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Evaluation of Concrete Mixes for Slab Replacement Using the Maturity Method and Accelerated Pavement Testing

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021687/00001

Material Information

Title: Evaluation of Concrete Mixes for Slab Replacement Using the Maturity Method and Accelerated Pavement Testing
Physical Description: 1 online resource (237 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Manokhoon, Kitti
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: apt, concrete, feacons, flexural, hvs, maturity, pavement, slab, strain, strength
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Five instrumented full-size concrete slabs were constructed and tested under accelerated pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age and the effects of concrete properties on the performance of the replacement slabs. The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs were calculated using the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program, which considers the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade stiffness. The model used was calibrated by comparing the computed strains with the measured strains from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs which were loaded by the HVS. The use of maturity method to determine the flexural strength of the in-place concrete at early age was evaluated in this study. It was found that the maturity method was convenient to use and produced reliable determination of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete. Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement slab. This was done by comparing the stress strength ratio with the observed performance of test slabs in this study. This method was found to be effective in predicting the potential performance of the replacement slabs. A systematic method for evaluation of concrete mixes for potential performance in replacement slab was recommended as the result of this study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kitti Manokhoon.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Tia, Mang.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021687:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0021687/00001

Material Information

Title: Evaluation of Concrete Mixes for Slab Replacement Using the Maturity Method and Accelerated Pavement Testing
Physical Description: 1 online resource (237 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Manokhoon, Kitti
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: apt, concrete, feacons, flexural, hvs, maturity, pavement, slab, strain, strength
Civil and Coastal Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Civil Engineering thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Five instrumented full-size concrete slabs were constructed and tested under accelerated pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age and the effects of concrete properties on the performance of the replacement slabs. The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs were calculated using the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program, which considers the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade stiffness. The model used was calibrated by comparing the computed strains with the measured strains from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs which were loaded by the HVS. The use of maturity method to determine the flexural strength of the in-place concrete at early age was evaluated in this study. It was found that the maturity method was convenient to use and produced reliable determination of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete. Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement slab. This was done by comparing the stress strength ratio with the observed performance of test slabs in this study. This method was found to be effective in predicting the potential performance of the replacement slabs. A systematic method for evaluation of concrete mixes for potential performance in replacement slab was recommended as the result of this study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kitti Manokhoon.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2007.
Local: Adviser: Tia, Mang.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2007
System ID: UFE0021687:00001


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EVALUATION OF CONCRETE MIXES FOR SLAB REPLACEMENT USING THE
MATURITY METHOD AND ACCELERATED PAVEMENT TESTING





















By

KITTI MANOKHOON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2007




































O 2007 Kitti Manokhoon

































To my grand father
To my father and mother









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation and deep gratitude to my supervisory

committee chair, Prof. Mang Tia, for continuously helping, guiding and supporting me at the

University of Florida (UF). Appreciation is also extended to supervisory committee co-chair,

Prof. Fazil T. Najafi, as well as committee members, Dr. Scott Washburn, Dr. Bouzid Choubane

and Dr. Malisa Sarntinoranont, whose opinions and guidance have been invaluable in the

completion of this study.

Special gratitude is expressed to the Royal Thai Government and the Thai people for

financially supporting my studies at the University of Florida.

I wish to express my sincere thanks to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)

for sponsoring the research that made this dissertation possible. I also give thanks to FDOT

Materials Office personnel, particularly Dr. Bouzid Choubane, Michael Bergin, Tom Byron,

Steve Ross, Charles Ishee, Richard DeLorenzo, and others. Gratitude is also conveyed to the

staff of the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, especially Nancy Been, Carol Hipsley,

Doretha Ray, Ketty Fizer, Anthony Murphy, and others. Sincere appreciation also goes to Irene

Scarso for her expert editing of this dissertation.

I would like to also express my appreciation to my friends and colleagues at UF who have

helped with this research, as well as my friends in the Thai Student Association at UF for their

kind support.

Finally, the deepest appreciation goes to my parents, to my family members, especially to

my sister (Nonglak Manokhoon) and my brother (Sukho Manokhoon), and last but not least

Kanthida Deopanich, for their patience, understanding, support and love throughout my time in

the US.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ................ ...............9............ ....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............12....


AB S TRAC T ............._. .......... ..............._ 19...


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............21.......... ......


1.1 Background ........._.._.. ..... ..._. ...............21....
1.2 Hypothesis of Research ........._.._.. ...._... ...............22...
1.3 Research Objectives............... .... ............2
1.4 Approach and Scope of Research ........._..... ...._... ...............23..
1.5 Significance of the Research .............. ...............24....

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........._.._.. ...._... ...............27....


2.1 General Review on Slab Replacement .............. ...............27....
2.2 Analytical Models for Concrete Pavement............... ...............29
2.2. 1 Foundation Models for Concrete Pavement ........._..... ...._... ......._.._.......29
2.2.2 Finite Element Method for Concrete Pavement ........._.._.. ....._.._ ...............31
2.3 Maturity Method in Concrete Pavement. ............. ... ......... ....___ ..........3
2.4 Verification of Analytical Results with Measured Results ......__ ............ ....... ........42

3 MATERIALS AND TEST METHOD S................ ....___ ...............45. ...


3 .1 Introducti on ................... ......_ ...............45...
3.2 Concrete M ixes Evaluated ............ ............ ...............45..
3.2. 1 M ix Proportion of Concrete ............ ............ ...............45
3.2.2 M ix Ingredients .............. ... .. .... ... .. ..........4
3.3 Fabrication and Curing Condition of Concrete Specimen............... ...............5 1
3.3.1 Laboratory-Prepared M ixes ............... .. ....... .._ ..... ...............52.
3.3.2 Plant-Prepared Concrete Mixes Used in Test Slabs .....__ ............. ...... .........53
3.4 Tests on Fresh Concrete............... ...............56
3.5 Tests on Hardened Concrete ................. ...............57.____ ...
3.5.1 Compressive Strength Test............... ...............57..
3.5.2 Flexural Strength Test .............. ...............58....
3.5.3 Splitting Tensile Strength Test ............ .....___ ...............59
3.5.4 Elastic M odulus Test ............ ..... .._ ...............62.
3.5.5 Drying Shrinkage Test............... ...............63..
3.5.6 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion .............. ...............64....












3.6 Concrete Maturity Characteristics .............. ...............68....
3.6. 1 Introduction of Maturity Concept ................. ...............68......__. .
3.6.2 M aturity Functions .............. ...............68....
3.6.3 Maturity Test Apparatus............... ...............6
3.6.4 Procedure for Maturity Test ................. ... .... ..............7
3.6.5 Establishment of Maturity Strength Relationship .............. .....................7


4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEST SLAB S................... .......78


4.1 Description of Experiment.................. ............7
4.2 Stress Analysis for Instrumentation Plan............... ...............79..
4.3 Construction of the Test Slabs............... ...............86.
4.3.1 Concrete Test Track .............. ...............86....
4.3.2 Removal of Concrete Slabs .............. .... ...............88.
4.3.3 Installation of Dowel Bars and Fiber Sheets ....._____ ..... ... ............... .89
4.3.4 Placement of Strain Gauges and Thermocouples ....._____ .........__ ..............90
4.3.5 Data Acquisition.................... ..... .............9
4.3.6 Placement and Finishing of Concrete Test Slabs .............. ....................9


5 HVS TESTING AND OBSERVATION OF PERFORMANCE OF TEST SLAB S.............96


5 .1 Introducti on ............ ..... .._ ...............96..
5.2 Slab 1 .................... .... ......................9
5.2. 1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 1 ......___.................. ... ....... ........ .. ............. ....97
5.2.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from
Slab 1 .................. ..... .... .................9
5.2.3 Observed Performance of Slab 1 .............. ...............100....
5.3 Slab 2 .................... .... ... ................10
5.3.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 2 ......___.................. ... ....... ........ ................. .. 102
5.3.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from
Slab 2 .................. ..... .... ..... ...........10
5.3.3 Observed Performance of Slab 2............... ...............104...
5.4 Slab 3 .................... .... ......................10
5.4. 1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 3 ......___.................. ... ....... ........ ................. .. 106
5.4.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from
Slab 3 .................. ..... .... .................10
5.4.3 Observed Performance of Slab 3 .............. ...............109....
5.5 Slab 4 ................. ... ........ .. ........__ .......11
5.5.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 4 ......___.................. ... ....... ........ ................. .. 112
5.5.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from
Slab 4 .................. ......_ ....... ..___ ............11
5.5.3 Observed Performance of Slab 4 ...._ ......_____ .......___ ..........1
5.6 Slab 5 ................. ... ........___ .. .......__ ........11
5.6. 1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 5 ......___.................. ... ....... ........ ................. .. 119
5.6.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from
Slab 5 .................. ..... .... .................12
5.6.3 Observed Performance of Slab 5 .............. ...............122....












6 CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE MIXES AND TEST SLAB S................... ........ 126


6. 1 Characterization of Concrete Mixes ................ ...............126..............
6. 1.1 Results of Tests on Concrete ................. .... ...............126..........
6. 1.2 Relationship among the Concrete Properties .............. .....................133
6.2 Slab Characterization............... ...... .........3
6.2. 1 Analysis of Temperature Data ................. ...............140..............
6.2.2 Joint Opening Measurement............... ..............14
6.2.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing ................. ...............151........... ...
6.2.4 Measurement of the HVS Laser Profiles ................. ...............156........... ..
6.2.5 Testing of Concrete Cores ........._._. .......... ...............161.

7 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION ....._.__._ ..... ..._. ................ ...165


7.1 Overview of Model Calibration............... ..............16
7.2 Calibration of Model Parameters ........._.___.......... ...............166..
7. 2.1 Sl ab 1 ............... ............... 166..
7.2.2 Slab 2.............. ...............169...
7.2.3 Slab 3 .............. ...............171....
7.2.4 Slab 4.............. ...............173...
7.2.5 Slab 5.............. ........ ..............17
7.3 Verification of Model Parameters .............. ...............178....


8 EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE ......__................. ................. 188


8 .1 Introducti on .................. ........___ .. ... ._._..... .........8
8.2 Evaluation of Potential Performance of Test Slabs .........._.... .. ... .. ..... .........._.....188
8.2. 1 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 1 ......189
8.2.2 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 2......191
8.2.3 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3 ......194
8.2.4 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 4 ......196
8.2.5 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 5 ......202
8.3 Required Concrete Properties for Adequate Performance............... ..............20

9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............. ...............207....


9.1 Summary of Findings .............. ...............207....
9.2 Conclusions............... ..............20
9.3 Recommendations............... .. ...........21
9.4 Contributions of the Research ...._.._ ................ ........._.._....... 21


APPENDIX


A FWD TEST DATA ....__. ................. ........__. ........21


B HVS LASER PROFILE DATA COLLECTION SCHEDULE .............. .....................2


LIST OF REFERENCES ................. ...............232................












BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ...............237....










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Mix design of the concrete mix used in Slabs 1 and 2............... ...............46...

3-2 Mix design of the concrete mix used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5 ................. ........................46

3-3 Physical properties of the Type I/II cement. ........_......... ................ ...............47

3-4 Chemical properties of the Type I/II cement. ...._.._.._ .... .._._. ...._.._._.........4

3-5 Physical properties of the fine aggregate. ...._.._.._ ........__. ...._.._ ..........4

3-6 Physical properties of the fine aggregate. ...._.._.._ ........__. ...._.._ ..........4

3-8 Testing program on fresh concretes. .............. ...............56....

3-9 Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 1 and 2. ........._.._. ....._... ........_.._... ....57

3-10 Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5............... ...............57...

3-11 Testing program on hardened concrete............... ...............57

5-1 Strength analysis for concrete in Slab 1 using maturity method. ............. ....................99

5-2 Strength analysis for concrete in Slab 2 using maturity method. ............. ...................104

5-3 Strength analysis for the concrete in Slab 3 using maturity method............... ................108

5-4 Data for maturity calibration of concrete used in Slab 4. ........._.._.. .......__. ..........1 14

5-5 Data for maturity calibration of concrete used in Slab 5. ............. ......................121

6-1 Average compressive strength of the concrete mixes used. ........._. .... ...._._.........126

6-2 Average flexural strength of the concrete mixes used. ........._. ....... _.. ........._...128

6-3 Average splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixes used. ................. ................. 129

6-4 Average elastic modulus of the concrete mixes used. ................ ................ ...._..130

6-5 Drying shrinkage strains of the concrete mixes used ................. .......... ...............13 1

6-6 Coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete mixes used. ................ ................. 132

6-7 Maximum temperature differential on the test slabs............... ...............132.

6-8 Joint Opening Readings. ............. ...............150....











6-9 Properties of concrete cores from test slabs compared to laboratory-cured specimens
from the test slabs concrete respectively. ............. ...............164....

7-1 Slab model parameters used in the FEAC ONS model calibrati ons ................. ...............1 66

7-2 Summary of model parameters calibrated for the test slabs. ................ ............... .....187

8-1 Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 1. ................... ............... 190

8-2 Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 2 ................. ................ ..192

8-3 Predicted Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3 ................... .....195

8-4 Computed load-induced stresses and predicted flexural strength of concrete in Slab
4............... ...............198...

8-5 Computed load-induced stresses and predicted flexural strength of concrete in Slab
5............... ...............203...

8-6 Maximum computed stre ss due to 12-kip load at vari ous temperature different als.......20 5

8-7 Stress to strength ratio at various temperature differentials............... .............20

A-1 FWD test data from Slab 1............... ...............212...

A-2 FWD test data from Slab 2............... ...............213...

A-3 FWD test data from Slab 3............... ...............214...

A-4 FWD test data from Slab 4............... ...............216...

A-5 FWD test data from Slab 5............... ...............217...

B-1 Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1 ................ ..........___....220

B-2 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1. ............. ...............222....

B-3 Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2. ............_.. ............... ..223

B-4 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2. ................ .....__ ................. 225

B-5 Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3 ................ ..........___....225

B-6 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3 .......____ ............ ........___....27

B-7 Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4. ............_.. ............... ..228

B-8 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4. ................ .....__ ................. 229










B-9 Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5 ................ ............... ....229

B-10 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5 ................ .......... .................231










LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

3-1 Gradation of fine aggregate (Goldhead silica sand#76349). ................... ...............4

3-2 Gradation of the coarse aggregate (Limestone #08012). ................ ................. ......49

3-3 Mixer used for this study.. ............ ...............52.....

3-4 Concrete specimens fabricated and cured ................. ...............55...............

3-5 Strength tests and typical fracture of specimens ................. ...............61..............

3-6 Performing a modulus of elasticity test. ............. ...............63.....

3-7 Drying shrinkage test ................. ...............64................

3-8 Test set-up for coefficient of thermal expansion measurement ................. ................ ..67

3-9 Model H-2680 system 4101 concrete maturity meter............... ...............69.

3-10 Procedure for maturity testing. ............. ...............71.....

3-11 Datum temperature determination process and equipment..........._.._.. ........_.._.........74

3-12 Plot for determination of datum temperature, To~............... ...............75..

3-13 Plot of determination of Q-value. ............. ...............75.....

3-14 Measuring temperature of concrete specimens ....._._._ .... ... .... ... .._._..........7

3-15 Typical plots of compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF.............._._........77

4-1 Loading positions used in the stress analysis. ....._._._ .... ... .__ ......___.........8

4-2 Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a
12- kip wheel load at the slab corner. ............. ...............81.....

4-3 Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a
12- kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge. ............. ...............81.....

4-4 Contour plots of maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab corner. .............. ...............82....

4-5 Contour plots of maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab mid-edge. ............. ...............82.....











4-6 Contour plots of maximum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab corner. .............. ...............83....


4-7 Contour plots of maximum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab mid-ed ge. ............. ...............83.....

4-8 Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 1, 2 and 3 ............... ........................85

4-9 Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 4 and 5. ............. ...............85.....

4-10 Vertical positions of thermocouples and strain gauges. ....._____ .......___ ..............86

4-11 Concrete test track. ........._.._.. ...._... ...............87...

4-12 Removal of Test Slab.. ............. ...............88.....

4-13 Placement of dowel bars. ............. ...............89.....

4-14 Placement of fiber sheet. ........._.._.. ...._... ...............90...


4-15 Installing of instrumentation ....__ ....__ .....____ .........__ ................91

4-16 Wheatstone quarter-bridge circuit diagram for measuring strain. .................. ...............92

4-17 Data acquisition box.. ............ ...............93.....

4-18 Placement and finishing of test slab. ................ ............ ......... ........ .........95

5-1 HVS loading on a test slab............... ...............97..

5-2 Compressive strength vs. TTF for laboratory-prepared mix. ............. .....................9

5-3 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 1. ............. ...............98.....

5-4 Cracks after HVS loading with 18-kip load. ....._____ ............. ...............100

5-5 Observed cracks on Test Slab 1.............. ...............101...


5-6 Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete mix from Slab 1. ............. ....................10

5-7 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 2. ............. ...............103....

5-8 Transverse cracks on Test Slab 2............... ...............104...

5-9 Cracks on Test Slab 2. ............. ...............105....


5-10 Flexural strength vs. TTF for laboratory-prepared Mix 2............... ...................10

5-11 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 3. ....___ ......._. ....._ .............107











5-12 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 3. ............. ...............107....

5-13 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 3 ................ ......... .................. 108

5-14 Cracks on Test Slab 3. ................ ...............110..............

5-15 Cracks on Test Slab 3 .......... ................ ...............111 ...

5-16 Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete from Slab 3............... ...............112...

5-17 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 4. ................ ...............113............

5-18 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 4 ................. ...............113............

5-19 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 4. ................ .......... ................1 14

5-20 Cracks on the second day of loading on Test Slab 4. .......... ................ ................116

5-21 Cracks in Slab 4 on Day 7............... ...............117...

5-22 Cracks after loading with 18-kip wheel load on Test Slab 4. ................ ................ ...118

5-23 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 5 ................ .......... ............. ......1

5-24 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 5. ............. ...............120....

5-25 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 5. ............. ...............121....

5-26 First crack on Slab 5 in Day 2 after HVS loading. ............. ...............123....

5-27 Cracks on Slab 5 in Day 7 after HVS loading.. ............ ...............124.....

5-28 Cracks on Slab 5 at the finish of HVS testing. ................ .......___ ....._ .........125

6-1 Compressive strength at various times of all concrete mixes in this study. .................... 127

6-2 Average compressive strength of all mixes evaluated at various curing times. ..............128

6-3 Typical facture of a beam. ............. ...............129....

6-4 Average splitting tensile strength of all mixes evaluated at various curing times...........130

6-5 Elastic modulus at various curing times. ............. ...............131....

6-6 Drying shrinkage strains at various curing times............... ...............132.

6-7 Coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete mixes used. ................ ................. 133

6-8 Relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength. ................ ...............134











6-9 Relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. ........._.._........135

6-10 Relationship between splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. ............................136

6-11 Relationship between compressive strength and elastic modulus. ............. ..................137

6-12 Relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain. ......................138

6-13 Relationship between modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage strain..............._._.....139

6-14 Plan view of the typical location and configuration of a test slab. ........._.... ........._....140

6-15 Plan view of locations of thermocouples. ........_.__ ............ .....__ ...........4

6-16 Vertical positions of thermocouples. ............. ...............141....

6-17 Temperature differential variation in Slab 1.............. ...............142...

6-18 Temperature differential variation in Slab 2 ................. ...............143........... ..

6-19 Temperature differential variation in Slab 3 ................ ...............143........... ..

6-20 Temperature differential variation in Slab 4 ................. ...............144........... ..

6-21 Temperature differential variation in Slab 5.............. ...............144...

6-22 Temperature on the surface of the AC layer in the test Slab 1. .........._. ..........._......146

6-23 Variation of the temperature in the top (0.5") and bottom (8.5") of concrete slab and
the temperature of the base layer (10.0") at the corner of Test Slab 5. ........._.................147

6-24 Temperature distribution at the maximum positive and negative temperature in Test
Slab 1.. ............ ...............148...

6-25 Joint opening measurements ........._._. ..... .__ ...............149...

6-26 Joint movements on Slab 1. ............. ...............150....

6-27 Joint movements on Slab 2. ............. ...............151....

6-28 FWD tests at the slab center. ...........__...... ...............153

6-29 FWD tests at the slab edge............... ...............154.

6-30 FWD tests at the slab joint. ...........__...... ...............155

6-3 1 Side-shifting pattern of the laser profile. ..........._.. ...._ ....._ .........15

6-32 Approximate profiler matrix ............. ...............158....











6-33 3-D plot of a laser profile data from Slab 2. ............. .....................159

6-34 Average differential transverse profile of Slab 5 at two different times. ................... ......160

6-35 Curling effect along the joint and center in Slab 1 ................ .......... ................16

6-36 Concrete cores ................. ...............162................

6-37 Locations of the cores taken. ............. ...............163....

7-1 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 1.............. ...............167...

7-2 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 1.............. ...............168...

7-3 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 1.............. ...............169...

7-4 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 2............... ...............170...

7-5 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 2............... ...............170...

7-6 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 2............... ...............171...

7-7 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 3.............. ...............172...

7-8 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 3.............. ...............172...

7-9 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 3.............. ...............173...

7-10 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 4............... ...............174...

7-11 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 4............... ...............174...

7-12 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 4............... ...............175...

7-13 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 5............... ...............176...











7-14 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 5............... ...............177...

7-15 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 5............... ...............177...

7-16 The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 1. ............. ...............178....

7-17 Measured and computed strains for Gauge IT on Slab 1 ................... ...............17

7-18 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2T on Slab 1 ................... ...............17

7-19 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3T on Slab 1 ................... ...............18

7-20 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 1 ................... ...............18

7-21 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6B on Slab 1.............. ...................18

7-22 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7B on Slab 1.............. ...................18

7-23 The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 5. ............. ...............182....

7-24 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 1B on Slab 5.............. ...................18

7-25 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2B on Slab 5.............. ...................18

7-26 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3B on Slab 5.............. ...................18

7-27 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4B on Slab 5.............. ...................18

7-28 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 5. ................... ...............18

7-29 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 5T on Slab 5. ................... ...............18

7-30 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6T on Slab 5. ................... ...............18

7-31 Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7T on Slab 5. ................... ...............18

8-1 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 1............... ..................190

8-2 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 2............... ..................192

8-3 Comparison of compressive strengths for concrete in Slab 2 ................. ................ ...193

8-4 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 3............... ................195

8-5 Measured dynamic strains from Gauge 3T on Slab 4............... ...............197...

8-6 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 4............... ................198










8-7 First corner crack at the south end of Slab 4............... ...............200...

8-8 Corner cracks at the south end of slab 4 and the adj acent slab ................. ............_... .200

8-9 Holes for dowel bars in wrong positions at the south end j oint ................. ..........._... .201

8-10 Holes patched at the south end joint. ................ ...............201.......... .

8-11 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 5............... ................203

8-12 Computed stress to strength ratio at different temperature differentials as a function
of flexural strength using the developed relationship between flexural strength
compressive strength, and elastic modulus. .............. ...............206....









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

EVALUATION OF CONCRETE MIXES FOR SLAB REPLACEMENT USING THE
MATURITY METHOD AND ACCELERATED PAVEMENT TESTING

By

Kitti Manokhoon

December 2007

Chair: Mang Tia
Major: Civil Engineering

Five instrumented full-size concrete slabs were constructed and tested under accelerated

pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the behavior of

concrete replacement slabs at early age and the effects of concrete properties on the performance

of the replacement slabs. The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs were calculated using the

FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program, which considers the effects

of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modulus and coefficient of

thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade

stiffness. The model used was calibrated by comparing the computed strains with the measured

strains from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs which were loaded by the HVS.

The use of maturity method to determine the flexural strength of the in-place concrete at

early age was evaluated in this study. It was found that the maturity method was convenient to

use and produced reliable determination of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete.

Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maximum stress to flexural strength

ratio of the concrete at the early age as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete

replacement slab. This was done by comparing the stress strength ratio with the observed










performance of test slabs in this study. This method was found to be effective in predicting the

potential performance of the replacement slabs. A systematic method for evaluation of concrete

mixes for potential performance in replacement slab was recommended as the result of this

study .









CHAPTER 1
INTTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

In Florida, full slab replacement is a typical method to repair existing badly deteriorated

concrete pavement slabs. This type of repair work is generally performed at night, and the

repaired slabs are opened to traffic by the next morning. It is essential that this repair work be

finished in a minimal amount of time. High early strength concrete is normally used in this

application in order to have sufficient strength within a few hours after placement.

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) currently specifies that slab-

replacement concrete must have a minimum 6-hour compressive strength of 2,200 psi and a

minimum 24 hour compressive strength of 3,000 psi [FDOT standard for slab replacement

section 353, 2007]. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has developed a

guideline for concrete slab replacement that requires a minimum flexural strength at opening to

traffic of 400 psi [Caltrans, Slab replacement guideline, 2004].

A research study entitled "Evaluation of Early Strength Requirement of Concrete for Slab

Replacement Using APT" has just recently been completed. In this study, Hyve 9-inch thick

concrete replacement slabs were constructed and tested at the accelerated pavement testing

facility at the FDOT Materials Research Park in Gainesville, Florida. The results of this

experiment showed that two slabs performed well, while the other three slabs cracked

prematurely under 12-kip wheel loads [Tia, M. and Kumara, W., 2005].

The performance of the test slabs was found to be independent of the cement content of the

concrete used as two concrete slabs with the same concrete mix design were found to have

drastically different performance. The performance of a concrete replacement slab depends on

whether or not the concrete has sufficient flexural strength to resist the anticipated temperature-









load induced tensile stresses in the concrete slab. The strength development of concrete depends

not only on the mix design but also the condition under which the concrete is cured. The

temperature-load induced stresses are a function of the slab thickness, effective modulus of

subgrade reaction, modulus of the concrete, coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete,

loads and temperature differentials in the concrete slab. The flexural strength of the concrete

must be greater than the tensile stress in the slab at all times to ensure good performance. In

addition, in order to minimize the chance for shrinkage cracking, the cement content of the

concrete mix must be kept to a minimum [Tia, M. and Kumara, W., 2005].

Due to the limited amount of testing performed in this previous study, no recommendation

for changes in the FDOT specifications for concrete replacement slabs was made. There was a

need to perform further testing and research to substantiate these Eindings, [Tia, M. and Kumara,

W., 2005].

This current research is aimed to better understand the behavior of concrete replacement

slabs at early age, so that a concrete mix can be effectively designed, evaluated and controlled to

ensure good performance in concrete replacement slabs.

1.2 Hypothesis of Research

The following hypotheses were tested in this research study:

The maximum stresses in the concrete slab can be calculated from an
appropriate finite element model which considers the effects of the applied
load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modulus and coefficient of
thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and
effective subgrade stiffness. The model used can be calibrated by comparing
the computed strains with the measured strains from embedded strain gages in
test slabs loaded by a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS).

The flexural strength of the in-place concrete at the early age can be
determined accurately and conveniently by the maturity method.

The maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age
can be used as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement









slab. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the stress strength ratio with
the observed performance of test slabs in this study.

1.3 Research Objectives

The main obj ectives of this research were as follows:

To verify analytical models for calculating the load and temperature induced
stresses in a concrete replacement slab after it is open to traffic under typical
Florida conditions. The applicability of the model will be validated by
comparing the predicted results to the experimental results in this study.

To develop a systematic method for evaluation of concrete mixes to ensure
satisfactory performance in replacement slabs.

To evaluate the current FDOT specification for slab replacement for its
adequacy and effectiveness and to make recommendations for changes if
needed.

1.4 Approach and Scope of Research

The envisioned approach was to develop a rational method where (1) the maximum

anticipated tensile stresses in the concrete slab can be accurately determined, (2) the flexural

strength of the in-place concrete can be reliably determined, and (3) the ratio of the maximum

tensile stress to the flexural strength of the concrete can be used as an indicator of performance.

The stress ratio must be less than 1 at all times to avoid cracking in the concrete.

The scope for this study consists of the following:

To design an experiment to evaluate the performance of different concrete
mixes in replacement slabs using accelerated pavement testing by means of a
Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS).

To develop an instrumentation plan for the experiment for an effective
collection of temperature, strain and deflection data based on the results of
stress analyses.

To perform maturity calibration of concrete mixtures to be used in the HVS
experiments.










To select an appropriate model and calibrate the model parameters for
analysis of concrete replacement slabs under typical Florida conditions, and to
perform stress analysis for the conditions of the test sections under HVS
loading.

To verify the analytical models by comparing the computed strains to the
measured strains from the embedded strain gages in the test section, and to
make necessary adjustments to the analytical model.

To evaluate the drying shrinkage properties and coefficient of thermal
expansion of the concrete used in the test slabs.

To determine the relationships among the material and pavement parameters
and the performance of the test slabs.

To identify possible improvements to the current FDOT specification for slab
replacement.

1.5 Significance of the Research

In the past, there have been a lot of analytical models developed for analysis of concrete

pavements [Westergaard, 1926, 1933, 1947, Tabatabaie and Barenberg, 1978, Tayabji and

Colley, 1981, Tia et al, 1989, Huang 1993]. There have also been some experimental studies

done to evaluate the performance of concrete pavements in the past [Melhem et al, 2003, Turan

et al, 2005, Suh, 2005]. However, there has been very little research done where the experimental

results were compared successfully to the analytical results. For example, in experiments by

Melhem et al, [2003] all gauges used in the experiment were positioned to measure longitudinal

strains at the bottom of the PCC overlays. While some tensile and compressive strains measured

were reported, the remaining gauges did not give any useful strain readings. These researchers

were not able to relate measured strains to observed performance.

One of the obj ectives of this research was to develop a reliable model for analysis of

concrete pavements which is verified by experimental results. The development of such an

analytical model which is validated by experimental results represents a significant contribution

in this Hield.









Past specification for this type of application usually required a compressive strength or a

flexural strength at a certain age [FDOT standard for slab replacement section 353, 2007,

Caltrans, slab replacement guideline, 2004]. However, little work has been done in verifying that

this type of specification is sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance. In its slab replacement

guideline, Caltrans recommends test procedures to help ensure the proper curing of the beams for

flexural testing such that the strength of the beams can match the strength of the concrete in the

pavement. These flexural strength test results are not used as the criteria for opening to traffic.

The Caltrans field laboratory flexural strength test results are used to determine pay factors for

the contractor, as the contractor may choose to open the lanes to traffic at less than specified

strength to avoid penalties associated with delays.

This research investigated the adequacy of this type of specification, and whether

additional criteria, based on factors such as anticipated temperature distribution in the slab and

coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete, need to be added to the specification to ensure

satisfactory performance. Little work has been done in this area, and the useful results from this

work represent a significant contribution in this area.

In recent years, the maturity method has been used in many states in the U.S. as a

convenient tool to evaluate the strength of in-place concrete [Tikalsky et al, 2001, Luke et al,

2002, Rasmussen, 2003, Mancio et al, 2004, Zhang et al, 2004, Trost et al, 2006]. However, it is

a fairly new practice, and further research and experience with this method is needed to refine it

and to make it an effective tool. Most of the practice of the maturity method uses compressive

strength as the predicted result and relates the predicted compressive strength to the predicted

flexural strength [Zhang et al, 2004].









In this research, the flexural strength was used as the primary predicted property, while the

relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of in-place concrete was

evaluated. Little work has been done in this area. Zhang also stated that the strength-maturity

correlation has been generally developed for concrete cylinders tested under uniaxial

compressive strength, because this is usually the most important strength index for conventional

structures [Zhang et al, 2004]. This research work represents the first effort in using the flexural

strength directly in evaluation of replacement slabs for Florida conditions.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 General Review on Slab Replacement

The Florida Department of Transportation is often restricted to very short construction

time windows for pavement rehabilitation, due to high traffic demand for most of Florida' s urban

freeways. Often the available time for lane closure may be as short as 6 hours and nighttime

construction may be required, depending on the direction of peak traffic and the day of the work.

Many concrete pavements are restored to an acceptable performance level using slab and

base repairs. The effectiveness of this repair strategy depends on proper evaluation of the extent

and severity of the slab distresses, as well as the condition of the underlying pavement layers.

NCHRP report 540 states that, because of its unique requirements, early-opening-to-traffic

(EOT) concrete is more susceptible to durability-related distress than conventional concrete. For

example, the use of high cement contents and multiple admixtures can lead to increased

shrinkage, altered microstructure, and unexpected interactions. Further, the ability of standard

testing to detect durability-related problems is limited, and thus deficiencies may go undetected

through the mixture design and construction process [NCHRP report 540, 2005].

This NCHRP study was conducted to evaluate the durability characteristics of EOT

concrete for materials, mixtures, and construction techniques that enhance long-term durability

of EOT concrete for pavement rehabilitation. The research dealt with concrete mixtures that are

suited for opening to traffic within (a) 6 to 8 hour and (b) 20 to 24 hours after placement and was

limited to full-depth rehabilitation, such as a full-depth repair and slab replacement. In the

experiment, the EOT concrete mixtures obtained from four states (Ohio, Georgia, Texas and

New York) were evaluated to determine their mixture properties and performance characteristics

[NCHRP report 540, 2005].









The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has developed guidelines for

concrete slab replacement. These guidelines include several key factors that help reduce the time

necessary to accomplish slab replacement and improve the quality of repaired concrete

pavement, including the proper selection of the slab removal boundaries and concrete material.

Also included are the recommended procedures for saw cutting, slab removal, subgrade and base

preparation, concrete placing and curing, sampling and testing procedures, grinding and joint

sealing, and opening to traffic criteria. A practical checklist that provides a quick summary of the

entire process is also provided [Caltrans, Slab replacement guideline, 2004].

In Florida, many forms of functional or structural distresses have been reported from the

newly replaced concrete slabs within a short time after construction. A survey on I-10 in Florida

of 100 replacement slabs ranging in age between 1 to 3 years showed that 3 5% of the slabs had

developed cracks. In these slabs, fatigue damage was clearly ruled out as a cause of early

cracking. Investigators of this study hypothesized that the micro cracks were developed in the

slabs as a result of shortcoming in pavement design, concrete mix or construction [Kumara, Tia,

Wu, and Choubane, 2002].

High early strength concrete has been used for slab replacement concrete to allow earlier

use of the paved sections for moving construction equipment and speeding up construction. High

early strength concrete often uses high quantities of cement content. Increasing the cement

content in concrete mixture tends to increase the heat development in the mixture. For the

investigation of effects of cement type, curing method, and joint type on the performance of high

early strength concrete in slab replacement, forty two test sections were constructed on the

outside lane of I-10. Fourteen different combinations of the above factors were included in the

design of test sections with 3 slabs for each design. Frequent condition surveys of 42 sections on









I-10 showed that mid slab cracking occurred in 39 of the 42 slabs. The cracks developed at

different times ranging from 24 hours to one year [Kumara, Tia, Wu, and Choubane, 2002].

Doweled j points are expected to perform better than undoweled j points. A reduction of 20%

in deflection and lower stresses are expected in doweled j points [Armaghani, 1993]. An extensive

crack survey on Florida's I-10 showed that dowelled pavement sections had 30% less faulting

and fewer corner cracks as compared with undoweled sections [Kumara, Tia, Wu, and

Choubane, 2002].

2.2 Analytical Models for Concrete Pavement

2.2.1 Foundation Models for Concrete Pavement

In many engineering applications, the response of the supporting soil medium under the

pavement is an important consideration. To accurately evaluate this response, we must know the

complete stress-strain characteristics of the foundation. Accurately describing the stress-strain

characteristics of any given foundation medium is usually hindered by the complex soil

conditions, which are markedly nonlinear, irreversible, and time-dependent. Furthermore, these

soils are generally anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Certain assumptions about the soil medium

were used for these idealizations. The assumptions are necessary for reducing the analytical

rigor of such a complex boundary value problem. Two of the most frequently applied

assumptions are linear elasticity and homogeneity.

Winkler foundation model

The Winkler foundation model or dense-liquid foundation model is the foundation that is

considered as a bed of evenly spaced, independent, linear springs. The model assumes that each

spring deforms in response to the vertical stress applied directly to the spring, and does not

transmit any shear stress to the adj acent springs. The stiffness of the springs is represented by the

k value as the modulus of subgrade reaction.









No transmission of shear forces means that there are no deflections beyond the edges of the

plate or slab. The liquid idealization of this foundation type was derived for its behavioral

similarity to a medium using Archimedes' Buoyancy principle. It was applied to analyze

pavement support systems in studies [Westergaard, 1926, 1933, 1947].

In the field, the k-value for use in analysis can be determined by back calculation from

measured deflections of the slab surface obtained from nondestructive tests, using devices such

as falling weight deflectometers (FWD).

Boussinesq foundation

The Boussinesq foundation or the elastic-solid foundation model treats the soil as a linearly

elastic, isotropic, homogenous material that extends semi-infinitely. It is considered a more

realistic model of subgrade behavior than the dense-liquid model, because it takes into account

the effect of shear transmission of stresses to adj acent support elements. Consequently, the

distribution of displacements is continuous; that is, deflection of a point in the subgrade is due to

stress acting at that particular point, and also is also influenced to a lesser extent by stresses at

points farther away.

The elastic solid foundation model considers the shear force interaction between different

elements in the foundation. Although it presents an improvement over Winkler foundation model

by considering the shear forces in the foundation, field tests showed that the solutions were not

exact for many foundation materials. It was reported that the surface displacements of foundation

soil outside the loaded region decreased faster than the prediction by this model [Foppl and

Teubner, 1909].










Modification of Winkler Foundation

The dense liquid and elastic solid foundation models may be considered as two extreme

idealizations of actual soil behavior. The dense liquid model assumes complete discontinuity in

the subgrade and is better suited for soils with relatively low shear strengths (e.g. natural soils).

In contrast, the elastic solid model simulates a perfectly continuous medium and is better suited

for soils with high shear strengths (e.g., treated bases). The elastic response of a real soil

subgrade lies somewhere between these two extreme foundation models. In real soils, the

displacement distribution is not continuous, and neither is it fully discontinuous. The deflection

under a load can occur beyond the edge of the slab and it goes to zero at some finite distance. In

an attempt to bridge the gap between the dense liquid and elastic solid foundation models,

researchers have developed some improved foundation models. Improved foundation models

have been developed in either of the following two ways: (a) starting with the Winkler

foundation and, in order to bring it closer to reality, some kind of interaction between spring

elements may be assumed, or (b) starting with the elastic solid foundation, simplifying

assumptions with respect to expected displacements or stresses may be introduced.

A maj or problem in applying these models, however, has been the lack of guidance in selecting

the governing parameters which have limited or no physical meaning.

2.2.2 Finite Element Method for Concrete Pavement

Finite element (FE) techniques have been used to successfully simulate different pavement

problems that could not be modeled using the simpler multi-layer elastic theory. Further, it

provides a modeling alternative that is well suited for applications involving systems with

irregular geometry, unusual boundary conditions or non-homogenous composition. Three

different approaches have been used for FE modeling of pavement system: plane-strain (2D),

axisymmetric, and three-dimensional (3D) formulation. In the FE method, the level of accuracy









obtained depends upon different factors, including the degree of refinement of the mesh (element

dimensions), the order and type of element and location of evaluation.

Various Einite element models have been developed for analyzing the behavior of concrete

pavement systems. Most of the finite element models use an assemblage of two-dimensional

plate bending elements to model behavior of a concrete slab. A plate with medium thickness is

thick enough to carry the load by bending action but is thin enough such that the transverse shear

deformation can be considered negligible. The sub grade is usually assumed to behave like either

a Winkler (dense liquid) or an elastic solid foundation. The Winkler foundation can be modeled

by a series of vertical springs at the nodes, which means that the deflection at any point of the

foundation surface depends only on the forces at that point and does not depend on the forces or

deflections at any other points. The stiffness of the foundation is represented by a spring

constant. The use of an elastic solid foundation assumes a homogeneous, elastic and isotropic

foundation with a semi-infinite depth. The deflection at any point depends not only on the forces

at that point but also on the forces or deflections at other points. The following section briefly

describes the basics and applications of a few Einite element computer programs.

The FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program was developed by

the University of Florida for the analysis of concrete pavement behavior for the Florida

department of Transportation. FEACONS program was modified several times to upgrade its

capabilities. The latest version, FEACONS IV program can be used for analysis of plain jointed

concrete pavements subjected to load and temperature differential effects. In the FEACONS

program, a concrete slab is modeled as an assemblage of rectangular plate bending elements with

three degrees of freedom at each node. The three independent displacements at each node are (1)

lateral deflection, w, (2) rotation about the x-axis, 8,, and (3) rotation about the y-axis, 8,. The









corresponding forces at each node are (1) the downward force, fe, (2) the moment in the x

direction,f&, and (3) the moment in the y direction, fgh. The FEACONS IV program has the

option of modeling a composite slab made up of a concrete layer bonded to another layer of a

different material. The sub grade is modeled as a liquid or Winkler foundation which is modeled

by a series of vertical springs at the nodes. A spring stiffness of zero is used when a gap exists

between the slab and the springs due to subgrade voids. Either a linear or nonlinear load-

deformation relationship for the springs can be specified [Tia et al, 1989].

Load transfers across the j points between two adj oining slabs are modeled by shear (or

linear) and torsional springs connecting the slabs at the nodes of the elements along the j oint.

Looseness of the dowel bars is modeled by a specified slip distance, such that shear and moment

stiffnesses become fully effective only when the slip distance is overcome. Frictional effects at

the edges are modeled by shear springs at the nodes along the edges [Tia et al, 1989].

The JSLAB program [Tayabji and Colley, 1981]: The pavement slab, the base or subbase

layer and the overlay are modeled as rectangular plate bending elements based on the classical

theory of thin plates with small deflections. These layers can be bonded or unbonded. The

subgrade is modeled as a Winkler foundation represented by vertical springs. The effect of

temperature gradient in the concrete slab is incorporated. The temperature is assumed to vary

linearly along the slab depth. The subgrade stiffness is set to be zero at the locations where loss

of support occurs.

Dowel bar at the joints are modeled as bar elements with the ability to transfer both

moment and shear forces across the joints. The effects of looseness of dowel bars can also be

considered. Aggregate interlock and keyway are modeled by spring elements transferring shear

forces only.









In the WESLIQUID and WESLAYER programs, the modeling of a slab is also based on

the classical theory of a thin plate with small deflections. The slab is modeled as an assemblage

of rectangular plate bending elements with three degrees of freedom at each node in both

programs. The difference between these two models is that the WESLIQUID model considers

the sublayers as a Winkler foundation, while the WESLAYER model uses an elastic layered

foundation. The Winkler foundation is modeled by a series of vertical springs. For the elastic

foundation, the Boussinesq's solution is used to compute the deflections at subgrade surface for

the case of a homogeneous elastic foundation and the Burmister' s equations are used to compute

those for the case of a layered elastic foundation.

The two programs are able to take into account the effects of loss of support from the

sublayer to the pavement slab. The loss of support can be due to linear temperature gradient in

the slab or due to voids in the sublayer.

Load is transferred across a joint by both shear forces and moment transfer. Shear forces

are transferred either by dowel bars, key joint or aggregate interlock. The two models have three

options for specifying shear transfer and one for moment transfer. The three methods of

determining shear transfer are (1) efficiency of shear transfer, (2) spring constant and (3)

diameter and spacing of dowels. Moment transfer across j points or cracks is specified by the

efficiency of moment transfer which is defined as a fraction of the full moment.

In KENSLAB [Huang, 1993], the slab treated in this model is composed of two bonded or

unbonded layers with uniform thickness. The two layers can be either a high modulus asphalt

layer on top of a concrete slab, or a cement-treated base. Rectangular thin-plate elements with

three degrees of freedom per node (a vertical deflection and two rotations) are used to represent

the slab. Load transfer through doweled joint or aggregate interlock can be considered in this









model. Three types of foundation are included in this model, namely the Winkler foundation, the

semi-infinite elastic solid foundation and layered elastic solid foundation. Three contact

conditions between slab and foundation can be considered: full contact, partial contact without

initial gaps, and partial contact with initial gaps. Load transfer effects can be considered in

analyzing the pavement slab system.

ILLI SLAB program [Tabatabaie and Barenberg, 1978] can be used to analyze a j pointed or

continuously-reinforced concrete pavement with a base or subbase, and with or without an

overlay, which can be either fully bonded or un-bonded to the concrete slab. A concrete slab is

modeled as an assemblage of rectangular plate bending elements with three degree of freedom at

each node. When a base or subbase layer and/or an overlay are used, they are also modeled as

assemblages of plate bending elements. If there is no bond between the layers, the overall

stiffness matrix for the multiple layers is obtained by simply adding up the stiffness matrices of

the concrete slab, the base or subbase and the overlay. For the case of perfect bond between

layers, full strain compatibility at the interface is assumed. Thus, an equivalent layer can be

obtained based on a transformed-section concept.

Load transfer across the joints is modeled in various ways depending on the transfer

devices used. Dowel bars are modeled as bar elements with two degrees of freedom at each node.

The two displacement components are a vertical displacement and a rotation about a horizontal

transverse axis. The bar element is capable of transferring both a vertical shear force and a

moment. If the loads are transferred across a j oint only by means of aggregate interlock or

keyway, they are modeled by vertical spring elements with one degree of freedom at each node.

Only vertical forces are transferred across the j oint by the spring element. The moment transfer

can be neglected for such a joint.









2.3 Maturity Method in Concrete Pavement

The concept of concrete maturity was first introduced by Saul in 1951. He defined

"maturity of concrete" as "its age multiplied by the average temperature above freezing that it

has maintained." Based on this definition, he further developed the law for relationship between

concrete strength and maturity: "Concrete of the same mixture at the same maturity (measured as

temperature-time) has approximately the same strength whatever combination of temperature

and time goes to make up that maturity." Since then, many studies on maturity have been done

by other researchers and Saul's law for maturity has been confirmed and proven to be a useful

tool to predict concrete strength. The Maturity method has been standardized by ASTM as

Standard Practice C1074.

Strength Measurements Using Maturity for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

Construction at Airfields [Rasmussen, 2003]: The objective of this proj ect was to demonstrate

a non-complex solution for monitoring concrete strengths in real time using concrete maturity

technology. The project team evaluated a number of commercially available maturity

measurement devices coupled with an innovative strength assessment and prediction system,

termed Total Environmental Management for Paving (TEMP).

This proj ect included a field evaluation of a concrete pavement placement at Des Moines

International Airport (DSM). The research team evaluated the following maturity measuring

devices: 1) T-Type Thermocouple, 2) Dallas Semiconductor Thermocron iButton@, 3) Nomadics

Construction Labs intelliRockTM Maturity, Temperature, and prototype Strength Loggers, and 4)

Identec Solutions i-Q Tags. As a result of this field evaluation, it has been concluded that current

maturity technology can be used successfully to assess the strength of a concrete airfield

pavement in real-time. Furthermore, it is believed that the adoption of maturity-based










technologies can result in expedited airfield repair and construction, and an improved knowledge

of the behavior of concrete pavements at early age.

Using Maturity Testing for Airfield Concrete Pavement Construction and Repair

[Trost et al, 2006]: The primary benefits include: better decision-making, reduced runway and

taxiway closure times, faster construction, fewer beam specimens, and improved concrete

quality control. Concrete maturity enables better decision-making with respect to open-to-traffic

decisions. This occurs because concrete maturity enables real-time, in-place flexural strength

measurements that are more accurate and more cost-effective than field-cast beam specimens.

The improved open-to-traffic decision-making applies not only to aircraft traffic but also to

construction-vehicle traffic.

Concrete maturity results in shorter runway and taxiway closures as a direct result of the

improved open-to-traffic decision-making. Rather than having to wait for field-cast beam

specimens to reach the required strength (and the guesswork associated with when to break

them), the pavement can be opened to traffic at the earliest possible moment because the in-place

flexural strength can be obtained instantaneously.

Faster construction also directly results from the improved open-to-traffic decision making.

This is due to the benefits of allowing staged open-to-traffic criteria rather than the standard "14-

day or 550-psi" requirements. With staged open-to-traffic, the pavement can be monitored in

real-time until the required flexural-strength threshold is reached for each maj or type of

construction equipment. As such, lighter vehicles can be allowed on the pavement soon after

placement, with heavier equipment being allowed somewhat later, but typically much sooner

than the wait period based on conventional methods.










Concrete maturity testing can result in fewer beam specimens required on a proj ect,

particularly the number offield-cast beams. This is because a single maturity sensor can provide

an infinite number of in-place flexural strength measurements at a given location.

As such, multiple sets of beams to support open-to-traffic decisions are no longer required.

In addition, alternative methods of field verification, such as splitting tensile, direct tension, or

compressive strength testing can be used to further reduce the need for field-cast beams.

With respect to quality, the concrete maturity method, when used as a mix-verification

tool, provides the framework for an extremely effective and robust concrete quality control plan

that can result in improved concrete quality control. This benefit is the direct result of the mix-

specific nature of the method. The strength-maturity relationship for a given concrete mix is

unique to that mix design. As such, the maturity method is extremely sensitive to any changes

that affect the rate of strength gain or the ultimate strength of the concrete mix, such as the

quality or proportioning of the raw materials. This sensitivity enables a maturity-based quality

control plan to catch mix-related or batching-related errors in a matter of days or even hours

rather than weeks.

To summarize the benefits, concrete maturity empowers the field engineer and the

contractor to make critical decisions based on the actual in-place strength of the pavement using

real-time measurements that take into account the physical properties, dimensions, and curing

conditions of the pavement structure.

Implementation of Concrete Maturity Meters [Luke et al, 2002]: The maj or intent of

this study was to explain how the maturity method can be used to estimate the strength of in-

place concrete for highway construction. NJIT started studying the maturity method for NJDOT

in 1995 to verify the strength of very early strength concrete patches. Since then, several other









studies on the maturity method have been conducted for NJDOT. Collectively, these studies

presented a convincing case for utilizing the maturity method to predict the strength of early age

concrete in highway structures. The purpose of this proj ect was to move the method from an

experimental to a practical setting.

Manual for the Maturity Method," describes the instrumentation and methods for making

temperature measurements, performing maturity computations and predicting concrete strength.

The procedures manual is based on ASTM C 1074 "Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete

Strength by the Maturity Method." Nine important modifications of ASTM C 1074 were made in

order to practically implement the maturity method on NJDOT proj ects.

Three innovations were presented among these modifications. The first is the requirement

that the strength-maturity relationship be verified. For strength critical applications, companion

cylinders are cast and match cured along with the structure. When the strength-maturity

relationship was able to reasonably predict the strength of those cylinders at three different early

ages, the relationship is considered validated and can be applied to the structure. The second

innovation is that the results of verification testing should be added to the data set from which

the predictions are made and then the predictive equation is recomputed. By this procedure,

confidence in the prediction grows as more test results become available. The third innovation is

a method for starting a quality assurance program with no prior laboratory testing. An assumed

prediction is checked and refined through the verification process.

The field trials also revealed that elevated curing temperatures, approaching that of mass

concrete, frequently occur in highway structures. The reason is thought to be the increased use of

more active cements at higher cement factors and lower water-cement ratios. Such behavior can

occur where it is least expected, like on bridge decks, which have large surface to volume ratios









that should readily dissipate heat. Temperature monitoring is useful for identifying these

situations and avoiding the detrimental effects of high temperatures on concrete durability.

During the course of this study, Hield trials using the maturity method were held in all three

NJDOT regions. These trials revealed two significant Eindings. First, it was found that current

winter concreting procedures may overheat concrete pours, creating high temperature conditions

that exceed even the worst of summer concreting operations. The second finding has to do with

the effects of a typical chloride inhibitor on the temperature behavior of concrete. It was found

that calcium nitrite modified the rapid temperature rise normally associated with the early

strength gain of concrete. Chloride inhibited mixes followed ambient temperature changes quite

closely, with positive effects on the rate of strength gain and the ultimate strength.

Current Field Application

Because of its simplicity and low cost, the application of the maturity concept has received

wide attention as a prospective in-situ testing method for concrete pavements. For example, in a

survey reported by Tikalsky et al., 32 states reported conducting research on the use of the

maturity method. However, at that time, 29 states did not have any protocol, and only four states

reported the use of maturity to determine pavement opening times. Although this scenario was

rapidly evolving at the time of the survey, it clearly shows that the application of maturity for

concrete pavements is indeed very new and a topic of great interest across the country. The

application to flexural strength was not identified in the survey, and California may be the first

state to consider this extension of the maturity concept [Tikalsky et al, 2001].

For the past decade, the Federal Highway Administration has been encouraging state

DOTs to evaluate the maturity method and to refine procedures for its application. Among the

advantages of the maturity method over the traditional concrete strength tests that justify the









growing interest in the method, one could cite 1) the maturity method allows contractors to

determine the precise times at which a specified strength is achieved, and 2) the maturity method

provides results that could represent the in-situ strength [Mancio et al, 2004].

Indeed, maturity is a very well established and standardized method, being described by

both ASTM 1074-98 (Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity

Method) and AASHTO TP 52-95 (Estimating the Strength of Concrete in Transportation

Construction by Maturity Tests) standards. However, as discussed previously, the maturity

concept was developed based on the determination of compressive strength of conventional

concretes made with Type I/II cements with no chemical or mineral admixtures. Recent advances

in concrete technology make the material today different from that of fifty years ago [Mancio et

al, 2004].

The strength-maturity correlation has been generally developed for concrete cylinders

tested under uniaxial compressive strength, because this is usually the most important strength

index for conventional structures. In pavements, where concrete is submitted to bending stresses,

flexural strength is the preferred measure for quality control. The indirect correlation between the

concrete maturity and flexural strength has been seen practiced in the Hield. In some cases, the

laboratory established compressive strength versus maturity curve has been used to predict the

compressive strength, from which the flexural strength in the Hield is derived by correlating the

compressive (F'c) and flexural (M~R) strength in the lab. However, this relation (F'c to M~R) may

have large variability, and changes significantly depending on the mix, age, and other variables

[Zhang et al, 2004].









2.4 Verification of Analytical Results with Measured Results

The following section presents some current research in concrete pavement focusing on

instrumentation and strain measurement and verification of analytical results with measured

results.

Accelerated Testing for Studying Pavement Design and Performance [Melhem et al,

2003]: This study presented an instrumentation plan on placing soil pressure cells below the

aggregate base, which were used to determine the vertical pressure in the subgrade, and to

monitor its variation due to the deterioration of the overlay or the rubblized base. Thermocouples

were placed below, in, and on top of the overlay slabs to monitor the slab temperature and see if

there is a correlation between overlay slab temperature and stress/curling of the slabs. Strain

gauges were installed in the overlay to monitor the deterioration of the overlay slab and to

determine a correlation between the slab movement due to loading and temperature. Linear

Variable Displacement Transformers (LVDT's) were used to measure horizontal joint

movements. The report also showed that stress and strain measurements were taken at the start of

the test and at 20,000 repetition intervals until the end of the test. The vertical stress data were

compared with the number of ATL passes.

All gauges used in this experiment were positioned to measure longitudinal strains at the

bottom of the PCC overlays. Some tensile and compressive strains (in microstrain) measured

were reported, while the remaining gauges did not give any useful strain readings. Similar to the

trend observed for vertical compressive stresses in the subgrade, the measured strains at the

bottom of the overlay did not show a continuous increase; the general trend is that the strains

increase with the number of applied ATL passes. Therefore, from the strain data alone, it was

difficult to determine which overlay gave the best performance.










Early-Age Behavior of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement Systems [Turan et al, 2005]:

This paper mainly focuses on the early-age behavior of concrete pavement systems under

varying temperature and moisture gradients upon construction. In an effort to better understand

the early-age behavior of the j pointed plain concrete pavements under varying environmental

conditions, a Hield study was conducted on instrumented portland cement concrete slabs in

Platteville, Wisconsin. The study involved on-site measurements, extensive laboratory testing,

and analyses of the concrete pavement systems under temperature and moisture profies using

Einite element methodology-based analytical tools. The aim of the study was to summarize the

laboratory test results for concrete samples and the analysis of the early-age slab deflection data

captured with linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs). In the analytical modeling of

the slabs, the ISLAB2000 Einite element model was used. Based on the large number of

comprehensive finite element analyses, a good match has been observed with the analytical

solutions and Hield measurements, thus capturing the early-age behavior of concrete pavement

systems under temperature and moisture profiles. Comparison between the predicted FEM

results and the measured results showed that the FEM estimated the shape of the curves

reasonably well.

The Effect of Early Opening to Traffic on Fatigue Life of Concrete Pavement [Suh,

2005]: Concrete pavements are subj ected to many traffic-load repetitions prior to achievement of

their full design strength. The effect of early opening to traffic on the life of Portland cement

concrete pavement systems was evaluated using experiments and mathematical model. To

quantify the loss of life due to early opening of a rigid pavement system, an appropriate fatigue

equation is required. A series of laboratory fatigue tests were performed on simply supported

beams to develop appropriate fatigue relationships for typical, normal strength Texas paying









concrete mixture designs. After completion of the laboratory testing, accelerated fatigue tests on

full-scale concrete slabs were performed under constant cyclic loading. Six full-scale rigid

pavement slabs were constructed and tested under constant cyclic loading for fatigue. During

fatigue loading, cracks began at the loading points and propagated along the bottom of the slab

centerline, which was the maximum stress path. Vertical crack propagation at the edge and stress

redistribution occurred as part of the slab's fatigue life. The concept of equivalent fatigue life

was applied to correct the effect of the different stress ratio between the field and the laboratory

testing. The laboratory beams and full-scale field slabs showed an almost identical S-N

relationship after the correction for the variance of stress ratio.









CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND TEST METHODS

3.1 Introduction

Three laboratory-prepared mixes and five concrete mixes from test slabs were tested and

evaluated in this research. This chapter describes the mix proportions and ingredients of the

concrete mixes, fabrication and curing condition of concrete specimens, tests on fresh and

hardened concretes as well as a procedure to calibrate maturity curves of concrete used in this

study .

3.2 Concrete Mixes Evaluated

3.2.1 Mix Proportion of Concrete

The first target concrete mix in this study was a typical mix design used for slab

replacement in Florida and has a cement content of 850 lb per yd3. This concrete mix was used

as a target mix to evaluate performance of the first two test slabs.

Another target concrete mix had a cement content of 725 lb per yd3, while keeping the

same water cement ratio and other mix ingredients. The second target concrete mix was used to

evaluate performance of the last three test slabs.

The concrete used in each test slab was obtained and tested for its properties. The same

concrete mixes were also prepared in the laboratory and used in the calibration of the concrete

maturity before placement of the test slabs.

Table 3-1 shows the mix design details for the actual concrete mixes used in Test Slabs 1

and 2. Table 3-2 shows the mix design details for Test Slabs 3, 4 and 5.









Table 3-1. Mix design of the concrete mix used in Slabs 1 and 2.
Actual Slab 1 Actual Slab 2
Material Target (/yd3) (/yd3) (/yd3
Cement 850 lb 842 lb 822 lb
Stone # 08-012 1650 lb 1670 lb 1722 lb
DOT Sand # 76-349 991 lb 1040 lb 1069 lb
Coarse aggregate moisture -28.4 lb 22.4 lb
Fine aggregate moisture -46.8 lb 42.8 lb
Air-entraining admixture (Darex) 1 oz (0.065 lb) 0.0625 lb 0.0625 lb
Superplasticizer (Adva-540) 50 oz (3.26 lb) 2.125 lb 4.017 lb
Accelerator (Daraccel) 384 oz (25 lb) 25.04 lb 25.04 lb
Water 283 lb 185 lb 195 lb
W/C 0.364 0.341 0.351
Theoretical unit weight 140 pcf 139 pcf 142.1 pcf
(2% Air) (3% Air) (2% Air)


Table 3-2. Mix design of the concrete nix used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5.
Actual Slab 3 Actual Slab 4 Actual Slab 5
Material Target (/yd3) (/yd3) (/d3) (/yd3
Cement 725 lb 729.4 lb 705.0 lb 715.8 lb
Stone # 08-012 1650 lb 1675.6 lb 1676.6 lb 1681.8 lb
DOT Sand # 76-349 1215 lb 1268.8 lb 1187.1 lb 1190.5 lb
Coarse aggregate moisture -25.1 lb 30.7 lb 36.1 lb
Fine aggregate moisture -53.3 lb 45.5 lb 52.1 lb
Air-entraining admixture (Darex) 1 oz (0.065 lb) 0.0652 lb 0.0719 lb 0.0723 lb
Superplasticizer (Adva-540) 50 oz (3.26 lb) 3.26 lb 3.60 lb 3.22 lb
Accelerator (Daraccel) 384 oz (25 lb) 25.03 lb 24.55 lb 24.69 lb
Water 236 lb 153.33 lb 150.40 lb 148.89 lb
W/C 0.365 0.357 0.362 0.370
Theoretical unit weight 143.1 pcf 142.9 pcf 139.0 pcf 139.5 pcf
(2% air) (2.25% air) (3.0% air) (2.0% air)
















































.__ _ __
Constituents Percent
Silicon Dioxide 20.50%
Aluminum Oxide 5.20%
Ferric Oxide 3.80%
Magnesium Oxide 0.60%
Sulfur Trioxide 2.80%
Tricalcium Aluminate 7%
Tricalcium Silicate 54%
Total Alkali as Na20 0.25%


3.2.2 Mix Ingredients


The mix ingredients used in producing the concrete mixture both in the laboratory and

from concrete plant are the same and described as follows:

Water

Potable water from the local city water supply system was used as mixing water for

production of the concrete mixtures. The water temperature was around 64oF

Cement

Type-I/II Portland cement from Florida Rock Industry was used. The physical and

chemical properties of the cement analyzed by Florida State Materials Office are shown in

Tables 3-3 and 3-4

Table 3-3. Physical properties of the Type I/II cement.
Tests Speification Cement Speification Limits
Loss on Ignition ASTM C114 0.30% <= 3.0
Autoclave Expansion ASTM C151 0.04% <= 0.80
Time of Setting (Initial) ASTM C266 190 min. >= 60
Time of Setting (inal) ASTM C266 290 min. <= 600
3-Day Compressive Strengt ASTM C109 2,723 psi >=1,450
7-Da Compressive Streng~th ASTM C109 4,770 psi >= 2,470


Table 3-4 Chemical prop s


htf o e Type I/II cement.










Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate used was silica sand from Goldhead of Florida, mine# 76-349. The physical

properties of the Eine aggregate analyzed by Florida State Materials Office are shown in Table 3-

5. The gradation of the Eine aggregate is shown in Figure 3-1. The Eine aggregate was oven-dried

before it was mixed with the other mix ingredients in the production of the concrete mixtures.

Table 3-5. Physical properties of the Eine aggregate.
Fineness Modulus 2.2
SSD Speific Gravit 2.640
Apparent Speific Gravit 2.651
Bulk Speic Gravit 2.634
Absorption 0.20%


120


S100


80 -0


c 60


40 -0


20


#8 #16 #30
Sieve Sizes


#50


#100


Figure 3-1. Gradation of Eine aggregate (Goldhead silica sand#76349).










Coarse aggregate

The coarse aggregate used was a #57 limestone obtained from mine# 08-012. The

physical properties of the Eine aggregate analyzed by Florida State Materials Office are shown in

Table 3-6. The gradation of the Eine aggregate is shown in Figure 3-2. In order to have the coarse

aggregate moisture content in well-controlled, saturated-surface-dry coarse aggregate was used

to produce concrete. So, the coarse aggregates were soaked in water for at least 48 hours and

then drained off the free water on the surface of aggregate before they were mixed with the other

mix ingredients in the production of the concrete mixtures.

Table 3-6. Physical poetes of the Eine ageae
SSD Speific Gravit 2.384
Apparent Specific Gravity 2.546
Bulk Speific Gravit 2.280
Absortion 5.47%


I


120


S100


a, 80


c 60


a, 40


-s20


1.5"


1" 1/2" #4 #8
Sieve Sizes


Figure 3-2. Gradation of the coarse aggregate (Limestone #08012).









Air-Entraining Admixture

The air-entraining admixture used was a liquid admixture Darex AEA from W.R. Grace &

Co. It also contains a catalyst for more rapid and complete hydration of Portland cement. In this

study, Darex AEA was mixed with the water used in the production of the concrete mixtures

before adding the water to other ingredients.

Superplasticizer

The superplasticizer used in this study is ADVA Cast 540 from W.R. Grace & Co. ADVA

Cast 540 is high efficiency polycarboxylate based superplasticizer. It has been formulated to

impart extreme workability without segregation to concrete, and to achieve high early

compressive strength as required by the precast industry. The ADVA is optimized for the

production of Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) in precast applications. It was recommended

that dosage rate can normally range from 325 to 1300 mL/100 kg (5 to 20 fl oz/100 lbs) of

cementitious material.

Accelerating Admixture

The accelerator used is Daracel from W.R. Grace & Co. Daraccel@ is a liquid admixture

formulated to provide faster set acceleration and increased early strength development of

concrete. It contains calcium chloride as well as other chemicals to enhance the effect of the

calcium chloride. Daraccel is specifically designed for use in cold weather concreting or

whenever accelerated properties of concrete are desired. Daraccel is a water-reducing accelerator

formulated to comply with the requirements of ASTM C 494 as a Type E admixture with a Type

I or Type II cement. The resulting reduction in water requirement, shorter setting time, and

higher early strengths permit earlier finishing and earlier form removal with significant j ob

economies. Daraccel is used at an addition rate of 520 to 2600 mL/100 kg (8 to 40 fl oz/100 lb)










of cement. The amount used will depend upon the setting time of the non-admixtured concrete

and the temperature at placement.

3.3 Fabrication and Curing Condition of Concrete Specimen

Two conditions of producing concrete mixes in this study are 1) laboratory-prepared mixes

and 2) plant-prepared mixes used in test slabs.

The laboratory-prepared concrete mixtures were produced in the laboratory using

compulsive pan mixer with capacity of 17 cubic feet, as shown in Figure 3-3. Concrete used to

construct each test slab was also obtained from the truck to fabricate concrete specimens, as also

shown in Figure 3-3. For each concrete mix, about nine cubic feet of fresh concrete was

produced or obtained to fabricate forty four cylinders (4" x 8"), eleven beams (6" x 6" x 20") and

three square prism specimens (3" x 3" x 11.25"). Table 3-7 shows a list of concrete samples

obtained to perform tests for each mix in this research.

Table 3-7. Concrete samples obtained to promtests.

Test Specimen Size # .etn
Times
Compressive/ Elastic 4"x8" 21At 4 hr, 6 hr, 8hr, 1, 7 and 28 days, and
Modulus blinder start of HVS loading
4"x8" Every 30 minutes for 48 hour, then
Temperature .2
cylinder every hour
4"x8" At 6 hr, 1, 7 and 28 days
SplitingTensle .12
Spliting Tnsicylinder
Coefficient of Thermal 4"x8" 9At 1, 7 and 28 days
Exasion blinder
6"x6"x20" At 4, 6 hours, 1 and 28 days, and start if
Flexural + Temperature bem10+1 HSlai

ASTM C1573"x3"x 11.25" 3 At 6, 8 hours, 1, 7 and 28 days
sqare prism


































SA ILL B

Figure 3-3. Mixer used for this study. A) Concrete mixer used in the laboratory. B) Concrete
truck.

3.3.1 Laboratory-Prepared Mixes

The procedures to fabricate the specimens in the laboratory were presented as follows:

* Based on mix proportion design, measure out the coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement,
admixtures, water, air-entraining agent, superplasticizer and accelerating admixture.

* Place coarse aggregate and fine aggregate into the pan mixer to mix about 30 seconds.

* Place two thirds of the water together with the air-entraining admixture into the mixer and
mix for 1 minute.

* Place cement and mix for 3 minutes, followed by a 2-minute rest, then followed by 3-
minute mixing.

* Add the superplasticizer and mix for 3 minutes, followed by a 2-minute rest.

* Perform a slump test (ASTM C143) and other fresh concrete properties which will be
presented in Section 3.4.

* Add the accelerating admixture and mix for 2 minutes.










* Measure fresh concrete properties again, while at the same time, start filling each mold.

* For cylinder and square prism molds, after filling each mold to half of it height, place the
mold on the vibrating table for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45
seconds. Finish the surface of the samples.

* For beam molds, after filling each beam mold to half of it height, place the vibrating stick
to the concrete for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish
the surface of the samples.

* For maturity calibration, put the thermocouples into two cylinders and one beam to
monitor the hydration temperature, and start obtaining the temperature and time every 30
minutes for 48 hours, then every 1 hour after that.

* For the early strength concrete used in the study, allow the concrete to be cured in the
cylinder molds for about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perform the first test.

* For cylinder and beam specimens, set the demolded concrete specimens in the standard
moist curing room for the specified curing time before testing.



3.3.2 Plant-Prepared Concrete Mixes Used in Test Slabs

The procedures to fabricate the specimens of concrete used in each slab obtained from the

truck were presented as follows:

* Based on the target mix design, the contractor mixes the concrete with all the concrete
ingredients except adding accelerating admixture.

* When truck arrives at the test section, perform a slump test (ASTM C143) and other fresh
concrete tests which will be presented in Section 3.4.

* Add the accelerating admixture and mix for 2 minutes.

* Perform fresh concrete tests again, while at the same time start filling each mold.

* For cylinder and square prism molds, after filling each cylinder mold to half of it height,
place the mold on the vibrating table for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again
for 45 seconds. Finish the surface of the samples.

* For beam molds, after filling each beam mold to half of it height, place the vibrating stick
to the concrete for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish
the surface of the samples.










* For maturity calibration, put the thermocouple into two cylinder molds and one beam to
monitor the hydration temperature, and start obtaining the temperature and time, every 30
minutes for 48 hours, then every 1 hour after that.

* For the early strength concrete used in the study, allow the concrete to be cured in the
cylinder molds for about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perform the first test.

* For cylinder and beam specimens, set the demolded concrete specimens in the standard
moist curing room for the specified curing time before testing.

* Two beam and three cylinder molds are placed aside to the test slab to cure under the same
condition with the test slab. This set of samples are to be tested at the starting time of HVS
loading.

Figure 3-4 shows some photos of the concrete specimens fabricated and cured in this

study .





































CrE B ~ .-~ D














E F

Figure 3-4. Concrete specimens fabricated and cured. A) Molds for concrete specimens. B)
Using vibrating table to consolidate cylinder samples. C) Using internal vibrators to
consolidate beam samples. D) and E) Samples allowed to be cured in the molds for
about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perform the first test. F) Demolded samples in
the standard moist room.












ASTM standard tests as listed in Table 3-8 were performed on the fresh concrete used in

this study to determine and control the quality of each concrete mix before and after adding the

accelerating admixture. The properties of the fresh concrete for each of the five concrete mixes

obtained from the test slabs are presented in Tables 3-9 and 3-10.

Slump Test
Slump test was run in accordance with ASTM C143. It was used to measure the
consistency of concrete. A high slump value is indicative of a wet or fluidic concrete. The test
should be started within 5 minutes after the sample has been obtained and the test should be

completed within 2 and half minutes, as concrete loses slump with time.
Air Content Test
Air Content test was run in accordance with ASTM C173. It was used to measure the air

content of freshly mixed concrete. The test should also be started within 5 minutes after the

sample has been obtained.

Temperature Test
Temperature test was run in accordance with ASTM C1064. It was used to measure the
temperature of fleshly mixed concrete. The result of the test was used to check whether it was
within the normal range. The test should be finished within 5 minutes after obtaining the sample.

The result should be reported to the nearest 1 oF or 0.5 oC.

Unit Weight

The procedures of ASTM C138 standard was followed in running the unit weight test. This

test was carried out to verify the density of concrete mixtures for quality control.

Table 3-8. Testing program on fresh concretes.
Test Test Standard
Slump ASTM C143
Air Content ASTM C173
Temperature ASTM C1064
Unit Weight ASTM C138


3.4 Tests on Fresh Concrete










Table 3-9. Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 1 and 2.
Fresh concrete popetes Slab 1 Slab 2
Adding the accelerating admixture Before After Before After
Slump 2.75" 3.00" 3.75" 4.25"
Tempeaue 92 OF 95 OF 95 OF 98 OF
Air Entrainment 1.75% 3.00% 1.75% 2.00%
Unit Weight (c)142 142 -141
Theoretical Unit Weight (c) -139 -142


Table 3-10. Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5.
Fresh concrete properties Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
Adding the accelerating admixture Before After Before After Before After
Slump 6.25" 8.00" 9.50" 8.50" 8.00" 4.25"
Tempeaue 83 OF 84 OF 98 OF 98 OF 100 OF 100 OF
Air Entrainment 2.00% 2.25% 3.00% 3.00% 2.00% 2.00%
Unit Weight (c)141.6 139.8 144 143 142 140
Theoretical Unit Weight (c) 144.4 143.1 139 139 139.6 139.5


3.5 Tests on Hardened Concrete

ASTM and AASHTO standard tests on the hardened concrete specimens are given in

Table 3-11i. The detailed description of these tests is presented as follows:


Table 3-11. Testing program on hardened concrete.
Test Test Standard
Compressive Strength ASTM C39
Flexural Strength ASTM C78
Splitting Tensile Strength ASTM C496
Elastic Modulus ASTM C469
Dry Shrinkage ASTM C157
Co-efficient Of Thermal Expansion AASHTO TP60-00


3.5.1 Compressive Strength Test

Compressive strength tests were performed on all concrete mixes investigated in this

study. Compressive strength is presently used for quality control of concrete mix in FDOT

standard for slab replacement. The tests were performed at 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 7










days and 28 days in accordance with ASTM C39. The tests were performed on three 4"x 8"

cylindrical specimens at each age, and the average strength for each curing condition was

computed. If a low test result is due to an obviously defective specimen, the low test result

would be discarded. Before testing, the two end surfaces of each cylinder were ground evenly by

using a grinding stone so that the cylinder would support the applied load uniformly.

The compressive strength of the specimens was calculated using the following

equation:

fc= P/A (3-1)
Where

f -- Compressive strength in pound force per square inch (psi);
P -- Ultimate load attained during the test in pound (lb); and
A -- Loading area in square inch (in2)


3.5.2 Flexural Strength Test

The flexural strength tests were run at ages of 6 h, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days in accordance

with ASTM C78. Two 6" x 6"x 20" beam specimens were tested at each age and the average

strength was computed for each curing condition. Before testing, the two loading surfaces of

each beam were ground evenly by using a grinding stone to support the applied load uniformly.

The flexural strength was calculated according to the type of fracture in the beam as

follows:

1. If the fracture initiates in the tension surface within the middle third of the span length,

calculate the modulus of rupture as follows:

R =PL/bd2 (3 -2)
Where :

R -- Modulus of rupture, psi,
P -- Maximum applied load indicated by the testing machine, lbf,
L -- Span length, in.,
b -- Average depth of specimen, in., at the fracture, and
d -- Average depth of specimen, in., at the fracture.











2. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of the middle third of the span length

by not more than 5% of the span length, calculate the modulus of rupture as follows:

R=3Pa bd (3-3)

Where :
a -- Average distance between line of fracture and the nearest support measured on the
tension surface of the beam, in.


3. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of the middle third of span length by

more than 5% of the span length, discard the results of the test.

3.5.3 Splitting Tensile Strength Test

Splitting tensile strength test is simple to perform. The strength determined from splitting

tensile test is believed to be close to the direct tensile strength of concrete.

In this study, the testing procedure of ASTM C496 standard was followed in performing

the splitting tensile strength test. A 4" x 8" cylindrical specimen, which is identical to that used

for compressive strength test, is placed on its side in a steel frame, which is designed to keep the

cylinder in place between the platens of the testing machine. Load is applied to the specimen

through two thin strips of ply wood placed on the top and bottom sides of the specimen. The load

is increased until failure by indirect tension in the form of splitting along vertical diameter.

The splitting tensile strength of a cylinder specimen can be calculated by the following

equation:

2p,
T (3-4)
tr 1 -D
Where :
T, -- Splitting tensile strength of cylinder in psi;
P, -- Maximum applied load to break cylinder in psi;
I -- Length of cylinder in inch;
D Diameter of cylinder in inch.










Three replicate specimens were tested at each of the curing times, which were 6 hours, 1

day, 7 days and 28 days. A total of 12 specimens per concrete mixture were tested for splitting

tensile strength.

Figure 3-5 shows sample photos of strength tests and typical fracture of specimens in this

research.


















































C !n ri D


ligg







::E -
Fgre -.Srnt et n yialfatr fseies )ad )Cm rsiesrnt et
C)adD lxrlsteghts.E ndF pitn esiesrnt et









3.5.4 Elastic Modulus Test

Modulus of elasticity tests were performed at various curing times in accordance with

ASTM C469 standard. In this method, the modulus of elasticity of concrete is determined when a

compressive load is applied on a concrete cylinder in the longitudinal direction. Similar to the

compressive strength test, the modulus of elasticity test was performed at curing time of 4 hours,

6 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days. Figure 3-6 show the test set-up, which consisted of a

compression testing machine, a digital key panel (for controlling the testing machine and

retrieving the data from the test). The output from the load cell (in the testing machine) and the

output from the LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) were connected to the testing

machine.

Before the elastic modulus test, one of the three 4"x 8" concrete cylinders was broken first

to determine the compressive strength of concrete at each curing time in accordance with ASTM

C39 standard. Then, 40 % of the ultimate compressive strength of concrete specimen was applied

on the other two cylinders to perform the elastic modulus test. The data for the modulus of

elasticity test were loaded and unloaded three times. Then, the first load cycle data were

discarded. The average value from the last two times was recorded as the elastic modulus of the

specimen.






























Figure 3-6. Performing a modulus of elasticity test.



3.5.5 Drying Shrinkage Test

Shrinkage testing according to the ASTM C157 standard was performed on square prism

specimens with dimensions of 3" x 3" x 1 1.25". Figure 3-7 shows the specimens and length

comparator used in this study.

In order to obtain drying shrinkage at the early age of the concrete specimen in this study,

the specimens were removed from the molds at an age of 5 & '/ h (after the addition of water to

cement and accelerator admixture during the mixing operation) and then placed in lime-saturated

water, which was maintained at 73.4 & 1 oF (23.0 + 0.5oC) for a minimum of 30 min. Initial

length measurement was made at an age of 6 & '/ h. The specimens were removed from water

storage, and wiped with a damp cloth. An initial reading was immediately taken with a length

comparator. The specimens were then allowed to dry at ambient condition in the laboratory.

Length measurement on the specimens was taken on hour 8, days 1, 7, and 28.










The length change of a specimen at any age after the initial comparator reading was

calculated as follows:


Initial CRD FinalCRD


(3-4)
Where :
AL, -- Length change of specimen at any age,
CRD -- Difference between the comparator reading of the specimen and the reference
bar,
G -- Gauge length.



















A B

Figure 3-7. Drying shrinkage test. A) Square prism specimens for drying shrinkage test. B)
Length comparator used in this study.

3.5.6 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Coefficient of thermal expansion tests (CTE) were performed in accordance with the

AASHTO TP 60-00 Standard. This test method determines the CTE of a cylindrical concrete

specimen, maintained in a saturated condition, by measuring the length change of the specimen

due to a specified temperature change. The measured length change is corrected for any change

in length of the measuring apparatus, and the CTE is then calculated by dividing the corrected










length change by the temperature change and then the specimen length. The CTE of one

expansion or contraction test segment of a concrete specimen is calculated as follows:

CTE= (Ana Lo) AT (3-5)
Where :
CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion,
ALa -- Actual length change of specimen during temperature change, mm or in.;
Lo -- Measured length of specimen at room temperature, mm or in.; and
AT -- Measured temperature change (average of the four sensors), og.

ALa = ALm A Lf (3-6)
Where :
ALa Measured length change of specimen during temperature change, mm. or in.;
AL,; Length change of the measuring apparatus during temperature change, mm. or in.;

ALf = C x Lo x AT (3-7)
Where :
Cf Correction factor accounting for the change in length of the measurement apparatus
with temperature, in.-6 o./C


The test result is the average of the two CTE values obtained from the expansion test

segment and contraction test segment, and is calculated as follows:

CTE = (CTEexpan+ CTEcont.) 2 (3-8)

In this study, three of 4" x 8" concrete cylinders were evaluated in the CTE test at various

curing times such as 1 day, 7 days and 28 days for each concrete mix. The cylinders at each set

were sawed to the length of 7.0 + 0. 1 in, and submersed in saturated limewater at 23 + 2 oC

before testing.

The saturated specimens were removed from the tank and measured of their lengths at

room temperature to the nearest 0.004 in. After measuring the length, place the specimens in the

measuring apparatus located in the controlled temperature bath. The lower end of the specimen

is firmly seated against the support buttons, and the LVDT tip is seated against the upper end of

the specimen.









The water in the bath was initially set to 10 f 1 oC. When the bath reaches this

temperature, allow the bath to remain at this temperature until thermal equilibrium of the

specimens has been reached, as indicated by consistent readings of the LVDT to the nearest

0.00001 in, taken every 10 minutes over a one-half hour time period. Then the water temperature

was set to 50 f 1 oC to get the second value of the LVDT reading. Then, set the water

temperature again to 10 f 1 oC to get the final reading.

An average of CTE values from three specimens was represented the CTE measurement in

each curing time of concrete mix.

Figure 3-8 shows the test set-up for Coefficient of Thermal Expansion measurement































`. -- C DLIF"










,C METD

-- -MI












Figure 3-8. Test set-up for Coefficient of Thermal Expansion measurement. A) Cylindrical
specimen length of 7.0 0 1 in. B) Frame calibration. C) Thermocouples calibration.
D) LVDT, frame and temperature bath. E) Length change measured at 10 & 50 oC. F)
LVDT and Temperature recording.










3.6 Concrete Maturity Characteristics

3.6.1 Introduction of Maturity Concept

The concept of concrete maturity was first introduced by Saul in 1951. He defined

"maturity of concrete" as "its age multiplied by the average temperature above freezing that it

has maintained." Based on this definition, he further developed the law for relationship between

concrete strength and maturity: "Concrete of the same mixture at the same maturity (measured as

temperature-time) has approximately the same strength whatever combination of temperature

and time goes to make up that maturity." Since then, many studies on maturity have been done

by other researchers and Saul's law for maturity has been confirmed and proven to be a useful

tool to predict concrete strength. The Maturity method has been standardized by ASTM as

Standard Practice C1074.

3.6.2 Maturity Functions

According to ASTM C1074, there are two alternative functions for computing the

maturity index. The first is the Nurse Saul equation that is used to calculate the temperature-time

factor (TTF) as follows:

M(t) = C (T, To,)At (3 -9)
where :
M~(t) -- Temperature-time factor at age t, degree-days or degree-hours,
At -- Time interval, days or hours,
To -- Average concrete temperature during time interval, At, oC, and
To -- Datum temperature, oC.

The Arrthenius equation is another maturity function, which is used to compute

equivalent age (AGE) as follows:

Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.
(3-10)

Where :
te -- Equivalent age at a specified temperature Ts, days or h,










Q -- Activation energy divided by the gas constant, K,
Ta -- Average concrete temperature during time interval, At, K,
T, -- Specified temperature, K, and
At -- Time interval, days or hours.

Though both functions can predict the strength of in-place concrete equally well, the Nurse

Saul equation was preferred in this project for its simplicity.

3.6.3 Maturity Test Apparatus

In order to determine the concrete maturity, a temperature-time recording device is

required. Acceptable devices include thermocouples or thermistors connected to strip-chart

recorders or digital data-loggers. Figure 3-9 shows one of the popular maturity meters, which is

also used in this proj ect. This device is a multi-channel maturity meter, giving digital maturity

number calculation, instant readout, and temperature history. All four channels can be used

simultaneously. All data are on menu-driven alphanumeric displays. Communication port allows

data transfer from meter to meter, printer, or computer. The main specifications for this maturity

meter are given in Table 3-12.


Figure 3-9. Model H-2680 system 4101 concrete maturity meter.












Table 3-12. Specifications for models H-2680 system 4101 concrete maturity meter.
Temperature Measurement Data Record
Sensor Thermocouple
meaureentAccuracy .ir Data Capacity Recording Interval

,, 10 months x 4 Every V/2 hour up to 48
-IO"to9" C /-I C Tpe ,T"channels hrs, then every hour

Mechanical Maturity Value Calculations
Datum Equivalent Age Activation Energy
Dimensions Weight
Temperature Temperature Constant
7.8" x 4.7"x
,, 1.751bs -20 oC to 40 oC 0 oC to -40oC OoK to 20,000 o K
2.9"


3.6.4 Procedure for Maturity Test

The maturity test is a two-step process (Figure 3-10). Step 1: develop a relationship

between the maturity values and the concrete strength from beams or cylinders. This step

includes four processes: 1) determine datum temperature (To) via mortar testing; 2) measure

temperature history of concrete, which is used to calculate maturity index: temperature-time

factor (TTF); 3) run strength test on beams or cylinders; 4) establish relationship between

strength values and TTF. Step 2: predict strength of in-place concrete. This step includes two

processes: 1) measure maturity of in-place concrete; 2) determine strength from maturity-

strength curve developed in step 1.










P

P


P P


nummedCannua Lnpramn.. Determine jtrn c;ih ~
from maturity curve

Figure 3-10. Procedure for maturity testing. A) Step 1: Develop maturity strength curve. B)
Step 2: Predict strength of in-place concrete.


Mortar & Cylinder or Beam Samples


Strength Test


Develop maturity-strength
curve


600 800


200 400
TTF


666

I -v

I -v


a


6000-


0 -










3.6.5 Establishment of Maturity Strength Relationship


It is to be noted that the concrete must be made of the same material and same

proportions as in-place when developing the maturity-strength relationship. The detailed

procedures for establishing the maturity-strength relationship are shown in this section as

follows.


Determine Datum Temperature (To)
Procedure for determining datum temperature (To) is given as follows:

1. Prepare a mortar

The mixture proportions of the mortar used are given in Table 3-13. The Fine
Aggregate/Cement ratio of the mortar was the same as the Coarse Aggregate/Cement
ratio of the concrete to be evaluated. The same proportions of admixtures used in the
concrete were also used in the mortar.


Table 3-13. Mix proportions of the mortar.

Cement FA Water Admixtures (oz)
W/C
(lbs/yd3) (lbs/yd3) (lbs/yd3) AEydarex) ADVA Daraccel
850 1650 283 1 34 384 0.365


2. Prepare three temperature baths

The three temperatures used were:
1) SoC = the minimum temperature expected for the in-place concrete
2) 40oC = the maximum temperature expected for the in-place concrete
3) 23oC = the midway temperature between the extremes expected for the in-place
concrete

3. Prepare 50-mm mortar cubes

Three sets of mortar cubes were prepared, one set for each bath temperature. For
each set, 6 testing times were used, and 3 replicates were used per test condition. For
each set, 3 additional cubes were also used to estimate the time when the mortar reached
a compressive strength of 4 MPa. Thus a total of 21 mortar cubes were made for each
set.

4. Run compressive strength test

For each set of mortar cubes, compressive strength test was first run on 3 cubes at
an early age to estimate the time when the mortar would reach a compressive strength of
4 MPa. Compressive strength test was then run on 3 mortar cubes at the time when the










compressive strength was around 4 MPa. Subsequent compressive strength tests were
performed on 3 cubes at ages that were approximately twice the age of the previous tests.

5. Determine K-values

Steps in determining the K-values are as follows:
1) Using the strength-age data for the last four test ages, plot the reciprocal of
strength (y-axis) versus the reciprocal of age (x-axis). Determine the y-axis
intercept. The inverse of the intercept is the limiting strength, S, .
2) Calculate A = S (S-S)S, where S = strength at age t, from the first 4 tests.
3) Plot A versus age for the first 4 tests at each curing condition.
4) Determine K = slope of the best-fit straight lines for each curing temperature.

6. Determine the datum temperature (To)
The datum temperature is determined as follows:
1) Plot K-values versus temperature
2) To = intercept of x-axis

7. Determine Q (activation energy/gas constant)

The Q value is determined as follows:

1) Plot Ln (K) versus 1/temperature (in oK).

2) Determine the best-fitting straight line through the points. The negative of the slope of
the line is Q.


Figures 3-11 shows datum temperature determination process and equipment.





























C D





















E ~dF

Figure 3-11. Datum temperature determination process and equipment. A) 50-mm cube mold. B)
Mixing the mortar mixtures. C) Curing mortars in the bath at 5 oC. D) Curing mortars
in the room temperature of 23 oC. E) Curing mortars in the oven at 40 oC. F)
Running compressive test of the cube specimen.












The plots for determination of the datum temperature and Q value are shown in Figure 3-


12 and 3-13 respectively. The measured datum temperature was determined to be -10.1 oC, and


the Q value was determined to be 3,568 K. These values were used to calculate the time-


temperature factor (TTF) and equivalent age (te) to develop the strength maturity relationships


for the concrete.


~C


2


1.5


1


0.5




0 -15 10 -5 0


y =0.028x +0.284
R2 =0.9786



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 6


Temperature (oC)


Figure 3-12. Plot for determination of datum temperature, To.



0.4-


0.2-



0.0( 310 0.00320 0.00330 \0 00340 0.0035
t-0.2-


-0.4-


-0.6 y =-3568x + 12.017
R2 = 0.9851
-0.8-



1/Temperature (1/K)


Figure 3-13. Plot of determination of Q-value.










Concrete Specimens Preparation and Measuring Temperature of Concrete Specimens

The concrete specimens for maturity calibration were prepared as described in Section 3.3,

3.4 and 3.5 of this Chapter. Strengths obtained from this study are used to develop strength-

maturity relationship. The strength-maturity relationships were used to estimate in-place strength

of concrete test slabs.

The maturity meter, as described in Section 3.6.3, was used to record the temperature

history of concrete specimens. The procedure to measure the temperatures of the concrete

specimens is as follows:

1) Embed thermocouple wires into approximately mid-depth of two cylinders and one
beam (see Figure 3-14). Secure any wires to prevent them from being inadvertently
pulled out of the specimens.
2) Connect thermocouple wires to maturity meter and turn on the meter to start
recording temperature at once. Make sure that thermocouple wires are working
normally .
3) Place the other cylinder and beam specimens together for curing.
4) Download temperature data from the maturity meter to a computer when finished.

The typical temperature history of the specimens in this research is shown in Figure 3-14.

Both the cylinders and beams were kept in a moist curing room at a constant temperature of 23

oC after 28 hours.


*~.BlZ)~? ./?~ ~A l Time (hour) i

Figure 3-14. Measuring temperature of concrete specimens. A) Measuring concrete temperature
using a maturity meter. B) Typical temperature history of the specimens.























7000
S6000
S5000
S4000
~3000
~2000
E 1000

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
TTF (C-Hour)


Develop Maturity-Strength Relationship Curve


Figures 3-15 shows the typical plots of compressive strength and flexural strength versus

TTF. Maturity calibration was also performed on the concrete sampled from all the test slabs in


this research, which is presented in Chapter 5.


5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
TTF (C-Hour)


Figure 3-15. Typical plots of compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF. A)
Compressive strength vs. TTF. B) Flexural strength vs. TTF.









CHAPTER 4
INTSTRUMENTATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEST SLABS

4.1 Description of Experiment

The research was planned to test the performance of concrete slabs made with different

concrete mixtures using the Accelerated Paving Testing (APT) by means of a Heavy Vehicle

Simulator (HVS). The concrete test track to be used for this study was constructed at the APT

facility at the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) State Materials Research Park on

September 25, 2002. This concrete test track consists of two 12-foot wide lanes. Each test lane

consists of three 12 ft. x 16 ft. test slabs, placed between confinement slabs. The thickness of the

concrete slabs is 9 inches.

To construct a test slab, a 12 ft. x 16 ft. slab was first removed from the concrete test track,

and a replacement slab was constructed in its place. The instrumentation and construction of the

test slab was done with the HVS parked over the test slab area. The HVS was used to apply

repetitive moving loads along the edge of the test slab, which is the most critical wheel loading

position on the concrete slab.

Analysis of the potential stress distributions within the concrete test slabs when subj ected

to the HVS loads was performed using FEACONS IV, a finite element program described in the

following section of this dissertation. Based on the results of the analysis, optimum locations of

the strain gauges to be placed on the test slabs were determined.

Maturity calibration was performed and used to predict strength of the concrete in each test

slab. HVS testing was to start when the predicted strength reached a certain value by using the

maturity method.

The HVS testing was continued until visible cracks developed. Dynamic strains at gauge

locations were recorded every 30 minutes. The temperatures were recorded in 5 minutes intervals









during the testing period at the corners and center of the slab using the thermocouples placed in

the concrete slab in 2 inch intervals from the surface of the concrete slab. The temperature in

base layer was also recorded in the same time intervals.

The concrete used in each test slab was also obtained to fabricate concrete specimens to

evaluate their properties. Measurement of surface profiles, joint movement and Falling Weight

Deflectometer (FWD) deflection of test slabs were performed to characterize the test slabs. The

material and slab characterization are presented in Chapter 6.

Parameters used in the FEACONS model were calibrated by deflection and strain data, and

the calibrated model was then used to calculate potential temperature-load induced stresses. This

portion of the work is presented in Chapter 7.

The evaluation of the performance of concrete test slabs is presented in Chapter 8.

4.2 Stress Analysis for Instrumentation Plan

The FEACONS IV (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs version IV) program was

used to analyze the anticipated stresses on the test slabs when loaded by the HVS. The

FEACONS program was developed by the University of Florida for the FDOT for analysis of

concrete pavements subj ected to load and temperature effects.

Since the most critical loading condition is when the wheel load is applied along the edge

of the concrete slab, this loading condition is used in the HVS loading of the test slabs in this

study. The FEACONS program was used to analyze the stresses in the test slab when a 12-kip

single wheel load with a tire pressure of 120 psi is applied along the edge of the concrete slab.

Analysis was done for two critical load positions for this edge loading condition, namely (1) load

at the corner of the slab, and (2) load at the middle of the edge, as shown in Figure 4-1.













Loading
Positions
considered in
FEAICONS


Adjacent Slab Test Slab Adjaoen~-t Slab





Figure 4-1. Loading positions used in the stress analysis.

In the FEACONS analysis, an elastic modulus of 3,800 ksi (as measured from the concrete

sampled from Test Slab 1 and at a curing time of 28 days) was used for the concrete. The

thickness of the concrete slabs was 9 inches. Other pavement parameter inputs needed for the

analysis are the joint shear stiffness (which models the shear load transfer across the joint), the

j oint torsional stiffness (which models the moment transfer across the j oint) and the edge

stiffness (which models the load transfer across the edge j oint). The values for these parameters

are usually determined by back-calculation from the deflection basins from NDT loads (such as

FWD) applied at the joints and edges. In this analysis, the values for these parameters

determined previously in Phase I of this study were used. The modulus of sub grade reaction was

determined to be 1.1 kci. A joint shear stiffness of 200 ksi, a joint torsional stiffness of 600 k-

in/in, and an edge stiffness of 10 ksi were used. A temperature differential of zero was assumed

in this analysis.

Figures 4-2 and 4-3 show the 3D plots of the distribution of the maximum computed

stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction at the top of the slab caused by a 12-kip wheel load at

the slab corner and slab mid-edge, respectively. Figures 4-4 and 4-5 show the contour plots of

maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner and slab









mid-edge, respectively. Figures 4-6 and 4-7 show the contour plots of maximum stresses in the

y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner and slab mid-edge, respectively.


Figure 4-2. Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a 12-
kip wheel load at the slab corner.


Figure 4-3. Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a 12-
kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge.



































n I l l ,a ll"71R'~84 l~ l~ 1 '-- 1 1 1 1 1~
0 24 48 7~2 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384 408 432 456 480
Distance, direction XX, inches

Figure 4-4. Contour plots of maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab corner.


O 24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384 408 432 456 480
Distance, direction XX, Inches

Figure 4-5. Contour plots of maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load
at the slab mid-edge.
































24

a n I | a I I I I I E
0 24 4 2 9 2 4 6 92 26 20 24 28 32 36 6 8 0 3 5 8
Ditn e ie to ,Ic e
Fiue46 otu lt fmxmmsrse n h ieto asdb 2kpwella

attesa onr


IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII


Stresses in psi


120 C


24 C


0 24 48 72 96 120


144 168 192 216 240 264 288
Distance, direction XX, inches


312 336 360 384 408 432 456 480


Figure 4-7. Contour plots of maximum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load

at the slab mid-edge.









The instrumentation plan was designed so that strain gauges would be placed at the

location of maximum anticipated stresses during the HVS loading. Thermocouples were also to

be placed in the concrete slab to monitor the temperature distribution in the slabs. Figure 4-8

shows layout of the instrumentation for Test Slabs 1, 2 and 3, showing the location of the strain

gauges, and thermocouples. Figure 4-9 is for Test Slabs 4 and 5.

Two strain gauges are to be placed at each of the seven strain gauge locations. At each

strain gauge location, one strain gauge is to be embedded in the concrete at a depth of 1 inch

from the surface and another one at 1 inch above the asphalt layer. Three strain gauge positions

are on the wheel path in the longitudinal (x) direction two are at 30 inches from each j oint, and

the other one is at mid edge of the slab. Four additional strain gauges positions are outside the

wheel path.

Thermocouples are to be placed in three locations, namely (1) the slab corner on the side of

the slab not loaded by the HVS wheel, (2) the slab corner on the wheel path, and (3) the slab

center. At each location, six thermocouples will be placed at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 inches from

the concrete surface and at 1 inch below the surface of the asphalt base.

Figure 4-10 shows also the vertical position of thermocouples and strain gauges.













12" ~~~
~- 2


3

Test Slab


192"
mm Strain Gauge, XX Direction Strain Gauge, YY Direction


Figure 4-8. Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 1, 2 and 3.

1 ~96"~


SThermocouple





30"


mm 2 $


3

Test Slab


mm Strain Gauge, XX Direction Strain Gauge, YY Direction

Figure 4-9. Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 4 and 5.


SThermocouple












Siramn Gauge


2.5"




6.5"1



Stramn Gaulge
8.5"




XX.X" Thermocouple Positions from the Concrete Surface


Figure 4-10. Vertical Positions of Thermocouples and Strain Gauges.

4.3 Construction of the Test Slabs

Five instrumented full-size concrete test slabs, namely Slab 1 to Slab 5, were placed on the

concrete test track at the APT facility at the FDOT State Materials Research Park on March 21,

2006, June 1, 2006, April 5, 2007, July 21, 2007 and August 20, 2007, respectively by a concrete

contractor under the supervision of FDOT personnel. Slabs 1 and 2 used the same target

concrete mix design with a cement content of 850 lbs per cubic yard. Another concrete mix

design with a cement content of 725 lbs per cubic yard was used as the target concrete mix

design for Slabs 3, 4 and 5.

4.3.1 Concrete Test Track

The concrete test track for this study was constructed during Phase I of this study. It is

located at the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) test area at the FDOT State Materials

Research Park. This concrete test track consists of six 12 ft. x 16 ft., 9-inch thick concrete slabs,

placed between confinement slabs.









The concrete slabs were placed over an existing two-inch thick asphalt surface. The

asphalt surface was placed over a 10.5-inch limerock base that was placed over a 12-inch

stabilized subgrade. This asphalt layer acts as a leveling course and provides the concrete slab

with a firm and consistent foundation that is not affected by moisture changes throughout the

experiment. Figure 4-11 shows a picture of the test track and a cross section of the test track and

layers underneath.



















Asphaltt Concrete Base 2i

-- c.~Lime Rock Base 10 5 in




"< Stabilized Subgrade 12 in


A B

Figure 4-11i. Concrete test track. A) Picture of the test track. B) Typical cross section of the
concrete slab and layers underneath.









4.3.2 Removal of Concrete Slabs

In the preparation for the placement of a replacement test slab, an existing concrete slab on

the test track was first removed. Full-depth saw cuts were made around the entire perimeter of

the marked area that was to be removed. The saw cuts separated the concrete slab into small

pieces (approximately 3 ft. x 4 ft.). Then the pieces were removed by using a lifter. Damaged

areas on the asphalt base after the removal of the concrete slab were patched with a cold asphalt

mix. Figure 4-12 shows the removal of an existing slab and patching of the damaged areas.













A' B


CD

Figure 4-12. Removal of Test Slab. A) Marking a location for test slab. B) Separation of concrete
slab (12 ft. x 16 ft.) into small pieces (3 ft by 4 ft). C) Removal of separated pieces
using the lifter. D) After removal of separated pieces and patching of damaged base.









4.3.3 Installation of Dowel Bars and Fiber Sheets

To simulate typical replacement slabs in Florida, dowel bars were installed at the joints of

the test slabs. Dowel bars were placed at one-foot intervals starting at six inch from the edge.

Holes for dowel bars were drilled to a 9-inch depth to the adj acent slabs. After drilling, the

drilled holes were cleaned out by inserting an air nozzle into the hole to force out all dust and

debris. An epoxy was used to bond the dowels to the adj acent slab, and a lubricant was applied at

the other end to allow movement in the longitudinal direction (Figure 4-13).


Figure 4-13. Placement of dowel bars. A) Drilling holes for dowel bars to the adj acent slabs. B)
Clean the drilled holes with air pressure. C) Dowel bar with epoxy. D) 9-inch dowel
bars to test slab with lubricant.









All the test slabs to be replaced were confined with three adj acent slabs and had one free

edge. A fiber sheet was placed along the longitudinal edge of the adj acent slab to prevent the test

slab from adhering to the adjacent slab, so that the edge of the test slab would behave as free

longitudinal slab edge (Figures 4-14).















Figure 4-14. Placement of fiber sheet. A) Attaching fiber sheets to side of adj acent slab. B) Fiber
sheet attached.

4.3.4 Placement of Strain Gauges and Thermocouples

Fourteen strain gauges and three sets of six thermocouples were placed in each test slab

according to the instrumentation plan as described in Section 4.2. Before placement of concrete,

the strain gauges to be embedded in the concrete were Eixed in position by two steel rods, which

were fixed to the asphalt base in a vertical direction. Similarly, each set of six thermocouples

were fixed on a plastic rod, which was fixed to the asphalt base. Figure 4-15 show the placement

of strain gauges and thermocouples.
























e
i)
----- -..
,%1F~~P~ 'B
"' '''
A;


Figure 4-15. Installing of instrumentation. A) Strain gauges held in position by steel rods. B)
Thermocouples held in position by a plastic rod. C) Strain gauges and thermocouples
protected by PVC pipes before placement of concrete. D) Strain gauge cables and
thermocouple wires hooked up to the data acquisition box.

4.3.5 Data Acquisition

Strain data were record at every V/2 hour interval, for 30 seconds each time, at a rate of 100

values per second. Temperature data were retrieved at five minute intervals from placement of

concrete throughout the HVS testing period.

Wheatstone quarter-bridge circuits were used to measure strains in concrete from the strain


gauges in this study. Figure 4-16 shows the quarter-bridge circuit along with the circuit for

calibration and amplification of the output signal. The following symbols apply to the circuit


di agram :











R1 and R2 are half-bridge completion resistors.
R3 is the quarter-bridge completion resisters.
R4 is the active element measuring tensile strain (+ E)
VEX is the excitation voltage.
RL is the lead resistance.
VCH is the measured voltage.


SCXI-1520 Set Bridge
Configuration to
Transducer SCXI 1914 Quarter Bridge
P








the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ shn clbrton/Ca

wires externally using _S
the terminal block R
screw connections. S,



Figure 4-16. Wheatstone Quarter-bridge circuit diagram for measuring strain.

The data acquisition used is a National Instrument Model SCXI-1000. It consists of a 12-

slot chassis which holds various data acquisition modules and one digitizer/communications

module. Two strain/bridge modules and one thermocouple module were plugged into the chassis.

Each strain/bridge module provides for 8 strain gauge inputs, and each thermocouple module


provides for 32 thermocouple inputs. The digital/communications module provides a USB

output to the control computer. The data acquisition system is controlled by the computer

through the software LabVIEW.


The data acquisition system and control computer were placed in a temperature control

chamber (Figure 4-17A), which was placed next to the test slab during the experiment (Figure 4-


17B), so that the strain gauge and thermocouple wires could be conveniently connected to the

data acquisition system without having to run long wires between the test slabs and the










instrumentation room. The control computer was networked with another computer through

wireless networking so that the control computer can be accessed conveniently from the

instrumentation room.

















Figure 4-17. Data acquisition box. A) Inside the data acquisition box. B) Set up of the data
acquisition box and antenna near the test slab.

4.3.6 Placement and Finishing of Concrete Test Slabs

Two different target mixes were used for the test slabs as described in Chapter 3 of this

dissertation. Before placement of concrete on test track, samples of concrete were collected from

the truck to determine the plastic properties of the concrete for quality assurance and evaluation

of the mixes. First, samples of concrete were taken before the accelerating admixture was added

for conductance of the slump, unit weight, air content and temperature tests. Samples of concrete

were again taken after adding accelerating admixture for the plastic property tests and for

fabrication of test specimens for compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile

strength, elastic modulus, drying shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion. Concrete mix

properties and characteristics will be presented in Chapter 6 of this dissertation.

PVC pipes were placed around the strain gauges and the thermocouples to protect them

from concrete handling instruments during the placement of concrete. The concrete was placed









manually around the strain gauges and the thermocouples inside the PVC pipes. After the

concrete was placed to the same thickness on both the inside and outside of the PVC pipe, the

PVC pipe was then pulled out manually.

After concrete was placed into the formwork for the test slab, vibrators were used to

consolidate the fresh concrete. A vibrating leveling bar was also used to level off the concrete.

The concrete surface was Einished manually. After placement and Einishing of the concrete, 3"

deep cuts were made to form the joints for the slabs. Curing compound was sprayed to the

surface to cure the concrete slab. The finished test slab was protected until the start of the HVS

loading. Figure 4-18 shows placement and Einishing of test slab.













































Figur 4-8 lcmn n iisigo etsa.A Fres cnreeproete obane efr









Figu conre 41.Paeete E)d Curing compound spraye. F) Finished crtes slab wtith dataie acuiiton


box and a set of samples tested at the start of HVS loading.









CHAPTER 5
HVS TESTING AND OBSERVATION OF PERFORMANCE OF TEST SLAB S

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the HVS testing and observed performance of the test slabs.

The testing plan was to start the HVS loading when the concrete reached a certain strength.

The strength to signal the start point of the HVS testing at each test slab was predicted from

maturity calibration for the concrete used.

Two beam and three cylindrical specimens made with an actual concrete mix used in each

test slab were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab.

These specimens were tested for their flexural and compressive strengths to obtain average

actual strengths of the test slab at the time of start of loading.

HVS loading at 12 kips was to be applied to each test slab for 7 days, then at 15 kips for 3

days, and then at 18 kips for 3 more days before stopping the HVS.

The HVS loading were applied using a super single tire with a contact pressure of 120 psi,

traveling at about 6 mph in a uni-directional mode with no wander along the longitudinal edge of

the test slab. Loading along the edge was chosen because it represents the most critical loading

condition for a concrete slab.

Strain data were recorded at every V/2 hour interval, for 30 seconds each time, at a rate of

100 values per second. Temperature data were retrieved at five minute intervals from the time of

placement of concrete and throughout the HVS testing period.

Condition surveys were made and crack maps drawn when cracks were observed during

the HVS testing. Figure 5-1 shows HVS loading on a test slab.































Figure 5-1. HVS loading on a test slab.

5.2 Slab 1

5.2.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 1

The concrete mix used in Slab 1 had a cement content of 850 lb per cubic yard of

concrete. The current FDOT concrete specification for replacement slab requires a minimum

compressive strength of 2,200 psi at 6 hours. This strength requirement was used as a criterion

for the start of HVS loading on Slab 1. HVS loading of Slab 1 was to start when the in-place

concrete attained an estimated compressive strength of 2,200 psi.

The compressive strength of the in-place concrete was determined using the maturity

method. Temperature readings from thermocouples embedded in the test slab were used to

compute the Time Temperature Factor (TTF) of the in-place concrete, which was used to

determine the compressive strength using the maturity calibration of the same concrete. The

maturity calibration of a laboratory-prepared concrete of the same mix design was used in this

case.































































8 910


Figure 5-2 shows the relationship between the compressive strength and the TTF of the

laboratory-prepared mix. To attain a compressive strength of 2,200 psi, the TTF has to be equal

to or greater than 400 C-hr. Figure 5-3 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place

concrete in Slab 1. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 400 C-hr. at approximately 7 hours.

Thus, HVS loading of Slab 1 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement.


7000

m 6000

S5000

~4000

S3000

S2000

E 1000


0 5000 10000 15000
TTF (C-Hour)


20000 25000


Figure 5-2. Compressive strength vs. TTF for laboratory-prepared mix.



TTF vs Time at the Slab 1


600

500


4 00

3 00


100


01234567
Time (Hour)

Figure 5-3. TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 1.










5.2.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 1

Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 1 were taken and used to perform the maturity

calibration. The maturity calibration of the actual concrete used in Slab 1 was used to determine

the strength of the in-place concrete at different times. Table 5-1 shows the compressive

strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured samples of the concrete from Slab 1,

which were used to determine maturity calibration of this mix. Table 5-1 also shows the

computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 1 by using

this maturity calibration.

Three cylindrical specimens made with the concrete mix from Slab 1 were placed next to

the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the slab. These specimens were tested for

their compressive strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average compressive

strength of 1,760 psi was obtained. This value was slightly less than the value of 2,200 psi as

predicted by the maturity calibration of the laboratory-prepared specimen. However, this value

matched well with the predicted strength values from the maturity calibration of the actual

concrete from Slab 1.

Table 5-1. Strength analysis for concrete in Slab 1 using maturity method.
TTF TTF R R fe fe
Time (Lab) (Slab) (Lab) (Slab) (Lab) (Slab)
Start 0 0 0 0 0 0
5-hour 280.4 -320 737.4 1,400
6-hour 250.1 338.5 291.8 360 1,222.8 1,600
7-hour 396.0 -400 (397*) -1,850 (1760*)
9-hour -507.8 -480 1,851.5 2, 100
24-hour 846.4 1,195.9 592.2 620 3,630.9 3,900
168-hour 5,079.3 5,697.5 762.1 780 5,633.6 5,700
672-hour 21,252.2 800.9 -6,428.8-
Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab
TTF = time-temperature factor, hr-og
R = Flexural strengths, psi
f,= Compressive strengths, psi









5.2.3 Observed Performance of Slab 1

HVS loading using al2-kip super single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was

applied to Slab 1 along its free edge for 7 days with a total load repetitions of 85,254 passes. The

wheel load was increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for 3 days with an additional

37,880 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was

loaded for 3 days with an additional 35,676 passes of the 18-kip load. A corner crack was

observed on the north end of the slab at that time and the slab was loaded with an additional of

the 18-kip load for 20,506 passes before the HVS testing was stopped.

Figure 5-4 shows a picture of the corner crack and the transverse cracks at the mid-edge of

the slab. The corner crack had the shape of a quarter-circle with a radius of about 3 feet. In

addition to the corner crack, a few transverse cracks had also occurred at the mid-edge of the

slab. Crack pattern and locations of the cracks after testing with 18-kip loads are shown in

Figure 5-5.


Figure 5-4. Cracks after HVS loading with 18-kip load. A) Corner crack at the north end of Slab
1. B) Transverse cracks at mid edge of Slab 1.









































I \ HVS Wheel Path


'i!





--r~m~i"











~.. ,
*r
~..


16'


O' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7'


8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15'


Test Slab 1


O


Figure 5-5. Observed cracks on Test Slab 1. A) Crack Pattern (corner crack and transverse
Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Loads, at locations of computed maximum stresses).
B) Locations of Corner Crack and Transverse Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Load.










5.3 Slab 2


5.3.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 2

The concrete mix used in Slab 2 had the same mix design as that used in Slab 1, which had

a cement content of 850 lb per cubic yard of concrete. HVS loading of Slab 2 was to start when

the in-place concrete attained an estimated flexural strength of 300 psi.

The TTF of the in-place concrete was used to predict the flexural strength of the concrete

using the maturity calibration of the concrete from Slab 1. This was a reasonable thing to do

since Slab 2 used the same concrete mix as Slab 1. Figure 5-6 shows the relationship between

the flexural strength and the TTF of the concrete used in Slab 1. To attain a flexural strength of

300 psi, the TTF has to be equal to or greater than 300 C-hr. Figure 5-7 shows the plot of TTF

versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 2. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 300 C-hr. at

approximately 5 hours. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 2 was started at 5 hours after concrete

placement.


900
800 *
v, 700
.= 6 00
;500
S400
S300
S200
100


0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
TTF (C-Hour)


Figure 5-6. Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete mix from Slab 1.










TTF vs Time at the Slab 2


500
9 400
~O300
S200
100


2345678910
Time (Hour)


Figure 5-7. TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 2.

5.3.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 2

Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 2 were taken and used to perform the maturity

calibration. The maturity calibration of the actual concrete used in Slab 2 was then used to

determine the flexural and compressive strengths of the in-place concrete at different times.

Table 5-2 shows the compressive strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured

samples of the concrete from Slab 2, which were used to determine the maturity calibration of

this mix. Table 5-2 also presents the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the

in-place concrete in Slab 2 by using this maturity calibration.

Two beam specimens made with the actual concrete mix used in Slab 2 were placed next

to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as this test slab. These specimens were

tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (5 hours). An average flexural

strength of 402 psi was obtained from these samples at 5 hours. This value was substantially

higher than the value of 300 psi as predicted by the maturity calibration of concrete mix sampled

from Slab 1. However, this measured flexural strength of 402 psi at 5 hours matched well with

the other predicted strength values from the maturity calibration of the actual concrete from Slab










Table 5-2. Strength analsis for concrete in Slab 2 using maturity method.
TTF TTF TTF R Rfee
Time (eam) (Cylinder) (Slab) (ab) (Slab) (ab) (Slab)
Start 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4-hour 171.2 244.2 -360.0 890.5 1,000.0
390.0 1,350.0
5-hour -- 301.7 -(401.5*) -(1,433.3*)
8-hour 261.1 250.1 358.0 389.5 450.0 1,094.5 1,850.0
24-hour 324.3 466.8 -500.0 1,560.0 2,600.0
168-hour 890.6 846.4 1,237.7 575.7 590.0 3,225.0 3,650.0
672-hour 5,145.3 5,079.3 5,794.2 723.7 730.0 5,951.1 6,150.0
Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab
TTF = time-temperature factor, hr-op
R = Flexural strengths, psi
f,= Compressive strengths, psi
5.3.3 Observed Performance of Slab 2

Similar HVS loading as used on Slab 1 was used on Slab 2. Slab 2 was loaded for 7 days

with a total of 87,785 passes of a 12-kip super single wheel load. The wheel load was increased

to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 42,239 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The

load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 37,617 passes of the

18-kip load. Some transverse cracks across the wheel path were observed at this point. Figure

5-8 shows pictures of these transverse cracks on the wheel path. Crack pattern and locations of

the cracks after testing with 18-kip load are shown in Figure 5-9.














A""""Ls""~ B
Figure 5-8. Transverse cracks on Test Slab 2. A) Cracks at the south end. (b) Cracks at mid
edge.































0' 1 2 3' 4 5' 6 7' 8' 9 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'

HYS W eel P th


Test Slab 2


O


Figure 5-9. Cracks on Test Slab 2. A) Crack pattern (Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Loads). B)
Locations of Cracks on Test Slab 2 after Testing with 18-kip Loads.











5.4 Slab 3


5.4.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 3

The concrete mix for Slab 3 had a cement content of 725 lb per cubic yard of concrete.

HVS loading of Slab 3 was to start when the in-place concrete attained an estimated flexural

strength of 300 psi. The TTF of the in-place concrete was used to predict the flexural strength of

the concrete using the maturity calibration of the laboratory-prepared Mix 2. Figure 5-10 shows

the relationship between the flexural strength and the TTF of the concrete according to the

maturity calibration of the laboratory-prepared mix. To attain a flexural strength of 300 psi, the

TTF had to be equal or greater than 160 C-hr. Figure 5-11 shows the plot of TTF versus time for

the in-place concrete in Slab 3. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 190 C-hour at


approximately 4 hours. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 3 was started at 4 hours after concrete

placement.


900
8 0 0 - - -
(n 700 - - -
S600
S500
S400 -
3 0 0 - - -
L, 200 - -
100 -

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

TTF (C-Hour)



Figure 5-10. Flexural Strength vs. TTF for Laboratory-Prepared Mix 2.




















































6000




25 000


,00


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
TTF (C-Hour)


TTF vs Time at the Slab 3


600

500

~400

300

1- 200

100

O


0 1


2345
Time (Hour)


6 7 8 9 10


Figure 5-11. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 3.

5.4.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 3

Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 3 were taken and used to perform the maturity

calibration. The maturity calibration of the actual concrete used in Slab 3 was used to determine

the strength of the in-place concrete at different times. Figures 5-12 show the plots of


compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF, respectively, for the concrete mix used in

Slab 3.


~300

~200

LL100


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
TTF (C-Hour)


Figure 5-12. Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 3. A) Compressive Strength vs. TTF.
B) Flexural Strength vs. TTF.










Table 5-3 shows the compressive strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory

cured samples of the concrete from Slab 3, which were used to determine maturity calibration of

this mix. Figure 5-13 shows the temperature history of these specimens. Table 3.1 also shows

the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 3 by

using this maturity calibration.





29 cylinder#1
28 cylinder#2
Ro"J -tU Beam#1
0 25 Curing Temperature

16 2



Tim 23ur

Figure~~~ 223 eprtr hsoyo h pciesfo lb







0 2h u 4 6 0 214 1 8 02 4 62 0 23 638 4 4 4 4 4 505 45 58 60 6 564 66 687
6-hour ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Tm (hour)1 9.6 20 5 106 ,0

Figure 5-3 Tepeatr history of. th specmen from4 Slab3



34-hour 112.6 -5. 1348.2 156 17 ,70 -4500




168-hour 4,999.6 4,961.1 5,702.11 560 5,324 5,700
672-hour 19713.5 19650.5 -1 805 1- 6,810
Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab
TTF = time-temperature factor, hr-op
R = Flexural strengths, psi
f,= Compressive strengths, psi









Two beam specimens made with the actual concrete mix used in Slab 3 were placed next to

the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were tested

for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (4 hours). An average flexural strength

of 184 psi was obtained from these samples at 4 hours. This measured flexural strength was very

close to the predicted flexural strength value (215 psi) from the maturity calibration of the actual

concrete from Slab 3. However, this value was substantially lower than the value of 300 psi as

predicted by the maturity calibration of laboratory-prepared Mix 2, which was done in October

2006. Using the relationship between flexural strength and TTF (as presented in Figure 5-10)

had resulted in over-predicting the strength of the in-place concrete.

5.4.3 Observed Performance of Slab 3

HVS loading of Test Slab 3 was started 4 hours after concrete placement. A 12-kip super

single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge

of the slab.

On the second day, a 12-inch transverse crack was observed at the mid-edge of the slab, as

shown in Figure 5-14-A. After 47,170 passes of the 12-kip load, a few small transverse cracks

had also occurred at the mid-edge of the slab as shown in Figure 5-14-B. The slab was

continuously loaded with the 12-kip load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 95,042 passes.

The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3 days

with an additional 3 5,915 passes of the 15-kip wheel load when a corner crack of about 3 feet

radius was observed at the north end, as shown in Figure 5-14-C. The load was then increased to

18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 3 more days with an additional 37,580 passes. After 3 days

of 18 kips load, a corner crack of 4 feet radius was observed at the south end of the slab, as

shown in Figure 5-14-D.

























;* ~* :~
,...

,
'::~'1
i'~'" r .
;li


T:;ld?:
'" C .


r.


Figure 5-14. Cracks on Test Slab 3. A) First transverse crack 6 feet from the north end. B)
Transverse cracks at mid edge. C) Corner crack at the north end. D) Corner crack at
the south end.


Crack pattern and locations of the cracks after testing with 18-kip load are shown in Figure


5-15. Figure 5-15-B shows a drawing of the locations of the cracks on this test slab.



























110




























*I*~ r,

.;?*.t,
~lb
'"' ';r;'?
1L
f.

~. *~:, filii~`
~I;, ~, j, P, '"-
r
1;
,.i.
.i ;;ltr:* :'t
*' ;' '
ti~: c


0' 1 2 3' 4 5' 6 7' 8' 9 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


I HVSW~eel Path ,'


Test Slab 3


O


Figure 5-15. Cracks on Test Slab 3. A) Crack Pattern (a corner crack of about 3-feet radius after
testing with 15-kip load). B) Locations of cracks.










5.5 Slab 4


5.5.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 4

Test Slab 4 used the same concrete mix as that used in Slab 3. HVS loading of Slab 4 was

to start when the in-place concrete attained an estimated flexural strength of 300 psi. Therefore,

the TTF of the in-place concrete was used to predict the flexural strength of the concrete using

the maturity calibration of the concrete from Slab 3. Figure 5-16 shows the relationship between

the flexural strength and the TTF of the concrete according to the maturity calibration of the

concrete from Slab 3. To attain a flexural strength of 300 psi, the TTF had to be equal or greater

than 370 C-hour. Figure 5-17 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in

Slab 4. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 400 C-hour at approximately 7 hours. This would

give an estimated flexural strength of over 300 psi. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 4 was started at 7

hours after concrete placement.


600

._500



S300




100

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
-TTF (C-Hour)


Figure 5-16. Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete from Slab 3.



















































6000




`5 2000

0 1000 --

200

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
TTF (C-Hour)


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
TTF (C-Hour)


TTF vs Time at the Slab 4


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time (Hour)


Figure 5-17. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 4.

5.5.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 4

Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 4 were taken and used to perform the maturity

calibration. The maturity calibration of the actual concrete used in Slab 4 was used to determine

the strength of the in-place concrete at different times. Figure 5-18 shows the plots of


compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF for the concrete mix used in Slab 4.


Figure 5-18. Strengths vs. TTF for the Concrete from Slab 4. A) Compressive Strength vs. TTF.
B) Flexural Strength vs. TTF.











Table 5-4 shows the compressive strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory


cured samples of the concrete from Slab 4, which were used to determine maturity calibration of


this mix. Figure 5-19 shows the temperature history of these specimens. Table 5-4 also shows


the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 4 by


using this maturity calibration.







33 Of Inder#1
30 """B88m#l
S29 \ 3 CUning Temperature
S28


E24




|--e 23ur

Figre5-9.Tepeatrehitoy o te peimnsfrm 22 4
Tabe -4 Dtafo mtuit cliratonofcocrteusd n l214
20 TF TF






0-ou 1 2. 3 4 5 8 9 10 1 12. 13 14 5 16 1 148 5. 19 20



672-hourTim (hour) 2,60

Figue 5-19.a sTemeratur itr of ape lc b the spcienst frm la4

TF TFTTF R Rietmprtr fcor fe-"

4-or 17. 173.9ra 224.0ts 19 10-1,0
5-hou 218.8siv 214.0ts 28. 2092 ,0









Two beam specimens made with the actual concrete mix used in Slab 4 were placed next

to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were

tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average flexural

strength of 305 psi was obtained from these samples at 7 hours. This measured flexural strength

was very close to the predicted flexural strength value (295 psi) from the maturity calibration of

the actual concrete from Slab 4.

5.5.3 Observed Performance of Slab 4

HVS loading of Test Slab 4 was started 7 hours after concrete placement. A 12-kip super

single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge

of the slab. On the second day, a corner crack of about 5 feet radius was formed at the south end,

as shown in Figure 5-20. It was found out later from the strain data (as described in Chapter 8)

that the first crack corner happened at about 41 hours after the placement or after 15,175 passes

of 12-kip load. The slab was continuously loaded with the 12-kip load for 7 days with a total

load repetition of 82,963 passes. Two 12-inch transverse cracks were observed at the mid-edge

of the slab, as shown in Figure 5-21-A. Shrinkage cracks were also observed at about four feet

away from the wheel path, as shown in Figure 5-21-B.

The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3

days with an additional 53,420 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The load was then increased to

18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 2 more days with an additional 18,243 passes. After 2 days

of 18-kip loads, a corner crack of 4 feet radius at the north end of the slab and cracks at the mid

edge was observed, as shown in Figure 5-22. It is to be noted that the new corner crack and the

cracks at the mid edge were at the locations of maximum load-induced stresses according to the

stress analyses.















I r:~E:
r;
b~.; .;~, ',~liL~?~qE71E~-~iS;


0' 1 2 3' 4 5' 6 7' 8' 9 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


Figure 5-20. Cracks on the second day of loading on Test Slab 4. A) First corner crack at the
south end. B) Corner cracks at the south end of Slab 4 and the adjacent slab.












116


Adjacent Slab


Test Slab 4





























"
CI? .1 .: .: .:. ,.. r;. ., r ~ n In, rnm ~*~


R~k~~ c~s ~R~~n~a- L~n-,la cB















Figure 5-21. Cracks in Slab 4 on Day 7. A) Mid-edge cracks after the first corner crack. B)
Drying shrinkage cracks at 3 to 4 Feet from the wheel path.














































HVS Wheel Path I


~-J*I ~rr-
rr




_s'i 1 '' ,r
,4~7~jj:, ~C;L~LC~~
~c~- ;; ~~
r~~,;
.~ ~~;~i~ ;
p;*~; .ri-~j~li ; ,!;.;,.: *i ..; y~i;"'.. )
..s ;?* ;J

r.



$i~irC '


O' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5'


6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


Test Slab 4


Figure 5-22. Cracks after loading with 18-kip wheel load on Test Slab 4. A) Crack pattern. B)
Locations of corner and transverse cracks.







118










5.6 Slab 5

5.6.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 5

The concrete used for this Slab 5 had the same mix design as that used in Slabs 3 and 4.

HVS loading of Slab 5 was to start when the in-place concrete attained an estimated flexural

strength of 300 psi. Therefore, the TTF of the in-place concrete was used to predict the flexural

strength of the concrete using the maturity calibration of the concrete from Slab 3 or Slab 4. To

attain a flexural strength of 300 psi, the TTF had to be equal or greater than 370 C-hour. Figure

5-23 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 5. It can be seen that

TTF was equal to 380 C-hour at approximately 7 hours. This would give an estimated flexural

strength of over 300 psi. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 5 was started at 7 hours after concrete

placement.



TTF vs Time at the Slab 5

600

500

S400

S300

200

100


012345678910
Time (Hour)


Figure 5-23. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 5.











5.6.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 5

Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 5 were taken and used to perform the maturity

calibration. The maturity calibration of the actual concrete used in Slab 5 was used to determine


the strength of the in-place concrete at different times. Figure 5-24 show the plots of compressive


strength and flexural strength versus TTF for the concrete mix used in Slab 5.





8000 700
~7000 600 -- -- -
.c6000 50
~500040
z 400 --*
34000---30--- -- --
"00
23000 -


S1000 100
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
TTF (C-Hour) TTF (C-Hour)



Figure 5-24. Strengths vs. TTF for the Concrete from Slab 5. A) Compressive Strength vs. TTF.
B) Flexural Strength vs. TTF.




Table 5-5 shows the compressive strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory


cured samples of the concrete from Slab 5, which were used to determine maturity calibration of


this mix. Figure 5-25 shows the temperature history of these specimens. Table 5-4 also shows


the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 5 by


using this maturity calibration.















































Table 5-5. Data for maturity calibration of concrete used in Slab 5.
TTF TTF TTF R Rfee
Time (Beam) (Cylinder) (Slab) (Lab) (Slab) (Lab) (Slab)

4-hour 207.4 202.2 205.8 307.0 305 1,348.8 1350
6-hour 305.6 289.9 314.5 404.8 410 2, 161.0 2,250
420 2400
7-hour 351.7 330.0 366.9 371.1*) -2,828.4*)

8-hour 395.8 368.1 421.2 -430 2,371.7 2,500

24-hour 983.4 909.4 1192.2 581.9 585 3,623.6 3,800

168-hour 5,606.55 5,524.3 6546.5 612.1 620.0 6,155.9 6,300
672-hour 21,784.95 21,678.2 715.6 -7,463.2-
Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab
TTF = time-temperature factor, hr-og
R = Flexural strengths, psi
f,= Compressive strengths, psi


50
49
48
47
46

43
42 Cylinder#1
40 Cylinder#2
3- Beam#1
37a
36 Curing Temperature






15
0 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 4 1 6 1 1 9 2 1 2
Tim (hur

Fiur 525. Teprtr itoyo h pcmesfo lb5









Two beam specimens made with the actual concrete mix used in Slab 5 were placed next to

the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were tested

for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average flexural strength

of 371 psi was obtained from these samples at 7 hours. This measured flexural strength was

higher than the value of 300 psi as predicted by the maturity calibration of concrete mix samples

from Slab 3. However, the predicted flexural strength value (420 psi) at 7 hours matched well

with the other predicted strength values from the maturity calibration of the actual concrete from

Slab 5.

5.6.3 Observed Performance of Slab 5

HVS loading of Test Slab 5 was started 7 hours after concrete placement. A 12-kip super

single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge

of the slab. On the second day, a full-depth transverse crack of about 12 feet along the test slab

was formed at the mid-slab, as shown in Figure 5-26. The slab was continuously loaded with the

12-kip load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 81,062 passes. Two longitudinal cracks that

separated the test slab into 4 pieces were observed, as shown in Figure 5-27.

The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3

days with an additional 49,748 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The load was then increased to

18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 2 more days with an additional 22,551 passes. After 2 days

of 18-kip loads, an additional 14-inch transverse crack was observed at the mid-edge on the

wheel path, as shown in Figure 5-28.

































O' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7'


8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15'


HVS Wheel Path


Test Slab 5


Figure 5-26. First crack on Slab 5 in Day 2 after HVS loading. A) First crack observed at the
mid-slab. B) First crack on the wheel path at 7 feet from the South End. C) Location
of the mid-slab crack.









































HVS Wheel Path


C I_L
-~1~ ..- -
u-c-
St~~I
C. ~ qr
"I~";~
~;::,~
'`

jru' ~:~ IS`
r


O' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7'


8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


Test Slab 5


Figure 5-27. Cracks on Slab 5 in Day 7 after HVS loading. A) Cracks observed at the mid-slab.

B) Cracks develop from the first crack to both side of the slab. C) Crack pattern.


















124
































HVS Wheel Path


8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


O' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7'


Test Slab 5


O


Figure 5-28. Cracks on Slab 5 at the finish ofHVS testing. A) A 14-inch Transverse crack on the
wheel path at the mid-edge. B) Crack pattern.









CHAPTER 6
CHARACTERIZATION OF CONCRETE MIXES AND TEST SLABS

6.1 Characterization of Concrete Mixes

6.1.1 Results of Tests on Concrete

The compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of

elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion and drying shrinkage of the concrete mixes used in

this study are presented this section. The details of the mix designs and test methods are

presented in Chapter 3 of this dissertation. The concrete mixes are divided into two groups. The

first group of mixes that were to have a target cement content of 850 lb per cubic yard of

concrete, they include Mix 1, Mix 3, Slab 1 and Slab 2. The second group includes Mix 2, Slab

3, Slab 4 and Slab 5 which have a target cement content of 725 lb per cubic yard of concrete.

Compressive Strength

The average compressive strengths from three specimens per condition are presented in

Table 6-1.

Figure 6-1 shows the plots of average compressive strength at various curing times.

Table 6-1. Averae compressive strength of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Compressive Strength, fc(si)
Time
(hours) Mix 1 Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
4 798 -- 891 1,262 -- 1,349
5 1,125 -737 993 1,729 563 952 1,755
6 1,453 1,747 1,223 1,095 2,195 1,076 1,219 2, 161
8 1,730 2,019 1,642 1,560 2,526 1,240 1,486 2,372
24 3,941 4,199 3,631 3,225 3,891 3,370 3,023 3,624
168 5,792 5,746 5,634 5,951 6,082 5,324 5,388 6, 156
672 6,469 6,220 6,429 6,647 6,649 6,810 6,921 7,463













7,000-

S6,0001 i

S5,000 -1 -k/f"- Mix 3
I ~W//-I- Slab 1
S4,000 Slab 2

8 3,000---Mi2
E ~5 Slab 3
0 2,000 -Sa
-a ~Slab 4



4 5 6 8 24 168 672
Curing Age (hours)


8,00A


8,000

7,000

6 ,000

5,000


S3,000

2,000 +
m: 725 Mixes
1,000 -I 850 Mixes


1 10 100 1000
Curing Age (log-scale, hours)



Figure 6-1. Compressive Strength at various times of all concrete mixes in this study. A)
Average compressive strengths by each mix. B) Average compressive strengths
grouped by cement content vs. curing age in log scale.


8,000










Flexural Strength

The average flexural strengths from two beams per curing time of two laboratory-

prepared mixes, namely Mixes 1 and 2, and of five concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely

Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-2. Figure 6-2 shows also the plots of average

flexural strength of all these mixes at various curing times.


Table 6-2. Average flexural strength of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Flexural Strenth fR(Si
Time
(hours) li Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
4 250 -- 266 187 196 307
5 319 -- 358 219 205 356
6 388 292 390 450 250 214 405
24 607 592 576 686 472 511 582
168 740 762 724 831 556 707 612
672 770 801 775 887 805 819 716


1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0


Mix 1

-m- Slab 1

-Slab 2
--Mix 2

Slab 3

-a- Slab 4

-* Slab 5


5 6 24
Curing Age (hours)


168 672


Figure 6-2. Average compressive strength of all mixes evaluated at various curing times.










Typical facture surfaces of a beam specimen are shown in Figure 6-3. It shows that at the

early age (about 4 to 6 hours), at the breaking area, only some aggregate are fractured. At the

later age, most aggregate are fractured at the breaking area.














?- A i. ~ s F.~~ B

Figure 6-3. Typical facture of a beam. A) Beam facture at the early age (only some aggregate cut
at the breaking area). B) Beam facture at the later age (most aggregate cut at the
breaking area).

Splitting Tensile Strengths

The average splitting tensile strengths from three cylinders per curing time of five

concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-3. Figure

6-4 shows also the plots of average splitting tensile strength at various curing times.

Table 6-3. Average splitting. tensile strength of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Splitting Tensile Strength, fr(si)
Time
(ours) Slab 1 Slab [2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
6 141 187 134 173 251
24 248 322 289 317 392
168 325 418 449 589 529
672 385 472 560 678 585




































Figure 6-4. Average splitting tensile strength of all mixes evaluated at various curing times.

Modulus of Elasticity Test Results

The average elastic modulus from two cylinders (or four readings) per curing time of a

laboratory-prepared Mix 1, and, of five concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4

and 5 are presented in Table 6-4. Figure 6-5 shows the plots of average elastic modulus at

various curing times.

Table 6-4. Average elastic modulus of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Modulus of Elasticity, E (ksi)
Time
(ours) llix 3 Slab~ 1 Slab~ 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
4 -- 1,047 -- 1,900
5 -739 1,129 1,288 1,600 2,238
6 1,800 1,434 1,211 1,563 1,763 2,575
8 1,961 1,559 1,700 1,813 1,925 2,875
24 3,250 2,662 1,913 2,813 3,150 3,563
168 3,800 3,481 3,470 3,250 3,488 3,863
672 4,413 3,752 3,825 3,650 3,875 4,288


-m- Slab 1
-Slab 2
Slab 3
-a- Slab 4
-* Slab 5


6 24 168 672
Curing Age (hours)











5,000

4,500-

4,000-

S3,500 -1 --Mix 3
I /~ Slab 1
.2 3,000-
~-Slab 2
0 2,500 -1 Slab 3

S2,000 t Slab 4
5 -*- Slab 5
S1,500-

1,000-

500-


4 5 6 8 24 168 672
Curing Age (hours)



Figure 6-5. Elastic modulus at various curing times.

Drying Shrinkage Test Results

The average drying shrinkage strain from three square prisms per curing time of two

laboratory-prepared Mixes 3 and 2, and of three concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs

3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-5. Figure 6-6 shows the plots of average drying shrinkage

strain at various curing times.

Table 6-5. Drying shrinkage strains of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Drying Shrinkage Strain, esh (in/in 10-6)
Time
(hours) Alx3 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 10.00 20.00 43.33 23.33 50.00
24 46.67 23.33 96.67 53.33 113.33
168 263.33 240.00 246.67 240.00 303.33
672 420.00 393.33 436.67 523.33 440.00














O 500-


a 400-
I I ~Mix 3
300 -m Mix 2
I /~ ISlab 3
=-a- Slab 4
.e 200-
I / ~-*- Slab 5

100-



6 8 24 168 672
Curing Age (hours)



Figure 6-6. Drying shrinkage strains at various curing times.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

The average coefficient of thermal expansion from three cylinder specimen (or six

readings) per curing time of two laboratory-prepared Mixes 3 and 2, and of five concrete mixes

used in test slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-6. Figure 6-7 shows the

plots of average coefficient of thermal expansion at various curing times.

Table 6-6. Coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete mixes used.
Curing Coefficient of Thermal E~xpansion, CT (i/F1-
Time
(hours) Rlix3 Slab Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
24 5.97 -6.75 6.36 6.28 6.46 6.27
168 6.01 6.15 7.01 6.13 6.18 6.13 6.07
672 5.98 -6.76 5.93 6.14 5.99 5.89











7.20




S68 -1 -o ~Mix 3
I I-m- Slab 1
6.60-
-A- Slab 2
6.40 Mix 2
E I I-.- Slab 3
2 6.20 -1 -a Slab 4
8 -* ~Slab 5
c 6.00-

4i 5.80-

5.60
24 168 672
Curing Age (hours)



Figure 6-7. Coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete mixes used.

6.1.2 Relationship among the Concrete Properties

Using the limited data from the mixes in this study, the relationships among the

compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength of the

concrete used were determined.


Since compressive strength of concrete is a common property to be obtained and

considered in structural design, compressive strength is related to other concrete properties.

Relationship between Compressive Strength and Flexural Strength

The relationship between compressive strength and the flexural strength was developed,

and plotted in Figure 6-8. Regression equation 6-1 was developed to present the best fit

relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength, the ACI equation for this

purpose is shown in equation 6-2.














































7000 8000


Figure 6-8. Relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength.

The power exponent (Coefficient B) of regression equation 6-1 is a little bit higher than

the recommended coefficient B from equation 6-2, and coefficient A from equation 6-1 is also

higher than that from equation 6-2. From the plots, it can be seen that using the recommended

values A and B from the equation 6-3 may underestimate the flexural strength based on the

experimental data in this study.


Regression equ~
ACI equation:



Where :


~ilZIZZ


= 0.9203

0.5


(6-1)

(6-2)


nation: R = 5.3 93 6 x fc'"

R = Ax fcB, A = 7.5, B =

Or R = 7.5 x fo 5


R = Flexural strength, in psi
f,= Compressive strength, in psi
A, B = Coefficients


1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Compressi\e Strength (psi)










Relationship between Compressive Strength and Splitting Tensile Strength

The relationship between splitting tensile strength and compressive strength was plotted in

Figure 6-9. Regression equation 6-3 was developed to present the best fit relationship between

compressive strength and splitting tensile strength.

Regression equation: ft = 1.3983 x fcO 6691, R2 = 0.8682 (6-3)

Where: fct = Splitting tensile strength, in psi
f,= Compressive strength, in psi



800

700-

5 600- o

400- o o





S200-

~o y = 1.3983x0 6691
100-
R2 = 0.8682


0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

Compressive Strength (psi)



Figure 6-9. Relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength.

Relationship between Splitting Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength

The relationship between flexural strength and splitting tensile strength was similarly

plotted in Figure 6-10. Regression equation 6-4 was developed to present the best fit relationship

between splitting tensile strength and flexural strength.










Regression equation: R = 7.9828 x fc 7247, R2 = 0.7693 (6-4)
Where: R = Flexural strength, in psi
for = Splitting tensile strength, in psi

1,000

900-

800 + o O

S 700 -

600 +

500-

400 -1 +

300 -1 y = 7.9828x0 7247
6 R2 = 0.7693
200 -1

100-


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Splitting Tensile Strength (psi)



Figure 6-10. Relationship between splitting tensile strength and flexural strength.

Relationship between Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity

The modulus of elasticity is an important material property that affects the stress/strain

behavior of the concrete slab, and is a needed input to the FEACONS model. Having enough

experimental data to develop the reliable relationship between compressive strength and modulus

of elasticity for slab replacement concrete mixes is needed to analyze the stress/strain behavior of

the concrete slabs.

The relationship between compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity was

developed, and plotted in Figure 6-11. Regression equation 6-5 was developed to present the best

fit relationship between compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. This is compared with

the ACI equation (6-6 through 6-8) for this purpose.



























I


Regression equation: E = 28.802 x f0O5606, R2 = 0.8801
Axw15
ACI equation: E = xx fc A = 33, B = 0.5, w = 140
1,000
33 x (140)'
E = x fo "
1,000
E = 54.665 x fos 5

Where: E = Elastic modulus, in ksi
f,= Compressive strength, in psi
w = Unit weight, in pci
A, B = Coefficients


(6-5)

(6-6)


(6-7)

(6-8)


5,000

-,0
4,500


4 ,000
-o
3,500

3, ,000

- 2,500
0
m ,000

S1500



0


y = 28.802x0 5606
R- = 0.8801


+ Measured Data

- ACI Model: A=54.7, B=0.50

- Relationship of the measured
data: A=28.8, B=0.56


y


1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Compressive Strength (psi)


7000 8000


Figure 6-11. Relationship between compressive strength and elastic modulus.

The power exponent (Coefficient B) of regression equation 6-5 is a little higher than the

recommended coefficient B from equation 6-8, and first constant from equation 6-5 is also

higher than that from the equation 6-8. From these plots, it can be seen that using the

recommended values A and B from equation 6-8 may overestimate the elastic modulus of the

concrete based on the experimental data in this study.










Relationship between Compressive Strength and Drying Shrinkage Strain

A relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain was developed,

and plotted in Figure 6-12. Regression equation 6-9 was developed to present the best fit

relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain.

Regression equation: Esh = 8.6286 e0 0006- fc R2 = 0.8193 (6-9)

Where: Esh = Drying shrinkage strain, in in/in x10-6
f,= Compressive strength, in psi



700

S600-

as 500-
~~~y =8.6286e0 06
5 40 -R2 = 0.8193

300-

.c 200-

100 -1 oo



0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

Compressive Strength (psi)



Figure 6-12. Relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain.

Relationship between Modulus of Elasticity and Drying Shrinkage Strain

The relationship between elastic modulus and drying shrinkage strain is shown in Figure 6-

13. Regression equation 6-10 was developed to present the best fit relationship between modulus

of elasticity and drying shrinkage strain.










Regression equation: Esh = 1.6734 e0 0014- fc R2 = 0.8792

Where: Esh = Drying shrinkage strain, in in/in x10-6
f,= Compressive strength, in psi


(6-10)


From the experimental data in this study, it shows that the relationship between elastic

modulus and drying shrinkage strain gives a little bit better fit than the relationship between

compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain.


700
b
'600

c500

400 y =1.6734e0.0014x
on R2 = 0.8792
S300- -O

a 200

L~100 -1 o~



0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

Modulus of Elasticity (psi)


Figure 6-13. Relationship between modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage strain.

6.2 Slab Characterization

Five test slabs were evaluated in this study. The characterization of the test slabs are

presented in this section by means of temperature data, j oint movement measurement, FWD

testing and core testing. Figure 6-14 shows a plan view of typical location and configuration of a

test slab confined with adj acent slabs.















Ad lacent Slab IAdjacent Slab Ad~jacent Slab

Edge




/ Cententr



Joinrt~ Joint
Adjacent Slab Test Slab Adjacent Slab



Figure 6-14. Plan view of the typical location and configuration of a test slab.

6.2.1 Analysis of Temperature Data

Thermocouples in the instrumentation plan (see detail in Chapter 4) were placed in three

locations as shown in Figure 6-15, namely (1) the slab corner on the side of the slab not loaded

by the HVS wheel, (2) the slab corner on the wheel path, and (3) the slab center. At each

location, six thermocouples were placed at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 inches from the concrete surface

and at 1 inch below the surface of the asphalt base as shown in Figure 6-16.





































































10.0" Asphal( Concrete Layer


XX.X" Thermocouple Positions from the Concrete Surface


Figure 6-16. Vertical positions of thermocouples.


S2 -- On the wheel path


HVS Wheel Path


S3 -- At the slab center

Test Slab








-L 1 -- At the slab corner at the side which will not be loaded by the HVS wheel

S12" )


Figure 6-15. Plan view of locations of thermocouples.


Concrete Slab


,Plastic Rod











Temperature differentials in the concrete slab (as calculated from the temperature at 0.5"

from the top of the slab the temperature at the base layer) slab are plotted against time for Slabs

1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Figures 6-17 to 6-21, respectively.



30.00

ou. 25.O0

20.00

S 15.00

S 10.00
E 5.00 I

E 0.00

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00
03/21/06 03/23/06 03/25/06 03/27/06 03/29/06 03/31/06 04/02/06 04/04/06 04/06/06

Comer out VWheelpath Center Corner on VWheelpath



Figure 6-17. Temperature differential variation in Slab 1.

It can be seen that the temperature differentials fluctuated between positive values in the

daytime to negative values at night. For Slabs 1 in March 2006, the maximum positive

temperature differential was around +28 OF, while the maximum negative temperature

differential was about -16 oF.












40

L.
S 30


20










-20


06/01/06 06/03/06 06/05/06 06/07/06 06/09/06 06/11/06 06/13/06 06/15/06 06/17/06 06/19/06

Ti me


Comer out Wheelpath Center Comer on wh~eelpath



Figure 6-18. Temperature differential variation in Slab 2.


40

LI.
30


20




1--0



.0 -1 0


-20
04/05/07 04/07/07 04/09/07 04/11/07 04/1 3/07 04/1 5/07 04/1 7/07 04/1 9/07

Time


Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on wheelpath



Figure 6-19. Temperature differential variation in Slab 3.








































































I


-00

40.00


-00

30.00



20.00






-10.00


-20.00 '
07/11/07 07/1 3/07 07/1 5/07 07/1 7/07 07/1 9/07 07/21/07 07/23/07 07/25/07

Comer out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath

Figure 6-20. Temperature differential variation in Slab 4.


50


u- 40



00

c30

-

a, 10


S0

-
0-10


08/29/07 08/31/07 09/02/07 09/04/07 09/06/07 09/08/07 09/1 0/07 09/1 2/07

Corner out Wheelpath Center Comer on Wheelpath

Figure 6-21. Temperature differential variation in Slab 5.


-20










For Slab 2 in June 2006, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +35

OF, while the maximum negative temperature differential was around -14 oF. For Slab 3 in April

2007, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +29 OF, while the maximum

negative temperature differential was around -17 oF. For Slab 4 in July 2007, the maximum

positive temperature differential was around +35 OF, while the maximum negative temperature

differential was around -13 oF. Finally for Slab 5 in September 2007, the maximum positive

temperature differential was around +41 OF, while the maximum negative temperature

differential was around -16 oF.

Table 6-7 presents the maximum positive and negative temperature differential data for

the test slabs. From all test slabs observed at different times is this study, the maximum positive

temperature differential was as high as high to about +41 OF, while the maximum negative

temperature differential was about -17 oF. These maximum positive and negative temperatures

are used to evaluate the maximum stresses due to temperature and load that might apply to

replacement slabs in Florida conditions.

The base layer of test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4 was a 2-inch asphalt concrete (AC) layer, while it

was a compacted limestone layer in Slab 5.

Figure 6-22 shows the temperature on the surface of the AC layer in Slab 1. This plot

presents an example of the variation of the temperature in the AC layer which is an important

parameter affecting the elastic modulus of the AC and the stress/strain behavior of the concrete

test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4.










Table 6-7. Maximum temperature differential on the test slabs.
Slab 1, 3/21/06 4/6/06 Positive Negtve
Comer out the Wheel Path 26.94 -14.63
Comer on the Wheel Path 15.51 -13.01
Center 24.75 -15.78
Slab 2, 6/1/06 6/19/06 Positive Negtve
Comer out the Wheel Path 34.91 -13.78
Comer on the Wheel Path 14.07 -11.68
Center 18.77 -13.79
Slab 3, 4/5/07 4/19/07 Positive Negtve
Comer out the Wheel Path 29.02 -16.14
Comer on the Wheel Path 19.39 -13.83
Center 27.29 -16.92
Slab 4, 7/11/07 7/19/07 Positive Negtve
Comer out the Wheel Path 34.87 -10.16
Comer on the Wheel Path 33.80 -13.15
Center 24.07 -9.10
Slab 5, 8/29/07 9/11/07 Positive Negtve
Comer out the Wheel Path 25.20 -15.77
Comer on the Wheel Path 40.81 -14.84
Center 16.21 -9.21


I


50 '
03/21/06 03/23/06 03/25/06 03/27/06 03/29/06 03/31/06 04/02/06 04/04/06 04/06/06

Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath



Figure 6-22. Temperature on the surface of the AC layer in the test Slab 1.


110

100

90

80

70

60










Figure 6-23 shows the variation of the temperature at the top (0.5" depth) and bottom

(8.5" depth) of concrete slab as well as the temperature of the base layer (10.0" depth) at the

corner of Test Slab 5. After placement of the test slab in day time, the temperature at the top of

the concrete slab was higher than that at the bottom. At night, the temperature at the bottom of

the slab appeared to be higher than that at the top. So the negative temperature differential was

high. This high negative temperature differential might cause the concrete slab to curl up along

the joints and edges for a few days after the placement. These negative temperature differentials

at the first few days are to be considered in the evaluation of performance of the test slabs.



120

115

110_ n SlabT O.5--Corner on wheel path
-SlabB 8.5--Corner on wheel path
L ~~105 -1 ~ ~Base 10.0--Corner on wheelpath

100


90

80


75

70
8/29/07 8/29/07 8/30/07 8/30/07 8/31/07 8/31/07 9/1/07 9/1/07 9/2/07
12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM




Figure 6-23. Variation of the temperature in the top (0.5") and bottom (8.5") of concrete slab and
the temperature of the base layer (10.0") at the corner of Test Slab 5.

Figure 6-24 shows temperature distribution at the maximum positive and negative

temperature in the concrete Slab 1. It can be seen that maximum positive temperature differential

occurred in afternoon and maximum negative temperature differential occurred in early morning.





S lab 1 -- Maxi mum of 26.94 F Temperature Differential on 3/29/2006, 1 4:45
70 75 80 85 90 95


S2 5
O 6-

E
o







70






0




0 10
11


Concrete Layer


-Corner out Wheelpath -Center -Corner on Wheelpath


Slab 1-- Mi ni mum of -15.78 F Temperature Differential on 3/22/2006, 8:55
75 80 85 90 95


Concrete Layer


***********************


-Corner out Wheelpath -Center -Corner on Wheelpath



Figure 6-24. Temperature distribution at the maximum positive and negative temperature in Test
Slab 1. A) Temperature distribution at the maximum positive temperature. B)
Temperature distribution at the maximum negative temperature.










6.2.2 Joint Opening Measurement

Two pairs of Whittemore gauge inserts were placed at the j points of each test slab to

measure j oint movement. Each pair of Whittemore inserts were placed at two inches from the

j oint. The j oint movement was measured by Whittemore gauge at different times of the day.

These inserts were fixed to concrete before the fresh concrete stiffened during placement. Figure

6-25 shows the Whittemore inserts fixed at the j oint and the standard Invar bar. The Invar bar is

a reference bar which was used to calibrate the Whittemore gauge.

Table 6-8 shows the joint opening readings which were taken on Test Slabs 1 and 2.

Figures 6-26 and 6-27 present the plots of joint movement versus time on Test Slabs 1 and 2

respectively. A negative value in the joint movement means that the joint was closing due to the

expansion of the concrete slab, while a positive value means it was opening due to contraction.

The maximum measured j oint movement was about 0.04 in.













A B
Figure 6-25. Joint opening measurements. A) Inserts on both sides of joint and calibration bar
opening (Invar bar). B) Whittemore gauge for measuring j oint.










LUI -. pVII g gII .\U~
Di stance
between inserts Joint Movement
Slab 1 GueReadin (inch) (ich)
Time Calibration J1* J2* J1 J2 J1 J2
8:30 AM 0.073 0.0668 0.0143 4.0062 4.0587
10:00 AM 0.0725 0.0701 0.0156 4.0024 4.0569 -0.0038 -0.0018
11:00 AM 0.0727 0.0775 0.0201 3.9952 4.0526 -0.011 -0.0061
1:30 PM 0.073 0.091 0.023 3.982 4.05 -0.0242 -0.0087
2:30 PM 0.0725 0.099 0.0285 3.9735 4.044 -0.0327 -0.0147
3:30 PM 0.0726 0.103 0.0356 3.9696 4.037 -0.0366 -0.0217
4:30 PM 0.073 0.1035 0.0433 3.9695 4.0297 -0.0367 -0.029
5:30 PM 0.0729 0.0982 0.0395 3.9747 4.0334 -0.0315 -0.0253
Di stance
between inserts Joint Movement
Slab 2 Gauge Reading (inch) (inch)
Time Calibration J1 J2 J1 J2 J1 J2
10:30 AM 0.0715 0.0585 0.152 4.013 3.9195
11:30 AM 0.072 0.0475 0.158 4.0245 3.914 0.0115 -0.0055
12:30 PM 0.0651 0.0535 0.1582 4.0116 3.9069 -0.0014 -0.0126


Joint Movement vs Time

10:00 AM
-0.005-
:00 AM
-0.011:0P

;s -0.015 -1 2:30 PM

E -0.02-
0 3:30 PM
o -0.025 -5:30 PW

-0.03 -:30 PM

-0.035-

-0.04
6: 00 7: 30 9: 00 10: 30 12:00 1:30 3:00 4:30 6: 00 7: 30
AM AM AM AM PM PM PM PM PM PM

Time -o- Joint 1 -m- Joint 2


Figure 6-26. Joint movements on Slab 1.


Table 6-8 Joint O eni s


Joint at the south corner of the test slab


Note: J1


J2 Joint at the north corner of the test slab











Joint Movement vs Time
0.015


0.01-


2 0.005-



O

2 -0.05 -11:30 AM

-0.01-
12:30 PM
-0.015
9:36 AM 11:06 AM 12:36 PM 2:06 PM

Time -- Joint 1 -c-Joint 2

Figure 6-27. Joint movements on Slab 2.

6.2.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing

Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests were performed on all test slabs. The

measured FWD deflection basins were used to estimate the stiffness of the springs used to model

the modulus of subgrade reaction and load transfer at the joints and edges through a back-

calculation process. The back-calculation process also allowed for the verification of the elastic

modulus of the concrete and the base layer, previously evaluated from laboratory testing. The

details of calibration and verification of parameters used in a Einite element model are presented

in Chapter 7.

FWD tests were performed at early morning between 6 A.M. and 8 A.M. and at midday

between 2 P.M. At early morning, the temperature differential tends to be negative and the slab

tends to curl down at the center of the slab. This is an ideal time to run the FWD test at the center

of the slab for evaluation of the condition of the concrete slab and the layer underneath.









At mid day, the temperature differential tends to be positive and slab tends to curl down at

the edges and j points. This is the best time to run the FWD test for evaluation of joints because the

slab is more likely to be in full contact with the layer underneath at both the edges and joints.

FWD tests were to run on the test slabs using different loads. A replicate test was run right

after each test was completed to check for consistency.

Figure 6-28 shows the FWD load and sensor positions used for the FWD tests at the slab

center. The FWD loading plate was place at the center of the test slab. Two sensor locations are

along longitudinal and transversal directions. The same schemes were used for all the test slabs

to be tested in the early morning to evaluate the elastic modulus of the layers.

Figure 6-29 and 6-30 show the FWD load and sensor positions used for the FWD tests at

the slab edge and j oint, respectively. For the edge loading, the FWD loading plate was place at

the mid edge. One set of sensor locations are along the edge of the test slab and another set are

along the adj acent slab. Similarly for the j oint loading, the FWD loading plate was place at the

middle of the test slab's j oint. One set of sensor locations is along the j oint on the test slab and

another set are along the adj acent slab. The same schemes are used for all the test slabs to be test

in the mid day to evaluate the load transfer condition.

The results of the FWD tests on five test slabs are presented in the Appendix A of this

dissertation.




























16'-D"


nt Slab


Adjacent Slab


Adjacent SI;


Edge \

*r







Test Slab


SJoint


Joint \


Adjac


Figure 6-28. FWD tests at the slab center. A) FWD load and sensor locations at the slab center.
B) FWD test at the slab center and measuring deflection on the longitudinal direction.





























16'-D"


it Slab


Adjacent Slab


Adjacent


g 1 2 % 4 ; t 7
******ee


Test Slab


SJoint


Joint \


Adj.


C
L-


B


Figure 6-29. FWD tests at the slab edge. A) FWD load and sensor locations at the slab edge. B)
FWD test at the slab edge and measuring deflection on the opposite slab.


Edge \


Ia Dynatest
Faiting WNeight Defletom~eter














Edge


go~l (
+#
gg[l


I F
16'-D"


Slab


Adjacent Slab~


SJoint


Joint \


TeSt Slab


Adjac-ent Slab


~.';'~l~;'~r~irce~p~~Fcr;


~Lr3 _


__ e~-

~r~i;5~ i- i';ir'r u

II


Figure 6-30. FWD tests at the slab joint. A) FWD load and sensor locations at the slab joint. B)
FWD test at the slab j oint and measuring deflection on the adj acent slab.


Acdj~a~cnt Slab









6.2.4 Measurement of the HVS Laser Profiles

A laser based profiling system was installed on the Florida Department of Transportation' s

Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). This system enables a detailed analysis of the surface of the

test pavement; primarily the system evaluates the vertical profile of the test section, which is

scanned by the profiler. In this study, the laser profiling system was used to measure the curling

of the concrete test slabs at and near the wheel path.

The HVS laser profile was run on the test section at early morning between 5 A.M. and 6

A.M. and at midday between 2 P.M. during the HVS loading of the test slabs.

Figure 6-3 1 shows the side-shifting pattern of the laser profiler as it scans over the test

section. Figure 6-32 presents the test track matrix and the overlap area which is comprised of the

127 columns of data. Each laser produces 67 columns of data. There are a total of 134 columns

of data with 7 overlapping columns. Each column contains 58 data points. Accordingly there are

58 rows of data. Each row of data represents the transverse profiles of the test track [FDOT,

HVS laser profile data acquisition system].

The wheel path in this study is along the confined edge of the test slabs; therefore, one side

of the laser obtains the surface data of the test slab, while another side obtains the opposite slab.

From Figures 6-31 and 6-32, it can be seen that the surface data that were used in the analysis of

the laser profile of the test slabs was to cover the area of the wheel path to about 3 8 inches from

the edge of a test slab.




















Ilrrtw






IKEE
I ~



















Left Lasr Raght Leer
Note: NTotto Scailel



Figure 6-31i. Side-shifting pattern of the laser profie. [Byron, Gokhale, Choubane, 2005]




The schedule for the laser profie measurement and list of analysis Eiles of each test slab in

this study are shown in Appendix B of this report.











'127 Total Columns of Data
Columns 637-127
-t Right Laser


*---------------------- -
Columns 1-60
Leff Laser


j _Emplary ~
SProfiler Matrix ,


Figure 6-32. Approximate Profiler Matrix [FDOT, HVS laser profile data acquisition system].


( Wheel P` ath) Querlap,'












Figure 6-33 depicts a typical laser profile data from Slab 2. The data was obtained after


82,815 passes of the HVS loading at 5 A.M. The figure shows the area on both the test slab and


opposite slab, which were in the scan area of the HVS laser profiling system.


i_''the edge of Slab 2__

The edge of Slab 2

it ....I.-'._,,l.--I1All. \


-12.00


8.00


HeigN (mm.)


-2.2.00


82,815 Passes of HVS loading
at 5 A.Mn.


S1
S10
S19
S28 -
Longitudinal Position s373
s46


Transversal Position


Figure 6-33. 3-D plot of a laser profile data from Slab 2.

The initial laser profile data were used as the reference, and were subtracted subsequent


profile measurements to obtain the differential profile. The result is the difference in surface


height from when the test was started to the time when the profiler was run.










Figure 6-34 presents the average differential profiles of Slab 5 at two different times.

These two profies were obtained at 5 A.M. and 2 P.M. in the same day. It can be seen that the

shapes of the average transverse profies are similar, but the slab at the 5 A.M. curled up from

the edge of the test slab more than the slab at the 2 P.M. Figure 6-34 also shows that the average

movement due to the curling effect at the testing period was about 0.62 mm.


1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
-0.20
-0.40
-0.60
-0.80
-1.00
-1.20
-1.40


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Transverse Position (Inch)


Figure 6-34. Average differential transverse profie of Slab 5 at two different times.




Figure 6-3 5 shows the differential transverse profie along the j oint and center of Slab 1

at 5 A.M. testing. From the Eigure, it can be seen that the transverse profie along the j oint of the

test slab curls up more as compared with the profile along the center of the edge.











2.00
1 2" width of Wheel Path
1.80
31,059 passes at 5 A.M.
1.60 -1 oo
1.40 co

1.20 -

5 1.00 ~-a o, o
I I
--0.80 o bo-~abbs

an 0.60 -
0.40 -1 + Transversal Position along the Joint

0.20 -1 o Transversal Position along the Center

0.00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Transverse Position (inch)


Figure 6-35. Curling effect along the joint and center in Slab 1.



6.2.5 Testing of Concrete Cores

Concrete cores from test slabs were taken after the HVS testing. Six cores from the wheel

path were tested for their compressive strength (ASTM C39), elastic modulus (ASTM C469) and

splitting tensile strength (ASTM C496). The other three cores from outside the wheel path were

tested for their compressive strength.

Nine 4-inch diameter and 9-inch long concrete cores were taken from Slab 1 on October

11, 2006, about 7 months after the concrete placement, from Slab 2 on February 8, 2007, about 8

months after the concrete placement, from Slab 3 on June 22, 2007, about 2.5 months after

concrete placement and from Slabs 4 and 5 on November 11, 2007, about 4 months and 2.5

months after the placement respectively.










In order to perform the tests mentioned above, the concrete cores were sawed to the length

of 8 inches. Diameters and lengths of the concrete cores were measured to use in the calculation

of the strengths and elastic modulus. Figure 6-36 shows concrete cores taken from a test slab.














A

Figure 6-36. Concrete cores. A) Nine 4-inch diameter concrete cores. B) 9-inch length concrete
cores.

Figure 6-37 shows the locations of the cores taken from Slabs 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

Table 6-9 shows the average compressive strength, elastic modulus and splitting tensile strength

of the cores taken from Slab 3, and those from the laboratory-cured concrete specimens.



































16' 1 1 16'


g 1 g2 a g 4 HVS Wheel Path $ 5 6


$ 6 $5 $ 4 HVS Wheel Path 3 2


es

Test Slab 3


as

Test Slab 4


ers el4 13


12011HVSWheel Path@10


Test Slab 5


Figure 6-37. Locations of the cores taken. A) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 1. B)
Locations of the cores taken from Slab 2. C) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 3.

D) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 4. E) Locations of the cores taken from
Slab 5.









Table 6-9. Properties of concrete cores from test slabs compared to laboratory-cured specimens
from the test slabs concrete respectively
Slab 1: Concrete Core Testing Compressive Elastic Modulus Splitting Tensile
October 11, 2006 ~ 7 months Strengt (si) (si) Strength (si)
Cores on the wheel path 6,686.0 3,650 470.9
Cores outside the wheel path 7,561.8 3,725
28 days Laborty cured 6,428.8 3,752 384.8
Slab 2: Concrete Core Testing Compressive Elastic Modulus Splitting Tensile
Februr 8, 2007 ~ 8 months Strengt (si) (ki) Strengt (si)
Cores on the wheel path 6,439.1 3,725 527.6
Cores outside the wheel path 7,431.3 3,800
28 days Laborty cured 6,646.8 3,825 471.6
Slab 3: Concrete Core Testing Compressive Elastic Modulus Splitting Tensile
June 22, 2007 ~ 2.5 months Strengt (si) (ki) Strengt (si)
Cores on the wheel path 5,974.6 3,625 563.0
Cores outside the wheel path 6,497.4 3,925
Laboratory cured samples at same
curing time as cores 6,813.1 3,950 574.1
Laboratory cured at 28 days 6,810.3 3,650 559.5
Slab 4: Concrete Core Testing Compressive Elastic Modulus Splitting Tensile
November 11, 2007 ~ 4 months Strength (si) (si) Strength(pi
Cores on the wheel path 7,234 4,197 611
Cores outside the wheel path 7,228 4,195
28 days Laboratory cured 6,921 3,875 678
Slab 5: Concrete Core Testing Compressive Elastic Modulus Splitting Tensile
November 11, 2007 ~ 2.5 months Strength (si) (si) Strength(pi
Cores on the wheel path 7,034 4,331 590
Cores outside the wheel path 6,749 4,237
28 days Laboratory cured 7,463 4,288 585









CHAPTER 7
MODEL CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION

7.1 Overview of Model Calibration

The analytical model used in the FEACONS program as presented in Chapter 4 was used

to perform stress analyses to determine the optimum locations for strain gauges. In those

previous analyses, reasonable values for the various pavement parameters were used with the

purpose of determining the locations of maximum stresses rather than determining correctly the

magnitudes of the maximum stresses.

However, in analyzing the performance of the test slabs under the HVS loading, the

temperature-load induced stresses on the test slabs needed to be determined accurately. In order

for the analytical model to correctly analyze the behavior of the replacement slabs, it needs to

have accurate properties of the test slab materials and the correct values of spring stiffness for

modeling the behavior of joints and edges.

The elastic modulus of the concrete material was initially estimated from the results of

laboratory tests on the concrete as described in Chapter 6. The modulus of subgrade reaction of

the test slab was estimated by back-calculation of the FWD deflection basins using the

FEACONS program. The deflection basins caused by FWD loads applied at the slab center was

used in this case. The results of the FWD tests at the j points and edges were used to calibrate

values of spring stiffness at the j points and edges of the test slabs. This process is called

"calibration of model parameters" of the model in this study.

The estimation of the test slab parameters was further verified by matching the analytically

computed strains with the measured strains in the test slabs caused by the HVS loading. This step

is named as "verification of model parameters" in this study.










The loading area of the FWD is a 12-inch diameter circular plate. A twelve inch by twelve

inch square loading area was used in the finite element mesh to model the loading plate. The

other slab model parameters used in the FEACONS analyses are shown in the Table 7-1.

Table 7-1. Slab model parameters used in the FEACONS model calibrations.
Parameters in FEACONS Values
Slab Size (ft. x ft.) 12 x16
Number of Bonded Layers 2 Laers, 1 Laer
Thickness of Concrete Slab (nch) 9
Elastic Modulus of Concrete (ksi) 4,000 ksi
Density of Concrete (pcf) 140 pcf
Thickness of Apalt Concrete (inch) 4 inches, N/A
Elastic Modulus of Asphalt Concrete (ksi) 1,400 ksi
Density of Ashalt Concrete (c)100 pcf
Poison's ratio 0.2
Subgrade Condition Linear
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (kci) from FWD results
Applied load (kip) 9 kips, 12 kips
Temperature Effect No
Spring Coefficient for the Edge (ksi) from FWD results
Linear Spring Coefficient
for the Dowel Joint (ksi) from FWD results
Torsional Spring Coefficient
for the Dowel Joint (-in/in) from FWD results


7.2 Calibration of Model Parameters

7.2.1 Slab 1

Slab 1 was modeled as a 9-inch concrete slab bonded to a 4-inch asphalt over a Winkler

foundation. The material properties used in this analysis are shown in the Table 7-1. A 9-kip

FWD applied load was used in analysis.

Figure 7-1 shows the measured and computed deflections at the location of the geophones

for Slab 1 caused by a 9-kip FWD load. The measured deflections in longitudinal direction were










noted to be similar to those in the transversal direction. The computed deflection basin was

obtained by using a modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.80 kci.


Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72



E 10


20


a ~30


40
m-*- Measured--Longitudinal Center

o 50 -e Measured--Transversal Center

o + FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000
60 ksi, MSR 0.8 kci



Figure 7-1. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 1.

Slab deflections caused by FWD load applied at the confined edge of the test slab, the

FWD test results were used to estimate the edge coefficient. The estimated subgrade modulus

and the other known pavement parameters were used in the FEACONS program to compute the

deflections caused by a 9-kip FWD load at the slab edge. An edge stiffness of 25 kci gave a

fairly good match between the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as shown

in Figure 7-2.











Distance (in)
24


-*- Measured--Edge
SFEACONS--Edge: 25 ksi


Figure 7-2. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 1.

Slab deflections caused by FWD load applied at the j oint of the test slab, FWD tests

results were also used to estimate the joint coefficients. With previous estimated parameters and

values of the other known pavement parameters, the computed and measured deflections at the

joint were matched fairly well by using a linear spring coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional

spring coefficients of 1,500 K-in/in at the j oint as presented in Figure 7-3.











Distance (i n)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72

10

10-

5 20-


40-

50
60

a 70 -*-- Measured--Loaded Joint

80 A- FEACONS--Joi nt: Li near 300 ksi,
Torsion 1,500 k-i n/i n
o 90-

100

Figure 7-3. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 1.

7.2.2 Slab 2

A 9-kip FWD load is also used as the applied load in the model calibration for Slab 2.

Similarly, the slab was modeled as a 9-inch concrete slab bonded to a 4-inch asphalt layer,

placed over a Winkler foundation. Figure 7-4 shows the measured and computed FWD

deflections at the location of the geophones for Slab 2. The measured deflections in the

longitudinal direction were noted to be also similar to those in the transversal direction. The

computed deflection basin matched to the measured one by using a higher modulus of subgrade

reaction of 0.95 kci.

Slab deflections caused by FWD load applied at the confined edge of the test slab were

used to estimate the edge coefficient. The estimated subgrade modulus and the other known

pavement parameters were used in the FEACONS program to compute the deflections caused by

a 9-kip FWD load at the slab edge. An edge stiffness of 8 kci gave a fairly good match between

the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-5.











Distance (in)
24


10


20


30 -


40 -





60


-*- Measured--Longitudinal Center

_-- Measured--Transversal Center

- FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000
ksi, MSR 0.95 kci


Figure 7-4. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 2.


Distance (in)


-*- Measured--Edge
-A- FEACONS--Edge: 8 ksi


Figure 7-5. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 2.










FWD deflections at the joint of Slab 2 were also used to estimate the joint coefficients.

With previous estimated parameters and values of the other known pavement parameters, the

computed and measured deflection at the j oint were matched fairly well by using a linear spring

coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional spring coefficient of 1,500 K-in/in at the joint as shown in

Figure 7-6.


Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72

10


e 20-

30-

a, 40-



(1 60-
0 -*- Measured--Loaded Joint
.2 70-
FEACONS--Joint: Linear 300 ksi,
Torsion 1,500 k-inlin



Figure 7-6. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 2.

7.2.3 Slab 3

For Slab 3, a 12-kip FWD load was used as the applied load for calibrating the analytical

model. Using a similar process as in the previous two models, the matched computed deflection

basin was obtained by using a modulus of sub grade reaction of 0.85 kci as shown in Figure 7-7.

An edge stiffness of 5 kci gave a quite good match between the computed and measured

deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-8. The computed and measured deflection at

the joint were matched fairly well by using a linear spring coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional

spring coefficient of 1,500 K-in/in at the joint as shown in Figure 7-9.











Distance (in)
24


-*- Measured--Longitudinal Center

-e- Measured--Transversal Center

- FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000
ksi, MSR 0.85 kci


20

30

40

50

60

70


Figure 7-7. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center
for Slab 3.


Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36


48 60 72 84


-*- Measured--Edge
- FEACONS--Edge: 5 ksi


Figure 7-8. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 3.











Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72



a, 20


40


~Ei60



0 -*- Measured--Loaded Joint

a, 100 FEACONS--Joint: Linear 300 ksi,
Torsion 1,500 k-inlin



Figure 7-9. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 3.

7.2.4 Slab 4

For Slab 4, a 12-kip FWD load was again used as the applied load for calibrating the

analytical model. Using a similar model and procedure, the computed deflection basin was

matched to the measured one by using a modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.80 kci, as shown in

Figure 7-10. An edge stiffness of 20 kci gave a fairly good match between the computed and

measured deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-11. The computed and measured

deflections at the j oint were matched fairly well by using a higher linear spring coefficient of

1,000 ksi and a torsional spring coefficient of 2,000 K-in/in at the j oint as shown in Figure 7-12.












Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72

10


.2 20

30

a, 40

50
m-*- Measured--Longitudinal Center
v, 60
0 -e- Measured--Transversal Center
.0 70
-E FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000
% 8 ksi, MSR 0.80 kci
o0


Figure 7-10. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab
center for Slab 4.


Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72

-20


E 20


a, 40



o





120





Figure 7-11. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 4.











Distance (in)
-24 -12 0 12 24 36 48 60 72



40






~Ei60



0 -*- Measured--Loaded Joint

2 100 FEACONS--Joint: Linear 1000
ksi, Torsion 2,000 k-inlin



Figure 7-12. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 4.

7.2.5 Slab 5

Since Slab 5 was constructed over a compacted limerock base instead of an asphalt

concrete base, The slab was modeled as a one layer of 9-inch concrete slab placed unbonded

over a compacted limerock base (as a Winkler foundation). A 12-kip FWD load was used as the

applied load for calibrating the FEACONS model. Material properties used in this calibration are

also shown in the Table 7-1.

FWD testing was performed on the test slab after the HVS loading was finished. Cracks

developed on Slab 5 such that the test slab was separated into four small slabs as shown in Figure

5-28. FWD loads were applied at locations away from the cracks to avoid the effect of the cracks

as much as possible.

Figure 7-13 shows the measured and computed deflections at the location of the geophones

for Slab 5. The measured deflections in the transversal direction were used to compare with the











computed deflection basin. A modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.40 kci gave a fair fit between

the measured and the computed deflections.


Distance (in)
36


-24 -12


12 24


48 60 72 84


SMeasured--Transversal Center

t-FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000
ksi, MSR 0.40 kci


Figure 7-13. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab
center for Slab 5.

An edge stiffness of 5 kci gave a fair match between the computed and measured

deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-14. It is to be noted that there was a crack at

the location of loading plate.

The computed and measured deflection at the joint were matched at the j oint of the test

slab by using a linear spring coefficient of 1,000 ksi and a torsional spring coefficients of 2,000

K-in/in at the joint as shown in Figure 7-15.












Distance (in)
12 24 36


-12 0


48 60 72 84


-o Measured--Edge
-a- FEACONS--Edge: 25 ksi


Figure 7-14. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge
for Slab 5.


Distance (in)
24


-* Measured--Loaded Joint

-a FEACONS--Joint: Linear 1000
ksi, Torsi on 2,000 k-in/i n


Figure 7-15. Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint
for Slab 5.









7.3 Verification of Model Parameters

In order to verify the parameters for the FEACONS model, the computed strains at each

gauge location are compared with the measured strains from strain gauges embedded in the test

slab. The computed strains were computed from the computed stresses by using elastic modulus

and Poisson' s ratio of the concrete. The stress at each gauge location was computed by using the

FEACONS model for the case of static load at several specified locations on the wheel path. The

locations of the strain gauges in Slab 1 are shown in Figure 7-16. Figures 7-17 through 7-22

show the comparison of analytical strains using the FEACONS model and the measured dynamic

strains at gauge location IT, 2T, 3T, 4T, 6B and 7B on Slab 1 respectively.





mm m \VS heel Pa~th

56T 1









Test Slab








192"
mm Strain Gauge, XX Direction Strain Gauge, YY Direction

Figure 7-16. The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 1.











-151

c -156-

-158-

S-160-

2 -162-

-164

-166-

co-168-
C)
-170 -1 -* Measured Strain
cn*-e Com puted Strain
c~171

14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5 17 17.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-17. Measured and computed strains for Gauge IT on Slab 1


-130


S-135


S-140


0 -145


chl -150


-J155


mo -160


-165


14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-18. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2T on Slab 1











-150


;r-160-


.c -170-

-180


-190-


-200-


C~-210 -1 -*-/ Measured S
I H1-*- Com puted 5
220-


-230
14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-19. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3T on Slab 1


60


S40


S20


S00


d -20


J -40


o -60


13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-20. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 1










105


;r100


S95


0 90


to85


mo 80


mo 75


70 '
12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-21. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6B on Slab 1.


90

.5 80

70
C
fj 60
O 5


td40

30

~-20


10


12 12.5


13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5
Time (Second)


Figure 7-22. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7B on Slab 1.










The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 5 are shown in Figure 7-23. Figures 7-24 through

7-31 show the comparison of analytical strains using the FEACONS model and the measured

dynamic strains at gauge location IB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 4T, 5T, 6T and 7T on Slab 5 respectively.


-30"-
3"


4
mm
Ie


T:


Test Slab









192"
mm Strain Gauge, XX Direction Strain Gauge, YY Direction

Figure 7-23. The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 5.














c 150


C
-145


S140


135


() 130


S125 -* Measured Strain
-- Com puted Strain
120
13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16
Time (Second)


Figure 7-24. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 1B on Slab 5.


100

98

.C96

S94

S92

90

a,88

86


.0 84

82

80
13 13.5


14 14.5 15 15.5
Time (Second)


16 16.5


Figure 7-25. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2B on Slab 5.















150-
C


140-


130-




loo



820

19 19.5


20 20.5 21 21.5

Time (Second)


22 22.5


Figure 7-26. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3B on Slab 5.


90


,80
C

,70
C

c~60





40


S30

20


0'
18.5


19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22

Time (Second)


Figure 7-27. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4B on Slab 5.
















.C 140-


S130-


-- 120-


a,110-


C3100-


S 90 Measured Strain
-- Com puted Strain
80
18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22
Time (Second)


Figure 7-28. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 5.


140



S1 30


S120



r 110



S100



.o 90


80
18.5


19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22


Time (Second)


Figure 7-29. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 5T on Slab 5.















S198


S196



r 194



S192



~J190
cn-*- Measured Strain

-- Com puted Strain
188
18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5 22
Time (Second)


Figure 7-30. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6T on Slab 5.


1 20



S110
C

S100



r 90



S80



.o 70


60
17.5


18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21
Time (Second)


Figure 7-31. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7T on Slab 5.










Table 7-2 presents a summary of model parameters calibrated for the test slabs in this

study. The calibrated parameters and material test results were used to perform the analysis of

stresses due to temperature and load in each test slab as presented in Chapter 8.

Table 7-2. Summary of model parameters calibrated for the test slabs.
Parameters Used in FEACONS Model Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5
Slab Size (ft. x ft.) 12 x 16 12 x 16 12 x 16 12 x 16 12 x 16
Number of Bonded Layers 2 2 2 2 1
Thickness of Concrete Slab (nch) 9 9 9 9 9
Elastic Modulus of Concrete (ksi) 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000
Density of Concrete (pcf) 140 140 140 140 140
Thickness of Asphalt Concrete (inch) 4 4 4 4 N/A
Elastic Modulus of Asphalt Concrete (ki) 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400 1,400
Density of Ashalt Concrete (c) 100 100 100 100 100
Poison's ratio 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Subgrade Condition Linear Linear Linear Linear Linear
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (kci) 0.80 0.95 0.85 0.80 0.40
Applied load (kip) 9 9 12 12 12
Tempeatre Effect No No No No No
Spring Coeffieient for the Ede (ki) 25 8 5 20 5
Linear Spring Coefficient
for the Dowel Joint (ksi) 300 300 300 1,000 1,000
Torsional Spring Coefficient
for the Dowel Joint (k-in/in) 1,500 1,500 1,500 2,000 2,000









CHAPTER 8
EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE

8.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the evaluation of the performance of replacement slabs by critical

stress analysis. Stress analyses to determine the maximum stresses in each test slab under typical

critical temperature-load condition were performed using the FEACONS model with the

calibrated model parameters and the measured coefficient of thermal expansion of the each

concrete used in each test slab in this study. The flexural strength of the concrete as determined

by maturity method for each test slab was used to calculate the stress to strength ratio in each

analysis. The observed performance of each test slab, as well as the characteristics of concrete

mixes and test slabs were also used to evaluate the potential performance of the test slabs in this

study .

8.2 Evaluation of Potential Performance of Test Slabs

A 12-kip single wheel load, which is slightly higher than the maximum legal single wheel

load of 11 kips in Florida, was as a critical applied load in the analysis. In the analysis, the two

critical loading positions used in the stress analysis were (1) the mid-edge and (2) the corner of

the slab.

The potential performance of each test slab was evaluated based on the maximum stress to

flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age. Other possible causes of cracking in a test

slab were also evaluated. The fatigue curve recommended by the PCA, which relates the stress to

strength ratios with the number of repetitions to produce fatigue failure in concrete, was used to

estimate the number of load repetitions to failure.









8.2.1 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 1

The HVS loading of Slab 1 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. The test slab

performed well without cracks under a 12-kip super single load, which was applied along its

confined edge for 7 days with a total of 85, 254 passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes per

day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5.

The maximum induced stresses in Slab 1 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature

differential in Slab 1 during the time of HVS loading were computed using the FEACONS

program and compared with the strength of the concrete at the various times. The ratio between

the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed.

Table 8-1 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predicted flexural strengths

of the in-place concrete in Slab 1 at the various times, and the computed stress to flexural

strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic

modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS

analy si s.

Figure 8-1 shows the plot of the predicted flexural strength versus time of the in-place

concrete, and the plot of the computed maximum stress due a 12-kip wheel load and the actual

recorded temperature differential in the slab. Though the HVS load was not applied to Slab 1

until 7 hours after placement, the maximum stresses for the hypothetical case if the 12-kip load

were applied at 5 hours and 6 hours were also computed and shown on the figure. It appears that

if the HVS loading had started at 5 hours when the flexural strength was about 300 psi, the slab

should still be strong enough to withstand the induced stresses. This hypothesis was tested in the

testing of Slab 2.










Table 8-1. Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 1.
Max. Predicted
Temp. Applied Elastic Computed Flexural Predicted No. of
Time Diff. Load, Modulus Stress Strength from Stress/ Repetition
(hrs) (F) (kips) (ksi) pi Maturit (si) Streng~th to Failure
5 0.41 12 739 191 320 0.60 35,055
6 0.19 12 1,434 232 360 0.64 9,067
7 -1.78 12 1,681 258 397* 0.65 7,932
9 -4.91 12 1,622 287 480 0.60 34,032
24 -6.85 12 2,662 332 620 0.54 200,756
168 2.22 12 3,481 287 780 0.37 Unlimited
Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab
Parameters used in the stress analysis:
The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6. 15E-06 in/oF
Concrete thickness: 9 inches
Asphalt Concrete Thickness: 4 inches
Poison's ratio: 0.2
Shear j oint stiffness: 300 ksi
Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in
Confined edge stiffness: 25 ksi
Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.80 kci


700


600


n 500


400



2 00


--~~''''
-r-------
..r-


Slab 1


-'


SPredicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter)
-n-- Flexural Strength (from lab sam ples)
- -r- Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip laod)


5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Time (hour)


Figure 8-1. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 1.










Figure 8-1 also presents the flexural strength of the laboratory-cured samples of the same

concrete mix. It can be seen that the laboratory-cured samples had a much lower strength than

the strength of the in-place concrete as predicted from the maturity method, which was shown to

match well with the strength of the specimens which were cured under the same condition as the

test slab.

8.2.2 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 2

The HVS loading of Slab 2 was started at 5 hours after concrete placement. The test slab

performed well without cracks under a 12-kip super single load, which was applied along its

confined edge for 7 days with a total of 87,785 passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes a

day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5.

The maximum induced stresses in Slab 2 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature

differential in Slab 2 during the time of HVS loading were computed using the FEACONS

program and compared with the strength of the concrete at the various times. The ratio between

the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed.

Table 8-2 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predicted flexural strengths

of the in-place concrete in Slab 2 at the various times, and the computed stress to flexural

strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic

modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS

analy si s.

Figure 8-2 shows the plot of the predicted flexural strength versus time of the in-place

concrete, and the plot of the computed maximum stress due a 12-kip wheel load and the actual

recorded temperature differential in the slab.










Table 8-2. Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 2.
Max. Predicted
Temp. Applied Elastic Computed Flexural Predicted No. of
Time Diff. Load, Modulus Stress Strength from Stress/ Repetition
(hrs) (F) (kips) (ksi) pi Maturit (si) Strength to Failure
4 -3.57 12 1,047 223 360 0.62 18,455
5 -4.52 12 1,129 228 402* 0.57 79,953
6 -6.48 12 1,211 230 450 0.51 401,390
8 -9.21 12 1,700 249 500 0.50 Unlimited
24 -0.23 12 1,913 215 590 0.36 Unlimited
168 3.48 12 3,470 229 730 0.31 Unlimited
Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab
Parameters used in the stress analysis:
The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.75E-06 in/oF
Concrete thickness: 9 inches
Asphalt concrete Thickness: 4 inches
Poison's ratio: 0.2
Shear j oint stiffness: 300 ksi
Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in
Confided edge stiffness: 8 ksi
Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.95 kci


700.0


-g600.0


S500.0


c~400.0


S300.0

C ---A--A ****A---..
~J200.0

v,-o-Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter)
S100.0
Flexural Strength (from lab samples)
Slab 2 ... 4...- Com puted Stresses (due to 1 2-kip laod)

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Time (hour)


Figure 8-2. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 2.











Figure 8-2 also presents the flexural strength of the laboratory-cured samples of the same

concrete mix. It can be seen that the laboratory-cured samples had a substantially lower strength

than the strength of the in-place concrete as predicted from the maturity method, which was

shown to match well with the strength of the specimens which were cured under the same

condition as the test slab.

It can be seen from Figure 8-2 that the induced stresses in Slab 2 after the start of HVS

load were lower than the flexural strength of the in-place concrete. This explains why Slab 2

held up very well under the HVS loading.

Figure 8-3 shows the comparison of compressive strengths from laboratory samples with

predicted compressive strength from maturity meter for the concrete in Slab 2. Similarly, the in-

place concrete can be seen to have higher strength than the laboratory-cured concrete.


1000


3500-


u,3000-


rS 2500-

c~2000-


S1500-


O 1000
-o-Predicted Compressive Strength (from maturity meter)
500 -m-Com pressive Strength (from lab samples)
Slab 2

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time (hour)


Figure 8-3. Comparison of compressive strengths for concrete in Slab 2.









8.2.3 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3

The HVS loading of Slab 3 was started at 4 hours after concrete placement. On the second

days, a 12-inch transverse crack was first observed at the mid-edge of the slab. After repetitions

of 47, 170 passes of the 12-kip load, a few transverse cracks have also occurred at the mid-edge

of the slab. The slab was loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days with a total load repetition of

95,042 passes, or an average of about 13,000 passes a day. Then the wheel load was increased to

15 kips and then to 18 kips presented in Chapter 5.

The maximum induced stresses in Slab 3 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature

differential in Slab 3 during the time of HVS loading were computed using the FEACONS

program and compared with the strength of the concrete at the various times. The ratio between

the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed.

Table 8-3 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predicted flexural

strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 3 at the various times, and the computed stress to

flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the

elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the

FEACONS analysis.

Figure 8-4 shows the plot of the predicted flexural strength versus time of the in-place

concrete, and the plot of the computed maximum stress due a 12-kip wheel load and the actual

recorded temperature differential in the slab. Since the HVS load was applied to Slab 3 at 4 hour

after placement, the computed maximum stresses due to the 12-kip load were higher than

predicted flexural strength at the time. Table 8-3 also presents the low number of repetition to

failure. As predicted by the high stress/strength ratio, transverse cracks were observed at mid

edge of the slab after 1 day of the HVS loading.










Table 8-3. Predicted Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3.
Predicted
Temp. Applied Elastic Max. Flexural Predicted No. of
Time Diff. Load, Modulus Computed Strength from Stress/ Repetition
(hrs) (F) (kips) (ksi) Stress (si) Maturit(pi Strength to Failure
4 6.85 12 825.0 215 184.0 *1.17 0
5 1.07 12 1,287.5 232 235.0 0.99 1
6 -2.61 12 1,562.5 239 255.0 0.94 2
8 -4.64 12 1,812.5 213 285.0 0.75 486
24 -3.43 12 2,812.5 230 475.0 0.48 Unlimited
168 2.28 15 3,250.0 215 560.0 0.38 Unlimited
Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab
Parameters used in the stress analysis:
The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.28E-06 in/oF
Concrete thickness: 9 inches
Asphalt concrete thickness: 4 inches
Poison's ratio: 0.2
Shear j oint stiffness: 300 ksi
Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in
Free edge stiffness: 5 ksi
Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.85 kci



330

310

to 290


C~

S250

230

~J210

vn 190
T -o-Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter)
0 10 -m- Flexural Strength (from lab samples)
Slab 3 r- Com puted Stresses (due to 1 2-kip laod)
150
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9
Time (hour)


Figure 8-4. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 3.










Figure 8-4 also presents the flexural strength of the laboratory-cured samples of the same

concrete mix. It can be seen that the laboratory-cured samples had a much lower strength than

the strength of the in-place concrete as predicted from the maturity method, which was shown to

match well with the strength of the specimens which were cured under the same condition as the

test slab.

8.2.4 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 4

The HVS loading of Slab 4 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. On the second

days, a corner crack of about 5 feet radius was first formed at the south end of the slab. It was

found out later from the strain data that the first crack corner happened at about the 41 hours

after the placement of about 15, 175 passes of the 12-kip load.

The time at which there was a change in the measured dynamics strains marked the time

when the cracks were formed in Slab 4. Figure 8-5 shows the plots of dynamic strains as

measured by Gauge 3T as a HVS wheel passed over it, before and after a crack developed on

Slab 4. A change in the plots can be observed at 41 hours after concrete placement, when the

first corner crack was determined to have formed.

The slab was continuously loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days with a total of 82,963

passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes a day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15

kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5.













0.000095 -12 days after cracking


0.000085 -1 Right after
cracking

0.000075 :

-- ~Right before
(0 0.000065-
& cracking on Day 2

E o.ooooss

2 days before cracking or 6
C~0.000045 hours after starting HVS

S- 3Top Sat 14 2300
0.000035 \:l - 3Top Frl 13 0330
-3Top Frl 13 0300
-3Top Wed 11 2300
0.000025-
Slab 4: Strain Gauge 3T

0.000015
11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15

Time (Sec)


Figure 8-5. Measured dynamic strains from Gauge 3T on Slab 4.

Possible Causes of Cracking in Slab 4

The maximum induced stresses in Slab 4 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature


differential in Slab 4 during the time of HVS loading were computed using the FEACONS


program and compared with the strength of the concrete at the various times. The ratio between

the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed.

Table 8-4 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predicted flexural strengths


of the in-place concrete in Slab 4 at the various times, and the computed stress to flexural

strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic


modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS


analysis.










Table 8-4. Computed load-induced stresses and predicted flexural strength of concrete in Slab 4.

Max. Predicted
Temp. Applied Elastic Computed Flexural Predicted No. of
Time Diff. Load, Modulus Stress Strength from Stress/ Repetition
(hs) (o) kips) (ksi) (psi) Maturity (psi) Strength to Failure
5 9.84 12 1,600.0 167 230 0.73 890
6 3.96 12 1,762.5 199 250 0.80 122
7 1.25 12 1,825.0 213 305* 0.70 1,958
8 -1.66 12 1,925.0 241 330 0.73 790
24 4.57 12 3,150.0 225 530 0.42 Unlimited
168 8.91 12 3,487.5 244 720 0.29 Unlimited
Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab
Parameters used in the stress analysis:
The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.46E-06 in/oF
Concrete thickness: 9 inches
Asphalt concrete thickness: 4 inches
Poison's ratio: 0.2
Shear joint stiffness: 1,000 ksi
Torsional joint stiffness: 2,000 k-in/in
Confined edge stiffness: 5 ksi
Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.80 kci


600

550

S500

5450
CS
400

350

S300

LL250

~J200-

v,150

& 10


.........--`------- ------------------- --------i--'.I.


-0- Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter)
-m- Flexural Strength (from lab samples)
- -r- Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip load)


Slab 4


5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Time (hour)


Figure 8-6. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 4.









Figure 8-6 shows the plot of the predicted flexural strength versus time of the in-place

concrete, and the plot of the computed maximum stress due a 12-kip wheel load and the actual

recorded temperature differential in the slab.

Since the HVS load was applied to Slab 4 at 7 hours after concrete placement, the

computed maximum stresses due to the 12-kip loads were lower than the predicted flexural

strength at the time of start of loading and throughout the entire period of 12-kip loads. The

corner crack which occurred on day 2 could not be explained by the load-induced stresses alone.

The first corner crack is shown in Figures 8-7 and 8-8.

It is postulated that the corner crack in the adj acent slab was formed first and then

propagated to the test slab. It happened that the holes for the dowel bars were drilled at the

wrong positions initially. Figure 8-9 shows a picture of the improperly drilled holes. The

vertical lines on the vertical face of the j oint show where the correct locations of the holes should

be. Note in the picture that there was a crack extending from a drilled hole at about 4 feet away

from the edge. The location of this crack matched with the location where the corner crack

extended from the j oint.

The improperly drilled holes were later patched with an epoxy, and new holes were drilled

at the right locations. Figure 8-10 shows the joint after the holes were patched. It happened to

rain at that time, and accumulation of water was formed at the base, as can be observed from this

picture. This might have weakened the base and further helped the formation of the corner crack

in the adj acent slab.












-1
.~ .*~ ";'*~r*r*
~-~. .. ,i;-.--rs~
.~d~


Figure 8-7. First Corner Crack at the South End of Slab 4.


O' 1' 2' 3'


4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 13' 14' 15' 16'


HVS Wheel Path


as



e-


Figure 8-8. Corner cracks at the south end of Slab 4 and the adj acent slab.


200


Adjacent Slab


Test Slab 4


































Figure 8-9. Holes for dowel bars in wrong positions at the south end j oint.


Figure 8-10. Holes patched at the south end joint. (Note that base was flooded with water.)









8.2.5 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Flexural Strength of Concrete in Slab 5

The HVS loading of Slab 5 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. On the second

day, a full-depth transverse crack of about 12 feet along the test slab was first observed at the

mid slab. After repetitions of 47, 170 passes of the 12-kip load, a few transverse cracks have also

occurred at the mid-edge of the slab. The slab was loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days with a

total of 81,062 passes. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as

presented in Chapter 5.

The maximum induced stresses in Slab 5 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature

differential in Slab 5 during the time of HVS loading were computed using the FEACONS

program and compared with the strength of the concrete at the various times. The ratio between

the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength and the number of repetitions to failure at

the various times were also computed.

Table 8-5 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predicted flexural

strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 5 at the various times, and the computed stress to

flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the

elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the

FEACONS analysis.

Figure 8-11 shows the plot of the predicted flexural strength versus time of the in-place

concrete, and the plot of the computed maximum stress due a 12-kip wheel load and the actual

recorded temperature differential in the slab.


202










Table 8-5. Computed load-induced stresses and predicted flexural strength of concrete in Slab 5.


Max. Predicted
Temp. Applied Elastic Computed Flexural Predicted No. of
Time Diff. Load, Modulus Stress Strength from Stress/ Repetition
(hs) (o) kips) (ksi) (psi) Maturity (psi) Strength to Failure
4 22.97 12 1,900.0 373 305 1.22 0
6 14.47 12 2,575.0 361 410 0.88 11
7 8.41 12 2,725.0 347 420 (371*) 0.83 (0.94) 52
8 -7.86 12 2,875.0 330 430 0.77 275
24 2.22 12 3,563.0 340 585 0.58 54,741
168 3.10 12 3,863.0 331 620 0.53 210,175
Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab
Parameters used in the stress analysis:
The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.27E-06 PF
Concrete Thickness: 9 inches
Poison's ratio: 0.2
Shear joint stiffness: 1,000 ksi
Torsional joint stiffness: 2,000 k-in/in
Confined edge stiffness: 5 ksi
Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.40 kci



550.0


500.0

450.0

400.0


LI_ -4







-0- Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter)
-m- Flexural Strength (from lab samples)
-A- Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip load)
SActual Strength
Slab 5


350.0


300.0 4

250.0

200.0

150.0 -


5 6


7 8
Time (hour)


9 10 11 12


Figure 8-11. Computed Stresses and Flexural Strengths for the Concrete in Slab 5.


203









It can be seen from the Figure 8-11 that the computed maximum stresses due to the 12-

kip load at 7 hour after placement of the HVS loading on Slab 5 were a little lower than

predicted flexural strength at the time. Table 8-5 shows the low number of repetition to failure at

the time of loading. As predicted by the high stress to strength ratio or low number of repetitions

to failure at the time of loading, the full-depth transverse crack was observed at mid slab of the

slab after 1 day of the HVS loading.

8.3 Required Concrete Properties for Adequate Performance

Analysis was performed to determine the required properties of concrete for adequate

performance in a typical 9-inch replacement slab in Florida.

The FEACONS program was used to calculate the maximum stresses in a 9-inch slab (with

similar condition as the test slabs in this study) under various critical loading conditions. A slab

width of 12 feet, a joint spacing of 16 feet, a modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.4 kci, an edge

stiffness of 5 ksi, a shear j oint stiffness of 300 ksi, and a torsional j oint stiffness of 1,500 k-in/in

were used to model the slab in the analysis. The applied load in the analysis was a 12-kip wheel

load placed at the corner and mid-edge of the slab under different temperature differentials in the

slab. Temperature differentials of -20oF, -10 oF, OoF, +10 oF, +20 oF and +30oF were considered

in this analysis with the average coefficient of thermal expansion of 6.28 x 10-6 OF obtained

from this study.

Since the load-induced stresses in the slab are affected by the elastic modulus of the

concrete, analysis was performed for concrete of different elastic moduli. The ratios of the

maximum stress to flexural strength were also computed for the various conditions analyzed.

The following regression equations (from Chapter 6) relating flexural strength to

compressive strength, and elastic modulus to compressive strength were used in this analysis:


204










Regression equation 6-1: R = 5.3 93 6 x f0O5655 ,R 2 = 0.9203
Regression equation 6-5: E = 28.802 x f0O5606, R2 = 0.8801

Table 8-6 presents the maximum computed stresses caused by a 12-kip load at various

conditions of temperature differentials in the slab for concrete of various flexural strengths (and

their corresponding compressive strength and elastic modulus. Table 8-7 presents the computed

stress to flexural strength ratios for the various conditions. Figure 8-12 shows the plot of

computed stress to strength ratio versus flexural strength.


Table 8-6. Maximum computed stress due to 12-kip, load at various temperature differentials
Computed
Flexural Computed Elastic Maximum Computed Stress due to 12-kip load
Strength Compressive Modulus (s)at Different Tempeatre Differentials
(psi) Strength (psi) (si) -20 oF -10 oF 0 oF +10 oF +20 oF +30 oF
150 358 778 149 170 186 211 236 264
250 883 1,291 135 171 207 249 291 338
300 1,220 1,547 130 175 214 265 317 372
400 2,028 2,058 119 168 225 294 369 437
500 3,010 2,567 105 159 234 322 413 499
600 4,155 3,076 92 149 242 347 455 558


Table 8-7. Stress to strength ratio at various temperature differentials
FlexralStress (due tol2-kip load) / Flexural Strength Ratio
at Different Tempeature Differentials
Strength
(psi) -20 oF -10 oF 0 oF +10 oF +20 oF +30 oF
150 0.99 1.13 1.24 1.41 1.57 1.76
250 0.54 0.68 0.83 1.00 1.16 1.35
300 0.43 0.58 0.71 0.88 1.06 1.24
400 0.30 0.42 0.56 0.74 0.92 1.09
500 0.21 0.32 0.47 0.64 0.83 1.00
600 0.15 0.25 0.40 0.58 0.76 0.93


From Table 8-7, it can be seen that when the temperature differential is +10 OF, a slab

with a concrete flexural strength of 300 psi will have a stress strength ratio of less than 1. When


205











the temperature differential is +20 OF, a slab with a concrete flexural strength of 400 psi will


have a stress ratio of less than 1.0. This means that when the expected temperature differential in


the slab is +10 and +20 OF, specifying a minimum flexural strength of 300 and 400 psi,


respectively, before opening to traffic, will ensure adequate performance of the replacement slab

at early age.


2.60

2.40 -
2.20 -
2.00 -
1.80 -

1.60 -

1.40
1.20

1.00 -'*

0.80 -1 ~
0.60

0.40
0.20

0.00
100 150 200 250


9-inch Slab subjected to 12-kip Load
-e-+30 F of Temperature Differential in concrete
-4-+20 F of Temperature Differential in concrete
~- +10 F of Tem perature Differential i n concrete
- -)- -0 F of Temperature Differential in concrete
- -10 F of Temperature Differential in concrete
-e-20 F of Temperature Differential in concrete


300 350 400 450 500 550 600

Flexural Strength (psi)


Figure 8-12. Computed stress to strength ratio at different temperature differentials as a function
of flexural strength using the developed relationship between flexural strength
compressive strength, and elastic modulus.


206









CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 Summary of Findings

Five instrumented 9-inch thick concrete slabs were constructed and tested under

accelerated pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the

behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age and the effects of concrete properties on the

performance of the replacement slabs.

Two test slabs (Slabs 1 and 2) used a concrete mix with a cement content of 850 lbs per

cubic yard of concrete, while the other three test slabs (Slabs 3, 4 and 5) used a concrete mix

with a cement content of 725 lbs per cubic yard of concrete. All the concrete mixes used in the

test slabs maintained the same water-cement ratio of 0.36.

Determination of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete at early age was evaluated

by the maturity method in this study. The HVS loading was planned to start when the strengths

of the test slabs reached a certain strength. The HVS loading of Slab 1 was to start when the in-

place concrete attained an estimated compressive strength of 2,200 psi, which is the current

FDOT specification for a replacement slab at 7 hours after the placement. The required flexural

strength of 300 psi or higher was used as an indicator to start the HVS loading in Slabs 2, 3, 4

and 5, where the required strength of the in-place concrete was reached at 5, 4, 7 and 7 hours

after the placement, respectively.

The concrete mixes used in this study were evaluated in the laboratory for their

compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, drying

shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion. The relationships among these concrete

properties were developed and used to evaluate the performance of concrete mixes and the

concrete test slabs.


207









The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs due to the applied loads and the temperature

differentials in the slabs were calculated using the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of

CONcrete Slabs) program. The model parameters were estimated by performing back-

calculations from FWD data, and verified by comparing computed strains with measured strains

from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs, which were loaded by the HVS.

Test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4, which had an asphalt base, were modeled as a 9-inch concrete

layer bonded to a 4-inch asphalt concrete layer over a Winkler foundation using the FEACONS

program. Test Slab 5, which had a limerock base, was modeled as a 9-inch concrete slab over a

Winkler foundation.

The results of the experiments indicated that Slabs 1 and 2 performed well under the 12-

kip load and the temperature conditions, while Slabs 3, 4 and 5 cracked at early age. The

maturity method was found to be reliable to predict the flexural strength of the in-place concrete.

Slabs 3 and 5 cracked at early age due to high temperature-load induced stresses in the test slabs

that had either exceeded or were very close to the in-place flexural strength of the concrete at

early age. Slab 4 cracked prematurely due to propagation of cracks from an adjacent slab.

Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maximum stress to flexural strength

ratio of the concrete at the early age as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete

replacement slab. This was done by comparing the stress to strength ratio with the observed

performance of test slabs in this study. This method was found to be effective in predicting the

potential performance of the replacement slabs.

Based on the test results from this study, relationships among flexural strength,

compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, elastic modulus and drying shrinkage strain were

developed for concrete used in replacement slabs.


208










Analysis of temperature data of the 9-inch concrete slabs at various times of year shows

that a positive temperature differential was found to be as high as +30oF and a negative

temperature differential as low as -20oF. These temperature differential ranges were used to

evaluate stresses due to temperature conditions in Florida.

9.2 Conclusions

The use of the maturity method to determine the flexural strength of the in-place concrete

at early age was found to be convenient to use and to have produced reliable determination of the

flexural strength of the in-place concrete. This method can be used as a tool to predict the

flexural strength of the in-place concrete for slab replacement at the time to open to the traffic.

Higher cement content concrete tends to gain the in-place flexural strength faster. The strength

development of a concrete slab depends not only on the mix design but also the condition under

which the concrete is cured.

The anticipated stresses in the concrete slab can be calculated from the FEACONS (Finite

Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program or a similar finite element model which considers

the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modulus and

coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, j oint characteristics and effective

subgrade stiffness. The anticipated stress needs to be lower than the anticipated flexural strength

of the concrete at all times to ensure good performance.

The maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age can be used

as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement slab.

Based on the test results from this study, for a 9-inch slab placed on a fair foundation

(minimum modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.4 kci) with the temperature differential of +10 F, a

minimum required flexural strength of 300 psi at the time to open to the traffic would be needed


209










for adequate performance. When the temperature differential is +20 F, a minimum required

flexural strength of 400 psi would be needed.

9.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made with respect to specifications for concrete used

in slab replacement:

* The use of the maturity method testing as specified in ASTM C 1074 is recommended for
use in determination of concrete strength at the time of opening a replacement slab to
traffic.

* The use of a minimum required flexural strength of concrete at the time of opening to
traffic, instead of a minimum compressive strength, is recommended. If compressive
strength is to be used, a relationship between the flexural strength and compressive
strength for the specific concrete must be established so that the flexural strength can be
more accurately determined from its compressive strength.

It is also recommended that further testing and research in this subj ect area be conducted,

with particular focus on the following areas:

* Determination of the relationships between compressive strength, flexural strength and
elastic modulus and drying shrinkage strain of typical concretes used in replacement slabs
in Florida. Accurate determination of these relationships is needed in order to determine
the required strength of the concrete before a concrete slab can be opened to traffic.

* Determination of temperature distributions in typical concrete pavement slabs in Florida.
This information is needed in order to accurately determine the maximum temperature-
load induced stresses in the concrete slabs. The strength of the concrete needs to be higher
than this maximum induced stress to avoid cracking.

9.4 Contributions of the Research

The main contributions from this research are as follows:

* The development of a reliable model for analysis of concrete pavements where the
analytical results were successfully verified by experimental results.

* The successive use of a systematic method to evaluate the required properties of concrete
for slab replacement with consideration of additional factors such as anticipated
temperature distribution in the slab and coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete.

* The verification of the reliability of the maturity method based on flexural strength as the
primary predicted property.


210










*The development of a relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of
concrete for use in slab replacement in Florida.















Table A-1. FWD test data from Slab 1.
Slab 1 Center Longitudinal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.73 59.50 1.66 1.4 1.14 0.89 0.7 0.54 0.41 1.45
9.72 85.90 2.56 2.11 1.67 1.3 1.05 0.83 0.65 2.14
12.28 108.60 3.27 2.71 2.16 1.69 1.35 1.08 0.84 2.74
15.62 138.10 4.24 3.55 2.85 2.23 1.78 1.41 1.11 3.61
Slab 1 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.67 59.00 1.63 1.36 1.06 0.81 0.65 0.5 0.39 1.45
9.67 85.50 2.49 2.06 1.61 1.24 0.96 0.75 0.59 2.15
12.19 107.80 3.21 2.65 2.08 1.62 1.25 0.98 0.78 2.77
15.69 138.70 4.2 3.5 2.79 2.17 1.67 1.3 1.05 3.67
Slab 1 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.73 59.50 1.65 1.38 1.07 0.83 0.65 0.5 0.4 1.46
9.70 85.80 2.53 2.07 1.63 1.26 0.98 0.76 0.6 2.17
12.18 107.70 3.2 2.66 2.09 1.63 1.26 0.98 0.78 2.79
15.73 139.10 4.22 3.52 2.8 2.18 1.69 1.3 1.04 3.69
Slab 1 Edeloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.62 58.5 3.26 2.11 1.59 1.15 0.85 0.64 0.47 2.08
9.72 85.9 3.39 3.17 2.4 1.76 1.3 0.99 0.75 3.12
12.33 109 4.63 4.07 3.1 2.29 1.72 1.31 0.98 4.02
15.71 138.9 6.24 5.28 4.09 3.04 2.29 1.74 1.32 5.16
Slab 1 Edge unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.85 60.6 1.24 1.2 1.06 0.91 0.77 0.64 0.47 1.12
9.88 87.4 1.88 1.82 1.59 1.39 1.15 0.95 0.72 1.69
12.00 106.1 2.33 2.3 1.98 1.76 1.45 1.19 0.91 2.12
15.74 139.2 3.19 3.15 2.74 2.45 2.03 1.66 1.26 2.92
Slab 1--Joint loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.77 68.7 2.35 2.13 1.69 1.27 0.93 0.69 0.5 2.09
9.92 87.7 3.45 2.75 2.2 1.65 1.23 0.91 0.67 2.71
12.06 106.6 4.28 3.4 2.71 2.05 1.52 1.13 0.85 3.33
15.83 140 5.45 4.68 3.75 2.85 2.14 1.59 1.21 4.56
Slab 1--Joint unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (s)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.53 66.6 2.04 1.91 1.55 1.18 0.89 0.67 0.49 1.87
9.98 88.2 2.74 2.56 2.09 1.59 1.21 0.91 0.69 2.52
11.98 105.9 3.34 3.12 2.56 1.95 1.48 1.12 0.85 3.07
15.79 139.6 4.67 4.28 3.54 2.71 2.07 1.56 1.2 4.21


APPENDIX A
FWD TEST DATA


212











Table A-2. FWD test data from Slab 2.
Slab 2 Center Longitudinal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.81 60.20 1.53 1.29 1.05 0.83 0.66 0.57 0.44 1.31
9.74 86.10 2.27 1.86 1.53 1.23 0.97 0.77 0.61 1.93
12.38 109.50 2.93 2.47 2.02 1.61 1.31 1.04 0.83 2.52
15.72 139.00 3.87 3.31 2.68 2.13 1.73 1.36 1.09 3.35
Slab 2 Center Transversal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.85 60.60 1.51 1.33 1.07 0.85 0.69 0.56 0.46 1.3
9.69 85.70 2.23 1.95 1.57 1.27 1.03 0.84 0.7 1.91
12.30 108.80 2.89 2.57 2.1 1.7 1.37 1.13 0.93 2.5
15.71 138.90 3.84 3.39 2.78 2.25 1.83 1.5 1.26 3.3
Slab 2 Edge loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (s)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6.60 58.4 3.17 2.7 2.08 1.5 1.11 0.79 0.55 2.56
9.57 84.6 4.49 4.01 3.12 2.27 1.66 1.2 0.86 3.79
12.09 106.9 6.01 5.21 4.07 2.98 2.15 1.57 1.15 4.93
15.68 138.6 8.02 6.95 5.48 4.03 2.94 2.13 1.56 6.64
Slab 2 Edeunloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.17 63.4 1.17 1.15 1.05 0.93 0.81 0.7 0.56 1.15
9.67 85.5 1.63 1.61 1.46 1.31 1.14 0.98 0.78 1.59
12.35 109.2 2.11 2.08 1.9 1.72 1.5 1.3 1.05 2.06
15.94 140.9 2.72 2.67 2.45 2.22 1.95 1.71 1.39 2.65
Slab 2 Joint loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.89 69.8 2.6 2.21 1.73 1.31 1 0.73 0.55 2.16
9.96 88.1 3.18 2.73 2.15 1.63 1.26 0.93 0.73 2.67
12.00 106.1 3.91 3.34 2.64 2.02 1.56 1.16 0.89 3.28
15.97 141.2 5.61 4.76 3.77 2.87 2.22 1.65 1.29 4.67
Slab 2 Joint unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.03 62.2 1.61 1.53 1.33 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48 1.57
9.82 86.8 2.3 2.2 1.91 1.48 1.18 0.91 0.71 2.24
12.01 106.2 2.83 2.72 2.38 1.86 1.49 1.14 0.9 2.79
15.81 139.8 3.94 3.81 3.33 2.59 2.09 1.59 1.27 3.86


213











Table A-3. FWD test data from Slab 3.
Slab 3 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.89 69.74 1.93 1.6 1.29 1.02 0.84 0.69 0.52 1.59
9.34 82.62 2.33 1.98 1.59 1.25 1 0.8 0.61 1.94
12.52 110.71 3.3 2.79 2.26 1.8 1.44 1.14 0.89 2.77
15.56 137.54 4.22 3.56 2.88 2.29 1.83 1.44 1.12 3.53
Slab 3 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.87 69.54 1.94 1.63 1.29 1.01 0.83 0.65 0.52 1.6
9.18 81.17 2.28 1.92 1.56 1.21 0.98 0.8 0.6 1.9
12.36 109.26 3.19 2.69 2.15 1.71 1.38 1.1 0.86 2.64
15.54 137.44 4.14 3.46 2.8 2.22 1.79 1.41 1.11 3.44
Slab 3 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.46 65.96 1.84 1.59 1.23 1.03 0.86 0.71 0.59 1.55
9.38 82.91 2.32 2.06 1.62 1.34 1.12 0.93 0.77 1.99
12.27 108.48 3.15 2.78 2.19 1.82 1.51 1.27 1.07 2.69
15.57 137.63 4.12 3.64 2.86 2.39 1.98 1.67 1.43 3.53
Slab 3 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.613 67.31 1.89 1.67 1.3 1.07 0.89 0.74 0.61 1.61
9.256 81.84 2.33 2.07 1.62 1.36 1.12 0.93 0.78 2
12.159 107.51 3.18 2.79 2.21 1.84 1.52 1.28 1.07 2.71
15.314 135.41 4.12 3.61 2.85 2.38 1.97 1.66 1.42 3.5
Slab 3 Edeloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.41 65.47 4.08 3.89 3.11 2.37 1.70 1.17 0.81 3.27
9.19 81.27 5.20 4.52 3.61 2.76 2.00 1.37 1.00 3.78
11.98 105.96 6.56 5.96 4.87 3.73 2.71 1.89 1.38 5.11
15.15 133.96 8.69 7.69 6.31 4.91 3.58 2.52 1.83 6.59
Slab 3 Edge loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.24 64.02 4.31 4.03 3.23 2.48 1.76 1.19 0.79 3.76
9.18 81.17 5.68 4.94 3.98 3.07 2.20 1.50 1.02 4.67
11.92 105.38 6.87 6.21 5.06 3.91 2.82 1.94 1.33 5.94
15.07 133.27 8.74 7.86 6.32 4.88 3.57 2.48 1.71 7.43
Slab 3 Edeunloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.13 63.05 1.33 1.27 1.19 1.05 0.90 0.76 0.61 1.33
9.11 80.59 1.77 1.71 1.60 1.41 1.21 1.02 0.83 1.70
11.84 104.71 2.37 2.28 2.14 1.88 1.60 1.36 1.09 2.20
15.05 133.08 3.10 3.00 2.81 2.48 2.12 1.78 1.44 3.09


214











Table A-3. Continued.
Slab 3 Edge unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.19 63.54 1.33 1.30 1.18 1.06 0.92 0.76 0.62 1.30
9.14 80.78 1.77 1.73 1.54 1.41 1.21 1.02 0.82 1.76
11.78 104.12 2.35 2.30 2.03 1.88 1.61 1.35 1.08 2.30
15.15 133.96 3.13 3.06 2.78 2.50 2.13 1.80 1.45 3.02
Slab 3 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.92 70.03 2.86 2.42 1.91 1.45 1.09 0.83 0.66 2.42
9.31 82.33 3.18 2.68 2.10 1.59 1.20 0.92 0.72 2.70
12.35 109.16 4.32 3.67 2.91 2.23 1.69 1.31 1.05 3.66
15.63 138.22 5.59 4.72 3.77 2.90 2.21 1.71 1.37 4.74
Slab 3 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.635 67.51 2.64 2.22 1.71 1.3 0.97 0.74 0.58 2.2
9.191 81.27 3.19 2.68 2.11 1.59 1.2 0.92 0.72 2.68
12.148 107.41 4.28 3.62 2.86 2.18 1.64 1.26 1.01 3.66
15.522 137.24 5.54 4.68 3.73 2.86 2.17 1.67 1.34 4.74
Slab 3 Joint unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.42 65.57 1.87 1.74 1.48 1.17 0.92 0.69 0.54 1.82
9.16 80.97 2.35 2.18 1.87 1.49 1.17 0.89 0.69 2.27
12.04 106.45 3.18 2.95 2.55 2.05 1.60 1.23 0.97 3.06
15.44 136.48 4.15 3.85 3.35 2.69 2.11 1.62 1.29 3.97
Slab 3 Joint unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.58 67.02 1.96 1.81 1.56 1.24 0.96 0.74 0.57 1.90
8.93 78.94 2.30 2.14 1.83 1.47 1.15 0.88 0.69 2.24
11.94 105.57 3.15 2.93 2.54 2.04 1.59 1.23 0.96 3.04
15.36 135.79 4.13 3.84 3.34 2.69 2.11 1.63 1.29 3.97


215











Table A-4. FWD test data from Slab 4.
Slab 4 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.15 80.9 2.35 1.93 1.5 1.18 0.93 0.75 0.57 2.04
11.58 102.4 3.1 2.51 1.98 1.56 1.24 0.97 0.78 2.65
15.43 136.4 4.27 3.47 2.76 2.17 1.71 1.36 1.07 3.67
17.85 157.8 4.91 4.07 3.23 2.54 2.02 1.6 1.25 4.3
Slab 4 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.03 79.8 2.35 1.93 1.51 1.18 0.93 0.73 0.57 2.04
11.45 101.2 3.13 2.51 1.98 1.56 1.23 0.98 0.77 2.66
15.28 135.1 4.28 3.46 2.74 2.17 1.69 1.35 1.06 3.66
17.77 157.1 4.96 4.09 3.25 2.56 2.02 1.61 1.26 4.31
Slab 4 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.14 80.8 2.26 2.09 1.69 1.28 0.93 0.67 0.49 1.92
11.50 101.7 2.94 2.73 2.21 1.66 1.23 0.88 0.65 2.49
15.35 135.7 4.09 3.78 3.09 2.3 1.72 1.25 0.94 3.46
17.88 158.1 4.8 4.46 3.64 2.67 2.02 1.48 1.13 4.07
Slab 4 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.93 79 2.24 2.08 1.68 1.26 0.93 0.66 0.49 1.9
11.41 100.9 2.96 2.74 2.24 1.68 1.24 0.89 0.64 2.51
15.30 135.3 4.12 3.8 3.09 2.3 1.72 1.26 0.96 3.47
17.81 157.5 4.81 4.48 3.65 2.72 2.04 1.49 1.17 4.09
Slab 4 Edeloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.63 76.3 3.38 2.94 2.24 1.65 1.2 0.88 0.67 2.67
11.14 98.5 4.21 3.65 2.83 2.07 1.54 1.15 0.9 3.39
15.19 134.3 5.98 5.24 4.05 2.97 2.21 1.66 1.28 4.8
17.62 155.8 6.86 6.25 4.74 3.49 2.59 1.94 1.5 5.74
Slab 4 Edge loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.67 76.7 3.24 2.81 2.15 1.57 1.17 0.88 0.68 2.62
11.02 97.4 4.18 3.63 2.8 2.05 1.52 1.14 0.88 3.41
15.05 133.1 5.9 5.13 4.01 2.94 2.19 1.64 1.27 5.31
17.50 154.7 6.94 6.13 4.7 3.46 2.57 1.93 1.49 6.07
Slab 4 Edeunloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.62 76.2 2.09 1.92 1.64 1.38 1.1 0.86 0.66 1.96
11.04 97.6 2.75 2.51 2.17 1.82 1.45 1.13 0.88 2.57
15.16 134 3.85 3.54 3.09 2.6 2.04 1.61 1.26 3.62
17.60 155.6 4.56 4.15 3.63 3.05 2.39 1.89 1.47 4.25


216











Table A-4. Continued.
Slab 4 Edge unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.61 76.1 2.11 1.95 1.67 1.41 1.12 0.88 0.68 1.99
10.97 97 2.77 2.5 2.15 1.8 1.41 1.1 0.83 2.57
15.06 133.2 3.83 3.56 3.09 2.61 2.05 1.61 1.26 3.65
17.47 154.5 4.47 4.16 3.64 3.06 2.4 1.89 1.48 4.26
Slab 4 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.15 80.9 2.64 2.19 1.71 1.3 1 0.74 0.57 2.13
11.54 102 3.29 2.77 2.2 1.67 1.29 0.99 0.77 2.7
15.43 136.4 4.55 3.96 3.14 2.4 1.85 1.42 1.13 3.82
17.61 155.7 5.3 4.58 3.66 2.81 2.17 1.67 1.33 4.46
Slab 4 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.06 80.1 2.54 2.19 1.7 1.29 1 0.75 0.59 2.12
11.35 100.4 3.3 2.8 2.2 1.67 1.29 0.98 0.77 2.71
15.17 134.1 4.41 3.89 3.11 2.37 1.83 1.41 1.12 3.78
17.52 154.9 5.26 4.54 3.63 2.79 2.14 1.64 1.32 4.44
Slab 4 Joint unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.99 79.5 1.97 1.83 1.54 1.2 0.95 0.74 0.59 1.86
11.38 100.6 2.52 2.35 1.99 1.57 1.23 0.96 0.75 2.4
15.36 135.8 3.55 3.33 2.82 2.23 1.75 1.37 1.09 3.38
17.61 155.7 4.13 3.88 3.3 2.62 2.05 1.6 1.29 3.94
Slab 4 Joint unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.96 79.2 1.94 1.8 1.51 1.18 0.92 0.72 0.56 1.84
11.34 100.3 2.52 2.34 1.98 1.57 1.23 0.96 0.76 2.4
15.23 134.7 3.53 3.31 2.81 2.22 1.73 1.37 1.08 3.36
17.52 154.9 4.13 3.88 3.3 2.61 2.04 1.62 1.29 3.94


Table A-5. FWD test data from Slab 5.
Slab 5 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.35 82.70 9.36 6.64 4.70 3.20 2.22 1.48 0.93 4.13
12.76 112.80 11.28 7.90 5.50 3.74 2.61 1.79 1.17 5.39
15.88 140.40 13.94 9.84 6.86 4.67 3.26 2.20 1.45 6.82
18.63 164.70 16.12 11.42 7.98 5.44 3.80 2.58 1.69 7.89
Slab 5 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.51 84.10 10.09 7.13 4.87 3.29 2.13 1.38 0.93 4.14
12.54 110.90 12.38 8.76 6.01 4.03 2.70 1.80 1.21 5.43
15.55 137.50 14.72 10.45 7.20 4.91 3.26 2.13 1.44 6.80
18.45 163.10 16.83 12.02 8.30 5.64 3.81 2.50 1.69 8.00


217











Table A-5. Continued.
Slab 5 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.55 84.40 10.44 8.34 6.39 3.82 1.69 1.06 0.44 7.35
12.64 111.80 12.68 11.43 7.63 4.72 2.15 1.44 0.74 9.67
15.66 138.50 14.95 13.43 9.04 5.57 2.74 1.80 1.00 11.70
18.50 163.60 16.85 14.81 10.30 6.28 3.36 2.21 1.39 13.47
Slab 5 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.43 83.40 10.72 8.62 6.35 3.96 1.83 1.05 0.53 7.52
12.52 110.70 13.07 11.33 7.69 4.93 2.27 1.42 0.69 10.14
15.47 136.80 15.28 13.39 9.08 5.72 2.81 1.87 1.12 11.96
18.45 163.10 17.21 14.83 10.39 6.41 3.40 2.28 1.28 13.69
Slab 5 Center Small Long 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.75 86.20 3.76 3.54 3.16 2.82 2.60 1.82 2.36 2.90
12.68 112.10 4.82 4.38 4.05 3.58 3.25 2.42 3.09 3.79
15.56 137.60 6.01 5.45 5.01 4.40 3.96 3.06 3.88 4.74
18.45 163.10 7.06 6.42 5.84 5.11 4.57 3.62 4.58 5.63
Slab 5 Center Small Long 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.73 86.00 3.81 3.48 3.26 2.90 2.68 1.87 2.40 2.97
12.57 111.10 4.91 4.44 4.12 3.65 3.33 2.45 3.13 3.84
15.43 136.40 6.02 5.49 5.06 4.45 4.01 3.07 3.90 4.78
18.23 161.20 7.13 6.53 5.88 5.15 4.62 3.64 4.60 5.63
Slab 5 Center Small Trans 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.79 86.60 3.73 2.96 2.31 1.74 1.28 3.97 3.85 3.72
12.67 112.00 4.71 3.74 2.98 2.28 1.71 4.84 4.76 4.62
15.51 137.10 5.97 4.68 3.70 2.84 2.11 6.14 6.06 5.92
18.42 162.90 7.06 5.54 4.34 3.33 2.46 7.36 7.24 7.10
Slab 5 Center Small Trans 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.95 88.00 3.76 2.94 2.30 1.75 1.32 4.02 3.89 3.45
12.42 109.80 4.75 3.66 2.91 2.22 1.67 4.97 4.85 4.24
15.57 137.70 6.00 4.65 3.67 2.82 2.11 6.29 6.18 5.52
18.54 163.90 7.15 5.52 4.34 3.33 2.46 7.39 7.36 6.70
Slab 5 Edge loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.23 81.60 13.81 11.41 8.37 6.35 4.72 3.56 2.49 3.09
12.20 107.90 15.03 12.22 8.84 6.67 4.91 3.56 2.46 3.70
15.18 134.20 17.54 14.38 10.23 7.84 5.76 4.31 2.98 4.76
18.27 161.50 19.87 16.35 11.48 8.31 6.49 4.93 3.43 5.93
Slab 5 Edeloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.01 79.70 13.50 11.58 7.80 6.23 4.43 3.44 2.34 5.38
12.02 106.30 15.77 13.02 9.29 7.14 5.15 3.86 2.65 3.92
15.01 132.70 17.97 14.97 10.64 8.22 5.90 4.44 3.08 5.11
18.17 160.70 20.09 16.75 11.85 9.26 6.61 5.05 3.51 6.13


218











Table A-5. Continued.
Slab 5 Edge loaded 03 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8.98 79.40 13.58 11.67 7.96 6.27 4.48 3.53 2.43 2.06
12.04 106.50 16.05 13.29 9.39 7.26 5.23 3.95 2.72 2.77
15.01 132.70 18.18 15.14 10.74 8.30 5.98 4.48 3.15 3.63
18.19 160.80 20.02 16.67 11.87 9.22 6.63 5.01 3.54 4.59
Slab 5 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.62 85.10 5.04 4.87 4.18 2.93 2.10 1.58 1.17 4.31
12.71 112.40 6.32 6.06 5.18 3.69 2.67 2.02 1.53 5.35
15.64 138.30 7.89 7.54 6.46 4.66 3.38 2.59 1.98 6.58
18.55 164.00 9.33 9.03 7.64 5.51 4.02 3.12 2.39 7.95
Slab 5 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions milss)
Load (kp) Pressure (pi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9.59 84.80 5.19 4.98 4.39 3.03 2.16 1.56 1.15 4.41
12.60 111.40 6.62 6.37 5.56 3.87 2.78 2.08 1.56 5.50
15.51 137.10 8.11 7.83 6.71 4.78 3.47 2.62 2.00 6.59
18.38 162.50 9.48 9.18 7.81 5.58 4.08 3.13 2.39 7.87


219










APPENDIX B
HVS LASER PROFILE DATA COLLECTION SCHEDULE

Table B-1. Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
1 0 03/21/06 15:52
2 5869 03/22/06 5:01
3 5869 03/22/06 5:14
4 10418 03/22/06 14:01
5 10418 03/22/06 14:13
6 18343 03/23/06 5:00
7 18343 03/23/06 5:13
8 22840 03/23/06 14:00
9 22840 03/23/06 14:12
10 31059 03/24/06 5:05
11 31059 03/24/06 5:19
12 35555 03/24/06 14:00
13 43946 03/25/06 5:07
14 43946 03/25/06 5:21
15 48460 03/25/06 14:01
16 48460 03/25/06 14:14
17 56800 03/26/06 5:01
18 56800 03/26/06 5:13
19 61217 03/26/06 14:03
20 61217 03/26/06 14:16
21 69408 03/27/06 5:00
22 69408 03/27/06 5:08
23 69408 03/27/06 5:21
24 72901 03/27/06 14:00
25 72901 03/27/06 14:14
26 80721 03/28/06 5:00
27 80721 03/28/06 5:13
28 80721 03/28/06 5:24
29 85254 03/28/06 14:00
30 85254 03/28/06 14:13
31 85254 03/28/06 14:25
32 93140 03/29/06 5:00
33 93140 03/29/06 5:12
34 97709 03/29/06 14:00
35 97709 03/29/06 14:13
36 105877 03/30/06 5:00
37 105877 03/30/06 5:15


220











Table B-1. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
38 10630 03/30/06 14:15
39 10630 03/30/06 14:26
40 10630 03/30/06 14:37
41 118735 03/31/06 5:00
42 118735 03/31/06 5:15
43 123134 03/31/06 14:03
44 123134 03/31/06 14:14
45 131121 04/0 1/06 5:03
46 131121 04/0 1/06 5:16
47 135282 04/0 1/06 14:00
48 135282 04/0 1/06 14:13
49 135282 04/0 1/06 14:28
50 142764 04/02/06 5:12
51 142764 04/02/06 5:24
53 146509 04/02/06 14:00
54 146509 04/02/06 14:16
55 154836 04/03/06 5:00
56 154836 04/03/06 5:15
57 158810 04/03/06 14:00
58 158810 04/03/06 14:14
59 167031 04/04/06 5:00
60 167031 04/04/06 5:15
61 167031 04/04/06 5:20
62 171051 04/04/06 14:00
63 171051 04/04/06 14:12
64 179316 04/05/06 5:00
65 179316 04/05/06 5:15
66 179316 04/06/06 5:25
67 179316 04/06/06 5:40










Table B-2. Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1.
Passes File Name File Date Time
0 06_03_1H.p 21/03/2006 15:32:35
5869 06 03 1H.p2 22/C 72006 5:01:29
10418 06_03_1H.p4 22/C 72006 14:(OL:14
18343 06_03_1H.p 23/C 72006 5:0(159
22840 06_03_1H.p8 23/C 72006 14:0(158
31059 06_03_1H.pl0 24/C 72006 5:05:49
35555 06 03 1H.pl2 24/C 72006 14:0KE54
43946 06_03_1H.pl3 25/C 72006 5:)7:06
48460 06_03_1H.pl5 25/C 72006 14:01:19
56800 06_03_1H.pl7 26/C 72006 5:01:43
61217 06 03 1H.pl9 26/C 72006 14:)3:21
69408 06 03 1H.p23 27/C 72006 5:21:21
72901 06_03_1H.p24 27/04/2006 14:(OL:09
80721 06_03_1H.p26 28/04/2006 5:0(150
85254 06_03_1H.p29 28/04/2006 14:t):52
93140 06 03 1H.p32 29/04/2006 5:0(134
97709 06 03 1H.p34 29/04/2006 14:t):49
105877 06_03_1H.p36 30/04/2006 5:0(156
110630 06_03_1H.p38 30/C 72006 14:15:03
118735 06_03_1H.p41 31/C 72006 5:0(132
123134 06 03 1H.p43 31/C 72006 14:03:08
131121 06_03_1H.p45 1/420306 5:(IZ:50
135282 06_03_1H.p47 1/420306 14:00:38
142764 06_03_1H.p5 2/4W2006 4:01:12
143323 06_03_1H.p52 2/4W2006 6::bt:01
146509 06 03 1H.p53 2/4W2006 14:0(134
154836 06_03_1H.p55 3/420306 5:00:51
158810 06_03_1H.p57 3/420306 14:00:51
167031 06_03_1H.p59 4/4W2006 5:0(155
171051 06_03_1H.p62 4/4W2006 14:0(141


222










Table B-3. Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
0 0 6/1/2006 14:05
1 0 6/1/2006 14:20
2 7780 (W2/2006 5:00
3 7780 (W2/2006 5:00
4 12490 6/2/2006 14:10
5 12490 6/2/2006 14:30
6 20718 6/3/2006 5:00
7 20718 6/3/2006 5:24
8 25405 6/3/2006 14:00
9 25405 6/3/2006 14:15
10 34230 6/4/2006 5:05
11 34230 6/4/2006 5:34
12 38166 6/4/2006 14:00
13 38166 6/4/2006 14:09
14 46588 6/5/2006 5:00
15 46588 6/5/2006 5:00
16 51165 6/5/2006 14:00
17 51165 6/5/2006 14:15
18 59478 6/6/2006 5:00
19 59478 6/6/2006 5:15
20 62645 (W6/2006 14:00
21 62645 6/6/2006 14:15
22 70769 6/7/2006 5:00
23 70769 6/7/2006 5:13
24 74800 6/7/2006 14:15
25 74800 6/7/2006 14:30
26 82816 6/8/2006 5:00
27 82816 6/8/2006 5:15
28 82816 6/8/2006 5:30
29 86967 6/8/2006 14:10
30 86967 6/8/2006 14:10
31 86967 6/8/2006 15:30
Chneload front 12kipto 15kp
32 94911 6/9/2006 5:00
33 94911 6/9/2006 5:15
34 99814 6/9/2006 15:15
35 99814 6/10/2006 15:30
36 99814 6/11/2006 15:45
37 106840 6/10/2006 5:05


223











Table B-3. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
38 106840 6/10/2006 5:23
39 111385 6/10/2006 14:00
40 111385 6/10/2006 14:10
HVS down from 00:30 to 10:30 6/10/06 for Maintenance trouble.
41 119279 6/11/2006 14:00
42 119279 6/11/2006 14:10
43 119279 6/11/2006 14:23
HVS down from 1:00am to 4:30am 12/11 from pesnel issue
44 125367 6/12/2006 5:00
45 125367 6/12/2006 5:13
46 130024 6/12/2006 14:30
47 130024 6/12/2006 14:45
HVS down from 8:30am to 8:30pm on 6/13 do to FDOT Closing from storm
Change load from li kip to 18 kisat 38:30 pmon 6/13/06.
48 137946 6/14/2006 5:00
49 137946 6/15/2006 5:13
50 147617 6/16/2006 14:30
51 147617 6/17/2006 14:45
53 157017 6/15/2006 5:00
54 157017 6/15/2006 5:00
55 160361 6/16/2006 14:20
56 160361 6/17/2006 14:30
57 168585 6/16/2006 5:00
58 168585 6/16/2006 5:10
59 173204 6/16/2006 14:00
60 173204 6/16/2006 14:20
61 173204 6/16/2006 14:30
62 175415 6/17/2006 5:12
63 175415 6/17/2006 5:22


224










Table B-4. Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2.
Passes File Name File Date Time
0 06jun_1e.p2 2/6/2006 4:59:00
7779 06iun le.p3 2/6/2006 5:12:39
12490 06jun_1e.p4 2/6/2006 14:07:50
25405 06jun_1e.p 3/6/2006 13:59:07
34230 06jun_1e.pl0 4/6/2006 5:43:43
38166 06un_1e.pl2 4/6/2006 13:58:54
46587 0un le.pl4 5/6/2006 4:58:53
51165 06jun_1e.pl6 5/6/2006 13:59:29
59402 06un_1e.pl8 6/6/2006 5:00:49
62645 06jun_1e.p20 6/6/2006 13:59:13
70768 00nle.p22 7/6/2006 4:58:40
75235 0un le.p24 7/6/2006 14:14:17
82815 06jun_1e.p26 8/6/2006 5:00:10
86937 06un_1e.p30 8/6/2006 14:03:09
94911 06jun_1e.p32 9/6/2006 4:58:42
99813 00nle.p34 9/6/2006 14:57:10
106840 0un le.p37 10/6/2006 4:59:40
111384 06jun_1e.p39 10/6/2006 13:58:50
119279 06un_1e.p41 11/6/2006 13:58:43
125366 06jun_1e.p44 12/6/2006 4:58:38
130023 00nle.p4 12/6/2006 14:28:39
137946 06JUN_1E.p4 13/06/2006 5:02:18
148756 06JUN_1E.p51 14/06/2006 14:00:14

Table B-5. Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
0 0 04/04/07 13:35
1 0 03/21/07 13:50
2 1730 04/05/07 17:09
3 1730 04/05/07 17:28
4 8266 04/06/07 5:00
5 8266 04/06/07 5:15
6 12925 04/06/07 14:10
7 12925 04/06/07 14:25
8 20690 04/07/07 5:27
9 20690 04/07/07 5:28
10 25300 04/07/07 14:00
11 25300 04/07/07 14:15
12 33156 04/08/07 5:00
13 33156 04/08/07 5:13
14 37758 04/08/07 14:00
15 37758 04/08/07 14:15
15 46783 04/09/07 6:30


225











Table B-5. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
16 46783 04/09/07 6:45
17 50849 04/09/07 14:30
18 50849 04/09/07 14:45
19 53574 04/10/07 5:00
20 53574 04/10/07 5:15
21 62852 04/10/07 14:10
22 62852 04/10/07 14:25
23 70910 04/11/07 5:00
24 70910 04/11/07 5:15
25 75482 04/11/07 14:30
26 75482 04/11/07 14:45
27 82534 04/12/07 5:00
28 82534 04/12/07 5:15
29 86546 04/12/07 14:30
30 94051 04/13/07 5:00
31 94051 04/13/07 5:11
Caedfrom 12kip to 15kp 4/13/07 ii2 8:00am and 95042 pse
32 95042 04/12/07 14:30
33 95042 04/12/07 14:45
34 105067 04/14/07 5:05
35 105067 04/14/07 5:45
35 108582 04/14/07 14:00
36 108583 04/14/07 14:12
37 116918 04/15/07 3:27
38 116918 04/15/07 3:39
39 121545 04/15/07 14:00
40 121545 04/15/07 14:15
41 129639 04/16/07 5:00
42 129639 04/16/07 5:15
Changed from 15kips to 18kips 4/16/07 a 8:00am and 130957 passes
43 132946 04/16/07 14:00
44 132946 04/12/07 14:20
45 141131 04/17/07 5:00
46 141131 04/17/07 5:15
47 144484 04/17/07 14:05
48 144484 04/17/07 14:25
49 152799 04/18/07 5:00
50 152799 04/18/07 5:15
51 157337 04/17/07 14:05


226











Table B-5. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
52 157337 04/17/07 14:25
53 164545 04/19/07 5:00
54 164545 04/19/07 5:15
55 168537 04/19/07 14:05
56 168537 04/19/07 14:25

Table B-6. Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3.
Passes File Name File Date Time
0 07APR1H.p 5/4/2007 14:26:13
1730 07APR1H.p2 5/4/2007 18:05:09
24924 07APR1H.pl0 7/4/2007 13:58:57
37757 07APR1H.pl3 8/4/2007 13:58:45
46764 07APR1H.pl5 9/4/2007 6:33:55
58573 07APR1H.pl9 10/4/2007 4:59:24
62851 07APR1H.p21 10/4/2007 14:00:21
70910 07APR1H.p23 11/4/2007 5:01:56
75482 07APR1H.p25 11/4/2007 13:58:50
85868 07APR1H.p29 12/4/2007 13:59:32
97971 07APR1H.p32 13/04/2007 14:03:50
105066 07APR1H.p34 14/04/2007 5:07:18
108583 07APR1H.p35 14/04/2007 12:27:12
116918 07APR1H.p37 15/04/2007 3:27:50
121545 07APR1H.p39 15/04/2007 13:59:47
129640 07APR1H.p41 16/04/2007 5:00:28
132946 07APR1H.p43 16/04/2007 14:00:55
141130 07APR1H.p45 17/04/2007 5:00:10
145347 07APR1H.p47 17/04/2007 14:03:02
152799 07APR1H.p49 18/04/2007 5:03:31
157337 07APR1H.p5 1 18/04/2007 14:06:16
164544 07APR1H.p53 19/04/2007 5:01:16
168537 07APR1H.P55 19/04/2007 14:01:39


227










Table B-7. Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
0 0 07/11/07 17:00
1 6262 07/12/07 8:00
2 8934 07/12/07 14:30
3 8934 07/12/07 15:00
4 16031 07/13/07 5:04
5 16031 07/13/07 5:21
9 19923 07/13/07 14:00
10 19923 07/13/07 14:15
11 28479 07/14/07 5:12
12 28479 07/14/07 5:23
13 32865 07/14/07 14:05
14 32865 07/14/07 14:20
15 41030 07/15/07 5:05
16 41030 07/15/07 5:16
17 45823 07/15/07 14:05
18 45823 07/15/07 14:20
19 54281 07/16/07 5:15
20 54281 07/16/07 5:25
21 58400 07/16/07 14:25
22 58400 07/16/07 14:35
23 64686 07/17/07 2:00
24 64686 07/17/07 2:15
25 66029 07/17/D7 5:09
26 66029 07/17/D7 5:25
29 78118 07/18/D7 5:11
30 78118 07/18/D7 5:21
31 82471 07/18077
32 82471 07/18/37
Changed from 12kip to 15kip at 7/18 3:34pm & 82963 passes
33 90998 07/19/D7 5:20
34 90998 07/19/D7 5:35
35 93923 07/19/07 14:05
36 93923 07/19/D7 14:20
37 103430 07/20/07 5:20
38 103430 07/20/07 5:31
39 07/20/07 14:05
40 07/20/07 14:20
41 115291 07/2 1/07 5:22
42 115291 07/2 1/07 5:43


228











Table B-7. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
45 120080 07/2 1/07 14:19
46 120080 07/2 1/07 14:30
47 125813 07/22/07 5:05
48 125813 07/22/07 5:30
49 132244 07/22/07 14:00
50 132244 07/22/07 14:12
Cugefront 15kipto 18 kp: 7/22 10:11pr 'i 136,365 pse
51 140705 07/23/07 5:11
52 140705 07/23/07 5:22
55 154608 07/24/07 5:02
56 154608 07/24/07 5:10
57 154608 07/24/07 5:25
58 154608 07/24/07 5:35

Table B-8. Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4.
Pass # File Name File Date File Time
0 07JUL2G.p 11/7/2007 16:59:53
17457 07JUL2G.p6 13/07/2007 9:19:54
69920 07JUL2G.p27 17/07/2007 14:07:02
82471 07JUL2G.p31 18/07/2007 14:00:26



Table B-9. Data collection schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
0 0 08/29/07 13:30
1 0 08/29/07 13:45
2 4861 08/30/07 14:15
3 4861 08/30/07 14:30
4 11618 08/31/07 5:11
5 11618 08/31/07 5:22
6 16800 08/31/07 14:15
7 16800 08/31/07 14:30
8 25345 09/01/07 5:45
9 25345 09/01/07 5:55
10 30001 09/01/07 14:00
11 30001 09/01/07 14:03
12 30001 09/01/07 14:13
13 38283 0/02/07 5:13
14 38283 09/02/07 5:20
15 43176 09/02/07 14:00


229











Table B-9. Continued.
Profile Number Passes Date Time
16 43176 09/02/07 14:10
18 53553 09/03/07 14:10
20 63780 09/04/07 5:00
21 63780 09/04/07 5:15
23 68264 09/04/07 14:30
24 68264 09/04/07 14:45
25 74763 09/05/07 5:10
26 74763 09/05/07 5:20
27 81062 09/05/07 14:00
28 81062 09/05/07 14:10
(mgefrona 2kip o 15kip9/5/072 23piit81062pse
29 88360 09/06/07 5:00
30 88360 09/06/07 5:30
31 91868 09/06/07 14:00
32 91868 09/06/07 14:10
33 100296 09/07/07 5:10
34 100296 09/07/07 5:20
35 104491 09/07/07 14:00
36 104491 09/07/07 14:10
37 113046 09/08/07 5:19
38 113046 09/08/07 5:29
39 117392 09/08/07 14:00
40 117392 09/08/07 14:09
41 130810 09/09/07 14:00
42 130810 09/09/07 14:20
(mgefrona 5kipto 18kip9/9/07 2:30piit 130810pse
43 139009 09/10/07 5:10
44 139009 09/10/07 5:21
45 143750 09/10/07 14:00
46 143750 09/10/07 14:10
47 152239 09/11/07 5:00
48 152239 09/11/07 5:15
153361 Total Passes


230










Table B-10. Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5.
Passes File Name File Date Time
0 07AUGCON.p 29/08/2007 11:54:45
4860 07AUGCON.p2 30/08/2007 14:16:53
13213 07AUGCON.p4 31/08/2007 4:59:55
16809 07AUGCON.p 31/08/2007 13:48:04
25345 07AUGCON.p8 1/9/2007 5:33:07
30002 07AUGCON.p11 1/9/2007 14:02:16
38283 07AUGCON.pl3 2/9/2007 4:59:23
43176 07AUGCON.pl5 2/9/2007 14:00:14
55586 07AUGCON.pl7 3/9/2007 13:59:11
63780 07AUGCON.p20 4/9/2007 5:00:15
68259 07AUGCON.p23 4/9/2007 15:00:02
76187 07AUGCON.p25 5/9/2007 4:59:27
81062 07AUGCON.p27 5/9/2007 14:03:54
88360 07AUGCON.p29 6/9/2007 5:01:14
91868 07AUGCON.p31 6/9/2007 13:59:29
100296 07AUGCON.p33 7/9/2007 4:59:12
104491 07AUGCON.p35 7/9/2007 14:03:52









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236









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Kitti Manokhoon, the son of Mr.Chaisit and Mrs.Arunce Manokhoon, was bomn in 1977,

Thailand. He graduated with the Bachelor of Engineering from the Department of Civil

Engineering at the Khon-Kaen University (KKU), Thailand in April 1998. After the graduation,

he was awarded a scholarship to continue his study at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT),

Thailand. He earned the Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering from the School of

Civil Engineering at AIT in April 2000. He was then appointed as a lecturer in the Department of

Civil Engineering at the Mahanakorn University of Technology (MUT), Thailand until August

2002.

In 2002, he was awarded the Royal Thai Govemnment scholarship to start his Ph.D.

program in civil engineering at the University of Florida (UF), USA in Fall 2002. At UF, he also

earned a graduate research assistantship to work on research proj ects as well as to complete his

Ph.D. During the time of his Ph.D. plan, in August 2004, he was awarded the Master of

Engineering from the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering at UF. In April, 2005 he was

granted the Outstanding International Student Academic Award from the College of Engineering

at UF. Throughout his studies at UF, he has achieved the highest grade point average attainable

of 4.0/4.0.


237





PAGE 1

1 EVALUATION OF CONCRETE MIXES FOR SLAB REPLACEMENT USING THE MATURITY METHOD AND ACC ELERATED PAVEMENT TESTING By KITTI MANOKHOON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2007

PAGE 2

2 2007 Kitti Manokhoon

PAGE 3

3 To my grand father To my father and mother

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my heartfelt apprecia tion and deep gratitude to my supervisory committee chair, Prof. Mang Tia, for continuou sly helping, guiding and supporting me at the University of Florida (UF). Appreciation is al so extended to supervis ory committee co-chair, Prof. Fazil T. Najafi, as well as committee me mbers, Dr. Scott Washburn, Dr. Bouzid Choubane and Dr. Malisa Sarntinoranont, whose opinions and guidance have been invaluable in the completion of this study. Special gratitude is expresse d to the Royal Thai Government and the Thai people for financially supporting my studies at the University of Florida. I wish to express my sincere thanks to th e Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for sponsoring the research that made this disse rtation possible. I also give thanks to FDOT Materials Office personnel, particularly Dr. Bouzid Choubane, Michael Bergin, Tom Byron, Steve Ross, Charles Ishee, Richard DeLorenzo, a nd others. Gratitude is also conveyed to the staff of the Department of Civil and Coastal En gineering, especially Nancy Been, Carol Hipsley, Doretha Ray, Ketty Fizer, Anthony Murphy, and othe rs. Sincere appreciation also goes to Irene Scarso for her expert edi ting of this dissertation. I would like to also express my appreciation to my friends and colleagues at UF who have helped with this research, as well as my friends in the Thai Student Association at UF for their kind support. Finally, the deepest appreciation goes to my parents, to my family members, especially to my sister (Nonglak Manokhoon) and my brot her (Sukho Manokhoon), and last but not least Kanthida Deopanich, for their patience, unders tanding, support and love throughout my time in the US.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........9 LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................ .......12 ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... ............19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................21 1.1 Background................................................................................................................. ......21 1.2 Hypothesis of Research....................................................................................................22 1.3 Research Objectives........................................................................................................ ..23 1.4 Approach and Scope of Research.....................................................................................23 1.5 Significance of the Research............................................................................................24 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................27 2.1 General Review on Slab Replacement.............................................................................27 2.2 Analytical Models for Concrete Pavement.......................................................................29 2.2.1 Foundation Models for Concrete Pavement...........................................................29 2.2.2 Finite Element Method for Concrete Pavement.....................................................31 2.3 Maturity Method in Concrete Pavement...........................................................................36 2.4 Verification of Analytical Re sults with Measured Results...............................................42 3 MATERIALS AND TEST METHODS.................................................................................45 3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........45 3.2 Concrete Mixes Evaluated................................................................................................45 3.2.1 Mix Proportion of Concrete....................................................................................45 3.2.2 Mix Ingredients......................................................................................................47 3.3 Fabrication and Curing Condition of Concrete Specimen................................................51 3.3.1 Laboratory-Prepared Mixes....................................................................................52 3.3.2 Plant-Prepared Concrete Mixes Used in Test Slabs...............................................53 3.4 Tests on Fresh Concrete....................................................................................................56 3.5 Tests on Hardened Concrete.............................................................................................57 3.5.1 Compressive Strength Test.....................................................................................57 3.5.2 Flexural Strength Test............................................................................................58 3.5.3 Splitting Tensile Strength Test...............................................................................59 3.5.4 Elastic Modulus Test..............................................................................................62 3.5.5 Drying Shrinkage Test............................................................................................63 3.5.6 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.........................................................................64

PAGE 6

6 3.6 Concrete Maturity Characteristics....................................................................................68 3.6.1 Introduction of Maturity Concept...........................................................................68 3.6.2 Maturity Functions.................................................................................................68 3.6.3 Maturity Test Apparatus.........................................................................................69 3.6.4 Procedure for Maturity Test...................................................................................70 3.6.5 Establishment of Maturity Strength Relationship..................................................72 4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONSTRUCTI ON OF THE TEST SLABS..........................78 4.1 Description of Experiment................................................................................................78 4.2 Stress Analysis for Instrumentation Plan..........................................................................79 4.3 Construction of the Test Slabs..........................................................................................86 4.3.1 Concrete Test Track...............................................................................................86 4.3.2 Removal of Concrete Slabs....................................................................................88 4.3.3 Installation of Dowel Bars and Fiber Sheets..........................................................89 4.3.4 Placement of Strain Gauges and Thermocouples...................................................90 4.3.5 Data Acquisition.....................................................................................................91 4.3.6 Placement and Finishing of Concrete Test Slabs...................................................93 5 HVS TESTING AND OBSERVATION OF PERFORMANCE OF TEST SLABS.............96 5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ........96 5.2 Slab 1..................................................................................................................... ...........97 5.2.1 Start of HVS Lo ading on Slab 1.............................................................................97 5.2.2 Strength Determination using Matur ity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 1......................................................................................................................... ..99 5.2.3 Observed Performance of Slab 1..........................................................................100 5.3 Slab 2..................................................................................................................... .........102 5.3.1 Start of HVS Lo ading on Slab 2...........................................................................102 5.3.2 Strength Determination using Matur ity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 2.........................................................................................................................103 5.3.3 Observed Performance of Slab 2..........................................................................104 5.4 Slab 3..................................................................................................................... .........106 5.4.1 Start of HVS Lo ading on Slab 3...........................................................................106 5.4.2 Strength Determination using Matur ity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 3.........................................................................................................................107 5.4.3 Observed Performance of Slab 3..........................................................................109 5.5 Slab 4..................................................................................................................... .........112 5.5.1 Start of HVS Lo ading on Slab 4...........................................................................112 5.5.2 Strength Determination using Matur ity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 4.........................................................................................................................113 5.5.3 Observed Performance of Slab 4..........................................................................115 5.6 Slab 5..................................................................................................................... .........119 5.6.1 Start of HVS Lo ading on Slab 5...........................................................................119 5.6.2 Strength Determination using Matur ity Calibration of Concrete Mix from Slab 5.........................................................................................................................120 5.6.3 Observed Performance of Slab 5..........................................................................122

PAGE 7

7 6 CHARACTERIZATION OF CON CRETE MIXES AND TEST SLABS...........................126 6.1 Characterization of Concrete Mixes...............................................................................126 6.1.1 Results of Tests on Concrete................................................................................126 6.1.2 Relationship among the Concrete Properties.......................................................133 6.2 Slab Characterization......................................................................................................139 6.2.1 Analysis of Temperature Data..............................................................................140 6.2.2 Joint Opening Measurement.................................................................................149 6.2.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing.................................................................151 6.2.4 Measurement of the HVS Laser Profiles..............................................................156 6.2.5 Testing of Concrete Cores....................................................................................161 7 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION.............................................................165 7.1 Overview of Model Calibration......................................................................................165 7.2 Calibration of Model Parameters....................................................................................166 7.2.1 Slab 1................................................................................................................... .166 7.2.2 Slab 2................................................................................................................... .169 7.2.3 Slab 3................................................................................................................... .171 7.2.4 Slab 4................................................................................................................... .173 7.2.5 Slab 5................................................................................................................... .175 7.3 Verification of Model Parameters..................................................................................178 8 EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE.........................................................188 8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... ......188 8.2 Evaluation of Potential Performance of Test Slabs........................................................188 8.2.1 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fle xural Strength of Conc rete in Slab 1......189 8.2.2 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fle xural Strength of Conc rete in Slab 2......191 8.2.3 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fle xural Strength of Conc rete in Slab 3......194 8.2.4 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fle xural Strength of Conc rete in Slab 4......196 8.2.5 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fle xural Strength of Conc rete in Slab 5......202 8.3 Required Concrete Properties for Adequate Performance..............................................204 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................207 9.1 Summary of Findings.....................................................................................................207 9.2 Conclusions................................................................................................................ .....209 9.3 Recommendations...........................................................................................................210 9.4 Contributions of the Research........................................................................................210 APPENDIX A FWD TEST DATA...............................................................................................................212 B HVS LASER PROFILE DAT A COLLECTION SCHEDULE...........................................220 LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................232

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................237

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Mix design of the concrete mix used in Slabs 1 and 2.......................................................46 3-2 Mix design of the concrete mix used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5...................................................46 3-3 Physical properties of the Type I/II cement.......................................................................47 3-4 Chemical properties of the Type I/II cement.....................................................................47 3-5 Physical properties of the fine aggregate...........................................................................48 3-6 Physical properties of the fine aggregate...........................................................................49 3-8 Testing program on fresh concretes...................................................................................56 3-9 Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 1 and 2.............................................................57 3-10 Properties of fresh concrete used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5.........................................................57 3-11 Testing program on hardened concrete..............................................................................57 5-1 Strength analysis for concrete in Slab 1 using maturity method.......................................99 5-2 Strength analysis for concrete in Slab 2 using maturity method.....................................104 5-3 Strength analysis for the concrete in Slab 3 using maturity method................................108 5-4 Data for maturity calibration of concrete used in Slab 4.................................................114 5-5 Data for maturity calibration of concrete used in Slab 5.................................................121 6-1 Average compressive strength of the concrete mixes used.............................................126 6-2 Average flexural strength of the concrete mixes used.....................................................128 6-3 Average splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixes used.........................................129 6-4 Average elastic modulus of the concrete mixes used......................................................130 6-5 Drying shrinkage strains of the concrete mixes used.......................................................131 6-6 Coefficient of thermal expansi on of the concrete mixes used.........................................132 6-7 Maximum temperature diffe rential on the test slabs........................................................132 6-8 Joint Opening Readings...................................................................................................150

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10 6-9 Properties of concrete cores from test sl abs compared to laboratory-cured specimens from the test slabs concrete respectively.........................................................................164 7-1 Slab model parameters used in the FEACONS mode l calibrations.................................166 7-2 Summary of model parameters calibrated for the test slabs............................................187 8-1 Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 1.........................................190 8-2 Predicted induced stresses and strength of concrete in Slab 2.........................................192 8-3 Predicted Induced Stresses and Flexur al Strength of Concrete in Slab 3........................195 8-4 Computed load-induced stresses and predicte d flexural strength of concrete in Slab 4.............................................................................................................................. ..........198 8-5 Computed load-induced stresses and predicte d flexural strength of concrete in Slab 5.............................................................................................................................. ..........203 8-6 Maximum computed stress due to 12-kip load at various temp erature differentials.......205 8-7 Stress to strength ratio at va rious temperature differentials.............................................205 A-1 FWD test data from Slab 1...............................................................................................212 A-2 FWD test data from Slab 2...............................................................................................213 A-3 FWD test data from Slab 3...............................................................................................214 A-4 FWD test data from Slab 4...............................................................................................216 A-5 FWD test data from Slab 5...............................................................................................217 B-1 Data collection schedule of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 1..........................................220 B-2 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1...........................................................222 B-3 Data collection schedule of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 2..........................................223 B-4 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2...........................................................225 B-5 Data collection schedule of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 3..........................................225 B-6 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3...........................................................227 B-7 Data collection schedule of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 4..........................................228 B-8 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4...........................................................229

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11 B-9 Data collection schedule of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 5..........................................229 B-10 Analysis files of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5...........................................................231

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12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3-1 Gradation of fine aggreg ate (Goldhead silica sand#76349)..............................................48 3-2 Gradation of the coarse aggregate (Limestone #08012)....................................................49 3-3 Mixer used for this study.................................................................................................. .52 3-4 Concrete specimens fabricated and cured..........................................................................55 3-5 Strength tests and typical fracture of specimens................................................................61 3-6 Performing a modulus of elasticity test.............................................................................63 3-7 Drying shrinkage test...................................................................................................... ...64 3-8 Test set-up for coefficient of thermal expansion measurement.........................................67 3-9 Model H-2680 system 4101 concrete maturity meter........................................................69 3-10 Procedure for maturity testing...........................................................................................71 3-11 Datum temperature determination process and equipment................................................74 3-12 Plot for determination of datum temperature, To................................................................75 3-13 Plot of determination of Q-value.......................................................................................75 3-14 Measuring temperature of concrete specimens..................................................................76 3-15 Typical plots of compressive streng th and flexural strength versus TTF..........................77 4-1 Loading positions used in the stress analysis.....................................................................80 4-2 Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a 12kip wheel load at the slab corner.................................................................................81 4-3 Distribution of the maximum stresses in the x (longitudinal) direction caused by a 12kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge............................................................................81 4-4 Contour plots of maximum stresses in th e x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner............................................................................................................. ...82 4-5 Contour plots of maximum stresses in th e x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge...........................................................................................................82

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13 4-6 Contour plots of maximum stresses in th e y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner............................................................................................................. ...83 4-7 Contour plots of maximum stresses in th e y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge...........................................................................................................83 4-8 Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 1, 2 and 3...................................................85 4-9 Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 4 and 5.......................................................85 4-10 Vertical positions of ther mocouples and strain gauges......................................................86 4-11 Concrete test track....................................................................................................... .......87 4-12 Removal of Test Slab...................................................................................................... ...88 4-13 Placement of dowel bars................................................................................................... .89 4-14 Placement of fiber sheet.................................................................................................. ...90 4-15 Installing of instrumentation............................................................................................. .91 4-16 Wheatstone quarter-bridge circu it diagram for measuring strain......................................92 4-17 Data acquisition box...................................................................................................... ....93 4-18 Placement and finishing of test slab...................................................................................95 5-1 HVS loading on a test slab.................................................................................................97 5-2 Compressive strength vs. TTF for laboratory-prepared mix.............................................98 5-3 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 1.....................................................................98 5-4 Cracks after HVS loading with 18-kip load.....................................................................100 5-5 Observed cracks on Test Slab 1.......................................................................................101 5-6 Flexural strength vs. TTF fo r concrete mix from Slab 1.................................................102 5-7 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 2...................................................................103 5-8 Transverse cracks on Test Slab 2.....................................................................................104 5-9 Cracks on Test Slab 2......................................................................................................105 5-10 Flexural strength vs. TTF for laboratory-prepared Mix 2................................................106 5-11 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 3...................................................................107

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14 5-12 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 3...............................................................107 5-13 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 3.........................................................108 5-14 Cracks on Test Slab 3..................................................................................................... .110 5-15 Cracks on Test Slab 3..................................................................................................... .111 5-16 Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete from Slab 3.........................................................112 5-17 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 4...................................................................113 5-18 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 4...............................................................113 5-19 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 4.........................................................114 5-20 Cracks on the second day of loading on Test Slab 4.......................................................116 5-21 Cracks in Slab 4 on Day 7................................................................................................117 5-22 Cracks after loading with 18-kip wheel load on Test Slab 4...........................................118 5-23 TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 5...................................................................119 5-24 Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 5...............................................................120 5-25 Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 5.........................................................121 5-26 First crack on Slab 5 in Day 2 after HVS loading...........................................................123 5-27 Cracks on Slab 5 in Day 7 after HVS loading.................................................................124 5-28 Cracks on Slab 5 at the finish of HVS testing.................................................................125 6-1 Compressive strength at various times of all concrete mixes in this study.....................127 6-2 Average compressive strength of all mi xes evaluated at various curing times...............128 6-3 Typical facture of a beam................................................................................................129 6-4 Average splitting tensile st rength of all mixes evaluate d at various curing times...........130 6-5 Elastic modulus at various curing times..........................................................................131 6-6 Drying shrinkage strains at various curing times.............................................................132 6-7 Coefficient of thermal expansi on of the concrete mixes used.........................................133 6-8 Relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength..................................134

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15 6-9 Relationship between compressive st rength and splitting tensile strength......................135 6-10 Relationship between splitting tens ile strength and flexural strength.............................136 6-11 Relationship between compressive strength and elastic modulus...................................137 6-12 Relationship between compressive st rength and drying shrinkage strain.......................138 6-13 Relationship between modulus of el asticity and drying shrinkage strain........................139 6-14 Plan view of the typical location and configuration of a test slab...................................140 6-15 Plan view of locations of thermocouples.........................................................................141 6-16 Vertical positions of thermocouples................................................................................141 6-17 Temperature differentia l variation in Slab 1....................................................................142 6-18 Temperature differentia l variation in Slab 2....................................................................143 6-19 Temperature differentia l variation in Slab 3....................................................................143 6-20 Temperature differentia l variation in Slab 4....................................................................144 6-21 Temperature differentia l variation in Slab 5....................................................................144 6-22 Temperature on the surface of th e AC layer in the test Slab 1........................................146 6-23 Variation of the temperatur e in the top (0.5) and bottom (8.5) of concrete slab and the temperature of the base layer (10. 0) at the corner of Test Slab 5............................147 6-24 Temperature distribution at the maximu m positive and negative temperature in Test Slab 1......................................................................................................................... ......148 6-25 Joint opening measurements............................................................................................149 6-26 Joint movements on Slab 1..............................................................................................150 6-27 Joint movements on Slab 2..............................................................................................151 6-28 FWD tests at the slab center.............................................................................................153 6-29 FWD tests at the slab edge...............................................................................................154 6-30 FWD tests at the slab joint...............................................................................................155 6-31 Side-shifting pattern of the laser profile..........................................................................157 6-32 Approximate profiler matrix ...........................................................................................158

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16 6-33 3-D plot of a laser pr ofile data from Slab 2.....................................................................159 6-34 Average differential transverse profil e of Slab 5 at two different times..........................160 6-35 Curling effect along the jo int and center in Slab 1..........................................................161 6-36 Concrete cores............................................................................................................ ......162 6-37 Locations of the cores taken............................................................................................163 7-1 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 1..................................................................................................................... .....167 7-2 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 1..................................................................................................................... .....168 7-3 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 1..................................................................................................................... .....169 7-4 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 2..................................................................................................................... .....170 7-5 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 2..................................................................................................................... .....170 7-6 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 9-kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 2..................................................................................................................... .....171 7-7 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 3..................................................................................................................... .....172 7-8 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 3..................................................................................................................... .....172 7-9 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 3..................................................................................................................... .....173 7-10 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 4..................................................................................................................... .....174 7-11 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 4..................................................................................................................... .....174 7-12 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 4..................................................................................................................... .....175 7-13 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 5..................................................................................................................... .....176

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17 7-14 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 5..................................................................................................................... .....177 7-15 Measured and computed deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 5..................................................................................................................... .....177 7-16 The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 1....................................................................178 7-17 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 1T on Slab 1................................................179 7-18 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 2T on Slab 1................................................179 7-19 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 3T on Slab 1................................................180 7-20 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 4T on Slab 1................................................180 7-21 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 6B on Slab 1................................................181 7-22 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 7B on Slab 1................................................181 7-23 The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 5....................................................................182 7-24 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 1B on Slab 5................................................183 7-25 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 2B on Slab 5................................................183 7-26 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 3B on Slab 5................................................184 7-27 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 4B on Slab 5................................................184 7-28 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 4T on Slab 5................................................185 7-29 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 5T on Slab 5................................................185 7-30 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 6T on Slab 5................................................186 7-31 Measured and computed stra ins for Gauge 7T on Slab 5................................................186 8-1 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 1.....................................190 8-2 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 2.....................................192 8-3 Comparison of compressive stre ngths for concrete in Slab 2..........................................193 8-4 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for th e concrete in Slab 3...............................195 8-5 Measured dynamic strains from Gauge 3T on Slab 4......................................................197 8-6 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for th e concrete in Slab 4...............................198

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18 8-7 First corner crack at the south end of Slab 4....................................................................200 8-8 Corner cracks at the south end of slab 4 and the adjacent slab........................................200 8-9 Holes for dowel bars in wrong positions at the south end joint.......................................201 8-10 Holes patched at the south end joint................................................................................201 8-11 Computed stresses and flexural strengths for th e concrete in Slab 5...............................203 8-12 Computed stress to strength ratio at different temperatur e differentials as a function of flexural strength using the develope d relationship between flexural strength compressive strength, and elastic modulus......................................................................206

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19 Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy EVALUATION OF CONCRETE MIXES FOR SLAB REPLACEMENT USING THE MATURITY METHOD AND ACC ELERATED PAVEMENT TESTING By Kitti Manokhoon December 2007 Chair: Mang Tia Major: Civil Engineering Five instrumented full-size concrete slabs we re constructed and test ed under accelerated pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age and the e ffects of concrete prope rties on the performance of the replacement slabs. The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs we re calculated using the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program, which considers the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab, elastic modul us and coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade stiffness. The model used was calibrated by comp aring the computed strains with the measured strains from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs which were loaded by the HVS. The use of maturity method to determine the fl exural strength of the in-place concrete at early age was evaluated in this study. It was found that the maturity method was convenient to use and produced reliable determin ation of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete. Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maxi mum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age as an i ndicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement slab. This was done by compari ng the stress strength ra tio with the observed

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20 performance of test slabs in this study. This me thod was found to be eff ective in predicting the potential performance of the replacement slabs. A systematic method for evaluation of concrete mixes for potential performance in replacement slab was recommended as the result of this study.

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21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background In Florida, full slab replacement is a typical method to repair existing badly deteriorated concrete pavement slabs. This type of repair work is generally performed at night, and the repaired slabs are opened to traffic by the next morn ing. It is essential that this repair work be finished in a minimal amount of time. High early strength concrete is normally used in this application in order to have sufficient stre ngth within a few hours after placement. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) currently specifies that slabreplacement concrete must have a minimum 6hour compressive strength of 2,200 psi and a minimum 24 hour compressive strength of 3,000 psi [FDOT standard for slab replacement section 353, 2007]. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has developed a guideline for concrete slab replacement that requir es a minimum flexural strength at opening to traffic of 400 psi [Caltrans, Slab replacement guideline, 2004]. A research study entitled Evalu ation of Early Strength Require ment of Concrete for Slab Replacement Using APT has just recently been co mpleted. In this study, five 9-inch thick concrete replacement slabs were constructed a nd tested at the accelerated pavement testing facility at the FDOT Materials Research Park in Gainesville, Florida. The results of this experiment showed that two slabs performe d well, while the other three slabs cracked prematurely under 12-kip wheel load s [Tia, M. and Kumara, W., 2005] The performance of the test slabs was found to be independent of the cement content of the concrete used as two concrete slabs with th e same concrete mix design were found to have drastically different performance. The performa nce of a concrete replacement slab depends on whether or not the concrete has sufficient flexural strength to resist the anticipated temperature-

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22 load induced tensile stresses in the concrete slab The strength development of concrete depends not only on the mix design but also the conditi on under which the concrete is cured. The temperature-load induced stresses are a functi on of the slab thickness, effective modulus of subgrade reaction, modulus of the concrete, coeffi cient of thermal expansion of the concrete, loads and temperature differentials in the concrete slab. The flexural strength of the concrete must be greater than the tensile stress in the slab at all times to ensure good performance. In addition, in order to minimize the chance for shrinkage cracking, the cement content of the concrete mix must be kept to a mi nimum [Tia, M. and Kumara, W., 2005]. Due to the limited amount of testing perfor med in this previous study, no recommendation for changes in the FDOT specifications for conc rete replacement slabs was made. There was a need to perform further testing and research to substantiate th ese findings, [Tia, M. and Kumara, W., 2005]. This current research is aimed to better unde rstand the behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age, so that a concrete mix can be effectively designed, evaluated and controlled to ensure good performance in concrete replacement slabs. 1.2 Hypothesis of Research The following hypotheses were test ed in this research study: The maximum stresses in the concrete slab can be calculated from an appropriate finite element model which considers the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the sl ab, elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, slab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade stiffness. The mode l used can be calibrated by comparing the computed strains with the measured strains from embedded strain gages in test slabs loaded by a heavy vehicle simulator (HVS). The flexural strength of the in-pl ace concrete at the early age can be determined accurately and conveni ently by the maturity method. The maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age can be used as an indicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement

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23 slab. This hypothesis was tested by co mparing the stress strength ratio with the observed performance of test slabs in this study. 1.3 Research Objectives The main objectives of this research were as follows: To verify analytical models for calcul ating the load and temperature induced stresses in a concrete replacement slab af ter it is open to traffic under typical Florida conditions. The applicability of the model will be validated by comparing the predicted results to th e experimental results in this study. To develop a systematic method for eval uation of concrete mixes to ensure satisfactory performance in replacement slabs. To evaluate the current FDOT speci fication for slab replacement for its adequacy and effectiveness and to make recommendations for changes if needed. 1.4 Approach and Scope of Research The envisioned approach was to devel op a rational method where (1) the maximum anticipated tensile stresses in the concrete slab can be accurately determined, (2) the flexural strength of the in-place concrete can be reliab ly determined, and (3) the ratio of the maximum tensile stress to the flexural streng th of the concrete can be used as an indicator of performance. The stress ratio must be less than 1 at a ll times to avoid cracking in the concrete. The scope for this study consists of the following: To design an experiment to evaluate the performance of different concrete mixes in replacement slabs using accelerated pavement testing by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). To develop an instrumentation plan for the experiment for an effective collection of temperature, strain and de flection data based on the results of stress analyses. To perform maturity calibration of concre te mixtures to be used in the HVS experiments.

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24 To select an appropriate model and calibrate the model parameters for analysis of concrete replacement slabs under typical Florida conditions, and to perform stress analysis for the condit ions of the test sections under HVS loading. To verify the analytical models by co mparing the computed strains to the measured strains from the embedded stra in gages in the test section, and to make necessary adjustments to the analytical model. To evaluate the drying sh rinkage properties and coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete used in the test slabs. To determine the relationships among th e material and pavement parameters and the performance of the test slabs. To identify possible improvements to the current FDOT specification for slab replacement. 1.5 Significance of the Research In the past, there have been a lot of analyti cal models developed for analysis of concrete pavements [Westergaard, 1926, 1933, 1947, Tabata baie and Barenberg, 1978, Tayabji and Colley, 1981, Tia et al, 1989, Huang 1993]. There have also been some experimental studies done to evaluate the performan ce of concrete pavements in the past [Melhem et al, 2003, Turan et al, 2005, Suh, 2005]. However, ther e has been very little resear ch done where the experimental results were compared successfully to the analyt ical results. For example, in experiments by Melhem et al, [2003] all gauges used in the ex periment were positioned to measure longitudinal strains at the bottom of the PCC overlays. While some tensile and compressive strains measured were reported, the remaining gauges did not give any useful strain readings. These researchers were not able to relate measured strains to observed performance. One of the objectives of this research was to develop a reliable m odel for analysis of concrete pavements which is veri fied by experimental results. The development of such an analytical model which is validated by experime ntal results represents a significant contribution in this field.

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25 Past specification for this type of application usually required a compressive strength or a flexural strength at a certain age [FDOT st andard for slab replacement section 353, 2007, Caltrans, slab replacement guidelin e, 2004]. However, little work has been done in verifying that this type of specification is sufficient to ensure satisfactory performance. In its slab replacement guideline, Caltrans recommends test procedures to help ensure th e proper curing of the beams for flexural testing such that the st rength of the beams can match the st rength of the concrete in the pavement. These flexural strength te st results are not used as the criteria for opening to traffic. The Caltrans field laboratory flex ural strength test results are us ed to determine pay factors for the contractor, as the contractor may choose to op en the lanes to traffic at less than specified strength to avoid penalties associated with delays. This research investigated the adequacy of this type of sp ecification, and whether additional criteria, based on factor s such as anticipated temperature distribution in the slab and coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete, need to be added to the specification to ensure satisfactory performance. Little work has been d one in this area, and the useful results from this work represent a significant contribution in this area. In recent years, the maturity method has b een used in many states in the U.S. as a convenient tool to evaluate the strength of in -place concrete [Tikalsky et al, 2001, Luke et al, 2002, Rasmussen, 2003, Mancio et al, 2004, Zhang et al, 2004, Trost et al, 2006]. However, it is a fairly new practice, and further research and experience with this method is needed to refine it and to make it an effective tool. Most of the practice of the maturity method uses compressive strength as the predicted result and relates th e predicted compressive strength to the predicted flexural strength [Zhang et al, 2004].

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26 In this research, the flexural strength was used as the prim ary predicted property, while the relationship between compressive strength and fl exural strength of in-place concrete was evaluated. Little work has been done in this area. Zhang also st ated that the strength-maturity correlation has been generally developed for concrete cylinders te sted under uniaxial compressive strength, because this is usually the most important strength index for conventional structures [Zhang et al, 2004]. This research work represents the first effort in using the flexural strength directly in evaluation of replacement slabs for Florida conditions.

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27 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 General Review on Slab Replacement The Florida Department of Transportation is often restricted to ve ry short construction time windows for pavement rehabilitation, due to hi gh traffic demand for most of Floridas urban freeways. Often the available time for lane closure may be as short as 6 hours and nighttime construction may be required, depe nding on the direction of peak tr affic and the day of the work. Many concrete pavements are restored to an acceptable performance level using slab and base repairs. The effectiveness of this repair strategy depends on proper ev aluation of the extent and severity of the slab distre sses, as well as the condition of the underlying pavement layers. NCHRP report 540 states that, because of its unique requirements, early-opening-to-traffic (EOT) concrete is more susceptible to durability -related distress than conventional concrete. For example, the use of high cement contents and multiple admixtures can lead to increased shrinkage, altered microstructure, and unexpected in teractions. Further, the ability of standard testing to detect durability-related problems is limited, and thus deficiencies may go undetected through the mixture design and construc tion process [NCHRP report 540, 2005]. This NCHRP study was conducted to evaluate the durability characteristics of EOT concrete for materials, mixtures, and constructio n techniques that enhance long-term durability of EOT concrete for pavement rehabilitation. The re search dealt with concrete mixtures that are suited for opening to traffic within (a) 6 to 8 hour and (b) 20 to 24 hours after placement and was limited to full-depth rehabilitation, such as a fu ll-depth repair and slab replacement. In the experiment, the EOT concrete mixtures obtained from four states (Ohio, Georgia, Texas and New York) were evaluated to determine their mixture properties and performance characteristics [NCHRP report 540, 2005].

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28 The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has developed guidelines for concrete slab replacement. These guidelines incl ude several key factors that help reduce the time necessary to accomplish slab replacement and improve the quality of repaired concrete pavement, including the proper selection of the sl ab removal boundaries and concrete material. Also included are the recommende d procedures for saw cutting, slab removal, subgrade and base preparation, concrete placing and curing, sampli ng and testing procedures, grinding and joint sealing, and opening to traffic crite ria. A practical checklist that provides a quick summary of the entire process is also provided [Caltr ans, Slab replacement guideline, 2004]. In Florida, many forms of functi onal or structural distresses have been reported from the newly replaced concrete slabs w ithin a short time afte r construction. A survey on I-10 in Florida of 100 replacement slabs ranging in age between 1 to 3 years show ed that 35% of the slabs had developed cracks. In these slabs, fatigue dama ge was clearly ruled out as a cause of early cracking. Investigators of this study hypothesized that the mi cro cracks were developed in the slabs as a result of shortcoming in pavement de sign, concrete mix or construction [Kumara, Tia, Wu, and Choubane, 2002]. High early strength concrete has been used fo r slab replacement concre te to allow earlier use of the paved sections for moving construc tion equipment and speeding up construction. High early strength concrete often uses high quanti ties of cement content. Increasing the cement content in concrete mixture tends to increase the heat develo pment in the mixture. For the investigation of effects of cement type, curing method, and join t type on the performance of high early strength concrete in slab replacement, fo rty two test sections were constructed on the outside lane of I-10. Four teen different combinations of the above factors were included in the design of test sections with 3 slabs for each de sign. Frequent condition surveys of 42 sections on

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29 I-10 showed that mid slab crack ing occurred in 39 of the 42 slabs. The cracks developed at different times ranging from 24 hours to one ye ar [Kumara, Tia, Wu, and Choubane, 2002]. Doweled joints are expected to perform be tter than undoweled joints. A reduction of 20% in deflection and lower stresses are expected in doweled joints [Armaghani, 1993]. An extensive crack survey on Floridas I-10 showed that dow elled pavement sections had 30% less faulting and fewer corner cracks as compared with undoweled sections [Kumara, Tia, Wu, and Choubane, 2002]. 2.2 Analytical Models for Concrete Pavement 2.2.1 Foundation Models for Concrete Pavement In many engineering applications, the res ponse of the supporting soil medium under the pavement is an important consideration. To accurately evaluate this response, we must know the complete stress-strain characteri stics of the foundati on. Accurately descri bing the stress-strain characteristics of any given foundation medium is usually hindered by the complex soil conditions, which are markedly nonlinear, irreve rsible, and time-dependent. Furthermore, these soils are generally anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Certain assump tions about the soil medium were used for these idealizations. The assump tions are necessary for reducing the analytical rigor of such a complex boundary value proble m. Two of the most frequently applied assumptions are linear el asticity and homogeneity. Winkler foundation model The Winkler foundation model or dense-liquid foundation model is the foundation that is considered as a bed of evenly spaced, independe nt, linear springs. The m odel assumes that each spring deforms in response to the vertical stre ss applied directly to the spring, and does not transmit any shear stress to the adjacent springs. The stiffness of the springs is represented by the k value as the modulus of subgrade reaction.

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30 No transmission of shear forces means that there are no deflections beyond the edges of the plate or slab. The liquid idealization of this foundation type was deri ved for its behavioral similarity to a medium using Archimedes Buoya ncy principle. It was applied to analyze pavement support systems in studies [Westergaard, 1926, 1933, 1947]. In the field, the k -value for use in analysis can be determined by back calculation from measured deflections of the slab surface obtaine d from nondestructive tests, using devices such as falling weight deflectometers (FWD). Boussinesq foundation The Boussinesq foundation or the elastic-solid foundation model treats the soil as a linearly elastic, isotropic, homogenous mate rial that extends se mi-infinitely. It is considered a more realistic model of subgrade behavior than the dense-liquid model, because it takes into account the effect of shear transmission of stresses to adjacent support elements. Consequently, the distribution of displacements is c ontinuous; that is, deflection of a point in the subgrade is due to stress acting at that particular po int, and also is also influenced to a lesser extent by stresses at points farther away. The elastic solid foundation model considers th e shear force interaction between different elements in the foundation. Although it presents an improvement over Winkler foundation model by considering the shear forces in the foundation, field tests showed that the solutions were not exact for many foundation materials. It was report ed that the surface di splacements of foundation soil outside the loaded region d ecreased faster than the predic tion by this model [Foppl and Teubner, 1909].

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31 Modification of Winkler Foundation The dense liquid and elastic solid foundation m odels may be considered as two extreme idealizations of actual soil behavior. The dense liquid model assumes complete discontinuity in the subgrade and is better suited for soils with relatively low shear streng ths (e.g. natural soils). In contrast, the elastic solid model simulates a perfectly continuous medium and is better suited for soils with high shear strengths (e.g., treated bases). The elastic res ponse of a real soil subgrade lies somewhere between these two ex treme foundation models. In real soils, the displacement distribution is not continuous, and neither is it fu lly discontinuous. The deflection under a load can occur beyond the edge of the slab and it goes to zero at some finite distance. In an attempt to bridge the gap between the de nse liquid and elastic solid foundation models, researchers have developed some improved foundation models. Improved foundation models have been developed in either of the follo wing two ways: (a) starting with the Winkler foundation and, in order to bring it closer to reality, some kind of interaction between spring elements may be assumed, or (b) starting with the elastic solid foundation, simplifying assumptions with respect to expected disp lacements or stresses may be introduced. A major problem in applying these models, however has been the lack of guidance in selecting the governing parameters which have limited or no physical meaning. 2.2.2 Finite Element Method for Concrete Pavement Finite element (FE) techniques have been used to successfully simulate different pavement problems that could not be modeled using the s impler multi-layer elastic theory. Further, it provides a modeling alternative th at is well suited for applications involving systems with irregular geometry, unusual boundary condi tions or non-homogenous composition. Three different approaches have been used for FE mo deling of pavement system: plane-strain (2D), axisymmetric, and three-dimensional (3D) formul ation. In the FE method, the level of accuracy

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32 obtained depends upon different factor s, including the degree of refi nement of the mesh (element dimensions), the order and type of element and location of evaluation. Various finite element models have been deve loped for analyzing the behavior of concrete pavement systems. Most of the finite element models use an assemblage of two-dimensional plate bending elements to model behavior of a concrete slab. A plate with medium thickness is thick enough to carry the load by bending action but is thin enough such that the transverse shear deformation can be considered negligible. The s ubgrade is usually assumed to behave like either a Winkler (dense liquid) or an elastic solid foundation. The Wi nkler foundation can be modeled by a series of vertical springs at the nodes, wh ich means that the deflect ion at any point of the foundation surface depends only on the forces at th at point and does not depend on the forces or deflections at any other points. The stiffne ss of the foundation is represented by a spring constant. The use of an elastic solid foundati on assumes a homogeneous, elastic and isotropic foundation with a semi-infinite depth. The deflecti on at any point depends not only on the forces at that point but also on the forces or deflectio ns at other points. The following section briefly describes the basics and applications of a few finite element computer programs. The FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) progr am was developed by the University of Florida for the analysis of concrete pavement behavior for the Florida department of Transportation. FEACONS program was modified several times to upgrade its capabilities. The latest version, FEACONS IV program can be used for analysis of plain jointed concrete pavements subjected to load and temp erature differential effects. In the FEACONS program, a concrete slab is modeled as an assemb lage of rectangular plat e bending elements with three degrees of freedom at each node. The thr ee independent displacements at each node are (1) lateral deflection, w (2) rotation about the x-axis, x, and (3) rotation about the y-axis, y. The

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33 corresponding forces at each node are (1) the downward force, fw (2) the moment in the x direction, fx, and (3) the moment in the y direction, fy. The FEACONS IV program has the option of modeling a composite sl ab made up of a conc rete layer bonded to another layer of a different material. The subgrade is modeled as a liquid or Winkl er foundation which is modeled by a series of vertical springs at the nodes. A sp ring stiffness of zero is used when a gap exists between the slab and the springs due to subgrad e voids. Either a linea r or nonlinear loaddeformation relationship for the springs can be specified [Tia et al, 1989]. Load transfers across the joints between two adjoining slabs are modeled by shear (or linear) and torsional springs conn ecting the slabs at the nodes of the elements along the joint. Looseness of the dowel bars is modeled by a specif ied slip distance, such that shear and moment stiffnesses become fully effective only when the s lip distance is overcome. Frictional effects at the edges are modeled by shear springs at the nodes along the edge s [Tia et al, 1989]. The JSLAB program [Tayabji and Colley, 1981]: Th e pavement slab, the base or subbase layer and the overlay are modeled as rectangular plate bending elements based on the classical theory of thin plates with small deflec tions. These layers can be bonded or unbonded. The subgrade is modeled as a Winkl er foundation represented by vert ical springs. The effect of temperature gradient in the concrete slab is in corporated. The temperature is assumed to vary linearly along the slab depth. The subgrade stiffne ss is set to be zero at the locations where loss of support occurs. Dowel bar at the joints are modeled as bar elements with the ability to transfer both moment and shear forces across the joints. The ef fects of looseness of dowel bars can also be considered. Aggregate interlock and keyway ar e modeled by spring elemen ts transferring shear forces only.

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34 In the WESLIQUID and WESLAYER programs, the modeling of a slab is also based on the classical theory of a thin plate with small de flections. The slab is modeled as an assemblage of rectangular plate bending elements with th ree degrees of freedom at each node in both programs. The difference between these two mode ls is that the WESLIQUID model considers the sublayers as a Winkler foundation, while th e WESLAYER model uses an elastic layered foundation. The Winkler foundation is modeled by a se ries of vertical sp rings. For the elastic foundation, the Boussinesqs solution is used to compute the deflections at subgrade surface for the case of a homogeneous elastic foundation and the Burmisters e quations are used to compute those for the case of a layered elastic foundation. The two programs are able to take into acc ount the effects of loss of support from the sublayer to the pavement slab. The loss of suppor t can be due to linear temperature gradient in the slab or due to voids in the sublayer. Load is transferred across a jo int by both shear forces and moment transfer. Shear forces are transferred either by dowel ba rs, key joint or aggregate interl ock. The two models have three options for specifying shear transfer and one for moment transfer. The three methods of determining shear transfer are (1) efficiency of shear transfer, (2) spring constant and (3) diameter and spacing of dowels. Moment transfer across joints or cracks is specified by the efficiency of moment transfer which is defined as a fraction of the full moment. In KENSLAB [Huang, 1993], the slab treated in this model is composed of two bonded or unbonded layers with uniform thickness. The two la yers can be either a high modulus asphalt layer on top of a concrete slab, or a cement-treated base. Recta ngular thin-plate elements with three degrees of freedom per node (a vertical de flection and two rotations) are used to represent the slab. Load transfer through doweled joint or aggregate interlock can be considered in this

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35 model. Three types of foundation are included in this model, namely the Winkler foundation, the semi-infinite elastic solid foundation and laye red elastic solid f oundation. Three contact conditions between slab and foundation can be cons idered: full contact, partial contact without initial gaps, and partial contact with initial gaps. Load transfer effects can be considered in analyzing the pavement slab system. ILLI SLAB program [Tabatabaie and Barenberg, 1978] can be used to analyze a jointed or continuously-reinforced concrete pavement with a base or subba se, and with or without an overlay, which can be either fully bonded or un-b onded to the concrete slab. A concrete slab is modeled as an assemblage of r ectangular plate bending elements w ith three degree of freedom at each node. When a base or subbase layer and/or an overlay are used, they are also modeled as assemblages of plate bending elements. If th ere is no bond between the layers, the overall stiffness matrix for the multiple layers is obtained by simply adding up the stiffness matrices of the concrete slab, the base or subbase and the overlay. For the case of perfect bond between layers, full strain compatibility at the interf ace is assumed. Thus, an equivalent layer can be obtained based on a transformed-section concept. Load transfer across the joints is modele d in various ways depending on the transfer devices used. Dowel bars are modeled as bar elem ents with two degrees of freedom at each node. The two displacement components are a vertical displacement and a rotation about a horizontal transverse axis. The bar element is capable of transferring both a ver tical shear force and a moment. If the loads are transferred across a joint only by means of aggregate interlock or keyway, they are modeled by vertical spring elements with one degree of freedom at each node. Only vertical forces are transferred across the joint by the spring element. The moment transfer can be neglected for such a joint.

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36 2.3 Maturity Method in Concrete Pavement The concept of concrete maturity was fi rst introduced by Saul in 1951. He defined maturity of concrete as its age multiplied by the average temperature above freezing that it has maintained. Based on this definition, he fu rther developed the law for relationship between concrete strength and maturity: C oncrete of the same mixture at the same maturity (measured as temperature-time) has approximately the same strength whatever combination of temperature and time goes to make up that maturity. Since then, many studies on maturity have been done by other researchers and Sauls law for maturity has been confirmed and proven to be a useful tool to predict concrete stre ngth. The Maturity method has been standardized by ASTM as Standard Practice C1074. Strength Measurements Using Maturity fo r Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction at Airfields [Rasmussen, 2003]: The objective of this project was to demonstrate a non-complex solution for monitoring concrete stre ngths in real time using concrete maturity technology. The project team evaluated a numbe r of commercially available maturity measurement devices coupled with an innovative strength assessment and prediction system, termed Total Environmental Management for Paving (TEMP). This project included a field ev aluation of a concrete pavement placement at Des Moines International Airport (DSM). The research t eam evaluated the following maturity measuring devices: 1) T-Type Thermocouple, 2) Dallas Se miconductor Thermocron iButton, 3) Nomadics Construction Labs intelliRock Maturity, Temper ature, and prototype St rength Loggers, and 4) Identec Solutions i-Q Tags. As a result of this fi eld evaluation, it has been concluded that current maturity technology can be used successfully to assess the stre ngth of a concrete airfield pavement in real-time. Furthermore, it is be lieved that the adoption of maturity-based

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37 technologies can result in expedi ted airfield repair and construction, and an improved knowledge of the behavior of concrete pavements at early age. Using Maturity Testing for Airfield Con crete Pavement Construction and Repair [Trost et al, 2006]: The primary benefits include: better decision-making, reduced runway and taxiway closure times, faster construction, fewer beam specimens, and improved concrete quality control. Concrete maturity enables bette r decision-making with re spect to open-to-traffic decisions. This occurs because concrete maturity enables real-time, in-p lace flexural strength measurements that are more accurate and more cost-effective than field-cast beam specimens. The improved open-to-traffic decision-making applie s not only to aircraft traffic but also to construction-vehicle traffic. Concrete maturity results in shorter runway a nd taxiway closures as a direct result of the improved open-to-traffic decision-making. Rather than having to wait for field-cast beam specimens to reach the required strength (and th e guesswork associated with when to break them), the pavement can be opened to traffic at the earliest possible moment because the in-place flexural strength can be obtained instantaneously. Faster construction also dire ctly results from the improve d open-to-traffic decision making. This is due to the benefits of allowing staged ope n-to-traffic criteria rather than the standard day or 550-psi requirements. With staged opento-traffic, the pavement can be monitored in real-time until the required flexural-strength th reshold is reached for each major type of construction equipment. As such, lighter vehicl es can be allowed on the pavement soon after placement, with heavier equipment being allowed somewhat later, but typically much sooner than the wait period based on conventional methods.

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38 Concrete maturity testing can result in fe wer beam specimens required on a project, particularly the number of field-cast beams. This is because a single maturity sensor can provide an infinite number of in-place flexural strength measurements at a given location. As such, multiple sets of beams to support open-to-traffic decisions are no longer required. In addition, alternative methods of field verification, such as split ting tensile, direct tension, or compressive strength testing can be used to further reduce the need for field-cast beams. With respect to quality, the concrete matur ity method, when used as a mix-verification tool, provides the framework for an extremely e ffective and robust concrete quality control plan that can result in improved concrete quality control. This benefit is the direct result of the mixspecific nature of the method. The strength-matur ity relationship for a given concrete mix is unique to that mix design. As such, the maturity method is extremely sensitive to any changes that affect the rate of strength gain or the ul timate strength of the concrete mix, such as the quality or proportioning of the raw materials. This sensitivity enables a maturity-based quality control plan to catch mix-relate d or batching-related errors in a matter of days or even hours rather than weeks. To summarize the benefits, concrete matu rity empowers the field engineer and the contractor to make crit ical decisions based on the actual in-p lace strength of the pavement using real-time measurements that take into account the physical properties, dimensions, and curing conditions of the pavement structure. Implementation of Concrete Matu rity Meters [Luke et al, 2002]: The major intent of this study was to explain how the maturity method can be used to estimate the strength of inplace concrete for highway construction. NJIT started studying the maturity method for NJDOT in 1995 to verify the strength of very early streng th concrete patches. Since then, several other

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39 studies on the maturity method have been c onducted for NJDOT. Collectively, these studies presented a convincing case for utilizing the maturity method to predict the strength of early age concrete in highway structures. The purpose of this project was to move the method from an experimental to a practical setting. Manual for the Maturity Method, describes the instrumentation and methods for making temperature measurements, performing maturity co mputations and predicting concrete strength. The procedures manual is based on ASTM C 10 74 Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method. Nine important modifications of ASTM C 1074 were made in order to practically implement the maturity method on NJDOT projects. Three innovations were presented among these modifications. The first is the requirement that the strength-maturity relati onship be verified. For strength critical applications, companion cylinders are cast and match cu red along with the structure. When the strength-maturity relationship was able to reasonably predict the stre ngth of those cylinders at three different early ages, the relationship is considered validated a nd can be applied to the structure. The second innovation is that the results of verification testing should be adde d to the data set from which the predictions are made and then the predictiv e equation is recompute d. By this procedure, confidence in the prediction grows as more test results become av ailable. The third innovation is a method for starting a quality assurance program with no prior laboratory testing. An assumed prediction is checked and refined through the verification process. The field trials also revealed that elevated curing temperatures, a pproaching that of mass concrete, frequently occur in highway structures. The reason is thought to be the increased use of more active cements at higher cement factors an d lower water-cement ratios. Such behavior can occur where it is least expected, like on bridge decks, which have large surface to volume ratios

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40 that should readily dissipate heat. Temperat ure monitoring is useful for identifying these situations and avoiding the detr imental effects of high temperat ures on concrete durability. During the course of this study, fi eld trials using the maturity method were held in all three NJDOT regions. These trials revealed two signifi cant findings. First, it was found that current winter concreting procedures ma y overheat concrete pours, crea ting high temperature conditions that exceed even the worst of summer concreti ng operations. The second finding has to do with the effects of a typical chloride inhibitor on the temperature beha vior of concrete. It was found that calcium nitrite modified the rapid temperature rise normally associated with the early strength gain of concrete. Chlo ride inhibited mixes followed am bient temperature changes quite closely, with positive effects on the rate of strength gain and the ultimate strength. Current Field Application Because of its simplicity and low cost, the app lication of the maturity concept has received wide attention as a prospective in-situ testing me thod for concrete pavements. For example, in a survey reported by Tikalsky et al., 32 states reported conducting research on the use of the maturity method. However, at that time, 29 states did not have any protocol and only four states reported the use of maturity to determine pave ment opening times. Alt hough this scenario was rapidly evolving at the time of the survey, it clea rly shows that the application of maturity for concrete pavements is indeed very new and a topic of great interest across the country. The application to flexural strength was not identifie d in the survey, and Calif ornia may be the first state to consider this exte nsion of the maturity concep t [Tikalsky et al, 2001]. For the past decade, the Federal Highway Administration has been encouraging state DOTs to evaluate the maturity method and to re fine procedures for its application. Among the advantages of the maturity method over the tradit ional concrete strength tests that justify the

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41 growing interest in the method, one could cite 1) the maturity method allows contractors to determine the precise times at which a specified strength is achieved, and 2) the maturity method provides results that could represent the in-s itu strength [Mancio et al, 2004]. Indeed, maturity is a very well establishe d and standardized me thod, being described by both ASTM 1074-98 (Standard Practice for Estima ting Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method) and AASHTO TP 52-95 (Estimating the Strength of Concrete in Transportation Construction by Maturity Tests) standards. Ho wever, as discussed previously, the maturity concept was developed based on the determinatio n of compressive strength of conventional concretes made with Type I/II cements with no chemical or mine ral admixtures. Recent advances in concrete technology make the ma terial today different from that of fifty years ago [Mancio et al, 2004]. The strength-maturity correlation has been ge nerally developed for concrete cylinders tested under uniaxial compressive strength, because this is usually the most important strength index for conventional structures. In pavements, where concrete is submitted to bending stresses, flexural strength is the preferred measure for qual ity control. The indirect correlation between the concrete maturity and flexural strength has been seen practiced in the field. In some cases, the laboratory established compressive strength versus maturity curve has been used to predict the compressive strength, from which the flexural st rength in the field is de rived by correlating the compressive ( F c) and flexural ( MR ) strength in the lab. However, this relation ( F c to MR ) may have large variability, and cha nges significantly depending on the mix, age, and other variables [Zhang et al, 2004].

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42 2.4 Verification of Analytical Results with Measured Results The following section presents some current re search in concrete pavement focusing on instrumentation and strain meas urement and verification of anal ytical results with measured results. Accelerated Testing for Studying Pavement Design and Performance [Melhem et al, 2003]: This study presented an instrumentation plan on placing soil pressure cells below the aggregate base, which were used to determine th e vertical pressure in the subgrade, and to monitor its variation due to the deterioration of the overlay or the rubblized base. Thermocouples were placed below, in, and on top of the overlay slabs to monitor the slab temperature and see if there is a correlation between overlay slab temper ature and stress/curling of the slabs. Strain gauges were installed in the overl ay to monitor the deteriorati on of the overlay slab and to determine a correlation between the slab moveme nt due to loading and temperature. Linear Variable Displacement Transformers (LVDT's ) were used to measure horizontal joint movements. The report also showed that stress and strain measurements were taken at the start of the test and at 20,000 repeti tion intervals until the end of the test. The ve rtical stress data were compared with the number of ATL passes. All gauges used in this experiment were posi tioned to measure longitudinal strains at the bottom of the PCC overlays. Some tensile and co mpressive strains (in microstrain) measured were reported, while the remaining gauges did not give any useful strain read ings. Similar to the trend observed for vertical compressive stresses in the subgrade, the measured strains at the bottom of the overlay did not show a continuous in crease; the general tren d is that the strains increase with the number of applied ATL passes. Therefore, from the strain data alone, it was difficult to determine which overlay gave the best performance.

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43 Early-Age Behavior of Jointed Plain Concret e Pavement Systems [Turan et al, 2005]: This paper mainly focuses on the early-age be havior of concrete pavement systems under varying temperature and moisture gradients upon c onstruction. In an effort to better understand the early-age behavior of the jointed plain concrete pavements under varying environmental conditions, a field study was conduc ted on instrumented portland cement concrete slabs in Platteville, Wisconsin. The st udy involved on-site measurements extensive laboratory testing, and analyses of the concrete pavement system s under temperature and moisture profiles using finite element methodology-based an alytical tools. The aim of the study was to summarize the laboratory test results for concrete samples and the analysis of th e early-age slab deflection data captured with linear variable displacement trans ducers (LVDTs). In the analytical modeling of the slabs, the ISLAB2000 finite element m odel was used. Based on the large number of comprehensive finite element analyses, a good ma tch has been observed with the analytical solutions and field measurements, thus capturing the early-age behavior of concrete pavement systems under temperature and moisture prof iles. Comparison between the predicted FEM results and the measured results showed that the FEM estimated the shape of the curves reasonably well. The Effect of Early Opening to Traffic on Fatigue Life of Concrete Pavement [Suh, 2005]: Concrete pavements are subjected to many tra ffic-load repetitions pr ior to achievement of their full design strength. The effect of early ope ning to traffic on the life of Portland cement concrete pavement systems was evaluated usi ng experiments and mathematical model. To quantify the loss of life due to ea rly opening of a rigid pavement system, an appropriate fatigue equation is required. A series of laboratory fa tigue tests were performed on simply supported beams to develop appropriate fatigue relations hips for typical, normal strength Texas paving

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44 concrete mixture designs. After completion of th e laboratory testing, accel erated fatigue tests on full-scale concrete slabs were performed under constant cyclic loading. Six full-scale rigid pavement slabs were constructed and tested und er constant cyclic loading for fatigue. During fatigue loading, cracks began at the loading poi nts and propagated along the bottom of the slab centerline, which was the maximum stress path. Ver tical crack propagation at the edge and stress redistribution occurred as part of the slabs fa tigue life. The concept of equivalent fatigue life was applied to correct the effect of the different stress ratio be tween the field and the laboratory testing. The laboratory beams and full-scale field slabs showed an almost identical S-N relationship after the correction fo r the variance of stress ratio.

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45 CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND TEST METHODS 3.1 Introduction Three laboratory-prepared mixes and five concrete mixes from test slabs were tested and evaluated in this research. This chapter desc ribes the mix proportions and ingredients of the concrete mixes, fabrication and curing conditi on of concrete specimens, tests on fresh and hardened concretes as well as a procedure to calibra te maturity curves of concrete used in this study. 3.2 Concrete Mixes Evaluated 3.2.1 Mix Proportion of Concrete The first target concrete mix in this st udy was a typical mix design used for slab replacement in Florida and has a cement content of 850 lb per yd3. This concrete mix was used as a target mix to evaluate performa nce of the first two test slabs. Another target concrete mix had a cement content of 725 lb per yd3, while keeping the same water cement ratio and other mix ingredients. The second target concrete mix was used to evaluate performance of the last three test slabs. The concrete used in each test slab was obtai ned and tested for its properties. The same concrete mixes were also prepared in the labora tory and used in the ca libration of the concrete maturity before placement of the test slabs. Table 3-1 shows the mix design details for the ac tual concrete mixes used in Test Slabs 1 and 2. Table 3-2 shows the mix desi gn details for Test Slabs 3, 4 and 5.

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46 Table 3-1. Mix design of the concre te mix used in Slabs 1 and 2. Material Target (/yd3) Actual Slab 1 (/yd3) Actual Slab 2 (/yd3) Cement 850 lb842 lb 822 lb Stone # 08-012 1650 lb 1670 lb 1722 lb DOT Sand # 76-349 991 lb1040 lb 1069 lb Coarse aggregate moisture -28.4 lb 22.4 lb Fine aggregate moisture -46.8 lb 42.8 lb Air-entraining admixture (Darex) 1 oz (0.065 lb) 0.0625 lb 0.0625 lb Superplasticizer (Adva -540) 50 oz (3.26 lb) 2.125 lb 4.017 lb Accelerator (Daraccel) 384 oz (25 lb) 25.04 lb 25.04 lb Water 283 lb185 lb 195 lb W/C 0.3640.341 0.351 Theoretical unit weight 140 pcf (2% Air) 139 pcf (3% Air) 142.1 pcf (2% Air) Table 3-2. Mix design of the concre te mix used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5. Material Target (/yd3) Actual Slab 3 (/yd3) Actual Slab 4 (/yd3) Actual Slab 5 (/yd3) Cement 725 lb 729.4 lb705.0 lb 715.8 lb Stone # 08-012 1650 lb 1675.6 lb1676.6 lb 1681.8 lb DOT Sand # 76-349 1215 lb 1268.8 lb1187.1 lb 1190.5 lb Coarse aggregate moisture 25.1 lb30.7 lb 36.1 lb Fine aggregate moisture 53.3 lb45.5 lb 52.1 lb Air-entraining admixture (Darex) 1 oz (0.065 lb) 0.0652 lb0.0719 lb 0.0723 lb Superplasticizer (Adva -540) 50 oz (3.26 lb) 3.26 lb3.60 lb 3.22 lb Accelerator (Daraccel) 384 oz (25 lb) 25.03 lb24.55 lb 24.69 lb Water 236 lb153.33 lb150.40 lb 148.89 lb W/C 0.3650.3570.362 0.370 Theoretical unit weight 143.1 pcf (2% air) 142.9 pcf (2.25% air) 139.0 pcf (3.0% air) 139.5 pcf (2.0% air)

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47 3.2.2 Mix Ingredients The mix ingredients used in producing the concrete mixture both in the laboratory and from concrete plant are the same and described as follows: Water Potable water from the local city water supply system was used as mixing water for production of the concrete mixtures The water temperature was around 64oF Cement Type-I/II Portland cement from Florida Ro ck Industry was used. The physical and chemical properties of the cement analyzed by Florida State Materials Office are shown in Tables 3-3 and 3-4 Table 3-3. Physical properties of the Type I/II cement. Tests Specification Cement Specification Limits Loss on Ignition ASTM C114 0.30% <= 3.0 Autoclave Expansion ASTM C151 0.04% <= 0.80 Time of Setting (Initial) ASTM C266 190 min. >= 60 Time of Setting (Final) ASTM C266 290 min. <= 600 3-Day Compressive Strength ASTM C109 2,723 psi >=1,450 7-Day Compressive Strength ASTM C109 4,770 psi >= 2,470 Table 3-4. Chemical properties of the Type I/II cement. Constituents Percent Silicon Dioxide 20.50% Aluminum Oxide 5.20% Ferric Oxide 3.80% Magnesium Oxide 0.60% Sulfur Trioxide 2.80% Tricalcium Aluminate 7% Tricalcium Silicate 54% Total Alkali as Na2O 0.25%

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48 Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate used was silica sand from Go ldhead of Florida, mine# 76-349. The physical properties of the fine aggregate analyzed by Flor ida State Materials Offi ce are shown in Table 35. The gradation of the fine aggregate is shown in Figure 3-1. The fine aggregate was oven-dried before it was mixed with the other mix ingredie nts in the production of the concrete mixtures. Table 3-5. Physical properties of the fine aggregate. Fineness Modulus 2.2 SSD Specific Gravity 2.640 Apparent Specific Gravity 2.651 Bulk Specific Gravity 2.634 Absorption 0.20% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 #4#8#16#30#50#100 Sieve SizesCumulative Passing Percentage (%) Figure 3-1. Gradation of fine a ggregate (Goldhead silica sand#76349).

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49 Coarse aggregate The coarse aggregate used was a #57 limes tone obtained from mine# 08-012. The physical properties of the fine aggregate analyzed by Florida Stat e Materials Office are shown in Table 3-6. The gradation of the fine aggregate is shown in Figure 3-2. In order to have the coarse aggregate moisture content in well-controlled, saturated-surface-dry coarse aggregate was used to produce concrete. So, the coarse aggregates we re soaked in water for at least 48 hours and then drained off the free water on the surface of a ggregate before they were mixed with the other mix ingredients in the producti on of the concrete mixtures. Table 3-6. Physical properties of the fine aggregate. SSD Specific Gravity 2.384 Apparent Specific Gravity 2.546 Bulk Specific Gravity 2.280 Absorption 5.47% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1.5"1"1/2"#4#8 Sieve SizesCumulative Passing Percentage (%) Figure 3-2. Gradation of the coar se aggregate (Limestone #08012).

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50 Air-Entraining Admixture The air-entraining admixture used was a liqui d admixture Darex AEA from W.R. Grace & Co. It also contains a catalyst for more rapid and complete hydrat ion of Portland cement. In this study, Darex AEA was mixed with the water used in the production of the concrete mixtures before adding the water to other ingredients. Superplasticizer The superplasticizer used in this study is ADVA Cast 540 from W.R. Grace & Co. ADVA Cast 540 is high efficiency polyc arboxylate based superplasticizer It has been formulated to impart extreme workability without segrega tion to concrete, and to achieve high early compressive strength as required by the preca st industry. The ADVA is optimized for the production of Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) in precast app lications. It was recommended that dosage rate can normally range from 325 to 1300 mL/100 kg (5 to 20 fl oz/100 lbs) of cementitious material. Accelerating Admixture The accelerator used is Daracel from W.R. Grace & Co. Daraccel is a liquid admixture formulated to provide faster set accelerati on and increased early strength development of concrete. It contains calcium chloride as well as other chemicals to enhance the effect of the calcium chloride. Daraccel is specifically de signed for use in cold weather concreting or whenever accelerated properties of concrete ar e desired. Daraccel is a water-reducing accelerator formulated to comply with the requirements of ASTM C 494 as a Type E admixture with a Type I or Type II cement. The resu lting reduction in water requireme nt, shorter setting time, and higher early strengths permit earlier finishing and earlier form removal with significant job economies. Daraccel is used at an addition rate of 520 to 2600 mL/100 kg (8 to 40 fl oz/100 lb)

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51 of cement. The amount used will depend upon the se tting time of the non-admixtured concrete and the temperature at placement. 3.3 Fabrication and Curing Condition of Concrete Specimen Two conditions of producing concrete mixes in this study are 1) labor atory-prepared mixes and 2) plant-prepared mixes used in test slabs. The laboratory-prepared conc rete mixtures were produced in the laboratory using compulsive pan mixer with capacity of 17 cubic f eet, as shown in Figure 3-3. Concrete used to construct each test slab was also obtained from th e truck to fabricate concre te specimens, as also shown in Figure 3-3. For each concrete mix, about nine cubic feet of fresh concrete was produced or obtained to fabricate forty four cylinders (4 x 8), eleven beams (6 x 6 x 20) and three square prism specimens (3 x 3 x 11.25). Table 3-7 shows a list of concrete samples obtained to perform tests for each mix in this research. Table 3-7. Concrete samples obtained to perform tests. Test Specimen Size # Testing Times Compressive/ Elastic Modulus 4x8 cylinder 21 At 4 hr, 6 hr, 8hr, 1, 7 and 28 days, and start of HVS loading Temperature 4x8 cylinder 2 Every 30 minutes for 48 hour, then every hour Splitting Tensile 4x8 cylinder 12 At 6 hr, 1, 7 and 28 days Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 4x8 cylinder 9 At 1, 7 and 28 days Flexural + Temperature 6x6x20 beam 10+1 At 4, 6 hours, 1 and 28 days, and start if HVS loading ASTM C157 3x3x 11.25 square prism 3 At 6, 8 hours, 1, 7 and 28 days

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52 A B Figure 3-3. Mixer used for this study. A) Concrete mixer used in the laboratory. B) Concrete truck. 3.3.1 Laboratory-Prepared Mixes The procedures to fabricate the specimens in the laboratory were presented as follows: Based on mix proportion design, m easure out the coarse aggregat e, fine aggregate, cement, admixtures, water, air-entraining agent, s uperplasticizer and accelerating admixture. Place coarse aggregate and fine aggregate in to the pan mixer to mix about 30 seconds. Place two thirds of the water together with th e air-entraining admixture into the mixer and mix for 1 minute. Place cement and mix for 3 minutes, followed by a 2-minute rest, then followed by 3minute mixing. Add the superplasticizer and mix for 3 minutes, followed by a 2-minute rest. Perform a slump test (ASTM C143) and other fresh concrete properties which will be presented in Section 3.4. Add the accelerating admixt ure and mix for 2 minutes.

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53 Measure fresh concrete propertie s again, while at the same tim e, start filling each mold. For cylinder and square prism molds, after fill ing each mold to half of it height, place the mold on the vibrating table for 45 seconds. Th en fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish the surface of the samples. For beam molds, after filling each beam mold to half of it he ight, place the vibrating stick to the concrete for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish the surface of the samples. For maturity calibration, put the thermocouples into two cylinders and one beam to monitor the hydration temperat ure, and start obtaining the temperature and time every 30 minutes for 48 hours, then every 1 hour after that. For the early strength concrete used in the study, allow the concrete to be cured in the cylinder molds for about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perform the first test. For cylinder and beam specimens, set the demolded concrete specimens in the standard moist curing room for the specifi ed curing time before testing. 3.3.2 Plant-Prepared Concrete Mixes Used in Test Slabs The procedures to fabricate the specimens of co ncrete used in each slab obtained from the truck were presented as follows: Based on the target mix design, the contractor mixes the concrete wi th all the concrete ingredients except adding accelerating admixture. When truck arrives at the test section, perf orm a slump test (ASTM C143) and other fresh concrete tests which will be presented in Section 3.4. Add the accelerating admixt ure and mix for 2 minutes. Perform fresh concrete tests again, while at the same time start filling each mold. For cylinder and square prism molds, after fill ing each cylinder mold to half of it height, place the mold on the vibrating table for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish the surface of the samples. For beam molds, after filling each beam mold to half of it he ight, place the vibrating stick to the concrete for 45 seconds. Then fill the mold and vibrate again for 45 seconds. Finish the surface of the samples.

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54 For maturity calibration, put th e thermocouple into two cylinder molds and one beam to monitor the hydration temperatur e, and start obtaining the te mperature and time, every 30 minutes for 48 hours, then every 1 hour after that. For the early strength concrete used in the study, allow the concrete to be cured in the cylinder molds for about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perform the first test. For cylinder and beam specimens, set the demolded concrete specimens in the standard moist curing room for the specifi ed curing time before testing. Two beam and three cylinder molds are placed asid e to the test slab to cure under the same condition with the test slab. This set of samples are to be test ed at the starting time of HVS loading. Figure 3-4 shows some photos of the concrete specimens fabricated and cured in this study.

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55 A B C D E F Figure 3-4. Concrete specimens fabricated and cured. A) Molds for concrete specimens. B) Using vibrating table to cons olidate cylinder samples. C) Using internal vibrators to consolidate beam samples. D) and E) Samp les allowed to be cured in the molds for about 3 to 4 hours before demolding to perfor m the first test. F) Demolded samples in the standard moist room.

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56 3.4 Tests on Fresh Concrete ASTM standard tests as listed in Table 3-8 we re performed on the fresh concrete used in this study to determine and control the quality of each concrete mix before and after adding the accelerating admixture. The properties of the fresh concrete for each of the five concrete mixes obtained from the test slabs are presented in Tables 3-9 and 3-10. Slump Test Slump test was run in accordance with ASTM C143. It was used to measure the consistency of concrete. A high slump value is in dicative of a wet or fluidic concrete. The test should be started within 5 minutes after the sa mple has been obtained and the test should be completed within 2 and half minutes, as concrete loses slump with time. Air Content Test Air Content test was run in accordance with ASTM C173. It was used to measure the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The test shoul d also be started within 5 minutes after the sample has been obtained. Temperature Test Temperature test was run in accordan ce with ASTM C1064. It was used to measure the temperature of fleshly mixed concrete. The result of the test was used to check whether it was within the normal range. The test should be fini shed within 5 minutes after obtaining the sample. The result should be reported to the nearest 1 F or 0.5 C. Unit Weight The procedures of ASTM C138 standard was fo llowed in running the unit weight test. This test was carried out to verify the density of concrete mixtures for quality control. Table 3-8. Testing program on fresh concretes. Test Test Standard Slump ASTM C143 Air Content ASTM C173 Temperature ASTM C1064 Unit Weight ASTM C138

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57 Table 3-9. Properties of fresh conc rete used in Slabs 1 and 2. Fresh concrete properties Slab 1 Slab 2 Adding the accelerating admixture Be fore After Before After Slump 2.75" 3.00" 3.75" 4.25" Temperature 92 F 95 F 95 F 98 F Air Entrainment 1.75% 3.00% 1.75% 2.00% Unit Weight (pcf) 142 142 141 Theoretical Unit Weight (pcf) 139 142 Table 3-10. Properties of fresh conc rete used in Slabs 3, 4 and 5. Fresh concrete properties Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Adding the accelerating admixture Before After Before After Before After Slump 6.25" 8.00" 9.50" 8.50" 8.00" 4.25" Temperature 83 F 84 F 98 F 98 F 100 F 100 F Air Entrainment 2.00% 2.25% 3.00% 3.00% 2.00% 2.00% Unit Weight (pcf) 141.6 139.8 144 143 142 140 Theoretical Unit Weight (pcf) 144.4 143.1 139 139 139.6 139.5 3.5 Tests on Hardened Concrete ASTM and AASHTO standard tests on the hard ened concrete specimens are given in Table 3-11. The detailed de scription of these tests is presented as follows: Table 3-11. Testing program on hardened concrete. Test Test Standard Compressive Strength ASTM C39 Flexural Strength ASTM C78 Splitting Tensile Strength ASTM C496 Elastic Modulus ASTM C469 Dry Shrinkage ASTM C157 Co-efficient Of Thermal Expansion AASHTO TP60-00 3.5.1 Compressive Strength Test Compressive strength tests were performed on all concrete mixes investigated in this study. Compressive strength is presently used fo r quality control of concrete mix in FDOT standard for slab replacement. The tests were performed at 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 7

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58 days and 28 days in accordance with ASTM C39. The tests we re performed on three 4x 8 cylindrical specimens at each age, and the average strength for each curing condition was computed. If a low test result is due to an obviously defective speci men, the low test result would be discarded. Before testing, the two e nd surfaces of each cylinder were ground evenly by using a grinding stone so that the cylinde r would support the app lied load uniformly. The compressive strength of the specimens was calculated using the following equation: fc= P/A (3-1) Where fc -Compressive strength in pound fo rce per square inch (psi); P -Ultimate load attained duri ng the test in pound (lb); and A -Loading area in square inch (in2) 3.5.2 Flexural Strength Test The flexural strength tests were run at ages of 6 h, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days in accordance with ASTM C78. Two 6 x 6x 20 beam specime ns were tested at each age and the average strength was computed for each curing condition. Before testing, the two loading surfaces of each beam were ground evenly by using a grinding stone to support the applied load uniformly. The flexural strength was calculated according to the type of fracture in the beam as follows: 1. If the fracture ini tiates in the tension su rface within the middle third of the span length, calculate the modulus of rupture as follows: R=PL/bd2 (3-2) Where: R -Modulus of rupture, psi, P -Maximum applied load indicated by the testing machine, lbf, L -Span length, in., b -Average depth of specimen, in., at the fracture, and d -Average depth of specime n, in., at the fracture.

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59 2. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of the middle third of the span length by not more than 5% of the span length, cal culate the modulus of rupture as follows: R=3Pa/bd2 (3-3) Where: a -Average distance between line of fractur e and the nearest suppo rt measured on the tension surface of the beam, in. 3. If the fracture occurs in the tensi on surface outside of the middle third of span length by more than 5% of the span length, discard the results of the test. 3.5.3 Splitting Tensile Strength Test Splitting tensile strength test is simple to pe rform. The strength determined from splitting tensile test is believed to be close to the direct tensile strength of concrete. In this study, the testing pr ocedure of ASTM C496 standard was followed in performing the splitting tensile strength test. A 4 x 8 cylindrical specimen, which is identical to that used for compressive strength test, is pl aced on its side in a steel frame, which is designed to keep the cylinder in place between the platen s of the testing machine. Load is applied to the specimen through two thin strips of ply wood placed on the top and bottom sides of the specimen. The load is increased until failure by indirect tension in the form of splitting along vertical diameter. The splitting tensile strength of a cylinder specimen can be calculated by the following equation: D l p Ti i 2 (3-4) Where: Ti -Splitting tensile strength of cylinder in psi; Pi -Maximum applied load to break cylinder in psi; l -Length of cylinder in inch; D Diameter of cylinder in inch.

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60 Three replicate specimens were tested at ea ch of the curing times, which were 6 hours, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days. A total of 12 specimens per concrete mixture were tested for splitting tensile strength. Figure 3-5 shows sample photos of strength test s and typical fracture of specimens in this research.

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61 A B C D E F Figure 3-5. Strength tests and typi cal fracture of specimens. A) a nd B) Compressive strength test. C) and D) Flexural strength test. E) and F) Splitting tensile strength test.

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62 3.5.4 Elastic Modulus Test Modulus of elasticity tests were performed at various curing times in accordance with ASTM C469 standard. In this method, the modulus of elasticity of concrete is determined when a compressive load is applied on a concrete cylind er in the longitudinal direction. Similar to the compressive strength test, the modulus of elastic ity test was performed at curing time of 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days. Figure 3-6 show the test setup, which consisted of a compression testing machine, a digital key pane l (for controlling th e testing machine and retrieving the data from the test). The output from the load cell (in the testing machine) and the output from the LVDT (Linear Variable Differen tial Transformer) were connected to the testing machine. Before the elastic modulus test, one of the th ree 4x 8 concrete cy linders was broken first to determine the compressive strength of concre te at each curing time in accordance with ASTM C39 standard. Then, 40 % of the ultimate compressive strength of concrete specimen was applied on the other two cylinders to pe rform the elastic modulus test. The data for the modulus of elasticity test were loaded a nd unloaded three times. Then, th e first load cycle data were discarded. The average value from the last two ti mes was recorded as the elastic modulus of the specimen.

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63 Figure 3-6. Performing a modul us of elasticity test. 3.5.5 Drying Shrinkage Test Shrinkage testing according to the ASTM C157 standard was performed on square prism specimens with dimensions of 3 x 3 x 11.25. Figure 3-7 shows the specimens and length comparator used in this study. In order to obtain drying shrinka ge at the early age of the conc rete specimen in this study, the specimens were removed from the molds at an age of 5 h (after the addition of water to cement and accelerator admixture during the mixing operation) and then placed in lime-saturated water, which was maintained at 73.4 1 F ( 23.0 0.5C) for a minimum of 30 min. Initial length measurement was made at an age of 6 h. The specimens were removed from water storage, and wiped with a damp cloth. An initial reading was immediately taken with a length comparator. The specimens were then allowed to dry at ambient conditio n in the laboratory. Length measurement on the specimens was taken on hour 8, days 1, 7, and 28.

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64 The length change of a specimen at any age after the initial comparator reading was calculated as follows: G FinalCRD CRD Initial Lx (3-4) Where: xL -Length change of specimen at any age, CRD -Difference between the comparator reading of the specimen and the reference bar, G -Gauge length. A B Figure 3-7. Drying shrinkage test. A) Square pr ism specimens for dryi ng shrinkage test. B) Length comparator used in this study. 3.5.6 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Coefficient of thermal expansion tests (CTE) were performed in accordance with the AASHTO TP 60-00 Standard. This test method determines the CTE of a cylindrical concrete specimen, maintained in a saturated condition, by measuring the length change of the specimen due to a specified temperature change. The measur ed length change is co rrected for any change in length of the measuring apparatus, and the CTE is then calculated by dividing the corrected

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65 length change by the temperature change and then the specimen length. The CTE of one expansion or contraction test segment of a c oncrete specimen is calculated as follows: CTE= ( La/L0)/ T (3-5) Where: CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, La -Actual length change of specimen during temperature change, mm or in.; L0 -Measured length of specimen at r oom temperature, mm or in.; and T -Measured temperature change (ave rage of the four sensors), C. La = Lm + Lf (3-6) Where: La Measured length change of specimen during temperature change, mm. or in.; Lm Length change of the measuring apparatu s during temperature change, mm. or in.; Lf = Cf x Lo x T (3-7) Where: Cf Correction factor accounting for the change in length of the measurement apparatus with temperature, in.-6/in./oC. The test result is the averag e of the two CTE values obtained from the expansion test segment and contraction test segment, and is calculated as follows: CTE = (CTEexpan.+ CTEcont.) / 2 (3-8) In this study, three of 4 x 8 concrete cylinde rs were evaluated in the CTE test at various curing times such as 1 day, 7 days and 28 days fo r each concrete mix. The cylinders at each set were sawed to the length of 7.0 0.1 in. and submersed in saturated limewater at 23 2 oC before testing. The saturated specimens were removed from the tank and measured of their lengths at room temperature to the neares t 0.004 in. After measuring the length, place the specimens in the measuring apparatus located in the controlled te mperature bath. The lower end of the specimen is firmly seated against the support buttons, and th e LVDT tip is seated against the upper end of the specimen.

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66 The water in the bath was initially set to 10 1 oC. When the bath reaches this temperature, allow the bath to remain at this temperature until thermal equilibrium of the specimens has been reached, as indicated by cons istent readings of the LVDT to the nearest 0.00001 in. taken every 10 minutes over a one-hal f hour time period. Then the water temperature was set to 50 1 oC to get the second value of the LVDT reading. Then, set the water temperature again to 10 1 oC to get the final reading. An average of CTE values from three specime ns was represented the CTE measurement in each curing time of concrete mix. Figure 3-8 shows the test set-up for Coeffi cient of Thermal Expansion measurement

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67 A B C D E F Figure 3-8. Test set-up for Coefficient of Ther mal Expansion measurement. A) Cylindrical specimen length of 7.0 0.1 in. B) Frame calibration. C) Thermocouples calibration. D) LVDT, frame and temperature bath. E) Length change measured at 10 & 50 oC. F) LVDT and Temperature recording.

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68 3.6 Concrete Maturity Characteristics 3.6.1 Introduction of Maturity Concept The concept of concrete maturity was fi rst introduced by Saul in 1951. He defined maturity of concrete as its age multiplied by the average temperature above freezing that it has maintained. Based on this definition, he fu rther developed the law for relationship between concrete strength and maturity: C oncrete of the same mixture at the same maturity (measured as temperature-time) has approximately the same strength whatever combination of temperature and time goes to make up that maturity. Since then, many studies on maturity have been done by other researchers and Sauls law for maturity has been confirmed and proven to be a useful tool to predict concrete stre ngth. The Maturity method has been standardized by ASTM as Standard Practice C1074. 3.6.2 Maturity Functions According to ASTM C1074, there ar e two alternative functi ons for computing the maturity index. The first is the Nurse Saul equati on that is used to calc ulate the temperature-time factor (TTF) as follows: t T T t Ma ) ( ) (0 (3-9) where: M (t) -Temperature-time factor at age t, degree-days or degree-hours, t -Time interval, days or hours, Ta -Average concrete temperature during time interval, t, C, and T0 -Datum temperature, C. The Arrthenius e quation is another maturity func tion, which is used to compute equivalent age (AGE) as follows: Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes. (3-10) Where: te -Equivalent age at a specified temperature Ts, days or h,

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69 Q -Activation energy divi ded by the gas constant, K, Ta -Average concrete temperature during time interval, t, K, Ts -Specified temperature, K, and t -Time interval, days or hours. Though both functions can predict the strength of in-place concrete equally well, the Nurse Saul equation was preferred in this project for its simplicity. 3.6.3 Maturity Test Apparatus In order to determine the concrete maturity, a temperature-time recording device is required. Acceptable devices include thermocoupl es or thermistors connected to strip-chart recorders or digital data-loggers. Figure 3-9 shows one of the popular maturity meters, which is also used in this project. This device is a mu lti-channel maturity meter, giving digital maturity number calculation, instant readout and temperature history. All four channels can be used simultaneously. All data are on menu-driven al phanumeric displays. Communication port allows data transfer from meter to meter, printer, or co mputer. The main specifications for this maturity meter are given in Table 3-12. Figure 3-9. Model H-2680 system 4 101 concrete maturity meter.

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70 Table 3-12. Specifications for models H-2680 system 4101 concrete maturity meter. Temperature Measurement Data Record Sensor measurement Accuracy Thermocouple Wire Data Capacity Recording Interval -10C to 90 C +/-1 C Type T 10 months x 4 channels Every hour up to 48 hrs, then every hour Mechanical Maturity Value Calculations Dimensions Weight Datum Temperature Equivalent Age Temperature Activation Energy Constant 7.8 x 4.7x 2.9 1.75lbs -20 C to 40 C 0 C to -40C 0K to 20,000 K 3.6.4 Procedure for Maturity Test The maturity test is a two-step pr ocess (Figure 3-10). Step 1: develop a relationship between the maturity values and the concrete strength from beams or cylinders. This step includes four processes: 1) determine datum temperature (T0) via mortar testing; 2) measure temperature history of concrete, which is used to calculate maturity index: temperature-time factor (TTF); 3) run strength test on beams or cyli nders; 4) establish relationship between strength values and TTF. Step 2: predict strength of in-p lace concrete. This step includes two processes: 1) measure maturity of in-place co ncrete; 2) determine st rength from maturitystrength curve developed in step 1.

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71 P P P P Mortar & Cylinder or Beam Samples Strength Test Develop maturity-strength curve 0 2000 4000 6000 0200400600800TTFStrength A B Figure 3-10. Procedure for maturity testing. A) St ep 1: Develop maturity strength curve. B) Step 2: Predict strength of in-place concrete.

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72 3.6.5 Establishment of Maturity Strength Relationship It is to be noted that the concre te must be made of the same material and same proportions as in-place when developing the ma turity-strength relationship. The detailed procedures for establishing the maturity-strengt h relationship are shown in this section as follows. Determine Datum Temperature (T0) Procedure for determining datum temperature (T0) is given as follows: 1. Prepare a mortar The mixture proportions of the mortar us ed are given in Table 3-13. The Fine Aggregate/Cement ratio of the mortar was the same as the Coarse Aggregate/Cement ratio of the concrete to be evaluated. The same proportions of admixtures used in the concrete were also used in the mortar. Table 3-13. Mix proportions of the mortar. Admixtures (oz) Cement (lbs/yd3) FA (lbs/yd3) Water (lbs/yd3) AE(darex) ADVA Daraccel W/C 850 1650 283 1 34 384 0.365 2. Prepare three temperature baths The three temperatures used were: 1) 5C = the minimum temperature expected for the in-place concrete 2) 40C = the maximum temperature expected for the in-place concrete 3) 23C = the midway temperature between the extremes expected for the in-place concrete 3. Prepare 50-mm mortar cubes Three sets of mortar cubes were prepared, one set for each bath temperature. For each set, 6 testing times were used, and 3 re plicates were used per test condition. For each set, 3 additional cubes were also used to estimate the time when the mortar reached a compressive strength of 4 MPa. Thus a total of 21 mortar cubes were made for each set. 4. Run compressive strength test For each set of mortar cubes, compressive strength test was first run on 3 cubes at an early age to estimate the time when the mo rtar would reach a comp ressive strength of 4 MPa. Compressive strength test was then run on 3 mortar cubes at the time when the

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73 compressive strength was around 4 MPa. Subs equent compressive strength tests were performed on 3 cubes at ages that were approx imately twice the age of the previous tests. 5. Determine K-values Steps in determining the K-values are as follows: 1) Using the strength-age data for the last f our test ages, plot the reciprocal of strength (y-axis) versus the reciprocal of age (x-axis). Determine the y-axis intercept. The inverse of the intercept is the limiting strength, Su 2) Calculate A = S/(S-Su), where S = strength at age t, from the first 4 tests. 3) Plot A versus age for the first 4 tests at each curing condition. 4) Determine K = slope of the best-fit st raight lines for each curing temperature. 6. Determine the datum temperature (T0) The datum temperature is determined as follows: 1) Plot K-values ve rsus temperature 2) T0 = intercept of x-axis 7. Determine Q (activation energy/gas constant) The Q value is determined as follows: 1) Plot Ln (K) versus 1/temperature (in K). 2) Determine the best-fitting straight line through the points. The negative of the slope of the line is Q. Figures 3-11 shows datum temperature de termination process and equipment.

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74 A B C D E F Figure 3-11. Datum temperature determination pro cess and equipment. A) 50-mm cube mold. B) Mixing the mortar mixtures. C) Curing mortar s in the bath at 5 oC. D) Curing mortars in the room temperature of 23 oC. E) Cu ring mortars in the oven at 40 oC. F) Running compressive test of the cube specimen.

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75 The plots for determination of the datum te mperature and Q value are shown in Figure 312 and 3-13 respectively. The measured datu m temperature was determined to be -10.1 C, and the Q value was determined to be 3,568 K. Th ese values were used to calculate the timetemperature factor (TTF ) and equivalent age (te) to develop the strength maturity relationships for the concrete. y = 0.028x + 0.284 R2 = 0.9786 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 -20-15-10-5051015202530354045505560 Temperature (oC)K (1/day) Figure 3-12. Plot for determination of datum temperature, To. y = -3568x + 12.017 R2 = 0.9851 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.003100.003200.003300.003400.003500.003600.00370 1/Temperature (1/K)Ln (K) Figure 3-13. Plot of determination of Q-value.

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76 Concrete Specimens Preparation and Measuri ng Temperature of Concrete Specimens The concrete specimens for maturity calibrati on were prepared as described in Section 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 of this Chapter. Strengths obtained fr om this study are used to develop strengthmaturity relationship. The strength-maturity relati onships were used to estimate in-place strength of concrete test slabs. The maturity meter, as described in Secti on 3.6.3, was used to record the temperature history of concrete specimens. The procedure to measure the temperatures of the concrete specimens is as follows: 1) Embed thermocouple wires into approximate ly mid-depth of two cylinders and one beam (see Figure 3-14). Secure any wires to prevent them from being inadvertently pulled out of the specimens. 2) Connect thermocouple wires to maturity meter and turn on the meter to start recording temperature at once. Make su re that thermocouple wires are working normally. 3) Place the other cylinder and beam specimens together for curing. 4) Download temperature data from the matur ity meter to a computer when finished. The typical temperature history of the specimens in this research is shown in Figure 3-14. Both the cylinders and beams were kept in a moist curing room at a constant temperature of 23 C after 28 hours. A 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 330246810121416182022242628303234363840424446485052545658606264666870Time (hour)Temperature (C) cylinder#1 cylinder#2 Beam#1 Curing Temperature B Figure 3-14. Measuring temperature of concrete specimens. A) Measuring concrete temperature using a maturity meter. B) Typical te mperature history of the specimens.

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77 Develop Maturity-Strength Relationship Curve Figures 3-15 shows the typical plots of compressive strength a nd flexural strength versus TTF. Maturity calibration was also performed on the concrete sampled from all the test slabs in this research, which is presented in Chapter 5. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0500010000150002000025000 TTF (C-Hour)Compressive strength (psi) A 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0500010000150002000025000 TTF (C-Hour)Flexural strength (psi) B Figure 3-15. Typical plots of compressive stre ngth and flexural strength versus TTF. A) Compressive strength vs. TTF. B) Flexural strength vs. TTF.

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78 CHAPTER 4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONSTRUC TION OF THE TEST SLABS 4.1 Description of Experiment The research was planned to test the performa nce of concrete slabs made with different concrete mixtures using the Accelerated Pavi ng Testing (APT) by means of a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The concrete test track to be used for this study was constructed at the APT facility at the Florida Depart ment of Transportation (FDOT) St ate Materials Research Park on September 25, 2002. This concrete test track consists of two 12-foot wide lane s. Each test lane consists of three 12 ft. x 16 ft. test slabs, placed between confinement slabs. The thickness of the concrete slabs is 9 inches. To construct a test slab, a 12 ft. x 16 ft. slab was first removed from the concrete test track, and a replacement slab was constructed in its pl ace. The instrumentation and construction of the test slab was done with the HVS parked over the test slab area. The HVS was used to apply repetitive moving loads along the ed ge of the test slab, which is the most critical wheel loading position on the concrete slab. Analysis of the potential stress distributions within the concre te test slabs when subjected to the HVS loads was performed using FEACONS IV a finite element program described in the following section of this disserta tion. Based on the results of the analysis, optimum locations of the strain gauges to be placed on the test slabs were determined. Maturity calibration was performed and used to pr edict strength of the concrete in each test slab. HVS testing was to start when the predicte d strength reached a cert ain value by using the maturity method. The HVS testing was continued until visible cracks developed. Dyna mic strains at gauge locations were recorded every 30 minutes. The temp eratures were recorded in 5 minutes intervals

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79 during the testing period at the co rners and center of the slab us ing the thermocouples placed in the concrete slab in 2 inch in tervals from the surface of the conc rete slab. The temperature in base layer was also recorded in the same time intervals. The concrete used in each test slab was also obtained to fabricate concrete specimens to evaluate their properties. Measur ement of surface profiles, join t movement and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) deflection of test slabs were performed to characterize the test slabs. The material and slab characteriza tion are presented in Chapter 6. Parameters used in the FEACONS model were calibrated by deflection and strain data, and the calibrated model was then used to calculate po tential temperature-load induced stresses. This portion of the work is presented in Chapter 7. The evaluation of the performan ce of concrete test slabs is presented in Chapter 8 4.2 Stress Analysis for Instrumentation Plan The FEACONS IV (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs version IV) program was used to analyze the anticipated stresses on the test slabs when loaded by the HVS. The FEACONS program was developed by the University of Florida for the F DOT for analysis of concrete pavements subjected to load and temperature effects. Since the most critical loadi ng condition is when the wheel lo ad is applied along the edge of the concrete slab, this loading condition is used in the HVS loading of the test slabs in this study. The FEACONS program was used to analyze th e stresses in the test slab when a 12-kip single wheel load with a tire pressu re of 120 psi is applied along th e edge of the concrete slab. Analysis was done for two critical load positions for this edge loading condition, namely (1) load at the corner of the slab, a nd (2) load at the middle of th e edge, as shown in Figure 4-1.

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80 Figure 4-1. Loading positions us ed in the stress analysis. In the FEACONS analysis, an elastic modulus of 3,800 ksi (as measured from the concrete sampled from Test Slab 1 and at a curing time of 28 days) was used for the concrete. The thickness of the concrete slabs was 9 inches. Ot her pavement parameter inputs needed for the analysis are the joint shear stiffness (which mode ls the shear load transfer across the joint), the joint torsional stiffness (which models the mo ment transfer across th e joint) and the edge stiffness (which models the load transfer across the edge joint). The values for these parameters are usually determined by back-calculation from the deflection basins from NDT loads (such as FWD) applied at the joints and edges. In th is analysis, the values for these parameters determined previously in Phase I of this study were used. The modulus of subgrade reaction was determined to be 1.1 kci. A joint shear stiffne ss of 200 ksi, a joint torsional stiffness of 600 kin/in, and an edge stiffness of 10 ksi were use d. A temperature differential of zero was assumed in this analysis. Figures 4-2 and 4-3 show the 3D plots of the distribution of the maximum computed stresses in the x (longitudinal) di rection at the top of the slab ca used by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner and slab mid-edge, respectively. Figures 4-4 and 4-5 show the contour plots of maximum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12kip wheel load at the slab corner and slab

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81 mid-edge, respectively. Figures 4-6 and 4-7 show the contour pl ots of maximum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner and slab mid-edge, respectively. Figure 4-2. Distribution of the ma ximum stresses in the x (longit udinal) direction caused by a 12kip wheel load at the slab corner. Figure 4-3. Distribution of the ma ximum stresses in the x (longit udinal) direction caused by a 12kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge.

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82 Figure 4-4. Contour plots of maxi mum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner. Figure 4-5. Contour plots of maxi mum stresses in the x direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge. Stresses in psi Stresses in psi

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83 Figure 4-6. Contour plots of maxi mum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab corner. Figure 4-7. Contour plots of maxi mum stresses in the y direction caused by a 12-kip wheel load at the slab mid-edge. Stresses in psi Stresses in psi

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84 The instrumentation plan was designed so that strain gauges would be placed at the location of maximum anticipated stresses during the HVS loading. Thermocouples were also to be placed in the concrete slab to monitor the temperature distribution in the slabs. Figure 4-8 shows layout of the instrumentation for Test Slab s 1, 2 and 3, showing the location of the strain gauges, and thermocouples. Figure 4-9 is for Test Slabs 4 and 5. Two strain gauges are to be placed at each of the seven strain gauge locations. At each strain gauge location, one strain gauge is to be embedded in the concrete at a depth of 1 inch from the surface and another one at 1 inch above the asphalt layer. Thre e strain gauge positions are on the wheel path in the longitudinal (x) direc tion two are at 30 inches from each joint, and the other one is at mid edge of the slab. Four additional strain gauges positions are outside the wheel path. Thermocouples are to be placed in three locations, namely (1) the slab corner on the side of the slab not loaded by the HVS wheel, (2) the sl ab corner on the wheel path, and (3) the slab center. At each location, six thermocouples will be placed at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 inches from the concrete surface and at 1 inch be low the surface of the asphalt base. Figure 4-10 shows also the vertical positi on of thermocouples and strain gauges.

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85 Figure 4-8. Instrumentation layout pl an A for Test Slabs 1, 2 and 3. 6" 6" Test Slab HVS Wheel Path 2 72" 12" 96" 1 3 7 30" 1 3 5 4 15" 30" 3" 6 2 192" 144" Strain Gauge, XX Direction Thermocouple Strain Gauge, YY Direction Figure 4-9. Instrumentation layout plan A for Test Slabs 4 and 5.

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86 2" Concrete Slab --9" 1" 1" Figure 4-10. Vertical Positions of Thermocouples and Strain Gauges. 4.3 Construction of the Test Slabs Five instrumented full-size concrete test slabs, namely Slab 1 to Slab 5, were placed on the concrete test track at the APT facility at the FDOT State Mate rials Research Park on March 21, 2006, June 1, 2006, April 5, 2007, July 21, 2007 and August 20, 2007, respectively by a concrete contractor under the supervision of FDOT pers onnel. Slabs 1 and 2 used the same target concrete mix design with a cement content of 85 0 lbs per cubic yard. Another concrete mix design with a cement content of 725 lbs per cubic yard was used as the target concrete mix design for Slabs 3, 4 and 5. 4.3.1 Concrete Test Track The concrete test track for this study was c onstructed during Phase I of this study. It is located at the Accelerated Pavement Testing (A PT) test area at the FDOT State Materials Research Park. This concrete test track consists of six 12 ft. x 16 ft., 9-inch thick concrete slabs, placed between confinement slabs.

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87 The concrete slabs were placed over an exis ting two-inch thick asphalt surface. The asphalt surface was placed over a 10.5-inch lim erock base that was placed over a 12-inch stabilized subgrade. This asphalt layer acts as a leveling course and provi des the concrete slab with a firm and consistent f oundation that is not affected by moisture changes throughout the experiment. Figure 4-11 shows a pi cture of the test track and a cro ss section of the test track and layers underneath. A B Figure 4-11. Concrete test track. A) Picture of the test track. B) Typical cross section of the concrete slab and layers underneath.

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88 4.3.2 Removal of Concrete Slabs In the preparation for the placement of a replacem ent test slab, an existing concrete slab on the test track was first removed. Full-depth saw cuts were made around the entire perimeter of the marked area that was to be removed. The saw cuts separated the concrete slab into small pieces (approximately 3 ft. x 4 ft.). Then the pi eces were removed by using a lifter. Damaged areas on the asphalt base after the removal of the concrete slab we re patched with a cold asphalt mix. Figure 4-12 shows the removal of an exis ting slab and patching of the damaged areas. A B C D Figure 4-12. Removal of Test Sla b. A) Marking a location for test slab. B) Separation of concrete slab (12 ft. x 16 ft.) into small pieces (3 ft by 4 ft). C) Removal of separated pieces using the lifter. D) After removal of sepa rated pieces and patching of damaged base.

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89 4.3.3 Installation of Dowel Bars and Fiber Sheets To simulate typical replacement slabs in Florida, dowel bars were instal led at the joints of the test slabs. Dowel bars were placed at one-foot inte rvals starting at six inch from the edge. Holes for dowel bars were drilled to a 9-inch depth to the adjacent slabs. After drilling, the drilled holes were cleaned out by inserting an ai r nozzle into the hole to force out all dust and debris. An epoxy was used to bond the dowels to th e adjacent slab, and a lubricant was applied at the other end to allow movement in th e longitudinal direction (Figure 4-13). A B C D Figure 4-13. Placement of dowel bars. A) Drilling holes for dowel bars to the adjacent slabs. B) Clean the drilled holes with air pressure. C) Dowel bar with epoxy. D) 9-inch dowel bars to test slab with lubricant.

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90 All the test slabs to be repl aced were confined with three adjacent slabs and had one free edge. A fiber sheet was placed along the longitudinal edge of the adjacent slab to prevent the test slab from adhering to the adjacent slab, so that the edge of the te st slab would behave as free longitudinal slab e dge (Figures 4-14). A B Figure 4-14. Placement of fiber sheet. A) Attaching fiber sheets to side of adjacent slab. B) Fiber sheet attached. 4.3.4 Placement of Strain Gauges and Thermocouples Fourteen strain gauges and three sets of six thermocouples were placed in each test slab according to the instrumentation plan as described in Section 4.2. Before placement of concrete, the strain gauges to be embedded in the concrete were fixed in position by two steel rods, which were fixed to the asphalt base in a vertical di rection. Similarly, each set of six thermocouples were fixed on a plastic rod, which was fixed to the asphalt base. Figure 4-15 show the placement of strain gauges and thermocouples.

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91 A B C D Figure 4-15. Installing of instrumentation. A) St rain gauges held in pos ition by steel rods. B) Thermocouples held in position by a plasti c rod. C) Strain gauges and thermocouples protected by PVC pipes before placement of concrete. D) Strain gauge cables and thermocouple wires hooked up to the data acquisition box. 4.3.5 Data Acquisition Strain data were record at every hour inte rval, for 30 seconds each time, at a rate of 100 values per second. Temperature data were retrie ved at five minute intervals from placement of concrete throughout the HVS testing period. Wheatstone quarter-bridge circuits were used to measure strains in concrete from the strain gauges in this study. Figure 4-16 shows the quart er-bridge circuit along with the circuit for calibration and amplification of the output sign al. The following symbols apply to the circuit diagram:

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92 R1 and R2 are half-bridge completion resistors. R3 is the quarter-bridge completion resisters. R4 is the active element measuring tensile strain (+ ) VEX is the excitation voltage. RL is the lead resistance. VCH is the measured voltage. Figure 4-16. Wheatstone Quarter-bridge circuit diagram for measuring strain. The data acquisition used is a National Instru ment Model SCXI-1000. It consists of a 12slot chassis which holds vari ous data acquisition modules an d one digitizer/communications module. Two strain/bridge modules and one thermo couple module were plugged into the chassis. Each strain/bridge module provides for 8 stra in gauge inputs, and each thermocouple module provides for 32 thermocouple inputs. The di gital/communications module provides a USB output to the control computer. The data acqui sition system is controlled by the computer through the software LabVIEW. The data acquisition system and control com puter were placed in a temperature control chamber (Figure 4-17A), which was placed next to the test slab during the experiment (Figure 417B), so that the strain gauge and thermocoupl e wires could be conveniently connected to the data acquisition system without having to r un long wires between the test slabs and the

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93 instrumentation room. The control computer was networked with another computer through wireless networking so that the control com puter can be accessed conveniently from the instrumentation room. A B Figure 4-17. Data acquisition box. A) Inside th e data acquisition box. B) Set up of the data acquisition box and antenna near the test slab. 4.3.6 Placement and Finishing of Concrete Test Slabs Two different target mixes were used for the te st slabs as described in Chapter 3 of this dissertation. Before placement of concrete on test track, samples of concrete were collected from the truck to determine the plastic properties of the concrete for quality assurance and evaluation of the mixes. First, samples of concrete were taken before the accelera ting admixture was added for conductance of the slump, unit weight, air conten t and temperature tests. Samples of concrete were again taken after adding accelerating admixture for the pl astic property tests and for fabrication of test specimens for compressive strength, flexural st rength, splitting tensile strength, elastic modulus, drying shrinkage and co efficient of thermal expansion. Concrete mix properties and characteristics will be presented in Chapter 6 of this dissertation. PVC pipes were placed around the strain gauge s and the thermocouples to protect them from concrete handling instruments during the pl acement of concrete. The concrete was placed

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94 manually around the strain gauges and the thermo couples inside the PVC pipes. After the concrete was placed to the same thickness on both the inside and outside of the PVC pipe, the PVC pipe was then pulled out manually. After concrete was placed into the formwork for the test slab, vibrators were used to consolidate the fresh concrete. A vibrating leveling bar was also used to level off the concrete. The concrete surface was finished manually. After placement and finishing of the concrete, 3 deep cuts were made to form the joints for the slabs. Curing compound was sprayed to the surface to cure the concrete slab. The finished te st slab was protected until the start of the HVS loading. Figure 4-18 shows placement and finishing of test slab.

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95 A B C D E F Figure 4-18. Placement and finishing of test sla b. A) Fresh concrete properties obtained before and after adding accelerating admixture for quality assurance and evaluation of the mixes. B) Adding the accelerating admixtur e. C) Strain gauges and thermocouple trees protected with the PVC pipes. D) Vi brating leveling bar used to level off the concrete. E) Curing compound sprayed. F) Fini shed test slab w ith data acquisition box and a set of samples tested at the start of HVS loading.

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96 CHAPTER 5 HVS TESTING AND OBSERVATION OF PERFORMANCE OF TEST SLABS 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the HVS testing and observed performance of the test slabs. The testing plan was to start the HVS loading when the concrete reached a certain strength. The strength to signal the start point of the HVS testing at each test slab was predicted from maturity calibration for the concrete used. Two beam and three cylindrical specimens made with an actual concrete mix used in each test slab were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were tested for their flexural and compressive strengths to obtain average actual strengths of the test slab at the time of start of loading. HVS loading at 12 kips was to be applied to each test slab for 7 days, then at 15 kips for 3 days, and then at 18 kips for 3 mo re days before stopping the HVS. The HVS loading were applied using a super sing le tire with a contact pressure of 120 psi, traveling at about 6 mph in a uni-directional mode with no wander along th e longitudinal edge of the test slab. Loading along the edge was chosen because it represents the most critical loading condition for a concrete slab. Strain data were recorded at every hour in terval, for 30 seconds each time, at a rate of 100 values per second. Temperature data were retrie ved at five minute intervals from the time of placement of concrete and throughout the HVS testing period. Condition surveys were made and crack maps drawn when cracks were observed during the HVS testing. Figure 5-1 show s HVS loading on a test slab.

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97 Figure 5-1. HVS loading on a test slab. 5.2 Slab 1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 1 The concrete mix used in Slab 1 had a cem ent content of 850 lb per cubic yard of concrete. The current FDOT concrete specifica tion for replacement slab requires a minimum compressive strength of 2,200 psi at 6 hours. This strength requirement was used as a criterion for the start of HVS loading on Slab 1. HVS load ing of Slab 1 was to start when the in-place concrete attained an estimated co mpressive strength of 2,200 psi. The compressive strength of the in-place concrete was determined using the maturity method. Temperature readings from thermocouples embedded in the test slab were used to compute the Time Temperature Factor (TTF) of the in-place concrete, which was used to determine the compressive strength using the ma turity calibration of the same concrete. The maturity calibration of a laboratory-prepared conc rete of the same mix design was used in this case.

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98 Figure 5-2 shows the relationship between th e compressive strength and the TTF of the laboratory-prepared mix. To a ttain a compressive strength of 2,200 psi, the TTF has to be equal to or greater than 400 C-hr. Figure 5-3 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 1. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 400 C-hr. at approximately 7 hours. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 1 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0500010000150002000025000 TTF (C-Hour)Compressive strength (psi) Figure 5-2. Compressive strength vs TTF for laboratory-prepared mix. TTF vs Time at the Slab 10 100 200 300 400 500 600 012345678910 Time (Hour)TTF(Slab) Figure 5-3. TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 1.

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99 5.2.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Ca libration of Concrete Mix from Slab 1 Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 1 were taken and used to perform the maturity calibration. The maturity calibrati on of the actual concrete used in Slab 1 was used to determine the strength of the in-place concrete at differe nt times. Table 5-1 shows the compressive strength, flexural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured sample s of the concrete from Slab 1, which were used to determine maturity calibra tion of this mix. Table 5-1 also shows the computed compressive strength an d flexural strength of the in-pla ce concrete in Slab 1 by using this maturity calibration. Three cylindrical specimens made with the conc rete mix from Slab 1 were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing conditio n as the slab. These specimens were tested for their compressive strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average compressive strength of 1,760 psi was obtained. This value wa s slightly less than the value of 2,200 psi as predicted by the maturity calibration of the labor atory-prepared specimen. However, this value matched well with the predicted strength values from the maturity cal ibration of the actual concrete from Slab 1. Table 5-1. Strength analysis for concre te in Slab 1 using maturity method. Time TTF (Lab) TTF (Slab) R (Lab) R (Slab) fc (Lab) fc (Slab) Start 0 0 00 00 5-hour 280.4 -320 737.41,400 6-hour 250.1 338.5 291.8360 1,222.81,600 7-hour 396.0 -400 (397*) -1,850 (1760*) 9-hour 507.8 -480 1,851.52,100 24-hour 846.4 1,195.9 592.2620 3,630.93,900 168-hour 5,079.3 5,697.5 762.1780 5,633.65,700 672-hour 21,252.2 800.96,428.8Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab TTF = time-temperature factor, hrC R = Flexural strengths, psi fc = Compressive strengths, psi

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100 5.2.3 Observed Performance of Slab 1 HVS loading using a12-kip super single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied to Slab 1 along its free edge for 7 days wi th a total load repetitions of 85,254 passes. The wheel load was increased to 15 kips, and the sl ab was loaded for 3 days with an additional 37,880 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The load wa s then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 3 days with an additional 35,676 pa sses of the 18-kip load. A corner crack was observed on the north end of the slab at that time and the slab wa s loaded with an additional of the 18-kip load for 20,506 passes before the HVS testing was stopped. Figure 5-4 shows a picture of the corner crack and the transverse cracks at the mid-edge of the slab. The corner crack had the shape of a qua rter-circle with a radius of about 3 feet. In addition to the corner crack, a few transverse crac ks had also occurred at the mid-edge of the slab. Crack pattern and locations of the crack s after testing with 18-kip loads are shown in Figure 5-5. A B Figure 5-4. Cracks after HVS loading with 18-kip load. A) Corner cr ack at the north end of Slab 1. B) Transverse cracks at mid edge of Slab 1.

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101 A 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-5. Observed cracks on Test Slab 1. A) Crack Pattern (corner crack and transverse Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Loads, at locations of computed maximum stresses). B) Locations of Corner Crack and Transver se Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Load.

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102 5.3 Slab 2 5.3.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 2 The concrete mix used in Slab 2 had the same mix design as that used in Slab 1, which had a cement content of 850 lb per cubi c yard of concrete. HVS loadi ng of Slab 2 was to start when the in-place concrete atta ined an estimated flexural strength of 300 psi. The TTF of the in-place concrete was used to predict the flexur al strength of the concrete using the maturity calibration of the concrete fr om Slab 1. This was a reasonable thing to do since Slab 2 used the same concrete mix as Sl ab 1. Figure 5-6 shows the relationship between the flexural strength and the TTF of the concrete used in Slab 1. To attain a flexural strength of 300 psi, the TTF has to be equal to or greater than 300 C-hr. Figure 5-7 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 2. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 300 C-hr. at approximately 5 hours. Thus, HVS loading of Sl ab 2 was started at 5 hours after concrete placement. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0500010000150002000025000 TTF (C-Hour)Flexural strength (psi) Figure 5-6. Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete mix from Slab 1.

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103 TTF vs Time at the Slab 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 012345678910 Time (Hour)TTF (Slab) Figure 5-7. TTF vs. time for in-place concrete in Slab 2. 5.3.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Ca libration of Concrete Mix from Slab 2 Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 2 were taken and used to perform the maturity calibration. The maturity calibra tion of the actual concrete used in Slab 2 was then used to determine the flexural and compre ssive strengths of the in-place c oncrete at different times. Table 5-2 shows the compressive strength, flexur al strength and TTF of the laboratory cured samples of the concrete from Slab 2, which were used to determine the maturity calibration of this mix. Table 5-2 also presents the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 2 by using this maturity calibration. Two beam specimens made with the actual conc rete mix used in Slab 2 were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing cond ition as this test sla b. These specimens were tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (5 hours). An average flexural strength of 402 psi was obtained from these samp les at 5 hours. This value was substantially higher than the value of 300 psi as predicted by th e maturity calibration of concrete mix sampled from Slab 1. However, this measured flexural strength of 402 psi at 5 hours matched well with the other predicted strength values from the matu rity calibration of the act ual concrete from Slab 2.

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104 Table 5-2. Strength analysis for concre te in Slab 2 using maturity method. Time TTF (Beam) TTF (Cylinder) TTF (Slab) R (Lab) R (Slab) fc (Lab) fc (Slab) Start 0 0 000 0 0 4-hour 171.2 244.2 -360.0 890.5 1,000.0 5-hour 301.7 390.0 (401.5*) 1,350.0 (1,433.3*) 8-hour 261.1 250.1 358.0 389.5 450.0 1,094.5 1,850.0 24-hour 324.3 466.8 500.0 1,560.0 2,600.0 168-hour 890.6 846.4 1,237.7 575.7 590.0 3,225.0 3,650.0 672-hour 5,145.3 5,079.3 5,794.2 723.7 730.0 5,951.1 6,150.0 Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab TTF = time-temperature factor, hrC R = Flexural strengths, psi fc = Compressive strengths, psi 5.3.3 Observed Performance of Slab 2 Similar HVS loading as used on Slab 1 was used on Slab 2. Slab 2 was loaded for 7 days with a total of 87,785 passes of a 12-kip super single wheel load. The wheel load was increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an a dditional 42,239 passes of the 15-kip wheel load. The load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 37,617 passes of the 18-kip load. Some transverse cracks across the wheel path were observed at this point. Figure 5-8 shows pictures of these tran sverse cracks on the wheel path. Crack pattern and locations of the cracks after testing with 18-ki p load are shown in Figure 5-9. A B Figure 5-8. Transverse cracks on Te st Slab 2. A) Cracks at the south end. (b) Cracks at mid edge.

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105 A Test Slab 2 HVS Wheel Path 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 13' 14' 15' 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-9. Cracks on Test Slab 2. A) Crack patter n (Cracks after Testing with 18-kip Loads). B) Locations of Cracks on Test Slab 2 after Testing with 18-kip Loads.

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106 5.4 Slab 3 5.4.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 3 The concrete mix for Slab 3 had a cement content of 725 lb per cubic yard of concrete. HVS loading of Slab 3 was to start when the in -place concrete attained an estimated flexural strength of 300 psi. The TTF of th e in-place concrete was used to predict the flexural strength of the concrete using the maturity calibration of the laboratory-prepared Mix 2. Figure 5-10 shows the relationship between the flexural strength and the TTF of the concrete according to the maturity calibration of the laboratory-prepared mix. To attain a flexural strength of 300 psi, the TTF had to be equal or greater than 160 C-hr. Figure 5-11 shows th e plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 3. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 190 C-hour at approximately 4 hours. Thus, HVS loading of Sl ab 3 was started at 4 hours after concrete placement. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 90001002003004005006007008009001000TTF (C-Hour)Flexural stren g th (p si ) Figure 5-10. Flexural Strength vs. TTF for Laboratory-Prepared Mix 2.

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107 TTF vs Time at the Slab 30 100 200 300 400 500 600 012345678910 Time (Hour)TTF (Slab) Figure 5-11. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 3. 5.4.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Ca libration of Concrete Mix from Slab 3 Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 3 were taken and used to perform the maturity calibration. The maturity calibrati on of the actual concrete used in Slab 3 was used to determine the strength of the in-place concrete at diffe rent times. Figures 5-12 show the plots of compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF, respectively, for the concrete mix used in Slab 3. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 60000500100015002000250030003500400045005000TTF (C-Hour)Com p ressive stren g th (p si ) A 0 100 200 300 400 500 6000100200300400500600700800TTF (C-Hour)Flexural stren g th (p si ) B Figure 5-12. Strengths vs. TTF for the concrete from Slab 3. A) Compre ssive Strength vs. TTF. B) Flexural St rength vs. TTF.

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108 Table 5-3 shows the compressive strength, fl exural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured samples of the concrete from Slab 3, which were used to determine maturity calibration of this mix. Figure 5-13 shows the temperature hi story of these specimens. Table 3.1 also shows the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 3 by using this maturity calibration. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 330246810121416182022242628303234363840424446485052545658606264666870Time (hour)Temperature (C) cylinder#1 cylinder#2 Beam#1 Curing Temperature Figure 5-13. Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 3. Table 5-3. Strength analysis for the conc rete in Slab 3 using maturity method. Time TTF (Beam) TTF (Cylinder) TTF (Slab) R (Lab) R (Slab) fc (Lab) fc (Slab) 3-hour 112.6 -134.2156170 450 4-hour 186.7 215 ( 184*) 550 ( 485*) 5-hour 194.8240.8 235 563 1,150 6-hour 235.9 236.1294.6250255 1,076 1,200 8-hour 315.1398.9 285 1,2340 1,550 24-hour 848.6 851.41,086.9472475 3,370 3,500 168-hour 4,999.6 4,961.15,702.1560 5,324 5,700 672-hour 19713.5 19650.5 805 6,810 Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab TTF = time-temperature factor, hrC R = Flexural strengths, psi fc = Compressive strengths, psi

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109 Two beam specimens made with the actual concre te mix used in Slab 3 were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (4 hours). An average flexural strength of 184 psi was obtained from these samples at 4 hour s. This measured fle xural strength was very close to the predicted flexural st rength value (215 psi) from the maturity calibration of the actual concrete from Slab 3. However, this value was substantially lower than the value of 300 psi as predicted by the maturity calib ration of laboratory-prepared Mi x 2, which was done in October 2006. Using the relationship betw een flexural strength and TTF (as presented in Figure 5-10) had resulted in over-predicting the st rength of the in-place concrete. 5.4.3 Observed Performance of Slab 3 HVS loading of Test Slab 3 was started 4 hour s after concrete placement. A 12-kip super single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge of the slab. On the second day, a 12-inch transverse crack wa s observed at the mid-edge of the slab, as shown in Figure 5-14-A. After 47,170 passes of th e 12-kip load, a few small transverse cracks had also occurred at the mid-edge of the slab as shown in Figure 5-14-B. The slab was continuously loaded with the 12-kip load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 95,042 passes. The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3 days with an additional 35,915 passes of the 15-kip wheel load when a corner crack of about 3 feet radius was observed at the north end, as shown in Figure 5-14-C. The load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 3 more days with an additional 37,580 passes. After 3 days of 18 kips load, a corner crack of 4 feet radius was observed at the south end of the slab, as shown in Figure 5-14-D.

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110 A B C D Figure 5-14. Cracks on Test Slab 3. A) First transverse crack 6 feet from the north end. B) Transverse cracks at mid edge. C) Corner cr ack at the north end. D) Corner crack at the south end. Crack pattern and locations of the cracks after testing with 18-kip load are shown in Figure 5-15. Figure 5-15-B shows a drawing of the lo cations of the cracks on this test slab.

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111 A Test Slab 3 HVS Wheel Path 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 13' 14' 15' 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-15. Cracks on Test Slab 3. A) Crack Pattern (a corner crack of about 3-feet radius after testing with 15-kip load). B) Locations of cracks.

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112 5.5 Slab 4 5.5.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 4 Test Slab 4 used the same concrete mix as th at used in Slab 3. HVS loading of Slab 4 was to start when the in-place concrete attained an es timated flexural strength of 300 psi. Therefore, the TTF of the in-place concrete was used to pred ict the flexural strength of the concrete using the maturity calibration of the concrete from Sl ab 3. Figure 5-16 shows the relationship between the flexural strength and the TTF of the concre te according to the maturity calibration of the concrete from Slab 3. To attain a flexural streng th of 300 psi, the TTF had to be equal or greater than 370 C-hour. Figure 5-17 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-place concrete in Slab 4. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 400 C-hour at approximately 7 hours. This would give an estimated flexural strength of over 300 psi. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 4 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. 0 100 200 300 400 500 6000100200300400500600700800TTF (C-Hour)Flexural strength (psi ) Figure 5-16. Flexural strength vs. TTF for concrete from Slab 3.

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113 TTF vs Time at the Slab 40 100 200 300 400 500 600 012345678910 Time (Hour)TTF (Slab) Figure 5-17. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 4. 5.5.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Ca libration of Concrete Mix from Slab 4 Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 4 were taken and used to perform the maturity calibration. The maturity calibrati on of the actual concrete used in Slab 4 was used to determine the strength of the in-place concrete at diffe rent times. Figure 5-18 shows the plots of compressive strength and flexural strength versus TTF for the concrete mix used in Slab 4. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 60000500100015002000250030003500400045005000TTF (C-Hour)Com p ressive stren g th (p si ) A 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 7000500100015002000250030003500400045005000TTF (C-Hour)Flexural stren g th (p si ) B Figure 5-18. Strengths vs. TTF for the Concrete from Slab 4. A) Compre ssive Strength vs. TTF. B) Flexural St rength vs. TTF.

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114 Table 5-4 shows the compressive strength, fl exural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured samples of the concrete from Slab 4, which were used to determine maturity calibration of this mix. Figure 5-19 shows the temperature hist ory of these specimens. Table 5-4 also shows the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 4 by using this maturity calibration. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 3801234567891011121314151617181920Time (hour)Temperature (C) Cylinder#1 Cylinder#2 Beam#1 Curing Temperature Figure 5-19. Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 4. Table 5-4. Data for maturity calibrati on of concrete used in Slab 4. Time TTF (Beam) TTF (Cylinder) TTF (Slab) R (Lab) R (Slab) fc (Lab) fc (Slab) 4-hour 177.4173.9224.0196210 1,000 5-hour 218.8214.0282.2-230 952 1,400 6-hour 257.1251.1339.5214.4250 1218.9 1,500 7-hour --396.0-295 (305*) 1,700 (2011*) 8-hour 328.8318.8452.4-318 1485.7 1,900 24-hour 853.4823.41,247.9510.5530 3023.2 3,190 41-Hour --2,033.0-560 3,650 168-hour 5,480.15,444.87,474.4707.0720.0 5388.1 5,500 672-hour 21,658.421,610.2--Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab TTF = time-temperature factor, hrC R = Flexural strengths, psi fc = Compressive strengths, psi

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115 Two beam specimens made with the actual conc rete mix used in Slab 4 were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing c ondition as the test sla b. These specimens were tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average flexural strength of 305 psi was obtained from these sample s at 7 hours. This measured flexural strength was very close to the predicted flexural strength value (295 psi) from the maturity calibration of the actual concrete from Slab 4. 5.5.3 Observed Performance of Slab 4 HVS loading of Test Slab 4 was started 7 hour s after concrete placement. A 12-kip super single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge of the slab. On the second day, a corner crack of about 5 feet radius was formed at the south end, as shown in Figure 5-20. It was found out later fro m the strain data (as described in Chapter 8) that the first crack corner ha ppened at about 41 hours after the placement or after 15,175 passes of 12-kip load. The slab was con tinuously loaded with the 12-kip load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 82,963 passes. Two 12-inch tran sverse cracks were observed at the mid-edge of the slab, as shown in Figure 5-21-A. Shrinkage cracks were also observed at about four feet away from the wheel path, as shown in Figure 5-21-B. The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3 days with an additional 53,420 passes of the 15-ki p wheel load. The load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 2 more days with an additional 18,243 passes. After 2 days of 18-kip loads, a corner crack of 4 feet radius at the north end of the slab and cracks at the mid edge was observed, as shown in Fi gure 5-22. It is to be noted th at the new corner crack and the cracks at the mid edge were at the locations of maximum load-induced stresses according to the stress analyses.

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116 A 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-20. Cracks on the second day of loading on Test Slab 4. A) First corner crack at the south end. B) Corner cracks at the sout h end of Slab 4 and the adjacent slab.

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117 A B Figure 5-21. Cracks in Slab 4 on Day 7. A) Mid-e dge cracks after the first corner crack. B) Drying shrinkage cracks at 3 to 4 Feet from the wheel path.

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118 A Test Slab 4 HVS Wheel Path 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 13' 14' 15' 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-22. Cracks after loading with 18-kip wheel load on Test Slab 4. A) Crack pattern. B) Locations of corner and transverse cracks.

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119 5.6 Slab 5 5.6.1 Start of HVS Loading on Slab 5 The concrete used for this Slab 5 had the sa me mix design as that used in Slabs 3 and 4. HVS loading of Slab 5 was to start when the in -place concrete attained an estimated flexural strength of 300 psi. Therefore, the TTF of the in -place concrete was used to predict the flexural strength of the concrete using th e maturity calibration of the concre te from Slab 3 or Slab 4. To attain a flexural streng th of 300 psi, the TTF had to be e qual or greater than 370 C-hour. Figure 5-23 shows the plot of TTF versus time for the in-p lace concrete in Slab 5. It can be seen that TTF was equal to 380 C-hour at approximately 7 hour s. This would give an estimated flexural strength of over 300 psi. Thus, HVS loading of Slab 5 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. TTF vs Time at the Slab 5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 012345678910 Time (Hour)TTF (Slab) Figure 5-23. TTF vs. Time for In-Place Concrete in Slab 5.

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120 5.6.2 Strength Determination using Maturity Ca libration of Concrete Mix from Slab 5 Samples of the concrete mix used in Slab 5 were taken and used to perform the maturity calibration. The maturity calibrati on of the actual concrete used in Slab 5 was used to determine the strength of the in-place concre te at different times. Figure 5-24 show the plots of compressive strength and flexural strengt h versus TTF for the concrete mix used in Slab 5. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 80000500100015002000250030003500400045005000TTF (C-Hour)Com p ressive stren g th (p si ) A 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 7000500100015002000250030003500400045005000TTF (C-Hour)Flexural stren g th (p si ) B Figure 5-24. Strengths vs. TTF for the Concrete from Slab 5. A) Compre ssive Strength vs. TTF. B) Flexural St rength vs. TTF. Table 5-5 shows the compressive strength, fl exural strength and TTF of the laboratory cured samples of the concrete from Slab 5, which were used to determine maturity calibration of this mix. Figure 5-25 shows the temperature hist ory of these specimens. Table 5-4 also shows the computed compressive strength and flexural strength of the in-place concrete in Slab 5 by using this maturity calibration.

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121 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50012345678910111213141516171819202122Time (hour)Temperature (C) Cylinder#1 Cylinder#2 Beam#1 Curing Temperature Figure 5-25. Temperature history of the specimens from Slab 5. Table 5-5. Data for maturity calibrati on of concrete used in Slab 5. Time TTF (Beam) TTF (Cylinder) TTF (Slab) R (Lab) R (Slab) fc (Lab) fc (Slab) 4-hour 207.4 202.2205.8307.0 305 1,348.8 1350 6-hour 305.6 289.9314.5404.8 410 2,161.0 2,250 7-hour 351.7 330.0366.9420 (371.1*) 2400 (2,828.4*) 8-hour 395.8 368.1421.2-430 2,371.7 2,500 24-hour 983.4 909.41192.2581.9585 3,623.6 3,800 168-hour 5,606.55 5,524.36546.5612.1620.0 6,155.9 6,300 672-hour 21,784.95 21,678.2 715.67,463.2 Note: -Actual strength of samples placed by the test slab TTF = time-temperature factor, hrC R = Flexural strengths, psi fc = Compressive strengths, psi

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122 Two beam specimens made with the actual concre te mix used in Slab 5 were placed next to the slab in order to have the same curing condition as the test slab. These specimens were tested for their flexural strength at the time of start of loading (7 hours). An average flexural strength of 371 psi was obtained from these samples at 7 h ours. This measured flexural strength was higher than the value of 300 psi as predicted by th e maturity calibration of concrete mix samples from Slab 3. However, the predicted flexural strength value (420 psi) at 7 hours matched well with the other predicted strength values from the maturity calibration of the actual concrete from Slab 5. 5.6.3 Observed Performance of Slab 5 HVS loading of Test Slab 5 was started 7 hour s after concrete placement. A 12-kip super single wheel with a tire contact pressure of 120 psi was applied repetitively along the free edge of the slab. On the second day, a full-depth transv erse crack of about 12 f eet along the test slab was formed at the mid-slab, as shown in Figure 5-26. The slab was continuously loaded with the 12-kip load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 81,062 passe s. Two longitudinal cracks that separated the test slab in to 4 pieces were observe d, as shown in Figure 5-27. The wheel load was then increased to 15 kips, and the slab was loaded for an additional 3 days with an additional 49,748 passes of the 15-ki p wheel load. The load was then increased to 18 kips, and the slab was loaded for 2 more days with an additional 22,551 passes. After 2 days of 18-kip loads, an additional 14-inch transver se crack was observed at the mid-edge on the wheel path, as shown in Figure 5-28.

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123 A B C Figure 5-26. First crack on Slab 5 in Day 2 after HVS loading. A) First crack observed at the mid-slab. B) First crack on the wheel path at 7 feet from the South End. C) Location of the mid-slab crack.

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124 A B 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' Figure 5-27. Cracks on Slab 5 in Day 7 after HVS loading. A) Cracks obser ved at the mid-slab. B) Cracks develop from the first crack to both side of the slab. C) Crack pattern.

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125 A 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' B Figure 5-28. Cracks on Slab 5 at th e finish of HVS testing. A) A 14-inch Transverse crack on the wheel path at the mid-edge. B) Crack pattern.

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126 CHAPTER 6 CHARACTERIZATION OF CON CRETE MIXES AND TEST SLABS 6.1 Characterization of Concrete Mixes 6.1.1 Results of Tests on Concrete The compressive strength, flexural strengt h, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion and dr ying shrinkage of the concrete mixes used in this study are presented this section. The deta ils of the mix designs and test methods are presented in Chapter 3 of this dissertation. The concrete mixes are divided into two groups. The first group of mixes that were to have a target cement content of 850 lb per cubic yard of concrete, they include Mix 1, Mix 3, Slab 1 a nd Slab 2. The second group includes Mix 2, Slab 3, Slab 4 and Slab 5 which have a target cement c ontent of 725 lb per cubic yard of concrete. Compressive Strength The average compressive strengths from thr ee specimens per condition are presented in Table 6-1. Figure 6-1 shows the plots of average comp ressive strength at various curing times. Table 6-1. Average compressive strength of the concrete mixes used. Compressive Strength, fc (psi) Curing Time (hours) Mix 1 Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 4 798 891 1,262 1,349 5 1,125 737 993 1,729 563 952 1,755 6 1,453 1,747 1,223 1,095 2,195 1,076 1,219 2,161 8 1,730 2,019 1,642 1,560 2,526 1,240 1,486 2,372 24 3,941 4,199 3,631 3,225 3,891 3,370 3,023 3,624 168 5,792 5,746 5,634 5,951 6,082 5,324 5,388 6,156 672 6,469 6,220 6,429 6,647 6,649 6,810 6,921 7,463

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127 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 456824168672 Curing Age (hours)Compressive Strength (psi) Mix 1 Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 A 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 1101001000 Curing Age (log-scale, hours)Compressive Strength (psi) 725 Mixes 850 Mixes B Figure 6-1. Compressive Strength at various times of all concrete mixes in this study. A) Average compressive strengths by each mix. B) Average compressive strengths grouped by cement content vs. curing age in log scale.

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128 Flexural Strength The average flexural strengths from tw o beams per curing time of two laboratoryprepared mixes, namely Mixes 1 and 2, and of five concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 62. Figure 6-2 shows also the plots of average flexural strength of all these mixes at various curing times. Table 6-2. Average flexural streng th of the concrete mixes used. Flexural Strength, fR (psi) Curing Time (hours) Mix 1 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 4 250 266 187 196 307 5 319 358 219 205 356 6 388 292 390 450 250 214 405 24 607 592 576 686 472 511 582 168 740 762 724 831 556 707 612 672 770 801 775 887 805 819 716 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 45624168672 Curing Age (hours)Flexural Strength (psi) Mix 1 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Figure 6-2. Average compressive strength of a ll mixes evaluated at various curing times.

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129 Typical facture surfaces of a beam specimen are shown in Figure 6-3. It shows that at the early age (about 4 to 6 hours), at the breaking area, only some aggregat e are fractured. At the later age, most aggregate are fractured at the breaking area. A B Figure 6-3. Typical facture of a be am. A) Beam facture at the early age (only some aggregate cut at the breaking area). B) B eam facture at the later age (most aggregate cut at the breaking area). Splitting Tensile Strengths The average splitting tensile strengths from three cylinders per curing time of five concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slab s 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-3. Figure 6-4 shows also the plots of average splitti ng tensile strength at various curing times. Table 6-3. Average splitti ng tensile strength of the concrete mixes used. Splitting Tensile Strength, fST (psi) Curing Time (hours) Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 6 141 187 134 173 251 24 248 322 289 317 392 168 325 418 449 589 529 672 385 472 560 678 585

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130 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 624168672 Curing Age (hours)Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Figure 6-4. Average splitting tensile strength of all mixes evalua ted at various curing times. Modulus of Elasticity Test Results The average elastic modulus from two cylinde rs (or four readings ) per curing time of a laboratory-prepared Mix 1, and, of five concrete mixes used in te st slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-4. Figure 6-5 sh ows the plots of average elastic modulus at various curing times. Table 6-4. Average elastic modulus of the concrete mixes used. Modulus of Elasticity, E (ksi) Curing Time (hours) Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 4 1,047 -1,900 5 739 1,129 1,288 1,600 2,238 6 1,800 1,434 1,211 1,563 1,763 2,575 8 1,961 1,559 1,700 1,813 1,925 2,875 24 3,250 2,662 1,913 2,813 3,150 3,563 168 3,800 3,481 3,470 3,250 3,488 3,863 672 4,413 3,752 3,825 3,650 3,875 4,288

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131 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 456824168672 Curing Age (hours)Modulus of Elasticity (ksi) Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Figure 6-5. Elastic modulus at various curing times. Drying Shrinkage Test Results The average drying shrinkage strain from three square prisms per curing time of two laboratory-prepared Mixes 3 and 2, and of three conc rete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-5. Figure 66 shows the plots of average drying shrinkage strain at various curing times. Table 6-5. Drying shrinkage strains of the concrete mixes used. Drying Shrinkage Strain, sh (in/in 10-6) Curing Time (hours) Mix 3 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8 10.00 20.00 43.33 23.33 50.00 24 46.67 23.33 96.67 53.33 113.33 168 263.33 240.00 246.67 240.00 303.33 672 420.00 393.33 436.67 523.33 440.00

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132 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 6824168672 Curing Age (hours)Drying Shrinkage Strain (in/in 10-6) Mix 3 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Figure 6-6. Drying shrinkage stra ins at various curing times. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The average coefficient of thermal expans ion from three cylinder specimen (or six readings) per curing time of two laboratory-prepared Mixes 3 and 2, and of five concrete mixes used in test slabs, namely Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are presented in Table 6-6. Figure 6-7 shows the plots of average coefficient of therma l expansion at various curing times. Table 6-6. Coefficient of thermal expa nsion of the concrete mixes used. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, CTE (in/F 10-6) Curing Time (hours) Mix3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 24 5.97 6.75 6.36 6.28 6.46 6.27 168 6.01 6.15 7.01 6.13 6.18 6.13 6.07 672 5.98 6.76 5.93 6.14 5.99 5.89

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133 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7.20 24168672 Curing Age (hours)Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (in/ oF 10-6) Mix 3 Slab 1 Slab 2 Mix 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Figure 6-7. Coefficient of thermal expa nsion of the concrete mixes used. 6.1.2 Relationship among the Concrete Properties Using the limited data from the mixes in this study, the relationships among the compressive strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete used were determined. Since compressive strength of concrete is a common property to be obtained and considered in structural design, compressive strength is related to other concrete properties. Relationship between Compressive Strength and Flexural Strength The relationship between compressive strength and the flexural strength was developed, and plotted in Figure 6-8. Regression equati on 6-1 was developed to present the best fit relationship between compressive strength and fl exural strength. the ACI equation for this purpose is shown in equation 6-2.

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134 Regression equation: 9203 0 3936 52 5655 0 R f Rc (6-1) ACI equation: 5 0 5 7 B A f A RB c (6-2) Or 5 05 7cf R Where: R = Flexural strength, in psi fc = Compressive strength, in psi A, B = Coefficients y = 5.3936x0.5655R2 = 0.92030 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 010002000300040005000600070008000Compressive Strength (psi)Flexural Strength (psi) Measured Data ACI Model: A=7.5, B=0.5 Relationship of the measured data: A=5.39, B=0.57 Figure 6-8. Relationship between compre ssive strength and flexural strength. The power exponent (Coefficient B) of regression equation 6-1 is a little bit higher than the recommended coefficient B from equation 6-2, and coefficient A from equation 6-1 is also higher than that from equation 6-2. From the pl ots, it can be seen that using the recommended values A and B from the equation 6-3 may undere stimate the flexural strength based on the experimental data in this study.

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135 Relationship between Compressive St rength and Splitting Tensile Strength The relationship between splitting tensile strengt h and compressive strength was plotted in Figure 6-9. Regression e quation 6-3 was developed to present the best fit relationship between compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. Regression equation: 8682 0 3983 12 6691 0 R f fc ct (6-3) Where: fct = Splitting tensile strength, in psi fc = Compressive strength, in psi y = 1.3983x0.6691R2 = 0.86820 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 010002000300040005000600070008000 Compressive Strength (psi)Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Figure 6-9. Relationship betw een compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. Relationship between Splitting Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength The relationship between flexural strength a nd splitting tensile strength was similarly plotted in Figure 6-10. Regression equation 6-4 was developed to pr esent the best fit relationship between splitting tensile streng th and flexural strength.

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136 Regression equation: 7693 0 9828 72 7247 0 R f Rct (6-4) Where: R = Flexural strength, in psi fct = Splitting tensile strength, in psi y = 7.9828x0.7247R2 = 0.76930 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 0100200300400500600700 Splitting Tensile Strength (psi)Flexural Strength (psi) Figure 6-10. Relationship between splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. Relationship between Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity is an important ma terial property that a ffects the stress/strain behavior of the concrete slab and is a needed input to the FEACONS model. Having enough experimental data to develop th e reliable relationship between co mpressive strength and modulus of elasticity for slab replacement concrete mixes is needed to analyze the st ress/strain behavior of the concrete slabs. The relationship between compressive stre ngth and the modulus of elasticity was developed, and plotted in Figure 6-11. Regression equation 6-5 was developed to present the best fit relationship between compressive strength and modulus of elas ticity. This is compared with the ACI equation (6-6 through 6-8) for this purpose.

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137 Regression equation: 8801 0 802 282 5606 0 R f Ec (6-5) ACI equation: 140 5 0 33 000 15 1 w B A f w A EB c (6-6) 5 0 5 1000 1 ) 140 ( 33cf E (6-7) 5 0665 54cf E (6-8) Where: E = Elastic modulus, in ksi fc = Compressive strength, in psi w = Unit weight, in pci A, B = Coefficients y = 28.802x0.5606R2 = 0.8801 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 010002000300040005000600070008000 Compressive Strength (psi)Modulus of Elasticity (ksi) Measured Data ACI Model: A=54.7, B=0.50 Relationship of the measured data: A=28.8, B=0.56 Figure 6-11. Relationship between compre ssive strength and elastic modulus. The power exponent (Coefficient B) of regression equation 65 is a little higher than the recommended coefficient B from equation 6-8, a nd first constant from equation 6-5 is also higher than that from the equation 6-8. From these plots, it can be seen that using the recommended values A and B fr om equation 6-8 may overestimat e the elastic modulus of the concrete based on the experime ntal data in this study.

PAGE 138

138 Relationship between Compressive St rength and Drying Shrinkage Strain A relationship between compressi ve strength and dr ying shrinkage strain was developed, and plotted in Figure 6-12. Regression equati on 6-9 was developed to present the best fit relationship between compressive st rength and drying shrinkage strain. Regression equation: 8193 0 6286 82 0006 0 R ecf sh (6-9) Where: sh = Drying shrinkage strain, in in/in x 10-6 fc = Compressive strength, in psi y = 8.6286e0.0006xR2 = 0.81930 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 010002000300040005000600070008000 Compressive Strength (psi)Drying Shrinkage Strain (in/in 10-6) Figure 6-12. Relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain. Relationship between Modulus of Elas ticity and Drying Shrinkage Strain The relationship between elastic modulus and dr ying shrinkage strain is shown in Figure 613. Regression equation 6-10 was de veloped to present the best f it relationship between modulus of elasticity and dr ying shrinkage strain.

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139 Regression equation: 8792 0 6734 12 0014 0 R ecf sh (6-10) Where: sh = Drying shrinkage strain, in in/in x 10-6 fc = Compressive strength, in psi From the experimental data in this study, it shows that the relationship between elastic modulus and drying shrinkage stra in gives a little bit better fit than the relationship between compressive strength and drying shrinkage strain. y = 1.6734e0.0014xR2 = 0.87920 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 010002000300040005000 Modulus of Elasticity (psi)Drying Shrinkage Strain (in/in 10-6) Figure 6-13. Relationship between modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage strain. 6.2 Slab Characterization Five test slabs were evaluated in this study. The characterization of the test slabs are presented in this section by means of temper ature data, joint movement measurement, FWD testing and core testing. Figure 6-14 shows a plan view of typical location and conf iguration of a test slab confined with adjacent slabs.

PAGE 140

140 Figure 6-14. Plan view of th e typical location and confi guration of a test slab. 6.2.1 Analysis of Temperature Data Thermocouples in the instrumentation plan (see detail in Chapter 4) were placed in three locations as shown in Figure 6-15, namely (1) the slab corner on the side of the slab not loaded by the HVS wheel, (2) the slab corner on the whee l path, and (3) the slab center. At each location, six thermocouples were pla ced at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 inches from the concrete surface and at 1 inch below the surface of the as phalt base as shown in Figure 6-16.

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141 6" 6" Test Slab HVS Wheel Path 2 --On the wheel path 3 --At the slab center 1 --At the slab corner at the side which will not be loaded by the HVS wheel 72" 12" 96" 12" Figure 6-15. Plan view of locations of thermocouples. Figure 6-16. Vertical pos itions of thermocouples.

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142 Temperature differentials in the concrete sl ab (as calculated from the temperature at 0.5 from the top of the slab the temperature at the base layer) slab are plotted against time for Slabs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Figures 6-17 to 6-21, respectively. -20.00 -15.00 -10.00 -5.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 03/21/0603/23/0603/25/0603/27/0603/29/0603/31/0604/02/0604/04/0604/06/06Slab 1--Temperature Differential, oF Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Figure 6-17. Temperature differe ntial variation in Slab 1. It can be seen that the temperature differentia ls fluctuated between positive values in the daytime to negative values at night. For Slabs 1 in March 2006, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +28 F, while the maximum negative temperature differential was about -16 F.

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143 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 4006/01/0606/03/0606/05/0606/07/0606/09/0606/11/0606/13/0606/15/0606/17/0606/19/06TimeSlab 2--Temperature Differential, F Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on wheelpath Figure 6-18. Temperature differe ntial variation in Slab 2. -20 -10 0 10 20 30 4004/05/0704/07/0704/09/0704/11/0704/13/0704/15/0704/17/0704/19/07TimeSlab 3--Temperature Differential, F Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on wheelpath Figure 6-19. Temperature differe ntial variation in Slab 3.

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144 -20.00 -10.00 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 07/11/0707/13/0707/15/0707/17/0707/19/0707/21/0707/23/0707/25/07Slab 4--Temperature Differential, oF Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Figure 6-20. Temperature differe ntial variation in Slab 4. -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 08/29/0708/31/0709/02/0709/04/0709/06/0709/08/0709/10/0709/12/07Slab 5--Temperature Differential, o F Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Figure 6-21. Temperature differe ntial variation in Slab 5.

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145 For Slab 2 in June 2006, the maximum pos itive temperature differential was around +35 F, while the maximum negative te mperature differential was around -14 F. For Slab 3 in April 2007, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +29 F, while the maximum negative temperature differential was around -17 F. For Slab 4 in July 2007, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +35 F, while the maximum negative temperature differential was around -13 F. Fi nally for Slab 5 in September 2007, the maximum positive temperature differential was around +41 F, while the maximum negative temperature differential was around -16 F. Table 6-7 presents the maximum positive and negative temperature differential data for the test slabs. From all test slabs observed at different times is this study, the maximum positive temperature differential was as high as high to about +41 F while the maximum negative temperature differential was about -17 F. These maximum positive and negative temperatures are used to evaluate the maximum stresses due to temperature and load that might apply to replacement slabs in Florida conditions. The base layer of test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4 was a 2-inch asphalt concrete (AC) layer, while it was a compacted limestone layer in Slab 5. Figure 6-22 shows the temperature on the surface of the AC layer in Slab 1. This plot presents an example of the vari ation of the temperature in the AC layer which is an important parameter affecting the elastic modulus of the AC and the stress/strain beha vior of the concrete test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4.

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146 Table 6-7. Maximum temperature differential on the test slabs. Slab 1, 3/21/06 4/6/06 Positive Negative Corner out the Wheel Path 26.94 -14.63 Corner on the Wheel Path 15.51 -13.01 Center 24.75 -15.78 Slab 2, 6/1/06 6/19/06 Positive Negative Corner out the Wheel Path 34.91 -13.78 Corner on the Wheel Path 14.07 -11.68 Center 18.77 -13.79 Slab 3, 4/5/07 4/19/07 Positive Negative Corner out the Wheel Path 29.02 -16.14 Corner on the Wheel Path 19.39 -13.83 Center 27.29 -16.92 Slab 4, 7/11/07 7/19/07 Positive Negative Corner out the Wheel Path 34.87 -10.16 Corner on the Wheel Path 33.80 -13.15 Center 24.07 -9.10 Slab 5, 8/29/07 9/11/07 Positive Negative Corner out the Wheel Path 25.20 -15.77 Corner on the Wheel Path 40.81 -14.84 Center 16.21 -9.21 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 03/21/0603/23/0603/25/0603/27/0603/29/0603/31/0604/02/0604/04/0604/06/06Slab 1--AC Base Layer Temperature, F Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Figure 6-22. Temperature on the surface of the AC layer in the test Slab 1.

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147 Figure 6-23 shows the variation of the temp erature at the top (0 .5 depth) and bottom (8.5 depth) of concrete slab as well as the temperature of the base layer (10.0 depth) at the corner of Test Slab 5. After placement of the test slab in day time, the temperature at the top of the concrete slab was higher than that at the bottom. At night, the temperature at the bottom of the slab appeared to be higher th an that at the top. So the ne gative temperature differential was high. This high negative temperat ure differential might cause the concrete slab to curl up along the joints and edges for a few days after the placement. These negative temperature differentials at the first few days are to be considered in th e evaluation of performan ce of the test slabs. 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 1208/29/07 12:00 AM 8/29/07 12:00 PM 8/30/07 12:00 AM 8/30/07 12:00 PM 8/31/07 12:00 AM 8/31/07 12:00 PM 9/1/07 12:00 AM 9/1/07 12:00 PM 9/2/07 12:00 AMSlab 5--Temperature, F SlabT 0.5--Corner on wheel path SlabB 8.5--Corner on wheel path Base 10.0--Corner on wheelpath Figure 6-23. Variation of the temper ature in the top (0.5) and botto m (8.5) of concrete slab and the temperature of the base layer (10. 0) at the corner of Test Slab 5. Figure 6-24 shows temperature distribution at the maximum positive and negative temperature in the concrete Slab 1. It can be seen that maximum positive temperature differential occurred in afternoon and maximu m negative temperature differentia l occurred in early morning.

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148 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 65707580859095100 Slab 1-Maximum of 26.94 F Temperature Differential on 3/29/2006, 14:45 Positions from the Concrete Surface (Inch) Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Concrete Layer A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 707580859095100 Slab 1-Minimum of -15.78 F Temperature Differential on 3/22/2006, 8:55 Positions from the Concrete Surface (Inches) Corner out Wheelpath Center Corner on Wheelpath Concrete Layer B Figure 6-24. Temperature distribution at the maxi mum positive and negative temperature in Test Slab 1. A) Temperature distribution at the maximum positive temperature. B) Temperature distribution at the maximum negative temperature.

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149 6.2.2 Joint Opening Measurement Two pairs of Whittemore gauge inserts were pl aced at the joints of each test slab to measure joint movement. Each pair of Whittemore inserts were placed at two inches from the joint. The joint movement was m easured by Whittemore gauge at different times of the day. These inserts were fixed to concrete before th e fresh concrete stiffened during placement. Figure 6-25 shows the Whittemore inserts fixed at the join t and the standard Invar bar. The Invar bar is a reference bar which was used to calibrate the Whittemore gauge. Table 6-8 shows the joint openi ng readings which were take n on Test Slabs 1 and 2. Figures 6-26 and 6-27 present the plots of join t movement versus time on Test Slabs 1 and 2 respectively. A negative value in the joint movement means that the joint was closing due to the expansion of the concrete slab, while a positive value means it was opening due to contraction. The maximum measured joint movement was about 0.04 in. A B Figure 6-25. Joint opening measurements. A) Inse rts on both sides of jo int and calibration bar opening (Invar bar). B) Whittemore gauge for measuring joint.

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150 Table 6-8. Joint Opening Readings. Gauge Reading Distance between inserts (inch) Joint Movement (inch) Slab 1 Time Calibration J1* J2* J1 J2 J1 J2 8:30 AM 0.073 0.0668 0.01434.00624.058710:00 AM 0.0725 0.0701 0.01564.00244.0569-0.0038 -0.0018 11:00 AM 0.0727 0.0775 0.02013.99524.0526-0.011 -0.0061 1:30 PM 0.073 0.091 0.0233.9824.05-0.0242 -0.0087 2:30 PM 0.0725 0.099 0.02853.97354.044-0.0327 -0.0147 3:30 PM 0.0726 0.103 0.03563.96964.037-0.0366 -0.0217 4:30 PM 0.073 0.1035 0.04333.96954.0297-0.0367 -0.029 5:30 PM 0.0729 0.0982 0.03953.97474.0334-0.0315 -0.0253 Gauge Reading Distance between inserts (inch) Joint Movement (inch) Slab 2 Time Calibration J1 J2 J1 J2 J1 J2 10:30 AM 0.0715 0.0585 0.1524.0133.919511:30 AM 0.072 0.0475 0.1584.02453.9140.0115 -0.0055 12:30 PM 0.0651 0.0535 0.15824.01163.9069-0.0014 -0.0126 Note: J1 Joint at the sout h corner of the test slab J2 Joint at th e north corner of the test slab Joint Movement vs Time 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 1:30 PM 2:30 PM 3:30 PM 4:30 PM 5:30 PM-0.04 -0.035 -0.03 -0.025 -0.02 -0.015 -0.01 -0.005 0 6:00 AM 7:30 AM 9:00 AM 10:30 AM 12:00 PM 1:30 PM 3:00 PM 4:30 PM 6:00 PM 7:30 PMTimeMovement (in) Joint 1 Joint 2 Figure 6-26. Joint movements on Slab 1.

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151 Joint Movement vs Time 11:30 AM 12:30 PM-0.015 -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.0159:36 AM11:06 AM12:36 PM2:06 PM TimeMovement (in) Joint 1 Joint 2 Figure 6-27. Joint movements on Slab 2. 6.2.3 Falling Weight Deflectometer Testing Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests were performed on all test slabs. The measured FWD deflection basins were used to estim ate the stiffness of the springs used to model the modulus of subgrade reaction and load tran sfer at the joints a nd edges through a backcalculation process. The back-calculation process al so allowed for the veri fication of the elastic modulus of the concrete and the base layer, pr eviously evaluated from laboratory testing. The details of calibration and verifica tion of parameters used in a finite element model are presented in Chapter 7. FWD tests were performed at early morning between 6 A.M. and 8 A.M. and at midday between 2 P.M. At early morning, the temperatur e differential tends to be negative and the slab tends to curl down at the center of the slab. This is an ideal time to run the FWD test at the center of the slab for evaluation of the condition of the concrete slab and the layer underneath.

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152 At mid day, the temperature differential tends to be positive and slab te nds to curl down at the edges and joints. This is the best time to run the FWD test for evaluation of joints because the slab is more likely to be in fu ll contact with the laye r underneath at both the edges and joints. FWD tests were to run on the test slabs using di fferent loads. A replicate test was run right after each test was completed to check for consistency. Figure 6-28 shows the FWD load and sensor pos itions used for the FWD tests at the slab center. The FWD loading plate was place at the center of the test slab. Two sensor locations are along longitudinal and transv ersal directions. The same schemes were used for a ll the test slabs to be tested in the early morning to ev aluate the elastic modulus of the layers. Figure 6-29 and 6-30 show the FWD load and se nsor positions used for the FWD tests at the slab edge and joint, respectively. For the edge loading, the FWD lo ading plate was place at the mid edge. One set of sensor locations are alon g the edge of the test slab and another set are along the adjacent slab. Similarly for the joint lo ading, the FWD loading plate was place at the middle of the test slabs joint. One set of sensor locations is al ong the joint on the test slab and another set are along the adjacent slab. The same sche mes are used for all the test slabs to be test in the mid day to evaluate the load transfer condition. The results of the FWD tests on five test sl abs are presented in the Appendix A of this dissertation.

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153 A B Figure 6-28. FWD tests at the slab center. A) FWD load and sensor locations at the slab center. B) FWD test at the slab cent er and measuring deflection on the longitudinal direction.

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154 A B Figure 6-29. FWD tests at the slab edge. A) FWD lo ad and sensor locations at the slab edge. B) FWD test at the slab edge and meas uring deflection on the opposite slab.

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155 A B Figure 6-30. FWD tests at the slab joint. A) FWD lo ad and sensor locations at the slab joint. B) FWD test at the slab joint and meas uring deflection on the adjacent slab.

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156 6.2.4 Measurement of the HVS Laser Profiles A laser based profiling system was installed on the Florida Department of Transportations Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). This system enab les a detailed analysis of the surface of the test pavement; primarily the system evaluates the vertical profile of the test section, which is scanned by the profiler. In this study, the laser profiling system was used to measure the curling of the concrete test slabs at and near the wheel path. The HVS laser profile was run on the test sec tion at early morning between 5 A.M. and 6 A.M. and at midday between 2 P.M. during the HVS loading of the test slabs. Figure 6-31 shows the side-shifti ng pattern of the laser profiler as it scans over the test section. Figure 6-32 presents the test track matr ix and the overlap area wh ich is comprised of the 127 columns of data. Each laser produces 67 colu mns of data. There are a total of 134 columns of data with 7 overlapping columns. Each column contains 58 data points. Accordingly there are 58 rows of data. Each row of da ta represents the transverse profiles of the test track [FDOT, HVS laser profile data acquisition system]. The wheel path in this study is along the confined edge of the test slab s; therefore, one side of the laser obtains the surface data of the test slab, while another side obtains the opposite slab. From Figures 6-31 and 6-32, it can be seen that the surface data that were us ed in the analysis of the laser profile of the test slab s was to cover the area of the wheel path to about 38 inches from the edge of a test slab.

PAGE 157

157 Figure 6-31. Side-shifting pa ttern of the laser profile. [Byron, Gokhale, Choubane, 2005] The schedule for the laser profile measurement and list of analysis files of each test slab in this study are shown in Appendix B of this report.

PAGE 158

158 Figure 6-32. Approximate Profiler Matrix [FDOT, HVS laser profile data acquisition system].

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159 Figure 6-33 depicts a typical la ser profile data from Slab 2. The data was obtained after 82,815 passes of the HVS loading at 5 A.M. The figure shows the area on both the test slab and opposite slab, which were in the scan area of the HVS laser profiling system. Figure 6-33. 3-D plot of a lase r profile data from Slab 2. The initial laser profile data were used as th e reference, and were subtracted subsequent profile measurements to obtain the differential profile. The result is the difference in surface height from when the test was started to the time when the profiler was run.

PAGE 160

160 Figure 6-34 presents the average differential profiles of Slab 5 at two different times. These two profiles were obt ained at 5 A.M. and 2 P.M. in the sa me day. It can be seen that the shapes of the average transverse profiles are similar, but the slab at the 5 A.M. curled up from the edge of the test slab more than the slab at the 2 P.M. Figure 6-34 also shows that the average movement due to the curling effect at the testing period was about 0.62 mm. -1.40 -1.20 -1.00 -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 05101520253035 Transverse Position (Inch)Slab 5--Height (mm) 25,000 Passes at 5 A.M. 30,000 Passes at 2 P.M. 12" width of Wheel Path A verage different movement = 0.62 mm Figure 6-34. Average differential transverse pr ofile of Slab 5 at two different times. Figure 6-35 shows the differential transverse profile along the joint a nd center of Slab 1 at 5 A.M. testing. From the figure, it can be seen that the transverse prof ile along the joint of the test slab curls up more as compared with the profile along the cen ter of the edge.

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161 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 05101520253035 Transverse Position (inch)Slab 1--Height (mm) Transversal Position along the Joint Transversal Position along the Center 12" width of Wheel Path31,059 passes at 5 A.M. Figure 6-35. Curling eff ect along the joint and ce nter in Slab 1. 6.2.5 Testing of Concrete Cores Concrete cores from test slabs were taken after the HVS testing. Six cores from the wheel path were tested for their compressive streng th (ASTM C39), elastic modulus (ASTM C469) and splitting tensile strength (ASTM C4 96). The other three cores from outside the wheel path were tested for their compressive strength. Nine 4-inch diameter and 9-inch long concre te cores were taken from Slab 1 on October 11, 2006, about 7 months after the concrete placem ent, from Slab 2 on February 8, 2007, about 8 months after the concrete placement, from Sl ab 3 on June 22, 2007, about 2.5 months after concrete placement and from Slabs 4 and 5 on November 11, 2007, about 4 months and 2.5 months after the placement respectively.

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162 In order to perform the tests mentioned above, the concrete cores were sawed to the length of 8 inches. Diameters and lengths of the concrete cores were measured to use in the calculation of the strengths and elastic modulus. Figure 6-36 shows concrete cores taken from a test slab. A B Figure 6-36. Concrete cores. A) Nine 4-inch diam eter concrete cores. B) 9-inch length concrete cores. Figure 6-37 shows the locations of the cores taken from Slabs 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Table 6-9 shows the average compressive strength elastic modulus and splitting tensile strength of the cores taken from Slab 3, and those from the laboratory-cured concrete specimens.

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163 A B C D 12' E Figure 6-37. Locations of the core s taken. A) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 1. B) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 2. C) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 3. D) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 4. E) Locations of the cores taken from Slab 5.

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164 Table 6-9. Properties of concrete cores from te st slabs compared to laboratory-cured specimens from the test slabs concrete respectively. Slab 1: Concrete Core Testing October 11, 2006 ~ 7 months Compressive Strength (psi) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Cores on the wheel path6,686.0 3,650 470.9 Cores outside the wheel path7,561.8 3,725 28 days Laboratory cured6,428.8 3,752 384.8 Slab 2: Concrete Core Testing February 8, 2007 ~ 8 months Compressive Strength (psi) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Cores on the wheel path6,439.1 3,725 527.6 Cores outside the wheel path7,431.3 3,800 28 days Laboratory cured6,646.8 3,825 471.6 Slab 3: Concrete Core Testing June 22, 2007 ~ 2.5 months Compressive Strength (psi) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Cores on the wheel path5,974.63,625563.0 Cores outside the wheel path6,497.43,925Laboratory cured samples at same curing time as cores 6,813.13,950574.1 Laboratory cured at 28 days6,810.3 3,650 559.5 Slab 4: Concrete Core Testing November 11, 2007 ~ 4 months Compressive Strength (psi) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Cores on the wheel path7,234 4,197 611 Cores outside the wheel path7,228 4,195 28 days Laboratory cured6,921 3,875 678 Slab 5: Concrete Core Testing November 11, 2007 ~ 2.5 months Compressive Strength (psi) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Splitting Tensile Strength (psi) Cores on the wheel path7,034 4,331 590 Cores outside the wheel path6,749 4,237 28 days Laboratory cured7,463 4,288 585

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165 CHAPTER 7 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION 7.1 Overview of Model Calibration The analytical model used in the FEACONS pr ogram as presented in Chapter 4 was used to perform stress analyses to determine the opt imum locations for strain gauges. In those previous analyses, reasonable values for the va rious pavement parameters were used with the purpose of determining the locations of maximum stresses rather than determining correctly the magnitudes of the maximum stresses. However, in analyzing the performance of the test slabs under the HVS loading, the temperature-load induced stresses on the test sl abs needed to be determ ined accurately. In order for the analytical model to corre ctly analyze the behavior of th e replacement slabs, it needs to have accurate properties of the te st slab materials and the correct values of spring stiffness for modeling the behavior of joints and edges. The elastic modulus of the conc rete material was initially es timated from the results of laboratory tests on the concrete as described in Chapter 6. The modulus of subgrade reaction of the test slab was estimated by back-calcula tion of the FWD deflec tion basins using the FEACONS program. The defl ection basins caused by FWD loads a pplied at the slab center was used in this case. The results of the FWD tests at the joints and edges were used to calibrate values of spring stiffness at th e joints and edges of the test slabs. This process is called calibration of model parameters of the model in this study. The estimation of the test slab parameters was further verified by matc hing the analytically computed strains with the measured strains in the test slabs caused by the HVS loading. This step is named as verification of m odel parameters in this study.

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166 The loading area of the FWD is a 12-inch diamet er circular plate. A twelve inch by twelve inch square loading area was used in the finite element mesh to model the loading plate. The other slab model parameters used in the FE ACONS analyses are shown in the Table 7-1. Table 7-1. Slab model parameters us ed in the FEACONS model calibrations. Parameters in FEACONS Values Slab Size (ft. x ft.)12 x 16 Number of Bonded Layers2 Layers, 1 Layer Thickness of Concrete Slab (inch)9 Elastic Modulus of Concrete (ksi)4,000 ksi Density of Concrete (pcf)140 pcf Thickness of Asphalt Concrete (inch)4 inches, N/A Elastic Modulus of Asphalt Concrete (ksi)1,400 ksi Density of Asphalt Concrete (pcf)100 pcf Poison's ratio0.2 Subgrade ConditionLinear Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (kci)from FWD results Applied load (kip)9 kips, 12 kips Temperature EffectNo Spring Coefficient for the Edge (ksi)from FWD results Linear Spring Coefficient for the Dowel Joint (ksi)from FWD results Torsional Spring Coefficient for the Dowel Joint (k-in/in)from FWD results 7.2 Calibration of Model Parameters 7.2.1 Slab 1 Slab 1 was modeled as a 9-inch concrete sl ab bonded to a 4-inch asphalt over a Winkler foundation. The material properties used in this analysis are s hown in the Table 7-1. A 9-kip FWD applied load was used in analysis. Figure 7-1 shows the measured and computed deflections at the location of the geophones for Slab 1 caused by a 9-kip FWD load. The measur ed deflections in long itudinal direction were

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167 noted to be similar to those in the transversal direction. The computed deflection basin was obtained by using a modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.80 kci. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 1 at the Center (micrometer ) Measured--Longitudinal Center Measured--Transversal Center FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000 ksi, MSR 0.8 kci Figure 7-1. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 1. Slab deflections caused by FWD load applied at the confined edge of the test slab, the FWD test results were used to estimate the e dge coefficient. The es timated subgrade modulus and the other known pavement parameters were used in the FEACONS program to compute the deflections caused by a 9-kip FWD load at the sl ab edge. An edge stiffness of 25 kci gave a fairly good match between the computed and measur ed deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-2.

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168 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 1 at the Edge (micrometer ) Measured--Edge FEACONS--Edge: 25 ksi Figure 7-2. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 1. Slab deflections caused by FWD load applie d at the joint of the test slab, FWD tests results were also used to estimat e the joint coefficients. With previous estimated parameters and values of the other known pavement parameters, the computed and measured deflections at the joint were matched fairly well by using a linea r spring coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional spring coefficients of 1,500 K-in/in at th e joint as presented in Figure 7-3.

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169 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 1 at the Joint (micrometer ) Measured--Loaded Joint FEACONS--Joint: Linear 300 ksi, Torsion 1,500 k-in/in Figure 7-3. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 1. 7.2.2 Slab 2 A 9-kip FWD load is also used as the applied load in the model calibration for Slab 2. Similarly, the slab was modeled as a 9-inch co ncrete slab bonded to a 4-inch asphalt layer, placed over a Winkler foundation. Figure 74 shows the measured and computed FWD deflections at the location of the geophones for Slab 2. The measured deflections in the longitudinal direction were noted to be also similar to those in the transversal direction. The computed deflection basin matched to the meas ured one by using a highe r modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.95 kci. Slab deflections caused by FWD load applied at the confined edge of the test slab were used to estimate the edge coefficient. The estimated subgrade modulus and the other known pavement parameters were used in the FEACONS program to compute the deflections caused by a 9-kip FWD load at the slab edge. An edge s tiffness of 8 kci gave a fairly good match between the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-5.

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170 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 2 at the Center (micrometer ) Measured--Longitudinal Center Measured--Transversal Center FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000 ksi, MSR 0.95 kci Figure 7-4. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 2. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 2 at the Edge (micrometer ) Measured--Edge FEACONS--Edge: 8 ksi Figure 7-5. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 2.

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171 FWD deflections at the joint of Slab 2 were al so used to estimate the joint coefficients. With previous estimated parameters and values of the other known pavement parameters, the computed and measured deflection at the joint were matched fairly well by using a linear spring coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional spring coeffi cient of 1,500 K-in/in at the joint as shown in Figure 7-6. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 2 at the Joint (micrometer ) Measured--Loaded Joint FEACONS--Joint: Linear 300 ksi, Torsion 1,500 k-in/in Figure 7-6. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 9kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 2. 7.2.3 Slab 3 For Slab 3, a 12-kip FWD load was used as th e applied load for calib rating the analytical model. Using a similar process as in the previ ous two models, the matched computed deflection basin was obtained by using a modulus of subgrad e reaction of 0.85 kci as shown in Figure 7-7. An edge stiffness of 5 kci gave a quite good match between the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-8. The com puted and measured deflection at the joint were matched fairly well by using a line ar spring coefficient of 300 ksi and a torsional spring coefficient of 1,500 K-in/in at the joint as show n in Figure 7-9.

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172 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 3 at the Center (micrometer ) Measured--Longitudinal Center Measured--Transversal Center FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000 ksi, MSR 0.85 kci Figure 7-7. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 3. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 -24-12012243648607284 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 3 at the Edge (micrometer ) Measured--Edge FEACONS--Edge: 5 ksi Figure 7-8. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 3.

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173 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 3 at the Joint (micrometer ) Measured--Loaded Joint FEACONS--Joint: Linear 300 ksi, Torsion 1,500 k-in/in Figure 7-9. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 3. 7.2.4 Slab 4 For Slab 4, a 12-kip FWD load was again us ed as the applied load for calibrating the analytical model. Using a similar model and procedure, the computed deflection basin was matched to the measured one by using a modulus of subgrade reaction of 0.80 kci, as shown in Figure 7-10. An edge stiffness of 20 kci gave a fairly good match between the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as s hown in Figure 7-11. The computed and measured deflections at the joint were matched fairly well by using a higher linear spring coefficient of 1,000 ksi and a torsional spring coefficient of 2,000 K-in/in at the joint as shown in Figure 7-12.

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174 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 4 at the Center (micrometer ) Measured--Longitudinal Center Measured--Transversal Center FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000 ksi, MSR 0.80 kci Figure 7-10. Measured and com puted deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 4. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 4 at the Edge (micrometer ) Measured--Edge FEACONS--Edge: 20 ksi Figure 7-11. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 4.

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175 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 4 at the Joint (micrometer ) Measured--Loaded Joint FEACONS--Joint: Linear 1000 ksi, Torsion 2,000 k-in/in Figure 7-12. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 4. 7.2.5 Slab 5 Since Slab 5 was constructed over a compacted limerock base instead of an asphalt concrete base, The slab was modeled as a one layer of 9-inch concrete slab placed unbonded over a compacted limerock base (as a Winkler f oundation). A 12-kip FWD load was used as the applied load for calibrating the FEACONS model. Ma terial properties used in this calibration are also shown in the Table 7-1. FWD testing was performed on the test slab after the HVS loading was finished. Cracks developed on Slab 5 such that th e test slab was separated into f our small slabs as shown in Figure 5-28. FWD loads were applied at locations away fr om the cracks to avoid the effect of the cracks as much as possible. Figure 7-13 shows the measured and computed deflections at the location of the geophones for Slab 5. The measured deflections in the tran sversal direction were used to compare with the

PAGE 176

176 computed deflection basin. A m odulus of subgrade reaction of 0. 40 kci gave a fair fit between the measured and the computed deflections. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 -24-12012243648607284Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 5 at the Center (micrometer) Measured--Transversal Center FEACONS Center: MoE 4,000 ksi, MSR 0.40 kci Figure 7-13. Measured and com puted deflection basin caused by a 12-kip FWD load at slab center for Slab 5. An edge stiffness of 5 kci gave a fair match between the computed and measured deflection at the confined edge as shown in Figure 7-14. It is to be noted that there was a crack at the location of loading plate. The computed and measured deflection at the jo int were matched at the joint of the test slab by using a linear spring coefficient of 1,000 ks i and a torsional spring coefficients of 2,000 K-in/in at the joint as shown in Figure 7-15.

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177 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 -24-12012243648607284 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 5 at the Edge (micrometer ) Measured--Edge FEACONS--Edge: 25 ksi Figure 7-14. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab edge for Slab 5. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 -24-120122436486072 Distance (in)Deflection on Slab 5 at the Joint (micrometer ) Measured--Loaded Joint FEACONS--Joint: Linear 1000 ksi, Torsion 2,000 k-in/in Figure 7-15. Measured and comput ed deflection basin caused by a 12kip FWD load at slab joint for Slab 5.

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178 7.3 Verification of Model Parameters In order to verify the parameters for the FEACONS model, the computed strains at each gauge location are compared with the measured strains from stra in gauges embedded in the test slab. The computed strains were computed from the computed stre sses by using elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of the concre te. The stress at each gauge locat ion was computed by using the FEACONS model for the case of sta tic load at several specified locations on the wheel path. The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 1 are shown in Figure 7-16. Fi gures 7-17 through 7-22 show the comparison of analytical strains us ing the FEACONS model and the measured dynamic strains at gauge location 1T, 2T, 3T, 4T 6B and 7B on Slab 1 respectively. 6" 72" 15" 144" Figure 7-16. The locations of th e strain gauges in Slab 1.

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179 -174 -172 -170 -168 -166 -164 -162 -160 -158 -156 -154 1414.51515.51616.51717.518Time (Second)Slab 1-Gauge 1T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-17. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 1T on Slab 1 -165 -160 -155 -150 -145 -140 -135 -130 1414.51515.51616.517Time (Second)Slab 1-Gauge 2T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-18. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2T on Slab 1

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180 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 1414.51515.51616.517Time (Second)Slab 1-Gauge 3T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-19. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3T on Slab 1 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 1313.51414.51515.516Time (Second)Slab 1-Gauge 4T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-20. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 1

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181 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 12.51313.51414.51515.516Time (Second)Slab1-Gauge 6B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-21. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6B on Slab 1. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1212.51313.51414.51515.516Time (Second)Slab 1-Gauge 7B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-22. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7B on Slab 1.

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182 The locations of the strain gauges in Slab 5 are shown in Figure 723. Figures 7-24 through 7-31 show the comparison of analytical strain s using the FEACONS model and the measured dynamic strains at gauge location 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 4T, 5T, 6T a nd 7T on Slab 5 respectively. Figure 7-23. The locations of th e strain gauges in Slab 5.

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183 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 1313.51414.51515.516Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 1B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-24. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 1B on Slab 5. 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 1313.51414.51515.51616.5Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 2B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-25. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 2B on Slab 5.

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184 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 1919.52020.52121.52222.5Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 3B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-26. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 3B on Slab 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 18.51919.52020.52121.522Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 4B: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-27. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4B on Slab 5.

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185 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 18.51919.52020.52121.522Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 4T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-28. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 4T on Slab 5. 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 18.51919.52020.52121.522Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 5T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-29. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 5T on Slab 5.

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186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 18.51919.52020.52121.522Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 6T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-30. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 6T on Slab 5. 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 17.51818.51919.52020.521Time (Second)Slab 5-Gauge 7T: Micro Strain ( in/in ) Measured Strain Computed Strain Figure 7-31. Measured and computed strains for Gauge 7T on Slab 5.

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187 Table 7-2 presents a summary of model parame ters calibrated for the test slabs in this study. The calibrated parameters and material test results were used to perform the analysis of stresses due to temperature and load in each test slab as presented in Chapter 8. Table 7-2. Summary of model paramete rs calibrated for the test slabs. Parameters Used in FEACONS Model Slab 1 Slab 2 Slab 3 Slab 4 Slab 5 Slab Size (ft. x ft.)12 x 1612 x 1612 x 16 12 x 1612 x 16 Number of Bonded Layers222 21 Thickness of Concrete Slab (inch)999 99 Elastic Modulus of Concrete (ksi)4,0004,0004,000 4,0004,000 Density of Concrete (pcf)140140140 140140 Thickness of Asphalt Concrete (inch)444 4N/A Elastic Modulus of Asphalt Concre te (ksi)1,4001,4001,400 1,4001,400 Density of Asphalt Concrete (pcf)100100100 100100 Poison's ratio0.20.20.2 0.20.2 Subgrade ConditionLinearLinearLinear LinearLinear Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (kci)0.800.950.85 0.800.40 Applied load (kip)9912 1212 Temperature EffectNoNoNo NoNo Spring Coefficient for the Edge (ksi)2585 205 Linear Spring Coefficient for the Dowel Joint (ksi)300300300 1,0001,000 Torsional Spring Coefficient for the Dowel Joint (k-in/in)1,5001,5001,500 2,0002,000

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188 CHAPTER 8 EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE 8.1 Introduction This chapter presents the evaluation of the performance of replacement slabs by critical stress analysis. Stress analyses to determine the maximum stresses in each test slab under typical critical temperature-load c ondition were performed using the FEACONS model with the calibrated model parameters and the measured coefficient of thermal expansion of the each concrete used in each test slab in this study. The flexural strength of the concrete as determined by maturity method for each test slab was used to calculate the stress to strength ratio in each analysis. The observed performance of each test sl ab, as well as the characteristics of concrete mixes and test slabs were also used to evaluate th e potential performance of the test slabs in this study. 8.2 Evaluation of Potential Performance of Test Slabs A 12-kip single wheel load, whic h is slightly higher than th e maximum legal single wheel load of 11 kips in Florida, was as a critical appl ied load in the analysis. In the analysis, the two critical loading positions used in the stress analys is were (1) the mid-edge and (2) the corner of the slab. The potential performance of each test slab was evaluated based on the maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the conc rete at the early age. Other possi ble causes of cracking in a test slab were also evaluated. The fatigue curve r ecommended by the PCA, which relates the stress to strength ratios with the number of repetitions to produce fatigue failure in concrete, was used to estimate the number of load repetitions to failure.

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189 8.2.1 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 1 The HVS loading of Slab 1 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. The test slab performed well without cracks und er a 12-kip super si ngle load, which was applied along its confined edge for 7 days with a total of 85, 254 passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes per day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5. The maximum induced stresses in Slab 1 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature differential in Slab 1 during the time of HV S loading were computed using the FEACONS program and compared with the strength of the conc rete at the various times. The ratio between the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed. Table 8-1 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predic ted flexural strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 1 at the vari ous times, and the computed stress to flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS analysis. Figure 8-1 shows the plot of the predicted flex ural strength versus ti me of the in-place concrete, and the plot of the computed maximu m stress due a 12-kip wh eel load and the actual recorded temperature differentia l in the slab. Though the HVS lo ad was not applied to Slab 1 until 7 hours after placement, the maximum stresse s for the hypothetical case if the 12-kip load were applied at 5 hours and 6 hours were also computed and shown on the figure. It appears that if the HVS loading had started at 5 hours when th e flexural strength was about 300 psi, the slab should still be strong enough to with stand the induced stresses. This hypothesis was tested in the testing of Slab 2.

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190 Table 8-1. Predicted induced stresses a nd strength of concrete in Slab 1. Time (hrs) Temp. Diff. (oF) Applied Load, (kips) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Max. Computed Stress (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength from Maturity (psi) Predicted Stress/ Strength No. of Repetition to Failure 5 0.41 12 7391913200.60 35,055 6 0.19 12 1,4342323600.64 9,067 7 -1.78 12 1,681258397*0.65 7,932 9 -4.91 12 1,6222874800.60 34,032 24 -6.85 12 2,6623326200.54 200,756 168 2.22 12 3,4812877800.37 Unlimited Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab Parameters used in the stress analysis: The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.15E-06 in/oF Concrete thickness: 9 inches Asphalt Concrete Thickness: 4 inches Poison's ratio: 0.2 Shear joint stiffness: 300 ksi Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in Confined edge stiffness: 25 ksi Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.80 kci 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 5678910111213141516171819202122232425Time (hour)Stresses and Strengths (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter) Flexural Strength (from lab samples) Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip laod) Slab 1 Figure 8-1. Computed stresse s and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 1.

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191 Figure 8-1 also presents the fl exural strength of the laborat ory-cured samples of the same concrete mix. It can be seen that the laborat ory-cured samples had a much lower strength than the strength of the in-place concre te as predicted from the maturi ty method, which was shown to match well with the strength of the specimens wh ich were cured under the same condition as the test slab. 8.2.2 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 2 The HVS loading of Slab 2 was started at 5 hours after concrete placement. The test slab performed well without cracks und er a 12-kip super si ngle load, which was applied along its confined edge for 7 days with a total of 87,785 passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes a day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5. The maximum induced stresses in Slab 2 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature differential in Slab 2 during the time of HV S loading were computed using the FEACONS program and compared with the strength of the conc rete at the various times. The ratio between the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed. Table 8-2 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predic ted flexural strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 2 at the vari ous times, and the computed stress to flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS analysis. Figure 8-2 shows the plot of the predicted fl exural strength versus time of the in-place concrete, and the plot of the computed maximu m stress due a 12-kip wh eel load and the actual recorded temperature diffe rential in the slab.

PAGE 192

192 Table 8-2. Predicted induced stresses a nd strength of concrete in Slab 2. Time (hrs) Temp. Diff. (oF) Applied Load, (kips) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Max. Computed Stress (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength from Maturity (psi) Predicted Stress/ Strength No. of Repetition to Failure 4 -3.57 12 1,047223 3600.62 18,455 5 -4.52 12 1,129228 402* 0.57 79,953 6 -6.48 12 1,211230 4500.51 401,390 8 -9.21 12 1,700249 5000.50 Unlimited 24 -0.23 12 1,913215 5900.36 Unlimited 168 3.48 12 3,470229 7300.31 Unlimited Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab Parameters used in the stress analysis: The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.75E-06 in/oF Concrete thickness: 9 inches Asphalt concrete Thickness: 4 inches Poison's ratio: 0.2 Shear joint stiffness: 300 ksi Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in Confided edge stiffness: 8 ksi Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.95 kci 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 45678910111213141516171819202122232425Time (hour)Stresses and Flexural Strengths (psi Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter) Flexural Strength (from lab samples) Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip laod) Slab 2 Figure 8-2. Computed stresse s and flexural strengths for concrete in Slab 2.

PAGE 193

193 Figure 8-2 also presents the fl exural strength of the laborat ory-cured samples of the same concrete mix. It can be seen that the laborator y-cured samples had a subs tantially lower strength than the strength of the in-place concrete as predicted from the maturity method, which was shown to match well with the strength of th e specimens which were cured under the same condition as the test slab. It can be seen from Figure 8-2 that the indu ced stresses in Slab 2 after the start of HVS load were lower than the flexural strength of the in-place concre te. This explains why Slab 2 held up very well under the HVS loading. Figure 8-3 shows the comparison of compressi ve strengths from laboratory samples with predicted compressive strength from maturity meter for the concrete in Slab 2. Similarly, the inplace concrete can be seen to have higher st rength than the laborator y-cured concrete. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 456789101112131415161718192021222324Time (hour)Compressive Strengths (psi) Predicted Compressive Strength (from maturity meter) Compressive Strength (from lab samples) Slab 2 Figure 8-3. Comparison of compressive strengths for concrete in Slab 2.

PAGE 194

194 8.2.3 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3 The HVS loading of Slab 3 was started at 4 hours after concrete placement. On the second days, a 12-inch transverse crack was first observed at the mid-edge of the slab. After repetitions of 47,170 passes of the 12-kip load, a few transver se cracks have also occurred at the mid-edge of the slab. The slab was loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days with a total load repetition of 95,042 passes, or an average of about 13,000 passes a day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips presented in Chapter 5. The maximum induced stresses in Slab 3 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature differential in Slab 3 during the time of HV S loading were computed using the FEACONS program and compared with the strength of the conc rete at the various times. The ratio between the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed. Table 8-3 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and th e predicted flexural strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 3 at the various times, and the computed stress to flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differe ntials in the concrete slab and the elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS analysis. Figure 8-4 shows the plot of the predicted fl exural strength versus time of the in-place concrete, and the plot of the computed maximu m stress due a 12-kip wh eel load and the actual recorded temperature differential in the slab. Since the HVS load was applied to Slab 3 at 4 hour after placement, the computed maximum stresse s due to the 12-kip lo ad were higher than predicted flexural strength at the time. Table 8-3 also presents the low number of repetition to failure. As predicted by the high stress/strength ratio, transverse cracks were observed at mid edge of the slab after 1 day of the HVS loading.

PAGE 195

195 Table 8-3. Predicted Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 3. Time (hrs) Temp. Diff. (oF) Applied Load, (kips) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Max. Computed Stress (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength from Maturity (psi) Predicted Stress/ Strength No. of Repetition to Failure 4 6.85 12 825.0215 184.0 *1.17 0 5 1.07 12 1,287.5232 235.0 0.99 1 6 -2.61 12 1,562.5239 255.0 0.94 2 8 -4.64 12 1,812.5213 285.0 0.75 486 24 -3.43 12 2,812.5230 475.0 0.48 Unlimited 168 2.28 15 3,250.0215 560.0 0.38 Unlimited Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab Parameters used in the stress analysis: The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.28E-06 in/oF Concrete thickness: 9 inches Asphalt concrete thickness: 4 inches Poison's ratio: 0.2 Shear joint stiffness: 300 ksi Torsional joint stiffness: 1,500 k-in/in Free edge stiffness: 5 ksi Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.85 kci 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310 330 44.555.566.577.588.59Time (hour)Stresses and Flexural Strengths (psi ) Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter) Flexural Strength (from lab samples) Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip laod) Slab 3 Figure 8-4. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 3.

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196 Figure 8-4 also presents the fl exural strength of the laborat ory-cured samples of the same concrete mix. It can be seen that the laborat ory-cured samples had a much lower strength than the strength of the in-place concre te as predicted from the maturi ty method, which was shown to match well with the strength of the specimens wh ich were cured under the same condition as the test slab. 8.2.4 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 4 The HVS loading of Slab 4 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. On the second days, a corner crack of about 5 feet radius was fi rst formed at the south end of the slab. It was found out later from the strain data that the first crack corn er happened at about the 41 hours after the placement of about 15,175 passes of the 12-kip load. The time at which there was a change in th e measured dynamics strains marked the time when the cracks were formed in Slab 4. Fi gure 8-5 shows the plots of dynamic strains as measured by Gauge 3T as a HVS wheel passed ov er it, before and after a crack developed on Slab 4. A change in the plots can be observe d at 41 hours after concrete placement, when the first corner crack was determined to have formed. The slab was continuously loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days w ith a total of 82,963 passes, or an average of about 12,000 passes a day. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5.

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197 0.000015 0.000025 0.000035 0.000045 0.000055 0.000065 0.000075 0.000085 0.000095 11.51212.51313.51414.515Time (Sec)Dynamic Strain 3Top Sat 14 2300 3Top Fri 13 0330 3Top Fri 13 0300 3Top Wed 11 2300Slab 4: Strain Gauge 3T 2 days after cracking Right after cracking Right before cracking on Day 2 2 days before cracking or 6 hours after starting HVS Figure 8-5. Measured dynamic st rains from Gauge 3T on Slab 4. Possible Causes of Cr acking in Slab 4 The maximum induced stresses in Slab 4 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature differential in Slab 4 during the time of HV S loading were computed using the FEACONS program and compared with the strength of the conc rete at the various times. The ratio between the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength at the various times were also computed. Table 8-4 presents the computed maximum induced stresses and the predic ted flexural strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 4 at the vari ous times, and the computed stress to flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differentials in the concrete slab and the elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS analysis.

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198 Table 8-4. Computed load-induced stresses and predic ted flexural strength of concrete in Slab 4. Time (hrs) Temp. Diff. (oF) Applied Load, (kips) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Max. Computed Stress (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength from Maturity (psi) Predicted Stress/ Strength No. of Repetition to Failure 5 9.84 12 1,600.0167 230 0.73 890 6 3.96 12 1,762.5199 250 0.80 122 7 1.25 12 1,825.0213 305* 0.70 1,958 8 -1.66 12 1,925.0241 330 0.73 790 24 4.57 12 3,150.0225 530 0.42 Unlimited 168 8.91 12 3,487.5244 720 0.29 Unlimited Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab Parameters used in the stress analysis: The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.46E-06 in/oF Concrete thickness: 9 inches Asphalt concrete thickness: 4 inches Poison's ratio: 0.2 Shear joint stiffness: 1,000 ksi Torsional joint stiffness: 2,000 k-in/in Confined edge stiffness: 5 ksi Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.80 kci 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 5791113151719212325Time (hour)Stresses and Flexural Strengths (psi ) Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter) Flexural Strength (from lab samples) Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip load) Slab 4 Figure 8-6. Computed stresses and flexural strengths for the concrete in Slab 4.

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199 Figure 8-6 shows the plot of the predicted fl exural strength versus time of the in-place concrete, and the plot of the computed maximu m stress due a 12-kip wh eel load and the actual recorded temperature diffe rential in the slab. Since the HVS load was applied to Slab 4 at 7 hours after concrete placement, the computed maximum stresses due to the 12-kip loads were lower than the predicted flexural strength at the time of start of loading and throughout the entire period of 12-kip loads. The corner crack which occurred on da y 2 could not be expl ained by the load-induced stresses alone. The first corner crack is s hown in Figures 8-7 and 8-8. It is postulated that the corner crack in the adjacent slab was formed first and then propagated to the test slab. It happened that the holes for the dowel bars were drilled at the wrong positions initially. Figure 8-9 shows a pi cture of the improperly drilled holes. The vertical lines on the vertical face of the joint sh ow where the correct locations of the holes should be. Note in the picture that th ere was a crack extending from a dri lled hole at about 4 feet away from the edge. The location of this crack ma tched with the location where the corner crack extended from the joint. The improperly drilled holes we re later patched with an epo xy, and new holes were drilled at the right locations. Figure 8-10 shows the joint after the holes were patched. It happened to rain at that time, and accumulation of water was fo rmed at the base, as can be observed from this picture. This might have weakened the base and further helped the formation of the corner crack in the adjacent slab.

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200 Figure 8-7. First Corner Crack at the South End of Slab 4. Adjacent Slab Test Slab 4 HVS Wheel Path 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' 13' 14' 15' 16' 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10' 11' 12' 0' Figure 8-8. Corner cracks at the sout h end of Slab 4 and the adjacent slab.

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201 Figure 8-9. Holes for dowel bars in wrong positions at the south end joint. Figure 8-10. Holes patched at the south end join t. (Note that base was flooded with water.)

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202 8.2.5 Evaluation of Induced Stresses and Fl exural Strength of Concrete in Slab 5 The HVS loading of Slab 5 was started at 7 hours after concrete placement. On the second day, a full-depth transverse crack of about 12 fe et along the test slab wa s first observed at the mid slab. After repetitions of 47,170 passes of the 12-kip load, a few transv erse cracks have also occurred at the mid-edge of the slab. The slab wa s loaded with the 12 kip-load for 7 days with a total of 81,062 passes. Then the wheel load was increased to 15 kips and then to 18 kips as presented in Chapter 5. The maximum induced stresses in Slab 5 due to the HVS load and the actual temperature differential in Slab 5 during the time of HV S loading were computed using the FEACONS program and compared with the strength of the conc rete at the various times. The ratio between the maximum induced stress and the flexural strength and the number of repetitions to failure at the various times were also computed. Table 8-5 presents the computed maximum i nduced stresses and the predicted flexural strengths of the in-place concrete in Slab 5 at the various times, and the computed stress to flexural strength ratios. It also lists the temperature differe ntials in the concrete slab and the elastic modulus at the various times, and the pavement parameters which were used in the FEACONS analysis. Figure 8-11 shows the plot of the predicted flex ural strength versus time of the in-place concrete, and the plot of the computed maximu m stress due a 12-kip wh eel load and the actual recorded temperature diffe rential in the slab.

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203 Table 8-5. Computed load-induced stresses and predic ted flexural strength of concrete in Slab 5. Time (hrs) Temp. Diff. (oF) Applied Load, (kips) Elastic Modulus (ksi) Max. Computed Stress (psi) Predicted Flexural Strength from Maturity (psi) Predicted Stress/ Strength No. of Repetition to Failure 4 22.97 12 1,900.0373 305 1.22 0 6 14.47 12 2,575.0361 410 0.88 11 7 8.41 12 2,725.0347420 (371*) 0.83 (0.94) 52 8 -7.86 12 2,875.0330 430 0.77 275 24 2.22 12 3,563.0340 585 0.58 54,741 168 3.10 12 3,863.0331 620 0.53 210,175 Note: -actual strength of samples placed by the slab Parameters used in the stress analysis: The coefficient of thermal expansion: 6.27E-06 /F Concrete Thickness: 9 inches Poison's ratio: 0.2 Shear joint stiffness: 1,000 ksi Torsional joint stiffness: 2,000 k-in/in Confined edge stiffness: 5 ksi Modulus of subgrade reaction: 0.40 kci 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 456789101112Time (hour)Stresses and Flexural Strengths (psi ) Predicted Flexural Strength (from maturity meter) Flexural Strength (from lab samples) Computed Stresses (due to 12-kip load) Actual Strength Slab 5 Figure 8-11. Computed Stresses and Flexural Strengths for the Concrete in Slab 5.

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204 It can be seen from the Figure 8-11 that the computed maximum stresses due to the 12kip load at 7 hour after placement of the HVS loading on Slab 5 were a little lower than predicted flexural strength at th e time. Table 8-5 shows the low numb er of repetition to failure at the time of loading. As predicted by the high stress to strength ratio or low number of repetitions to failure at the time of loading, the full-depth transverse crack was observed at mid slab of the slab after 1 day of the HVS loading. 8.3 Required Concrete Properties for Adequate Performance Analysis was performed to determine the requ ired properties of c oncrete for adequate performance in a typical 9-inch re placement slab in Florida. The FEACONS program was used to calculate th e maximum stresses in a 9-inch slab (with similar condition as the test slabs in this study) under various cri tical loading conditions. A slab width of 12 feet, a joint spacing of 16 feet, a modul us of subgrade reaction of 0.4 kci, an edge stiffness of 5 ksi, a shear joint stiffness of 300 ksi, and a torsiona l joint stiffness of 1,500 k-in/in were used to model the slab in the analysis. Th e applied load in the analysis was a 12-kip wheel load placed at the corner and mi d-edge of the slab under different temperature differentials in the slab. Temperature differentials of -20oF, -10 oF, 0oF, +10 oF, +20 oF and +30oF were considered in this analysis with th e average coefficient of th ermal expansion of 6.28 x 10-6 / oF obtained from this study. Since the load-induced stresses in the slab are affected by the elastic modulus of the concrete, analysis was performed for concrete of different elastic moduli. The ratios of the maximum stress to flexural strength were also computed for the vari ous conditions analyzed. The following regression equations (from Ch apter 6) relating flexural strength to compressive strength, and elastic modulus to compressive strength were used in this analysis:

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205 Regression equation 6-1: 9203 0 3936 52 5655 0 R f Rc Regression equation 6-5: 8801 0 802 282 5606 0 R f Ec Table 8-6 presents the maximum computed st resses caused by a 12kip load at various conditions of temperature differentials in the slab for concrete of various flexural strengths (and their corresponding compressive strength and elastic modulus. Table 8-7 presents the computed stress to flexural strength ratios for the va rious conditions. Figure 8-12 shows the plot of computed stress to strength ra tio versus flexural strength. Table 8-6. Maximum computed stress due to 12-k ip load at various temperature differentials Maximum Computed Stress due to 12-kip load (psi) at Different Temp erature Differentials Flexural Strength (psi) Computed Compressive Strength (psi) Computed Elastic Modulus (ksi) -20 oF -10 oF 0 oF +10 oF +20 oF +30 oF 150 358 778 149170186211 236 264 250 883 1,291 135171207249 291 338 300 1,220 1,547 130175214265 317 372 400 2,028 2,058 119168225294 369 437 500 3,010 2,567 105159234322 413 499 600 4,155 3,076 92149242347 455 558 Table 8-7. Stress to strength ratio at various temperat ure differentials Stress (due to12-kip load) / Flexural Strength Ratio at Different Temperature Differentials Flexural Strength (psi) -20 oF -10 oF 0 oF +10 oF+20 oF+30 oF 150 0.99 1.13 1.241.411.571.76 250 0.54 0.68 0.831.001.161.35 300 0.43 0.58 0.71 0.881.061.24 400 0.30 0.42 0.560.74 0.921.09 500 0.21 0.32 0.470.640.831.00 600 0.15 0.25 0.400.580.760.93 From Table 8-7, it can be seen that when the temperature differential is +10 F, a slab with a concrete flexural strength of 300 psi will have a stress st rength ratio of le ss than 1. When

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206 the temperature differential is +20 F, a slab wi th a concrete flexural strength of 400 psi will have a stress ratio of less than 1.0. This mean s that when the expected temperature differential in the slab is +10 and +20 F, specifying a minimum flexural strength of 300 and 400 psi, respectively, before opening to traffic, will ensure adequate performance of the replacement slab at early age. 9-inch Slab subjected to 12-kip Load0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60100150200250300350400450500550600650Flexural Strength (psi)Stress/Flexural Strength Rati o +30 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete +20 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete +10 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete 0 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete -10 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete -20 F of Temperature Differential in Concrete Figure 8-12. Computed stress to st rength ratio at different temper ature differentials as a function of flexural strength using the develope d relationship between flexural strength compressive strength, and elastic modulus.

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207 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9.1 Summary of Findings Five instrumented 9-inch thick concrete slabs were constructed and tested under accelerated pavement testing by means of a H eavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to study the behavior of concrete replacement slabs at early age and the effects of concrete properties on the performance of the replacement slabs. Two test slabs (Slabs 1 and 2) used a concre te mix with a cement content of 850 lbs per cubic yard of concrete, while the other three test slabs (Slabs 3, 4 and 5) used a concrete mix with a cement content of 725 lbs pe r cubic yard of concrete. All th e concrete mixes used in the test slabs maintained the same water-cement ratio of 0.36. Determination of the flexural strength of th e in-place concrete at early age was evaluated by the maturity method in this study. The HVS lo ading was planned to start when the strengths of the test slabs reached a certain strength. The HVS loading of Sl ab 1 was to start when the inplace concrete attained an estimated compressive strength of 2,200 psi, which is the current FDOT specification for a replacement slab at 7 h ours after the placement. The required flexural strength of 300 psi or higher was used as an indi cator to start the HVS loading in Slabs 2, 3, 4 and 5, where the required strength of the in-pla ce concrete was reached at 5, 4, 7 and 7 hours after the placement, respectively. The concrete mixes used in this study we re evaluated in the laboratory for their compressive strength, flexural st rength, splitting tensil e strength, modulus of elasticity, drying shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expans ion. The relationships among these concrete properties were developed and used to evaluate the performance of concrete mixes and the concrete test slabs.

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208 The maximum stresses in the concrete slabs due to the applied loads and the temperature differentials in the slabs were calculated us ing the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program. The model para meters were estimated by performing backcalculations from FWD data, and verified by comparing computed strains with measured strains from embedded strain gauges in the test slabs, which were loaded by the HVS. Test Slabs 1, 2, 3 and 4, which had an aspha lt base, were modeled as a 9-inch concrete layer bonded to a 4-inch asphalt concrete la yer over a Winkler foundation using the FEACONS program. Test Slab 5, which had a limerock base was modeled as a 9-inch concrete slab over a Winkler foundation. The results of the experiments indicated th at Slabs 1 and 2 performed well under the 12kip load and the temperature conditions, while Slabs 3, 4 and 5 cracked at early age. The maturity method was found to be reli able to predict the flexural st rength of the in-place concrete. Slabs 3 and 5 cracked at early age due to high temperature-load indu ced stresses in the test slabs that had either exceeded or were very close to the in-place flexur al strength of the concrete at early age. Slab 4 cracked prematurely due to propagation of cracks from an adjacent slab. Investigation was also made to evaluate the use of the maximum stre ss to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age as an i ndicator of potential performance of a concrete replacement slab. This was done by comparing th e stress to strength ra tio with the observed performance of test slabs in this study. This method was found to be effective in predicting the potential performance of the replacement slabs. Based on the test results from this study, relationships among flexural strength, compressive strength, split ting tensile strength, elastic modulus and drying shrinkage strain were developed for concrete used in replacement slabs.

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209 Analysis of temperature data of the 9-inch co ncrete slabs at various times of year shows that a positive temperature differential was found to be as high as +30oF and a negative temperature differential as low as -20oF. These temperature differential ranges were used to evaluate stresses due to temper ature conditions in Florida. 9.2 Conclusions The use of the maturity method to determine th e flexural strength of the in-place concrete at early age was found to be conve nient to use and to have produced reliable determination of the flexural strength of the in-place concrete. This method can be used as a tool to predict the flexural strength of the in-place concrete for slab replacement at the time to open to the traffic. Higher cement content concrete tends to gain the in-place flexural strength faster. The strength development of a concrete slab depends not onl y on the mix design but also the condition under which the concrete is cured. The anticipated stresses in the concrete slab can be calcula ted from the FEACONS (Finite Element Analysis of CONcrete Slabs) program or a similar finite element model which considers the effects of the applied load, temperature differential in the slab elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete, sl ab thickness, joint characteristics and effective subgrade stiffness. The anticipated stress needs to be lower than the anticipated flexural strength of the concrete at all times to ensure good performance. The maximum stress to flexural strength ratio of the concrete at the early age can be used as an indicator of potential performan ce of a concrete replacement slab. Based on the test results from this study, fo r a 9-inch slab placed on a fair foundation (minimum modulus of subgrade re action of 0.4 kci) with the te mperature differential of +10 F, a minimum required flexural strength of 300 psi at the time to open to the traffic would be needed

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210 for adequate performance. When the temperature differential is +20 F, a minimum required flexural strength of 400 psi would be needed. 9.3 Recommendations The following recommendations are made with respect to specif ications for concrete used in slab replacement: The use of the maturity method testing as specified in ASTM C 1074 is recommended for use in determination of conc rete strength at the time of opening a replacement slab to traffic. The use of a minimum required flexural strength of concre te at the time of opening to traffic, instead of a minimu m compressive strength, is recommended. If compressive strength is to be used, a relationship between the flexur al strength and compressive strength for the specific concrete must be esta blished so that the fle xural strength can be more accurately determined from its compressive strength. It is also recommended that further testing and research in this subject area be conducted, with particular focus on the following areas: Determination of the relationships between compressive strength, flexural strength and elastic modulus and drying shrinkage strain of typical concretes used in replacement slabs in Florida. Accurate determination of these re lationships is needed in order to determine the required strength of the concrete before a concrete sl ab can be opened to traffic. Determination of temperature distributions in typical concrete paveme nt slabs in Florida. This information is needed in order to accurately determine the maximum temperatureload induced stresses in the concrete slabs. Th e strength of the concrete needs to be higher than this maximum induced stress to avoid cracking. 9.4 Contributions of the Research The main contributions from this research are as follows: The development of a reliable model for an alysis of concrete pavements where the analytical results were successfully verified by experimental results. The successive use of a systematic method to ev aluate the required properties of concrete for slab replacement with consideration of additional factors such as anticipated temperature distribution in the slab and coefficient of therma l expansion of the concrete. The verification of the reliability of the matu rity method based on fle xural strength as the primary predicted property.

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211 The development of a relationship between comp ressive strength and fl exural strength of concrete for use in slab replacement in Florida.

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212 APPENDIX A FWD TEST DATA Table A-1. FWD test data from Slab 1. Slab1 Center Longitudinal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.73 59.50 1.66 1.4 1.14 0.89 0.7 0.54 0.41 1.45 9.72 85.90 2.56 2.11 1.67 1.3 1.05 0.83 0.65 2.14 12.28 108.60 3.27 2.71 2.16 1.69 1.35 1.08 0.84 2.74 15.62 138.10 4.24 3.55 2.85 2.23 1.78 1.41 1.11 3.61 Slab1 Center Transversal 01 Deflectio ns at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.67 59.00 1.63 1.36 1.06 0.81 0.65 0.5 0.39 1.45 9.67 85.50 2.49 2.06 1.61 1.24 0.96 0.75 0.59 2.15 12.19 107.80 3.21 2.65 2.08 1.62 1.25 0.98 0.78 2.77 15.69 138.70 4.2 3.5 2.79 2.17 1.67 1.3 1.05 3.67 Slab1 Center Transversal 02 Deflectio ns at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.73 59.50 1.65 1.38 1.07 0.83 0.65 0.5 0.4 1.46 9.70 85.80 2.53 2.07 1.63 1.26 0.98 0.76 0.6 2.17 12.18 107.70 3.2 2.66 2.09 1.63 1.26 0.98 0.78 2.79 15.73 139.10 4.22 3.52 2.8 2.18 1.69 1.3 1.04 3.69 Slab 1 Edge loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.62 58.5 3.26 2.11 1.59 1.15 0.85 0.64 0.47 2.08 9.72 85.9 3.39 3.17 2.4 1.76 1.3 0.99 0.75 3.12 12.33 109 4.63 4.07 3.1 2.29 1.72 1.31 0.98 4.02 15.71 138.9 6.24 5.28 4.09 3.04 2.29 1.74 1.32 5.16 Slab 1 Edge unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.85 60.6 1.24 1.2 1.06 0.91 0.77 0.64 0.47 1.12 9.88 87.4 1.88 1.82 1.59 1.39 1.15 0.95 0.72 1.69 12.00 106.1 2.33 2.3 1.98 1.76 1.45 1.19 0.91 2.12 15.74 139.2 3.19 3.15 2.74 2.45 2.03 1.66 1.26 2.92 Slab 1--Joint loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.77 68.7 2.35 2.13 1.69 1.27 0.93 0.69 0.5 2.09 9.92 87.7 3.45 2.75 2.2 1.65 1.23 0.91 0.67 2.71 12.06 106.6 4.28 3.4 2.71 2.05 1.52 1.13 0.85 3.33 15.83 140 5.45 4.68 3.75 2.85 2.14 1.59 1.21 4.56 Slab 1--Joint unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.53 66.6 2.04 1.91 1.55 1.18 0.89 0.67 0.49 1.87 9.98 88.2 2.74 2.56 2.09 1.59 1.21 0.91 0.69 2.52 11.98 105.9 3.34 3.12 2.56 1.95 1.48 1.12 0.85 3.07 15.79 139.6 4.67 4.28 3.54 2.71 2.07 1.56 1.2 4.21

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213 Table A-2. FWD test data from Slab 2. Slab 2 Center Longitudinal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.81 60.20 1.53 1.29 1.05 0.83 0.66 0.57 0.44 1.31 9.74 86.10 2.27 1.86 1.53 1.23 0.97 0.77 0.61 1.93 12.38 109.50 2.93 2.47 2.02 1.61 1.31 1.04 0.83 2.52 15.72 139.00 3.87 3.31 2.68 2.13 1.73 1.36 1.09 3.35 Slab 2 Center Transversal Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.85 60.60 1.51 1.33 1.07 0.85 0.69 0.56 0.46 1.3 9.69 85.70 2.23 1.95 1.57 1.27 1.03 0.84 0.7 1.91 12.30 108.80 2.89 2.57 2.1 1.7 1.37 1.13 0.93 2.5 15.71 138.90 3.84 3.39 2.78 2.25 1.83 1.5 1.26 3.3 Slab 2 Edge loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6.60 58.4 3.17 2.7 2.08 1.5 1.11 0.79 0.55 2.56 9.57 84.6 4.49 4.01 3.12 2.27 1.66 1.2 0.86 3.79 12.09 106.9 6.01 5.21 4.07 2.98 2.15 1.57 1.15 4.93 15.68 138.6 8.02 6.95 5.48 4.03 2.94 2.13 1.56 6.64 Slab 2 Edge unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.17 63.4 1.17 1.15 1.05 0.93 0.81 0.7 0.56 1.15 9.67 85.5 1.63 1.61 1.46 1.31 1.14 0.98 0.78 1.59 12.35 109.2 2.11 2.08 1.9 1.72 1.5 1.3 1.05 2.06 15.94 140.9 2.72 2.67 2.45 2.22 1.95 1.71 1.39 2.65 Slab 2 Joint loaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.89 69.8 2.6 2.21 1.73 1.31 1 0.73 0.55 2.16 9.96 88.1 3.18 2.73 2.15 1.63 1.26 0.93 0.73 2.67 12.00 106.1 3.91 3.34 2.64 2.02 1.56 1.16 0.89 3.28 15.97 141.2 5.61 4.76 3.77 2.87 2.22 1.65 1.29 4.67 Slab 2 Joint unloaded Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.03 62.2 1.61 1.53 1.33 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48 1.57 9.82 86.8 2.3 2.2 1.91 1.48 1.18 0.91 0.71 2.24 12.01 106.2 2.83 2.72 2.38 1.86 1.49 1.14 0.9 2.79 15.81 139.8 3.94 3.81 3.33 2.59 2.09 1.59 1.27 3.86

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214 Table A-3. FWD test data from Slab 3. Slab 3 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.89 69.74 1.93 1.6 1.29 1.02 0.84 0.69 0.52 1.59 9.34 82.62 2.33 1.98 1.59 1.25 1 0.8 0.61 1.94 12.52 110.71 3.3 2.79 2.26 1.8 1.44 1.14 0.89 2.77 15.56 137.54 4.22 3.56 2.88 2.29 1.83 1.44 1.12 3.53 Slab 3 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.87 69.54 1.94 1.63 1.29 1.01 0.83 0.65 0.52 1.6 9.18 81.17 2.28 1.92 1.56 1.21 0.98 0.8 0.6 1.9 12.36 109.26 3.19 2.69 2.15 1.71 1.38 1.1 0.86 2.64 15.54 137.44 4.14 3.46 2.8 2.22 1.79 1.41 1.11 3.44 Slab 3 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.46 65.96 1.84 1.59 1.23 1.03 0.86 0.71 0.59 1.55 9.38 82.91 2.32 2.06 1.62 1.34 1.12 0.93 0.77 1.99 12.27 108.48 3.15 2.78 2.19 1.82 1.51 1.27 1.07 2.69 15.57 137.63 4.12 3.64 2.86 2.39 1.98 1.67 1.43 3.53 Slab 3 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.613 67.31 1.89 1.67 1.3 1.07 0.89 0.74 0.61 1.61 9.256 81.84 2.33 2.07 1.62 1.36 1.12 0.93 0.78 2 12.159 107.51 3.18 2.79 2.21 1.84 1.52 1.28 1.07 2.71 15.314 135.41 4.12 3.61 2.85 2.38 1.97 1.66 1.42 3.5 Slab 3 Edge loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.41 65.47 4.08 3.89 3.11 2.37 1.70 1.17 0.81 3.27 9.19 81.27 5.20 4.52 3.61 2.76 2.00 1.37 1.00 3.78 11.98 105.96 6.56 5.96 4.87 3.73 2.71 1.89 1.38 5.11 15.15 133.96 8.69 7.69 6.31 4.91 3.58 2.52 1.83 6.59 Slab 3 Edge loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.24 64.02 4.31 4.03 3.23 2.48 1.76 1.19 0.79 3.76 9.18 81.17 5.68 4.94 3.98 3.07 2.20 1.50 1.02 4.67 11.92 105.38 6.87 6.21 5.06 3.91 2.82 1.94 1.33 5.94 15.07 133.27 8.74 7.86 6.32 4.88 3.57 2.48 1.71 7.43 Slab 3 Edge unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.13 63.05 1.33 1.27 1.19 1.05 0.90 0.76 0.61 1.33 9.11 80.59 1.77 1.71 1.60 1.41 1.21 1.02 0.83 1.70 11.84 104.71 2.37 2.28 2.14 1.88 1.60 1.36 1.09 2.20 15.05 133.08 3.10 3.00 2.81 2.48 2.12 1.78 1.44 3.09

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215 Table A-3. Continued. Slab 3 Edge unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.19 63.54 1.33 1.30 1.18 1.06 0.92 0.76 0.62 1.30 9.14 80.78 1.77 1.73 1.54 1.41 1.21 1.02 0.82 1.76 11.78 104.12 2.35 2.30 2.03 1.88 1.61 1.35 1.08 2.30 15.15 133.96 3.13 3.06 2.78 2.50 2.13 1.80 1.45 3.02 Slab 3 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.92 70.03 2.86 2.42 1.91 1.45 1.09 0.83 0.66 2.42 9.31 82.33 3.18 2.68 2.10 1.59 1.20 0.92 0.72 2.70 12.35 109.16 4.32 3.67 2.91 2.23 1.69 1.31 1.05 3.66 15.63 138.22 5.59 4.72 3.77 2.90 2.21 1.71 1.37 4.74 Slab 3 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.635 67.51 2.64 2.22 1.71 1.3 0.97 0.74 0.58 2.2 9.191 81.27 3.19 2.68 2.11 1.59 1.2 0.92 0.72 2.68 12.148 107.41 4.28 3.62 2.86 2.18 1.64 1.26 1.01 3.66 15.522 137.24 5.54 4.68 3.73 2.86 2.17 1.67 1.34 4.74 Slab 3 Joint unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.42 65.57 1.87 1.74 1.48 1.17 0.92 0.69 0.54 1.82 9.16 80.97 2.35 2.18 1.87 1.49 1.17 0.89 0.69 2.27 12.04 106.45 3.18 2.95 2.55 2.05 1.60 1.23 0.97 3.06 15.44 136.48 4.15 3.85 3.35 2.69 2.11 1.62 1.29 3.97 Slab 3 Joint unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7.58 67.02 1.96 1.81 1.56 1.24 0.96 0.74 0.57 1.90 8.93 78.94 2.30 2.14 1.83 1.47 1.15 0.88 0.69 2.24 11.94 105.57 3.15 2.93 2.54 2.04 1.59 1.23 0.96 3.04 15.36 135.79 4.13 3.84 3.34 2.69 2.11 1.63 1.29 3.97

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216 Table A-4. FWD test data from Slab 4. Slab 4 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.15 80.9 2.35 1.93 1.5 1.18 0.93 0.75 0.57 2.04 11.58 102.4 3.1 2.51 1.98 1.56 1.24 0.97 0.78 2.65 15.43 136.4 4.27 3.47 2.76 2.17 1.71 1.36 1.07 3.67 17.85 157.8 4.91 4.07 3.23 2.54 2.02 1.6 1.25 4.3 Slab 4 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.03 79.8 2.35 1.93 1.51 1.18 0.93 0.73 0.57 2.04 11.45 101.2 3.13 2.51 1.98 1.56 1.23 0.98 0.77 2.66 15.28 135.1 4.28 3.46 2.74 2.17 1.69 1.35 1.06 3.66 17.77 157.1 4.96 4.09 3.25 2.56 2.02 1.61 1.26 4.31 Slab 4 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.14 80.8 2.26 2.09 1.69 1.28 0.93 0.67 0.49 1.92 11.50 101.7 2.94 2.73 2.21 1.66 1.23 0.88 0.65 2.49 15.35 135.7 4.09 3.78 3.09 2.3 1.72 1.25 0.94 3.46 17.88 158.1 4.8 4.46 3.64 2.67 2.02 1.48 1.13 4.07 Slab 4 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.93 79 2.24 2.08 1.68 1.26 0.93 0.66 0.49 1.9 11.41 100.9 2.96 2.74 2.24 1.68 1.24 0.89 0.64 2.51 15.30 135.3 4.12 3.8 3.09 2.3 1.72 1.26 0.96 3.47 17.81 157.5 4.81 4.48 3.65 2.72 2.04 1.49 1.17 4.09 Slab 4 Edge loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.63 76.3 3.38 2.94 2.24 1.65 1.2 0.88 0.67 2.67 11.14 98.5 4.21 3.65 2.83 2.07 1.54 1.15 0.9 3.39 15.19 134.3 5.98 5.24 4.05 2.97 2.21 1.66 1.28 4.8 17.62 155.8 6.86 6.25 4.74 3.49 2.59 1.94 1.5 5.74 Slab 4 Edge loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.67 76.7 3.24 2.81 2.15 1.57 1.17 0.88 0.68 2.62 11.02 97.4 4.18 3.63 2.8 2.05 1.52 1.14 0.88 3.41 15.05 133.1 5.9 5.13 4.01 2.94 2.19 1.64 1.27 5.31 17.50 154.7 6.94 6.13 4.7 3.46 2.57 1.93 1.49 6.07 Slab 4 Edge unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.62 76.2 2.09 1.92 1.64 1.38 1.1 0.86 0.66 1.96 11.04 97.6 2.75 2.51 2.17 1.82 1.45 1.13 0.88 2.57 15.16 134 3.85 3.54 3.09 2.6 2.04 1.61 1.26 3.62 17.60 155.6 4.56 4.15 3.63 3.05 2.39 1.89 1.47 4.25

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217 Table A-4. Continued. Slab 4 Edge unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.61 76.1 2.11 1.95 1.67 1.41 1.12 0.88 0.68 1.99 10.97 97 2.77 2.5 2.15 1.8 1.41 1.1 0.83 2.57 15.06 133.2 3.83 3.56 3.09 2.61 2.05 1.61 1.26 3.65 17.47 154.5 4.47 4.16 3.64 3.06 2.4 1.89 1.48 4.26 Slab 4 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.15 80.9 2.64 2.19 1.71 1.3 1 0.74 0.57 2.13 11.54 102 3.29 2.77 2.2 1.67 1.29 0.99 0.77 2.7 15.43 136.4 4.55 3.96 3.14 2.4 1.85 1.42 1.13 3.82 17.61 155.7 5.3 4.58 3.66 2.81 2.17 1.67 1.33 4.46 Slab 4 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.06 80.1 2.54 2.19 1.7 1.29 1 0.75 0.59 2.12 11.35 100.4 3.3 2.8 2.2 1.67 1.29 0.98 0.77 2.71 15.17 134.1 4.41 3.89 3.11 2.37 1.83 1.41 1.12 3.78 17.52 154.9 5.26 4.54 3.63 2.79 2.14 1.64 1.32 4.44 Slab 4 Joint unloaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.99 79.5 1.97 1.83 1.54 1.2 0.95 0.74 0.59 1.86 11.38 100.6 2.52 2.35 1.99 1.57 1.23 0.96 0.75 2.4 15.36 135.8 3.55 3.33 2.82 2.23 1.75 1.37 1.09 3.38 17.61 155.7 4.13 3.88 3.3 2.62 2.05 1.6 1.29 3.94 Slab 4 Joint unloaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.96 79.2 1.94 1.8 1.51 1.18 0.92 0.72 0.56 1.84 11.34 100.3 2.52 2.34 1.98 1.57 1.23 0.96 0.76 2.4 15.23 134.7 3.53 3.31 2.81 2.22 1.73 1.37 1.08 3.36 17.52 154.9 4.13 3.88 3.3 2.61 2.04 1.62 1.29 3.94 Table A-5. FWD test data from Slab 5. Slab 5 Center Longitudinal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.35 82.70 9.36 6.64 4.70 3.20 2.22 1.48 0.93 4.13 12.76 112.80 11.28 7.90 5.50 3.74 2.61 1.79 1.17 5.39 15.88 140.40 13.94 9.84 6.86 4.67 3.26 2.20 1.45 6.82 18.63 164.70 16.12 11.42 7.98 5.44 3.80 2.58 1.69 7.89 Slab 5 Center Longitudinal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.51 84.10 10.09 7.13 4.87 3.29 2.13 1.38 0.93 4.14 12.54 110.90 12.38 8.76 6.01 4.03 2.70 1.80 1.21 5.43 15.55 137.50 14.72 10.45 7.20 4.91 3.26 2.13 1.44 6.80 18.45 163.10 16.83 12.02 8.30 5.64 3.81 2.50 1.69 8.00

PAGE 218

218 Table A-5. Continued. Slab 5 Center Transversal 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.55 84.40 10.44 8.34 6.39 3.82 1.69 1.06 0.44 7.35 12.64 111.80 12.68 11.43 7.63 4.72 2.15 1.44 0.74 9.67 15.66 138.50 14.95 13.43 9.04 5.57 2.74 1.80 1.00 11.70 18.50 163.60 16.85 14.81 10.30 6.28 3.36 2.21 1.39 13.47 Slab 5 Center Transversal 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.43 83.40 10.72 8.62 6.35 3.96 1.83 1.05 0.53 7.52 12.52 110.70 13.07 11.33 7.69 4.93 2.27 1.42 0.69 10.14 15.47 136.80 15.28 13.39 9.08 5.72 2.81 1.87 1.12 11.96 18.45 163.10 17.21 14.83 10.39 6.41 3.40 2.28 1.28 13.69 Slab 5 Center Small Long 01 Deflec tions at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.75 86.20 3.76 3.54 3.16 2.82 2.60 1.82 2.36 2.90 12.68 112.10 4.82 4.38 4.05 3.58 3.25 2.42 3.09 3.79 15.56 137.60 6.01 5.45 5.01 4.40 3.96 3.06 3.88 4.74 18.45 163.10 7.06 6.42 5.84 5.11 4.57 3.62 4.58 5.63 Slab 5 Center Small Long 02 Deflec tions at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.73 86.00 3.81 3.48 3.26 2.90 2.68 1.87 2.40 2.97 12.57 111.10 4.91 4.44 4.12 3.65 3.33 2.45 3.13 3.84 15.43 136.40 6.02 5.49 5.06 4.45 4.01 3.07 3.90 4.78 18.23 161.20 7.13 6.53 5.88 5.15 4.62 3.64 4.60 5.63 Slab 5 Center Small Trans 01 Deflec tions at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.79 86.60 3.73 2.96 2.31 1.74 1.28 3.97 3.85 3.72 12.67 112.00 4.71 3.74 2.98 2.28 1.71 4.84 4.76 4.62 15.51 137.10 5.97 4.68 3.70 2.84 2.11 6.14 6.06 5.92 18.42 162.90 7.06 5.54 4.34 3.33 2.46 7.36 7.24 7.10 Slab 5 Center Small Trans 02 Deflec tions at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.95 88.00 3.76 2.94 2.30 1.75 1.32 4.02 3.89 3.45 12.42 109.80 4.75 3.66 2.91 2.22 1.67 4.97 4.85 4.24 15.57 137.70 6.00 4.65 3.67 2.82 2.11 6.29 6.18 5.52 18.54 163.90 7.15 5.52 4.34 3.33 2.46 7.39 7.36 6.70 Slab 5 Edge loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.23 81.60 13.81 11.41 8.37 6.35 4.72 3.56 2.49 3.09 12.20 107.90 15.03 12.22 8.84 6.67 4.91 3.56 2.46 3.70 15.18 134.20 17.54 14.38 10.23 7.84 5.76 4.31 2.98 4.76 18.27 161.50 19.87 16.35 11.48 8.31 6.49 4.93 3.43 5.93 Slab 5 Edge loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.01 79.70 13.50 11.58 7.80 6.23 4.43 3.44 2.34 5.38 12.02 106.30 15.77 13.02 9.29 7.14 5.15 3.86 2.65 3.92 15.01 132.70 17.97 14.97 10.64 8.22 5.90 4.44 3.08 5.11 18.17 160.70 20.09 16.75 11.85 9.26 6.61 5.05 3.51 6.13

PAGE 219

219 Table A-5. Continued. Slab 5 Edge loaded 03 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.98 79.40 13.58 11.67 7.96 6.27 4.48 3.53 2.43 2.06 12.04 106.50 16.05 13.29 9.39 7.26 5.23 3.95 2.72 2.77 15.01 132.70 18.18 15.14 10.74 8.30 5.98 4.48 3.15 3.63 18.19 160.80 20.02 16.67 11.87 9.22 6.63 5.01 3.54 4.59 Slab 5 Joint loaded 01 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.62 85.10 5.04 4.87 4.18 2.93 2.10 1.58 1.17 4.31 12.71 112.40 6.32 6.06 5.18 3.69 2.67 2.02 1.53 5.35 15.64 138.30 7.89 7.54 6.46 4.66 3.38 2.59 1.98 6.58 18.55 164.00 9.33 9.03 7.64 5.51 4.02 3.12 2.39 7.95 Slab 5 Joint loaded 02 Deflections at Each Sensor Positions (mils) Load (kips) Pressure (psi) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.59 84.80 5.19 4.98 4.39 3.03 2.16 1.56 1.15 4.41 12.60 111.40 6.62 6.37 5.56 3.87 2.78 2.08 1.56 5.50 15.51 137.10 8.11 7.83 6.71 4.78 3.47 2.62 2.00 6.59 18.38 162.50 9.48 9.18 7.81 5.58 4.08 3.13 2.39 7.87

PAGE 220

220 APPENDIX B HVS LASER PROFILE DAT A COLLECTION SCHEDULE Table B-1. Data collecti on schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 1. Profile Number Passes Date Time 1 0 03/21/06 15:52 2 5869 03/22/06 5:01 3 5869 03/22/06 5:14 4 10418 03/22/06 14:01 5 10418 03/22/06 14:13 6 18343 03/23/06 5:00 7 18343 03/23/06 5:13 8 22840 03/23/06 14:00 9 22840 03/23/06 14:12 10 31059 03/24/06 5:05 11 31059 03/24/06 5:19 12 35555 03/24/06 14:00 13 43946 03/25/06 5:07 14 43946 03/25/06 5:21 15 48460 03/25/06 14:01 16 48460 03/25/06 14:14 17 56800 03/26/06 5:01 18 56800 03/26/06 5:13 19 61217 03/26/06 14:03 20 61217 03/26/06 14:16 21 69408 03/27/06 5:00 22 69408 03/27/06 5:08 23 69408 03/27/06 5:21 24 72901 03/27/06 14:00 25 72901 03/27/06 14:14 26 80721 03/28/06 5:00 27 80721 03/28/06 5:13 28 80721 03/28/06 5:24 29 85254 03/28/06 14:00 30 85254 03/28/06 14:13 31 85254 03/28/06 14:25 32 93140 03/29/06 5:00 33 93140 03/29/06 5:12 34 97709 03/29/06 14:00 35 97709 03/29/06 14:13 36 105877 03/30/06 5:00 37 105877 03/30/06 5:15

PAGE 221

221 Table B-1. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 38 10630 03/30/06 14:15 39 10630 03/30/06 14:26 40 10630 03/30/06 14:37 41 118735 03/31/06 5:00 42 118735 03/31/06 5:15 43 123134 03/31/06 14:03 44 123134 03/31/06 14:14 45 131121 04/01/06 5:03 46 131121 04/01/06 5:16 47 135282 04/01/06 14:00 48 135282 04/01/06 14:13 49 135282 04/01/06 14:28 50 142764 04/02/06 5:12 51 142764 04/02/06 5:24 53 146509 04/02/06 14:00 54 146509 04/02/06 14:16 55 154836 04/03/06 5:00 56 154836 04/03/06 5:15 57 158810 04/03/06 14:00 58 158810 04/03/06 14:14 59 167031 04/04/06 5:00 60 167031 04/04/06 5:15 61 167031 04/04/06 5:20 62 171051 04/04/06 14:00 63 171051 04/04/06 14:12 64 179316 04/05/06 5:00 65 179316 04/05/06 5:15 66 179316 04/06/06 5:25 67 179316 04/06/06 5:40

PAGE 222

222 Table B-2. Analysis files of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 1. Passes File Name File Date Time 0 06_03_1H.p0 21/03/2006 15:32:35 5869 06_03_1H.p2 22/03/2006 5:01:29 10418 06_03_1H.p4 22/03/2006 14:01:14 18343 06_03_1H.p6 23/03/2006 5:00:59 22840 06_03_1H.p8 23/03/2006 14:00:58 31059 06_03_1H.p10 24/03/2006 5:05:49 35555 06_03_1H.p12 24/03/2006 14:00:54 43946 06_03_1H.p13 25/03/2006 5:07:06 48460 06_03_1H.p15 25/03/2006 14:01:19 56800 06_03_1H.p17 26/03/2006 5:01:43 61217 06_03_1H.p19 26/03/2006 14:03:21 69408 06_03_1H.p23 27/03/2006 5:21:21 72901 06_03_1H.p24 27/04/2006 14:01:09 80721 06_03_1H.p26 28/04/2006 5:00:50 85254 06_03_1H.p29 28/04/2006 14:00:52 93140 06_03_1H.p32 29/04/2006 5:00:34 97709 06_03_1H.p34 29/04/2006 14:00:49 105877 06_03_1H.p36 30/04/2006 5:00:56 110630 06_03_1H.p38 30/03/2006 14:15:03 118735 06_03_1H.p41 31/03/2006 5:00:32 123134 06_03_1H.p43 31/03/2006 14:03:08 131121 06_03_1H.p45 1/4/2006 5:02:50 135282 06_03_1H.p47 1/4/2006 14:00:38 142764 06_03_1H.p50 2/4/2006 4:01:12 143323 06_03_1H.p52 2/4/2006 6:24:01 146509 06_03_1H.p53 2/4/2006 14:00:34 154836 06_03_1H.p55 3/4/2006 5:00:51 158810 06_03_1H.p57 3/4/2006 14:00:51 167031 06_03_1H.p59 4/4/2006 5:00:55 171051 06_03_1H.p62 4/4/2006 14:00:41

PAGE 223

223 Table B-3. Data collecti on schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 2. Profile Number Passes Date Time 0 0 6/1/2006 14:05 1 0 6/1/2006 14:20 2 7780 6/2/2006 5:00 3 7780 6/2/2006 5:00 4 12490 6/2/2006 14:10 5 12490 6/2/2006 14:30 6 20718 6/3/2006 5:00 7 20718 6/3/2006 5:24 8 25405 6/3/2006 14:00 9 25405 6/3/2006 14:15 10 34230 6/4/2006 5:05 11 34230 6/4/2006 5:34 12 38166 6/4/2006 14:00 13 38166 6/4/2006 14:09 14 46588 6/5/2006 5:00 15 46588 6/5/2006 5:00 16 51165 6/5/2006 14:00 17 51165 6/5/2006 14:15 18 59478 6/6/2006 5:00 19 59478 6/6/2006 5:15 20 62645 6/6/2006 14:00 21 62645 6/6/2006 14:15 22 70769 6/7/2006 5:00 23 70769 6/7/2006 5:13 24 74800 6/7/2006 14:15 25 74800 6/7/2006 14:30 26 82816 6/8/2006 5:00 27 82816 6/8/2006 5:15 28 82816 6/8/2006 5:30 29 86967 6/8/2006 14:10 30 86967 6/8/2006 14:10 31 86967 6/8/2006 15:30 Changed load from 12 kips to 15 kips 32 94911 6/9/2006 5:00 33 94911 6/9/2006 5:15 34 99814 6/9/2006 15:15 35 99814 6/10/2006 15:30 36 99814 6/11/2006 15:45 37 106840 6/10/2006 5:05

PAGE 224

224 Table B-3. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 38 106840 6/10/2006 5:23 39 111385 6/10/2006 14:00 40 111385 6/10/2006 14:10 HVS down from 00:30 to 10:30 6/10/06 for Maintenance trouble. 41 119279 6/11/2006 14:00 42 119279 6/11/2006 14:10 43 119279 6/11/2006 14:23 HVS down from 1:00am to 4:30am 12/11 from personel issue 44 125367 6/12/2006 5:00 45 125367 6/12/2006 5:13 46 130024 6/12/2006 14:30 47 130024 6/12/2006 14:45 HVS down from 8:30am to 8:30pm on 6/13 do to FDOT Closing from storm Changed load from 15 kips to 18 kips at 08:30 pm on 6/13/06. 48 137946 6/14/2006 5:00 49 137946 6/15/2006 5:13 50 147617 6/16/2006 14:30 51 147617 6/17/2006 14:45 53 157017 6/15/2006 5:00 54 157017 6/15/2006 5:00 55 160361 6/16/2006 14:20 56 160361 6/17/2006 14:30 57 168585 6/16/2006 5:00 58 168585 6/16/2006 5:10 59 173204 6/16/2006 14:00 60 173204 6/16/2006 14:20 61 173204 6/16/2006 14:30 62 175415 6/17/2006 5:12 63 175415 6/17/2006 5:22

PAGE 225

225 Table B-4. Analysis files of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 2. Passes File Name File Date Time 0 06jun_1e.p2 2/6/2006 4:59:00 7779 06jun_1e.p3 2/6/2006 5:12:39 12490 06jun_1e.p4 2/6/2006 14:07:50 25405 06jun_1e.p8 3/6/2006 13:59:07 34230 06jun_1e.p10 4/6/2006 5:43:43 38166 06jun_1e.p12 4/6/2006 13:58:54 46587 06jun_1e.p14 5/6/2006 4:58:53 51165 06jun_1e.p16 5/6/2006 13:59:29 59402 06jun_1e.p18 6/6/2006 5:00:49 62645 06jun_1e.p20 6/6/2006 13:59:13 70768 06jun_1e.p22 7/6/2006 4:58:40 75235 06jun_1e.p24 7/6/2006 14:14:17 82815 06jun_1e.p26 8/6/2006 5:00:10 86937 06jun_1e.p30 8/6/2006 14:03:09 94911 06jun_1e.p32 9/6/2006 4:58:42 99813 06jun_1e.p34 9/6/2006 14:57:10 106840 06jun_1e.p37 10/6/2006 4:59:40 111384 06jun_1e.p39 10/6/2006 13:58:50 119279 06jun_1e.p41 11/6/2006 13:58:43 125366 06jun_1e.p44 12/6/2006 4:58:38 130023 06jun_1e.p46 12/6/2006 14:28:39 137946 06JUN_1E.p48 13/06/2006 5:02:18 148756 06JUN_1E.p51 14/06/2006 14:00:14 Table B-5. Data collecti on schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 3. Profile Number Passes Date Time 0 0 04/04/07 13:35 1 0 03/21/07 13:50 2 1730 04/05/07 17:09 3 1730 04/05/07 17:28 4 8266 04/06/07 5:00 5 8266 04/06/07 5:15 6 12925 04/06/07 14:10 7 12925 04/06/07 14:25 8 20690 04/07/07 5:27 9 20690 04/07/07 5:28 10 25300 04/07/07 14:00 11 25300 04/07/07 14:15 12 33156 04/08/07 5:00 13 33156 04/08/07 5:13 14 37758 04/08/07 14:00 15 37758 04/08/07 14:15 15 46783 04/09/07 6:30

PAGE 226

226 Table B-5. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 16 46783 04/09/07 6:45 17 50849 04/09/07 14:30 18 50849 04/09/07 14:45 19 53574 04/10/07 5:00 20 53574 04/10/07 5:15 21 62852 04/10/07 14:10 22 62852 04/10/07 14:25 23 70910 04/11/07 5:00 24 70910 04/11/07 5:15 25 75482 04/11/07 14:30 26 75482 04/11/07 14:45 27 82534 04/12/07 5:00 28 82534 04/12/07 5:15 29 86546 04/12/07 14:30 30 94051 04/13/07 5:00 31 94051 04/13/07 5:11 Changed from 12kips to 15kips 4/13/07 @ 8:00am and 95042 passes 32 95042 04/12/07 14:30 33 95042 04/12/07 14:45 34 105067 04/14/07 5:05 35 105067 04/14/07 5:45 35 108582 04/14/07 14:00 36 108583 04/14/07 14:12 37 116918 04/15/07 3:27 38 116918 04/15/07 3:39 39 121545 04/15/07 14:00 40 121545 04/15/07 14:15 41 129639 04/16/07 5:00 42 129639 04/16/07 5:15 Changed from 15kips to 18kips 4/16/07 @ 8:00am and 130957 passes 43 132946 04/16/07 14:00 44 132946 04/12/07 14:20 45 141131 04/17/07 5:00 46 141131 04/17/07 5:15 47 144484 04/17/07 14:05 48 144484 04/17/07 14:25 49 152799 04/18/07 5:00 50 152799 04/18/07 5:15 51 157337 04/17/07 14:05

PAGE 227

227 Table B-5. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 52 157337 04/17/07 14:25 53 164545 04/19/07 5:00 54 164545 04/19/07 5:15 55 168537 04/19/07 14:05 56 168537 04/19/07 14:25 Table B-6. Analysis files of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 3. Passes File Name File Date Time 0 07APR1H.p0 5/4/2007 14:26:13 1730 07APR1H.p2 5/4/2007 18:05:09 24924 07APR1H.p10 7/4/2007 13:58:57 37757 07APR1H.p13 8/4/2007 13:58:45 46764 07APR1H.p15 9/4/2007 6:33:55 58573 07APR1H.p19 10/4/2007 4:59:24 62851 07APR1H.p21 10/4/2007 14:00:21 70910 07APR1H.p23 11/4/2007 5:01:56 75482 07APR1H.p25 11/4/2007 13:58:50 85868 07APR1H.p29 12/4/2007 13:59:32 97971 07APR1H.p32 13/04/2007 14:03:50 105066 07APR1H.p34 14/04/2007 5:07:18 108583 07APR1H.p35 14/04/2007 12:27:12 116918 07APR1H.p37 15/04/2007 3:27:50 121545 07APR1H.p39 15/04/2007 13:59:47 129640 07APR1H.p41 16/04/2007 5:00:28 132946 07APR1H.p43 16/04/2007 14:00:55 141130 07APR1H.p45 17/04/2007 5:00:10 145347 07APR1H.p47 17/04/2007 14:03:02 152799 07APR1H.p49 18/04/2007 5:03:31 157337 07APR1H.p51 18/04/2007 14:06:16 164544 07APR1H.p53 19/04/2007 5:01:16 168537 07APR1H.P55 19/04/2007 14:01:39

PAGE 228

228 Table B-7. Data collecti on schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 4. Profile Number Passes Date Time 0 0 07/11/07 17:00 1 6262 07/12/07 8:00 2 8934 07/12/07 14:30 3 8934 07/12/07 15:00 4 16031 07/13/07 5:04 5 16031 07/13/07 5:21 9 19923 07/13/07 14:00 10 19923 07/13/07 14:15 11 28479 07/14/07 5:12 12 28479 07/14/07 5:23 13 32865 07/14/07 14:05 14 32865 07/14/07 14:20 15 41030 07/15/07 5:05 16 41030 07/15/07 5:16 17 45823 07/15/07 14:05 18 45823 07/15/07 14:20 19 54281 07/16/07 5:15 20 54281 07/16/07 5:25 21 58400 07/16/07 14:25 22 58400 07/16/07 14:35 23 64686 07/17/07 2:00 24 64686 07/17/07 2:15 25 66029 07/17/07 5:09 26 66029 07/17/07 5:25 29 78118 07/18/07 5:11 30 78118 07/18/07 5:21 31 82471 07/18/07 32 82471 07/18/07 Changed from 12kip to 15kip at 7/18 3:34pm @ 82963 passes 33 90998 07/19/07 5:20 34 90998 07/19/07 5:35 35 93923 07/19/07 14:05 36 93923 07/19/07 14:20 37 103430 07/20/07 5:20 38 103430 07/20/07 5:31 39 07/20/07 14:05 40 07/20/07 14:20 41 115291 07/21/07 5:22 42 115291 07/21/07 5:43

PAGE 229

229 Table B-7. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 45 120080 07/21/07 14:19 46 120080 07/21/07 14:30 47 125813 07/22/07 5:05 48 125813 07/22/07 5:30 49 132244 07/22/07 14:00 50 132244 07/22/07 14:12 Changed from 15kip to 18 kip: 7/22 10:11pm @ 136,365 passes 51 140705 07/23/07 5:11 52 140705 07/23/07 5:22 55 154608 07/24/07 5:02 56 154608 07/24/07 5:10 57 154608 07/24/07 5:25 58 154608 07/24/07 5:35 Table B-8. Analysis files of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 4. Pass # File Name File Date File Time 0 07JUL2G.p0 11/7/2007 16:59:53 17457 07JUL2G.p6 13/07/2007 9:19:54 69920 07JUL2G.p27 17/07/2007 14:07:02 82471 07JUL2G.p31 18/07/2007 14:00:26 Table B-9. Data collecti on schedule of the HVS laser profile for Slab 5. Profile Number Passes Date Time 0 0 08/29/07 13:30 1 0 08/29/07 13:45 2 4861 08/30/07 14:15 3 4861 08/30/07 14:30 4 11618 08/31/07 5:11 5 11618 08/31/07 5:22 6 16800 08/31/07 14:15 7 16800 08/31/07 14:30 8 25345 09/01/07 5:45 9 25345 09/01/07 5:55 10 30001 09/01/07 14:00 11 30001 09/01/07 14:03 12 30001 09/01/07 14:13 13 38283 0/02/07 5:13 14 38283 09/02/07 5:20 15 43176 09/02/07 14:00

PAGE 230

230 Table B-9. Continued. Profile Number Passes Date Time 16 43176 09/02/07 14:10 18 53553 09/03/07 14:10 20 63780 09/04/07 5:00 21 63780 09/04/07 5:15 23 68264 09/04/07 14:30 24 68264 09/04/07 14:45 25 74763 09/05/07 5:10 26 74763 09/05/07 5:20 27 81062 09/05/07 14:00 28 81062 09/05/07 14:10 Changed from 12kip to 15kip 9/5/07 2:30pm @ 81062 passes 29 88360 09/06/07 5:00 30 88360 09/06/07 5:30 31 91868 09/06/07 14:00 32 91868 09/06/07 14:10 33 100296 09/07/07 5:10 34 100296 09/07/07 5:20 35 104491 09/07/07 14:00 36 104491 09/07/07 14:10 37 113046 09/08/07 5:19 38 113046 09/08/07 5:29 39 117392 09/08/07 14:00 40 117392 09/08/07 14:09 41 130810 09/09/07 14:00 42 130810 09/09/07 14:20 Changed from 15kip to 18kip 9/9/07 2:30pm @ 130810 passes 43 139009 09/10/07 5:10 44 139009 09/10/07 5:21 45 143750 09/10/07 14:00 46 143750 09/10/07 14:10 47 152239 09/11/07 5:00 48 152239 09/11/07 5:15 153361 Total Passes

PAGE 231

231 Table B-10. Analysis files of th e HVS laser profile for Slab 5. Passes File Name File Date Time 0 07AUGCON.p0 29/08/2007 11:54:45 4860 07AUGCON.p2 30/08/2007 14:16:53 13213 07AUGCON.p4 31/08/2007 4:59:55 16809 07AUGCON.p6 31/08/2007 13:48:04 25345 07AUGCON.p8 1/9/2007 5:33:07 30002 07AUGCON.p11 1/9/2007 14:02:16 38283 07AUGCON.p13 2/9/2007 4:59:23 43176 07AUGCON.p15 2/9/2007 14:00:14 55586 07AUGCON.p17 3/9/2007 13:59:11 63780 07AUGCON.p20 4/9/2007 5:00:15 68259 07AUGCON.p23 4/9/2007 15:00:02 76187 07AUGCON.p25 5/9/2007 4:59:27 81062 07AUGCON.p27 5/9/2007 14:03:54 88360 07AUGCON.p29 6/9/2007 5:01:14 91868 07AUGCON.p31 6/9/2007 13:59:29 100296 07AUGCON.p33 7/9/2007 4:59:12 104491 07AUGCON.p35 7/9/2007 14:03:52

PAGE 232

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237 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kitti Manokhoon, the son of Mr.Chaisit and Mrs.Arunee Manokhoon, was born in 1977, Thailand. He graduated with the Bachelor of Engineering from the Department of Civil Engineering at the Khon-Kaen University (KKU) Thailand in April 1998. After the graduation, he was awarded a scholarship to continue his st udy at the Asian Institut e of Technology (AIT), Thailand. He earned the Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering from the School of Civil Engineering at AIT in April 2000. He was then appointed as a lecturer in the Department of Civil Engineering at the Maha nakorn University of Technology (MUT), Thailand until August 2002. In 2002, he was awarded the Royal Thai G overnment scholarship to start his Ph.D. program in civil engineering at the University of Florida (UF), USA in Fall 2002. At UF, he also earned a graduate research assistantship to work on research projects as well as to complete his Ph.D. During the time of his Ph.D. plan, in August 2004, he was awarded the Master of Engineering from the Department of Civil and Co astal Engineering at UF. In April, 2005 he was granted the Outstanding Internat ional Student Academic Award fr om the College of Engineering at UF. Throughout his studies at UF, he has achie ved the highest grade poi nt average attainable of 4.0/4.0.