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Successful Rural Health Programs in Persistent Poverty Counties in the Southeast United States

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021697/00001

Material Information

Title: Successful Rural Health Programs in Persistent Poverty Counties in the Southeast United States
Physical Description: 1 online resource (293 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Morfit, Susan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthropology, applied, blacks, community, economy, farmworkers, federal, health, laws, medical, migrant, persistent, policies, political, poverty, racism, rural, south
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Health care is the foundation that is required to ensure a minimally accepted quality of life. Persistent poverty counties exist throughout the entire United States but those in the southeast have persisted for generations, and, as such, require interventions to make significant changes in the health of the poorest and most vulnerable populations. This dissertation examines three successful interventions in the context of a political economy of health paradigm and how federal laws, agencies, and health policies contribute to the health of the local communities. The theoretical and methodological approaches in conducting the research and the dissertation are grounded in applied anthropology and public health. The research project conducted fieldwork at the three sites and was designed to provide information for federal level decision makers to use in crafting national health policies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Susan Morfit.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Lieberman, Leslie S.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021697:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021697/00001

Material Information

Title: Successful Rural Health Programs in Persistent Poverty Counties in the Southeast United States
Physical Description: 1 online resource (293 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Morfit, Susan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2008

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anthropology, applied, blacks, community, economy, farmworkers, federal, health, laws, medical, migrant, persistent, policies, political, poverty, racism, rural, south
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Health care is the foundation that is required to ensure a minimally accepted quality of life. Persistent poverty counties exist throughout the entire United States but those in the southeast have persisted for generations, and, as such, require interventions to make significant changes in the health of the poorest and most vulnerable populations. This dissertation examines three successful interventions in the context of a political economy of health paradigm and how federal laws, agencies, and health policies contribute to the health of the local communities. The theoretical and methodological approaches in conducting the research and the dissertation are grounded in applied anthropology and public health. The research project conducted fieldwork at the three sites and was designed to provide information for federal level decision makers to use in crafting national health policies.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Susan Morfit.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2008.
Local: Adviser: Lieberman, Leslie S.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2008
System ID: UFE0021697:00001


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da3ca55a3383aa1f8c859232d10c1e24
6c13f279e0e5dd16fe19a430baa4e1b22f9c1f29







SUCCESSFUL RURAL HEALTH PROGRAMS INT PERSISTENT POVERTY COUNTIES IN
THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES




















By

SUSAN WHEATLEY MORFIT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2008

































O 2008 Susan Wheatley Morfit



































To my beloved Parents who watch over me, and to my husband who loves and nourishes me.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Leslie Lieberman, my friend and mentor. She has been an inspiration to me since

the moment I met her in 1990. We have worked together, laughed together, and cried together.

Her enthusiasm and encouragement have been unwavering. Leslie offered me the opportunity

and experience to work on collaborative interdisciplinary research proj ects, where applied

anthropology came to life.

Many others have guided and supported me through the process of the dissertation.

Foremost, members of my committee have generously provided valuable insight and guidance.

Dr. Michael Reid, professor at the College of Public Health at University of South Florida and

the Office of Rural Health Policy staff were invaluable in aiding my understanding of the

political process of health policy at the federal level. Dr. Robert Brehl, a global health systems

expert and dear friend, listened when I was confused, offered editorial suggestions when my

logic failed me, and championed my work when I needed it the most. Most of all, I thank my

husband, Van. Ultimately, this dissertation is a product of my loving husband' s support,

guidance, and encouragement. He has endured years of my graduate studies, absences while I

was in the Hield, read all of the early drafts. And for the last stages of the dissertation, he has

cooked, cleaned, and taken care of me so that I may Einish my degree. And then there are my

beloved Irish Wolfhounds .. Brenainn, Cearbhall, and Campbell.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................. ...............10.____ ......


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............13....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 16...


CHAPTER


1 OVERVIEW ................. ...............17......... ......


Introducti on .................. ...............17......... .....
Statement of the Problem ................. ...............17......._.__....
Theoretical Framework............... ...............1
M ethods .............. .. .. .. .. ................. .. ..... ......................2

Original Ethnographic Policy Project, 1993-1994: Successful Rural Health
Programs in Persistent Poverty Counties in the Southeast United States ........._._.......22
Contract research and the PLI research team ....._.__._ ........_. ........_._......23
Development of case studies ........._._.. ....__. ...............23..
Fieldwork methods ........._.___..... .___ ...............26.....
Dissolution of the research team ..........._. ..........._._. ...... ...............27

Supplemental Research on Migrant Farmworkers, 1994-1999 ................ ................. .27
Migrant Farmworker Health Centers ...._ ................. ........___ ........ 2
Archival Research, 2002-2007 .............. ...............29....
Addendum Data, 2008 ................. ...............30___ ......
Case Study Organization .............. ...............30....

2 THE RURAL SOUTH: A PROFILE DERIVED FROM FEDERAL POLICIES .................34


Introducti on .................. ... .......... ..... ... ...............34..
Race and Ethnicity and U. S. Policy of Enumeration ........._..... ..........__. ..................3
Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the South ................. .................3 9
Poverty ................. ...............39.................
Per Capita Income .............. ...............41....
Unemployment Rates .............. ...............42....
Educational Attainment ................. ...............42.................
Access to Health Insurance .............. ...............43....
Health Outcomes 2003-2005 .............. ...............44....
Mortality Rates, all Causes ................. ...............44................
Heart Disease Mortality Rates ................. ...............44................
Cancer Mortality Rates ................. ...............45........... ....
Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ................. ...............45........... ....












Suicide Rates .............. ...............45....
Diabetes M ortality Rates .............. ...............46....


3 FEDERAL POLICIES, EXECUTIVE AGENCIES, AND PROGRAMS............_..._... ..........51

Introducti on ................... ........... ...... .. ...............51.......
National Forces and the Health Policy Process .............. ...............52....
National Legislative Structure ................... ... .......... ........... ... ..........5
Genesis of health initiatives: Illustration from the executive office ................... .....53

Changing the rules: special interest groups transmuting health care policy ............53
Participatory democracy and policy process ....._____ ..... ... .__ ...........__....54
Transmuting health laws through the judicial system.............___ ...........__ ........56
Health Care Policy Implementation: The Department of Health and Human
Services ............... .. ... ._ .. ... ...............57
United States Health Care Payment Structure ........._.._... ..............._.. ..............._._......5
National Policies, National Health Care Programs, and National Health Care Funding .......60
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services .............. ...............60....
M medicare ........._... ...... ..... ...............61....
M e dicai d ........._.._... ....... ..... ....._._........ ........6
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) ................... ...............6
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) .............. .....................6
The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) .....__ ............... ..........__ ....65
Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) ....__ ................. .........__ ......6
Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) .............. ...............69....
In Sum m ary .............. ...............71....

4 BEBE SANO .............. ...............76....


Introducti on .................. .. ......... .......... .. ............7
Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators ................. ............_ ............... 78. ....
Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990 .............. ....................79
Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990 ................. .....................80
Poverty rate .............. ...............80....
Per capital income .............. ...............8 1....
Unemployment rate ................ ...............81......__. .....
Educational attainment ................. ...............8 1..............
Selected Health Outcomes, 1992-1994 ................. ...............82........... ..
Mortality Rates .................... ....... ..............8
Infant Mortality Rates 1992-1994 ................. ...............83.......... ...
Migrant Farmworker Profile ................. ...............84........... ....
Sociodemographic Characteristics ................... ....... ... ..... .......8
Profile of Florida Migrant Farmworkers: A Comparative Population ................... .........87
Migrant Farmworker Health Status ................ ...............88................
Program History............... ...............91
Program Description............... ..............9
Outreach .............. ...............95....
Tran sp ortati on ................. ...............96................












Translation ................. ...............97.................
Staff ................ .. .......... .......... ...............99.
Chief executive officer (CEO) .............. ...............99....
Physicians ................. ... ......... ...............100......
Mi grant program coordinator ................. ...............102................
Outreach worker and health educator............... ...............10
Translator-driver............... ...........10
Funding Sources ................. ...............105......... ......
M medicaid payments .............. ...............105....
Sliding scale fee .............. ...............107....
Grant funding .............. .. ...............108.
Community Support and Opposition............... ..............10
Evaluation............... ..............11
Barriers to Care ................. ...............111................
T ennCare ................... ........... ...............111......
Racism and ethnic hatred ................. ...............118......... .....
Addendum 2008 ................. ...............119................


5 CHILDREN AND FAMILY SERVICES .............. ...............137....


Introducti on .................. .. ......... ............ ...........13
Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators ................. .............. .....................137
Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990 .............. ...................137
Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990 ................. ........._._. ....138
Poverty rates ........._.___..... ._ __ ...............138....
Per capital incomes ........._.___..... .___ ...............138....
Unemployment rates .............. ...............139....
Educational attainment .........._.... ........._..... ..... ...._._._ .. .. ............13
Selected Catchment Area Health Outcomes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiologi cal
Surveillance ........._..._... ......_._. ...............140.....
Mortality Rates, All Causes............... ...............140
Heart Disease Mortality Rates ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............141...
Cancer Mortality Rates ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............142....
Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ................. ...............143................
Suicide M ortality Rates ............ __... ........ ...............144......
Infant Mortality Rates, 1992-1994 .............. ...............145....
Catchment Area Birth Rates, 1992-1994 ................. ...............145......___..
Catchment Area Adolescent Fertility, 1992-1994 ................. ................. ....__ 146
Health Care Resources ....._____ ... ... ........ .. ...............146..

Agency History: "Building of a Dream" ............ ......................147
Agency Description .............. ... ........ ..... ..........15
Target Population, Goals, and Obj ectives ............_...... .__ .....___...........5
Agency Organization and Programs ....__ ......_____ ........___ ...........15
Department of Maternal and Infant Health ............_...... .__ .........__......154
Department of Pre-School Services .............. ...............155....
Department of Youth Services ....__. ...._.._.._ ......._.... ............5
Department of Community Services ........._._.. ....__.. ....._... ..........16












Agency Staff. ................. ................. 163........ .....
Funding Sources ................. ...............164......... ......
B barriers .............. ...............165....
Funding ............... ... .. ........... ........ ..... .. .... ..........6
Community Perceptions and Institutionalized Racism............... ...............165
Access to Primary Health Care............... ...............166.
Evaluation............... ..............16
Addendum 2008............... ...............167.


6 WEST ALAMAMA HEALTH SERVICES .............. ...............180....


Introducti on .........._..... .. ...._ __ ......_._ ...........18
Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators ................. .............. .....................184
Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990 ............... ..................184
Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990: Poverty Rates, Per
Capita Income, Unemployment Rates, and Educational Attainment ........................185
Poverty .............. ...............185....
Per capital income .............. ...............186....
Unemployment rate ................. ...............187_._._.......
Educational attainment .........._.... ........._..... ..... ...._._._ .. .. ............18
Selected Catchment Area Health Outcomes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiologi cal
Surveillance ........._..._.. ....... _. ...............188.....
M ortality Rate, All Causes .............. ...............188....
Heart Disease Mortality Rates ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............189...
Cancer Mortality Rates ........._..._.._ ...._._. ...............191....
Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ................. ...............192................
Suicide M ortality Rate ............ ............ ...............192...
Infant M ortality Rates ............ ............ ...............193...
A agency H history ................ ...... .. ........ ......... ... ... ..........19
The Great Society, Civil Rights, and the Birth of a Clinic ....___ .............. .... ........._..194
Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative .................... .............. .. ........9
Federation of Southern Cooperatives versus West Alabama Health Services. .............196
Greene County Competes for Grant Monies ........._.._. .....__ ......._. .........9
Recognition of a Problem ........._._ ...... .... ...............197..
Barriers to care ........._._ ...... __ ...............198...
Critical health care issues ........._._ ...... .... ...............198..

Agency Description .............. ...............199....
Philosophical Pragmatism .............. ...............200....
Personnel .............. ....... ...............20
Collaboration and cooperation .............. ...............202....
Tran sp ortati on ........._..... ...._... ...............202...
Hospital s ........._.._.. ...._... ...............203....
Clinical Practitioners .............. ...............204....
Funding ........._..... ...._... ...............205....
Program s........._...... .. ..... ._ .... ... .._.. ...................... 0
Planned approach to community health (PATCH) .............. ....................20
Teen Involvement Program ................. ...............207................












Health Career Opportunity Program .............. ...............210....
Additional innovative programs ................. ...............210................
Barriers to Care ................. ...............211................
Addendum 2008................ .......... .. ..... ..........21
Acquisition of Family Healthcare Corporation .............. ...............212....
Unraveling of a Black Power Structure ......__....._.__._ ......._._. ..........21

7 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. ...............230....


Di scussion and Analy si s............... .............. 23
Historical Context............... ...............230
Political Economy .............. ...............233....
Poverty and Racism ........._.___..... .___ ...............239...
Community Programs ........._.___..... .___ ...............244....
Charismatic leadership .............. ...............245....
Cultural capital .............. ...............247....
Cultural competence............... ..............24
Program funding............... ...............249
Program evaluation ............... ..... .. ......... .. .. ..........25
Fundamental factors essential for sustainability of rural health programs in
persistent poverty counties in the South ................ ..............................251
Measurable Outcomes .............. ...............252....
R ecom m endations...................... .... ... ..... .... ... ............ .......25
Recommendation 1: Model for Federally Supported Sustainable Health Programs
in Persi stent Poverty C ountie s in the Rural S outh ................. .. ........ ..... ...............25 5
Recommendation 2: Collaboration between HRSA and Applied Anthropologists ......259
Recommendation 3: Collaboration between Community Health Programs and
University M medical Centers ................ ..... .. ...... .. .. ..........6
Recommendation 4: Collaboration between Persistent Poverty Community Health
Programs and Applied Anthropologists .......................... ............... 261 ....
Summary and Conclusion............... ..............26

LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............268................


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................. ...............293......... ......










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006 and 1990: white, black, and
H ispanic .............. ...............47....

2-2 Urban versus rural poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006: white,
black, Hispanic. ........._.__ ..... ._ ...............47....

3-1 Historical review of maj or health policy legislation passed by Congress. ................... .....72

3-3 Road to universal health care, 1912 to 1965............... ...............74..

4-1 Selected 1990 Sociodemographic Characteristics for the United States, Tennessee,
catchment area population, and Willacy County, Texas............... ...............124.

4-2 Percentage of Hispanic population Mexican, 1990, for catchment area counties and
Willacy County, Texas............... ...............125.

4-3 Selected 1990 socioeconomic indicators for the United States, Tennessee, Bebe Sano
catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas ................. ...............125..............

4-4 Selected health indicators, 1992-1994, for the United States, Tennessee, Bebe Sano
catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas ................. ...............126..............

4-5 Infant mortality rates and birth rates, 1992-1994 for the United States, Tennessee,
Bebe Sano, and Willacy County, Texas............... ...............126.

4-6 Migrant health status: 20 diagnoses encountered in four migrant health centers in
Michigan, Indiana, and Texas ................. ...............127...............

4-7 Catchment area hospital resources and percent of charity care provided, 1994. .............128

5-1 Total population, percent black, percent white, and percent rural, 1990: United
States, Tennessee, Children and Family Services catchment area counties. ...................169

5-2 Percentage of population in poverty, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children
and Family Services ................. ...............169.....___ ....

5-3 Per capital incomes, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family
Services catchment area ................. ...............170.....___ ....

5-4 Unemployment rates, 1990: United States, Tennessee, Children and Family Services
catchment area. ............. ...............170....

5-5 Educational attainment as a percentage of the population 25 years or older with a
high school education or higher, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children and
Family Services............... ...............17











5-6 Mortality rates for all causes, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the
yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchm ent area. ............. ...............171....

5-7 Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the
yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area. ............. ...............172....

5-8 Cancer mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years
1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children & Family Services catchment
area ................. ...............172................

5-9 Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children & Family
Services. .............. ...............173....

5-10 Suicide mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years
1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment
area. ................. ...............173......... .....

5-11 Infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births, three year averages for the years 1992-
1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area......174

5-12 Crude birth rates per 1,000 women of child bearing age, three year averages for the
years 1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area. ............. ...............174....

5-13 Adolescent pregnancy rates, crude birth rate per females ages 10 to 17, three year
averages for the years 1992-1994: Children and Family Services' catchment area........175

5-14 Selected 1990 poverty characteristics for blacks in the Children & Family Services
catchment area. ............. ...............175....

5-15 Bright Futures: group session topics ................. ...............176..............

5-16 Illustration of Children and Family Services funding sources............... ..................176

6-1 Selected demographics, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' Catchment Area............... ...............220.

6-2 Poverty levels as a percentage of the population, 1990: United States, Alabama, and
West Alabama Health Services' catchment area. ............. ...............220....

6-3 Per capital incomes, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area............... ...............221.

6-4 Unemployment rates as a percentage of the population 16 years and older, 1990:
United States, Alabama, West Alabama Health Services' catchment area. ....................221










6-5 Educational attainment as a percentage of the population 25 years or older with a
high school education or higher, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area. .............. ...............222....

6-6 Mortality rates for all causes, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1 994United States: Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area............... ...............222.

6-7 Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area............... ...............223.

6-8 Cancer mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area............... ...............223.

6-9 Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population,
three year averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West
Alabama Health Services' catchment area. ............. ...............224....

6-10 Suicide mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area............... ...............224.

6-11 Infant mortality rates, per 1,000 live births, three year averages for the yearsl992-
1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services' catchment area. ...225










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 Political economy of health paradigm as conceptualized for the framework of the
dissertation: large-scale processes and discreet variables impacting health in
persistent poverty counties in the rural South. ............. ...............32.....

2-1 A southern courthouse in Mississippi. ............. ...............48.....

4-1 Appalachian home in Cocke County, Tennessee ................. ............... ......... ...129

4-2 Parrottsville Community Health Center and migrant farmworker health center............. 130

4-4 Bebe Sano's Driver-Translator during his birthday party at the Parrottsville
community health center ................. ...............132................

5-1 Comparison of adolescent pregnancy rates from the inception of Children and
Family Services and the time of the field site research.. ............ .....................17

6-1 West Alabama Health Services' administrative offices. A) Previous offices B)
Historical house purchased and renovated by West Alabama Health Services used as
administrative offices in 1994 ................. ...............226........... ...









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AAA American Anthropological Association

AAPA American Association of Physical Anthropologists

ACS American Community Survey

ASEC Annual Social and Economic Supplement

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CHC Community Health Center, federally qualified health center

CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (HHS agency)

CPS Current Population Survey

EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency

FQHC Federally Qualified Health Center

GDP Gross domestic product

HCFA Health Care Financing Agency now CMS (HHS agency)

HEW Health Education and Welfare (predecessor to HHS)

HHS United States Department of Health and Human Services.

HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration (HHS agency)

ICD-9 International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition

ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition

IHS Indian Health Service (HHS Agency)

NAPA National Association of Professional Anthropologists

NHSC National Health Service Corps (housed in HRSA)

OMB Executive Office of the President, Offce of Management and Budget

RAP Rapid assessment procedures

USAID United States Agency for International Development









USDA United States Department of Agriculture

WAHS West Alabama Health Services

WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Infant Children

WHO World Health Organization









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

SUCCESSFUL RURAL HEALTH PROGRAMS INT PERSISTENT POVERTY COUNTIES IN
THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

By

Susan Wheatley Morfit

December 2008

Chair: Leslie Sue Lieberman
Major: Anthropology

Health care is the foundation that is required to ensure a minimally accepted quality of life.

Persistent poverty counties exist throughout the entire United States but those in the southeast

have persisted for generations, and, as such, require interventions to make significant changes in

the health of the poorest and most vulnerable populations. This dissertation examines three

successful interventions in the context of a political economy of health paradigm and how federal

laws, agencies, and health policies contribute to the health of the local communities. The

theoretical and methodological approaches in conducting the research and the dissertation are

grounded in applied anthropology and public health. The research proj ect conducted fieldwork

at the three sites and was designed to provide information for federal level decision makers to

use in crafting national health policies.









CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW

Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Within the United States there remain pockets of sustained rural poverty identified by the

federal government as persistent poverty counties (USDA 1994). Persistent poverty counties are

rural by definition and have had sustained poverty rates of 20% or higher for the decennial years

of 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Based on 1990 data, the largest concentration of persistent

poverty counties was located in the South (82.8%) (USDA 1994a:35). Persistent poverty

counties in the South represent a large vulnerable population of nearly 9.5 million (USAD

1994a:34). Furthermore, rural locales historically have fewer health resources than urban areas

(Helseth 2008; Ricketts 1999; Wilhide 2002).

The goal of this dissertation is to examine federal health policies and' their impact on rural

health programs in persistent poverty counties in the .Sonlu A political economy of health

paradigm is used to elucidate these policies and practices and to inform future recommendations.

The dissertation contributes to the growing anthropological literature on health policy from the

perspective of "anthropology of policy." Arachu Castro and Merrill Singer define anthropology

of policy as, "studying and assessing the process of decision making, the actions of and

influences on decision makers, and the impact of policy on human lives, or in other words, an

"informed critique of policy" (2004:xiii). Three case studies are used to exemplify this approach

and its value to policy makers.

Theoretical Framework

Within the discipline of anthropology, an ever increasing number of medical

anthropologists are conducting research on issues of health vis-a~-vis health policy (see, for









example, Castro and Singer 2004). One result is the development of the Critical Anthropology

for Global Health Study Group within the Society for Medical Anthropology. The mission of the

group is to explore current and past socioeconomic and political processes to identify and expose

structural patterns that undermine the health of poor and marginalized groups (Society for

Medical Anthropology 2008). This dissertation embodies the philosophy and spirit of that

group.

The Society for Medical Anthropology was formed by applied medical anthropologists in

the late 1960s and became a formal section of the American Anthropological Association in

1972. Merrill Singer and Hans Baer (2007: 18) define applied anthropology as "the application

of anthropological theories, concepts, and methods to solving problems in the world."l Barbara

Rylko-Bauer and colleagues (2006: 187) argue that most, if not all contemporary anthropology, is

applied in nature and prefer the term "anthropology in use" to applied anthropology. Today,

more than ever before, medical anthropologists are devoted to solving current problems related

to the health and wellbeing of people within the United States as well as internationally.

Anthropologists historically have made valuable contributions to policy development

through basic research and application (Boek 19955; Boone 1991; Chambers 1989; Doughty

1987; Gearing 1973; Holmberg 1970 [1965]; Kimball 1987; O'Reilly 1991; Paul 1955; Schensul

1973, 1974; Spicer 1952; Tax 1950,1970; van Willigen 1994; Weaver 1985). Two

anthropological definitions of policy, for example, are: "a set of options from which a decision

maker must select a course of action" (Angrosino and Whiteford 1987:485), and "those

intentions which can be associated with deliberate actions in any sphere of human activity"

(Chambers 1989:38). Policy studies identify a process consisting of fluid, discernable phases, or

stages such as: (1) recognition of an issue, problem, or agenda; (2) formulation of policy through









design, planning, and public support building; (3) decision making and adoption of policy; (4)

implementation of policy; (5) evaluation; and (6) revision or termination. The process is

political and economic as well as strategies of action and is predicated on planned change

(Chambers 1989:38-39; van Willigen 2002: 161-162). Federal policies provide excellent

examples of the complexities of the policy process. Applied anthropologists are substantively

engaged in all phases of the policy process. 2

The basic premise of political economy of health paradigm asserts health phenomena are

embedded in culture and that culture is dominated by political and economic forces (Morsey

1996; Singer and Baer 1995).3 Merrill Singer and Arachu Castro (2004:xiii) and Paul Farmer

(2004:281) include racism and poverty as large-scale forces which contribute to "personal

distress and disease" (Farmer 2007:281). Consistent with the political economy of health

paradigm, Paul Farmer seeks to understand "both the individual experience and the larger social

matrix in which it is embedded to understand how various large-scale social forces come to be

translated into personal distress and disease" (2007:281; see also, Farmer 2005). For Farmer, the

examination of such social forces exposes structural violence. As such, the study of large-scale

sociocultural forces (processes) begins with an examination of the historical context. I order the

large-scale processes in a hierarchical placement (Figure 1). Another component of the political

economy of health paradigm is the examination of sociocultural relationships and linkages

between the various large-scale processes. Singer and Baer (2007:8) point out that social

relationships (e.g., ethnic relationships) and social structures that control access to resources are

fundamental factors (variables) of health. Relationships of power also are of critical concern to

medical anthropologists using this paradigm. For example, there is a striking power dissonance









between federal legislation, federal agencies and the resultant health policies and health care

provision in community health centers located in persistent poverty counties.

The political economy of health paradigm as conceptualized for this dissertation focuses

attention on the interaction of forces acting at all levels from the macro-historical context to the

local community. That is to say, the concentric circles in Figure 1 represent hierarchical levels

of organization from which various sociocultural forces emanate their influence. These rings

provide a framework for visualization of the network of interactions between actors at each level

of the hierarchy.

The first ring, representing the larger historical context, has overarching importance and

sets the stage for examination and interpretation of the linkages and relationships at all levels,

crucial to an understanding of the implementation of rural health programs. The historical

context provides insight through exposing the roots of current health policies allowing for the

elucidation of those factors driving new policies and programs. For example, the Civil Rights

legislation of the 1960s has stimulated the development of policies establishing a network of

southern rural community health clinics furthering the concept that black populations have an

equal right to many benefits enjoyed by the maj ority population (see Chambers 1989:57-60;

HHS 2008c).

The political economy ring represents political and economic forces and actors

transcending national, state and local geopolitical boundaries and operating in a historical

context that establishes their authority. These include national executive agencies, state level

medical authorities, private donors and philanthropic organizations, medical professional

societies, and even individuals who are in position to establish health care policies. These actors

may have a wide variety of legal and social authority and often do not act in concert with each









other. The relationships between these forces and actors reflect their political and economic

power and often lead them to pursue opposing goals.

The third ring, which represents poverty and racism, directly impacts local health care

availability. Poverty and racism influence power and economic relationships in each of the rings

in this model. They arise from the historical situations that generated the current social and

cultural status of the population. Intergenerational poverty and institutionalized racism were the

root causes of the sociocultural circumstances that gave rise to the local programs described in

this dissertation. They were successful local responses to widespread health and social

disparities that, unfortunately, persist today (see,http:.//www.raconline. orginfo_guides/disparities/

for a list of current publications on health disparities).

The fourth ring represents the micro level of community health programs in persistent

poverty counties. This model seeks to elucidate the interrelationships between these programs

and forces and actors in each of the other rings. In particular, this theoretical model facilitates

understanding of the status of the community health programs as they are affected over time by

changing policy emanating from the second ring.

Consistent with the political economy of health paradigm, this model further explores the

socioeconomic conditions which contribute to poor health outcomes for community members in

ring five. 4 The socioeconomic variables chosen for this model include poverty level, per capital

income, unemployment rate, and educational attainment for each county. Indicators of health

outcomes such as, selected adult mortality rates and infant mortality rates were employed to

ascertain the health of the communities.

The discipline of anthropology, with its exceptional use of cross cultural comparative

method and rich ethnographies, is well positioned to contribute to contemporary health research









vis-a~-vis other disciplines active in the pursuit of health research. Anthropologists' approach of

giving voice to marginalized and disenfranchised groups within context of the social milieu,

comparative analysis, and expert attention to cultural variables provide a unique perspective on

health issues. Applied medical anthropologists who employ a political economy of health

paradigm further our understanding of current health challenges and are uniquely prepared to

contribute to health policy research as well as to provide solutions to current health problems.

Methods

Primary and secondary data collection methods included participant observation,

interviews, rapid assessment procedures, surveys, and archival retrieval (see, DeWalt et al. 1998;

Schensul et al. 1999; Scrimshaw and Gleason 1992; Scrimshaw and Hurato 1987; Weller 1998).

Data collection for the dissertation occurred over six research stages spanning from 1993 to the

present: (1) original case study field research, 1993-1994; (2) supplemental research on migrant

farmworkers, 1994-1999; (3) supplemental field research, 1995; (4) internship at the Federal

Office of Rural Health Policy, 2001; (5) archival research, 2002-2007; and (6) case study follow-

up research, 2007-2008. The five stages of the research required different methodological

approaches, and, thus, are best understood if examined separately. The first stage, the case study

proj ect, was the result of interdisciplinary planning and collaboration and is an example of

applied anthropology policy research using rapid assessment procedures and ethnography.

Original Ethnographic Policy Project, 1993-1994: Successful Rural Health Programs in
Persistent Poverty Counties in the Southeast United States

The three case studies reported here evolved from of a larger research proj ect administered

by University of Florida at the Rural Health Research Center. The proj ect was funded in 1992

by the Office of Rural Health Policy, an office within the Health Resources and Services

Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The research was










designed to inform and guide federal policy through recommendations for improving health care

in rural, persistent low income counties (PLI) in the South. A total of six ethnographic case

studies were conducted of "successfully initiated" health programs in economically depressed

areas of the rural South (internal document dated January 8, 1993). The ethnographies covered

fiye Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

Contract research and the PLI research team

Leslie Sue Lieberman, PhD., Associate Professor of Anthropology and Pediatrics was

contracted to assist in developing the case studies, to conduct the site visits, and to write policy

briefs based on the Eindings of the case studies. She was an integral part of the interdisciplinary

research team headed by Dr. Lionel Beaulieu, Professor of Rural Sociology, and included three

professors from the Institute for Food and Agricultural Sciences, two anthropologists, and one

doctoral student in political science. I joined the interdisciplinary research team under the

guidance of Dr. Lieberman. As a member of the research team, my duties included collaborating

in selection of the case studies, preparing data collection instruments, and participating in

ethnographic fieldwork at six sites with Dr. Lieberman. Prior to my joining the research team a

group of 40 sites had been selected according to preliminary research design criteria.

Development of case studies

The case study component of the research was officially described as Successful Rural

Health Programs. The identification of the successful programs and the ultimate selection of six

for site visits was not random, but was a team decision based on a modified Delphi method of

three rounds of inquiry to reach a consensus on the programs. The Delphi method is a

systematic, interactive forecasting tool which relies on a panel of independent experts who are

given feedback after each round of inquiry (Rowe and Wright 2001). There were three phases to

the case study research:









Phase I: Identify government and voluntary health agencies at the state, district, and county
levels;
Phase II: Development of letters to send to key agencies as described in Phase I, and of survey
questionnaires for health programs recommended by the key agencies; and
Phase III: Select six programs for on-site study based on responses from Phase II inquiries.

In the process of Phase I, health agencies were identified such as, state public health

departments, regional nongovernmental health agencies (e.g., the American Heart Association,

the American Cancer Society), and universities. In Phase II, a business letter was collaboratively

designed and mailed to the health entities identified in Phase I. The letter asked key health

professionals to identify rural health initiatives, programs, or proj ects that had made a positive

impact on the health of communities they served in persistent poverty counties within their

purview (the letter included an attached list of the persistent poverty counties for the state).

Once such programs had been identified, survey questionnaires were mailed to key contact

personnel at the successful rural health programs. It was from these surveys, in Phase III, that

the case studies were chosen.

Two essential criteria had to be met to be chosen for a site visit. First, it had to be

"successful" and second, it had to be located in a persistent poverty county in the southeastern

United States. "Successful" was defined as a program that had made a significant impact on the

health of the community. The successful programs identified by state and local organizations

and agencies were defined as such by the referring agency or organization and not by the

nominated program coordinators. Forty successful rural programs in persistent poverty counties

were identified. The programs encompassed a wide range for example, state health department

state-wide programs, university based programs, county extension programs, regional programs,

county health department programs, March of Dimes programs, American Heart Association

programs, hospital outreach programs, American Cancer programs, church programs, and









programs supported by nonprofit organizations. Out of the 40 programs, the research team

selected six for site visits located in Hyve states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, and two

sites in Tennessee. Given the complexities of the six case studies and the vast amount of data

collected, the three most robust cases were chosen for inclusion in this study. A brief description

of the three case studies not included in the dissertation follows.

Say Y.E.S.: The Say Y.E.S. (to Success) project, an acronym for Youth Educated and

Self-motivated, was a joint initiative between the Henry Kaiser Family Foundation and the

Arkansas Department of Health. In the late 1980s, the then Arkansas Department of Health

Director, Dr. Joycelyn Elders (1987-1993) established the Arkansas Health Promotion Health

Promotion Proj ect, of which Say Y.E. S. was one component. 5 At that time, state authorities

recognized adolescent pregnancy as a critical problem in Arkansas (the state ranked number two

in the nation according to a pamphlet outlining the proj ect). Chicot County in southeast

Arkansas had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate in the state. State health officials selected

Eudora, in Chicot County, to receive funding and technical assistance for an adolescent

pregnancy prevention proj ect. The initiative was designed by the Chicot County Local Planning

Group, implemented by dynamic community members, and supervised by a state public health

department program officer. Say Y.E.S. began in 1991 and was funded for three years. This

program provided services to youths between the ages of Hyve and 19.

Center for Maternal Child Health and Education. This program was planned,

designed, and implemented within the De Porres Health Center (established in 1981 by

Dominican nuns from Sinsinawa, Wisconsin). The program primarily served blacks in Quitman

County, Mississippi in the heart of the Mississippi Delta in the northeast corner of Mississippi.6

In 1992, the county had been cited as having the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (81.69 per










1,000 births) in Mississippi (Mississippi State Department of Health 1994: 15). The program

provided an array of services including health education, parenting classes, limited day care, and

G.E.D. classes in a nurturing environment. All clients had access to the health center' s medical

services as well.

Nurse-Midwifery Services of Tri-County Family Health Care. This program was

located in North Florida, east of Tallahassee, providing perinatal care to Jefferson, Madison, and

Taylor Counties. Based on certified nurse-midwifery services, the program filled a critical need

in the servi ce catchment area due to the complete ab sence of ob stetri cal -gynecol ogi cal

physicians. Prenatal and postnatal care were provided--along with well-baby, family planning,

and routine gynecological services--at two service sites in Madison County with collaborative

agreements with county public health offices in Jefferson and Taylor Counties. Nurse midwives

were supervised by six OB/GYN physicians in Tallahassee, and all deliveries were carried out at

the Tallahassee Community Hospital. The majority of clients served were blacks, most of who

were covered under Medicaid.

Fieldwork methods

The methodology for the fieldwork research was based on rapid assessment procedures

(RAP): Rapid Assessment Procedures for Nutritional and Primary Health Care: Anthropological

to Improving Program Effectiveness (Scrimshaw and Hurato 1987) and Soundings: Rapid and

Reliable Research M~ethods for Practicing Anthropology, van Willigen and Finan (1991). Each

site visit was completed within two to four days. This methodology is well suited for

interdisciplinary research where the proj ect is on a short time-line and "deliverables," in this

case--the policy recommendations were given a relatively short turnaround period.









Dissolution of the research team

The research had piqued my interest in applied anthropology and the health status of

migrant farmworkers, and I soon transferred to the University of South Florida to do course work

in public health and applied medical anthropology. The research team disbanded shortly after

the site visits had been completed, but before the research had been analyzed and policy briefs

had been written. After completing course work at University of South Florida, I returned to

University of Florida to finish my dissertation on three of the original case studies.

Supplemental Research on Migrant Farmworkers, 1994-1999

During my applied studies at University of South Florida, (fall) 1994 to 1999, my primary

research subj ect was the health of migrant farmworkers. I completed a number of papers

concerning various issues: historical analysis of farmworkers in the United States, tuberculosis,

green tobacco sickness, and political economy to name a few. I completed further research on

migrant farmworkers during the spring of 1995 and 1996 by interviewing key governmental and

nongovernmental agency personnel at the national and regional level involved with migrant

health. I first interviewed the Public Health Service officer in Atlanta (Health and Human

Services, Health Resources and Services Administration) responsible for the geographic South

and who directed the regional Migrant Health Program. Other key individuals involved with

migrant health were interviewed also for example, the Acting Director of the Migrant Health

Program at HRSA in Washington D.C.

Migrant Farmworker Health Centers

Supplemental field research to the Bebe Sano case study was conducted in the summer of

1995. This second site visit to the Bebe Sano program was conducted as part of a research

proj ect examining the health needs of migrant farmworkers in eastern Tennessee, supported in

part, by the Migrant Health Program, Bureau of Primary Health Care, Health Resources and









Services Administration. The project consisted of three site visits to migrant farmworker health

clinics. The research methods for the site visits were broadly patterned after the original case

study research using rapid assessment procedures and in-depth interviews, with the addition of

focus groups, surveys, and participant-observation. Data from the 1995 research have been

incorporated into the Bebe Sano case study.

Office of Rural Health Policy Internship, 2001

I completed a summer internship at the Office of Rural Health Policy in 2001. While

working at the Office of Rural Health Policy, I was encouraged to spend time on "the Hill"

observing testimonies and briefings relating to health and rural health issues. I spent a

considerable amount of time on Capitol Hill observing the legislative health policy process on a

variety of issues, which included Congressional hearings, testimony, and committee meetings, as

well as briefings by special interest groups for legislative staff and policy interested parties. One

case in point was the testimony before the House of Representatives' Committee on Ways and

Means, Subcommittee of Health, on Rural Health Care in Medicine held on June 12, 2001.7 The

hearing was before the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission discussing the commission's

new report on M~edicare in Rural America. Testifying before the commission were Glenn

Hackbarth, J.D., Chairman of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission; Keith Mueller,

Ph.D., Director of the Rural Policy Research Institute, Center for Rural Health Policy Analysis,

University of Nebraska Medical Center; Kathleen Dalton, Ph.D., Fellow at the Cecil G. Sheps

Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and Curt

Mueller, Ph.D., Director of Proj ect HOPE, Walsh Center for Policy Analysis, Bethesda,

Maryland. The hearing had been called to develop policies to ameliorate inequitable Medicare

rates between urban and rural locales.









Most of the witnesses were academicians from university based rural health research

centers that were funded by the Office of Rural Health Policy. The report, M~edicare in Rural

America, was produced by the research centers in consultation with the Office of Rural Health

Policy. The Congressional hearing before the very powerful Committee on Ways and Means

was a critical legislative step in the process to improve the fiscal health of rural medical

providers and hospitals. The Office of Rural Health Policy staff viewed it as a historical step.

At the HRSA Office of Rural Health Policy headquarters, I attended meetings involving

numerous bureaus and offices within HRSA, participated in weekly staff meetings, and worked

on small proj ects. For example, I worked on the Mississippi Delta proj ect providing data on

available health resources and sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the

counties in the region. I was also tasked to provide similar data on western Alabama for an

official multi-governmental site visit when HRSA funding to West Alabama Health Services,

one of the three case studies in this the dissertation, was terminated. Mainly I was an

anthropologi st conducting participant-ob servation. My focus was to understand what role the

Office of Rural Health Policy played in rural health.

Archival Research, 2002-2007

Archival research was necessary to obtain supporting secondary data covering a range of

socioeconomic, sociocultural, and historical issues. In some cases, data were collected

electronically via the internet, in others, national agency libraries were access. Data were also

procured through direct contacts with government agencies. Additional archival data were

collected through the following governmental agencies: United States Census Bureau, United

States Department of Health and Human Services (e.g., HRSA, CMS, CDC), United States

Department of Agriculture, Alabama Department of Public Health, United States Department of

Labor, Tennessee Department of Health, and the Tennessee Department of Agriculture.









Furthermore, additional data not available through public sources were acquired through

the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). s From 2001 to 2003, I requested information on the

three programs from the HRSA, the agency providing funding for community health centers,

with the intent of triangulating data collected during the 1994 site visits. The results were mixed.

HRSA does not keep programs records beyond a certain time, according to sources at the Bureau

of Primary Health Care. The earliest FIOA data were from 1999; therefore, the FOIA data were

only helpful for the addendum section of the case study. Availability of information through

FOIA requests varied greatly between the three sites. For one community health center there

was a wealth of information through the grant proposals submitted to the agency for funding.

After multiple FOIA requests, HRSA released three grant applications, site multiple site visit

reports, and limited personal communication between West Alabama Health Services and

HRSA, but cited legal issues involving current criminal investigations in obtaining additional

data. For the three case study, FOIA request returned little substantive data.

Addendum Data, 2008

The final data collection was completed after the case studies had been written, for an up-

to-date report on "where they are now." Data were collected through follow-up telephone

interviews with key informants for all sites. Where noted, addendum data were also

supplemented by additional sources such as the HRSA FOIA data discussed above, census data,

state health reports, and related newspaper articles.

Case Study Organization

The three case study chapters are organized around three data components: (1) contextual

setting, (2) primary data collected from the 1994 site visits (they are in turn organized into two

main sections: program (agency) history and description of the program (agency), and (3)

addendum containing follow-up information describing the current status of the programs and










agencies. The contextual setting examines a combination of historical elements,

sociodemographic indicators, socioeconomic indicators, and health outcomes. For contextual

purposes, the sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators are based on contemporaneous

data at the time of the 1994 research using 1990 census data. Health outcome data are based on

the Centers for the Control of Diseases and Prevention' s CDC Wonder database using ICD-9

codes. Health outcomes are three-year averages for the years 1992-1994. Each case study is

unique, thus the health outcomes are tailored to the context of the programs.

Sociodemographic indicators include total population; size of county as measured by

square miles; population density measured by persons per square mile; percentage of population

by ethnic group; and percentage of the population rural. Socioeconomic indicators include

poverty as measured by percentage of all persons living in poverty; per capital income;

unemployment rate as measured percentage of population unemployed; and educational

attainment as measured by percentage all persons ages 25 years or older with a high school

diploma or its equivalent. Health outcomes include mortality rates for all causes, heart disease

mortality rates, cancer rates, cerebrovascular rates, suicide rates, infant mortality rates, and, in

some cases, total birth rates, adolescent (ages 10-17) pregnancy and birth rates. Total mortality

rates are age-adjusted, per 100,000. Infant mortality rates are per 1,000 live births; and

pregnancy and birth rates are per 1,000 women of the age range specified. All of the selected

sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health data are contrasted to U.S., state, and catchment

area populations.





















Hisioncal ContestC





Political Econ~omy



Poverty & Racism


I___
s Federal Legislation, Federal
,' Agencies, Federal Health
r Policies


Poverty Rates, Per
Capital Income,
|Unemployment Rates, &
SEducational Attainment
I---r-----


/I
Community Programs Ir/
Persistent Poverty ,'
Counties I


Members


Health
Outcomes


Figure 1-1. Political economy of health paradigm as conceptualized for the framework of the
dissertation: large-scale processes and discreet variables impacting health in
persistent poverty counties in the rural South.


1- ->













Notes


SSee also, Chambers 1986:x: Chapple 1955:2-3; Eddy and Partridge 1987: Foster 1969:54; Kushner 1994:188:
Reining 1962:1866; Stavenhagen 1971:339; and van Willigen 1993:8 for additional definitions of applied
anthropology.

2The six phases of the policy process is based on Michael Reid's interpretation of the process. Dr. Reid is a
professor at the College of Public Health, University of South Florida and teaches a course on Health Policy and
Politics. Chambers (1989:41) defines the process in four stages: formulation, planning, implementation, and review,
while others describe it as a policy cycle (Lammers 1997: Angrosino and Whiteford 1987).

SThe concepts of political forces and economic forces as processes are based on Marxist ideology (Marx 1904
[1859]:203).

SHealth researchers have long recognized there is a decisive link between health and socioeconomic status
(Berkman and Kawachi 2000; Graham 2004; Link and Phelan 1995: Marmot and Wilkinson 1999; Shaw et al.
1999). Medical sociologists Bruce Link and Jo Phelan (1995:84-87) argue that social conditions are fundamental
causes of disease due to differential access to basic resources, which they define as money, knowledge, power,
prestige, and social support. Access to these basic resources is the major factor in determining how susceptible
people are to disease, and therefore social determinants such as race, ethnicity and poverty must be contextualized in
order to be understood. This is not a new concept, in 1848, Rudolf Virchow, a clinical pathologist, reported the link
between poverty and ethnicity as a major determinate of poor health (Singer and Baer 1995:19-21).

5 Dr. Joycelyn Elders was the U.S. Surgeon General from September 1993 to December 1994.

6 The county, as we drove through the catchment area, was the most economically depressed we had encountered
during the site visits. We found ourselves in what appeared to be a third-world country. There was no business
section or stores. Finding a gas station was problematic.

SAt the Office of Rural Health Policy, the hearing was referred to as the "MedPAC hearing," Medicare Payment
Advisory Commission, a hearing for the "roll out" of the new report to Congress, "Medicare in Rural America,"
which they were stakeholders

SThe FIOA request was broadly defined: I requested any information on the three organizations, and not
specifically a program.









CHAPTER 2
THE RURAL SOUTH: A PROFILE DERIVED FROM FEDERAL POLICIES

Introduction

The context of rural health in the South as part of the macro health care system of the

United States requires a clear understanding of how the United States health care system

compares to other analogous nations. Common comparisons used by health researchers are

made between member nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

(OECD). The thirty OECD nations are democratic nation states based on capitalist economies

(OECD 2008a; 2008b).l Based on such comparisons, the U.S. care system is the most costly and

usually has less favorable outcomes on many critical measures (Cylus and Anderson 2007; Davis

et al. 2007; Kaiser Family Foundation 2007a; Nolte and Mc~ee 2008; World Health

Organization [WHO] 2000).2 WHO, in 2000, ranked the U.S. health care system as 37th among

191global nations (WHO 2000).

Race and Ethnicity and U.S. Policy of Enumeration

The South's agrarian roots and their relationship with the practice of slavery from the 17th

century through the mid-19th century produced a unique social order unlike others across the

United States (see, for example, Morris 1996; Ruef and Fletcher 2003). Resultant patterns of

structural inequality and discrimination against blacks persist even into the 21st century (in the

South) (Ruef and Fletcher). Moreover, the historical effects of slavery have had significant

political, economic, religious, moral, and ethical ramifications that remain patently visible in the

contemporary South. Since the founding of the English colonies and the establishment of black

African slavery in the South, the Judeo-Christian heritage passed down through English law

finds expression in cultural icons that were used to support and reinforce the establishment and

continuance of racism (Morris 1996:262-271). As a poignant case in point, during the course of









the site visits in 1994, we came across a courthouse in rural Mississippi with the phrase

"Obedience to the Law is Liberty" chiseled in stone across the facade (see Figure 2-1). This

epigram served as a moral, religious, and legal allusion the hierarchical places, or duties, of

masters and their slaves in society prior to the Civil War (Morris 1996:262-271; Spencer 1850).

After the Civil War, this icon along with other iconic symbols (e.g., the Confederate flag,

uniforms, and other Civil War memorabilia) stood as a constant reminder of the black' s social

standing in the South.

Slavery and its historical legacy of racism are topics far too broad for the current

discussion. Mindfulness of these concepts provides added clarity to the relationship between

persistent poverty status in the South and the influence of federal policy in maintaining or

relieving the plight of the disadvantaged in the rural South. Racism was deeply entrenched and

permeated each of the case studies.3

The racial and ethnic categories established by U.S. Census Bureau policies have

confounded the enumeration and the interpretation of health statistics for U. S. minority

populations. Periodic revisions of racial and ethnic Census definitions significantly alter the

categorization of population data among and between various racial and ethnic groups. Federal

policies reify and perpetuate race as a valid "official" concept. Furthermore, these classifications

are reflected in popular culture but are often misinterpreted and misused classifications of

people. The U.S. Census Bureau reports on a wide assortment of sociodemographic and

socioeconomic indicators. All of the variables cited within the dissertation for contextual and

comparative methods thus are designed and reported based on federal definitions and policies.

As a case in point, health outcome data are categorized and reported consistent with Executive

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definitions and guidelines. Federal policies designed









for the enumeration of the U. S. population are used in government agencies for a variety of

purposes including health statistics used to inform health policies and to determine allocation of

resources (OMB 1997). The OMB definitions and guidelines reify an official delineation of race

and group membership in America through the decennial census.

Medical anthropologist Robert Hahn (1998) traces classification changes made to the

decennial census of 1970 andl980 demonstrating the U. S. Census Bureau' s and the public' s

confusion over group membership. For example, Hahn (1998:264) found that of the people who

identified themselves as "Hispanic" in the 1980 census 40% selected "other race" when asked

what racial group they belonged to--they did not consider themselves racially white or black.

The government's intent was, and is, to bifurcate Hispanics into black or White Hispanics, a

categorization that is consistent with the historical racial bifurcation of the country into white or

black (see Lott 1993). Hahn (1998:265) notes in another example, based on the 1980 census,

that only 73% of the people who reported they were of "American Indian race" claimed

American Indian ancestry; the other 27% claimed European or "other" ancestry. He attributes

this incongruence to the respondents not understanding the terminology used in the census forms,

but his examples also indicate basic conceptual differences between those who construct the

official survey instruments used by the U.S. Census Bureau and those who respond to them.

The 1990 census classified the U.S. population in four primary racial groups: Asian,

Black/Negro, Native Indian/Native Alaskan, and White. The 1990 census also included ethnic

categories: Aleut, Asian American, Black, or Negro, Chinese, Eskimo, Filipino, Guamanian,

Hawaiian, Indian American, Japanese, Korean, other, Asian Pacific Islander, Samoan,

Vietnamese, White Hispanic origin of any race, and White not of Hispanic origin (AAA 2008).

In 1997, OMB redefined the categories of race five categories and which were used for the 2000









census: Asian, Black/African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Native Indian/Native

Alaskan, and White. The ethnicity categories were compressed to Hispanic and NonHispanic

(RACE 2008). For the first time in the history of the census, respondents had the opportunity to

classify themselves as more than one race. These multiracial categories have further confused

the interpretation of Census data.

There is particular confusion regarding the terms race and ethnicity (Hahn 1998; Ahdieh

and Hahn 1996). The terms are abstracted classifications that are culturally constructed as

products of the political system (see Gravlee and Sweet 2008; Harrison 1997; Marks 1995;

Molner 1992). As such, topologies of race and ethnicity provide little insight into contemporary

genetic variation of living populations (see for example, the American Association of Physical

Anthropologists' [AAPA] "Statement on Biological Aspects of Race" [1996]; American

Anthropological Association 1998a; Harrison 1997:392-394; Hartigan 2006; Mukhopadhyay and

Moses 1997:520-521; Smedley 2007). The American Anthropological Association's (AAA)

official "Statement on Race" concludes: "Given what we know about the capacity of normal

humans to achieve and function within any culture, we conclude that the present-day inequities

between so-called racial groups are not consequences of their biological inheritance but products

of historical and contemporary social, economic, educational, and political circumstances" (AAA

1998a).4 In addition, the "AAPA Statement on Biological Aspects of Race" clearly states that

"there is no national, religious, linguistic or cultural group or economic class that constitutes a

race" (AAPA 1996). The American Anthropological Association has an educational program

called "RACE: Are We So Different," which includes traveling museum exhibit, website

(http ://www.understandingrace. org), and educational curriculum to educate the public on the

concept of race.









The latest census figures from 2000 demonstrate the three largest groups of the South were

white, black, and Hispanic (U. S. Census Bureau 2007d).5 The distribution of the three groups in

2007 was: white 75.1%, black 12.3%, and Hispanic 12.5%. The Hispanic population in the U.S.

is the fastest growing group, with a 57.9% increase since 1990 (U.S. Census Bureau 2004). The

Hispanic population now surpasses blacks by just over a half a million people (U. S. Census

Bureau 2001b; U.S. Census Bureau 2002). In the South though, blacks outnumber Hispanics in

every state except Florida where Hispanics represent 16.8% of the population and blacks

represent 14.6%. Whites still remain the most populous group for every state in the South,

although their ratios fluctuate from 95.0% in West Virginia to 64. 1% in Mississippi (U.S. Census

Bureau 2007d).

Forty-one percent (over 14 million) of all blacks counted in the 2000 decennial census

lived in the South as compared to only 17% (5.9 million) of all Hispanics (Census Bureau

2001d). For every Southern state--except Kentucky and West Virginia--blacks surpass the

national average of 12.3% ranging from 36.3% of the population in Mississippi to 14.6% in

Florida (U.S. Census Bureau 2007d). Blacks have been concentrated in the rural South within

the Cotton Belt region as a historical consequence of slavery (Beale 2004; U.S. Census Bureau

1904: 11).6

It is important to distinguish between racial and ethnic subgroups within the general

population to monitor health disparities that are masked in the aggregate data in what Singer and

Clair refer to as an "ethnoepidemiological surveillance" (2003:434). For example, infant

mortality rates are considered to be a sensitive indicator of a population's health status as well as

an index of living standards and availability of health care (Timmerick 1994: 106; Williams,

Baumslag, and Jelliffe 1994:180). At the aggregate national level, the infant mortality rate in









2003-2005 (three-year average) was 6.8 per 1,000 live births. However, when the data are

disaggregated by racial and ethnic groups a different picture emerges: white infant mortality rate

was 5.7 per 1,000 live births, and the black infant mortality rate was significantly higher, 13.8

per 1,000 live births-demonstrating a gross difference between the two groups (CDC 2007).7

Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the South

The Southeastern United States, for the purpose of the dissertation, is defined by the

following twelve states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi,

North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, collectively referred to

as the South. Historically, the South has been pervasively rural, poorer, more extensively black,

and deficient in health care resources compared to the rest of the country (U. S. Census Bureau

2001d, 2007a, 2007g, 2007h, 2007i; USDA 2001c; see also, Ricketts et al 1999). With few

exceptions, the South, in contrast to other regions of the country, had the highest number of

uninsured, highest poverty rate, lowest per capital income, highest unemployment rate, lowest

educational attainment, and far worse health outcomes both in 1990 and 2000-2006.8 ,9 For

example, as of 2006, approximately 47 million people in the United States lacked any form of

health insurance, and 43% of the uninsured resided in the South (U.S. Census Bureau 2007h). In

the rural vestiges of the South these conditions are far more pronounced.

Poverty

The South has been the poorest region in the continental United States for generations. In

examining the historical poverty tables maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau, the South

consistently has been the poorest region of the United States since 1959 (U. S. Census Bureau

2007a; see also, Cardiff Nd). Nearly 15 million people in the South were living in poverty in

2006--nearly 14% of the population (U.S. Census Bureau 2007g: 11, 2007i). More revealing are

the 2006 poverty levels for the minority populations in the South, as measured as a percent of the









population living in poverty: white 9. 1%, black 23.1%, and Hispanic 21.7% (U.S. Census Bureau

2007i) (Table 2-1). There are well defined differences in access to economic resources between

the three groups, although the poverty levels for all groups had improved since 1990 (U.S.

Census Bureau 1993g). Urban and rural data for 2006 are also striking (Table 2-2.). 10 White

urban poverty level was 7.6% compared to 14.7% for white rural poverty; black urban poverty

was 21.5% compared to 30% for black rural poverty; Hispanic urban poverty was 21.1 compared

to 28. 1% for Hispanic rural poverty (U.S. Census Bureau 2007i). These data illustrate that

blacks living in the rural South are the most impoverished group of the three compared.

Persistent poverty counties in the South. Poverty and its effects are also patently evident

at the county level. In the 1970s the USDA designed categories for rural counties based on

policy relevant information to assist policy makers in funding and other decisions, as well as

legislation, affecting specific issues of socioeconomic and political concern. One of these

categories, persistent poverty counties, identified counties that historically have been desperately

poor for generations. The original federal policy definition of a persistent poverty county was a

nonmetro county that had poverty rates 20% or higher at the decennial data points of 1950, 1960,

and 1970. During President Johnson' s War on Poverty initiative, the identification of persistent

poverty counties became a powerful tool for the federal government to allocate funds to areas

most in need. By the 1990s, the persistent poverty definition was updated using the decennial

data points 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 (USDAl994a). But by the mid-1990s, use of this policy

category of persistent poverty counties waned from the federal government' s ideology due to

changes in definitions of some of the supporting criteria (Beale 2004; OMB 2006; USDA 2007).

According to the USDA, the federal government recognizes nine definitions of rural

(UDSA 2007). The multiplicity of definitions makes data comparisons between federal agencies









particularly difficult. The U.S. Census Bureau uses six different definitions, the Office of

Management and Budget uses one (the preferred definition advocated by the White House), and

USDA uses two. Beginning with the 2000 decennial census, federal agencies that collect,

tabulate and publish federal statistics are encouraged to use the OMB definition, which is based

on the concept of metropolitan statistical areas, for "program administration and fund allocation

purposes" (OMB 2006). Metropolitan statistical areas include "one or more counties containing

a core urban area of 50,000 or more people, together with any adj acent counties that have a high

degree of social and economic integration (as measured by commuting to work) with the urban

core" (USDA 2007). OMB defines rural as "all counties outside metropolitan areas in 2003

(based on 2000 census data)" (USDA 2007). This is a critical shift in federal policy boundaries.

The new definition of"rural" creates an alternative rural America. 1 With the new

classification, less of the populace is rural, and thus, fewer federal dollars are required to fund

rural issues. This one definitional change greatly impacts 12 out of 15 counties profiled in this

dissertation: using the 2006 OMB definition for program administration and fund allocation,

only seven counties are designated as nonmetropolitan (USDA 2007). For example, currently

only one of the three case studies reported in this dissertation would qualify as rural research

because only one primary county is designated as rural (nonmetropolitan) (USDA 2004a). 12

Along with USDA, the U.S. Census Bureau classifies the primary counties for Children and

Family Services and West Alabama Health Services as metropolitan: Tipton County is now

within the Memphis metro area, and Greene County, Alabama is now part of the Tuscaloosa

metro area (U.S. Census Bureau 2000).

Per Capita Income

Another indicator of poverty in the South is per capital income. 13,14 The average 2006 per

capital income for the United States was $25,267. Viewing per capital incomes for the three










largest groups nationwide, the per capital income for whites was the highest, $27,951; black per

capital income was the second highest, $16,559; and Hispanics had the lowest per capital income

level, $14,736. Consistent with the regional poverty structure, the South's per capital income, at

$23,691, was lower than the national average and the lowest of the four regions. The per capital

incomes in the South for the three groups were: white $26,683, black $15,856, and Hispanic

$14,583 (U.S. Census Bureau 2008).

Unemployment Rates

The 2006 unemployment rate for the general U.S. population was 6.4%. White

unemployment was 5.3% compared to 12.6% for blacks and 7.5% for Hispanics. In the South

the unemployment rate was 6.5%, second only to the Midwest region where the unemployment

rate was 6.7%. Blacks living in the Midwest also had the highest unemployment rate (16.4%) of

the four regions. In all of the regions, blacks had the highest unemployment rate. Hispanics in

all regions had relatively low unemployment rate, higher than whites, but significantly lower

than the black rates. 1 In the South the white unemployment rate was five percent, the black rate

was 11.8%, and the Hispanic rate was 6.8% (U. S. Census Bureau 2008).

Educational Attainment

One startlingly observation we made in traveling through the South was the practice of

intractable, racially segregated school systems at nearly all six sites. After the court ordered

desegregation, whites responded by creating private Academies and staffing them with white

teachers and administrators from the public schools, leaving black children just as they were

before desegregation-segregated-albeit with improved school buildings previously occupied

by white students. One informant recalling the process said that after the academies were

established, funding for the school board was cut and newly elected black educational









administrators lacked the knowledge to run the school system, a process that was replicated

throughout the South and continues today (see Whorisky 2007).

In 2006, 85.5% of the U. S. population 25 years or older had graduated from high school.

Women were slightly more likely to have a high school diploma than men (85.9% versus 85.0%

respectively) (U.S. Census Bureau 2007j). The white population had the highest education

attainment rate (90.6%), followed by blacks (82.3%), then Hispanics (60.3%). 16 While these

statistics show striking differences between the groups, educational attainment for all groups are

dramatically higher than they were in 1990. The 1990 educational attainment for blacks was

66.2%, 50.8% for Hispanics, and 77.6% for whites (U.S. Census Bureau 2007j). Regionally, the

South had the lowest educational attainment in 1990 and 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau 2003:3).

Access to Health Insurance

Intrinsically linked to health and poverty is the availability of health insurance. As of

2006, nearly 20.5 million people in the South, 19% of the Southern population, had no form of

health insurance (U.S. Census Bureau 2007h). Another 13 million Southerners were recipients

of Medicaid and over 15 million were covered by Medicare. Taken together these three

populations, the uninsured and those insured through Medicaid and Medicare, represent over 45

million people--nearly half of the Southern population (U. S. Census Bureau 2007h).

According to the National Rural Health Association (1999; Pol 2000:7), the rural South as

of 1999 had the highest level of uninsured in the nation with minorities populations particularly

at risk. For example, as of 2006, 53.1% of Southern blacks either lacked health insurance

coverage, or were enrolled in Medicaid, or coved under Medicare. In comparison, 38.6%

Southern whites fell in the same categories (U.S. Census Bureau 2007h). Of critical note is the

burden these three populations place on local communities with limited health care resources,

particularly in persistent poverty counties, for, in the rural South, the vast maj ority of the









uninsured, Medicaid, and Medicare recipients receive their health care from community health

centers. Each group presents significant economic challenges to the Southern states: Medicare

through its disproportionately lower reimbursement payment rates, Medicaid which requires

state matching funds, and uninsured where indigent funding is nebulous at best. 17It is clear that

economic burden of these three groups in persistent poverty counties is on the increase with a

stagnating economy and high unemployment rates.18,~ 19

Health Outcomes 2003-2005

The health of the South, as measured by death rates for all causes and the three leading

causes of death (heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease) is comparatively worse than

in other regions of the country, with the exception of cancer rates. 20 Additionally, suicide rates

are also profiled as an indicator of mental health. Morbidity data have been excluded from the

analysis due to the difficulty in obtaining county level data for chronic disease indicators.

Mortality Rates, all Causes

The South generally fares worse than the general population in regard to most leading

mortality rates. The overall mortality rate for the U.S. population was 810.6 per 100,000 of the

population for the years 2003-2005. The national rate for whites was considerably lower at 796

per 100,000 versus 1,036.1 per 100,000 for U.S. blacks. The overall mortality rate for the South

for the same period was 858.3 per 100,000, regionally the highest in the United States. Southern

blacks, on the other hand, far exceeded the national average with a rate of 1,072. 1 per 100,000.21

Southern mortality rates for heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease followed a similar

pattern.

Heart Disease Mortality Rates

The U.S. mortality rate for heart disease, the leading cause of death in America was 220. 1

per 100,000. Regionally the South had the highest rate (229.4 per 100,000) in the United States.










In every region of the country, whites maintained lower heart disease mortality rates compared to

blacks. In the South, the white mortality rate was 222.1 per 100,000 versus 283.2 per 100,000for

blacks.22

Cancer Mortality Rates

The national cancer mortality rate, the second leading cause of death in the United States,

was 186.5 per 100,000. For whites, the rate was only slightly lower, 185.2 per 100,000, but for

blacks the rate was appreciably higher at 227.7 per 100,000. Regionally, the Midwest had the

highest cancer mortality rate in the nation (192.5 per 100,000), followed by the South with a rate

of 191.7 per 100,000. Southern blacks had a rate of 23 1.9 compared to 186.9 per 100,000 for

Southern whites.23

Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates

The third leading cause of death in the United State is cerebrovascular disease, which

includes stroke. The national mortality rate due to cerebrovascular disease was 50.0 per 100,000.

The South had the highest rate of all regions (53.7 per 100,000). Southern blacks had the highest

rate in the country--77.3 per 100,000. Southern whites, however did not have the highest rate,

but rather, the West had the highest mortality rate (51.2 per 100,000) due to cerebrovascular

disease.

Suicide Rates

Death by suicide is one health indicator that does not follow the pattern of the leading

causes of death. The national rate was 10.9 per 100,000. However, when the data are

disaggregated, the suicide rate for the white population was 11.9 per 100,000 compared to 5.3

per 100,000 for U. S. blacks. At the regional level, the West had the highest suicide rate (all

persons) (12.4 per 100,000), and the South had the second highest rate (11.7 per 100,000). The

same pattern emerged when the data are disaggregated.









Diabetes Mortality Rates

Death due to diabetes is a nationwide health concern as the prevalence rates of diabetes

continues to rise. Although an analysis of diabetes was excluded from the case studies (data

were not available at the county level), there is evidence that suggests Southerners, and black

Southerners in particular, suffer from the highest rates of diabetes in the country (CDC

2005b:483). In a study of the prevalence of stroke, the CDC (2005b) reported that blacks living

in the Southeastern United States had a diabetes prevalence rate of 12.1% versus 10.7% for

blacks living in non-Southeastern regions of the country. The diabetic disease burden for whites

living in the Southeastern U.S. was much less at a rate of 7.6%. Mortality rates, based on 2003-

2005 data, draw a more troubling picture. The national death rate due to diabetes was 24.8 per

100,000. White Americans had a rate of 22.6 per 100,000, while the rate for U. S. blacks was

more than double at 48.0 per 100,000. At the regional level, the South had the highest rate.

Southern blacks had the highest mortality rate in the country, 51.3 per 100,000.

Taken together-sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health indicators--the population

of the South, especially minorities, represents a vulnerable subset of people in the United States.

The rural poor of the South in persistent poverty counties are of particular risk, as the case

studies will demonstrate. Almost without exception, the indicators reviewed in this chapter are

far worse in persistent poverty counties of the South.











Table 2-1. Poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006 and 1990: white, black, and
Hispanic
Year White % Black % Hispanic %
2006 9.1 23.1 21.5
1990 11.3 31.6 28.1
Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2007i, Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and
Economic (ASEC) Supplement, Table POV41. Region, Division and Type of Residence--
Poverty Status for All People, Family Members and Unrelated Individuals by Family
Structure: 2006. Electronic document,
http://pubdb3 .census.gov/macro/032007/pov/new4 1_100_01.htm, accessed March 2008;
1993g: 160-1,164, 1990 Census of Population: Social and Economic Characteristics, United
States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Table 136. Summary of Social and
Economic Characteristics for White Persons and for Households and Families with a White
Householder: 1990; Table 137. Summary of Social and Economic Characteristics for Black
Persons and for Households and Families with a Black Householder: 1990; Table 140.
Summary of Social and Economic Characteristics for Hispanic Origin Persons and for
Households and Families with a Hispanic Origin Householder: 1990.

Table 2-2. Urban versus rural poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006: white,
black, Hispanic.
White Black Hispanic
Urban % Rural % Urban % Rural % Urban % Rural %
7.6 14.7 21.5 30.0 21.8 28.1
Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2007i, Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and
Economic (ASEC) Supplement, Table POV41. Region, Division and Type of Residence--
Poverty Status for All People, Family Members and Unrelated Individuals by Family
Structure: 2006.





---~--


Figure 2-1. A southern courthouse in Mississippi (Note: Photograph by Susan Morfit, 1994.)












Notes


SThe OECD countries are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United
States (OECD 2008b).

SCited health care researchers, with the exception of WHO, refer to developed and industrialized nations
interchangeably; however, all are referring to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
nations. Not all researchers compare all 30 countries. For the most part, the above cited researchers compare the
U.S. health care system to countries that maintain universal health care systems.

SEach case study will discuss race and racism as it relates to their individual history.

SThis is the most current official statement.

SWhite and black are racial categories, and Hispanic is an ethnic category.

6JUSt prior to the Civil War (1859), there were ten leading cotton producing states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas (U.S. Census Bureau
1969:8-9). For the purposes of this discussion, the Cotton Belt region encompasses all but Florida and Texas.

SData were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Wonder data set and were three
year averages. Data by race is reported in three categories only: white, black, and other.

SThe U.S. Census Bureau divides the continental U.S. into four regions: the Northeast, Midwest, West, and South.

9 Beginning with the 2000 decennial census, the U.S. Census Bureau has changed its public use presentation of
data for minorities, eliminating some detailed comparisons. Data for the three largest groups are not available for
the comparable variables used for the 1990 decennial census for the case studies.

'0 Before examining rural poverty patterns, a note about the terms of rural/urban and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan
is useful. These terms are official federal agency definitions that are somewhat contrasting. The U.S. Census
Bureau uses the terms urban and rural based on population densities as well as the terms metropolitan (metro) and
nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) which measures the degree of urban and rural patterns for every county in the United
States based on a numeric coding system: 0 to 3 measure levels of urbaneness and 4 to 9 measure levels of rurality,
commonly referred to as the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes (USDA 2001d). In conjunction with the Rural-Urb~an
Continuum Codes, the USAD applies the codes to nonmetro counties (1) non-overlapping categories of farming,
mining, manufacturing, government, services, and nonspecialized and, (2) overlapping policy categories of
retirement, federal lands, commuting, persistent poverty, and transfers. The ideology behind the coding was to
provide a more specific description of counties for federal policy decision making (see Cook and Mizer 1994).

11 Under the U.S. Census Bureau's six definitions of rural, the percentage of the U.S. population designated as rural
fluctuates from 21%/to 63%; under USDA's two definitions of rural 20%to 36% of the population is deemed rural;
and under the most restrictive definition of rural, as supported by the president, only 17% of the U.S. population is
considered rural (USDA 2007).

'2 Only the Beb6 Sano program would quality as rural research by OMB's 2006 definition. The primary counties
for West Alabama Health Services (Greene County, Alabama) and Children and Family Services (Tipton) are now
designated as metropolitan. Tipton County was coded as a metropolitan county in 1990, but was included in the
study because two of the counties served by the agency were designated as persistent poverty counties. By USDA's
latest county policy designations, none of the counties in Children and Family Services' catchment area are
persistent poverty counties (USDA 2007).

13 The latest data available by region and ethnicity rural for per capital incomes, unemployment, and educational
attainment are derived from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 American Community Survey (ACU) (U.S. Census












Bureau 2008). The ACU does not provide data by region, urban versus rural, and by ethnicity that is, there are no
comparisons of regional urban-rural with regard to ethnicity.

14 Comparison of per capital incomes between 2006 and 1990 have been excluded from the analysis since the data is
not adjusted for inflation and the dollar values are not comparable.

15 The black unemployment rates for the four regions ran from 11% to 16.4%, while the Hispanic unemployment
rates ranged from 6.8% to 8.7%. The Hispanic unemployment rate was highest in the Northeast and the lowest in
the South. The lowest black unemployment rate was in the West.

16 Educational attainment in this context is measured by the U.S. Census Bureau as a percentage of the population
25 years or older with a high school diploma, or its equivalent, or higher (U.S. Census Bureau 2003:1).
Computation of Hispanic educational attainment began in 1974 (U.S. Census Bureau 2007j).

'7 Related to the relative numbers of Medicare recipients, in the rural South is the level of reimbursement that is
paid for services under the program. Traditionally, cost reimbursement for Medicare has been disproportionately
lower in the South than other regions of the country and even lower for rural areas as compared to urban areas (see
Nycz and Schmelzer 1992 for an in-depth discussion of Medicare payment distribution). Mueller et al. (1999)
ascribe this payment discrimination to the misconception that services rendered in rural regions are less costly than
in urban locales (see also, Ricketts 2000:646). With the advent of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 this rural/urban
inequity was addressed through a new payment methodology which has improved the payment distribution
somewhat, but inequities are predicted to continue "with rural payment rates remaining consistently lower than
urban payment rates" (Mueller et al. 1999:79-82).

1s According to the National Rural Health Association (1999:3: see also, Pol 2000; Schur and Franco 1999), this
pattern is exaggerated in the rural regions and is due to more than just gross poverty levels, but is exacerbated by
employment situations (where insurance coverage is more limited, e.g., working for a small business or employment
in agricultural based work) and national trends (e.g. escalating health insurance premiums and decreasing coverage
of dependants by employers).

19 Peggy Cook (2000) suggests that a robust economy in the 1990s coupled with changes enacted through welfare
reform in 1996 contributed to a decline in Medicaid roles and other welfare programs. However, since 1999, the
national Medicaid roles have increased considerably. In 1992, for example, 10.3% of the U.S. population was
enrolled under Medicaid, by 2006 the number had risen to 12.9% (U.S. Census Bureau 2007k: U.S. Census Bureau
2007h).

20 All 2003-2005 mortality rates are age adjusted, three-year averages per 100,000 population and are based on
ICD-10 codes (CDC 2008).

21 Regionally, the Midwest blacks had the highest mortality rate (1,091.4) slightly higher than Southemn blacks
(1,072.1).

22Again, Midwest blacks had a higher heart disease rate (303.4) than Southemn blacks (283.2).

23Again, Midwest blacks had a higher cancer rate (247.1) than Southemn blacks (231.9).









CHAPTER 3
FEDERAL POLICIES, EXECUTIVE AGENCIES, AND PROGRAMS

Introduction

Prominent national-level forces greatly impact the health of Americans in the rural South

and are basic elements of our society. These forces include politics, economics, and

institutionalized racism. They permeate and saturate laws and policies governing health services

at all levels of government. Underpinning the health system in the impoverished rural South, I

will argue, are dominant federal policies and executive agencies that pervasively influence how

health care is provided at the community level, often leaving the rural poor and their health care

practitioners relatively powerless to control their own future. Specifically, health care for the

impoverished in the rural South is intrinsically linked to the national health policy process and is

reflected through sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health outcome indicators as discussed

in Chapter 2.

The delivery of health care in the rural southeastern United States is influenced by a

number of structural forces at the federal, state, and local level within each of the rings in the

theoretical model. These structural forces encompass health policy, financing, health care

resources, institutions, organizations, poverty, and race and ethnicity to name only a few of the

more entrenched and obvious, yet at times, transparent and invisible forces. They originate at all

political levels, but national level concerns have an overarching influence and often eclipse

forces at other political levels. The delivery of health care in the rural Southeast must thus be

viewed within the larger geopolitical milieu of which it is part, with specific consideration of

health care in relation to the national political system and the overall U.S. health care system.









National Forces and the Health Policy Process

The federal government has greatly influenced health policy since the mid-19th century

(Table 3-1). Previously, health care policy rested in the domain of the states and the medical

community. With the passage of decades of health legislation, the federal government has

become the most powerful conduit in the health care policy process. As defined for the purposes

of this work, the health care policy process is the recognition of a health problem (genesis), its

transformation to law, subsequent implementation, and its temporal transformation. The process

will be illustrated through a series of examples. The United States legislative structure, a critical

macro structure directing health policy, is a convenient starting point in the contextualization of

the process.

National Legislative Structure

Fundamental to the U.S. political system is the constitutional separation of powers. This

constitutional delineation provides checks and balances for the three branches of government:

executive, legislative, and judicial (Litman 1997:7, 11). At the macro level, the legislative

branch is composed of Congress, which is divided into two chambers, the Senate and the House

of Representatives. Congress has the constitutional responsibility to establish public law,

monitor federal agencies, and allocate funds for federal programs. The legislative process is

complicated and arduous. It is based on negotiation and compromise and one that does not allow

for easy passage or reforms of public laws (see Litman 1997; Falcone and Hartwig 1997 for an in

depth account). Yet, many major changes to the United States health care system have occurred

through the federal legislative process (Table 3-1). Even legislation that is not written to address

health issues specifically may have dramatic influence on health care policy, for example, the

1960s Civil Rights legislation.









Genesis of health initiatives: Illustration from the executive office

More important to the topic under discussion is the genesis of health care legislative

initiatives. Legislative initiatives can be proposed by members of Congress, the President (the

executive office), and by organizations, individuals, special interest groups, and through direct

lobbying to Congress, to name only a few. However, according to Falcone and Hartwig

(1997: 141), in the last twenty years the responsibility has shifted significantly to the executive

branch. The office of the President has the power to propose, lobby, and veto legislation at the

discretion of the President. As a rule, Presidents come to office with legislative agendas already

formulated by their presidential candidate platforms (see Lammers 1997 for a detailed account of

presidential leadership in policy formation). For example, in the presidential campaign of 2000

between Al Gore and George W. Bush; both candidates campaigned to provide prescription

drugs to Medicare recipients. However, to make that campaign promise a reality, President Bush

submitted a legislative bill to Congress and was passed by a maj ority vote before becoming a law

(Medicare Modernization Act) in December 2003 (Kaiser Family Foundation 2008a). In other

cases, groups or individuals can petition (lobby) the president directly to initiate legislation on

their behalf.

Changing the rules: special interest groups transmuting health care policy

The transition from one presidential administration to the next is an opportunity to examine

how health care policy is transmuted by politics. On Sunday, February 25, 2001, The New York

Times reported that the National Governor' s Association and the National Association of State

Medicaid Directors ". have convinced the new administration that [the new] Medicaid rules

are flawed and should be reconsidered ." (Pear 2001). The headline reads "States ask Bush to

revoke Clinton's Medicaid rules" that were, according to the article, "issued in the final hours of

the Clinton administration." These two associations, wasting little time (the new administration









had been in office for barely more than a month), were lobbying President Bush to use his

executive powers to change the language of a law passed in 1997, the Balanced Budget Act of

1997 (HHS 2001a). In this law, provisions were made to extend a "Patients' Bill of Rights" to

persons enrolled in Medicaid managed care programs referred to as the "Medicaid Managed

Care Rule" (HHS 2001a). In order to understand why the governors and the Medicaid directors

waited until this particular point in time to lobby the President for changes in legislation passed

by Congress in 1997, it is helpful to understand the process of policy: from recognition of a

health care issue, to becoming a public law, to its implementation.

Participatory democracy and policy process

The two associations cited above (the National Governor' s Association and the National

Association of State Medicaid Directors) and their efforts to persuade President Bush to make

changes in a health policy implemented by President Clinton are an excellent examples of

participatory democracy, another main element of the U.S. political system. Participatory

democracy can be broadly described as public involvement in the making of policy decisions at

all levels of the policy process (Litman 1997:20-21). This "public involvement" can be by

individuals, but, more commonly, it is achieved through groups referred to as special interest

groups or political action committees, such as the National Governor's Association and the

National Association of State Medicaid Directors. As Litman points out, "the efforts of

organized interest groups to influence government policy in the United States are an inherent part

of the political process and, in large measure, rest on First Amendment guarantees of free speech

and the people's right to petition government for a redress of grievances" (Litman 1997: 15). The

governors and state Medicaid directors were doing just that.

Usually, special interest groups seek to influence government policy at the Congressional

level before it is passed into law, but if that strategy fails, groups may continue to effect policy









through the federal agency charged with implementing the policy. In the case of the Medicaid

Managed Care Rule, an executive agency of the Department of Health and Human Services

(HHS), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), was in charge of writing the

regulations for the Medicaid Managed Care Rule, and, in doing so, CMS had to post the

proposed regulations in the Federal Register for public comment, which it did in 1998.

However, the New York Times article (Pear 2001) reported that, "after the rules were proposed

in September 1998, the National Governor's Association submitted lengthy comments to the

Department of Health and Human Services. However, according to Matt D. Salo, then Director

of Health Legislation for the governor' s association, 'Ninety-nine percent of our comments were

ignored'" (Pear 2001). On Thursday, January 18, 2001, only two days before President Bush

took the oath of office--and more than three years after the legislation was passed-HHS

announced the final regulation for the Medicaid Managed Care Rule (see HHS 2001a). Failing

to influence the agency in charge of implementing the policy, the governors and state Medicaid

directors took their appeal to the new administration with some success (Pear 2001).

But why appeal to the new president at this particular point in time? First, President Bush

was very well aware of the concerns of the governors and the Medicaid directors, as he had just

left the office of governor of Texas. Second, he had the executive power to enact change: it was

his executive agency, Health and Human Services (HHS), which would be tasked with rewriting

the Medicaid Managed Care Rule. Third, President Bush had just appointed the former

Republican governor of Wisconsin, Tommy Thompson, to the post of Secretary of Health in

charge of HHS. In this position Secretary Thompson was answerable to the President (served at

the discretion of the President) and, given his political background as former Govemnor of

Wisconsin, he would have been more sympathetic to the lobbyists' requests. Last, the two










groups clearly saw what John Kingdon (1995:212) refers to as a "window of opportunity" to

press their case with the president. Seventeen days before The New York Times (Pear 2001)

story was published, President Bush (2001) wrote a letter to the Congressional Democratic

Congress regarding his position on a "Bipartisan Patients' Bill of Rights." in protecting enrollees

in HMO plans. In that letter, dated February 7, 2001, President Bush presented his "principles"

for such a bill and stated, "I look forward to working with you and all Members of Congress to

enact these principles into law as soon as possible" (Bush 2001). Considering the context in

which the governors and state Medicaid directors made their requests, they certainly perceived

the President's policy stand as an open window to advance their case.

Transmuting health laws through the judicial system

Once Congress has passed a law and it has been implemented, another avenue to effect

policy is through the courts. An appropriate case in point is the judicial intervention in how

Texas managed its Medicaid program. At present, the states "have rather broad, comprehensive

legal authority" (Litman 1997:26) in managing their Medicaid programs; however, the states

have certain restrictions or guidelines set forth by the federal government which must be adhered

to in administering their Medicaid programs.

In the case of Texas, while President George W. Bush was governor of Texas, he faced

"accusations of striking inadequacies in the state's health care for the poor and uninsured

children" (Oppel 2000). Concerned citizens filed a class-action lawsuit on behalf of Medicaid

eligible children. The governor, according to the class-action lawsuit, failed to properly

administer the program; thus, the issue was addressed through the federal judiciary system.

According to Oppel (2000:Al4), approximately half a million children in Texas lacked health

insurance coverage and at least 600,000 more were eligible for Medicaid services. The federal

court, in response to the 1993 law suit, issued a consent decree in 1996 aimed at improving the










program. However, the state did not meet the requirements as stipulated in the consent decree;

thus the attorneys for the children returned to federal court in 2000 arguing "the state was not

living up to the decree" (Oppel 2000:Al4). Federal District Court Judge William Wayne, as a

result, filed a ruling August 14, 2000 stating, in part, Texas' Medicaid program serving poor

children was "badly flawed," and the governor was again ordered to improve the program. This

ruling was the latest in a round of judicial proceedings stemming from the class-action law suit.

The process of addressing the egregious issues brought against the state in 1993 on behalf of its

children, demonstrates how health policy can be amended or reinterpreted. This case in point

demonstrates the separation of powers and the U. S. federal system of checks and balances in

action (see Litman 1997).

Health Care Policy Implementation: The Department of Health and Human Services

Second only to the legislative process, Health and Human Services (HHS) is the most

influential political entity in shaping national health policy in the country. It is through HHS that

all national health laws are implemented. HHS consists of eleven agencies (Table 3-2) and is

headed by the presidentially appointed Secretary of Health and Human Services. Among the

eleven HHS agencies there are two agencies in particular that have a tremendous impact on the

delivery of health care services for the nation. They are, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid

Services (CMS), and Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Before discussing

these agencies in more detail, it may be advantageous to briefly describe the payment structure of

the U.S. health care system.

United States Health Care Payment Structure

Unlike most industrialized countries where health care is provided by the government as a

national system with universal coverage for all persons, the U.S. health care delivery system is a

combination of private and government health insurance based on a free market enterprise









(Davis et al. 2007; Iglehart 1992; Litman 1997:28; Notle and McKee 2008). And yet, in spite of

the free market competition, the U.S. health care system is the most costly in the world whether

measured as health expenditures per capital or as a percentage of the gross domestic product

(GDP) (Cylus and Anderson 2007:18). The per capital public health care expenditures were

greater than the private health care expenditures in the United States, and Americans spent more

for out-of-pocket expenses than citizens of other industrialized nations (Cylus and Anderson

2007:20). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States spent 15.2%

of the GDP on health, more than any other industrialized nation (WHO 2008).

There have been many attempts to pass legislation for universal health care, beginning as

early as 1912 with the Theodore Roosevelt presidential campaign (Table 3-3) (Weeks and

Berman 1985:50). By 1927, a group of scholars from the medical and social sciences formed a

committee, the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, to conduct a five year study on the

economic aspects of health care delivery in the United States (Weeks and Berman 1985:9-25,

269-276).2 The committee produced 27 volumes of studies and recommended "group payment

to defray the costs of medical care through an insurance plan, through taxation, or through a

combination of those methods" (Weeks and Berman 1985:273).3 The final report, released in

October, 1932, was not received well by the American Medical Association (AMA). An

editorial published in the Journal of American Medical Association declared the report was

"Socialism and Communism--inciting to revolution" (Weeks and Berman 1985:20). A member

of the committee said that comment served to "set the dominant ideological" national conscious;

"anyone who advocated national health insurance was usually tarred with the epithet of being a

socialist or a communist, or a radical" (Weeks and Berman 1985:21). It ultimately took 33 years

to pass a limited version of the committee' s recommendation for universal health coverage









through Medicare and Medicaid. As a result of more than half a decade of political compromise,

the U.S. health care coverage is characterized by (1) private sector health insurance (most often

employment based); (2) government funded health insurance at various geopolitical levels, also

referred to as the public sector health insurance; and (3) the uninsured.

Health economist Robert Evans (1997) optimistically reported as of 1991 that the maj ority,

71%, of the people in the United States relied on private insurance to cover the costs of health

care. The widespread use of employment based private insurance may lead one to think that

those insured by private insurance decrease the economic burden on the federal government.

However, the true costs covered by private insurance are lower than one might expect since

private insurers "avoid offering coverage to people in poor health or otherwise at high risk, and

they place a variety of limitations on the coverage they do offer" (Evans 1997:266), or in the

words of Enthoven and Kronick, "insurers profit most by avoiding coverage of those who need it

most" (Enthoven and Kronick 1997:327). The costs for health care for those persons with poor

health or at high risk are shifted to the public governmentt) sector. Evans estimates the public

sector accounts for approximately 44% (as of 1993) of all health care expenditures in the United

States. However, in reality that percentage is much higher when one calculates the amount of tax

revenue the government loses on private health insurance--"the premiums are deductible from

the employer' s taxable income, but not taxed as income in the hands of the employees" (Evans

1997:266). Evans considers these nontaxable health insurance benefits a public subsidy, which

are worth $75 billion in lost government tax revenue and represent a total of eight percent of all

health expenditures for fiscal year 1994. Private health insurance coverage has abruptly declined

since 1991, however. At its peak in 2000, the percentage of the population covered by private

health insurance was 72.6--by 2006 only 67.9% were covered (U.S. Census Bureau 2007a).









Over a fourth of the U. S. population was covered by government insurance by 2006, leaving

nearly 47 million people uninsured (U.S. Census Bureau 2007b).

National Policies, National Health Care Programs, and National Health Care
Funding

The federal government' s role in health care dramatically expanded in the second half of

the twentieth century, with the initiation of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. As stated above, the

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the government agency which

coordinates most of the federal health initiatives with the exception of the Armed Services and

the Veterans Association federal programs which provide health care to military personnel and

military veterans respectively. HHS is comprised of 11 agencies, had an annual budget of

$697.5 billion (fiscal year 2007), and employed 66,890 persons (HHS 2007a). Of the eleven

agencies eight are U. S. Public Health Service agencies: National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food

and Drug Administration (FDA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Indian

Health Service (IHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Substance Abuse

and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and Agency for Healthcare Research

and Quality. Other HHS agencies include, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS),

Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Administration on Aging (AOA) (Table 3-2).

CMS and HRSA are the primary agencies directly involved in providing health care to the

nation.

Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services budget (fiscal year 2007) was $569.8

billion and employed 4,538 people (HHS 2007b). In June 2001, the Secretary of HHS,

Thompson, changed the name of the agency from Health Care Financing Administration

(HCFA) to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The change in the agency's









name from its original name was symbolic of the "restructuring" of the agency after President

Bush took office. The agency administers three prominent programs under the Social Security

Act: Medicare (Title XVIII), Medicaid (Title XIX), and the State Child Health Insurance

Program (Title XXI).

Medicare

President Lyndon Johnson on July 30, 1965 signed Medicare into law as an amendment to

the Social Security Act under Title XVIII (CMS 2007a). Medicare is the nation's largest health

insurance plan insuring over 40 million people and is administered and paid for exclusively by

the federal government. The program provides health insurance for three groups of people (1)

people 65 years or over and who are eligible for retirement benefits (that is, if they or their

spouse has worked for 40 or more quarters of Medicare covered employment, otherwise the

premiums are $300 per month); (2) people who are disabled, and (3) people with permanent

renal failure (HCFA 2001a:2-3; 2001b:1). The Medicare program consists of four parts: hospital

insurance, Part A; medical insurance, Part B; Medicare Advantage Plan an alternative health

insurance program, Part C; and prescription drug program, Part D (CMS 2007b). Part A is

funded by Medicare Trust Fund through a designated tax paid by American workers (Rickets III

1999:63). Part B of the program is funded separately from Part A as a voluntary insurance

program funded by monthly premiums paid by eligible individuals; it pays for physicians'

services, outpatient hospital services, medical equipment and supplies as well as other health

services (CMS 2007b:7). Part C is primarily a HMO type insurance plan funded through

beneficiary monthly premiums. The plan is relatively new beginning in 2006. Part D is the

prescription drug plan that also began in 2006 and is funded through monthly premiums. CMS

writes all guidelines for the program, directly contracts with insurance companies for Medicare

coverage, and is the largest institutional buyer of health care in the country (Litman 1997:55).









The cost of Part A and Part B of the program cost the federal government 3 54.9 billion in 2006

(CMS 2007b:6-7).

Medicaid

Medicaid was established through legislation in 1965 under President Johnson's

administration (see Lammers 1997: 119-121) at the same time as Medicare. Like Medicare, it is

also a health insurance program. However, unlike the Medicare program, the Medicaid program

is a joint venture between the federal government and the states, and its target beneficiaries are

"certain low-income families with children; aged, blind, or disabled people on Supplemental

Security Income; certain low-income pregnant women and children; and people with very high

medical bills" (HCFA 2001:3). According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2007h), in 2006 the

program provided services to over 3 8 million people and is paid for j ointly by the federal

government and the states through matching funds. The federal government provides funds

ranging from 50% to 83% of total costs based on the relative per capital income of the states

(CMS 2007b:21; Ricketts 1999:63). The Medicaid program cost the federal and state

governments an estimated $319.6 billion, for fiscal year 2006 (CMS 2007b:23). All states must

comply with certain requirements mandated by the federal government. However, the states

design and administer their programs providing the federal government with annual reports. The

states directly report to CMS, the HHS agency that provides oversight for all Medicaid programs.

Among the federally mandated requirements, all states must provide the following basic

services: hospital services (inpatient and outpatient), laboratory and x-ray services, skilled

nursing and home health services, doctors' services, family planning, periodic checkups,

diagnosis and treatment for children. Nevertheless, the states have the authority to establish

eligibility standards and set payment rates (CMS 2007b). However, most states have more

control of the design of their Medicaid programs through waivers (Section 1 115 Waivers). The









Section 1115 Waivers were designed to allow the states to bypass federally mandated regulations

to some degree and to give states the autonomy to design managed care programs (Slifkin and

Casey 1999:95). Tennessee was one of the first states to design a Medicaid Managed Care

program for its total Medicaid population under the Section 1115 Waiver; it began on January 1,

1994 (Gold, Frazer, and Schoen 1995).

In 2005, Congress passed the Deficit Reduction Act that redefined Medicaid eligibility

requirements, added premium and co-pay options, and elders seeking to enroll in long-term care

face new restrictions (Kaiser Family Foundation 2006). Undocumented immigrants, under the

new law, no longer have access to Medicaid services for routine care. The law requires all new

enrollees to provide proof of U. S. citizenship as of July 1, 2006 (CMS 2007b:19; Kaiser Family

Foundation 2006:5).4 Under the new provisions of the Deficit Reduction Act, states have the

option for the first time to charge all beneficiaries premiums and higher co-pays. The law also

allows states to enforce such charges by denying services to individuals whom cannot pay at

time of service. Furthermore, states can terminate enrollees for nonpayment of premiums after

sixty days (Kaiser Family Foundation 2006:2). Elderly persons applying for long-term care

under Medicaid and who have home equity of $500,000 or more are disqualified from long-term

care under Medicaid (CMS 2007b:19). Furthermore, elder individuals who transfer assets to

qualify for long-term care face an extended "look-back" period from three to five years (Kaiser

Family Foundation 2006:4).5

State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

State Children's Health Insurance Program is a program that was established under the

Clinton administration in 1997 through the legislation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997

(amended the Social Security Act, Public Law 105-33) (U. S. Congress 1997), and is jointly run

by CMS and HRSA (HCFA 2001c). The federal government provides matching funds to states









for program benefits. In 2007 SCHIP insured over six million children, leaving another nine

million children uninsured (Kaiser Family Foundation 2007b). Like Medicaid, the states must

provide specific coverage benefits (basic services), but have the freedom to design their own

programs. However, states may use the funds to expand Medicaid eligibility (HCFA 2001c:8).

Congressional allocations for this program included $4.275 billion for fiscal years 1998-

2001 and $3.15 billion for fiscal years 2002-2004 (HCFA 2001c:3). Eligible children include

those not eligible for Medicaid and who reside in a low-income family. Eleven states have

authorized pregnant women not eligible for Medicaid to participate in their SCHIP programs

(Kaiser Family Foundation 2007b). Legislative authorization for the program has been extended

but the long term forecast remains cloudy. Emergency funding through a "Continuing

Resolution" was passed by Congress to provide funding though November 16, 2007(Kaiser

Family Foundation 2007b). The reauthorization bill, the Children's Health Insurance Program

Reauthorization Act of 2007 (CHIPRA), was passed by Congress and vetoed by the President

October 3, 2007 (Kaiser Family Foundation 2007b, 2008b; Pear and Stolberg 2007). The

Congress again passed a reauthorization bill, which was again vetoed by the president in

December 2007 (Kaiser Family Foundation 2008b). Finally, in late December, Congress passed

and the president signed the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007, Public Law

110-173, continuing the program at essentially current funding levels through FY 2009 (Kaiser

Family Foundation 2008b). Whether Congress will take up the reauthorization measure again in

2009 is yet to be determined.

CMS, in addition to administering these three programs, regulates laboratory testing,

provides assistance to small businesses in acquiring health insurance coverage, and helps to

eliminate discrimination based on health status for people purchasing health insurance (HCFA









2001:1). The agency's employees are engaged in other activities as well such as, policy

development, legislative analysis and liaison duties, health care research, data collection and

processing, and enforcement of health care quality standards (HCFA 1997).

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)

HRSA, one of the Public Health Services agencies, provides an array of health care

programs, has an annual budget of $6.4 billion (fiscal year 2007), and employs 1,600 people

(HRSA 2007a). The primary mission of HRSA is to provide primary health care to medically

underserved populations and vulnerable populations such as low income women and their

children, people living with HIV/AIDS, homeless, and migrant farmworkers. More broadly, the

mission statement of HRSA is to "[direct] national health programs that improve the Nation' s

health by assuring equitable access to comprehensive, quality health care for all" (HRSA

2001a: 1). It is within HRSA that the Community Health Centers program is administered, and is

referred to as the nation's health care safety net (HRSA 2008a:25). Like CMS, HRSA has under

gone a "restructuring" since the change in the Presidential administration in 2000.

Three divisions within HRSA that coordinate funding of programs for vulnerable

populations are of particular note for the purposes of the dissertation. They are, the Office of

Rural Health Policy (ORHP), the Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) and the Maternal and

Child Health Bureau (MCHB). These divisions contribute to the health and welfare of the

nation, and are critical for rural America. However, under the Bush administration, two of the

three divisions have endured severe budget cuts.

The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP)

ORHP plays a significant role in rural health. The office was established 1987, two years

after HRSA was created, by Congressional legislation to assist the Secretary of Health and

Human Services on rural health issues and effects of current policies and proposed legislation










(HHS 2008c). Some of the issues under the purview of the ORHP include: the viability of rural

hospitals, recruitment and retention of health professionals, and access to health care in rural

areas (Social Security Act, Section 711 [42 U. S. C. 912]). However, as a result of recent budget

cuts, the mission of the Office has changed: the ORHP no longer provides grants to states and

local communities for rural health care programs and infrastructure.6 The ORHP also provides

support to selected universities for research on rural health issues.

At the time I conducted my internship there in the summer of 2001, the ORHP supported

several university-based research institutions. The role of the institutions was to provide the

office the latest rural health research to inform the Secretary of Health and Human Services and

Congress on all issues concerning rural health. ORHP worked closely with the research

institutions on all Congressional rural health initiatives. Observing the relationships between the

research institutions and ORHP, I was able to observe the intricate negotiations as health policies

navigated the legislative process. Rural health special interest groups were continually lobbying

Congress, at times, with the assistance of ORHP. The relationships between rural health

advocates, the health care research institutions, ORHP, and Congress are complex and powerful.

ORHP serves the President, but it also serves rural constituents.

For example, when the newly appointed Secretary of Health and Human Services took

office, he toured each of the HHS agencies (an act that surprised many at HRSA because it is

very unusual for the Secretary of Health to do so). When he toured HRSA, he toured each of the

Bureaus and Offices meeting with directors and staff, it was an opportunity for directors to press

their agendas however fleeting the time with him. The director of ORHP was very effective in

impressing on the Secretary the plight of rural Americans. The Secretary empathized with the

rural issues stating he came from a rural state and realized the needs first hand and that more









should be done for them. It was an opportunity to watch how health policy is transmuted by "the

window of opportunity."

Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC)

The Bureau of Primary Health Care is the second largest bureau within HRSA. BPHC

plays a critical role in the nation' s health care safety net through a vast network of primary health

programs such as, U.S.-Mexico Border Health Program, Community Health Centers (CHC),

Health Care for Homeless Program, and Migrant Health Centers, to name only a few. The

maj ority of the BPHC's budget ($1.16 billion) is devoted to providing assistance to health

centers through the Community Health Center Program, administered by the BPHC as

established by Public Law 104-299 (HHS 2007d).

Community Health Center and Migrant Health Center programs were established in the

1970s under the authority of the U.S. Public Health Services Act (HHS 2008c). In 1996,

BPHC's four health center programs, CHC, migrant health centers, health care centers for the

homeless and public housing health centers were consolidated under one umbrella program

(Health Centers Consolidation Act of 1996, Public Law 104-299. The CHC program provides

grants to states and communities for preventive and primary health care services (HHS 2007d).

The BPHC funds primary health care centers in urban and rural medically underserved areas

where economic, geographical, or cultural barriers restrict access to primary health care for a

substantial segment of the population (HHS 2001b:1). In 2007, BPHC funded approximately

1,200 grantees operating 6,000 delivery sites serving 16 million people, all of whom were from

medically underserved areas (Bohrer 2001; HHS 2008c:2-3). Over 90% of the patients were

composed of whites (36.3%), Hispanics (36. 1%), and blacks (23.0%) (HHS 2008c:5). The

maj ority of the patients (82%) were either uninsured (39%), covered by Medicaid (3 5%) or









Medicare (eight percent) (HHS 2008c:4). That is, nationwide over seven of out ten CHC

patients were either uninsured or covered by Medicaid.

In 2007, migrant health centers served 826,639 migrant farmworkers; the maj ority (92

percent) was Hispanic (HHS 2007f, 2008c:7). Since 1998, a BPHC policy, Policy Information

Notice 98-23, requires that community health centers that serve a culturally diverse catchment

area must provide "a culturally and linguistically appropriate staff' (National Center for Cultural

Competence 2008a:2). In addition to the nondiscrimination requirements listed in Title VI of the

Civil Rights Act of 1964, this policy requires CHCs to provide primary care treatment regardless

of the patient' s ability to pay, and proscribes discrimination on the basis of "language, gender,

socioeconomic status, housing status or regional differences" (National Center for Cultural

Competence 2008a:2). BPHC policy recommends that the CHCs participate actively in the

culturally diverse community, and provide services that are appropriate to the cultural

sensitivities of the community with staff who are able to communicate effectively in the patient' s

primary language (National Center for Cultural Competence 2008a).

The demographics for community health centers in Alabama and Tennessee were

considerably different than the national profile. Community health centers in Alabama (2006)

served nearly 300,000 people: 54% were black, 35.8% were white, and seven percent were

Hispanic. Nearly half (49.9%) of the patients were uninsured, 27.4% were covered by Medicaid,

and 9.3% were covered by Medicare (HHS 2007g). In Tennessee, community health centers

served over 270,000 residents: 62.9% were white, 26. 1% were black, and 8.8% were Hispanic.

The uninsured accounted for 3 8.5% of the patients, 34.3 were covered by Medicaid, and 10.3%

were covered by Medicare. In Tennessee, just under four thousand CHC patients were migrant

farmworkers (HHS 2007h).









Community health centers continue to have the support of the present administration.

Federally supported community health centers, as federal rhetoric reminds the public, are an

essential part of the nation's health care safety net (HHS 2002; HHS 2007c). When former

Secretary Thompson j oined President Bush' s Cabinet as Secretary of Health and Human

Services, the provision of rural health care through community health centers caught his

attention. Secretary Thompson made improvements in access to health care through the

expansion of community health centers one of his top priorities. President Bush embraced the

Secretary's vision and made it one of his health care policy priorities to continue the expansion

of the CHC system (HHS 2007c). Know as "President Bush's High Poverty County Initiative,"

and announced in the 2005 State of the Union Address, the new initiative reinvents policy (HHS

2007c). The newly formulated policy draws attention away from the most impoverished to a

wider configuration of poverty--away from persistent poverty counties to any non-metro county

with a poverty rate of 20% or higher. Nearly half of the 444 counties are identified as black

counties (210) and are clustered in the South (Beale 2004:23).

Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB)

The Maternal and Child Health Bureau provides monies to states and communities

expressly targeting mothers and their children. The genesis of the bureau came from the passage

of Congressional legislation dating back to 1935: the Social Security Act of 1935, an Act that

included Title V which established The Maternal and Child Health Services. The Maternal and

Child Health Services morphed into MCHB under the guidance of HRSA. Maternal and Child

Heath Block Grants receive the largest portion of the bureau' s budget. Other programs

administered by the bureau are: Traumatic Brain Injury, Sickle Cell Service Demonstration,

Universal Newborn Hearing, Healthy Start, Emergency Medical Services for Children, Trauma

Emergency Medical Services, Poison Control Centers, and Family to Family Health Information









Centers (HHS 2007b:31). The bureau's FY 2008 budget was $666, 155,000 down nearly $64

million from FY 2004 (HRSA 2008b). The funds for this program are allocated directly to the

states through the provision of block grants in support of maternal and child health programs and

services following a federal agenda of services. One important stipulation to the block grants is

that states must use 30% of the allocated funds for "children with special needs" (HRSA 2001a).

In addition, the states also are required to match three out of four federal dollars allocated under

the block grant (HRSA 2001b:2).

In comparison to the Maternal and Child Health Services program, the Healthy Start

Initiative was the second-highest funded program in MCHB in 2008, receiving approximately

15% ($99,744,000) of the MCHB budget (HRSA 2008b). The Healthy Start Initiative (a

categorical program) funds the development of initiatives and programs specifically targeting the

reduction of infant mortality in high-risk communities (HRSA 2001a:2).

The Maternal and Child Health Services' programs dovetail with Medicaid and the U.S.

Department of Agriculture' s (USDA) program providing federal grants to states for the Special

Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Infant Children (WIC). The WIC program

provides low-income women and their children under the age of five (and who are at nutritional

risk) with supplemental foods, education on nutrition, and referrals for access to health care

(USDA 2001; see also, Child Nutritional Act of 1966 [as amended through Public Law 106-224,

June 20, 2000]).

Title V programs are intrinsically linked to Medicaid services and SCHIP (e.g., in the

South 75.1% [based on 1998 figures] of the pregnant women served by Title V programs were

Medicaid recipients [MCHB 2001b:3]). MCHB's programs directly impact, augment, and are










integral to state and local health care delivery services for mothers and their children. They are

especially critical in providing services to those persons without insurance coverage.

In Summary

This chapter provides a brief outline of the germane federal legislation and policies,

executive agency involvements, and program structure and operation related to this dissertation.

Within the scope of the theoretical model, these federal forces interact in a complex network

intertwined with forces at other governmental and social levels, but remain the dominant

determinates of structure and viability for health programs serving rural poor populations in the

South. The following case studies provide specific and detailed insight into the implementation

and operation of federal programs at the community level.













Table 3-1. Historical review of major health policy legislation passed by Congress.


Shepard-Towner Act


Social Security Act

Farm Security Administration
Public Health Service Act

Hill-Burton Construction Act


Migrant Health Act


Medicare and Medicaid


Child and Nutrition Act of 1966


Rural Development Act of 1972

Rural Health Clinics


Health Centers Consolidation Act
of 1996



Balanced Budget Act of 1997

Medicare Modernization Act

Individuals with Disabilities
Education Improvement Act of
2004


Deficit Reduction Act of 2005


Provided funding for maternal-child health
Provided federal grants to states for public,
maternal-child health (TitleV), and crippled
children
Provided health care to low income farmers,
sharecroppers, migrant farmworkers
Legislative authorization of present-day HHS
Provided monies for hospital construction
(physical plant improvements)
Provided federal funding for clinics for migrant
and seasonal farmworkers, evolved into the
Community Health Centers, Public Law 87-692
Provided health care to elderly (Title XVIII) and
(XIX) low income populations through
amendments to the Social Security Act
Authorized the women, infant and children
(WIC) supplemental nutrition program, Public
Law 89-642
Provided expansion of Rural Health Centers and
Community Health Centers under the Public
Health Service Act
Provided health care access to rural residents,
Public Law 95-210
Consolidated Community Health Centers,
Migrant Health Centers, Homeless Health
Centers, and Public Health Centers, Public Law
104-299
Provided an amendment to the Social Security
Act to establish the State Children's Health
Insurance Program under Title XXI (SCHIP),
Public Law 105-32
Provided prescription drug coverage to
Medicare, Public Law 108-173
Provided states with funds to establish a
comprehensive system of early intervention
services for infants and toddlers with
disabilities, Public Law 108-446
Required proof of citizenship for new enrollees
(2006); allowed states to set premiums for all
beneficiaries, Public Law 109-171


1921-1929


1935


1935-1947
1944


1946


1962


1965


1966


1972

1977


1996


1997

2003


2004


2005


Sources: Litman
2008b.


1997:22-24; HEW1976: 1-2; Johnson 1985: 141-143; Kaiser Family Foundation 2006,










Table 3-2. The United States Department of Health and Human Services: eleven agencies.
Administration for Children and Families (ACF)
Administration on Aging (AoA)
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Indian Health Services (IHS)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Sources: HHS, 2008a, About HHS. Electronic document,
http ://www.hhs.gov/about/index.html, accessed March 2008.











Table 3-3. Road to universal health care, 1912 to 1965.
Year Action
1912 Presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt campaigned for health insurance for industry
1916 AMA social insurance committee recommended compulsory state health insurance
1920 AMA opposed governmental health insurance
The Committee on the Costs of Medical Care began a five year research project on the U.S.
1927 health care system
1932 The American Federation of Labor (AFL) endorsed health insurance
The Committee on the Costs of Medical Care recommended group payment for health
1933 insurance through private or government or a combination of the two methods
The Committee on Economic Security (appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt) reported
1935 to Congress recommending federal health insurance for the elderly
1935 Social Security Act passes with no provision for health insurance for the elderly
A bill for national health insurance was submitted to Congress by Senator Robert Wagner
1939 (D-NY)
President Franklin Roosevelt called for universal health insurance in his State of the Union
1943 address
President Roosevelt called the right for adequate medical care in his State of the Union
1944 address
1945 President Roosevelt called for good medical care in his State of the Union address
1946- Wagner-Murray-Dingle bill for universal health insurance submitted to Congress in 1946 and
1947 reintroduced in 1947
1945 President Harry Truman sent a message to Congress calling for universal health insurance
A revised Wagner-Murray-Dingle bill for universal health insurance was introduced to
1945 Congress
1948 AMA hired a public relations firm to defeat Congressional national health insurance plans
President Harry Truman sent a second message to Congress calling for universal health
1949 insurance
bill introduced to Congress advocating health insurance coverage for Social Security
1952 recipients
Eisenhower administration supported a bill for government subsidy of insurance premiums
1954 for low income individuals
the Forand bill was introduced to Congress (with the support of the AFL-CIO) to provide
1957 health insurance for Social Security recipients
1957 AMA delegates moved against the Forand bill
the Kennedy-Anderson bill was introduced to Congress advocating wider benefits than the
1960 Forand bill
1961 King-Anderson bill presented to Congress (early version of Medicare)
AMA formed the American Medical Political Action Committee to oppose health care
1961 legislation in 1961
1962 President Kennedy gave a televised speech support health insurance for the elderly in 1962
1963 President Kennedy sent a message to Congress regarding the health of the elderly
1963 the King-Anderson bill was reintroduced to Congress
the House Ways and Means Committee was holding hearings on the King-Anderson bill the
1963 day President Kennedy was assassinated
1964 President Lyndon Johnson sent a message to Congress advocating Medicare
1965 the Mills bill was substituted for the King-Anderson bill
1965 Medicare and Medicaid passed as amendments to the Social Security Act
Source: Weeks and Berman 1985:xvii-xxviii.










Notes


SOnly the Marshall Islands spent more on health care as a percentage of its GDP (15.4%). Comparing just the
industrialized nations, Switzerland was second to the United States in GDP health expenditures (11.4%), followed
by France (11.2%) and Germany (10.7%). Canada and the United Kingdom spent far less, 9.7% and 8.2%
respectively (WHO 2008).

SThe study was funded by eight foundations: the Carnegie Corporation, the Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, the
Milbank Memorial Fund, the New York Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Julius Rosenwald Foundation,
the Russell Sage Foundation, and the Twentieth Century Found. The Social Science Research Council and the
Vermont Commission on Country Life each provided a grant for specific study (Weeks and Berman 1985:271).

SThe final report was a summary and interpretation of the studies with five major recommendations entitled
"Medical Care for the American People, the Final Report of the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care" (Weeks
and Berman 1985:18).

4 The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 citizenship rule affects an estimated three million U.S. born citizens who have
neither a birth certificate nor a passport as well as aliens (see Rosenbaum 2007).

5 Elders applying for long-term care are subject to a financial review of when and how much of their assets were
transferred (e.g., to their children). Previously, the retrospective review was for three years; now it is five years.
The goal behind the review is to screen out elders who have the financial means to pay for long-term care.

6The budget for ORHP's Rural Health Care Services Outreach Grants fell from $58 million in 2003 to $38.88
million in 2007 to zero in 2008 (HHS 2007i).

SThese health centers were consolidated in 1996 with the passage of the Health Centers Consolidation Act of 1996,
Public Law 104-299.









CHAPTER 4
BEBE SANO

Introduction

Bebe Sano is a maternal child program expressly designed for Hispanic migrant

farmworkers and their families. The program was administered by Rural Community Health

Services, Inc. (Rural Medical Services), a not for profit organization that administered three

community health centers in Cocke County, Tennessee. Rural Community Health Services,

Inc., henceforth, will be referred to as Rural Medical Services. The program was located at the

Parrottsville Community Health Center. The program served a five county catchment area in

eastern Tennessee, an area that included Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Jefferson, and Sevier

Counties. All of the five counties are designated as Appalachian counties (Appalachian Regional

Commission 2007). Three of the five counties border North Carolina.

Rural Medical Services is headquartered in Cocke County, located 45 miles from

Knoxville. The community health center utilized for the program was located in the third oldest

town in Tennessee, Parrottsville. Parrottsville had a population of 121 in 1990 (Census Bureau

1993b). In 1992, the catchment area encompassed 2,081square miles (Census Bureau 2000),

with 6,252 farms, and 136,964 acres of harvested land (USDA 1999a:265-273). Much of the

catchment area was rural with small communities and towns scattered throughout the region.

Portions of the area were in the hills of Appalachia. The main office of Rural Medical Services

was located Newport, the county seat of Cocke County. As we explored the town by car, the

town appeared quite vigorous and prosperous. Rural Medical Services' Chief Operating Officer

(CEO) assured us Newport was a healthy, prosperous town, but there were deep pockets of

poverty within the county (Figure 4-1).










The organization' s CEO possessed essential insight into the culture of the region; he was

"born and raised" in eastern Tennessee with an understanding of the mountain culture. As an

historical note, Moonshine was the main economy of Cocke County in the days of prohibition,

an economy that lingered for a time, according to the CEO. In his words,

The county has quite a reputation. .. It has quite a notorious reputation. It used to be a
really, really wide open place, a lot of Moonshine. We used to have this guy, a gentleman
on the board of directors, and his Dad was a Moonshiner. And his [son] says 'my Dad
never took a drink in his life.'

The administrator continues in almost a whisper,

He made some of the best Moonshine around. But, it was an economic situation. .. They
would get arrested, they would go to j ail, serve some time, and come out and make
moonshine because they can make money off it--at least while they were still finding
Moonshine operations. There's no money in it any more. Now, Cocke County has the
dubious reputation of growing some of the Einest marijuana in the southeast. .. We have
all this federal land around us, and the thing is you don't want to grow on your own land
because they'll confiscate the land, so they'll go up to .. we have the Smokey Mountain
National Park; we also have the Cherokee National Forest, which is [nearby]--so there's
places you don't want to go hiking. And during the summer, it seems like Viet Nam
because there are so many helicopters in the air trying to spot [marijuana patches]. And
two or three times a summer, we'll have a big burning out here, just up from where ya'll's
hotel is a state park. ..

The Department of Labor (DOL) does not give Eigures on the underground economy, but never

the less, moonshine and marijuana was part of this region' s economy.

Officially, the rurality of the catchment area is confirmed (Table 4-1). The U.S.

Department of Agriculture' s (USDA) 1990 classification of counties listed four of the Hyve

counties in the catchment area as rural with manufacturing dependent economies (USDA 1994b).

Sevier County was classified as a metropolitan county with a service dependent economy, even

though 63.2% of Sevier' s population resided in rural areas (USDA 1994b). Cocke County was

the only county in the catchment area classified as a persistent poverty county, although poverty

was not confined to Cocke County (Table 4-3).









Manufacturing related employment dominated in most of the catchment area counties in

the 1990s, yet agriculture remained viable in the region. More specifically, tobacco and

tomatoes--crops which are hand harvested--were significant cash crops for the catchment area.

Tennessee, in 1992, was ranked number three in the nation for tobacco production, behind only

North Carolina and Kentucky (USDA 1999b:73). The intensity of tobacco and tomato farming

in the catchment area was astounding.

Collectively the five counties harvested over 1 1,000 tons of tobacco in 1992 (U. S. Census

Bureau 1994a:478-479). There were a total of 4,374 farms harvesting 12,214 acres of tobacco.

Greene County had the highest number of tobacco farms (2, 3 57) and Cocke County had the

second highest (655) each harvesting 6,288 and 1,469 acres respectively (U.S. Census Bureau

1994a:478-479). Nationally, Greene County was ranked number 32 out of all counties (U. S.

Census Bureau 1994b:73). At the state level, Greene county was ranked number one in the state

for tobacco production, while Cocke County ranked tenth in 1992 (Tennessee Department of

Agriculture ND: 35, 50).

Cocke County had a total of seven farms harvesting 259 acres of tomatoes, in 1992,

insignificant compared to the tobacco farms. However, comparing tobacco production to tomato

production is misleading. For the same year, Tennessee was ranked eighth in the nation for

tomato production and Cocke County was ranked 102nd in U.S. county rankings. By 1997,

Cocke County harvested 556 acres of tomatoes and was ranked 57th among the top 100 counties

in the nation (USDA 1999b,:95).2

Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators

Bebe Sano program's target population was a transient migrant farmworker population,

and, as such, there was no quantifiable data for migrant farmworkers in the catchment area. E.

Alan Dever' s (1991) study of migrant farmworker' s heath is often cited in discussing this elusive










population' s health status. For his study, Dever used Willacy County, Texas as one of his

comparison counties. Willacy County, in 1990, was a persistent poverty county, 85%

Hispanic--81% of those born in the United States--and nearly 40% of the population was

composed of farmworkers. The county was predominately Mexican, accounting for 81.4% of

the population (Dever 1991:3; U.S. Census Bureau 1993d:57, 330, 853). As a means of

comparison for this case study catchment area and the status of farmworkers in eastern

Tennessee, data on persons of Hispanic origin in Willacy County, Texas are reported with the

data from Tennessee and used as a migrant farmworker base line for comparison of the social

determinates of health.

Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990

In 1990, the aggregate popul ati on of the se Hyve county es was 2 19, 5 3 3-overwhelmingly

white (97.1%), of European descent, and the majority (69.8 %) lived in rural areas.3 In COntrast,

the farm population, a sub-population within the rural portions as described by the U.S. Census

Bureau 1990 Decennial Census, was less than 10,000--4.4% of the population. Blacks

accounted for 2.4% of the catchment area population, while persons of Hispanic origin numbered

fewer than one percent (0.4%) of the population (U. S. Census Bureau 1993b).4 Of the Hyve

counties, Cocke had the smallest population, with three-quarters of the population residing in

rural areas (Table 4-1).5

As noted in Table 4-1, Hispanics were but a small portion of the population in the

catchment area counties. Hamblen County supported approximately 134 persons of Hispanic

origin, the largest proportion (0.7%) of Hispanics in the catchment area. In Cocke County, there

were 144 Hispanics (0.5%) counted in the 1990 Census. It is important to note that the 1990

U. S. Census category "persons of Hispanic origin" is independent of race and can include first,

second, or even third generation of persons born in the United States who are of Hispanic origin.









However, this classification does not tell us much about migrant farmworkers who may have

traveled through the catchment area working the agricultural cycle or those who have

permanently settled in the area. Although, there was a clear presence of Mexicans in all five

counties (Table 4-2) (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b:16-19, 22).

Mexicans accounted for only a small portion of the Hispanics documented by the U. S.

Census Bureau in the catchment area (U. S. Census Bureau 1993b,:16-19, 22; U.S. Census Bureau

1993d:57). Within the catchment area, Sevier County had the largest proportion of Mexicans

(47.4%). Greene County had the smallest percentage of Mexicans (16.3%) within the Hispanic

population. Hamblen County was oft cited by staff at the clinic in Parrottsville as the county

where migrant farmworkers settled-out to work in the poultry processing plants; Mexicans

accounted for 41% of the Hispanic population in Hamblen County.

Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990

The catchment area, in general, fared less favorably than Tennessee or the United States.

For the counties in the catchment area, poverty levels were higher, per capital incomes were

lower, and the unemployment rates were higher than the national level.6 COmpared to

Tennessee, three counties (Hamblen, Jefferson, and Sevier) had lower poverty rates, but fared

worse in all other categories. As might be expected, Cocke County had the highest poverty rate,

the lowest per capital income, and the highest unemployment rate of the five counties. In

comparison, Hispanics in Willacy County, Texas fared far worse all on measures than Cocke

County--the most economically depressed county in the catchment area (Table 4-3).

Poverty rate

Poverty rates in the catchment area were higher than the national rate (13.1%). And while

all five counties in the catchment area are designated as Appalachian counties, only two of the

counties--Cocke and Greene-had higher poverty rates than the state rate (15.7%). Sevier









County had the lowest poverty rate (13.2%), considerably lower that the state level, and nearly

equal to the national rate. Cocke County had the highest poverty rate (25.3%) in the catchment

area, as one may expect given its persistent poverty status. Cocke County was ranked the 9th

poorest county in the state (406th in the nation) (U.S. Census Bureau 2007e). In comparison to

Cocke County, Willacy County, Texas, had a poverty rate nearly double that in Tennessee,

50.4%, and ranked the 28th poorest county in the United States, and number two in Texas (U. S.

Census Bureau 1992a).

Per capital income

The per capital income for the catchment area was below the U.S. ($14,420) and state

($12,250) levels. Within the catchment area, Cocke County had the lowest ($8,574) per capital

income. The other four counties demonstrated a relatively small range from $11,127 (Hamblen

County) to $10,161 (Greene County), and were well below the state and national levels. The per

capital income for Hispanics ($4,363) in Willacy County was half the amount of Cocke County.

Unemployment rate

The U.S. unemployment rate (4.1%) was substantially lower than Tennessee's (6.4%)

(Table 4-3). Within the catchment area only one county had a rate lower than the state level,

Hamblen County (6.2%), and yet was 51.2% higher than the national unemployment rate. Cocke

County suffered the highest unemployment rate (10.8%) in the catchment area, more than double

the national rate. The Hispanic unemployment rate in Willacy County, Texas was 17.3%. In

comparison to Cocke County, Willacy County's unemployment rate was substantially higher

(60.2%) than Cocke County's.

Educational attainment

Educational attainment, as measured by the percentage of the population 25 years and

older with a high school diploma or a graduate equivalency diploma (GED), was lower in the










catchment area compared to U.S. and Tennessee levels (Table 4-3). Approximately 59% of the

aggregate catchment area population held a high school diploma in 1990--considerably less than

the national rate (75.2%). Following the general patterns for other social indicators, Cocke

County had the lowest educational attainment rate (50.4%) in the catchment area, and Sevier

County had the highest (63.0%). Comparatively, the educational attainment rate for Hispanics in

Willacy County was dramatically lower (32.7%) than any of the counties in the Bebe catchment

area.

Selected Health Outcomes, 1992-1994

Mortality Rates

Mortality rates (three year average for the years 1992-1994) for the three leading causes of

death (heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease) and suicide were generally higher for the

Bebe catchment area counties than the U.S. rates. Willacy County rates were considerably lower

(Table 4-4).

* All Causes: only Sevier and Willacy had lower mortality rates;

* Heart: all counties had higher rates except for Willacy;

* Cancer: Hamblen, Jefferson, Sevier, and Willacy had lower rates;

* Cerebrovascular: Sevier and Willacy had a lower rates, and Hamblen had a rate over two
and a half times that of the U. S. rate; and

* Suicide: Hamblen, Jefferson, and Willacy had lower rates.

In comparison to Tennessee's mortality rates, the catchment area county rates were

generally higher with a couple of notable exceptions (Table 4-4):

* All Causes: Sevier and Jefferson Counties had lower rates than the Tennessee;



* Heart: only Jefferson County had a lower rate;









*Cancer: all counties except Cocke County had a lower rate;


* Cerebrovascular: Greene, Jefferson, and Sevier Counties had lower rates, but Hamblen had
a rate twice that of Tennessee; and

* Suicide: Hamblen and Jefferson had lower rates than the state.

Mortality rates within the BebC Sano catchment area. Cocke County generally had

higher mortality rates when compared to the other five counties.

* All Causes: Cocke County had the highest rate;
* Heart: only Greene County had a higher rate;
* Cancer: Cocke County had the highest rate;
* Stroke: only Hamblen had a higher rate; and
* Suicide: Greene and Sevier had higher rates.

Willacy County's health indicators, with the exception of suicide, were the lowest of all counties.

Infant Mortality Rates 1992-1994

The infant mortality rates for the Bebe Sano Catchment counties, with the exception of

one, were substantially lower than the national and state rates (Figure 4-4), reflecting a

predominant white population.7 An analysis of the infant mortality rates in the catchment area is

problematic due to the low numbers of deaths during the three year time period from 1992 to

1994 in the five counties except Hamblen. Hamblen County had 18 white infant deaths and two

black infant deaths. In the other four counties the infant deaths ranged from seven in Cocke

County to 12 in Greene County.

Willacy County demonstrated mortality rates considerably lower than the United States,

Tennessee, and the catchment area. Willacy County's low mortality rates for the three leading

causes of death appear to be a conundrum given the extraordinary high poverty and extremely

low educational attainment in the county in 1990. One plausible explanation is that Mexicans,

who comprised 81.4% of the population, returned to familial ties in Mexico to die (U. S. Census









Bureau 1993d:57). The health of migrant farmworkers is complex and difficult to document.

The next section provides a brief overview of their health.

Migrant Farmworker Profile

Luis Sullivan, MD, former Secretary of the United States Department of Health and

Human Services from 1989 to 1993, described the challenges of migrant farmworkers as "varied

and extensive" (Sullivan 1992). Among the critical issues faced by migrant farmworkers,

according to Sullivan, are the following: (1) poverty, (2) low education, (3) low English

language proficiency, (4) lack of United States cultural knowledge, (5) substandard housing, (6)

inadequate sources of running water and plumbing, (7) working in the most hazardous

occupation--which includes exposure to extreme weather conditions and pesticides, (8) living in

rural isolation, (9) lack of health care, (10) insufficient child care, (1 1) poor nutrition, (12) high

infant mortality rates, and (13) early deaths. Dr. Sullivan (1992) perceives migrant farmworkers

and their families as a vulnerable population in need of an array of services to meet their needs.

The number of migrant farmworkers working in the United States is considerable. The

estimates range from about 1.5 million to nearly five million (Ryder and Shepherd 2006:3; see

also, DOL 1994:31:2). Jack Egan, then Acting Director of the Migrant Health Program, Health

Resources and Services Administration, estimated the number of migrant workers to be between

three to five million (Migration World 1992). Thousands flow through Tennessee each year, the

majority arrive to harvest tomatoes, strawberries, and tobacco. The vast majority are from

Mexico traveling from home bases in Texas, Florida, and Mexico.8

From field research conducted in 1995 at three Migrant Health Centers in eastern

Tennessee, it is clear that the migrant population at work in Tennessee is not homogeneous even

though the vast maj ority of the farmworkers are from Mexico. One migrant program director

remarked that there are many classes within the migrant population, with varying levels of









education, familiarity with U.S. culture, and understanding of medical issues. It is not

uncommon, he told, us that new migrants arriving to eastern Tennessee to harvest strawberries

have never shopped in U.S. retail stores. As an example, he explained how every summer he has

to teach at least one migrant wife how to shop in the local grocery store, having never shopped in

a supermarcado (grocery store) in Mexico. The supermarcado is a phenomenon found only in

urban Mexico. In the rural regions of Mexico grocery stores, called tienda~s, are small family

operated businesses and an integral part of the rural community. The above example suggests

that new migrants from rural regions of Mexico enter the migratory stream each year, with little

cultural knowledge or "cultural capital" (see, Massey 2000; Massey, Goldring, and Durand 1994;

Fussell 2004, for an in-depth discussion of cultural capital).

Sociologist Elizabeth Fussell (2004:944-945), in a study using data from the Mexican

Migration Proj ect, found that persons living in the rural interior of Mexico are four times more

likely to migrant to the U.S. than those living in urban areas, mostly for agricultural work. The

inhabitants of the rural interior have an average of 4.4 years of schooling, much lower than their

urban counterparts.9 The more years of education, the less likely one is to attempt an

undocumented U.S. migration (2004:949). In addition, Fussell found that in rural interior

communities the likelihood that an individual would make a first trip to the U.S. as a migrant

worker increases by 86% if a parent has migration experience and 253% if a sibling has migrant

experience. 1

While shopping for food in the local grocery store is viewed as a natural act, it is clearly

not basic cultural knowledge for those entering the United States from the rural regions of

Mexico. Kimberly Grimes describes new migrants to the United States as uprooted "from their

conventional ways of understanding the world," as people who "enter a terrain filled with new









people, new images, new life-ways, and new experiences" (1998:66). Mexico is a country with

many indigenous ethnicities, some of whom remain isolated from urban Mexico. In the state of

Oaxaca, for example, there are 14 indigenous languages spoken with over a million indigenous

language speakers (Stephens 2005:133). 1 In California, it is estimated that indigenous

farmworkers make up 20% of the state' s farmworkers (Aguirre International 2005:12).

Interviews with migrant personnel at the three Tennessee Migrant Health Centers (Morfit

unpublished monograph 1995), the maj ority of healthcare practitioners reported encounters with

farmworkers who spoke neither English nor Spanish, but rather, an indigenous language.

Sociodemographic Characteristics

The U. S. Department of Labor (DOL) periodically conducts a demographic and

employment survey of migrant and seasonal farmworkers working in the United States. 12 The

survey, referred to as National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), provides a national profile

of the farmworker population. The 1990 NAWS report indicates that the majority of the nation's

farmworkers are young, married, from Mexico, with low educational attainment (DOL1991).

They are among the poorest of the poor, few have health insurance, and for those who qualify for

Medicaid services, few use this public assistance program (see also, Arrieta, Walker, and Mason

1998; DOL 2005; Guarnaccia et al. 1992; Mines, Gabbard, and Steirman 1997). There are

several caveats to the survey: (1) the survey represents only those farmworkers actively engaged

in agricultural work, thus family members who reside with the interviewee or those temporarily

not employed are not included in the survey data; (2) the survey includes seasonal agricultural

workers who do not migrant for work for example, in the 1990 NAWS report only 42% of those

interviewed migrated for work, somewhat skewing the data when one is trying to ascertain the

national characteristics of the migrant farmworker population (DOL 1991:64; see also, DOL

1994:3). In addition, Tennessee is not represented in the NAWS annual surveys.









Thus said, the NAWS data does not provide discreet data specific to Tennessee migrant

farmworkers. In essence, sociodemographic and employment patters for Tennessee migrant

farmworkers are unavailable. Relatively scant migrant farmworker research has been conducted

in Tennessee. 13 And unlike the home-base states of California, Texas, and Florida where the

growing season is longer, the farmworkers' stay in Tennessee is comparatively brief (peak

season is July and August) and, they remain relatively invisible--working in isolated rural

pockets, mostly in Eastern Tennessee.

Profile of Florida Migrant Farmworkers: A Comparative Population

Martha Arrieta and colleagues' (1998) analysis of cumulative NAWS data (October 1989

to November 1995) for Florida agricultural workers is much more useful for the purposes of

illustrating migrant farmworkers characteristics. Their findings often were reported in two

subgroups-"(migrant") versus "settled." For example, the majority, 68%, of 2,872 Florida

farmworkers who provided data for the survey were migrant farmworkers; 32% of the

farmworkers were "settled," or seasonal farmworkers. In comparison, only 47.4% ofNAWS

sample are migrant farmworkers (Arrieta, Walker, and Mason 1998:22). 14 Therefore, Arrieta,

Walker and Mason's (1998) findings are more applicable to the Tennessee migrant farmworker

population for a general profile. Their findings include:

* 86 % are of Hispanic origin (all farmworkers);

* average age is 29 years versus 34 years for settled farmworkers;

* 83% report Spanish as their primary language (all farmworkers);

* 37% report their residency outside of the U. S. (all farmworkers);

* 37% report their residency outside of the U. S. (all farmworkers);

* migrant farmworkers spend approximately 6.3 months in Florida versus 11.5 months settled
workers;









* 73% of the migrant families live in poverty versus 54 % settled farmworkers;

* 32% claim Mexico as their permanent residence (all farmworkers);

* migrant farmworkers primarily work vegetable, fruit & nuts, and field crops;

* 86% are involved in harvest tasks versus 1% in supervisory tasks versus 50% and 2%
respectively settled farmworkers;

* 85% did not have employer-provided health insurance versus 73% settled workers;

* only 13% accessed migrant clinics (all farmworkers); and

* 4% reported returning to their country for health care.

Arrieta and her colleagues (1998) provide a portrait of migrant farmworkers as a younger

and poorer group than the settled farmworkers of Florida. They are more likely to be involved in

harvesting crops than their counterparts. Few have employer-provided insurance and even fewer

rely on migrant health clinics for their health care, even though there are many migrant health

centers in Florida.

Migrant Farmworker Health Status

At present there is no population-wide comparative health indicators e.g., morbidity and

mortality rates, for migrant farmworkers (Galarneau 1992:30; Migrant Clinicians Network

1992). In fact, resources for farmworker healthcare are "severely hampered by the scarcity of

data" (Migrant Clinicians Network 1992:6). National, state, and regional surveys and studies,

however, indicate migrant farmworkers have a higher disease burden and vastly more complex

health needs than the general U.S. population (Achata 1993; Arcury et al. 2005; Betchtel,

Shepard, and Rogers 1995; Boltwood and Chapman 1998; Dever 1991; Early et al. 2006;

Guarnaccia et al. 1992; Meister 1991; Migration World 1992; National Advisory Council on

Migrant Health 1993; National Center for Farmworker Health 2001, 2004; Thompson et al.

2003).15 Public health studies also suggest migrant farmworkers and their families have low









access to health care facilities (Arrieta, Walker, and Mason 1998; Azevedo 2001; Dever 1991;

National Advisory Council on Migrant Health 2000; Ponce and Black 2003.)16

E. Alan Dever' s study (1991) is cited as a seminal work on migrant health issues

(Galarneau 1992; Gwyther and Jenkins 1998; Larson 2001; Migrant Health Magazine 1992).

Dever' s research encompassed four migrant health centers for a total of 6,969 patient encounters

in three states, Michigan, Indiana, and Texas. The home base counties for the study were in

Texas: Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy. Only Willacy is categorized by USDA as a persistent

poverty county. Cameron and Hidalgo were classified as urban counties, thus Willacy is an

appropriate county for comparison in this study. 1

Dever found that migrant farmworkers' clinic visits were dominated by infectious diseases

and chronic health issues (see, Table 4-6). Diabetes was the most common diagnosis

documented in the migrant health centers (ranked number one), followed by "health supervision

of infant or child." The third most common diagnosis was otitis media, with normal pregnancy

ranking fourth. The fifth ranked diagnosis was acute upper respiratory infection. Twelve of the

top twenty causes for clinic visits by migrant farmworkers involved infectious diseases,

indicating that the migrant population was "victimized by an infectious disease cycle" (1991:6).

Dever stresses that migrant farmworkers access migrant clinics for infectious, nutritional,

occupational health concerns, "which not do even rank in the top twenty conditions for the

general U.S. population" (1991:13).

Joel Meisterls (1991) stresses the multiple health hazards precipitated by working in the

Shields, including hazards to mothers, children and fetuses (1991:508). For example, pesticide

and chemical exposure due to working in the Hields, living near the Hields, or contact exposure

from contaminated clothing from field workers can be extremely dangerous to pregnant women









and their unborn children. Thompson and colleagues (2003) conducted a group randomized trial

(N=571) of mostly Hispanic farmworkers in Washington state and found children residing in

agricultural worker households were positively associated (P < 0.0001) with pesticide exposure.

Similarly, Arcury et al (2005) in a limited study of Hispanic migrant farmworker households in

North Carolina and Virginia (N=9) found all participants had measurable pesticide metabolites in

their urine--all but one well above normal (2005:44).

Some pesticides and chemicals may cross through the "placenta barrier and have

mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, or neurotoxic effects" (Meister 1991:508). 19 In addition,

physiological changes brought on by pregnancy such as increased lung capacity enhances the

probability of pesticide inhalation. Pesticide induced anemia is also a risk for child bearing

women, diminishing their chances for normal pregnancies. Furthermore, pesticides and

chemicals can be passed on to newborns through their mother' s breast milk (Meister 1991).

According to Meister (1991) other risks associated with agricultural work for women and

their children include accident and injuries, urinary tract infections, oral-fecal contaminations,

diarrhea, malnutrition, and viral infections. Children are particularly vulnerable to pesticide

poisoning due to their higher metabolism, low body weight, and potentially long-term exposures.

Children working in the fields are far more at risk for pesticide and chemical exposures (Meister

1991: 508).

A number of public health studies conducted within geographical proximity to the eastern

Tennessee program site, echo Dever and Meister's findings (Achata 1993 [Tennessee], Bechtel,

Shepard, Rogers 1995 [Georgia]; Boltwood and Chapman 1998 [Virginia]; and Early et al 2006

[North Carolina]). In the mountains of northwest North Carolina and southern Virginia, Early

and her colleagues (2006) conducted an intervention proj ect (La Famnilia) to reduce pesticide









exposure to farmworkers and their families (N=41 families). They found that housing was

inadequate, with the maj ority of families living in trailers and under crowded conditions. Nearly

half of the homes were adj acent to the fields, increasing their potential exposure to pesticides;

furthermore, nearly all of the homes lacked air conditioning, further increasing their exposure to

pesticides (Early et al 2006: 177-178).

Another variable for pesticide exposure is access to laundry facilities. The Environmental

Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that all agricultural workers bathe as soon as they arrive

home, changing into clean clothes, and to keep work clothes separate from the family laundry

(EPA 1993:12-13). Early and her colleagues found that nearly half of the families relied on

public laundromats (2006:179). In theory, the EPA's recommendations are sound; however, in

the daily life of migrant farmworkers traveling through Tennessee, they are difficult, if not

impossible to follow. One informant (1995) described the housing situation in rural Tennessee

as deplorable. Houses and trailers that had been condemned suddenly were for rent when the

migrant season began. In some cases, running water meant a garden hose passed through a

trailer window. 20 Many of the migrant farmworkers directly flowed from the Mexican

countryside, with little knowledge of EPA recommendations. 21

Program History

In the early 1980s, Public Health officers stationed at HRSA' s Migrant Health Branch

Office in Atlanta (one of ten HRSA Regional Field Offices at that time) had been monitoring the

patterns of migrant farmworkers and their families' use of community health centers (CHC).22

The regional office detected a dramatic increase in migrant women of child bearing age

accessing CHCs in Tennessee (personal Communication with Dr. Galo Tores, U.S. Public Heath

Commissioned Corps Officer, Director Migrant Health Branch, Atlanta Regional Office 1995).

As a result, the CEO for Rural Medical Services was approached by a Migrant Health Branch









official from the Atlanta Field Offce to develop a maternal child health care program in a fiye

county catchment area. Rural Medical Services operated a system of three community health

centers in Cocke County that served the rural and underserved populations. The county bordered

three of the four counties, and close to the fourth, all of which had significant populations of

migrant farmworkers during the harvesting season. Rural Medical Services' three CHCs were,

in part, Einanced by HRSA' s Bureau of Primary Health Care, thus given the data that migrant

women of childbearing age were in the area, Rural Medical Services' CHCs fortuitously

possessed the infrastructure necessary to implement a proj ect for migrant women and their

babies.

Rural Medical Services' contact person for the HRSA Hield onfce was the Rural Medical

Services' CEO. The CEO had the dilemma of asking Rural Medical Services' Board to approve

a proj ect that had no funding or to decline the request of the Public Health Service (HRSA), a

federal agency that proved funds for all of the organization' s three community health centers. 23

The CEO took it to the Board for approval. Some opposed the proj ect, but it was ultimately

approved.

As suggested by the Migrant Health Branch official, Rural Medical Services designed and

implemented the program in 1985 to accommodate migrant women of childbearing age. Migrant

farmworkers-mostlyy Mexicans--some accompanied by their families, had been streaming

through the area to work in the tomato and tobacco Hields in the vicinity of Cocke County long

before the program was conceived. Rural Medical Services' Parrottsville community health

center was the closest of the three to the agricultural fields, making it the logical choice to host

the migrant program.










The program was implemented within the existing perinatal services available at the

Parrottsville community health center (Figure 4-2). A staff specific to the program was

recruited. Several of the staff were bilingual, helping to facilitate patient encounters. By design,

the program provided clinic hours beyond the traditional operating hours of 8:30 a.m. to 4:00

p.m., Monday through Friday, to accommodate the work cycle of the farmworkers. Saturday

hours, plus one evening clinic a week, were set aside for the migrant farmworkers.

Program Description

In preface to the description of the Bebe Sano program, it is important to note the perinatal

care crisis that existed in Cocke, County. Rural Medical Services, in 1994, was experiencing an

increase in patient load and fewer resources for a variety of reasons, which will become more

apparent below, and found they were delivering more babies. According to the organization's

CEO, there was one private ob stetri ci an/gynecol ogi st (OB/GYN) and seven family practiti owners

in Cocke County. The solo obstetrician did not take high-risk pregnancies, therefore all high-risk

pregnancies were referred to Knoxville. Adapting to the situation, all of the family practitioners,

including those employed by Rural Medical Services, delivered babies and performed cesareans

when necessary. The CEO estimated "we are about the second busiest group in town, and we'll

do over 130-150 deliveries each year. Live births in the county are between 350 and 400."24

The Bebe Sano program, as discussed above, was designed to provide migrant women and

their children access to maternal/child health care--more specifically, to improve access to

health care for pregnant migrant women within the catchment area.25 Most of the migrant

women did not possess "immigration papers," transportation, basic health knowledge, and did

not speak English, all of which severely limited their access to health care, according to the

Program Coordinator.










The program coordinator estimated in 1995 the program would serve, "at least 50 pregnant

migrant women and 50 to 100 women of childbearing age." The maj ority, if not all, of the

migrant farmworkers seen at the community health center were from Mexico, and many women

who had given birth in Mexico reported they gave birth at home.26 Unfortunately, there was no

estimate of the number of women in the catchment area who chose to deliver their babies at

home while in Tennessee.

Services available to migrant women through the Bebe Sano program included perinatal

clinical exams, laboratory testing, ultrasound, delivery, health education, family planning, well

baby checkups at two and six weeks, the provision of contraceptives, referrals to specialists, and

referrals to obstetricians for women moving before delivery.27 The program coordinator

estimated that at least 25 women would leave the area before their babies were born. The

program also provided women leaving the area with a complete set of their medical records.

Health Education was an essential co-objective of the program. As one staff member

pointed out, for some, coming to their community health center was the first time they ever seen

a doctor, and many women did not understand the importance of prenatal care. The program's

health education, by design, was delivered through various modalities and venues to accomplish

this objective. All health education materials were provided and/or delivered in Spanish. The

staff provided a packet of health education materials to all first time obstetrical (OB) patients,

which included information on the process of pregnancy and birth, breast feeding,

immunizations, and other related topics. To educate illiterate mothers a number of modalities

were used: videos, one-on-one sessions, and group sessions (large and small). Health education

took place in the community health center, through outreach in the migrant camps and "housing

clusters," in the fields, and informally when the women were transported to and from the clinic.









The outreach worker/health educator in 1994 stated she had tried to go to the fields to distribute

information on the community health center and their services and to deliver health education

information, but it was very hard because "the workers are hard working" people and do not

want to take the time to leave the fields. She said it was impossible to get a small group together

at field sites for health education sessions. In another venue, health education material was

distributed at two health fairs targeting the migrant population. Health education and answers to

health-related questions were provided by the driver during the long trip to the CHC and back

home to the migrant housing near the fields. This housing was often poorly constructed and

maintained, providing ample suggestions for hygiene discussion topics.

The migrant program, in order to provide optimal care to their clients, developed linkages

with the Cocke County Public Health Department, the local hospital in Newport (Cocke County),

the University of Tennessee, local Catholic churches, the Tennessee Opportunity Program

(TOP), and various social service agencies to refer migrants to additional services unavailable at

the community health center.28 Examples include, every mother or prospective mother was

enrolled in the WIC program; eligible uninsured mothers were transported to the TennCare

office to enroll in the state's Medicaid program, aided by program provided translation services;

and ultrasounds conducted by the Baptist hospital in Newport.29 Several crucial components

were designed into the program to improve access to health care, such as: outreach,

transportation, and translation services.

Outreach

The active outreach effort was a critical component of the program, designed to locate and

identify migrants in need of the program's services. The Bebe Sano outreach staff went to where

the migrants lived, worked, and socialized. Migrants are reluctant to access health care except in

cases of dire need, so the program was designed to incorporate an outreach worker--one who









was bilingual and sensitive to migrant needs. In the early stages of the program, the program

coordinator doubled as the outreach worker. By 1994, the program had an outreach worker, who

was also the health educator. A new outreach worker was in the process of being hired at the

time of the site visit, providing the health educator more time to concentrate on the task of

teaching. The outreach worker visited migrant labor camps, housing clusters, places where

migrants frequented for example, in public laundry facilities and grocery stores.30 The outreach

worker was also tasked with placing flyers in areas where migrants would be most likely to see

them, "in at least 10 public and gathering places frequented by migrants" as stated by the

program coordinator.

The outreach worker visited the migrant camps and the housing clusters a minimum of

three times during the season, May through October, in an attempt to locate and identify

pregnant women. Once a pregnant migrant was located, the outreach worker spoke with her

about the importance of prenatal care, and encouraged her to come to the community health

center for care. The outreach worker also provided migrant women information about clinic

services, including directions and a map. Integral to the outreach worker was the bilingual

driver. The bilingual driver usually accompanied the outreach worker in her endeavors to locate

pregnant migrant women in need of the Bebe Sano' s services.

Transportation

The Bebe Sano staff soon discovered that many of the migrant clients lacked transportation

to reach the community health center. Most of the stay-at-home women required some form of

transportation to access the center during the weekday hours (8:30 am to 4 pm) because their

husbands were working in the fields from sun up to sun down (Figure 4-3). However, husbands

would accompany their wives to appointments on Saturdays and for the evening clinics.









There was a gentleman in the community who had taken a personal interest in the migrant

farmworkers. This gentleman had taught himself Spanish, and slowly got to know some of the

migrants. He eventually was hired to transport migrant farmworkers' family members from their

homes to the community health center. His position as driver was also one of translator and

interpreter. The driver routinely transported migrant women to the TennCare office to apply for

Medicaid, translating and interpreting when necessary. We had the opportunity to follow the

driver on one of his return trips ferrying a number of migrant women and their children to their

homes. The children were mostly young, one as young as eight weeks old. The migrant troupe

had left home very early in the morning and had been at the clinic the entire day (it was around

Hyve o'clock when the van left the community health center), so most had not eaten since they left

home. The children were tired, thirsty, and many of the young ones were crying.31 The driver' s

first stop was at a small store not far from the community health center--apparently a routine

stop--so they could purchase drinks and small snacks or other items they needed, since

opportunities to visit a store were limited for these home-bound women.

The trip to their homes wound us through miles of agricultural Hields and dirt roads. All of

the families lived alongside the Hields, some in bare, concrete block structures with few windows

for ventilation. The concrete structures were very small and it was not clear if they had running

water and plumbing. The small enclave of stark, barren structures was set in relief between acres

and acres of lush farmland and a golf course--contrasting opulent affluence and abj ect poverty.

Translation

Probably the most significant component of the program is the ability to translate and

interpret for the migrants. Most migrants spoke Spanish only--some spoke only their native

indigenous languages-critically hampering their access to health care. When the program was

designed, the goal was to have as many bilingual staff members as possible. At the inception of










the program only the program coordinator and two physicians spoke Spanish. Overtime, a

bilingual health educator and driver j oined the program. The maj ority of the program

coordinator' s time was absorbed by the necessity to translate and interpret for the nurse

practitioners and the patients in the community health center.

I observed two clinical encounters where the program coordinator translated for the nurse

practitioners.32 The first patient was a young woman who was six weeks postpartum.

Accompanying her were her newborn and young toddler, approximately eighteen months old.

At this point of the exam, the program coordinator was called in to provide birth control (pills)

instructions. I watched as the coordinator quickly paraphrased the instructions for the patient.

The patient' s expression never changed through the entire translation. Even when the coordinator

asked if she had any questions, the young woman just started at her, no smile, no frown, just an

expressionless stare. She appeared polite, but never spoke a word. I looked at her face, stature,

and dress. She appeared to be Maya. In my estimation, she did not speak Spanish, nor did she

understand the instructions. I consequently learned in a later interview with the migrant medical

director (1995), that there was a significant Maya population among the migrant farmworkers.

He further added, "they usually have someone who speaks Spanish with them."

The second clinical observation was a 30 year old woman who came to the community

health center specifically for birth control pills. The nurse practitioner had already examined the

patient and was waiting for the program coordinator to explain the results of the exam to the

woman. When the program coordinator and I walked into the room, the mother was sitting on

the floor playing with her two children. The youngest child was not quite a year old, the mother

had just stopped breast feeding him. The older child was barely two and appeared to be very

active and healthy. The information the nurse practitioner wanted to relay the patient was brief:









she was eight weeks pregnant. Upon learning this, the look on the face of the mother was one of

desperation.

Staff

In 1994, there were Hyve personnel who worked for the Bebe Sano program: the migrant

program medical director, the program coordinator, the community outreach worker, the health

educator, and a driver/translator; all of who spoke Spanish. Complementing the Bebe Sano

personnel were Parrottsville's perinatal staff, which included: two physicians (fluent in Spanish),

four family nurse practitioners, and one Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN ). Many of the staff were

from the catchment area or Tennessee. They appeared to have a strong sense of community, are

exceptionally committed to the program, and are proud of their work. The community health

center building had been a part of the high school, long since gone. The clinic's LPN had

attended high school in Parrottsville and joked that it felt like she never left high school.

A profie of the Bebe Sano core staff provides great insight into the program. The CEO is

included in the below profies, for he was the critical link that tied the program together from its

inception to its implementation by Rural Medical Services. The staff profies also include the

medical director of Rural Medical Services because of his direct supervisory role and unique

background knowledge.

Chief executive officer (CEO)

The CEO of Rural Medical Services was the central point of contact between HRSA' s

regional office in Atlanta, which includes the Migrant Health Branch. He initially presented the

proj ect proposal to the Board. The proposed program in all probability would have perished well

before it reached the planning stage if it had not been for the CEO's intervention.

The CEO held a B.S. in Health Education and a Masters of Public Health (MPH) from the

University of Tennessee. After receiving his MPH, he worked in the health administration Hield









and subsequently with the U.S. Public Health Service in Mississippi and Philadelphia with the

Choctaw. At the time of the site visit, the CEO had been with the organization for 13 years. He

joined the organization as CEO three years after Rural Health Services began administering the

three community health centers in 1979.

The CEO was "born and raised" in this region of Tennessee. He harbored a deep

commitment to the catchment area, to eastern Tennessee, and the rural poor whom his

organization served. He and his family reside outside of Cocke County, yet he had developed a

bond, an allegiance to the county and to the migrant farmworkers. He proudly showed us poster

size pictures he had taken of migrant farmworkers working in the tomato fields. They were very

powerful pictures capturing the intensity of the labor. One depicted a farmworker picking

tomatoes amidst towering, dense rows of tomato plants heavily overflowing with fruit, plants

that overshadowed the farmworker.

The CEO possessed a keen sense of the larger picture of health care delivery. He was

connected to state and national organizations and worked on issues that impacted the

organization' s three community health centers. At the time he was the president of the

Tennessee Primary Care Association, an association largely composed of affiliated community

health center physicians and administrators; actively involved with Tennessee Medical

Association; and had a longstanding relationship with HRSA and its many bureaus and

programs. He possessed a strong voice in rural health care delivery, one which resonated

throughout Tennessee.

Physicians

Rural Health Services retained two full-time physicians. One was the medical and the

other was the migrant program medical director. The medical director and the migrant program

medical director had flexible schedules between the three community health centers with the

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migrant program medical director primarily staffed the Parrottsville center during the migrant

season.

Both physicians came to the organization with unique backgrounds. The medical director

was born in South America to U.S. Presbyterian medical missionaries. The family traveled

extensively throughout South America, living in various countries. When he was ready to attend

college, he was sent to the United States. He came to the organization as a National Health

Service Corps (NHSC) physician assigned to Rural Medical Services for a limited time. Rural

Medical Services had had four or five NHSC physicians in the past, but none had chosen to stay

after his or her NHSC commitment expired. The CEO referred to this national program (NHSC)

as a "revolving door," where doctors were assigned and usually left when their contract

obligation had been met, leaving the patients with unreliable continuity of care. However, the

medical director, due to a number of factors, remained with the organization.33 He was the first

NHSC doctor retained by Rural Medical Services, and, according to the CEO, that launched

them "in a new era of stability .. and then from that we recruited our [migrant program medical

director]."34

The migrant program medical director was originally from New York. He spent ten years

in Honduras as a medical missionary with his wife and three children. They had lived with the

Miskitu in a remote region of Honduras.35 When his children were of elementary age (third,

fifth, and seventh grade), he and his wife decided it was time to bring them to the United States.

He felt ten years was enough and it was time to come home. He still wanted to use his skills

serving underserved populations as well as work with Hispanics. Rural Medical Services was a

good fit, including a colleague with whom to work.










Migrant program coordinator

The migrant program coordinator was relatively new to the Bebe Sano program having

worked for Rural Medical Services for about eight months. She graduated in May 1993 from

Maryville College just south of Knoxville, Tennessee. She held degrees in psychology and

sociology with a minor in Spanish. She completed a practicum in the spring of 1993: she jointly

worked with Rural Medical Services and a local Catholic church in Hamblen County providing

assistance with outreach and translation for migrant farmworkers. This affiliation translated into

a full-time position as Bebe Sano's program coordinator with Rural Health Services in

November 1993.

Her duties as migrant program coordinator included: supervision of Bebe Sano personnel,

program design, grant writing, statistics collection, translation and interpreting, as well as

interfacing with the perinatal program coordinator to improve services to migrant women. While

all of these functions were critical to the program, the migrant program coordinator explained

that one of her top priorities was grant writing. She was tasked with obtaining funding resources

to sustain the program. She had just completed a grant proposal for the March of Dimes, and she

was pursuing other potential prospects. Unfortunately, much of her time was absorbed with

translating for the nurses, an integral and critical task which was necessary for the perinatal staff.

Outreach worker and health educator

The health educator held a B.S. in Sociology (1990) from Carson-Newman College

(located in Jefferson City, Tennessee). The health educator doubled as the program's outreach

worker, a position she was well qualified to perform. At the time of our visit in August 1994, a

new outreach worker was in training and was to start the following week. She was expected to

fill the position for the 1995 season. Both the outreach worker and the health educator were part-

time positions, allowing the health educator to perform both positions.

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The outreach and health educator had a lengthy history with the Bebe Sano program: she

was employed by Rural Medical Services from 1985 to 1992. She was the original Bebe Sano

program coordinator and outreach worker, and she designed and implemented the Bebe Sano

program--according to the current program coordinator. She took a year off and returned to the

program in 1994 as the program's health educator. At that time, the program did not have an

outreach worker, so she filled in for the 1994 season.

Translator-driver

The community health center driver had worked with the organization for some time, first

as a volunteer and then as an employee. The driver was 65 years old on the day of our visit, and

we attended his birthday celebration at the Parrottsville clinic. It was a taco party. He was

wearing a large Mexican sombrero and his usual overalls, depicting his fondness and

appreciation of the transient Mexican community culture (Figure 4-4).

In order to understand the depth of commitment this gentleman had for the migrant

farmworker community and the Bebe Sano program, it is necessary to know his "story." The

gentleman had had a heart attack and open heart surgery in 1979, which led him to semi-

retirement. He later took a minimum wage job as a security guard, which he found boring. To

help relieve the boredom, he began checking out books at the library. Eventually, he read

everything in the library. The only materials he had not mastered were foreign language

instruction materials. The library had materials for only one language: Spanish. So he decided

to learn Spanish.36

The CEO described him as:

a story in himself. .. he worked in a factory [as a security guard], and he started seeing
the migrants coming through the community and would have interactions--ob serve them
in grocery stores and things like that. And took it on himself to teach himself Spanish--he
taught himself Spanish! He sees it as a ministry--to minister--but he' s not one of those,
you know, not ministry in the strict religious sense of the word, but his calling and. .. For

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the longest time, he provided free transportation, free translation services to the migrant
population. If they were having trouble getting their car fixed, or getting something done at
DHS--signing up for WIC, or whatever. And he would ferry them back and forth to our
clinic [Parrottsville]. So, finally, after we got hit over the head by a two-by-four, it
dawned on us that we should put this guy on salary some way. But he says that [he] can
only do so much, so we do it in travel. We pay him--reimburse him for travel. He is the
neatest little guy that you'll ever want to meet. And here is a picture for you: he always
wears one of these little jumpsuits, and he always has a diet Coke in his hand. .. No, I
don't know Spanish. I don't know anything about it, but he is really good. He's totally
bilingual and .. his boss, he calls her his little chief. And it's--he' sjust-he is quite a
character, and just a super nice guy. At our big Christmas last year, I found out that he's a
twin, so there are two of them running around!

In 1990, the driver had a second open heart surgery. But he bounced back and continued

his "Calling." The migrant program coordinator, in 1992, called him to work in the clinic, and

"he has worked every day since." The driver had a multitude of responsibilities in relation to the

program. He transported migrant women and their children to appointments at the community

health center, to the hospital for ultrasounds, to the TennCare office to enroll in Medicaid, and to

other agencies when appropriate. He also provided translation and interpretation services

whenever necessary. The driver informally taught English to his passengers as he transported

them throughout the area.

Over time, he gained a rapport with the women and their children he transported. He

confided that many of the women he transported would show up with bruises, even black eyes at

times. He said they tried to discreetly cover their injuries, but he would hear the conversations

between the women. The driver observed that the women would experience more severe

beatings when a male family member would join the family unit, especially if it was the

husband's father. He said it was a show of male masculinity, proving to his male relatives that

he had control over his wife. With deep concern and sadness, he explained many of the migrant

women were victims of domestic violence.









Funding Sources

The Bebe Sano program had extremely limited resources. The CEO explained the program

did not receive funding from the Migrant Health Program in the form of 329 funds (see below).

Funding for the program was derived from limited sources: Medicaid, sliding scale fees, fee for

service, and small grants. The shoestring operating budget for the 1995 season was less than

$9,000. This budget did not include clinical medical treatment, simply direct program expenses.

All of the staff positions were calculated on part-time basis, with the exception of the driver-

translator who was paid by the mile and not compensated for his translation/interpreting services.

Two brief examples are: (1) the program coordinator was to be paid ten dollars per hour, ten

hours per week for 26 weeks; (2) the health educator was to be paid ten dollars per hour, 5 hours

per week for 26 weeks. The program did not charge the migrants for outreach, transportation,

interpreting, or educational services. There was, however, a fee for medical services provided at

the community health center.37

Medicaid payments

Medicaid reimbursement was severely limited for two distinct reasons, (1) the new state

Medicaid program (TennCare) and (2) immigration status. TennCare, which will be discussed in

more detail below, had been in place for less than nine months, at the time of the site visit. Even

at this early stage, Rural Medical Services and the Bebe Sano program were experiencing fiscal

repercussions due to TennCare. The most visible repercussions were on four levels: reduction of

Medicaid reimbursement, patient dumping by private physicians, the loss of emergency medical

care payments, and undocumented migrant farmworker' s status.38

The traditional state/federal Medicaid program deeply discounted Medicaid payments to

providers, but TennCare cut these payments even further. Rural Medical Services immediately









realized severe reimbursement reductions for all Medicaid services provided at the community

health centers. There was no recourse in recouping these funds.

The Medicaid payment reductions created a local ripple effect. Private physicians,

including specialists, began dropping their Medicaid patients in direct response to TennCare

reimbursement rules. Many of these patients were reassigned to community health centers.

Thus, Rural Medical Services was required to absorb new Medicaid patients--many of whom

required complex medical care due to multiple chronic conditions.

To further complicate dwindling resources, TennCare did not provide care to temporary

residents, such as migrant farmworkers. Migrant farmworkers who possessed Medicaid cards

from other states were not automatically qualified for TennCare. All new residents to the state

were required to apply for TennCare, a relatively lengthy process for migrant farmworkers.

According to the migrant program medical director and the CEO, many migrants left the area

before they received their TennCare approval, another direct source of lost revenue for Rural

Medical Services.

Immigration status further exacerbated the declining fiscal state of Rural Medical Services.

The program coordinator estimated most of the migrant women served by the Bebe Sano

program were undocumented, and there was no recoverable Medicaid payments for

undocumented migrant farmworkers. Under the traditional Medicaid system there had been a

provision which paid for emergency care, including migrant OB deliveries, regardless of their

citizenship status. TennCare did not incorporate this provision by design.

Bebe Sano had approximately 14 unfunded deliveries for the 1994 migrant season

(interview with migrant medical director 1995). The unfunded deliveries translated to no









reimbursement for hospital and physicians' services rendered. Fourteen babies represented a

large loss of revenue.

Sliding scale fee

Several personnel pointed out that Bebe Sano's services were not free, but were

"discounted" from the clinic's usual charges. Many of the personnel referred to a sliding scale

approach based on patients' income for discounting fees. A flyer distributed to migrant locales

made it explicit that the Bebe Sano program charged migrants who had no form of insurance, as

well as those who were undocumented, a flat fee of $15 for a clinic visit and a minimum of five

dollars for laboratory tests. The flyer read, in part:

LOS SERVICIOS NO SON GRATIS, PERO DAMOS UN DESCUENTO A LOS
TRABAJADORES AGRIOLAS Y SUS FAMILIAS.

[The services are not free, but there is a charge for farmworkers and their families.]

SI UD. TIENE SEGURO MEDICO, NECESITA TRAER SU TARJETA O PAPELES
CUANDO VIENE A LA CLINICA.

[If you have medical insurance, you need to bring your card or papers when you come to
the clinic]

SINO TIENE SEGURO MEDICO (MEDICIAD, TENNCARE, U OTRO), PEDIMOS
QUE TRAIGA DINERO CADA VEZ QUE VIENE.

[If you do not have medical insurance (Medicaid, TennCare, or other), you must pay cash
each time you come.]

CADA CONSULT: $15

[The cost of each visit: $15]

CADA ANALISIS: $5 $10 MIMIMO
(ANALISIS DE SANGRE, ORINTA, O CUALQUIER OTRO TIPO)

[Each laboratory test (blood, urinalysis, or other): minimum of $5 $10]









The fees required for migrant services provided some revenue for the community health center.

In reality, the monies received from migrant farmworkers were an insufficient source of revenue

for Rural Medical Services, and to the migrant farmworkers it was vastly expensive.

Grant funding

Grant support for the Bebe Sano program had been sporadic and relatively small. In 1994,

there were two grants specific to the program: (1) East Coast Migrant Health Proj ect, an

organization based in Washington, D.C., provided in kind support of one full-time outreach

worker and one half-time health educator; and (2) the Quaker Oats Company provided a small

one-time grant for maternal child health education material to be distributed in the community.

In 1992 and 1993, the program had received a grant from the March of Dimes for general

operating expenses. However, for the 1994 funding cycle, the organization had missed the

submission deadline for renewing the grant, thus exacerbating the program's fiscal distress. At

the time of the site visit, the program coordinator had submitted a grant proposal to the March of

Dimes for funding in 1995. This grant, if accepted as proposed, would be in the amount of

$2,225. As pointed out above, one of the program coordinator' s maj or functions was grant

writing, and she had located several possible sources for future funding.

Community Support and Opposition

The Bebe Sano program had overwhelming support from Rural Medical Services and their

providers. The program's staff, in particular, was very committed to serving this special

population. All of those interviewed communicated a deep sense of dedication to the services

they provided. Several expressed an essential need to protect and defend migrants and their right

to access the program' s services. One staff member (1995), with deep concern, quietly shared

with us that the doctor serving as the migrant program medical director had discontinued the

evening migrant clinic, severely limiting their access to medical care.

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The community at large was less accommodating, however. The project originally met

with strong resistance from the community, particularly in the sense of providing services to

outsiders. One migrant farmworker interviewed in 1995 in a similar context (a predominately

white community west of the catchment area) bitterly remarked that the local people wanted

them in the fields, but not in their grocery stores. Cocke County and much of the rural areas in

the catchment area demonstrated a closed Appalachian community culture, a community that

would not accept easily the admittance of outsiders.

In 1985, some of the Rural Medical Services' board members and other community

members were particularly concerned that the Mexicans would settle in the area, taking their

j obs. Nearly ten years later, there was little proof that the Mexicans were in direct economic

competition with the local population, but there was a definite Mexican presence in 1990 (Table

4-2).39~ ~ ~ I TeCOsad"ts never, never been proven to be the case." It appeared that the

community resistance runs far deeper than a fear of economic displacement.

At the time of our visit, the program continued to suffer from community resistance and

racism. In 1994, a Knoxville television station (Channel 10) did an expose series detailing the

plight of migrant farmworkers and their families in an attempt to raise community awareness

among the dominant white population. Two episodes of the series were aired during our site

visit.

According to the migrant program medical director, many of the patients accessing the

Parrottsville clinic were not supportive of the services provided to the migrant population. As he

described the situation in 1995, the local community population expressed a sense of

competition. Many were antagonistic about special clinic hours for migrants, having to wait in

the same waiting room with "Mexicans," and a general displeasure sharing their clinic with









aliens. One of the repercussions of their displeasure resulted in discontinuance of evening hours

for farmworkers and their families, a critical point of access for migrants. Community resistance

to migrant farmworkers and their families was a clear indicator of a powerful barrier to the Bebe

Sano program and will be explored further in the following section.

Evaluation

The Bebe Sano program coordinator, in her short time with the program, had developed

two evaluation tools (as proposed in the 1995 March of Dimes grant application). One tool

relied on a new data entry program, one which would collect discrete data on obstetrics (OB)

migrant encounters. The statistics collected were to be comparative to evaluate changes in the

usage patterns of migrant OB clients. The 1994-1995 agricultural season was the first year of

data collection. There were eight components for comparative analysis: (1) number of prenatal

clinic encounters, (2) number of OB visits per patient, (3) number of migrant women accessing

care for the first time in the third trimester, (4) number of missed appointments, (5) number of

OB referrals provided to pregnant women leaving the area before delivery, (6) number of

newborns receiving a clinical exam within the first month, (7) number of ill newborns seen in the

first month, and (8) number of OB migrants receiving WIC and eligible for Medicaid. At the

time of our visit, there were no comparative data available to review.

The second evaluation tool was still in an early stage of development. That tool was an

"OB Questionnaire," or survey, designed to assess multiple areas of the program from the

perspective of the client. The questionnaire, administered verbally in Spanish, included open-

ended and closed-ended questions. Many of the questions were multi-part, for example one

question (number 4) queried the patient' s understanding of health education materials: "Did you

understand the written information we gave you about pregnancy, childbirth, etc? Did the

information answer your questions? What materials were most helpful? Were there any

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materials that were confusing or not helpful?" One of the planned uses of the prospective data

was to strengthen grant proposals. Lack of such data had been a maj or barrier in securing grant

funds.

Barriers to Care

The design of the Bebe Sano program and its staff had addressed the most common

barriers to care for migrant women traveling with their husbands outside of their home base, such

as language, outreach, translation and interpretation, transportation, and providing care

regardless of their ability to pay. And, yet, other barriers remained. For this solitary clinic, the

reality of providing perinatal care to migrant women was intertwined with deep-seated issues

within processes of politics, economics, and ethnic differences. The most prominent barrier

remained the processes of politics and economics at the national, state, and community level.

Therefore, TennCare will be discussed further--at times, through the voices of the

organization--to highlight some of the complexities of these processes.

TennCare

Tennessee unveiled a new state Medicaid program, TennCare, in January 1994. TennCare

is a complicated, mammoth program; therefore discussion of it will be limited to its early impact

on the Bebe Sano program. The new Medicaid program was designed as a managed care

program administered through private insurance companies (managed care organizations) with

state oversight. By the time of the site visit in August 1994, health care in Tennessee, including

the community health centers, was feeling the effects of the new program.

The program was highly controversial from the moment of its introduction. One of most

controversial issues of the program was payment reimbursement to practitioners. The cuts were

so severe that many private physicians, including specialists, dropped their Medicaid patients.

Medicaid patients were "reassigned" to local community health centers, dramatically increasing

111









Rural Medical Services' case load. In terms of Rural Medical Services' three small community

health centers, the effects meant more patients with lower revenue. In 1994, Rural Medical

Services' budget was 1.6 million, a relatively modest budget to run three clinics. In a very short

space of time, Rural medical Services' community health centers were seeing more chronically

ill patients with medical issues such as: cardiac disease, hypertension, and diabetes to name only

a few.

The CEO said they were "absolutely swamped" in terms of patients--with no increase in

federal funding. At the time of our visit, Rural Medical Services did not receive federal funding

for the Bebe Sano program under the Migrant Health Centers Program (MHC)-commonlyy

referred to as 329 funding, even though the Parrottsville community health center was designated

by the federal government as a Migrant Health Center in the 1994 Migrant Health Centers

Referral Directory (National Resource Program 1994). As noted earlier, the organization did

receive 330 federal funding for Community Health Centers administered through HRSA' s

Bureau of Primary Health Care. 40 The CEO stated that to obtain 330 funds, "Every year we have

to submit a grant to our regional [HRSA' s Atlanta] office. We receive approximately 40% of

our total budget in the form of a [HRSA 330] grant."

When asked why they did not receive federal funds for their migrant program, the

administrator explained that, "We will see anywhere--depending on how actively we go out and

count heads. And that' s what it is--a numbers game. Technically you're supposed to see

4,000." In terms of a Migrant Health Program grant, it was the responsibility of the grantee to

count the number of migrant farmworkers in its catchment area. In reality, this is a very difficult

task given the reluctance of many migrant workers to be located and questioned. Rural Medical

Services, running on a modest budget, had limited resources in terms of personnel and time to









accomplish the task. In his estimate, there were approximately 1,500 to 2,500 migrants in the

catchment area, very likely a low estimate given the size of the catchment area.

Returning to the issue of 330 funding, 330 funding was a key component of Rural Medical

Services' sustainability not only for the funds the grant provided, but also for the status it

engendered. Any community health center receiving 330 funding was automatically granted the

distinction of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) by the federal government. The FQHC

status qualified Rural Medical Services to treat and care for Medicaid and Medicare patients

under state and federal programs. This was no small point. Medicaid and Medicare revenue was

a significant portion of their budget. Thus, FQHC status was key to Rural Medical Services'

sustainability.41

The CEO provided a deeper insight into the importance of having FQHC designation. At

the time, he was the President of the Tennessee Primary Health Care Association, and he

watched from this position as TennCare was unveiled. In his words, "Speaking of the 1115

Waiver [which led to the creation of TennCare], NACHC [National Association of the

Community Health Centers] in Washington filed a federal lawsuit challenging a specific part of

the 1 115 Waiver: waiving the FQHC provision of the Medicaid law, which says that Federally

Qualified Health Centers, such as ours, were supposed to be reimbursed at reasonable costs. And

[the state] they waived that: one branch of the government [state] is saying your [federal] rules

do not apply to us in our situation."42

The CEO explained how TennCare further impacted their organization, ". in all the

planning, there was not one thought about the migrants. Before we could get migrants--

especially migrant OBs--covered through emergency [care] .. and we would get the hospitals

some money and some delivery money for us because we receive no [329] federal funds. .. but










TennCare completely--they wouldn't even acknowledge that migrants come through

Tennessee."

From another perspective, the migrant program medical director (1995) expressed a

pragmatic, vivid account of Medicaid funding issues and the tension between the community and

migrant farmworkers from his clinical perspective. His narrative powerfully presents the

linkages and the complexities of political, economical, and ethnical processes at multiple levels.

Unless otherwise noted, the following viewpoint was that of the migrant program medical

director in 1995, one year after the original site visit. At the time of the interview, TennCare had

been in place for 20 months, and problems remained with the program. As a result of TennCare,

the doctor had become increasingly involved with the Tennessee Primary Care Association and

the Tennessee Medical Association vis-a-vis the politics of the state program. A catalyst for his

(and many others) entry into the politics of health care was a direct result of how TennCare was

planned and implemented. TennCare was planned behind closed doors with little input from

maj or stakeholders including the Tennessee Hospital Association, Tennessee Medical

Association, and the Tennessee Primary Care Association. To further enrage major stakeholders,

Tennessee State Legislation approved TennCare with little debate and no public hearings (Gold,

Frazer, and Schoen, 1995:5).

The interview took place during the migrant program medical director' s lunch break, and

he purposely directed the interview--allowing us little room for questions. He had been

apprised of our visit and our intent to follow-up on the Bebe Sano program. The tone of the

interview was not that of a dialogue but of a commentary. The physician clearly had an agenda,

mostly to demonstrate the extreme difficulties in providing care to an alien population as well as

the grave deficiencies of the TennCare program.










We just don't have the funding, so we are kind of doing this [migrant] program and never
really able to define what exactly we're supposed to be doing.43 We are doing the well
child care and whatever [the Bebe Sano program] .. so at this point that' s kind of where
we're at. We, we've never really defined what our goals are. We try to provide total
health care to all of the migrants. At this point, short of getting more funding and more
personnel, we can't do that. And as our clinics are getting busier, we'll see .. more, we'll
work them in. ..

In the above passage, the migrant program medical director reiterates the findings of our 1994

visit; too many patients with insufficient funding.

In 1994, the CEO had referred to this doctor as the migrant program medical director, but

had not explained what this title entailed. At that time, it appeared his position was an

organizational title overseeing the Bebe Sano program, and we did not question the CEO in

detail regarding the duties of the migrant program medical director. During the 1994 site visit,

the Migrant Program physician was available for only a short introduction and a few brief

questions. However, from the 1995 interview, it is clear the Migrant Program included a larger

scope than just the Bebe Sano program, but without a formal program design.

The migrant program medical director continued with more detail on funding issues.

It' s been our problem with the [adj acent county] hospital, you know, is about their
providing prenatal care .. or whatever, because they don't feel comfortable about that
because they just don't speak the language, so we provide the prenatal care and then when
the patient goes into labor and shows up at the hospital [in the adj acent county], and the
hospital calls us up, and the doctor there is mad at us, 'why are you sending your patients
over to here?' Because they have no idea [that the patient] comes to us [for prenatal care]
and they live right next door [to the adjacent county hospital]. A lot of them live walking
distance to the .. hospital, but are having to come twenty miles away [for treatment at the
Cocke County Hospital]. .

What the physician described equated to geopolitical turf wars; county hospitals outside of

Cocke County evading care to migrants residing within their own county. Each of the five

counties in the catchment area had at least one hospital. To the migrant families in the catchment

area, geopolitical boundaries had vague meaning. County lines essentially were invisible to most

migrant farmworkers. Hence, migrant women in labor sought the closest hospital from their

115









home. However, for the surrounding counties in the catchment area, the crossing of county lines

for hospital care had fiscal repercussions.

The hospitals surrounding Cocke County simply were not willing to accept responsibility

for delivering babies from the Bebe Sano program. "Not speaking the language" was not the

core reason outside county physicians were "mad" at Rural Medical Services' doctors when

migrants arrived at their hospitals. More compelling was the loss of revenue, for (as discussed

above) TennCare did not reimburse hospital and doctors for migrant farmworkers whom were

ineligible for Medicaid, and for those migrants who did qualify for Medicaid, the delivery of

Medicaid babies simply was not profitable for the hospitals. Table 4-7 provides a comparison of

Cocke County's hospital resources and charity care provided and the other four counties in the

catchment area.

Cocke County provided more charity care than all six surrounding hospitals combined

(4.9% versus 3.5%) even though Cocke County's solitary hospital was among the smallest in the

catchment area. Rural Medical Services took on the Einancial burden of providing perinatal

services to all migrants in the catchment area with no visible support from the surrounding

counties at time of delivery.

The migrant program medical director continued,

The [Cocke County] hospital is starting to say 'wait a second. We've got some limits on
the amount of indigent care that we can provide and the limits our catchment area [can
provide].' And they've [the Cocke County hospital] never really made a big point about it,
but seeing as how funding has become increasingly bad, it' s going to reach the point--well
the hospital, the whole hospital system in Tennessee [is] .. it was easier when Medicaid
was paying 50 cents on the dollar. Now Medicaid [TennCare], at least for a hospital in this
[area], is paying 15 cents on the dollar. They [Medicaid] went from 48 [cents on the
dollar] to 15 [cents on the dollar with the implementation of TennCare]. That' s why we
can't afford to run [migrant health services]--so at this point, they're beginning to look at
any place they're [the hospitals] having [Hinancial] loss. And it' s starting to get more
critical. And this is not only for here; it is happening all across the country.










The physician had told us earlier that the clinic still had 14 migrant deliveries that had not

been funded for the 1994 season, putting a Einancial strain on the clinic as well as their local

hospital. Furthermore, his estimation of what the state Medicaid program reimbursed health care

agencies for patient care services was indeed quite dramatic and relatively accurate at the time.

The Medicaid reimbursement rate has dropped substantially since TennCare was instituted in

Tennessee in 1994.

Returning to the doctor' s narrative, who was interviewed in 1995--nearly a year before the

Welfare Reform Act was passed. He continued,

.. as it stands now, I'm watching what' s happening with Medicaid. This is not
migrants--this is Medicaid in general and welfare. The Michigan welfare system clamps
down on the Michigan people on welfare: 'You're going to go back to work in five years,'
or whatever, or Connecticut, or New Jersey. And then, all of a sudden, we have this influx
of people coming to Tennessee. They're moving from one state to another. So I can see
this happening: we have a block grant [from the Federal government] and which every
state that tends to try to be the best in taking care of their own people, you're going to see
an influx into that state. ..

Once again, stepping outside of the doctor' s narrative, he was speaking of a case where

one of his non-migrant patients on TennCare came in with a broken ankle, and the physician had

a difficult and frustrating time finding an orthopedic doctor to take care of her. Once the clinic

physician found an orthopedic doctor to accept and treat her, it was several days until the

orthopedic doctor could actually see her. The exasperated doctor pointed out to us,

How do you deal with a system .. a Medicaid system that was supposedly responsible
didn't [take care of the patient], and the problem is compounded with the migrants because
[of] the Medicaid system, supposedly the state is on the lookout for these patients; there's a
network of people, of providers, but with migrants, there' s no network of providers, so
there's us, and we are first level and last level, we are the only level. And now that the
hospital is starting to also turn around and question, especially our out-of-county people,
we are put on the defensive. .. Our hospital here complains why are we bringing [another
adjacent] county patients from [their] county to [our] county, and [the other] county
hospital is complaining, 'why did you let the patient that you've seen in the clinic come to
our hospital?' When they [the patients] live near that hospital, and they're in labor and
don't have, you know, [the transportation, the time to come to us]. So it becomes a bit of a
problem.









Racism and ethnic hatred


Later in our conversation, the doctor touched on a sensitive community issue; he describes

the antagonistic tension that has developed in the local community:

We have had patients, non-Hispanic patients, complain about all the Spanish speaking
people in the waiting room and stuff. Patients say, 'you know I really don't like sitting in
the waiting room with all of those Mexicans.' And then, the next thing I know is they
don't come back any more; they go to some other clinic. .. I don't think just having an all
Spanish clinic day is the answer either. So we try to keep it integrated. When we had an
evening clinic [for the migrants], that was a source of tremendous irritation by the
community [emphasis in the original]. [Without realizing it, I found myself saying to the
doctor, 'really?' And he continued,] Well sure. A school teacher calls up and says 'wait a
second; this isn't fair. I call up, I work until five o'clock at school, and I want to be seen in
the evening. You tell me I can't, then a Mexican walks in at Hyve o'clock and you see him.
That' s not fair'.

After our interview with the migrant program medical director, we toured the waiting room. The

waiting room was rectangular in design and spacious, and it was as if a line had been drawn

down the middle of the floor: Mexican patients on one side of the room and the local "white

folks" on the other side of the room. 44 There were Mexican children playing on the floor with

toys provided by the clinic. The local children, however, sat in their seats quietly, watching the

Mexican children play. It is painfully apparent that racial and ethnic inequality remained

prominent in this rural area of Tennessee. Migrant farmworkers working within rural

communities in Tennessee represent to the general population not only aliens from another

country, but aliens who are not part of the fabric of the rural community.

The physician continued with the common theme of insufficient resources:

We have reached a point where the demand [for migrant health care] has out-stretched the
extra resources, you know. We were kind of letting them in [the migrants], letting the rest
of the system sort of take up the burden, and you can do that when you are seeing two or
three, but when you are seeing ten, or twelve, or fifteen a day, the rest of the system can't
hold, can't hold. And one of the things that we have been trying to do is, we have taken all
of the migrants and put them on, we've had a lot of patients on what' s called a sliding scale
fee. Our minimal sliding fee is fifteen dollars, which is far and away less than any other
clinic. What we have really been trying to push is to say 'OK, we'll see you, but you have
to pay fifteen dollars.' And, you know, that's worked reasonably well. I'm not sure that









amount covers what our overhead is; it certainly doesn't cover our overhead when you tie
in that it also covers transportation back and worth. Taxi service is unbelievably
expensive. So we have attempted to try, you know, make some kind of--to try to recoup a
little bit, but it' s .. in the absence of outside funding, we're really reaching a critical level
at some point and having to say, 'well .. something is going to have to happen in the next
couple of years or they're [the migrants] not going to have any access to anything. .

In 1994, this particular clinic logged nearly 1,500 migrant farmworker clinic visits, which is, in

all likelihood, only the tip of the iceberg of migrant health needs in the catchment area.

The doctor concluded the interview with,

We are willing to try to define [providing care to migrants] because we have never [turned
away migrants], because of this question of funding. We've left everything on hold. We
do not have a definition of who are we trying to reach, how we're going to reach, short of
saying, 'we are going to get the pregnant ladies, we're going to get the babies, and get
them immunized. Other than that, we really do not have a goal statement [for a Migrant
Health Program] because we don't have any funding to do anything.

This physician is but one informant, but his words make a powerful statement and expose

some of the realities of providing health care to migrant farmworkers. The physician draws a

picture of political and economic boundaries at multi dimensions: community boundaries, county

boundaries, state boundaries, and national boundaries, all of which are intertwined with the

delivery of health care, boundaries that are invisible to the migrant farmworker who flow with

the crops. The doctor' s narrative directly questions the future viability of the Bebe Sano

program .

Addendum 2008

Rural Medical Services has continued clinical care, outreach, and education to migrant

farmworkers and their families, according to the CEO (personal communication 2007).45

According to a reauthorization grant application, dated November 29, 2004, for the continuation

of grant funds for the community health center, the organization' s annual budget was

$3,803,259; 29% from federal CHC funding and 71% from program income. There was no

documentation that the organization received any federal funding specifically for the migrant

119









encounters (FOIA HRSA document, Application for Federal Assistance dated November 29,

2004).

In 2008, the Hispanic maternal child program, as in 1994, had a medical director, program

director, and a bilingual staff (personal communication with Rural Medical Services, 2008). In

2003, Rural Medical Services added a "Lay Health Promotion project" which incorporated five

Promotora~s from the local Hispanic community to assist in outreach efforts (FOIA HRSA

document, Application for Federal Assistance dated March 3, 2003. Other efforts and additions

to the staff indicate a continued commitment and active efforts to increase cultural competence

of the staff as indicated by hiring personnel with many years of residence in Latin America and

encouragement of current staff to strengthen linguistic and cultural knowledge with firsthand

experience in Latin America. For example, one of the nurse practitioners taught herself Spanish

and "has made numerous trips to Mexico to further her understanding of the culture" (FIOA

HRSA document, Application for Federal Assistance dated November 27, 2001). As of 2007,

four of the five physicians were bilingual. The medical director of the migrant program has

recently changed with the departure in June 2007 of the long-standing medical director

interviewed in 1995. The new physician was previously a medical missionary in Ecuador.

The Migrant Program has expanded and is more inclusive, providing services to the

"Spanish speaking population" (see the agency's Web-site at

http ://www.ruralmedicalservices. org). Hispanic patients, the program director informed me, are

seen at the Parrottsville and Newport clinics, an expansion since 1994. The maternal-child

program (referred to as Bebe Sano in 1994) has been maintained and supported irrespective of

economic and political constraints. Again, this remains an economic challenge in light of the

contemporary high poverty rate (22.5%) in Cocke County (U.S. Census Bureau 2007d).










The program name has changed over time morphing from a culturally sensitive title in

Spanish, Bebe Sano--a name selected to emulate concern for migrant women and their infants

passing through eastern Tennessee--to "Increasing Prenatal Care Access and Education for the

Hispanic Population," (personal communication with the organization's grant writer October

2007). The name transformation is indicative of the agency's internal struggle to market the

program to philanthropic organizations for funding purposes by using key terms such as

"increasing," "access," "education," and "Hispanic population." These trigger words enhance

and reinforce the needs of the community in applying for grants. Notice that the term migrant

farmworkers is not associated with the title, shifting the need from a more transitory population

suggesting a more permanent community population.

The 2000 U.S. census figures suggest there has been an increase in the Hispanic population

in the catchment area counties, albeit modest with the exception of Hamblen County where the

population went from 0.7% in 1990 to 9.3% in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b,:16-19; 2007d).

In Cocke County, according to the 2000 census, there were 374 persons of Hispanic or Latino

origin living in the county compared to 144 in 1990. Of these 374 persons, 227 were from

Mexico in 2000 compared to 44 in 1990.

From the perspective of the Rural Medical Services, the increase in the Hispanic

population is dramatic. The CEO reported that 67% of the county's births in 2006 were to

Hispanic mothers. Although, the statistic masks how many were from the settled Hispanic

population and how many were from migrant farmworker population, the CEO believes the

majority are from the settled population (personal communication 2007). As in 1994, there was

no accurate count of the numbers of migrant farmworkers passing through the region during the

agricultural season. Although the numbers remain high as indicated in a grant application










submitted to HRSA in 2002, stating that 3,503 migrants were tested for tuberculosis between

November 1, 2001 and July 30, 2002 through a special outreach project (HRSA FIOA document,

Application for Federal Assistance dated November 11, 2002).

Political and economic forces continue to be the most salient issues affecting the provision

of health care to migrant farmworkers and their families. TennCare funding remains a daunting

obstacle in providing care to the migrant farmworker population in the catchment area.

Notwithstanding the funding issues discussed above, a new state policy has further diminished

financial reimbursement for this vulnerable population. It was reported to me that the State of

Tennessee has "reinterpreted" the federal emergency care clause included in the Medicaid

waiver. Previously, the clause enabled health care providers to administer care in the case of life

threatening scenarios without regard to immigrant status, an interpretation which included

obstetrical deliveries. Effective January 2007, no Medicaid payments under TennCare will be

made on any emergency case unless the person receiving care has a valid U.S. identification. As

the CEO pointed out in our conversation (2007), Federally Qualified Community Health Care

Centers have never had to screen for immigration status, but are required to provide treatment to

all who seek care. He reiterated that they continue to do so; however, area hospitals, in his

opinion, will eventually bar obstetric treatment for Rural Medical Services' migrant farmworker

patients.

Migrant farmworkers as alien outsiders, in Tennessee have become a state wide

xenophobic political issue and not just an isolated rural concern as Tennessee government

officials cast blame on Hispanics as a source of the failure of the state Medicaid system. In

2007, Tennessee State Representative, Donna Rowland--in a televised evening news segment--

went on record stating, "every state is a border state" and "every town is a border town,"









referring to the Mexican border (WSMV.com 2007). Her colleague, then State Representative

Bill Ketron, who was quoted in the same evening news segment, insinuated TennCare's

disenrollment of 300,000 people in 2006 created a situation where Mexican immigrants received

health care at the expense of native Tennesseans, "many of whom have lived here all their lives"

(WSMV.com 2007). According to the news segment, he said, "it' s not fair for people who are

here illegally to get [TennCare] coverage that legal residents can't get" (WSMV.com 2007).46,47

The program remains sustainable through "folding it into" the agency's CHC budget

supported in part by the U.S. Public Health Service administered through HRSA. Rural Medical

Services, as it did in 1994, receives 330 funding for its CHC. In 1994 the agency did not qualify

for 329 funding for migrant care; however that funding restriction has been somewhat mitigated

by changes to the federal law governing funding to CHCs. Since the original site visit, an

amendment to the Public Health Service Act, the "Health Centers Consolidation Act of 1996"

(Public Law 104-299), has restructured payment provisions to entities providing migrant

farmworker health care. The amendment provides payment for migrant farmworkers, and other

underserved populations, through the provisions of 330 CHC funding; thus increasing the

sustainability of the maternal-child program.













Table 4-1. Selected 1990 Sociodemographic Characteristics for the United States, Tennessee,
catchment area population, and Willacy County, Texas.
African
American Hispanic Rural
Sq. Miles Density All persons White % % % %
United
States 3,636,338 70.3 248,709,873 80.3 12.0 8.8 24.8

Tennessee 41,220 118.3 4,877, 185 83.0 15.9 0.6 39.1

Cocke 434.4 67.1 29,141 97.6 1.8 0.5 75.6

Greene 621.8 89.8 55,853 97.2 2.3 0.3 75.8

Hamblen 161.0 313.5 50,480 94.8 4.6 0.7 57.6

Jefferson 273.8 120.6 33,016 96.7 2.8 0.3 83.4

Sevier 592.3 86.2 51,043 99.0 0.4 0.5 63.3
Willacy,
TX 596.7 29.7 17,705 78.2 0.5 84.0 49.5
Sources: U. S. Census Bureau (1993a: 1,4,6-7) 1990 Census ofPopulation: Social and
Economic Characteristics, thrited States; U.S. Census Bureau (1993b: 1-2,5-6,9-10) Census
ofPopulation: Social and Economic Characteristics, Tennessee; U.S. Census Bureau
(1993d: 57) 1990 Census ofPopulation: Social and Economic Characteristics, Texas; Section
1 of 3. U. S. Census Bureau (1 993e: 1,4,6-7) 1990 Census ofPopulation: Social andEconontic
Characteristics, Texas; Section 2 of3. U.S. Census Bureau (1993f:2,5,35) 1990 Census of
Population and Housing, Population and Housing thrit Counts, thrited States. Washington,
DC: U. S. Department of Commerce; U.S. Census Bureau (1992e:1,5-6,7-8) 1990 Census of
Population and Housing, Population and Housing thrit Counts, Tennessee. U.S. Census
Bureau (1992f: 10, 14,29). 1990 Census ofPopulation and Housing, Population and Housing
thrit Counts, Texas. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in bold
indicate persistent poverty county.)












Table 4-2. Percentage of Hispanic population Mexican, 1990, for catchment area counties
and Willacy County, Texas.
Number of persons of Number of
Hispanic origin Mexicans % of population Mexican
Cocke 144 41 28.5
Greene 163 62 16.3
Hamblen 134 55 41.0
Jefferson 86 19 22.1
Sevier 361 171 47.4
Willacy, TX 17,705 14,879 84.0
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993b:16-19,22) 1990 Census of the Population, General
Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce; U.S. Census
Bureau (1993d:57) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic Characteristics, Texas,
Section 1 of3. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties.)

Table 4-3. Selected 1990 socioeconomic indicators for the United States, Tennessee, Bebe
Sano catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas.
Poverty rate % Per capital Unemployment Educational
income rate % attainment %b
U.S. 13.1 $14,420 4.1 75.2
Tennessee 15.7 $12,250 6.4 67.1
Cockea 25.3 $8,574 10.8 50.4
Greene 16.9 $10, 161 7.2 58.1
Hamblen 13.9 $11,127 6.2 61.6
Jefferson 15.1 $10,562 7.3 60.5
Sevier 13.2 $10,848 9.2 61.8
Willacy, TX 50.3 $4,363 17.3 32.7
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a: 1-3) Census ofPopulation: Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau
(1 993b: 1 -2,5 -6,9-10) Census ofPopulation: Social and Economic Characteristics,
Tennessee. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau (1993d:126) Census
ofPopulation: Social and Economic Characteristics, Texas, Section 1 of3. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. (Notes. aAreas in bold are persistent poverty counties.
bEducational attainment, as measured by the percentage of the population 25 years and older
with a high school diploma or its equivalency [GED].)











Table 4-4. Selected health indicators, 1992-1994, for the United States, Tennessee, Bebe Sano
catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas.
Mortality Cancer Cerebrovas- Suicide
rates, all Heart disease mortality cular disease mortality
causes a mortality rates rates mortality rates rates
U.S. 914.8 303.2 215.9 62.4 12.0
Tennessee 997.1 326.2 223.7 80.4 12.8
Cocke 1,088.4 376.7 256.2 95.6 13.8 c
Greene 1,031.5 387.6 221.2 77.2 15.0
Hamblen 1,046.7 349.9 206.0 161.6 11.5 c
Jefferson 984.3 320.3 209.9 77.5 9.2 c
Sevier 910.8 353.7 211.8 44.0 14.3
Willacy, TXb 842.4 288.2 200.0 26.9 c 10.3 c
Source: CDC Wonder 2005a, compressed mortality file 1979-1998. Electronic document,
http://wonder. cdc.gov/cmf-icd9. html, accessed June 2005. (Notes. a Mortality rates are three
year averages, age-adjusted per 100,000, and based on the following ICD-9 codes: diseases of
the heart 390-398, 402, 404-429; cancer 140-239.9; cerebrovascular disease 430-438; and
suicide 950-959. b Willacy County data are based on the white county population. The CDC
reported these rates as unreliable due to low death rates for the time period [less than 20].)

Table 4-5. Infant mortality rates and birth rates, 1992-1994 for the United States, Tennessee,
Bebe Sano, and Willacy County, Texas.
Infant mortality rate aBirth rate
U.S. 8.3 15.4
Tennessee 9.3 14.2
Cocke 5.7 c 13.6
Greene 6.1 c 11.4
Hamblen 9.4 13.4
Jefferson 7.3 c 11.6
Sevier 3.6 c 12.9
Sources: Infant mortality rates, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file, 1989-1998.
Electronic document, http://wonder.cdc. gov/cmf-icd9.html, accessed March 2008; For U. S.
birth rates: CDC, National Vital Statistics System, National Center for Health Statistics.
Electronic document, http://209.217.72.34/VitalStats/TableViewe/al iwap, accessed
October 21, 2007; For Tennessee birth rates: Tennessee Department of Health, Health
Information Tennessee [HIT]. Electronic document, http://hit. state.tn.us/BirthRateDetail/aspx,
accessed October 1, 2007. (Notes. a Infant mortality rates are three year averages, per 1,000
live births. b Birth rates are per 1,000 women. These data are reported by CDC as unreliable
due to deaths lower than twenty in the three year time period.)











Table 4-6. Migrant health status: 20 diagnoses encountered in four migrant health centers in
Michigan, Indiana, and Texas.
Rank Diagnosis
1 Diabetes mellitus
2 Health supervision of infant or child
3 Otitis media
4 Normal pregnancy
5 Acute upper respiratory infection
6 Hypertension
7 Consultation without complaint or sickness
8 Dental
9 Contact dermatitis and eczema
10 Common cold
11 Acute conjunctivitis
12 Strep throat & scarlet ever
13 Inflammatory disease of the cervix, vagina, or vulva
14 Anemia
15 Viral infection, unspecified site
16 Acute pharyngitis
17 Urethra and urinary tract disease
18 Gastroenteritis and colitis
19 General Medical Exam
20 External ear disorders
Data source: G. E. Dever (1991:8) Migrant Health Status: Profile of a Population with
Complex Health Problems. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. Austin, Texas:
National Migrant Resource Program, Inc.











Table 4-7. Catchment area hospital resources and percent of charity care provided, 1994.
Number hospitals Number staffed beds % Charity care
Cocke 1 53 4.9
Greene 2 281 1.2
Hamblen 2 302 0.3
Jefferson 1 67 No data
Sevier 1 46 2.0
Source: Tennessee Department of Health (1 996:64, 124,1 32, 184,3 16) Picture of the Present,
PartPPPPP~~~~~~~PPPPPP Two, 1994. Tennessee's Health Series. Nashville: Tennessee Department of Health.
(Note: Hospitals are non-federal, Medicaid/TennCare certified.)







































Figure 4-1. Appalachian home in Cocke County, Tennessee. (Note: Photograph by Susan
Morfit, 1994.)










~ ~_~__
~I_ ~__~
__ __ ~_~_
-C ----- c----11 -~ ~.r ---~ I~


Figure 4-2. Parrottsville Community Health Center and migrant farmworker health center.
(Note: Photograph by Susan Morfit, 1994.)


r : i rab-~raal r 11P
r ii ~il

I ,; --I




































Figure 4-3. Rural Medical Services' transportation vehicle used to transport migrant farmworker
women and their children to the Parrottsville migrant health center. (Note: Photograph by Susan
Morfit, 1994.)

























































Figure 4-4. Bebe Sano's Driver-Translator during his birthday party at the Parrottsville
community health center. (Note: Photograph by Susan Morfit, 1995.)




132










Notes


SRural Community Health Services, Inc., changed its name in 1995 to Rural Medical Services, Inc.

SIn 1992, Cocke County was nationally ranked as the 102th county in the country for tomatoes, harvesting 259
acres. By 1997 the acreage harvested of tomatoes more than doubled (USDA, NASS 1999b:95).

SThe most predominant ancestries of the catchment area, according to the 1990 census, were Irish, German,
English, and Scot-Irish (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b: 192-198).

SThe 1990 census documented 891 persons of Hispanic origin in the five counties, or 0.4% of the catchment area
population. Native Americans comprised 0.3% of the aggregate population and the Asian population accounted for
0.1 percent.

5 The percent of the population living in rural areas in the five counties, ranked highest to the lowest, are: Jefferson
83.4%, Greene 75.8%, Cocke 75.6%, Sevier 63.2%, and Hamblen 57.6%.

6 Since the target population for this case study is migrant farmworkers and their families, the review of the social
indicators of the catchment area will be brief due to the fact that socioeconomic data for the region does not capture
this mobile population.

SInfant mortality rates are three-year averages per 1,000 live births.

SMost of the health care professionals interviewed in 1995 reported that the migrant populations they care for are
from Mexico, with occasionally a few farmworkers from the Caribbean and Central America. According to the
1990 NAWS report (DOL 1991: 11, 16), 71% of the surveyed Seasonal agricultural workers were Hispanic. Of the
71%, 65% were Mexican or Mexican descent: 57% were from Mexico and eight percent were Mexican-Americans.
When ethnicity was broken down into two the categories of foreign-bomn versus U.S.-bomn, 92% of the foreign-bomn
Hispanics were from Mexico.

9 Inhabitants of the urban interior average 6.5 years of schooling, while border inhabitants average 7.4 years (Fussel
2004:945).

'0 Douglas Massey (2000) defines migrant networks, which Fussell alludes to, as:
sets of interpersonal ties that link together migrants, former migrants, and nonmigrants in origin and destination
areas through the bonds of kinship, friendship, and shared community origin. They increase the likelihood of
migration because they lower the costs of movement and therefore increase the expected net returns to migration.
Migrant costs include the direct monetary costs of making a trip, the information and search costs paid to obtain a
new job, the opportunity costs of income forgone while searching for work, and the psychic costs of leaving a
familiar environment and moving to a strange setting. All these costs are reduced when a prospective migrant has a
personal tie to someone with prior experience in a particular destination area (2000:69).

11 For many indigenous groups, Spanish is not their first spoken language. There is evidence that some Mexican
farmworkers speak only their indigenous language.

12 The Department of Labor's National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) includes migrant farmworkers and
settled, non-migratory workers referred to as seasonal workers. In Tennessee in 1994, clinic providers did not know
of any Hispanic settled farmworkers in their catchment area. This observation is supported by the U.S. 1990 census
data: there were 74 foreign bomn persons living in Cocke County, none of whom were from Latin America or the
Caribbean (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b:213).

'3 I was able to locate one study by Carolyn Achata (1993). Her research focused on immunizations for migrant
children ages newborn to five years enrolled at a day care center in southeast Tennessee, where "Mexican-American
migrant workers arrived to assist farmers with planting tomatoes and pumpkins" (1993:93). The research was
conducted in the summers of 1988, 1989, and 1990. Over the three year period, 52.2% of the children required
immunizations (193:95).











'4 This percentage (47.4%) of migrant farmworkers was for the collective time period of 1989- 1995. NAWS
reports based on 1989-1990 data report 42% of the agricultural workers were migrants (DOL 1991:DOL 1994).
This percentage has remained fairly constant over time. The 2005 NAWS report again reported 42% of the
agricultural workers were migrant farmworkers (DOL 2005:ix).

15 See Gwyther and Jenkins (1998) for a comprehensive literature review of migrant health issues.

16 It must be stressed that while helpful in providing health data on this elusive population, data from state, migrant
streams, and local studies may not be applicable to the migrant population as a whole (Galarneau 1992:30).

'7 In Cameron, the poverty rate for Hispanics was 45.9%, in Hidalgo it was 47.1%, and in Willacy it was 50.3%
(U.S. Census Bureau 1993c:1149,1171,1208).

's Joel Meister is a professor at University of Arizona College of Medicine, Southwest Border Rural Health
Research Center.

19 MillS and Kwong (2001) in a study conducted in California found Hispanic farmworkers had a greater incidence
of leukemia, stomach cancer, uterine cervix cancer, uterine corpus cancer, and brain cancer compared to non
farmworker Hispanics.

20Enforcement of federal and state housing regulations is the purview of a number of state and local governmental
bodies and the responsibilities of each vary with differences in local housing, building, and health regulations
(National Advisory Council on Migrant Health 1993:9-14).

21 Migrants are not sufficiently educated to file official complaints, and often they are unwilling to jeopardize their
work status by making a complaint against their employer (personal communication with Migrant Health Director
1995: see also, Chavez 1996). The EPA lacks staff to effectively monitor most migrant camps to insure compliance
with federal regulations (National Advisory Council on Migrant Health 1993:64-66). The EPA is an independent
federal agency and acts separately from HHS.

22As described in Chapter 4, HRSA is one of the agencies of the United States Health and Human Services (HHS),
which is directed by the United States Secretary of Health-a cabinet level position under the President. In 1994,
Tennessee fell under HRSA's Region IV, which included Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee (HRSA 1994).

23The CEO referred to the Public Health Service repeatedly when talking about federal funding and the other
matters pertaining to operating rules and regulations. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is
governed in part by the Public Health Act (public law passed in 1946), and the Public Health Service Corps remains
headquartered within this mammoth agency.

24There were 412 live births in Cocke County in 1994 (Picture of the Present, Part 2 1996:61).

25Although the Beb6 Sano project has a very limited scope, the Parrottsville community health center does provide
comprehensive clinic services to all migrant farmworkers according to a 1994 grant proposal.

26 This passage is from a grant proposal written by the Migrant Program Coordinator 1994.

27On a tour of the community health center, a staff member revealed that the clinic sold birth control pills for five
dollars a pack, when available.

28TOP provided various services including employment referral, housing referral, and had until 1993 provided a
Migrant Head Start Program. At the time of the site visit, the county was searching for another organization to take
over the Migrant Head Start Program.

29 Eeligible in this context means women who are in the United States legally.

30At least one farmer had built housing for migrant farmworkers near his fields.












31 From our observation at the community health center, the migrant patients and their children were not offered
snacks or water.

32We were given permission to accompany the Program Coordinator to the exam room after the nurse practitioner
had completed her exam and assessment of the patient.

33According to the CEO, the medical director had a familial connection to the area: his grandmother lived in
Johnson City, which was located relatively close to Cocke County. His wife was a National Health Service Corp
practitioner, a registered nurse, who had been assigned to Rural Medical Services by the National Health Service
Corps for a six month rotation. They met, married, and settled in Newport to raise a family.

34The doctor's name was substituted with his title.

35The region where they were located was accessible by boat and small aircraft.

36 The Driver had an identical twin brother who lived in Kentucky. Both brothers had taught themselves Spanish
around the same time. Neither knew the other spoke Spanish until sometime later.

37Some of the details of the program were drawn from 1995 March of Dimes Grant Proposal written by the
Program Coordinator in 1994.

38Medicaid did not cover undocumented farmworkers, or farmworkers whose Medicaid eligibility could not be
confirmed, for example.

39 The CEO did remark that some migrant farmworkers had settled out to work in a poultry processing plant in
Hamblen County. The processing plant had had difficulty in attracting local residents to do what was considered a
very undesirable job.

40 Community Health Center funding is commonly denoted as 330 funding.

41 According to the Rural Assistance Center (2007), Federally Qualified Health Center designation provides CHCs
certain benefits:

*Enhanced Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement

*Medical malpractice coverage through the Federal Tort Claims Act

*Eligibility to purchase prescription and non-prescription medications for outpatients at a reduced cost
through the 340B Drug Pricing Program

*Access to National Health Service Corps

*Access to the Vaccine for Children program

*Eligibility for various other federal grants and programs

42The 1115 Waiver that The CEO referred to was a Federal waiver allowing Tennessee to experiment with the
traditional Medicaid system in their state. In this case, the state moved it to a managed care program provided by
insurance companies. Tennessee made the rules and the insurance carried them out with some autonomy.

43The doctor was referring to the providing care to all migrant farmworkers and their families, regardless of their
ability to pay for services. It is worth pointing out again that Rural Medical Services did not receive federal funding
for these efforts.

44The colloquial reference to people was folks.

45The CEO interviewed in 2007 was the same gentleman interviewed in 1994.











46 Both representatives were Republican.


47 Federal legislation enacted in 2005 (Federal Reduction Act) restricted Medicaid enrollment to U.S. citizens only.
However, undocumented immigrants enrolled prior to 2006 remain covered unless they leave the state.









CHAPTER 5
CHILDREN AND FAMILY SERVICES

Introduction

Children and Family Services, Inc. is located in western Tennessee and services a

catchment area of four counties: Fayette, Haywood, Lauderdale, and Tipton. The economies of

the four county es are b based on m anufacturi ng manufacturei ng- dep endent), and, as defi ned by the

USDA, only two are classified as persistent poverty counties--Lauderdale and Haywood. All

four counties are vastly poor and rural, with striking differences between white and black

residents, as measured by selected social determinants of health.

Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators

Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990

Within the four counties, blacks account for a significant portion of the population,

although whites--primarily of Irish, German, and English descent--remain in the maj ority,

albeit a slim majority in some counties, Table 5-1 (U. S. Census Bureau 1993b).2 The vast

maj ority of the catchment area population live in rural areas, with the exception of Haywood

County where just under half (48.5%) of the residents reside in rural locales.

Children and Family Services' target population includes any resident within the four

counties in need of their services, although low income and indigent residents are the primary

target populations. The agency's facilities are located in Covington (city) within the North-

Central region of Tipton County, and as such, residents of Covington and Tipton constitute many

of their clients.









Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990

Poverty rates

As one may expect, the highest 1990 poverty rate (27.5%) in the catchment area was in a

persistent poverty county-Haywood County (Table 5-2). Tipton County had the lowest poverty

rate (20.0%), but nevertheless was significantly higher than the state rate (15.7%). In spite of

this high poverty rate, Tipton was not officially listed as a rural persistent poverty county.

Lauderdale, the other persistent poverty county in the catchment area, had the second lowest

poverty rate (22.4%).

When the data are disaggregated by race and compared, a different pattern emerges. The

highest black poverty rate (45.3%) is found in Tipton County--the same county with the

deceptively lowest overall poverty rate. In Tipton County, nearly half of the black residents

lived in poverty, and pockets of extreme poverty were found throughout the county. As case in

point, in Covington city, the county the site of the program headquarters, 64.5% of the black

residents fell below the poverty line.

Across the four-county catchment area and at the state level, black poverty rates were more

than double that of their white counterparts. The black poverty rate in Tipton County was over

three and one-half times higher than for white residents--45.3% versus 12.3%, respectively. In

Covington city, the poverty rate for blacks jumped to 64.5% compared to 17.4% for white

residents .

Per capital incomes

The 1990 per capital incomes for the four counties fell well below the state level of $12,255

(Table 5-3). The non-persistent poverty counties had the highest and the persistent poverty

counties had the lowest. Tipton County had the highest ($9,796), and Lauderdale had the lowest

($8,607).










Comparing per capital income by race reveals blacks living in Lauderdale County had the

lowest per capital income ($5,308), and white residents living in Fayette County had the highest

($12,986)--slightly lower than the state per capital income ($13,201). Reflecting the high

poverty in Covington city, the per capital income of blacks living in Covington city was the

lowest ($4,263) when compared to county level per capital incomes and two and one-half times

lower than white residents living in Covington city.

Unemployment rates

The 1990 unemployment rates (percentage of the population unemployed) for the four

counties were significantly higher that the state rate of 6.4% (Table 5-4). Within the four-county

catchment area, the unemployment rate was highest (11%) in Lauderdale County and lowest

(7.7%) in Tipton County. The unemployment rate in Covington city was only slightly lower, by

one-tenth of a percent, than Lauderdale's rate.

When data are compared between white and black residents, the trend that emerges is at

least a doubling of black unemployment rates compared to white rates. In some areas the data

far exceeded this ratio. In Fayette County the black rate of unemployment (14.3%) was triple

that of white residents (4.7%). In Covington city, one-fifth (21.5%) of the black work force was

unemployed, nearly four times the rate (5.9%) of white residents.

Educational attainment

Educational attainment, as measured by the percentage of the population 25 years and

older with a high school diploma or its equivalency (General Educational Development [GED]),

is lowest for blacks in the state and the catchment area (Table 5-5). Considering the aggregate

(total) population for the state, the four counties, and Covington, educational attainment for the

catchment area in 1990 was lower than the state level of 67. 1%. Over 40% of the counties'

residents, with the exception of Tipton County, did not have a high school diploma. Tipton

139









County had the highest level of educational attainment (61.8%) and Lauderdale County had the

lowest (52.1%).

Following the patterns of poverty and per capital income, educational attainment was

significantly higher for white residents than for blacks in the catchment area. Interestingly, the

highest and the lowest educational attainment rates occurred in Fayette County where 66.8% of

the white residents had a high school diploma compared to only 37.7% of the black residents. In

Covington city, 39.9% of the black population had a high school diploma compared to 59.5% of

the white population.

Selected Catchment Area Health Outcomes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiological
Surveillance

Mortality Rates, All Causes

Data for mortality rates--unless otherwise noted--were derived from the CDC Wonder

data base using ICD-9 codes. The rates are age-adjusted per 100,000 of the noted population

using 2000 as the standard population and are three year averages for the yearsl992-1994. Three

levels of comparison are made for an ethnoepidemiological analysis. First, U.S. national

aggregate mortality rates are compared with the state and catchment county rates. Second,

mortality rates of black and white populations at the national, state, and county level are

compared. Third, high and low mortality rates for black populations at the county level within

the catchment area are compared with the national aggregate population, to provide a sense of

how much variation was occurring within the target population across the catchment area.

The 1992-1994 mortality rates for all causes were higher than the national rate for the

aggregate populations in Tennessee and the four county catchment area (Table 5-6). At the state

level, three of the four counties had higher mortality rates than the state level. Only Fayette

County's rate was lower at 984.0 versus 997.1 for Tennessee. The highest mortality rates









occurred in the two persistent poverty counties, Haywood and Lauderdale. Tipton County had

the third highest in the catchment area.

The identical pattern holds for the white populations, but for black residents in the

catchment area a new pattern emerged. At the state level, black Tennesseans had a higher

mortality rate compared to all blacks in the United States. At the county catchment area level,

white Tennesseans had higher mortality rates than the national white rate. However, black

Tennesseans in three out of the four counties in the catchment area had lower mortality rates than

the national rate. Only Lauderdale County, a persistent poverty county, had a higher rate than

the national rate. Blacks in the catchment area counties--all four--had lower overall mortality

rates than the blacks at the state level. Disaggregating the data by race underscores the

differences between these two groups in the catchment area. In some case the differences are

striking.

Blacks living in the catchment area fared considerably worse than the aggregate national

population. Comparing the highest black mortality rate was found in Lauderdale County to the

national average, the difference was significant: 1,244.2 versus 914.9 respectively. The lowest

black mortality rate (1,058.9) in the catchment area, found in Fayette County, also was higher

than the aggregate national rate.

Heart Disease Mortality Rates

Tennessee had a slightly higher heart disease mortality rate than the aggregate national

population (Table 5-7). 3 Three counties fared worse that the state aggregate population. Fayette

County had a heart disease mortality rate lower than either the state or national aggregate. The

other three counties exceeded the state and national rates, with Tipton only slightly over the state

rate, but with Lauderdale exceeding the national aggregate rate by 44%.









The heart disease mortality rates for both whites and blacks in Tennessee were higher than

their national counterparts. Whites within the catchment area were split: the two persistent

poverty counties three counties (Haywood and Lauderdale) and Tipton County had higher heart

disease mortality rates than both the U.S. and Tennessee whites, while Fayette County whites

fared somewhat better than both the state and national populations.

Blacks in two counties had heart disease mortality rates lower than the national rate for

blacks, and three of the four counties had rates lower than the state rate for blacks, Lauderdale

County being the lone exception. For both white and black populations, the highest heart disease

mortality rates consistently fell within the persistent poverty counties (Haywood and

Lauderdale). White heart disease mortality rates were consistently better than their black

counterparts except in Tipton County were the black population fared significantly better than

the whites.

Ti pton C county had th e l owe st black he art mortality rate of the four county es--Lauderdal e

had the highest. Tipton County's black heart disease mortality rate was slightly lower than the

national aggregate, while the Lauderdale heart disease mortality rate was nearly half again higher

than the aggregate national rate.

Cancer Mortality Rates

Tennesseans, in general, fared worse than the general public nationwide. Even when the

data are disaggregated by race, national cancer mortality rates for whites and blacks were lower

than the Tennessee rates (Table 5-8).4 Within the catchment area, Fayette County had an

aggregate cancer mortality rate lower than either the state or national population. The other three

counties had rates significantly higher than both the national and state rates.









Whites within the catchment area had higher rates than whites at the national state level,

with the exception of Fayette County. Haywood had the highest white cancer mortality rate

within the catchment area.

Blacks in the catchment area fared slightly better compared to their national and state

counterparts. Two counties (Fayette and Haywood) had lower rates than the national cancer rate

for blacks, and three counties demonstrated lower rates than the state rate for blacks.

Lauderdale County was the only county that equaled the state cancer mortality rate for blacks.

Lauderdale and Tipton Counties had the highest cancer rates for blacks in the catchment area.

However, when the cancer mortality rates for catchment area blacks are compared to the

aggregate national rate, they remain higher than the overall U.S. population. The highest cancer

rate in the catchment area (Lauderdale) was 36% higher than the aggregate national rate. The

lowest black cancer mortality rate (Fayette County) was only slightly above the national rate.

Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates

Tennessee's cerebrovascular mortality rates were considerably higher than the United

States rates (Table 5-9).5 All of the catchment counties had higher rates than the aggregate

nation rate. Two counties (Fayette and Lauderdale) had higher rates than the Tennessee

aggregate rate. The rate in Fayette County was twice the aggregate national rate.

The cerebrovascular mortality rate for white Tennesseans was 27.3% higher than for

whites at the national level. Whites within the catchment area had vastly differing rates. Three

of the catchment area counties (Fayette, Lauderdale, and Tipton) had higher rates than the

national average for whites. The white cerebrovascular mortality rate for Haywood County was

unreliable due to a low number of deaths from cerebrovascular disease in the three-year period,

and any conclusion based on this single data point would be suspect. Within the catchment area,

two counties had higher rates than the state rate. Ironically, whites in Fayette County had the

143










highest cerebrovascular disease mortality rate--higher than any of the black rates and 127%

above the national rate for whites. The cerebrovascular disease mortality rate for whites in

Tipton County was lower than the state rate for whites.

The pattern of cerebrovascular rates for blacks was slightly different than their white co-

residents. Blacks in all four catchment area counties had higher rates than blacks at the national

level. At the state level, one county (Fayette) had a higher rate than the state rate, one county

(Haywood) tied the black state rate, and two had lower rates (Lauderdale and Tipton). The

lowest cerebrovascular disease mortality rate for blacks was also found in Tipton County.

Blacks had higher cerebrovascular mortality rates than whites except in Fayette County where

the rate was significantly lower than the rate for their white counterparts.

The catchment area cerebrovascular mortality rates for blacks were considerably higher

than the aggregate national. The highest black mortality rate due to cerebrovascular disease, in

Fayette County, was 81.3% higher than the aggregate national rate. The same pattern of very

high rates held true in all four counties, with the lowest rate, in Tipton County, standing at

52.1%.

Suicide Mortality Rates

The aggregate Tennessee suicide rate was higher than the U.S. rate, but not significantly

(Table 5-10).6 Data for the catchment area counties seemed to be fairly consistent with the state

and national rates, but the number of suicides in the counties were too low to produce reliable

data. Suicide rates among the black population were much lower than in the white population

both nationwide and across Tennessee. The data for the catchment area, although unreliable due

to low numbers, seem to be consistent with this pattern. The lower rates of suicide among the

blacks may reflect cultural differences.









Infant Mortality Rates, 1992-1994

Infant mortality rates in Tennessee were higher than the national average (Table 5-11).7

Comparison of the U. S. and Tennessee infant mortality rates to the catchment area rates is

problematic. Infant mortality rates at the county level were unreliable, except for Tipton

County's aggregate rate, due to low number of infant deaths. Tipton County's aggregate infant

mortality rate was 14.8 per 1,000 live births, significantly higher than the state rate and 78.3%

higher than the aggregate national rate. Although data were unreliable, the available data seem

to suggest that Fayette and Haywood Counties had similarly high infant mortality.

The aggregate state white infant mortality rate was slightly lower than the aggregate

national rate for whites, while the aggregate state black infant mortality rate was slightly higher

than the aggregate national black rate. The black infant mortality rate, however, was more than

double the white infant mortality rates at both the state and national levels. The limited,

unreliable data at the county level seems to be fairly consistent with this pattern.

The Tennessee Department of Health (2008) ranked Tipton County fifth in the state for its

overall high infant mortality rate for the years 1992 to 1994. For the same period, Tipton County

ranked first in the state for black infant mortality. Comparatively, for white infant mortality rate,

Tipton ranked 13th in the state. Black infant mortality rankings for the remaining three counties

in the catchment area were the following: Fayette, 8th; Haywood, 22nd; Lauderdale, 14th

Catchment Area Birth Rates, 1992-1994

The 1992-1994 birth rates for the catchment area ranged from a high of 21.9 per 1,000

women of child bearing age in Tipton for black females to a low of 12.8 per 1,000 women in

Haywood for white females (Table 5-12).8 Distinguishing between black and white birth rates,

birth rates for blacks were consistently higher than birth rates for whites within the catchment

area. However, white females in the catchment area had higher birth rates than the state rate in

145









three of the four counties. The white birth rate for Haywood was slightly lower than the state

rate. In contrast to the whites, black catchment area populations tended to have lower rates than

the state birth rate for blacks, with the exception of Tipton County.

Catchment Area Adolescent Fertility, 1992-1994

In this case, there is a strong emphasis on adolescent fertility rates since Children and

Family Services had developed specific programs to address the high adolescent pregnancy and

birth rates among black youths in the catchment counties (Figure 5-1).9,10 COmparing adolescent

pregnancy rates (per 1,000 females aged 10-17) before the agency was established 1983-1985 to

adolescent pregnancy rates at time period of the site visit 1992-1994, the general trend for white

adolescents was a slight increase over time. The trend for black adolescents, on the other hand,

was mixed--Fayette and Haywood counties experienced significant increases while Lauderdale

and Tipton counties--the two counties primarily served by the program--experienced slight

decreases in adolescent pregnancy rates. Lauderdale had the sharpest decrease from 46.5 to 41.5

per 1,000 females aged 10-17 years; Tipton's decrease was more modest decreasing from 41.9 to

41.1 per 1,000 females 10-17 years.

Examining adolescent pregnancy rates from 1992 to 1994 (three year averages) there was a

dramatic difference between whites and blacks (Table 5-13). The highest adolescent pregnancy

rate was recorded for black adolescents in Haywood County, which was 168% higher than the

white rate for that county. The lowest aggregate adolescent pregnancy rate was in Fayette

County. In comparison, the lowest rate for blacks was also in Fayette County, but this was still

much higher than the white adolescent rate anywhere in the catchment area.

Health Care Resources

Historically, the counties within the catchment area have been federally classified as

Medically Underserved Areas (MAUs) (HRSA 2005 BPHC MUA/MUP database).ll All but

146









Tipton County had a shortage of primary care physicians, and all counties lacked mental health

care providers (HRSA Health 2005 Professional Shortage Areas database). Fayette and

Haywood were each served by a federally funded community health center, Tipton and

Lauderdale Counties were not. Comparing the status of basic health care resources in the four

counties, as of 1994, Fayette County had fewer resources than the persistent poverty counties

(Haywood and Lauderdale). 12 In 1994, generally, Tipton possessed the most health care

resources in the catchment area, while Fayette had the least (Tennessee Department of Health

1996).

Ironically, Fayette's health outcomes were, for the most part, more favorable than the

other counties in the catchment area, even though the county had fewer resources, second highest

aggregate poverty rate, and was classified as 100% rural (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b). 13 When

compared to Tipton County, Fayette demonstrated a higher level of positive health outcomes for

most health indicators than Tipton County, even though Fayette had a higher concentration of

blacks (44.2 % versus 23.6 %). One explanation may be that Fayette had a lower black poverty

level than Tipton, 37% compared to 45.3% in Tipton. The observation could also result from the

presence of a community health center serving the black population in Fayette. The high

concentration of impoverished blacks in Covington City within Tipton County (64.5 % of blacks

in the city were poor), may also have contributed to the lower health outcome performance in

Tipton County.

Agency History: "Building of a Dream"

In this case study, the successful rural program is an entire agency: Children and Family

Services, Inc. Children and Family Services comprised multiple components and programs, with

linkages that enhanced and complemented one another. The Enrichment and Intervention

Services program targeting handicapped children, the first program offered at the agency, was a

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stepping-stone to access other vulnerable populations in the community. As the name of the

agency suggests, program participants were not isolated individuals targeted for interventions.

Rather, the agency took on a more holistic approach which involved the entire family when

possible. Isolate of just one program within the organization for examination would provide an

incomplete picture of the agency's success.

The agency sprang from recognition of critical community needs by concerned of civic-

minded community members. With a government employee, a social service maternal-child

outreach nurse, discovered that disabled black children lacked access to preschool or day care

services in the Covington area. 14 After exploring the issue further, the outreach nurse verified

that of the eleven private day care facilities in the area--many of which were church-based

centers--none would accept a handicapped black child, and, to her surprise, they would not

accept any black child. The date was 1982, and the outreach nurse was incensed that such a

vulnerable population, many of whom were poor, lacked access to pre-school services.

Underlying the outreach nurse's concern was the bleak statistical reality that the aggregate

poverty levels in Covington were the highest in the county. Nearly 73% of the city's residents

over the age of 25 did not have a high school diploma or GED, and nearly a third of the families

were headed by single mothers--60% of whom fell below the poverty level. In fact, over half of

all children under the age of 18 lived in poverty. For blacks living in Covington, those statistics

were far worse: the maj ority lived in poverty; black residents were far less likely than white

residents to have a high school diploma; the unemployment rate for blacks was six times the rate

of white residents; over half of all black families were single mothers--70% of whom fell below

the poverty level; and nearly 80% of all black children lived in poverty compared to 21.4% of

white children (Table 5-14) (U.S. Census Bureau 1993b:620,680, 699,705).









The outreach nurse was Minnie Bommer, and she was neither indifferent to, nor reticent in

confronting, social injustice. In response to the needs of her young handicapped clients, she met

with the director of Head Start in Covington, and together they enlisted the help of five other

community members from the surrounding areas representing Tipton, Fayette, and Lauderdale

counties. "Children and Family Services .. was an idea--a thought spoken between two

service providers over lunch in 1982. From that conversation a community-based, culturally

relevant, service oriented economic development Agency was developed" (Bommer 1993).

Together they wrote the by-laws, formed a board, obtained non-profit 501(c)3 status, and sought

collaboration with state, county, and local organizations. 1

In 1984, the organization secured funding to conduct a needs assessment, identify local

resources, and explore funding sources. The needs assessment confirmed there were

handicapped children in the area in need of services, both black and white. By summer of 1985,

the first program, Enrichment and Intervention Services (EIS), began service to 15 handicapped

children ranging in ages from newborn to four years.

From its conception in August of 1982 to its inaugural operation in August of 1985,

Minnie Bommer, who would became the first executive director, worked to secure community

support and a physical location to house the agency. But for Minnie Bommer, the quest to

provide a community-based organization to help the impoverished became very personal. She

described the process of implementing the program as "Building of a Dream" (Bommer 1993).

Minnie Bommer was born in Tipton County, as were her mother and her grandmother.

She understood what it meant to be poor and black in Western Tennessee. Bommer' s mother

and grandmother were maids, but she was expected to graduate high school--and she did. She










graduated in 1957 from Covington's segregated black high school-- in a town (and county)

where Jim Crow laws were strictly enforced.

Bommer had vivid memories of living in a segregated world as a child. During a tour of

Covington, Bommer pointed out the public library, telling us she was twenty-seven years old

before she could walk through its doors. She remembers, as a child, how it felt to walk past it

knowing it held knowledge she could not access. "We weren't allowed to use the public

library," she recalled. When she was a very young girl, her mother or grandmother would

occasionally take her to town--a very special treat--and she recalled her confusion when she

was not allowed to use the public bathrooms or drink from the water fountains marked with signs

reading "Whites Only," having to wait until she returned home to use the bathroom or get a drink

of water. At the time, it just didn't seem right to her.

In another recounting of discrimination, one that was both personal and symbolic to

Bommer, she explained how the agency acquired their current buildings for the agency.

Sometime after school desegregation was instituted, the city debated how to best to utilize the

vacant black school (Frasier High School) and its auxiliary buildings. Some town residents

wanted it demolished; others wanted to use it as a black recreational facility. The town decided

to give the school and the land to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored

People (NAACP) to use at their discretion. According to Bommer, soon after the title was

transferred to the NAACP, it was fire-bombed (1974)--rendering the primary building useless.

The "culprits" were never apprehended. The school's ancillary buildings housed the agency

inl994.

Bommer married right after high school and left Covington with her husband who had

joined the military. They soon had two girls one year apart. Bommer described the years she









and her husband traveled with the military, discovering the world beyond Covington, including

locations overseas. She found there were choices and opportunities unknown to her in

Tennessee--life outside of Covington was different, especially for blacks.

When her husband left the military, they returned to Covington. He wanted her to stay

home with the girls, so they moved into the first public housing proj ect, and she "took in

ironing." They moved out of public housing when he took a job in Memphis--a higher paying

job, but with a long daily commute.

In the 1960s, Bommer became very active in the Civil Rights movement and joined the

NAACP, which eventually earned her the title of "The Trouble-Maker." She became president

of the local NAACP by age of 28, and continued to press for more social-economic opportunities

for blacks. In the 1960s there was only one factory in the county--a cotton mill--and it did not

hire blacks, so the NAACP fought to bring other industries into the county--industries that

would hire blacks.

After a time, she decided to work outside of the home, but was unable to find employment

in the Covington area even though she had a high school education, so she took an eight week

course in Memphis to become a nurse' s aide, but still "couldn't get hired." Finally, in 1967-

1968, she went to school to become a licensed practical nurse (LPN). She was one of seventeen

in a pilot LPN school offered in Tipton County, and the only black in the class. Her classmates

were able to obtain loans locally for their tuition, but not Bommer. She had to go to Memphis to

secure a loan. As their training neared its completion, only four of the seventeen students were

expected to be hired locally. Bommer graduated second in her class, but had a reputation as a

"trouble-maker," and her instructor said she would not be hired, so Bommer "wrote a letter to the

[state] Department of Nursing." Subsequently, she was hired by the community hospital.









At the time she was hired inl968, there had only been one other black nurse employed by

the hospital. She was fired in 1966 for refusing to eat in the kitchen with the "help." Bommer

also preferred to eat in the employee dining room, and was called in by the hospital

administrator, who had hired her, who then suggested she eat in the kitchen. He also reminded

her that he had hired her against the recommendations of her instructor, head nurse, and the floor

nurse. Bommer declined his request without overt repercussion. Otherwise, she recalls, her

conflicts with the staff were minimal. Although she did recall that the nurse's aides initially

refused to work under her (they were white), Bommer said the situation was resolved when she

took the matter to the head nurse. She felt her status as black did not diminish her advancement

at the hospital because she spoke up when she felt discrimination was involved. Bommer

subsequently took a position with the state welfare department at the county level as a maternal-

child outreach worker, a position she held for seven years.

Among other civic endeavors, Bommer was a city alderman for two terms--the first black

alderman and the only woman to serve in that capacity. 16 We accompanied her to the Covington

Board of Mayor and Alderman meeting, where she received an award for her meritorious

community achievements. All of the officials were white males except for one black gentleman.

The black alderman and Bommer were often at odds, she explained. He is a county

commissioner as well as a city alderman, providing a strong voice for blacks. However, he did

not always support Bommer and her agency. When she was trying to secure the old high school

building for her fledgling agency--he opposed her--campaigning for the buildings to be torn

down. At the time of the site visit he had opposed one of her programs for young males.

To Minnie Bommer, planning and developing the agency was "building a dream." Her

dream to provide members of the community options beyond continued generations of poverty.









In her words, "our philosophy is self-help for community people. .. Children and Family

Services is an example of what can happen when cultural economically disadvantaged people are

allowed to decide and implement what they need to become productive, contributing members of

their communities" ("The Building of a Dream" unpublished manuscript by Minnie Bommer).

Agency Description

Target Population, Goals, and Objectives

The agency's target population and goals were broadly defined in the Children and Family

Service's mission statement and philosophy (unpublished manuscript 1994). The agency

operated on the premise that government and nongovernmental agencies were unable to

adequately address the needs of the low income families of the community. 1 As a community

organization designed and implemented by members of the community, the fundamental goal of

the agency was to "to ameliorate the conditions of the disadvantaged and handicapped persons of

modest or non income level" (unpublished manuscript 1994). To achieve this goal, the prime

obj ective was to,

Promote ways to educate families, especially the children, to acquire skills, knowledge,
and motivation which [will] enable them to become self-sufficient contributors to society. .
.. The Agency provides community training and technical assistance to such individuals in
an attempt to alleviate such conditions. [unpublished manuscript 1994]

The target populations were the "underserved and low-income families" in Tipton, Fayette,

Haywood, and Lauderdale counties. Many, if not most, of the populations served by the agency

were from Covington, although several of the agency programs conducted outreach to the

neighboring counties and families from the outlying areas in Tipton County. Residents were

encouraged to access and participate in the agency's many services. The agency was located in

Covington City, adj acent to the city's public housing.










Agency Organization and Programs

Children and Family Services was governed by a board of directors. The board members

were community members appointed for a two year term with no restriction on the number of

terms served. The original seven board members included, "an attorney, Head-Start Director,

factory worker, public school administrator, health care outreach worker, college student, and

community leader" (Meet TCCES, unpublished manuscript). In 1994, there were 17 board

members, 13 blacks and 4 white members.

The executive director of the agency served under the guidance of the board. The by-laws

stipulated that the "executive director works for the board," and although Bommer, as the

executive director, ran the agency, she reported to the board monthly, and she stressed that

"everything is to go before your board." Responsibilities of the executive director also included

fund-raising, grant and proposal writing, and coordinating evaluations of the agency.

The agency was organized into five divisions or departments: (1) Administration, (2) Pre-

School Services, (3) Youth Services, (4) Maternal and Infant Health, and (5) Community

Service, with programs divided among the latter four departments. Each of the program

departments was headed by a department head who oversaw day-to-day operations. The

programs were generally complementary, and often intrinsically related, often overlapping.

Minnie Bommer' s philosophy was that once a person entered one of the agency's programs, the

agency's vast array of services was then available to the entire family. The following is a brief

description of the agency's programs by department.

Department of Maternal and Infant Health

The Department of Maternal and Infant Health coordinated health and social services for

low-income women in the catchment area. The department administered three interrelated

programs: Maternal Infant Health Outreach Workers, Child Abuse Prevention Services, and

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Single Parent/Displaced Homemakers Program. The most extensive and comprehensive of the

three was the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Workers program.

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Workers. Maternal Infant Health Outreach Workers,

introduced in 1986, served high-risk pregnant women. Women identified as high-risk were

followed through pregnancy to three months postnatal. For the duration, outreach workers

provided education and counseling on a broad spectrum of maternal child issues, including

nutrition, parenting, child abuse. The average age of the participants was 16. In 1994 there were

15 women participating in the program, three of whom were 12 years old.

Child Abuse Prevention Services. The Child Abuse Prevention Services program

(CAPS), introduced in 1994, was a prevention program that included training parents to

recognize abusive behavior and methods to prevent such behavior. In 1994 there were 20

participants in this program. However, child abuse prevention was incorporated into many of the

programs and services provided by the agency, thus reaching many more than the 20 formally

participating in the CAPS program

Single Parent/Displaced Homemakers. This program was introduced in 1990, and

targeted women in the Matemnal Infant Health Outreach Workers program and other clients of the

agency who needed assistance in improving their job skills and securing employment. As an

example, the agency provided free daycare for women with small children while the mother

attended classes to obtain her GED. In 1994 the program had 20 participants.

Department of Pre-School Services

Bommer' s philosophy was to bring children into the agency's complex of programs as

young as possible sequencing them through age appropriate programs through high school. The

programs offered by the Department of Pre-school Services were designed to prepare the

children for kindergarten so they could be competitive with their peer group. The department

155









head of Pre-School Services said children in Tennessee were required to take an "entrance exam"

before beginning kindergarten, suggesting that for those children who did not have the

opportunity to attend pre-school educational programs, they would enter the school system with

a distinct disadvantage. As an example of this point, Bommer told us of a young boy, four years

old, who did not speak when he came to them. One day he picked up a book he was interested in

and began reading it out loud. In 1994 he was talking as well as reading. Bommer felt if that

child had not had an opportunity to attend their program, he would have been placed in a special

education class and not identified as the bright child she believes he was.

The Department of Pre-School Services consisted of four programs: (1) Enrichment and

Intervention Services, (2) Group Involvement for Toddlers, (3) Child Care Learning Center, and

(4) After School Child Care. All of the programs had educational and socialization components

appropriate for the target age group. The department head estimated 80% of the children in her

programs were from single parent families.

The agency required all participants of Pre-School Services to have proof of

immunizations, and Enrichment and Intervention Services (EIS) children had to have a physical

examination prior to beginning the program. And while the agency did not provide medical

services at the agency, nor had funding for medical services, preschool children were provided

vision and dental screenings through local health practitioners who donated their services to the

agency. I Pre-school children in need of immunizations were referred to the county health

department.

The department head for Pre-School Services had worked for the agency for a year and

held a degree in Education. She was attending classes for her Master' s degree in Special

Education at the time of the site visit. Working with the children in her programs was personally










very rewarding and provided substantive experience for her graduate studies, while--at the same

time--her coursework facilitated her ability to work more efficiently with the children.

Enrichment and Intervention Services. Enrichment and Intervention Services (ESI) was

the inaugural program of the agency, which began in 1985. The program was designed for

handicapped children ranging in ages from birth to four years. 19 The program provided service

to Fayette, Lauderdale, and Tipton counties with a case load of 18 clients. Referrals came from a

wide variety of sources including physicians, county health department, and social services.

The stated goals of the program were "to provide intensive stimulation for toddlers and

infants who are at risk for or observed to be developmentally delayed, and to provide guidance

for parents of these children in an effort to assist the child to reach his maximum potential"

(Meet TCCES, unpublished manuscript). The agency provided parents with an EIS Parent

Handbook covering the program's policies and procedures. Throughout the program, parents

were encouraged to participate in different components of the program. As an example, parents

were required to attend parent education and training sessions when offered and help in their

child's class on specified days.

Home visits were conducted on Mondays and Fridays by trained outreach workers.

Outreach workers used a number of assessment tools when conducting home visits to record

progress and to monitor the health status of the child. For example, home visits included

monitoring the child's weight, eating habits, and general health.

On Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, the children came to the center for educational

sessions. When necessary, the agency transported the children in agency vans to and from the

center. Upon entering the program an assessment using the Early Learning and Accomplishment

Profile was completed and very six months thereafter to establish and monitor the child's









developmental level. For children with speech impediments, the agency worked closely with a

speech pathologist who designed lesson plans for the children. In addition to the educational

component, sessions conducted at the center were designed to provide interaction conducive to

socialization.

Child Care and Learning Center. The Child Care and Learning Center (CCLC) began in

1989. It was an educational day care program for children ages 2 to 5 years divided into two age

categories (classes), 2-3 years and 4-5 years. In 1994 there were 20 children in each age class.

Participants came from Covington, Atoka, Munsford (Tipton County) and Ripply (Lauderdale

County). Services were provided from 6:15 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., with breakfast, lunch, and a snack

provided by the center.20

The program centered on activities that provided structure, learning experiences, and

enhanced cognitive skills. The 4 to 5 year olds were taught to write their name, address,

telephone number, and other fundamental skills in preparation for kindergarten. There was a

waiting list for the program. CCLC was the only program that required a fee ($40.00 per year).

After School Child Care. This program began in 1989, the same year the Child Care

Learning Center (ASCC) was implemented. The service population was largely from Covington,

however. The program fell under the Pre-School Division in tandem with the pre-school

program. The After School Child Care program targeted children ages of six to nine; however,

eight children from the CCLC program (4 to 5 age class) also attended the program.21 The

children were read to, and, at times the older children read to the preschoolers. Students were

encouraged to complete homework assignments as well. The majority of the children attending

the program came from Covington Elementary, resulting from an effort to capture those children

who would otherwise be "latch key" children of working parents.










Group Involvement for Toddlers. Group Involvement for Toddlers (GIFT) program was

designed for children ages 3 to 4 years and their parents. Parents attended the program with their

child in a group setting. Parents were provided instruction in parenting skills as the children are

prepared for pre-school classes. In 1994 there were 6 clients in this program.

Department of Youth Services

Youth Services, with 6 programs, was the largest department of the four. The department

head was a new hire with only one month on the j ob, at the time of the site visit. She was a

health educator with previous experience with middle school and high school students in rural

Tennessee. In general, the age appropriate programs were designed to educate, socialize, and

provide a safe haven where children were welcomed and encouraged to talk with peers and staff

personnel about significant issues in a non-judgmental environment.

Some children actively sought help from the agency, "referring themselves" to programs.

When the youths began a program, they filled out an entrance questionnaire. In general, "they

are looking for help. They are looking for ways that they can either get along better with their

families or ways they can .. finish high school," observed one department head. Another

member of the staff commented that the children needed someone they could relate to, someone

they could trust.

Bright Futures Supportive Services. Bright Futures Supportive Services (BFSS),

introduced in 1988, was an ambitious program designed to continuously follow female

participants from the time of their enrollment at age 12 until the participant graduated from high

school. The major objectives of the program were to prevent teenage pregnancy and to

encourage the completion of high school. The program facilitator noted that many of the girls

entering the program were sexually active by the age of 13 and that it was not uncommon for

adolescents of this age to have had a child. Underscoring this point, the program facilitator

159










pointed out that there were three pregnant 12 year olds currently enrolled in the agency's

prenatal program.

The program's first class graduated high school in 1993--6 young women--none with a

child. An additional seven were expected to graduate in 1994. If a participant becomes

pregnant, she would automatically be transferred to the Maternal and Infant Health Outreach

Workers program. Although the primary goal of the program was to prevent teen pregnancies,

the program was successful in providing a wide range of support services to vulnerable

adolescents and their families.

BFSS had two primary components, home visits and group sessions conducted at the

agency's center. Once an individual was identified and enrolled in the program, a staff member

would initiate a home visit to meet and discuss the goals of the program with the adolescent and

her family, providing a base-line social assessment. Home visits were performed weekly for the

first month and then once a month through the life of the program. Home visits allowed the staff

to assess the family dynamics and encourage parental involvement.

The program staff who assisted the youth as facilitators were called "natural helpers," and

functioned as mentors, confidants, and role models. Theoretically, they would follow the

participants throughout the program, providing continuity. The natural helpers were women of

the community who had been high risk youths themselves and understood the obstacles faced by

adolescents (Bommer et al. 1993:5).

Group sessions took place on Saturdays at the center--initially occurring twice a month for

the first eight months and then monthly. If transportation was necessary, the participants were

transported to the center by agency vans. Program participants (there were 90 in the program in

1994) were divided into two groups which meet at the center on alternate Saturdays. Each group









was further divided into five subgroups, with each subgroup meeting with one of the five natural

helpers. The sessions ran roughly five hours, from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., with lunch served to

the participants. Each session had a topic which was covered in-depth in both large and small

group settings. Topics revolved around health issues that were designed to engage the

participants in active discussion. Table 5-15 is a sample of topics covered by the program

(Bommer 1993). In 1994 there were 90 adolescents enrolled in BFSS. In the previous year,

there was funding for a total of 39 new participants. For the 1994 BFSS' budget cycle there was

funding for only 15 new enrollees, which was a drastic decrease from the previous year.

Enlightened Males. The Enlightened Males (EM) program, introduced in 1990, was

described by the agency's staff as a male counterpart to BFSS.22 In addition to the goals and

obj ectives of the BFSS program, the Enlightened Males program incorporated pronounced drug

and violence prevention components into its design. The program targeted young men aged 10

to 17--children who, Bommer described as "kids [who] haven't done anything wrong. .. What

we try to do is to give these young men attention before there is a problem."23 In 1994, there

were 20 youth in the program.

Straight-Talk for Children/After-School Prevention Program. Straight-Talk for

Children/After-School Prevention, introduced in 1991, was described as an outreach program

offering "group interaction, tutoring, educational information and activities in a structured, safe,

non-threatening, non-judgmental environment" (Children & Family Services 1994:5). The target

population was children (male and female) ages 6 to 17. In 1994 there were 30 children in the

program. Participation was limited to six months.

Second Chance. The Second Chance program, introduced in 1992, targeted children ages

10 to 18 who had been identified to have discipline problems. Children were referred by parents,










school authorities, or through the judicial system. The director emphasized the youths were not

repeat offenders, or "hardened juvenile delinquents," and the intent of the program was to

identify and rescue troubled children before it was too late. Second Chance was a six month

time-limited program. In 1994 there were 21 children enrolled in the program.

New Directions. The New Directions program, introduced in 1992, targeted children ages

10 to 12 from single-parent families. The program's primary foci were health education, conflict

resolution, and social competency skills. This program also had a limit on the duration of

participation. In 1994, there were 41 participants.

Sisters' Program. The Sisters' Program, introduced in 1992, targeted girls aged nine to

eleven. The program was designed to reach preteens with the obj ective to "prevent adolescent

problems." In 1994 there were 20 participants.

Department of Community Services

The Department of Community Services coordinated services for clients, encouraged

parental participation, and engendered community support for the agency. Child parenting and

child abuse prevention components were incorporated into all agency activities; even so, it was a

critical focus of services provided by the department.

Parent Involvement program. The department administered the Parent Involvement

program, introduced in 1991. Foci for this program included parenting skills, self esteem, self

awareness, navigating the public school system, accessing community resources, training and

counseling to upgrade j ob skills, and to obtain a GED or further education. One component of

the program was the coordination of the Parent Board. The Parent Board consisted of two

parents from each program who came together once a month to discuss issues relevant to the

agency. The objective was to encourage community participation in the agency's operation. In

1994 there were 26 members on the board.









Additional program activities. Socialization was a key process imbedded in all of

Children and Family Services' programs and was fundamental to the agency's philosophy.

Bommer said many of the agency children lacked basic socialization--the basic skills--to

compete in the world at large. She attributed this to two fundamental factors (1) their parents

were not socialized outside of their ethnic enclave, and (2) the restrictions of severe, endemic

poverty. Case in point, she explained how, on a field trip to a movie theater in a neighboring

county (there was no movie theater in Tipton County at the time) she realized the children

"didn't know how to act." To her surprise, they had never been to a movie theater before, so she

had to "teach them the rules." Still, it was not uncommon to find children new to the agency

who had never visited a state park or been to Memphis just 38 miles to the south of Covington.

Throughout the year special events and activities were planned for the various program

participants. The events provided what Minnie referred to as "socialization" and exposure to

"life on the outside." Activities included field trips to state parks, movies, skating, bowling,

college campuses, for example. The youths frequently wrote and staged plays on various topics

(e.g., driving drunk), especially during summer camp. The agency also organized fund raisers

twice a year, a banquet in the fall and a Fun Festival in the summer, where the children are

incorporated into the activities.

Agency Staff

Children and Family Service' s staff had grown as the agency matured--most were from

the community and several had worked with the agency for a number of years. Some had

professional degrees while others were trained on the job. Consultant professionals and

committed volunteers augmented the staff. Professionals were brought in as needed to train

staff, to develop educational/health materials and assessment tools, and to provide counseling.

Some offered their services at reduced rates; some donated their services. Parents with children

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engaged in agency programs were recruited to participate as volunteers. The agency also

recruited women (volunteers) from the neighborhoods within the catchment area to assist in

programs such as Bright Futures. In 1994 there were two Vista Volunteers participating in the

program, along with community volunteers.

Funding Sources

Children and Family Services' funding sources were diverse and included public funding

sources at every level, federal, state, local; and private funding from numerous organizations and

foundations (Table 5-16). Some funding was time-limited, while others were renewable from

year to year. Most of the funding received was for specific programs or specific issues such as

drug abuse prevention or smoking cessation. Monies for renovation and physical plant upkeep

were far more difficult to obtain.

The executive director had expert knowledge of the state bureaucracy and the healthcare

system, which gave her insight in securing funding sources. Even so, funding was a constant

full-time j ob, in the director' s opinion; and if she were unable to produce funding resources, the

agency would not survive. At the time, she was training members of the staff in grant and

proposal writing. She also envisioned that the board would take a more active role in fund

rai sing.

In 1994, the Children and Family Services' annual budget was roughly $500,000 a year,

with an additional commitment of approximately $50,000 in matching funds. Some of the

matching funds were met with in-kind contributions. The agency produced two fund raising

events annually, a banquet in the fall and a Fun Festival in the summer. Each event raised about

$500.









Barriers

The executive director used innovative methods to overcome barriers and effectively made

use of limited resources. However, barriers to care included funding, available physical space,

accessible and affordable health care, and community perceptions-including institutional

raci sm.

Funding

As described above, the agency depended on funding sources that were, for the most part,

transitory requiring perpetual searching to develop new (or renew) resources to sustain the

agency. Funding for expanding and maintaining the physical buildings had been particularly

difficult to obtain, limiting programs and the number of participants served. In other words,

there were far more potential clients than Children and Family Services could accommodate;

there were 328 single-female families and 1,224 children living in poverty in the city of

Covington alone--and within the catchment area there were over 2,000 single-female families

and 9,000 children living in poverty--the maj ority of whom were black (U. S. Census Bureau

1993b).24

Community Perceptions and Institutionalized Racism

Patterns of institutionalized racism remained in this area of Tennessee and were reinforced

within the wider social structure. For example, the mayor was a member of the Sons of

Confederates and organized other members to participate in public celebratory events. During

such events, members would dress in Civil War uniforms, fly the Confederate flag, and fire

cannons in tribute to an era when blacks were subjugated property of white Confederates. For

some blacks these events were seen as a public display to reinforce white supremacy, reminding

blacks and the community that white males were still their master. After a Memorial Day

parade, the director wrote a letter to the local newspaper expressing her opinion that the Civil

165









War was "a war of division" and that to publicly fly the Confederate flag was hurtful to the black

population. Her letter was met with angry letters, but the Confederate flag is no longer displayed

in the Memorial Day parade.

Institutionalized racism actually fueled the genesis of the agency (see Agency History

above), and these same patterns, remained the most difficult to overcome. Children and Family

Services struggled to survive, with little community support. Dominated by whites, throughout

the catchment area there was a vacuum of social services for blacks. Some community leaders

perceived Children and Family Services as "just a little social service agency," according to the

director, and--although she has been recognized for her unflagging community service by

community leaders--town elders continued to fail to validate the successes of Children and

Family Services. More specifically, one county commissioner had repeatedly opposed the

agency's development on numerous occasions, including trying to block funding for the Second

Chance program.

Access to Primary Health Care

Tipton County did not have access to a federally funded community health center such as s

in the previous or following case studies, leaving the medical care for the uninsured to the

generosity of local private physicians. Agency personnel repeatedly cited the need for accessible

and affordable primary health care at the agency as well as for the wider population, in spite of

the fact that there were four black physicians (MDs) practicing in Tipton County--two internists,

one OB/GYN, and one family practitioner. According to the director, most physicians in Tipton

County were reluctant to treat Medicaid patients due to the low reimbursement rate for services,

a situation that had worsened with the advent of TennCare in January 1994. Underscoring this

point, one-fourth (25.8 %) of the population in Tipton County received healthcare under

TennCare (1994), and all of the counties in the catchment area were designated as physician

166









shortage areas for primary care (HRSA 2005).25 In a community survey prepared by Children

and Family Services (1992-1993), people were asked what types of additional programs the

community would like the agency to provide. "Health clinic" was at the top of the list. Thus, in

her clinical judgment, the director considered establishing a primary healthcare clinic as a critical

need for the agency.

Evaluation

A community evaluation of Children and Family Services was conducted annually based

on a survey distributed to clients, schools, and physicians' offices. The survey was constructed

of open and close ended questions that broadly focused on the agency and its programs. In the

1992-1993 evaluation, 124 survey questionnaires were completed, and, of those respondents,

over 90% (1 12) had some level of knowledge of the agency and the maj ority (77.4 %) responded

they thought Children and Family Services was "well run and organized."

On an internal level, the director used video as an evaluation tool. All special events and

program events were video recorded and used to evaluate staff and activities. The videos also

served as instructional tools for clients and staff.

Addendum 2008

Children and Family Services continues to provide services to the four counties with the

addition of Shelby County. The agency remains a nonprofit entity providing services to low-

income families. Youth and children programs continue to be important to the philosophy of the

agency. The Enrichment and Intervention Services program, Children and Family Services

inaugural program, continues to provide services to infants to children of the age of three.

National political and economic forces have validated the founding director' s vision of

providing services to the most vulnerable children of the county. Children and Family Services'

Enrichment and Intervention program has been replicated, in part, at the state level through a

167









program called Tennessee's Early Intervention System. The state program became a reality

through the federal passage of Public Law 108-446, Individuals with Disabilities Education

Improvement Act of 2004. One of the intended goals of the this historic legislation is "to assist

States in the implementation of a statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary,

interagency, system of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and

their families" (Public Law 108-446, Part D, Section 651).

The black adolescent birth rate in Tipton County has declined significantly since 1994

(Tennessee Department of Health 2007). At the time of the site visit (1992-1994 three year

average) the rate was 35.3 per 1,000 women (age 10-17), and for the years 2004-2006 the rate

had declined to 16.6 per 1,000 women (age 10-17). Tipton County's overall black birth rate had

declined even further than the state black rate (15.6 versus 16.7 per 1,000 women respectively).

Black infant mortality has also improved, falling from 24.8 per 1,000 live births (1994-1996

three year average) to 18. 1 per 1,000 live births for the time period of 2004-2006.












Table 5-1. Total population, percent black, percent white, and percent rural, 1990: United
States, Tennessee, Children and Family Services catchment area counties.
Total population Sq miles Densitya Black % White % Rural %
U.S. 248,709,438 3,537,438.0 70.3 12.0 80.3 24.8
TN 4,877, 185 41,219.5 118.3 15.9 83.0 39.1
Fayette 25,559 704.5 36.3 44.2 55.5 100.0
Haywoodb 19,437 533.2 36.5 49.5 49.7 48.5
Lauderdale 23,491 470.5 49.9 31.2 68.2 73.7
Tipton 37,568 459.4 81.8 23.5 75.5 80.1
Source: 1990 Census of the Population, Social and Economic Characteristics: Tennessee,
U.S. Bureau 1993d. (Note: aDensity is the population per square mile. bAreas in bold are
persistent poverty counties.)

Table 5-2. Percentage of population in poverty, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children
and Family Services.
Total population % White % Black %
U.S. 13.1 9.8 29.5
TN 15.7 12.5 32.4
Fayette 24.1 14.1 37.0
Haywood 27.5 15.5 39.0
Lauderdale 22.4 16.2 37.2
Tipton 20.0 12.3 45.3
Covington City 37.0 17.4 64.5
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:3,6,7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993b,:9-10, 39-40, 43-44) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold are persistent poverty counties.)












Table 5-3. Per capital incomes, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family
Services catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. $14,420 $15,687 $8,859
TN $12,255 $13,201 $7,859
Fayette $9,627 $12,986 $5,435
Haywood $8,695 $8,695 $5,787
Lauderdale $8,607 $10,101 $5,397
Tipton $9,796 $11,072 $5,397
Covington City $8,812 $11,299 $4,263
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a: 3, 6, 7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and
Economic Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce;
U.S. Census Bureau (1993b: 9-10, 39-40, 43-44) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and
Economic Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce.
(Note: Areas in bold are persistent poverty counties.)

Table 5-4. Unemployment rates, 1990: United States, Tennessee, Children and Family
Services catchment area.
Total population % White % Black%
U.S. 6.3 5.2 12.9
TN 6.4 5.4 12.3
Fayette 8.4 4.7 14.3
Haywood 8.7 5.3 12.9
Lauderdale 11.0 8.0 19.5
Tipton 7.7 5.6 16.1
Covington City 10.9 5.9 21.5
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:2, 7, 9) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993b:5-6, 39-40, 43-44) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold are persistent poverty counties.)












Table 5-5. Educational attainment as a percentage of the population 25 years or older with a
high school education or higher, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children and
Family Services.
Total population % White % Black %
U.S. 75.2 77.9 63.1
TN 68.2 70.0 59.4
Fayette 55.8 66.8 37.7
Haywood 53.0 59.8 45.0
Lauderdale 52.1 55.3 43.5
Tipton 61.8 66.0 44.5
Covington City 53.3 59.5 39.9
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:1i, 6, 7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993b,:3 9-40, 43-44) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold are persistent poverty counties.)

Table 5-6. Mortality rates for all causes, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the
yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 914.9 886.6 1,220.7
TN 997.1 955.9 1,285.1
Fayette 984.0 931.4 1,058.9
Haywood 1,078.4 1,027.6 1,153.8
Lauderdale 1,177.5 1,147.4 1,244.2
Tipton 1,030.0 1,007.9 1,145.1
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Note: Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties.)












Table 5-7. Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the
yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 303.2 298.3 373.4
TN 326.2 316.7 400.3
Fayette 291.1 276.6 312.6
Haywood 399.6 402.9 393.8
Lauderdale 436.5 427.2 457.6
Tipton 330.5 352.9 278.8
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file
1979 to 1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Note: Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties.)

Table 5-8. Cancer mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years
1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children & Family Services catchment
area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 215.9 211.9 277.0
TN 223.7 214.9 293.3
Fayette 215.3 203.6 232.5
Haywood 246.3 243.3 249.9
Lauderdale 253.5 239.2 293.2
Tipton 244.5 236.7 282.9
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file
1979 to 1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Note: Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties.)












Table 5-9. Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children & Family
Services.
Total population White Black
U.S. 62.4 60.1 85.9
TN 80.4 76.5 110.2
Fayette 125.7 136.4 113.1
Haywooda 68.8 39.2 b 110.2
Lauderdale 90.1 88.9 95.1
Tipton 72.1 67.3 94.9
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file
1979 to 1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes. a Areas in bold
are persistent poverty counties. bCDC reported this rate as unreliable due to less than 20
deaths in the three year time period.)

Table 5-10. Suicide mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the
years 1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 12.0 12.8 7.0
TN 12.8 13.7 7.2
Fayette 5.4 b 1.8 b 11.2 b
Haywooda 12.3 b 199b 3.2 b
Lauderdale 11.0 b b61 No data reported
Tipton 13.4 b15.1 b7.8b
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder on-line database,
http://wonder.cdc.qov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes. a Areas in bold are persistent
poverty counties. CDC reported this rate as unreliable due to less than 20 deaths in the three
year time period.)












Table 5-11. Infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births, three year averages for the years 1992-
1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area.
Total population White Black


Table 5-12. Crude birth rates per 1,000 women of child bearing age, three year averages for
the years 1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services
catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 15.4 14.6 20.1
TN 14.2 13.0 20.5
Fayette 15.0 13.3 17.4
Haywood 15.9 12.8 18.9
Lauderdale 14.9 13.6 17.5
Tipton 15.9 14.3 21.9
Sources: Brady, E. Hamilton, Paul Sutton, and Stephanie Ventura, 2003:13, Revised Birth and
Fertility Rates for the 1990s and New Rates for Hispanic Populations, 2000 and 2001: United
States. Tablel. Number of births, crude birth rates, general fertility rates, and birth rates by age
and race of mother: United States, 1990-2001 (revised June 2004). National Vital Statistic
Reports 51(12):1-96. Electronic document,
http://www. cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr5 1/nvsr51_12.pdf, accessed March 2008; Tennessee
Department of Health, Health Information Tennessee, electronic document,
http://hit. state.tn.us/, accessed October 2007. (Note: Areas in bold are persistent poverty
counties.)


U.S. 8.3 6.8 16.3
TN 9.3 6.7 17.8
Fayette 13.2 b 6.8 b 20.1 b
Haywooda 13.9 b 16.0 b 12.6 b
Lauderdale 9.0 b 4.4 b 168b
Tipton 14.8 10.3 b 24.8 b
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file
1979 to 1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed June 2005. (Notes. a Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties. bCDC reported this rate as unreliable due to less than 20 deaths in
the three year time period.)










Table 5-13. Adolescent pregnancy rates, crude birth rate per females ages 10 to 17, three year
averages for the years 1992-1994: Children and Family Services' catchment area.
Total Population White Black
TN 17.1 12.4 35.3
Fayette 15.0 15.3 31.7
Haywood 15.9 14.8 39.6
Lauderdale 25.9 21.7 33.5
Tipton 20.1 13.9 36.7
Source: Tennessee Department of Health, Health Information Tennessee, electronic document,
http://hit. state.tn.us/, accessed October 2007. (Note: Areas in bold are persistent poverty
counties.)

Table 5-14. Selected 1990 poverty characteristics for blacks in the Children & Family
Services catchment area.

Black families living in poverty Children under 18 years living in poverty
Covington city 41.0% 1,010
Fayette 29.8% 1,647
Haywoodb 37.3% 1,499
Lauderdale 34.6% 1,019
Tipton 39.7% 1,887
Source: U.S. Census Bureau (1993b,:417,4 19,421,425,705) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social
and Economic Characteristics, Tennessee. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce.
(Notes: aThe denominator for black families living in poverty is the total number of black
families. bAreas in bold are persistent poverty counties.)











Table 5-15. Bright Futures: group session topics.


Y _I


Table 5-16. Illustration of Children and Family Services funding sources
Private Funding Public Funding
Ford Foundation Covington Housing Authority
Greater Memphis Foundation Federal Block Grant Monies
Kaiser Family Foundation TN Black Health Care Task Force
Robert Woods Johnson TN Commission on Children and Youth
Save the Children TN Dept of Employment Security
United Way of Greater Memphis TN Dept of Education
Van Leer Foundation (Netherlands) TN Dept of Health
TN Dept of Mental Health


Alcohol & drugs
Anatomy
Aids
Black history
Contraceptives
Decision making
Hygiene
Peer pressure
Pregnancy


Problem solving
Self discipline
Self esteem
Sexual abuse
Sexually transmitted diseases
Skin care
Smoking
Stress management












45



11 35















Temiessee Fayette Haywood Lauderdale Tiptonl
Ch~ildlren and Famlily Services ontolmmit eree adlolescenlt pregnanlcy rates
for selected years: 1983 to 1985 anid 1992 to 1994.


I hite 1983-1985 0 White 1992-1994 OBlack1983-1985 OBlack 1992-1994I


Figure 5-1. Comparison of adolescent pregnancy rates from the inception of Children and
Family Services and the time of the field site research. (Source: Tennessee
Department of Health, Health Information Tennessee (HIT). Electronic database,
http:.//hit. state.tn.us.)













Notes


SAlthough the counties' economic designations are manufacturing, agriculture remains an important factor in
Tennessee's agricultural econonw. In 1990, all four counties were ranked in the top ten for cotton and soybean
production. Haywood was ranked number one in the state for cotton production, Tipton was ranked 3rd, and Fayette
was ranked 4th (Tennessee Department of Agriculture no date).

SIn the state and the catchment area, other minorities account for less than one percent of the population.

SHeart disease mortality rates were based on ICD-9 codes 390-398, 402, 402-429, per 100,000 of the population
and are age-adjusted using year 2000 population. The rates are three year averages for the years 1992-1994.

SCancer rates were based on ICD-9 codes 140-239, age-adjusted per 100,000 using year 2000 population. The
rates are three year averages for the years 1992-1994.

SCerebrovascular mortality rates were based on ICD-9 430-438 codes, per 100,000 population of the population
and are age-adjusted using year 2000 population. The rates are three year averages for the years 1992-1994.

6Suicide mortality rates were based on ICD-9 codes 950-959, per 100,000 of the population and are age-adjusted
using year 2000 population. The rates are three year averages for the years 1992-994.

SInfant mortality rates are derived from the CDC Wonder database. They are crude birth rates based on 1,000 live
births. All rates are the year averages for the years 1992-1994.

SBirth rates are derived from the Tennessee Department of Health, HIT database, electronic database,
http://hit.state.tn.us/BithRate/, accessed October 2007. All rates are per 1,000 women, and are three year averages
for the years 1992-1994.

9 Children and Family Services' first program began services in the summer of 1985.

'0 All adolescent fertility rates are from the Tennessee Department of Health, Health Information Tennessee (HIT)
electronic database http://hit. state.tn.us/birth.aspx. Tennessee Department of Heath defines adolescents as females
ages 10 to 17.

11 All four counties were designated as Medically Underserved Areas (MUA) since 1978 (HRSA 2005).

12 For this discussion, health care resources are measured by presence of hospital and the number of licensed beds,
federally funded community health center (clinic), primary care plwsicians, pediatricians, OB/GYN plwsicians,
psychiatric specialists (defined as psychiatrists, child psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, & psychosomatic specialists),
and dentists--based on 1994 Manpower data and 1994 hospital data as cited in Tennessee's Health: Picture of the
Present, Part II 1994.

'3 The 1990 aggregate poverty levels for the four counties were: Fayette 24.1%, Haywood 27.5%, Lauderdale
22.4%, Tipton 20% (U.S. Census Bureau 1993: 313-319.

14 In nw research I could not verify the total number of disabled children. The U.S. Census Bureau counts disability,
but reports persons 16 years and older. For Covington, persons reported a disability with mobility or self-care
limitation N = 604, accounting for 1 1.8% of the population age 16 and older N = 5,126 (U. S. Census Bureau
1993:620).

15 The organization was originally named Tri-County Children and Family Services. In 1991, the name was
changed to Children and Family Services and services were extended to Haywood County.

16 At the time of the site visit, Minnie was no longer an Alderman.












'7 The "Agency" refers to the community in the singular, which for the most part is the reference area of Covington,
but the catchment area for some of the agency's many programs are extended to the border counties of Fayette,
Haywood, and Lauderdale, as well as capturing populations beyond Covington, but within Tipton County.

1s The Agency transported children with Agency vans to the plwsicians' offices for vision and dental screenings.
The services donated by the practitioners were then counted as "in-kind" monies, which could be listed as "matching
funds" that the Agency had to meet in accordance with some funding agencies. In 1994, the Agency was required to
match $50,000 in cash and in-kind.

19 Handicapped was defined as "a diagnosis of suspected or established developmental disability, which cause the
child to function at a retarded level, a diagnosis of suspected or established developmental delay or a child at high
risk for delay" (unpublished manuscript). By 1994, the services were reduced to children ranging in ages from birth
to three.

20 Children and Family Services maintained a fully equipped kitchen with a staff of one to manage it.

21 There were other after school programs for different age groups, but After School Child Care was distinct from
them (e.g., Straight Talk for Children/After School Prevention).

22The Enlightened Males program is briefly described, as are a number of the Agency's programs, due to the
limited information we received on the program.

23 The drug prevention and violence components of Enlighten Males, was most likely funded by the state health
department based on health surveillance data. The importance of these components should be noted: in 1996
homicide was (1) the leading cause of death for blacks ages 15 through 34; the second leading cause of death for
black children ages 5-14: and (3) the third for infants and toddlers 1-4 years old.

24The category I refer to as single-female families is the U.S. Census Bureau category defined as "Female
householder, no husband present, with related children under 18 years" (U.S. Census Bureau 1993).

25Percentage of the population enrolled in TennCare in the other three counties within the catchment area was
similarly high: Fayette 27%, Haywood 35.6%, Lauderdale 35.2%. On another note, three of the four counties,
Fayette, Haywood, and Lauderdale were plwsician shortage areas for obstetrics as well. The Tipton County Health
Department administrator stated there were three OB/GYN doctors who accept Medicaid patients.









CHAPTER 6
WEST ALAMAMA HEALTH SERVICES

Introduction

West Alabama Health Services was an innovative nonprofit agency providing health care

to a sizeable area, nearly 5,000 square miles, in west Alabama. The agency administered a

network of Federally Qualified Community Health Centers, with administrative offices and the

primary community health center, the E. A. Maddox Community Health Center, located in

Eutaw, the county seat of Greene County.

Located in the heart of the Deep South in western Alabama, contemporary Greene County

encompasses 646 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau 2001c: 18), with an unusual topology.

Spatially, Greene County is 15 miles southeast of Tuscaloosa and 45 miles southeast of

Birmingham, with its western boundary at one point within approximately 15 miles of the

Mississippi River. Three of Greene County's boundaries are formed naturally by three rivers:

the Tombigbee, the Black Warrior, and the Sipsey, a geographical point of significance in the

county's history (Eutaw Area Chamber of Commerce nd; Greene County Historical Society

1991).

Today, Greene County takes pride in its surviving Ante-Bellum homes, echoes from the

past of wealth and cotton plantations (Greene County Historical Society 1991; Lancaster 1979).

The survival of these historical buildings, there were 24 placed on the historical record in 1991,

was a direct result of the county's isolation imposed by the three rivers (Greene County

Historical Society 1991). As the Civil War was coming to an end, Sherman and his men

marched southward into the very heart of Confederacy land. Tuscaloosa, just to the north of

Greene County, was scavenged and burned to rubble by Union Forces, while Greene County's

bridges were destroyed to thwart a Union invasion (Greene County Historical Society 1991:1).









A confluence of historical forces has left deep furrows on Greene County. Greene County

was established in 1819, at a time when Alabama remained a Territory (Lancaster 1979:18).

Immensely large, covering some of the richest agricultural lands, the county thrived on

agriculture. The surviving Ante-Bellum homes--marking Greene County's distant affluence--

remain as a reminder of a time past when cotton was the economic engine of the region, powered

by black slave labor.

For over a century, cotton was the maj or agricultural focus for Greene County.

Architectural historian Clay Lancaster describes Greene County as, "the heart of Cotton

Kingdom" (Lancaster 1979: 18).2 The Black Warrior River, which at the time ran through

Greene County, was accessible by steam boats, providing transportation of baled cotton from

Greene County to Mobile. One narrative from the first U. S. Census described Mobile as one of

the largest cotton market in the United States second only to New Orleans (Mitchell 1846:64-

65).

As a territory, Alabama had institutionalized the practice of slavery to support their

agricultural economy. With its accession to the United States in 1840, the former territory

brought with it nearly half a million people--43% of whom were slaves--and a booming

agricultural spirit with a third of the population engaged in agriculture (Mitchell 1846:64-65). In

contrast to the state proportion of slaves in 1840, Greene County's slave population was

significantly higher, 68.4%. By the end of the decade, Greene County's slave population had

swelled to 76.5% (U.S. Census Bureau 1872a: 11-12).

This significant rise in slaves in Greene County reflected the intensity of agriculture. More

specifically, from 1850 through the Civil War, cotton production spiked to historical levels.

Prior to the Civil War Greene County produced 25,680 bales of ginned cotton in the year 1850,









the highest production for the county at that time, and was ranked fifth in the state for cotton

production (U.S. Census Bureau 1854: 196-199). By the year 1860, production of ginned cotton

more than doubled--57,85 8 bales--the zenith of cotton production for Greene County (U. S.

Census Bureau 1864b:2-3). After the War, cotton production dropped, rallied in the latter years

of the century, and then slowly diminished through the twentieth century (U. S. Census Bureau

1872b:96; 1884:4; 1895:393; 1908:30; 1910:35; 1924:83; 1942:331; 1952:105; 1975:65;

1994b:336).

Returning to the agricultural production in Greene County in 1850, there were over a

thousand farms in Greene County and the county was the number one state producer in the

following categories: horses, asses, and mules; sheep, corn, and wool. Greene County ranked

second for cattle, swine, potatoes, hops, and clover production; third for wheat, butter and

cheese, and maple sugar; fourth for rye and oats, beeswax and honey (U. S. Census Bureau

1854:196-199).

The U.S. Census for Greene County from 1860 to 1870 reflected a radical drop in the

county's population and cotton production. The county's population fell from 30,859 to 18,399

and cotton production fell from 57,858 to 9,910 bales (U.S. Census Bureau 1864a:8; U.S. Census

Bureau 1872a: 11; U.S. Census Bureau 1864b:3; U.S. Census Bureau 1872b:96). These statistics

appear to be the aftershocks of the war. On the contrary, Greene County had been halved in

1867 to create another county; acreage east of the Black Warrior River created Hale County

(Lancaster 1979:18). Hale was the larger of the two counties and with the acreage, Hale also

took with it much of the agricultural production (U. S. Census Bureau 1872b). Hale County, in

1870, produced nearly twice the amount of cotton as did Greene County--18,573 versus 9,910

bales.3










By 1992, Greene County's population was just over 10,000, 80.6% black, and agricultural

production was nearly stagnant. The majority of the productive farms were controlled, as it was

in 1850, by white farmers even though blacks remained in the maj ority (U. S. Census Bureau

1992c:15; 1994c:166, 435). As a point of reference, blacks owned 16.5% of the farms,

controlling less than four percent of the farm acreage in Greene County (U. S. Census

Bureaul 994c: 166, 43 5).4 The total number of farms had fallen to 255, and half recorded net

losses. The remaining agricultural products recorded for the county (1992) were horses and

ponies, cattle, corn for feed, soybeans, and hay and alfalfa, a shadow of the county's previous

prosperity. Vegetables and cotton were negligible commodities--less than ten percent of the

acres farmed supported harvested crops. Cotton production had fallen to 659 bales, with 405

acres cultivated under seven farms (U.S. Census 1994c:401).5 Five years later there was only

one cotton farm with no documented production (USDA 1999c:402). Green County had lost its

place in the economic cotton market and had become an incongruent contrast of beautiful Ante-

Bellum homes and poverty.

Returning to the successful health program, the E. A. Maddox Community Health Center

was the first community health center administered by West Alabama Health Services. The

agency over time added additional health services and five satellite clinics in the surrounding

counties of Choctaw, Hale, Marengo, Lowndes, and Sumter. In total, the six counties

represented a catchment area covering nearly five thousand square miles. Extreme poverty

exemplified the catchment area--all six counties were designated as persistent poverty counties

by the federal government (USDA). Hale County was a distal toe to the Appalachian Mountains

and officially designated as an Appalachian county (Appalachian Regional Commission 2007).










Greene County was surrounded by endemic poverty, and the depth of poverty in the

catchment area for blacks was shocking. The poverty level for blacks, who dominated Greene

County, was four times higher than the U.S. (general) population. The low poverty level for

whites in Greene County was in sharp contrast to black poverty, 7.6% to 54.7%, or, from a

different perspective, blacks endured a rate of poverty over seven times that of their white co-

residents .

For contextual comparison purposes, demographic, sociodemographic, and health profiles

of the six counties will follow. Some counties fared better than others on certain socioeconomic

and health indicators. However, without exception, blacks fared worse than the white population

throughout the catchment area. Although the catchment area is defined, the focus of this study

is limited to the West Alabama Health Services, an agency that has transformed health care in

Eutaw and the surrounding counties.

Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators

Selected Catchment Area Sociodemographic Indicators, 1990

The sociodemographic characteristics (see, Table 6-1) define the catchment area as mainly

black and rural. Blacks were numerically predominate in most counties, with the exception of

Choctaw and Hale where there was relative parity. Greene County had the largest proportion

(80.6 %) of blacks, and Lowndes ranked second with 74.6%. Choctaw County had the lowest

percentage of blacks, 44.2%, but still well above the state and national rates.

Three of the counties, Choctaw, Greene, and Lowndes, were designated as 100% rural.

The remaining counties ranged from 80 to 56% rural. The population density for all counties is

extremely low compared to Alabama (79.6 persons per square mile) and U.S. (70.3 persons per

square mile), as one may expect given their rural status. The three counties designated as 100%

rural also had the lowest population densities. Greene County had the lowest population density

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(15.7 persons per square mile) and Hale had the highest (24.1 persons per square mile) within the

catchment area.

Of the six counties, Greene County was the smallest county with the fewest people, 100%

rural, and experienced the largest population of blacks in the catchment area. A large portion

(36.9 %) of the black population in Greene County was under the age of 18 years, and a

significant number (21.7 %) of the white population were over 65 years.

Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990: Poverty Rates, Per Capita
Income, Unemployment Rates, and Educational Attainment

The catchment area, compared to national rates exhibited extreme poverty, low per capital

incomes, low educational attainment, and high unemployment rates. Compared to Alabama, the

catchment area fared far worse than other Alabamians except for one sociodemographic

indicator: unemployment. The unemployment rate for Hale County equaled the state rate of

6.9%, but remained higher than the national rate (6.3 %). Sociodemographic indicators

demonstrated a wide disparity between whites and blacks.

Poverty

The national poverty level of 13.1% obscures the stark difference between whites and

blacks. The national poverty level for blacks was three times higher than the rate for whites (see,

Table 6-2). The Alabama poverty rate was considerably higher than the national level, with both

white and black poverty levels higher than the national rates. Nearly 40% of the black population

in Alabama lived in poverty--more than three times higher than their white co-residents. Within

the catchment area, poverty for blacks was more acute, and without exception, higher than the

state level. All of the catchment area counties demonstrated poverty rates of nearly 50%-

ranging from 48.4% in Choctaw to 54.7% in Greene County. From another perspective, blacks









in Lowndes County had a poverty rate of nearly nine times higher than whites. In Greene

County, blacks had a poverty rate over seven times higher than the white rate.

Whites in the catchment area fared exceptionally well in contrast to blacks. Half of the

counties reflected poverty levels lower than the national white poverty level of 9.8%: 5.6%,

Lowndes; 7.6%, Greene; and 9.7%, Marengo.6 From one perspective, the poverty levels in

Greene County appear incongruent. The aggregate poverty level was the highest of all counties,

while the white poverty level (7.6 %) was considerably lower than the national rate, reflecting

Greene County's relatively affluent white population.

Per capital income

The per capital income for blacks, as with poverty, exhibited disparities with aggregate

incomes at all geopolitical levels (see, Table 6-3). Although the national aggregate income was

$14,420, the comparable black per capital income was $8,859; at the state level it was $6,473;

and at the county level the incomes were even more depressed for all counties ranging from

$6,291 in Choctaw to $4, 153 in Lowndes County.7 For blacks the per capital income at the state

level was nearly $8,000 lower than the national aggregate rate. From the national level to the

catchment area counties, the income gap among blacks ranged from $8, 129 (Choctaw) to

$10,269 (Lowndes) lower than the national aggregate average. In Greene County, the income

gap between blacks and the national aggregate per capital income was $9,783.

Comparisons drawn from white per capital incomes to black incomes at the various

geopolitical levels reveal startling differences between whites and blacks. The national per

capital income for blacks was $6,828 lower than the national per capital level for whites. The

income gap difference between blacks Alabamians to white Alabamians population was $6,762,

slightly less than at the national level. At the county level, income gap differences were as low










as $5,973 (Choctaw) and as high as $12,057 (Marengo) between whites and blacks. In Greene

County the income difference between whites and blacks was $8,628.

Unemployment rate

Unemployment rates in the catchment area counties were mixed. Comparing the aggregate

population' s unemployment rates, all of the rates were higher than the national average (Table 6-

4). Comparing white unemployment rates, Alabama and all counties, except one (Choctaw), had

lower unemployment rates than whites at the national level. Unemployment rates among whites

in the Greene and Hale Counties were three times lower than the national average. Blacks in

Choctaw County, by comparison, had an unemployment rate over 2.5 times greater than the

national average.

White versus black unemployment rates reveals a similar pattern: the black population at

all geopolitical levels had higher rates than did whites. Blacks in Greene County had an

unemployment rate over six times higher than their white co-residents. In Hale and Marengo

County the unemployment gap, was five times higher than whites. The highest unemployment

was found in Choctaw (18%), and the lowest rate was found in Hale County (11.1 %).

Educational attainment

The national rate of educational attainment for the U.S. was 75.2% (Table 6-5). Whites

were better educated than blacks, at all geopolitical levels, demonstrating a distinct educational

gap between the white and black populations. At the national level, white educational attainment

was 77.9% versus 63.1% for blacks. At the state level the educational attainment was lower than

the national rate. White educational attainment in Alabama was considerably lower than whites

at the national level. Just over half (54.6 %) of the blacks in Alabama held a high school

diploma.









The counties in the catchment area exhibited a disparaging gap between whites and black

educational attainment, although most whites in the catchment area had a higher educational

attainment level than the state level. Interestingly, whites in Sumter County achieved the highest

educational attainment in the catchment area, yet blacks had the lowest educational attainment.

Blacks in Greene County had the highest black educational attainment (47.6 %) in the catchment

area. Even so, blacks in Greene County were far less educated than blacks at the state and

national level.

Selected Catchment Area Health Outcomes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiological
Surveillance

Mortality Rate, All Causes

The mortality rates for all causes demonstrate that Alabama' s rates for whites and blacks

were somewhat higher compared to U.S. mortality rates (Table 6-6).8 The Alabama black

mortality rate was essentially equal (0.1 % higher) to blacks at the national level, while white

Alabamians' mortality rate was 6.9% higher than whites at national level white. However, when

white and black Alabamians are compared to one another, blacks fared far worse than their white

co-residents. The difference was substantial: the black mortality rate for all causes was 28.9%

higher than the white mortality rate statewide.

Black mortality rates. Mortality rates for blacks in the catchment area when compared to

their black counterparts at the national and state level were mixed. Three counties had lower

rates than the national and state rates, and three counties had higher rates. The lowest black

mortality rate was found in Sumter County, 11.7% lower than the national rate for blacks and

11.8% lower than the state rate. The highest black mortality rate was found in Hale County,

4.9% higher than the national rate and 4.8% higher than the state rate.









Comparison between the catchment area black mortality rates to the national aggregate

population rates reveals a more pronounced difference. The highest mortality rate (for blacks in

Hale County) was 40.0% higher than the national aggregate rate. The lowest black mortality rate

(in Sumter County) was 17.9 higher than the national aggregate rate.

White mortality rates. White Alabamians had a higher mortality rate than whites at the

national level. Within the catchment area the mortality rates for the white populations were

mixed, two counties (Lowndes and Sumter) had lower rates than whites at the national level, and

four counties (Choctaw, Hale, Lowndes, and Sumter) had lower rates than whites at the state

level. Sumter County had the lowest rate, 9.7% lower than the national white level, and 15.6%

lower than the state white rate. Conversely, Marengo County had the highest white mortality

ratel0.1% higher than the national white rate, and three percent higher than the state white rate.

Greene County mortality rates. The mortality rate for the total population of Greene

County was higher than the national and the state mortality rates. Surprisingly, blacks in Greene

County had a relatively low mortality rate--lower than the state and national black rate, while

whites in Greene County had the second highest mortality rate among the catchment counties--a

rate higher than both the state and the national white rate. This suggests that the local health care

system was effective in lowering the mortality rates for blacks in Greene County. Overall,

though, the white population mortality rates were significantly lower than those of blacks in

Greene County even though the whites did not seem to be benefiting from the local health care

resources to the same degree as the blacks.

Heart Disease Mortality Rates

Death due to heart disease in Alabama was higher than the national average (Table 6-7).9

Comparing white and black Alabamians to their respective national counterparts, a differing

pattern emerges. Whites in Alabama had a slightly higher heart disease mortality rate than
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whites at the national level, but black Alabamians' rate was slightly lower than the national black

rate. Nevertheless, black Alabamians had a 15.4% higher health disease mortality rate than their

white counterparts.

Black heart disease mortality rates. Within the catchment area, three counties (Choctaw,

Marengo, and Sumter) had heart disease mortality rates lower than the national rate, and two

counties (Marengo and Sumter) had lower rates than the state rate. Sumter County had the

lowest rate in the catchment area, 24.7% lower than the national black rate and 21.4% lower than

the state black rate. Lowndes County's blacks had an exceptionally high heart disease mortality

rate, 40.3% higher than the national black rate and 41.5% higher than the state black rate. In

Sumter and Choctaw Counties, the white and black mortality rates were similar between the two

respective populations, but in the other four counties the black rates varied from 20.4% to 53.2%

higher than the respective white populations.

White heart disease mortality rate. Within the catchment area, two counties (Marengo

and Sumter) had lower heart disease mortality rates than the national and state white rates.

Marengo County had the lowest white mortality rate for heart disease, 10.6% lower than the

national white rate and 16.8% lower than the state white rate. The highest heart disease mortality

rate among whites was found in Greene County, 30.4% higher than the national white rate and

21.3% higher than the state rate.

Greene County heart disease mortality rates. The heart disease mortality rate for the

aggregate population of Greene County was the second highest rate in the catchment area and

much higher than the national and state rates. Whites in Greene County, as stated above, had the

highest heart disease mortality rate among the white populations of the catchment area counties,

and much higher than the state or national rates for the white populations. Blacks in Greene









County had the third highest mortality rate among the black populations of the catchment

counties, and, also, much above the state and national rates for the black populations. When

compared to each other, the black population faired much worse than the white population of

Greene County. Greene County fared poorly for both races.

Cancer Mortality Rates

Comparing U.S. cancer mortality rates to Alabama we find a similar pattern as with heart

disease mortality rates. 10 Alabamians had a higher death rate due to cancer than the general

population (Table 6-8). However, white Alabamians had a slightly higher mortality rate 0.6%

than the U.S. white rate, and black Alabamians had a slightly lower rate 1.9% than the national

black rate.

Black cancer mortality rates. Black cancer mortality rates within the catchment area

were generally lower than the national and state black rates. Four out of the six counties had

lower rates. The lowest cancer rate was in Lowndes County, 17.5% lower than the national rate

and 16.0% lower than the state rate. The highest cancer mortality rate was in Choctaw County,

7.1% higher than the national black rate and 9.1% higher than the state black rate.

White cancer mortality rates. Cancer mortality rates for whites in the catchment area

were lower than the national and state white rates, with the exception of Marengo County.

Marengo County's cancer rate was 7.3% higher than the national white rate and 6.7% higher

than the state white rate. Sumter County had the lowest cancer rate, 14.9% lower than the

national white rate and 15.4% lower than the state white rate.

Greene County cancer mortality rates. Greene County (aggregate population) had the

third lowest cancer rate in the catchment area, but remained higher than the national or state rate.

The cancer rate for whites in Greene County was the third lowest in the catchment area and was









lower than the national and state white rates. The cancer rate for blacks in Greene County was

the third highest in the catchment area, slightly below the mean for the group."l

Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates

In the aggregate, Alabama' s cerebrovascular mortality rate was 10.6% higher than the

national aggregate rate (Table 6-9). 12 The cerebrovascular disease mortality rates by ethnicity

for much of the catchment area were reported as unreliable due to death counts were lower than

20, making an analysis of the data problematic. Only in Hale and Marengo Counties for whites

and blacks, and in Sumter County for blacks, were the numbers of deaths high enough to be

considered reliable. At the county level, aggregate rates were reliable. Marengo and Hale

Counties had the highest death rates due to cerebrovascular disease. In Marengo County, where

the rate was the highest, the aggregate cerebrovascular mortality rate was 95.5% higher than the

national rate. In Marengo County the cerebrovascular rate for blacks was 185.7% higher than

the national aggregate rate. Hale County had the highest white cerebrovascular disease rate,

more than double the national average. Here in Hale County the cerebrovascular mortality rate

for blacks was also high compared to the national aggregate rate but was somewhat lower than

the comparable white population. Although the white and black cerebrovascular disease

mortality rates were largely unreliable in the other four counties, the general trend suggests the

white rate was substantially higher than the black rate.

Suicide Mortality Rate

Alabama' s suicide rate, for the aggregate population, was only slightly higher than the U.S.

rate (Table6-10). 13 At both the national level and the state level, the white suicide rates were

considerably higher than the black suicide mortality rates. Due to the small number of deaths

due to suicide recorded for the three year period in the catchment area, an analysis of the

catchment area is not possible. 14









Infant Mortality Rates

Alabama had the third highest infant mortality rate in the United States for the years 1992

to 1994. 1 Compared to the general population, the Alabama infant mortality rate was higher by

24.1% (Table 6-11). Infant mortality rates present a more distinctive picture when the data are

disaggregated by race. 16 At the national level, the black infant mortality rate was more than

double the rate for white infants. The death rate for white infants in Alabama was slightly higher

than the national average for white infants, but for black Alabama infants the death rate was

slightly lower than the national average for black infants. The black rate was more than double

the white infant mortality rate in Alabama.

An analysis at the catchment area level is problematic due to the low number of infant

deaths for the three year period. For white infants in the six counties the number of deaths

ranged from one in Sumter County to no deaths in Greene County. Black infant deaths ranged

from a high of 16 in Sumter County to a low of five in Lowndes County. Greene County had

seven black infant deaths for the years 1992 to 1994. Although the individual county level data

are not reliable, the general trend at the county level seems consistent with the differences

between black and white infant mortality at the state and national levels, with higher incidents of

infant mortality among black infants than among white infants.

Agency History

The creation of West Alabama Health Services in 1974 and implementation of the E. A.

Maddox Community Health Center in 1975 was borne out of the tumultuous 1960s. The 1960s

was a time when the national conscience was awakened by President Johnson's idealism of a

Great Society. Pressing national issues such as poverty, racial inequities, inadequate housing,

hunger, and restricted access to health care by the poor and minorities were the subj ects of much









debate in Washington as well as across the country. President Johnson established task forces

aimed at ameliorating such conditions (Litman and Roberts 1997: 129). 17

As a result, federal monies from a variety of federal agencies became available at the local

level for communities to develop needed services to improve the lives of the poor and

underserved. Those funds were to go directly to community leaders who could demonstrate the

skills and plans to implement such programs. Theoretically, such demonstration projects worked

through the spirit of community action proj ects: grassroots participation, innovative visions,

leadership, and, above all, as a collaborative process. In the South, action did not always follow

theory .

The Great Society, Civil Rights, and the Birth of a Clinic

The cultural context of western Alabama at that point in time was one of heightened racial

tensions. Western Alabama was at the epicenter of the Civil Rights movement, where blacks

endured physical, economic, and psychological violence from their white co-residents as a matter

of white propriety and entitlement. Little changed in western Alabama after the Civil Rights

laws were enacted by Congress (United States Commission on Civil Rights 1983). In fact, many

blacks in western Alabama faced further repression and reprisals, as whites attempted to

maintain the status quo through resistance, intimidation, and, in some cases, blatant denial of the

basic human rights of blacks. It was a time when white county residents removed their children

from public schools and placed them in private academies in an attempt to nullify school

desegregation, often leaving the public schools with little funding for textbooks and repairs to the

physical plant. Tactics of intimidation were used to block blacks from registering to vote for

example, there were reports of black farmers in fear of losing their lands after registering to vote,

with banks suddenly questioning farm loans, and some tenant farmers in Sumter County were

summarily forced off the land after registering to vote (Bethell 1982:4,6). Any organizational

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attempts on the part of blacks were met with suspicion and, in some cases, with fierce opposition

(see the case of the Federation of Southern Cooperatives' briefly described below).

Blatant white opposition to the Civil Rights laws in Alabama was validated through the

political actions of white officials from county governance to the state house. One of the most

illuminating examples of such support comes from then Alabama governor, George Wallace,

when, in 1968, his political platform included a promised to "repeal of all civil rights laws and

the usage of bayonets to enforce the restoration of segregation" (Bethell 1982:7). While

Alabamian whites had the support of the governor, blacks--with the assistance of the federal

government--had the power to organize.

Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative

The Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (organized in 1966), a black

farming cooperative, was one of the first community organizations to garner federal monies in

the pursuit of improvement in the lives of blacks in western Alabama. The co-op, serving a ten

county catchment area, proved successful in its first year of operation. Its success drew

controversy and criticism from nearly its inception. White citizens and state politicians

organized to have its funding revoked by the Office of Economic Opportunity. I A group of

concerned citizens, later j oined by the governor of Alabama (Lurleen Wallace), flew to

Washington to directly confront the director of the Office of Economic Opportunity complaining

the Office was "subsidizing a bunch of would be revolutionaries" (Bethell 1982:6). The white

delegation from Alabama firmly believed members of the Southwest Alabama Farmers

Cooperative Association were "a bunch of uppity blacks .. using federal OEO money to

overturn the economic status quo of southwest Alabama" (Bethell 1982:6).









Federation of Southern Cooperatives versus West Alabama Health Services.

By 1969, the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association joined with 21 other

cooperatives in the creation of a new umbrella organization to serve the needs of the fledgling

cooperatives. The new organization was the Federation of Southern Cooperatives, and

eventually based its training headquarters in Sumter County. This cooperative went beyond

farming issues--albeit farming was its centerpiece--and helped to establish health clinics, credit

unions, and other programs to improve the status of blacks across the Black Belt of Alabama. It

was the Federation of Southern Cooperatives that originally applied for grant money to establish

the first community health center in the state of Alabama (Bethell 1982). 19

Conflict or politics. Federation of Southern Cooperatives' application to establish a

health care center in Sumter County was immediately and effectively blocked, possibly over the

political skirmish with Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative, or the racial undertones of the

time. In any regard, an Alabama Congressman and the Alabama State Health Planning Agency

effectively blocked the Federation of Southern Cooperative's application pointing out to the

granting agency that the proposed board of directors was composed entirely of blacks, and thus

not representative of the catchment area demographics.

Greene County Competes for Grant Monies

Community leaders in Greene County, sensing the issue as a racial dilemma--and

supported by the Greene County Commission--formed a competing governing Board creating

West Alabama Health Services, Inc.20 The current executive director of West Alabama Health

Services was then a member of the Greene County government (an elected official) and a high

school principal. He "walked in to write [the] grant" application for a health clinic. As he

recalled, there were "problems in Sumter," motivating Greene County to seek federal funding for

a health clinic.









The U.S. Public Health Service, after receiving Grant applications from Southern Farms

Cooperative and West Alabama Health Services in neighboring counties, requested the two

agencies collaborate for the grant. "The two organizations attempted several times to make [a]

joint application for the funds but were turned down, until finally, West Alabama Health

Services was awarded the grant in 1974 on the basis of its integrated board" (American Hospital

Association 1993:10).

Resistance from within and without. Within a very short time, resistance for the proj ect

mounted at the local and state level. The West Alabama Health Services' executive director said

"the federal government is not well liked in this area. .. don't like social medicine. .. don't

like mid-levels" [practitioners e.g., nurse practitioners]. He was referring to the general

community and the medical community. The white community was deeply suspicious of

anything linked to the federal government. Hadn't the federal government interceded in matters

giving blacks rights? The medical community, there were four private physicians in the area,

perceived the proposed health clinic as in direct competition with their economic interests--

usurping their medical knowledge--putting them out of business. The American Medical

Association (AMA) organized and j oined forces with the state of Alabama. The state perceived

the federal government was encroaching in state governance (state's rights). The state and the

AMA filed a lawsuit to eliminate all U.S. Public Health Service health clinics, a suit that they did

not win. It was within this climate that West Alabama Health Services opened the doors of the

E. A. Maddox Community Health Center in 1975.

Recognition of a Problem

Community leaders in Greene County, a medically underserved community, had long

recognized a need for access to health care in their community. In 1970, 82% of the black

population in Greene County was living in poverty. The highest level of poverty found in a 16
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county region. As few as 10.8% held a high school diploma, and most had no formal linkages to

health care, nor knew how to establish them. As a result, many blacks relied on medicine passed

from one generation to the next (U. S. Commission on Civil Rights 1983:8, 12,51).

Physicians in the county provided little care to the black community, a setting that led to

substandard care for blacks. The area hospital and public health department was not designed

nor equipped to provide comprehensive health care to such a large indigent population. In 1970

there were over 8,000 blacks representing approximately 75.4% of Greene County's population,

most living in poverty [U.S. Census Bureau 1975:4]).

Barriers to care

There were a number of barriers to providing access to health care within the larger

catchment area, as there were in Greene County. Barriers included (1) distrust of authoritative

people, including whites; (2) lack of transportation; (3) poor communication--many did not own

a telephone; (4) low health knowledge; and of course (5) extreme poverty. One staff member

recalled that it was difficult to engage the rural population in participating within the health

services at the clinic. Some elders in the more isolated communities continued to use folk

medicine, trusting time honored health practices passed down through the generations rather than

the more scientific evidence-based medicine.

Critical health care issues

Some of the most pressing health issues for the catchment area included, as detailed above,

heart disease, stroke, and high infant mortality rates.21 The catchment population, in addition,

suffered disproportionally from hypertension, diabetes, teen pregnancy, substance abuse, and

obesity due to a sedentary lifestyle. One doctor explained that 50% of her patients presented

with diabetes, leading to a cascade of secondary health issues. Health care for AIDS patients

was also part of the fabric of the community as young natives returned from the cities to be cared

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for by family members. One physician described it as the "coming home syndrome .. where

AIDS patients come home to die. Of the pregnancies followed by West Alabama Health

Services staff, approximately 30% were high-risk in need of additional care. West Alabama

Health Services, knowing the challenges before them, planned and operated one of the most

innovative community health centers in the South.

Agency Description

This case study is the most complex of the three, and the following is a gross overview of

the agency. By 1994, West Alabama Health Services had evolved into a massive organization,

somewhat resembling a bureaucratic institution, with numerous programs, subsidiary companies,

and an intricate network of formal and informal agreements that spanned both private and public

institutions from the national to the local level. The agency was engaged also in numerous

collaborative coalitions involving maj or institutions, other companies, hospitals, health centers,

state, and local and city governments to name a few. The agency also administered a vast

number of programs.

During the two day site visit, we were given a broad overview of West Alabama Health

Services, but little substantive information.22 During the site visit, we deviated little from our

facilitator' s preplanned schedule.23 Generally, we were ushered from one interview to the next.

Interviews were relatively short and limited to a few prominent employees--mostly from the

higher echelon of the agency--and a few program directors. 24 We had asked to visit some of the

satellite clinics, participate in outreach or home visits, but were discouraged due to time

limitations. We did have an opportunity to visit one of the school clinics and attend an

interdisciplinary meeting.

The key interviews produced only general information about the agency. In most cases

respondents repetitiously provided only gross overviews of the agency and key programs, while
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program directors sketched out their program in the broadest of terms, or simply mentioned they

existed. In some instances we were provided copies of program manuals or other materials for a

better understanding. All of the previewed programs, like the agency, were prominent, large-

scale, multifaceted undertakings. Therefore, in addition to the data gathered at the site, some

secondary data was used for clarity.

Philosophical Pragmatism

From the agency's inception, the maj ority of the West Alabama Health Services governing

body, as long standing members of the community, possessed an innate comprehension of the

needs of the community. The founders were acutely aware that providing access to medical

services through a community clinic would not be sufficient by itself to improve the health of

their community, and their mission was to improve the health of blacks. To realize this

fundamental goal, the founders had to address the very culture of the black community, for,

within the catchment area, isolated groups of blacks essentially represented separate

disenfranchised ethnic enclaves. Providing services to the disenfranchised was the agency's

immediate challenge. In response, the agency adopted a philosophical pragmatism.

West Alabama Health Services, by 1994, had grown immensely providing comprehensive

medical care to communities across western Alabama.25 In 1994, West Alabama Health

Services employed approximately 250 employees with an operational budget over five million

dollars. In the main clinic alone, the providers would see approximately 100 patients a day.

How did a small rural health clinic in one of the most impoverished areas in the country

successfully provide comprehensive medical care to their clients? One practitioner said "through

the hard work of a lot of people. .. many wearing five hats."

As the agency quickly grew, its administrators: sought to and hire a variety of talented

interdisciplinary personnel; developed collaborative agreements to expand the scope of care;

200









made a commitment to grant writing, research, and data collection, and produced programs

aimed at education, prevention, and intervention. Outside of the realm of health per se,

innovative youth programs sought to engage the youth among the population to prevent school

dropout, dangerous behavior, teen pregnancy, and most of all to give them guidance to ensure a

choice for a bright future. All of these endeavors combined to produce more than a community

health center. The agency had evolved into an intricate health care delivery system and more,

providing a holistic approach to improve the catchment area' s health through interactive

collaboration and community involvement.

Personnel

From the very beginning, the agency took a pragmatic approach to recruitment. The

fledgling agency realized two important considerations: the need for culturally appropriate

providers, and the need for specialized talent to run the agency. Most of the clinical practitioners

and employees in 1994 were black, some of whom were native to the catchment area, a few were

from Greene County.

The leaders of West Alabama Health Services provided clinical services from a broad

interdisciplinary approach, involving health professionals at all levels. The cadre of employees

included physicians, physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, dentists, nutritionists,

administrators, and proj ect managers, outreach workers, with diverse degrees and expertise in

health administration, public health, business administration, education, gerontology, social

work, health education, community development, grant writing, computer science, and

research.26 Each employee was handpicked for their unique skills, which were evaluated on how

the individual skills would strengthen the agency.









Collaboration and cooperation

Collaboration and cooperation was a core principle of West Alabama Health Services. It

was an essential and basic element in surviving in a hostile environment. Some of segments of

the community opposed what they perceived as special treatment accorded to the black

population. Others did not trust the agency and did not perceive its utility. Limited local

resources necessitated increasing cooperation and collaboration with outside entities. Below is a

brief outline of some of the most prominent forms of collaboration and cooperation.

Transportation

The administrator and his staff were quick to detect that transportation was a serious

problem for the target population. Few blacks had reliable transportation. As the administrator

recalled, there was one elderly patient who was on dialysis. For his dialysis treatment he had to

travel several times a week to Birmingham. He owned a car with serious reliability issues, which

finally was not repairable. The elderly gentleman was unable to afford to replace the vehicle,

leaving him in a dilemma. His case was the catalyst for West Alabama Health Services to

develop a transportation system.

Working with another county program that had a limited local community transportation

proj ect, West Alabama Health Services sought grants to establish a broader system that covered

the entire catchment area. They started with two vans in 1976 and had a fleet of 250 by 1994.

The vans were a shared resource with West Alabama Health Services' patients and clients. The

vans crisscrossed the state of Alabama, according to one source, with frequent trips to

Birmingham, Montgomery, and Tuscaloosa. The vans were also used for getting to and from

work, to the grocery store, or whatever the needs of the community. Youths participating in

West Alabama Health Services' youth programs were also provided with transportation. The










transportation system was one of the most important factors of providing health care to the

catchment area.

Community members of West Alabama Health Services had, from the beginning, operated

in the manner of action anthropology, in collaboration with all strata of the community. One key

respondent explained that academic research in the rural setting is very different from that in the

academic setting: "research is done with the community's input and advice throughout the

planning to implementation stages--community trust is imperative in carrying out the research. .

.. Research proj ects have to be collaborative efforts in which the community benefits from the

results."

This respondent' s perception was biased toward academic research, but the theme of

community support, trust, and cooperation ran through most of the narratives. The first step to

providing health care to the rural (isolated) populations began with a cultural sensitivity

approach and engaging as many people as possible. Assessing the needs of the community

necessitated constant cooperation and collaboration with the target population and continued

through interactive programs and services, such as the Planned Approach to Community Health

program and the Teen Involvement Program (see below).

Hospitals

On a more formal level, the agency entered into collaborative agreements as a way of

expanding resources. As an example, West Alabama Health Services developed a hospital

consortium to expand inpatient care to cover the catchment area. West Alabama Health Services

was the lead agency for the West Alabama Rural Health Consortium, a hospital based rural

health care program funded by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation.27 The consortium

consisted of ten hospitals and agencies, a program of collaboration covering eleven counties.28

The goals of the program were multifaceted: "(1) provide shared specialty/professional services;
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(2) promote marketing and public relations; (3) improve the quality and expertise of personnel;

(4) increase the integration of services; and (5) develop administrative and managerial systems"

(West Alabama Health Services, nd). Examples include:

* Contractual agreements for referral were developed to provide enhanced clinical services
between five rural hospitals and the Druid City Hospital and Regional Medical Center (DCH
Regional Medical Center, an urban hospital in Tuscaloosa); and

* The director of the consortium (an employee of West Alabama Health Services) routinely
meet with consortium members, in particular with hospital administrators, to discuss, plan,
and implement common proj ects (American Hospital Association 1993:11i).

* The University of Alabama' s School of Medicine (Tuscaloosa) also was a member of the
consortium bringing to the program a full array of resources including technical expertise and
manpower.

Clinical Practitioners

Similarly, West Alabama Health Services developed a consortium to attract and retain

health care professionals within rural Alabama.29 Formally referred to as the Rural Alabama

Health Professional Training Consortium (RAHPTC), the agency collaborated with a number of

universities to provide training experiences for students in medical and health care fields such as,

medicine (medical students, interns, residents), public health, nursing, dentistry, nutrition,

optometry, social work, and more recently, hospital and health administration. Participating

academic institutions included University of Alabama, the University of Alabama at

Birmingham, Samford University, University of Alabama at Huntsville, Auburn University,

University of Morehouse University School of Medicine (Atlanta), and the University of South

Alabama (Mobile). Students rotated through West Alabama Health Services from six weeks to

five months. The consortium had facilitated approximately 108 students since 1990.30 The

collaboration provided an active and successful recruitment tool for West Alabama Health

Services, and, in turn, West Alabama Health Services provided exceptional training sites for

academic institutions to provide their students with experience in rural health.31

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Collaboration and cooperation began as a necessity and developed into a vast network

where, in some cases reluctant, entities banded together to bring the best possible health care to

western Alabama. Much of the formal collaborative agreements were predicated on funding,

funding the agency cultivated through a variety of grants from the federal, state, and local level,

and through a variety of private foundations. In other words, West Alabama Health Services

facilitated linkages through funding sources not readily available to other community entities.

Funding

Funding was the economic engine of West Alabama Health Services. Funding for West

Alabama Health Services programs originated from local, state, federal, and private sources. As

stated above, the federal government provided funding for the first and subsequent community

health centers, in support of primary health care though the community leaders knew the

community needs were far greater than access to a clinic.32 The solution to address the many

needs came in the form of a cyclical pattern of research, data collection, grant writing, additional

programs, and then more research, etc.

Grant writing and research. The agency by 1994 had acquired a professional grant

writer who understood the nuances and necessity of grant writing. He was a Professor of

Medicine recruited from the University of Alabama' s School of Medicine where he had worked

in academia for about 25 years. He explained that "programmatic grants are shepherded" by the

agency. In his expert opinion, West Alabama Health Services' programs not only helped people,

but also generated data, which assisted in generating more grant monies. West Alabama Health

Services had developed many such programs over time, too numerous to review at this time.

However, in addition to the few mentioned above, a few salient programs will be presented

below.










Programs

Planned approach to community health (PATCH)

The agency participated in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's pilot program in

the early eighties for the Planned Approach to Community Health program. The Planned

Approach to Community Health was a tool used to evaluate community health needs and, with

this knowledge, to plan and implement health education programs (see, for example, Kreuter

1992). The program was designed as a collaborative effort between CDC (funding and technical

assistance), the Alabama Health Department, West Alabama Health Services, and community

leaders.

The PATCH program, as administered by West Alabama Health Services, focused on the

large minority population residing within West Alabama Health Services' catchment area and

included three major components: (1) community mobilization, (2) community diagnoses, and

(3) community interventions. Community mobilization relied on trust between West Alabama

Health Services and the more isolated black communities. This community strategy was the

beginning of a protracted process of engendering a relationship of trust between West Alabama

Health Services and hard to reach black populations within the catchment area. The medical

director of West Alabama Health Services was a key to the process of trust building, and one of

the most influential persons in the community. She was a community member, living, and

working in Greene County for nearly two decades, providing primary health care, as well as

obstetrical, and gynecological services to the indigents of the county.33 It was with her

leadership the program was instituted.

The second component of the PATCH program, community diagnoses, identified the

community's needs through data collection, opinion survey, and CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor

Survey (BRFSS). We were not given specifics of what needs were identified through this

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process, but nonetheless, this component identified issues which required intervention. What is

known is the agency researchers identified hypertension as a maj or health issue in the area. West

Alabama Health Services' key physician reported that out of 1,000 persons studied in Sumter,

Greene, and Hale Communities, 560 were found to be hypertensive. Findings of this nature

warranted intervention, which is the Einal stage of the PATCH program.

The third component of the PATCH program is the planning, design, and implementation

of programs to address the Eindings. Programs gave priority to health education (including

health prevention and health promotion), clinical intervention, and monitoring through follow-up

and outreach if necessary. In the case of the hypertension findings, WASH attracted funding

from for a hypertension study which provided lifelong medication for its participants, in

conjunction with ongoing health education and exercise interventions.34

Teen Involvement Program

West Alabama Health Services had recently developed innovative programs designed to

engage the youth of west Alabama in life enrichment skills. According to the director of

programs 90% of school dropouts occurred before the ninth grade. While there was no program

targeting the very youngest children, the agency had developed a sophisticated complex of

activities targeting youth between the ages of nine to nineteen within the counties of Greene,

Hale, Marengo, and Sumter.

The program was called the Teen Involvement Program. The program was multifaceted

with many components. Anyone within the age parameters was encouraged to join. There were

over 300 participants in 12 sites in four counties: Sumter, Greene, Hale, and Marengo. The

program director estimated the program captured only ten percent of the area teens. He found in

the early implementation stage that girls were the maj ority of the members, so he organized a

pee-wee football team, and 70 boys joined the program. Since then, other sports have been
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introduced into the program for example, baseball and basketball. The program was designed as

an interactive experience involving adults and youth. There were many activities and

components within the program, many of which were complete programs in themselves. A

selected few Teen Involvement Programs are described briefly below.

Teen clinic. A maj or component of Teen Involvement Program was the Teen Clinic. The

Teen Involvement Program offered a broad range of activities including competitive sports,

dances, Hield trips, health education, and mentoring. To access the activities for example, play

basketball or go to a dance, the teens had to have a "Teen Clinic" card. This card established

that the youths had received a physical exam from one of the West Alabama Health Services'

health centers and all immunizations were current. The cards established the Teens were card

carrying "Teen Clinic" members. Respondents who discussed the program often used the titles

Teen Involvement Program and Teen Clinic interchangeably.

Chess. Community elders were sought to participate in the program as volunteers. For

example, a number of the male black elders in the community were identified as expert chess

players. They were recruited to mentor and teach youth how to play the game. It had been a

very successful cooperative venture. The week after the site visit there was to be a regional

chess tournament at the Eutaw town square.

Drug summit. The weekend before the site visit, the program manager had organized a

Drug Summit. The summit brought together teens and their parents, over Hyve hundred, with

people from the district attorney's office, sheriff s office, judges, lawyers, and probation officers,

to name a few. The purpose of the summit was to educate youth on the prosecution, legal

ramifications of drug activity. The summit was a success, according the program manager. He

was in the process of writing an article on the event for the local newspaper, The Democrat.









Youth credit union. Teen Involvement Program included a teen credit union, Big Wishes

Youth Credit Union. The credit union was owned and operated by the youths with adult

"coordinators." This component of the program was structured to teach the youth the following:

leadership skills, the principles of saving, how to budget, accounting skills, the role of a bank

teller, prepare a Einancial statement, develop rules and policies of loaning money, operate a

business, marketing skills, and public relation skills. The youth officers and their coordinators

had recently attended a teen credit union conference in Washington, D.C.

Sex education. Teen Involvement Program provided other venues to provide health

education and mentoring. The program had classes with revolving topics. Sexuality was one of

the topics discussed because there was limited information provided by the public schools.35

The program philosophy regarding sex emphasized "responsibility" and "safe sex," as well as

abstinence for the youth. Adolescent women were encouraged to delay pregnancy until they had

completed their education. They were encouraged to wait until they had completed college, or at

least until they were older and could more effectively deal with parenthood. The program

director explained,

if you work with the kids and show them they can have a future that can include college,
the kids will choose the responsibility of not having a child before they get their education.
The key is to give the kids the nurturing and roots and show them that they do have options
in life. They need to know that [they] do have options for their future. Early parenthood
diminishes their options.

The program director also reflected that in the last two years there had been only two

pregnancies, a very encouraging sign considering the high teen pregnancy rate in the area.

Field trips. The Teen Involvement Program also provided Hield trips to widen their view

of the world, and to introduce them to tangible options they could achieve. The Teen Credit

Union's trip to the nation's capital for a teen credit union conference, as mentioned above, is but

one example. The youths routinely traveled to Birmingham, where they would meet with

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academics, professionals, and businessmen, and tour campuses. Participants of the Teen

Involvement Program were highly encouraged to consider medical tracks in any area of health.

Health Career Opportunity Program

Health Career Opportunity Program is similar to the Teen Involvement Program, in that

nurturing is a strong component of the program. The program was designed to identify junior

and senior students who were interested in careers in primary health care at all levels. Interested

students were screened by ACT scores, interviews, and in consultation with their principles and

families. Out of approximately seven hundred students 25 were chosen for the program. Similar

to the Teen Involvement Program, students toured universities, colleges, and medical centers to

experience firsthand the work of medical professionals. Students were prepped on how to access

Financial aid, scholarships, and how to prepare an application.

The Saturday Academy" was a valuable component of the program.36 It provided the

students with a structured and nurturing environment where students could track in a medical

Hield of their interest. Community and professional mentors provided a specialized curriculum

with a focus on mathematics and science. Tutoring was available for every student.

The program' s primary goal was an investment in the future of West Alabama Health

Services--to encourage students to seek degrees in medicine and health, and then to return to the

community to serve. The essence of program was to ensure the success of the students. The

program was a new proj ect therefore there was no outcome data.

Additional innovative programs

The agency included other forward-looking programs to achieve health care linkages more

distance, hard to reach community members. Health clinics were established in community

churches and in the public schools. Community churches were approached by agency members

to gain their trust and support in instituting mini-clinics within their organizations. Parishioners

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were referred to one of the community health centers if needed. This linkage with the churches

also provided sites to encourage lifestyle changes. For example, walking clubs were formed in

churches to combat obesity co-linked variable for hypertension (the average weight for females

in the community was approximately two hundred pounds). By one report, the clinics were well

received by the community, and were another portal to the community. School clinics were also

instituted in the public schools. None of the public schools, prior to West Alabama Health

Services school project, had a clinic. A nurse practitioner oversaw the clinics, which were

usually staffed with community health workers.

Barriers to Care

West Alabama Health Services had managed to surmount most of the barriers to care faced

when they opened their doors in 1975. A number of staff members spoke of "racial pressures."

The agency had recently purchased a house adj acent to the clinic. The house was listed on the

historical register, but had not been renovated or lived in for a number of years. Once the agency

attempted to purchase the property, the historical society objected. The historical society "went

to court to block the clinic from owning it." Once the house was purchased, the city refused to

allows permits for the agency to make renovations. Ultimately, West Alabama did renovate the

structure (Figure 6-1). However, at the time of the site visit, this was an ongoing issue.

West Alabama Health Services' innovative programs and philosophical approach

engendered by its collaboration, consortium, cooperation, and community interactions was

emulated across the nation. The agency was considered very successful by the Alabama Health

Department, the Bureau of Primary Health Care, and the Office of Rural Health Policy in

Washington, D.C. Both state and federal agencies collaborated, as they did in the beginning,

with the agency expanding services to the community. West Alabama Health Services had, as

one member said, "a visionary" staff.









Addendum 2008

West Alabama Health Services is no longer in existence. Coincidently, while I was an

intern at the Office of Rural Health Policy in the summer of 2001, HRSA withdrew all federal

funding for the agency's CHCs, amid allegations of malfeasance and fraud--and a Federal

Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigation into criminal activities was conducted in the name of

the agency. The Director of the Office of Rural Health Policy--along with the Governor of

Alabama and an Alabama United States congressman--flew to West Alabama in August of 2001

on a fact-finding mission to identify other health care resources to replace the vacuum created by

the sudden closure of WAHS.37 It is not clear if the allegations were substantiated.

By the year 2001, the agency encompassed 19 community health centers covering 17

counties in western and north central Alabama. The budget for the year 2000 was nearly 12

billion dollars (HRSA FOIA document). It had become the largest not-for-profit health care

organization in the state (Savage et al. 2004:383, 392). West Alabama Health Services had

become "omnipotent," according to one informant, with its name "everywhere." The CEO and

medical director were touted as "national experts in rural health care" (Velasco 2001). The

agency had become a powerful and influential social institution, with strong political ties at the

local, state, and national level. West Alabama Health Services had become HRSA's jewel-in-

the-crown CHC.

Acquisition of Family Healthcare Corporation

In 1997 WAHS merged with Family Healthcare Corporation. West Alabama Health

Services "acquired the business, property, and assets of Family Healthcare Corporation. ..

accomplished for and in the consideration of WAHS's assumption of Family Healthcare

Corporation' s debts and liabilities as set forth at the time of the acquisition" (Management

Assistance Corporation 2001:1).38 Family Healthcare Corporation--based in Tuscaloosa--was a

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community health organization, similar to WAHS, providing primary health care through a

network of six CHCs serving primarily impoverished white populations in Tuscaloosa and the

"hill country" in nine counties. Prior to the purchase, WASH operated 13 clinics in eight

counties (Savage et al. 2004:391-392). After acquiring Family Healthcare Corporation, the new

entity was renamed Family Healthcare of Alabama to reflect the additional non-westemn counties.

It is important to note that HRSA and the Bureau of Primary Health Care continued to

identify the newly created agency as West Alabama Health Services--grant applications

continued to be submitted under the name of WAHS, and subsequent HRSA notice of grant

awards were issued to West Alabama Health Services, Inc. HRSA, in formal communication,

secondarily listed "d/b/a Family HealthCare of Alabama," where d/b/a stands for "doing business

as" (HRSA FOIA documents). Internally the agency also continued to identify itself as WAHS,

as did the state and its former community service areas (Hayden 2001; Management Assistance

Corporation 2001; DeWitt 2001c, 2001d, 2001g, 2001h, 2001i; Savage et al. 2004; Velasco

2002a, b).

At the time of the merger of the two entities, WAHS experienced a dramatic decrease in

revenue for services rendered for maternal health care. In a letter to HRSA, dated February 5,

1999 (HRSA FIOA document), the CEO outlined the seemingly arbitrary cancellation of the

Alabama Matemnity Waiver Program administrated by the state Medicaid agency at the end of

1996. The state Maternity Waiver Program contracted with one local organization in each

county to provide perinatal care, including case management, at a 97% of the fee-for-service

reimbursement (Wiener et al. 1998: 32). The program which had been awarded to WAHS for six

consecutive years since its inception in 1988 was awarded to a local hospital with limited patient

outreach in 1997. West Alabama Health Services appealed the decision and an outside reviewer









determined that the contract should have been awarded to WAHS. The state then qualified the

criteria that WAHS must outscore the competing organization by over ten points, and while

WAHS did rate higher than the other organization, it was within a 10 point difference. The

ultimate decision was made by a toss of a coin, and WAHS lost the contract. The loss of the

Maternity Waiver Program subsequently meant a revenue loss of nearly $3,000,000.

The WAHS organizational structure was significantly altered after the acquisition of

Family Healthcare Corporation. The CEO and Board members were retained from Family

Healthcare Corporation.39 Family Healthcare Corporation CEO continued to maintain the

former corporation's administrative offices in Tuscaloosa and the two boards effectively

operated separately. The two entities had not fully integrated by 2001. The founding WAHS

CEO continued in his position until his retirement in September of 2000, when he was replaced

by former CEO from Family Healthcare Corporation (DeWitt 2001a; Savage et al. 2004:393;

HRSA FOIA documents).

Unraveling of a Black Power Structure

West Alabama Health Services' power structure unraveled within four years of acquiring

Family Healthcare Corporation. On the surface, the events leading up to the dissolution of

WAHS involved financial complexities originating from (1) fiscal deficits on the part of Family

Healthcare Corporation prior to their acquisition by WAHS; (2) the failure on the part of WAHS

to seek prior approval from CMS for the acquisition, which resulted in the loss of all Medicare

revenue for one year; (3) loss of the Medicaid maternal and perinatal contract with the state; (4)

accusations of mismanagement, financial improprieties, conflicts of interest, and Medicaid fraud

(not an all inclusive list) (Hayden 2001; DeWitt 2001a, 2001e, 2001m). Two site visit reports--

one from early March 2001 and one conducted in late March 2001--cited serious divisions along

racial lines between the two organizational Board members and administrative staff: members of

214









WAHS were predominately black and Family Healthcare Corporation were primarily white

(Management Assistance Corporation 2001; Hayden 2001). However, both reports stressed that

the problems with WAHS predated the acquisition of Family Healthcare Corporation. This is an

interesting point because an evaluation conducted by consultants for HRSA in June of 1999 prior

to the retirement of the original CEO but after the merger, the consultant stated,

Of the approximately 140 CHCs I've had the opportunity to visit in the last nine years,
Family Healthcare of Alabama is the largest, and offers more services than any I've
visited. This center is unique in that it not only provides a multitude of clinical services,
but is very proactive in the various communities that it serves. One can see that this
program no doubt meets not only the clinical goals set forth by HRSA, but it meets the
social goals as this program is an intricate part of the communities in which it serves. ..
[The consultant concludes:] This is a program that not only provides quality health care,
but is actively involved in the various communities they serve through school and church
outreach programs, rural youth intervention programs, aids [sic] education programs,
community presentations, the teen involvement program, and an array of other community
health and services programs. [Management Assistance Corporation 1999:2,5]40

This evaluation mirrors the impression we found during our site visit in 1994, although we had

serious concerns that our visit was well managed by the program leadership.41 One media source

(Velasco 2002d) suggests that HRSA was aware of serious deficiencies, but failed to act upon

them .

A Birmingham judge appointed an "overseer," a forensic accountant to secure the

organization's assets until he could determine which faction controlled the WAHS Board

(DeWitt 2001k; Velasco 2001). By this point events had whirled out beyond the boundaries and

control of HRSA. By May of 2001 the State of Alabama Attorney General Office and the

Federal Bureau of Investigation had begun independent investigations, later j oined by the U. S.

department of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (Hayden 2001:8; DeWitt 20011; Velasco 2001).

There is no HRSA documentation, beyond June 19, 2001 when a notice of termination of

WASH' s CHC grant effective June 30, 2001 was sent to Family HealthCare.42 A series of

newspaper articles out of Birmingham and Tuscaloosa from April 2001 to April 2002 remain as
215









a narrative of the events. Contacts at the Bureau of Primary Health Care (HRSA) have been

instructed not to discuss the case. One media source close to the turbulent end of the agency

(interviewed in September of 2007) said "no one is talking and no one has been charged."

Subsequent interviews (2007-2008) with two white participants revealed that the white dominant

view of the events was based on a belief that the situation was a result of a black culture of

corruption and entitlement, the notion that the blacks sought personal profit, and the belief that

blacks were "given license by the federal government to do whatever they wanted" and were

"untouchable."

What is clear is that HRSA and the Bureau of Primary Health Care had the political power

to demand the resignation of WAHS's Board and ultimately to close the agency by ending its

financial support (DeWitt 2001b. 2001j; 2001f; DeMonia 2001). Federal dollars accounted for

over half of the organization' s budget (HRSA FOIA document, Application for Federal

Assistance dated September 28, 1999).43 One technical assistance site report recommended that

HRSA dispose of non-clinical buildings, land, and equipment; but whether HRSA had the power

to do so is questionable (Management Assistance Corporation 2001:10). One Board member of

the white faction was quoted as saying, "as far as I'm concerned, the federal government has

come down here and put a gun to our head and said, 'resign because you've been bad.'. It's

Gestapo Tactics. We've done nothing wrong to warrant our resignation except to clean up an

organization where that has been long overdue" (DeWitt 2001d). At one moment WAHS was

HRSA' s darling, and in the next its albatross.

The political struggle between WAHS's black Board members and Family Healthcare

Corporation's (the organization acquired by WAHS) white Board members was captured

through the narratives of newspaper articles and the voices within. Both sides vehemently









accused the other of serious wrongdoing, each claimed to be the legal governing body of the

agency. It had been a fight to the death to control an agency which the white CEO and white

Board members staking a claim as sole owners--an agency they claimed was Einancially ruined.

The black Board claimed they were the original "owners," thus the rightful owners. When the

Bureau of Primary Health Care demanded the CEO and all Board members resign in an attempt

to reorganize the agency, the black faction complied, the white faction refused (DeWitt 2001b,

2001d, 2001i; Reeves 2001). The Eight entered the courts (DeWitt 2001k, 20011; Velasco 2001,

2002a,b,c).

The Eight went deeper than WAHS. In Eutaw, Alabama (Greene County), where WAHS

was based and the organization was part of the fabric of the community. The organization

served blacks and was owned by blacks. The white Family Healthcare Board members were

external to Greene County's black catchment area serving three years on the Board, while

WAHS's black Board members represented nearly thirty years of providing services--social as

well as health care--to blacks in primarily local communities. According to a HRSA site visit

report conducted in March of 2001, the Eutaw community had a "negative view" of the white

CEO who had replaced the original founding CEO (Management Assistance Corporation

2001:4). The report stated,

[The community] belief is that all Einancial problems and those having to do with
downsizing, including the communities' perspective that decisions were based on bias and
prejudice is largely due to the fact that the CEO has done little to keep employees informed
or to 'bond' with the various 'publics.' The fact that there are no community relations
activities and members of the communities served by FHCA do not know the CEO allows
Center management to be defined solely by statements made by disgruntled individuals.
[Management Assistance Corporation 2001:4]

The racial distrust ran deep. Community blacks were pitted against federal and state authorities

and an alien white Board. Ultimately, the white faction legally won the Eight to control the

agency (Velasco 2002b,c).









Their acquisition of control came after the federal government had identified and funded

two health entities to cover the former WAHS catchment area: Capstone Rural Health Center in

Walker County and Whatley Health Services in Tuscaloosa (Savage et al. 2004). According to

one well-placed informant from the Board of Directors of Family Healthcare Corporation, the

federal funding agency declined to grant support to reopen WAHS centers because the board of

directors was not integrated, but all white. The WAHS facilities remain vacant and ownership of

these real estate assets remains under litigation (personal communication 2008).

There were socioeconomic and health outcome improvements in several areas in the

primary catchment county (Greene) from 1990 to 2000. Poverty and unemployment, for

example, declined from 54.7% to 40.3% and 13.8% to 7.9% respectively (U. S. Census Bureau

1993c; 2007d). In addition, the most current data available provide evidence of significant

improvements in Greene County's black educational attainment status and dramatic

improvement in black infant mortality. In 1990 black educational attainment for the population

25 years or older did not reach 50% (47.6 %), yet a decade later, nearly 60% (59.6%) of the

black population had achieved a high school diploma or higher (U.S. Census Bureau 1993c;

2007f). Although there remained a marked educational difference between the white and black

population (white educational attainment was at 80.7% by 2000). Black infant mortality rates

(three year averages) for Greene County have followed a positive trend during the operation of

WAHS. The black infant mortality rate for Greene County for the time period of 1982-84, a

decade prior to the site visit, was 38.5 per 1,000 live births. At the time of the site visit, 1992-94,

it was 14.4 per 1,000 live births. Post site visit and before the organization lost its Medicaid

Maternity Waiver program to provide perinatal services to the community, 1996-98, it had

declined to 6.8 per 1,000 live births. The latest data, 2003-05 and 2004-06, demonstrate









increases to 9. 1 and 11.7 per 1,000 live births respectively (CDC 2008, Alabama Department of

Public Health 2007). These statistics suggest the program had a positive effect on the health of

the black population in the county.

The WAHS case study, for good or for bad, provides an example of conflicting policies at

national, state, and local levels that control the health care process at the local level and the scars

that were left behind when the system failed. The termination of the organization left a large

health care void where once a robust system existed. Eight years after the failure of WAHS, the

resultant cultural tensions continue to block the advancement of the impoverished population.











Table 6-1. Selected demographics, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' Catchment Area.

Square People Per African
Total Pop Miles Sq. Mile White % American % Rural %
U.S. 248,709,873 3,537,438 70.3 80.30 12.00 25
AL 4,040,578 50,744 79.6 73.60 25.30 40
Choctaw 16,018 913.6 17.5 55.60 44.20 100
Greene 10,153 646 15.7 19.40 80.60 100
Hale 15,498 643.8 24.1 40.40 59.50 80
Lowndes 12,658 718 17.6 25.20 74.70 100
Marengo 23,084 977.1 23.6 49.00 50.90 56
Sumter 16,174 905 17.9 29.40 70.30 58
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau 1993a:1i, 4, 6, 7. 1990 Census of Population: Social and
Economic Characteristics, United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census
Bureau 1993c:1, 39-40, 35-36. 1990 Census of Population: Social and Economic
Characteristics, Alabama. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau
1992d:12, 14, 16-17, 19. 1990 Census of Population: General Population Characteristics,
Alabama. Washington, DC: U. S. Census Bureau; U.S. Census Bureau P001. Persons -
Universe: Persons Data Set: 1990 Summary Tape File 3 (STF) Sample Data. Electronic
document, accessed February 2007. (Note: Areas in bold areas are persistent poverty
counties.)


Table 6-2. Poverty levels as a percentage of the population, 1990: United States, Alabama,
and West Alabama Health Services' catchment area.
Total population % White % Black %
U.S. 13.1 9.8 29.5
AL 18.3 11.7 37.7
Choctaw 30.2 15.8 48.4
Greene 45.6 7.6 54.7
Hale 35.6 12.8 50.9
Lowndes 38.6 5.6 49.8
Marengo 30.0 9.7 49.6
Sumter 39.7 12.4 50.4
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:3, 6, 7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993c:7-8, 35-36, 39-40) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Alabama. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold areas are persistent poverty counties.)











Table 6-3. Per capital incomes, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health
Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. $14,420 $15,687 $8,859
AL $11,486 $13,235 $6,473
Choctaw $9,622 $12,264 $6,291
Greene $6,306 $13,265 $4,637
Hale $8,164 $12,967 $4,925
Lowndes $6,848 $14,829 $4,153
Marengo $9,242 $17,341 $5,284
Sumter $8,031 $13,467 $5,772
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:3, 6, 7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993 c:3 5-3 6, 3 9-40) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Alabama. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold areas are persistent poverty counties.)

Table 6-4. Unemployment rates as a percentage of the population 16 years and older, 1990:
United States, Alabama, West Alabama Health Services' catchment area.
Total population % White % Black %
U.S. 6.3 5.2 12.9
AL 6.9 5.0 13.4
Choctaw 11.3 7.5 18.0
Greene 10.5 2.1 13.8
Hale 6.9 2.1 11.1
Lowndes 11.7 4.2 15.5
Marengo 7.7 2.8 14.2
Sumter 10.7 4.2 14.8
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:2, 7, 9) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993c:3-6, 35-36, 39-40) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Alabama. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold areas are persistent poverty counties.)











Table 6-5. Educational attainment as a percentage of the population 25 years or older with a
high school education or higher, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area.
Total population % White % Black %
U.S. 75.2 77.9 63.1
AL 66.9 70.3 54.6
Choctaw 54.3 62.9 41.0
Greene 53.8 71.9 47.6
Hale 54.5 67.1 43.2
Lowndes 56.7 77.1 46.6
Marengo 61.4 82.4 43.9
Sumter 52.4 77.3 39.8
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau (1993a:1i, 6, 7) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, United States. Washington, D.C.:U. S. Department of Commerce; U. S. Census
Bureau (1993 c: 1-2, 3 5-3 6, 3 9-40) 1990 Census ofPopulation, Social and Economic
Characteristics, Alabama. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Department of Commerce. (Note: Areas in
bold areas are persistent poverty counties.)

Table 6-6. Mortality rates for all causes, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three
year averages for the yearsl992-1 994United States: Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 914.9 886.6 1,220.7
AL 1,003.9 947.9 1,222.1
Choctaw 1,003.1 933.9 1,129.9
Greene 1,104.1 953.8 1,167.5
Hale 1,101.1 907.2 1,280.8
Lowndes 1,133.3 867.2 1,277.0
Marengo 1,052.7 976.4 1,166.5
Sumter 988.3 800.2 1,078.3
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Note: Areas in bold areas are
persistent poverty counties.)











Table 6-7. Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three
year averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 303.2 298.3 373.4
AL 329.5 320.8 370.2
Choctaw 367.1 373.2 371.7
Greene 438.8 389.0 468.2
Hale 402.5 331.2 477.1
Lowndes 455.3 341.8 523.7
Marengo 305.4 266.8 361.0
Sumter 282.8 286.3 281.1
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Note: Areas in bold areas are
persistent poverty counties.)

Table 6-8. Cancer mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 215.9 211.9 277.0
AL 224.4 213.1 271.8
Choctaw a 233.6 196.5 296.6
Greene 225.9 197.3 b 240.2
Hale 235.7 184.1 284.3
Lowndes 216.9 203.6 228.4
Marengo 239.4 227.3 257.0
Sumter 214.1 180.3 230.6
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc~gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes. aAreas in bold are
persistent poverty areas. b hese rates were reported as unreliable by CDC. There were 19
white deaths due to cancer, and the CDC considers a death rate less than 20 as unreliable.)











Table 6-9. Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the
population, three year averages for the yearsl1992-1994: United States, Alabama,
and West Alabama Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 62.4 60.1 85.9
AL 69.0 63.8 91.1
Choctaw a 57.9 52.9 b 65.3 b
Greene 56.3 85.0 b 50.7 b
Hale 117.4 128.5 108.5
Lowndes 72.0 68.4 b 7.b
Marengo 122.0 71.9 178.3
Sumter 72.3 25.4 b 9.
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes. a Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties. b The rates were reported as unreliable by the CDC.)

Table 6-10. Suicide mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year
averages for the yearsl992-1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama
Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 12.0 12.8 7.0
AL 12.7 14.3 7.4
Choctaw a 14.9 b 25.3 b no data available
Greene 16.6 b 27.0 b 12.0 b
Hale 15.0 b 25.0 b 7.2 b
Lowndes 14.3 b 6 b 17.2 b
Marengo 5.7 b 10.0 b 2.6 b
Sumter 9.7 b 21.4 b 3 b
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes. a Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties. b The suicide mortality rates for the entire catchment area were
unreliable due to the small number of deaths over the three year period.)











Table 6-11. Infant mortality rates, per 1,000 live births, three year averages for the yearsl992-
1994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services' catchment area.
Total population White Black
U.S. 8.3 6.8 16.4
AL 10.3 7.5 15.9
Choctaw a 13.4 b 6 b 189b
Greene 12.8 b no data available 14.4 b
Hale 15.8 b 15.1 b 16.0 b
Lowndes 9.7 b 9.0 b 9 b
Marengo 12.8 b 7.2 b 15.9 b
Sumter 20.4 b 6.0 b 24.0 b
Source: Centers for Disease and Prevention, CDC Wonder compressed mortality file 1979 to
1998, http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd9/, accessed March 2008. (Notes: a Areas in bold are
persistent poverty counties. b The infant mortality rates for the entire catchment area were
unreliable due to the small number of deaths over the three year period.)




































C A.


I II B.
Figure 6-1. West Alabama Health Services' administrative offices. A) Previous offices B)
Historical house purchased and renovated by West Alabama Health Services used as
administrative offices in 1994. (Note: Photograph by Susan Morfit, 1994.)


uaur










Notes


SAlthough historically cotton was a bustling business in Greene County, most of the counties in the catchment area
produced more than Greene (U.S. Census Bureau 1908:30: 1942:331, 333, 334; U.S. Census Bureau 1999:335, 338-
340, 342).

SAlabama was the King of Cotton--in 1849--the number one state in the U.S. for cotton production based on bales
produced. By 1859 Alabama had dropped to number two, by 1899 to fourth (U.S. Census Bureau 1910:26).

SThe division of Greene County resulted in a relatively even population distribution between the two counties.
Greene's population was 3,393 smaller (18,399) compared to Hale's (21,792). The distribution of whites to blacks
remains stable for the two counties: Greene Countv's black population was 79% and Hale's was 78% (U.S. Census
Bureau 1872:11).

SThe stated statistics are for blacks who are full farm owners. If part owners are included, the picture remains
bleak: blacks control 27% of the farms and 7.2% of the acres of farmland in Greene County (USDA 1994b:166,
435).

5 As a comparison to Greene Countv's 1992 cotton production, in 1880 Greene County devoted 63,643 acres to
cotton production and produced 15, 811bales of cotton. This production was after the Civil War and a portion of the
land area of the county was diminished due to the creation of Hale County in 1867 (U. S. Census Bureau 1884:4).

6The comparison is between white national poverty level and white catchment area poverty levels.

SThe reference is to black per capital incomes for counties in the catchment area.

SAll mortality rates, with the exception of Infant mortality rates, are age-adjusted per 100,000 of the selected
population, three year averages for the years 1992 to 1994. Infant mortality rates are crude rates per 1,000 live
births.

9 ICD-9 codes 390-398, 402, 404-429 were used for diseases of the heart mortality rates.

'0 ICD-9 codes 140-239 were used for cancer mortality rates.

11 The CDC reported this rate as unreliable. There were 19 white deaths due to cancer in Greene County, and the
CDC considers a death rate less than 20 as unreliable.

12 ICD-9 codes 430-438 were used for cerebrovascular rates.

13 ICD-9 codes E950-E959 were used for suicide rates.

'4 Deaths due to suicide for the aggregate county populations ranged from 7 to 4 deaths in the three year period of
1992 to 1994.

'5 Infant mortality rates were derived from the CDC Wonder database and are crude rates per 1,000 live births.

16 All of the infant mortality rates in the catchment area were based on fewer than 20 deaths. There was no data
reported for Choctaw's white infant mortality rate: therefore Choctaw was omitted from the analysis.

17 President Johnson was instrumental in establishing many federal programs to help protect vulnerable populations.
The most visible programs are Medicare and Medicaid. It was with his direct intervention that Congress passed the
legislation authorizing the programs, carrying forward President Kennedy's passion for providing health care to the
elderly and poor (Litman and Roberts 1997:129).

's The white citizens who vehemently opposed the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative (and later the
Federation of Southern Cooperatives) were white ruling elite families, families who had controlled Sumter County












for generations. Black farmers, under the cooperative, had become mobilized (politically and agriculturally) to
protect their interests. In response, whites in Sumter County (a group that included some outside stakeholders),
asked the governor to intervene.

19 Michael Clemons (1998) argues the Federation of Southern Cooperatives created political mobilization in the
Black Belt region--and it did--but not without controversy. Whites mobilized very early to block progress for the
organization, even its funding on numerous occasions (see Bethell 1982).

20One outside source (Savage, Duncan, and Ford 2004:392) states the agency's name was originally West Alabama
Health Services Project and was changed in February 1985 to West Alabama Health Services.

21 For example, the period from 1976 to 1980, infant mortality rate for the area was 28.2 per 1,000 live births
(Leeper, Nagy, and Hulett 1988:2).

22We had requested an organizational chart of the agency, list of the Board of Directors, and a copy of their budget.
None of the items was obtained.

23 The agency had been "studied" by many visitors. It had a national reputation of being an exemplary agency and
community health clinic. I later learned that the director of the Office of Rural Health Policy had visited the site as
well. The longstanding agency personnel were very well versed in providing interviews to visitors. The most
candid interview was with the executive director.

24We were provided access to the agency's key plwsician, the senior grant writer, the programs director (acting in
the role of non-clinical administrator), and the executive director of the agency for interviews.

25It is worth repeating that the catchment area covered nearly 6,000 square miles. For example, the distance from
the administrative offices and the core primary care center in Greene County to Lowndes County is 120 miles, 90
miles to Choctaw County.

26 The primary doctors practicing at the Maddox community health center in 1994 were: three family practitioners,
an intern, a pediatrician, a dentist, and a part-time podiatrist.

27The consortium was funded by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation from 1987 to 1991. The program
continued as an informal consortium after the funding stream ceased (American Hospital Association 1993:13).

28Members of the West Alabama Rural Consortium (based in Eutaw) were the following: Bibb Medical Center
(Centreville), College of Community Health Sciences (University of Alabama School of Medicine, Tuscaloosa),
DCH Regional Medical School (Tuscaloosa), Fayette County Hospital (Fayette), Greene County Commission
(Eutaw County government), Greene County Hospital and Nursing Home (Eutaw), West Alabama Health Services
(Eutaw), Perry County Hospital and Nursing Home (Marion), Health Development Corporation (Tuscaloosa), and
Hill Hospital of York (York).

29 A number of the clinical practitioners we interviewed were originally National Health Service Corp placements
from the Public Health Service.

30West Alabama Health Services acquired the funding for the West Alabama Rural Health Consortium and
developed a network system of resources.

31 West Alabama Health Services gave preference to minority students in hiring post graduates.

32Federal funding paid for operational and maintenance expenses, as well as for reimbursement of patient
encounters.

33Before West Alabama Health Services was established, there were no obstetrical and gynecological services in
the catchment area. As a family practitioner, she assumed the responsibilities of providing those services. Primary
care and family physicians employed by the agency provided perinatal services for routine pregnancies. There was
one nurse-midwife, a new addition to West Alabama Health Services who would, among other duties, perform











deliveries within the hospital setting. One informant stated there was no interest within the community for home
births. The nurse-midwife was not interviewed by the research team.

34Walking clubs had been organized through community churches, for example.

35The county school system was extremely conservative, with an abstinence only policy.

36 It is somewhat interesting that the academic component was named the "Saturday Acadenw" because the
"academies" in the rural South were a euphemism for white private schools, which were quickly organized after
desegregation was instituted.

37One of nw last tasks at the Office of Rural Policy was to provide data on health care resources in West Alabama
as a briefing for the Congressional delegate by the ORHP Director during the tour of the area.

38The document is a WAHS site visit report contracted by HRSA, Bureau of Primary Health Care with
Management Assistance Corporation. The site visit was conducted March 6, 2001 to March 8, 2001.

39 The CEO was the only administrative personnel retained after the merger.

40 The report was based on a five day site visit.

41 WAHS had many constant "visitors" touring the facilities, and it appeared the "tour" had become rote.

42Document obtained from HRSA, Bureau of Primary Health Care through the Freedom of Information Act, dated
June 19, 2001.

43WAHS's budget for fiscal year 2000 was $11,797,781: the federal contribution through CHC funding was
$6,100,000 (51.7%); the state contribution was $600,487 (five percent); $1,414,927 was derived from "other"
sources (12%); and program income was listed as $3,682,367 (31.2%) (HRSA FOIA document, Application for
Federal Assistance dated September 28, 1999).









CHAPTER 7
DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Discussion and Analysis

This dissertation examines federal policies through time, delineating their corporal

linkages to local communities, through the use of the heuristic model developed in Chapter 1

based on a political economy of health paradigm. Specifically, the discussion and analysis

follow the network of influences from the historical context to the local community as outlined

in the concentric rings of the model: (1) Historical Context, (2) Political Economy, (3) Racism

and Poverty, (4) Community Programs, and (5) Measurable Outcomes (Health of Community

Members). This examination explains how federal policies interact with and respond to

historical macro-forces such as political power inequities, racism, low educational levels, and

poverty to shape the delivery of health care in three rural areas within the southern United States.

Moreover, the data presented in this dissertation provide substantive examples of how the

dynamic process of federal policies directly influences and circumscribes micro health programs

within the three communities, resulting in tenuous accessibility at best for the most vulnerable

individuals. This is not a recent phenomenon but is deeply embedded in the historical legacy of

the U.S. health care system (Litman and Robins 1997).

Historical Context

The macro-historical context of the contemporary U. S. health care system is a consequence

of nearly one hundred years of unsuccessful attempts to legislate universal health care, resulting

in a patchwork of incrementally developed health policies predicated on complex political and

economic factors rather than on a unified concept of government support for total population

health care goals (see Chapter 3, p. 56; see also, Table 3-3). Unlike health systems in other

industrialized nations, the U.S. health care system is not based on an underlying philosophy of









social responsibility of the government for the immediate provision of health services to the

population. The American government does not guarantee the right to health care, but asserts

that it is an individual responsibility, leaving many citizens with too little educational and

economic resources to ensure their capability to fully participate in the functioning of the total

community. Instead of establishing a comprehensive and unified program ensuring health care

for all, the federal government funded a wide variety of smaller programs specifically tailored to

individual target groups (Table 3-1). The three cases reported here are examples of such

specifically targeted programs. In the late 1970s and the early 1980s, the U.S. government

funded community health centers in two of the case study communities to provide health services

to medically underserved populations. The third case study was a successful program in which

the program leadership attempted to avoid overt dependence on direct federal funding, but still

received extensive indirect federal funding, primarily through block grants to the state.

The need for intervention in health service access for all three case studies resulted from

the isolation of the target groups in areas where available medical services were essentially

absent. The concentration of indigent populations in these areas is a historical result of

agricultural policies as well as the result of slavery and the dissolution of the plantation system in

the South. In the case of Bebe Sano, which is related to agricultural business and immigration

policies, Hispanics fill an occupational niche analogous to the black agricultural workers of the

Old South. The recruitment of labor from Mexico dates from the 1800s with the building of the

railroads in the southwest and progressed to employment of Hispanics in the rich agricultural

areas opened up to rail commerce with the northeastern U.S. markets (see Driscoll 1999; Galarza

1978 [1964]; Gonzales 1999; McWillams 1968). The undocumented Hispanic migrants of the

late 1900s were thus on an equal footing with the newly liberated blacks of the 1 860s with no










legal rights and few opportunities. The applicability of the Civil Rights legislation of the 1960s

did not apply to undocumented Hispanic migrant workers as it did to black slaves and their

descendants.

All three target populations had a deep historical distrust of outside intervention,

particularly by the federal and state governments, due to historical situations which left the

populations in a rather vulnerable and precarious fiscal and social status. In the case of Children

and Family Services, the development of the agency was deeply influenced by this distrust of

government which was considered unreliable and invasive, eventually becoming bureaucratized

and limiting the scope of community assistance. For example, the director maintained complete

control at the local level feeling that state and federal programs would usurp her authority and

limit her ability to direct the agency to fill self-identified needs. This policy choice of self

sufficiency ultimately limited the capacity to serve a larger population. Similar distrust of

outside influences was evident in all three cases and could be tied to historical power inequities,

in some cases dating back for well over a century, or even back to the founding of the country.

Such power inequities between white and black races date from Colonial times, while after the

Civil War the invasion of carpetbaggers into Southern communities for the expressed purpose of

reestablishment of the Southern economy and social infrastructure subjugated to Union ideals did

not endear the federal government to many Southerners (Morris 1996; Ruef and Fletcher 2003;

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights 1983).

The general historical milieu thus includes political considerations such as state's rights

issues, Civil Rights laws, economic turf wars, and immigration policies, which are viewed

differently between the North and the South. Political issues unrelated to the programs discussed

in this study can have a direct effect on indigent health programs simply due to the political










haggling and compromises that may result in funding or lack of funding for a specific program

regardless of its intrinsic merit. For example in Alabama, state authorities obj ected to the federal

program establishing a Public Health Service clinic (WAHS) in Greene County as an usurpation

of state prerogatives and a perceived economic threat to the state medical establishment (see

Chapter 6: 191-192; see also, Wiener et al. 1998). This dispute involved state officials, the

federal government, AMA, Alabama Medical Society, and local community leaders, both white

and black.

At the micro-historical level, all the cases were closely tied to their macro-historical

backgrounds. However the details of the local perceptions and historical influences were also

closely tied to specific aspects of local geography, local population structure, agricultural

economy, and politics. Greene County retains a large part of its antebellum heritage, protected

from destruction in the Civil War by its surrounding rivers. The 80% black population is

reflective of the use of black slave labor on the plantations. Even the distribution of wealth and

social status reflects its pre-Civil War structure. All of these factors contributed to the social,

political, and economic fabric in which the WAHS was established and within which it was

expected to operate.

Political Economy

Political and economic forces, arising within the democratic and capitalistic culture of U. S.

society, permeate and are intrinsic to the U.S. health care system at every level. Given the power

hierarchy of governments at national, state, and local levels, the authority at the federal level

typically supersedes state and local authority. Local requirements often come into conflict with

federal policies when they are applied to very specific local conditions. For example, in Cocke

County the need for temporary agricultural workers conflicted with federal immigration policies,

stimulating extensive employment of illegal undocumented migrant workers from Central









America to harvest crops in the absence of cheap local sources of labor. This conflict between

the needs of the local agricultural economy and federal immigration policies led to isolation of

the undocumented workers from the local community and denial of access to local health care

providers. This gap in support of migrant workers was the stimulus for the creation of the Bebe

Sano program, which was designed to use federal funds to provide some health protection for the

labor pool supporting local agricultural interests. Interplay between forces and structures at all

levels of government and economy provide a complex, fluid network of relationships which form

the basis for the success or failure of rural health programs for vulnerable, marginalized

populations. This network of relationships sets limits on what the programs under study here

were capable of accomplishing. This was clearly demonstrated in all three case studies.

In both case studies involving indigent black populations, black leaders took control of

their destiny in an atmosphere of historically entrenched "differences," where the minority white

population continued to control the wealth, the land, and the region, where blacks continued to

be non-citizens. Both programs represented a social experiment which was empowered by the

protection of federal laws passed through the Civil Rights movement. The enactment of both

programs was accompanied by a critical shift in national policies to address historical

institutional inequalities. For example in Alabama, power structures at the federal, state, and

local levels were drawn into direct conflict by changing social ethics at the federal level not

shared by the state. Federal Civil Rights laws preempted state political attempts to maintain and

perpetuate historical racial segregation and the policies intended to keep the black population "in

their place." The federal policies endangered the traditional racial and economic status quo in

Alabama. Governor Wallace, at that time, was intent on reversing federal laws affording blacks

a better opportunity to participate in the larger society and economy. Thus, WAHS' humble









beginning was embarked upon by the newly empowered black community leaders, after the Civil

Rights legislation was passed, leading to the eventual development of a robust primary health

care system for poor black communities in West Alabama, an impressive feat against formidable

opposition both in the state government and state medical community.

The relationships between the programs and the federal government differed widely in the

extent that the federal government officials had direct fiscal and administrative oversight. In its

early years, WAHS was supported by fervent technical and financial patronage through the

United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (antecedent to HHS). On the other

hand, the relationship between Children and Family Services and the federal government was

ambiguous. The agency and its programs were not mandated by the federal government-in fact

there was a deep seeded mistrust of the federal government--but came about in response to

rising expectations and awareness by local black leaders who found new political authority

engendered through the passage of Civil Rights legislation. Although not directly supported by

federal executive agencies, Children and Family Services' programs enjoyed access to federal

funds through block grants to the states and through grants from other public and private sources,

which served to shelter the organization from direct federal evaluation and intervention. The

favorable federal climate toward programs assisting impoverished blacks facilitated access to

funding sources and gave the program some political protection from state and local groups

seeking to deny services to blacks. Denial of child care services to blacks in Tipton County was

directly related to the genesis of Children and Family Services, which led to the implementation

of the Enrichment and Intervention program for indigent medically disabled infants. The federal

passage of Public Law 108-446, titled Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act










of 2004, replicates and funds efforts in all states similar to the director' s Enrichment and

Intervention program, validating her original vision in 1985.

The original Bebe Sano maternal health program was a top-down, unfunded federal

intervention to protect the health of migrant farmworker dependents, women of child bearing age

and their infants. It differed from the other two case studies in that it was founded on a federal

mandate, without direct federal funding, to an organization that concurrently received other

federal funding. This made the funding relationships between each of the organizations and the

federal government distinctly different. The intervention in the Bebe Sano case could be viewed

as a humanitarian act by a benevolent government or as a gesture to protect agribusiness to

insure a continued flow of critical labor resources. In 1992, Tennessee held top national

rankings for tobacco and tomato crop production, crops that require large investments of cheap,

temporary labor for harvesting (see Chapter 4). The program was in essence a capital investment

to ensure the availability of workers, and was tightly bound with ties to political and economic

agendas.

Although the community health center supporting the Bebe Sano already provided services

to the local largely-white poor, federally mandated expansion to cover Hispanic migrant

farmworkers met with strong resistance. Resistance was particularly strong among the local

patients who felt that the Hispanics were receiving special treatment and that they were

infringing on the white population's ability to receive timely medical care. Although these

allegations may have had some minor degree of merit, the opposition was met with equal

determination from dedicated staff and some influential community leaders, and the program

continued to provide assistance to the disadvantaged migrant workers. Inflammatory statements

by prominent state political leaders reinforced the public perception. Subtle social and economic









pressures sought to undermine staff dedication, mainly by threatening loss of portions of the

white patient clientele of providers who also served the migrant farmworkers. Overall, the

persistence and conviction of most staff members, energized by the federal mandate and the

implicit threat that failure to comply would complicate continued federal funding for their

programs and support for other operations essential to the organization, was sufficient to assure

continued operation and success of the Bebe Sano program. The federal mandate pitted rather

powerless staff against an executive agency that controlled the center' s future funding.

None of the three cases were self supporting, and all required large outside funding sources

to remain solvent and to stay in operation. All three programs had some form of client payment

scheme, but none were sufficiently large to represent a significant source of funding. Support

from Medicaid programs differed widely among the three cases. Children and Family Services

was not directly reimbursed by Medicaid, but the recruitment of health care providers willing to

deliver services to the organization's indigent clients was severely impaired by the extremely

low Medicaid reimbursement rates in Tennessee.l The other two organizations with community

health centers depended extensively on reimbursement from state-run Medicaid programs for a

large portion of their income. Federal regulations required that the community health centers

provide treatment to all who sought it regardless of the ability to pay. In Tennessee Medicaid

reimbursement rates were extremely low, but in Alabama high reimbursement rates made

Medicaid a large source of revenue for WAHS, at least until 1997. Medicaid reimbursement to

the Bebe Sano program was more complicated since a large portion of their clients were

undocumented aliens. With the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, only those persons

who can produce identification verifying they are U.S. citizens have access to Medicaid (Kaiser

Family Foundation 2006). Prior to enactment of this law, Medicaid reimbursements were made









for all emergency services for life threatening events, including infant delivery, to the uninsured

regardless of eligibility. This legislative change, which TennCare as of 2007 interprets as

excluding treatment of all life threatening events for the undocumented, places the Bebe Sano

case in a difficult position, since they must continue to treat patients regardless of Medicaid

eligibility, but are denied reimbursement for all non-citizen migrant farmworkers. Non-citizen

migrant women continue to have babies, but are no longer covered by Medicaid in the program's

catchment area regardless of their visa status. The migrant workers continue to seek treatment,

but lack of Medicaid reimbursement for many of them places a severe strain on the

organization's resources. The conflict between the federal requirement to treat patients and the

Medicaid restriction against reimbursement for treatment of all aliens places the organization,

and the health center by which it is supported, in j eopardy of insolvency. The federal

government, by issuing the State of Tennessee a demonstration waiver to design their own state

Medicaid program with subsequent renewals, has placed Rural Medical Services, and

community health centers across the state, in a position to assume more financial responsibility

with larger case loads, while receiving fewer federal and state dollars.

Power inequities were evident not only between different levels of government, but also at

the micro-community level within organizations and within local communities. Unequal

distribution of wealth and resources were evident within the communities in all three cases, with

deep divisions along racial and ethnic lines. The effects of deeply held ethnic biases within the

local community in Cocke County were a constant concern to the leadership of the Bebe Sano

program. Although the organization gained legitimacy and acquired a political base of its own as

it grew, declining economic conditions and growing xenophobia in the media and the national

consciousness caused shifts in local power bases. Public perception that the undocumented










Hispanic migrant workers were undeserving of public support quickly limited the willingness of

local health providers to perform pro bono treatment to the agency's clients. As another slightly

different example of shifting power inequities, WAHS developed deep divisions in its leadership

along racial lines after the merger with Family HealthCare Services. The bitter struggle between

the two factions led to loss of backing among former influential supporters of the program both

locally and in Washington. This shift from support to opposition crept up from the local power

structure to the national level and culminated dramatically in loss of funding, fiscal insolvency,

and closure. The power inequities that drove the rise and fall of WAHS were not only racial and

economic, but also derived some of their impact from pure governmental politics, from

traditional class structure in the state, religious distinctions, disparate educational attainment

levels, and many other differences between the black and white populations. However, at the

micro-community level, race and economic status were the most pervasive, consistent, and

important forces operating to influence the founding, operation, and sustainability of programs

within each of the case studies.

Poverty and Racism

Represented in the third ring of the model, poverty and racism directly impact local health

care availability. They influence power and economic relationships in each of the rings of this

model. They arise from the historical situations that generated the current cultural status of the

population. They influence the mindset of actors at all levels either consciously or

unconsciously, generating powerful concept-based policy biases that often pit state authorities,

local community leaders, and federal policy makers against each other and force sometimes

unlikely alliances and compromises. As public perceptions, educational levels, and economic

conditions change, systematic changes in policy development also occur. Public attitudes toward

immigrant farmworkers provide an excellent example of how provision of health services to










indigent populations can garner nation-wide attention and engender intense pressure to pass

legislation denying government-funded health care services to noncitizens. The poverty and

racism ring correspond to prominent sociocultural forces and structures inherent to the persistent

poverty counties under review. Intergenerational poverty and institutionalized racism were the

main root causes of the sociocultural circumstances that gave rise to the local programs

examined in this study.

In two of the case studies, the power inequities between the poor blacks and the dominant

white power structure were inherited from their historical situation. Blacks in these case studies

were born into poverty and racial inequality. Most had seen little outside their local community

and had little knowledge of options available to improve their situation. Migrant workers in

Tennessee were in a similar position since they often did not understand the political situation

surrounding them, and they did not know what their options were; that is, they lacked cultural

capital. From their position at the bottom of the power structures in their local areas, the blacks

shared power inequities with the local white population, with state officials whose loyalties often

lay within the broader white power structure, with federal officials, and even with assistance

agencies which shared backgrounds and goals that were not necessarily synchronous with those

of the black community.

Likewise, the migrants faced power inequities with the growers, contract crew chiefs,

government officials, and even the clinic staff themselves, who also represented persons of

authority with strong government connections. Although powerful in their own right due to their

wealth and position as major landowners and local taxpayers, growers were also in conflict with

immigration services, creating a three way power triangle between the migrants, the growers and

the immigration officials. Interest conflicts between the growers and the immigration office









forced the growers to keep the migrant laborers isolated with as low public visibility as possible.

In the three way interaction, the migrant workers lacked agency and generally were at the lowest

point of the power structure.

The pervasiveness of the power inequities in the three case studies in effect acted to

reinforce the black and migrant farmworker communities' lack of cultural capital and the

persistence of lower health expectations, and to preserve the political and economic status quo.

To be effective in the long term, the programs needed to address non-health-related deficits that

also resulted directly from these power inequities, such as low educational attainment and

unemployment that immediately reinforced the cycle of poor health expectations. All of the case

studies had an active outreach program integral and essential to their operation. These outreach

programs extended far beyond identification of patients needing specific treatment. Sparse

educational opportunities in the effectively segregated school systems in Alabama and Tennessee

left the target youth in particular with a low employment outlook, as well as insufficient training

in basic public health and hygiene practices. Therefore, training programs in all three cases

extended well beyond health and hygiene and into personal economics, acquisition of social

skills and improved work ethic, and broader understanding of the wider American cultural

milieu, as reflected in WAHS' Teen Involvement program and Children and Family Services'

Bright Futures Supportive Services program. The intent was to give the youth tools that would

help them improve their economic status and provide a standard of living more consistent with a

healthy life style. In the case of Bebe Sano, similar outreach programs concentrated more on

health issues and social services, but because of the transient nature of the target population

broader educational programs were less appropriate.









The director of Children and Family Services, for example, applied lessons she had learned

while accompanying her husband in his military career postings worldwide, in an attempt to

improve the future outlook for the black population in her organization's catchment area.

Willingness to accept the status quo and lack of educational attainment needed to improve the

situation, were two of the large contributors to the persistence of poverty. In addition to the

passage of federal equal rights and equal opportunities legislation, widespread access to public

media such as television, radio, and the print media stimulated social change and facilitated the

establishment of these programs. Rapid communications also exposed racially repressive

activities and gave some protection to those seeking to correct social inequalities. In all three

case studies, without strong federal policy support for Civil Rights legislation outside of the

Deep South (i.e., nationwide) and rapid critical media exposure of repression, it is unlikely that

any of these programs would have had significant success.

Racism in the form of ethnic prejudices toward migrant farmworkers in eastern Tennessee

followed a similar pattern experienced by blacks in the South, with notable exceptions. Unlike

blacks who were lifelong residents within communities of the rural South, Hispanic migrant

farmworkers were viewed as aliens, and federal laws which protect black rights did not extend to

undocumented aliens. National perceptions of illegal immigrants draining public dollars from

federal, state, and local governments, real or imagined, have ignited a national debate of "who

belongs" and "who does not." Tennessee was not immune to the politicizing of immigration

issues. Elected Tennessee government officials (from the U.S. Congress and Tennessee State

Legislature) publicly cast Hispanics in Tennessee as invading Mexican aliens, and as such they

did not deserve the same rights to Tennessee governmental resources as did native Tennesseans

(see Chapter 4 Addendum). Inflammatory ethnically biased statements from elected officials









served to further polarize public opinion across Tennessee, especially in small rural towns where

migrant farmworkers continually returned over the previous 23 years to harvest crops, with

increasing numbers of migrant farmworkers choosing to permanently settle in Tennessee rural

and urban communities. The increased bigotry directed at Mexicans through such official

discourses served to amplify Appalachian beliefs of the "other" and the perceived legitimate

right of the natives to exclude alien migrant farmworkers from their community. With the U. S.

government leadership failing to dissuade the American public of these misconceptions,

providing health care to migrant farmworkers in Appalachian Counties will be much more

difficult to finance, provide, and sustain in such a volatile atmosphere.

Federal policies against racism and ethnic hatred, as expressed in laws governing nearly all

facets of life including housing, employment, access to goods and services, access to education,

political activity, rights to legal representation, and protection against physical abuse, have

greatly eased the plight of blacks and Hispanics across the country, but racism and ethnic hatred

are still alive and well in the areas served by these three case examples. Although the

government can legislate behavior to some extent, it cannot directly legislate morality. In all

three case studies, the establishment of community health and social programs explicitly to serve

indigent racial and ethnic minorities was a first attempt to fill a recognized void in their

catchment areas. This in itself was a significant event much beyond the actual health care

outcomes. All three programs were well accepted and used by their target populations. As a

concretized example of the new horizons opening for these persistent poverty populations, these

programs achieved high public visibility and gained political authority in their own right, giving

added legitimacy to the efforts of the population to improve their economic and political

condition. Nevertheless, changes in racial and ethnic perceptions and biases in the Deep South









will continue to be slow, while real equality between races and ethnic groups in all three

organizations' catchment areas is still a dream for the future.

In summary, racism and poverty were equally apparent and equally obstructive in all cases.

They were co-confounders in each case. The strong racial and ethnical discrimination patterns

were a surprising result of this study, as the cases were chosen on the basis of persistent poverty

rather than racial or ethnic criteria. Both forces have acted historically to limit access to health

care, and continue to negatively impact the populations in all three locations. The ultimate

failure of WAHS program was a serious setback for indigent health care programs in that

location, even though responsibility for similar primary health services was transferred to

Whatley Health Services. The scandal and accusations of malfeasance can be expected to have

severe negative impact on support for local black run social organizations throughout the state

for a long time due to mutual racial distrust. Overall, it proved impossible to evaluate the

effectiveness of the programs without considering race and poverty issues as they interacted to

reinforce each other.

Community Programs

The fourth ring of the model considers the organization and operation of the individual

case studies as well as their interactions with the local community and with the larger political,

economic, and historical milieu. In this discussion, the primary focus will be on the similarities

and differences between the organizations from their founding to the present time in an attempt

to discern the important factors that constitute an effective, reproducible, and sustainable

community health program, which could be viewed as a model for programs in persistent

poverty rural areas as part of a larger nationally-based health care system. Because of the

extreme needs in these localities and their severe social and economic isolation, these case

studies provide insight into specific problems that may be overlooked if the establishment of









rural health centers is based on needs in areas that are more racially and ethnically integrated and

more economically advantaged.

All three organizations arose from efforts that were initiated outside the local dominate

power structure. Bebe Sano and WAHS originated outside of the community as mandates from

the federal government. Children and Family Services on the other hand developed from grass-

roots efforts within the community, but through the determined initiative of the founder, who

was not initially part of the power structure, but rather a black social activist, proud of her

reputation as a "trouble-maker." Challenging the local status quo, she formed a community-

based, service oriented, economic development agency, after a review of potential funding

sources and completion of a needs assessment. None of the three cases were initiated by local or

state governmental authority and none would have been established without powerful

intervention by forces outside the local and state governments and health care establishments.

Charismatic leadership

Because of the political and social conditions in the local communities, organizations

providing health services to persistent poverty communities needed strong charismatic leadership

to give it credibility in the community, to promote the program goals and services to the target

population, to secure funding, to attract and select qualified and dedicated employees, and to

provide a champion for the program. The charismatic leaders observed in this research

possessed a deep commitment to the communities they served; they were dedicated, dynamic,

resourceful, innovative, and persistent. In all three cases, charismatic leaders arose from within

the community. In the Children and Family Services case, the organization formed around a self

identified community activist directly. In the other two cases, federal officials from HHS,

cognizant of the needs in the communities, intervened to identify local persons who were

positioned to assume leadership in proj ected federal programs. Criteria for selection of leaders









for specific programs varied greatly from one case to another. This is evident in the wide range

of the qualifications among the leaders in these three cases, varying from a high school diploma,

to a college degree, to an advanced degree in public health and health care administration.

Because of the deep penetration of racial and ethnic issues through all levels within the

model, race and ethnicity played an important role in gaining effective access to the target

populations, thus influencing the choice of leadership. Black residents in isolated areas and

Hispanic migrant workers are less likely to respond positively to white outreach workers than to

members of their own racial or ethnic group. From a different perspective, the preferential

selection of leadership with such a heavy emphasis on racial and ethnic criteria is directly in

opposition to and clearly conflicts with the civil rights and equal opportunity laws and policies of

the federal government and may also be contrary to state and local regulations. All three

organizations showed preference in hiring on racial and ethnic criteria. In the selection of the

charismatic founders and principal leaders, this did not appear to be an immediate issue in these

cases. In the design of this research, the cases were chosen from among existing programs in

which nearly all had strong racial or ethnic components already in their leadership. The Bebe

Sano case appeared to be somewhat of an exception, since it was staffed largely by persons from

the local, predominately white (anglo) community, but the primary outreach contact was

Hispanic. In this case, the target population was transient and fairly uniform in its lack of

technical and professional personnel capable of providing program leadership from within its

own numbers. However, the organization's CEO, who had prior experience in Public Health

Service clinics serving isolated indigent populations (namely, Native Americans), was a suitable

charismatic leader identified from among the local resident population. Although he was not









himself Hispanic, he worked actively to enhance the cultural competence of the staff, for

example, by encouraging employment of Hispanic and Spanish speaking staff members.

This discussion may seem to suggest that there was a conscious effort to go out into the

population to find charismatic leaders. This was not the case. In all three cases, the founding of

each organization varied somewhat from the others, but it could be said that the organizations

grew around suitable individuals in a symbiotic fashion. The establishment of these programs

was not happenstance but rather the result of dedication, insight, and persistence of the

individuals involved in their beginnings. But it could also be said that the individual charismatic

leaders were creative in directing the growth of the organization in response to their perception

of the needs of their community. Such a process requires that the individual entrusted with

forming and nurturing the fledgling organization must have considerable cultural capital and

cultural competence in dealing with the specific needs of the target population.

Cultural capital

The founding charismatic leaders in each of the cases had considerable cultural capital, as

all were established in the community, with extensive knowledge of and ability to do business in

the local economic and political circumstances. In this sense, they stood out sharply from the

vast majority of the members of the program's target population. The concept of cultural capital,

for the purposes of this analysis, refers to the subj ect' s understanding of social and economic

relationships within a culture necessary to survive and prosper within that culture. It includes

both a social network of personal relationships with other members of the collective community

as well as the ability to operate within the network of organizations and agencies that make up

the political and economic fabric of the culture (see Massey 2000; Massey, Goldring, and

Durand 1994; Fussell 2004). Leaders of all three organizations possessed extensive cultural

capital but to differing degrees in each case. The director of Rural Health Services, as CEO of









the preexisting and well established CHC in Cocke County, had vast cultural capital because of

his intimate knowledge of the local community, in addition to extensive technical training and

professional experience providing health services to marginalized populations. He had a broad

understanding of issues and procedures at all levels of government and professional

organizations, and had an established network of contacts and relationships with government

offices and health care agencies with resources needed to sustain the clinic operations. More

importantly, the CEO had comprehensive expertise in rural health care delivery in the context of

wider state and national policies and programs. In contrast, the founder of WAHS was less well

endowed with cultural capital, but as principal of a local public secondary school, he had an

intimate knowledge of the community and understood local budgeting and political processes.

While he had little prior knowledge of health care delivery programs, he was able to attract staff

with skills and access to health professional networks that he did not possess. In the case of

Children and Family Services, the founder possessed a robust network of relationships through

her community connections, her professional connections as a state health outreach worker, and

her experiences as a political activist. What she lacked in formal education she made up for in

both experience and her ability to challenge the local political status quo. Cultural capital is a

prerequisite for sustaining a community health program within the larger political and economic

setting, but cultural competence is a prerequisite for effective access to the target population and

for facilitation of productive contact between the health providers and the rural poor (see,

National Center for Cultural Competence 2008a, 2008b).

Cultural competence

Cultural competence is required at the interface between the provider staff and the client,

and represents the level of trust and credibility held between the caregiver and the patient. As

stated above, members of isolated rural persistent poverty communities tend to be more receptive









to health providers with whom they share racial, ethnic, and cultural similarities. The conscious

awareness of belief systems, behaviors, linguistics, ethics, religion, emotions, and other specifics

of the target population' s culture is absolutely essential for health providers working in outreach

programs to vulnerable populations. Outsiders who understand the nuances of the local culture

and can employ this knowledge to facilitate productive contact with the local community are said

to be culturally competent (Borovoy and Hines 2008:3; National Center for Cultural Competence

2008a, 2008b; Shaw 2005; van Willigen 2002:129). In the Children and Family Services and the

WAHS cases, personnel were recruited primarily from the local population. Sensitivity to local

cultural nuances was not an issue, for the most part. For WAHS it became a serious problem

after the expansion to include the white clientele and staff of Family HealthCare Corporation,

and lack of cultural competence between the two racial factions contributed greatly to the decline

of the organization. In the Bebe Sano case, cultural and linguistic dissimilarities between the

staff and the Hispanic patients were critical issues. The CEO of Rural Health Services did not

have a prior background in dealing with the Hispanic culture, but was well aware of the need for

sensitivity. He actively hired culturally competent staff and encouraged development of cultural

competence within the existing staff. For example, by 2003, lay health promoters from the local

Hispanic community had been hired to assist the clinic staff with behavioral health outreach to

the migrant farmworker population. Close attention to issues of cultural competence was critical

to the effectiveness and long term sustainability of the Bebe Sano program. The CEO of Rural

Health Services, which included Bebe Sano, embodied every requirement to fulfill the criteria

for both cultural capital and cultural competence.

Program funding

None of the cases had consistent funding sources that would sustain their operations over

the long term without reapplication for a new grant, and none came close to being self-










supporting. All three organizations collaborated with local religious and charitable organizations

to some extent either to support activities directly or to assist in outreach programs. Even after

many years of operations, funding remained ephemeral, consuming large amounts of time and

organizational resources. Private sources for funding or benevolent activities of local churches

and charities are impacted heavily by national economic conditions, and due to the persistent

poverty in the catchment area, local charitable infrastructure was already strained. Donor fatigue

is also a limiting factor in long term support for charitable causes. Although the data does not

clearly demonstrate such instability in private funding, the economy during this period was

generally strong and robust enough to sustain at least the minimum required funding. What

seems to be clear is the need for permanent and sustainable support. Whatever the source,

funding came with restrictions and could not be used to cover expenses outside a carefully

prescribed set of applications. West Alabama Health Services, and the other two to lesser

extents, had extensive requirements to support their broad holistic array of services. Juggling

funds to cover expenditures not specifically permitted within the prescribed limits was a

temptation that required, but did not always receive, close attention by the funding source.

Numerous allegations of improprieties were made against WAHS in the years prior to its closure

in 2001, but were neither reflected in early formal evaluations and audits nor legally proven.

Program evaluation

Evaluation of the success of a program was primarily based on reports from the program

administrator. There was insufficient program evaluation in at least one case: the WAHS failure.

Reports from the community health center to the granting authority stressed the considerable

accomplishments, including numbers of patient encounters, a summary of fiscal data, a review of

staff and facilities, and proj sections of future planning. According to at least two informants, in

this case, site visits and independent fiscal audits were conducted in a friendly atmosphere and









were well staged. This allowed the organization to provide essentially a 'Potemkin village'

assessment which concealed deficiencies that would have alerted onfcials much earlier than was

the case--that irregularities in the use of funds and other administrative errors were indeed

occurring. The evaluator needs to have access to the records and documentation of past activities

and must have direct open access to staff and employees to the extent required to perform a

balanced critical evaluation of the operations.

Fundamental factors essential for sustainability of rural health programs in persistent
poverty counties in the South

Data indicate there are key factors that must be met to sustain community health programs

in persistent poverty counties in the rural South. In 1994, all three programs were successful

entities and shared striking commonalities. With the subsequent failure of WAHS, the important

role these factors played became increasingly transparent. Sustainability requires strong

charismatic leadership, cultural capital, cultural competence, stringent oversight and evaluation,

and consistently dependable funding. Without any one of these factors the organization is

unsustainable. All of these factors were present in all three cases at the time of the site visits in

1994. Lack of rigorous oversight, both internal and external, was perhaps the first failure in the

WAHS case, and incrementally the organization lost its cultural capital, cultural competence,

charismatic leadership, and sources of fiscal support. The proposed theoretical model for this

research discusses interrelationships between forces within all rings of the model. These

interactions play a key role in reinforcing each of the sustainability factors listed here. Like the

forces in the model, these sustainability factors are interdependent.

By building a trusting relationship with the target populations, each of the programs had a

satisfied client base that depended on the organization for health care services. Each of these

programs had been providing services for at least nine years prior to the site visits. Many of the










programs developed by the three cases were long term projects. These included some of the teen

pregnancy prevention programs, as well as, educational and career training programs that

required persistent long term efforts. These long term proj ects required steady funding to

produce cultural changes

Initially the fate of the organization depends largely on the founder. Long term

sustainability requires that other competent charismatic leaders be mentored and trained so that a

new leader with dedication, charisma, cultural capital and cultural competence can effectively

guide the organization after the departure of the founder. When the founding CEO of West

Alabama Health Services retired in 2000, leadership passed to the former chairman of Family

HealthCare Corporation. As a white administrator who had formally administered community

health centers for white clients, he did not possess the required cultural competence to interact

effectively with the largely black population and did little to gain the trust and confidence of the

local black population. He became the scapegoat for the fiscal difficulties of the organization,

the downsizing of operations, and large staff reductions.

Measurable Outcomes

Each of the case study agencies demonstrated significant success, at least in the mid 1990s.

Even the West Alabama Health Service provided quality medical services and held the respect

and support of the client population--their demise was technically unrelated to the quality of

medical services. In the absence of access to long term longitudinal health studies measuring

changes in disease incidence and prevalence as well as mortality rate comparisons over

successive years, this study relies largely on limited data for individual counties obtained through

the state health departments as reported to the CDC and on less direct indicators such as numbers

of client encounters as reported by the programs themselves. Number of patient encounters was

high and all three organizations had a robust flow of clientele. The continued high utilization of









each of the programs is a basic indicator of patient satisfaction. Children and Family Services

even had waiting lists for many of their programs.

The data suggest that Children and Family Services had a measurable effect on some

indicators of black youth health status. While Tipton County blacks had a higher overall

mortality rate than the white maj ority population, black infant mortality had declined

significantly by 2006, whereas the white infant mortality rate remained essentially unchanged

sincel994. Children and Family Services' programs specifically targeted the excessive high

black teenage pregnancy rates. Successful black teenage pregnancy rate reduction, by nearly one

half from 1994 to 2006, greatly lowered the load of poor health consequences on black youth and

increased the potential for overall improvements in the status of the black community. In

contrast to the Bebe Sano case where the whole population rotated annually, the Children and

Family Services clientele was stable and the improvements in health status remained in the

community, where they could be built upon by future efforts.

The diverse programs of WAHS gave it the potential for producing immense change in the

health and wellbeing of the poor black population. However, the data demonstrated that in no

case did the mortality rates for the black population ever approach the more favorable levels

observed in the white population. The drop in the black infant mortality rates between the three

data points 1982-86, 1992-94, 1996-98, with a subsequent rises following the close of

operations, 2003-05 and 2004-06, supports the conclusion that the organization was effective

while it was in operation (see Chapter 6 Addendum for rates).2 Ancillary social programs were

an essential part of the holistic approach of WAHS for improvement of health expectations and

well being of the community. These also demonstrated successful outcomes particularly in the

increase of educational attainment, and decrease of the overall unemployment rates among









blacks. The demise of the organization in 2001 essentially left the county without adequate local

health care services and without the much needed ancillary programs supporting and augmenting

them. The intense public reaction from the black community in support of WAHS when it

ceased operations attested to the high degree of community dependence on the organization and

its efforts to improve their wellbeing (DeWitt 2001m).

For different social and historical reasons, the Hispanic migrant farmworkers experienced a

similar isolation and diminished opportunities to escape the cycle of poverty and poor health

expectation. The intense outreach efforts of the Bebe Sano program focused primarily on

perinatal care and health education, but also provided limited access to career and other

educational programs from other sources.3 However, the itinerancy of the migrant workers and

their long hours in the field made intensive intervention outside of perinatal services difficult.

The indigent, particularly the Hispanic migrant workers, may not understand the political

relationships and geopolitical boundaries and how they affect funding and reimbursement.

Federal policy makers often do not take this into account when writing laws covering health care

availability. Without the migrant maternal child health program, the Hispanic migrant

farmworker patients would have received no care at all. So in the Bebe Sano case, migrant

farmworkers were directed to the Cocke County hospital which was nearest the clinic, which had

an inordinately large indigent case load, including 26 uncompensated births in 2007. These

uncompensated births reflect the fact that, for political and economic reasons, hospitals in other

counties in the catchment area were reluctant to treat migrant farmworkers (Table 4-7). This

high number of uncompensated births represents only one class of Bebe Sano' s referrals and

indicated the extent of success the organization had in obtaining needed health services for the

migrant population, as well as the high fiscal burden this places on medical providers in the










catchment area. The unwillingness of the hospitals in neighboring counties to treat the indigent

and migrant workers is a reflection of the need for changes in health care policies on a wider,

perhaps nation-wide, scale to insure that the poor who comprise a large portion of the

population-particularly in the South--not do fall through the health care safety net, such as it



Recommendations

Applied medical anthropology was not employed in the design of programs in these three

cases. It is the function and responsibility of the applied anthropologist to explore differences

between cultures co-existing in contested space, such as seen in these case studies, and to

recommend solutions to mitigate those differences. The following recommendations are

proposed for policy makers and leaders of impoverished communities to improve design and

outcome performance of government supported health programs intended to mitigate health

decrements resulting from persistent poverty among racial and ethnic groups.

Recommendation 1: Model for Federally Supported Sustainable Health Programs in
Persistent Poverty Counties in the Rural South

This recommendation proposes a model for federally funded health programs. The

framework of this model is based on the research findings of the dissertation and consists of five

primary components which must be present for a sustainable rural health program as discussed

above in the Community Programs section. These essential components or variables include:

1. Charismatic Leadership:
a. Dedicated
b. Dynamic
c. Willing to challenge the existing power structure, status quo
d. Able to attract dedicated employees
e. Innovative and adaptable
f. Visionary
g. Advocate

2. Cultural Capital:










a. Experience/education to administer the program (e.g., expert knowledge)
b. Vested member of the community
c. Demonstrated ability to network and form collaborative linkages with potential
advocates of the proj ect
d. Knowledge of political and economic relationships at all levels
e. Understanding of community needs and resources
f. Ability to set and achieve realistic goals for the community
g. Adept at public relations

3. Cultural Competence:
a. Awareness of local beliefs and behaviors unique to the locality and target population
b. Sensitivity to cultural differences
c. Collaboration and engagement with target population
d. Good listener and astute observer
e. Linguistic competence

4. Funding:
a. Consistent and reliable
b. Sufficient
c. Longer term funding
d. Diverse sources
e. Sliding scale copayments
f. Ultimate goal of self-sustaining operations

5. Oversight and Evaluation:
a. Robust oversight of financial management
b. Periodic site visit evaluation by applied anthropologist
c. Assessment of patient records
d. Assurance of quality care by monitoring patient outcomes
e. Provision of technical assistance and remediation of deficiencies noted in site visits

The first three of these components apply directly to the choice of leadership for the

organization. They are culturally embedded in the specific community and difficult to ascertain

solely from a written grant application. The last two cover a broader array of program operations

responsive to but not limited to leadership questions.

All five components require the establishment and application of federal policies to

provide support and guidance to federally funded rural health programs. The consideration of

these components (requirements) should be firmly and explicitly stated in the policies employed

to establish and maintain federally funded programs intended to mitigate poor health among









vulnerable populations. Federal policy must include guarantees that each of these requirements

will be assessed and evaluated by trained and proficient anthropologists who can verify that the

requirements have been met and recommend remedial measures if inadequacies are found.

Typically, grant applications are reviewed by an expert panel and awarded on the merits of

the application. For the proposed model to be effective, final review of grant applications should

be considered only after a thorough interdisciplinary site visit has been conducted on the

applications selected for detailed consideration.4 As part of the interdisciplinary team, the

anthropologist would be responsible for ethnographic site visits using rapid assessment

procedures to ascertain that the requisite anthropological relevant factors are present prior to

grant approval and funding. Moreover, a comprehensive ethnographic site visit would identify

cultural issues that could support or hamper the proposed program including, for example,

strength of political and economic relationships, proposed linkages with collaborative partners

within the community, and potential racial and ethnic conflicts. Once the initial site visit has

been conducted, the anthropologist should be included on the grant review board to voice

recommendations on the soundness of the proposed program.

Funding is clearly essential for program sustainability. The anthropologist' s role in

funding evaluation is twofold. First, an anthropologist can assess that the self-identified needs of

the population are appropriately met through the array of services to be provided at the expected

level of funding. Second, the anthropologist can identify cultural tendencies that may interfere

with the proper use of the available resources. These may include an overly aggressive sense of

entitlement, lax recordkeeping, nepotism, and other abuses that may lead to ethical and political

failures that could threaten the organization's reputation and lead to sustainability issues.









In the case of CHCs that operate on a five-year grant, HRSA relies on an annual

continuation application to evaluate the progress of the program. While the continuation

application is comprehensive, the information is self-reported. For greater objectivity and to

validate the completeness and accuracy of annual applications, annual on-site ethnographic

program evaluations for federally funded health programs are necessary and must be conducted

as a matter of routine, and more frequently--perhaps every six months--in cases of deficiencies,

to assess the degree to which the project staff have met the stated requirements and to propose

actions to correct any noted deficiencies. These evaluations help to ensure the ongoing

viability of programs, but only if they are sufficiently detailed and independent of manipulation

by the program leadership to expose basic operational deficiencies that can then be addressed.

At present, HRSA is pursuing cooperative agreements with state and regional primary care

associations to provide technical assistance to community health centers (HRSA 2008c). While

this is a positive step in enhancing the viability of centers across the nation, it does not guarantee

the most impoverished counties will have access to this service. For this reason, funding should

be allotted within the grant structure to provide for structured continuing education for program

leaders. The heart of the training should focus on ethnic and cultural competence, ethics,

methods for fostering total community commitment and solidarity, and other cultural issues as

well as organizational skills, business management, and other procedural and technical issues.6

Opportunities for program leaders or identified future leaders to participate in internship

programs in similar or related proj ects at different locales would also provide them with

important insight into cultural and organizational factors leading to program success. Such

training would also alert program administrators about pitfalls which could lead to program

failure. Applied anthropologists are integral for the training program.









The federal program for community health centers nationwide currently costs the

government two billion dollars annually and rising (HHS 2008c:19). Ideally, community health

centers should be established as part of a universal health care program to assure access to

primary health care for all citizens and non-citizens alike, ensuring a basic minimum level of

health care for all, as needed to keep the social and economic engine of the community

functioning at an acceptable capacity. It is easy to assert that such a program would reap long

term savings by assuring that basic health prevention methods kept the population more

productive and less in need of extensive curative medical intervention. Proof for this is more

difficult to acquire and is beyond the scope of this dissertation. The ultimate goal would be to

achieve self sufficiency either under the current insurance based payment system, or as a tax

supported component of a national universal health care system. It is conceivable that in many

persistent poverty areas, any form of self sufficiency can be achieved only with dedicated

intervention in the local economy over many years within the current insurance based paradigm.

The model presented here represents an initial starting point for establishment of an integral

component of a national health system designed to provide permanent relief for the most

vulnerable poor populations in the country. The support of this system must be a permanent

budget item funded from year to year, and evaluated regularly to guarantee that the funds are

being properly used to effectively raise the basic health of the poor population.

Recommendation 2: Collaboration between HRSA and Applied Anthropologists

Government employment of applied anthropologists in support of health care improvement

programs working for the government is well documented (Fiske 2008). Within the agencies of

HHS, anthropologists are most visible at CDC, which employees approximately 55 to 65

anthropologists (Fiske 2008:115). This fruitful affiliation is reflected in collaborative CDC

proj ects such as, the Planned Approach to Community Health program (PATCH) (Kreuter 1992;









see Chapter 6) and Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP)

(NACCHO 2008). On the other hand, the work of anthropologists in HRSA is less visible,

although historically HRSA has relied on anthropologists as contractors for specific tasks

(Needle et al. 2001; Singer 2000a,b; Trotter 1987; Trotter et al. 2001).

HRSA is engaged in funding a wide range of community-based health programs,

especially in persistent poverty areas and should include applied anthropologists in all aspects of

this process. Analogous to the concept of continuity of care in the provision of clinical health

care services, anthropologists should be permanent employees of the agency, versus short-term

consultants, to provide consistent, integrated services throughout the granting process. The use

of applied medical anthropologists improves success of programs by providing critical cultural

insight at key stages of the grant process, ensuring that critical aspects of cultural relations are

optimized and that unintended consequences of unforeseen cultural conflicts are minimized.

Applied anthropologists with skills in ethnography, needs assessment, program evaluation,

cultural competency, cultural brokerage, and conflict resolution guarantee funding agencies

access to reliable culturally competent expertise (Chambers 1989: 165-167; LeCompte et al.

1999; Trotter 1988, 1991; van Willigen 2002:129-40; Whiteford 1991).7 These anthropological

skills can be employed to provide critical data to assess the cultural impact of community issues

and beliefs on the individual proj ect being funded. The inclusion of anthropologists in the

establishment of persistent poverty health programs as well as their participation in monitoring

program performance may increase the likelihood of long-term success. In this role, the

anthropologist functions as an advocate for the government, while facilitating the needs of the

community .









Recommendation 3: Collaboration between Community Health Programs and University
Medical Centers

HRSA should require that all federally funded community health centers establish linkages

with regional academic medical centers. Academic medical centers are a source of clinical

resources that can benefit the programs providing health services to the rural poor as well as

provide training and research opportunities for medical practitioners. Such programs are not new

and were used to some extent in two of the case studies. Cooperative and collaborative programs

for training clinical practitioners--such as medical residents, medical students, nurses,

pharmacists, dentists, as well as other allied health practitioners-within rural clinics provide

clear benefits for all parties involved. Such collaboration provides vulnerable rural counties,

especially persistent poverty counties, with an expansion of clinical resources at the same line

providing medical practitioners with valuable experience in realities of rural medicine.

Furthermore, as the health care field becomes increasingly more technological and more or less

remote from individualistic concepts of health and well being, service in rural clinics that do not

have immediate access to state of the art technology available at maj or urban hospitals provides

medical practitioners with a constructive experience in humanistic medicine. The training also

benefits the clinic staff and stimulates the rural practitioners to maintain academic currency.

Telemedicine also provides rural health providers with convenient access to specialist opinions at

reasonable cost to the rural clinic. The expansion of the use of nearby resources provides a

means of augmenting limited means in a cost effective manner.

Recommendation 4: Collaboration between Persistent Poverty Community Health
Programs and Applied Anthropologists

Anthropology departments at regional universities, especially departments of applied

anthropology, provide a unique array of resources for community health programs. For example,

the community health program staff may request university anthropology departments to provide









assistance in the assessment and resolution of specific issues within the community that impact

the clinic's ability to provide care. While this may be viewed as an arcane use of applied

anthropologists in consideration of the wide roles applied anthropologists are engaged in outside

academia, for impoverished communities with scant fiscal resources, this linkage would be

economically realistic (see, for example, Chambers 1989; Fiske 2008; Kedia 2008; Sabloff 2000;

and van Willigen 2002 for descriptions of the many roles of applied anthropology). In this

context, the role of the anthropologist is as an advocate for the health center and the

community--advocates for the disenfranchised. Numerous university-based applied

anthropologists are committed to assisting communities in a wide range of community

challenges. At the University of Kentucky, where John van Willigen has influenced applied

anthropology, the anthropology department specializes in contemporary applied themes

including medical anthropology, political economy, social organization, and cultural complexity.

The department research areas include "Critical Studies in Health," "Power, Economies, and

Governance," "Identities and Transnational Flows," and "Gender and Social Relations"

(University of Kentucky, Department of Anthropology 2008). At the University of Memphis,

which is logistically close to the Children and Family Services program, the faculty have

proficiency in topical areas such as "ethnic identity"; "community development"; "social justice"

"identity, politics, and mobilization"; "participatory action research"; "medical anthropology";

"family health"; "community development and poverty"; "non-profits/NGOs"; research design

and evaluation"; "race and social inequality"; "human rights"; "community health and

evaluation"; and "impact assessment" (University of Memphis, Department of Anthropology

2008). At the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, the anthropology department has a long

history of applied anthropology and community studies. It was at University of Alabama that









Solon Kimball developed a strong research interest in southern communities publishing The

Talladegl~~~~Illl~~~~ a Story: A Study of Community Process (1954), an action participatory research proj ect

that enlisted community members to identify public health needs (Moore 1984). Kimball was a

prominent leader in applied anthropology and was a founder of the Society of Applied

Anthropology in 1940 (Moore 1984; University of Alabama, Department of Anthropology

2008). Today, the department of anthropology retains a strong applied focus with a

specialization in medical anthropology (University of Alabama, Department of Anthropology

2008). Similar action participatory research projects would be invaluable in assisting local

health care professionals and community leaders in impoverished areas to resolve conflicts

impacting healthcare improvement within their communities (See, Gibson 2002; Schensul et al

1987).

Assertive and self-motivated program leaders, applied anthropologists, and responsible

community activists can make use of a wide array of resources readily available on the internet.

Encouragement of such continuing education and life-long learning is essential to assure that

program leaders and staff continue to provide the optimum support and assistance to the

communities they serve. Self-help manuals and on-line resources may assist community health

program leaders, as well as applied anthropologists, in developing and sustaining health

programs in persistent poverty areas. These resources may support and compliment the direct

involvement of applied anthropologists in the field. The following brief discussion illustrates

some example of currently available resources. The University of Kansas' Work Group for

Community Health and Development (http://ctb.ku.edu) provides an on-line resource, the

Community Tool Box, which provides comprehensive approaches for community collaboration,

capacity building, and development. The W.K. Kellogg Foundation (http://www.wkkf.org) has









designed The Collective Lead'ership Framework: A Workbook for Cultivating and' Sustaining

Conanunity Change (2007) to guide communities in the intricacies of identifying and developing

quality leadership from within the community. This workbook is available on-line and may be

ordered free of charge from the organization. The Center for the Advancement of Community

Based Public Health in collaboration with the CDC (http://www. cdc.gov/eval/evalcbph.pdf), has

developed An Evaheation Framework for Conanunity Health Programs to assist community

health program leaders in designing their own evaluations "to more actively and aggressively

participate in evaluation efforts" (CBPH 2000: Preface). The National Association of County

and City Health Officials (NACCHO 2008) (http://www.naccho.org) in collaboration with CDC

has produced a web-based tool, Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships, that

includes a comprehensive handbook designed to assist communities in the process of improving

community health. Emory University's Center for Public Health Practice of the Rollins School

of Public Health has produced The Public Health Competency Hand'book (Nelson el al. 2002),

available through Population Health Futures (http ://populationhealthfutures .com/handbook).

This handbook is designed for organizations and communities to establish and implement

leadership and management processes to optimize individual and group performance in

providing effective health services through the community. It deals more with facilitating

successful communication and productive interaction between the providers themselves as well

with their patients than with technical and scientific competence. These on-line resources will

provide community and program leaders with valuable tools and information. They can increase

the effectiveness of direct collaboration between applied medical anthropologists and leaders of

fledgling community efforts in the process of developing and sustaining grassroots health

delivery programs to vulnerable populations.









Summary and Conclusion

Persistent poverty, particularly in rural underserved and disenfranchised racial and ethnic

populations, contributes decisively to the overall poor performance of the U. S. health care

system compared with industrialized countries worldwide. This study detailed interactions of

federal, state, and local policies as they were implemented in three community health programs.

Data from these programs providing primary health services to indigent rural populations in the

Deep South were collected through ethnographic site visits and analyzed along with secondary

and archival data to reveal cultural processes and factors that resulted in the success or failures in

these programs. Important among these were persistent institutional racism, influence of strong

charismatic leaders, political willingness of actors at multiple levels to support the programs,

changing and conflicting policies in funding programs, diversity in funding requirements and

funding sources, low levels of educational attainment among beneficiaries, and assessment of

estimated health improvement outcomes in the target populations. Access to effective health

services for the rural poor was greatly affected by the influence of persistent racism and low

educational attainment. Nonetheless other factors such as charismatic leadership and strategies

to obtain resources from diverse sources were effective in producing improved health and

wellbeing in the target groups.

The analysis of the case studies led to development of recommendations for future

application by policy makers within the current U. S. health care paradigm. Using the theories

and methods of applied cultural anthropology, the goal of the recommendations is to facilitate

the development of more effective programs aimed at raising the overall standing of U. S. health

care in comparison with other industrialized democracies. Nearly all of these countries used

paradigms of government responsibility for population health to develop universal health

systems providing essential medical services to all citizens. The current use of various federal









and state proj ects to cobble together a diverse health support system for poor and disadvantaged

populations, whether urban or rural, will continue to result in an expensive, ineffective, and

unbalanced endeavor until the political will builds to make basic, systemic and undoubtedly

painful changes in the philosophy and constitution underlying the U.S. health care system.

Current presidential candidates have proposed plans to guarantee universal health care access

based on government subsidies for private insurance for the poor, continuing the current

healthcare system (Antos et al. 2008; Buchmueller et al. 2008). The presence of a Black

candidate on the Democratic ticket and a female Republican candidate for vice president are

important events in American cultural history, but are unlikely to produce immediate or near

term reforms in the basic paradigm of the U. S. health care system.













Notes
SThe director of Children and Family Services enlisted private physicians to provide pre-school physical, and eye
and ear examinations.

2 Although cases are few, the trend suggests that WAHS had a positive influence.

SThe Tennessee Opportunity Program and local Catholic Church, among others, provided employment training and
assistance, English training instruction, and other social support services to migrant farmworkers and their families
who were referred to them by the Beb6 Sano personnel.

4 The interdisciplinary team should include an applied anthropologist along with technical experts in health care
administration and public health.

5 John van Willigen (2002:189-204) refers to evaluation as a form of policy research to inform policy makers, and
ethnographic program evaluation as a type of evaluation that uses ethnographic techniques.

6There are self-help manuals available for communities through a variety of agencies, institutions, organizations,
and universities (e.g. the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, National Association for County and City Health Officials,
Embry University, Kansas University, The Center for the Advancement of Community Based Public Health) that
address a number of the cultural issues and will be discussed in the fourth recommendation

SJohn van Willigen defines cultural brokerage as, "an intervention strategy of research, training, and service that
links persons of two or more sociocultural systems through an individual, with the primary goals of making
community service programs more open and responsive to the needs of the community, and of improving the
community's access to resources" (van Willigen 2002:130).









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Susan W. Morfit was raised in Melbourne, Florida. After graduation from high school, she

moved to Tampa, Florida. She attended school at Hillsborough Community College (A.A. in

liberal arts), University of South Florida (B.A. in anthropology, Honors Program), University of

Florida (M.A. Latin American studies, anthropology concentration), and both the University of

South Florida and the University of Florida (Ph.D. anthropology programs). Along the way she

raised her son, Brett Canter, and found her husband, Van Morfit. Susan currently is living in the

Washington, D.C. area with her husband.





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1 SUCCESSFUL RURAL HEALTH PROGRAMS IN PERSISTENT POVERTY COUNTIES IN THE SOUTHEAST UN ITED STATES By SUSAN WHEATLEY MORFIT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008

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2 2008 Susan Wheatley Morfit

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3 To my beloved Parents who watch over me, a nd to my husband who loves and nourishes me.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Leslie Lieberm an, my fr iend and mentor. She has been an inspiration to me since the moment I met her in 1990. We have worked t ogether, laughed together and cried together. Her enthusiasm and encouragement have been unwavering. Leslie offered me the opportunity and experience to work on collaborative interdis ciplinary research projects, where applied anthropology came to life. Many others have guided and supported me through the process of the dissertation. Foremost, members of my committee have generous ly provided valuable insight and guidance. Dr. Michael Reid, professor at th e College of Public Health at University of South Florida and the Office of Rural Health Policy staff were invaluable in aiding my understanding of the political process of health policy at the federal le vel. Dr. Robert Brehl, a global health systems expert and dear friend, listened when I was confused, offered editorial suggestions when my logic failed me, and championed my work when I needed it the most. Most of all, I thank my husband, Van. Ultimately, this dissertation is a product of my loving husbands support, guidance, and encouragement. He has endured years of my graduate studies, absences while I was in the field, read all of the early drafts. And for the la st stages of the dissertation, he has cooked, cleaned, and taken care of me so that I ma y finish my degree. And then there are my beloved Irish Wolfhounds Br enainn, Cearbhall, and Campbell.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... 4LIST OF TABLES .........................................................................................................................10LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................13ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... .............16 CHAP TER 1 OVERVIEW ...................................................................................................................... .....17Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........17Statement of the Problem ...................................................................................................... ..17Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................17Methods ..................................................................................................................................22Original Ethnographic Policy Projec t, 1993-1994: Successful Rural Health Programs in Persistent Poverty Countie s in the Southeast United States .................... 22Contract research and th e PLI research team ........................................................... 23Development of case studies .................................................................................... 23Fieldwork methods ................................................................................................... 26Dissolution of the research team .............................................................................. 27Supplemental Research on Migr ant Farmworkers, 1994-1999 ....................................... 27Migrant Farmworker Health Centers ...............................................................................27Archival Research, 2002-2007 ........................................................................................29Addendum Data, 2008 ..................................................................................................... 30Case Study Organization ........................................................................................................302 THE RURAL SOUTH: A PROFILE DERI VED FROM FEDERAL POLI CIES ................. 34Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........34Race and Ethnicity and U.S. Policy of Enumeration .............................................................. 34Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics of the South ..................................... 39Poverty ....................................................................................................................... ......39Per Capita Income ........................................................................................................... 41Unemployment Rates ......................................................................................................42Educational Attainment ................................................................................................... 42Access to Health Insurance ............................................................................................. 43Health Outcomes 2003-2005 .................................................................................................. 44Mortality Rates, all Causes ..............................................................................................44Heart Disease Mortality Rates ......................................................................................... 44Cancer Mortality Rates ....................................................................................................45Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ..................................................................................... 45

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6 Suicide Rates ...................................................................................................................45Diabetes Mortality Rates ................................................................................................. 463 FEDERAL POLICIES, EXECUTIVE AGENCI ES, AND PROGRAMS ............................. 51Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........51National Forces and the Health Policy Process ...................................................................... 52National Legislative Structure ......................................................................................... 52Genesis of health initia tives: Illustration from the executive office ........................53Changing the rules: special interest gr oups transmuting health care policy ............ 53Participatory democracy and policy process ............................................................54Transmuting health laws th rough the judicial system ..............................................56Health Care Policy Implementation: Th e Department of Health and Human Services ...................................................................................................................... ..57United States Health Care Payment Structure ........................................................................ 57National Policies, National Health Care Pr ograms, and National Health Care Funding ....... 60Center for Medicare an d Medicaid Services ................................................................... 60Medicare ................................................................................................................... 61Medicaid ................................................................................................................... 62State Childrens Health In surance Program (SCHIP) ..................................................... 63Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) ................................................ 65The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) ............................................................. 65Bureau of Primary Health Care (BPHC) .................................................................. 67Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) ...........................................................69In Summary ............................................................................................................................714 BEB SANO ..........................................................................................................................76Introduction .................................................................................................................. ...........76Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators .................................................................78Selected Catchment Area Sociode mographic Indicators, 1990 ...................................... 79Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990 ............................................ 80Poverty rate ..............................................................................................................80Per capita income ..................................................................................................... 81Unemployment rate ..................................................................................................81Educational attainment ............................................................................................. 81Selected Health Outcomes, 1992-1994 ................................................................................... 82Mortality Rates ................................................................................................................82Infant Mortality Rates 1992-1994 ................................................................................... 83Migrant Farmworker Profile ...................................................................................................84Sociodemographic Characteristics ..................................................................................86Profile of Florida Migrant Farmwork ers: A Comparative Population ............................87Migrant Farmworker Health Status .................................................................................88Program History ......................................................................................................................91Program Description ...............................................................................................................93Outreach ...................................................................................................................... ....95Transportation ................................................................................................................ ..96

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7 Translation .......................................................................................................................97Staff ......................................................................................................................... ........99Chief executive officer (CEO) ................................................................................. 99Physicians ............................................................................................................... 100Migrant program coordinator ................................................................................. 102Outreach worker and health educator ..................................................................... 102Translator-driver ..................................................................................................... 103Funding Sources ............................................................................................................105Medicaid payments ................................................................................................ 105Sliding scale fee .....................................................................................................107Grant funding .........................................................................................................108Community Support and Opposition ............................................................................. 108Evaluation .................................................................................................................... ..110Barriers to Care .............................................................................................................. 111TennCare ................................................................................................................ 111Racism and ethnic hatred ....................................................................................... 118Addendum 2008 ................................................................................................................. ...1195 CHILDREN AND FAMILY SERVICES ............................................................................ 137Introduction .................................................................................................................. .........137Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators ...............................................................137Selected Catchment Area Sociode mographic Indicators, 1990 .................................... 137Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990 .......................................... 138Poverty rates ...........................................................................................................138Per capita incomes .................................................................................................. 138Unemployment rates ..............................................................................................139Educational attainment ........................................................................................... 139Selected Catchment Area Health Outc omes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiological Surveillance .................................................................................................................. .....140Mortality Rates, All Causes ...........................................................................................140Heart Disease Mortality Rates ....................................................................................... 141Cancer Mortality Rates ..................................................................................................142Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ................................................................................... 143Suicide Mortality Rates ................................................................................................. 144Infant Mortality Rates, 1992-1994 ................................................................................145Catchment Area Birth Rates, 1992-1994 ....................................................................... 145Catchment Area Adolescent Fertility, 1992-1994 ......................................................... 146Health Care Resources ......................................................................................................... .146Agency History: Building of a Dream ..............................................................................147Agency Description ..............................................................................................................153Target Population, Goals, and Objectives .....................................................................153Agency Organization and Programs .............................................................................. 154Department of Maternal and Infant Health ............................................................ 154Department of Pre-School Services ....................................................................... 155Department of Youth Services ...............................................................................159Department of Community Services ......................................................................162

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8 Agency Staff ..................................................................................................................163Funding Sources ............................................................................................................164Barriers ...................................................................................................................... ...........165Funding ....................................................................................................................... ...165Community Perceptions and Institutionalized Racism ..................................................165Access to Primary Health Care ......................................................................................166Evaluation .................................................................................................................... ..167Addendum 2008 ................................................................................................................. ...1676 WEST ALAMAMA HEALTH SERVICES ........................................................................ 180Introduction .................................................................................................................. .........180Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Indicators ...............................................................184Selected Catchment Area Sociode mographic Indicators, 1990 .................................... 184Selected Catchment Area Socioeconomic Indicators, 1990: Poverty Rates, Per Capita Income, Unemployment Rate s, and Educational Attainment ........................185Poverty ................................................................................................................... 185Per capita income ................................................................................................... 186Unemployment rate ................................................................................................187Educational attainment ........................................................................................... 187Selected Catchment Area Health Outc omes, 1992-1994: An Ethnoepidemiological Surveillance .................................................................................................................. .....188Mortality Rate, All Causes ............................................................................................188Heart Disease Mortality Rates ....................................................................................... 189Cancer Mortality Rates ..................................................................................................191Cerebrovascular Mortality Rates ................................................................................... 192Suicide Mortality Rate ...................................................................................................192Infant Mortality Rates ....................................................................................................193Agency History .....................................................................................................................193The Great Society, Civil Rights, and the Birth of a Clinic ................................................... 194Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative .................................................................... 195Federation of Southern Cooperatives vers us West Alabama Health Services. ............. 196Greene County Competes for Grant Monies ................................................................. 196Recognition of a Problem .............................................................................................. 197Barriers to care ....................................................................................................... 198Critical health care issues .......................................................................................198Agency Description ..............................................................................................................199Philosophical Pragmatism ............................................................................................. 200Personnel ................................................................................................................ 201Collaboration and cooperation ...............................................................................202Transportation ................................................................................................................ 202Hospitals ..................................................................................................................... ...203Clinical Practitioners .....................................................................................................204Funding ....................................................................................................................... ...205Programs ...................................................................................................................... ..206Planned approach to community health (PATCH) ................................................ 206Teen Involvement Program .................................................................................... 207

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9 Health Career Opportunity Program ......................................................................210Additional innovative programs ............................................................................. 210Barriers to Care .............................................................................................................. 211Addendum 2008 ................................................................................................................. ...212Acquisition of Family H ealthcare Corporation .............................................................212Unraveling of a Black Power Structure ......................................................................... 2147 DISCUSSION AND RE COMMENDATIONS ................................................................... 230Discussion and Analysis .......................................................................................................230Historical Context ..........................................................................................................230Political Economy ......................................................................................................... 233Poverty and Racism ....................................................................................................... 239Community Programs .................................................................................................... 244Charismatic leadership ........................................................................................... 245Cultural capital .......................................................................................................247Cultural competence ...............................................................................................248Program funding ..................................................................................................... 249Program evaluation ................................................................................................ 250Fundamental factors essential for sustai nability of rural health programs in persistent poverty coun ties in the South ............................................................. 251Measurable Outcomes ................................................................................................... 252Recommendations ............................................................................................................... ..255Recommendation 1: Model for Federall y Supported Sustainable Health Programs in Persistent Poverty Counties in the Rural South ..................................................... 255Recommendation 2: Collaboration between HRSA and Applied Anthropologists ...... 259Recommendation 3: Collaboration between Community Health Programs and University Medical Centers ....................................................................................... 261Recommendation 4: Collaboration between Persistent Poverty Community Health Programs and Applied Anthropologists ..................................................................... 261Summary and Conclusion .....................................................................................................265LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................268BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................293

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10 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 Poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006 and 1990: white, black, and Hispanic .............................................................................................................................472-2 Urban versus rural poverty levels in the South by selected groups, 2006: white, black, Hispanic. ..................................................................................................................473-1 Historical review of major health policy legislation passed by Congress. ........................ 723-3 Road to universal health care, 1912 to 1965. .....................................................................744-1 Selected 1990 Sociodemogr aphic Characteristics for the United States, Tennessee, catchment area population, and Willacy County, Texas. ................................................. 1244-2 Percentage of Hispanic population Me xican, 1990, for catchment area counties and Willacy County, Texas. .................................................................................................... 1254-3 Selected 1990 socioeconomic indicators for the United States, Tennessee, Beb Sano catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas. ................................................................... 1254-4 Selected health indicators, 1992-1994, fo r the United States, Tennessee, Beb Sano catchment area, and Willacy County, Texas. ................................................................... 1264-5 Infant mortality rates and birth rate s, 1992-1994 for the United States, Tennessee, Beb Sano, and Willacy County, Texas...........................................................................1264-6 Migrant health stat us: 20 diagnoses encountered in four migrant health centers in Michigan, Indiana, and Texas. ......................................................................................... 1274-7 Catchment area hospital resources and percent of charity care provided, 1994. ............. 1285-1 Total population, percent black, percen t white, and percent rural, 1990: United States, Tennessee, Children and Family Services catchment area counties. ................... 1695-2 Percentage of population in poverty, 1990: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services. ........................................................................................................1695-3 Per capita incomes, 1990: United Stat es, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area. .................................................................................................. 1705-4 Unemployment rates, 1990: United States Tennessee, Children and Family Services catchment area. ............................................................................................................... .1705-5 Educational attainment as a percentage of the populati on 25 years or older with a high school education or higher, 1990: Un ited States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services. ...............................................................................................................171

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11 5-6 Mortality rates for all ca uses, age-adjusted per 100,000, th ree year averages for the years1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and C hildren and Family Services catchment area. ............................................................................................................... .1715-7 Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area. ............................................................................................................... .1725-8 Cancer mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years 1992-1994: United States, Tenne ssee, and Children & Family Services catchment area. ..................................................................................................................................1725-9 Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years1992-1994: United St ates, Tennessee, and Children & Family Services. ..................................................................................................................... ......1735-10 Suicide mortality rates, ag e-adjusted per 100,000, three year averages for the years 1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Child ren and Family Services catchment area. ..................................................................................................................................1735-11 Infant mortality rates per 1,000 live birt hs, three year averages for the years 19921994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area. ..... 1745-12 Crude birth rates per 1,000 women of child bearing age, three year averages for the years 1992-1994: United States, Tennessee, and Children and Family Services catchment area. ............................................................................................................... .1745-13 Adolescent pregnancy rates, crude birth rate per female s ages 10 to 17, three year averages for the years 1992-1994: Children and Family Services catchment area. ....... 1755-14 Selected 1990 poverty characteristics for blacks in the Children & Family Services catchment area. ............................................................................................................... .1755-15 Bright Futures: group session topics. ............................................................................... 1765-16 Illustration of Children and Fa mily Services funding sources .........................................1766-1 Selected demographics, 1990: United Stat es, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services Catchment Area. ............................................................................................... 2206-2 Poverty levels as a percentage of th e population, 1990: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ............................................................ 2206-3 Per capita incomes, 1990: United States Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ................................................................................................. 2216-4 Unemployment rates as a percentage of the populati on 16 years and older, 1990: United States, Alabama, West Alabama Health Services catchment area. .................... 221

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12 6-5 Educational attainment as a percentage of the populati on 25 years or older with a high school education or higher, 1990: Un ited States, Alabam a, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ..................................................................................... 2226-6 Mortality rates for all ca uses, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year averages for the years1992-1994United Stat es: Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ................................................................................................. 2226-7 Heart disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year averages for the years1992-1994: United Stat es, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ................................................................................................. 2236-8 Cancer mortality rates, age-adjust ed per 100,000 of the population, three year averages for the years1992-1994: United Stat es, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ................................................................................................. 2236-9 Cerebrovascular disease mortality rates, age-adjusted per 100,000 of the population, three year averages for the years19921994: United States, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ..................................................................... 2246-10 Suicide mortality rates, age-adjust ed per 100,000 of the population, three year averages for the years1992-1994: United Stat es, Alabama, and West Alabama Health Services catchment area. ................................................................................................. 2246-11 Infant mortality rates, per 1,000 live birt hs, three year averages for the years19921994: United States, Alabama, and West Alab ama Health Services catchment area. ... 225

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13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Political economy of hea lth paradigm as conceptualiz ed for the framework of the dissertation: large-scale pr ocesses and discreet variab les impacting health in persistent poverty counties in the rural South. .................................................................. 322-1 A southern court house in Missi ssippi. ............................................................................... 484-1 Appalachian home in Cocke County, Tennessee. ............................................................1294-2 Parrottsville Community Health Center and migrant farmworker health center. ............ 1304-4 Beb Sanos Driver-Translator during his birthday party at the Parrottsville community health center. ................................................................................................. 1325-1 Comparison of adolescent pregnancy ra tes from the inception of Children and Family Services and the time of the field site research.. ................................................. 1776-1 West Alabama Health Services administ rative offices. A) Previous offices B) Historical house purchased and renovated by West Alabama Health Services used as administrative offices in 1994. .........................................................................................226

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14 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AAA American Anthropological Association AAPA American Association of Physical Anthropologists ACS American Community Survey ASEC Annual Social and Economic Supplement CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHC Community Health Center, federally qualified health center CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (HHS agency) CPS Current Population Survey EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency FQHC Federally Qualified Health Center GDP Gross domestic product HCFA Health Care Financing Agency now CMS (HHS agency) HEW Health Education and We lfare (predecessor to HHS) HHS United States Department of Health and Human Services. HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration (HHS agency) ICD-9 International Classi fication of Diseases, 9th edition ICD-10 International Classi fication of Diseases, 10th edition IHS Indian Health Service (HHS Agency) NAPA National Association of Professional Anthropologists NHSC National Health Serv ice Corps (housed in HRSA) OMB Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget RAP Rapid assessment procedures USAID United States Agency for International Development

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15 USDA United States Department of Agriculture WAHS West Alabama Health Services WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Infant Children WHO World Health Organization

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16 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SUCCESSFUL RURAL HEALTH PROGRAMS IN PERSISTENT POVERTY COUNTIES IN THE SOUTHEAST UN ITED STATES By Susan Wheatley Morfit December 2008 Chair: Leslie Sue Lieberman Major: Anthropology Health care is the foundation that is required to ensure a minimally accepted quality of life. Persistent poverty counties ex ist throughout the entire United Stat es but those in the southeast have persisted for generations, and, as such, requir e interventions to make significant changes in the health of the poorest and most vulnerable populations. This dissertation examines three successful interventions in the context of a political economy of health paradigm and how federal laws, agencies, and health policies contribute to the health of the local communities. The theoretical and methodological appr oaches in conducting the res earch and the dissertation are grounded in applied anthropology and public health. The research project conducted fieldwork at the three sites and was designe d to provide information for fe deral level decision makers to use in crafting national health policies.

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17 CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW Introduction Statement of the Problem W ithin the United States there remain pockets of sustained rural poverty identified by the federal government as persistent poverty countie s (USDA 1994). Persiste nt poverty counties are rural by definition and have had sustained poverty rates of 20% or higher for the decennial years of 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Based on 1990 data, the largest concentrati on of persistent poverty counties was located in the South ( 82.8%) (USDA 1994a:35). Persistent poverty counties in the South represent a large vulne rable population of nearly 9.5 million (USAD 1994a:34). Furthermore, rural loca les historically have fewer heal th resources than urban areas (Helseth 2008; Ricketts 1999; Wilhide 2002). The goal of this dissertation is to examine federal health policies and their impact on rural health programs in persistent poverty counties in the South. A political economy of health paradigm is used to elucidate these policies and practices and to inform future recommendations. The dissertation contributes to the growing anth ropological literature on health policy from the perspective of anthropology of policy. Arachu Castro and Merr ill Singer define anthropology of policy as, studying and assessing the proc ess of decision making, the actions of and influences on decision makers, and the impact of policy on human lives, or in other words, an informed critique of policy (2004:xiii). Three case studies are us ed to exemplify this approach and its value to policy makers. Theoretical Framework Within the discipline of anthropology, an ever increasing number of medical anthropologists are c onducting research on issues of health vis--vis health policy (see, for

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18 example, Castro and Singer 2004). One result is the development of the Critical Anthropology for Global Health Study Group within the Society for Medical Anthropology. The mission of the group is to explore current and past socioeconomic and political processes to identify and expose structural patterns that undermine the health of poor and marginalized groups (Society for Medical Anthropology 2008). This dissertati on embodies the philosophy and spirit of that group. The Society for Medical Anthropology was fo rmed by applied medical anthropologists in the late 1960s and became a fo rmal section of the American Anthropological Association in 1972. Merrill Singer and Hans Baer (2007:18) define applied anthropology as the application of anthropological theories, concepts, and methods to solving problems in the world.1 Barbara Rylko-Bauer and colleagues (2006: 187) argue that most, if not all contemporary anthropology, is applied in nature and prefer the term anth ropology in use to app lied anthropology. Today, more than ever before, medical anthropologists are devoted to solving current problems related to the health and wellbeing of people within the United States as well as internationally. Anthropologists historically have made valuable contributions to policy development through basic research and application (B oek 19955; Boone 1991; Chambers 1989; Doughty 1987; Gearing 1973; Holmberg 1970 [1965]; Kimball 1987; OReilly 1991; Paul 1955; Schensul 1973, 1974; Spicer 1952; Tax 1950,1970; van Willigen 1994; Weaver 1985). Two anthropological definitions of po licy, for example, are: a set of options from which a decision maker must select a course of action (Angrosino and Whiteford 1987:485), and those intentions which can be associated with delib erate actions in any sphere of human activity (Chambers 1989:38). Policy studies identify a process consisting of fluid, discernable phases, or stages such as: (1) recognition of an issue, problem, or agenda ; (2) formulation of policy through

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19 design, planning, and public suppo rt building; (3) decision maki ng and adoption of policy; (4) implementation of policy; (5) evaluation; and (6) revision or termination. The process is political and economic as well as strategies of action and is predicated on planned change (Chambers 1989:38-39; van Willigen 2002:161-162). Federal policies provide excellent examples of the complexities of the policy pro cess. Applied anthropolog ists are substantively engaged in all phases of the policy process. 2 The basic premise of political economy of h ealth paradigm asserts health phenomena are embedded in culture and that cu lture is dominated by political and economic forces (Morsey 1996; Singer and Baer 1995).3 Merrill Singer and Arachu Cast ro (2004:xiii) and Paul Farmer (2004:281) include racism and pove rty as large-scale forces wh ich contribute to personal distress and disease (Farmer 2007:281). Consistent with the political economy of health paradigm, Paul Farmer seeks to understand both th e individual experience and the larger social matrix in which it is embedded to understand how various large-scale social forces come to be translated into personal distress and disease (2007:281; see als o, Farmer 2005). For Farmer, the examination of such social forces exposes struct ural violence. As suc h, the study of large-scale sociocultural forces (processes) be gins with an examination of the historical context. I order the large-scale processes in a hierarchical placement (Figure 1). Another component of the political economy of health paradigm is the examination of sociocultural relationships and linkages between the various large-scale processes. Singer and Baer ( 2007:8) point out that social relationships (e.g., ethnic relations hips) and social structures that control access to resources are fundamental factors (variables) of health. Relationships of power also are of critical concern to medical anthropologists using this paradigm. For example, ther e is a striking power dissonance

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20 between federal legislation, federal agencies a nd the resultant health policies and health care provision in community health centers loca ted in persistent poverty counties. The political economy of health paradigm as conceptualized for this dissertation focuses attention on the interaction of forces acting at all levels from the macro-historical context to the local community. That is to say, the concentric circles in Figure 1 represent hierarchical levels of organization from which various sociocultural forces emanate their influence. These rings provide a framework for visualization of the networ k of interactions between actors at each level of the hierarchy. The first ring, representing the larger historical context, has overarching importance and sets the stage for examination and interpretation of the linkages and relationships at all levels, crucial to an understanding of the implementation of rural hea lth programs. The historical context provides insight through exposing the roots of current h ealth policies allowing for the elucidation of those factors dr iving new policies and programs. For example, the Civil Rights legislation of the 1960s has stimulated the deve lopment of policies esta blishing a network of southern rural community health clinics furtheri ng the concept that black populations have an equal right to many benefits enjoyed by the majority population (see Chambers 1989:57-60; HHS 2008c). The political economy ring represents political and economic forces and actors transcending national, state a nd local geopolitical boundaries a nd operating in a historical context that establishes their authority. These include national executive agencies, state level medical authorities, private donors and philant hropic organizations, medical professional societies, and even individuals w ho are in position to establish hea lth care policies. These actors may have a wide variety of legal and social auth ority and often do not act in concert with each

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21 other. The relationships between these forces and actors reflect their political and economic power and often lead them to pursue opposing goals. The third ring, which represents poverty and racism, directly impacts local health care availability. Poverty and racism influence power and economic relationships in each of the rings in this model. They arise from the historical situations that generate d the current social and cultural status of the population. Intergenerational pove rty and institutionalized racism were the root causes of the sociocultural circumstances that gave rise to the loca l programs described in this dissertation. They were successful loca l responses to widespread health and social disparities that, unfortuna tely, persist today (see, http://www.raconline.or ginfo_guides/disparities/ f or a list of current publications on health disparities). The fourth ring represents the micro level of community health programs in persistent poverty counties. This model seeks to elucidat e the interrelationships between these programs and forces and actors in each of th e other rings. In particular, th is theoretical model facilitates understanding of the status of the community health programs as they are affected over time by changing policy emanating from the second ring. Consistent with the political economy of health paradigm, this model further explores the socioeconomic conditions which contribute to poor health outcomes for community members in ring five. 4 The socioeconomic variables chosen for th is model include poverty level, per capita income, unemployment rate, and educational attain ment for each county. Indicators of health outcomes such as, selected adult mortality rate s and infant mortality rates were employed to ascertain the health of the communities. The discipline of anthropology, with its exceptional use of cross cultural comparative method and rich ethnographies, is well positioned to contribute to contemporary health research

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22 vis--vis other disciplines active in the pursuit of health research. Anthropologists approach of giving voice to marginalized and disenfranchise d groups within context of the social milieu, comparative analysis, and expert attention to cu ltural variables provide a unique perspective on health issues. Applied medi cal anthropologists who employ a political economy of health paradigm further our understandi ng of current health challenges and are uniquely prepared to contribute to health policy research as well as to provide solutions to current health problems. Methods Prim ary and secondary data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, rapid assessment pro cedures, surveys, and archival retrieval (see, DeWalt et al. 1998; Schensul et al. 1999; Scrimsha w and Gleason 1992; Scrimshaw a nd Hurato 1987; Weller 1998). Data collection for the dissertation occurred over six research stages spanning from 1993 to the present: (1) original case study field research, 1993-1994; (2 ) supplemental research on migrant farmworkers, 1994-1999; (3) supplemental field re search, 1995; (4) intern ship at the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy, 2001; (5) archival research, 20 02-2007; and (6) case study followup research, 2007-2008. The five stages of the research required different methodological approaches, and, thus, are best understood if examin ed separately. The first stage, the case study project, was the result of interdisciplinary plan ning and collaboration and is an example of applied anthropology policy rese arch using rapid assessmen t procedures and ethnography. Original Ethnographic Policy Project, 1993-19 94: Successful Rural Health Programs in Persistent P overty Counties in th e Southeast United States The three case studies reported he re evolved from of a larger research project administered by University of Florida at the Rural Health Research Center. The project was funded in 1992 by the Office of Rural Health Policy, an office within the Health Resources and Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The research was

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23 designed to inform and guide federal policy thro ugh recommendations for improving health care in rural, persistent low inco me counties (PLI) in the South. A total of six ethnographic case studies were conducted of successfully initiate d health programs in economically depressed areas of the rural South (internal document da ted January 8, 1993). The ethnographies covered five Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas Florida, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Contract research and the PLI research team Leslie Sue L ieberman, PhD., Associate Prof essor of Anthropology and Pediatrics was contracted to assist in devel oping the case studies, to conduct the site visits, and to write policy briefs based on the findings of the case studies. Sh e was an integral part of the interdisciplinary research team headed by Dr. Lionel Beaulieu, Pr ofessor of Rural Sociology, and included three professors from the Institute for Food and Agricu ltural Sciences, two an thropologists, and one doctoral student in political scie nce. I joined the interdisci plinary research team under the guidance of Dr. Lieberman. As a member of the research team, my duties included collaborating in selection of the case studies, preparing data collection instruments, and participating in ethnographic fieldwork at si x sites with Dr. Lieberman. Prior to my joining the research team a group of 40 sites had been selected according to preliminary research design criteria. Development of case studies The case study com ponent of the research was officially described as Successful Rural Health Programs. The identification of the successful programs and the ultimate selection of six for site visits was not random, but was a team decision based on a modified Delphi method of three rounds of inquiry to reach a consensu s on the programs. The Delphi method is a systematic, interactive forecasting tool which re lies on a panel of inde pendent experts who are given feedback after each round of inquiry (Rowe and Wright 2001). There were three phases to the case study research:

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24 Phase I: Identify government and voluntary health agencies at the state, district, and county levels; Phase II: Development of letters to send to key agen cies as described in Phase I, and of survey questionnaires for health programs recommended by the key agencies; and Phase III: Select six programs for on-site study based on responses from Phase II inquiries. In the process of Phase I, health agencies were identified such as, state public health departments, regional nongovernmental health ag encies (e.g., the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society), and universities. In Phase II, a business letter was collaboratively designed and mailed to the health entities identif ied in Phase I. The letter asked key health professionals to identify rural health initiatives programs, or projects that had made a positive impact on the health of communities they served in persistent poverty counties within their purview (the letter included an attached list of the persistent poverty counties for the state). Once such programs had been identified, survey questionnaires were mailed to key contact personnel at the successful rural health programs. It was from thes e surveys, in Phase III, that the case studies were chosen. Two essential criteria had to be met to be chos en for a site visit. First, it had to be successful and second, it had to be located in a persistent pove rty county in the southeastern United States. Successful was defined as a prog ram that had made a significant impact on the health of the community. The successful progr ams identified by state and local organizations and agencies were defined as such by the re ferring agency or organization and not by the nominated program coordinators. Forty successful rural programs in persistent poverty counties were identified. The programs encompassed a wide range for example, state health department state-wide programs, university based programs, county extension programs, regional programs, county health department programs, March of Dimes programs, American Heart Association programs, hospital outreach progr ams, American Cancer programs, church programs, and

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25 programs supported by nonprofit orga nizations. Out of the 40 pr ograms, the research team selected six for site visits located in five stat es: Alabama, Arkansas, Flor ida, Mississippi, and two sites in Tennessee. Given the complexities of the six case studies and th e vast amount of data collected, the three most robust ca ses were chosen for inclusion in this study. A brief description of the three case studies not incl uded in the dissertation follows. Say Y.E.S.: The Say Y.E.S. (to Success) projec t, an acronym for Youth Educated and Self-motivated, was a joint in itiative between the Henry Kaiser Family Foundation and the Arkansas Department of Health. In the late 1980s, the then Arkansas Department of Health Director, Dr. Joycelyn Elders (1987-1993) established the Arkansas Health Promotion Health Promotion Project, of which Say Y.E.S. was one component.5 At that time, state authorities recognized adolescent pregnancy as a critical problem in Arkansas (the state ranked number two in the nation according to a pamphlet outlining the project). Chicot County in southeast Arkansas had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate in the state. State health officials selected Eudora, in Chicot County, to receive funding and technical assistan ce for an adolescent pregnancy prevention project. The initiative wa s designed by the Chicot County Local Planning Group, implemented by dynamic community members, and supervised by a state public health department program officer. Say Y.E.S. began in 1991 and was funded for three years. This program provided services to youths be tween the ages of five and 19. Center for Maternal Child Health and Education. This program was planned, designed, and implemented within the De Porres Health Center (established in 1981 by Dominican nuns from Sinsinawa, Wisconsin). The program primarily served blacks in Quitman County, Mississippi in the heart of the Mississippi Delta in the northeast corner of Mississippi.6 In 1992, the county had been cited as having th e highest adolescent pregnancy rate (81.69 per

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26 1,000 births) in Mississippi (Mississippi State De partment of Health 1994:15). The program provided an array of services in cluding health educa tion, parenting classes, limited day care, and G.E.D. classes in a nurturing environment. All clients had access to the health centers medical services as well. Nurse-Midwifery Services of Tri-County Family Health Care. This program was located in North Florida, east of Tallahassee, providing perinata l care to Jefferson, Madison, and Taylor Counties. Based on certified nurse-midwife ry services, the program filled a critical need in the service catchment area due to the comp lete absence of obstetrical-gynecological physicians. Prenatal and postnat al care were providedalong with well-baby, family planning, and routine gynecological services at two service sites in Madison County with collaborative agreements with county public health offices in Jefferson and Taylor Counties. Nurse midwives were supervised by six OB/GYN physicians in Ta llahassee, and all deliveries were carried out at the Tallahassee Community Hospital. The majority of clients served were blacks, most of who were covered under Medicaid. Fieldwork methods The m ethodology for the fieldwork research was based on rapid assessment procedures (RAP): Rapid Assessment Procedures for Nutritional and Primary Health Care: Anthropological to Improving Program Effectiveness (Scrimshaw and Hurato 1987) and Soundings: Rapid and Reliable Research Methods for Practicing Anthropology van Willigen and Finan (1991). Each site visit was completed within two to four days. This methodology is well suited for interdisciplinary research where the project is on a short time-line and deliverables, in this casethe policy recommendations were given a relatively short turnaround period.

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27 Dissolution of the research team The research had pi