparently the piece-mould method was more economical than the lost wax method since their moulds could have been used to make a whole series of fibulae.79 In contrast, the lost wax method was seemingly employed to create a unique product, and the maker might also use the lost wax process for the creation of plastic decoration.80 As an alternative to plastic decoration, in cised decoration may have been made using a punta a stilo, a device for pushing or pulling across the metal in such a way as to render an 74 Ibid., esp. 97 75 Ibid., esp. 97-99 76 Ibid., esp. 99-101 77 Ibid., esp. 99 78 Ibid., esp. 100 79 Ibid., esp. 99-101 80 Ibid., esp. 101

PAGE 93

93 indention.81 Another way to decorate the surface is by manipulating the wide edge of a chisellike tool, ther eby creating a temolo line or ziz-zag motif.82 Richard and Sadow note that the zigzag and meander are associated with the Geom etric Period in Greece, and these motifs may be seen on various examples of Early Iron Age fibulae from Italy. The majority of these early eighth century types of fibulae in Italy display the type of geometric design that is most likely the result of the repertoire of the time. Eighth-century decorative processes give way to the techniques of filigree and granulation during the 7th century. Filigree manipulates metal wires form ed from sheet metal in various ways to produce ornament on jewelry.83 Granulation uses granules of metal for ornamentation.84 Iconography The charac teristic motifs on the violin, simple arch, serpentine, Si cilian elbow, and leech fibulae of the eighth and ninth centu ries in Sicily, southern Ital y, and central Italy consist of incised geometric patterns utilizing triangular, circular, and linear shapes. These geometric motifs can be seen on fibulae from such Italic sites as Veii, Pontecagnano, Tarquinia, and Sala Consilina. They also occur at native Sicilian sites such as Pantalica, Dessueri, Cassible, and Monte Finocchito. The Greek colonies of Pithekoussai and Cumae have yielded examples of Italic fibulae with geom etric designs as well. Geometric decoration combines with animal imagery during the 7th century on a leech fibula from the tomb of the Lictor in Vetulonia as seen in figure 60.85 The animals are rendered 81 Ibid., esp. 104 82 Ibid., esp. 104-105. 83 Ivette Richard and Richard Sa dow, "Etruria," esp. 197-204. 84 Ibid. 85 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 29.

PAGE 94

94 in the granulated pulviscolo or silhouette style.86 On this fibula, the silhouette style articulates the shape of a sphinx in outline form, which results in an overall shape that is linear and unnatural.87 The tombs of Le Migliarine, which are also located in Vetulonia, c ontain an example of a gold leech fibula in which the figure of a sphinx is worked in repousse at the top.88 In some cases, the bow of the fibula may be in the form of a feline, such as a lion or sphinx.89 Also from this tomb a gold bracelet is decorated with alternating bands of filigree and plain areas terminating in a series of three human masks rendered in repousse .90 The drago fibulae from Marsiliana displa y unique designs ex ecuted in filigree, granulation, and pl astic decoration.91 The plastic decoration may be geometric in nature or figural, there being examples with spherical ba lls along the curved leng th of the bow of the fibula and others with a row of ducks. The duck is one of the key animal motifs appearing at the beginning of the Orientalizing period ca. 675 BC, but it becomes less eviden t toward the end of the period, as reflected in the examples below.92 The duck is believed to have functioned as a friendly escort to the afterlife.93 The function of this motif seems to be in opposition to the apotropaic function associ ated with icons such as sphinxes, chimerae, griffins, and lions as noted by Skalsky. 86 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), esp. 44 87 Ibid. 88 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 151 89 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion esp. 44 90 Repousse is defined as metalwork decoration in relief, achieved by beating the metal from behind. 91 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 187-192 92 Randall L. Skalsky, "The Waterfowl of Etruria: A Study of Duck, Goose, and Swan Iconography" (PhD diss., Florida State University, Talla hassee, FL, 1997), esp. 89. 93 Ibid., esp. 124

PAGE 95

95 Animals used for apotropaic purposes were in use towards the end of the Orientalizing period.94 Three-dimensional figures of creatures such as ducks, lions and seated sphinxes appear not only on fibulae but also on other objects in the tombs at Marsiliana.95 The Regolini-Galassi foliated disc fibula, which meas ures approximately 12in. x 12in., deserves specia l attention not only because of its size but also because of its decoration. The decoration incorporates and mixes filigree, granulation, and plastic figural decoration over all of th e surfaces of the fibula. Five lions executed in repousse walk in different directions. Inte rtwining crescents are worked in granulation on the disc. The lions on this fibula, in particular, seemingly correspond to a typical Etruscan lion by virtue of their stur dy, compact, and almost square bodies.96 These characteristics are applied to depictions of li ons from other locales in southe rn Etruria, and the style is distinguishable from the silhoue tte style of northern Etruria.97 The two central bars, which are decorated in a zig-zag motif, are connected to the final portion of the fibula, which is decorated with rows of birds in the round. Rows of animal figures in repouse with details in granulation alternate with the rows of birds. From the Bernardini tomb, two lions standing back-to-back occupy the center of the bar of the comb fibula, with three flying birds on e ither side of them as seen in figures 62-63. A walking lion closes the scene on both ends and a band of filigree borders the entire composition. Each half of the comb clasp from the Barberin i tomb is made from two plates, which rest upon three curving tubes that terminat e in flower buds. Twelve sphinxe s in the round rest on top of these tubes, although the same animal motif is rendered in the space in between the tubes, 94 Ibid., esp. 89 95 Ingrid Strom, Problems esp. 104. 96 Llewellyn Brown, The Etruscan Lion esp. 4 97 Ibid., esp. 41-43

PAGE 96

96 essentially creating twenty-four sphinxes in all. A few comb cl asps come from the Barberini tomb and some of them use plas tic figural decoration in the form of panther-heads and birds, filigree and granulation.98 In summary, this chronological survey seek s to illustrate the dramatic changes in material, techniques and decoration and/or ic onography from the Early Iron Age down to the 7th century. Types such as the spectacle, arch, and serpentine fibulae are often associated with bronze and iron and simple geometric design. By contrast, luxurious ma terials such as gold, silver, and ivory may now be associated with the sophisticated techniques of filigree, granulation, and figural decoration in relief. One thus notes a gradual change in the production of fibulae regarding materials, techniques, and iconography. The change encompa sses the introduction of new and luxurious materials and techniques into cen tral Italy during the late eighth and seventh centuries. The next chapter will question why this change in the ma nufacture of fibulae came about, especially in central Italy and southern Italy in the region of Campania. The e ffects of foreign influences on Italy will be examined as well the possible place s of manufacture of the elaborate fibulae that have been recovered from the wealthy tombs in the central and southe rn regions of Italy. 98 David Randall-MacIver, Villanovans esp. 267.

PAGE 97

97 Figure 5-1. Indigenous s ites in southern Italy

PAGE 98

98 Figure 5-2. Indigenous sites in Campania

PAGE 99

99 Figure 5-3. Etruscan sites

PAGE 100

100 CHAPTER 6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FIBULAE FOR CULTURAL INTERACTIONS This chapter will explore Italic fibulae in relation to internal and external interactions. One issue in the development of fibulae is th e question of intermarriage between the Italic peoples and the Greek settlers at such sites as Pithekoussai and possibly Cumae. Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela do not display signs th at indicate the occurrence of intermarriage. Interrmarriage has been postulated at Pithekoussa i since this site has produced such a large number of Italic fibulae. Cumae is similar to Pithekoussai in that it has also yielded an assortment of Italic fibulae, but Cumae was founded after Pithekoussai, and thus the population there might not be first generation Greek colonists. This situation might l ead to a conclusion other than intermarriage for the appearance of Italic fibulae at the site. Sy racuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela are different from Pithekoussai and Cumae because they do no t exhibit as many Italic fibulae as the two colonies from the region of Campania. The Italic fibulae at these three Sicilian colonies may thus require a different explanation. Fibulae discover ed at Pithekoussai and Cumae will be examined first, since these two sites have yielded the most Italic fibulae. Pithekoussai At Ischia, 524 fibulae com e from 192 graves out of the 592 graves that were excavated by Buchner in the valley of San Montano.1 As stated in chapters four and five, these fibulae include the simple arch, the serpentine, the knobb ed serpentine, the Ital ic composite leech, the Greek composite leech, the knobbed leech, and the dr ago types. The Greek composite leech type would have been the only type worn by the peopl es of Pithekoussai that was in fact a Greek product, although derived from the Italic repertoire. 1 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 296

PAGE 101

101 Half of the 192 graves containing fibulae are those of children.2 Some of these child graves contain a large number of fibulae, su ch as tomb 652, of a baby. This tomb had been discovered containing 22 fibulae of Italic type.3 The 22 fibulae from tomb 652 could never have been worn by the baby of this grave. Rather, in this case and in similar cases, these fibulae functioned as a lavish assortment of grave goods perhaps in remembrance of a short life.4 The Greek pin is not documented from any of the graves thus far excavated on Ischia. When not found with children, the fibulae as we ll as other items of jewelry were mostly associated with women.5 The fibulae were found at the shoulde rs of the women, suggesting that this was how they were used in life, which was to fasten the garment. Shepherd also notes how fibulae were sometimes found in high numbers similarly to child burials.6 The serpentine fibula is the only type that has been found to be associated with men.7 Buchner first proposed the theory of intermarriage because of the large amount of Italic fibulae present in the tombs on this island and because they were associated with women.8 He as well as other members of the archaeological community believes that it must have been the 2 Ibid., esp. 295 3 Shepherd does not specify whether the fibulae found in tomb 652 are all Italic or a mixture of Greek or Italic, but her comments on pp. 274-275 would incline one to believe that they were all of Italic type. On these pages, she notes how the metalwork from Greek grav es on Ischia is exactly similar to metal items from contemporary tombs in Etruria. On p. 283, she specifies how the fibulae at Pithekoussai were not as yet matched by anything in Euboea. 4 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 295 5 Ibid., esp. 276 6 Ibid. 7 The association of the serpentine type with men has been widely acknowledged by the archaeological community for sometime. de la Geniere first documented it in her review of the sites of southern Italy. Other scholars such as Moser and Gualtieri noted the same association in their diss ertations. Buchner later made mention of this type being associated with men at Ischia too. 8 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing: Aspects of the Euboean Connection," in Italy before the Romans ed. Ridgway, David and Francesca Ridgway (New York: Academic Press, 1979), esp, 135.

PAGE 102

102 (Italic) women who introduced thes e types to the Greeks since they were found mostly with them and with children rather than with men. However, one should not be quick to discount the fact that half of the fibula found on Ischia has come from the graves of children. If the Italic fibula is an inde x of intermarriage, then actual occurrence of intermarriage may not have been as commonplace as Buchner believed. He seems to have placed all the emphasis on the appear ance of the Italic fibula in the graves of women to uphold his theory of intermarriage, when, in reality, the evidence speaks to a situation in which children were distinguis hed archaeologically just as much as the women were on Ischia. The evidence seems to indicate that interm arriage probably did exist on Pithekoussai at some scale because the total number of Italic fibulae, which is 524 in all, found in women and child graves together would be di fficult to explain as a result of trade alone. The presence of the Italic fibulae in the graves of wo men is a reflection of what they used in everyday life to fasten their garments with, while they used them in a different manner when one of their young died at an early age. In this case, they would have been used to honor a short life as noted by Shepherd. The children of mixed parentage may have been honored with Italic or naments and not Greek ones, which gives more weight to the theory of intermarriage. The serpentine type is the only type exclusively associated with men on Ischia, wh ich is an influence of the Italic culture since the serpentine type was regularly found in Italic graves of men. Cumae The rela tionship between the Greek settlers and the native peoples at Cumae is more difficult to understand than that of Pithekoussai because the early excavation reports were not as systematic and detailed as those of Pithekoussa i, as noted by Shepherd. Regardless, the catalogue by Gabrici at least helps to mitigate the lack of information by providing visual images of some of the types of fibulae discovered at this mainland Greek colony. These types are closely

PAGE 103

103 paralleled at Pithekoussai. One tomb in par ticular, the Fondo Artiaco, had been meticulously excavated and has received much attention in th e past because of the elaborate nature of its contents. This tomb dates roughly 710 BC and th e objects recovered from it include weapons and metal vases, horse bits, and possibl y the remains of a wheeled vehicle.9 Strom notes that this warriors equipment as well as his jewelr y is purely Etruscan. Th e jewelry includes an electrum (amber) bracelet and necklace, and a gold pendant. This tomb also contains five electrum fibulae, all of them being the knobbed se rpentine type, two bronze simple arch fibulae, and one bolt fibula and two comb fibulae.10 All of the nearly 52 metal ornaments discovered from this tomb are also Italic, as noted by Strom and acknowledged by Buchner and many other archaeologists. Strom noted how these fibulae ar e from the Italic (Etruscan) tradition. She postulated that this must have been the tomb of an Etruscan based on its contents and therefore their presence in this tomb is indicative of Etruscan trade. Buchner disagrees with Strom. He believes that the Fondo Artiaco tomb belonged to a member of the first generation of Euboean gent ry because the excavations at Pithekoussai and other graves at Cumae have yielded the same t ypes of fibulae dating to the second half of the eighth century, with the exception of the comb and bolt types.11 Buchner observes that if her idea was correct, all of the graves at Pithekoussai a nd Cumae containing Italic fibulae must also be those of Etruscans. Since we know this not to be the case, the only difference between the contents of this tomb and those of Pithekoussai and Cumae is the rich character of objects found 9 Jan Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," in Die Akten Internationalen Kolloquiums Interactions in the Iron Age: Phoenicians, Greeks, and the Indigen ous Peoples of the Western Mediterranean" ed. NIemeyer, N.G (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1996), esp. 238. 10 Ingrid Strom, Problems esp. 147. 11 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing," esp. 133

PAGE 104

104 in it.12 The fibulae from Cumae might be able to be explained in terms of intermarriage as at Pithekoussai, if the Greeks w ho first founded the colony were fi rst generation colonists from Euboea as noted by Crielaard. In this way, they w ould have migrated to It aly and married Italic women similarly to the events at Pitheloussai. If this is the case, then it would have been the Euboean aristocrats who formed the first colonizi ng expedition to Cumae because of the similar high status funerary ritu al in Eretria and Cumae.13 According to Crielaards theory of the f oundation of Cumae, the first generation of aristocrats would have been spurred to sail off to Italy due to the emergence of the polis and the increasing competition among the members of the elite society.14 In addition to the competition between themselves, the aristocrats may have also been prompted to travel to and settle in Italy because of the trade contacts that they would be offered by the native peoples and they may also have been seeking larger plots of land compared to what they owned in Greece.15 Although the graves of Cumae strongly suggest that it was the first generation colonists who were responsible for its foundation, Coldstream has advanced a different theory on the foundation of Cumae. This second theory relates to the Fondo Ar tiaco tomb. Coldstream believes it is the tomb of a pe rson of mixed parentage.16 His views this tomb and the other six wealthy cremation burials at Cumae as representing the peoples of mixed parentage who migrated from Pithekoussai to Cumae. If he is correct in his thinking, then the wealthy contents of these tombs 12 Ibid. 13 Jan Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," esp. 238 14 Ibid., esp. 240-241. 15 Ibid. 16 J.N Coldstream, "Mixed Marriages," esp. 95-96

PAGE 105

105 (including fibulae) and those of the other tombs from Cumae that are not as rich would not be viewed as a reflection of intermarriage. Whether or not intermarriage existed at Cum ae, the question of where the Italic fibulae from Pithekoussai and Cumae might have been produced will be examined shortly when discussing the second major theme of this paper, which relates to the change in the production of fibulae in terms of materials, techniques, and iconography. Syracuse In com parison to Pithekoussai and Cumae, th e Greek colony of Syracuse has furnished a much smaller number of Ita lic fibulae dating to the 8th and 7th centuries BC. At Syracuse only eighty fibulae come from roughly 350 tombs.17 The majority of these examples are the serpentine fibula (with small knobs on the side of the bow) a nd the leech fibula. It is worth noting that although both Pithekoussai and Syracuse display si milar ornaments, they appear to have been used differently at each site. The types from Pithekoussai were mostly found singly in graves of adult women although a considerable quantity came from female infant graves. When found with adult women at Pithekoussai, they had the ut ilitarian function of fastening a garment. Italic fibulae18 from Syracuse were primarily asso ciated with children and several may have occurred in one grave along with the Greek pin.19 The use of the fibula in child burials at Syracuse was not functioning in a ssociation with a garment. As at Pithekoussai, Italic fibulae could have been reserved to honor a pre-mature departure from earth or they could represent a 17 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 277 18 All of the fibulae found at Syracuse must have been It alic or in the case of the Gr eek composite leech type and adaptation of an Italic type. Like the disassociation of fibula types between Pithekou ssai and Euboea, Syracuse did not yield any types that were contemporary at Corinth, which Shepherd states on p. 283. 19 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 286-87

PAGE 106

106 lavish assortment of grave goods wh en found in the grave of a child.20 This is reflected most clearly in the example of tomb 428 in the Fusco cemetery since this grave contained a total of 26 fibulae of various types21 and four Greek pins.22 This tomb alone provided one third of the total eighty fibulae that were disc overed at the Fusco necropolis as observed by Shepherd. The Italic fibula rarely was found in adult gr aves, and when it did occur, it was usually accompanied by the Greek pin.23 Tombs 129 and 412 appear to pr ovide the best examples of graves containing only Italic type s or the one type derived from the Italic tradition, the Greek composite leech bow.24 For example, tomb 129 contained six si mple leech fibulae and four silver rings while tomb 412 contained one simple leech and one Greek composite leech bow fibula. On the other hand, tomb 276 is a good example of what actually seems to have been fairly common at Syracuse, which was the mixing of Italic fibul ae or the Greek composite leech type with the Greek pin in the same tomb. Tomb 27625 had two iron Greek pins and two Greek composite leech fibulae. Shepherd notes how the Greek pin was just as popular at Syracuse as the fibulae, and even more so as the 6th century progressed.26 What the evidence seems to indicate, then, is that fibulae at Syracuse because of their strong association with children do not reflect in termarriage. Child burials seem to be more abundant in metalwork, especially fibulae, than adult burials at this Si cilian colony. Shepherd 20 Ibid., esp. 287 21 Shepherd does not state the exact types of Italic fibulae th at were present in tomb 428, but if cross-referenced with Hencken's catalogue, then they include the Italic leech and knobbed leech type s and also the Greek composite leech type. 22 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 286 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid., esp. 286 25 Ibid., esp. 286 26 Ibid., esp. 287

PAGE 107

107 states that the disposal of many items, fibulae an d otherwise, in child graves conforms to the practices of burying children in Greece.27 The concentration of fibulae in child graves is viewed as a result of trade. The concen tration of these fibulae in child graves suggests that they functioned as grave offerings and were not strictly functional as items of clothing. This situation differs from Pithekoussai where they were found with women and would have been worn by them in life. The Greek sites of Megara Hyblaea and Gela on Sicily exhibit similar circumstances to those of Syracuse regarding the use of the fibul a. At Megara Hyblaea, pins were more common than Italic fibulae as noted by Shepherd. When fibulae did occur, they were found in wealthy graves of children.28 Greek pins were even more common at Gela than Megara Hyblaea, while the deposition of Italic fibulae was very rare.29 When fibulae did occur at Gela, they were associated with wealthy child burials si milarly to Megara Hyblaea and Syracuse.30 The evidence from Ischia and Sicily serves to demonstrate the fusi on of Greek and Italic culture. The large amount of nativ e fibulae present in the graves of adult women and children on Ischia and the association of native fibula types with children at Syracuse highlights the interactions of the Italic and Greek cultures in these two regions of Ital y. These interactions are seen as early as the 8th century at Ischia and cont inue into down into the 7th century in Sicily. The finds from the cemeteries of the Greek colonies has been examined in order to understand the relationship that the Greek settlers at each colony maintained with the native peoples. The finds from Sicily demonstrate that the fibulae found there are likely better 27 Shepherd notes how sometimes the buri als of children in Greece are often richer than those of a dults on p. 287. 28 Gillian Shepherd, "Fibulae and Females," esp. 293 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid.

PAGE 108

108 explained as a result of trade.31 The relationship of Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela with each other is most clearly reflect ed in the burial rituals of these three Greek colonies and the appearance of the Greek composite leech fibula in the Greek sanctuaries, especially Olympia. At Syracuse, the normal burial practices were rock-cut fossa tombs for the low to middle class members of the society, while monolithic sarcophagia were reserved for members of the upper class.32 At Megara Hyblaea, the monolithic sarc ophagus was used by the average member of society while the hypogeic cella was reserved for the upper class. The hypogeic cella was a spacious tomb built of large cut stone blocks.33 The adoption and use of the monolithic sarcophagus at Megara Hyblaea for the average person devalues its use for the upper class at Syracuse as noted by Shepherd. This is viewed as peer competition to see who can outshine the other. At Gela the monolithic sarcophagus was also used, but then the baule, or terracotta sarcophagus, was introduced, which created a tier ed burial system similar to Syracuse and Megara Hyblaea.34 Shepherd notes how the Geloans used the monolithic sarcophagus on a scale comparable to or even greater than Syr acuse, thereby competing with her neighbor. The competition that is being observed between Syracuse, Megara Hyblaea, and Gela in terms of burial practices and self-assertion of th e colonies is seen back in Greece at the PanHellenic sanctuaries. The appearance of Italic goods including the Gree k composite leech fibula at the Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries in Greece such as Olympia instead of the mo ther city sanctuaries was just another form of competition. Shephe rd sums up the motivations behind the rich dedications in Greek Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries by stating how this wa s just another form of self 31 Tamar Hodos, "Intermarriage," esp. 73 32 Gillian Shepherd, "Burial and Religion," esp. 58 33 Ibid., esp. 56-58. 34 Ibid., esp. 60-63.

PAGE 109

109 assertion and self-advertisement for the colo ny compared to the dedications of her peers.35 When viewed from this angle, the appearan ce of Greek composite leech fibulae in Greece reaffirms how the Greeks modified the Italic co mposite leech fibulae and transported them back to Greece for the important reason of promoting th e independence and status of the colony. This is in reversal of the long held idea until recen tly of the thought that the Greek composite leech type was a Greek invention. Change in Production The second half of this chapter will f ocus on the second major theme of this paper, which is the change in the production of fibulae, which st arts in the last quarter of the eighth century. At the end of the 8th century and throughout the 7th century BC, significant changes start to take place in the production of fibula. This change is especially noticeable in Pithekoussai, Cumae, and Etruria where the new material s of gold and silver have been detected for fashioning fibulae. The next logical question is why did this change take place? There is no doubt that the jewelry from these tombs reflects eastern influence and Strom considers them to be direct imports from the Near East, either through trad e or resulting from the presence of immigrant eastern craftsmen in Etruria.36 Knowing that Ischia had an active industry in working metal and that Greeks were familiar with working metal, Buchner hypothesized that the Euboeans might have been attracted to the island for metals and may have b een exporting these luxury items to Etruria.37 He supports his conclusion by noting the familiarity the Greeks had in working gold as well as their knowledge of eastern motifs. Other scholars such as Guzzo prefer to see the luxury gold items as 35 Ibid., esp. 75. 36 Ingrid Strom, Problems esp. 205, 212, & 216. 37 Giorgio Buchner, "Early Orientalizing," esp. 137-138.

PAGE 110

110 products of workshops in central Italy,38 but Buchner highly doubts th is hypothesis. He does not see where local craftsmen would have acquired th e technical expertise or knowledge of foreign motifs to produce ornaments like these. Gold is not native to Italy and the arrival of the mature techniques of filigree and granulation in the 7th century on fibulae from Et ruria is very unlikely.39 Since gold is not native to Ital y, it may have been imported to Pithekoussai from the Iberian coast via Phoenician merchants, the other fo reign element in Italy during the period of colonization.40 Markoe affirms that the Greeks were not the only peoples voyaging to Italy and Sicily during the period of colonization.41 He notes the strong Phoenician interest in silver in central Italy, specifically the metal rich area of the Co lline Metallifere during the last quarter of the eighth through the first half of the seventh century. The Colline Metallifere area is located opposite the island of Elba in northern Etruria.42 The appearance of certain fibulae in silver such as comb, bolt, leech, and drago types could reflect Phoenician influen ce in Italy. Or the appearance of these types in silver could simply reflect the knowledge that the Etruscans had with mining silver as noted by Markoe.43 If not produced by the Phoenicians or the Etruscans in central Italy, then si lver fibulae could have been made at Pithekoussai as silver was one of the materials being imported onto the island. 38 Ibid., esp. 140 39 Ivette Richard and Richard Sadow, "Etruria," in Gold Jewekry: Craft, Style, and Meaning from Mycenae to Constantinopolis ed. Hackens, T (Louvain-la-Neuve: College Erasme, 1983), esp. 92-93. 40 Ibid esp. 88 41 Glenn Markoe, "In Pursuit of Metal: Phoenicians and Greeks in Italy," in Greece between East and West: 10th 8th Centuries BC ed. Kopcke, G. and Isabelle Tokumaru (Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990), esp. 67-84. 42 Ibid., esp. 71-72 43 Ibid., esp. 73

PAGE 111

111 Silver would have been imported onto Ischia fr om the Colline Metallifere or possibly from the Iberian coast along with gold, both of which would have been the work of the Phoenicians.44 Whether it is the Greeks on Pithekoussai or th e Phoenicians in central Italy, or both, who are responsible for the change in materials of fibula production, the question of interest is why is an accumulation of wealth associated exclusively w ith the central and southern regions of Italy? The answer to this question goes back to the middle or second half of the 8th century in Etruria, particularly at Veii and Tarqui nia. In addition to iron implements and personal objects and ornaments, the tomb contents include precious and exotic materials such as gold, amber, faience, and glass as noted by Hartmann. This phenomenon suggests iron was valued as a rare commodity beca use of the large investment of skilled labor to produce a single ar tifact, and thus would have been sought after by peoples who wished to emphasize their elevated social status.45 Hartmann associates these tombs with an elite group people such as a warrio r aristocracy due to the presence of other iron war-like items and because they are geogra phically clustered within central Italy.46 Just as in the case of silver, there seems to be a few different possibilities concerning where iron was obtained by the Italic peoples. Ha rtmann believes that the Greeks were voyaging to Italy not to buy iron, but to sell their iron.47 He states that it was neither Elba nor the Colline Metallifere that was being exploite d by the Greeks for iron, but that they were transporting their own iron from Greece to Pithekoussai to later be exported to Etruria, especially southern Etruria 44 Ivette Richard and Richard Sadow, "Etruria," esp. 88. 45 Nicholas Hartmann, "Iron-Working" esp. 163-164 46 Ibid., esp. 163 47 Ibid., esp. 179

PAGE 112

112 since this is the region that shows the most Greek contact.48 On the other hand, Markoe cites how the Greeks have always been interested in the resources of Italy, particul arly iron, and he implies that their commercial interest in this meta l was the reason why they traveled to Italy.49 The commercial benefits that the Greeks would have gained through access and exploitation of the Italic iron ore deposits would have been a strong factor for leaving Greece, but Crielaard has effectively demonstrated that this was probably not the only reason they left their home. The Euboean aristocrats were probably wanting to escape the competition that was building at home in Greece and saw Italy as way to achieve indepe ndence and to make a profit from the iron goods that they would have furnis hed to the Italic peoples.50 Curiously enough, the rise of th e Italic aristocracy and the subsequent deposition of these grave goods in the wealthy tombs of Etruria and Campania in the 8th century BC coincide with the arrival of the Greeks at Pithekoussai and later at Cumae. Crielaard stresses the similarities of high-status funerary ritual, wh ich consists of urn cremation stored in a metal vase with accompanying metal grave goods, between the first ge neration of tombs from Cumae such as the Fondo Artiaco tomb and the burials from Eretria in Greece.51 This information allows one to infer that members of the Greek aristocracy must have formed the colonizing party, and he goes one step further by addressing th e similarities of funerary r ituals and grave goods not just between Greek colonies and the motherland, but between Greek colonies and Italic sites. Pontecagnano, Calatia, Caere, and Vetul onia are included among the Italic sites.52 48 The contact with Greece is most cl early demonstrated through Veii wher e the largest number of Greek-made vessels and iron objects has been found. Ibid., esp. 174-175 49 Glenn Markoe, "In Purstui of Metal," esp. 80 50 Crielaards thoughts on the Euboean aristocracy were summarized in the previous chapter. 51 Jan P. Crielaard, "How the West Was Won," esp. 240-247 52 Ibid., esp. 246

PAGE 113

113 That the Italic sites welcomed goods from s outhern Etruria, the Aegean, Greek colonies, and the Eastern Mediterranean permits Crielarrd to judge that a cultur al homogeneity must have been in effect since th e Italic peoples came to espouse Greek customs. The phenomenon of class-identification that is transpiring between Greek and Etruscan elites is foreshadowed by a period in Greek history having communications with the eastern Mediterranean, specifically Cyprus.53 Crielaard essentially declares that member s of the Euboean aristocracy were actively participating in friendly relations with members of the same class from Cyprus through a system of gift-exchange. The distinguished heroon at Lefkandi and other wealthy bur ials from this site include luxury goods from the east such as small metal orna ments, vases, and faience beads. Imports of the same quality have been discovered on Cyprus as well, which implies that members of both cultures are identifying with each ot her in the sense that they share similar life-styles, as noted by Crielaard. The amicable and receptive rappor t that the Greeks experienced with the elite Cypriots in the east comes to the fore once ag ain in their dealings with the Italic nobles approximately a century later in Etruria. The rise of the native aristocratic ranks in the 8th century BC is thought to be a result of increasing social organization and the creation of individual settlements as opposed to the previous lack of formal settlement structures.54 In addition to the crea tion of these structures, elaborate tombs, extravagan t grave goods, and the cons truction of ritual space55 signaled the political and sociological change that was happening in Etruria dur ing this time. The existence of 53 Jan P. Crielaard, "The Social Organization of Euboean Trade with the Eastern Mediterranean during the 10th to 8th Centuries BC," Journal of the Netherlands Institute at Athens (1993): esp. 141-144. 54 Carrie Roth-Murray, "A Disclosure of Power: Elite Etruscan Iconography during the 8th-6th Centuries BC," Papers in Italian Archaeology (2005): esp. 186. 55 Ibid., esp. 186

PAGE 114

114 wealthy Etruscan tombs and their contents, speci fically the ceremonial axe and knives, was the result of deliberate efforts of the newly form ed upper echelons of society at emphasizing their authority. By making the functional object beautiful, Roth-Murray argues that they were able to command more respect and distinguish themselves more sharply from the classes beneath them. Conclusions From the study of the fibula, it is evident th at significant sociologi cal events and changes were taking place beginning in the 8th century at Pithekoussai and Cumae. Foremost among these events was the incidence of intermarriage betw een the Greek settlers and the Italic women, which resulted in the borrowing of ideas and tr aditions from one cultu re to the other. The discovery of certain types of fibulae from the Italic tradition in the San Mantono cemetery on Ischia proves that the Italic culture was influenc ing that of the Greeks. The examples of native Italic fibulae from graves at the Fusco cemeter y in Syracuse and the appearance of the Greek composite leech fibula at native site s in Italy serves to further reinforce the reciprocal exchange that was occurring between the Greek and Italic peoples. In order to understand the devel opment of the fibula from the 9th century through the 7th century BC in Italy, one must consider not only th e genesis of the Italic tradition, but also the way in which other geographical areas participated in its creation by mean s of their influence. These areas include pre-Greek Sicily, where one of the earliest serpentine forms is found and central and southern Europe, which is claimed to be the birth-place of spectacle types discovered on the Italian mainland and elsewhere in the pan-Mediterranean and Aegean countries. Viewing the Italic sequence as a small, but significant pi ece of a larger and olde r puzzle is helpful in comprehending the course of events that followed beginning in the 9th century BC between the eastern and western Mediterranean.

PAGE 115

115 APPENDIX A LIST OF FIGURES NOT SHOWN Im age not shown due to copyright Figure A-1. A stilted bow fibul a. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Ma ria. "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 403. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-2. A multiple knobbed arch bow fibula. Bietti Sestieri Anna Maria. "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 402. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-3. A spiral arch bow fi bula. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 402. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-4. A knobbed serpentine fibula. Numerous examples of this type appear throughout the catalogue. Steures, D.C. Monte Finocchito Revisited Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press, 1980. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-5. A small knobbed leech bow fibula with an elongated catch-plate from Monte Finocchito in Sicily. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (1999): 70. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-6. Small knobbed leech bow fibulae with elongated catch-plates from Pithekoussai and Syracuse. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (1999): 70. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-7. Knobbed leech bow fibulae from Sy racuse, Monte Finocchito, and Pithekoussai. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (1999): 70.

PAGE 116

116 Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-8. A composite leech bow fibula. Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studi es in Honor of Ellen MacNamara, ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway, 91-113. London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000. 93. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-9. A bolt fibula from the Bernardini tomb. Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style Odense: Odense University Press, 1971. figure 69. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-10. A comb fibula: pr ovenance unknown. Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the Origin and Development of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style Odense: Odense University Press, 1971. figure 71. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-11. Leech fibulae with short catch-pl ates from Vrokastro. Hencken, Hugh. "Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1958): figure 40.1 and 2 (after Hall). Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-12. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 10. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-13. Distribution map of Spectacle fibula type I. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 10. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-14. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type II. Alex ander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 14. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-15. Distribution map of spectacle fibula type III. Al exander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 14.

PAGE 117

117 Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-16. Distribution map of spectacle fibulae types IV, V and VI. Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 18. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-17. Greek style composite leech fi bula at Syracuse from grave 428. Hencken, Hugh. "Syracuse, Etruria, and the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1958): figure 11. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-18. A Greek composite leech fibula from Cumae. Pe lligrini, G. "Tombe Greche Archaiche e Tomba Greco-Sannitica a T holos della Necropoli di Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 13 (1903): figure 46. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-19. A Greek composite leech fibula from tomb 272 on P ithekoussai. Buchner, Giorgio and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I Rome: Bretschneider, 19 93. Catalogue number 272. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-20. Italic composite leech fibulae from tomb 599 on P ithekoussai. Buchner, Giorgio and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I Rome: Bretschneider, 1993. Catalogue number 599. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-21. Simple arch bow and ringed arch bow Italic fibulae from Cumae. Gabrici, E. "Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). Figures 1 1:1 and 3 3:4. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-22. Blinkenbergs types IX and X. Blinkenberg, Christian. Lindiaka V Fibules Grecques et Orientales Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred. Host & Son, 1926. 99.

PAGE 118

118 Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-23. Leech fibulae from Ve tulonia. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 29. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-24. The Regolini-Galassi fibul a from Caere. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 195-208. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-25. Drago and comb fibulae from the Be rnardini tomb at Praeneste. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 217. Image not shown due to copyright Figure A-26. A detail of the scene of the Be rnardini comb fibula. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924. 217.

PAGE 119

119 LIST OF REFERENCES Alexander, John. "The Spectacle Fibula of Southern Europe." American Journal of Archaeology 69 (January 1965): 7-23. Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria. "Italian Swords and Fibulae of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages." Ita lian Iron Age Artefacts: in the Bri tish Museum: Papers of the Sixth British Museum Classical Coloquium (1986): 3-23. "The Metal Industry of Continental Italy, 13th to 11th Centuries BC and its connection with the Aegean." Proceedings of the Pre-Historic Society (1973): 383-424. Blinkenberg, Christian. Lindiaka V Fibules Gr ecques et Orientales Kobenhavn: Andr. Fred. Host & Son, 1926. British Museum Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. British Museum Catalogue of Greek Etruscan, and Roman Jewellery London: British Museum, 1911. Buchner, Giorgio and David Ridgway. Pithekoussai I Rome: Bretschneider, 1993. Buchner, Giorgio. "Early Orientalizing: Aspects of the Euboean Connection." In Italy before the Romans ed. Ridgway, David and Francesca Ridgway, 129-144. New York: Academic Press, 1979. Close-Brooks, Joanna and David Ri dgway. "Veii in the Iron Age." In Italy before the Romans New York: Academic Press, 1979. Coldstream, J.N. "Mixed Marriages at th e Frontiers of the Early Greek World." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 12.1 (1993): 89-107. Crielaard, Jan. "How th e West Was Won." In Die Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums Interactions in the Iron Age: Phoenicians, Greeks, and the Indigenous Peoples of the Western Mediterranean" ed. Niemeyer, 235-260. Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1996. "The Social Organization of Euboean Trad e with the Eastern Me diterranean during the 10th to 8th Centuries BC." Journal of the Netherl ands Institute at Athens (1993): 138145. D'Agostino, Bruno and Patrizia Gastaldi. Pontecagnano: II. La Necr opoli del Picento: 1. Le Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento del Mondo Classico e de l Mediterraneo Antico, 1988. D'Agostino, Bruno. Tombs Principesche dell'orientalizzanye antico da Pontecagnano Rome: Accademia nazionale dei lincei, 1977. de la Geniere, Juliette. "The Iron Age in Southern Italy." In Italy before the Romans New York: Academic Press, 1979. De Natale, Serenella. Pontecagnano II. La Necropoli di S. An tonio: Propr. ECI 2. Tombe della Prima Eta del Ferro Napoli: Instituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di studi del mondo e del Mediterraneo Antico, 1992.

PAGE 120

120 Gabrici, E. "Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 22 (1913). Gaultieri, Maurizio. "Iron in Calabria in the Ninth and Eighth Centuries B.C." PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1977 Guzzo, Pier Giovanni. "Ipotesti Interpretativa su due Tipi di Fibula con Arco Ricoperto." Aparchai; Nuove Ricerche e Studi sulla Magna Grecia e la Sicilia Antica in Onore di Paolo Orsi 1 (1982): 53-61. Hall, E.H. Excavations in Eastern Crete Philadelphia: University Museum, 1914. Hartmann, Nicholas. "Iron-Working in Southern Etruria in the Ninth an d Eighth Centuries BC." PhD diss., University of Pe nnsylvania, Philadelphia, 1982. Hencken, Hugh. "Syracuse, Etruria, a nd the North: Some Comparisons." American Journal of Archaeology 62 (1958): 259-272. Hodos, Tamar. "Intermarriage in the Western Greek Colonies." Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (1999): 61-74. Jacobsthal, Paul. Greek Pins and Their Connexions with Europe and Asia Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956. Leighton, Robert. Sicily Before History Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999. Lyons, Claire. The Archaic Cemeteries ed. Bell, Malcolm and Christopher Moss, vol. 5. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996. MacNamara, Ellen. "Some Bronze Typologies in Sardinia and Italy from 1200 to 700 BC; Their Origin and Development." Etruria e Sardegna Centro-Settent rionale tra l'eta' del Bronzo Finale e L'arcaismo : atti del XXI Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Sassari, Alghero, Oristano, Torralba, 13-17 Ottobre 1998 (1998): 150-170. Markoe, Glenn. "In Pursuit of Metal: Phoenicians and Greeks in Italy." In Greece between East and West: 10th 8th Centuries BC ed. Kopcke, G. and Isabelle Tokumaru, 61-84. Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990. Moser, Mary Elizabeth. "The "Southern Vill anovan" Culture of Campania." PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1982 Orsi, Paolo. "Contributi alla Storia della Fibula Greca." Opuscula Archaeologica Oscari Montello, Septuagenario, dict a d. ix m. sept. a. MCMXII (1913): 189-203. "Gli Scavi nella Necropoli fel Fusco a Sir acusa nel Giugno, Novembre e Dicembre del 1893." Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita (1895): 109-92. Pelligrini, G. "Tombe Greche Archaiche e Tomb a Greco-Sannitica a Tholos della Necropoli di Cuma." Monumenti Antichi 13 (1903): 201-94. Randall-MacIver, David. Villanovans and Early Etruscans Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924.

PAGE 121

121 Richard, Ivette and Richar d Sadow. "Etruria." In Gold Jewekry: Craft, Style, and Meaning from Mycenae to Constantinopolis ed. Hackens, T. Louvain-la-Neuve: College Erasme, 1983. Ridgway, David. The First Western Greeks Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Roth-Murray, Carrie. "A Disclosure of Power: Elite Etruscan Iconography during the 8th-6th Centuries BC." Papers in Italian Archaeology (2005): 186-195. Shepherd, Gillian. "Fibulae and Females: Interma rriage in the Western Greek Colonies and the Evidence from the Cemeteries." In Ancient Greeks West and East, ed. Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. Boston: Brill, 1999. "The Pride of Most Colonials: Burial an d Religion in the Sic ilian Colonies." In Acta Hyperborea 6 ed. Fischer-Hansen, Tobias. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1995. Skalsky, Randall L. "The Waterfowl of Etru ria: A Study of Duck, Goose, and Swan Iconography." PhD diss., Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 1997 Snodgrass, Anthony. The Dark Age of Greece Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1971. Steures, D.C. Monte Finocchito Revisited Amsterdam: Allard Pierson Press, 1980. Strom, Ingrid. Problems Concerning the Origin and Devel opment of the Etruscan Orientalizing Style Odense: Odense University Press, 1971. Stronach, David. "The Development of the Fibula in the Near East." Iraq 21 (1959): 181-206. Stubbings, J.M. "Bow Fibulae." In Perachora, th e Sactuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia; Excavations of the British School of Ar chaeology at Athens, 1930-1933, ed. Dunbabin, T.J. and Alan Blakeway. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940. Sundwall, Johannes. Die Alteren Italischen Fibeln Berlin: Gruyter & Co, 1943. Toms, Judith. "The Arch Fibula in Early Iron Age Italy." In Ancient Italy in its Mediterranean Setting: Studies in Honor of Ellen MacNamara ed. MacNamara, E. and David Ridgway, 91-113. London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000. "The Construction of Gender in Early Iron Age Etruria." Italian Archaeology (1998): 157-179. Vida Navarro, M. Carmen. "Warriors and Weaver s: Sex and Gender in Early Iron Age Graves from Pontecagnano." The Accordia Research Papers; the Journal of the Accordia Research Centre 3 (1992): 67-99. Von Eles Masi, Patrizia. Prahistorische Bronzefunde: Le Fi bule dell'Italia Settentrionale Munchen: C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1986. Winthur, Caroline. "Princely Tomb s of the Orientalizing Period in Etruria and Latium Vetus." Acta Hyperborea (1997): 423-446. Wolters, Jochem. "The Ancient Craft of Granulation." Gold Bulletin (1981): 119-127.

PAGE 122

122 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jennifer Hambleton received her bachelors de g ree from the University of Florida with a major in architecture and a minor in classics. On completion of that degree, she chose to stay at the University of Florida to pursue a masters degree in art history with a focus on the art of antiquity. She intends to pursue a career in art conservation.